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Sample records for ecc uniaxial test

  1. Condition For Strain-Hardening In Ecc Uniaxial Test Specimen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dick-Nielsen, Lars; Stang, Henrik; Poulsen, Peter Noe

    2006-01-01

    This paper discusses the adequateness of the steady state flat crack criterion for crack propagation in Engineered Cementitious Composites. The investigation is performed by use of a semi-analytical model as well as a Finite Element Model. The simulations are for one crack propagating in finite...... and infinite sheets under uniaxial tension. The crack is assumed to be cohesive and the cohesive law applied takes into account fiber as well as mortar properties. It is shown that the maximum crack opening observed during crack propagation in various test specimen geometries is small, 20 m and also small...... compared to typical deformations at peak bridging stress. The requirement of a minimum complementary energy for the fiber bridging curve is found not to be relevant in the aim of controlling the crack opening during crack propagation....

  2. Simulation of strain-hardening in ECC uniaxial test specimen by use of a damage mechanics formulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dick-Nielsen, Lars; Stang, Henrik; Poulsen, Peter Noe

    2006-01-01

    This paper discusses the considerations for the establishment of a damage model for ECC. Three different length scales are used in the approach for deriving the damage model. On each length scale important phenomena are investigated by use of numerical and analytical calculations. On the micro...... is small, 20 ¹m and also small compared to typical deformations at peak bridging stress. On the meso scale II interaction between initial flaws and micro cracks was observed. A framework is presented for the formulation of a damage mechanics model comprising the damage mechanisms on the micro and meso...

  3. The microstructure of self-healed PVA ECC under wet and dry cycles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia Huan Yu

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Self-healing of ECC (Engineered Cementitious Composites subjected to cyclic wetting and drying regimes is investigated in this paper. ECC structures subjected to outdoor environmental conditions such as wind and rain runoff can be simulated by accelerated test method of wetting and drying cycles. Uniaxial tensile tests of ECC M45 and ECC 2.8FA specimen are conducted respectively. It is found that crack width of ECC 2.8FA is around 10 μm with increased amount of fly ash, while the crack width of ECC M45 is around 100 μm. New insights about the microstructure and chemical composition analysis of ECC specimens initially cracked to 2% strain and then self-healed under wet-dry cycles are presented.

  4. Uniaxial Tension Test of Slender Reinforced Early Age Concrete Members

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenbo Zhang

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The present study aims to obtain the tensile properties of early age concrete based on a uniaxial tension test employing RC slender members. First, the paper shows that concrete strain is equal to the strain of rebar at the mid-span of the RC member. The tensile Young’s modulus and the strain capacity of early age concrete are estimated using strain measurements. The experiment indicated that the tensile Young’s modulus at an early age is higher than the compressive modulus. This observation was similar to one found in a previous investigation which used a direct tension test of early age concrete. Moreover, the paper describes how an empirical equation for mature concrete can be applied to the relation between uniaxial tensile strength and splitting tensile strength even in early age concrete. Based on a uniaxial tension test, the paper proposes an empirical equation for the relationship between standard bond stresses and relative slip.

  5. Uniaxial tensile testing approaches for characterisation of atherosclerotic plaques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, M T; Cunnane, E M; Mulvihill, J J; Akyildiz, A C; Gijsen, F J H; Holzapfel, G A

    2014-03-03

    The pathological changes associated with the development of atherosclerotic plaques within arterial vessels result in significant alterations to the mechanical properties of the diseased arterial wall. There are several methods available to characterise the mechanical behaviour of atherosclerotic plaque tissue, and it is the aim of this paper to review the use of uniaxial mechanical testing. In the case of atherosclerotic plaques, there are nine studies that employ uniaxial testing to characterise mechanical behaviour. A primary concern regarding this limited cohort of published studies is the wide range of testing techniques that are employed. These differing techniques have resulted in a large variance in the reported data making comparison of the mechanical behaviour of plaques from different vasculatures, and even the same vasculature, difficult and sometimes impossible. In order to address this issue, this paper proposes a more standardised protocol for uniaxial testing of diseased arterial tissue that allows for better comparisons and firmer conclusions to be drawn between studies. To develop such a protocol, this paper reviews the acquisition and storage of the tissue, the testing approaches, the post-processing techniques and the stress-strain measures employed by each of the nine studies. Future trends are also outlined to establish the role that uniaxial testing can play in the future of arterial plaque mechanical characterisation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Uniaxial tension test on Rubber at constant true strain rate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sourne H.L.

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Elastomers are widely used for damping parts in different industrial contexts because of their remarkable dissipation properties. Indeed, they can undergo severe mechanical loading conditions, i.e., high strain rates and large strains. Nevertheless, the mechanical response of these materials can vary from purely rubber-like to glassy depending on the strain rate undergone. Classically, uniaxial tension tests are made in order to find a relation between the stress and the strain in the material at various strain rates. However, even if the strain rate is searched to be constant, it is the nominal strain rate that is considered. Here we develop a test at constant true strain rate, i.e. the strain rate that is experienced by the material. In order to do such a test, the displacement imposed by the machine is an exponential function of time. This test has been performed with a high speed hydraulic machine for strain rates between 0.01/s and 100/s. A specific specimen has been designed, yielding a uniform strain field (and so a uniform stress field. Furthermore, an instrumented aluminum bar has been used to take into account dynamic effects in the measurement of the applied force. A high speed camera enables the determination of strain in the sample using point tracking technique. Using this method, the stress-strain curve of a rubber-like material during a loading-unloading cycle has been determined, up to a stretch ratio λ = 2.5. The influence of the true strain rate both on stiffness and on dissipation of the material is then discussed.

  7. Development of system performance verification test technology for KNGR; optimal design and performance test for DVI of ECC water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suh, Kune Yull; Yoon, Sang Hyuk; Noh, Sang Woo [Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea); Lee, Il Suk [Kyung Hee University, Seoul (Korea)

    2002-03-01

    In this study, we completed the works for the specific thermal-hydraulic phenomena in the reactor downcomer during a operation of DVI system. The choices for a filed of study are focused on the general abilities and flow behaviors of DVI system in the downcomer, and we intended to be able to suggest the applicable data to the APR1400 for the inclusive, actual, various area from the phenomena caused by the ECC injection to the code analysis of steam flow, ECC bypass and the downcomer water level decrease. 28 refs., 77 figs., 14 tabs. (Author)

  8. Fatigue Failure Results for Multi-Axial versus Uniaxial Stress Screen Vibration Testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wayne E. Whiteman

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available To date, the failure potential and prediction between simultaneous multi-axial versus sequentially applied uniaxial vibration stress screen testing has been the subject of great debate. In most applications, current vibration tests are done by sequentially applying uniaxial excitation to the test specimen along three orthogonal axes. The most common standards for testing military equipment are published in MIL-STD-810F and NAVMAT P-9492. Previous research had shown that uniaxial testing may be unrealistic and inadequate. This current research effort is a continuing effort to systematically investigate the differences between fatigue damage mechanisms and the effects of uniaxial versus tri-axial testing. This includes assessing the ability of the tri-axial method in predicting the formation of damage mechanisms, specifically looking at the effects of stress or fatigue failure. Multi-axial testing achieves the synergistic effect of exciting all modes simultaneously and induces a more realistic vibration stress loading condition. As such, it better approximates real-world operating conditions. This paper provides the latest results on the differences between multi-axial and uniaxial testing of a simple notched cantilever beam.

  9. On the relevance of uniaxial tensile testing of urogynecological prostheses: the effect of displacement rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazi, Tony; Ammouri, Ali H; Hamade, Ramsey F

    2013-01-01

    Uniaxial tensile testing is commonly used to calculate values of mechanical properties of urogynecological prostheses used in stress urinary incontinence and pelvic organ prolapse surgery in women. Clinical behavior of these products has been linked to their mechanical properties, hence influencing the clinician's preference for one brand or another. The objective of this study is to assess the effect of displacement rate used in uniaxial tensile testing on peak load, extension at peak load, and initial stiffness of Prolene® mesh, used as a proxy for urogynecological prostheses. Strips of Prolene® mesh measuring 10 × 30 mm were submitted to uniaxial tensile testing at the following rates: 1, 10, 50, 100, and 500 mm/min. Peak load, elongation at peak load, and initial stiffness were computed from load vs displacement curves at all displacement rates. The effect of displacement rate on these parameters was estimated by fitting linear trend lines through the data. The displacement rate at which uniaxial tensile testing is performed has significant effects on the values of extension at peak load and initial stiffness, but not on the peak load. When urogynecological prostheses are submitted to uniaxial tensile testing, studies at more than one displacement rate should be performed. More importantly, these displacement rates should be within the range of applicability.

  10. Constant-amplitude tests on plain concrete in uniaxial tension and tension-compression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cornelissen, H.A.W.

    1984-01-01

    This research report is the continuation of Stevin Laboratory Report No. 5-81-7 "Fatigue of plain concrete in uniaxial tension and in alternating tension-compression" [1], in which test set-up, loading equipment and preliminary results have been described. The present report deals with the total set

  11. Experiment data report for Semiscale Mod-1 tests S-05-6 and S-05-7 (alternate ECC injection tests). [PWR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feldman, E. M.; Sackett, K. E.

    1977-06-01

    Recorded test data are presented for Tests S-05-6 and S-05-7 of the Semiscale Mod-1 alternate ECC injection test series. These tests are among several Semiscale Mod-1 experiments conducted to investigate the thermal and hydraulic phenomena accompanying a hypothesized loss-of-coolant accident in a pressurized water reactor (PWR) system. Tests S-05-6 and S-05-7 were conducted from initial conditions of 2263 psia and 550/sup 0/F and 2253 psia and 551/sup 0/F, respectively, to investigate the response of the Semiscale Mod-1 system to a depressurization and reflood transient following a simulated double-ended offset shear of the cold leg broken loop piping. The specific objective for these tests was to investigate the effectiveness of low pressure injection system (LPIS) coolant injection into the upper plenum when combined with cold leg intact loop injection.

  12. Experimental and numerical study on mechanical properties of aluminum alloy under uniaxial tensile test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Daghfas

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The main objective is to model the behavior of 7075 aluminum alloy and built an experimental database to identify the model parameters. The first part of the paper presents an experimental database on 7075 aluminum alloy. Thus, uniaxial tensile tests are carried in three loading directions relative to the rolling direction, knowing that the fatigue of aircraft structures is traditionally managed based on the assumption of uniaxial loads. From experimental database, the mechanical properties are extracted, particularly the various fractures owing to pronounced anisotropy relating to material. In second part, plastic anisotropy is then modeled using the identification strategy which depends on yield criteria, hardening law and evolution law. In third part, a comparison with experimental data shows that behavior model can successfully describe the anisotropy of the Lankford coefficient.

  13. Three-dimensional finite element modelling of the uniaxial tension test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Lennart; Stang, Henrik

    2002-01-01

    Experimental determination of the stress-crack opening relationship (σ-w) for concrete as defined in the fictitious crack model has proven to be difficult. This is due to the problems that may arise from application of the inverse analysis method necessary for the derivation of the relationship....... One of the most direct methods for determination of the σ-w relationship is the uniaxial tension test, where a notched specimen is pulled apart while the tensile load and the crack opening displacement is observed. This method is appealing since the interpretation is straightforward. The method...

  14. Application of DIC techniques to detect onset of necking and fracture in uniaxial and bulge tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoughton, TB; Min, JY; Carsley, JE

    2017-09-01

    This document provides information on and instructions for detecting the onset of necking in conventional uniaxial tension tests and biaxial bulge tests, using DIC technology and analysis methods developed at General Motors. The analysis enables reduction of the number and the costs of tests required in conventional FLD determinations using Marciniak and Nakajima tooling, while also avoiding the most serious process-dependent effects associated with the latter tests. It also provides a cost effective approach to develop forming limits for anisotropic sheet materials. In addition to providing this new experimental technique, the document will review the new procedures developed at General Motors for analysis of FLD tests and bulge tests to obtain reliable input for complete material card descriptions of advanced constitutive and forming limit models.

  15. A novel method for estimating soil precompression stress from uniaxial confined compression tests

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lamandé, Mathieu; Schjønning, Per; Labouriau, Rodrigo

    2017-01-01

    obtained from the new method were linearly related to the maximum stress experienced by the soil samples prior to the uniaxial, confined compression test at each soil condition with a slope close to 1. Precompression stress determined with the new method was not related to soil type or dry bulk density......The concept of precompression stress is used for estimating soil strength of relevance to fieldtraffic. It represents the maximum stress experienced by the soil. The most recently developed fitting method to estimate precompression stress (Gompertz) is based on the assumption of an S-shape stress......-strain curve, which is not always fulfilled. A new simple numerical method was developed to estimate precompression stress from stress-strain curves, based solely on the sharp bend on the stress-strain curve partitioning the curve into an elastic and a plastic section. Our study had three objectives: (i...

  16. Predicting the uniaxial compressive strength of cemented paste backfill from ultrasonic pulse velocity test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yılmaz, Tekin; Ercikdi, Bayram

    2016-07-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the predictability of the uniaxial compressive strength (UCS) of cemented paste backfill (CPB) prepared from three different tailings (Tailings T1, Tailings T2 and Tailings T3) using ultrasonic pulse velocity (UPV) test. For this purpose, 180 CPB samples with diameter × height of 5 × 10 cm (similar to NX size) prepared at different binder dosages and consistencies were subjected to the UPV and UCS tests at 7-56 days of curing periods. The effects of binder dosage and consistency on the UPV and UCS properties of CPB samples were investigated and UCS values were correlated with the corresponding UPV data. Microstructural analyses were also performed on CPB samples in order to understand the effect of microstructure (i.e. total porosity) on the UPV data. The UPV and UCSs of CPB samples increased with increasing binder dosage and reducing the consistency irrespective of the tailings type and curing periods. Changes in the mixture properties observed to have a lesser extent on the UPV properties of CPB, while, their effect on the UCS of CPB was significant. Empirical equations were produced for each mixture in order to predict the UCSs of CPB through UPV. The validity of the equations was also checked by t- and F-test. The results showed that a linear relation appeared to exist between the UPV and UCS with high correlation coefficients (r ≥ 0.79) and all models were valid by statistical analysis. Mercury intrusion porosimetry (MIP) and scanning electron microscope (SEM) analyses have revealed that the UPV properties of CPB samples were highly associated with their respective microstructural properties (i.e. total porosity). The major output of this study is that UPV test can be effectively used for a preliminary prediction of the strength of CPB.

  17. Extrusion of ECC-Material

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stang, Henrik; Li, Victor C.

    1999-01-01

    An extrusion process especially designed for extrusion of pipes made from fiber reinforced cementitious materials has been developed at Department of Structural Engineering and Materials at the Technical University of DenmarkEngineered Cementitious Composite (ECC) materials have been developed in...... have until now been produced by traditional casting processes. In the present paper results from a recent collaborative reserach project are documented - demonstrating that ECC materials can be extruded in the process referred to above....... in recent years at Department of Civil and Envirionmetal Engineering, University of Michigan. These materials have been developed with the special aim of producing high performance , strain hardening materials with low volume concentrations of short fibers in a cementitious material.ECC material spcimens...

  18. Analysis of surface roughening behavior of 6063 aluminum alloy by tensile testing of a trapezoidal uniaxial specimen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cai, Yang [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150090 (China); Wang, Xiaosong, E-mail: hitxswang@hit.edu.cn [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150090 (China); National Key Laboratory of Precision Hot Processing of Metals, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China); Yuan, Shijian [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150090 (China); National Key Laboratory of Precision Hot Processing of Metals, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China)

    2016-08-30

    To determine the quantitative relationship between surface roughness and strain, the surface roughening behavior of a 6063 aluminum alloy tube was examined by tensile testing of a trapezoidal uniaxial specimen, that can provide a continuous strain distribution after tensile deformation. The surface roughness was measured using a laser scanning confocal microscope to reflect the degree of roughening. The microstructure and surface morphology were examined using electron back-scattered diffraction and in-situ scanning electron microscopy to determine the grain orientation and surface topography evolution. The surface roughness increased with strain when the strain was less than 0.067 and then decreased slightly, with a maximum surface roughness of 23.73 µm. Inhomogeneous deformation at the grain boundaries and inside the grains was enhanced with increasing strain, resulting in an increase of surface roughness when the strain was below a critical value. As the strain increased, a greater number of slip systems contributed to the further deformation. Thus, the strain became more homogeneous, and accordingly, the surface roughness slightly decreased.

  19. Fractal and Morphological Characteristics of Single Marble Particle Crushing in Uniaxial Compression Tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yidong Wang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Crushing of rock particles is a phenomenon commonly encountered in geotechnical engineering practice. It is however difficult to study the crushing of rock particles using classical theory because the physical structure of the particles is complex and irregular. This paper aims at evaluating fractal and morphological characteristics of single rock particle. A large number of particle crushing tests are conducted on single rock particle. The force-displacement curves and the particle size distributions (PSD of crushed particles are analysed based on particle crushing tests. Particle shape plays an important role in both the micro- and macroscale responses of a granular assembly. The PSD of an assortment of rocks are analysed by fractal methods, and the fractal dimension is obtained. A theoretical formula for particle crushing strength is derived, utilising the fractal model, and a simple method is proposed for predicting the probability of particle survival based on the Weibull statistics. Based on a few physical assumptions, simple equations are derived for determining particle crushing energy. The results of applying these equations are tested against the actual experimental data and prove to be very consistent. Fractal theory is therefore applicable for analysis of particle crushing.

  20. ECCE 41. konverents Tallinnas / Urmo Kala

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kala, Urmo

    2005-01-01

    9.-11. juunini 2005. a. toimus Tallinnas Eesti Ehitusinseneride Liidu korraldusel Euroopa ehitusinseneride liitude ühenduse (ECCE) 41. konverents. ECCE on nõuandvaks organiks Euroopa Liidu struktuuridele ja liikmesriikide valitsustele ehituspoliitika, ehitusstandardite, ehitusalase hariduse, ehituse ohutuse ja kvaliteedinõuete väljatöötamisel

  1. An overview of the BWR ECCS strainer blockage issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serkiz, A.W.; Marshall, M.L. Jr.; Elliott, R. [Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC (United States)

    1996-03-01

    This Paper provides a brief overview of actions taken in the mid 1980s to resolve Unresolved Safety Issue (USI) A-43, {open_quotes}Containment Emergency Sump Performance,{close_quotes} and their relationship to the BWR strainer blockage issue; the importance of insights gained from the Barseback-2 (a Swedish BWR) incident in 1992 and from ECCS strainer testing and inspections at the Perry nuclear power plant in 1992 and 1993; an analysis of an US BWR/4 with a Mark I containment; an international community sharing of knowledge relevant to ECCS strainer blockage, additional experimental programs; and identification of actions needed to resolve the strainer blockage issue and the status of such efforts.

  2. Strength Restoration of Cracked Sandstone and Coal under a Uniaxial Compression Test and Correlated Damage Source Location Based on Acoustic Emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Xiaowei; Zhang, Nong; Zheng, Xigui; Pan, Dongjiang

    2015-01-01

    Underground rock masses have shown a general trend of natural balance over billions of years of ground movement. Nonetheless, man-made underground constructions disturb this balance and cause rock stability failure. Fractured rock masses are frequently encountered in underground constructions, and this study aims to restore the strength of rock masses that have experienced considerable fracturing under uniaxial compression. Coal and sandstone from a deep-buried coal mine were chosen as experimental subjects; they were crushed by uniaxial compression and then carefully restored by a chemical adhesive called MEYCO 364 with an innovative self-made device. Finally, the restored specimens were crushed once again by uniaxial compression. Axial stress, axial strain, circumferential strain, and volumetric strain data for the entire process were fully captured and are discussed here. An acoustic emission (AE) testing system was adopted to cooperate with the uniaxial compression system to provide better definitions for crack closure thresholds, crack initiation thresholds, crack damage thresholds, and three-dimensional damage source locations in intact and restored specimens. Several remarkable findings were obtained. The restoration effects of coal are considerably better than those of sandstone because the strength recovery coefficient of the former is 1.20, whereas that of the latter is 0.33, which indicates that MEYCO 364 is particularly valid for fractured rocks whose initial intact peak stress is less than that of MEYCO 364. Secondary cracked traces of restored sandstone almost follow the cracked traces of the initial intact sandstone, and the final failure is mainly caused by decoupling between the adhesive and the rock mass. However, cracked traces of restored coal only partially follow the traces of intact coal, with the final failure of the restored coal being caused by both bonding interface decoupling and self-breakage in coal. Three-dimensional damage source

  3. Strength Restoration of Cracked Sandstone and Coal under a Uniaxial Compression Test and Correlated Damage Source Location Based on Acoustic Emissions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaowei Feng

    Full Text Available Underground rock masses have shown a general trend of natural balance over billions of years of ground movement. Nonetheless, man-made underground constructions disturb this balance and cause rock stability failure. Fractured rock masses are frequently encountered in underground constructions, and this study aims to restore the strength of rock masses that have experienced considerable fracturing under uniaxial compression. Coal and sandstone from a deep-buried coal mine were chosen as experimental subjects; they were crushed by uniaxial compression and then carefully restored by a chemical adhesive called MEYCO 364 with an innovative self-made device. Finally, the restored specimens were crushed once again by uniaxial compression. Axial stress, axial strain, circumferential strain, and volumetric strain data for the entire process were fully captured and are discussed here. An acoustic emission (AE testing system was adopted to cooperate with the uniaxial compression system to provide better definitions for crack closure thresholds, crack initiation thresholds, crack damage thresholds, and three-dimensional damage source locations in intact and restored specimens. Several remarkable findings were obtained. The restoration effects of coal are considerably better than those of sandstone because the strength recovery coefficient of the former is 1.20, whereas that of the latter is 0.33, which indicates that MEYCO 364 is particularly valid for fractured rocks whose initial intact peak stress is less than that of MEYCO 364. Secondary cracked traces of restored sandstone almost follow the cracked traces of the initial intact sandstone, and the final failure is mainly caused by decoupling between the adhesive and the rock mass. However, cracked traces of restored coal only partially follow the traces of intact coal, with the final failure of the restored coal being caused by both bonding interface decoupling and self-breakage in coal. Three

  4. Application of Interfacial Propagation and Kinking Crack Concept to ECC/Concrete Overlay Repair System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaw ChiaHwan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Research on the application of ultraductile engineered cementitious composite (ECC as overlay in the repair of deteriorated concrete structures is performed in this paper. Also, interfacial crack kinking and trapping mechanism experimentally observed in ECC/concrete overlay repair system are described by comparison of toughness and energy release rate. The mechanism involves cycles of extension, kinking, and arrest of interfacial crack into the overlay. Experimental testing of overlay repair system reveals significant improvements in load carrying capacity and ductility over conventional concrete overlay. The commonly observed overlay system failure mode of delamination or spalling is eliminated when ECC is applied. These failure modes are suppressed when ECC is used as an ideal and durable candidate overlay repair material.

  5. Hydrostatic, uniaxial, and triaxial compression tests on unpoled "Chem-prep" PZT 95/5-2Nb ceramic within temperature range of -55 to 75 degrees C.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zeuch, David Henry; Montgomery, Stephen Tedford; Lee, Moo Yul; Hofer, John H.

    2003-10-01

    Sandia is currently developing a lead-zirconate-titanate ceramic 95/5-2Nb (or PNZT) from chemically prepared ('chem-prep') precursor powders. Previous PNZT ceramic was fabricated from the powders prepared using a 'mixed-oxide' process. The specimens of unpoled PNZT ceramic from batch HF803 were tested under hydrostatic, uniaxial, and constant stress difference loading conditions within the temperature range of -55 to 75 C and pressures to 500 MPa. The objective of this experimental study was to obtain mechanical properties and phase relationships so that the grain-scale modeling effort can develop and test its models and codes using realistic parameters. The stress-strain behavior of 'chem-prep' PNZT under different loading paths was found to be similar to that of 'mixed-oxide' PNZT. The phase transformation from ferroelectric to antiferroelectric occurs in unpoled ceramic with abrupt increase in volumetric strain of about 0.7 % when the maximum compressive stress, regardless of loading paths, equals the hydrostatic pressure at which the transformation otherwise takes place. The stress-volumetric strain relationship of the ceramic undergoing a phase transformation was analyzed quantitatively using a linear regression analysis. The pressure (P{sub T1}{sup H}) required for the onset of phase transformation with respect to temperature is represented by the best-fit line, P{sub T1}{sup H} (MPa) = 227 + 0.76 T (C). We also confirmed that increasing shear stress lowers the mean stress and the volumetric strain required to trigger phase transformation. At the lower bound (-55 C) of the tested temperature range, the phase transformation is permanent and irreversible. However, at the upper bound (75 C), the phase transformation is completely reversible as the stress causing phase transformation is removed.

  6. Electrical resistivity measurement to predict uniaxial compressive ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Electrical resistivity values of 12 different igneous rocks were measured on core samples using a resistivity meter in the laboratory. The resistivity tests were conducted on the samples fully saturated with brine (NaCl solution) and the uniaxial compressive strength (UCS), Brazilian tensile strength, density and porosity values ...

  7. Electrical resistivity measurement to predict uniaxial compressive ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. Electrical resistivity values of 12 different igneous rocks were measured on core samples using a resistivity meter in the laboratory. The resistivity tests were conducted on the samples fully saturated with brine (NaCl solution) and the uniaxial compressive strength (UCS), Brazilian tensile strength, density and.

  8. ECCE Toolkit: Prototyping Sensor-Based Interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellucci, Andrea; Aedo, Ignacio; Díaz, Paloma

    2017-01-01

    Building and exploring physical user interfaces requires high technical skills and hours of specialized work. The behavior of multiple devices with heterogeneous input/output channels and connectivity has to be programmed in a context where not only the software interface matters, but also the hardware components are critical (e.g., sensors and actuators). Prototyping physical interaction is hindered by the challenges of: (1) programming interactions among physical sensors/actuators and digital interfaces; (2) implementing functionality for different platforms in different programming languages; and (3) building custom electronic-incorporated objects. We present ECCE (Entities, Components, Couplings and Ecosystems), a toolkit for non-programmers that copes with these issues by abstracting from low-level implementations, thus lowering the complexity of prototyping small-scale, sensor-based physical interfaces to support the design process. A user evaluation provides insights and use cases of the kind of applications that can be developed with the toolkit. PMID:28241502

  9. ECCE Toolkit: Prototyping Sensor-Based Interaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Bellucci

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Building and exploring physical user interfaces requires high technical skills and hours of specialized work. The behavior of multiple devices with heterogeneous input/output channels and connectivity has to be programmed in a context where not only the software interface matters, but also the hardware components are critical (e.g., sensors and actuators. Prototyping physical interaction is hindered by the challenges of: (1 programming interactions among physical sensors/actuators and digital interfaces; (2 implementing functionality for different platforms in different programming languages; and (3 building custom electronic-incorporated objects. We present ECCE (Entities, Components, Couplings and Ecosystems, a toolkit for non-programmers that copes with these issues by abstracting from low-level implementations, thus lowering the complexity of prototyping small-scale, sensor-based physical interfaces to support the design process. A user evaluation provides insights and use cases of the kind of applications that can be developed with the toolkit.

  10. ECCE Toolkit: Prototyping Sensor-Based Interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellucci, Andrea; Aedo, Ignacio; Díaz, Paloma

    2017-02-23

    Building and exploring physical user interfaces requires high technical skills and hours of specialized work. The behavior of multiple devices with heterogeneous input/output channels and connectivity has to be programmed in a context where not only the software interface matters, but also the hardware components are critical (e.g., sensors and actuators). Prototyping physical interaction is hindered by the challenges of: (1) programming interactions among physical sensors/actuators and digital interfaces; (2) implementing functionality for different platforms in different programming languages; and (3) building custom electronic-incorporated objects. We present ECCE (Entities, Components, Couplings and Ecosystems), a toolkit for non-programmers that copes with these issues by abstracting from low-level implementations, thus lowering the complexity of prototyping small-scale, sensor-based physical interfaces to support the design process. A user evaluation provides insights and use cases of the kind of applications that can be developed with the toolkit.

  11. Ensaio uniaxial de tração dos tendões dos músculos grácil e semitendinoso humanos Uniaxial traction test on human gracilis and semitendinous tendon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sérgio Rocha Piedade

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available O uso de tendões humanos, de forma isolada ou associada, em reconstruções ligamentares do joelho é uma prática usual. A utilização desses enxertos (tendão patelar, duplo semitendinoso associado ao duplo grácil apresenta evolução pós-operatória diferente, quando analisados os parâmetros : perda mínima da extensão, deslocamento ântero-posterior (artrômetro KT-2000, retorno as atividades esportivas. A presente pesquisa tem por objetivo analisar o comportamento mecânico de tendões humanos (grácil e semitendinoso, quando submetidos a ensaios uniaxiais de tração, até a ruptura. Como parâmetros mecânicos para análise e confronto foram considerados: tensão de ruptura (MPa, deformação relativa, módulo de elasticidade (MPa, energia de ruptura (N.mm e velocidade de carregamento (mm/s. Os resultados permitiram concluir que: - o tendão do músculo semitendinoso é mais resistente que o tendão do músculo grácil; apresenta menores deformações relativas; acumula maior energia de ruptura; - a utilização destes tendões como enxerto único, impõe uma análise mecânica mais detalhada, pois apresentam comportamento mecânico distinto e são materiais história e tempo - dependentes (viscoelásticos.The use of isolated human tendons as well as in associated forms on knee reconstrution has become na usual practice. The literature reveals that the use of implants of patellar tendon as well as the double semitendinous tendon associated to the double gracilis tendon exhibits different post surgical evolution related to the minimal extension loss, anterior-posterior displacement (KT-1000 artrometer, as well as to the sport activities. This research work aim to analyze the mechanical behavior of human tendons (gracilis and semitendinous subject to uniaxial traction to failure. The mechanical parameters considered includes: stress at failure (MPa, strain energy at failure (N.mm and strain rate (mm/mm. Results induced to the

  12. Candida albicans Carriage in Children with Severe Early Childhood Caries (S-ECC) and Maternal Relatedness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Jin; Moon, Yonghwi; Li, Lihua; Rustchenko, Elena; Wakabayashi, Hironao; Zhao, Xiaoyi; Feng, Changyong; Gill, Steven R; McLaren, Sean; Malmstrom, Hans; Ren, Yanfang; Quivey, Robert; Koo, Hyun; Kopycka-Kedzierawski, Dorota T

    2016-01-01

    Candida albicans has been detected together with Streptococcus mutans in high numbers in plaque-biofilm from children with early childhood caries (ECC). The goal of this study was to examine the C. albicans carriage in children with severe early childhood caries (S-ECC) and the maternal relatedness. Subjects in this pilot cross-sectional study were recruited based on a convenient sample. DMFT(S)/dmft(s) caries and plaque scores were assessed during a comprehensive oral exam. Social-demographic and related background information was collected through a questionnaire. Saliva and plaque sample from all children and mother subjects were collected. C. albicans were isolated by BBL™ CHROMagar™ and also identified using germ tube test. S. mutans was isolated using Mitis Salivarius with Bacitracin selective medium and identified by colony morphology. Genetic relatedness was examined using restriction endonuclease analysis of the C. albicans genome using BssHII (REAG-B). Multilocus sequence typing was used to examine the clustering information of isolated C. albicans. Spot assay was performed to examine the C. albicans Caspofungin susceptibility between S-ECC children and their mothers. All statistical analyses (power analysis for sample size, Spearman's correlation coefficient and multiple regression analyses) were implemented with SAS 9.4. A total of 18 S-ECC child-mother pairs and 17 caries free child-mother pairs were enrolled in the study. Results indicated high C. albicans carriage rate in the oral cavity (saliva and plaque) of both S-ECC children and their mothers (>80%). Spearman's correlation coefficient also indicated a significant correlation between salivary and plaque C. albicans and S. mutans carriage (pseverity (pchildren were 1.3 ± 4.5 x104 cfu/ml and 1.2 ± 3.5 x104 cfu/ml (~3-log higher vs. caries-free children). Among 18 child-mother pairs, >60% of them demonstrated identical C. albicans REAG-B pattern. C. albicans isolated from >65% of child

  13. Shear behavior of reinforced Engineered Cementitious Composites (ECC) beams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paegle, Ieva; Fischer, Gregor

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes an experimental investigation of the shear behavior of beams consisting of steel reinforced Engineered Cementitious Composites (ECC). Based on the strain hardening and multiple cracking behavior of ECC, this study investigates the extent to which ECC can improve the shear...... capacity of beams loaded primarily in shear and if ECC can partially or fully replace the conventional transverse steel reinforcement in beams. However, there is a lack of understanding of how the fibers affect the shear carrying capacity and deformation behavior of structural members if used either...... randomly distributed PVA (polyvinyl alcohol) fiber beams with different stirrup spacing and reinforced concrete (RC) beams for comparison. Displacement and strain measurements taken using the ARAMIS photogrammetric data acquisition system by means of processing at high frame rate captured images of applied...

  14. STRAIN LOCALIZATION PECULIARITIES AND DISTRIBUTION OF ACOUSTIC EMISSION SOURCES IN ROCK SAMPLES TESTED BY UNIAXIAL COMPRESSION AND EXPOSED TO ELECTRIC PULSES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Mubassarova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Results of uniaxial compression tests of rock samples in electromagnetic fields are presented. The experiments were performed in the Laboratory of Basic Physics of Strength, Institute of Continuous Media Mechanics, Ural Branch of RAS (ICMM. Deformation of samples was studied, and acoustic emission (AE signals were recorded. During the tests, loads varied by stages. Specimens of granite from the Kainda deposit in Kyrgyzstan (similar to samples tested at the Research Station of RAS, hereafter RS RAS were subject to electric pulses at specified levels of compression load. The electric pulses supply was galvanic; two graphite electrodes were fixed at opposite sides of each specimen. The multichannel Amsy-5 Vallen System was used to record AE signals in the six-channel mode, which provided for determination of spatial locations of AE sources. Strain of the specimens was studied with application of original methods of strain computation based on analyses of optical images of deformed specimen surfaces in LaVISION Strain Master System.Acoustic emission experiment data were interpreted on the basis of analyses of the AE activity in time, i.e. the number of AE events per second, and analyses of signals’ energy and AE sources’ locations, i.e. defects.The experiment was conducted at ICMM with the use of the set of equipment with advanced diagnostic capabilities (as compared to earlier experiments described in [Zakupin et al., 2006a, 2006b; Bogomolov et al., 2004]. It can provide new information on properties of acoustic emission and deformation responses of loaded rock specimens to external electric pulses.The research task also included verification of reproducibility of the effect (AE activity when fracturing rates responded to electrical pulses, which was revealed earlier in studies conducted at RS RAS. In terms of the principle of randomization, such verification is methodologically significant as new effects, i.e. physical laws, can be considered

  15. [Pulmonary complications after extracorporeal circulation. ECC lung syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foliguet, B

    1977-01-01

    Pulmonary complications after cardiac surgery under extracorporeal circulation remain frequent and sometimes grave, in spite of the great progress which has been made over the past 20 years in the methods of cardiorespiratory assistance. The authors analyse the clinical and radiological repercussions of perfusion on the lung, in 40 patients operated under ECC for coronary revascularisation. The simutaneous study of the arterial, and mixed venous blood gasses and of the alveolar gases, in 20 of these patients showed the constant occurrence of a shunt syndrome, without alveolar hypoventilation or disorders in peripheral circulatory flow. Ventilatory alcalosis, hypocapnia, hypoxemia and the rise in the alveolar arterial oxygen gradient is increased during the second post-operative day. Among the variables studied (duration of ECC, degree of hypothermia, duration of the intervention, duration of anesthesia, pleurotomy) only the latter intervened in a statistically significant manner in this study, in the increase in hypoxemia. 46 pulmonary biopsies carried out before and after ECC in 23 coronary patients were examined with the electron microscope. The initial alveolar involvement affects the septal microcirculation with signs of an increase in capillary permeability leading to an interstitial and epithelial destruction. The use of a membrane oxygenator prevents some of the alveolar lesions, as has been proved by the study of five pulmonary biopsies carried out in dogs submitted to ECC of long duration. Catherterization of the pulmonary artery carried out in 35 patients by means of a SWAN-GANZ catheter, before the intervention enabled supervision of the degree of importance and speed of the hemodynamic variations in the pulmonary circulation during the different phases of ECC (during the phase of ventricular fibrillation). The rise in the flow of left output can lead to the occurrence of negative pulmonary intravascular pressures which can be prejudicial for capillary

  16. A Biaxial Fatigue Specimen for Uniaxial Loading

    OpenAIRE

    Bellett, Daniel; Morel, Franck; Morel, Anne; Lebrun, Jean-Lou

    2011-01-01

    International audience; The aim of this paper is to present a novel un-notched fatigue test specimen in which a biaxial stress state is achieved using a uniaxial loading condition. This allows the problem of multi-axial fatigue to be studied using relatively common one-axis servo-hydraulic testing machines. In addition the specimen presented here is very compact and can be made using a small volume of material (100x40x4.5mm). For this specimen, the degree of biaxiality, defined by the paramet...

  17. Un Ecce Homo de Antonio del Castillo en Granada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Montes González, Francisco

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The author presents a previously unknown painting by the Baroque artist from Cordoba, Antonio del Castillo y Saavedra. It is an Ecce Homo, a late work, and located in a private collection in Granada.Este artículo presenta el último aporte en el catálogo del pintor barroco cordobés Antonio del Castillo y Saavedra. Se trata de un lienzo con la iconografía del Ecce Homo, perteneciente a su última etapa artística, localizado en una colección particular de Granada.

  18. Computer Simulation of the E.C.C.S. Buckling Curve using a Monte-Carlo Method

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Strating, J.; Vos, H.

    1973-01-01

    The application of a Monte-Carlo simulation procedure to obtain the distribution function of the maximum load of a hinged column with imperfections is discussed. Buckling tests carried out by the E.C.C.S. on IPE 160 sections have been simulated. Information concerning the column variables is

  19. Application of Engineered Cementitious Composites (ECC) in modular floor panels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lárusson, Lárus Helgi; Fischer, Gregor; Jönsson, Jeppe

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes the design, manufacturing, and structural behavior of a prefabricated floor panel consisting of a modular assembly of a thin-walled ECC slab and steel truss girders. The features of this composite structure include light weight, the modular manufacturing process with adaptabi...

  20. Development of Calculation Algorithm for ECCS Kinematic Shock

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Seung-Chan; Yoon, Duk-Joo; Ha, Sang-Jun [KHNP-CRI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-10-15

    The void fraction of inverted U-pipes in front of SI(Safety Injection) pumps impact on the pipe system of ECCS(Emergency Core Cooling Systems). This phenomena is called as 'Kinematic Shock'. The purpose of this paper is to achieve the more exactly calculation when the kinematic shock is calculated by simplified equation. The behavior of the void packet of the ECCS pipes is illustrated by the simplified (other name is kinematic shock equation).. The kinematic shock is defined as the depth of total length of void clusters in the pipes of ECCS when the void cluster is continually reached along the part of pipes in vertical direction. In this paper, the simplified equation is evaluated by comparing calculation error each other.]. The more exact methods of calculating the depth of the kinematic shock in ECCS is achieved. The error of kinematic shock calculation is strongly depended on the calculation search gap and the order of Taylor's expansion. From this study, to select the suitable search gap and the suitable calculation order, differential root method, secant method, and Taylor's expansion form are compared one another.

  1. Modeling of ECC materials using numerical formulations based on plasticity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dick-Nielsen, Lars; Stang, Henrik; Poulsen, Peter Noe

    2006-01-01

    scale it is shown that the cohesive law for a unidirectional fiber reinforced cementitious composite can be found through superposition of the cohesive law for mortar and the fiber bridging curve. On the meso scale I it is shown that the maximum crack opening observed during crack propagation in ECC...

  2. Is 300 Seconds ACT Safe and Efficient during MiECC Procedures?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bauer, Adrian; Hausmann, Harald; Schaarschmidt, Jan

    2017-01-01

    INTRODUCTION:  The recommended minimum activated clotting time (ACT) level for cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) of 480 seconds originated from investigations with bubble oxygenators and uncoated extracorporeal circulation (ECC) systems. Modern minimal invasive ECC (MiECC) systems are completely closed...

  3. Simultaneous algae-polluted water treatment and electricity generation using a biocathode-coupled electrocoagulation cell (bio-ECC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Yue; Qu, Youpeng; Li, Chao; Han, Xiaoyu; Ambuchi, John J; Liu, Junfeng; Yu, Yanling; Feng, Yujie

    2017-10-15

    How to utilize electrocoagulation (EC) technology for algae-polluted water treatment in an energy-efficient manner remains a critical challenge for its widespread application. Herein, a novel biocathode-coupled electrocoagulation cell (bio-ECC) with sacrificial iron anode and nitrifying biocathode was developed. Under different solution conductivities (2.33±0.25mScm-1 and 4.94±0.55mScm-1), the bio-ECC achieved almost complete removal of algae cells. The maximum power densities of 8.41 and 11.33Wm-3 at corresponding current densities of 48.03Am-3 and 66.26Am-3 were obtained, with the positive energy balance of 4.52 and 7.44Wm-3. In addition, the bio-ECC exhibited excellent NH4+-N removal performance with the nitrogen removal rates of 7.28mgL-1h-1 and 6.77mgL-1h-1 in cathode chamber, indicating the superiority of bio-ECC in NH4+-N removal. Pyrosequencing revealed that nitrifiers including Nitrospira, Nitrobacter, Nitrosococcus, and Nitrosomonas were enriched in biocathode. The removal mechanisms of algae in anode chamber were also explored by AFM and SEM-EDX tests. These results provide a proof-of-concept study of transferring energy-intensive EC process into an energy-neutral process with high-efficiency algae removal and electricity recovery. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  4. Electronic processes in uniaxially stressed p-type germanium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dubon, Jr., Oscar Danilo [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    1996-02-01

    Effect of uniaxial stress on acceptor-related electronic processes in Ge single crystals doped with Ga, Be, and Cu were studied by Hall and photo-Hall effect measurements in conjunction with infrared spectroscopy. Stress dependence of hole lifetime in p-type Ge single crystals is used as a test for competing models of non-radiative capture of holes by acceptors. Photo-Hall effect shows that hole lifetime in Ga- and Be-doped Ge increases by over one order of magnitude with uniaxial stress at liq. He temps. Photo-Hall of Ge:Be shows a stress-induced change in the temperature dependence of hole lifetime. This is consistent with observed increase of responsivity of Ge:Ga detectors with uniaxial stress. Electronic properties of Ge:Cu are shown to change dramatically with uniaxial stress; the results provide a first explanation for the performance of uniaxially stressed, Cu-diffused Ge:Ga detectors which display a high conductivity in absence of photon signal and therefore have poor sensitivity.

  5. Micro-Macro Correlations and Anisotropy in Granular Assemblies under Uniaxial Loading and Unloading

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Imole, Olukayode Isaiah; Wojtkowski, Mateusz Bronislaw; Magnanimo, Vanessa; Luding, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    The influence of contact friction on the behavior of dense, polydisperse granular assemblies under uniaxial (oedometric) loading and unloading deformation is studied using discrete element simulations. Even though the uniaxial deformation protocol is one of the “simplest” element tests possible, the

  6. Clinical outcomes for Early Childhood Caries (ECC): the influence of health locus of control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chase, I; Berkowitz, R J; Proskin, H M; Weinstein, P; Billings, R

    2004-06-01

    To assess the relationship between clinical outcomes for children treated for ECC and health locus of control. The study cohort consisted of 79 children (42 males, 37 females) treated for ECC; age range was 2.3-7.3 years (mean 4.2 years) at the time of entry into the study. A questionnaire [developed by DeVellis et al., 1993] was administered to each child's parent(s) on the day of dental surgery. This questionnaire examined the expectation that healthcare outcomes in children are influenced by one of the following loci of control: Professional, Parent, Child, Media, Fate and Divine. The cohort was evaluated for new caries lesions at 6 months post dental surgery. Relapse was defined as the presence of new smooth surface caries lesions. For each locus, the scores for the Relapse versus Non-relapse groups (returning patients) and the scores for the returning versus non-returning patients were compared using t-tests. 57 children (72%) returned for follow-up and 21 of these 57 (37%) relapsed. No statistically significant difference for Relapse versus Non-relapse groups was indicated with respect to the scores for any locus parameter (p values ranged from 0.35 to 0.95). Returning parents (N=57) versus non- returning parents (N=22) exhibited statistically significant differences with respect to the Parent, Divine and Fate loci. Returning parents exhibited higher scores on the Parent locus (p=0.0392) and lower scores on the Fate (p=0.0024) and Divine (p=0.0031) loci. 1). The relapse rate (37%) was high and rapid for children treated for ECC; 2). no meaningful difference existed between the Relapse versus Non-relapse groups with respect to each health locus of control parameter; 3). parents who returned for follow-up care appeared to have an internal health locus of control while those who did not return had an external locus.

  7. Disease Management of Early Childhood Caries: ECC Collaborative Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Man Wai Ng

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Until recently, the standard of care for early childhood caries (ECC has been primarily surgical and restorative treatment with little emphasis on preventing and managing the disease itself. It is now recognized that surgical treatment alone does not address the underlying etiology of the disease. Despite costly surgeries and reparative treatment, the onset and progression of caries are likely to continue. A successful rebalance of risk and protective factors may prevent, slow down, or even arrest dental caries and its progression. An 18-month risk-based chronic disease management (DM approach to address ECC in preschool children was implemented as a quality improvement (QI collaborative by seven teams of oral health care providers across the United States. In the aggregate, fewer DM children experienced new cavitation, pain, and referrals to the operating room (OR for restorative treatment compared to baseline historical controls. The teams found that QI methods facilitated adoption of the DM approach and resulted in improved care to patients and better outcomes overall. Despite these successes, the wide scale adoption and spread of the DM approach may be limited unless health policy and payment reforms are enacted to compensate providers for implementing DM protocols in their practice.

  8. Disease Management of Early Childhood Caries: ECC Collaborative Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Man Wai; Ramos-Gomez, Francisco; Lieberman, Martin; Lee, Jessica Y; Scoville, Richard; Hannon, Cindy; Maramaldi, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Until recently, the standard of care for early childhood caries (ECC) has been primarily surgical and restorative treatment with little emphasis on preventing and managing the disease itself. It is now recognized that surgical treatment alone does not address the underlying etiology of the disease. Despite costly surgeries and reparative treatment, the onset and progression of caries are likely to continue. A successful rebalance of risk and protective factors may prevent, slow down, or even arrest dental caries and its progression. An 18-month risk-based chronic disease management (DM) approach to address ECC in preschool children was implemented as a quality improvement (QI) collaborative by seven teams of oral health care providers across the United States. In the aggregate, fewer DM children experienced new cavitation, pain, and referrals to the operating room (OR) for restorative treatment compared to baseline historical controls. The teams found that QI methods facilitated adoption of the DM approach and resulted in improved care to patients and better outcomes overall. Despite these successes, the wide scale adoption and spread of the DM approach may be limited unless health policy and payment reforms are enacted to compensate providers for implementing DM protocols in their practice.

  9. Comprehensive Oral Health Care to Reduce the Incidence of Severe Early Childhood Caries (s-ECC) in Urban China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Si, Yan; Guo, Yan; Yuan, Chao; Xu, Tao; Zheng, Shu Guo

    2016-03-01

    To explore the effectiveness of comprehensive oral health care to reduce the caries incidence for children with severe early childhood caries (s-ECC) in an urban area in China. A total of 357 children aged 3 to 4 years old and diagnosed with s-ECC were recruited in this randomised controlled, single-blinded clinical trial for 1 year. Children of two different kindergarten classes were enrolled in this study and randomly divided into a test group (205 children) and a control group (152 children). The test group received comprehensive oral health care, which included: oral health examination, oral health education, topical fluoride application and dental treatment, and the children in the control group only received the oral health examination. The evaluation of the oral health questionnaire for parents was also performed. An evaluation was carried out at the time of recruitment and 1 year later to explore the effectiveness of the comprehensive oral health care model. The differences in decayed teeth (dt), decayed tooth surfaces (ds), filled teeth (ft), filled tooth surfaces (fs) and the ratio of ft /(dt + ft) between the two groups were statistically significant (P children with s-ECC.

  10. Combined group ECC protection and subgroup parity protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gara, Alan G.; Chen, Dong; Heidelberger, Philip; Ohmacht, Martin

    2013-06-18

    A method and system are disclosed for providing combined error code protection and subgroup parity protection for a given group of n bits. The method comprises the steps of identifying a number, m, of redundant bits for said error protection; and constructing a matrix P, wherein multiplying said given group of n bits with P produces m redundant error correction code (ECC) protection bits, and two columns of P provide parity protection for subgroups of said given group of n bits. In the preferred embodiment of the invention, the matrix P is constructed by generating permutations of m bit wide vectors with three or more, but an odd number of, elements with value one and the other elements with value zero; and assigning said vectors to rows of the matrix P.

  11. Fracture strength and Weibull analysis of Ba{sub 0.5}Sr{sub 0.5}Co{sub 0.8}Fe{sub 0.2}O{sub 3−δ} oxygen transport membranes evaluated by biaxial and uniaxial bending tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Li, E-mail: li.wang-5@postgrad.manchester.ac.uk [School of Materials, University of Manchester, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom); Technology and Engineering Centre for Space Utilisation, Chinese Academy of Science, Beijing 10094 (China); Dou, Rui; Wang, Gong [Technology and Engineering Centre for Space Utilisation, Chinese Academy of Science, Beijing 10094 (China); Li, Yizhe; Bai, Mingwen; Hall, David [School of Materials, University of Manchester, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom); Chen, Ying, E-mail: ying.chen-2@manchester.ac.uk [School of Materials, University of Manchester, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom)

    2016-07-18

    The present study evaluates the fracture strengths and the Weibull modulus of Ba{sub 0.5}Sr{sub 0.5}Co{sub 0.8}Fe{sub 0.2}O{sub 3−δ} (BSCF) oxygen transport membranes by means of biaxial and uniaxial bending tests at both room temperature (RT) and 800 °C. The fracture strengths obtained from the biaxial bending tests are much lower than those obtained from the uniaxial bending tests while Weibull moduli (m) are similar. By utilising Weibull statistics the uniaxial strengths can be predicted from the biaxial values at both RT and 800 °C. Fracture surfaces at both RT and 800 °C show only a transgranular fracture mode. Failure origins are also determined by scanning electron microscope (SEM) based on the fractographic principles. Most defects determining the fracture strength of this particular material are found to be pores with a relatively large size.

  12. Modified ECC ozone sonde for long-duration flights aboard isopicnic drifting balloons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gheusi, Francois; Durand, Pierre; Verdier, Nicolas; Dulac, François; Attié, Jean-Luc; Commun, Philippe; Barret, Brice; Basdevant, Claude; Clénet, Antoine; Fontaine, Alain; Jambert, Corinne; Meyerfeld, Yves; Roblou, Laurent; Tocquer, Flore

    2015-04-01

    Since few years, the French space agency CNES has developed boundary-layer pressurized balloons (BLPB) with the capability to transport scientific payloads at isopicnic level over very long distances and durations (up to several weeks in absence of navigation limits). However, the autonomy of conventional electrochemical concentration cell (ECC) ozone sondes, that are widely used for tropospheric and stratospheric soundings, is limited to few hours due to power consumption and electrolyte evaporation (owing to air bubbling in the cathode solution). In collaboration with the French research community, CNES has developed a new ozone payload suited for long duration flights aboard BLPB. The mechanical elements (Teflon pump and motor) and the electrochemical cell of conventional ECC sondes have been kept but the electronic implementation is entirely new. The main feature is the possibility of programming periodic measurement sequences -- with possible remote control during the flight. To increase the ozone sonde autonomy, a strategy has been adopted of short measurement sequences (typically 2-3 min) regularly spaced in time (e.g. every 15 min, which is usually sufficient for air quality studies). The rest of the time, the sonde is at rest (pump motor off). The response time of an ECC sonde to an ozone concentration step is below one minute. Consequently, the measurement sequence is typically composed of a one-minute spin-up period after the pump has been turned on, followed by a one- to two-minute acquisition period. All time intervals can be adjusted before and during the flight. Results of a preliminary ground-based test in spring 2012 are first presented. The sonde provided correct ozone concentrations against a reference UV analyzer every 15 minutes during 4 days. Then we illustrate results from 16 BLBP flights launched in the low troposphere over the Mediterranean during summer field campaings in 2012 and 2013 (TRAQA and ChArMEx programmes). BLPB drifting

  13. Experiments of ECCS strainer blockage and debris settling in suppression pools

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hecker, G.E.; Johnson, A.B.; Murthy, P.; Padmanabhan

    1996-03-01

    If a rupture occurs in a nuclear power station pipe that leads to or from the reactor pressure vessel, the resultant Loss of Coolant Accident (LOCA) would initiate a chain of events involving complex flow phenomena. In a Boiling Water Reactor (BWR), the steam or liquid pipe break pressurizes the dry well, forcing the inert containment gases and steam through downcomers into the suppression pool, thoroughly mixing any particulates and pipe insulation debris carried with the gas flow to the pool. As the steam flow decreases, its unsteady condensation at the end of the downcomers (Condensation Oscillation and Chugging) produces continued water motion in the suppression pool and downcomers. During the blowdown event, high pressure and then low pressure pumps automatically start injecting water from the suppression pool into the reactor to keep its temperature under control. Proper functioning of this Emergency Core Cooling System (ECCS) is critical for the first 30 minutes or so, before operators have time to consider and align alternative sources of cooling water. A major concern for proper operation of the ECCS is the effect of fragmented insulation and plant particulates on the head loss at pump suction strainers. Sufficient loss could exceed the NPSH margin, causing cavitation with a resultant loss of pump capacity and longevity. The bead loss increases with the mass of debris accumulated on the pump strainers, which in turn is dependent on the debris concentration versus time in the suppression pool. This paper describes two sets of experiments that quantified the strainer head loss. One set of experiments considered the mixing and settling of fibrous insulation debris and fine iron oxide particles in the suppression pool during and after chugging. These tests used a reduced scale facility which duplicated the kinetic energy per unit water volume to define the concentration of the actual materials in the pool versus time.

  14. Structure and properties of poly (lactic acid)/Sterculia urens uniaxial fabric biocomposites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayaramudu, J; Reddy, G Siva Mohan; Varaprasad, K; Sadiku, E R; Ray, S Sinha; Rajulu, A Varada

    2013-05-15

    Uniaxial cellulose fabric Sterculia urens reinforced poly (lactic acid) (PLA) matrix biocomposites were prepared by a two-roll mill. In order to assess the suitability of Sterculia fabric as reinforcement for PLA matrix, the PLA/Sterculia fabric biocomposites were prepared. Tensile parameters, such as maximum stress, Young's modulus and elongation-at-break, were determined using the Universal Testing Machine. The effect of alkali treatment and silane-coupling agent on the tensile properties of PLA-based biocomposites was studied. The results of thermogravimetric analysis show that uniaxial treatment of the fabric can improve the degradation temperature of the biocomposites. Moreover, morphological studies by scanning electron microscopy confirmed that better adhesion between the uniaxial fabric and the matrix was achieved. It was established that standard PLA resins are suitable for the manufacture of S. urens uniaxial fabric reinforced biocomposites with excellent engineering properties, useful for food packaging. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Experimental Study on FRP-Reinforced PP ECC Beams Under Reverse Cyclic Loading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huan, Yu J.; Wei, W. J.; Jin, Yu

    2014-09-01

    When a structure is hit by an earthquake, a tremendous amount of seismic energy is released, and the structure is subjected to reverse loadings. The mechanical properties of FRP-reinforced PP ECC beams and coupon RC beams under displacement-controlled reverse cyclic loadings are investigated. The curing time, reinforcement ratio, and volume fraction of PP fibers are the parameters considered. It was found that multiple saturated cracking arised in the PP ECC beams, but no crushing followed. PP ECCs can enhance the strength and energy dissipation capacity of beams, which is important in evaluating the performance of structures subjected to reverse cyclic loadings.

  16. Performance comparison of combined ECC/RLL codes

    Science.gov (United States)

    French, C.; Lin, Y.

    1990-01-01

    In this paper, we present a performance comparison of several combined error correcting/run-lenth limited (ECC/RLL) codes created by concatenating a convolutional code with a run-length limited code. In each case, encoding and decoding are accomplished using a single trellis based on the combined code. Half of the codes under investigation use conventionally (d,k) run-length limited codes, where d is the minimum and k is the maximum allowable run of 0's between 1's. The other half of the combined codes use a special class of (d,k) codes known as distance preserving codes. These codes have the property that pairwise Hamming distances out of the (d,k) encoder are at least as large as the corresponding distances into the encoder (i.e., the codes preserve distance). Thus a combined code, created using a convolutional code concatenated with a distance preserving (d,k) code, will have a free distance (dfree) no smaller than the free distance of the original convolutional code. It should be noted that this does not hold if the (d,k) code was not distance preserving. A computer simulation is used to compare the performance of these two types of codes over the binary symmetric channel for various (d,k) constraints, rates, free distances, and numbers of states. Of particular interest for magnetic recording applications are codes with run-length constraints (1,3), (1,7), and (2,7).

  17. Uniaxial Dynamic Mechanical Properties Of Tunnel Lining Concrete Under Moderate-Low Strain Rate After High Temperature

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    L. X. Xiong

    2015-01-01

    To investigate the mechanical properties of tunnel lining concrete under different moderate-low strain rates after high temperatures, uniaxial compression tests in association with ultrasonic tests were performed...

  18. Preestrita pihtimus : Friedrich Nietzsche ja tema substantsiaalne mina (Ecce homo) / Jaan Undusk

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Undusk, Jaan, 1958-

    1998-01-01

    Varem ilmunud raamatu järelsõnana: Nietzsche, Friedrich. Ecce homo : kuidas saadakse selleks, mis ollakse / tlk. Jaan Undusk. Tallinn : Vagabund, 1996. Sisu: Poeetiline, filosoofiline, dionüüsiline kaanon ; Künism contra hulluskahtlus ; Antikristlik pihtimus ; Egoretoorika

  19. Predictive Eco-Cruise Control (ECC) system : model development, modeling and potential benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-01

    The research develops a reference model of a predictive eco-cruise control (ECC) system that intelligently modulates vehicle speed within a pre-set speed range to minimize vehicle fuel consumption levels using roadway topographic information. The stu...

  20. Scaling and metastable behavior in uniaxial ferroelectrics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fernández del Castillo, J.R.; Noheda, B.; Cereceda, N.; Gonzalo, J.A.; Iglesias, T.; Przeslawski, J.

    1998-01-01

    Improved experimental resolution and computer aided data analysis of hysteresis loops at T≈TC in uniaxial ferroelectrics triglycene sulfate (ordinary critical point), and triglycine selenate (quasitricritical point) show that scaling holds in a wide range of scaled fields spanning many orders of

  1. Self-Healing of Microcracks in Engineered Cementitious Composites (ECC) Under a Natural Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbert, Emily N; Li, Victor C

    2013-07-15

    This paper builds on previous self-healing engineered cementitious composites (ECC) research by allowing ECC to heal outdoors, in the natural environment, under random and sometimes extreme environmental conditions. Development of an ECC material that can heal itself in the natural environment could lower infrastructure maintenance costs and allow for more sustainable development in the future by increasing service life and decreasing the amount of resources and energy needed for repairs. Determining to what extent current ECC materials self-heal in the natural environment is the first step in the development of an ECC that can completely heal itself when exposed to everyday environmental conditions. This study monitored outdoor ECC specimens for one year using resonant frequency (RF) and mechanical reloading to determine the rate and extent of self-healing in the natural environment. It was found that the level of RF, stiffness, and first cracking strength recovery increased as the duration of natural environment exposure increased. For specimens that underwent multiple damage cycles, it was found that the level of recovery was highly dependent on the average temperature and amount of precipitation between each damage event. However, RF, stiffness, and first cracking strength recovery data for specimens that underwent multiple loading cycles suggest that self-healing functionality can be maintained under multiple damage events.

  2. Self-Healing of Microcracks in Engineered Cementitious Composites (ECC Under a Natural Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor C. Li

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper builds on previous self-healing engineered cementitious composites (ECC research by allowing ECC to heal outdoors, in the natural environment, under random and sometimes extreme environmental conditions. Development of an ECC material that can heal itself in the natural environment could lower infrastructure maintenance costs and allow for more sustainable development in the future by increasing service life and decreasing the amount of resources and energy needed for repairs. Determining to what extent current ECC materials self-heal in the natural environment is the first step in the development of an ECC that can completely heal itself when exposed to everyday environmental conditions. This study monitored outdoor ECC specimens for one year using resonant frequency (RF and mechanical reloading to determine the rate and extent of self-healing in the natural environment. It was found that the level of RF, stiffness, and first cracking strength recovery increased as the duration of natural environment exposure increased. For specimens that underwent multiple damage cycles, it was found that the level of recovery was highly dependent on the average temperature and amount of precipitation between each damage event. However, RF, stiffness, and first cracking strength recovery data for specimens that underwent multiple loading cycles suggest that self-healing functionality can be maintained under multiple damage events.

  3. The Creep Properties of Fine Sandstone under Uniaxial Tensile Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiang Haifei

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available A graduated uniaxial direct tensile creep test for fine sandstone is conducted by adopting a custom-designed direct tensile test device for rock. The experiment shows that the tensile creep of fine sandstone has similar creep curve patterns to those of compression creep, while the ratios of the creep strain to the total strain obtained in the tensile tests are substantially higher than those obtained for similar compression tests, which indicates that the creep ability of rock in the tensile process is higher than that in the uniaxial compression process. Based on the elastic modulus in the approximately linear portion of the obtained isochronous stress-strain curves of the tensile creep, the time dependence of the elasticity modulus for the Kelvin model is evaluated, and a revised generalized Kelvin model is obtained by substitution into the generalized Kelvin model. A new viscousplastic model is proposed to describe the accelerated creep properties, and this model is combined in series with the revised generalized Kelvin model to form a new nonlinear viscoelastic-plastic creep model that can describe the properties of attenuation creep, steady creep, and accelerated creep. Comparison of the test and theoretical curves demonstrates that they are nearly identical, which verifies the performance of the model.

  4. Behaviour of S 355JO steel subjected to uniaxial stress at lowered ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Short-time creep tests for selected constant stresses at selected temperatures were curried out. Uniaxial creep behaviour for selected creep test was modeled by the rheological model. The creep curve determined by modeling procedure was compared with experimentally obtained one. Also, notch impact energy test, using ...

  5. Design of the uniaxial shaker with variable stiffness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chlebo Ondrej

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available During the vibration testing, various types of vibration drivers of different structures are used. Electrodynamic drivers are generally used for smaller excitation forces whereas for bigger excitation forces hydraulic drivers are used. The main disadvantage of drivers can be found in their size. One of the possibilities for size reduction may be a suitable engineering design. The paper deals with the design of a small uniaxial driver which uses an inertial driver as a source of the excitation force. The structure considers the requirements for stiffness changes of the whole system with the aim of available frequency range tuning.

  6. The statitistical evaluation of the uniaxial compressive strength of the Ruskov andesite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krepelka František

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available The selection of a suitable model of the statistical distribution of the uniaxial compressive strength is discussed in the paper. The uniaxial compressive strength was studied on 180 specimens of the Ruskov andesite. The rate of loading was 1MPa.s-1. The experimental specimens had a prismatic form with a square base; the slightness ratio of specimens was 2:1. Three sets of specimens with a different length of the base edge were studied, namely 50, 30 and 10 mm. The result of the measurement were three sets with 60 values of the uniaxial compressive strength. The basic statistical parameters: the sample mean, the sample standard deviation, the variational interval, the minimum and maximum value, the sample obliqueness coefficient and the sharpness coefficient were evaluated for each collection. Two types of the distribution which can be joined with the real physical fundamentals of the desintegration of rocks ( the normal and the Weibull distribution were tested. The two-parametric Weibull distribution was tested. The basic characteristics of both distributions were evaluated for each set and the accordance of the model distribution with an experimental distribution was tested. The ÷2-test was used for testing. The two-parametric Weibull distribution was selected following the comparison of the test results of both model distributions as a suitable distribution model for the characterization of uniaxial compressive strength of the Ruskov andesite. The two-parametric Weibull distribution showed better results of the goodness-of-fit test. The normal distribution was suitable for two sets; one of the sets showed a negative result of the goodness-of-fit testing. At the uniaxial compressive strength of the Ruskov andesite, a scale effect was registered : the mean value of uniaxial compressive strength decreases with increasing the specimen base edge. This is another argument for using the Weibull distribution as a suitable statistical model of the

  7. Uniaxial Elongational viscosity of bidisperse polystyrene melts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jens Kromann; Rasmussen, Henrik K.; Hassager, Ole

    2006-01-01

    The startup and steady uniaxial elongational viscosity have been measured for three bidisperse polystyrene (PS) melts, consisting of blends of monodisperse PS with molecular weights of 52 kg/mole or 103 kg/mole and 390 kg/mole. The bidisperse melts have a maximum in the steady elongational...... viscosity, of up to a factor of 7 times the Trouton limit of 3 times the zero-shear viscosity....

  8. AN ANALYSIS OF STUDENTS’ SPEAKING ABILITY IN ENGLISH CONVERSATION CLUB (ECC PROGRAM AT THE 3rd SEMESTER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Fadhly Farhy Abbas

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This research is based on students’ speaking ability who had followed the EnglishConversation Club (ECC program especially for the third semester of English Department. Thepurpose of this study was to analyze the students’ speaking ability at the 3rd semester in the EnglishConversation Club FKIP UNILAK Pekanbaru. The type of the research was mixed method in typeof explanatory design. The number of participant was 53 students. The researcher used twoinstruments, those were test and interview. In analyzing the data, it used in descriptive statistics.The result of the analysis showed that the average score of 3rd semester students’ speaking abilitywas 45.42. It can be concluded that the students’ speaking ability was categorized into failed . Thescore of Standard Deviation was 7.02, Variance was 49.30, and Range was 36 points . It meansthat the students’ speaking ability was homogeneous. According to the Z-Score, it can be seen that49.06% students’ ability was higher than average and 50.94% students ability was below theaverage. In conclusion, the students’ ability in learning speaking English was failed, it had beenaffected by some factors, those were lack of vocabulary, grammar and motivation. It was supportedby the interview, eventhough the students’ perception to English Conversation Club (ECCprogram was positive, but in fact, the students’ frequency to speak English was seldom, they wereless practice speaking English everyday.Keywords : Speaking , English Conversation Club (ECC

  9. Energy-dissipating and self-repairing SMA-ECC composite material system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaopeng; Li, Mo; Song, Gangbing

    2015-02-01

    Structural component ductility and energy dissipation capacity are crucial factors for achieving reinforced concrete structures more resistant to dynamic loading such as earthquakes. Furthermore, limiting post-event residual damage and deformation allows for immediate re-operation or minimal repairs. These desirable characteristics for structural ‘resilience’, however, present significant challenges due to the brittle nature of concrete, its deformation incompatibility with ductile steel, and the plastic yielding of steel reinforcement. Here, we developed a new composite material system that integrates the unique ductile feature of engineered cementitious composites (ECC) with superelastic shape memory alloy (SMA). In contrast to steel reinforced concrete (RC) and SMA reinforced concrete (SMA-RC), the SMA-ECC beams studied in this research exhibited extraordinary energy dissipation capacity, minimal residual deformation, and full self-recovery of damage under cyclic flexural loading. We found that the tensile strain capacity of ECC, tailored up to 5.5% in this study, allows it to work compatibly with superelastic SMA. Furthermore, the distributed microcracking damage mechanism in ECC is critical for sufficient and reliable recovery of damage upon unloading. This research demonstrates the potential of SMA-ECC for improving resilience of concrete structures under extreme hazard events.

  10. Holistic care patient with Early Childhood Caries (ECC: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Intan Maulani

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Early Childhood Caries (ECC is a specific form of severe dental caries that affects infants and young children. ECC progresses rapidly in those who are at high risk, and often goes untreated. Children experiencing caries as infants or toddlers have a much greater probability of subsequent caries in both primary and permanent dentitions. This case showed management holistic care for children with ECC.A five year old boy patient accompanied with her parents were reported to the Pedodontic Clinic Padjadjaran University Dental Hospital with a chief complaint of decayed upper anterior teeth and pain in the molar teeth. Clinical examinations found dental caries almost all teeth in the maxilla and mandible. Based on panoramic radiograph, treatments that can be done are strip crown glass ionomer restorations, pulp treatments, extractions and fixed space maintainer. Patients diagnosed with severe ECC, patient and parents described on this type of caries. During treatment the patient was given oral hygiene instruction and recommend daily use of tooth mouse. After all treatment were completed, fluoride topical, and fissure sealants, recall check up after three months was scheduled. Holistic care needed in handling children with ECC.

  11. Characteristics of a high T{sub c} superconducting rectangular microstrip patch on uniaxially anisotropic substrate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benkouda, Siham; Messai, Abderraouf [Electronics Department, University of Constantine 1, 25000 Constantine (Algeria); Amir, Mounir; Bedra, Sami [Electronics Department, University of Batna, 05000 Batna (Algeria); Fortaki, Tarek, E-mail: t_fortaki@yahoo.fr [Electronics Department, University of Batna, 05000 Batna (Algeria)

    2014-07-15

    Highlights: • We model a microstrip antenna with anisotropic substrate and superconductor patch. • The extended full-wave analysis is used to solve for the antenna characteristics. • The accuracy of the method is checked by comparing our results with published data. • Uniaxial anisotropy affects the resonant characteristics of the antenna. • Patch on uniaxial substrate is more advantageous than the one on isotropic medium. - Abstract: Resonant characteristics of a high T{sub c} superconducting rectangular microstrip patch printed on uniaxially anisotropic substrate are investigated using a full-wave spectral analysis in conjunction with the complex resistive boundary condition. The uniaxial medium shows anisotropy of an electric type as well as anisotropy of a magnetic type. Both permittivity and permeability tensors of the substrate are included in the formulation of the dyadic Green’s function of the problem. The accuracy of the analysis is tested by comparing the computed results with previously published data for several anisotropic substrate materials. Numerical data of the resonant frequency and bandwidth as a function of electric anisotropy ratio are presented. Variations of the resonant frequency and bandwidth with the magnetic anisotropy ratio are also given. Finally, results showing the influence of the temperature on the resonant frequency and quality factor of the high T{sub c} superconducting rectangular microstrip patch on a uniaxial substrate are also given.

  12. Effects of solution mass transport on the ECC ozonesonde background current. [Electrochemical Concentration Cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornton, D. C.; Niazy, N.

    1983-01-01

    A technique is developed to measure the effective mass transport parameter for the electrochemical concentration cell (ECC) ozonesonde in order to determine the mass transport rate constant for the ECC as a function of pressure. It is shown that a pressure dependent factor in the background current originates in a convective mass transport parameter. It is determined that for atmospheric pressures greater than 100 mb the mass transport parameter is a constant, while at pressures less than 100 mb it decreases logarithmically with pressure. It is suggested that the background current correction is directly correlated to the mass transport parameter pressure dependence. The presently used background current correction, which is based on the partial pressure of oxygen, is found to lead to an overestimation of the integrated ozone value in the troposphere for the ECC ozonesonde data.

  13. Lightweight ECC based RFID authentication integrated with an ID verifier transfer protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Debiao; Kumar, Neeraj; Chilamkurti, Naveen; Lee, Jong-Hyouk

    2014-10-01

    The radio frequency identification (RFID) technology has been widely adopted and being deployed as a dominant identification technology in a health care domain such as medical information authentication, patient tracking, blood transfusion medicine, etc. With more and more stringent security and privacy requirements to RFID based authentication schemes, elliptic curve cryptography (ECC) based RFID authentication schemes have been proposed to meet the requirements. However, many recently published ECC based RFID authentication schemes have serious security weaknesses. In this paper, we propose a new ECC based RFID authentication integrated with an ID verifier transfer protocol that overcomes the weaknesses of the existing schemes. A comprehensive security analysis has been conducted to show strong security properties that are provided from the proposed authentication scheme. Moreover, the performance of the proposed authentication scheme is analyzed in terms of computational cost, communicational cost, and storage requirement.

  14. BREASTFEEDING AND EARLY CHILDHOOD CARIES (ECC SEVERITY OF CHILDREN UNDER THREE YEARS OLD IN DKI JAKARTA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Risqa Rina Darwita

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence and severity of caries in children under three years old are constantly increasing. One of the cause is the increase consumption of cariogenic carbohydrate. Breast milk have buffer capacity that eventually able to prevent caries. The aims of this research are to discover the correlation between breastfeeding with the severity of Early Childhood Caries (ECC in children under three years old, to provide information on prevalence and severity of caries in children under three years, and to explain factors influencing the incidence of ECC. This research designed cross sectionally and conducted upon 565 children aged 12-38 months, selected using multistage cluster random sampling. The ECC prevalence of children under three years in DKI Jakarta is 52.7%, with average score of def-t 2.85. Bivariate analysis showed that, variables which correlate with the level of ECC are; the way to deliver (p=0,012, frequency (p=0,002, duration (p=0,002, salivary buffer capacity (p=0.013, habitual consumption of sugary diet (p=0.005, child’s dental hygiene behavior (p=0.002, and mother’s education (p=0.001. Multivariate analysis showed that ECC can be explained by these variables: age, mother’s education, the way to deliver and frequency of breast milk complements/replacement of consumtions, child’s brushing habit, plaque pH, and salivary buffer capacity. Resulting determination coefficient 32.1%. There is no significant correlation between breastfeeding and the level of Early Childhood Caries (ECC. The role of protective qualities of breastfeeding are not shown because of bias in obtaining data influence the incidence of caries.

  15. Is 300 Seconds ACT Safe and Efficient during MiECC Procedures?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Adrian; Hausmann, Harald; Schaarschmidt, Jan; Szlapka, Michal; Scharpenberg, Martin; Eberle, Thomas; Hasenkam, J Michael

    2017-12-31

     The recommended minimum activated clotting time (ACT) level for cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) of 480 seconds originated from investigations with bubble oxygenators and uncoated extracorporeal circulation (ECC) systems. Modern minimal invasive ECC (MiECC) systems are completely closed circuits containing a membrane oxygenator and a tip-to-tip surface coating. We hypothesized that surface coating and the "closed-loop" design allow the MiECC to safely run with lower ACT levels and that an ACT level of 300 seconds can be safely applied without thromboembolic complications. The aim of this study was to investigate the potential risks during application of reduced heparin levels in patients undergoing coronary surgery.  In this study, 68 patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting with MiECC were randomized to either the study group with an ACT target of 300 seconds or the control group with an ACT of 450 seconds. All other factors of MiECC remained unchanged.  The study group received significantly less heparin and protamine (heparin [international units] median [min-max], Red_AC: 32,800 [23,000-51,500] vs. Full_AC: 50,000 [35,000-65,000] p  ACT in the study group was significantly lower at the start of MiECC (mean ± standard deviation: study group 400 ± 112 vs. control group 633 ± 177; p  ACT levels were: study group 344 ± 60 versus control group 506 ± 80. In both groups, the values of the endogenous thrombin potential (ETP) decreased simultaneously. None of the study participants experienced thromboembolic complications.  Since no evidence of increased thrombin formation (ETP) was found from a laboratory standpoint, we concluded that the use of MiECC with a reduced anticoagulation strategy seems possible. This alternative anticoagulation strategy leads to significant reduction in dosages of both heparin and protamine. We can confidently move forward with investigating this anticoagulation concept. However, to

  16. Hot Electron Injection into Uniaxially Strained Silicon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyun Soo

    In semiconductor spintronics, silicon attracts great attention due to the long electron spin lifetime. Silicon is also one of the most commonly used semiconductor in microelectronics industry. The spin relaxation process of diamond crystal structure such as silicon is dominant by Elliot-Yafet mechanism. Yafet shows that intravalley scattering process is dominant. The conduction electron spin lifetime measured by electron spin resonance measurement and electronic measurement using ballistic hot electron method well agrees with Yafet's theory. However, the recent theory predicts a strong contribution of intervalley scattering process such as f-process in silicon. The conduction band minimum is close the Brillouin zone edge, X point which causes strong spin mixing at the conduction band. A recent experiment of electric field-induced hot electron spin relaxation also shows the strong effect of f-process in silicon. In uniaxially strained silicon along crystal axis [100], the suppression of f-process is predicted which leads to enhance electron spin lifetime. By inducing a change in crystal structure due to uniaxial strain, the six fold degeneracy becomes two fold degeneracy, which is valley splitting. As the valley splitting increases, intervalley scattering is reduced. A recent theory predicts 4 times longer electron spin lifetime in 0.5% uniaxially strained silicon. In this thesis, we demonstrate ballistic hot electron injection into silicon under various uniaxial strain. Spin polarized hot electron injection under strain is experimentally one of the most challenging part to measure conduction electron spin lifetime in silicon. Hot electron injection adopts tunnel junction which is a thin oxide layer between two conducting materials. Tunnel barrier, which is an oxide layer, is only 4 ˜ 5 nm thick. Also, two conducting materials are only tens of nanometer. Therefore, under high pressure to apply 0.5% strain on silicon, thin films on silicon substrate can be easily

  17. Nondestructive Electromagnetic Characterization of Uniaxial Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-18

    Referencing the geometry in Figure 5.23, d2 “ 3mm and d1 “ 1mm. . . 203 5.25 The results from the tFWMT extraction performed on the hexagonal honey - comb...ffi ffi ffi fl (1.4) Natural examples of uniaxial crystals are sapphire, calcite and ruby. These crystals are known to possess unusual... crystal structure) and the molecular content of that structure. Now that we have a broad understanding of complex media, let us examine the most

  18. Effective stress coefficient for uniaxial strain condition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alam, Mohammad Monzurul; Fabricius, Ida Lykke

    2012-01-01

    The effective stress coefficient, introduced by Biot, is used for predicting effective stress or pore pressure in the subsurface. It is not a constant value. It is different for different types of sediment and it is stress dependent. We used a model, based on contact between the grains to describe...... one dimensional rock mechanical deformation. We further investigated the effect of boundary condition on the stress dependency of effective stress coefficient and discussed its application in reservoir study. As stress field in the reservoirs are most unlikely to be hydrostatic, effective stress...... determined under uniaxial strain condition will be more relevant in reservoir studies....

  19. Effective stress coefficient for uniaxial strain condition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alam, M.M.; Fabricius, I.L.

    2012-01-01

    The effective stress coefficient, introduced by Biot, is used for predicting effective stress or pore pressure in the subsurface. It is not a constant value. It is different for different types of sediment and it is stress dependent. We used a model, based on contact between the grains to describe...... one dimensional rock mechanical deformation. We further investigated the effect of boundary condition on the stress dependency of effective stress coefficient and discussed its application in reservoir study. As stress field in the reservoirs are most unlikely to be hydrostatic, effective stress...... determined under uniaxial strain condition will be more relevant in reservoir studies. Copyright 2012 ARMA, American Rock Mechanics Association....

  20. Effects of Particle Size on Palm Kernel Oil Yield under Uniaxial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The crushed samples were classified into fine and coarse particle sizes using a set of laboratory Endocotts Test Sieves and Shaker. A laboratory mechanical oil expeller with a temperature controller and a force measuring device were used to express oil from the palm kernel under uniaxial compression using a hydraulic ...

  1. The Uniaxial Tensile Response of Porous and Microcracked Ceramic Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pandey, Amit [ORNL; Shyam, Amit [ORNL; Watkins, Thomas R [ORNL; Lara-Curzio, Edgar [ORNL; Lara-Curzio, Edgar [ORNL; Stafford, Randall [Cummins, Inc; Hemker, Kevin J [Johns Hopkins University

    2014-01-01

    The uniaxial tensile stress-strain behavior of three porous ceramic materials was determined at ambient conditions. Test specimens in the form of thin beams were obtained from the walls of diesel particulate filter honeycombs and tested using a microtesting system. A digital image correlation technique was used to obtain full-field 2D in-plane surface displacement maps during tensile loading, and in turn, the 2D strains obtained from displacement fields were used to determine the Secant modulus, Young s modulus and initial Poisson s ratio of the three porous ceramic materials. Successive unloading-reloading experiments were performed at different levels of stress to decouple the linear elastic, anelastic and inelastic response in these materials. It was found that the stress-strain response of these materials was non-linear and that the degree of nonlinearity is related to the initial microcrack density and evolution of damage in the material.

  2. MICROORGANISMS FOUND IN SECONDARY CATARACT MATERIAL OF ECCE PATIENTS, A STUDY WITH SEM AND TEM

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    KALICHARAN, D; JONGEBLOED, WL; LOS, LI; WORST, JGF

    1993-01-01

    Globular secondary cataract material, removed from 24 patients with ECCE after ophthalmic cleaning of the anterior capsule, were investigated with SEM and TEM. Besides spherical, somewhat oval shaped bodies of various shape and size comparable with those found in cataractous lenses, (an)aerobic

  3. Uniaxial stress control of skyrmion phase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nii, Y; Nakajima, T; Kikkawa, A; Yamasaki, Y; Ohishi, K; Suzuki, J; Taguchi, Y; Arima, T; Tokura, Y; Iwasa, Y

    2015-10-13

    Magnetic skyrmions, swirling nanometric spin textures, have been attracting increasing attention by virtue of their potential applications for future memory technology and their emergent electromagnetism. Despite a variety of theoretical proposals oriented towards skyrmion-based electronics (that is, skyrmionics), few experiments have succeeded in creating, deleting and transferring skyrmions, and the manipulation methodologies have thus far remained limited to electric, magnetic and thermal stimuli. Here, we demonstrate a new approach for skyrmion phase control based on a mechanical stress. By continuously scanning uniaxial stress at low temperatures, we can create and annihilate a skyrmion crystal in a prototypical chiral magnet MnSi. The critical stress is merely several tens of MPa, which is easily accessible using the tip of a conventional cantilever. The present results offer a new guideline even for single skyrmion control that requires neither electric nor magnetic biases and consumes extremely little energy.

  4. Current Proficiency Testing: A Reflection of Teaching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irvine-Niakaris, Christine

    1997-01-01

    Looks at the washback effect in language testing, using as an example the new University of Michigan Examination for Certificate of Competency (ECCE), designed for intermediate- to upper-intermediate level learners. The ECCE can be considered an example of the movement toward achievement-oriented proficiency tests. (Author/VWL)

  5. Dynamics of electron-capture-to-continuum (ECC) formation in slow ion-atom collisions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Afaneh, F [Physics Department, The Hashemite University, PO Box 150459, Zarqa 13115 (Jordan); Schmidt, L Ph H [Institut fuer Kernphysik, Max-von-Laue-Str. 1, 60438 Frankfurt (Germany); Schoeffler, M [Institut fuer Kernphysik, Max-von-Laue-Str. 1, 60438 Frankfurt (Germany); Stiebing, K E [Institut fuer Kernphysik, Max-von-Laue-Str. 1, 60438 Frankfurt (Germany); Al-Jundi, J [Physics Department, The Hashemite University, PO Box 150459, Zarqa 13115 (Jordan); Schmidt-Boecking, H [Institut fuer Kernphysik, Max-von-Laue-Str. 1, 60438 Frankfurt (Germany); Doerner, R [Institut fuer Kernphysik, Max-von-Laue-Str. 1, 60438 Frankfurt (Germany)

    2007-05-28

    The zero-degree ejected-electron spectrum for protons incident on He at 25 keV is examined experimentally using the COLTRIMS technique. The momentum distribution of the emitted electrons for the transfer ionization (TI) reaction channel is measured in coincidence with the momentum vectors of the recoil ion and the scattered projectile. The momentum distribution of the electrons emitted around zero degree in the forward direction for the TI reaction channel shows two prominent structures: the electron-capture-to-the-continuum (ECC) peak and the saddle-point peak. From the measured fully differential electron emission cross sections with respect to the scattering plane we can deduce that the main ECC formation mechanism is electron promotion via quasimolecular orbitals.

  6. Modifying the ECC-based grouping-proof RFID system to increase inpatient medication safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Wen-Tsai; Chiou, Shin-Yan; Lu, Erl-Huei; Chang, Henry Ker-Chang

    2014-09-01

    RFID technology is increasingly used in applications that require tracking, identification, and authentication. It attaches RFID-readable tags to objects for identification and execution of specific RFID-enabled applications. Recently, research has focused on the use of grouping-proofs for preserving privacy in RFID applications, wherein a proof of two or more tags must be simultaneously scanned. In 2010, a privacy-preserving grouping proof protocol for RFID based on ECC in public-key cryptosystem was proposed but was shown to be vulnerable to tracking attacks. A proposed enhancement protocol was also shown to have defects which prevented proper execution. In 2012, Lin et al. proposed a more efficient RFID ECC-based grouping proof protocol to promote inpatient medication safety. However, we found this protocol is also vulnerable to tracking and impersonation attacks. We then propose a secure privacy-preserving RFID grouping proof protocol for inpatient medication safety and demonstrate its resistance to such attacks.

  7. Ratchetting of porcine skin under uniaxial cyclic loading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Guozheng; Wu, Xinfeng

    2011-04-01

    Skin soft tissue (e.g., porcine skin) was tested in vitro under uniaxial cyclic loading, and its biomechanical responses were investigated to realize some basic properties which are very significant in assessing the fatigue life of skin soft tissue. The results show that a cyclic accumulation of peak and valley strain, which can be terminologically called as ratchetting in terms of material science of metals, occurs in the porcine skin during cyclic tension-unloading, tension-tension and compression-unloading tests. Observed ratchetting of porcine skin depends on load level and loading orientation greatly and also presents remarkable rate dependence due to the viscosity of skin soft tissue. The ratchetting is much more remarkable during the test at lower loading rate than that at higher loading rate. Moreover, some basic properties of porcine skin were also investigated by monotonic tension, compression and creep tests in order to address the ratchetting more comprehensively. Finally, collagen fiber bundles in the porcine skin and their variation during monotonic and cyclic tension tests were observed microscopically in term of standard iron-hematoxylin staining method. The observations are useful to realize the micro-mechanism of ratchetting deformation. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. A Secure-Enhanced Data Aggregation Based on ECC in Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiang Zhou

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Data aggregation is an important technique for reducing the energy consumption of sensor nodes in wireless sensor networks (WSNs. However, compromised aggregators may forge false values as the aggregated results of their child nodes in order to conduct stealthy attacks or steal other nodes’ privacy. This paper proposes a Secure-Enhanced Data Aggregation based on Elliptic Curve Cryptography (SEDA-ECC. The design of SEDA-ECC is based on the principles of privacy homomorphic encryption (PH and divide-and-conquer. An aggregation tree disjoint method is first adopted to divide the tree into three subtrees of similar sizes, and a PH-based aggregation is performed in each subtree to generate an aggregated subtree result. Then the forged result can be identified by the base station (BS by comparing the aggregated count value. Finally, the aggregated result can be calculated by the BS according to the remaining results that have not been forged. Extensive analysis and simulations show that SEDA-ECC can achieve the highest security level on the aggregated result with appropriate energy consumption compared with other asymmetric schemes.

  9. Comparison of data on Early Childhood Caries (ECC) with previous data for Baby Bottle Tooth Decay (BBTD) in an Italian kindergarten population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferro, R; Besostri, A; Meneghetti, B; Beghetto, M

    2004-06-01

    This was to assess the prevalence of Early Childhood Caries (ECC) among preschool children attending nursery schools and to compare the results with those of a previous survey where the investigators used the term and diagnosis for Baby Bottle Tooth Decay (BBTD) syndrome. A cross-sectional survey of 1006 children aged 1-6 years was carried out. WHO recommendations for oral health surveys were used for caries diagnosis (non cavitated lesions were excluded). In addition, a comparison was made for prevalence of ECC between immigrant and native born children. Data were compared for ECC in the present survey with BBTD data in a previous study (1994) in the same area with a sample of 401 children aged 4 years. All examinations were by one examiner (Cohen's Kappa=0.96). Of the 1006 children originally selected 52 children aged more than 71 months were excluded according to published ECC definition and diagnostic criteria. The overall sample was 29 children aged <36 months; 271 aged 3 years; 364 aged 4 years and 290 aged 5 years. ECC was diagnosed in 19.7% of the overall sample. The prevalence of ECC (and S-ECC) were respectively by age: <36 months S-ECC=17.2%; at 3 years: 13.28% (6.64%); at 4 years: 18.95% (9.34%); at 5 years: 26.9% (12.75%). In the native born children (916) the ECC was 18.34%, while in immigrants (38) it was 52.63% (p<0.001). In 1994 the prevalence of BBTD syndrome was 11.9% and in the present study 6.5%. The ECC prevalence, as, ECC and severe (S-ECC),increased with age. In immigrant children ECC was 3 times (S-ECC 6 times) more frequent than in native born. Using the BBTD diagnosis the prevalence had dropped from 11.9% in 1994 to 6.5% in the present survey.

  10. Socio-behavioural risk factors for early childhood caries (ECC) in Cambodian preschool children: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turton, B; Durward, C; Manton, D; Bach, K; Yos, C

    2016-04-01

    This was to explore the socio-behavioural risk factors for ECC in Cambodia. Early childhood caries (ECC) is a significant health problem in Cambodia. A convenience sample of 362 primary caregiver-child dyads were selected. The children were aged between birth and 6 years old and participated in a structured interview and intra-oral examination. ECC was diagnosed in 244 of 362 (65.6%) children and 178 (50.6%) had severe early childhood caries (sECC). There were significant associations between caries experience and tooth brushing, dietary, and nursing habits. The odds ratio (OR) for sECC in those children who started brushing before the age of 18 months was 0.41 (CI 0.18, 0.93). However, for those children who continued to breast-feed after the age of 2 years the OR was 5.31 (CI 1.50, 18.79). The most prominent risk factors for ECC in the present study were lack of tooth brushing and breast-feeding past the age of 2 years.

  11. Multi-purpose fatigue sensor. Part 1. Uniaxial and multiaxial fatigue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.V. Karuskevich

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes the key principles and results of preliminary experiments aimed at the development of new technique for the fatigue life prediction under conditions of biaxial cyclic tension. The foundations of the method were developed early by the numerous tests with monitoring the process of surface deformation relief formation, which is proved to be an indicator of accumulated fatigue damage under uniaxial fatigue. The employed phenomenon was early applied for the development of a family of uniaxial loading fatigue sensors. The formation of strain induced relief has been recently taken into consideration as a part of damage accumulation criteria under biaxial fatigue as well. The home-made testing machine has been designed to implement combined bending and torsion loading that simulates loads experienced by an aircraft wing skin. The experimental evidences on formation and evolution of the deformation relief revealed under conditions of combined loading, supports the proposed concept of biaxial fatigue sensor

  12. Bias in peak clad temperature predictions due to uncertainties in modeling of ECC bypass and dissolved non-condensable gas phenomena

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rohatgi, U.S.; Neymotin, L.Y.; Jo, J.; Wulff, W. (Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (USA))

    1990-09-01

    This report describes a general method for estimating the effect on the Reflood Phase PCT from systematic errors (biases) associated with the modelling of the ECCS and dissolved nitrogen, and the application of this method in estimating biases in the Reflood Phase PCT (second PCT) predicted by the TRAC/PF1/MOD1, Version 14.3. The bias in the second PCT due to the uncertainty in the existing code models for ECCS related phenomena is {minus}19{degree}K ({minus}34{degree}F). The negative bias implies that the code models for this phenomena are conservative. The bias in the second PCT due to the lack of modelling of dissolved N{sub 2} in the code is estimated to be 9.9{degree}K (17.8{degree}F). The positive bias implies that the absence of dissolved N{sub 2} model makes the code prediction of PCT non-conservative. The bias estimation in this report is a major exception among all other uncertainty and bias assessments performed in conjunction with the CSAU methodology demonstration, because this bias estimation benefitted from using full-scale test data from the full-scale Upper Plenum Test Facility (UPTF). Thus, the bias estimates presented here are unaffected by scale distortions in test facilities. Data from small size facilities were also available and an estimate of bias based on these data will be conservative. 35 refs., 18 figs., 5 tabs.

  13. Preliminary analysis of modeling of Pars and steam injectors to support long-term operation of LWR passive ECCS using a best estimate thermal-hydraulics code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morales S, J. B.; Sanchez J, J. [UNAM, Facultad de Ingenieria, Circuito Interior s/n, Ciudad Universitaria, 04510 Mexico D. F. (Mexico); Espinosa P, G., E-mail: jaimebmoraless@gmail.co [Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana, Unidad Iztapalapa, Av. San Rafael Atlixco No. 186, Col. Vicentina, 09340 Mexico D. F. (Mexico)

    2010-10-15

    pools. This work presents Pars and steam injectors models, simulations and results of implementations in a best estimated thermal-hydraulics code, which are to be used for evaluations of these systems as long-term supports to ECCS. Lumped parameter models based on heat and mass balances have also been developed to test required additional best estimated code routines needed for the representation of Pars. (Author)

  14. Influence of Patch Parameters on Adhesively Bonded Composite Repair Under Uniaxial Tensile Loading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WANG Yue

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available A three-dimensional finite element model of the repaired structure was established, by which the impact of patch parameters on effect of one-side boned repaired structure under uniaxial tensile loading was analyzed based on the stress concentration factor (SCF and deflection. The results show that the repair effect is better when the crack length is 3.5 times of the hole diameter, the thickness is 60% to 80% of the hole depth and the lay-up is 0°/90°. Then the finite element results were subjected to the uniaxial tension tests. The failure strength of the repaired plate increases by 10.1% compared with that of the unrepaired plate.

  15. The CSNI/PWG-1 international task group on ECCS reliability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sandervag, O.; Riekert, T.; Serkiz, A.; Hyvarinen, J.

    1996-03-01

    A steam line loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA) occurred when a safety relief valve inadvertently opened in the Barseback-2 nuclear power plant. The steam jet stripped fibrous insulation from adjacent pipework. Part of that insulation debris was transported to the wetwell pool and clogged the intake strainers for the drywell spray system after about one hour. Although the incident in itself was not very serious, it revealed a weakness in the defense-in-depth concept which under other circumstances could have led to failure of the emergency core cooling system (ECCS) to provide water to the core. Before the Barseback-2 LOCA, international regulators of nuclear power plants and the nuclear power plant industry had considered safety questions related to strainer clogging as resolved. Many European countries had followed the guidance for strainers in pressurized water reactors (PWRs) contained in United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission`s (USNRC) Regulatory Guide 1.82, Water Sources for Long Term Recirculation Cooling Following a Loss-of-Coolant Accident, 1974. However, data obtained from European experimental programs carried out in the late seventies to determine the performance of strainers indicated that this guide was not adequate. In addition, Swedish plant owners had used this guidance to judge performance of emergency core cooling systems (ECCS) in their plants. Analyses at that time had indicated that strainer clogging, if occurring at all, would at least not occur during the first ten hours after a LOCA. Since operation of the ECCS would be needed for a long time, backflushing capabilities and monitors of pressure drop across the strainers were installed in older Swedish BWR plants with small strainer areas. These actions were judged to be adequate compliance with the revised USNRC Regulatory Guide 1.82, Rev. 1, issued in 1985. Safety questions related to strainer clogging were considered to have been resolved until the incident happened in Barseback-2.

  16. Assessment of compliance with regulatory requirements for a best estimate methodology for evaluation of ECCS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Un Chul; Jang, Jin Wook; Lim, Ho Gon; Jeong, Ik [Seoul National Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Sim, Suk Ku [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    2000-03-15

    Best estimate methodology for evaluation of ECCS proposed by KEPCO(KREM) os using thermal-hydraulic best-estimate code and the topical report for the methodology is described that it meets the regulatory requirement of USNRC regulatory guide. In this research the assessment of compliance with regulatory guide. In this research the assessment of compliance with regulatory requirements for the methodology is performed. The state of licensing procedure of other countries and best-estimate evaluation methodologies of Europe is also investigated, The applicability of models and propriety of procedure of uncertainty analysis of KREM are appraised and compliance with USNRC regulatory guide is assessed.

  17. Volume Changes in Filled Rubber Under Uniaxial Cyclic Loading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elina KAZINA

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Styrene-butadiene rubber, neat and filled with different silica content was investigated under uniaxial cyclic loading under a constant crosshead speed, with increasing deformation amplitude in subsequent loading cycles. Rubber was investigated in order to evaluate the reversibility of structure rearrangements, occurring in rubber when subjected to cyclic loading. Volume uniformly increases with growing strain and shows hysteresis at unloading. After complete unloading, no residual strain changes are observed. These data are in good conformity with the data of density measurements, which were made on specimens before and after the tests. By correlating data, obtained from volume changes and kinetics of hysteresis losses there were made assumptions on deformation mechanisms at different elongations. Deformational mechanisms, responsible for volume changes in rubber are reversible. Volume changes in specimen occur due to voids formation caused by filler microstructure breakage, rubber chains disentanglement, spaces between rubber macromolecular chains shrinkage, and chain slippage under higher elongations. Voids formation and deformation of rubber macromolecular chain reaches equilibrium state after certain elongation.http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.ms.17.3.592

  18. Landau levels in uniaxially strained graphene: A geometrical approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Betancur-Ocampo, Y., E-mail: ybetancur@mda.cinvestav.mx; Cifuentes-Quintal, M.E.; Cordourier-Maruri, G.; Coss, R. de

    2015-08-15

    The effect of strain on the Landau levels (LLs) spectra in graphene is studied, using an effective Dirac-like Hamiltonian which includes the distortion in the Dirac cones, anisotropy and spatial-dependence of the Fermi velocity induced by the lattice change through a renormalized linear momentum. We propose a geometrical approach to obtain the electron’s wave-function and the LLs in graphene from the Sturm–Liouville theory, using the minimal substitution method. The coefficients of the renormalized linear momentum are fitted to the energy bands, which are obtained from a Density Functional Theory (DFT) calculation. In particular, we evaluate the case of Dirac cones with an ellipsoidal transversal section resulting from uniaxially strained graphene along the Arm-Chair (AC) and Zig-Zag (ZZ) directions. We found that uniaxial strain in graphene induces a contraction of the LLs spectra for both strain directions. Also, is evaluated the contribution of the tilting of Dirac cone axis resulting from the uniaxial deformations to the contraction of the LLs spectra. - Highlights: • The LLs in uniaxially strained graphene are found using a geometrical approach. • The energy of the LLs in function of the Dirac cone deformation is presented. • We found that uniaxial strain in graphene induces a contraction of the LLs spectra. • Contraction in LLs spectra depends on the geometrical parameters of the Dirac cone.

  19. University and place branding: The case of universities located in ECC (European Capital of Culture cities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gábor Rekettye

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In the globalising landscape of higher education more and more universities are going international. These universities are facing growing competition, especially in enrolling international students. International competition forces them to use marketing and especially branding activity. University branding requires that the higher education institutions clearly define their differentiating features. One of the most important differentiating features is the place where the institution is located. University and place branding should work together to help the potential students in their decisions to choose the place of their study. The ECC (European Capital of Culture program which started in 1985 has helped many cities to identify their values and to develop their place branding activities. The study examines how the European Capital of Culture designation of the city helped the marketing activities of the universities located in these cities. The study attempts to explore to what extent universities located in ECCs used this special feature of their cities in their international marketing communication. The paper also attempts to analyse the effects the European Capital of Culture title could have on the international student enrolment activity of the concerned universities.

  20. A Provably-Secure ECC-Based Authentication Scheme for Wireless Sensor Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, Junghyun; Kim, Moonseong; Paik, Juryon; Lee, Youngsook; Won, Dongho

    2014-01-01

    A smart-card-based user authentication scheme for wireless sensor networks (in short, a SUA-WSN scheme) is designed to restrict access to the sensor data only to users who are in possession of both a smart card and the corresponding password. While a significant number of SUA-WSN schemes have been suggested in recent years, their intended security properties lack formal definitions and proofs in a widely-accepted model. One consequence is that SUA-WSN schemes insecure against various attacks have proliferated. In this paper, we devise a security model for the analysis of SUA-WSN schemes by extending the widely-accepted model of Bellare, Pointcheval and Rogaway (2000). Our model provides formal definitions of authenticated key exchange and user anonymity while capturing side-channel attacks, as well as other common attacks. We also propose a new SUA-WSN scheme based on elliptic curve cryptography (ECC), and prove its security properties in our extended model. To the best of our knowledge, our proposed scheme is the first SUA-WSN scheme that provably achieves both authenticated key exchange and user anonymity. Our scheme is also computationally competitive with other ECC-based (non-provably secure) schemes. PMID:25384009

  1. An ECC-Based Blind Signcryption Scheme for Multiple Digital Documents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chien-Hua Tsai

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The popularity of the Internet has comprehensively altered the traditional way of communication and interaction patterns, such as e-contract negotiations, e-payment services, or digital credential processes. In the field of e-form systems, a number of studies investigate the ability of the blind signature to fulfill the basic properties of blindness and untraceability. However, most literatures exploring the blind signature mechanisms only address research and technology pertaining to single blind signature issues. Further, most of the topics only deal with signing rather than encryption. Thus, we propose a new blind signature scheme for multiple digital documents based on elliptic curve cryptography (ECC. Our scheme incorporates the design of signcryption paradigm into the blind signature scheme to strengthen high levels of security. This innovative method also enhances computational efficiency during processing multiple electronic documents since the ECC provides a shorter key length and higher processing speed than other public-key cryptosystems on equivalent secrecy. The analysis results show that the present scheme achieves better performance at low communication overheads as well as with higher level of security. By helping the design of the intrinsic properties, the proposed cryptosystem can be applied to many areas to protect sensitive data in ubiquitous computing environments.

  2. A Provably-Secure ECC-Based Authentication Scheme for Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junghyun Nam

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available A smart-card-based user authentication scheme for wireless sensor networks (in short, a SUA-WSN scheme is designed to restrict access to the sensor data only to users who are in possession of both a smart card and the corresponding password. While a significant number of SUA-WSN schemes have been suggested in recent years, their intended security properties lack formal definitions and proofs in a widely-accepted model. One consequence is that SUA-WSN schemes insecure against various attacks have proliferated. In this paper, we devise a security model for the analysis of SUA-WSN schemes by extending the widely-accepted model of Bellare, Pointcheval and Rogaway (2000. Our model provides formal definitions of authenticated key exchange and user anonymity while capturing side-channel attacks, as well as other common attacks. We also propose a new SUA-WSN scheme based on elliptic curve cryptography (ECC, and prove its security properties in our extended model. To the best of our knowledge, our proposed scheme is the first SUA-WSN scheme that provably achieves both authenticated key exchange and user anonymity. Our scheme is also computationally competitive with other ECC-based (non-provably secure schemes.

  3. Cervical Rotatory Manipulation Decreases Uniaxial Tensile Properties of Rabbit Atherosclerotic Internal Carotid Artery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Ji; Zhang, Lei; Chen, Chao; Mondal, Shubhro; Ping, Kaike; Chen, Yili

    2017-01-01

    Objective. To investigate the effects of one of the Chinese massage therapies, cervical rotatory manipulation (CRM), on uniaxial tensile properties of rabbit atherosclerotic internal carotid artery (ICA). Methods. 40 male purebred New Zealand white rabbits were randomly divided into CRM-Model group, Non-CRM-Model group, CRM-Normal group, and Non-CRM-Normal group. After modeling (atherosclerotic model) and intervention (CRM or Non-CRM), uniaxial tensile tests were performed on the ICAs to assess the differences in tensile mechanical properties between the four groups. Results. Both CRM and modeling were the main effects affecting physiological elastic modulus (PEM) of ICA. PEM in CRM-Model group was 1.81 times as much as Non-CRM-Model group, while the value in CRM-Model group was 1.34 times as much as CRM-Normal group. Maximum elastic modulus in CRM-Model group was 1.80 times as much as CRM-Normal group. Max strains in CRM-Model group and Non-CRM-Model group were 30.98% and 28.71% lower than CRM-Normal group and Non-CRM-Normal group, respectively. However, whether treated with CRM or not, the uniaxial tensile properties of healthy ICAs were not statistically different. Conclusion. CRM may decrease the uniaxial tensile properties of rabbit arteriosclerotic ICA, but with no effect on normal group. The study will aid in the meaningful explanation of the controversy about the harmfulness of CRM and the suitable population of CRM. PMID:28303160

  4. Mechanical characterisation of porcine rectus sheath under uniaxial and biaxial tension.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Lyons, Mathew

    2014-06-03

    Incisional hernia development is a significant complication after laparoscopic abdominal surgery. Intra-abdominal pressure (IAP) is known to initiate the extrusion of intestines through the abdominal wall, but there is limited data on the mechanics of IAP generation and the structural properties of rectus sheath. This paper presents an explanation of the mechanics of IAP development, a study of the uniaxial and biaxial tensile properties of porcine rectus sheath, and a simple computational investigation of the tissue. Analysis using Laplace׳s law showed a circumferential stress in the abdominal wall of approx. 1.1MPa due to an IAP of 11kPa, commonly seen during coughing. Uniaxial and biaxial tensile tests were conducted on samples of porcine rectus sheath to characterise the stress-stretch responses of the tissue. Under uniaxial tension, fibre direction samples failed on average at a stress of 4.5MPa at a stretch of 1.07 while cross-fibre samples failed at a stress of 1.6MPa under a stretch of 1.29. Under equi-biaxial tension, failure occurred at 1.6MPa with the fibre direction stretching to only 1.02 while the cross-fibre direction stretched to 1.13. Uniaxial and biaxial stress-stretch plots are presented allowing detailed modelling of the tissue either in silico or in a surrogate material. An FeBio computational model of the tissue is presented using a combination of an Ogden and an exponential power law model to represent the matrix and fibres respectively. The structural properties of porcine rectus sheath have been characterised and add to the small set of human data in the literature with which it may be possible to develop methods to reduce the incidence of incisional hernia development.

  5. Cervical Rotatory Manipulation Decreases Uniaxial Tensile Properties of Rabbit Atherosclerotic Internal Carotid Artery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaoqun Zhang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To investigate the effects of one of the Chinese massage therapies, cervical rotatory manipulation (CRM, on uniaxial tensile properties of rabbit atherosclerotic internal carotid artery (ICA. Methods. 40 male purebred New Zealand white rabbits were randomly divided into CRM-Model group, Non-CRM-Model group, CRM-Normal group, and Non-CRM-Normal group. After modeling (atherosclerotic model and intervention (CRM or Non-CRM, uniaxial tensile tests were performed on the ICAs to assess the differences in tensile mechanical properties between the four groups. Results. Both CRM and modeling were the main effects affecting physiological elastic modulus (PEM of ICA. PEM in CRM-Model group was 1.81 times as much as Non-CRM-Model group, while the value in CRM-Model group was 1.34 times as much as CRM-Normal group. Maximum elastic modulus in CRM-Model group was 1.80 times as much as CRM-Normal group. Max strains in CRM-Model group and Non-CRM-Model group were 30.98% and 28.71% lower than CRM-Normal group and Non-CRM-Normal group, respectively. However, whether treated with CRM or not, the uniaxial tensile properties of healthy ICAs were not statistically different. Conclusion. CRM may decrease the uniaxial tensile properties of rabbit arteriosclerotic ICA, but with no effect on normal group. The study will aid in the meaningful explanation of the controversy about the harmfulness of CRM and the suitable population of CRM.

  6. Inducing uniform single-crystal like orientation in natural rubber with constrained uniaxial stretch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Weiming; Meng, Lingpu; Lu, Jie; Wang, Zhen; Zhang, Wenhua; Huang, Ningdong; Chen, Liang; Li, Liangbin

    2015-07-07

    The effect of flow on crystallization is commonly attributed to entropic reduction, which is caused by stretch and orientation of polymer chains but overlooks the role of flow on final-state free energy. With the aid of in situ synchrotron radiation wide-angle X-ray diffraction (WAXD) and a homemade constrained uniaxial tensile testing machine, polycrystals possessing single-crystal-like orientation rather than uniaxial orientation are found during the constrained stretch of natural rubber, whereas the c-axis and a-axis align in the stretch direction (SD) and constrained direction (CD), respectively. Molecular dynamics simulation shows that aligning the a-axis of crystal nuclei in CD leads to the lowest free energy increase and favors crystal nucleation. This indicates that the nomenclature of strain-induced crystallization may not fully account for the nature of flow-induced crystallization (FIC) as strain mainly emphasizes the entropic reduction of initial melt, whereas stress rather than strain plays the dominant role in crystal deformation. The current work not only contributes to a comprehensive understanding of the mechanism of flow-induced crystallization but also demonstrates the potential application of constrained uniaxial tensile stretch for the creation of functional materials containing polycrystals that possess single-crystal-like orientation.

  7. Quantitative and qualitative evaluation of blood salvaged after extracorporeal circulation (ECC) in paediatric heart surgery. Study of biochemical, morphological and structural variations of RBC after ECC and after salvaging of ECC circuit priming blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calza, G; Zannini, L; Lerzo, F; Nitti, P; Mangraviti, S; Perutelli, P; Porlezza, M

    2000-06-01

    The salvaging of ECC circuit priming blood is essential for reducing the morbidity related to homologous blood transfusions and the importance of this technique is inversely proportionate to the age and weight of the child. In infants, the washing and centrifugation of blood not only drastically reduce the risk of contracting blood-transmitted diseases and cut management costs, but are also of considerable hemodynamic importance, producing a rapid normalization of the patient's hematocrit and hemoglobin and balancing the O2 consumption/demand ratio. The marketing of miniaturized salvagin devices with 55 ml bowls by Dideco has made possible the recovery of small quantities of blood, so as to normalise the hematic crisis and permit the application of total hemodilution in low-weight patients. The salvaged blood shows an average hematocrit of 52.7+/-9.7% (max 68.1%) and an average hemoglobin of 17.6 +/- 2.9 g/dl (max 20.7 g/dl), and maintains its structural components, osmotic resistance, concentration of intraerythrocytic hemoglobin and mean corpuscular hemoglobin all intact. Washing with isoosmotic and isoionic hydroelectrolytic solutions normalizes the ionic situation in the post-operative period and activated blood salvaging after Extracorporeal Circulation. The use of solutions without nutritional substances results however in a considerable fall in the number of enzymes in the intraerythrocytic metabolic glucide chain (G6PDH: -40.7 +/- 14.3% p<0.001), (PK: -23.8 +/- 20.5% p<0.03). This drop may be responsible for erythrocytic morphological alterations (echinocytic change) and probably for the release of hemoglobin from the red blood cells. Washing with isoionic, isoosmotic solutions containing G5% and adenine could, at least in theory, improve the quality of the salvaged blood, by normalizing the morphology and the volume of the RBC and by increasing the hematocrit.

  8. Ferromagnetism induced in UCoAl under uniaxial pressure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishii, Y.; Kosaka, M.; Uwatoko, Y.; Andreev, A.V.; Sechovsky, V

    2003-06-01

    We present the temperature and magnetic-field dependencies of the c-axis magnetization of a UCoAl single crystal under various uniaxial pressures exerted along the c-axis. The main result obtained is the uniaxial-pressure-induced reduction of the critical field of the metamagnetic transition followed by the formation of ferromagnetism at higher uniaxial-pressures. These and other associated results are discussed in comparison with corresponding data obtained by applying hydrostatic pressure on the same material. A scenario considering a variation of the anisotropic 5f-ligand hybridization and its consequences induced by the two different types of applied pressure is an important base for the discussion. The pressure-induced variations of the 5f-3d hybridization within the basal plane of the ZrNiAl-type hexagonal structure seem to be the underlying aspect of the evolution of the magnetism in UCoAl.

  9. Dynamic Uniaxial Compression of HSLA-65 Steel at Elevated Temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dike, Shweta; Wang, Tianxue; Zuanetti, Bryan; Prakash, Vikas

    2017-12-01

    In the present study, the dynamic response of a high-strength, low alloy Grade 65 (HSLA-65) steel, used by the United States Navy for ship hull construction, is investigated under dynamic uniaxial compression at temperatures ranging from room temperature to 1000 °C using a novel elevated temperature split-Hopkinson pressure bar. These experiments are designed to probe the dynamic response of HSLA-65 steel in its single α-ferrite phase, mixed α + γ-austenite phase, and the single γ-austenite phase, as a function of temperature. The investigation is conducted at two different average strain rates—1450 and 2100/s. The experimental results indicate that at test temperatures in the range from room temperature to lower than 600 °C, i.e. prior to the development of the mixed α + γ phase, a net softening in flow strength is observed at all levels of plastic strain with increase in test temperatures. As the test temperatures are increased, the rate of this strain softening with temperature is observed to decrease, and at 600 °C the trend reverses itself resulting in an increase in flow stress at all strains tested. This increase in flow stress is understood be due to dynamic strain aging, where solute atoms play a distinctive role in hindering dislocation motion. At 800 °C, a (sharp) drop in the flow stress, equivalent to one-half of its value at room temperature, is observed. As the test temperature are increased to 900 and 1000 °C, further drop in flow stress are observed at all plastic strain levels. In addition, strain hardening in flow stress is observed at all test temperatures up to 600 °C; beyond 800 °C the rate of strain hardening is observed to decrease, with strain softening becoming dominant at temperatures of 900 °C and higher. Moreover, comparing the high strain rate stress versus strain data gathered on HSLA 65 in the current investigation with those available in the literature at quasi-static strain rates, strain-rate hardening can be

  10. A Secure ECC-based RFID Mutual Authentication Protocol to Enhance Patient Medication Safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Chunhua; Xu, Chunxiang; Zhang, Xiaojun; Li, Fagen

    2016-01-01

    Patient medication safety is an important issue in patient medication systems. In order to prevent medication errors, integrating Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) technology into automated patient medication systems is required in hospitals. Based on RFID technology, such systems can provide medical evidence for patients' prescriptions and medicine doses, etc. Due to the mutual authentication between the medication server and the tag, RFID authentication scheme is the best choice for automated patient medication systems. In this paper, we present a RFID mutual authentication scheme based on elliptic curve cryptography (ECC) to enhance patient medication safety. Our scheme can achieve security requirements and overcome various attacks existing in other schemes. In addition, our scheme has better performance in terms of computational cost and communication overhead. Therefore, the proposed scheme is well suitable for patient medication systems.

  11. Effect of hexane treatment and uniaxial stretching on bending ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... ratio of 1.5 and 2.5 was recorded. Fourier transform Infra-red (FTIR) spectrophotometry was used for structural investigations. Key words: Polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF), bending piezoelectric stress constant β31, Fourier Transform infra-red (FTIR) spectrophotometry, iodine doping, hexane treatment, uniaxial stretching.

  12. Negative Refraction in a Uniaxial Absorbent Dielectric Material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jen, Yi-Jun; Lakhtakia, Akhlesh; Yu, Ching-Wei; Lin, Chin-Te

    2009-01-01

    Refraction of light from an isotropic dielectric medium to an anisotropic dielectric material is a complicated phenomenon that can have several different characteristics not usually discussed in electromagnetics textbooks for undergraduate students. With a simple problem wherein the refracting material is uniaxial with its optic axis normal to the…

  13. Biomechanics of human parietal pleura in uniaxial extension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tenorio, Luis E Morales; Devine, Kelsey J; Lee, Jayme; Kowalewski, Timothy M; Barocas, Victor H

    2017-11-01

    Tension pneumothorax, a major preventable cause of battlefield death, often arises from chest trauma and is treated by needle decompression to release trapped air from the pleural cavity. Surgical simulation mannequins are often employed to train medical personnel to perform this procedure properly. Accurate reproduction of the mechanical behavior of the parietal pleura, especially in response to needle penetration, is essential to maximize the fidelity of these surgical simulators. To date, however, the design of pleura-simulating material has been largely empirical and based on subjective practitioner feel rather than on the tissue properties, which have remained unknown. In this study, we performed uniaxial extension tests on samples of cadaveric human parietal pleura. We found that the pleura was highly nonlinear and mildly anisotropic, being roughly twice as stiff in the direction parallel to the ribs vs. perpendicular to the ribs (large-strain modulus = 20.44 vs. 11.49MPa). We also did not find significant correlations for most pleural properties with age or BMI, but it must be recognized that the age range (59 ± 9.5 yrs) and BMI range (31 ± 5.3) of the donors in our study was not what one might expect from combatants, and there could be differences for younger, lighter individuals. We found a significantly higher low-strain modulus in the diabetic donors (0.213 vs. 0.100MPa), consistent with the general tendency of tissue to stiffen in diabetes. The nonlinearity and tensile strength should be considered in material design and selection for future surgical simulators. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Prevention of early childhood caries (ECC)--review of literature published 1998-2007.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twetman, S

    2008-03-01

    This was to examine the literature published during the last decade and review the effectiveness of methods used for the prevention of early childhood caries (ECC). A critical review of papers. A broad search of the PubMed database was conducted from 1998 through September 2007, using "early childhood caries", "baby bottle tooth decay", "nursing caries", "infant caries", "caries prevention" and "oral health education" as index terms. Relevant papers published in English between 1998 and 2007 were identified after a review of their abstracts. Papers were selected if they reported a prospective controlled design with preventive or non-invasive intervention directed to children under the age of 3 years. A defined endpoint measure of cavitated or non-cavitated clinical caries, expressed as incidence or prevalence, was required. The targeted publications were critically assessed by the author concerning design, methodology and performance. The initial search revealed 66 papers of which 22 met the inclusion criteria. The results reinforced the role of fluoride toothpaste as the most cost-effective home-care measure and semi-annual fluoride varnish applications as the best professional method for infants at risk. The evidence concerning the preventive effect of antibacterial agents, primary-primary prevention and dental health education were inconclusive but the included studies supported the importance of early start, outreach activities and motivational interviewing as key factors to overcome cultural and socioeconomic barriers. Although there is a body of evidence for the use of fluoride in preventing ECC, further high-quality studies are needed to further establish the best way to maintain oral health in infants.

  15. Experimental Study on Conductivity Anisotropy of Limestone Considering the Bedding Directional Effect in the Whole Process of Uniaxial Compression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinji Xu

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Experimental studies were conducted on the changes of the potential differences in different directions during the uniaxial compression on limestone samples parallel and normal to the bedding plane. In the test, electric current was supplied at both ends of the samples, and concurrent measurement was conducted in four measuring lines at a 45-degree angle to each other. First, the change laws of the potential differences in different directions and the similarities and differences of rock samples were summarized. In regards to the uniaxial compression properties and crack growth, the above-mentioned similarities and differences were further analyzed. Then, the anisotropy factor was introduced to further explore the response characteristics. It was found that the anisotropic changes of rock samples went through three stages during the uniaxial compression process, providing a reference for describing the properties in different failure stages of rock samples and obtaining precursory information about the fracture. Besides, the relationship between the peak stress and initial potential difference in a direction normal to the current direction was obtained by means of data fitting, providing a new method of predicting the uniaxial compressive strength of rock samples. According to the preceding analysis, this paper studied rock anisotropy by considering the bedding directional effect in terms of conductivity and provided a reference for subsequent study on rock materials’ properties and engineering practices.

  16. Chlamydia trachomatis regulates innate immune barrier integrity and mediates cytokine and antimicrobial responses in human uterine ECC-1 epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukura, Lucy Rudo; Hickey, Danica K; Rodriguez-Garcia, Marta; Fahey, John V; Wira, Charles R

    2017-12-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis infection is the most common sexually transmitted bacterial infection worldwide and known to increase the risk for HIV acquisition. Few studies have investigated how infection of epithelial cells compromises barrier integrity and antimicrobial response. ECC-1 cells, a human uterine epithelial cell line, were treated with live and heat-killed C. trachomatis. Epithelial barrier integrity measured as transepithelial resistance (TER), chemokines antimicrobial levels, and antimicrobial mRNA expression was measured by ELISA and Real-time RT-PCR. Epithelial barrier integrity was compromised when cells were infected with live, but not with heat-killed, C. trachomatis. IL-8 secretion by ECC-1 cells increased in response to live and heat-killed C. trachomatis, while MCP-1, HBD2 and trappin2/elafin secretion decreased with live C. trachomatis. Live C. trachomatis suppresses ECC-1 innate immune responses by compromising the barrier integrity, inhibiting secretion of MCP-1, HBD2, and trappin-2/elafin. Differential responses between live and heat-killed Chlamydia indicate which immune responses are dependent on ECC-1 infection rather than the extracellular presence of Chlamydia. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Prevalence of candida albicans in dental plaque and caries lesion of early childhood caries (ECC) according to sampling site

    OpenAIRE

    Ghasempour, Maryam; Sefidgar, Seyed Ali Asghar; Eyzadian, Haniyeh; Gharakhani, Samaneh

    2011-01-01

    Background: Candida albicans may have cariogenic potential but its role in caries etiology has not been established. The aim of this study was to determine candida albicans in supragingival dental plaque and infected dentine of cervical and proximal in early childhood caries (ECC).

  18. Parametric study of the potential for BWR ECCS strainer blockage due to LOCA generated debris. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zigler, G.; Brideau, J.; Rao, D.V.; Shaffer, C.; Souto, F.; Thomas, W. [Science and Engineering Associates, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1995-10-01

    This report documents a plant-specific study for a BWR/4 with a Mark I containment that evaluated the potential for LOCA generated debris and the probability of losing long term recirculation capability due ECCS pump suction strainer blockage. The major elements of this study were: (1) acquisition of detailed piping layouts and installed insulation details for a reference BWR; (2) analysis of plant specific piping weld failure probabilities to estimate the LOCA frequency; (3) development of an insulation and other debris generation and drywell transport models for the reference BWR; (4) modeling of debris transport in the suppression pool; (5) development of strainer blockage head loss models for estimating loss of NPSH margin; (6) estimation of core damage frequency attributable to loss of ECCS recirculation capability following a LOCA. Elements 2 through 5 were combined into a computer code, BLOCKAGE 2.3. A point estimate of overall DEGB pipe break frequency (per Rx-year) of 1.59E-04 was calculated for the reference plant, with a corresponding overall ECCS loss of NPSH frequency (per Rx-year) of 1.58E-04. The calculated point estimate of core damage frequency (per Rx-year) due to blockage related accident sequences for the reference BWR ranged from 4.2E-06 to 2.5E-05. The results of this study show that unacceptable strainer blockage and loss of NPSH margin can occur within the first few minutes after ECCS pumps achieve maximum flows when the ECCS strainers are exposed to LOCA generated fibrous debris in the presence of particulates (sludge, paint chips, concrete dust). Generic or unconditional extrapolation of these reference plant calculated results should not be undertaken.

  19. Creep behavior of Grade 91 steel under uniaxial and multiaxial state of stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Facai; Tang, Xiaoying

    2017-09-01

    Creep rupture behavior of Grade 91 heat-resistant steel used for steam cooler under uniaxial and multiaxial state of stress was investigated. Creep tests were conducted at the temperature of 923K under the stress 125MPa. The notch root radii (r) of doubled circumferentially U-notched specimens were 0.6 and 6 mm. The creep rupture life of Grade 91 steel was found to increase with the increasing of notch acuity ratio. The creep rupture mechanism was investigated based on the SEM fractography analysis.

  20. The experimental research on response characteristics of coal samples under the uniaxial loading process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Bing; Wei, Jian-Ping; Wen, Zhi-Hui; Wang, Yun-Gang; Jia, Lin-Xing

    2017-11-01

    In order to study the response characteristics of infrasound in coal samples under the uniaxial loading process, coal samples were collected from GengCun mine. Coal rock stress loading device, acoustic emission tested system and infrasound tested system were used to test the infrasonic signal and acoustic emission signal under uniaxial loading process. The tested results were analyzed by the methods of wavelet filter, threshold denoise, time-frequency analysis and so on. The results showed that in the loading process, the change of the infrasonic wave displayed the characteristics of stage, and it could be divided into three stages: initial stage with a certain amount infrasound events, middle stage with few infrasound events, and late stage gradual decrease. It had a good consistency with changing characteristics of acoustic emission. At the same time, the frequency of infrasound was very low. It can propagate over a very long distance with little attenuation, and the characteristics of the infrasound before the destruction of the coal samples were obvious. A method of using the infrasound characteristics to predict the destruction of coal samples was proposed. This is of great significance to guide the prediction of geological hazards in coal mines.

  1. Failure of flight feathers under uniaxial compression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schelestow, Kristina; Troncoso, Omar P; Torres, Fernando G

    2017-09-01

    Flight feathers are light weight engineering structures. They have a central shaft divided in two parts: the calamus and the rachis. The rachis is a thinly walled conical shell filled with foam, while the calamus is a hollow tube-like structure. Due to the fact that bending loads are produced during birds' flight, the resistance to bending of feathers has been reported in different studies. However, the analysis of bent feathers has shown that compression could induce failure by buckling. Here, we have studied the compression of feathers in order to assess the failure mechanisms involved. Axial compression tests were carried out on the rachis and the calamus of dove and pelican feathers. The failure mechanisms and folding structures that resulted from the compression tests were observed from images obtained by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The rachis and calamus fail due to structural instability. In the case of the calamus, this instability leads to a progressive folding process. In contrast, the rachis undergoes a typical Euler column-type buckling failure. The study of failed specimens showed that delamination buckling, cell collapse and cell densification are the primary failure mechanisms of the rachis structure. The role of the foam is also discussed with regard to the mechanical response of the samples and the energy dissipated during the compression tests. Critical stress values were calculated using delamination buckling models and were found to be in very good agreement with the experimental values measured. Failure analysis and mechanical testing have confirmed that flight feathers are complex thin walled structures with mechanical adaptations that allow them to fulfil their functions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Uniaxial stress tuning of geometrical frustration in a Kondo lattice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Küchler, R.; Stingl, C.; Tokiwa, Y.; Kim, M. S.; Takabatake, T.; Gegenwart, P.

    2017-12-01

    Hexagonal CeRhSn with paramagnetic 4 f moments on a distorted kagome lattice displays zero-field quantum critical behavior related to geometrical frustration. We report high-resolution thermal expansion and magnetostriction measurements under multiextreme conditions such as uniaxial stress up to 200 MPa, temperatures down to 0.1 K, and magnetic fields up to 10 T. Under uniaxial stress along the a direction, quantum criticality disappears and a complex magnetic phase diagram arises with a sequence of phases below 1.2 K and fields between 0 and 3 T (∥a ). Since the Kondo coupling increases with stress, which alone would stabilize paramagnetic behavior in CeRhSn, the observed order arises from the release of geometrical frustration by in-plane stress.

  3. Uniaxially stressed Ge:Ga and Ge:Be

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dubon, Jr., Oscar Danilo [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    1992-12-01

    The application of a large uniaxial stress to p-type Ge single crystals changes the character of both the valence band and the energy levels associated with the acceptors. Changes include the splitting of the fourfold degeneracy of the valence band top and the reduction of the ionization energy of shallow acceptors. In order to study the effect of uniaxial stress on transport properties of photoexcited holes, a variable temperature photo-Hall effect system was built in which stressed Ge:Ga and Ge:Be could be characterized. Results indicate that stress increases the lifetime and Hall mobility of photoexcited holes. These observations may help further the understanding of fundamental physical processes that affect the performance of stressed Ge photoconductors including the capture of holes by shallow acceptors.

  4. Compact modeling of CMOS transistors under variable uniaxial stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wacker, Nicoleta; Richter, Harald; Hassan, Mahadi-Ul; Rempp, Horst; Burghartz, Joachim N.

    2011-03-01

    This paper presents a novel implementation of variable uniaxial mechanical stress model to be used with DC circuit simulation, e.g. using BSIM3v3 transistor model. Based on transistor measurements under various uniaxial stress conditions two stress-dependent parameters are identified, namely the carriers mobility and to a lesser extend the carrier saturation velocity. The effect of the parasitic source/drain resistance on the piezoresistive coefficient determination is addressed in detail. Using the fundamental piezoresistive coefficients, the model has implemented a general relation to calculate the coefficients for arbitrary directions of current and stress in the (0 0 1) silicon (Si) plane. The extended transistor model allows for simulating the effect of uniaxial stress on any MOSFET geometry, under different operation conditions and for any combination of the drain current and stress orientations in the (0 0 1) silicon (Si) plane. The method proposed in this paper is validated by static and dynamic stress-dependent simulations and comparison with experimental data. The method is simulator-independent and can be adapted to other bulk CMOS technologies including SOI processes.

  5. Complementary characterization data in support of uniaxially aligned electrospun nanocomposites based on a model PVOH-epoxy system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samaneh Karimi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents complementary data corresponding to characterization tests done for our research article entitled “Uniaxially aligned electrospun fibers for advanced nanocomposites based on a model PVOH-epoxy system” (Karimi et al., 2016 [1]. Poly(vinyl alcohol and epoxy resin were selected as a model system and the effect of electrospun fiber loading on polymer properties was examined in conjunction with two manufacturing methods. A novel electrospinning technology for production of uniaxially aligned nanofiber arrays was used. A conventional wet lay-up fabrication method is compared against a novel, hybrid electrospinning–electrospraying approach. The structure and thermomechanical properties of resulting composite materials were examined using scanning electron microscopy, dynamic mechanical analysis, thermogravimetric analysis, differential scanning calorimetry, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and tensile testing. For discussion of obtained results please refer to the research paper (Karimi et al., 2016 [1].

  6. Analysis of the Mechanical Behavior, Creep Resistance and Uniaxial Fatigue Strength of Martensitic Steel X46Cr13.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brnic, Josip; Krscanski, Sanjin; Lanc, Domagoj; Brcic, Marino; Turkalj, Goran; Canadija, Marko; Niu, Jitai

    2017-04-06

    The article deals with the analysis of the mechanical behavior at different temperatures, uniaxial creep and uniaxial fatigue of martensitic steel X46Cr13 (1.4034, AISI 420). For the purpose of considering the aforementioned mechanical behavior, as well as determining the appropriate resistance to creep and fatigue strength levels, numerous uniaxial tests were carried out. Tests related to mechanical properties performed at different temperatures are presented in the form of engineering stress-strain diagrams. Short-time creep tests performed at different temperatures and different stress levels are presented in the form of creep curves. Fatigue tests carried out at stress ratios R = 0.25 and R = - 1 are shown in the form of S-N (fatigue) diagrams. The finite fatigue regime for each of the mentioned stress ratios is modeled by an inclined log line, while the infinite fatigue regime is modeled by a horizontal line, which represents the fatigue limit of the material and previously was calculated by the modified staircase method. Finally, the fracture toughness has been calculated based on the Charpy V-notch impact energy.

  7. Analysis of the Mechanical Behavior, Creep Resistance and Uniaxial Fatigue Strength of Martensitic Steel X46Cr13

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josip Brnic

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the analysis of the mechanical behavior at different temperatures, uniaxial creep and uniaxial fatigue of martensitic steel X46Cr13 (1.4034, AISI 420. For the purpose of considering the aforementioned mechanical behavior, as well as determining the appropriate resistance to creep and fatigue strength levels, numerous uniaxial tests were carried out. Tests related to mechanical properties performed at different temperatures are presented in the form of engineering stress-strain diagrams. Short-time creep tests performed at different temperatures and different stress levels are presented in the form of creep curves. Fatigue tests carried out at stress ratios R = 0.25 and R = − 1 are shown in the form of S–N (fatigue diagrams. The finite fatigue regime for each of the mentioned stress ratios is modeled by an inclined log line, while the infinite fatigue regime is modeled by a horizontal line, which represents the fatigue limit of the material and previously was calculated by the modified staircase method. Finally, the fracture toughness has been calculated based on the Charpy V-notch impact energy.

  8. Effects of Cyclic Loading on the Uniaxial Behavior of Nitinol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlun, M.; Zipse, A.; Dreher, G.; Rebelo, N.

    2011-07-01

    The widespread development and use of implants made from NiTi is accompanied by the publication of many NiTi material characterization studies. These publications have increased significantly the knowledge about the mechanical properties of NiTi. However, this knowledge also increased the complexity of the numerical simulation of NiTi implants or devices. This study is focused on the uniaxial behavior of NiTi tubing due to cyclic loading and had the goal to deliver both precise and application-oriented results. Single aspects of this study have already been published (Wagner in Ein Beitrag zur strukturellen und funktionalen Ermüdung von Drähten und Federn aus NiTi-Formgedaechtnislegierungen, Ph.D. Thesis, 2005; Eucken and Duerig in Acta Metall 37:2245-2252, 1989; Yawny et al. in Z Metallkd 96:608-618, 2005); however, there is no publication known that shows all the single effects combined in a "duty cycle case." It was of particular importance to summarize the main effects of pre-strain and subsequent small or large strain amplitudes on the material properties. The phenomena observed were captured in an extended Abaqus® Nitinol material model, presented by Rebelo et al. (A Material Model for the Cyclic Behavior of Nitinol, SMST Extended Abstracts 2010). The cyclic tensile tests were performed using a video extensometer to obtain accurate strain measurement on small electro-polished dog-bone specimen that were incorporated into a stent framework so that standard manufacturing methods could be used for the fabrication. This study indicates that a prestrain beyond 6% strain alters the transformation plateaus and if the cyclic displacement amplitude is large enough, additional permanent deformations are observed, the lower plateau and most notably the upper plateau change. The changes to the upper plateau are very interesting in the sense that an additional stress plateau develops: its "start stress" is lowered thereby creating a new plateau up to the highest level

  9. Fracture Propagation Characteristic and Micromechanism of Rock-Like Specimens under Uniaxial and Biaxial Compression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xue-wei Liu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a set of uniaxial and biaxial compression tests on the rock-like material specimens with different fracture geometries through a rock mechanics servo-controlled testing system (RMT-150C. On the basis of experimental results, the characteristics of fracture propagation under different fracture geometries and loading conditions are firstly obtained. The newly formed fractures are observed propagating from or near the preexisting crack tips for different specimens, while the propagation paths are affected by the loading condition obviously. Then, by adopting acoustic emission (AE location technique, AE event localization characteristics in the process of loading are investigated. The locations of AE events are in good agreement with the macroscopic fracture propagation path. Finally, the micromechanism of macroscopic fracture propagation under uniaxial and biaxial compression conditions is analyzed, and the fracture propagation can be concluded as a result of microdamage accumulation inside the material. The results of this paper are helpful for theory and engineering design of the fractured rock mass.

  10. An Investigation of the Uniaxial Compressive Strength of a Cemented Hydraulic Backfill Made of Alluvial Sand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guangsheng Liu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Backfill is commonly used in underground mines. The quality control of the backfill is a key step to ensure it meets the designed strength requirement. This is done through sample collection from the underground environment, followed by uniaxial compression tests to obtain the Uniaxial Compressive Strength (UCS in the laboratory. When the cylindrical cemented backfill samples are axially loaded to failure, several failure modes can be observed and mainly classified into diagonal shear failure and axial split failure. To date, the UCS obtained by these two failure modes are considered to be the same with no distinction between them. In this paper, an analysis of the UCS results obtained on a cemented hydraulic backfill made of alluvial sand at a Canadian underground mine over the course of more than three years is presented. The results show that the UCS values obtained by diagonal shear failure are generally higher than those obtained by axial split failure for samples with the same recipe and curing time. This highlights the importance of making a distinction between the UCS values obtained by the two different modes of failure. Their difference in failure mechanism is explained. Further investigations on the sources of the data dispersion tend to indicate that the UCS obtained by laboratory tests following the current practice may not be representative of the in-situ strength distribution in the underground stopes due to segregation in cemented hydraulic backfill.

  11. The latitudinal distribution of ozone to 35 km altitude from ECC ozonesonde observations, 1982-1990

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komhyr, W. D.; Oltmans, S. J.; Lathrop, J. A.; Kerr, J. B.; Matthews, W. A.

    1994-01-01

    Electrochemical concentration cell (ECC) ozone-sonde observations, made in recent years at ten stations whose locations range from the Arctic to Antarctica, have yielded a self-consistent ozone data base from which mean seasonal and annual latitudinal ozone vertical distributions to 35 km have been derived. Ozone measurement uncertainties are estimated, and results are presented in the Bass-Paur (1985) ozone absorption coefficient scale adopted for use with Dobson ozone spectrophotometers January 1, 1992. The data should be useful for comparison with model calculations of the global distribution of atmospheric ozone, for serving as apriori statistical information in deriving ozone vertical distributions from satellite and Umkehr observations, and for improving the satellite and Umkehr ozone inversion algorithms. Attention is drawn to similar results based on a less comprehensive data set published in Ozone in the Atmosphere, Proceedings of the 1988 Quadrennial Ozone Symposium where errors in data tabulations occurred for three of the stations due to inadvertent transposition of ozone partial pressure and air temperature values.

  12. Estimated net value and uncertainty for automating ECCS switchover at PWRs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walsh, B.; Brideau, J.; Comes, L.; Darby, J.; Guttmann, H.; Sciacca, F.; Souto, F.; Thomas, W.; Zigler, G. [Science and Engineering Associates, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1996-02-01

    Question for resolution of Generic Safety Issue No. 24 is whether or not PWRs that currently rely on a manual system for ECCS switchover to recirculation should be required to install an automatic system. Risk estimates are obtained by reevaluating the contributions to core damage frequencies (CDFs) associated with failures of manual and semiautomatic switchover at a representative PWR. This study considers each separate instruction of the corresponding emergency operating procedures (EOPs), the mechanism for each control, and the relation of each control to its neighbors. Important contributions to CDF include human errors that result in completely coupled failure of both trains and failure to enter the required EOP. It is found that changeover to a semiautomatic system is not justified on the basis of cost-benefit analysis: going from a manual to a semiautomatic system reduces the CDF by 1.7 {times} 10{sup {minus}5} per reactor-year, but the probability that the net cost of the modification being less than $1, 000 per person-rem is about 20% without license renewal. Scoping analyses, using optimist assumptions, were performed for a changeover to a semiautomatic system with automatic actuation and to a fully automatic system; in these cases the probability of a net cost being less than $1,000/person-rem is about 50% without license renewal and over 95% with license renewal.

  13. Implementation and verification of different ECC mitigation designs for BRAMs in flash-based FPGAs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zhen-Lei; Wang, Xiao-Hui; Zhang, Zhan-Gang; Liu, Jie; Su, Hong

    2016-04-01

    Embedded RAM blocks (BRAMs) in field programmable gate arrays (FPGAs) are susceptible to single event effects (SEEs) induced by environmental factors such as cosmic rays, heavy ions, alpha particles and so on. As technology scales, the issue will be more serious. In order to tackle this issue, two different error correcting codes (ECCs), the shortened Hamming codes and shortened BCH codes, are investigated in this paper. The concrete design methods of the codes are presented. Also, the codes are both implemented in flash-based FPGAs. Finally, the synthesis report and simulation results are presented in the paper. Moreover, heavy-ion experiments are performed, and the experimental results indicate that the error cross-section of the device using the shortened Hamming codes can be reduced by two orders of magnitude compared with the device without mitigation, and no errors are discovered in the experiments for the device using the shortened BCH codes. Supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (11079045, 11179003 and 11305233)

  14. A comparative analysis of energy dissipation and equivalent viscous damping of RC columns subjected to uniaxial and biaxial loading

    OpenAIRE

    Hugo Rodrigues; Humberto Varum; Antonio Arede; Anibal Costa

    2012-01-01

    The hysteretic behaviour of RC columns has been object of many experimental studies over the past years. However, the majority of these studies are focused on unidirectional loading. An experimental program was carried out where 24 columns were tested for different loading histories, under uniaxial and biaxial conditions. The experimental results are presented in this paper and are discussed in terms of global column behaviour, and particularly with regards to energy dissipation and damping c...

  15. Characteristics of Xanthosoma sagittifolium roots during cooking, using physicochemical analysis, uniaxial compression, multispectral imaging and low field NMR spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boakye, Abena Achiaa; Gudjónsdóttir, María; Skytte, Jacob Lercke

    2017-01-01

    To effectively promote the industrial utilization of cocoyam (Xanthosoma sagittifolium) roots for enhanced food sustainability and security, there is a need to study their molecular, mechanical and physicochemical properties in detail. The physicochemical and textural characteristics of the red...... and white varieties of cocoyam roots were thus analysed by low field nuclear magnetic resonance relaxometry, multispectral imaging, uniaxial compression testing, and relevant physicochemical analysis in the current study. Both varieties had similar dry matter content, as well as physical and mechanical...

  16. Comparison between uniaxially and isostatically compacted bentonite; Jaemfoerelser mellan enaxlig och isostatisk kompaktering av bentonit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalbantner, P.; Sjoeblom, R. [AaF-Energikonsult, Stockholm (Sweden); Boergesson, Lennart [Clay Technology AB, Lund (Sweden)

    2001-12-01

    The purpose of the present report is to provide the Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Company (SKB) with the knowledge base needed for their selection of reference method for manufacturing of bentonite blocks. The purpose is also to provide support for the direction of the further development work. Three types of blocks are compared in the present report: uniaxially compacted medium high blocks, isostatically compacted medium high blocks, isostatically compacted high blocks. The analyses is based on three process systems relating to the sequence of excavation of bentonite-transport-powder preparation-compaction-handling and emplacement of bentonite blocks. The need for further knowledge has been identified and documented in conjunction with these analyses. The comparison is primarily made with regard to the criteria safety/risk, quality/ technique and economy. It is carried out through identification of issues of significance and subsequent analysis and evaluation as well as more formally in a simplified AHP (AHP = Analytical Hierarchic Process). The result of the analyses is that the isostatic technique is applicable for the production of high as well as medium size blocks. The pressed blocks are assessed to fulfil the basic requirements with a very large margin. The result of the analyses is also that the uniaxial technique is applicable for the preparation of medium size blocks, which are assessed to fulfil the basic requirements with a large margin. The need for development and process control is assessed to be somewhat higher for the uniaxial technique. One example is the friction against the walls of the die during the compaction, including the significance of this friction for the development of stresses and discontinuities in the block. These results support a selection of the isostatic technique as the reference technique as it provides flexibility in the choice of block height. The uniaxial technique can form a second alternative if medium high

  17. Comparison of uniaxial and triaxial accelerometry in the assessment of physical activity among adolescents under free-living conditions: the HELENA study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanhelst Jérémy

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Different types of devices are available and the choice about which to use depends on various factors: cost, physical characteristics, performance, and the validity and intra- and interinstrument reliability. Given the large number of studies that have used uniaxial or triaxial devices, it is of interest to know whether the different devices give similar information about PA levels and patterns. The aim of this study was to compare physical activity (PA levels and patterns obtained simultaneously by triaxial accelerometry and uniaxial accelerometry in adolescents in free-living conditions. Methods Sixty-two participants, aged 13-16 years, were recruited in this ancillary study, which is a part of the Healthy Lifestyle in Europe by Nutrition in Adolescence (HELENA. All participants wore a uniaxial accelerometer (ActiGraph GT1M®, Pensacola, FL and a triaxial accelerometer (RT3®, Stayhealthy, Monrovia, CA simultaneously for 7 days. The patterns were calculated by converting accelerometer data output as a percentage of time spent at sedentary, light, moderate, and vigorous PA per day. Analysis of output data from the two accelerometers were assessed by two different tests: Equivalence Test and Bland & Altman method. Results The concordance correlation coefficient between the data from the triaxial accelerometer and uniaxial accelerometer at each intensity level was superior to 0.95. The ANOVA test showed a significant difference for the first three lower intensities while no significant difference was found for vigorous intensity. The difference between data obtained with the triaxial accelerometer and the uniaxial monitor never exceeded 2.1% and decreased as PA level increased. The Bland & Altman method showed good agreement between data obtained between the both accelerometers (p Conclusions Uniaxial and triaxial accelerometers do not differ in their measurement of PA in population studies, and either could be used in such

  18. Performance Verification of the Lattice-type ECCS Sump Strainer to Prevent the Thin-bed effect

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sung, Je Joong; Kim, Chang Hyun; Ha, Sang Jun [KHNP CRI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-10-15

    In the event of a Loss of Coolant Accident (LOCA), a variety of debris could be generated under the post-LOCA conditions. The debris could block the Emergency Core Cooling System (ECCS) sump strainer, leading to a considerable head loss which in turn causes an abnormal ECCS and/or CS pump performance. The determination of strainer capacity is very important through the optimization of the head loss due to debris blockage. Especially, the thin-bed effect is a dominant factor to the design of the strainer. This paper presents experimental head loss data to confirm an advantage of an advanced lattice-type strainer for the thin-bed effect and is compared to the results of NUREG/CR-6224 head loss correlation. The thin-bed effect is a dominant design factor because the head loss could increase drastically by the lack of available voids in the debris bed for coolant to pass through it. Though this study, the lattice-type strainer to reduce or prevent the thin-bed effect has been designed. As the experimental data shows, there is no thin-bed effect in the present lattice-type strainer. It is expected that the required capacity of the strainer to maintain the function of ECCS will be significantly reduced by the lattice-type strainer of the present study.

  19. Volume growth during uniaxial tension of particle-filled elastomers at various temperatures - Experiments and modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilseng, Arne; H. Skallerud, Bjørn; H. Clausen, Arild

    2017-10-01

    A common presumption for elastomeric material behaviour is incompressibility, however, the inclusion of filler particles might give rise to matrix-particle decohesion and subsequent volume growth. In this article, the volumetric deformation accompanying uniaxial tension of particle-filled elastomeric materials at low temperatures is studied. An experimental set-up enabling full-field deformation measurements is outlined and novel data are reported on the significant volume growth accompanying uniaxial tension of two HNBR and one FKM compounds at temperatures of - 18 , 0, and 23 °C. The volumetric deformation was found to increase with reduced temperature for all compounds. To explain the observed dilatation, in situ scanning electron microscopy was used to inspect matrix-particle debonding occurring at the surface of the materials. A new constitutive model, combining the Bergström-Boyce visco-hyperelastic formulation with a Gurson flow potential function is outlined to account for the observed debonding effects in a numerical framework. The proposed model is shown to provide a good correspondence to the experimental data, including the volumetric response, for the tested FKM compound at all temperature levels.

  20. Influence of Simulated Acid Rain Corrosion on the Uniaxial Tensile Mechanical Properties of Concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying-zi Zhang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available An experimental study on the uniaxial tensile property of concrete exposed to the acid rain environment was carried out. Acid rain with pH level of 1.0 was deposed by the mixture of sulfate and nitric acid solution in the laboratory. Dumbbell-shaped concrete specimens were immersed in the simulated acid rain completely. After being exposed to the deposed mixture for a certain period, uniaxial tensile test was performed on the concrete specimens. The results indicate that elastic modulus, tensile strength, and peak strain have a slight increase at the initial corrosion stage, and with the extension of corrosion process, elastic modulus and tensile strength decrease gradually, while the peak strain still increases. It is found that the compressive strength is more sensitive than the tensile strength in aggressive environment. Based on the experimental results, an equation was proposed to describe the ascending branch of the stress-strain curve of the concrete corroded by acid rain.

  1. Uniaxially aligned electrospun all-cellulose nanocomposite nanofibers reinforced with cellulose nanocrystals: scaffold for tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Xu; Xiao, Qiang; Lu, Canhui; Wang, Yaru; Zhang, Xiaofang; Zhao, Jiangqi; Zhang, Wei; Zhang, Ximu; Deng, Yulin

    2014-02-10

    Uniaxially aligned cellulose nanofibers with well oriented cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs) embedded were fabricated via electrospinning using a rotating drum as the collector. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) images indicated that most cellulose nanofibers were uniaxially aligned. The incorporation of CNCs into the spinning dope resulted in more uniform morphology of the electrospun cellulose/CNCs nanocomposite nanofibers (ECCNN). Polarized light microscope (PLM) and transmission electron microscope (TEM) showed that CNCs dispersed well in ECCNN nonwovens and achieved considerable orientation along the long axis direction. This unique hierarchical microstructure of ECCNN nonwovens gave rise to remarkable enhancement of their physical properties. By incorporating 20% loading (in weight) of CNCs, the tensile strength and elastic modulus of ECCNN along the fiber alignment direction were increased by 101.7 and 171.6%, respectively. Their thermal stability was significantly improved as well. In addition, the ECCNN nonwovens were assessed as potential scaffold materials for tissue engineering. It was elucidated from MTT tests that the ECCNN were essentially nontoxic to human cells. Cell culture experiments demonstrated that cells could proliferate rapidly not only on the surface but also deep inside the ECCNN. More importantly, the aligned nanofibers of ECCNN exhibited a strong effect on directing cellular organization. This feature made the scaffold particularly useful for various artificial tissues or organs, such as blood vessel, tendon, nerve, and so on, in which cell orientation was crucial for their performance.

  2. Resistivity and AE Response Characteristics in the Failure Process of CGB under Uniaxial Loading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tingye Qi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available To understand the characteristics of the acoustic emission (AE and electrical resistivity of cemented coal gangue backfill (CGB under uniaxial compression, the variations in these characteristics at 1 day, 3 days, and 7 days are analyzed by means of a stress-strain-resistivity-AE test, and the microperformances are investigated. The research results indicate that the AE can reflect the initiation and propagation of cracks and later explain the variation of the resistivity of the specimens under the uniaxial loading. The cumulative energy curve of AE is approximately two straight lines corresponding to the peak stress, and the difference in the linear slope gradually decreased with the increasing curing time due to the lower pore solution content and the compact pore structure. The relationships between the stress and resistivity and the loading condition before and after the peak stress at different curing times were established. Therefore, it is of great significance to predict the stability of the filling body by monitoring the AE and resistivity variations of the filling body. In addition, it is possible to calculate the roof stress using the relation equation between the resistivity and stress.

  3. Heat Capacity Measurements of Sr2RuO4 Under Uni-axial Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, You-Sheng; Gibbs, Alexandra; MacKenzie, Andrew; Hicks, Clifford; Nicklas, Michael

    One of the most-discussed possible pairing symmetries of the superconductor Sr2RuO4 is px + /-ipy. By applying in-plane uniaxial stress, the degeneracy of the px and py components should be lifted, yielding two critical temperatures (Tc) . Hicks et al. observed an increase of Tc of Sr2RuO4 under both compressive and tensile stress, and did not find evidence for splitting of transition. However, that result was based on magnetic susceptibility measurements, which would be sensitive only to the upper transition. For a direct test of possible splitting, we measure the heat capacity of Sr2RuO4 under uniaxial stress. To do so, we have developed an approach to measure heat capacity under non-adiabatic conditions. We have observed the increase in Tc under compressive strain, providing the first thermodynamic evidence for the strain-induced increase in Tc of Sr2RuO4, and also resolve strong strain-induced changes in the normal-state heat capacity.

  4. Magnetization of single crystalline strontium ruthenate under uniaxial-pressure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ikeda, S.I. E-mail: ikeda-shin@aist.go.jp; Koiwai, S.; Yoshida, Y.; Shirakawa, N.; Hara, S.; Kosaka, M.; Uwatoko, Y

    2004-05-01

    In order to extract the intrinsic magnetic correlations in Sr{sub 2}RuO{sub 4}, we have performed magnetization measurements under uniaxial pressures (p<0.4 GPa) normal to the two-dimensional RuO{sub 2} plane. The single crystalline sample grown by a floating-zone method has been used. The results indicate that the magnetization remains paramagnetic up to the maximum pressure without showing any sign of substantial magnetic transitions. Larger pressure is probably necessary to induce ferromagnetic or antiferromagnetic ordering associated with the nature of superconductivity.

  5. Time Dependent and Steady Uni-axial Elongational Viscosity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jens K.; Rasmussen, Henrik Koblitz; Hassager, Ole

    2005-01-01

    Here we present measurements of transient and steady uni-axial elongational viscosity, using the Filament Stretching Rheometer1 or FSR1 (see Fig. 1) of the following melts: Four narrow MMD polystyrene (PS) samples with weight-average molar mass Mw in the range of 50k to 390k. Three different bi......-disperse samples, mixed from the narrow MMD PS. Two low-density polyethylene (LDPE) melts (Lupolen 1840D and 3020D). A steady-state viscosity was kept for 1-2.5 Hencky strain units in all measurements....

  6. Localized modes in orientation-disordered uniaxial medium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wan Zhenzhu; Han Yanling [School of Mathematics and Physics, China University of Geosciences, Wuhan 430074 (China); Wang Hong, E-mail: wanghong745@sohu.com, E-mail: w_pearl2008@163.com [Center of Information and Laboratory, China University of Geosciences, Wuhan 430074 (China)

    2011-02-01

    Using a 4x4 transfer matrix method, localized modes in orientation-disordered uniaxial medium have been investigated. We confirm that localized modes origin from the randomness of spatial orientation of optical axes. The misalignment of the optical axe provides the opportunity for a rearrangement of the localized modes. The number of localize mode also closely relative to the spatial orientation of optical axis. Numerical results indicate that it is possible to adjust the localized modes through altering the relative orientation of the optical axes of scatterers. This study is an importance for well understanding of localization of light wave and lasing action in anisotropic random media.

  7. Uniaxial indefinite material formed by helical-shaped wires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgado, Tiago A.; Maslovski, Stanislav I.; Silveirinha, Mário G.

    2012-06-01

    We demonstrate that a racemic array of helical-shaped metallic wires may be regarded as a local uniaxial epsilon-negative (ENG) material even when the metal conductivity is very large (e.g. in the microwave regime) and, as a result, enables strong negative refraction over a wide frequency range. Based on the negative refraction effect, we demonstrate partial focusing of p-polarized electromagnetic radiation using a planar lens formed by such a composite material. The results reported here are supported by full-wave simulations as well as by analytical calculations based on effective medium theory.

  8. R&D Plan for RISMC Industry Application #1: ECCS/LOCA Cladding Acceptance Criteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szilard, Ronaldo Henriques [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Zhang, Hongbin [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Epiney, Aaron Simon [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Tu, Lei [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2016-04-01

    The Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) is finalizing a rulemaking change that would revise the requirements in 10 CFR 50.46. In the proposed new rulemaking, designated as 10 CFR 50.46c, the NRC proposes a fuel performance-based equivalent cladding reacted (ECR) criterion as a function of cladding hydrogen content before the accident (pre-transient) in order to include the effects of higher burnup on cladding performance as well as to address other technical issues. A loss of operational margin may result due to the more restrictive cladding embrittlement criteria. Initial and future compliance with the rule may significantly increase vendor workload and licensee costs as a spectrum of fuel rod initial burnup states may need to be analyzed to demonstrate compliance. The Idaho National Laboratory (INL) has initiated a project, as part of the DOE Light Water Reactor Sustainability Program (LWRS), to develop analytical capabilities to support the industry in the transition to the new rule. This project is called the Industry Application 1 (IA1) within the Risk-Informed Safety Margin Characterization (RISMC) Pathway of LWRS. The general idea behind the initiative is the development of an Integrated Evaluation Model (IEM). The motivation is to develop a multiphysics framework to analyze how uncertainties are propagated across the stream of physical disciplines and data involved, as well as how risks are evaluated in a LOCA safety analysis as regulated under 10 CFR 50.46c. This IEM is called LOTUS which stands for LOCA Toolkit for US, and it represents the LWRS Program’s response to the proposed new rule making. The focus of this report is to complete an R&D plan to describe the demonstration of the LOCA/ECCS RISMC Industry Application # 1 using the advanced RISMC Toolkit and methodologies. This report includes the description and development plan for a RISMC LOCA tool that fully couples advanced MOOSE tools already in development in order to characterize and optimize

  9. Modeling of uniaxial ratchetting behavior of SA333 carbon manganese steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shit, J.; Dhar, S. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Jadavpur University, Kolkata-700032 (India); Acharyya, S.K., E-mail: sanjib_acharyya@hotmail.com [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Jadavpur University, Kolkata-700032 (India); Goyal, S. [Bhabha Atomic Research Centre (India)

    2012-04-15

    The paper deals with uniaxial ratcheting phenomenon of cyclic plasticity behavior of the materials SA333 carbon Manganese steel. A mechanistic model for the ratcheting phenomenon has been proposed. It is observed that von Mises yield criterion together with Chaboche's kinematic hardening rules are not sufficient to model ratcheting phenomenon. Other associated phenomena like plastic strain memory surface, back stress memory points and over all the extra hardening behavior have to be incorporated to get a complete material model for ratcheting. The proposed model assembled all these ideas together with von Mises yield criterion and Chabache's kinematic hardening rule. Low cycle fatigue tests and uniaxial ratcheting tests have been conducted for the materials. The material constants are identified and derived from experimental results. The ratcheting coefficients have been properly calibrated with these material constants. The material model, as mentioned above, for the ratcheting phenomenon has been implemented in an elastic plastic finite element code. The ratcheting results for different stress controlled ratcheting loads have been computed. The good feature of this model is that it reduces to symmetric low cycle fatigue model when loop closes. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A common material model to simulate symmetric LCF and ratcheting. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Extra hardening to take care the shift of plastic strain centre. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Material parameters from tensile and LCF tests. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Saturated loop in LCF and ratcheting strain rate is compared with experiment. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Consideration of loading path, memory path and their directions.

  10. Experimental studies the evolution of stress-strain state in structured rock specimens under uniaxial loading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oparin, Viktor; Tsoy, Pavel; Usoltseva, Olga; Semenov, Vladimir

    2014-05-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze distribution and development of stress-stress state in structured rock specimens subject to uniaxial loading to failure. Specific attention was paid to possible oscillating motion of structural elements of the rock specimens under constraints (pre-set stresses at the boundaries of the specimens) and the kinetic energy fractals. The detailed studies into the micro-level stress-strain state distribution and propagation over acting faces of rock specimens subject to uniaxial loading until failure, using automated digital speckle photography analyzer ALMEC-tv, have shown that: • under uniaxial stiff loading of prismatic sandstone, marble and sylvinite specimens on the Instron-8802 servohydraulic testing machine at the mobile grip displacement rate 0.02-0.2 mm/min, at a certain level of stressing, low-frequency micro-deformation processes originate in the specimens due to slow (quasi-static) force; • the amplitude of that deformation-wave processes greatly depends on the micro-loading stage: — at the elastic deformation stage, under the specimen stress lower than half ultimate strength of the specimen, there are no oscillations of microstrains; —at the nonlinearly elastic deformation stage, under stress varied from 0.5 to 1 ultimate strength of the specimens, the amplitudes of microstrains grow, including the descending stage 3; the oscillation frequency f=0.5-4 Hz; —at the residual strength stage, the amplitudes of the microstrains drop abruptly (3-5 times) as against stages 2 and 3; • in the elements of the scanned specimen surface in the region with the incipient crack, the microstrain rate amplitudes are a few times higher than in the undamged surface region of the same specimen. Sometimes, deformation rate greatly grows with increase in the load. The authors have used the energy scanning function of the deformation-wave processes in processing experimental speckle-photography data on the surface of the test specimen

  11. Dry Sliding Wear and Mechanical Characterization of Mg Based Composites by Uniaxial Cold Press Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumar P. Selva

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Dry sliding wear tests are performed on magnesium composites produced by uniaxial cold press technique by using pin-on-disc. Co-efficient of friction and wear rate of magnesium composites are measured under a load of 5 N and sliding velocity of 0.2 ms-1. Porosity, Vickers’s micro hardness, X-Ray Diffraction (XRD results are presented to characterize the physical and mechanical properties of magnesium composites. Worn surfaces are inspected by Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM and Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (EDS. Three types of wear mechanisms namely abrasive, adhesive and oxidation were observed. The wear rate was found to be low for 2wt% of HAP (3.6×10-6cm3/m and co-efficient of friction was observed as 0.8.

  12. Ultimate uniaxial compressive strength of stiffened panel with opening under lateral pressure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang-Li Yu

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper concentrated on the ultimate uniaxial compressive strength of stiffened panel with opening under lateral load and also studied the design-oriented formulae. For this purpose, three series of well executed experiments on longitudinal stiffened panel with rectangular opening subjected to the combined load have been selected as test models. The finite element analysis package, ABAQUS, is used for simulation with considering the large elasticplastic deflection behavior of stiffened panels. The feasibility of the numerical procedure is verified by a good agreement of experimental results and numerical results. More cases studies are executed employing nonlinear finite element method to analyze the influence of design variables on the ultimate strength of stiffened panel with opening under combined pressure. Based on data, two design formulae corresponding to different opening types are fitted, and accuracy of them is illustrated to demonstrate that they could be applied to basic design of practical engineering structure.

  13. Low-Profile Dual-Wideband MIMO Antenna with Low ECC for LTE and Wi-Fi Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Gye-Taek Jeong; Sunho Choi; Kyoung-hak Lee; Woo-Su Kim

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a low-profile dual-wideband multiple input multiple output (MIMO) antenna with low envelop correlation coefficient (ECC) for long-term evolution (LTE) and wireless fidelity (Wi-Fi) applications. The antenna covers LTE band 7 and Wi-Fi as well as wireless broadband (Wibro) and Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave Access (WiMax) (except for the 3.5-GHz band). To aid with integration of a practical mobile terminal, the MIMO antenna elements are placed at appropriate locat...

  14. Nonparaxial propagation of Lorentz-Gauss beams in uniaxial crystal orthogonal to the optical axis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xun; Liu, Zhirong; Zhao, Daomu

    2014-04-01

    Analytical expressions for the three components of nonparaxial propagation of a polarized Lorentz-Gauss beam in uniaxial crystal orthogonal to the optical axis are derived and used to investigate its propagation properties in uniaxial crystal. The influences of the initial beam parameters and the parameters of the uniaxial crystal on the evolution of the beam-intensity distribution in the uniaxial crystal are examined in detail. Results show that the statistical properties of a nonparaxial Lorentz-Gauss beam in a uniaxial crystal orthogonal to the optical axis are closely determined by the initial beam's parameters and the parameters of the crystal: the beam waist sizes-w(0), w(0x), and w(0y)-not only affect the size and shape of the beam profile in uniaxial crystal but also determine the nonparaxial effect of a Lorentz-Gauss beam; the beam profile of a Lorentz-Gauss beam in uniaxial crystal is elongated in the x or y direction, which is determined by the ratio of the extraordinary refractive index to the ordinary refractive index; with increasing deviation of the ratio from unity, the extension of the beam profile augments. The results indicate that uniaxial crystal provides an effective and convenient method for modulating the Lorentz-Gauss beams. Our results may be valuable in some fields, such as optical trapping and nonlinear optics, where a light beam with a special profile and polarization is required.

  15. Determination of Hot-Carrier Distribution Functions in Uniaxially Stressed p-Type Germanium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Ove

    1973-01-01

    This paper gives a description of an experimental determination of distribution functions in k→ space of hot holes in uniaxially compressed germanium. The hot-carrier studies were made at 85°K at fields up to 1000 V/cm and uniaxial stresses up to 11 800 kg/cm2. The field and stress were always...

  16. Co-simulation on vibration characteristics of uniaxial shaker based on AMESim and ADAMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, W.; Zhang, D. B.; Su, M.

    2017-07-01

    In this paper, we propose a selection method of the increased amplitude stability parameter for the unstable motion problem of the uniaxial shaker before its stable operation. On the basis of single-axis shaker dynamics equations, an ADMAS and AMESim combined simulation model is established. According to this model, the vibration characteristics under different parameters are solved by using the control variate method. The simulation results show that the motor speed, the eccentric mass and the inclination of screen surface are the three main factors which affect work starting state of uniaxial shaker. The working efficiency of uniaxial shaker is controlled by the motor speed while the amplitude is affected by the eccentric mass. Moreover, the inclination of screen surface plays a decisive role in the distribution of the vibration track before uniaxial shaker reaching the stable operation state. The relatively stable movement is obtained by optimizing the parameters, which provides a new way to improve the stability of uniaxial shaker.

  17. Uniaxial Compressive Strengths of Rocks Drilled at Gale Crater, Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, G. H.; Carey, E. M.; Anderson, R. C.; Abbey, W. J.; Kinnett, R.; Watkins, J. A.; Schemel, M.; Lashore, M. O.; Chasek, M. D.; Green, W.; Beegle, L. W.; Vasavada, A. R.

    2018-01-01

    Measuring the physical properties of geological materials is important for understanding geologic history. Yet there has never been an instrument with the purpose of measuring mechanical properties of rocks sent to another planet. The Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) rover employs the Powder Acquisition Drill System (PADS), which provides direct mechanical interaction with Martian outcrops. While the objective of the drill system is not to make scientific measurements, the drill's performance is directly influenced by the mechanical properties of the rocks it drills into. We have developed a methodology that uses the drill to indicate the uniaxial compressive strengths of rocks through comparison with performance of an identically assembled drill system in terrestrial samples of comparable sedimentary class. During this investigation, we utilize engineering data collected on Mars to calculate the percussive energy needed to maintain a prescribed rate of penetration and correlate that to rock strength.

  18. Classifying Human Leg Motions with Uniaxial Piezoelectric Gyroscopes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kerem Altun

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides a comparative study on the different techniques of classifying human leg motions that are performed using two low-cost uniaxial piezoelectric gyroscopes worn on the leg. A number of feature sets, extracted from the raw inertial sensor data in different ways, are used in the classification process. The classification techniques implemented and compared in this study are: Bayesian decision making (BDM, a rule-based algorithm (RBA or decision tree, least-squares method (LSM, k-nearest neighbor algorithm (k-NN, dynamic time warping (DTW, support vector machines (SVM, and artificial neural networks (ANN. A performance comparison of these classification techniques is provided in terms of their correct differentiation rates, confusion matrices, computational cost, and training and storage requirements. Three different cross-validation techniques are employed to validate the classifiers. The results indicate that BDM, in general, results in the highest correct classification rate with relatively small computational cost.

  19. A drop in uniaxial and biaxial nonlinear extensional flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Favelukis, M.

    2017-08-01

    In this theoretical report, we explore small deformations of an initially spherical drop subjected to uniaxial or biaxial nonlinear extensional creeping flows. The problem is governed by the capillary number (Ca), the viscosity ratio (λ), and the nonlinear intensity of the flow (E). When the extensional flow is linear (E = 0), the familiar internal circulations are obtained and the same is true with E > 0, except that the external and internal flow rates increase with increasing E. If E 0) and oblate spheroidal drops for biaxial flows (Ca 0, the drop is more elongated than the linear case, while E 0 tends to facilitate drop breakup, while E < 0 makes drop breakup more difficult.

  20. Surface Wave Velocity-Stress Relationship in Uniaxially Loaded Concrete

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shokouhi, Parisa; Zoëga, Andreas; Wiggenhauser, Herbert

    2012-01-01

    loading cycles revealed that the velocities show a stress-memory effect in good agreement with the Kaiser effect. Comparing the velocities measured during loading and unloading, the effects of stress and damage on the measured velocities could be differentiated. Moreover, the stress dependency of surface......The sonic surface wave (or Rayleigh wave) velocity measured on prismatic concrete specimens under uniaxial compression was found to be highly stress-dependent. At low stress levels, the acoustoelastic effect and the closure of existing microcracks results in a gradual increase in surface wave...... velocities. At higher stress levels, concrete suffers irrecoverable damage: the existing microcracks widen and coalesce and new microcracks form. This progressive damage process leads first to the flattening and eventually the drop in the velocity-stress curves. Measurements on specimens undergoing several...

  1. Uniaxially aligned ceramic nanofibers obtained by chemical mechanical processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tararam, R. [Univ Estadual Paulista – UNESP – Instituto de Química, Rua Prof. Francisco Degni n° 55, CEP 14800-900 Araraquara, SP (Brazil); Foschini, C.R. [Univ Estadual Paulista – UNESP – Faculdade de Engenharia de Bauru, Dept. de Eng. Mecanica, Av. Eng. Luiz Edmundo C. Coube 14-01, CEP 17033-360 Bauru, SP (Brazil); Destro, F.B. [Univ Estadual Paulista – UNESP – Faculdade de Engenharia de Guaratinguetá, Guaratinguetá 12516-410, SP (Brazil); Simões, A.Z., E-mail: alezipo@yahoo.com [Univ Estadual Paulista – UNESP – Faculdade de Engenharia de Guaratinguetá, Guaratinguetá 12516-410, SP (Brazil); Longo, E.; Varela, J.A. [Univ Estadual Paulista – UNESP – Instituto de Química, Rua Prof. Francisco Degni n° 55, CEP 14800-900 Araraquara, SP (Brazil)

    2014-08-01

    For this study, we investigated a simple method to generate well aligned nanofibers over large areas using an organic polymer stretched over the substrate surface With this method, ZnO and CuO 3D parallel nanowire arrays were successfully prepared by calcinations of the polymer fibers. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis revealed that the copper oxide has a monoclinic structure while the zinc oxide has a hexagonal structure. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis showed ceramic nanofibers with an average diameter of 120 nm which were composed of small nanoparticles which are 10 nm in diameter. The ability to obtain uniaxially aligned nanofibers reveals a range of interesting properties with potential applications for sensors, catalysts and energy technologies.

  2. Mechanical properties of graphene nanoribbons under uniaxial tensile strain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoneyama, Kazufumi; Yamanaka, Ayaka; Okada, Susumu

    2018-03-01

    Based on the density functional theory with the generalized gradient approximation, we investigated the mechanical properties of graphene nanoribbons in terms of their edge shape under a uniaxial tensile strain. The nanoribbons with armchair and zigzag edges retain their structure under a large tensile strain, while the nanoribbons with chiral edges are fragile against the tensile strain compared with those with armchair and zigzag edges. The fracture started at the cove region, which corresponds to the border between the zigzag and armchair edges for the nanoribbons with chiral edges. For the nanoribbons with armchair edges, the fracture started at one of the cove regions at the edges. In contrast, the fracture started at the inner region of the nanoribbons with zigzag edges. The bond elongation under the tensile strain depends on the mutual arrangement of covalent bonds with respect to the strain direction.

  3. Low-Profile Dual-Wideband MIMO Antenna with Low ECC for LTE and Wi-Fi Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gye-Taek Jeong

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a low-profile dual-wideband multiple input multiple output (MIMO antenna with low envelop correlation coefficient (ECC for long-term evolution (LTE and wireless fidelity (Wi-Fi applications. The antenna covers LTE band 7 and Wi-Fi as well as wireless broadband (Wibro and Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave Access (WiMax (except for the 3.5-GHz band. To aid with integration of a practical mobile terminal, the MIMO antenna elements are placed at appropriate locations by analyzing the surface current distribution and without using any additional isolation techniques. The measured bandwidths with reflection coefficients of 20 dB in the operating frequency ranges of both LTE band 7 and Wi-Fi. Additionally, the calculated ECC is in the range 0.005<ρ<0.025, which is considerably lower than the ρ<0.5 required for MIMO applications. The measured radiation patterns are appropriate for mobile terminals, and omnidirectional radiation patterns are obtained.

  4. Effect of sucrose concentration on sucrose-dependent adhesion and glucosyltransferase expression of S. mutans in children with severe early-childhood caries (S-ECC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Wei; Li, Wenqing; Lin, Jiacheng; Chen, Zhuoyu; Yu, Dongsheng

    2014-09-09

    Sucrose, extracellular polysaccharide, and glucosyltransferases (GTFs) are key factors in sucrose-dependent adhesion and play important roles in the process of severe early-childhood caries (S-ECC). However, whether sucrose concentration regulates gtf expression, extracellular polysaccharide synthesis, and sucrose-dependent adhesion is related to the different genotypes of S. mutans isolated from ECC in children and still needs to be investigated. In this study, 52 strains of S. mutans were isolated from children with S-ECC and caries-free (CF) children. Water-insoluble glucan (WIG) synthesis was detected by the anthrone method, adhesion capacity by the turbidimetric method, and expression of gtf by RT-PCR in an in vitro model containing 1%-20% sucrose. The genotypes of S. mutans were analyzed by AP-PCR. The results showed that WIG synthesis, adhesion capacity, and gtf expression increased significantly when the sucrose concentration was from 1% to 10%. WIG synthesis and gtfB as well as gtfC expression of the 1% and 5% groups were significantly lower than those of the 10% and 20% groups (p < 0.05). There were no significant differences between the 10% and 20% groups. The fingerprints of S. mutans detected from individuals in the S-ECC group exhibited a significant difference in diversity compared with those from CF individuals (p < 0.05). Further, the expression of gtfB and gtfC in the S-ECC group was significantly different among the 1- to 5-genotype groups (p < 0.05). It can be concluded that sucrose-dependent adhesion might be related to the diversity of genotypes of S. mutans, and the 10% sucrose level can be seen as a "turning point" and essential factor for the prevention of S-ECC.

  5. Effect of Sucrose Concentration on Sucrose-Dependent Adhesion and Glucosyltransferase Expression of S. mutans in Children with Severe Early-Childhood Caries (S-ECC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Zhao

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Sucrose, extracellular polysaccharide, and glucosyltransferases (GTFs are key factors in sucrose-dependent adhesion and play important roles in the process of severe early-childhood caries (S-ECC. However, whether sucrose concentration regulates gtf expression, extracellular polysaccharide synthesis, and sucrose-dependent adhesion is related to the different genotypes of S. mutans isolated from ECC in children and still needs to be investigated. In this study, 52 strains of S. mutans were isolated from children with S-ECC and caries-free (CF children. Water-insoluble glucan (WIG synthesis was detected by the anthrone method, adhesion capacity by the turbidimetric method, and expression of gtf by RT-PCR in an in vitro model containing 1%–20% sucrose. The genotypes of S. mutans were analyzed by AP-PCR. The results showed that WIG synthesis, adhesion capacity, and gtf expression increased significantly when the sucrose concentration was from 1% to 10%. WIG synthesis and gtfB as well as gtfC expression of the 1% and 5% groups were significantly lower than those of the 10% and 20% groups (p < 0.05. There were no significant differences between the 10% and 20% groups. The fingerprints of S. mutans detected from individuals in the S-ECC group exhibited a significant difference in diversity compared with those from CF individuals (p < 0.05. Further, the expression of gtfB and gtfC in the S-ECC group was significantly different among the 1- to 5-genotype groups (p < 0.05. It can be concluded that sucrose-dependent adhesion might be related to the diversity of genotypes of S. mutans, and the 10% sucrose level can be seen as a “turning point” and essential factor for the prevention of S-ECC.

  6. Joining Of Green Body And Dense Substrate For Indium Tin Oxide Under Uniaxial Pressure In An Open Condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moon G.-S.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The green body and dense substrate of indium tin oxide was joined by uniaxially pressing at 0.3 MPa at 1300°C to test the restoring of the eroded part of transparent conducting oxide target. The green body was sintered to 98% of theoretical density under the suppression of shrinkage along the boundary below 5%. The boundary between two parts was free of pore but could be recognized from the difference in grain sizes. The joined part had the virtually same density with the substrate, but the grain size was less than one fifth compared with that of substrate.

  7. Control concept for piezo-based actuator-sensor-units for uniaxial vibration damping in machine tools

    OpenAIRE

    Neugebauer, Reimund; Pagel, K.; Bucht, A; Wittstock, V.; Pappe, A.

    2010-01-01

    Additional piezo-based components in drive trains can significantly improve the dynamic behaviour of machine tools. In this article we present a piezo-based actuator-sensor-unit that is able to reduce uniaxial vibrations in ball screw driven feed axis of machine tools. A complex model of a feed axis including ASU was developed to design a controller. The control concept is based on the direct velocity feedback. A modular test bench was designed, assembled and investigated to verify the ASU's ...

  8. Uniaxial magnetic anisotropy induced low field anomalous anisotropic magnetoresistance in manganite thin films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhaoliang Liao

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available La2/3Sr1/3MnO3 films with uniaxial magnetic anisotropy were coherently grown on NdGaO3 (110 substrates. The uniaxial anisotropy has strong effect on magnetoresistance (MR. A positive MR was observed when the current is along magnetic easy axis under the current-field perpendicular geometry. In contrast, no positive MR is observed when current is along the magnetic hard axis regardless of the field direction. Our analysis indicates that the anomalous anisotropic MR effect arises from the uniaxial magnetic anisotropy caused stripe domains which contribute to strong anisotropic domain wall resistivity.

  9. Powder flow in an automated uniaxial tester and an annular shear cell: a study of pharmaceutical excipients and analytical data comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuentz, Martin; Schirg, Peter

    2013-09-01

    An automated version of uniaxial powder flow testing has recently been developed and there is a need for experimental data from pharmaceutical powders. To compare the novel testing method with an annular shear cell using different pharmaceutical excipients. A particular aim was to gain an improved understanding of potential differences in the obtained flow results. Nine excipients were studied with both flow testers at different consolidation levels. Unconfined yield strengths were determined at similar major consolidation stresses. Finally, an anisotropic stress factor was calculated and the fractal character of the powders was assessed by means of image analysis in a rotating drum. Data correlated generally well; however, the unconfined yield strength from uniaxial testing resulted mostly in lower values compared to annular shear cell testing. Differences were specific for the given excipients and mannitol demonstrated the highest discrepancy of measured flow parameters. The differences were first discussed by considering wall friction, anisotropy of forces, brittleness as well as the fractal nature of the powder surface. This heterogeneity of the powder as well as the anisotropy of forces was also found to be important for the relative flow index. The automated uniaxial method demonstrated faster and more reproducible flow testing as compared to an annular shear cell. Therefore, the new method has a high potential in pharmaceutics for example in the quality-control of powders.

  10. Uniaxial creep as a control on mercury intrusion capillary pressure in consolidating rock salt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dewers, Thomas [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Heath, Jason E. [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Leigh, Christi D. [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-09-01

    The nature of geologic disposal of nuclear waste in salt formations requires validated and verified two - phase flow models of transport of brine and gas through intact, damaged, and consolidating crushed salt. Such models exist in oth er realms of subsurface engineering for other lithologic classes (oil and gas, carbon sequestration etc. for clastics and carbonates) but have never been experimentally validated and parameterized for salt repository scenarios or performance assessment. Mo dels for waste release scenarios in salt back - fill require phenomenological expressions for capillary pressure and relative permeability that are expected to change with degree of consolidation, and require experimental measurement to parameterize and vali date. This report describes a preliminary assessment of the influence of consolidation (i.e. volume strain or porosity) on capillary entry pressure in two phase systems using mercury injection capillary pressure (MICP). This is to both determine the potent ial usefulness of the mercury intrusion porosimetry method, but also to enable a better experimental design for these tests. Salt consolidation experiments are performed using novel titanium oedometers, or uniaxial compression cells often used in soil mech anics, using sieved run - of - mine salt from the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) as starting material. Twelve tests are performed with various starting amounts of brine pore saturation, with axial stresses up to 6.2 MPa (%7E900 psi) and temperatures to 90 o C. This corresponds to UFD Work Package 15SN08180211 milestone "FY:15 Transport Properties of Run - of - Mine Salt Backfill - Unconsolidated to Consolidated". Samples exposed to uniaxial compression undergo time - dependent consolidation, or creep, to various deg rees. Creep volume strain - time relations obey simple log - time behavior through the range of porosities (%7E50 to 2% as measured); creep strain rate increases with temperature and applied stress as

  11. Van der Waals interaction in uniaxial anisotropic media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kornilovitch, Pavel E

    2013-01-23

    Van der Waals interactions between flat surfaces in uniaxial anisotropic media are investigated in the nonretarded limit. The main focus is the effect of nonzero tilt between the optical axis and the surface normal on the strength of the van der Waals attraction. General expressions for the van der Waals free energy are derived using the surface mode method and the transfer-matrix formalism. To facilitate numerical calculations a temperature-dependent three-band parameterization of the dielectric tensor of the liquid crystal 5CB is developed. A solid slab immersed in a liquid crystal experiences a van der Waals torque that aligns the surface normal relative to the optical axis of the medium. The preferred orientation is different for different materials. Two solid slabs in close proximity experience a van der Waals attraction that is strongest for homeotropic alignment of the intervening liquid crystal for all the materials studied. The results have implications for the stability of plate-like colloids in liquid crystal hosts.

  12. Deformation of Honeycomb with Finite Boundary Subjected to Uniaxial Compression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dai-Heng Chen

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the crushing behavior of hexagonal honeycomb structures with finite boundaries (finite width and height subjected to in-plane uniaxial compressive loading is studied based on the nonlinear finite element analysis. It is found that stress-strain responses for the honeycombs with finite boundaries can be classified into two types: Type I and Type II. Such a characteristic is affected by the wall thickness, the work-hardening coefficient and the yield stress for the honeycombs. Furthermore, a transition from the symmetric to asymmetric deformation mode can be observed in Type I, and these deformed cells were localized in a horizontal layer. However, for the case of Type II response, the symmetric and asymmetric deformation modes can be observed simultaneously, and the region of the asymmetric mode was formed by the cell layer along the diagonal direction. As a result, the shear deformation behavior was developed along that direction. Moreover, the effect of work-hardening on the deformation behavior for the honeycombs with finite boundaries can be explained from that for infinite honeycombs.

  13. The origin of uniaxial negative thermal expansion in layered perovskites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ablitt, Chris; Craddock, Sarah; Senn, Mark S.; Mostofi, Arash A.; Bristowe, Nicholas C.

    2017-10-01

    Why is it that ABO3 perovskites generally do not exhibit negative thermal expansion (NTE) over a wide temperature range, whereas layered perovskites of the same chemical family often do? It is generally accepted that there are two key ingredients that determine the extent of NTE: the presence of soft phonon modes that drive contraction (have negative Grüneisen parameters); and anisotropic elastic compliance that predisposes the material to the deformations required for NTE along a specific axis. This difference in thermal expansion properties is surprising since both ABO3 and layered perovskites often possess these ingredients in equal measure in their high-symmetry phases. Using first principles calculations and symmetry analysis, we show that in layered perovskites there is a significant enhancement of elastic anisotropy due to symmetry breaking that results from the combined effect of layering and condensed rotations of oxygen octahedra. This feature, unique to layered perovskites of certain symmetry, is what allows uniaxial NTE to persist over a large temperature range. This fundamental insight means that symmetry and the elastic tensor can be used as descriptors in high-throughput screening and to direct materials design.

  14. Final report on in-reactor uniaxial tensile deformation of pure iron and Fe-Cr alloy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Singh, Bachu Narain; Huang, X.; Tähtinen, S.

    of materials used in the structural components of a fission or fusion reactor where the materials will be exposed concurrently to displacement damage and external and/or internal stresses. In an effort to evaluate and understand the dynamic response of materials under these conditions, we have recently......Traditionally, the effect of irradiation on mechanical properties of metals and alloys is determined using post-irradiation tests carried out on pre-irradiated specimens and in the absence of irradiation environment. The results of these tests may not be representative of deformation behaviour...... performed a series of uniaxial tensile tests on Fe-Cr and pure iron specimens in the BR-2 reactor at Mol (Belgium). The present report first provides a brief description of the test facilities and the procedure used for performing the in-reactor tests. The results on the mechanical response of materials...

  15. Validation of uniaxial and triaxial accelerometers for the assessment of physical activity in preschool children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Given the unique physical activity patterns of preschoolers, wearable electronic devices for quantitative assessment of physical activity require validation in this population. Study objective was to validate uniaxial and triaxial accelerometers in preschoolers. Room calorimetry was performed over 3...

  16. Mechanical properties of uniaxial natural fabric Grewia tilifolia reinforced epoxy based composites: Effects of chemical treatment

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Jayaramudu, J

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The effects of chemical treatment on the mechanical, morphological, and chemical resistance properties of uniaxial natural fabrics, Grewia tilifolia/epoxy composites, were studied. In order to enhance the interfacial bonding between the epoxy matrix...

  17. Experimental Studies on Strength Behaviour of Notched Glass/Epoxy Laminated Composites under Uni-axial and Bi-axial Loading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guptha, V. L. Jagannatha; Sharma, Ramesh S.

    2017-11-01

    The use of FRP composite materials in aerospace, aviation, marine, automotive and civil engineering industry has increased rapidly in recent years due to their high specific strength and stiffness properties. The structural members contrived from such composite materials are generally subjected to complex loading conditions and leads to multi-axial stress conditions at critical surface localities. Presence of notches, much required for joining process of composites, makes it further significant. The current practice of using uni-axial test data alone to validate proposed material models is inadequate leading to evaluation and consideration of bi-axial test data. In order to correlate the bi-axial strengths with the uni-axial strengths of GFRP composite laminates in the presence of a circular notch, bi-axial tests using four servo-hydraulic actuators with four load cells were carried out. To determine the in-plane strength parameters, bi-axial cruciform test specimen model was considered. Three different fibre orientations, namely, 0°, 45°, and 90° are considered with a central circular notch of 10 mm diameter in the present investigation. From the results obtained, it is observed that there is a reduction in strength of 5.36, 2.41 and 13.92% in 0°, 45°, and 90° fibre orientation, respectively, under bi-axial loading condition as compared to that of uni-axial loading in laminated composite.

  18. Tensile testing

    CERN Document Server

    2004-01-01

    A complete guide to the uniaxial tensile test, the cornerstone test for determining the mechanical properties of materials: Learn ways to predict material behavior through tensile testing. Learn how to test metals, alloys, composites, ceramics, and plastics to determine strength, ductility and elastic/plastic deformation. A must for laboratory managers, technicians, materials and design engineers, and students involved with uniaxial tensile testing. Tensile Testing , Second Edition begins with an introduction and overview of the test, with clear explanations of how materials properties are determined from test results. Subsequent sections illustrate how knowledge gained through tensile tests, such as tension properties to predict the behavior (including strength, ductility, elastic or plastic deformation, tensile and yield strengths) have resulted in improvements in materals applications. The Second Edition is completely revised and updated. It includes expanded coverage throughout the volume on a variety of ...

  19. A prediction model for uniaxial compressive strength of deteriorated pyroclastic rocks due to freeze-thaw cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    İnce, İsmail; Fener, Mustafa

    2016-08-01

    Either directly or indirectly, building stone is exposed to diverse atmospheric interactions depending on the seasonal conditions. Due to those interactions, objects of historic and cultural heritage, as well as modern buildings, partially or completely deteriorate. Among processes involved in rock deterioration, the freeze-thaw (F-T) cycle is one of the most important. Even though pyroclastic rocks have been used as building stone worldwide due to their easy workability, they are the building stone most affected by the F-T cycle. A historical region in Central Anatolia, Turkey, Cappadoia encompasses exceptional natural wonders characterized by fairy chimneys and unique historical and cultural heritage. Human-created caves, places of worship and houses have been dug into the pyroclastic rocks, which have in turn been used in architectural construction as building stone. Using 10 pyroclastic rock samples collected from Cappadocia, we determined the rock's index-mechanical properties to develop a statistical model for estimating percentage loss of uniaxial compressive strength a critical parameter of F-T cycle's important value. We used dry density (ρd), ultrasonic velocity (Vp), point load strengths (IS(50)), and slake-durability test indexes (Id4) values of unweathered rocks in our model, which is highly reliable (R2 = 0.84) for predetermination of percentage loss of uniaxial compressive strengths of pyroclastic rocks without requiring any F-T tests.

  20. Experimental observations on uniaxial whole-life transformation ratchetting and low-cycle stress fatigue of super-elastic NiTi shape memory alloy micro-tubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Di; Kang, Guozheng; Kan, Qianhua; Yu, Chao; Zhang, Chuanzeng

    2015-07-01

    In this work, the low-cycle fatigue failure of super-elastic NiTi shape memory alloy micro-tubes with a wall thickness of 150 μm is investigated by uniaxial stress-controlled cyclic tests at human body temperature 310 K. The effects of mean stress, peak stress, and stress amplitude on the uniaxial whole-life transformation ratchetting and fatigue failure of the NiTi alloy are observed. It is concluded that the fatigue life depends significantly on the stress levels, and the extent of martensite transformation and its reverse play an important role in determining the fatigue life. High peak stress or complete martensite transformation shortens the fatigue life.

  1. Frequency-Based Precursory Acoustic Emission Failure Sequences In Sedimentary And Igneous Rocks Under Uniaxial Compression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colin, C.; Anderson, R. C.; Chasek, M. D.; Peters, G. H.; Carey, E. M.

    2016-12-01

    Identifiable precursors to rock failure have been a long pursued and infrequently encountered phenomena in rock mechanics and acoustic emission studies. Since acoustic emissions in compressed rocks were found to follow the Gutenberg-Richter law, failure-prediction strategies based on temporal changes in b-value have been recurrent. In this study, we extend on the results of Ohnaka and Mogi [Journal of Geophysical Research, Vol. 87, No. B5, p. 3873-3884, (1982)], where the bulk frequency characteristics of rocks under incremental uniaxial compression were observed in relation to changes in b-value before and after failure. Based on the proposition that the number of low-frequency acoustic emissions is proportional to the number of high-amplitude acoustic emissions in compressed rocks, Ohnaka and Mogi (1982) demonstrated that b-value changes in granite and andesite cores under incremental uniaxial compression could be expressed in terms of the percent abundance of low-frequency events. In this study, we attempt to demonstrate that the results of Ohnaka and Mogi (1982) hold true for different rock types (basalt, sandstone, and limestone) and different sample geometries (rectangular prisms). In order to do so, the design of the compression tests was kept similar to that of Ohnaka and Mogi (1982). Two high frequency piezoelectric transducers of 1 MHz and a 500 kHz coupled to the sides of the samples detected higher and lower frequency acoustic emission signals. However, rather than gathering parametric data from an analog signal using a counter as per Ohnaka and Mogi (1982), we used an oscilloscope as an analog to digital converter interfacing with LabVIEW 2015 to record the complete waveforms. The digitally stored waveforms were then processed, detecting acoustic emission events using a statistical method, and filtered using a 2nd order Butterworth filter. In addition to calculating the percent abundance of low-frequency events over time, the peak frequency of the

  2. Thermal fatigue appears to be more damaging than uniaxial isothermal fatigue for the austentic stainless steels, and application of multiaxial fatigue criteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fissolo, Antoine; Gourdin, Cedric [DM2S/SEMT/LISN, Gif sur Yvette (France); Vincent, Ludovic [DMN/SRMA/LCD, Gif sur Yvette (France)

    2009-07-01

    For nuclear reactor components, uniaxial isothermal fatigue curves are used to estimate the crack initiation under thermal fatigue. However, such approach would be not sufficient in some cases where cracking was observed. To investigate differences between uniaxial and thermal fatigue damage, tests have been carried out at CEA using the thermal fatigue devices SPLASH and FAT3D: a bi-dimensional (2-D) loading status is obtained in SPLASH, whereas a tri-dimensional (3-D) loading status is obtained in FAT3D. All the analysed tests clearly show that crack initiation in thermal fatigue is faster than in uniaxial isothermal fatigue conditions: for identical levels of strain, the number of cycles required to achieve crack initiation is significantly lower. The enhanced damaging effect probably results from a pure mechanical origin: a nearly perfect biaxial state corresponds to an increased hydrostatic stress. Consequently, multiaxial fatigue criteria must be applied. The Zamrik's strain criterion and the energy criterion proposed by Ecole Polytechnique provide the best estimations. In that framework, the proposed new method coupling both RCC-MR strain estimations and Zamrik's criterion appears to be more promising for the designer. (orig.)

  3. Fluid flow separation in a reactor pressure vessel during an ECC injection. Single phase flow and two phase flow (air-water) experimental results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thierry Bichet; Alain Martin [EDF - Research and Development Division - Fluid Mechanics and Heat Transfert 6, quai Watier - B.P. 49 - 78401 Chatou CEDEX 01 (France); Frederic Beaud [EDF/ Industry - Basic Design Department., 12-14, Avenue Dutrievoz 69628 Villeurbanne CEDEX (France)

    2005-07-01

    Full text of publication follows: Within the framework of the nuclear power plant lifetime issue, the assessment of the French 900 MWe (3-loops) series reactor pressure vessel (RPV) integrity has been performed. A simplified analysis has shown that the most severe loading conditions are given by the small break loss of coolant accidents due to the pressurized injection of cold water (9 deg. C) into the cold leg and down comer of the RPV. During these transient scenarios, single or two-phase (uncovered cold leg) flows have been shown in the cold leg, depending on the crack size and RPV model (900 MWe or 1300 MWe). An experimental study has been carried out, on the one hand, to consolidate the numerical results obtained with CFD home code (Code-Saturne) which mainly showed the stratified flow in the cold leg and the fluid flow separation and its oscillations in the down comer during a single phase scenario. These physical phenomena are important for the thermal RPV loading assessment. On the other hand, the absence of experimental two-phase data necessitated to carry out an experimental study around the mixing area behavior (free surface, stratified flow) during an ECC injection with an uncovered cold leg. The new EDF R and D mock up, called HYBISCUS, is a facility which is made out of Plexiglas (atmosphere pressure) and represents a half scale CP0 geometry with one cold leg and part of the down comer. The mock up modularity allows us to insert representative ECC nozzles and a thermal shield. In reference to the reactor scenarios, the experimental operating conditions are derived from the conservation of the density effects (Froude number). For that, a heated salted water flow is used to represent the ECC injection whereas water represents the cold leg fluid. This mock up has been defined in order to represent single phase flow (cold leg and down comer full of water) or two-phase flow (uncovered cold leg) ECC scenarios. This paper reports experimental results

  4. Thermo-mechanical fatigue behaviour of the near-{gamma}-titanium aluminide alloy TNB-V5 under uniaxial and multiaxial loading

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brookes, Stephen Peter

    2009-12-19

    With increasing environmental awareness and the general need to economise on the use of fossil fuels, there is growing pressure for industry to produce lighter, more efficient, gas turbine engines. One such material that will help to achieve these improvements is the intermetallic gamma titanium aluminide ({gamma}-TiAl) alloy. At only half the density of current nickel-based superalloys its weight saving capability is highly desirable, however, its mechanical properties have not yet been fully explored especially, when it is to be considered for structural components in aeronautical gas turbine engines. Critical components in these engines typically experience large variations in temperatures and multiaxial states of stress under non-isothermal conditions. These stress states are known as tri-axial thermo-mechanical fatigue (TMF). The work presented here investigates the effects these multi-axial stresses, have on a {gamma}-TiAl, (Ti-45Al-5Nb-0.2B-0.2C) alloy under TMF conditions. The uniaxial, torsional and axialtorsional TMF behaviour of this {gamma}-TiAl alloy have been examined at 400 - 800 C with strain amplitudes ranging from 0.15% to 0.7%. The tests were conducted at both thermomechanical in-phase (IP) and out-of-phase (OP). Selected tests additionally contained a 180 seconds hold period. Fatigue lifetimes are strongly influenced by the strain amplitude, a small increase in amplitude reduces the lifetime considerably. The uniaxial IP tests showed significantly longer fatigue lifetimes than of all the tests performed. Torsional loading although have shorter fatigue lifetimes than the uniaxial IP loading they have longer fatigue lifetimes than the uniaxial OP loading. The non-proportional axial-torsional 90 degree OP test is most damaging which resulted in a shorter lifetime than the uniaxial OP test with the same Mises equivalent mechanical strain amplitude. A hold period at maximum temperatures reduced the lifetime for all tests regardless of the temperature

  5. Failure Investigation for QP Steel Sheets under uniaxial and Equal-Biaxial Tension Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Danqing; Li, Shuhui; He, Ji; Cui, Ronggao

    2016-08-01

    The Quenching and Partitioning (QP) steel sheet is new generation material to induce phase transformation for plasticity in forming vehicle parts. The phase transformation is strongly stress state dependent behavior in experiments, which should affect the failure timing and limit strain in forming processes. In this paper, Nakajima test with QP980 and DP1000 steel sheets under equal-biaxial loading condition is performed for failure behavior. X-ray diffraction (XRD) is adopted to obtain the volume fraction of retained austenite (fA). Digital Image Correlation (DIC) is used to record the surface strain field and its evolution during equal-biaxial tension deformation. The same level Dual Phase (DP) steel is also employed for the purpose of comparison. The results show that phase transformation in QP steel gives small impact on failure strain under equal biaxial tension condition which is contradicted with our understanding. It suggests that failure behavior under uniaxial tension of QP980 is strongly phase transformation dependent. But it shows almost independent under equal biaxial tension condition.

  6. Uniaxial diffusion bonding of CLAM/CLAM steels: Microstructure and mechanical performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xiaosheng; Liu, Yongchang; Yu, Liming; Liu, Chenxi; Sui, Guofa; Yang, Jianguo

    2015-06-01

    By performing a two-step uniaxial diffusion bonding, the reliable joining between CLAM/CLAM steels has been attained. The microstructures at the vicinity of the joint region and in base material were respectively investigated through OM, SEM and TEM. The joint interface was integrated, and no microstructural defects were observed. In the base material, small amount of austenite is retained as thin films between martensite laths, which was suggested to be related to the compressive deformation in diffusion bonding. As a candidate structural material for the first wall in fusion energy systems, the radiation resistance of CLAM steel would be deteriorated by the retained austenite. Tensile and impact tests were carried out to assess the reliability of the joints subjected to post bond heat treatment. All the tensile specimens fractured in the base CLAM steel, meaning the good joining between CLAM steels. However, due to the low impact absorbed energy of the joints, efforts should still be made to optimize the bonding technology and the post bond heat treatment further.

  7. Layer-specific residual deformations and uniaxial and biaxial mechanical properties of thoracic porcine aorta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peña, Juan A; Martínez, Miguel A; Peña, Estefanía

    2015-10-01

    In this paper we hypothesize that the layer-separated residual stresses and mechanical properties of layer-separated thoracic aorta arteries may be dependent on arterial location of the vessel. To demonstrate any possible position differences, we measured the axial pre-stretch and opening angle and performed uniaxial and biaxial tests under physiological loads to study the mechanical behavior of both intact and layer-separated porcine aortic samples taken from thoracic region. In addition, we also provided constitutive parameters for each layer that can be used by biomedical engineers for investigating better therapies and developing artery-specific devices. We found that the opening angle for whole artery and adventitia layer are smaller and intima greater for proximal segments than for the distal thoracic ones. For the axial pre-stretch, our results showed significant increased values of the stretch ratios with location. We found that lower thoracic samples are stiffer than upper ones with the most important differences corresponding to those between the proximal and distal behaviors in the circumferential direction. The anisotropy represented by the different circumferential and longitudinal response is more remarkable in lower thoracic aorta. Finally, adventitia and intima samples present a tendency to be stiffer and more isotropic than the corresponding media samples in both directions for upper thoracic aorta and to be more anisotropic for lower thoracic aorta. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Uniaxial diffusion bonding of CLAM/CLAM steels: Microstructure and mechanical performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Xiaosheng; Liu, Yongchang, E-mail: licmtju@163.com; Yu, Liming; Liu, Chenxi; Sui, Guofa; Yang, Jianguo

    2015-06-15

    By performing a two-step uniaxial diffusion bonding, the reliable joining between CLAM/CLAM steels has been attained. The microstructures at the vicinity of the joint region and in base material were respectively investigated through OM, SEM and TEM. The joint interface was integrated, and no microstructural defects were observed. In the base material, small amount of austenite is retained as thin films between martensite laths, which was suggested to be related to the compressive deformation in diffusion bonding. As a candidate structural material for the first wall in fusion energy systems, the radiation resistance of CLAM steel would be deteriorated by the retained austenite. Tensile and impact tests were carried out to assess the reliability of the joints subjected to post bond heat treatment. All the tensile specimens fractured in the base CLAM steel, meaning the good joining between CLAM steels. However, due to the low impact absorbed energy of the joints, efforts should still be made to optimize the bonding technology and the post bond heat treatment further.

  9. Isolation of kinetic and spatial properties of uni-axial dynamic tensile loading of OFHC copper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mourad H.

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Materials performance is recognized as being central to many emergent technologies. Future technologies will place increasing demands on materials performance with respect to extremes in stress, strain, temperature, and pressure. In this study, the dynamic ductile damage evolution of OFHC Cu is explored as a test bed to understand the role of spatial effects due to loading profile and defect density as well as the role of the kinetics of tensile pulse evolution. Well-characterized OFHC Cu samples of 30 μm, 60 μm, 100 μm, and 200 μm grain sizes were subjected to plate impact uniaxial strain loading in spall geometry to produce early stage (incipient damage. Using 2D metallographic techniques, soft recovered samples were studied to statistically link mesoscale processes to continuum level observations of free surface particle velocity measured with VISAR. Based on these findings, mechanisms for the void nucleation/growth and coalescence are proposed.

  10. Corrosion Fatigue Crack Growth Behavior at Notched Hole in 7075-T6 Under Biaxial and Uniaxial Fatigue with Different Phases

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-17

    CORROSION FATIGUE CRACK GROWTH BEHAVIOR AT NOTCHED HOLE IN 7075-T6 UNDER BIAXIAL AND UNIAXIAL FATIGUE WITH DIFFERENT PHASES... CORROSION FATIGUE CRACK GROWTH BEHAVIOR AT NOTCHED HOLE IN 7075-T6 UNDER BIAXIAL AND UNIAXIAL FATIGUE WITH DIFFERENT PHASES THESIS...UNLIMITED AFIT-ENY-MS-15-S-065 CORROSION FATIGUE CRACK GROWTH BEHAVIOR AT NOTCHED HOLE IN 7075-T6 UNDER BIAXIAL AND UNIAXIAL FATIGUE WITH

  11. Shock Response of Commercial Purity Polycrystalline Magnesium Under Uniaxial Strain at Elevated Temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tianxue; Zuanetti, Bryan; Prakash, Vikas

    2017-12-01

    In the present paper, results of plate impact experiments designed to investigate the onset of incipient plasticity in commercial purity polycrystalline magnesium (99.9%) under weak uniaxial strain compression and elevated temperatures up to melt are presented. The dynamic stress at yield and post yield of magnesium, as inferred from the measured normal component of the particle velocity histories at the free (rear) surface of the target plate, are observed to decrease progressively with increasing test temperatures in the range from 23 to 500 °C. At (higher) test temperatures in the range 500-610 °C, the rate of decrease of dynamic stress with temperature at yield and post-yield in the sample is observed to weaken. At still higher test temperatures (617 and 630 °C), a dramatic increase in dynamic yield as well as flow stress is observed indicating a change in dominant mechanism of plastic deformation as the sample approaches the melt point of magnesium at strain rates of 105/s. In addition to these measurements at the wavefront, the plateau region of the free surface particle velocity profiles indicates that the longitudinal (plastic) impedance of the magnesium samples decreases continuously as the sample temperatures are increased from room to 610 °C, and then reverses trend (indicating increasing material longitudinal impedance/strength) as the sample temperatures are increased to 617 and 630 °C. Electron back scattered diffraction analysis of the as-received and annealed pre-test magnesium samples reveal grain coarsening as well as grain re-orientation to a different texture during the heating process of the samples.

  12. Propagation of Airy beams in uniaxial crystals orthogonal to the optical axis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Guoquan; Chen, Ruipin; Chu, Xiuxiang

    2012-01-30

    Analytical propagation expression of an Airy beam in uniaxial crystals orthogonal to the optical axis is derived. The ballistic dynamics of an Airy beam in uniaxial crystals is also investigated. The Airy beam propagating in uniaxial crystals orthogonal to the optical axis mainly depends on the ratio of the extraordinary refractive index to the ordinary refractive index. As an example, the propagation of an Airy beam in the positive uniaxial crystals orthogonal to the optical axis is demonstrated. The acceleration of an Airy beam in the transversal direction along the optical axis is more rapidly than that in the other transversal direction. With increasing the ratio of the extraordinary refractive index to the ordinary refractive index, the acceleration of the Airy beam in the transversal direction along the optical axis speeds up and the acceleration of the Airy beam in the other transversal direction slows down. The Airy beam propagating in uniaxial crystals orthogonal to the optical axis follows a ballistic trajectory. The effective beam size of the Airy beam in the transversal direction along the optical axis is always larger than that in the other transversal direction.

  13. Risk-Informed Margin Management (RIMM) Industry Applications IA1 - Integrated Cladding ECCS/LOCA Performance Analysis - Problem Statement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szilard, Ronaldo Henriques [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Youngblood, Robert [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Frepoli, Cesare [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Yurko, Joseph P. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Swindlehurst, Gregg [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Zhang, Hongbin [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Zhao, Haihua [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Bayless, Paul D. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Rabiti, Cristian [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Alfonsi, Andrea [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Smith, Curtis L. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-04-01

    The U. S. NRC is currently proposing rulemaking designated as “10 CFR 50.46c” to revise the LOCA/ECCS acceptance criteria to include the effects of higher burnup on cladding performance as well as to address some other issues. The NRC is also currently resolving the public comments with the final rule expected to be issued in the summer of 2016. The impact of the final 50.46c rule on the industry will involve updating of fuel vendor LOCA evaluation models, NRC review and approval, and licensee submittal of new LOCA evaluations or reanalyses and associated technical specification revisions for NRC review and approval. The rule implementation process, both industry and NRC activities, is expected to take 5-10 years following the rule effective date. The need to use advanced cladding designs is expected. A loss of operational margin will result due to the more restrictive cladding embrittlement criteria. Initial and future compliance with the rule may significantly increase vendor workload and licensee cost as a spectrum of fuel rod initial burnup states may need to be analyzed to demonstrate compliance. Consequently there will be an increased focus on licensee decision making related to LOCA analysis to minimize cost and impact, and to manage margin.

  14. Industry Application ECCS / LOCA Integrated Cladding/Emergency Core Cooling System Performance: Demonstration of LOTUS-Baseline Coupled Analysis of the South Texas Plant Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Hongbin [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Szilard, Ronaldo [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Epiney, Aaron [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Parisi, Carlo [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Vaghetto, Rodolfo [Texas A & M Univ., College Station, TX (United States); Vanni, Alessandro [Texas A & M Univ., College Station, TX (United States); Neptune, Kaleb [Texas A & M Univ., College Station, TX (United States)

    2017-06-01

    Under the auspices of the DOE LWRS Program RISMC Industry Application ECCS/LOCA, INL has engaged staff from both South Texas Project (STP) and the Texas A&M University (TAMU) to produce a generic pressurized water reactor (PWR) model including reactor core, clad/fuel design and systems thermal hydraulics based on the South Texas Project (STP) nuclear power plant, a 4-Loop Westinghouse PWR. A RISMC toolkit, named LOCA Toolkit for the U.S. (LOTUS), has been developed for use in this generic PWR plant model to assess safety margins for the proposed NRC 10 CFR 50.46c rule, Emergency Core Cooling System (ECCS) performance during LOCA. This demonstration includes coupled analysis of core design, fuel design, thermalhydraulics and systems analysis, using advanced risk analysis tools and methods to investigate a wide range of results. Within this context, a multi-physics best estimate plus uncertainty (MPBEPU) methodology framework is proposed.

  15. Effect of uniaxial strain on the current of (6,6 finite armchair carbon nanotube

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SE Faizabadi

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available   In this paper, the uniaxial strain effect on the electronic properties of (6,6 finite armchair carbon nanotube was investigated by using the Green function technique and Landure-Buttiker formula. It was found that, in (6,6 finite carbon nanotube with 3q and 3q+1 length, where q is a certain integer, the current was induced by the application of a suitable tensile strain and compressive strain in low voltage, respectively. The current of (6,6 finite carbon nanotube with 3q-1 length was decreased by loading the uniaxial strain. According to the results semiconductor-metal transition in (6,6 finite carbon nanotube and vice versa is observed by applying uniaxial strain.

  16. Analytical Solution for the Stopping Power of the Cherenkov Radiation in a Uniaxial Nanowire Material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiago A. Morgado

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available We derive closed analytical formulae for the power emitted by moving charged particles in a uniaxial wire medium by means of an eigenfunction expansion. Our analytical expressions demonstrate that, in the absence of material dispersion, the stopping power of the uniaxial wire medium is proportional to the charge velocity, and that there is no velocity threshold for the Cherenkov emission. It is shown that the eigenfunction expansion formalism can be extended to the case of dispersive lossless media. Furthermore, in the presence of material dispersion, the optimal charge velocity that maximizes the emitted Cherenkov power may be less than the speed of light in a vacuum.

  17. Stress relaxation and reversed flow of low-density polyethylene melts following uniaxial extension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huang, Qian; Rasmussen, Henrik K.; Skov, Anne Ladegaard

    2012-01-01

    The extensional dynamics of two low-density polyethylene melts Lupolen 3020D and Lupolen 1840D, both showing a stress overshoot in start-up of uniaxial extension [Rasmussen, H. K., J. K. Nielsen, A. Bach, and O.Hassager, 'Viscosity overshoot in the start-up of uniaxial elongation of low density...... polyethylene melts,' J. Rheol. 49(2), 369-381 (2005)], have been further investigated in stress relaxation and reversed flow. After the overshoot, the stress relaxation has a remarkably faster decrease of the transient stress than when the relaxation is initiated before the overshoot. The measurements from...

  18. Mathematical model relating uniaxial compressive behavior of manufactured sand mortar to MIP-derived pore structure parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Zhenghong; Bu, Jingwu

    2014-01-01

    The uniaxial compression response of manufactured sand mortars proportioned using different water-cement ratio and sand-cement ratio is examined. Pore structure parameters such as porosity, threshold diameter, mean diameter, and total amounts of macropores, as well as shape and size of micropores are quantified by using mercury intrusion porosimetry (MIP) technique. Test results indicate that strains at peak stress and compressive strength decreased with the increasing sand-cement ratio due to insufficient binders to wrap up entire sand. A compression stress-strain model of normal concrete extending to predict the stress-strain relationships of manufactured sand mortar is verified and agreed well with experimental data. Furthermore, the stress-strain model constant is found to be influenced by threshold diameter, mean diameter, shape, and size of micropores. A mathematical model relating stress-strain model constants to the relevant pore structure parameters of manufactured sand mortar is developed.

  19. County-level characteristics as predictors of dentists' ECC counseling in the USA: a survey study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milgrom, Peter; Huebner, Colleen E; Mancl, Lloyd A; Chi, Donald L; Garson, Gayle; Grembowski, David

    2013-05-20

    Transmission of Streptococcus mutans from mother-to-child can lead to Early Childhood Caries. A previous study identified characteristics and beliefs of general dentists about counseling pregnant women to reduce risk of infection and Early Childhood Caries. This study extends those findings with an analysis of county level factors. In 2006, we surveyed 732 general dentists in Oregon, USA about dental care for pregnant women. Survey items asked about individual and practice characteristics. In the present study we matched those data to county level factors and used multinomial logistic regression to test the effects of the factors (i.e., dentist to population ratio, percentage of female dentists, percentage of females of childbearing age, and percentage of individuals living in poverty) on counseling behavior. County level factors were unrelated to counseling behavior when the models controlled for dentists' individual attitudes, beliefs, and practice level characteristics. The adjusted odds ratios for no counseling of pregnant patients (versus 100 percent counseling) were 1.1 (95% CI .8-1.7), 1.0 (1.0-1.1), 1.2 (.9-1.5), and 1.1 (1.0-1.2) for dentist/population ratio, percent female dentists, percent females of childbearing age, and percent in poverty, respectively Similar results were obtained when dentists who counseled some patients were compared to those counseling 100 percent of patients. Community level factors do not appear to impact the individual counseling behavior of general dentists in Oregon, USA regarding the risk of maternal transmission of Early Childhood Caries.

  20. County-level characteristics as predictors of dentists’ ECC counseling in the USA: a survey study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Transmission of Streptococcus mutans from mother-to-child can lead to Early Childhood Caries. A previous study identified characteristics and beliefs of general dentists about counseling pregnant women to reduce risk of infection and Early Childhood Caries. This study extends those findings with an analysis of county level factors. Methods In 2006, we surveyed 732 general dentists in Oregon, USA about dental care for pregnant women. Survey items asked about individual and practice characteristics. In the present study we matched those data to county level factors and used multinomial logistic regression to test the effects of the factors (i.e., dentist to population ratio, percentage of female dentists, percentage of females of childbearing age, and percentage of individuals living in poverty) on counseling behavior. Results County level factors were unrelated to counseling behavior when the models controlled for dentists' individual attitudes, beliefs, and practice level characteristics. The adjusted odds ratios for no counseling of pregnant patients (versus 100 percent counseling) were 1.1 (95% CI .8-1.7), 1.0 (1.0-1.1), 1.2 (.9-1.5), and 1.1 (1.0-1.2) for dentist/population ratio, percent female dentists, percent females of childbearing age, and percent in poverty, respectively Similar results were obtained when dentists who counseled some patients were compared to those counseling 100 percent of patients. Conclusions Community level factors do not appear to impact the individual counseling behavior of general dentists in Oregon, USA regarding the risk of maternal transmission of Early Childhood Caries. PMID:23688178

  1. Origin of uniaxial in-plane magnetic anisotropy in Fe{sub 81}Ni{sub 19}/Co superlattices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soroka, I.L. E-mail: inna.soroka@fysik.uu.se; Hjoervarsson, B

    2004-05-01

    We have studied the in-plane magnetic uniaxial anisotropy, for (0 0 1)-oriented Fe{sub 81}Ni{sub 19}/Co superlattices grown on MgO (0 0 1) by magnetron sputtering. The layers in the superlattices have a BCC structure with a slight orthorhombic distortion, which gives rise to a weak in-plane uniaxial anisotropy.0.

  2. Prevalence of candida albicans in dental plaque and caries lesion of early childhood caries (ECC) according to sampling site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghasempour, Maryam; Sefidgar, Seyed Ali Asghar; Eyzadian, Haniyeh; Gharakhani, Samaneh

    2011-01-01

    Candida albicans may have cariogenic potential but its role in caries etiology has not been established. The aim of this study was to determine candida albicans in supragingival dental plaque and infected dentine of cervical and proximal in early childhood caries (ECC). This cross-sectional study was carried out on 6o children aged 2-5 years, which were divided into 3 groups: children with at least one cervical caries; children with at least one proximal caries and caries-free. The infected dentine was collected from cervical and proximal caries lesions and plaque samples were collected from the three groups in order to compare the frequency of candida albicans in the collected sites. All samples were cultured in Sabouraud and CHROMagar medium and the cases that were positive for candida albicans were cultured in germ tube. Data were collected and analyzed. The mean age of the children was 3.9 years. From 100 samples, candida albicans samples were isolated in 55%, mold fungi were found in 29% cases and there was no fungal growth in 16% of the samples. In plaque samples, candida albicans were found in 15% of caries-free samples, 20% of the proximal and 80% of the cervical caries. In samples extracted from the caries, candida albicans were found in 60% of the proximal and 100% of the cervical caries. Mothers with university educational level had children with more cervical decays, caries free and proximal caries, respectively. The results showed that prevalence of Candida albicans in dental plaque and caries lesions of children with early childhood caries were relatively high and the prevalence was higher in cervical caries group.

  3. Viscosity overshoot in the start-up of uniaxial elongation of low density polyethylene melts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Henrik K.; Nielsen, Jens Kromann; Bach, Anders

    2005-01-01

    The transient uniaxial elongational viscosity of BASF Lupolen 1840D and 3020D melts has been measured on a filament stretch rheometer up to Hencky strains of 6-7. The elongational viscosity of both melts was measured at 130 degrees C within a broad range of elongational rates. At high elongation ...

  4. Control of triceps surae stimulation based on shank orientation using a uniaxial gyroscope during gait

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Monaghan, C.C.; van Riel, W.J.B.M.; Veltink, Petrus H.

    2009-01-01

    This article presents a stimulation control method using a uniaxial gyroscope measuring angular velocity of the shank in the sagittal plane, to control functional electrical stimulation of the triceps surae to improve push-off of stroke subjects during gait. The algorithm is triggered during each

  5. Deformation response of gellan gum based bone scaffold subjected to uniaxial quasi-static loading

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kytýř, Daniel; Krčmářová, Nela; Šleichrt, Jan; Fíla, Tomáš; Koudelka_ml., Petr; Gantar, A.; Novak, S.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 57, č. 1 (2017), s. 14-21 ISSN 1210-2709 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) ATCZ38 Institutional support: RVO:68378297 Keywords : gellan gum scaffold * reinforcement * uni-axial loading Subject RIV: JJ - Other Materials https://ojs.cvut.cz/ojs/index.php/ap/article/view/3885

  6. Measuring the complex permittivity tensor of uniaxial biological materials with coplanar waveguide transmission line

    Science.gov (United States)

    A simple and accurate technique is described for measuring the uniaxial permittivity tensor of biological materials with a coplanar waveguide transmission-line configuration. Permittivity tensor results are presented for several chicken and beef fresh meat samples at 2.45 GHz....

  7. Warm temperature (170-280°C) uniaxial compresion of SiC reinforced MMCs

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Gxowa, Zizo

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available and constant strain of 0.3. Engineering stress-strain curves showed that the best deformation was achieved when sintered MMC compacts were uniaxially compressed at 280°C and strain rate of 5s-1 using a soaking time of 20min.The best deformation was achieved...

  8. Prediction of oil expression by uniaxial compression using time-varying oilseed properties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bargale, P. C.; Wulfsohn, Dvoralai; Irudayaraj, J.

    2000-01-01

    A mathematical simulation of uniaxial compression of oilseeds for oil extraction was developed based upon combining Terzaghi's theory of consolidation for saturated soils with Darcy's law for unsaturated flow, while incorporating the time-varying nature of the coefficients of permeability...

  9. The effects of different possible modes of uniaxial strain on the ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Dimple

    2017-06-19

    Jun 19, 2017 ... nanomaterials like graphene by mechanical exfolia- tion, has revealed amazing electromechanical ... allow it to overcome the shortcomings of graphene, viz. zero band gap, lack of clear current and low ..... the system indirect band-gap semiconductor and for uniaxial compressive strain applied along the ...

  10. The Cell for the Uniaxial Stress of Samples in _{\\mu}SR-experiments

    CERN Document Server

    Andreica, D; Zhukov, V A; Mamedov, T N; Stoikov, A V; Zimmermann, U

    2004-01-01

    The cell for uniaxial stress of crystals up to 5 kbar, which is used in the _{\\mu}SR-experiments on investigation of the aluminum acceptor impurity in silicon, is described. Dimensions of the samples to be investigated are \\sim 9.5\\times 9.5\\times 20 mm. The pressure control is performed with the calibrated tensoresistors.

  11. Stress relaxation of entangled polystyrene solution after constant-rate, uniaxial elongation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Matsumiya, Yumi; Masubuchi, Yuichi; Watanabe, Hiroshi

    For an entangled solution of linear polystyrene (PS 545k; M = 545k) in dibutyl phthalate (DBP), the stress relaxation after constant-rate uniaxial elongation was examined with an extensional viscosity fixture mounted on ARES (TA Instruments). The PS concentration, c = 52 wt%, was chosen in a way...

  12. Stress relaxation of narrow molar mass distribution polystyrene following uniaxial extension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jens Kromann; Rasmussen, Henrik K.; Hassager, Ole

    2008-01-01

    The stress in the startup of uniaxial elongational flow until steady state, followed by stress relaxation, has been measured for a narrow molar mass distribution polystyrene inelt with a molecular weight of 145 kg/mol. The experiments are conducted on a filament stretching rheometer, where a closed...

  13. Modelling particulate self-healing materials and application to uni-axial compression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Herbst, O.; Herbst, Olaf; Luding, Stefan

    2008-01-01

    Using an advanced history dependent contact model for DEM simulations, including elasto-plasticity, viscosity, adhesion, and friction, pressure-sintered tablets are formed from primary particles. These tablets are subjected to unconfined uni-axial compression until and beyond failure. For fast and

  14. Modeling particulate self-healing materials and application to uni-axial compression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Herbst, O.; Luding, S.

    2008-01-01

    Using an advanced history dependent contact model for DEM simulations, including elasto-plasticity, viscosity, adhesion, and friction, pressure-sintered tablets are formed from primary particles. These tablets are subjected to unconfined uni-axial compression until and beyond failure. For fast and

  15. Molar mass of poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) during ultimate uniaxial drawing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Göschel, U.; Cools, P.J.C.H.

    2000-01-01

    The changes of the average molar mass Mw, Mn, Mz, and molar mass distributions during multistep uniaxial drawing of poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) to achieve ultimate mechanical properties have been studied in detail by means of size exclusion chromatography (SEC) with triple detection:

  16. The effects of different possible modes of uniaxial strain on the ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2017-06-19

    Jun 19, 2017 ... Home; Journals; Pramana – Journal of Physics; Volume 89; Issue 1. The effects of different possible modes of uniaxial strain on the tunability of electronic and band structures in M o S 2 monolayer nanosheet via first-principles density functional theory. DIMPLE NITYASAGAR JENA SHOUNAK ...

  17. Difference of Magnetic Pulse Compaction from Traditional Uniaxial Pressing of Alumina Nanopowders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zholnin, A.; Kovaleva, I.; Medvedev, P.; Dobrohotov, P.; Grigoryev, E.; Olevsky, E.; Isaenkova, M.

    Processes of pressureless sintering of alumina nanopowders, subjected to traditional uniaxial pressing or magnetic pulse compaction, were investigated with the use of X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, thermal analysis and dilatometry. In this study sintering mechanisms, initiated by magnetic-pulse compacting and absent in the classical compaction, for the first time were found.

  18. Tensile Microcrack Formation During Experimental Dynamic Shear Rupture Under Uniaxial Loading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chi Wan, K.; Griffith, W. A.; Pollard, D. D.; Rosakis, A. J.

    2007-12-01

    Motivated by the occurrence of high-angle pseudotachylyte injection veins along exhumed faults, we studied secondary tensile microcrack formation during dynamic shear rupture in the laboratory. Shear ruptures were induced by an exploding wire embedded along a frictionally held and glued interface in Homalite. During the experiments, the samples were held under a uniaxial load P applied at an angle α to the normal to the rupture interface. Test values of α varied between 30° and 70°, and P varied between 15MPa and 30MPa. The dynamic stress fields produced by the propagating shear rupture were recorded using photoelasticity and high-speed digital photography. Observed isochromatic fringe patterns were similar to contours of maximum shear stress evaluated using a solution for dynamic propagation of a mode II crack with a velocity-weakening endzone. Rupture velocities during experiments ranged between 60% and 90% of the shear wave velocity. Secondary microcracks were produced in the Homalite samples during rupture under multiple loading configurations. In all cases, the region of shear stress concentration was spread over a cohesive endzone (10-20 mm in length) behind the traveling rupture tip. In some cases, microcracks were observed to grow at a finite distance behind the shear rupture tip. We observed several interesting behaviors: (i) some tensile microcracks appear to form due to transient stress concentrations associated with the mode II rupture and are roughly periodic; (ii) some tensile microcracks are associated with rupture termination and are concentrated at the final rupture tips; and (iii) a correlation between rupture velocity and microcrack orientation appears to exist. Future work will address the correlation of secondary tensile fracture orientation and spacing with rupture parameters including velocity, directivity, and remote stress state.

  19. Study on acoustic–electric–heat effect of coal and rock failure processes under uniaxial compression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhong-Hui; Lou, Quan; Wang, En-Yuan; Liu, Shuai-Jie; Niu, Yue

    2018-02-01

    In recent years, coal and rock dynamic disasters are becoming more and more severe, which seriously threatens the safety of coal mining. It is necessary to carry out an depth study on the various geophysical precursor information in the process of coal and rock failure. In this paper, with the established acoustic–electric–heat multi-parameter experimental system of coal and rock, the acoustic emission (AE), surface potential and thermal infrared radiation (TIR) signals were tested and analyzed in the failure processes of coal and rock under the uniaxial compression. The results show that: (1) AE, surface potential and TIR have different response characteristics to the failure process of the sample. AE and surface potential signals have the obvious responses to the occurrence, extension and coalescence of cracks. The abnormal TIR signals occur at the peak and valley points of the TIR temperature curve, and are coincident with the abnormities of AE and surface potential to a certain extent. (2) The damage precursor points and the critical precursor points were defined to analyze the precursor characteristics reflected by AE, surface potential and TIR signals, and the different signals have the different precursor characteristics. (3) The increment of the maximum TIR temperature after the main rupture of the sample is significantly higher than that of the average TIR temperature. Compared with the maximum TIR temperature, the average TIR temperature has significant hysteresis in reaching the first peak value after the main rapture. (4) The TIR temperature contour plots at different times well show the evolution process of the surface temperature field of the sample, and indicate that the sample failure originates from the local destruction.

  20. Correlation Between P-wave Velocity and Strength Index for Shale to Predict Uniaxial Compressive Strength Value

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Awang H.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Seismic refraction survey is a non destructive method used in site investigation to identify the seismic velocity subsurface strata. Although it is widely known, the reliability of the result is still doubtable for some reason as well as due to an engineer’s ignorant, which insist on using conventional method rather than new advanced method causing the lack of usage in geophysical method for testing. This study aims to produce a correlation between P-wave velocity value and point load strength index value for shale. Both field and laboratory tests were carried out. In order to obtain the P-wave value, seismic refraction method was conducted as a field test at Precint 4, Putrajaya, Malaysia to achieve the Pwave velocity value of the shale bed. Ten samples of shale were collected from the field and laboratory tests were conducted. The tests are divided into three sections, namely non-destructive laboratory test, physical properties test and mechanical properties test. Ultrasonic Velocity Test via PUNDIT test was conducted as non-destructive laboratory test to acknowledge the P-wave velocity value in laboratory. Both field and laboratory P-wave velocity value were then compared and the result delivers are reliable due to it is within the range. For physical properties test, the rock density and porosity were acknowledged. Meanwhile, Point Load Test was conducted as mechanical properties. Correlation for both Pwave velocity value and point load strength value were achieved via producing an empirical relationship as the end result. Prediction of uniaxial compressive strength (UCS value was made via converting the point load strength value to UCS value using a correlation. By acknowledging this empirical relationship, it shows that geophysical methods are able to produce a reliable result. Hence more and widely used of geophysical method will be profound in the future.

  1. Mechanical characterization of stomach tissue under uniaxial tensile action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Z G; Li, W; Zhou, Z R

    2015-02-26

    In this article, the tensile properties of gastric wall were investigated by using biomechanical test and theoretical analysis. The samples of porcine stomach strips from smaller and greater curvature of the stomach were cut in longitudinal and circumferential direction, respectively. The loading-unloading, stress relaxation, strain creep, tensile fracture tests were performed at mucosa-submucosa, serosa-muscle and intact layer, respectively. Results showed that the biomechanical properties of the porcine stomach depended on the layers, orientations and locations of the gastric wall and presented typical viscoelastic, nonlinear and anisotropic mechanical properties. During loading-unloading test, the stress of serosa-muscle layer in the longitudinal direction was 15-20% more than that in the circumferential direction at 12% stretch ratio, while it could reach about 40% for the intact layer and 50% for the mucosa-submucosa layer. The results of stress relaxation and strain creep showed that the variation degree was obviously faster in the circumferential direction than that in the longitudinal direction, and the ultimate residual values were also different for the different layers, orientations and locations. In the process of fracture test, the serosa-muscle layer fractured firstly followed by the mucosa-submucosa layer when the intact layer was tested, the longitudinal strips firstly began to fracture and the required stress value was about twice as much as that in the circumferential strips. The anisotropy and heterogeneity of mechanical characterization of the porcine stomach were related to its complicated geometry, structure and functions. The results would help us to understand the biomechanics of soft organ tissue. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Crack Development in Cross-Ply Laminates Under Uniaxial Tension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gyekenyesi, Andrew L.

    1996-01-01

    This study addresses matrix-dominated failures in carbon fiber/polymer matrix composite laminates in a cross-ply lay-up. The events of interest are interlaminar fracture in the form of transverse cracks in the 90' plies and longitudinal splitting in the 0 deg plies and interlaminar fracture in the form of 0/90 delamination. These events were observed using various nondestructive evaluation (NDE) techniques during static tensile tests. Acoustic emission (AE) x radiography, and edge view microscopy were the principal ones utilized in a real-time environment. A comparison of the NDE results with an analytical model based on the classical linear fracture mechanics concept of strain energy release rate as a criterion for crack growth was performed. The virtual crack closure theory was incorporated with a finite element model to generate strain energy release rate curves for the analytical case. Celion carbon fiber/polyimide matrix (G30-500/PMR-15) was the material tested with cross-ply lay-ups of (0(2)/90(6))s and (0(4)/90(4))s. The test specimens contained thermally induced cracks caused by the high-temperature processing. The analytical model was updated to compensate for the initial damage and to study further accumulation by taking into account the crack interactions. By correlating the experimental and analytical data, the critical energy release rates were found for the observable events of interest.

  3. Shed-blood-separation and cell-saver: an integral Part of MiECC? Shed-blood-separation and its influence on the perioperative inflammatory response during coronary revascularization with minimal invasive extracorporeal circulation systems - a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Adrian; Hausmann, Harald; Schaarschmidt, Jan; Scharpenberg, Martin; Troitzsch, Dirk; Johansen, Peter; Nygaard, Hans; Eberle, Thomas; Michael Hasenkam, J

    2017-09-01

    The postoperative systemic inflammatory response after cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) is still an undesirable side-effect after cardiac surgery. It is most likely caused by blood contact with foreign surfaces and by the surgical trauma itself. However, the recirculation of activated shed mediastinal blood is another main cause of blood cell activation and cytokine release. Minimal invasive extracorporeal circulation (MiECC) comprises a completely closed circuit, coated surfaces and the separation of suction blood. We hypothesized that MiECC, with separated cell saved blood, would induce less of a systemic inflammatory response than MiECC with no cell-saver. The aim of this study was, therefore, to investigate the impact of cell washing shed blood from the operating field versus direct return to the ECC on the biomarkers for systemic inflammation. In the study, patients with MiECC and cell-saver were compared with the control group, patients with MiECC and direct re-transfusion of the drawn blood shed from the surgical field. High amounts of TNF-α (+ 120% compared to serum blood) were found in the shed blood itself, but a significant reduction was demonstrated with the use of a cell-saver (TNF-α ng/l post-ECC 10 min: 9.5±3.5 vs. 19.7±14.5, p<0.0001). The values for procalcitonin were not significantly increased in the control group (6h: 1.07±3.4 vs. 2.15±9.55, p=0.19) and lower for C-reactive protein (CRP) (24h: 147.1±64.0 vs.134.4±52.4 p=0.28). The use of a cell-saver and the processing of shed blood as an integral part of MiECC significantly reduces the systemic cytokine load. We, therefore, recommend the integration of cell-saving devices in MiECC to reduce the perioperative inflammatory response.

  4. The Landau-de Gennes theory of nematic liquid crystals: Uniaxiality versus Biaxiality

    KAUST Repository

    Majumdar, Apala

    2011-12-01

    We study small energy solutions within the Landau-de Gennes theory for nematic liquid crystals, subject to Dirichlet boundary conditions. We consider two-dimensional and three-dimensional domains separately. In the two-dimensional case, we establish the equivalence of the Landau-de Gennes and Ginzburg-Landau theory. In the three-dimensional case, we give a new definition of the defect set based on the normalized energy. In the threedimensional uniaxial case, we demonstrate the equivalence between the defect set and the isotropic set and prove the C 1,α-convergence of uniaxial small energy solutions to a limiting harmonic map, away from the defect set, for some 0 < a < 1, in the vanishing core limit. Generalizations for biaxial small energy solutions are also discussed, which include physically relevant estimates for the solution and its scalar order parameters. This work is motivated by the study of defects in liquid crystalline systems and their applications.

  5. Symmetry of Uniaxial Global Landau--de Gennes Minimizers in the Theory of Nematic Liquid Crystals

    KAUST Repository

    Henao, Duvan

    2012-01-01

    We extend the recent radial symmetry results by Pisante [J. Funct. Anal., 260 (2011), pp. 892-905] and Millot and Pisante [J. Eur. Math. Soc. (JEMS), 12 (2010), pp. 1069- 1096] (who show that the equivariant solutions are the only entire solutions of the three-dimensional Ginzburg-Landau equations in superconductivity theory) to the Landau-de Gennes framework in the theory of nematic liquid crystals. In the low temperature limit, we obtain a characterization of global Landau-de Gennes minimizers, in the restricted class of uniaxial tensors, in terms of the well-known radial-hedgehog solution. We use this characterization to prove that global Landau-de Gennes minimizers cannot be purely uniaxial for sufficiently low temperatures. Copyright © by SIAM.

  6. The Effect of Uniaxial Static Pressure on the Behaviour of the Aluminum Acceptor Impurity in Silicon

    CERN Document Server

    Mamedov, T N; Andrianov, D G; Herlach, D; Gorelkin, V N; Gritsaj, K I; Zhukov, V A; Stoikov, A V; Zimmermann, U

    2004-01-01

    The results on the effect of uniaxial static pressure on the behaviour of aluminum shallow acceptors in silicon are presented. Impurity atoms of _{\\mu}A1 in silicon crystals with phosphorus impurity (1.6\\cdot 10^{13} cm^{-3} for the first sample and 1.9\\cdot 10^{13} cm^{-3} for the second sample) were created by implantation of negative muons. The polarization of muons was studied in a magnetic field of 2.5 kGs transverse to the direction of the muon spin in the temperature range 10-300 K. Orientations of the chosen crystal axis ([111] for the first sample, [100] for the second one), magnetic field, and the muon polarization were reciprocally perpendicular. It was found that uniaxial pressure applied along the chosen crystal axes changes both the absolute value and the temperature dependence of the acceptor center magnetic moment relaxation rate.

  7. Imbert-Fedorov shifts of a Gaussian beam reflected from uniaxially anisotropic chiral media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Guoding; Xiao, Yuting; Li, Jun; Mao, Hongmin; Sun, Jian; Pan, Tao

    2013-08-01

    We study the Imbert-Fedorov (IF) shifts of a reflected Gaussian beam from uniaxially anisotropic chiral media (UACM), where the chirality appears only in one direction and the host medium is a uniaxial crystal or an electric plasma. The numerical results are presented for three kinds of UACM, respectively. It is found that the IF shifts are closely related to the propagation properties of the two eigenwaves in the UACM. In general, when either of the eigenwaves is totally reflected, the IF shifts can change abruptly near the critical angle. The cross-polarized reflection coefficient has a greater effect on the spatial IF (SIF) shift than on the angular IF (AIF) shift, and the sign of the AIF shift depends mainly on that of the difference between the co-polarized reflectivity. By designing artificially the electromagnetic parameters of the UACM, we can control the IF shifts and acquire their more abundant properties.

  8. Uniaxial magnetic anisotropy of cobalt thin films on different substrates using CW-MOKE technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shukla, Vijay, E-mail: shuklavs@rrcat.gov.in [Laser Physics Applications Section, Raja Ramanna Centre for Advanced Technology, Indore 452013 (India); Mukherjee, C. [Mechanical and Optical Support Section, Raja Ramanna Centre for Advanced Technology, Indore 452013 (India); Chari, R. [Laser Physics Applications Section, Raja Ramanna Centre for Advanced Technology, Indore 452013 (India); Rai, S. [Indus Synchrotron Utilization Division, Raja Ramnna Centre for Advanced Technology, Indore 452013 (India); Bindra, K.S. [Solid State Laser Division, Raja Ramanna Centre for Advanced Technology, Indore 452013 (India); Banerjee, A. [BARC training school at RRCAT and Homi Bhabha National Institute, Raja Ramanna Centre for Advanced Technology, Indore 452013 (India)

    2014-12-15

    Cobalt thin films were deposited on GaAs, Si and Glass substrates by RF-magnetron sputtering. The structure was studied using atomic force microscopy, X-ray reflectivity and grazing incidence X-ray diffraction. Magnetic properties were determined with the magneto-optic Kerr effect. The deposited films have in-plane uniaxial anisotropy and after annealing the anisotropy reduces. The reduction in anisotropy may be due to release of stress and the remaining anisotropy after annealing may be due to shape anisotropy of the particulates. - Highlights: • Deposited cobalt thin films on different substrates and annealed at 300 °C. • Characterized as-grown and annealed films by GIXRD, AFM and MOKE. • Uniaxial magnetic anisotropy observed for all the samples. • Decrease in anisotropy on annealing may be due to release of stress during deposition.

  9. Uniaxial pressure-induced half-metallic ferromagnetic phase transition in LaMnO3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivero, Pablo; Meunier, Vincent; Shelton, William

    2016-03-01

    We use first-principles theory to predict that the application of uniaxial compressive strain leads to a transition from an antiferromagnetic insulator to a ferromagnetic half-metal phase in LaMnO3. We identify the Q2 Jahn-Teller mode as the primary mechanism that drives the transition, indicating that this mode can be used to tune the lattice, charge, and spin coupling. Applying ≃6 GPa of uniaxial pressure along the [010] direction activates the transition to a half-metallic pseudocubic state. The half-metallicity opens the possibility of producing colossal magnetoresistance in the stoichiometric LaMnO3 compound at significantly lower pressure compared to recently observed investigations using hydrostatic pressure.

  10. Giant valley drifts in uniaxially strained monolayer MoS2

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Qingyun

    2013-12-30

    Using first-principles calculations, we study the electronic structure of monolayer MoS2 under uniaxial strain. We show that the energy valleys drift far off the corners of the Brillouin zone (K points), about 12 times the amount observed in graphene. Therefore, it is essential to take this effect into consideration for a correct identification of the band gap. The system remains a direct band gap semiconductor up to 4% uniaxial strain, while the size of the band gap decreases from 1.73 to 1.54 eV. We also demonstrate that the splitting of the valence bands due to inversion symmetry breaking and spin-orbit coupling is not sensitive to strain.

  11. Stress relaxation following uniaxial extension of polystyrene melt and oligomer dilutions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huang, Qian; Rasmussen, Henrik K.

    2016-01-01

    The filament stretching rheometer has been used to measure the stress relaxation following the startup of uniaxial extensional flow, on anarrow molar mass distribution (NMMD) polystyrene melt and styrene oligomer dilutions thereof. All samples used here were characterizedin molecular weight......, mechanical spectroscopy, and constant strain rate uniaxial extension in the work of Huang et al. [Macromolecules 46,5026–5035 (2013); ACS Macro Lett. 2, 741–744 (2013)]. The stress relaxation following the steady extensional stress was measured on a285 kg/mole NMMD polystyrene and two 1.92 kg/mole styrene...... oligomer dilutions thereof {PS-285k, PS-285k/2k-72, and PS-285k/2k-44 inthe work of Huang et al. [Macromolecules 46, 5026–5035 (2013)]}. The two dilutions contained 28 and 56 wt. % oligomer, respectively.Further, the stress relaxation on a 545 kg/mole NMMD polystyrene diluted with 48 wt. % 0.972 kg...

  12. Spin-transfer torque magnetization reversal in uniaxial nanomagnets with thermal noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinna, D.; Kent, A. D.; Stein, D. L.

    2013-07-01

    We consider the general Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert (LLG) dynamical theory underlying the magnetization switching rates of a thin film uniaxial magnet subject to spin-torque effects and thermal fluctuations. After discussing the various dynamical regimes governing the switching phenomena, we present analytical results for the mean switching time behavior. Our approach, based on explicitly solving the first passage time problem, allows for a straightforward analysis of the thermally assisted, low spin-torque, switching asymptotics of thin film magnets. To verify our theory, we have developed an efficient Graphics Processing Unit (GPU)-based micromagnetic code to simulate the stochastic LLG dynamics out to millisecond timescales. We explore the effects of geometrical tilts between the spin-current and uniaxial anisotropy axes on the thermally assisted dynamics. We find that even in the absence of axial symmetry, the switching times can be functionally described in a form virtually identical to the collinear case.

  13. Direct crystal plasticity model: Application to the investigation of single crystal fragmentation under uniaxial loading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yants, A. Yu.; Trusov, P. V.; Teplyakova, L. A.

    2017-12-01

    The mathematical formulation and the results of solving a boundary value problem of uniaxial loading of single-crystal aluminum samples are reported. A first-type direct model was used for the solution of the boundary value problem. The material response is determined within the crystal elastoviscoplasticity theory. The fragmentation of the initially homogeneous sample into zones with different internal structure evolution is shown.

  14. Electric field-induced valley degeneracy lifting in uniaxial strained graphene: evidence from magnetophonon resonance

    OpenAIRE

    Assili, Mohamed; Haddad, Sonia; Kang, Woun

    2015-01-01

    A double peak structure in the magneto-phonon resonance (MPR) spectrum of uniaxial strained graphene, under crossed electric and magnetic fields, is predicted. We focus on the $\\Gamma$ point optical phonon modes coupled to the inter-Landau level transitions $0 \\leftrightarrows \\pm 1$ where MPR is expected to be more pronounced at high magnetic field. We derive the frequency shifts and the broadenings of the longitudinal (LO) and transverse (TO) optical phonon modes taking into account the eff...

  15. Complete set of deformation potentials for AlN determined by reflectance spectroscopy under uniaxial stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishii, Ryota; Kaneta, Akio; Funato, Mitsuru; Kawakami, Yoichi

    2013-06-01

    Reflectance spectroscopy was performed for nonpolar and semipolar bulk aluminum nitride (AlN) substrates under uniaxial stress. The exciton-polariton theory was applied to interpret the reflectivity spectra, while the Bir-Pikus deformation potential theory was used to analyze the stress dependence of exciton transition energies. This approach allowed all the deformation potentials in AlN to be determined without the quasicubic approximation.

  16. Phase diagram of the uniaxial and biaxial soft-core Gay-Berne model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berardi, Roberto; Lintuvuori, Juho S; Wilson, Mark R; Zannoni, Claudio

    2011-10-07

    Classical molecular dynamics simulations have been used to explore the phase diagrams for a family of attractive-repulsive soft-core Gay-Berne models [R. Berardi, C. Zannoni, J. S. Lintuvuori, and M. R. Wilson, J. Chem. Phys. 131, 174107 (2009)] and determine the effect of particle softness, i.e., of a moderately repulsive short-range interaction, on the order parameters and phase behaviour of model systems of uniaxial and biaxial ellipsoidal particles. We have found that isotropic, uniaxial, and biaxial nematic and smectic phases are obtained for the model. Extensive calculations of the nematic region of the phase diagram show that endowing mesogenic particles with such soft repulsive interactions affect the stability range of the nematic phases, and in the case of phase biaxiality it also shifts it to lower temperatures. For colloidal particles, stabilised by surface functionalisation, (e.g., with polymer chains), we suggest that it should be possible to tune liquid crystal behaviour to increase the range of stability of uniaxial and biaxial phases (by varying solvent quality). We calculate second virial coefficients and show that they are a useful means of characterising the change in effective softness for such systems. For thermotropic liquid crystals, the introduction of softness in the interactions between mesogens with overall biaxial shape (e.g., through appropriate conformational flexibility) could provide a pathway for the actual chemical synthesis of stable room-temperature biaxial nematics. © 2011 American Institute of Physics

  17. Oriented Morphology and Anisotropic Transport in Uniaxially Stretched Perfluorosulfonate Ionomer Membranes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J Park; J Li; G Divoux; L Madsen; R Moore

    2011-12-31

    Relations between morphology and transport sensitively govern proton conductivity in perfluorsulfonate ionomers (PFSIs) and thus determine useful properties of these technologically important materials. In order to understand such relations, we have conducted a broad systematic study of H{sup +}-form PFSI membranes over a range of uniaxial extensions and water uptakes. On the basis of small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) and {sup 2}H NMR spectroscopy, uniaxial deformation induces a strong alignment of ionic domains along the stretching direction. We correlate ionic domain orientation to transport using pulsed-field-gradient {sup 1}H NMR measurements of water diffusion coefficients along the three orthogonal membrane directions. Intriguingly, we observe that uniaxial deformation enhances water transport in one direction (parallel-to-draw direction) while reducing it in the other two directions (two orthogonal directions relative to the stretching direction). We evaluate another important transport parameter, proton conductivity, along two orthogonal in-plane directions. In agreement with water diffusion experiments, orientation of ionic channels increases proton conduction along the stretching direction while decreasing it in the perpendicular direction. These findings provide valuable fodder for optimal application of PFSI membranes as well as for the design of next generation polymer electrolyte membranes.

  18. Unified Drain Current Model of Armchair Graphene Nanoribbons with Uniaxial Strain and Quantum Effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EngSiew Kang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A unified current-voltage I-V model of uniaxial strained armchair graphene nanoribbons (AGNRs incorporating quantum confinement effects is presented in this paper. The I-V model is enhanced by integrating both linear and saturation regions into a unified and precise model of AGNRs. The derivation originates from energy dispersion throughout the entire Brillouin zone of uniaxial strained AGNRs based on the tight-binding approximation. Our results reveal the modification of the energy band gap, carrier density, and drain current upon strain. The effects of quantum confinement were investigated in terms of the quantum capacitance calculated from the broadening density of states. The results show that quantum effect is greatly dependent on the magnitude of applied strain, gate voltage, channel length, and oxide thickness. The discrepancies between the classical calculation and quantum calculation were also measured and it has been found to be as high as 19% drive current loss due to the quantum confinement. Our finding which is in good agreement with the published data provides significant insight into the device performance of uniaxial strained AGNRs in nanoelectronic applications.

  19. Investigation of electron mobility and saturation velocity limits in gallium nitride using uniaxial dielectric continuum model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, K.; Stroscio, M. A.; Bayram, C.

    2017-06-01

    Here we introduce a uniaxial dielectric continuum model with temperature-dependent phonon mode frequencies to study temperature- and orientation-dependent polar-optical-phonon limited electron mobility and saturation velocity in uniaxial semiconductors. The formalism for calculating electron scattering rates, momentum relaxation rates, and rate of energy change as a function of the electron kinetic energy and incident electron angle with respect to the c-axis are presented and evaluated numerically. Electron-longitudinal-optical-phonon interactions are shown to depend weakly on the electron incident angle, whereas the electron-transverse-optical-phonon interactions around the emission threshold energy are observed to depend strongest on the electron incident angle when varied from π/4 to π/2 (with respect to the c-axis). We provide electron mobility and saturation velocity limits in different GaN crystal orientations as a function of temperature and electron concentration. At room temperature and for an electron density of 5 × 1018 cm-3, electron mobility limit of ˜3200 cm2/V s and electron saturation velocity limit of 3.15 × 107 cm/s are calculated. Both GaN electron mobility and saturation velocity are observed to be governed by the longitudinal-optical-phonon interaction, and their directional anisotropy is shown to vary less than 5% as the electron incident angle with respect to the c-axis is varied from 0 to π/2. Overall, we develop a theoretical formalism for calculating anisotropic properties of uniaxial wurtzite semiconductors.

  20. Dirac points and van Hove singularities of silicene under uniaxial strain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Xianqing, E-mail: xqlin@zjut.edu.cn [Wilczek Quantum Center, Zhejiang University of Technology, Hangzhou 310023 (China); College of Science, Zhejiang University of Technology, Hangzhou 310023 (China); Ni, Jun [State Key Laboratory of Low-Dimensional Quantum Physics and Collaborative Innovation Center of Quantum Matter, Department of Physics, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)

    2015-04-28

    First-principles calculations have been performed to investigate the low energy electronic properties and van Hove singularities (VHSs) of silicene under uniaxial strain. The Dirac points (DPs) persist when silicene is stretched uniaxially, while they are shifted away from the corners (K points) of the first Brillouin zone (FBZ). The relative positions of DPs with respect to the K points for silicene strained along the armchair (AC) or zigzag (ZZ) direction show opposite tendency compared with strained graphene, which is due to the larger deformation of the unit cell of strained silicene than that of strained graphene. Moreover, for silicene under AC or ZZ strain, the Fermi velocities around DPs along the positive and negative directions of the FBZ show rather significant difference. The nature of the VHS just above the Fermi energy undergoes a transition from the π* band to the σ* band for silicene under increasing AC or ZZ strain. These observations suggest uniaxial strain as an effective route to tune the electronic properties of silicene for potential applications in future electronic devices.

  1. The Origin of Uni-axial Negative Thermal Expansion in a Layered Perovskite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ablitt, Chris; Craddock, Sarah; Senn, Mark; Mostofi, Arash; Bristowe, Nicholas

    Using first-principles calculations within the quasi-harmonic approximation (QHA), we explain the origin of experimentally observed uni-axial negative thermal expansion (NTE) in a layered perovskite: the Ruddlesden-Popper (RP) oxide Ca2MnO4, which has anti-ferromagnetic ordering at low temperatures and is closely related to Ca3Mn2O7, which exhibits hybrid improper ferroelectricity and uni-axial NTE in competing phases. Dynamic tilts of MnO6 octahedra, common in many complex oxides, drive the expansion of the a axis and contraction of the c axis of the tetragonal NTE phase. We find that ferroelastic RP phases with a frozen octahedral rotation are unusually compliant to particular combinations of strains along different axes. The atomic mechanism responsible is characteristic of the perovskite/rock-salt interfaces present in the RP structure. We show that the contribution from this anisotropic elasticity must be taken into account in order to accurately predict NTE over the temperature range observed in experiment. A similar compliance to cooperative strains is found in other systems with uni-axial NTE. The development of this mechanistic understanding of NTE in complex oxides may pave the way for designing tunable multifunctional materials. The authors would like to acknowledge support from the EPSRC and the Centre for Doctoral Training in Theory and Simulation of Materials.

  2. Uniaxial strain effects on the band structure and effective masses of wurtzite GaAs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheiwchanchamnangij, Tawinan; Lambrecht, Walter

    2010-03-01

    While GaAs in bulk form has the zincblende structure, recent interest in the wurtzite form of GaAs arises in the context of nanowires. The band structure of wurtzite GaAs is calculated using the full-potential (FP) linearized muffin-tin orbital (LMTO) method within the local density approximation. The relativistic and spin-orbit coupling effects are included when obtaining the conduction and valence band effective mass tensors and related Rashba-Sheka-Pikus Hamiltonian parameters. The effects of c-axis uniaxial strain on the band structure is investigated and used to determine the relevant strain deformation potentials. It is found that under increasing uniaxial strain, a crossing of the γ5 and γ1 valence band levels occurs first, followed at higher strain by an additional crossing of the γ3 and γ1 conduction bands.. The latter is related to a corresponding direct to indirect (γ-L) crossing under uniaxial strain in zinblende.

  3. Uncoupling shear and uniaxial elastic moduli of semiflexible biopolymer networks: compression-softening and stretch-stiffening

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Oosten, Anne S. G.; Vahabi, Mahsa; Licup, Albert J.; Sharma, Abhinav; Galie, Peter A.; MacKintosh, Fred C.; Janmey, Paul A.

    2016-01-01

    Gels formed by semiflexible filaments such as most biopolymers exhibit non-linear behavior in their response to shear deformation, e.g., with a pronounced strain stiffening and negative normal stress. These negative normal stresses suggest that networks would collapse axially when subject to shear stress. This coupling of axial and shear deformations can have particularly important consequences for extracellular matrices and collagenous tissues. Although measurements of uniaxial moduli have been made on biopolymer gels, these have not directly been related to the shear response. Here, we report measurements and simulations of axial and shear stresses exerted by a range of hydrogels subjected to simultaneous uniaxial and shear strains. These studies show that, in contrast to volume-conserving linearly elastic hydrogels, the Young’s moduli of networks formed by the biopolymers are not proportional to their shear moduli and both shear and uniaxial moduli are strongly affected by even modest degrees of uniaxial strain. PMID:26758452

  4. Experimental Investigation on the Fracture Behavior of Black Shale by Acoustic Emission Monitoring and CT Image Analysis during Uniaxial Compression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Y.; Li, C. H.; Hu, Y. Z.

    2018-01-01

    Plenty of mechanical experiments have been done to investigate the deformation and failure characteristics of shale; however, the anisotropic failure mechanism has not been well studied. Here, laboratory Uniaxial Compressive Strength (UCS) tests on cylindrical shale samples obtained by drilling at different inclinations to bedding plane were performed. The failure behaviors of the shale samples were studied by real-time acoustic emission (AE) monitoring and post-test X-ray computer tomography (CT) analysis. The experimental results suggest that the pronounced bedding planes of shale have a great influence on the mechanical properties and AE patterns. The AE counts and AE cumulative energy release curves clearly demonstrate different morphology, and the `U' shaped curve relationship between the AE counts, AE cumulative energy release and bedding inclination was first documented. The post-test CT image analysis shows the crack patterns via 2D image reconstructions, an index of stimulated fracture density is defined to represent the anisotropic failure mode of shale. What is more, the most striking finding is that the AE monitoring results are in good agreement with the CT analysis. The structural difference in the shale sample is the controlling factor resulting in the anisotropy of AE patterns. The pronounced bedding structure in the shale formation results in an anisotropy of elasticity, strength, and AE information from which the changes in strength dominate the entire failure pattern of the shale samples.

  5. Effect of uniaxial compressive loading on gas permeability and chloride diffusion coefficient of concrete and their relationship

    OpenAIRE

    DJERBI TEGGUER, Assia; BONNET, Stéphanie; KHELIDJ, Adbelhafid; BAROGHEL BOUNY, Véronique

    2013-01-01

    Knowledge of the transport properties of damaged concrete in marine environments is essential for predicting its durability. The objective of this study was to fill this gap by correlating the change in permeability and chloride diffusivity with an increasing uniaxial load on ordinary concrete (OC) and high performance concrete (HPC). Concrete cylinders were induced microcracks by mechanical uniaxial compression between 60% and 90% of the ultimate strength to get diffuse damage. The damage va...

  6. Multicriteria decision-making analysis based methodology for predicting carbonate rocks' uniaxial compressive strength

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ersoy Hakan

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available

    ABSTRACT

    Uniaxial compressive strength (UCS deals with materials' to ability to withstand axially-directed pushing forces and especially considered to be rock materials' most important mechanical properties. However, the UCS test is an expensive, very time-consuming test to perform in the laboratory and requires high-quality core samples having regular geometry. Empirical equations were thus proposed for predicting UCS as a function of rocks' index properties. Analytical hierarchy process and multiple regression analysis based methodology were used (as opposed to traditional linear regression methods on data-sets obtained from carbonate rocks in NE Turkey. Limestone samples ranging from Devonian to late Cretaceous ages were chosen; travertine-onyx samples were selected from morphological environments considering their surface environmental conditions Test results from experiments carried out on about 250 carbonate rock samples were used in deriving the model. While the hierarchy model focused on determining the most important index properties affecting on UCS, regression analysis established meaningful relationships between UCS and index properties; 0. 85 and 0. 83 positive coefficient correlations between the variables were determined by regression analysis. The methodology provided an appropriate alternative to quantitative estimation of UCS and avoided the need for tedious and time consuming laboratory testing


    RESUMEN

    La resistencia a la compresión uniaxial (RCU trata con la capacidad de los materiales para soportar fuerzas empujantes dirigidas axialmente y, especialmente, es considerada ser uno de las más importantes propiedades mecánicas de

  7. Effect of uniaxial stress on gallium, beryllium, and copper-doped germanium hole population inversion lasers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chamberlin, Danielle Russell [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    1998-05-01

    The effects of stress on germanium lasers doped with single, double, and triple acceptors have been investigated. The results can be explained quantitatively with theoretical calculations and can be attributed to specific changes in the energy levels of acceptors in germanium under stress. In contrast to previous measurements, gallium-doped Ge crystals show a decrease in lasing upon uniaxial stress. The decrease seen here is attributed to the decrease in heavy hole effective mass upon application of uniaxial stress, which results in a decreased population inversion. The discrepancy between this work and previous studies can be explained with the low compensation level of the material used here. Because the amount of ionized impurity scattering in low-compensated germanium lasers is small to begin with, the reduction in scattering with uniaxial stress does not play a significant role in changing the laser operation. Beryllium-doped germanium lasers operate based on a different mechanism of population inversion. In this material it is proposed that holes can transfer between bands by giving their energy to a neutral beryllium atom, raising the hole from the ground to a bound excited state. The free hole will then return to zero energy with some probability of entering the other band. The minimum and maximum E/B ratios for lasing change with uniaxial stress because of the change in effective mass and bound excited state energy. These limits have been calculated for the case of 300 bar [100] stress, and match very well with the observed data. This adds further credence to the proposed mechanism for population inversion in this material. In contrast to Be and Ga-doped lasers, copper-doped lasers under uniaxial stress show an increase in the range of E and B where lasing is seen. To understand this change the theoretical limits for population inversion based on both the optical phonon mechanism and the neutral acceptor mechanism have been calculated. The data are

  8. Action at a distance in classical uniaxial ferromagnetic arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abraham, D. B.; Maciołek, A.; Squarcini, A.; Vasilyev, O.

    2017-10-01

    We examine in detail the theoretical foundations of striking long-range couplings emerging in arrays of fluid cells connected by narrow channels by using a lattice gas (Ising model) description of a system. We present a reexamination of the well known exact determination of the two-point correlation function along the edge of a channel using the transfer matrix technique and a different interpretation is provided. The explicit form of the correlation length is found to grow exponentially with the cross section of the channels at the bulk two-phase coexistence. The aforementioned result is recaptured by a refined version of the Fisher-Privman theory of first order phase transitions in which the Boltzmann factor for a domain wall is decorated with a contribution stemming from the point tension originated at its end points. The Boltzmann factor for a domain wall together with the point tension is then identified exactly thanks to two independent analytical techniques, providing a critical test of the Fisher-Privman theory. We then illustrate how to build up the network model from its elementary constituents, the cells and the channels. Moreover, we are able to extract the strength of the coupling between cells and express them in terms of the length and width and coarse-grained quantities such as surface and point tensions. We then support our theoretical investigation with a series of corroborating results based on Monte Carlo simulations. We illustrate how the long-range ordering occurs and how the latter is signaled by the thermodynamic quantities corresponding to both planar and three-dimensional Ising arrays.

  9. Nietzsche como destino da filosofia e da humanidade? interpretação contextual do § 1 do capítulo "por que sou um destino", de ecce homo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Werner Stegmaier

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The following translation is a reduced and revised version of the paper Schicksal Nietzsche? Zu Nietzsches Selbsteinschätzung als Schicksal der Philosophie und der Menschheit (Ecce Homo, Warum ich ein Schicksal bin §1" - originally published in Nietzsche-Studien 37 (2008 - which was specially prepared to be presented in lecture organized by the Grupo de Pesquisa Spinoza & Nietzsche (Spinoza & Nietzsche research group - SpiN, in the Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (Rio de Janeiro's Federal University, on September 14, 2009. In the text, the autor employs his own philological-hermeneutical methodology, which is called contextual interpretation, in the purpose to clarify the concepts of the first aphorism from "Why I am a destiny", from Ecce Homo, in its own context, in the context of Ecce Homo and in the context of the entire work from Nietzsche.

  10. Specimen aspect ratio and progressive field strain development of sandstone under uniaxial compression by three-dimensional digital image correlation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Munoz

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The complete stress–strain characteristics of sandstone specimens were investigated in a series of quasi-static monotonic uniaxial compression tests. Strain patterns development during pre- and post-peak behaviours in specimens with different aspect ratios was also examined. Peak stress, post-peak portion of stress–strain, brittleness, characteristics of progressive localisation and field strain patterns development were affected at different extents by specimen aspect ratio. Strain patterns of the rocks were obtained by applying three-dimensional (3D digital image correlation (DIC technique. Unlike conventional strain measurement using strain gauges attached to specimen, 3D DIC allowed not only measuring large strains, but more importantly, mapping the development of field strain throughout the compression test, i.e. in pre- and post-peak regimes. Field strain development in the surface of rock specimen suggests that strain starts localising progressively and develops at a lower rate in pre-peak regime. However, in post-peak regime, strains increase at different rates as local deformations take place at different extents in the vicinity and outside the localised zone. The extent of localised strains together with the rate of strain localisation is associated with the increase in rate of strength degradation. Strain localisation and local inelastic unloading outside the localised zone both feature post-peak regime.

  11. Experimental test of renormalization group theory on the uniaxial, dipolar coupled ferromagnet LiTbf4

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Als-Nielsen, Jens Aage

    1976-01-01

    The transverse correlation range ξ and the susceptibility in the critical region has been measured by neutron scattering. A special technique required to resolve the superdiverging longitudinal correlation range has been utilized. The results for ξ together with existing specific-heat data are in...

  12. A soft magnetic underlayer with negative uniaxial magnetocrystalline anisotropy for suppression of spike noise and wide adjacent track erasure in perpendicular recording media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashimoto, Atsushi; Saito, Shin; Takahashi, Migaku

    2006-04-01

    The suppression of spike noise and wide adjacent track erasure (WATE) are important technical issues in the development of a perpendicular recording medium (PRM). As a solution to both of these problems, this paper presents a type of soft magnetic underlayer (SUL) with negative uniaxial perpendicular magnetic anisotropy. The magnetic anisotropy is achieved by employing a material with negative uniaxial magnetocrystalline anisotropy (Kugrain). WATE is suppressed in the SUL by realizing wide distribution of magnetic flux below the edge of the return yoke, while spike noise is eliminated by ensuring the formation of a Néel wall instead of a Bloch wall in SUL domains. CoIr with the disordered hcp structure is selected as a negative Kugrain material, and c-plane-oriented CoIr films with various Ir contents are prepared for experimental evaluation. Among the films tested, the CoIr film with 22 at. % Ir is found to provide the minimum Kugrain value of -6×106 ergs/cm3. Under a field applied parallel to the film plane, this film exhibits soft magnetic properties, attributable to the high crystallographic symmetry of the c-plane sheet texture. A PRM fabricated using the CoIr SUL is confirmed to display substantially lower spike noise and WATE compared to conventional structures.

  13. On the limits of uniaxial magnetic anisotropy tuning by a ripple surface pattern

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arranz, Miguel A. [Facultad de Ciencias Químicas, Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha, Avda. Camilo J. Cela 10, 13071 Ciudad Real (Spain); Colino, Jose M., E-mail: josemiguel.colino@uclm.es [Instituto de Nanociencia, Nanotecnología y Materiales Moleculares, Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha, Campus de la Fábrica de Armas, 45071 Toledo (Spain); Palomares, Francisco J. [Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Madrid, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas, c/ Sor Juana Inés de la Cruz 3, 28049 Madrid (Spain)

    2014-05-14

    Ion beam patterning of a nanoscale ripple surface has emerged as a versatile method of imprinting uniaxial magnetic anisotropy (UMA) on a desired in-plane direction in magnetic films. In the case of ripple patterned thick films, dipolar interactions around the top and/or bottom interfaces are generally assumed to drive this effect following Schlömann's calculations for demagnetizing fields of an ideally sinusoidal surface [E. Schlömann, J. Appl. Phys. 41, 1617 (1970)]. We have explored the validity of his predictions and the limits of ion beam sputtering to induce UMA in a ferromagnetic system where other relevant sources of magnetic anisotropy are neglected: ripple films not displaying any evidence of volume uniaxial anisotropy and where magnetocrystalline contributions average out in a fine grain polycrystal structure. To this purpose, the surface of 100 nm cobalt films grown on flat substrates has been irradiated at fixed ion energy, fixed ion fluency but different ion densities to make the ripple pattern at the top surface with wavelength Λ and selected, large amplitudes (ω) up to 20 nm so that stray dipolar fields are enhanced, while the residual film thickness t = 35–50 nm is sufficiently large to preserve the continuous morphology in most cases. The film-substrate interface has been studied with X-ray photoemission spectroscopy depth profiles and is found that there is a graded silicon-rich cobalt silicide, presumably formed during the film growth. This graded interface is of uncertain small thickness but the range of compositions clearly makes it a magnetically dead layer. On the other hand, the ripple surface rules both the magnetic coercivity and the uniaxial anisotropy as these are found to correlate with the pattern dimensions. Remarkably, the saturation fields in the hard axis of uniaxial continuous films are measured up to values as high as 0.80 kG and obey a linear dependence on the parameter ω{sup 2}/Λ/t in quantitative

  14. Self-focusing in uniaxial gyrotropic media. Qualitative and numerical investigation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karpman, V.I.; Shagalov, A.G.

    1992-01-01

    We consider the self-focusing in uniaxial gyrotropic media at axially symmetric geometry, i.e., when the wave beam and the gyration vector g are parallel to the principal axis. Dissipation is neglected and the nonlinearity is of the Kerr type. It is shown that when g is directed along the wave...... normal, i.e., g.n > 0, there is a detrapping of the nonlinearly self-trapped wave beam. The detrapping increases with the narrowing of the beam and this results in the final defocusing of the wave. If g is antiparallel to the wave normal, (g.n) wave...

  15. Hybrid aerogels and bioactive aerogels under uniaxial compression: an in situ SAXS study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esquivias, L.

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The complex structure of hybrid organic/inorganic aerogels is composed by an inorganic phase covalently bonded to an organic chain forming a copolymer. Conventional hybrid aerogels were studied as well as bioactive hybrid aerogels, that is, aerogels with a calcium active phase added. In this work, the relationship between mechanical response and nanostructure was studied, using a specifically designed sample-holder for in situ uniaxial compression obtaining at the same time the small-angle X-ray pattern from synchrotron radiation (SAXS. Structural elements can be described as a particulated silica core surrounded by the organic chains. These chains are compressed on the direction parallel to the load, and a relationship between macroscopic uniaxial compression and particle and pore deformations can be established.

    La compleja estructura de los aerogeles híbridos orgánico/inorgánicos está compuesta por una fase inorgánica de sílice, unida mediante enlaces covalentes a una red de cadenas orgánicas. Se han estudiado composites híbridos convencionales y bioactivos, esto es, con una fase activa de calcio añadida. En este trabajo se ha investigado la relación entre la respuesta mecánica y la nanoestructura, con ayuda de un portamuestras específicamente diseñado para el estudio in situ de muestras bajo compresión uniaxial, a la vez que se obtiene el espectro de rayos-X a bajo-ángulo de radiación sincrotrón (SAXS. Los elementos estructurales se pueden describir como núcleos particulados de sílice rodeados de las cadenas orgánicas. Estas, se comprimen en la dirección paralela a la carga pudiéndose establecer una relación entre la compresión uniaxial macroscópica y la deformación de las partículas y poros que forman la estructura.

  16. Long-wavelength optical phonon behavior in uniaxial strained graphene: Role of electron-phonon interaction

    OpenAIRE

    Assili, Mohamed; Haddad, Sonia

    2014-01-01

    We derive the frequency shifts and the broadening of $\\Gamma$ point longitudinal optical (LO) and transverse optical (TO) phonon modes, due to electron-phonon interaction, in graphene under uniaxial strain as a function of the electron density and the disorder amount. We show that, in the absence of a shear strain component, such interaction gives rise to a lifting of the degeneracy of the LO and TO modes which contributes to the splitting of the G Raman band. The anisotropy of the electronic...

  17. Ultrashort optical waveguide excitations in uniaxial silica fibers: Elastic collision scenarios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuetche, Victor K.; Youssoufa, Saliou; Kofane, Timoleon C.

    2014-12-01

    In this work, we investigate the dynamics of an uniaxial silica fiber under the viewpoint of propagation of ultimately ultrashort optical waveguide channels. As a result, we unveil the existence of three typical kinds of ultrabroadband excitations whose profiles strongly depend upon their angular momenta. Looking forward to surveying their scattering features, we unearth some underlying head-on scenarios of elastic collisions. Accordingly, we address some useful and straightforward applications in nonlinear optics through secured data transmission systems, as well as laser physics and soliton theory with optical soliton dynamics.

  18. Uniaxial stress influence on electrical conductivity of thin epitaxial lanthanum-strontium manganite films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stankevič, V., E-mail: wstan@pfi.lt [Center for Physical Sciences and Technology, Semiconductor Physics Institute, A.Gostauto 11, Vilnius (Lithuania); Vilnius Gediminas Technical University, Sauletekio 11, Vilnius (Lithuania); Šimkevičius, Č.; Balevičius, S.; Žurauskienė, N. [Center for Physical Sciences and Technology, Semiconductor Physics Institute, A.Gostauto 11, Vilnius (Lithuania); Vilnius Gediminas Technical University, Sauletekio 11, Vilnius (Lithuania); Cimmperman, P. [Center for Physical Sciences and Technology, Semiconductor Physics Institute, A.Gostauto 11, Vilnius (Lithuania); Abrutis, A. [Vilnius University, Dept. of General and Inorganic Chemistry, Naugarduko 24, Vilnius (Lithuania); Plaušinaitienė, V. [Center for Physical Sciences and Technology, Semiconductor Physics Institute, A.Gostauto 11, Vilnius (Lithuania); Vilnius University, Dept. of General and Inorganic Chemistry, Naugarduko 24, Vilnius (Lithuania)

    2013-07-01

    This is a study of the influence of external uniaxial mechanical strains on the transport properties of thin epitaxial La{sub 0.83}Sr{sub 0.17}MnO{sub 3} (LSMO) films. Our measurements were carried out using standard isosceles triangle-shaped cantilever. Films which were tensed in-plane or compressed or were subjected to both tension and compression strains were grown onto SrTiO{sub 3} (STO), LaAlO{sub 3} (LAO) and (001) NdGaO{sub 3} (NGO) substrates, respectively. It was found that for thin films (less than 100 nm), the uniaxial compression of such films which were initially tensed in-plane (grown onto STO substrates) produces a decrease of their resistance, whereas the compression of initially compressed films (on LAO substrates) produces an increase of the films' resistance. The same results were obtained for LSMO films grown onto (001) NGO substrates when they were compressed along the [010] and [100] directions, respectively. For thicker films (more than 100 nm), the resistance behavior after uniaxial compression was found to be identical to that produced by hydrostatic compression, namely, the resistance decreases irrespective of the substrate. These experiments also reveal an increase of resistance and a shift of metal–insulator transition temperature T{sub m} to lower temperatures corresponding to a decrease of the film thickness. The occurrence of this effect is also independent of the kind of substrate used. Thus it was concluded that the influence of film thickness on its resistance as well as on the behavior of such films while under external uniaxial compression cannot be explained fully by only the presence of residual stress in these films. A possible reason is that the inhomogeneous distribution of the mechanical stresses in the films can lead to the appearance of two conductivity phases, each having a different mechanism. The results which were obtained when these films were subjected to hydrostatic compression were also explained by this

  19. Terahertz absorption and emission upon the photoionization of acceptors in uniaxially stressed silicon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhukavin, R. Kh., E-mail: zhur@ipmras.ru; Kovalevsky, K. A.; Orlov, M. L.; Tsyplenkov, V. V. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Institute for Physics of Microstructures (Russian Federation); Hübers, H.-W. [DLR Institute of Optical Sensor Systems (Germany); Dessmann, N. [Humboldt University of Berlin, Institute of Physics (Germany); Kozlov, D. V.; Shastin, V. N. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Institute for Physics of Microstructures (Russian Federation)

    2016-11-15

    Experimental data on the spontaneous emission and absorption modulation in boron-doped silicon under CO{sub 2} laser excitation depending on the uniaxial stress applied along the [001] and [011] crystallographic directions are presented. Room-temperature radiation is used as the probe radiation. Low stress (less than 0.5 kbar) is shown to reduce losses in the terahertz region by 20%. The main contribution to absorption modulation at zero and low stress is made by A{sup +} centers. Intersubband free hole transitions additionally contribute to terahertz absorption at higher stress. These contributions can be minimized by compensation.

  20. Critical behavior of the magnetic susceptibility of the uniaxial ferromagnet LiHoF4

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beauvillain, P.; Renard, J. P.; Laursen, Ib

    1978-01-01

    The magnetic susceptibility of two LiHoF4 single crystals has been measured in the range 1.2-4.2 K. Ferromagnetic order occurs at Tc=1.527 K. Above 2.5 K, the susceptibilities parallel and perpendicular to the fourfold c axis are well interpreted by the molecular-field approximation, taking......, the parallel susceptibility is well described by the classical law with logarithmic corrections theoretically predicted by Larkin and Khmel'mitskii for the uniaxial dipolar ferromagnet or by a power law with a critical-exponent value γ=1.05 rather close to 1. The upper limit of the critical region is (Tmax...

  1. Chopping skyrmions from magnetic chiral domains with uniaxial stress in magnetic nanowire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yan; Lei, Na; Zhao, Weisheng; Liu, Wenqing; Ruotolo, Antonio; Braun, Hans-Benjamin; Zhou, Yan

    2017-07-01

    Magnetic skyrmions are envisioned as ideal candidates as information carriers for future spintronic devices, which have attracted a great deal of attention in recent years. Due to their topological protection, the creation and annihilation of magnetic skyrmions have been a challenging task. Here, we numerically demonstrate that a magnetic skyrmion can be created by chopping a chiral stripe domain with a static uniaxial strain/stress pulse. This mechanism not only provides a method to create skyrmions in magnetic nanostructures but also offers promising routes for designing tunable skyrmionic-mechanic devices.

  2. Interplay of uniaxial and cubic anisotropy in epitaxial Fe thin films on MgO (001 substrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srijani Mallik

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Epitaxial Fe thin films were grown on annealed MgO(001 substrates at oblique incidence by DC magnetron sputtering. Due to the oblique growth configuration, uniaxial anisotropy was found to be superimposed on the expected four-fold cubic anisotropy. A detailed study of in-plane magnetic hysteresis for Fe on MgO thin films has been performed by Magneto Optic Kerr Effect (MOKE magnetometer. Both single step and double step loops have been observed depending on the angle between the applied field and easy axis i.e. along ⟨100⟩ direction. Domain images during magnetization reversal were captured by Kerr microscope. Domain images clearly evidence two successive and separate 90° domain wall (DW nucleation and motion along cubic easy cum uniaxial easy axis and cubic easy cum uniaxial hard axis, respectively. However, along cubic hard axis two 180° domain wall motion dominate the magnetization reversal process. In spite of having four-fold anisotropy it is essential to explain magnetization reversal mechanism in 0°< ϕ < 90° span as uniaxial anisotropy plays a major role in this system. Also it is shown that substrate rotation can suppress the effect of uniaxial anisotropy superimposed on four-fold anisotropy.

  3. Optimal fine-scale structures in compliance minimization for a uniaxial load.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohn, Robert V; Wirth, Benedikt

    2014-10-08

    We consider the optimization of the topology and geometry of an elastic structure [Formula: see text] subjected to a fixed boundary load, i.e. we aim to minimize a weighted sum of material volume [Formula: see text], structure perimeter [Formula: see text] and structure compliance [Formula: see text] (which is the work done by the load). As a first simple and instructive case, this paper treats the situation of an imposed uniform uniaxial tension load in two dimensions. If the weight ε of the perimeter is small, optimal geometries exhibit very fine-scale structure which cannot be resolved by numerical optimization. Instead, we prove how the minimum energy scales in ε, which involves the construction of a family of near-optimal geometries and thus provides qualitative insights. The construction is based on a classical branching procedure with some features unique to compliance minimization. The proof of the energy scaling also requires an ansatz-independent lower bound, which we derive once via a classical convex duality argument (which is restricted to two dimensions and the uniaxial load) and once via a Fourier-based refinement of the Hashin-Shtrikman bounds for the effective elastic moduli of composite materials. We also highlight the close relation to and the differences from shape optimization with a scalar PDE-constraint and a link to the pattern formation observed in intermediate states of type-I superconductors.

  4. Multiple scattering of electromagnetic waves by an aggregate of uniaxial anisotropic spheres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zheng-Jun; Wu, Zhen-Sen; Shi, Yan'e; Bai, Lu; Li, Hai-Ying

    2012-01-01

    An exact analytical solution is obtained for the scattering of electromagnetic waves from a plane wave with arbitrary directions of propagation and polarization by an aggregate of interacting homogeneous uniaxial anisotropic spheres with parallel primary optical axes. The expansion coefficients of a plane wave with arbitrary directions of propagation and polarization, for both TM and TE modes, are derived in terms of spherical vector wave functions. The effects of the incident angle α and the polarization angle β on the radar cross sections (RCSs) of several types of collective uniaxial anisotropic spheres are numerically analyzed in detail. The characteristics of the forward and backward RCSs in relation to the incident wavelength are also numerically studied. Selected results on the forward and backward RCSs of several types of square arrays of SiO₂ spheres illuminated by a plane wave with different incident angles are described. The accuracy of the expansion coefficients of the incident fields is verified by comparing them with the results obtained from references when the plane wave is degenerated to a z-propagating and x- or y-polarized plane wave. The validity of the theory is also confirmed by comparing the numerical results with those provided by a CST simulation.

  5. Experimental and numerical study on the unstable crack growth under uniaxial compression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okinaka, T.; Wijerathne, L.

    2017-02-01

    Image analysis with ultra-high-speed camera and two dimensional dynamic numerical analysis are applied to study the rapid unstable growth of wing crack under the uniaxial compression. Growing wing crack terminates and restarts its unstable rapid growth in some cases. Such a termination and restart behavior of the growing crack is studied through the experiment and numerical analysis in this work. First, rectangle transparent specimen, including the initial crack inclined to the compressive axis, is subjected to the uniaxial compression till the wing cracks start unstable rapid growth from both ends of the initial crack. Images of growing cracks and those of stress distribution, visualized as the photo-elastic fringe pattern, are captured by the high speed camera with the frame rate of 500k frames per second. The behavior of growing crack and the change in the stress field due to the crack growth are discussed through the captured images. Next, two dimensional dynamic numerical analysis is carried out. PDS-FEM (Particle Discretization Scheme), which allows the discontinuity of the displacement in the continuous analytical domain, is combined with the central difference time integration scheme to simulate the rapid unstable growth of the wing crack dynamically. The accuracy of the proposed simulation is discussed through the comparison with the images, captured by the experiment.

  6. Dislocation based controlling of kinematic hardening contribution to simulate primary and secondary stages of uniaxial ratcheting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharjee, S.; Dhar, S.; Acharyya, S. K.

    2017-07-01

    The primary and secondary stages of the uniaxial ratcheting curve for the C-Mn steel SA333 have been investigated. Stress controlled uniaxial ratcheting experiments were conducted with different mean stresses and stress amplitudes to obtain curves showing the evolution of ratcheting strain with number of cycles. In stage-I of the ratcheting curve, a large accumulation of ratcheting strain occurs, but at a decreasing rate. In contrast, in stage-II a smaller accumulation of ratcheting strain is found and the ratcheting rate becomes almost constant. Transmission electron microscope observations reveal that no specific dislocation structures are developed during the early stages of ratcheting. Rather, compared with the case of low cycle fatigue, it is observed that sub-cell formation is delayed in the case of ratcheting. The increase in dislocation density as a result of the ratcheting strain is obtained using the Orowan equation. The ratcheting strain is obtained from the shift of the plastic strain memory surface. The dislocation rearrangement is incorporated in a functional form of dislocation density, which is used to calibrate the parameters of a kinematic hardening law. The observations are formulated in a material model, plugged into the ABAQUS finite element (FE) platform as a user material subroutine. Finally the FE-simulated ratcheting curves are compared with the experimental curves.

  7. NbSe{sub 3}: Fermi surface and magnetoresistance under uniaxial stress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tessema, G.X.; Gamble, B.K.; Kuh, J.; Skove, M.J. [Clemson Univ., SC (United States); Lacerda, A.H.; Bennett, M. [Clemson Univ., SC (United States); NHMFL, Los Alamos National Lab. (United States)

    1999-12-01

    The Fermi surface of NbSe{sub 3} below the two CDW transitions is still not very clear. Large magnetoresistance and giant quantum oscillations have been seen at low temperature below the second CDW transition. The SdH oscillations are attributed to one or several small pieces of electron or hole pockets spared by the two CDW transitions at 145 and 59 K. In a previous low field study ({mu}{sub 0}H<8 T) of the transverse magnetoresistance (H in the (b,c) plane) we have shown that the extremal area of one of these pockets decreases linearly with strain, {epsilon}, vanishing at {epsilon} = 2.5%. Here we extend our study into the high magnetic field regime (pulsed 60 T) and investigate the effect of uniaxial stress on the magnetoresistance (I//H). Our high field study is consistent with the fermiology study and shows that uniaxial stress leads to the obliteration of a small closed pocket. Above 1% strain the magnetoresistance is linear with H with no sign of saturation. (orig.)

  8. Scaling laws and deformation mechanisms of nanoporous copper under adiabatic uniaxial strain compression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fuping Yuan

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A series of large-scale molecular dynamics simulations were conducted to investigate the scaling laws and the related atomistic deformation mechanisms of Cu monocrystal samples containing randomly placed nanovoids under adiabatic uniaxial strain compression. At onset of yielding, plastic deformation is accommodated by dislocations emitted from void surfaces as shear loops. The collapse of voids are observed by continuous emissions of dislocations from void surfaces and their interactions with further plastic deformation. The simulation results also suggest that the effect modulus, the yield stress and the energy aborption density of samples under uniaxial strain are linearly proportional to the relative density ρ. Moreover, the yield stress, the average flow stress and the energy aborption density of samples with the same relative density show a strong dependence on the void diameter d, expressed by exponential relations with decay coefficients much higher than -1/2. The corresponding atomistic mechanisms for scaling laws of the relative density and the void diameter were also presented. The present results should provide insights for understanding deformation mechanisms of nanoporous metals under extreme conditions.

  9. Uniaxial cyclic strain enhances adipose-derived stem cell fusion with skeletal myocytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersen, Jens Isak; Juhl, Morten; Nielsen, Thøger; Emmersen, Jeppe; Fink, Trine; Zachar, Vladimir; Pennisi, Cristian Pablo, E-mail: cpennisi@hst.aau.dk

    2014-07-25

    Highlights: • Uniaxial cyclic tensile strain (CTS) applied to ASCs alone or in coculture with myogenic precursors. • CTS promoted the formation of a highly ordered array of parallel ASCs. • Without biochemical supplements, CTS did not support advanced myogenic differentiation of ASCs. • Mechanical stimulation of cocultures boosted fusion of ASCs with skeletal myoblasts. - Abstract: Although adult muscle tissue possesses an exceptional capacity for regeneration, in the case of large defects, the restoration to original state is not possible. A well-known source for the de novo regeneration is the adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs), which can be readily isolated and have been shown to have a broad differentiation and regenerative potential. In this work, we employed uniaxial cyclic tensile strain (CTS), to mechanically stimulate human ASCs to participate in the formation skeletal myotubes in an in vitro model of myogenesis. The application of CTS for 48 h resulted in the formation of a highly ordered array of parallel ASCs, but failed to support skeletal muscle terminal differentiation. When the same stimulation paradigm was applied to cocultures with mouse skeletal muscle myoblasts, the percentage of ASCs contributing to the formation of myotubes significantly exceeded the levels reported in the literature hitherto. In perspective, the mechanical strain may be used to increase the efficiency of incorporation of ASCs in the skeletal muscles, which could be found useful in diverse traumatic or pathologic scenarios.

  10. Influence of ordered morphology on the anisotropic actuation in uniaxially oriented electroactive polymer systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jong Keun; Moore, Robert B

    2009-03-01

    Ionic polymer-metal composites (IPMCs) are electroactive materials that undergo bending motions with the stimulus of a relatively weak electric field. To understand the fundamental role of the nanoscale morphology of the ionomer membrane matrix in affecting the actuation behavior of IPMC systems, we evaluated the actuation performance of IPMC materials subjected to uniaxial orientation. The perfluorinated ionomer nanostructure altered by uniaxial orientation mimicks the fibrillar structure of biological muscle tissue and yields a new anisotropic actuation response. It is evident that IPMCs cut from films oriented perpendicular to the draw direction yield tip-displacement values that are significantly greater than those of unoriented IPMCs. In contrast, IPMCs cut from films oriented parallel to the draw direction appear to resist bending and yield tip-displacement values that are much less than those of unoriented IPMCs. This anisotropic actuation behavior is attributed, in part, to the contribution of the fibrillar morphology to the bulk bending modulus. As an additional contribution, electrically stimulated water swelling perpendicular to the rodlike aggregate axis facilitates bending in the perpendicular direction.

  11. Influence of Ordered Morphology on the Anisotropic Actuation in Uniaxially Oriented Electroactive Polymer Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Jong Keun; Moore, Robert B.; (VPI-SU)

    2009-06-12

    Ionic polymer-metal composites (IPMCs) are electroactive materials that undergo bending motions with the stimulus of a relatively weak electric field. To understand the fundamental role of the nanoscale morphology of the ionomer membrane matrix in affecting the actuation behavior of IPMC systems, we evaluated the actuation performance of IPMC materials subjected to uniaxial orientation. The perfluorinated ionomer nanostructure altered by uniaxial orientation mimicks the fibrillar structure of biological muscle tissue and yields a new anisotropic actuation response. It is evident that IPMCs cut from films oriented perpendicular to the draw direction yield tip-displacement values that are significantly greater than those of unoriented IPMCs. In contrast, IPMCs cut from films oriented parallel to the draw direction appear to resist bending and yield tip-displacement values that are much less than those of unoriented IPMCs. This anisotropic actuation behavior is attributed, in part, to the contribution of the fibrillar morphology to the bulk bending modulus. As an additional contribution, electrically stimulated water swelling perpendicular to the rodlike aggregate axis facilitates bending in the perpendicular direction.

  12. Near-field thermal radiation between homogeneous dual uniaxial electromagnetic metamaterials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Jui-Yung; Basu, Soumyadipta; Yang, Yue; Wang, Liping, E-mail: liping.wang@asu.edu [School for Engineering of Matter, Transport and Energy, Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona 85287 (United States)

    2016-06-07

    Recently, near-field thermal radiation has attracted much attention in several fields since it can exceed the Planck blackbody limit through the coupling of evanescent waves. In this work, near-field radiative heat transfer between two semi-infinite dual uniaxial electromagnetic metamaterials with two different material property sets is theoretically analyzed. The near-field radiative heat transfer is calculated using fluctuational electrodynamics incorporated with anisotropic wave optics. The underlying mechanisms, namely, magnetic hyperbolic mode, magnetic surface polariton, electrical hyperbolic mode, and electrical surface polariton, between two homogeneous dual uniaxial electromagnetic metamaterials are investigated by examining the transmission coefficient and the spectral heat flux. The effect of vacuum gap distance is also studied, which shows that the enhancement at smaller vacuum gap is mainly due to hyperbolic mode and surface plasmon polariton modes. In addition, the results show that the contribution of s-polarized waves is significant and should not be excluded due to the strong magnetic response regardless of vacuum gap distances. The fundamental understanding and insights obtained here will facilitate the finding and application of novel materials for near-field thermal radiation.

  13. Cell Contractility Facilitates Alignment of Cells and Tissues to Static Uniaxial Stretch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rens, Elisabeth G; Merks, Roeland M H

    2017-02-28

    During animal development and homeostasis, the structure of tissues, including muscles, blood vessels, and connective tissues, adapts to mechanical strains in the extracellular matrix (ECM). These strains originate from the differential growth of tissues or forces due to muscle contraction or gravity. Here we show using a computational model that by amplifying local strain cues, active cell contractility can facilitate and accelerate the reorientation of single cells to static strains. At the collective cell level, the model simulations show that active cell contractility can facilitate the formation of strings along the orientation of stretch. The computational model is based on a hybrid cellular Potts and finite-element simulation framework describing a mechanical cell-substrate feedback, where: 1) cells apply forces on the ECM, such that 2) local strains are generated in the ECM and 3) cells preferentially extend protrusions along the strain orientation. In accordance with experimental observations, simulated cells align and form stringlike structures parallel to static uniaxial stretch. Our model simulations predict that the magnitude of the uniaxial stretch and the strength of the contractile forces regulate a gradual transition between stringlike patterns and vascular networklike patterns. Our simulations also suggest that at high population densities, less cell cohesion promotes string formation. Copyright © 2017 Biophysical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Alternative methods for ray tracing in uniaxial media. Application to negative refraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellver-Cebreros, Consuelo; Rodriguez-Danta, Marcelo

    2007-03-01

    In previous papers [C. Bellver-Cebreros, M. Rodriguez-Danta, Eikonal equation, alternative expression of Fresnel's equation and Mohr's construction in optical anisotropic media, Opt. Commun. 189 (2001) 193; C. Bellver-Cebreros, M. Rodriguez-Danta, Internal conical refraction in biaxial media and graphical plane constructions deduced from Mohr's method, Opt. Commun. 212 (2002) 199; C. Bellver-Cebreros, M. Rodriguez-Danta, Refraccion conica externa en medios biaxicos a partir de la construccion de Mohr, Opt. Pura AppliE 36 (2003) 33], the authors have developed a method based on the local properties of dielectric permittivity tensor and on Mohr's plane graphical construction in order to study the behaviour of locally plane light waves in anisotropic media. In this paper, this alternative methodology is compared with the traditional one, by emphasizing the simplicity of the former when studying ray propagation through uniaxial media (comparison is possible since, in this case, traditional construction becomes also plane). An original and simple graphical method is proposed in order to determine the direction of propagation given by the wave vector from the knowledge of the extraordinary ray direction (given by Poynting vector). Some properties of light rays in these media not described in the literature are obtained. Finally, two applications are considered: a description of optical birefringence under normal incidence and the study of negative refraction in uniaxial media.

  15. Comparative study of fracture mechanical test methods for concrete

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Lennart; Olesen, John Forbes

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes and compares three different fracture mechanical test methods; the uniaxial tension test (UTT), the three point bending test (TPBT) and the wedge splitting test (WST). Potentials and problems with the test methods will be described with regard to the experiment and the interp......This paper describes and compares three different fracture mechanical test methods; the uniaxial tension test (UTT), the three point bending test (TPBT) and the wedge splitting test (WST). Potentials and problems with the test methods will be described with regard to the experiment...... circumstances will yield the true fracture mechanical properties. It is also shown that both the three point bending test and the WST are well-suited substitutes for the uniaxial tension test....

  16. Edge effects on band gap energy in bilayer 2H-MoS{sub 2} under uniaxial strain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dong, Liang; Wang, Jin; Dongare, Avinash M., E-mail: dongare@uconn.edu [Department of Materials Science and Engineering and Institute of Materials Science, University of Connecticut, Storrs, Connecticut 06269 (United States); Namburu, Raju [Computational and Information Sciences Directorate, U.S. Army Research Laboratory, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland 21005 (United States); O' Regan, Terrance P.; Dubey, Madan [Sensors and Electron Devices Directorate, U.S. Army Research Laboratory, Adelphi, Maryland 20783 (United States)

    2015-06-28

    The potential of ultrathin MoS{sub 2} nanostructures for applications in electronic and optoelectronic devices requires a fundamental understanding in their electronic structure as a function of strain. Previous experimental and theoretical studies assume that an identical strain and/or stress state is always maintained in the top and bottom layers of a bilayer MoS{sub 2} film. In this study, a bilayer MoS{sub 2} supercell is constructed differently from the prototypical unit cell in order to investigate the layer-dependent electronic band gap energy in a bilayer MoS{sub 2} film under uniaxial mechanical deformations. The supercell contains an MoS{sub 2} bottom layer and a relatively narrower top layer (nanoribbon with free edges) as a simplified model to simulate the as-grown bilayer MoS{sub 2} flakes with free edges observed experimentally. Our results show that the two layers have different band gap energies under a tensile uniaxial strain, although they remain mutually interacting by van der Waals interactions. The deviation in their band gap energies grows from 0 to 0.42 eV as the uniaxial strain increases from 0% to 6% under both uniaxial strain and stress conditions. The deviation, however, disappears if a compressive uniaxial strain is applied. These results demonstrate that tensile uniaxial strains applied to bilayer MoS{sub 2} films can result in distinct band gap energies in the bilayer structures. Such variations need to be accounted for when analyzing strain effects on electronic properties of bilayer or multilayered 2D materials using experimental methods or in continuum models.

  17. All deformation potentials in GaN determined by reflectance spectroscopy under uniaxial stress: Definite breakdown of the quasicubic approximation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishii, Ryota; Kaneta, Akio; Funato, Mitsuru; Kawakami, Yoichi; Yamaguchi, Atsushi A.

    2010-04-01

    Reflectance spectroscopy was performed for nonpolar and semipolar bulk GaN substrates under uniaxial stress. The exciton-transition energies and oscillator strengths clearly depended on uniaxial stress. The results were interpreted by group theory on excitons and analyzed in terms of the effective Hamiltonian proposed by Bir and Pikus. In the Hamiltonian, the short-range Coulomb interaction was taken into consideration. This approach allows all exciton deformation potentials to be determined without the quasicubic approximation and we found that the exciton deformation potentials in GaN considerably deviate from the quasicubic approximation.

  18. Fracture Energy-Based Brittleness Index Development and Brittleness Quantification by Pre-peak Strength Parameters in Rock Uniaxial Compression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munoz, H.; Taheri, A.; Chanda, E. K.

    2016-12-01

    Brittleness is a fundamental mechanical rock property critical to many civil engineering works, mining development projects and mineral exploration operations. However, rock brittleness is a concept yet to be investigated as there is not any unique criterion available, widely accepted by rock engineering community able to describe rock brittleness quantitatively. In this study, new brittleness indices were developed based on fracture strain energy quantities obtained from the complete stress-strain characteristics of rocks. In doing so, different rocks having unconfined compressive strength values ranging from 7 to 215 MPa were examined in a series of quasi-static uniaxial compression tests after properly implementing lateral-strain control in a closed-loop system to apply axial load to rock specimen. This testing method was essential to capture post-peak regime of the rocks since a combination of class I-II or class II behaviour featured post-peak stress-strain behaviour. Further analysis on the post-peak strain localisation, stress-strain characteristics and the fracture pattern causing class I-II and class II behaviour were undertaken by analysing the development of field of strains in the rocks via three-dimensional digital image correlation. Analysis of the results demonstrated that pre-peak stress-strain brittleness indices proposed solely based on pre-peak stress-strain behaviour do not show any correlation with any of pre-peak rock mechanical parameters. On the other hand, the proposed brittleness indices based on pre-peak and post-peak stress-strain relations were found to competently describe an unambiguous brittleness scale against rock deformation and strength parameters such as the elastic modulus, the crack damage stress and the peak stress relevant to represent failure process.

  19. Stacking faults in (Ga,Mn)As and uniaxial magnetocrystalline anisotropy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maca, Frantisek; Masek, Jan; Kopecky, Milos; Kub, Jiri; Jungwirth, Tomas [Institute of Physics ASCR, Praha (Czech Republic)

    2011-07-01

    The high resolution X-ray difraction measurements of (Ga,Mn)As and (Ga,Mn)(As,P) epilayers showed a structural anisotropy in the form of stacking faults which are present in the (1-11) and (111) planes and absent in the (-111) and (1-11) planes. Our full-potential density functional calculations explain the energetic preference of substitutional Mn to decorate the stacking faults. This preference energy is comparable with the formation energy of the faults in a pure GaAs. We surmise that the enhanced Mn density along the common [1-10] direction of the stacking fault planes represents the micro-structural origin of the in-plane uniaxial magnetocrystalline anisotropy of these semiconductors.

  20. Fractal analysis of acoustic emission parameter series of coal with different properties under uniaxial loading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Huiming

    2017-08-01

    In order to study acoustic emission (AE) evolution characteristics of coal with different mechanical properties in failure process, uniaxial compression experiments of coals from 4 mines were carried out to analyse fractal feature of AE time series by G-P algorithm. The results indicate that AE parameter series of all 4 different coals have fractal feature, and the fractal dimension value of coal with different properties go through a process of “first rise, then fall”. The change of AE fractal dimension value can reflect the cracking evolution in coal failure process, which is closely related with the failure phase. The continuous decline of AE fractal dimension can be viewed as a precursor of impending failure of coal, which could provide theoretical basis for the AE pre-warning model establishment of coal dynamic disaster.

  1. Long-wavelength optical phonon behavior in uniaxial strained graphene: Role of electron-phonon interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assili, M.; Haddad, S.

    2014-09-01

    We derive the frequency shifts and the broadening of Γ-point longitudinal optical (LO) and transverse optical (TO) phonon modes, due to electron-phonon interaction, in graphene under uniaxial strain as a function of the electron density and the disorder amount. We show that, in the absence of a shear strain component, such interaction gives rise to a lifting of the degeneracy of the LO and TO modes which contributes to the splitting of the G Raman band. The anisotropy of the electronic spectrum, induced by the strain, results in a polarization dependence of the LO and TO modes. This dependence is in agreement with the experimental results showing a periodic modulation of the Raman intensity of the split G peak. Moreover, the anomalous behavior of the frequency shift reported in undeformed graphene is found to be robust under strain.

  2. An open-source platform to study uniaxial stress effects on nanoscale devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Signorello, G; Schraff, M; Zellekens, P; Drechsler, U; Bürge, M; Steinauer, H R; Heller, R; Tschudy, M; Riel, H

    2017-05-01

    We present an automatic measurement platform that enables the characterization of nanodevices by electrical transport and optical spectroscopy as a function of the uniaxial stress. We provide insights into and detailed descriptions of the mechanical device, the substrate design and fabrication, and the instrument control software, which is provided under open-source license. The capability of the platform is demonstrated by characterizing the piezo-resistance of an InAs nanowire device using a combination of electrical transport and Raman spectroscopy. The advantages of this measurement platform are highlighted by comparison with state-of-the-art piezo-resistance measurements in InAs nanowires. We envision that the systematic application of this methodology will provide new insights into the physics of nanoscale devices and novel materials for electronics, and thus contribute to the assessment of the potential of strain as a technology booster for nanoscale electronics.

  3. Uni-axial Elongational Viscosity of Linear and Branched polymer melts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hassager, Ole; Nielsen, Jens Kromann; Rasmussen, Henrik Koblitz

    2005-01-01

    About 40 years ago interest in the measurement of elongational viscosity of polymer melts started to grow. Here we present measurements of transient (and steady) uni-axial elongational viscosity, using the FSR, of the following melts: Four narrow MMD polystyrene (PS) samples with weight......-average molar mass Mw in the range of 50k to 390k. Three different bi-disperse samples, mixed from the narrow MMD PS. Two low-density polyethylene (LDPE) melts (Lupolen 1840D and 3020D). A steady-state viscosity was kept for 1-2.5 Hencky strain units in all measurements.The measurements on the bi-disperse PS...... melts have demonstrated that both the transient and steady elongational viscosity is quite sensitive to polydispersity. Bi-disperse PS resembles the behaviour of mono-disperse melts only at elongational rates larger then the inverse of maximal time constant of the smallest molecule. As observed in Boger...

  4. Formulation of Macroscale Compaction Dynamics based on Mesoscale Simulations of Uniaxial Waves in Granular Explosive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakravarthy, Sunada; Gonthier, Keith A.

    2010-10-01

    A macroscale continuum theory for Deflagration-to-Detonation Transition (DDT) in granular explosive is generalized to account for the simultaneous existence of an arbitrary number of condensed phases. The theory assumes phase separation, and allows for flexible partitioning of dissipation between phases in a thermodynamically consistent manner. The constitutive theory is complex and requires descriptions for dissipation partition functions, relaxation rate functions, and phase-specific parameters that are not well-characterized, particularly for dynamic loading. A key focus of this study is to formulate expressions for phase-specific intergranular stresses and compaction potential energies based on mesoscale simulations of uniaxial compaction waves because of their importance to compaction induced heating and combustion. Predictions will be compared to quasi-static compaction data for granular HMX.

  5. Damage-Coupled Constitutive Model for Uniaxial Ratcheting and Fatigue Failure of 304 Stainless Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Guozheng; Ding, Jun; Liu, Yujie

    Based on the existed experimental results of 304 stainless steel, the evolution of fatigue damage during the stress-controlled cyclic loading was discussed first. Then, a damage-coupled visco-plastic cyclic constitutive model was proposed in the framework of unified visco-plasticity and continuum damage mechanics to simulate the whole-life ratcheting and predict the fatigue failure life of the material presented during the uniaxial stress-controlled cyclic loading with non-zero mean stress. In the proposed model, the whole life ratcheting was described by employing a non-linear kinematic hardening rule, i.e., the Armstrong-Frederick model combined with the Ohno-Wang model I, and considering the effect of fatigue damage. The damage threshold was employed to determine the failure life of the material. The simulated whole-life ratcheting and predicted failure lives are in a fairly good agreement with the experimental ones of 304 stainless steel.

  6. Uniaxial 2D Superlattice of Fe4 Molecular Magnets on Graphene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gragnaniello, Luca; Paschke, Fabian; Erler, Philipp; Schmitt, Peter; Barth, Nicole; Simon, Sabina; Brune, Harald; Rusponi, Stefano; Fonin, Mikhail

    2017-11-17

    We demonstrate that electrospray deposition enables the fabrication of highly periodic self-assembled arrays of Fe4H single molecule magnets on graphene/Ir(111). The energetic positions of molecular states are probed by means of scanning tunneling spectroscopy, showing pronounced long- and short-ranged spatial modulations, indicating the presence of both locally varying intermolecular as well as adsorption-site dependent molecule-substrate interactions. From the magnetic field dependence of the X-ray magnetic circular dichroism signal, we infer that the magnetic easy axis of each Fe4H molecule is oriented perpendicular to the sample surface and that after the deposition the value of the uniaxial anisotropy is identical to the one in bulk. Our findings therefore suggest that the observed interaction of the molecules with their surrounding does not modify the molecular magnetism, resulting in a two-dimensional array of molecular magnets that retain their bulk magnetic properties.

  7. Physically-Based Reduced Order Modelling of a Uni-Axial Polysilicon MEMS Accelerometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghisi, Aldo; Mariani, Stefano; Corigliano, Alberto; Zerbini, Sarah

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, the mechanical response of a commercial off-the-shelf, uni-axial polysilicon MEMS accelerometer subject to drops is numerically investigated. To speed up the calculations, a simplified physically-based (beams and plate), two degrees of freedom model of the movable parts of the sensor is adopted. The capability and the accuracy of the model are assessed against three-dimensional finite element simulations, and against outcomes of experiments on instrumented samples. It is shown that the reduced order model provides accurate outcomes as for the system dynamics. To also get rather accurate results in terms of stress fields within regions that are prone to fail upon high-g shocks, a correction factor is proposed by accounting for the local stress amplification induced by re-entrant corners. PMID:23202031

  8. Uniaxial compressive behavior of micro-pillars of dental enamel characterized in multiple directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yilmaz, Ezgi D; Jelitto, Hans; Schneider, Gerold A

    2015-04-01

    In this work, the compressive elastic modulus and failure strength values of bovine enamel at the first hierarchical level formed by hydroxyapatite (HA) nanofibers and organic matter are identified in longitudinal, transverse and oblique direction with the uniaxial micro-compression method. The elastic modulus values (∼70 GPa) measured here are within the range of results reported in the literature but these values were found surprisingly uniform in all orientations as opposed to the previous nanoindentation findings revealing anisotropic elastic properties in enamel. Failure strengths were recorded up to ∼1.7 GPa and different failure modes (such as shear, microbuckling, fiber fracture) governed by the orientation of the HA nanofibers were visualized. Structural irregularities leading to mineral contacts between the nanofibers are postulated as the main reason for the high compressive strength and direction-independent elastic behavior on enamels first hierarchical level. Copyright © 2015 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Stress growth and relaxation of dendritically branched macromolecules in shear and uniaxial extension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huang, Qian; Costanzo, S.; Das, C.

    2017-01-01

    stress relaxation, suggesting a strong ‘elastic memory’ of the material. These results are 2 described by BoB semi-quantitatively, both in linear and nonlinear shear and extensional regimes. Given the fact that the segments between branch points are less than 3 entanglements long, this is a very...... of the remarkable properties of these highly branched macromolecules. In particular, we address three questions pertinent to the specific molecular structure: (i) is steady state attainable during uniaxial extension? (ii) what is the respective transient response in simple shear? and (iii) how does stress relax...... the Branch-on-Branch (BoB) algorithm. The data indicates that the extensional viscosity reaches a steady state value, whose dependence on extension rate is identical to that of entangled linear and other branched polymer melts. Nonlinear shear is characterized by transient stress overshoots and the validity...

  10. The Varying Effects of Uniaxial Compressive Stress on the Bainitic Transformation under Different Austenitization Temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingxing Zhou

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In this study, thermal simulation experiments under different austenitization temperatures and different stress states were conducted. High-temperature laser scanning confocal microscopy (LSCM, thermal dilatometry, and scanning electron microscope (SEM were used to quantitatively investigate the effects of the uniaxial compressive stress on bainitic transformation at 330 °C following different austenitization temperatures. The transformation plasticity was also analyzed. It was found that the promotion degree of stress on bainitic transformation increases with the austenitization temperature due to larger prior austenite grain size as well as stronger promoting effect of mechanical driving force on selected variant growth at higher austenitization temperatures. The grain size and the yield strength of prior austenite are other important factors which influence the promotion degree of stress on bainitic transformation, besides the mechanical driving force provided by the stress. Moreover, the transformation plasticity increases with the austenitization temperature.

  11. Structural and magnetic properties of new uniaxial nanocrystalline Pr5Co19 compound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouzidi, W.; Mliki, N.; Bessais, L.

    2017-11-01

    Highly-coercive nanocrystalline Pr5Co19 powders have been synthesized by mechanical milling for the first time. The structural properties are studied by X-ray diffraction and refined with Rietveld method. This analysis revealed that whatever annealing temperature, samples crystallize in the rhombohedral (3R) of Ce5Co19-type structure (space group R 3 bar m). The magnetization curve as a function of temperature shows a magnetic transition state at the Curie temperature TC = 690 K. The optimum hard magnetic properties have been obtained for Pr5Co19 milled for 5 h and annealed at 1048 K for 30 min. These alloys exhibit a coercivity of 15 kOe at room temperature. This high coercivity is attributed to the high uniaxial magnetocrystalline anisotropy, nanoscale grain size, and to the homogeneous nanostructure developed by mechanical milling process and subsequent annealing.

  12. Development of porous ceramics by lycopodium using uniaxial pressing and sintering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita Serzane

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In this work microporous hydroxyapatite (HAp ceramics were fabricated using lycopodium as a porosifier. The samples were produced by uniaxial pressing and then heating at high temperatures, 1100°C and 1200°C, to burn-out porogens and sintering. The obtained samples had porosity over the variable range of 12 to 45% with different pore size ranging from 0.2 to 25 µm. Chemical and physical characterization was determined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM, X-ray diffraction (XRD, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR and bending strength measurements. The bending strength of the prepared samples was in the range of 1.97–21.81 MPa.

  13. Electric signal emissions during repeated abrupt uniaxial compressional stress steps in amphibolite from KTB drilling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Triantis

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Laboratory experiments have confirmed that the application of uniaxial stress on rock samples is accompanied by the production of weak electric currents, to which the term Pressure Stimulated Currents – PSC has been attributed. In this work the PSC emissions in amphibolite samples from KTB drilling are presented and commented upon. After having applied sequential loading and unloading cycles on the amphibolite samples, it was ascertained that in every new loading cycle after unloading, the emitted PSC exhibits lower peaks. This attitude of the current peaks is consistent with the acoustic emissions phenomena, and in this work is verified for PSC emissions during loading – unloading procedures. Consequently, the evaluation of such signals can help to correlate the state and the remaining strength of the sample with respect to the history of its mechanical stress.

  14. Physically-Based Reduced Order Modelling of a Uni-Axial Polysilicon MEMS Accelerometer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Zerbini

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the mechanical response of a commercial off-the-shelf, uni-axial polysilicon MEMS accelerometer subject to drops is numerically investigated. To speed up the calculations, a simplified physically-based (beams and plate, two degrees of freedom model of the movable parts of the sensor is adopted. The capability and the accuracy of the model are assessed against three-dimensional finite element simulations, and against outcomes of experiments on instrumented samples. It is shown that the reduced order model provides accurate outcomes as for the system dynamics. To also get rather accurate results in terms of stress fields within regions that are prone to fail upon high-g shocks, a correction factor is proposed by accounting for the local stress amplification induced by re-entrant corners.

  15. Spin-Hall effect and circular birefringence of a uniaxial crystal plate

    CERN Document Server

    Bliokh, K Y; Prajapati, C; Puentes, G; Viswanathan, N K; Nori, F

    2016-01-01

    The linear birefringence of uniaxial crystal plates is known since the 17th century. Here we demonstrate, both theoretically and experimentally, a fine lateral circular birefringence of such crystal plates. We show that this effect is a novel example of the spin-Hall effect of light, i.e., a transverse spin-dependent shift of the paraxial light beam transmitted through the plate. The well-known linear birefringence and the new circular birefringence form an interesting analogy with the Goos-Hanchen and Imbert-Fedorov beam shifts that appear in the light reflection at a dielectric interface. We report the experimental observation of the effect in a remarkably simple system of a tilted half-wave plate and polarizers using polarimetric and quantum-weak-measurement techniques for the beam-shift measurements.

  16. On the Fermat's principle in a semi-transparent sphere of uniaxial cristal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Dez, V.; Sadat, H.

    2007-02-01

    The determination of the optical trajectories on which the radiative energy is transported has been achieved by solving the anisotropic Fermat's principle in a sphere of uniaxial semi-transparent material when the dielectric perpendicular and parallel permittivities are space dependant; first established for the general case of an optical axis function of the location inside the medium, it has completely been solved for the particular case of a constant optical axis with a constant anisotropy factor when the perpendicular permittivity is a function of the radius; the calculation shows a lack of the spherical symmetry due to the presence of the optical axis which induces non planar trajectories contrarily to the isotropic case.

  17. A confocal rheoscope to study bulk or thin-film material under uniaxial or biaxial shear

    CERN Document Server

    Lin, Neil Y C; Cheng, Xiang; Leahy, Brian; Cohen, Itai

    2016-01-01

    We present a new design of a confocal rheoscope that enables us to precisely impose a uniform uniaxial or biaxial shear. The design consists of two precisely-positioned parallel plates. Our design allows us to adjust the gap between the plates to be as small as 2$\\pm$0.1 $\\mu$m, allowing for the exploration of confinement effects. By using our shear cell in conjunction with a biaxial force measurement device and a high-speed confocal microscope, we are able to measure the real-time biaxial stress while simultaneously imaging the material 3D structure. We illustrate the importance of the instrument capabilities by discussing the applications of this instrument in current and future research topics in colloidal suspensions.

  18. Magnetic properties of bilayer graphene quantum dots in the presence of uniaxial strain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nascimento, J. S.; da Costa, D. R.; Zarenia, M.; Chaves, Andrey; Pereira, J. M.

    2017-09-01

    Using the tight-binding approach coupled with mean-field Hubbard model, we theoretically study the effect of mechanical deformations on the magnetic properties of bilayer graphene (BLG) quantum dots (QDs). Results are obtained for AA- and AB(Bernal)-stacked BLG QDs, considering different geometries (hexagonal, triangular and square shapes) and edge types (armchair and zigzag edges). In the absence of strain, our results show that (i) the magnetization is affected by taking different dot sizes only for hexagonal BLG QDs with zigzag edges, exhibiting different critical Hubbard interactions, and (ii) the magnetization does not depend on the interlayer hopping energies, except for the geometries with zigzag edges and AA stacking. In the presence of in-plane and uniaxial strain, for all geometries we obtain two different magnetization regimes depending on the applied strain amplitude. The appearance of such different regimes is due to the breaking of layer and sublattice symmetries in BLG QDs.

  19. Microstructural study of an ODS stainless steel obtained by Hot Uni-axial Pressing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sornin, D.; Grosdidier, T.; Malaplate, J.; Tiba, I.; Bonnaillie, P.; Allain-Bonasso, N.; Nunes, D.

    2013-08-01

    This study focuses on the consolidation of an ODS Fe-14Cr-1W-0.3Ti-0.3Y2O3 alloy obtained by powder metallurgy. The powder was sintered for 1 h at 1100 °C in a soft steel can and compacted by Hot Uni-axial Pressing (HUP) under 900 MPa within less than 5 s before air cooling. The HUPped material microstructure is prospected to determine relative density as well as microstructure and nano-precipitation. The HUP, which mimics the early stage of hot extrusion (HE), produces a fully dense metallurgical state. The HUPped microstructure is shown to be rather similar to the one obtained by HIPping for equivalent dwell time at high temperature. In both cases heterogeneous grain size microstructure was obtained. It is shown that the bigger grains come from static recrystallization occurring during the dwell time in furnace. Compared to HIP, the effect of the HUP is mainly to introduce intra-granular misorientations within these large recrystallized grains. During Hot Unidirectional Pressing the initially loose powder is fully consolidated. The relative density is rather similar to the HE and HIP process. Even with a uni-axial loading the HUPed material is homogeneous and does not presents any gradients of hardness. The obtained microstructure for the HUPed shows a bimodal grain size distribution and precipitates strings at grain boundaries. This material can be compared to HIP of similar composition grades [10]. Large grains are issued from an incomplete static recrystallization. Precipitation of nano-clusters is very similar for HUPed and HE materials. Nanometer scale precipitates are observed both within the large and small grains. One of the effects of the HUP compared to pure heat treatment is that the large grains that recrystallized during the early stages of the heat treatment present significant internal crystallographic misorientations. This is due to the plastic strain generated by the rapid compaction during HUP consolidation process.

  20. Synthesis and characterization of uniaxial ferrogels with Ni nanorods as magnetic phase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bender, P., E-mail: nano@p-bender.d [Technische Physik, Universitaet des Saarlandes, Postfach 151150, Geb. D2 2, D-66041 Saarbruecken (Germany); Guenther, A., E-mail: annegret.guenther@web.d [Technische Physik, Universitaet des Saarlandes, Postfach 151150, Geb. D2 2, D-66041 Saarbruecken (Germany); Tschoepe, A., E-mail: antsch@mx.uni-saarland.d [Technische Physik, Universitaet des Saarlandes, Postfach 151150, Geb. D2 2, D-66041 Saarbruecken (Germany); Birringer, R., E-mail: r.birringer@nano.uni-saarland.d [Technische Physik, Universitaet des Saarlandes, Postfach 151150, Geb. D2 2, D-66041 Saarbruecken (Germany)

    2011-08-15

    In the present study, the rotation of magnetic nanorods in a soft hydrogel matrix induced by a homogeneous magnetic field is investigated. Magnetic nanorods of {approx}151.2nm length and {approx}17.7nm diameter are synthesized via current-pulsed electrodeposition of nickel into porous aluminum oxide-templates. The nanorods are processed towards a stable colloidal dispersion by dissolution of the alumina template in aqueous NaOH to which PVP (polyvinyl-pyrrolidone) is added as surfactant. These suspensions are used to prepare gelatine-based ferrogels of different shear modulus with either isotropic or uniaxial orientation-distribution of the nanorods. While magnetization measurements of rigid ferrogels mainly reflect the magnetic properties of the nickel nanorods, the magnetization behavior of soft ferrogels is significantly influenced by a field-induced rotation of the nickel nanorods in the low compliant matrix. A particular analysis of magnetization measurements on uniaxial ferrogels enables to quantify the rotation angle of the nanorods with respect to their initial orientation under the influence of a transversal homogeneous magnetic field. The analysis of the field-dependent rotation also allows to estimate the local shear modulus of the matrix which is demonstrated by an investigation of room temperature ageing process of the ferrogel. - Highlights: We present the synthesis of ferrogels containing ferromagnetic Ni nanorods. The torque in the homogeneous magnetic field leads to a rotation of the nanorods. The rotation angle increases with decreasing shear modulus of the gel matrix. The local shear modulus can be estimated by analyzing magnetization measurements.

  1. Characteristics of Xanthosoma sagittifolium roots during cooking, using physicochemical analysis, uniaxial compression, multispectral imaging and low field NMR spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boakye, Abena Achiaa; Gudjónsdóttir, María; Skytte, Jacob Lercke; Chronakis, Ioannis S; Wireko-Manu, Faustina Dufie; Oduro, Ibok

    2017-08-01

    To effectively promote the industrial utilization of cocoyam (Xanthosoma sagittifolium) roots for enhanced food sustainability and security, there is a need to study their molecular, mechanical and physicochemical properties in detail. The physicochemical and textural characteristics of the red and white varieties of cocoyam roots were thus analysed by low field nuclear magnetic resonance relaxometry, multispectral imaging, uniaxial compression testing, and relevant physicochemical analysis in the current study. Both varieties had similar dry matter content, as well as physical and mechanical properties. However, up to four fast-interacting water populations were observed in the roots, dependent on the root variety and their degree of gelatinization during cooking. Changes in the relaxation parameters indicated weak gelatinization of starch at approximately 80 °C in both varieties. However, shorter relaxation times and a higher proportion of restricted water in the white variety indicated that this variety was slightly more sensitive towards gelatinization. A strong negative correlation existed between dry matter and all multispectral wavelengths >800 nm, suggesting the potential use of that spectral region for rapid analysis of dry matter and water content of the roots. The small, but significant differences in the structural and gelatinization characteristics of the two varieties indicated that they may not be equally suited for further processing, e.g. to flours or starches. Processors thus need to choose their raw materials wisely dependent on the aimed product characteristics. However, the spectroscopic methods applied in the study were shown to be effective in assessing important quality attributes during cooking of the roots.

  2. Simulation of a severe accident at a typical PWR due to break of a hot leg ECCS line using MELCOR code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Seung Min; Sabundjian, Gaianê, E-mail: smlee@ipen.br, E-mail: gdjian@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2017-11-01

    The aim of this work was to simulate a severe accident at a typical PWR caused by break in Emergency Core Cooling System (ECCS) line of a hot leg using the MELCOR code. The nodalization of this typical PWR was elaborated by the Global Research for Safety (GRS) and provided to the CNEN for analysis of the severe accidents at the Angra 2, which is similar to that PWR. Although both of them are not identical the results obtained for that typical PWR may be valuable because of the lack of officially published calculation for Angra 2. Relevant parameters such as pressure, temperature and water level in various control volumes after the break in the hot leg were calculated as well as degree of core degradation and hydrogen concentration in containment. The result obtained in this work could be considered satisfactory in the sense that the physical phenomena reproduced by the simulation were in general very reasonable, and most of the events occurred within acceptable time intervals. However, the uncertainty analysis was not carried out in this work. Furthermore, this scenario could be used as a base for the study of the effectiveness of some preventive or/and mitigating measures of Severe Accident Management (SAMG) by adding associated conditions for each measure in its input. (author)

  3. A uniaxial cyclic compression method for characterizing the rheological and textural behaviors of mechanically dewatered sewage sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Fenglin; Sauceau, Martial; Dusserre, Gilles; Arlabosse, Patricia

    2017-04-15

    The mechanically dewatered sewage sludge with total solid content around 20% on a weight basis is very similar to yield stress fluid, its complex transition between solid and fluid states is not perfectly reversible and especially challenging in terms of pumping, land spreading and drying. To characterize the rheological and textural properties of highly concentrated sludge, a specific methodology based on uniaxial single and cyclic compression tests is developed. Three types of sludge samples (fresh original, fresh premixed and aged original ones) are extruded into cylinders and pressed between two parallel plates using a material testing machine. In single compression, the bioyield point beyond which the sludge fractures is around 7.3 kPa with true strain equal to 0.21. The cyclic compression tests reveal that the sludge behaves as a viscoelastic body when the true strain is smaller than 0.05 and as a visco-elasto-plastic once exceeding the yield stress. The elastic module is around 78 kPa; the viscosity is deduced, in the order of magnitude 104-105 Pa·s and the yield stress is estimated about 4 kPa. In the unloading phase, the sludge behaves again as a viscoelastic body with clear hysteresis. With the increase of compression speed, the viscosity declines, which confirms that the sludge is a shear-thinning material. The yield stress and the bioyield increase with compression speed, but it does not induce extra internal damage in the samples since the resilience and the cohesiveness are unaltered. The reliability and sensitivity of the method is justified by highlighting the changes of sludge behavior due to aging and premixing effects: both decrease the strain energy density, but do aggravate the adhesiveness of the sludge; the aging makes the sludge less cohesive, while the premixing does not modify its cohesiveness. In spite of changes in test conditions, the elastic module of sludge samples remains unchanged. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights

  4. Uniaxial Extensional Behavior of A--B--A Thermoplastic Elastomers: Structure-Properties Relationship and Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinetti, Luca

    At service temperatures, A--B--A thermoplastic elastomers (TPEs) behave similarly to filled (and often entangled) B-rich rubbers since B block ends are anchored on rigid A domains. Therefore, their viscoelastic behavior is largely dictated by chain mobility of the B block rather than by microstructural order. Relating the small- and large-strain response of undiluted A--B--A triblocks to molecular parameters is a prerequisite for designing associated TPE-based systems that can meet the desired linear and nonlinear rheological criteria. This dissertation was aimed at connecting the chemical and topological structure of A--B--A TPEs with their viscoelastic properties, both in the linear and in the nonlinear regime. Since extensional deformations are relevant for the processing and often the end-use applications of thermoplastic elastomers, the behavior was investigated predominantly in uniaxial extension. The unperturbed size of polymer coils is one of the most fundamental properties in polymer physics, affecting both the thermodynamics of macromolecules and their viscoelastic properties. Literature results on poly(D,L-lactide) (PLA) unperturbed chain dimensions, plateau modulus, and critical molar mass for entanglement effect in viscosity were reviewed and discussed in the framework of the coil packing model. Self-consistency between experimental estimates of melt chain dimensions and viscoelastic properties was discussed, and the scaling behaviors predicted by the coil packing model were identified. Contrary to the widespread belief that amorphous polylactide must be intrinsically stiff, the coil packing model and accurate experimental measurements undoubtedly support the flexible nature of PLA. The apparent brittleness of PLA in mechanical testing was attributed to a potentially severe physical aging occurring at room temperature and to the limited extensibility of the PLA tube statistical segment. The linear viscoelastic response of A--B--A TPEs was first

  5. Determination of Uniaxial Compressive Strength of Ankara Agglomerate Considering Fractal Geometry of Blocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coskun, Aycan; Sonmez, Harun; Ercin Kasapoglu, K.; Ozge Dinc, S.; Celal Tunusluoglu, M.

    2010-05-01

    The uniaxial compressive strength (UCS) of rock material is a crucial parameter to be used for design stages of slopes, tunnels and foundations to be constructed in/on geological medium. However, preparation of high quality cores from geological mixtures or fragmented rocks such as melanges, fault rocks, coarse pyroclastic rocks, breccias and sheared serpentinites is often extremely difficult. According to the studies performed in literature, this type of geological materials may be grouped as welded and unwelded birmocks. Success of preparation of core samples from welded bimrocks is slightly better than unwelded ones. Therefore, some studies performed on the welded bimrocks to understand the mechanical behavior of geological mixture materials composed of stronger and weaker components (Gokceoglu, 2002; Sonmez et al., 2004; Sonmez et al., 2006; Kahraman, et al., 2008). The overall strength of bimrocks are generally depends on strength contrast between blocks and matrix; types and strength of matrix; type, size, strength, shape and orientation of blocks and volumetric block proportion. In previously proposed prediction models, while UCS of unwelded bimrocks may be determined by decreasing the UCS of matrix considering the volumetric block proportion, the welded ones can be predicted by considering both UCS of matrix and blocks together (Lindquist, 1994; Lindquist and Goodman, 1994; Sonmez et al., 2006 and Sonmez et al., 2009). However, there is a few attempts were performed about the effect of blocks shape and orientation on the strength of bimrock (Linqduist, 1994 and Kahraman, et al., 2008). In this study, Ankara agglomerate, which is composed of andesite blocks and surrounded weak tuff matrix, was selected as study material. Image analyses were performed on bottom, top and side faces of cores to identify volumetric block portions. In addition to the image analyses, andesite blocks on bottom, top and side faces were digitized for determination of fractal

  6. Synthesis and biological evaluation of the four isomers of technetium-99m labeled ethylenecysteamine cysteine ({sup 99m}Tc-ECC), the mono-acid derivative of {sup 99m}tc-L,L-ethylenedicysteine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vanbilloen, Hubert P.; Cleynhens, Bernard J.; Verbruggen, Alfons M. E-mail: alfons.verbruggen@uz.kuleuven.ac.be

    2000-02-01

    A few years ago {sup 99m}Tc-ethylenedicysteine ({sup 99m}Tc-L,L-EC) had been proposed as an interesting substitute for technetium-99m labeled mercaptoacetyltriglycine (MAG3) as renal function tracer agent. It possesses in its structure two carboxylate functions and is in this respect different from other renal tracers such as {sup 99m}Tc-N,N'-bis-(mercaptoacetyl)-2,3-diaminopropionate ({sup 99m}Tc-CO{sub 2}DADS), {sup 99m}Tc-MAG3, and Hippuran, which have only one carboxylic group. To study whether both carboxylic acid groups of {sup 99m}Tc-L,L-EC contribute to the efficient renal handling of this compound we synthesized and biologically evaluated the technetium-99m labeled isomers of L- and D-ethylenecysteamine cysteine (ECC), the mono-acid derivative of {sup 99m}Tc-L,L-EC. Labeling of L-ECC or D-ECC with {sup 99m}Tc using a direct or exchange labeling method yields for each of them two diastereomeric {sup 99m}Tc complexes (A and B, in the order of elution during reversed phase high performance liquid chromatography) in relative amounts depending on the pH during labeling. In mice, all four isomers of {sup 99m}Tc-ECC (LA, LB, DA, and DB) are cleared rapidly from the blood, mainly by the renal system. The isomers LB and DB show the most efficient renal handling, but none of the mono-acid derivatives has a urinary excretion rate as high as that of {sup 99m}Tc-L,L-EC. The renal handling of the isomers of {sup 99m}Tc-ECC is partly due to tubular secretion because the urinary excretion of these compounds is significantly lower in mice pretreated with probenecid. In the baboon, isomers DA and DB show a plasma clearance comparable to that of {sup 99m}Tc-L,L-EC. The plasma clearance of isomers LA and LB is lower but still comparable to or higher than that of {sup 99m}Tc-MAG3. In a human volunteer, isomer DB shows a plasma clearance rate only slightly lower than that of {sup 99m}Tc-L,L-EC. Thus, it appears that the presence of one carboxylate in {sup 99m

  7. Silicene nanomeshes: bandgap opening by bond symmetry breaking and uniaxial strain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Tian-Tian; Fan, Xin-Yu; Zheng, Meng-Meng; Chen, Gang

    2016-02-10

    Based on the first-principles calculations, we have investigated in detail the bandgap opening of silicene nanomeshes. Different to the mechanism of bandgap opening induced by the sublattice equivalence breaking, the method of degenerate perturbation through breaking the bond symmetry could split the π-like bands in the inversion symmetry preserved silicene nanomeshes, resulting into the πa1 - πa2 and πz1 - πz2 band sets with sizable energy intervals. Besides the bandgap opening in the nanomeshes with Dirac point being folded to Γ point, the split energy intervals are however apart away from Fermi level to leave the semimetal nature unchanged for the other nanomeshes with Dirac points located at opposite sides of Γ point as opposite pseudo spin wave valleys. A mass bandgap could be then opened at the aid of uniaxial strain to transfer the nanomesh to be semiconducting, whose width could be continuously enlarged until reaching its maximum Emax. Moreover, the Emax could also be tuned by controlling the defect density in silicene nanomeshes. These studies could contribute to the understanding of the bandgap engineering of silicene-based nanomaterials to call for further investigations on both theory and experiment.

  8. Electric field-induced valley degeneracy lifting in uniaxial strained graphene: Evidence from magnetophonon resonance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assili, Mohamed; Haddad, Sonia; Kang, Woun

    2015-03-01

    A double peak structure in the magnetophonon resonance (MPR) spectrum of uniaxial strained graphene, under crossed electric and magnetic fields, is predicted. We focus on the Γ point optical phonon modes coupled to the inter-Landau level transitions 0 ⇆±1 where MPR is expected to be more pronounced at high magnetic field. We derive the frequency shifts and the broadenings of the longitudinal and transverse optical phonon modes taking into account the effect of the strain modified electronic spectrum on the electron-phonon coupling. We show that the MPR line for a given phonon mode acquires a double peak structure originating from the twofold valley degeneracy lifting. The latter is due to the different Landau level spacings in the two Dirac valleys resulting from the simultaneous action of the inplane electric field and the strain-induced Dirac cone tilt. We discuss the role of some key parameters such as disorder, strain, doping, and electric field amplitude on the emergence of the double peak structure.

  9. Brittle Creep Failure, Critical Behavior, and Time-to-Failure Prediction of Concrete under Uniaxial Compression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yingchong Wang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the time-dependent brittle deformation behavior of concrete as a main building material is fundamental for the lifetime prediction and engineering design. Herein, we present the experimental measures of brittle creep failure, critical behavior, and the dependence of time-to-failure, on the secondary creep rate of concrete under sustained uniaxial compression. A complete evolution process of creep failure is achieved. Three typical creep stages are observed, including the primary (decelerating, secondary (steady state creep regime, and tertiary creep (accelerating creep stages. The time-to-failure shows sample-specificity although all samples exhibit a similar creep process. All specimens exhibit a critical power-law behavior with an exponent of −0.51 ± 0.06, approximately equal to the theoretical value of −1/2. All samples have a long-term secondary stage characterized by a constant strain rate that dominates the lifetime of a sample. The average creep rate expressed by the total creep strain over the lifetime (tf-t0 for each specimen shows a power-law dependence on the secondary creep rate with an exponent of −1. This could provide a clue to the prediction of the time-to-failure of concrete, based on the monitoring of the creep behavior at the steady stage.

  10. Periodic reversal of magneto-optic Faraday rotation on uniaxial birefringence crystal with ultrathin magnetic films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. W. Su

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available An experimental approach of inclined incidence magneto-optic Faraday effect observed in the polar plane is applied. Three samples containing ferromagnetic cobalt ultrathin films on a semiconductor zinc oxide (0001 single crystal substrate with in-plane and out-of-plane anisotropy are evaluated. Through the fine adjustment of crossed polarizers in the magneto-optic effect measurement completely recorded the detail optical and magneto-optical responses from the birefringent crystal substrate and the magnetic film, especially for the signal induced from the substrate with uniaxial optical axis. The angle dependency of interference phenomena periodically from the optical and magneto-optical responses is attributed to the birefringence even in the absence of a magnetic field. The new type of observation finds that the transmission Faraday intensity in the oblique incidence includes a combination of polarization rotations, which results from optical compensation from the substrate and magneto-optical Faraday effects from the film. The samples grown at different rates and examined by this method exhibit magnetic structure discriminations. This result can be applied in the advanced polarized-light technologies to enhance the spatial resolution of magnetic surfaces with microstructural information under various magnetic field direction.

  11. Rheological-dynamical continuum damage model for concrete under uniaxial compression and its experimental verification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milašinović Dragan D.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A new analytical model for the prediction of concrete response under uniaxial compression and its experimental verification is presented in this paper. The proposed approach, referred to as the rheological-dynamical continuum damage model, combines rheological-dynamical analogy and damage mechanics. Within the framework of this approach the key continuum parameters such as the creep coefficient, Poisson’s ratio and damage variable are functionally related. The critical values of the creep coefficient and damage variable under peak stress are used to describe the failure mode of the concrete cylinder. The ultimate strain is determined in the post-peak regime only, using the secant stress-strain relation from damage mechanics. The post-peak branch is used for the energy analysis. Experimental data for five concrete compositions were obtained during the examination presented herein. The principal difference between compressive failure and tensile fracture is that there is a residual stress in the specimens, which is a consequence of uniformly accelerated motion of load during the examination of compressive strength. The critical interpenetration displacements and crushing energy are obtained theoretically based on the concept of global failure analysis. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. ON 174027: Computational Mechanics in Structural Engineering i br. TR 36017: Utilization of by-products and recycled waste materials in concrete composites for sustainable construction development in Serbia: Investigation and environmental assessment of possible applications

  12. Distribution of eigenstate populations and dissipative beating dynamics in uniaxial single-spin magnets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatomura, Takuya; Barbara, Bernard; Miyashita, Seiji

    2017-10-01

    Numerical simulations of magnetization reversal of a quantum uniaxial magnet under a swept magnetic field [Hatomura et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 116, 037203 (2016), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.116.037203] are extended. In particular, how the "wave packet" describing the time evolution of the system is scattered in the successive avoided level crossings is investigated from the viewpoint of the distribution of the eigenstate populations. It is found that the peak of the distribution as a function of the magnetic field does not depend on spin-size S , which indicates that the delay of magnetization reversal due to the finite sweeping rate is the same in both the quantum and classical cases. The peculiar synchronized oscillations of all the spin components result in the beating of the spin length. Here, dissipative effects on this beating are studied by making use of the generalized Lindblad-type master equation. The corresponding experimental situations are also discussed in order to find conditions for experimental observations.

  13. Experimental Research on Internal Behaviors of Caved Rocks under the Uniaxial Confined Compression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-jiang Zhang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available As main composition of longwall gob, caved rocks’ behaviors and their impacts under compression crucially influence strata control, subsidence, associated resources extraction, and many other aspects. However, current researches are based on a whole sample, due to looseness of caved rocks and limitation of observation technology. In this paper, an experiment system was built to investigate internal behaviors of caved rocks’ sample, under the uniaxial confined compression, including movement and breakage behavior by the digital image processing technologies. The results show that the compression process of caved rocks could be divided into two stages by relative density. Boundary effect and changes of voids and contact pressure among caved rocks lead to different movement law in different position in sample’s interior. A stratification phenomenon of breakage was discovered, which presents breakage concentration in the middle of the sample. The nonlinear movement and shear dislocation induced by shifts among caved rocks are the reason of the breakage stratification phenomenon. This phenomenon would have an effect on the permeability and seepage research of similar medium.

  14. Anomalous magneto-optical behavior of uniaxial Co/CoO bilayer films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez-Diaz, J.B., E-mail: j.gonzalez@nanogune.eu [CIC nanoGUNE Consolider, Tolosa Hiribidea 76, E-20018 Donostia-San Sebastian (Spain); Arregi, J.A.; Bergaretxe, E.; Fertin, M.J.; Idigoras, O.; Berger, A. [CIC nanoGUNE Consolider, Tolosa Hiribidea 76, E-20018 Donostia-San Sebastian (Spain)

    2013-01-15

    We study the magneto-optical properties of thin epitaxially grown Co/CoO bilayer films with in-plane uniaxial anisotropy by means of Magneto-Optical Kerr Effect (MOKE) measurements. The magneto-optical response obtained from these samples exhibits a surprising and atypical behavior, in that the polarizer setting, at which signal inversion occurs, is a function of the sample orientation. This behavior even occurs for identical orientations of the magnetization with respect to the plane-of-incidence. Using Generalized Magneto-Optical Ellipsometry, we show that the origin of this behavior is the presence of optical anisotropy, which we attribute to the strained epitaxial CoO overlayer in our samples. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We study the MO response of epitaxial Co/CoO bilayers with high crystalline order. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The MO response studied by means of GME shows an unusual behavior. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Optical anisotropy arises as the origin of such a large change in the MO response. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer This anomaly might occur in many experiments, leading to wrong magnetic properties. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer GME ellipsometry can distinguish in between these two different effects.

  15. Effect of uniaxial strain on the optical Drude scattering in graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chhikara, Manisha; Gaponenko, Iaroslav; Paruch, Patrycja; Kuzmenko, Alexey B.

    2017-06-01

    Graphene is a mechanically robust 2D material promising for flexible optoelectronic applications. However, its electromagnetic properties under strain are experimentally poorly understood. Here we present the far-infrared transmission spectra of large-area chemical-vapor deposited monolayer graphene on a polyethylene terephthalate substrate subjected to uniaxial strain. The effective strain value is calibrated using the Raman spectroscopy and corrected for a relaxation of wrinkles and folds seen directly by atomic-force microscopy. We find that while the Drude weight and the Fermi level remain constant, the scattering rate increases by more than 10% per 1% of applied strain, showing a high level of reproducibility during strain cycling. As a result, the electronic mobility and optical absorption of graphene at terahertz and lower frequencies appear to also be sensitive to strain, which opens pathways to control these key parameters mechanically. We suggest that such a functionality can be potentially used in flexible optoelectronic and microelectromechanical systems based on graphene. By combining our findings with existing theoretical models, we discuss the possible mechanisms of strain-controlled Drude scattering.

  16. Instrumentation for microwave frequency-domain spectroscopy of filled polymers under uniaxial tension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brosseau, Christian; Talbot, Philippe

    2005-09-01

    Artificially engineered multiphase heterostructures with high permittivity, high permeability and low dielectric and magnetic losses are desired for microwave applications. In addition, the direct conversion of electrical (and/or magnetic) energy to mechanical work through a material response is important for many practical applications. Thus, there is a need for sensitive and quantifiable techniques to probe how uniaxial strain affects the complex effective permittivity or magnetic permeability of particulate-filled polymers. We describe an apparatus for in situ studies of the effective electromagnetic properties of filled polymers under elongation. As currently configured, our new system will already be of significance to a wide variety of research, and in particular in the materials, automotive as well as aeronautical science. In this paper, we describe the design and operation of the measurement system. Two examples of preliminary observations of electromagnetic properties of filler reinforced polymeric materials under axial strain have been obtained and are presented to illustrate the utility of this instrumentation. On one hand, the effective permittivity of carbon-black-filled SBR (styrene-butadiene rubber) is discussed as a function of the carbon black volume fraction, frequency and extension ratio. On the other hand, we also show how the effective permeability of plasto-ferrite at microwave frequency changes due to external stress. This paper concludes with suggestions for possible research topics of current interest where the knowledge of material parameters under stress would be beneficial to the basic understanding of physical processes.

  17. Small angle scattering methods to study porous materials under high uniaxial strain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Le Floch, Sylvie, E-mail: sylvie.le-floch@univ-lyon1.fr; Balima, Félix; Pischedda, Vittoria; Legrand, Franck; San-Miguel, Alfonso [Institut Lumière Matière, UMR5306 Université Lyon 1-CNRS, Université de Lyon, 69622 Villeurbanne Cedex (France)

    2015-02-15

    We developed a high pressure cell for the in situ study of the porosity of solids under high uniaxial strain using neutron small angle scattering. The cell comprises a hydraulically actioned piston and a main body equipped with two single-crystal sapphire windows allowing for the neutron scattering of the sample. The sample cavity is designed to allow for a large volume variation as expected when compressing highly porous materials. We also implemented a loading protocol to adapt an existing diamond anvil cell for the study of porous materials by X-ray small angle scattering under high pressure. The two techniques are complementary as the radiation beam and the applied pressure are in one case perpendicular to each other (neutron cell) and in the other case parallel (X-ray cell). We will illustrate the use of these two techniques in the study of lamellar porous systems up to a maximum pressure of 0.1 GPa and 0.3 GPa for the neutron and X-ray cells, respectively. These devices allow obtaining information on the evolution of porosity with pressure in the pore dimension subdomain defined by the wave-numbers explored in the scattering process. The evolution with the applied load of such parameters as the fractal dimension of the pore-matrix interface or the apparent specific surface in expanded graphite and in expanded vermiculite is used to illustrate the use of the high pressure cells.

  18. A Quasicontinuum Study of Nanovoid Collapse under Uniaxial Loading in Ta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marian, J; Knap, J; Campbell, G

    2007-12-02

    The mechanisms underlying the deformation of nanovoids in Ta single crystals are analyzed when they are subjected to cyclic uniaxial deformation using numerical simulations. Boundary and cell-size effects have been mitigated by means of the Quasicontinuum (QC) method. We have considered {approx} 1 billion-atom systems containing 10.9 nm voids. Two kinds of simulations have been performed, each characterized by a different boundary condition. First, we compress the material along the nominal [0 0 1] direction, resulting in a highly symmetric configuration that results in high stresses. Second, we load the material along the high-index [{bar 4}819] direction to confine plasticity to a single slip system and break the symmetry. We find that the plastic response under these two conditions is strikingly different, the former governed by dislocation loop emission and dipole formation, while the latter is dominated by twinning. We calculate the irreversible plastic work budget derived from a loading-unloading cycle and identify the most relevant yield points. These calculations represent the first fully three-dimensional, fully non-local simulations of any body-centered cubic metal using QC.

  19. Mutual influence of uniaxial tensile strain and point defect pattern on electronic states in graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagalianov, Iyor Yu.; Radchenko, Taras M.; Prylutskyy, Yuriy I.; Tatarenko, Valentyn A.; Szroeder, Pawel

    2017-06-01

    The study deals with electronic properties of uniaxially stressed mono- and multi-layer graphene sheets with various kinds of imperfection: point defects modelled as resonant (neutral) adsorbed atoms or molecules, vacancies, charged impurities, and local distortions. The presence of randomly distributed defects in a strained graphene counteract the band-gap opening and even can suppress the gap occurs when they are absent. However, impurity ordering contributes to the band gap appearance and thereby re-opens the gap being suppressed by random dopants in graphene stretched along zigzag-edge direction. The band gap is found to be non-monotonic with strain in case of mutual action of defect ordering and zigzag deformation. Herewith, the minimal tensile strain required for the band-gap opening (≈12.5%) is smaller than that for defect-free graphene (≈23%), and band gap energy reaches the value predicted for maximal nondestructive strains in the pristine graphene. Effective manipulating the band gap in graphene requires balanced content of ordered dopants: their concentration should be sufficient for a significant sublattice asymmetry effect, but not so much that they may suppress the band gap or transform it into the "quasi- (or pseudo-) gap".

  20. Mechanical properties and fracture behaviour of defective phosphorene nanotubes under uniaxial tension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ping; Pei, Qing-Xiang; Huang, Wei; Zhang, Yong-Wei

    2017-12-01

    The easy formation of vacancy defects and the asymmetry in the two sublayers of phosphorene nanotubes (PNTs) may result in brand new mechanical properties and failure behaviour. Herein, we investigate the mechanical properties and fracture behaviour of defective PNTs under uniaxial tension using molecular dynamics simulations. Our simulation results show that atomic vacancies cause local stress concentration and thus significantly reduce the fracture strength and fracture strain of PNTs. More specifically, a 1% defect concentration is able to reduce the fracture strength and fracture strain by as much as 50% and 66%, respectively. Interestingly, the reduction in the mechanical properties is found to depend on the defect location: a defect located in the outer sublayer has a stronger effect than one located in the inner layer, especially for PNTs with a small diameter. Temperature is also found to strongly influence the mechanical properties of both defect-free and defective PNTs. When the temperature is increased from 0 K to 400 K, the fracture strength and fracture strain of defective PNTs with a defect concentration of 1% are reduced further by 71% and 61%, respectively. These findings are of great importance for the structural design of PNTs as building blocks in nanodevices.

  1. Diffraction Plane Dependence of Micro Residual Stresses in Uniaxially Extended Carbon Steels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Hanabusa

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In the stress measurement using X-ray or neutron diffraction, an elastic anisotropy as well as a plastic anisotropy of crystal must be carefully considered. In the X-ray and neutron diffraction stress measurement for polycrystalline materials, a particular {hkl} plane is used in measuring lattice strains. The dependence of an X-ray elastic constant on a diffraction plane is a typical example caused by an elastic anisotropy of the crystal. The yield strength and the work hardening rate of a single crystal depend on a crystallographic direction of the crystal. The difference in the yield strength and the work hardening rate relating to the crystallographic direction develops different residual stresses measured on each {hkl} diffraction after plastic deformation of a polycrystalline material. The present paper describes the result of the neutron stress measurement on uniaxially extended low and middle carbon steels. A tri-axial residual stress state developed in the extended specimens was measured on different kind of {hkl} diffraction plane. The measurement on the {110}, {200} and {211} diffraction showed that residual stresses increased with increasing the plastic elongation and the residual stresses on {110} were compressive, {200} were tensile and those on {211} were the middle of the former two planes.

  2. Formation of self-assembled micro- and nano-domain structures in uniaxial ferroelectrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shur, V. Ya; Shur, A. G.; Akhmatkhanov, A. R.

    2017-04-01

    We present the experimental study of appearance of domain wall shape instabilities and self-assembled domain structures in uniaxial ferroelectrics lithium niobate and lithium tantalate covered by artificial dielectric layer. The domain structure evolution has been considered as a manifestation of nucleation processes similar to the first order phase transformation. The necessary conditions for formation of self-assembled domain structures including the highly non-equilibrium switching conditions and stability of concave angles were proposed. The formation of the self-assembled domain shape instabilities under application of the uniform external electric field during switching (domain growth) and backswitching (domain shrinkage) has been studied experimentally with these conditions fulfilled. The formation of the bumps at the vortexes of hexagon domain for diameter above 3 - 5 μm with subsequent oriented growth was obtained in stoichiometric lithium tantalate. The formation of quasi-regular fish-bone domain structure has been revealed during spontaneous backswitching in Mg doped lithium niobate. The resulted structure consisted of the narrow residual domains with width from 200 to 500 nm appeared as a result of finger growth to the center of hexagon domain. The obtained decreasing of the number of the residual domains during growth has been attributed to strong electrostatic interaction of domain walls.

  3. 100-Fold Enhancement of Charge Transport in Uniaxially Oriented Mesoporous Anatase TiO 2 Films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Ke [College of Chemistry, Chemical Engineering and Materials Science, Soochow University, Suzhou 215123 P.R. China; Liu, Jie [College of Chemistry, Chemical Engineering and Materials Science, Soochow University, Suzhou 215123 P.R. China; Sheng, Xia [College of Chemistry, Chemical Engineering and Materials Science, Soochow University, Suzhou 215123 P.R. China; Chen, Liping [College of Chemistry, Chemical Engineering and Materials Science, Soochow University, Suzhou 215123 P.R. China; Xu, Tao [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Northern Illinois University, DeKalb Illinois 60115 USA; Zhu, Kai [National Renewable Energy Laboratory, 15031 Denver West Parkway Golden Colorado 80401 USA; Feng, Xinjian [College of Chemistry, Chemical Engineering and Materials Science, Soochow University, Suzhou 215123 P.R. China

    2017-12-04

    Mesoporous semiconductor films are of considerable interest for applications in photoelectrochemical devices, however, despite intensive research till now, their charge transport properties remain significantly lower than their single-crystal counterparts. Herein, we report a novel low-temperature template-free technique for growing high surface area mesoporous anatase TiO2 films with a preferred [001] crystalline-orientation on FTO-coated glass substrate. Compared to mesoporous films that comprised of randomly oriented crystallites, the uniaxial orientation enables a 100-fold increase in the rate of electron transport. The uniaxially oriented mesoporous anatase TiO2 films exhibit should greatly facilitate the development and application of photoelectrochemical and electrochemical devices.

  4. Band offsets for biaxially and uniaxially stressed silicon-germanium layers with arbitrary substrate and channel orientations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eneman, Geert; Roussel, Philippe; Brunco, David Paul; Collaert, Nadine; Mocuta, Anda; Thean, Aaron [Imec, Kapeldreef 75, 3001 Heverlee (Belgium)

    2016-08-07

    The conduction and valence band offsets between a strained silicon-germanium layer and a silicon-germanium substrate are reported for arbitrary substrate and channel crystal orientations. The offsets are calculated both for the case of biaxial stress, corresponding approximately to the stress state of a thin strained channel in a planar field-effect transistor (FET), and for uniaxial stress, which is the approximate stress state for strained channels in a FinFET configuration. Significant orientation dependence is found for the conduction band offset, overall leading to the strongest electron quantum confinement in biaxial-tensile stressed channels on {100}-oriented substrates, and uniaxial-tensile stressed channels in the 〈100〉 and 〈110〉 directions. For biaxially stressed layers on {111} substrates, the conduction band offset is significantly smaller than for {100} or {110} directions. For the valence band offset, the dependence on crystal orientation is found to be small.

  5. EM Scattering by a Conducting Sphere Coated with a Uniaxial Layer under Arbitrary Illumination Angle in a Fixed Laboratory Frame

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.M.Tse

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Under a fixed laboratory frame, the electromagnetic theory of the scattering of a plane wave of arbitrary polarizations incidence from arbitrary angles by a uniaxial anisotropic medium was obtained for the first time, and could be solved analytically from an eigensystem determined by a uniaxial anisotropic medium. By applying the boundary conditions at respective interfaces of the coated spherical structure, the unknown expansion coefficients can be obtained from the incident field and the electromagnetic fields in the anisotropic medium, and from the scattered field. Not only did the numerical results demonstrate the validity of our proposed theory but this paper shall also provide discussions in relation to some general cases (under arbitrary incident angles of bistatic radar cross section.

  6. Effect of uniaxial strain on the tunnel magnetoresistance of T-shaped graphene nanoribbon based spin-valve

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fouladi, A. Ahmadi

    2016-07-01

    We theoretically investigated the spin-dependent transport through a T-shaped graphene nanoribbon (TsGNR) based spin-valve consisting of armchair graphene sandwiched between two semi-infinite ferromagnetic armchair graphene nanoribbon leads in the presence of an applied uniaxial strain. Based on a tight-binding model and standard nonequilibrium Green's function technique, it is demonstrated that the tunnel magnetoresistance (TMR) for the system can be increased about 98% by tuning the uniaxial strain. Our results show that the absolute values of TMR around the zero bias voltage for compressive strain are larger than tensile strain. In addition, the TMR of the system can be nicely controlled by GNR width.

  7. Effect of uniaxial strain on adatom diffusion across {l_brace}1 1 1{r_brace}-faceted step

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang Jianyu, E-mail: wuliyangjianyu@yahoo.com.cn [Department of Maths and Physics, Hunan Institute of Engineering, Donghu Street, Xiangtan 411104 (China); Hu Wangyu, E-mail: Wangyuhu2001@yahoo.com.cn [Department of Applied Physics, Hunan University, Changsha 410082 (China); Tang Jianfeng [Department of Applied Physics, Hunan Agricultural University, Changsha 410128 (China)

    2011-02-01

    Diffusion of Pt adatom across the strained {l_brace}1 1 1{r_brace}-faceted step is studied by embedded atom method along with nudged elastic band method. For adatom on the flat (1 1 1) surface, the anisotropic diffusion behavior is found as the uniaxial strain is imposed. For the strained {l_brace}1 1 1{r_brace}-faceted step, our results show that the maximum energy barrier for adatom crossing step edge remains approximately constant as the strain varied from -1.0% to 1.0%, and there is a rise as the larger uniaxial strain is applied. The calculated energy barrier for adatom diffusion along the step edge increases with increasing tensile strain, and the slope of the straight line is small.

  8. 49 CFR 572.127 - Test conditions and instrumentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Test conditions and instrumentation. 572.127...-year-old Child Test Dummy, Beta Version § 572.127 Test conditions and instrumentation. (a) The test..., and as optional instrumentation in uniaxial for- and-aft oriented configuration on the most anterior...

  9. High pressure measurement of the uniaxial stress of host layers on intercalants and staging transformation of intercalation compounds

    CERN Document Server

    Park, T R; Kim, H; Min, P

    2002-01-01

    A layered double-hydroxide intercalation compound was synthesized to measure the uniaxial stress the host layers exert on the intercalants. To measure the uniaxial stress, we employed the photoluminescence (PL) from the intercalated species, the Sm ion complex, as it is sensitive to the deformation of the intercalants. Of the many PL peaks the Sm ion complex produces, the one that is independent of the counter-cation environment was chosen for the measurement since the Sm ion complexes are placed under a different electrostatic environment after intercalation. The peak position of the PL was redshifted linearly with increasing hydrostatic pressure on the intercalated sample. Using this pressure-induced redshifting rate and the PL difference at ambient pressure between the pre-intercalation and the intercalated ions, we found that, in the absence of external pressure, the uniaxial stress exerted on the samarium ion complexes by the host layers was about 13.9 GPa at room temperature. Time-resolved PL data also ...

  10. Constitutive modeling of the human Anterior Cruciate Ligament (ACL) under uniaxial loading using viscoelastic prony series and hyperelastic five parameter Mooney-Rivlin model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, Souvik; Mondal, Debabrata; Motalab, Mohammad

    2016-07-01

    In this present study, the stress-strain behavior of the Human Anterior Cruciate Ligament (ACL) is studied under uniaxial loads applied with various strain rates. Tensile testing of the human ACL samples requires state of the art test facilities. Furthermore, difficulty in finding human ligament for testing purpose results in very limited archival data. Nominal Stress vs. deformation gradient plots for different strain rates, as found in literature, is used to model the material behavior either as a hyperelastic or as a viscoelastic material. The well-known five parameter Mooney-Rivlin constitutivemodel for hyperelastic material and the Prony Series model for viscoelastic material are used and the objective of the analyses comprises of determining the model constants and their variation-trend with strain rates for the Human Anterior Cruciate Ligament (ACL) material using the non-linear curve fitting tool. The relationship between the model constants and strain rate, using the Hyperelastic Mooney-Rivlin model, has been obtained. The variation of the values of each coefficient with strain rates, obtained using Hyperelastic Mooney-Rivlin model are then plotted and variation of the values with strain rates are obtained for all the model constants. These plots are again fitted using the software package MATLAB and a power law relationship between the model constants and strain rates is obtained for each constant. The obtained material model for Human Anterior Cruciate Ligament (ACL) material can be implemented in any commercial finite element software package for stress analysis.

  11. Critérios para os resultados do ensaio uniaxial de carga repetida de misturas asfálticas em laboratório a partir do desempenho em campo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juceline Batista dos Santos Bastos

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The selection of asphalt mixtures that resist to permanent deformation in the field has encouraged the development of the present research. The main goal is to evaluate the relationship between asphalt mixtures’ rutting resistance obtained in the laboratory (uniaxial repeated load test with field observations (rutting, seeking the refinement of criteria for the laboratory test results as a function of field traffic. A database of 12 monitored test sections in Brazil was organized and the cluster statistical method was used to indicate 4 Flow Number (FN categories. It was considered that FNs under 100 resists only light traffic; FNs above 100 are indicated for medium traffic; more than 300 for heavy traffic; and above 1,000 for extremely heavy traffic. It is highlighted the importance of monitoring test sections in Brazil, which will lead to a continuous verification and refinement of the criteria proposed in this research

  12. Capability and recruitment patterns of trunk during isometric uniaxial and biaxial upright exertion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheikhzadeh, Ali; Parnianpour, Mohamad; Nordin, Margareta

    2008-06-01

    Work-related risk factors of low back disorders have been identified to be external moments, awkward postures, and asymmetrical dynamic lifting amongst others. The distinct role of asymmetry of load versus posture is hard to discern from the literature. Hence, the aim of this study is to measure isometric trunk exertions at upright standing posture at different exertion level and degree of asymmetry to further delineate the effects of exertion level and asymmetry on neuromuscular capability response. Fifteen healthy volunteers randomly performed trunk exertions at three levels (30%, 60%, and 100% of maximum voluntary exertion and five different angles (0 degrees , 45 degrees , 90 degrees , 135 degrees , and 180 degrees ) of normalized resultant moments. During each trial, the normalized EMG activity of 10 selected trunk muscles was quantified. The EMG activity of the 10 trunk muscles was significantly (Presultant moment, and their interactions. The controllability of the torque generation was reduced in biaxial exertions. The capability to generate and control the required trunk moments is significantly lowered during biaxial trunk exertions, while all muscles present higher EMG activity. These results suggest that the trunk muscles will be taxed higher while performing biaxial exertion tasks, increasing muscle fatigue possibly leading to a higher probability of low back injury. The prediction of biaxial trunk performance based on uniaxial data will result in an overestimation of capability and controllability of the trunk during physically demanding tasks. This study provides a better understanding of the potential mechanisms of injury during asymmetrical and biaxial trunk exertion during work-related tasks.

  13. Orientation-specific responses to sustained uniaxial stretching in focal adhesion growth and turnover

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yun; Pasapera, Ana M.; Koretsky, Alan P.; Waterman, Clare M.

    2013-01-01

    Cells are mechanosensitive to extracellular matrix (ECM) deformation, which can be caused by muscle contraction or changes in hydrostatic pressure. Focal adhesions (FAs) mediate the linkage between the cell and the ECM and initiate mechanically stimulated signaling events. We developed a stretching apparatus in which cells grown on fibronectin-coated elastic substrates can be stretched and imaged live to study how FAs dynamically respond to ECM deformation. Human bone osteosarcoma epithelial cell line U2OS was transfected with GFP-paxillin as an FA marker and subjected to sustained uniaxial stretching. Two responses at different timescales were observed: rapid FA growth within seconds after stretching, and delayed FA disassembly and loss of cell polarity that occurred over tens of minutes. Rapid FA growth occurred in all cells; however, delayed responses to stretch occurred in an orientation-specific manner, specifically in cells with their long axes perpendicular to the stretching direction, but not in cells with their long axes parallel to stretch. Pharmacological treatments demonstrated that FA kinase (FAK) promotes but Src inhibits rapid FA growth, whereas FAK, Src, and calpain 2 all contribute to delayed FA disassembly and loss of polarity in cells perpendicular to stretching. Immunostaining for phospho-FAK after stretching revealed that FAK activation was maximal at 5 s after stretching, specifically in FAs oriented perpendicular to stretch. We hypothesize that orientation-specific activation of strain/stress-sensitive proteins in FAs upstream to FAK and Src promote orientation-specific responses in FA growth and disassembly that mediate polarity rearrangement in response to sustained stretch. PMID:23754369

  14. 2005 American Heart Association (AHA) guidelines for cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) and emergency cardiovascular care (ECC) of pediatric and neonatal patients: pediatric basic life support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-05-01

    This publication presents the 2005 American Heart Association (AHA) guidelines for cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) and emergency cardiovascular care (ECC) of the pediatric patient and the 2005 American Academy of Pediatrics/AHA guidelines for CPR and ECC of the neonate. The guidelines are based on the evidence evaluation from the 2005 International Consensus Conference on Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation and Emergency Cardiovascular Care Science With Treatment Recommendations, hosted by the American Heart Association in Dallas, Texas, January 23-30, 2005. The "2005 AHA Guidelines for Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation and Emergency Cardiovascular Care" contain recommendations designed to improve survival from sudden cardiac arrest and acute life-threatening cardiopulmonary problems. The evidence evaluation process that was the basis for these guidelines was accomplished in collaboration with the International Liaison Committee on Resuscitation (ILCOR). The ILCOR process is described in more detail in the "International Consensus on Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation and Emergency Cardiovascular Care Science With Treatment Recommendations." The recommendations in the "2005 AHA Guidelines for Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation and Emergency Cardiovascular Care" confirm the safety and effectiveness of many approaches, acknowledge that other approaches may not be optimal, and recommend new treatments that have undergone evidence evaluation. These new recommendations do not imply that care involving the use of earlier guidelines is unsafe. In addition, it is important to note that these guidelines will not apply to all rescuers and all victims in all situations. The leader of a resuscitation attempt may need to adapt application of the guidelines to unique circumstances. The following are the major pediatric advanced life support changes in the 2005 guidelines: There is further caution about the use of endotracheal tubes. Laryngeal mask airways are acceptable when used by experienced

  15. Test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendixen, Carsten

    2014-01-01

    Bidrag med en kortfattet, introducerende, perspektiverende og begrebsafklarende fremstilling af begrebet test i det pædagogiske univers.......Bidrag med en kortfattet, introducerende, perspektiverende og begrebsafklarende fremstilling af begrebet test i det pædagogiske univers....

  16. THE EFFICACY OF ANGLE-MATCHED ISOKINETIC KNEE FLEXOR AND EXTENSOR STRENGTH PARAMETERS IN PREDICTING AGILITY TEST PERFORMANCE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greig, Matt; Naylor, James

    2017-10-01

    Agility is a fundamental performance element in many sports, but poses a high risk of injury. Hierarchical modelling has shown that eccentric hamstring strength is the primary determinant of agility performance. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between knee flexor and extensor strength parameters and a battery of agility tests. Controlled laboratory study. Nineteen recreational intermittent games players completed an agility battery and isokinetic testing of the eccentric knee flexors (eccH) and concentric knee extensors (conQ) at 60, 180 and 300°·s -1 . Peak torque and the angle at which peak torque occurred were calculated for eccH and conQ at each speed. Dynamic control ratios (eccH:conQ) and fast:slow ratios (300:60) were calculated using peak torque values, and again using angle-matched data, for eccH and conQ. The agility test battery differentiated linear vs directional changes and prescriptive vs reactive tasks. Linear regression showed that eccH parameters were generally a better predictor of agility performance than conQ parameters. Stepwise regression showed that only angle-matched strength ratios contributed to the prediction of each agility test. Trdaitionally calculated strength ratios using peak torque values failed to predict performance. Angle-matched strength parameters were able to account for 80% of the variation in T-test performance, 70% of deceleration distance, 55% of 10m sprint performance, and 44% of reactive change of direction speed. Traditionally calculated strength ratios failed to predict agility performance, whereas angle-matched strength ratios had better predictive ability and featured in a predictive stepwise model for each agility task. 2c.

  17. Laboratory Testing of Silica Sol Grout in Coal Measure Mudstones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Dongjiang; Zhang, Nong; Xie, Zhengzheng; Feng, Xiaowei; Kong, Yong

    2016-11-22

    The effectiveness of silica sol grout on mudstones is reported in this paper. Using X-ray diffraction (XRD), the study investigates how the silica sol grout modifies mudstone mineralogy. Micropore sizes and mechanical properties of the mudstone before and after grouting with four different materials were determined with a surface area/porosity analyser and by uniaxial compression. Tests show that, after grouting, up to 50% of the mesopore volumes can be filled with grout, the dominant pore diameter decreases from 100 nm to 10 nm, and the sealing capacity is increased. Uniaxial compression tests of silica sol grouted samples shows that their elastic modulus is 21%-38% and their uniaxial compressive strength is 16%-54% of the non-grouted samples. Peak strain, however, is greater by 150%-270%. After grouting, the sample failure mode changes from brittle to ductile. This paper provides an experimental test of anti-seepage and strengthening properties of silica sol.

  18. Geochemical changes and fracture development in Woodford Shale cores following hydrous pyrolysis under uniaxial confinement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birdwell, Justin E.; Lewan, Michael D.; Miller, Michael; Baez, Luis; Beeney, Ken; Sonnenberg, Steve

    2013-01-01

    A uniaxial confinement clamp was used on Woodford Shale cores in hydrous pyrolysis experiments to study fracture development during thermal maturation. The clamp simulates overburden in that it prevents cores from expanding perpendicular to bedding fabric during the volume-increasing reactions associated with petroleum generation. Cores were cut from a slab of immature Woodford Shale and subjected to hydrous pyrolysis under confinement at 300, 330, and 365 °C for 72 hours to induce thermal maturities ranging from early bitumen to maximum expelled-oil generation. Two additional cores were used as experimental controls: (1) a confined core was saturated with water by heating it to 100 °C under hydrous pyrolysis conditions for 72 hours to use for characterization of the original rock, and (2) an unconfined core was heated at 365 °C for 72 hours to evaluate the effects of confinement on petroleum generation and expulsion. X-ray computed tomography (X-CT) imaging and other analyses identified five distinct beds within the cored interval. Using a tentative classification system, beds 1, 2, and 3 are described as dolomitic marlstone (DM) with total organic carbon (TOC) contents of 7.7, 5.8, and 7.7 wt. %, respectively; bed 4 is a cherty quartzose claystone (CQC) with TOC content of 5.5 wt. %; and bed 5 is a quartzose claystone with TOC content of 10.9 wt. %. Bed samples all had similar Rock-Eval hydrogen indices (600 ± 46 mg S2/g-TOC) and Tmax values (433 ± 2 °C), demonstrating organic matter uniformity and low thermal maturity. The X-CT scan of the core heated to 100 °C showed preexisting fractures that were nearly perpendicular to the bedding fabric primarily in the low-TOC DM bed 2 and CQC bed 4. Heating led to enhancement of preexisting fractures in the confined cores with the greatest enhancement occurring in CQC bed 4. The fractures increased in size and intensity with temperature. This is attributed to the internal pressure generated by volume

  19. Relative impact of uniaxial alignment vs. form-induced stress on differentiation of human adipose derived stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Xin; Zhu, Wei; Huang, Samuel; Li, Julie Yi-Shuan; Chien, Shu; Zhang, Kang; Chen, Shaochen

    2013-12-01

    ADSCs are a great cell source for tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. However, the development of methods to appropriately manipulate these cells in vitro remains a challenge. Here the proliferation and differentiation of ADSCs on microfabricated surfaces with varying geometries were investigated. To create the patterned substrates, a maskless biofabrication method was developed based on dynamic optical projection stereolithography. Proliferation and early differentiation of ADSCs were compared across three distinct multicellular patterns, namely stripes (ST), symmetric fork (SF), and asymmetric fork (AF). The ST pattern was designed for uniaxial cell alignment while the SF and AF pattern were designed with altered cell directionality to different extents. The SF and AF patterns generated similar levels of regional peak stress, which were both significantly higher than those within the ST pattern. No significant difference in ADSC proliferation was observed among the three patterns. In comparison to the ST pattern, higher peak stress levels of the SF and AF patterns were associated with up-regulation of the chondrogenic and osteogenic markers SOX9 and RUNX2. Interestingly, uniaxial cell alignment in the ST pattern seemed to increase the expression of SM22α and smooth muscle α-actin, suggesting an early smooth muscle lineage progression. These results indicate that geometric cues that promote uniaxial alignment might be more potent for myogenesis than those with increased peak stress. Overall, the use of these patterned geometric cues for modulating cell alignment and form-induced stress can serve as a powerful and versatile technique towards controlling differentiation in ADSCs. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Uniaxial Compression of Cellular Materials at a 10-1 s-1 Strain Rate Simultaneously with Synchrotron X-ray Computed Tomographic Imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patterson, Brian M. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-03-01

    The topic is presented as a series of slides. Motivation for the work included the following: X-ray tomography is a fantastic technique for characterizing a material’s starting structure as well as for non-destructive, in situ experiments to investigate material response; 3D X-ray tomography is needed to fully characterize the morphology of cellular materials; and synchrotron micro-CT can capture 3D images without pausing experiment. Among the conclusions reached are these: High-rate radiographic and tomographic imaging (0.25 s 3D frame rate) using synchrotron CT can capture full 3D images of hyper-elastic materials at a 10-2 strain rate; dynamic true in situ uniaxial loading can be accurately captured; the three stages of compression can be imaged: bending, buckling, and breaking; implementation of linear modeling is completed; meshes have been imported into LANL modeling codes--testing and validation is underway and direct comparison and validation between in situ data and modeled mechanical response is possible.

  1. DEPOSITION TANK CORROSION TESTING FOR ENHANCED CHEMICAL CLEANING POST OXALIC ACID DESTRUCTION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mickalonis, J.

    2011-08-29

    An Enhanced Chemical Cleaning (ECC) process is being developed to aid in the high level waste tank closure at the Savannah River Site. The ECC process uses an advanced oxidation process (AOP) to destroy the oxalic acid that is used to remove residual sludge from a waste tank prior to closure. The AOP process treats the dissolved sludge with ozone to decompose the oxalic acid through reactions with hydroxyl radicals. The effluent from this oxalic acid decomposition is to be sent to a Type III waste tank and may be corrosive to these tanks. As part of the hazardous simulant testing that was conducted at the ECC vendor location, corrosion testing was conducted to determine the general corrosion rate for the deposition tank and to assess the susceptibility to localized corrosion, especially pitting. Both of these factors impact the calculation of hydrogen gas generation and the structural integrity of the tanks, which are considered safety class functions. The testing consisted of immersion and electrochemical testing of A537 carbon steel, the material of construction of Type III tanks, and 304L stainless steel, the material of construction for transfer piping. Tests were conducted in solutions removed from the destruction loop of the prototype ECC set up. Hazardous simulants, which were manufactured at SRNL, were used as representative sludges for F-area and H-area waste tanks. Oxalic acid concentrations of 1 and 2.5% were used to dissolve the sludge as a feed to the ECC process. Test solutions included the uninhibited effluent, as well as the effluent treated for corrosion control. The corrosion control options included mixing with an inhibited supernate and the addition of hydroxide. Evaporation of the uninhibited effluent was also tested since it may have a positive impact on reducing corrosion. All corrosion testing was conducted at 50 C. The uninhibited effluent was found to increase the corrosion rate by an order of magnitude from less than 1 mil per year (mpy

  2. New CMOS compatible soft ferromagnetic materials with in-plane uniaxial anisotropy for h.f. micro-inductor applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bekker, V. [Institut fuer Materialforschung I, Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe, Hermann-von-Helmholtz-Platz 1, 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Seemann, K. [Institut fuer Materialforschung I, Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe, Hermann-von-Helmholtz-Platz 1, 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany)]. E-mail: klaus.seemann@imf.fzk.de; Leiste, H. [Institut fuer Materialforschung I, Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe, Hermann-von-Helmholtz-Platz 1, 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Ziebert, C. [Institut fuer Materialforschung I, Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe, Hermann-von-Helmholtz-Platz 1, 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany)

    2005-04-15

    Thin ferromagnetic Fe-Co-Al-N films deposited by r.f. reactive magnetron sputtering were investigated with regard to the application as magnetic cores for h.f. micro-inductors. After deposition, the films were vacuum field annealed to induce a marked uniaxial anisotropy necessary for application in the gigahertz frequency range. Due to the nanocrystalline microstructure, the films exhibit good soft magnetic properties and an excellent thermal stability. The influence of the film thickness and domain structure on the high-frequency permeability and on the micro-inductor's performance were analysed.

  3. On the low temperature dependence of the threshold field of CDW in NbSe3 : effect of uniaxial stress

    OpenAIRE

    Tessema, G.; Skove, M.; Tseng, Y.

    1993-01-01

    We investigated the effect of uniaxial stress on the threshold field in NbSe3. For the upper CDW, we show a clear separation of the threshold field into two additive components, E'T(t) and E"T(t,ε) where t = T /Tp. The impurity dependence of E"T(t,ε) indicates that this term is the impurity or bulk pinning term. E"T(t,ε) shows strong temperature dependence near Tp but saturates to a t independent minimum below t ≈ 0.85. On the other hand, the term E'T(t) takes nearly all the temperature depen...

  4. Coupled-wave analysis of vector holograms. 2. Reflective gratings formed in photoanisotropic medium with uniaxial birefringence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, Tomoyuki; Miura, Kenta; Hanaizumi, Osamu; Emoto, Akira; Ono, Hiroshi

    2011-02-01

    The diffraction properties of reflective anisotropic gratings, which can be recorded in photoanisotropic media with uniaxial birefringence by three-dimensional vector holography, were characterized through the use of coupled-wave analysis (CWA). By investigating the perturbation of the dielectric tensor, we demonstrated that the gratings with sinusoidal distribution of the azimuthal angle of the optic axis diffract polarized light in which the ordinary and extraordinary components are converted for incident light. The polarization conversion was consistent with that calculated by a numerical method. In addition, it was shown that CWA enables highly accurate calculation of the diffraction efficiency with wavelength dispersion when the amplitude of the azimuthal angle is small.

  5. Fracture Test Methods for Plastically Responding COPV Liners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawicke, David S.; Lewis, Joseph C.

    2009-01-01

    An experimental procedure for evaluating the validity of using uniaxial tests to provide a conservative bound on the fatigue crack growth rate behavior small cracks in bi-axially loaded Composite Overwrapped Pressure Vessel (COPV) liners is described. The experimental procedure included the use of a laser notch to quickly generate small surface fatigue cracks with the desired size and aspect ratios. An out-of-plane constraint system was designed to allow fully reversed, fully plastic testing of thin sheet uniaxial coupons. Finally, a method was developed to determine to initiate small cracks in the liner of COPVs.

  6. Simulation of a large break loss of coolant (LBLOCA), without actuation of the emergency injection systems (ECCS) for a BWR-5; Simulacion de un escenario de perdida de refrigerante grande (LBLOCA), sin actuacion de los sistemas de inyeccion de emergencia (ECCS) para un reactor BWR-5

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cardenas V, J.; Mugica R, C. A.; Lopez M, R., E-mail: jaime.cardenas@cnsns.gob.mx [Comision Nacional de Seguridad Nuclear y Salvaguardias, Dr. Barragan 779, Col. Narvarte, 03020 Ciudad de Mexico (Mexico)

    2015-09-15

    In this paper the analysis of scenario for the loss of coolant case was realized with break at the bottom of a recirculation loop of a BWR-5 with containment type Mark II and a thermal power of 2317 MWt considering that not have coolant injection. This in order to observe the speed of progression of the accident, the phenomenology of the scenario, the time to reach the limit pressure of containment venting and the amount of radionuclides released into the environment. This simulation was performed using the MELCOR code version 2.1. The scenario posits a break in one of the shear recirculation loops. The emergency core cooling system (ECCS) and the reactor core isolation cooling (Rcic) have not credit throughout the event, which allowed achieve greater severity on scenario. The venting of the primary containment was conducted via valve of 30 inches instead of the line of 24 inches of wet well, this in order to have a larger area of exhaust of fission products directly to the reactor building. The venting took place when the pressure in the primary containment reached the 4.5 kg/cm{sup 2} and remained open for the rest of the scenario to maximize the amount released of radionuclides to the atmosphere. The safety relief valves were considered functional they do not present mechanical failure or limit their ability to release pressure due to the large number of performances in safety mode. The results of the analysis covers about 48 hours, time at which the accident evolution was observed; behavior of level, pressure in the vessel and the fuel temperature profile was analyzed. For progression of the scenario outside the vessel, the pressure and temperature of the primary containment, level and temperature of the suppression pool, the hydrogen accumulation in the container and the radionuclides mass released into the atmosphere were analyzed. (Author)

  7. A comparison of the uniaxial deformation of copper and nickel (1 1 19) surfaces: a molecular dynamics study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pukšič, Nuša; Jenko, Monika; Godec, Matjaž; McGuiness, Paul J.

    2017-01-01

    While a lot is known about the deformation of metallic surfaces from experiments, elasticity theory and simulations, this investigation represents the first molecular-dynamics-based simulation of uniaxial deformation for the vicinal surfaces in a comparison of copper and nickel. These vicinal surfaces are composed of terraces divided by equidistant, mono-atomic steps. The periodicity of vicinals makes them good candidates for the study of the surface steps’ influences on surface dynamics. The simulations of tensile and compressive uniaxial deformations were performed for the (1 1 19) vicinal surfaces. Since the steps on the surfaces serve as stress concentrators, the first defects were expected to nucleate here. In the case of copper, this was found to be the case. In the case of nickel, however, dislocations nucleated beneath the near-surface layer affected by the displacement field generated by the steps. Slip was hindered at the surface step by the vortex in the displacement field. The differences in the deformation mechanisms for the Ni(1 1 19) and Cu(1 1 19) surfaces can be linked to the differences in their displacement fields. This could lead to novel bottom-up approaches to the nanostructuring of surfaces using strain. PMID:28169377

  8. Evaluation of Concrete Cylinder Tests Using Finite Elements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saabye Ottosen, Niels

    1984-01-01

    Nonlinear axisymmetric finite element analyses are performed on the uniaxial compressive test of concrete cylinders. The models include thick steel loading plates, and cylinders with height‐to‐diameter ratios (h/d) ranging from 1‐3 are treated. A simple constitutive model of the concrete...... uniaxial strength the use of geometrically matched loading plates seems to be advantageous. Finally, it is observed that for variations of the element size within limits otherwise required to obtain a realistic analysis, the results are insensitive to the element size....

  9. In-situ neutron diffraction of LaCoO3 perovskite under uniaxial compression. II. Elastic properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lugovy, Mykola; Aman, Amjad; Chen, Yan; Orlovskaya, Nina; Kuebler, Jakob; Graule, Thomas; Reece, Michael J.; Ma, Dong; Stoica, Alexandru D.; An, Ke

    2014-07-01

    Calculations of elastic constants and development of elastic anisotropy under uniaxial compression in originally isotropic polycrystalline LaCoO3 perovskite are reported. The lattice strains in individual (hkl) planes as well as average lattice strain were determined both for planes oriented perpendicular and parallel to the loading direction using in-situ neutron diffraction. Utilizing average lattice strains as well as lattice strains along the a and c crystallographic directions, an attempt was made to determine Poisson's ratio of LaCoO3, which was then compared with that measured using an impulse excitation technique. The elastic constants were calculated and Young's moduli of LaCoO3 single crystal in different crystallographic directions were estimated.

  10. Molecular dynamics investigation of the elastic and fracture properties of the R-graphyne under uniaxial tension

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rouhi, Saeed, E-mail: s_rouhi@iaul.ac.ir

    2017-05-15

    In this paper, the mechanical properties of the R-graphynes are investigated by using molecular dynamics simulations. For this purpose, the uniaxial strain is applied on the nanosheets. The effects of R-graphyne chirality and dimension on their fracture and elastic properties are investigated. It is shown that the fracture properties of the armchair R-graphyne are approximately independent from the nanosheet sizes. However, a clear dependence is observed in the fracture properties of the zigzag R-graphyne on the nanosheet dimensions. Comparing the elastic modulus of the armchair and zigzag R-graphynes, it is shown that for the same sizes, the elastic modulus of armchair R-graphyne is approximately equal to 2.5 times of the elastic modulus of the zigzag ones. Pursuing the fracture process of R-graphynes with different chiralities, it is represented that the fracture propagates in the zigzag nanosheet with a higher velocity than the armchair ones.

  11. Study of the temperature dependence of the uniaxial creep property of similar material of new soft rock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Y. Y.; Wu, Y.; Fan, X. Y.; Zhang, J. L.; Guo, P.; Li, J. G.

    2017-11-01

    Using the experimental method, the experimental research of creep properties were conducted under different temperature ranging from 10°C to 60°C. The similar material of new soft rock consists of paraffin, which can obtain that the deformation contains the instantaneous elastic deformation and creep deformation through the uniaxial creep experimental results. And thus the increase of temperature has great influence on the creep characteristics of similar soft rock according to the creep curve of similar soft rock at 10°C to 60°C. With the increase of temperature, the slope of the stress-strain curve of similar soft rock is increasing, while the average of the creep modulus is decreasing, which means that the capacity of resist deformation is reduced. Therefore, the creeps law of high-temperature and short-time can be shown the creep phenomenon of low-temperature and long-time, and further shorten the creep experimental cycle.

  12. In-situ neutron diffraction of LaCoO{sub 3} perovskite under uniaxial compression. II. Elastic properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lugovy, Mykola [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, University of Central Florida, Orlando, Florida 32816 (United States); Institute for Problems of Materials Science, Kiev 03142 (Ukraine); Aman, Amjad; Orlovskaya, Nina, E-mail: Nina.Orlovskaya@ucf.edu [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, University of Central Florida, Orlando, Florida 32816 (United States); Chen, Yan [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, University of Central Florida, Orlando, Florida 32816 (United States); Chemical and Engineering Materials Division, Neutron Sciences Directorate, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831 (United States); Kuebler, Jakob; Graule, Thomas [Empa, Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Science and Technology, Laboratory for High Performance Ceramics, Ueberlandstrasse 129, 8600 Duebendorf (Switzerland); Reece, Michael J. [The School of Engineering and Materials Science, Queen Mary, University of London, London E1 4NS (United Kingdom); Ma, Dong; Stoica, Alexandru D.; An, Ke [Chemical and Engineering Materials Division, Neutron Sciences Directorate, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831 (United States)

    2014-07-07

    Calculations of elastic constants and development of elastic anisotropy under uniaxial compression in originally isotropic polycrystalline LaCoO{sub 3} perovskite are reported. The lattice strains in individual (hkl) planes as well as average lattice strain were determined both for planes oriented perpendicular and parallel to the loading direction using in-situ neutron diffraction. Utilizing average lattice strains as well as lattice strains along the a and c crystallographic directions, an attempt was made to determine Poisson's ratio of LaCoO{sub 3}, which was then compared with that measured using an impulse excitation technique. The elastic constants were calculated and Young's moduli of LaCoO{sub 3} single crystal in different crystallographic directions were estimated.

  13. Effects of aspect ratio and specimen size on uniaxial failure stress of iron green bodies at high strain rates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuroyanagi Yuki

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Powder metallurgy is used for the production of a number of mechanical parts and is an essential production method. These are great advantages such as product cost effectiveness and product uniqueness. In general, however parts created by powder metallurgy have low strength because of low density. In order to increase strength as well as density, new techniques such as high-velocity-compaction (HVC was developed and further investigation has been conducted on improvement of techniques and optimum condition using computer simulation. In this study, the effects of aspect ratio and specimen size of iron green bodies on failure strength of uniaxial compression and failure behavior were examined using a split Hopkinson pressure Bar. The diameters of specimens were 12.5 mm and 25 mm the aspect ratios (thickness/diameter were 0.8 and 1.2.

  14. Anisotropy and relaxation processes of uniaxially oriented CoFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} nanoparticles dispersed in PDMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antonel, P.S.; Negri, R.M. [Instituto de Quimica Fisica de Materiales, Ambiente y Energia (INQUIMAE), Departamento de Quimica Inorganica, Analitica y Quimica Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Ciudad Universitaria, Pabellon II, Av. Cantilo s/n (1428), Buenos Aires (Argentina); Leyva, A.G. [Grupo de Materia Condensada, Gerencia de Investigacion y Aplicaciones, Centro Atomico Constituyentes, Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, Avda. Gral. Paz 1499 (1650) San Martin, Pcia. de Buenos Aires, Argentina - Escuela de Ciencia y Tecnologia, UNSAM (Argentina); Jorge, G.A., E-mail: gjorge@df.uba.ar [Departamento de Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Ciudad Universitaria, Pabellon I, Av. Cantilo s/n (1428), Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2012-08-15

    When a uniaxial magnetic field is applied to a non-magnetic dispersive medium filled with magnetic nanoparticles, they auto-assemble into thin needles parallel to the field direction, due to the strong dipolar interaction among them. We have prepared in this way magnetically oriented nanocomposites of nanometer-size CoFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} particles in a polydimethylsiloxane polymer matrix, with 10% w/w of magnetic particles. We present the characteristic magnetic relaxation curves measured after the application of a magnetic field forming an angle {alpha} with respect to the needle direction. We show that the magnetic viscosity (calculated from the logarithmic relaxation curves) as a function of {alpha} presents a minimum at {alpha}=0, indicating slower relaxation processes associated with this configuration of fields. The results seems to point out that the local magnetic anisotropy of the nanoparticles is oriented along the needles, resulting in the macroscopic magnetic anisotropy observed in our measurements.

  15. The effect of uniaxial crystal-field anisotropy on magnetic properties of the superexchange antiferromagnetic Ising model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.Canová

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The generalized Fisher super-exchange antiferromagnetic model with uniaxial crystal-field anisotropy is exactly investigated using an extended mapping technique. An exact relation between partition function of the studied system and that of the standard zero-field spin-1/2 Ising model on the corresponding lattice is obtained applying the decoration-iteration transformation. Consequently, exact results for all physical quantities are derived for arbitrary spin values S of decorating atoms. Particular attention is paid to the investigation of the effect of crystal-field anisotropy and external longitudinal magnetic field on magnetic properties of the system under investigation. The most interesting numerical results for ground-state and finite-temperature phase diagrams, thermal dependences of the sublattice magnetization and other thermodynamic quantities are discussed.

  16. Study on Stretching Methods of Biaxially Stretched Co-polyester Film with Has Uniaxially Heat Shrinkage Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haruta, Masayuki; Mukouyama, Yukinobu; Tabota, Norimi; Ito, Katsuya; Nonomura, Chisato

    Heat shrinkable film made of stretched film is widely used for decorative labels by attaching on PET bottles with heat shrinkage by steam or dry heating. Trouble cancellation in the installation process of the PET bottle is necessary. The purpose of this study is development of uniaxially heat shrinkable co-polyester film that has strength both in the machine direction (MD) and transverse direction (TD). The film production was performed using sequential biaxial stretched process that combined roll stretching with TD stretching. Cast film was processed in the order of TD stretching-Anneal 1-MD stretching-Anneal 2. As a result, the heat shrinkable film that shrunk only in MD got high tensile strength both in MD and TD. The anneal 1 temperature over Tg (Glass transition temperature) of material resin was needed to obtain the heat shrinkable film shrunk in MD after TD stretching.

  17. An effective thickness proposal for strength evaluation of one-side pitted steel plates under uniaxial compression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zorareh Hadj Mohammad Esmaeil Nouri

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of an investigation into the post-buckling behaviour and ultimate strength of imperfect pitted steel plates used in ship and other marine-related structures. A series of elastic-plastic large deflection finite element analyses is performed on pitted steel plates. The effects of pitting corrosion on one side of the plates are introduced into the finite element models. The effects on plate compressive strength as a result of parametric variation of the pitting corrosion geometry are evaluated. A proposal on the effective thickness is concluded in order to estimate the ultimate strength and explore the post-buckling behaviour of pitted steel plates under uniaxial compression.

  18. Micro- and nanodomain imaging in uniaxial ferroelectrics: Joint application of optical, confocal Raman, and piezoelectric force microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ya. Shur, V.; Zelenovskiy, P. S.

    2014-08-01

    The application of the most effective methods of the domain visualization in model uniaxial ferroelectrics of lithium niobate (LN) and lithium tantalate (LT) family, and relaxor strontium-barium niobate (SBN) have been reviewed in this paper. We have demonstrated the synergetic effect of joint usage of optical, confocal Raman, and piezoelectric force microscopies which provide extracting of the unique information about formation of the micro- and nanodomain structures. The methods have been applied for investigation of various types of domain structures with increasing complexity: (1) periodical domain structure in LN and LT, (2) nanodomain structures in LN, LT, and SBN, (3) nanodomain structures in LN with modified surface layer, (4) dendrite domain structure in LN. The self-assembled appearance of quasi-regular nanodomain structures in highly non-equilibrium switching conditions has been considered.

  19. STUDY THE EFFECTS OF PRESTRAINS IN UNIAXIAL TENSION ON THE FORMING LIMIT DIAGRAM OF ALUMINUM ALLOY SHEETS(2024 T3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waleed J. Ali

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available           The strain path for sheet metal may be changed during forming , this may be affect the forming limit curve (FLC . In this work the FLC before and after prestraining was determined for aluminum alloy (2024 T3 to study the effect of this type of prestraining and in different values on the FLC. This alloy was chosen because it is used widely , specially in aircraft structures .It was shown that the using of uniaxial tension prestrain affects the FLC . The major strain in right side is increased with the increasing in the prestrain , while in the left side the effect is small .  

  20. Effect of Ball-Milling on Magnetic Properties of Uniaxial Nanocrystalline SmNi_2 Fe Compound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nouri, K.; Bouzidi, W.; Jemmali, M.; Hentech, I.; Dhahri, E.; Bessais, L.

    2018-02-01

    We report an interesting structural and nanostructural correlation to the Curie temperature and coercivity, respectively. The effect of Ni substitution and magnetocaloric effect (MCE) response for the uniaxial nanocrystalline SmNi_2Fe compound was demonstrated. The nanocrystalline SmNi2Fe(SmNi_2Fe) powder has been synthesized by mechanical milling for the first time. The nanocrystalline SmNi_2Fe powder has been synthesized by mechanical milling. The structural properties have been studied by x-ray diffraction and have been refined with the Rietveld method. This analysis reveals that the samples crystallize in the rhombohedral PuNi_3-type structure (R\\bar{3}m-space group). The Curie temperature of SmNi_2Fe material is about 450 K. It is a direct measure of the exchange interaction, which is the origin of ferromagnetic phase transition. This interaction depends markedly on the interatomic distance. The magnetic entropy change Δ SM, as well as the relative cooling power around the second-order magnetic transition and the Arrott plots for the compound have been reported. It was estimated from isothermal magnetization curves, and it decreases with the increase of Fe content from 2.3 J/kg K (x = 0) to 0.6 J/kg K (x = 0.8) at 50 kOe. The compound presents high coercivity exceeding 12 kOe at room temperature, obtained based on the optimization of SmNi_2Fe nanostructure. The objective of this optimization is to obtain a homogeneous nanostructure developed by the mechanical milling process, subsequent annealing and to the high uniaxial magnetocrystalline anisotropy.

  1. Effect of Ball-Milling on Magnetic Properties of Uniaxial Nanocrystalline SmNi_2 Fe Compound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nouri, K.; Bouzidi, W.; Jemmali, M.; Hentech, I.; Dhahri, E.; Bessais, L.

    2017-10-01

    We report an interesting structural and nanostructural correlation to the Curie temperature and coercivity, respectively. The effect of Ni substitution and magnetocaloric effect (MCE) response for the uniaxial nanocrystalline SmNi_2Fe compound was demonstrated. The nanocrystalline SmNi2Fe(SmNi_2Fe ) powder has been synthesized by mechanical milling for the first time. The nanocrystalline SmNi_2Fe powder has been synthesized by mechanical milling. The structural properties have been studied by x-ray diffraction and have been refined with the Rietveld method. This analysis reveals that the samples crystallize in the rhombohedral PuNi_3 -type structure (R\\bar{3}m -space group). The Curie temperature of SmNi_2Fe material is about 450 K. It is a direct measure of the exchange interaction, which is the origin of ferromagnetic phase transition. This interaction depends markedly on the interatomic distance. The magnetic entropy change Δ SM , as well as the relative cooling power around the second-order magnetic transition and the Arrott plots for the compound have been reported. It was estimated from isothermal magnetization curves, and it decreases with the increase of Fe content from 2.3 J/kg K (x = 0 ) to 0.6 J/kg K (x = 0.8 ) at 50 kOe. The compound presents high coercivity exceeding 12 kOe at room temperature, obtained based on the optimization of SmNi_2Fe nanostructure. The objective of this optimization is to obtain a homogeneous nanostructure developed by the mechanical milling process, subsequent annealing and to the high uniaxial magnetocrystalline anisotropy.

  2. Biaxial Testing of 2195 Aluminum Lithium Alloy Using Cruciform Specimens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, W. M.; Pollock, W. D.; Dawicke, D. S.; Wagner, John A. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    A cruciform biaxial test specimen was used to test the effect of biaxial load on the yield of aluminum-lithium alloy 2195. Fifteen cruciform specimens were tested from 2 thicknesses of 2195-T8 plate, 0.45 in. and 1.75 in. These results were compared to the results from uniaxial tensile tests of the same alloy, and cruciform biaxial tests of aluminum alloy 2219-T87.

  3. Self-assembly in a near-frictionless granular material: Conformational structures and transitions in uniaxial cyclic compression of hydrogel spheres

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Walker, D.M.; Tordesillas, A.; Brodu, N.; Dijksman, J.A.; Behringer, R.P.; Froyland, G.

    2015-01-01

    We use a Markov transition matrix-based analysis to explore the structures and structural transitions in a three-dimensional assembly of hydrogel spheres under cyclic uniaxial compression. We apply these methods on experimental data obtained from a packing of nearly frictionless hydrogel balls. This

  4. Viscosity overshoot followed by steady state measured in uni-axial elongation of LDPE. Ole Hassager, Henrik Koblitz Rasmussen, Anders Bach and Jens Kromann Nielsen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Henrik Koblitz; Hassager, Ole; Bach, Anders

    2004-01-01

    The transient (e.g. start up of) elongational viscosity of three low-density polyethylene (LDPE) melts (BASF Lupolen 1810H, 1840D and 3020D) was measured using a filament stretching rheometer (FSR) capable of measuring at elevated temperatures. The transient uni-axial elongational viscosity showe...

  5. Experimental Investigation of the Influence of Joint Geometric Configurations on the Mechanical Properties of Intermittent Jointed Rock Models Under Cyclic Uniaxial Compression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yi; Dai, Feng; Fan, Pengxian; Xu, Nuwen; Dong, Lu

    2017-06-01

    Intermittent joints in rock mass are quite sensitive to cyclic loading conditions. Understanding the fatigue mechanical properties of jointed rocks is beneficial for rational design and stability analysis of rock engineering projects. This study experimentally investigated the influences of joint geometry (i.e., dip angle, persistency, density and spacing) on the fatigue mechanism of synthetic jointed rock models. Our results revealed that the stress-strain curve of jointed rock under cyclic loadings is dominated by its curve under monotonic uniaxial loadings; the terminal strain in fatigue curve is equal to the post-peak strain corresponding to the maximum cyclic stress in the monotonic stress-strain curve. The four joint geometrical parameters studied significantly affect the fatigue properties of jointed rocks, including the irreversible strains, the fatigue deformation modulus, the energy evolution, the damage variable and the crack coalescence patterns. The higher the values of the geometrical parameters, the lower the elastic energy stores in this jointed rock, the higher the fatigue damage accumulates in the first few cycles, and the lower the fatigue life. The elastic energy has certain storage limitation, at which the fatigue failure occurs. Two basic micro-cracks, i.e., tensile wing crack and shear crack, are observed in cyclic loading and unloading tests, which are controlled principally by joint dip angle and persistency. In general, shear cracks only occur in the jointed rock with higher dip angle or higher persistency, and the jointed rock is characterized by lower fatigue strength, larger damage variable and lower fatigue life.

  6. Local buckling of aluminium structures exposed to fire. Part 1: Tests

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maljaars, J.; Soetens, F.

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes an experimental investigation into local buckling of compressed aluminium alloy sections at elevated temperatures. Stress-strain relationships are derived based on uniaxial tensile tests. A special test set-up with a furnace is developed to test slender square hollow sections

  7. 49 CFR 572.137 - Test conditions and instrumentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    .... (a) The test probe for thoracic impacts, except for attachments, shall be of rigid metallic... instrumentation cavity and as optional instrumentation in uniaxial for-and-aft oriented configuration arranged as... sheet 3 of 6. (l) The optional thoracic spine force/moment transducer shall have the dimensions...

  8. Creating homogenous strain distribution within 3D cell-encapsulated constructs using a simple and cost-effective uniaxial tensile bioreactor: Design and validation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subramanian, Gayathri; Elsaadany, Mostafa; Bialorucki, Callan; Yildirim-Ayan, Eda

    2017-08-01

    Mechanical loading bioreactors capable of applying uniaxial tensile strains are emerging to be a valuable tool to investigate physiologically relevant cellular signaling pathways and biochemical expression. In this study, we have introduced a simple and cost-effective uniaxial tensile strain bioreactor for the application of precise and homogenous uniaxial strains to 3D cell-encapsulated collagen constructs at physiological loading strains (0-12%) and frequencies (0.01-1 Hz). The bioreactor employs silicone-based loading chambers specifically designed to stretch constructs without direct gripping to minimize stress concentration at the ends of the construct and preserve its integrity. The loading chambers are driven by a versatile stepper motor ball-screw actuation system to produce stretching of the constructs. Mechanical characterization of the bioreactor performed through Finite Element Analysis demonstrated that the constructs experienced predominantly uniaxial tensile strain in the longitudinal direction. The strains produced were found to be homogenous over a 15 × 4 × 2 mm region of the construct equivalent to around 60% of the effective region of characterization. The strain values were also shown to be consistent and reproducible during cyclic loading regimes. Biological characterization confirmed the ability of the bioreactor to promote cell viability, proliferation, and matrix organization of cell-encapsulated collagen constructs. This easy-to-use uniaxial tensile strain bioreactor can be employed for studying morphological, structural, and functional responses of cell-embedded matrix systems in response to physiological loading of musculoskeletal tissues. It also holds promise for tissue-engineered strategies that involve delivery of mechanically stimulated cells at the site of injury through a biological carrier to develop a clinically useful therapy for tissue healing. Biotechnol. Bioeng. 2017;114: 1878-1887. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals

  9. The application of miniature disc testing for the assessment of creep damage in CrMoV rotor steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parker, J.D.; Stratford, G.C. [University of Wales, Swansea (United Kingdom); Shaw, N.; Spink, G. [National Power plc (United Kingdom); Metcalfe, H. [Siemens Power Generation (United Kingdom)

    1998-12-31

    A range of critical experiments has been performed studying the creep and fracture behaviour of a typical CrMoV rotor steel. Initially, uniaxial tests were carried out to provide material with a predetermined level of creep damage. Then, miniature disc tests were undertaken under accelerated conditions in a similar manner to procedures used for post-exposure uniaxial testing of service components. Data analysis demonstrates that the miniature tests accurately reflect the damage present so that this approach can be used to support run/repair/replace decisions. (orig.) 8 refs.

  10. Sound propagation in isotropically and uni-axially compressed cohesive, frictional granular solids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mouraille, O.J.P.; Herbst, O.; Herbst, O.; Luding, Stefan

    2009-01-01

    Using an advanced contact model in DEM simulations, involving elasto-plasticity, adhesion, and friction, pressure-sintered tablets are formed from primary particles and prepared for unconfined tests. Sound propagation in such packings is studied under various friction and adhesion conditions. Small

  11. Uniaxial drawing and mechanical properties of poly[(R)-3-hydroxybutyrate]/poly(L-lactic acid) blends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jun Wuk; Doi, Yoshiharu; Iwata, Tadahisa

    2004-01-01

    Blends of poly(L-lactic acid) (PLLA) with two kinds of poly[(R)-3-hydroxybutyrate] (PHB) having different molecular weights, commercial-grade bacterial PHB (bacterial-PHB) and ultrahigh molecular weight PHB (UHMW-PHB), were prepared by the solvent-casting method and uniaxially drawn at two drawing temperatures, around PHB's T(g) (2 degrees C) for PHB-rich blends and around PLLA's T(g) (60 degrees C) for PLLA-rich blends. Differential scanning calorimetry analysis showed that this system was immiscible over the entire composition range. Mechanical properties of all of the samples were improved in proportion to the draw ratio. Although PLLA domains in bacterial-PHB-rich blends remained almost unstretched during cold drawing, a good interfacial adhesion between two polymers and the reinforcing role of PLLA components led to enhanced mechanical properties proportionally to the PLLA content at the same draw ratio. On the contrary, in the case of UHMW-PHB-rich blends, the minor component PLLA was found to be also oriented by cold drawing in ice water due to an increase in the interfacial entanglements caused by the very long chain length of the matrix polymer. As a result, their mechanical properties were considerably improved with increasing PLLA content compared with the bacterial-PHB system. Scanning electron microscopy observations on the surface and cross-section revealed that a layered structure with uniformly oriented microporous in the interior was obtained by selectively removal of PLLA component after simple alkaline treatment.

  12. Observation of Various and Spontaneous Magnetic Skyrmionic Bubbles at Room Temperature in a Frustrated Kagome Magnet with Uniaxial Magnetic Anisotropy

    KAUST Repository

    Hou, Zhipeng

    2017-06-07

    The quest for materials hosting topologically protected skyrmionic spin textures continues to be fueled by the promise of novel devices. Although many materials have demonstrated the existence of such spin textures, major challenges remain to be addressed before devices based on magnetic skyrmions can be realized. For example, being able to create and manipulate skyrmionic spin textures at room temperature is of great importance for further technological applications because they can adapt to various external stimuli acting as information carriers in spintronic devices. Here, the first observation of skyrmionic magnetic bubbles with variable topological spin textures formed at room temperature in a frustrated kagome Fe3 Sn2 magnet with uniaxial magnetic anisotropy is reported. The magnetization dynamics are investigated using in situ Lorentz transmission electron microscopy, revealing that the transformation between different magnetic bubbles and domains is via the motion of Bloch lines driven by an applied external magnetic field. These results demonstrate that Fe3 Sn2 facilitates a unique magnetic control of topological spin textures at room temperature, making it a promising candidate for further skyrmion-based spintronic devices.

  13. Stress distribution and lattice distortions in Nb3Sn multifilament wires under uniaxial tensile loading at 4.2 K

    CERN Document Server

    Scheuerlein, C; Buta, F; Seeber, B; Senatore, C; Flükiger, R; Siegrist, T; Besara, T; Kadar, J; Bordini, B; Ballarino, A; Bottura, L

    2014-01-01

    The lattice parameter changes in three types of Nb3Sn superconducting wires during uniaxial stress-strain measurements at 4.2 K have been measured by high-energy synchrotron x-ray diffraction. The nearly-stress-free Nb3Sn lattice parameter has been determined using extracted filaments, and the elastic strain in the axial and transverse wire directions in the different wire phases has been calculated. The mechanical properties of the PIT and RRP wire are mainly determined by the properties of Nb3Sn and unreacted Nb. This is in contrast to the bronze route wire, where the matrix can carry substantial loads. In straight wires the axial Nb3Sn pre-strain is strongest in the bronze route wire, its value being smaller in the PIT and RRP wires. A strong reduction of the non-Cu elastic modulus of about 30\\% is observed during cool-down from ambient temperature to 4.2 K. The Nb3Sn Poisson ratio at 4.2 K measured in the untwisted bronze route wire is 0.35. The present study also shows that the process route has a strong...

  14. Constitutive Modeling of High Temperature Uniaxial Creep-Fatigue and Creep-Ratcheting Responses of Alloy 617

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    P.G. Pritchard; L.J. Carroll; T. Hassan

    2013-07-01

    Inconel Alloy 617 is a high temperature creep and corrosion resistant alloy and is a leading candidate for use in Intermediate Heat Exchangers (IHX) of the Next Generation Nuclear Plants (NGNP). The IHX of the NGNP is expected to experience operating temperatures in the range of 800 degrees - 950 degrees C, which is in the creep regime of Alloy 617. A broad set of uniaxial, low-cycle fatigue, fatigue-creep, ratcheting, and ratcheting-creep experiments are conducted in order to study the fatigue and ratcheting responses, and their interactions with the creep response at high temperatures. A unified constitutive model developed at North Carolina State University is used to simulate these experimental responses. The model is developed based on the Chaboche viscoplastic model framework. It includes cyclic hardening/softening, strain rate dependence, strain range dependence, static and dynamic recovery modeling features. For simulation of the alloy 617 responses, new techniques of model parameter determination are developed for optimized simulations. This paper compares the experimental responses and model simulations for demonstrating the strengths and shortcomings of the model.

  15. The effect of material strain hardening on the buckling strength of a perforated plate under uniaxial loading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patil, Mayuri Suresh

    Plates or members containing plate elements have been used in the offshore, aerospace and construction industry. Cutouts are often located to lighten the weight of the structure, but these cutouts reduce the ultimate strength of the plate. A number of studies have taken place for determining the buckling strength of a perforated plated but few discuss the effect of material strain hardening on the buckling strength of a perforated plate. Buckling strength is often considered as an important criterial to determine the serviceable limit of the perforated plate in the offshore structure. The aim of the present study is to investigate the effect of material strain hardening on the strength characteristic of a perforated plate under uniaxial loading. This load at some point could lead to a possibility of instability. A square plate with perforation is considered here. The plate is considered to be simply supported at all four edges and has been kept straight. The perforation is located at the center of the plate. A number of ANSYS static nonlinear analysis are undertaken with different strain hardening material properties for AL7075. The Ramberg-Osgood method is used to determine the stress-strain curve for different strain hardening values. The plate thickness and the cutout size of the perforation are varied to determine the effect on the strength. The study covers the behavior of the system in the elastic buckling and the elastic-plastic region.

  16. Un Nuevo Modelo Basado en Funciones Exponenciales para un Sistema de Levitación Magnética Uniaxial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan E. Martínez

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo un nuevo modelo dinámico para un sistema de levitación magnética uniaxial (el cual no se ha reportado en la literatura se desarrolla a partir de principios magnetostáticos. El sistema en mención está compuesto por dos bobinas, utilizadas como actuadores para el control de posición de dos imanes permanentes que deben deslizarse a través de un eje vertical, esta es una configuración muy utilizada en motores con suspensión magnética y en general por cualquier sistema con cojinetes o soportes magnéticos activos. Basados en el modelo amperiano y la ley de Biot-Savart para este sistema, se establecieron mediante cálculos numéricos las relaciones fuerza-distancia entre bobinas e imanes permanentes y entre ambos imanes. Con estas relaciones numéricamente definidas se realizaron ajustes de curva exponenciales para obtener el modelo dinámico no lineal del sistema de suspensión magnética. En este artículo adicionalmente se presenta un modelo linealizado generado a partir del modelo obtenido previamente, demostrando que éste representa correctamente la dinámica del sistema cerca al punto de operación.

  17. Atomistic simulations of nanocrystalline U0.5Th0.5O2 solid solution under uniaxial tension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongxing Xiao

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Molecular dynamics simulations were performed to investigate the uniaxial tensile properties of nanocrystalline U0.5Th0.5O2 solid solution with the Born–Mayer–Huggins potential. The results indicated that the elastic modulus increased linearly with the density relative to a single crystal, but decreased with increasing temperature. The simulated nanocrystalline U0.5Th0.5O2 exhibited a breakdown in the Hall–Petch relation with mean grain size varying from 3.0 nm to 18.0 nm. Moreover, the elastic modulus of U1-yThyO2 solid solutions with different content of thorium at 300 K was also studied and the results accorded well with the experimental data available in the literature. In addition, the fracture mode of nanocrystalline U0.5Th0.5O2 was inclined to be ductile because the fracture behavior was preceded by some moderate amount of plastic deformation, which is different from what has been seen earlier in simulations of pure UO2.

  18. 300% Enhancement of Carrier Mobility in Uniaxial-Oriented Perovskite Films Formed by Topotactic-Oriented Attachment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dong Hoe; Park, Jaehong; Li, Zhen; Yang, Mengjin; Park, Ji-Sang; Park, Ik Jae; Kim, Jin Young; Berry, Joseph J; Rumbles, Garry; Zhu, Kai

    2017-06-01

    Organic-inorganic perovskites with intriguing optical and electrical properties have attracted significant research interests due to their excellent performance in optoelectronic devices. Recent efforts on preparing uniform and large-grain polycrystalline perovskite films have led to enhanced carrier lifetime up to several microseconds. However, the mobility and trap densities of polycrystalline perovskite films are still significantly behind their single-crystal counterparts. Here, a facile topotactic-oriented attachment (TOA) process to grow highly oriented perovskite films, featuring strong uniaxial-crystallographic texture, micrometer-grain morphology, high crystallinity, low trap density (≈4 × 1014 cm-3 ), and unprecedented 9 GHz charge-carrier mobility (71 cm2 V-1 s-1 ), is demonstrated. TOA-perovskite-based n-i-p planar solar cells show minimal discrepancies between stabilized efficiency (19.0%) and reverse-scan efficiency (19.7%). The TOA process is also applicable for growing other state-of-the-art perovskite alloys, including triple-cation and mixed-halide perovskites. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Development and evaluation of a device for simultaneous uniaxial compression and optical imaging of cartilage samples in vitro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steinert, Marian; Kratz, Marita; Jones, David B. [Department of Experimental Orthopaedics and Biomechanics, Philipps University Marburg, Baldingerstr., 35043 Marburg (Germany); Jaedicke, Volker; Hofmann, Martin R. [Photonics and Terahertz Technology, Ruhr University Bochum, Universitätsstr. 150, 44801 Bochum (Germany)

    2014-10-15

    In this paper, we present a system that allows imaging of cartilage tissue via optical coherence tomography (OCT) during controlled uniaxial unconfined compression of cylindrical osteochondral cores in vitro. We describe the system design and conduct a static and dynamic performance analysis. While reference measurements yield a full scale maximum deviation of 0.14% in displacement, force can be measured with a full scale standard deviation of 1.4%. The dynamic performance evaluation indicates a high accuracy in force controlled mode up to 25 Hz, but it also reveals a strong effect of variance of sample mechanical properties on the tracking performance under displacement control. In order to counterbalance these disturbances, an adaptive feed forward approach was applied which finally resulted in an improved displacement tracking accuracy up to 3 Hz. A built-in imaging probe allows on-line monitoring of the sample via OCT while being loaded in the cultivation chamber. We show that cartilage topology and defects in the tissue can be observed and demonstrate the visualization of the compression process during static mechanical loading.

  20. Message-passing-interface-based parallel FDTD investigation on the EM scattering from a 1-D rough sea surface using uniaxial perfectly matched layer absorbing boundary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, J; Guo, L-X; Zeng, H; Han, X-B

    2009-06-01

    A message-passing-interface (MPI)-based parallel finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) algorithm for the electromagnetic scattering from a 1-D randomly rough sea surface is presented. The uniaxial perfectly matched layer (UPML) medium is adopted for truncation of FDTD lattices, in which the finite-difference equations can be used for the total computation domain by properly choosing the uniaxial parameters. This makes the parallel FDTD algorithm easier to implement. The parallel performance with different processors is illustrated for one sea surface realization, and the computation time of the parallel FDTD algorithm is dramatically reduced compared to a single-process implementation. Finally, some numerical results are shown, including the backscattering characteristics of sea surface for different polarization and the bistatic scattering from a sea surface with large incident angle and large wind speed.

  1. Uniaxial Stress-Strain Behavior of Unsaturated Soils at High Strain Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-04-01

    Sturation * , % FIGURE 2. Low Amplitude Shear Modulus as a Function of Saturation for Glacier Way Silt (Wua e al., (32)). 5 dominates), while at lower...Effects." Geotechnical Testing JnI., GTJODJ, Vol. 11, No. 4, pp. 269-275. 7. Felice, C.W., Brown , J.A. Gaffney, E.S. and Olsen, J.M. (1987) "An...Non-Nuclear Munitions With Structures, P.C. Beach, FL, pp. 391-396. 8. Felice, C.W., Gaffney, E.S., Brown , J.A. and Olsen, J.M. (1987) "Dynamic High

  2. Biomimetic Three-Dimensional Anisotropic Geometries by Uniaxial Stretch of Poly(ɛ-Caprolactone) Films for Mesenchymal Stem Cell Proliferation, Alignment, and Myogenic Differentiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zu-yong; Teo, Erin Yiling; Chong, Mark Seow Khoon; Zhang, Qin-yuan; Lim, Jing; Zhang, Zhi-yong; Hong, Ming-hui; Thian, Eng-san

    2013-01-01

    Anisotropic geometries are critical for eliciting cell alignment to dictate tissue microarchitectures and biological functions. Current fabrication techniques are complex and utilize toxic solvents, hampering their applications for translational research. Here, we present a novel simple, solvent-free, and reproducible method via uniaxial stretching for incorporating anisotropic topographies on bioresorbable films with ambitions to realize stem cell alignment control. Uniaxial stretching of poly(ɛ-caprolactone) (PCL) films resulted in a three-dimensional micro-ridge/groove topography (inter-ridge-distance: ∼6 μm; ridge-length: ∼90 μm; ridge-depth: 200–900 nm) with uniform distribution and controllable orientation by the direction of stretch on the whole film surface. When stretch temperature (Ts) and draw ratio (DR) were increased, the inter-ridge-distance was reduced and ridge-length increased. Through modification of hydrolysis, increased surface hydrophilicity was achieved, while maintaining the morphology of PCL ridge/grooves. Upon seeding human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) on uniaxial-stretched PCL (UX-PCL) films, aligned hMSC organization was obtained. Compared to unstretched films, hMSCs on UX-PCL had larger increase in cellular alignment (>85%) and elongation, without indication of cytotoxicity or reduction in cellular proliferation. This aligned hMSC organization was homogenous and stably maintained with controlled orientation along the ridges on the whole UX-PCL surface for over 2 weeks. Moreover, the hMSCs on UX-PCL had a higher level of myogenic genes' expression than that on the unstretched films. We conclude that uniaxial stretching has potential in patterning film topography with anisotropic structures. The UX-PCL in conjunction with hMSCs could be used as “basic units” to create tissue constructs with microscale control of cellular alignment and elongation for tissue engineering applications. PMID:23198964

  3. Biomimetic three-dimensional anisotropic geometries by uniaxial stretch of poly(ε-caprolactone) films for mesenchymal stem cell proliferation, alignment, and myogenic differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zu-yong; Teo, Erin Yiling; Chong, Mark Seow Khoon; Zhang, Qin-yuan; Lim, Jing; Zhang, Zhi-yong; Hong, Ming-hui; Thian, Eng-san; Chan, Jerry Kok Yen; Teoh, Swee-hin

    2013-07-01

    Anisotropic geometries are critical for eliciting cell alignment to dictate tissue microarchitectures and biological functions. Current fabrication techniques are complex and utilize toxic solvents, hampering their applications for translational research. Here, we present a novel simple, solvent-free, and reproducible method via uniaxial stretching for incorporating anisotropic topographies on bioresorbable films with ambitions to realize stem cell alignment control. Uniaxial stretching of poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL) films resulted in a three-dimensional micro-ridge/groove topography (inter-ridge-distance: ~6 μm; ridge-length: ~90 μm; ridge-depth: 200-900 nm) with uniform distribution and controllable orientation by the direction of stretch on the whole film surface. When stretch temperature (Ts) and draw ratio (DR) were increased, the inter-ridge-distance was reduced and ridge-length increased. Through modification of hydrolysis, increased surface hydrophilicity was achieved, while maintaining the morphology of PCL ridge/grooves. Upon seeding human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) on uniaxial-stretched PCL (UX-PCL) films, aligned hMSC organization was obtained. Compared to unstretched films, hMSCs on UX-PCL had larger increase in cellular alignment (>85%) and elongation, without indication of cytotoxicity or reduction in cellular proliferation. This aligned hMSC organization was homogenous and stably maintained with controlled orientation along the ridges on the whole UX-PCL surface for over 2 weeks. Moreover, the hMSCs on UX-PCL had a higher level of myogenic genes' expression than that on the unstretched films. We conclude that uniaxial stretching has potential in patterning film topography with anisotropic structures. The UX-PCL in conjunction with hMSCs could be used as "basic units" to create tissue constructs with microscale control of cellular alignment and elongation for tissue engineering applications.

  4. Effect of Forging on Microstructure, Texture, and Uniaxial Properties of Cast AZ31B Alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toscano, D.; Shaha, S. K.; Behravesh, B.; Jahed, H.; Williams, B.

    2017-07-01

    The effect of open-die hot forging on cast AZ31B magnesium alloy was investigated in terms of the evolution of microstructure, texture, and mechanical properties. A refined microstructure with strong basal texture was developed in forged material. A significant increase in tensile yield and ultimate strengths by 143 and 23%, respectively, was determined as well. When tested in compression at room temperature, the forged alloy displayed significant in-plane asymmetry and unchanged yield strength compared to the cast alloy owing to the activation of 10\\bar{1}2} cast and forged conditions. However, the ultimate compressive strength for the forged material increased by 22 percent compared to the as-cast material. Microstructure and texture analysis of the fracture samples confirmed that the deformation of the forged samples was dominated by slip during tension and twin in compression. In comparison, both slip and twin were observed in the cast samples for similar testing conditions. The increase in strength of forging was attributed to the refinement of grains and the formation of strong basal texture, which activated the non-basal slip on the prismatic and pyramidal slip systems instead of extension twin.

  5. Standard test method for creep-fatigue testing

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2009-01-01

    1.1 This test method covers the determination of mechanical properties pertaining to creep-fatigue deformation or crack formation in nominally homogeneous materials, or both by the use of test specimens subjected to uniaxial forces under isothermal conditions. It concerns fatigue testing at strain rates or with cycles involving sufficiently long hold times to be responsible for the cyclic deformation response and cycles to crack formation to be affected by creep (and oxidation). It is intended as a test method for fatigue testing performed in support of such activities as materials research and development, mechanical design, process and quality control, product performance, and failure analysis. The cyclic conditions responsible for creep-fatigue deformation and cracking vary with material and with temperature for a given material. 1.2 The use of this test method is limited to specimens and does not cover testing of full-scale components, structures, or consumer products. 1.3 This test method is primarily ...

  6. Study on the influence of γ-ray total dose radiation effect on the electrical properties of the uniaxial strained Si nanometer NMOSFET

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Minru; Hu, Huiyong; Wang, Bin; Liao, Chenguang; Kang, Haiyan; Su, Han

    2017-07-01

    The carrier microscopic transport process of uniaxial strained Si n-channel metal-oxide semiconductor field-effect transistor (NMOSFET) has been analyzed under γ-ray radiation. The variation of electrical characteristics of the uniaxial strained Si nanometer NMOSFET has also been investigated under the total dose radiation. The Capacitor-Voltage (C-V) and Current-Voltage (I-V) characteristics are measured at room temperature before and after irradiation for each sample. The results indicate that the drift of threshold voltage, the degradation of carrier mobility and the increase in leakage current because of the total dose radiation effect. Moreover, a two-dimensional analytical model of threshold voltage (Vth) and carrier mobility model have been developed due to the total dose irradiation taken into consideration. Based on the model, numerical simulation has been carried out by MATLAB. The influence of the total dose, geometry and physics parameters on threshold voltage was simulated. Moreover, to evaluate the validity of the model, the simulation results were compared with experimental data, and good agreements were confirmed. Thus, the experiment results and proposed model provide good reference for research on irradiation reliability and application of strained integrated circuit of uniaxial strained Si nanometer n-channel metal-oxide semiconductor field-effect transistor.

  7. Uniaxial Compressive Strength and Fracture Mode of Lake Ice at Moderate Strain Rates Based on a Digital Speckle Correlation Method for Deformation Measurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jijian Lian

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Better understanding of the complex mechanical properties of ice is the foundation to predict the ice fail process and avoid potential ice threats. In the present study, uniaxial compressive strength and fracture mode of natural lake ice are investigated over moderate strain-rate range of 0.4–10 s−1 at −5 °C and −10 °C. The digital speckle correlation method (DSCM is used for deformation measurement through constructing artificial speckle on ice sample surface in advance, and two dynamic load cells are employed to measure the dynamic load for monitoring the equilibrium of two ends’ forces under high-speed loading. The relationships between uniaxial compressive strength and strain-rate, temperature, loading direction, and air porosity are investigated, and the fracture mode of ice at moderate rates is also discussed. The experimental results show that there exists a significant difference between true strain-rate and nominal strain-rate derived from actuator displacement under dynamic loading conditions. Over the employed strain-rate range, the dynamic uniaxial compressive strength of lake ice shows positive strain-rate sensitivity and decreases with increasing temperature. Ice obtains greater strength values when it is with lower air porosity and loaded vertically. The fracture mode of ice seems to be a combination of splitting failure and crushing failure.

  8. Uniaxial-stress enhancement of spin-driven ferroelectric polarization in a multiferroic CuFe1-xGaxO2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitsuda, S.; Yoshitomi, K.; Nakajima, T.; Kaneko, C.; Yamazaki, H.; Kosaka, M.; Aso, N.; Uwatoko, Y.; Noda, Y.; Matsuura, M.; Terada, N.; Wakimoto, S.; Takeda, M.; Kakurai, K.

    2012-02-01

    Delafossite compound CuFeO2 is a spin-driven magneto-electric multiferroic, in which magnetic field-induced or nonmagnetic impurity-induced proper helical magnetic ordering generates a spontaneous electric polarization through the spin-orbit-interaction mediated modulation of Fe 3d-O 2p hybridization. As is expected from spin-lattice tightly coupled character of this system, we found an enhancement of spin-driven ferroelectric polarization under [1bar 10] uniaxial stress as spin-mediated piezoelectric effect. Preparing almost mono-domain state for multiferroic CuFe1-xGaxO2 sample with x = 0.035, we have performed polarized neutron diffraction and in-situ ferroelectric polarization measurements to investigate how the helical magnetic structure is modified and how much ferroelectric polarization increases under application of [1bar 10] uniaxial stress up to 100 MPa. The uniaxial-stress variation of magnetic structural parameters characterizing helical magnetic ordering suggests decreasing of the ferroelectric polarization according to the calculation on the basis of d-p hybridization mechanism. Therefore, it is suggested that the enhancement of ferroelectric polarization originates not in variation of the magnetic structure but in the enhancement of the d-p hybridization coupling constants.

  9. Analyzing the rules of fracture and damage, and the characteristics of the acoustic emission signal of a gypsum specimen under uniaxial loading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Dong; Wang, En-yuan; Li, Nan

    2017-08-01

    In order to study the mechanism of rock bursts in a mined-out area of a gypsum mine, in this paper acoustic emission testing of the uniaxial compression of gypsum and sandstone samples is carried out. The case of rupture of the specimen is observed, and the load axial deformation curve and acoustic emission parameters are obtained for the whole process of specimen rupture. The similarities and differences between the gypsum and sandstone samples are determined in terms of their mechanical properties, their damage evolution laws and frequency band energy distributions, and the instantaneous energy characteristics of their acoustic emission. The results show that the main fracture morphology of gypsum is ‘eight’-type, and the macroscopic fracture morphology of sandstone is mainly of partial ‘Y’-type and inverted Y-type. The intensity and uniformity of the gypsum and sandstone of the medium are different; because the gypsum is more uniform, it does not show as much variation as sandstone, instead suddenly increasing and decreasing. The maximum value of the damage variable D of gypsum reached 1, but the maximum value of D of the sandstone only reached 0.9. The frequency band of the maximum energy of gypsum and sandstone gradually decreased across the the four stages of rupture, while the maximum energy percentage increased gradually. From the stage where damage gradually increases to the stage of integral fracture of the specimen, the instantaneous energy showed a certain degree of increase. With an increase in the strength of the sample, the maximum energy percentage of the two materials corresponding to each phase gradually increases, and from the stage where damage gradually increases to the stage of integral fracture of the specimen, the value of instantaneous energy obviously increases. The results indicate that gypsum mines will also experience rock bursts, as coal mines do, but the intensity will be different. Therefore, using the three indicators, the

  10. Mathematical Modeling of Uniaxial Mechanical Properties of Collagen Gel Scaffolds for Vascular Tissue Engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramiro M. Irastorza

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Small diameter tissue-engineered arteries improve their mechanical and functional properties when they are mechanically stimulated. Applying a suitable stress and/or strain with or without a cycle to the scaffolds and cells during the culturing process resides in our ability to generate a suitable mechanical model. Collagen gel is one of the most used scaffolds in vascular tissue engineering, mainly because it is the principal constituent of the extracellular matrix for vascular cells in human. The mechanical modeling of such a material is not a trivial task, mainly for its viscoelastic nature. Computational and experimental methods for developing a suitable model for collagen gels are of primary importance for the field. In this research, we focused on mechanical properties of collagen gels under unconfined compression. First, mechanical viscoelastic models are discussed and framed in the control system theory. Second, models are fitted using system identification. Several models are evaluated and two nonlinear models are proposed: Mooney-Rivlin inspired and Hammerstein models. The results suggest that Mooney-Rivlin and Hammerstein models succeed in describing the mechanical behavior of collagen gels for cyclic tests on scaffolds (with best fitting parameters 58.3% and 75.8%, resp.. When Akaike criterion is used, the best is the Mooney-Rivlin inspired model.

  11. Mathematical modeling of uniaxial mechanical properties of collagen gel scaffolds for vascular tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irastorza, Ramiro M; Drouin, Bernard; Blangino, Eugenia; Mantovani, Diego

    2015-01-01

    Small diameter tissue-engineered arteries improve their mechanical and functional properties when they are mechanically stimulated. Applying a suitable stress and/or strain with or without a cycle to the scaffolds and cells during the culturing process resides in our ability to generate a suitable mechanical model. Collagen gel is one of the most used scaffolds in vascular tissue engineering, mainly because it is the principal constituent of the extracellular matrix for vascular cells in human. The mechanical modeling of such a material is not a trivial task, mainly for its viscoelastic nature. Computational and experimental methods for developing a suitable model for collagen gels are of primary importance for the field. In this research, we focused on mechanical properties of collagen gels under unconfined compression. First, mechanical viscoelastic models are discussed and framed in the control system theory. Second, models are fitted using system identification. Several models are evaluated and two nonlinear models are proposed: Mooney-Rivlin inspired and Hammerstein models. The results suggest that Mooney-Rivlin and Hammerstein models succeed in describing the mechanical behavior of collagen gels for cyclic tests on scaffolds (with best fitting parameters 58.3% and 75.8%, resp.). When Akaike criterion is used, the best is the Mooney-Rivlin inspired model.

  12. Measurement of the uniaxial mechanical properties of rat skin using different stress-strain definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimi, A; Navidbakhsh, M

    2015-05-01

    The mechanical properties of skin tissue may vary according to the anatomical locations of a body. There are different stress-strain definitions to measure the mechanical properties of skin tissue. However, there is no agreement as to which stress-strain definition should be implemented to measure the mechanical properties of skin at different anatomical locations. Three stress definitions (second Piola-Kichhoff stress, engineering stress, and true stress) and four strain definitions (Almansi-Hamel strain, Green-St. Venant strain, engineering strain, and true strain) are employed to determine the mechanical properties of skin tissue at back and abdomen locations of a rat body. The back and abdomen skins of eight rats are excised and subjected to a series of tensile tests. The elastic modulus, maximum stress, and strain of skin tissues are measured using three stress definitions and four strain definitions. The results show that the effect of varying the stress definition on the maximum stress measurements of the back skin is significant but not when calculating the elastic modulus and maximum strain. No significant effects are observed on the elastic modulus, maximum stress, and strain measurements of abdomen skin by varying the stress definition. In the true stress-strain diagram, the maximum stress (20%), and elastic modulus (35%) of back skin are significantly higher than that of abdomen skin. The true stress-strain definition is favored to measure the mechanical properties of skin tissue since it gives more accurate measurements of the skin's response using the instantaneous values. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. RISK FACTORS FOR EARLY CHILDHOOD CARIES (ECC) IN 2-5 YEARS OLD CHILDREN-2-5 Yaş Arası Çocuklarda Erken Çocukluk Çürüklerine Neden Olan Risk Faktörleri

    OpenAIRE

    PATIR MÜNEVVEROĞLU, Asli; Koruyucu, Mine; Seymen, Figen

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to determine the association of dietary habits and socioeconomic status for early childhood caries (ECC) among 2-5 years old children. Materials and Methods: A total of 200 children (aged 2-5 years) were examined for gender, dmft, dmfs, dietary and brushing habits, duration and contents of bottle feeding, number of family individuals, educational level and occupation of parents and socioeconomic status. Statistical analysis was performed by using NCSS 2007 s...

  14. Changes in porosity and organic matter phase distribution monitored by NMR relaxometry following hydrous pyrolysis under uniaxial confinement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Washburn, Kathryn E.; Birdwell, Justin E.; Lewan, Michael D.; Miller, Michael; Baez, Luis; Beeney, Ken; Sonnenberg, Steve

    2013-01-01

    Artificial maturation methods are used to induce changes in source rock thermal maturity without the uncertainties that arise when comparing natural samples from a particular basin that often represent different levels of maturation and different lithofacies. A novel uniaxial confinement clamp was used on Woodford Shale cores in hydrous pyrolysis experiments to limit sample expansion by simulating the effect of overburden present during thermal maturation in natural systems. These samples were then subjected to X-ray computed tomography (X-CT) imaging and low-field nuclear magnetic resonance (LF-NMR) relaxometry measurements. LF-NMR relaxometry is a noninvasive technique commonly used to measure porosity and pore-size distributions in fluid-filled porous media, but may also measure hydrogen present in hydrogen-bearing organic solids. Standard T1 and T2 relaxation distributions were determined and two dimensional T1-T2 correlation measurements were performed on the Woodford Shale cores. The T1-T2 correlations facilitate resolution of organic phases in the system. The changes observed in NMR-relaxation times correspond to bitumen and lighter hydrocarbon production that occur as source rock organic matter matures. The LF-NMR porosities of the core samples at maximum oil generation are significantly higher than porosities measured by other methods. This discrepancy likely arises from the measurement of highly viscous organic constituents in addition to fluid-filled porosity. An unconfined sample showed shorter relaxation times and lower porosity. This difference is attributed to the lack of fractures observed in the unconfined sample by X-CT.

  15. Processing, Structural Characterization and Comparative Studies on Uniaxial Tensile Properties of a New Type of Porous Twisted Wire Material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fei Wu

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available A self-developed rotary multi-cutter device cuts stainless steel wire ropes into segments to fabricate twisted wires. Stainless steel porous twisted wire materials (PTWMs with a spatial composite intertexture structure are produced by the compaction and subsequent vacuum solid-phase sintering of twisted wires. The stainless steel PTWMs show two types of typical uniaxial tensile failure modes, i.e., a 45° angle fracture mode and an auxetic failure mode (the PTWMs expand along the direction perpendicular to the tension. The effects of the sintering parameters, porosities, wire diameters, and sampling direction on the tensile properties of the PTWMs are carefully investigated. By increasing the sintering temperature from 1130 °C to 1330 °C, the tensile strength of the PTWMs with 70% target porosity increased from 7.7 MPa to 28.6 MPa and the total failure goes down to 50%. When increasing the sintering time from 90 min to 150 min, the tensile strength increases from 12.4 MPa to 19.1 MPa and the total failure elongation drops to 78.6%. The tensile strength of the PTWMs increases from 28.9 MPa to 112.7 MPa with decreasing porosity from 69.5% to 46.0%, and the total failure elongation also increases from 14.8% to 40.7%. The tensile strength and the failure strain of the PTWMs with fine wires are higher than those of the PTWMs with coarse wires under the same porosity. Sampling direction has a small influence on the tensile properties of the PTWMs.

  16. Analysis of Analytical Models Developed under the Uniaxial Strain Condition for Predicting Coal Permeability during Primary Depletion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuanming Li

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The stress-dependent permeability of coal during coalbed methane production has been extensively studied both experimentally and theoretically. However, how permeability changes as a function of stress variation is somewhat unclear to date, and currently used analytical models fail to accurately predict permeability evolution with gas depletion. Considering that the role played by changes in in situ stress in permeability evolution is critical, a comprehensive theoretical study was first conducted, through which it was found that coal permeability is determined by mean effective stress. Moreover, the influence of matrix shrinkage on cleat deformation and then coal permeability was overestimated by currently used models, leading to inaccuracy of the predicted permeability. By taking both mean effective stress and the influence of matrix shrinkage on cleat deformation into account, a new permeability model was developed under the uniaxial strain condition in order to precisely estimate permeability evolution during gas depletion. An in-depth investigation and comparison among four commonly-used permeability models, the Palmer and Mansoori (P&M model, Improved P&M model, Shi and Durucan (S&D model, and Cui and Bustin (C&B model, was then conducted. It was experimentally verified that a good match can be achieved between the lab data and the results predicted by the proposed model. Permeability variation of coalbed reservoirs associated with gas depletion is a consequence of two opposing effects: mechanical compaction and matrix shrinkage. In comparison, it was found that the coefficients of these two effects incorporated in those four models have a significant impact on permeability variation; and the accuracy of the values of initial cleat porosity and cleat compressibility, the bridges connecting permeability, and those two effects in analytical models, is extremely critical to permeability estimations. This study can shed light on improving the

  17. Studies on resilient modulus value from cyclic loading tests for cohesive soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sas Wojciech

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In this article the cyclic CBR test as a reference method in determination of resilient modulus (Mr is confronted with results of cyclic triaxial and unconfined uniaxial cyclic test. The main idea of conducted experiments is establish relationship between cyclic loading tests in testing of natural subsoil and road materials. The article shows results of investigation on cohesive soil, namely sandy silty clay, commonly problematic soil in Poland. The results of repeated loading triaxial test resilient modulus were displayed in order to compare them with cyclic CBR test results by using the Mr–Ө model. Some empirical correlation between factors obtained from triaxial test or uniaxial unconfined cyclic test and cyclic CBR test was introduced here. The behavior of resilient modulus was also examined in this paper.

  18. Uniaxial creep behavior of nanostructured, solution and dispersion hardened V-1.4Y-7W-9Mo-0.7TiC with different grain sizes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakamoto, T. [Department of Materials Science and Biotechnology, Ehime University, 3 Bunkyo-cho, Matsuyama 790-8577 (Japan); Kurishita, H., E-mail: kurishi@imr.tohoku.ac.jp [International Research Center for Nuclear Materials Science, Institute for Materials Research, Tohoku University, Oarai, Ibaraki 311-1313 (Japan); Furuno, T. [Department of Materials Science and Biotechnology, Ehime University, 3 Bunkyo-cho, Matsuyama 790-8577 (Japan); Nagasaka, T. [Fusion Engineering Research Center, National Institute for Fusion Science (NIFS), Oroshi-cho 322-6, Toki, Gifu 292 (Japan); Kobayashi, S.; Nakai, K. [Department of Materials Science and Biotechnology, Ehime University, 3 Bunkyo-cho, Matsuyama 790-8577 (Japan); Matsuo, S.; Arakawa, H. [International Research Center for Nuclear Materials Science, Institute for Materials Research, Tohoku University, Oarai, Ibaraki 311-1313 (Japan); Nishimura, A.; Muroga, T. [Fusion Engineering Research Center, National Institute for Fusion Science (NIFS), Oroshi-cho 322-6, Toki, Gifu 292 (Japan)

    2011-10-15

    Highlights: {yields} The major concern for nanostructured V is poor creep resistance due to grain boundary sliding. {yields} Significant enhancement of creep resistance in nanostructured V has been achieved using V-1.4Y-7W-9Mo-0.7TiC. {yields} The enhancement owes to solute W and Mo, dispersoids of Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} and TiC and grain size (GS) adjustment. {yields} The creep life of V-1.4Y-7W-9Mo-0.7TiC increases by a factor 30 by increasing GS from 0.6 to 2.2 {mu}m. {yields} The creep life for 2.2 {mu}m GS is two orders longer than that of primary candidate V-4Cr-4Ti (GS: {approx}18 {mu}m). - Abstract: Nanostructured vanadium (V) alloys are expected to exhibit high performance under neutron irradiation environments. However, their ultra-fine or refined grains cause significant decrease in flow stress at high temperatures due to grain boundary sliding (GBS), which is the major concern for their high-temperature structural applications such as future fusion reactors. The contribution of GBS to plastic deformation is known to depend strongly on grain size (GS) and may give more significant influence on long-time creep test results than on short-time tensile test results. In order to improve the creep resistance through elucidation of the effect of GS on the uniaxial creep behavior of nanostructured V alloys, a solution and dispersion hardened V alloy, V-1.4Y-7W-9Mo-0.7TiC (in wt%), with GSs from 0.58 to 2.16 {mu}m was developed by mechanical alloying and HIP processes, followed by annealing at 1473-1773 K, and creep tested at 1073 K and 250 MPa in vacuum. It is shown that the creep resistance of V-1.4Y-7W-9Mo-0.7TiC increases monotonically with GS: The creep life for the alloy with 2.16 {mu}m in GS is as long as 114 h, which is longer by factors of 2-30 than those for the other finer grained alloys and by two orders than that for coarse-grained V-4Cr-4Ti (Nifs heat2, GS: 17.8 {mu}m) that is a primary candidate material for fusion reactor structural applications. The

  19. P-wave velocity test for assessment of geotechnical properties of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    -wave velocity test, a non-destructive and easy method to apply in both field and laboratory conditions, has increasingly been conducted to determine the geotechnical properties of rock materials. The aim of this study is to predict the rock properties including the uniaxial compressive strength, Schmidt hardness, modulus ...

  20. Fabrication, Structural Characterization and Uniaxial Tensile Properties of Novel Sintered Multi-Layer Wire Mesh Porous Plates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liuyang Duan

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available There is an increasing interest in developing porous metals or metallic foams for functional and structural applications. The study of the physical and mechanical properties of porous metals is very important and helpful for their application. In this paper, a novel sintered multilayer wire mesh porous plate material (WMPPs with a thickness of 0.5 mm–3 mm and a porosity of 10–35% was prepared by winding, pressing, rolling, and subsequently vacuum sintering them. The pore size and total size distribution in the as-prepared samples were investigated using the bubble point method. The uniaxial tensile behavior of the WMPPs was investigated in terms of the sintering temperature, porosity, wire diameter, and manufacturing technology. The deformation process and the failure mechanism under the tensile press was also discussed based on the appearance of the fractures (SEM figures. The results indicated that the pore size and total size distribution were closely related to the raw material used and the sintering temperature. For the WMPPs prepared by the wire mesh, the pore structures were inerratic and the vast majority of pore size was less than 10 μm. On the other hand, for the WMPPs that were prepared by wire mesh and powder, the pore structures were irregular and the pore size ranged from 0 μm–50 μm. The experimental data showed that the tensile strength of WMPPs is much higher than any other porous metals or metallic foams. Higher sintering temperatures led to coarser joints between wires and resulted in higher tensile strength. The sintering temperature decreased from 1330 °C to 1130 °C and the tensile strength decreased from 296 MPa to 164 MPa. Lower porosity means that there are more metallurgical joints and metallic frameworks resisting deformation per unit volume. Therefore, lower porosities exhibit higher tensile strength. An increase of porosity from 17.14% to 32.5% led to the decrease of the tensile strength by 90 MPa. The

  1. Molecular simulation of flow-enhanced nucleation in n-eicosane melts under steady shear and uniaxial extension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholson, David A.; Rutledge, Gregory C.

    2016-12-01

    Non-equilibrium molecular dynamics is used to study crystal nucleation of n-eicosane under planar shear and, for the first time, uniaxial extension. A method of analysis based on the mean first-passage time is applied to the simulation results in order to determine the effect of the applied flow field type and strain rate on the steady-state nucleation rate and a characteristic growth rate, as well as the effects on kinetic parameters associated with nucleation: the free energy barrier, critical nucleus size, and monomer attachment pre-factor. The onset of flow-enhanced nucleation (FEN) occurs at a smaller critical strain rate in extension as compared to shear. For strain rates larger than the critical rate, a rapid increase in the nucleation rate is accompanied by decreases in the free energy barrier and critical nucleus size, as well as an increase in chain extension. These observations accord with a mechanism in which FEN is caused by an increase in the driving force for crystallization due to flow-induced entropy reduction. At high applied strain rates, the free energy barrier, critical nucleus size, and degree of stretching saturate, while the monomer attachment pre-factor and degree of orientational order increase steadily. This trend is indicative of a significant diffusive contribution to the nucleation rate under intense flows that is correlated with the degree of global orientational order in a nucleating system. Both flow fields give similar results for all kinetic quantities with respect to the reduced strain rate, which we define as the ratio of the applied strain rate to the critical rate. The characteristic growth rate increases with increasing strain rate, and shows a correspondence with the nucleation rate that does not depend on the type of flow field applied. Additionally, a structural analysis of the crystalline clusters indicates that the flow field suppresses the compaction and crystalline ordering of clusters, leading to the formation of

  2. Molecular simulation of flow-enhanced nucleation in n-eicosane melts under steady shear and uniaxial extension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholson, David A; Rutledge, Gregory C

    2016-12-28

    Non-equilibrium molecular dynamics is used to study crystal nucleation of n-eicosane under planar shear and, for the first time, uniaxial extension. A method of analysis based on the mean first-passage time is applied to the simulation results in order to determine the effect of the applied flow field type and strain rate on the steady-state nucleation rate and a characteristic growth rate, as well as the effects on kinetic parameters associated with nucleation: the free energy barrier, critical nucleus size, and monomer attachment pre-factor. The onset of flow-enhanced nucleation (FEN) occurs at a smaller critical strain rate in extension as compared to shear. For strain rates larger than the critical rate, a rapid increase in the nucleation rate is accompanied by decreases in the free energy barrier and critical nucleus size, as well as an increase in chain extension. These observations accord with a mechanism in which FEN is caused by an increase in the driving force for crystallization due to flow-induced entropy reduction. At high applied strain rates, the free energy barrier, critical nucleus size, and degree of stretching saturate, while the monomer attachment pre-factor and degree of orientational order increase steadily. This trend is indicative of a significant diffusive contribution to the nucleation rate under intense flows that is correlated with the degree of global orientational order in a nucleating system. Both flow fields give similar results for all kinetic quantities with respect to the reduced strain rate, which we define as the ratio of the applied strain rate to the critical rate. The characteristic growth rate increases with increasing strain rate, and shows a correspondence with the nucleation rate that does not depend on the type of flow field applied. Additionally, a structural analysis of the crystalline clusters indicates that the flow field suppresses the compaction and crystalline ordering of clusters, leading to the formation of

  3. Spontaneous Enhancement of Packing Regularity of Spherical Microdomains in the Body-Centered Cubic Lattice upon Uniaxial Stretching of Elastomeric Triblock Copolymers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shinichi Sakurai

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Block copolymers forming glassy spheres in the matrix of rubbery chains can exhibit elastomeric properties. It is well known that the spherical microdomains are arranged in the body-center cubic (bcc lattice. However, recently, we have found packing in the face-centered cubic (fcc lattice, which is easily transformed into the bcc lattice upon uniaxial stretching. In the same time, the packing regularity of the spheres in the bcc lattice was found to be enhanced for samples completely recovered from the stretched state. This reminds us that a cycle of stretching-and-releasing plays an important role from analogy of densification of the packing in granules upon shaking. In the current paper, we quantify the enhancement of packing regularity of spherical microdomains in the bcc lattice upon uniaxial stretching of the same elastomeric triblock copolymer as used in our previous work by conducting small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS measurements using high brilliant synchrotron radiation. Isotropically circular rings of the lattice peaks observed for the unstretched sample turned into deformed ellipsoidal rings upon the uniaxial stretching, with sharpening of the peaks in the direction parallel to the stretching direction and almost disappearing of the peaks in the perpendicular direction. By quantitatively analyzing the SAXS results, it was found that the packing regularity of the spherical microdomains was enhanced in the parallel direction while it was spoiled in the perpendicular direction under the stretched state. The enhanced regularity of packing was unchanged even if the stretching load was completely removed.

  4. Electrical Characteristics of the Uniaxial-Strained nMOSFET with a Fluorinated HfO2/SiON Gate Stack

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yung-Yu Chen

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The channel fluorine implantation (CFI process was integrated with the Si3N4 contact etch stop layer (SiN CESL uniaxial-strained n-channel metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistor (nMOSFET with the hafnium oxide/silicon oxynitride (HfO2/SiON gate stack. The SiN CESL process clearly improves basic electrical performance, due to induced uniaxial tensile strain within the channel. However, further integrating of the CFI process with the SiN CESL-strained nMOSFET exhibits nearly identical transconductance, subthreshold swing, drain current, gate leakage and breakdown voltage, which indicates that the strain effect is not affected by the fluorine incorporation. Moreover, hydrogen will diffuse toward the interface during the SiN deposition, then passivate dangling bonds to form weak Si-H bonds, which is detrimental for channel hot electron stress (CHES. Before hydrogen diffusion, fluorine can be used to terminate oxygen vacancies and dangling bonds, which can create stronger Hf-F and Si-F bonds to resist consequent stress. Accordingly, the reliability of constant voltage stress (CVS and CHES for the SiN CESL uniaxial-strained nMOSFET can be further improved by the fluorinated HfO2/SiON using the CFI process. Nevertheless, the nMOSFET with either the SiN CESL or CFI process exhibits less charge detrapping, which means that a greater part of stress-induced charges would remain in the gate stack after nitrogen (SiN CESL or fluorine (CFI incorporation.

  5. Deformation processes and emissions of acoustic impulses at the uniaxial loading of selected rocks from the Czech part of the Upper Silesian Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konečný Petr

    1998-03-01

    Full Text Available The deformation and induced acoustic emission during uniaxial loading were studied. Three main phases were distinguished during the whole deformation process: the initial one, in which the adjustment of rock specimen to the loading frame occurred, the middle one, preliminary with an elastic deformation manifestation, and the final one, in which a rapid development of cracks resulting in the fracture was observed. The comparison of the volumetric deformation of the sample with its acoustic emission enables us to distinguish between different behaviour of particular types of rock material.

  6. Complex unitary vectors for the direction of propagation and for the polarization of electromagnetic waves in uniaxial and absorbing dielectric media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diñeiro, J M; Berrogui, M; Alfonso, S; Alberdi, C; Hernández, B; Sáenz, C

    2007-06-01

    The propagation of inhomogeneous and elliptically polarized plane waves in absorbing uniaxial anisotropic media is described using complex unitary vectors to represent the direction of propagation and the direction of polarization. Detailed expressions for electric displacement, electric field, and magnetic field vectors are obtained for the ordinary and extraordinary waves, and their geometry is discussed. According to the complex direction of propagation, three particular cases are studied: the real case (homogeneous wave), the case perpendicular to the optical axis, and the case coplanar with the optic axis. The case of isotropic media is also analyzed.

  7. Permanent deformation testing for a new South African mechanistic pavement design method

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Anochie-Boateng, Joseph

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available permanent deformation in addition to fatigue characteristics to model damage of HMA materials [5]. Permanent deformation properties determined from repeated load uniaxial or triaxial tests are key parameters used to model rutting potential of HMA... to be used, because permanent deformation test is destructive, and samples are usually assumed to be damaged after testing; ? Conduct test to collect permanent strain accumulation data up to 20,000 load cycles. If needed, data for computing resilient...

  8. Permanent deformation testing for a new South African mechanistic pavement design method

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Anochie-Boateng, Joseph

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available African Pavement Design Method (SAPDM) will use permanent deformation in addition to fatigue characteristics to model damage of HMA materials [5]. Permanent deformation properties determined from repeated load uniaxial or triaxial tests are key... temperature and stress pair require a news specimen to be used, because permanent deformation test is destructive, and samples are usually assumed to be damaged after testing; ? Conduct test to collect permanent strain accumulation data up to 20,000 load...

  9. Extrusion of ECC: Recent Developments and Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stang, Henrik; Fredslund-Hansen, Helge; Puclin, Tony

    2008-01-01

    process. Extrusion of cementitious (fiber reinforced) materials has proven particularly difficult due to the high inter-particle friction combined with the disastrous effect of static zones in the flow pattern, and to the ease of phase migration or separation. In order to deal with these conflicting...

  10. Attacks and countermeasures on AES and ECC

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tange, Henrik; Andersen, Birger

    2013-01-01

    AES (Advanced Encryption Standard) is widely used in LTE and Wi-Fi communication systems. AES has recently been exposed to new attacks which have questioned the overall security of AES. The newest attack is a so called biclique attack, which is using the fact that the content of the state array...

  11. Development and optimisation of thin soft ferromagnetic Fe-Co-Ta-N and Fe-Co-Al-N films with in-plane uniaxial anisotropy for HF applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bekker, V. [Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe, Institut fuer Materialforschung I, Hermann-von-Helmholtz-Platz 1, 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Seemann, K. [Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe, Institut fuer Materialforschung I, Hermann-von-Helmholtz-Platz 1, 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany)]. E-mail: klaus.seemann@imf.fzk.de; Leiste, H. [Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe, Institut fuer Materialforschung I, Hermann-von-Helmholtz-Platz 1, 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany)

    2006-01-15

    Thin ferromagnetic Fe-Co-Ta-N and Fe-Co-Al-N films with strong in-plane uniaxial anisotropy were successfully prepared by RF reactive magnetron sputtering and subsequent vacuum field annealing. The magnetic properties of as-deposited and field annealed films were investigated in order to optimise the deposition and annealing conditions. The films exhibit good soft magnetic properties and an excellent thermal stability because of their nanocrystalline microstructure. The critical temperature of degradation of the magnetic properties is around 500{sup o}C; therefore, the films can be integrated in a standard semiconductor CMOS process. After a 1-h heat treatment at 400{sup o}C, the following magnetic properties were achieved: saturation polarisation J{sub s}=1.2T, coercive field {mu}{sub 0}H{sub c}=0.3mT, electrical resistivity {rho}=2x10{sup -6}{omega}m, anisotropy field {mu}{sub 0}H{sub a}=3.5-5mT. This results in a ferromagnetic resonance frequency of f{sub r}=1.8-2.1GHz and initial permeability of {mu}{sub low}=400-300. The influence of intrinsic material parameters, such as saturation polarisation, uniaxial anisotropy field, electrical resistivity and film thickness, on HF permeability was analysed. The frequency-dependent permeability spectra were measured up to 4.5GHz with a strip line parameter.

  12. Theoretic 3-D study of the high-frequency magnetic moment dynamics in thin ferromagnetic films with in-plane uniaxial anisotropy by considering eddy-current generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seemann, K.; Leiste, H.; Krüger, K.

    2012-06-01

    In the present paper, theoretic investigations of polarisation vector precession trajectories represented by a macro spin in ferromagnetic films with in-plane uniaxial anisotropy were realised. For this purpose, the Landau-Lifschitz-Gilbert differential equation (LLG) in combination with the Maxwell equations were solved for three dimensions by considering a linear progression of the magnetisation or polarisation with an external field. The frequency and time dependent polarisation trajectories illustrate how a magnetic moment precesses if effective damping and eddy-currents impacts its motion. For computation, typical parameter values like the saturation polarisation Js=μ0·Ms=1.4 T and in-plane uniaxial anisotropy μ0·Hu=4.5 mT were employed. The main focus of simulation was on the variation of the effective damping parameter αeff between 0.01 and 0.05 and ferromagnetic film thickness tm between 200 nm and 1200 nm. The frequency-dependent calculations were carried out between 50 MHz and 6 GHz. The time-dependent simulations were done for a duration between 5 and 30 ns.

  13. Biomimetic three-dimensional anisotropic geometries by uniaxial stretching of poly(ε-caprolactone) films: degradation and mesenchymal stem cell responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zu-Yong; Lim, Jing; Ho, Yeow Siong; Zhang, Qin-Yuan; Chong, Mark S K; Tang, Min; Hong, Ming-Hui; Chan, Jerry K Y; Teoh, Swee Hin; Thian, Eng San

    2014-07-01

    Geometric cues have been used for a variety of cell regulation and tissue regenerative applications. While the function of geometric cues is being recognized, their stability and degradation behaviors are not well known. Here, we studied the influence of degradation on uniaxial-stretch-induced poly(ε-caprolactone) (UX-PCL) ridge/groove arrays and further cellular responses. Results from accelerated hydrolysis in vitro showed that UX-PCL ridge/groove arrays followed a surface-controlled erosion, with an overall geometry remained even at ∼45% film weight loss. Compared to unstretched PCL flat surfaces and/or ridge/groove arrays, UX-PCL ridge/groove arrays achieved an enhanced morphological stability against degradation. Over the degradation period, UX-PCL ridge/groove arrays exhibited an "S-shape" behavior of film weight loss, and retained more stable surface hydrophilicity and higher film mechanical properties than those of unstretched PCL surfaces. Human mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) aligned better toward UX-PCL ridge/groove arrays when the geometries were remained intact, and became sensitive with gradually declined nucleus alignment and elongation to the geometric degradation of ridges. We speculate that uniaxial stretching confers UX-PCL ridge/groove arrays with enhanced stability against degradation in erosive environment. This study provides insights of how degradation influences geometric cues and further cell responses, and has implications for the design of biomaterials with stability-enhanced geometric cues for long-term tissue regeneration. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Uniaxial strain effects on transport properties of a supramolecular organic conductor theta-(DIETS) sub 2 [Au(CN) sub 4

    CERN Document Server

    Tajima, N; Kato, R; Nishio, Y; Kajita, K

    2003-01-01

    Pressure-controlled switching between an insulating state and a superconducting state has been successfully realized on a supramolecular organic conductor theta-(DIETS) sub 2 [Au(CN) sub 4] [DIETS = diiodo(ethylenedithio)diselenadithiafulvalene]. Strong contact between iodine on the donor (DIETS) molecule and nitrogen on the anion [Au(CN) sub 4] genetates characteristic uniaxial strain effects on transport properties. Under the ambient pressure, the present system undergoes a semiconductor-insulator transition at 226 K. The effect of strains parallel to the conduction plane (ab-plane) is very small. Even under uniaxial strains up to 20 kbar along the a- and b-axis directions, the transition is not suppressed. Surprisingly, however, the c-axis strain induces a superconducting state with T sub c of 8.6 K at 10 kbar. Band parameter calculation and the conductivity anisotropy ratio suggest that an increase in the bandwidth W associated with a c-axis strain transforms the system to the metallic and superconducting...

  15. Uniaxial contribution to the magnetic anisotropy of La 0.67Sr 0.33MnO 3 thin films induced by orthorhombic crystal structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boschker, Hans; Mathews, Mercy; Brinks, Peter; Houwman, Evert; Vailionis, Arturas; Koster, Gertjan; Blank, Dave H. A.; Rijnders, Guus

    2011-11-01

    La 0.67Sr 33MnO 3 (LSMO) thin films under compressive strain have an orthorhombic symmetry with (1 1¯ 0)o and (0 0 1)o in-plane orientations. (The subscript o denotes the orthorhombic symmetry.) Here, we grew LSMO on cubic (LaAlO 3) 0.3—(Sr 2AlTaO 6) 0.7 (LSAT) substrates and observed a uniaxial contribution to the magnetic anisotropy which is related to the orthorhombic crystal structure. Since the lattice mismatch is equal in the two directions, the general understanding of anisotropy in LSMO, which relates the uniaxial anisotropy to differences in strain, cannot explain the results. These findings suggest that the oxygen octahedra rotations associated with the orthorhombic structure result in a change in magnetic coupling between the [1 1¯ 0]o and [0 0 1] o directions, which determines the anisotropy. We expect these findings to lead to a better understanding of the microscopic origin of the magnetocrystalline anisotropy in LSMO.

  16. 2D Electron Gas with 100% Spin-Polarization in the (LaMnO3)2/(SrTiO3)2 Superlattice under Uniaxial Strain

    KAUST Repository

    Cossu, Fabrizio

    2014-07-28

    By first-principles calculations we investigate the structural, electronic, and magnetic properties of the (LaMnO3)2/(SrTiO3)2 superlattice. We find that a monoclinic C2h symmetry is energetically favorable and that the spins order ferromagnetically. Under both compressive and tensile uniaxial strain the electronic structure of the superlattice shows a half-metallic character. In particular, a fully spin-polarized two-dimensional electron gas, which traces back to the Ti 3dxy orbitals, is achieved under compressive uniaxial strain. The (LaMnO3)2/(SrTiO3)2 superlattice is analysed with respect to its structure, magnetism, and electronic properties. Our results demonstrate that uniaxial strain in an experimentally accessible range, both tensile and compressive, can be used to induce half-metallicity. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. A Novel Biaxial Testing Apparatus for the Determination of Forming Limit under Hot Stamping Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Zhutao; Li, Nan

    2017-04-04

    The hot stamping and cold die quenching process is increasingly used to form complex shaped structural components of sheet metals. Conventional experimental approaches, such as out-of-plane and in-plane tests, are not applicable to the determination of forming limits when heating and rapid cooling processes are introduced prior to forming for tests conducted under hot stamping conditions. A novel in-plane biaxial testing system was designed and used for the determination of forming limits of sheet metals at various strain paths, temperatures, and strain rates after heating and cooling processes in a resistance heating uniaxial testing machine. The core part of the biaxial testing system is a biaxial apparatus, which transfers a uniaxial force provided by the uniaxial testing machine to a biaxial force. One type of cruciform specimen was designed and verified for the formability test of aluminum alloy 6082 using the proposed biaxial testing system. The digital image correlation (DIC) system with a high-speed camera was used for taking strain measurements of a specimen during a deformation. The aim of proposing this biaxial testing system is to enable the forming limits of an alloy to be determined at various temperatures and strain rates under hot stamping conditions.

  18. Development of a new test method for Mineral Based Composites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Täljsten, Björn; Orosz, Katalin

    2008-01-01

    The well-known wedge splitting test, often used for characterizing brittle materials has been modified and adapted to testing MBC-reinforced concrete under splitting load. MBC (Mineral Based Composites) is a newly developed strengthening system for existing concrete structures where FRPs, mainly...... CFRP grids are externally bonded to the concrete surface by means of cementitious bonding agents. Crack development, crack patterns, crack opening displacement (COD) versus splitting load and fracture energy are investigated and evaluated. Development of a suitable test specimen and test setup has been...... accomplished. Bond provided by both mortars was excellent leading to CFRP rupture. By applying PVA-reinforced ductile ECC as bonding agent, improved performance, significantly higher fracture energy, multiple cracking and enhanced ductility were observed, caused by improved bond between grid and mortar due...

  19. Standard practice for verification of testing frame and specimen alignment under tensile and compressive axial force application

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2014-01-01

    1.1 Included in this practice are methods covering the determination of the amount of bending that occurs during the application of tensile and compressive forces to notched and unnotched test specimens in the elastic range and to plastic strains less than 0.002. These methods are particularly applicable to the force application rates normally used for tension testing, creep testing, and uniaxial fatigue testing.

  20. Standard practice for verification of testing frame and specimen alignment under tensile and compressive axial force application

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2005-01-01

    1.1 Included in this practice are methods covering the determination of the amount of bending that occurs during the application of tensile and compressive forces to notched and unnotched test specimens in the elastic range and to plastic strains less than 0.002. These methods are particularly applicable to the force application rates normally used for tension testing, creep testing, and uniaxial fatigue testing.

  1. On the low temperature dependence of the threshold field of CDW in NbSe[sub 3]: effect of uniaxial stress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tessema, G.X. (Clemson Univ., Clemson, SC (United States)); Skove, M.J. (Clemson Univ., Clemson, SC (United States)); Tseng, Y.T. (Clemson Univ., Clemson, SC (United States))

    1993-07-01

    We investigated the effect of uniaxial stress on the threshold field in NbSe[sub 3]. For the upper CDW, we show a clear separation of the threshold field into two additive components, E[sub T]'(t) and E[sub T]''(t, [epsilon]) where t = T/T[sub P]. The impurity dependence of E[sub T]''(t, [epsilon]) indicates that this term is the impurity or bulk pinning term. E[sub T]''(t, [epsilon]) shows strong temperature dependence near T[sub p] but saturates to a t independent minimum below t [approx] .85. On the other hand, the term E[sub T]'(t) takes nearly all the temperature dependence of the E[sub T] below t[sub min]; it varies as E[sub o] exp[-t/t[sub o

  2. Efficiency of Spin-Transfer-Torque Switching and Thermal-Stability Factor in a Spin-Valve Nanopillar with First- and Second-Order Uniaxial Magnetic Anisotropies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Rie; Arai, Hiroko; Yuasa, Shinji; Imamura, Hiroshi

    2017-04-01

    The efficiency of spin-transfer-torque (STT) switching and the thermal-stability factor are important figures of merit in STT-based magnetoresistive random-access memory. We derive analytical expressions of the STT-switching efficiency and the thermal-stability factor for a perpendicularly magnetized spin-valve nanopillar with the first- and the second-order uniaxial magnetic anisotropy. It is shown that the STT-switching efficiency is maximized when the effective first-order anisotropy constant (Ku 1 ,eff ) is equal to the second-order anisotropy constant (Ku 2). It is also shown that the thermal-stability factor is most (least) sensitive to a variation of the applied current when Ku 2=-0.41 (0.70) Ku 1 ,eff.

  3. Theoretic 3-D study of the high-frequency magnetic moment dynamics in thin ferromagnetic films with in-plane uniaxial anisotropy by considering eddy-current generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seemann, K., E-mail: klaus.seemann@kit.edu [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology KIT (Campus North), Institute for Applied Materials, Hermann-von-Helmholtz-Platz 1, 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Leiste, H.; Krueger, K. [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology KIT (Campus North), Institute for Applied Materials, Hermann-von-Helmholtz-Platz 1, 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany)

    2012-06-15

    In the present paper, theoretic investigations of polarisation vector precession trajectories represented by a macro spin in ferromagnetic films with in-plane uniaxial anisotropy were realised. For this purpose, the Landau-Lifschitz-Gilbert differential equation (LLG) in combination with the Maxwell equations were solved for three dimensions by considering a linear progression of the magnetisation or polarisation with an external field. The frequency and time dependent polarisation trajectories illustrate how a magnetic moment precesses if effective damping and eddy-currents impacts its motion. For computation, typical parameter values like the saturation polarisation J{sub s}={mu}{sub 0}{center_dot}M{sub s}=1.4 T and in-plane uniaxial anisotropy {mu}{sub 0}{center_dot}H{sub u}=4.5 mT were employed. The main focus of simulation was on the variation of the effective damping parameter {alpha}{sub eff} between 0.01 and 0.05 and ferromagnetic film thickness t{sub m} between 200 nm and 1200 nm. The frequency-dependent calculations were carried out between 50 MHz and 6 GHz. The time-dependent simulations were done for a duration between 5 and 30 ns. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Frequency- and time domain solution of the LLG and Maxwell differential equation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer 3D magnetic moment or macro spin trajectories by eddy-current impact. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Progression of a magnetic excitation field in thin ferromagnetic films. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Transient response evaluation of uniform magnetic moments excited by an r.f. field.

  4. Uniaxial contribution to the magnetic anisotropy of La{sub 0.67}Sr{sub 0.33}MnO{sub 3} thin films induced by orthorhombic crystal structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boschker, Hans; Mathews, Mercy; Brinks, Peter [Faculty of Science and Technology and MESA, Institute for Nanotechnology, University of Twente, 7500 AE, Enschede (Netherlands); Houwman, Evert, E-mail: e.p.houwman@utwente.nl [Faculty of Science and Technology and MESA, Institute for Nanotechnology, University of Twente, 7500 AE, Enschede (Netherlands); Vailionis, Arturas [Geballe Laboratory for Advanced Materials, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 (United States); Koster, Gertjan; Blank, Dave H.A.; Rijnders, Guus [Faculty of Science and Technology and MESA, Institute for Nanotechnology, University of Twente, 7500 AE, Enschede (Netherlands)

    2011-11-15

    La{sub 0.67}Sr{sub 33}MnO{sub 3} (LSMO) thin films under compressive strain have an orthorhombic symmetry with (11-bar0){sub o} and (001){sub o} in-plane orientations. (The subscript o denotes the orthorhombic symmetry.) Here, we grew LSMO on cubic (LaAlO{sub 3}){sub 0.3}-(Sr{sub 2}AlTaO{sub 6}){sub 0.7} (LSAT) substrates and observed a uniaxial contribution to the magnetic anisotropy which is related to the orthorhombic crystal structure. Since the lattice mismatch is equal in the two directions, the general understanding of anisotropy in LSMO, which relates the uniaxial anisotropy to differences in strain, cannot explain the results. These findings suggest that the oxygen octahedra rotations associated with the orthorhombic structure result in a change in magnetic coupling between the [11-bar0]{sub o} and [0 0 1]{sub o} directions, which determines the anisotropy. We expect these findings to lead to a better understanding of the microscopic origin of the magnetocrystalline anisotropy in LSMO. - Highlights: > Orthorhombic LSMO films are grown coherently and untwinned on cubic LSAT substrates. > The films are described by both biaxial anisotropy and uniaxial anisotropy. > The uniaxial part of the anisotropy is induced by the orthorhombic symmetry of LSMO.

  5. Effect of Fe and Si content in Aluminium Alloys as a result of increased recycling: Testing of high purity Aluminium Alloys in uniaxial tension

    OpenAIRE

    Slagsvold, Marius

    2011-01-01

    The recycling of aluminium from used aluminium scrap leads to an unavoidable presence of pollutions in the form of elements of various amounts. Two such elements are iron and silicon. These will always be present to some extent in an aluminium alloy as they are introduced to the alloy during processing. Iron and silicon are accumulative elements, meaning that they can never be completely eliminated once introduced into the aluminium. Some alloys have very narrow compositional windows, they ha...

  6. Transverse Uniaxial Composite Thermal Properties Data Base of Thermally Conductive Graphite Fibers with and without Contiguous Grown Graphite Fins

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-01

    1.4713 STD or CV: 0.0819 Data Points: 6 Batches: 1 Test Method: Archimedes Method Fiber Chains: Total Fibers Across: 784 Initial...Average(gms/cm3): 1.7353 Maximum: 1.9043 Minimum: 1.6221 STD or CV: 0.0943 Data Points: 7 Batches: 1 Test Method: Archimedes Method...Minimum: 1.6221 STD or CV: 0.0943 Data Points: 7 Batches: 1 Test Method: Archimedes Method Fiber Chains: Total Fibers Across: 758

  7. Mechanical behavior of recrystallized Zircaloy-4 under monotonic loading at room temperature: Tests and simplified anisotropic modeling

    OpenAIRE

    Mozzani, Nathanael; Auzoux, Quentin; Le Boulch, D.; Andrieu, Eric; Blanc, Christine; Scott, Colin; Barnel, Nathalie

    2014-01-01

    International audience; Mechanical behavior of recrystallized Zircaloy-4 was studied at room temperature in the rolling-transverse plane of a thin sheet. Uniaxial constant elongation rate tests (CERTs) were performed along with creep tests, over a wide range of strain rates. Based on a simplified formulation, different sets of parameters for an anisotropic viscoplastic model were found to fit the stress–strain curves. Notched specimen tensile tests were carried out with a digital image correl...

  8. Forming limit diagram of aluminum AA6063 tubes at high temperatures by bulge tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hashemi, Seyed Jalal; Naeini, Hassan Moslemi; Liaghat, Gholamhossein [Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Tafti, Rooholla Azizi [Yazd University, Yazd (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Rahmani, Farzad [Kar Higher Education Institute, Qazvin (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2014-11-15

    A free bulge test and ductile fracture criteria were used to obtain the forming limit diagrams (FLD) of aluminum alloy AA6063 tubes at high temperatures. Ductile fracture criteria were calibrated using the results of uniaxial tension tests at various elevated temperatures and different strain rates through adjusting the Zener-Holloman parameter. High temperature free bulge test of tubes was simulated in finite element software Abaqus, and tube bursting was predicted using ductile fracture criteria under different loading paths. FLDs which were obtained from finite element simulation were compared to experimental results to select the most accurate criterion for prediction of forming limit diagram. According to the results, all studied ductile fracture criteria predict similarly when forming condition is close to the uniaxial tension, while Ayada criterion predicts the FLD at 473 K and 573 K very well.

  9. Application of uniaxial confining-core clamp with hydrous pyrolysis in petrophysical and geochemical studies of source rocks at various thermal maturities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewan, Michael D.; Birdwell, Justin E.; Baez, Luis; Beeney, Ken; Sonnenberg, Steve

    2013-01-01

    Understanding changes in petrophysical and geochemical parameters during source rock thermal maturation is a critical component in evaluating source-rock petroleum accumulations. Natural core data are preferred, but obtaining cores that represent the same facies of a source rock at different thermal maturities is seldom possible. An alternative approach is to induce thermal maturity changes by laboratory pyrolysis on aliquots of a source-rock sample of a given facies of interest. Hydrous pyrolysis is an effective way to induce thermal maturity on source-rock cores and provide expelled oils that are similar in composition to natural crude oils. However, net-volume increases during bitumen and oil generation result in expanded cores due to opening of bedding-plane partings. Although meaningful geochemical measurements on expanded, recovered cores are possible, the utility of the core for measuring petrophysical properties relevant to natural subsurface cores is not suitable. This problem created during hydrous pyrolysis is alleviated by using a stainless steel uniaxial confinement clamp on rock cores cut perpendicular to bedding fabric. The clamp prevents expansion just as overburden does during natural petroleum formation in the subsurface. As a result, intact cores can be recovered at various thermal maturities for the measurement of petrophysical properties as well as for geochemical analyses. This approach has been applied to 1.7-inch diameter cores taken perpendicular to the bedding fabric of a 2.3- to 2.4-inch thick slab of Mahogany oil shale from the Eocene Green River Formation. Cores were subjected to hydrous pyrolysis at 360 °C for 72 h, which represents near maximum oil generation. One core was heated unconfined and the other was heated in the uniaxial confinement clamp. The unconfined core developed open tensile fractures parallel to the bedding fabric that result in a 38 % vertical expansion of the core. These open fractures did not occur in the

  10. RELAP5 progress summary: simulation of semiscale isothermal blowdown (Test S-01-4A). [RELAP 5/MOD O code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuo, H. H.; Wagner, R. J.; Carlson, K. E.; Kiser, D. M.; Trapp, J. A.; Ransom, V. H.

    1978-07-01

    The RELAP5/MOD''O'' LOCA analysis code has been applied to Simulation of the Semiscale Isothermal Blowdown Test (S-01-4A) from initiation to 60 seconds. Subcooled ECC injection was simulated from 23 seconds until accumulator emptying. The calculated results are in very good agreement with the experimental data. This is the first full system application of the RELAP5 code and only the pressurizer surge line resistance was modified to achieve the results reported. An analysis of the code execution time using a time-step statistical edit is included.

  11. Constitutive equations for the cyclic behaviour of short carbon fibre-reinforced thermoplastics and identification on a uniaxial database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leveuf, Louis; Navrátil, Libor; Le Saux, Vincent; Marco, Yann; Olhagaray, Jérôme; Leclercq, Sylvain

    2018-01-01

    A constitutive model for the cyclic behaviour of short carbon fibre-reinforced thermoplastics for aeronautical applications is proposed. First, an extended experimental database is generated in order to highlight the specificities of the studied material. This database is composed of complex tests and is used to design a relevant constitutive model able to capture the cyclic behaviour of the material. A general 3D formulation of the model is then proposed, and an identification strategy is defined to identify its parameters. Finally, a validation of the identification is performed by challenging the prediction of the model to the tests that were not used for the identification. An excellent agreement between the numerical results and the experimental data is observed revealing the capabilities of the model.

  12. A kinematic hardening constitutive model for the uniaxial cyclic stress–strain response of magnesium sheet alloys at room temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Zhitao; Chen, Wufan; Wang, Fenghua; Feng, Miaolin

    2017-11-01

    A kinematic hardening constitutive model is presented, in which a modified form of von Mises yield function is adopted, and the initial asymmetric tension and compression yield stresses of magnesium (Mg) alloys at room temperature (RT) are considered. The hardening behavior was classified into slip, twinning, and untwinning deformation modes, and these were described by two forms of back stress to capture the mechanical response of Mg sheet alloys under cyclic loading tests at RT. Experimental values were obtained for AZ31B-O and AZ31B sheet alloys under both tension–compression–tension (T–C–T) and compression–tension (C–T) loadings to calibrate the parameters of back stresses in the proposed model. The predicted parameters of back stresses in the twinning and untwinning modes were expressed as a cubic polynomial. The predicted curves based on these parameters showed good agreement with the tests.

  13. Contribution of thermal–hydraulic validation tests to the standard design approval of SMART

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyun-Sik Park

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Many thermal–hydraulic tests have been conducted at the Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute for verification of the SMART (System-integrated Modular Advanced ReacTor design, the standard design approval of which was issued by the Korean regulatory body. In this paper, the contributions of these tests to the standard design approval of SMART are discussed. First, an integral effect test facility named VISTA-ITL (Experimental Verification by Integral Simulation of Transients and Accidents-Integral Test Loop has been utilized to assess the TASS/SMR-S (Transient and Set-point Simulation/Small and Medium safety analysis code and confirm its conservatism, to support standard design approval, and to construct a database for the SMART design optimization. In addition, many separate effect tests have been performed. The reactor internal flow test has been conducted using the SCOP (SMART COre flow distribution and Pressure drop test facility to evaluate the reactor internal flow and pressure distributions. An ECC (Emergency Core Coolant performance test has been carried out using the SWAT (SMART ECC Water Asymmetric Two-phase choking test facility to evaluate the safety injection performance and to validate the thermal–hydraulic model used in the safety analysis code. The Freon CHF (Critical Heat Flux test has been performed using the FTHEL (Freon Thermal Hydraulic Experimental Loop facility to construct a database from the 5 × 5 rod bundle Freon CHF tests and to evaluate the DNBR (Departure from Nucleate Boiling Ratio model in the safety analysis and core design codes. These test results were used for standard design approval of SMART to verify its design bases, design tools, and analysis methodology.

  14. In-situ neutron diffraction of LaCoO3 perovskite under uniaxial compression. I. Crystal structure analysis and texture development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aman, Amjad; Chen, Yan; Lugovy, Mykola; Orlovskaya, Nina; Reece, Michael J.; Ma, Dong; Stoica, Alexandru D.; An, Ke

    2014-07-01

    The dynamics of texture formation, changes in crystal structure, and stress accommodation mechanisms have been studied in perovskite-type R3¯c rhombohedral LaCoO3 during uniaxial compression using in-situ neutron diffraction. The in-situ neutron diffraction revealed the complex crystallographic changes causing the texture formation and significant straining along certain crystallographic directions during compression, which are responsible for the appearance of hysteresis and non-linear ferroelastic deformation in the LaCoO3 perovskite. The irreversible strain after the first loading was connected with the appearance of non-recoverable changes in the intensity ratio of certain crystallographic peaks, causing non-reversible texture formation. However, in the second loading/unloading cycle, the hysteresis loop was closed and no further irrecoverable strain appeared after deformation. The significant texture formation is responsible for an increase in the Young's modulus of LaCoO3 at high compressive stresses, ranging from 76 GPa at the very beginning of the loading to 194 GPa at 900 MPa at the beginning of the unloading curve.

  15. In-situ neutron diffraction of LaCoO3 perovskite under uniaxial compression. I. Crystal structure analysis and texture development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aman, Amjad [ORNL; Chen, Yan [ORNL; Lugovy, Mykola [University of Central Florida; Orlovskaya, Nina [ORNL; Reece, Michael John [University of London; Ma, Dong [ORNL; Stoica, Alexandru Dan [ORNL; An, Ke [ORNL

    2014-01-01

    The dynamics of texture formation, changes in crystal structure and stress accommodation mechanisms are studied in R3c rhombohedral LaCoO3 perovskite during in-situ uniaxial compression experiment by neutron diffraction. The neutron diffraction revealed the complex crystallographic changes causing the texture formation and significant straining along certain crystallographic directions during in-situ compression, which are responsible for the appearance of hysteresis and non-linear ferroelastic deformation in LaCoO3 perovskite. The irreversible strain after the first loading was connected with the appearance of non-recoverable changes in the intensity ratio of certain crystallographic peaks, causing non-reversible texture formation. However in the second loading/unloading cycle the hysteresis loop was closed and no irreversible strain appears after deformation. The significant texture formation is responsible for increase in the Young s modulus of LaCoO3 at high compressive loads, where the reported values of Young s modulus increase from 76 GPa measured at the very beginning of the loading to 194 GPa at 900 MPa applied compressive stress measured at the beginning of the unloading curve.

  16. Strong anisotropy of electric field effects on uniaxial relaxor ferroelectric Sr0.75Ba0.25Nb2O6 crystals proved by acoustic emission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dul'kin, E.; Kojima, S.; Roth, M.

    2018-01-01

    [001] oriented Sr0.75Ba0.25Nb2O6 uniaxial relaxor ferroelectric crystals have been studied by acoustic emission in the temperature range of 20÷200 °C and under an external electric field up to 1 kV/cm. Under the application of an electric field the temperature of a dielectric maximum exhibits a nontrivial behavior: it remains constant at first, secondly steep decreases down to some threshold field, and thirdly starts to increase as a field enhances, whereas the same temperature of a dielectric maximum under a bias electric field to [100] oriented Sr0.75Ba0.25Nb2O6 crystals exhibits a smoothed minimum before the start to increase as a field enhances (E. Dul'kin et al., J. Appl. Phys. 110, 044106 (2011)). Such a difference of electric field effects in c- and a-cut crystals is discussed from the viewpoint of random-bond-random-field model of relaxor ferroelectrics. By the comparison between experimental and theoretical data, a dipole moment of the PNR was estimated to be 0.1 (C cm).

  17. A novel fabrication method to create a thick collagen bundle composed of uniaxially aligned fibrils: an essential technology for the development of artificial tendon/ligament matrices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yunoki, Shunji; Hatayama, Hirosuke; Ebisawa, Mizue; Kondo, Eiji; Yasuda, Kazunori

    2015-09-01

    In this study, we developed a fabrication method for thick collagen gel bundles comprising uniaxially aligned fibrils of sufficient size for filling defects in ligament tissues. The fabrication involved rotary shearing to dense collagen sols using a rheometer and then warming them from 23°C to 37°C to trigger gelation upon rotation. Gelation due to collagen fibril formation was accelerated by increased concentrations of neutral phosphate buffer, and fibril alignment occurred within 20 s during the early stage of rapid gelation. Fabrication of gels was completed with slippage between gels and the movable upper plate, and well-aligned fibrils along the rotation direction were observed in the marginal regions of disc-shaped gels. Gel thickness could be increased from 1 to 3 mm with homogeneous alignment of fibrils in the entire sample. The alignment of fibrils improved mechanical properties against tensile loads that were placed parallel to the alignment axis. Elongation of cultured fibroblast along the alignment was observed on the gels. The present method will enable the bottom-up fabrication of an artificial tendon for ligament reconstruction and repair. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Oscillations and uniaxial mechanochemical waves in a model of an active poroelastic medium: Application to deformation patterns in protoplasmic droplets of Physarum polycephalum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso, Sergio; Strachauer, Ulrike; Radszuweit, Markus; Bär, Markus; Hauser, Marcus J. B.

    2016-04-01

    Self-organization in cells often manifests itself in oscillations and waves. Here, we address deformation waves in protoplasmic droplets of the plasmodial slime mould Physarum polycephalum by modelling and experiments. In particular, we extend a one-dimensional model that considered the cell as a poroelastic medium, where active tension caused mechanochemical waves that were regulated by an inhibitor (Radszuweit et al., 2013). Our extension consists of a simple, qualitative chemical reaction-diffusion model (Brusselator) that describes the regulation of the inhibitor by another biochemical species. The biochemical reaction enhances the formation of mechanochemical waves if the reaction rates and input concentrations are near or inside an oscillatory regime. The period of the waves is found to be controlled by the characteristic oscillation period, whereas their wavelength is set by mechanical parameters. The model also allows for a systematic study of the chemical activity at the onset of mechanochemical waves. We also present examples for pattern formation in protoplasmic droplets of Physarum polycephalum including global oscillations where the central region of the droplets is in antiphase to the boundary zone, as well as travelling and standing wave-like uniaxial patterns. Finally, we apply our model to reproduce these experimental results by identifying the active tension inhibitor with the intracellular calcium concentration in the Physarum droplets and by using parameter values from mechanical experiments, respectively knowledge about the properties of calcium oscillations in Physarum. The simulation results are then found to be in good agreement with the experimental observations.

  19. Verification of the NIKE3D structural analysis code by comparison against the analytic solution for a spherical cavity under a far-field uniaxial stress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kansa, E.J.

    1989-01-01

    The original scope of this task was to simulate the stresses and displacements of a hard rock tunnel experimental design using a suitable three-dimensional finite element code. NIKE3D was selected as a suitable code for performing these primarily approximate linearly elastic 3D analyses, but it required modifications to include initial stress, shear traction boundary condition and excavation options. During the summer of 1988, such capabilities were installed in a special version of NIKE3D. Subsequently, we verified both the LLNL's commonly used version of NIKE3D and our private modified version against the analytic solution for a spherical cavity in an elastic material deforming under a far-field uniaxial stress. We find the results produced by the unmodified and modified versions of NIKE3D to be in good agreement with the analytic solutions, except near the cavity, where the errors in the stress field are large. As can be expected from a code based on a displacement finite element formulation, the displacements are much more accurate than the stresses calculated from the 8-noded brick elements. To reduce these errors to acceptable levels, the grid must be refined further near the cavity wall. The level of grid refinement required to simulate accurately tunneling problems that do not have spatial symmetry in three dimensions using the current NIKE3D code is likely to exceed the memory capacity of the largest CRAY 1 computers at LLNL. 8 refs., 121 figs.

  20. SPACE Code Assessment for FLECHT Test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahn, Hyoung Kyoun; Min, Ji Hong; Park, Chan Eok; Park, Seok Jeong; Kim, Shin Whan [KEPCO E and C, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    According to 10 CFR 50 Appendix K, Emergency Core Cooling System (ECCS) performance evaluation model during LBLOCA should be based on the data of FLECHT test. Heat transfer coefficient (HTC) and Carryout Rate Fraction (CRF) during reflood period of LBLOCA should be conservative. To develop Mass and Energy Release (MER) methodology using Safety and Performance Analysis CodE (SPACE), FLECHT test results were compared to the results calculated by SPACE. FLECHT test facility is modeled to compare the reflood HTC and CRF using SPACE. Sensitivity analysis is performed with various options for HTC correlation. Based on this result, it is concluded that the reflood HTC and CRF calculated with COBRA-TF correlation during LBLOCA meet the requirement of 10 CFR 50 Appendix K. In this study, the analysis results using SPACE predicts heat transfer phenomena of FLECHT test reasonably and conservatively. Reflood HTC for the test number of 0690, 3541 and 4225 are conservative in the reference case. In case of 6948 HTC using COBRATF is conservative to calculate film boiling region. All of analysis results for CRF have sufficient conservatism. Based on these results, it is possible to apply with COBRA-TF correlation to develop MER methodology to analyze LBLOCA using SPACE.

  1. A device for the application of uniaxial strain to single crystal samples for use in synchrotron radiation experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gannon, L. [Clarendon Laboratory, University of Oxford Physics Department, Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3PU (United Kingdom); Diamond Light Source, Harwell Science and Innovation Campus, Didcot OX11 ODE (United Kingdom); Bosak, A. [European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, BP 220, F-38043 Grenoble Cedex (France); Burkovsky, R. G. [European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, BP 220, F-38043 Grenoble Cedex (France); Peter the Great Saint-Petersburg Polytechnic University, 29 Politekhnicheskaya, 195251, St.-Petersburg (Russian Federation); Nisbet, G.; Hoesch, M., E-mail: Moritz.Hoesch@diamond.ac.uk [Diamond Light Source, Harwell Science and Innovation Campus, Didcot OX11 ODE (United Kingdom); Petrović, A. P. [DPMC-MaNEP, Université de Genève, Quai Ernest-Ansermet 24, 1211 Genève 4 (Switzerland)

    2015-10-15

    We present the design, construction, and testing of a straining device compatible with many different synchrotron radiation techniques, in a wide range of experimental environments (including low temperature, high field and ultra-high vacuum). The device has been tested by X-ray diffraction on single crystal samples of quasi-one-dimensional Cs{sub 2}Mo{sub 6}Se{sub 6} and K{sub 2}Mo{sub 6}Se{sub 6}, in which microscopic strains up to a Δc/c = 0.12% ± 0.01% change in the c lattice parameters have been achieved. We have also used the device in an inelastic X-ray scattering experiment, to probe the strain-dependent speed of sound ν along the c axis. A reduction Δν/ν of up to −3.8% was obtained at a strain of Δc/c = 0.25% in K{sub 2}Mo{sub 6}Se{sub 6}.

  2. The effect of welding on the strength of aluminium stiffened plates subject to combined uniaxial compression and lateral pressure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedram Masoud

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays aluminum stiffened plates are one of the major constituents of the marine structures, espe¬cially high-speed vessels. On one hand, these structures are subject to various forms of loading in the harsh sea envi¬ronment, like hydrostatic lateral pressures and in-plane compression. On the other hand, fusion welding is often used to assemble those panels. The common marine aluminum alloys in the both 5,000 and 6,000 series, however, lose a re¬markable portion of their load carrying capacity due to welding. This paper presents the results of sophisticated finite-element investigations considering both geometrical and mechanical imperfections. The tested models were those pro¬posed by the ultimate strength committee of 15th ISSC. The presented data illuminates the effects of welding on the strength of aluminum plates under above-mentioned load conditions.

  3. Ice-sheet flow conditions deduced from mechanical tests of ice core

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miyamoto, Atsushi; Narita, Hideki; Hondoh, Takeo

    1999-01-01

    Uniaxial compression tests were performed on samples of the Greenland Ice Core Project (GRIP) deep ice core, both in the field and later in a cold-room laboratory, in order to understand the ice-flow behavior of large ice sheets. Experiments were conducted under conditions of constant strain rate...... (type A) and constant load (type B). Fifty-four uniaxial-compression test specimens from 1327-2922 m were selected. Each test specimen (25 mm × 25 mm × 90 mm) was prepared with its uniaxial stress axis inclined 45° from the core axis in order to examine the flow behavior of strong single-maximum ice......-core samples with basal planes parallel to the horizontal plane of the ice sheet. The ice-flow enhancement factors show a gradual increase with depth down to approximately 2000 m. These results can be interpreted in terms of an increase in the fourth-order Schmid factor. Below 2000 m depth, the flow...

  4. Experimental Investigation on the Fatigue Mechanical Properties of Intermittently Jointed Rock Models Under Cyclic Uniaxial Compression with Different Loading Parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yi; Dai, Feng; Dong, Lu; Xu, Nuwen; Feng, Peng

    2018-01-01

    Intermittently jointed rocks, widely existing in many mining and civil engineering structures, are quite susceptible to cyclic loading. Understanding the fatigue mechanism of jointed rocks is vital to the rational design and the long-term stability analysis of rock structures. In this study, the fatigue mechanical properties of synthetic jointed rock models under different cyclic conditions are systematically investigated in the laboratory, including four loading frequencies, four maximum stresses, and four amplitudes. Our experimental results reveal the influence of the three cyclic loading parameters on the mechanical properties of jointed rock models, regarding the fatigue deformation characteristics, the fatigue energy and damage evolution, and the fatigue failure and progressive failure behavior. Under lower loading frequency or higher maximum stress and amplitude, the jointed specimen is characterized by higher fatigue deformation moduli and higher dissipated hysteresis energy, resulting in higher cumulative damage and lower fatigue life. However, the fatigue failure modes of jointed specimens are independent of cyclic loading parameters; all tested jointed specimens exhibit a prominent tensile splitting failure mode. Three different crack coalescence patterns are classified between two adjacent joints. Furthermore, different from the progressive failure under static monotonic loading, the jointed rock specimens under cyclic compression fail more abruptly without evident preceding signs. The tensile cracks on the front surface of jointed specimens always initiate from the joint tips and then propagate at a certain angle with the joints toward the direction of maximum compression.

  5. Heat capacity measurements of Sr{sub 2}RuO{sub 4} under uni-axial strain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, You-sheng; Mackenzie, Andrew [Max Planck Institute for Chemical Physics of Solids, Dresden (Germany); University of St. Andrews, School of Physics and Astronomy (United Kingdom); Gibbs, Alexandra [Max Planck Institute for Solid State Research, Stuttgart (Germany); Hicks, Clifford [Max Planck Institute for Chemical Physics of Solids, Dresden (Germany); Nicklas, Michael [University of St. Andrews, School of Physics and Astronomy (United Kingdom)

    2016-07-01

    One of the most-discussed possible pairing symmetries of Sr{sub 2}RuO{sub 4} is p{sub x} ± ip{sub y}. By applying strain along left angle 100 right angle -direction, the degeneracy of the p{sub x} and p{sub y} components is lifted, and thus there should be two critical temperatures (T{sub c}). Hicks et al. have observed an increase of T{sub c} of Sr{sub 2}RuO{sub 4} under both compressive and tensile strains, by measuring the susceptibility, which is sensitive only to the first transition. Their results also indicate, indirectly, that any splitting of T{sub c}s might be small. For a direct test of possible splitting, we measure the heat capacity of Sr{sub 2}RuO{sub 4} under strain. To do so, we are developing an approach to measure heat capacity under non-adiabatic conditions. We have observed an increase of T{sub c} under compressive strain. This is the first thermodynamic evidence of the strain-induced increase in T{sub c} of Sr{sub 2}RuO{sub 4}.

  6. Formation and coalescence of strain localized regions in ferrite phase of DP600 steels under uniaxial tensile deformation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alaie, A., E-mail: amir_alaie@yahoo.com [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Kadkhodapour, J. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Shahid Rajaee Teacher Training University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Institute for Materials Testing, Materials Science and Strength of Materials (IMWF), University of Stuttgart, Stuttgart (Germany); Ziaei Rad, S. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Asadi Asadabad, M. [Materials Research School, Isfahan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Schmauder, S. [Institute for Materials Testing, Materials Science and Strength of Materials (IMWF), University of Stuttgart, Stuttgart (Germany)

    2015-01-19

    In this study the key factors in the creation and coalescence of strain localization regions in dual-phase steels were investigated. An in-situ tensile setup was used to follow the microscopic deformation of ferrite phase inside the microstructure of DP600 steel. The test was continued until the specimen was very close to final failure. The captured scanning electron microscopy (SEM) micrographs enabled us to directly observe the evolution of deformation bands as a contour of strain distribution in the ferrite matrix. The image processing method was used to quantify the ferrite microscopic strains; the obtained strain maps were superimposed onto the SEM micrographs. The results revealed important deformational characteristics of the microstructure at the microscopic level. It was observed that despite the formation of slip bands inside the large grains during the early stages of deformation, the large ferrite grains did not contribute to the formation of high-strain bands until the final stages of severe necking. The behavior of voids and initial defects inside the localization bands was also studied. In the final stages of deformation, cracks were observed to preferentially propagate in the direction of local deformation bands and to coalescence with each other to form the final failure lines in the microstructure. It was observed that in the final stages of deformation, the defects or voids outside the deformation bands do not contribute to the final failure mechanisms and could be considered to be of minor importance.

  7. Assessing the Performance of Statistical-structural and Geostatistical Methods in Estimating the 3D Distribution of the Uniaxial Compressive Strength Parameter in the Sarcheshmeh Porphyry Copper Deposit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahboubeh Pishbin

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The uniaxial compressive strength (UCS of intact rocks is an important geotechnical parameter required for designing geotechnical and mining engineering projects. Obtaining accurate estimates of the rock mass UCS parameter throughout a 3D geological model of the deposit is vital for determining optimum rock slope stability, designing new exploratory and blast boreholes, mine planning, optimizing the production schedule and even designing the crusher’s feed size. The main objective of this paper is to select the preferred estimator of the UCS parameter based on accuracy performance using all the available geological-geotechnical data at the Sarcheshmeh copper deposit, located 160 km southwest of Kerman City, in south-eastern Iran. In this paper, an attempt is made to estimate the spatial distribution of the UCS parameter using commonly-used statistical-structural and geostatistical methods. In order to achieve the aim of the current study, the UCS parameter was measured along with other qualitative geological properties, including the rock type, weathering, alteration type and intensity of core samples taken from 647 boreholes. The 3D distribution of the UCS parameter is obtained using different algorithms including statistical-structural (the nearest-neighbour technique, linear (ordinary Kriging and nonlinear (indicator Kriging geostatistical methods. After estimating the UCS parameter at block centres using the above-mentioned methods, the performance of each method is compared and validated through 21 set aside borehole data. The assessment of selecting best estimator of UCS parameter is based on scatter plots of the observed versus estimated data plus the root mean square error (RMSE statistics of the differences between observed and estimated values for 21 set aside borehole data. Finally, due to the special characteristics of the UCS spatial variability, it is concluded that the nearest-neighbour method is the most appropriate method for

  8. Anomalous scaling of a passive scalar advected by a turbulent velocity field with finite correlation time and uniaxial small-scale anisotropy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurcisinová, E; Jurcisin, M

    2008-01-01

    The influence of uniaxial small-scale anisotropy on the stability of the scaling regimes and on the anomalous scaling of the structure functions of a passive scalar advected by a Gaussian solenoidal velocity field with finite correlation time is investigated by the field theoretic renormalization group and operator product expansion within one-loop approximation. Possible scaling regimes are found and classified in the plane of exponents epsilon-eta , where epsilon characterizes the energy spectrum of the velocity field in the inertial range E proportional, variantk;{1-2epsilon} , and eta is related to the correlation time of the velocity field at the wave number k which is scaled as k;{-2+eta} . It is shown that the presence of anisotropy does not disturb the stability of the infrared fixed points of the renormalization group equations, which are directly related to the corresponding scaling regimes. The influence of anisotropy on the anomalous scaling of the structure functions of the passive scalar field is studied as a function of the fixed point value of the parameter u , which represents the ratio of turnover time of scalar field and velocity correlation time. It is shown that the corresponding one-loop anomalous dimensions, which are the same (universal) for all particular models with a concrete value of u in the isotropic case, are different (nonuniversal) in the case with the presence of small-scale anisotropy and they are continuous functions of the anisotropy parameters, as well as the parameter u . The dependence of the anomalous dimensions on the anisotropy parameters of two special limits of the general model, namely, the rapid-change model and the frozen velocity field model, are found when u-->infinity and u-->0 , respectively.

  9. Fate of tenogenic differentiation potential of human bone marrow stromal cells by uniaxial stretching affected by stretch-activated calcium channel agonist gadolinium.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Yin Nam

    Full Text Available The role for mechanical stimulation in the control of cell fate has been previously proposed, suggesting that there may be a role of mechanical conditioning in directing mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs towards specific lineage for tissue engineering applications. Although previous studies have reported that calcium signalling is involved in regulating many cellular processes in many cell types, its role in managing cellular responses to tensile loading (mechanotransduction of MSCs has not been fully elucidated. In order to establish this, we disrupted calcium signalling by blocking stretch-activated calcium channel (SACC in human MSCs (hMSCs in vitro. Passaged-2 hMSCs were exposed to cyclic tensile loading (1 Hz + 8% for 6, 24, 48, and 72 hours in the presence of the SACC blocker, gadolinium. Analyses include image observations of immunochemistry and immunofluorescence staining from extracellular matrix (ECM production, and measuring related tenogenic and apoptosis gene marker expression. Uniaxial tensile loading increased the expression of tenogenic markers and ECM production. However, exposure to strain in the presence of 20 μM gadolinium reduced the induction of almost all tenogenic markers and ECM staining, suggesting that SACC acts as a mechanosensor in strain-induced hMSC tenogenic differentiation process. Although cell death was observed in prolonged stretching, it did not appear to be apoptosis mediated. In conclusion, the knowledge gained in this study by elucidating the role of calcium in MSC mechanotransduction processes, and that in prolonged stretching results in non-apoptosis mediated cell death may be potential useful for regenerative medicine applications.

  10. The shear behaviour of pine wood in the Arcan test with the digital image correlation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malyszko Leszek

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The Arcan shear test is used together with the digital image correlation to study the shear stress-strain relationship for pine wood in the symmetry plane LR. The relationship of shearing perpendicular to the grain direction is shown by the straight line below the proportional limit and the nonlinear curve beyond it describing hardening up to the ultimate limit. Subsequent failure modes are shown during the load increase. Additionally, some results of the off-axis tension tests, as well as the uniaxial tension tests, with the mechanical and electric resistance strain gauges are presented to determine and compare the shear modulus from both methods of testing.

  11. Standard test method for creep-fatigue crack growth testing

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2010-01-01

    1.1 This test method covers the determination of creep-fatigue crack growth properties of nominally homogeneous materials by use of pre-cracked compact type, C(T), test specimens subjected to uniaxial cyclic forces. It concerns fatigue cycling with sufficiently long loading/unloading rates or hold-times, or both, to cause creep deformation at the crack tip and the creep deformation be responsible for enhanced crack growth per loading cycle. It is intended as a guide for creep-fatigue testing performed in support of such activities as materials research and development, mechanical design, process and quality control, product performance, and failure analysis. Therefore, this method requires testing of at least two specimens that yield overlapping crack growth rate data. The cyclic conditions responsible for creep-fatigue deformation and enhanced crack growth vary with material and with temperature for a given material. The effects of environment such as time-dependent oxidation in enhancing the crack growth ra...

  12. Target Soil Impact Verification: Experimental Testing and Kayenta Constitutive Modeling.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Broome, Scott Thomas [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Flint, Gregory Mark [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Dewers, Thomas [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Newell, Pania [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-11-01

    This report details experimental testing and constitutive modeling of sandy soil deformation under quasi - static conditions. This is driven by the need to understand constitutive response of soil to target/component behavior upon impact . An experimental and constitutive modeling program was followed to determine elastic - plastic properties and a compressional failure envelope of dry soil . One hydrostatic, one unconfined compressive stress (UCS), nine axisymmetric compression (ACS) , and one uniaxial strain (US) test were conducted at room temperature . Elastic moduli, assuming isotropy, are determined from unload/reload loops and final unloading for all tests pre - failure and increase monotonically with mean stress. Very little modulus degradation was discernable from elastic results even when exposed to mean stresses above 200 MPa . The failure envelope and initial yield surface were determined from peak stresses and observed onset of plastic yielding from all test results. Soil elasto - plastic behavior is described using the Brannon et al. (2009) Kayenta constitutive model. As a validation exercise, the ACS - parameterized Kayenta model is used to predict response of the soil material under uniaxial strain loading. The resulting parameterized and validated Kayenta model is of high quality and suitable for modeling sandy soil deformation under a range of conditions, including that for impact prediction.

  13. High-quality uniaxial In(x)Ga(1-x)N/GaN multiple quantum well (MQW) nanowires (NWs) on Si(111) grown by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) and light-emitting diode (LED) fabrication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ra, Yong-Ho; Navamathavan, R; Park, Ji-Hyeon; Lee, Cheul-Ro

    2013-03-01

    This article describes the growth and device characteristics of vertically aligned high-quality uniaxial p-GaN/InxGa1-xN/GaN multiple quantum wells (MQW)/n-GaN nanowires (NWs) on Si(111) substrates grown by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) technique. The resultant nanowires (NWs), with a diameter of 200-250 nm, have an average length of 2 μm. The feasibility of growing high-quality NWs with well-controlled indium composition MQW structure is demonstrated. These resultant NWs grown on Si(111) substrates were utilized for fabricating vertical-type light-emitting diodes (LEDs). The steep and intense photoluminescence (PL) and cathodoluminescence (CL) spectra are observed, based on the strain-free NWs on Si(111) substrates. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM) analysis revealed that the MQW NWs are grown along the c-plane with uniform thickness. The current-voltage (I-V) characteristics of these NWs exhibited typical p-n junction LEDs and showed a sharp onset voltage at 2.75 V in the forward bias. The output power is linearly increased with increasing current. The result indicates that the pulsed MOCVD technique is an effective method to grow uniaxial p-GaN/InxGa1-xN/GaN MQW/n-GaN NWs on Si(111), which is more advantageous than other growth techniques, such as molecular beam epitaxy. These results suggest the uniaxial NWs are promising to allow flat-band quantum structures, which can enhance the efficiency of LEDs.

  14. Evaluation of ultimate tensile strength using Miniature Disk Bend Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Kundan; Pooleery, Arun; Madhusoodanan, K.; Singh, R. N.; Chakravartty, J. K.; Shriwastaw, R. S.; Dutta, B. K.; Sinha, R. K.

    2015-06-01

    Correlations for evaluation of Ultimate Tensile Strength (UTS) using Miniature Disk Bend Test (MDBT) or Small Punch Test (SPT) has been an open issue since the development of the techniques. The larger plastic strains, in tri-axial state of stress during SPT, make the translation to the equivalent uniaxial parameter less certain. Correlations based on Pmax of load-displacement curve are also in disagreement as the point corresponding to Pmax does not represent a necking situation as in case of UTS, in a uniaxial tensile test. In present work, an attempt has been made for locating necking zone, which appears prior to Pmax, through experiments and FEM analyses. Experimental results on disk specimens from 20MnMoNi55, CrMoV ferritic steel and SS304LN materials along with FEM analyses found that load corresponding to 0.48 mm displacement is to be very close to the necking zone, and gives best fit for a UTS correlation.

  15. The WST method, a fracture mechanics test method for FRC

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lofgren, I.; Stang, Henrik; Olesen, John Forbes

    2008-01-01

    The applicability of the wedge-splitting test method (WST), for determining fracture properties of fibre-reinforced concrete, is discussed. Experimental results, using the WST method, are compared with results from uniaxial tension tests (UTT) and three-point bending tests (3PBT) for five different......-crack opening (sigma-w) relationships have been determined for each mix and test method. For the two WST specimen sizes, there is no apparent difference either in the number of fibres (per cm(2)) crossing the fracture plane or in the fracture properties. The major factor contributing to the scatter in the test...... results is believed to be related to the variation in the number of fibres across the fracture plane. Furthermore, the inverse analyses indicate no systematic differences in the determined parameters between two WST specimens or between the WST and the 3PBT....

  16. Small Punch Creep Test in a 316 Austenitic Stainless Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saucedo-Muñoz, Maribel L.; Komazaki, Ken-Icbi; Ortiz-Mariscal, Arturo; Lopez-Hirata, Victor M.

    The small punch creep test was used to evaluate the creep behavior of a 316 type austenitic stainless steel at temperatures of 650, 675 and 700 °C and loads from 199 to 512 N using a creep tester with a specimen size of 10 x 10 x 0.3 mm under an argon atmosphere. The small punch creep curves shows the three stages found in the creep curves of the conventional uniaxial test. The time to rupture decreases as the testing temperature and load increase. The secondary stage is also reduced with the increase in test load. An intergranular ductile fracture mode was observed at a testing temperature of 700 °C, while intergranular brittle mode at 650 °C which is associated with the absence of abundant precipitation at 650 °C.

  17. FEA-based development of a new tool for systematic experimental validation of nonlinear strain paths and design of test specimens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinschenk, Annika; Volk, Wolfram

    2017-10-01

    To achieve high accuracy in finite element simulation, it is beneficial to model forming limit curves (FLCs) for nonlinear strain paths, since FLCs based on linear strain paths inaccurately predict the failure of parts that undergo nonlinear strain paths. Standardized Nakajima or Marciniak tests are used to create a FLC for linear strain paths. For common strain paths, the shapes of the specimens are well-known. Only a limited set of nonlinear strain paths can be generated by using these tests. For example, a biaxial strain path can be generated, and then the test specimen can be cut to generate a uniaxial strain path. However, the other way around is not possible. Therefore, it is important to develop a new tool that can systematically investigate all kinds of nonlinear strain paths. This paper describes a newly developed deep drawing tool that exhibits these properties. Large specimens with homogeneous strain in the centre can be generated for any strain state. These specimens are sufficiently large that a second test specimen can be cut out to generate another strain path using Nakajima or Marciniak tests. The shape of blank for uniaxial, plane and biaxial strains are presented and analysed both numerically and experimentally. A nonlinear strain path consisting of a uniaxial strain path followed by a biaxial strain path is shown as an example.

  18. Time-related changes in expression of collagen types I and III and of tenascin-C in rat bone mesenchymal stem cells under co-culture with ligament fibroblasts or uniaxial stretching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lei; Tran, Nguyen; Chen, Huai-Qing; Kahn, Cyril J-F; Marchal, Sophie; Groubatch, Frederique; Wang, Xiong

    2008-04-01

    Adult bone-marrow-derived mesenchymal stroma cells (BMSC) seem to be a potential cell source for tissue engineering of the ligament. The objective of this work was to study the time-related changes in mRNA expression and protein levels of collagen types I and III and of tenascin-C in BMSC under co-culture with fibroblasts or under a uniaxial cyclic condition. Rat BMSC harvested from the femur and tibial bone marrow were co-cultured with ligament fibroblasts or stimulated by cyclic 10% uniaxial stretching at 1 Hz. Image analysis showed significant cell loss in stretched BMSC, particularly in the directions close to the stretching direction. However, these BMSC displayed an equivalent growth rate to that of non-stretched cells. Real-time reverse transcription/polymerase chain reaction revealed that the mRNA expression of collagen types I and III and of tenascin-C by BMSC was significantly up-regulated by co-culture and cyclic stretching. Radioimmunoassay results confirmed the effects of these stimulations, showing increases in the level of these proteins. Thus, BMSC might be useful as a cell source for the tissue engineering of ligament.

  19. Standard practice for strain controlled thermomechanical fatigue testing

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2010-01-01

    1.1 This practice covers the determination of thermomechanical fatigue (TMF) properties of materials under uniaxially loaded strain-controlled conditions. A “thermomechanical” fatigue cycle is here defined as a condition where uniform temperature and strain fields over the specimen gage section are simultaneously varied and independently controlled. This practice is intended to address TMF testing performed in support of such activities as materials research and development, mechanical design, process and quality control, product performance, and failure analysis. While this practice is specific to strain-controlled testing, many sections will provide useful information for force-controlled or stress-controlled TMF testing. 1.2 This practice allows for any maximum and minimum values of temperature and mechanical strain, and temperature-mechanical strain phasing, with the restriction being that such parameters remain cyclically constant throughout the duration of the test. No restrictions are placed on en...

  20. AERIS : eco-driving application development and testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-01

    This exploratory study investigates the potential of developing an Eco-Driving application that : utilizes an eco-cruise control (ECC) system within state-of-the-art car-following models. The : research focuses on integrating predictive cruise contro...

  1. Mechanical behavior of recrystallized Zircaloy-4 under monotonic loading at room temperature: Tests and simplified anisotropic modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mozzani, N., E-mail: nathanael.mozzani@edf.fr [CEA Saclay, DEN/DMN/SEMI/LCMI, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); EDF R and D, Site des Renardières, 77 818 Moret-sur-Loing (France); Auzoux, Q.; Le Boulch, D. [CEA Saclay, DEN/DMN/SEMI/LCMI, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Andrieu, E.; Blanc, C. [Université de Toulouse, CIRIMAT/ENSIACET, UPS/INPT/CNRS, 4 allée Emile Monso, 31432 Toulouse Cedex 4 (France); Scott, C.P. [AREVA, AREVA NP, 10 rue Juliette Récamier, 69456 Lyon (France); Barnel, N. [EDF R and D, Site des Renardières, 77 818 Moret-sur-Loing (France)

    2014-04-01

    Mechanical behavior of recrystallized Zircaloy-4 was studied at room temperature in the rolling-transverse plane of a thin sheet. Uniaxial constant elongation rate tests (CERTs) were performed along with creep tests, over a wide range of strain rates. Based on a simplified formulation, different sets of parameters for an anisotropic viscoplastic model were found to fit the stress–strain curves. Notched specimen tensile tests were carried out with a digital image correlation (DIC) technique in order to determine the strain field evolution. From these measurements and the determination of Lankford coefficients, the most consistent model was selected and simulated data were successfully compared with the experimental observations.

  2. Mechanical behavior of recrystallized Zircaloy-4 under monotonic loading at room temperature: Tests and simplified anisotropic modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mozzani, N.; Auzoux, Q.; Le Boulch, D.; Andrieu, E.; Blanc, C.; Scott, C. P.; Barnel, N.

    2014-04-01

    Mechanical behavior of recrystallized Zircaloy-4 was studied at room temperature in the rolling-transverse plane of a thin sheet. Uniaxial constant elongation rate tests (CERTs) were performed along with creep tests, over a wide range of strain rates. Based on a simplified formulation, different sets of parameters for an anisotropic viscoplastic model were found to fit the stress-strain curves. Notched specimen tensile tests were carried out with a digital image correlation (DIC) technique in order to determine the strain field evolution. From these measurements and the determination of Lankford coefficients, the most consistent model was selected and simulated data were successfully compared with the experimental observations.

  3. Edgeless composite laminate specimen for static and fatigue testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liber, T.; Daniel, I. M.

    1978-01-01

    The influence of edge effects on the tensile properties of angle-ply laminate composites can be eliminated by using edgeless (round tubular) specimens. However, uniaxial tests with such specimens, static and fatigue, have been generally unsuccessful because of the differential Poisson effect between the test section and the grips. An edgeless cylindrical specimen, developed to circumvent these difficulties, is examined in the present paper. It is a flattened tube consisting of two flat sides connected by curved sections. It can be handled much like the standard flat coupon. The flat ends of the specimen are provided with crossplied fiberglass gripping tabs, the same as used for flat test coupons. As part of the tabbing, the hollow ends must be plugged with inserts to prevent crushing of the ends. A special insert design was developed to minimize detrimental Poisson effects ordinarily introduced by inserts.

  4. Low-temperature transverse magnetic domains in nominally uniaxial La0.67Sr0.33MnO3 films on NdGaO3 (0 0 1)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, L. C.; Ghidini, M.; Moya, X.; Maccherozzi, F.; Dhesi, S. S.; Mathur, N. D.

    2013-01-01

    Epitaxial La0.67Sr0.33MnO3 films grown on orthorhombic NdGaO3 (0 0 1) substrates show predominantly uniaxial magnetic anisotropy. On cooling, we observe the growth of a biaxial contribution, which we quantify by fitting magnetometry data to a coherent rotation model. A film grown under deliberately sub-optimal conditions shows a relatively stronger biaxial contribution that results in a significant population of transverse magnetic domains below ˜200 K, as revealed by photoemission electron microscopy with x-ray magnetic circular dichroism contrast. Care should be taken to avoid these transverse domains in spintronic devices designed to exploit the high low-temperature spin-polarization of La0.67Sr0.33MnO3.

  5. Analysis of uniaxial behavior of an Fe-based shape memory alloy under cyclic thermomechanical loading; Netsu rikigakuteki kurikaeshi fuka no moto deno tetsuki keijo kioku gokin no tanjiku henkei/hentai kyodo kaiseki

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nishimura, F.; Watanabe, N.; Tanaka, K. [Tokyo Metropolitan Institute of Technology, Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-08-15

    The thermomechanical hysteretic behavior of an Fe-based shape memory alloy is phenomenologically analyzed under cyclic uniaxial tensile and compressive loading. The shift of the stress-strain-temperature hysteresis loop, expressed by means of the evolution of the residual strain, is well explained by the theory with some internal variables. The accumulated perfect dislocations formed as a result of the interaction of martensite plates is one of the internal variables introduced here. The back stress is also employed as an internal variable to be the driving force for the shape recovery for the martensite plates. The simulations describe well the hysteretic behavior under the strain and stress-controlled cyclic thermomechanical loading; the shift of a loop, evolution of the residual strain and the change in transformation stress. 21 refs., 10 figs., 1 tab.

  6. Observation of strong anisotropic forbidden transitions in (001) InGaAs/GaAs single-quantum well by reflectance-difference spectroscopy and its behavior under uniaxial strain

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    The strong anisotropic forbidden transition has been observed in a series of InGaAs/GaAs single-quantum well with well width ranging between 3 nm and 7 nm at 80 K. Numerical calculations within the envelope function framework have been performed to analyze the origin of the optical anisotropic forbidden transition. It is found that the optical anisotropy of this transition can be mainly attributed to indium segregation effect. The effect of uniaxial strain on in-plane optical anisotropy (IPOA) is also investigated. The IPOA of the forbidden transition changes little with strain, while that of the allowed transition shows a linear dependence on strain. PACS 78.66.Fd, 78.20.Bh, 78.20.Fm PMID:21711728

  7. Uniaxial anisotropy and high-frequency permeability of novel soft magnetic FeCoTaN and FeCoAlN films field-annealed at CMOS temperatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seemann, K. [Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe in der Helmholtz-Gemeinschaft, Institut fuer Material-forschung I, Hermann-von-Helmholtz-Platz 1, 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany)]. E-mail: klaus.seemann@imf.fzk.de; Leiste, H. [Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe in der Helmholtz-Gemeinschaft, Institut fuer Material-forschung I, Hermann-von-Helmholtz-Platz 1, 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Bekker, V. [Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe in der Helmholtz-Gemeinschaft, Institut fuer Material-forschung I, Hermann-von-Helmholtz-Platz 1, 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany)

    2004-12-01

    In order to investigate the anisotropy and high-frequency behaviour, soft magnetic FeCoTaN and FeCoAlN films were fabricated by reactive RF-magnetron sputtering. Six-inch targets consisting of Fe47Co36Ta17 and Fe49Co36Al15 were used to grow the films on oxidized (100)-silicon substrates with a TiN seed layer for better film adhesion. The concentration of nitrogen was adjusted by a flow control system. For applications in, e.g., aluminium CMOS processed components the films were annealed at temperatures of about 400-bar C in a static magnetic field of 50mT to induce a uniaxial anisotropy in the film plane by activating an atomic ordering process. Controlling the anisotropy by annealing demands a specified elaboration and results in an in-plane uniaxial anisotropy between 3 and 4mT. Nitrogen in both materials caused the formation of TaN or AlN which mainly supported the suppression of polycrystalline film growth. After deposition the films showed an amorphous structure and turned to be nanocrystalline after the annealing procedure. A saturation polarization in both materials amounted to between 1.1 and 1.2T. Ferromagnetic resonance frequencies of about 1.9GHz for FeCoTaN and 1.8GHz for FeCoAlN, determined by measuring the frequency-dependent permeability by means of a strip line permeameter up to 5GHz, were observed. The experimental results where compared with a spin dynamic model based on the Landau-Lifschitz and Maxwell's eddy current equation in the total frequency range.

  8. Ferromagnetic resonance frequency increase and resonance line broadening of a ferromagnetic Fe-Co-Hf-N film with in-plane uniaxial anisotropy by high-frequency field perturbation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seemann, K.; Leiste, H.; Krüger, K.

    2013-11-01

    Soft ferromagnetic Fe-Co-Hf-N films, produced by reactive r.f. magnetron sputtering, are useful to study the ferromagnetic resonance (FMR) by means of frequency domain permeability measurements up to the GHz range. Films with the composition Fe33Co43Hf10N14 exhibit a saturation polarisation Js of around 1.35 T. They are consequently considered as being uniformly magnetised due to an in-plane uniaxial anisotropy of approximately μ0Hu≈4.5 m T after annealing them, e.g., at 400 °C in a static magnetic field for 1 h. Being exposed to a high-frequency field, the precession of magnetic moments leads to a marked frequency-dependent permeability with a sharp Lorentzian shaped imaginary part at around 2.33 GHz (natural resonance peak), which is in a very good agreement with the modified Landau-Lifschitz-Gilbert (LLG) differential equation. A slightly increased FMR frequency and a clear increase in the resonance line broadening due to an increase of the exciting high-frequency power (1-25.1 mW), considered as an additional perturbation of the precessing system of magnetic moments, could be discovered. By solving the homogenous LLG differential equation with respect to the in-plane uniaxial anisotropy, it was revealed that the high-frequency field perturbation impacts the resonance peak position fFMR and resonance line broadening ΔfFMR characterised by a completed damping parameter α=αeff+Δα. Adapted from this result, the increase in fFMR and decrease in lifetime of the excited level of magnetic moments associated with ΔfFMR, similar to a spin-½ particle in a static magnetic field, was theoretically elaborated as well as compared with experimental data.

  9. Standard test method for determining the superplastic properties of metallic sheet materials

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2008-01-01

    1.1 This test method describes the procedure for determining the superplastic forming properties (SPF) of a metallic sheet material. It includes tests both for the basic SPF properties and also for derived SPF properties. The test for basic properties encompasses effects due to strain hardening or softening. 1.2 This test method covers sheet materials with thicknesses of at least 0.5 mm but not greater than 6 mm. It characterizes the material under a uni-axial tensile stress condition. Note 1—Most industrial applications of superplastic forming involve a multi-axial stress condition in a sheet; however it is more convenient to characterize a material under a uni-axial tensile stress condition. Tests should be performed in different orientations to the rolling direction of the sheet to ascertain initial anisotropy. 1.3 This method has been used successfully between strain rates of 10-5 to 10-1 per second. 1.4 This method has been used successfully on Aluminum and Titanium alloys. The use of the method wi...

  10. An ECC Based Iterative Algorithm For Photometric Invariant Projective Registration

    OpenAIRE

    Evangelidis, Georgios; Psarakis, Emmanouil

    2009-01-01

    International audience; The ability of an algorithm to accurately estimate the parameters of the geometric trans- formation which aligns two image profiles even in the presence of photometric distortions can be considered as a basic requirement in many computer vision applications. Projec- tive transformations constitute a general class which includes as special cases the affine, as well as the metric subclasses of transformations. In this paper the applicability of a recently proposed iterat...

  11. 10 CFR Appendix K to Part 50 - ECCS Evaluation Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... shall be calculated using the Baker-Just equation (Baker, L., Just, L.C., “Studies of Metal Water... on the inside of the cladding shall also follow the Baker-Just equation, starting at the time when...-Phase Mixture,” Journal of Heat Transfer, Trans American Society of Mechanical Engineers, 87, No. 1...

  12. Governance of Education Related ECCE Policies in Malaysia

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Boon, Ng Soo

    .... Good governance ensures successful implementation of policies. Good governance requires the authority and other stakeholders to focus on the vulnerable population including the indigenous people, children with special needs and refugee...

  13. Study on Determination Method of Fatigue Testing Load for Wind Turbine Blade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Gaohua; Wu, Jianzhong

    2017-07-01

    In this paper, the load calculation method of the fatigue test was studied for the wind turbine blade under uniaxial loading. The characteristics of wind load and blade equivalent load were analyzed. The fatigue property and damage theory of blade material were studied. The fatigue load for 2MW blade was calculated by Bladed, and the stress calculated by ANSYS. Goodman modified exponential function S-N curve and linear cumulative damage rule were used to calculate the fatigue load of wind turbine blades. It lays the foundation for the design and experiment of wind turbine blade fatigue loading system.

  14. Modification of Concrete Damaged Plasticity model. Part II: Formulation and numerical tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamińska Inez

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A refined model for elastoplastic damaged material is formulated based on the plastic potential introduced in Part I [1]. Considered model is an extension of Concrete Damaged Plasticity material implemented in Abaqus [2]. In the paper the stiffness tensor for elastoplastic damaged behaviour is derived. In order to validate the model, computations for the uniaxial tests are performed. Response of the model for various cases of parameter’s choice is shown and compared to the response of the CDP model.

  15. Evaluation of composite flattened tubular specimen. [fatigue tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liber, T.; Daniel, I. M.

    1978-01-01

    Flattened tubular specimens of graphite/epoxy, S-glass/epoxy, Kevlar-49/epoxy, and graphite/S-glass/epoxy hybrid materials were evaluated under static and cyclic uniaxial tensile loading and compared directly with flat coupon data of the same materials generated under corresponding loading conditions. Additional development for the refinement of the flattened specimen configuration and fabrication was required. Statically tested graphite/epoxy, S-glass/epoxy, and Kevlar 49/epoxy flattened tube specimens exhibit somewhat higher average strengths than their corresponding flat coupons. Flattened tube specimens of the graphite/S-glass/epoxy hybrid and the graphite/epoxy flattened tube specimens failed in parasitic modes with consequential lower strength than the corresponding flat coupons. Fatigue tested flattened tube specimens failed in parasitic modes resulting in lower fatigue strengths than the corresponding flat coupons.

  16. One-fifth-scale dowel force test report. [HTGR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rakowski, J.E.

    1979-05-01

    The report presents the results of the second seismic test program conducted on the 1/5-scale, full-array model of the 3000 MW(t) high-temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) core. The test conditions consisted of uniaxial horizontal sine sweeps at 0.5 g fixture acceleration, sine dwells at various g-levels and frequencies, and time history excitations at several g-levels conforming to NRC seismic response spectra for seismic category 1 components. The main objective of the program was to measure fuel element and reflector block dowel forces. In addition, measurements were taken for core damping, fuel element collision, and fuel element and reflector block rocking angles. These data were required to provide a broader base for validating analytical computer models used to calculate HTGR core design loads.

  17. Numerical simulation of a relaxation test designed to fit a quasi-linear viscoelastic model for temporomandibular joint discs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Commisso, Maria S; Martínez-Reina, Javier; Mayo, Juana; Domínguez, Jaime

    2013-02-01

    The main objectives of this work are: (a) to introduce an algorithm for adjusting the quasi-linear viscoelastic model to fit a material using a stress relaxation test and (b) to validate a protocol for performing such tests in temporomandibular joint discs. This algorithm is intended for fitting the Prony series coefficients and the hyperelastic constants of the quasi-linear viscoelastic model by considering that the relaxation test is performed with an initial ramp loading at a certain rate. This algorithm was validated before being applied to achieve the second objective. Generally, the complete three-dimensional formulation of the quasi-linear viscoelastic model is very complex. Therefore, it is necessary to design an experimental test to ensure a simple stress state, such as uniaxial compression to facilitate obtaining the viscoelastic properties. This work provides some recommendations about the experimental setup, which are important to follow, as an inadequate setup could produce a stress state far from uniaxial, thus, distorting the material constants determined from the experiment. The test considered is a stress relaxation test using unconfined compression performed in cylindrical specimens extracted from temporomandibular joint discs. To validate the experimental protocol, the test was numerically simulated using finite-element modelling. The disc was arbitrarily assigned a set of quasi-linear viscoelastic constants (c1) in the finite-element model. Another set of constants (c2) was obtained by fitting the results of the simulated test with the proposed algorithm. The deviation of constants c2 from constants c1 measures how far the stresses are from the uniaxial state. The effects of the following features of the experimental setup on this deviation have been analysed: (a) the friction coefficient between the compression plates and the specimen (which should be as low as possible); (b) the portion of the specimen glued to the compression plates (smaller

  18. Spherical nanoindentation of proton irradiated 304 stainless steel: A comparison of small scale mechanical test techniques for measuring irradiation hardening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver, Jordan S.; Pathak, Siddhartha; Reichardt, Ashley; Vo, Hi T.; Maloy, Stuart A.; Hosemann, Peter; Mara, Nathan A.

    2017-09-01

    Experimentally quantifying the mechanical effects of radiation damage in reactor materials is necessary for the development and qualification of new materials for improved performance and safety. This can be achieved in a high-throughput fashion through a combination of ion beam irradiation and small scale mechanical testing in contrast to the high cost and laborious nature of bulk testing of reactor irradiated samples. The current work focuses on using spherical nanoindentation stress-strain curves on unirradiated and proton irradiated (10 dpa at 360 °C) 304 stainless steel to quantify the mechanical effects of radiation damage. Spherical nanoindentation stress-strain measurements show a radiation-induced increase in indentation yield strength from 1.36 GPa to 2.72 GPa and a radiation-induced increase in indentation work hardening rate of 10 GPa-30 GPa. These measurements are critically compared against Berkovich nanohardness, micropillar compression, and micro-tension measurements on the same material and similar grain orientations. The ratio of irradiated to unirradiated yield strength increases by a similar factor of 2 when measured via spherical nanoindentation or Berkovich nanohardness testing. A comparison of spherical indentation stress-strain curves to uniaxial (micropillar and micro-tension) stress-strain curves was achieved using a simple scaling relationship which shows good agreement for the unirradiated condition and poor agreement in post-yield behavior for the irradiated condition. The disagreement between spherical nanoindentation and uniaxial stress-strain curves is likely due to the plastic instability that occurs during uniaxial tests but is absent during spherical nanoindentation tests.

  19. Impact responses, compressive and burst tests of glass/epoxy (GRE) composite pipes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrar, F. S. B.; Majid, M. S. A.; Ridzuan, M. J. M.; Syayuthi, A. R. A.

    2017-10-01

    The paper presents the impact responses, compression and burst tests of glass reinforced epoxy (GRE) composites pipes. Impact loadings of three different energy levels (5 J, 7.5 J, and 10 J) were applied, followed by monotonic burst tests. Uniaxial compressive tests were conducted GRE samples using a universal testing machine in accordance with ASTM D695-10. In addition, the tests were also repeated with samples of different winding angles of ±45 ° and ±55 ° and tested at room temperature, and elevated temperatures of 45 °C and 65 °C. The result shows that the higher the impact energy applied to the pipes, the lower the burst strength of the pipes. The maximum burst strength found decreased with an increase in the impact energy level. The results also indicate that the strength of the GRE pipes significantly decreases with increase in temperature though, they are also found to increase as the winding angles decrease.

  20. Test Architecture, Test Retrofit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulcher, Glenn; Davidson, Fred

    2009-01-01

    Just like buildings, tests are designed and built for specific purposes, people, and uses. However, both buildings and tests grow and change over time as the needs of their users change. Sometimes, they are also both used for purposes other than those intended in the original designs. This paper explores architecture as a metaphor for language…

  1. Ferromagnetic resonance frequency increase and resonance line broadening of a ferromagnetic Fe–Co–Hf–N film with in-plane uniaxial anisotropy by high-frequency field perturbation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seemann, K., E-mail: klaus.seemann@kit.edu; Leiste, H.; Krüger, K.

    2013-11-15

    Soft ferromagnetic Fe-Co-Hf-N films, produced by reactive r.f. magnetron sputtering, are useful to study the ferromagnetic resonance (FMR) by means of frequency domain permeability measurements up to the GHz range. Films with the composition Fe{sub 33}Co{sub 43}Hf{sub 10}N{sub 14} exhibit a saturation polarisation J{sub s} of around 1.35 T. They are consequently considered as being uniformly magnetised due to an in-plane uniaxial anisotropy of approximately μ{sub 0}H{sub u}≈4.5 m T after annealing them, e.g., at 400 °C in a static magnetic field for 1 h. Being exposed to a high-frequency field, the precession of magnetic moments leads to a marked frequency-dependent permeability with a sharp Lorentzian shaped imaginary part at around 2.33 GHz (natural resonance peak), which is in a very good agreement with the modified Landau–Lifschitz–Gilbert (LLG) differential equation. A slightly increased FMR frequency and a clear increase in the resonance line broadening due to an increase of the exciting high-frequency power (1–25.1 mW), considered as an additional perturbation of the precessing system of magnetic moments, could be discovered. By solving the homogenous LLG differential equation with respect to the in-plane uniaxial anisotropy, it was revealed that the high-frequency field perturbation impacts the resonance peak position f{sub FMR} and resonance line broadening Δf{sub FMR} characterised by a completed damping parameter α=α{sub eff}+Δα. Adapted from this result, the increase in f{sub FMR} and decrease in lifetime of the excited level of magnetic moments associated with Δf{sub FMR}, similar to a spin-½ particle in a static magnetic field, was theoretically elaborated as well as compared with experimental data. - Highlights: • Impact on the resonance frequency and resonance line by the high-frequency power. • Theoretic approach by solving the LLG differential equation. • Experimental verification and magnon processes. • Theoretical and

  2. Accurate method for determining refractive index profiles of planar waveguides in uniaxial media with the optical axis normal to the surface

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Offersgaard, Jesper Falden; Veng, Torben; Skettrup, Torben

    1996-01-01

    post annealing in order to test the method on both steplike and graded index profiles. The resulting characterizations of the samples are discussed in relation to the inverse WKB method. Finally, the importance of incorporating the effects of material birefringence in the characterization of these kind...

  3. Verification of yield functions by biaxial tensile tests with rotated principal axes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ageba, Ryo; Ishiwtari, Akinobu; Hiramoto, Jiro

    2017-10-01

    A yield function is a critical factor contributing to the accuracy of FEM simulation of steel sheet forming. Yld2000-2d by Barlat is an anisotropic yield function for shell elements. Uniaxial and biaxial tensile test are required to identify the parameters of the Yld2000-2d function. In tests, the principal axes of stresses are normally either parallel or orthogonal to the rolling direction. However, the principal axes of stresses of the material are randomly oriented in actual press forming. Therefore the actual material behavior may not be correctly expressed by a yield function identified from tests always conducted with the same principal axes directions. In this study, the accuracy of the anisotropic yield function is verified under biaxial stress with different principal axes in tests using specimens with rotated principal axes. The results confirm that the accuracy of Yld2000-2d is adequate and the identifying tests are reasonable.

  4. Micro-Scale Mechanical Testing of Non-Woven Carbon Nanotube Sheets and Yarns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magargee, J.; Morestin, F.; Cao, J.; Jones, J. S.

    2013-01-01

    Non-woven carbon nanotube (CNT) sheets and yarns were tested using a novel micro-scale mechanical testing system. CNT sheets were observed to delaminate during uniaxial testing using an adbesive gripping method, resulting from a higher proportion of load bearing in the outer sheets versus internal sheets and an apparently low interlaminar shear strength. In response to this, a new spool-grip method was used to alleviate non-uniform through-thickness stresses, circumvent premature delamination, and allow the sheet material to sustain a 72% increase in measured tensile strength. Furthermore, tension tests of CNT yarns showed that the yarn-structure was approximaiely 7 times stronger than the sheet structure, owing to a higher degree of CNT alignment in the test direction.

  5. Comparing Rotary Bend Wire Fatigue Test Methods at Different Test Speeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver, Jason D.; Gutierrez, Erick J.

    2015-12-01

    Given its relatively simple setup and ability to produce results quickly, rotary bend fatigue testing is becoming commonplace in the medical device industry and is the subject of a new standard test method ASTM E2948-14. Although some research has been conducted to determine if results differ for different rotary bend fatigue test setups or test speeds, these parameters have not been extensively studied together. In this work, we investigate the effects of these two parameters on the fatigue life of three commonly used medical device alloys (ASTM F2063 nitinol, ASTM F138 stainless steel, and ASTM F1058 cobalt chromium). Results with three different rotary bend fatigue test setups revealed no difference in fatigue life among those setups. Increasing test speed, however, between 100 and 35,000 RPM led to an increased fatigue life for all three alloys studied (average number of cycles to fracture increased between 2.0 and 5.1 times between slowest and fastest test speed). Supplemental uniaxial tension tests of stainless steel wire at varying strain rates showed a strain rate dependence in the mechanical response which could in part explain the increased fatigue life at faster test speeds. How exactly strain rate dependence might affect the fatigue properties of different alloys at different alternating strain values requires further study. Given the difference in loading rates between benchtop fatigue tests and in vivo deformations, the potential for strain rate dependence should be considered when designing durability tests for medical devices and in extrapolating results of those tests to in vivo performance.

  6. Thermally stable dielectric responses in uniaxially (001)-oriented CaBi4Ti4O15 nanofilms grown on a Ca2Nb3O10- nanosheet seed layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimura, Junichi; Takuwa, Itaru; Matsushima, Masaaki; Shimizu, Takao; Uchida, Hiroshi; Kiguchi, Takanori; Shiraishi, Takahisa; Konno, Toyohiko J.; Shibata, Tatsuo; Osada, Minoru; Sasaki, Takayoshi; Funakubo, Hiroshi

    2016-02-01

    To realize a high-temperature capacitor, uniaxially (001)-oriented CaBi4Ti4O15 films with various film thicknesses were prepared on (100)cSrRuO3/Ca2Nb3O10- nanosheet/glass substrates. As the film thickness decreases to 50 nm, the out-of-plane lattice parameters decrease while the in-plane lattice ones increase due to the in-plane tensile strain. However, the relative dielectric constant (ɛr) at room temperature exhibits a negligible degradation as the film thickness decreases to 50 nm, suggesting that ɛr of (001)-oriented CaBi4Ti4O15 is less sensitive to the residual strain. The capacitance density increases monotonously with decreasing film thickness, reaching a value of 4.5 μF/cm2 for a 50-nm-thick nanofilm, and is stable against temperature changes from room temperature to 400 °C irrespective of film thickness. This behaviour differs from that of the widely investigated perovskite-structured dielectrics. These results show that (001)-oriented CaBi4Ti4O15 films derived using Ca2Nb3O10- nanosheets as seed layers can be made candidates for high-temperature capacitor applications by a small change in the dielectric properties against film thickness and temperature variations.

  7. Strong uniaxial in-plane magnetic anisotropy of (001)- and (011)-oriented La0.67Sr0.33MnO3 thin films on NdGaO3 substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boschker, H.; Mathews, M.; Houwman, E. P.; Nishikawa, H.; Vailionis, A.; Koster, G.; Rijnders, G.; Blank, D. H. A.

    2009-06-01

    Epitaxial La0.67Sr0.33MnO3 (LSMO) ferromagnetic thin films were coherently grown on NdGaO3 (NGO) substrates with different crystal orientations of the surface plane. On the (110)o - and (001)o -oriented substrates, the film grows in the (001)pc orientation, and on the (100)o -, (010)o -, and (112)o -oriented substrates the film is (011)pc oriented (we will use subindices o and pc for the orthorhombic and pseudocubic crystal structures, respectively). The lattice parameters and pseudocube angles of the deformed LSMO pseudocube have been determined from x-ray diffraction measurements. The in-plane magnetic easy and hard directions of these films have been determined from the dependence of the remnant magnetization on the angle of the in-plane applied field. For all substrate orientations there is a strong in-plane uniaxial magnetic anisotropy, determined by the crystal directions of the substrate surface. The easy and hard magnetic-anisotropy directions are explained consistently by the (bulk) inverse magnetostriction model, except for the film on NGO (112)o .

  8. Testing "Compatibility Testing."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robins, Elliot; Huston, Ted L.

    Most models of marital choice are attempts to explain choices within the field of available eligibles. The essence of compatibility testing is that people select their mates by evaluating the match between psychological characteristics after sorting the available field on the basis of social characteristics. A compatibility model seems to require…

  9. Test plan :

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dwyer, Stephen F.

    2013-05-01

    This test plan is a document that provides a systematic approach to the planned testing of rooftop structures to determine their actual load carrying capacity. This document identifies typical tests to be performed, the responsible parties for testing, the general feature of the tests, the testing approach, test deliverables, testing schedule, monitoring requirements, and environmental and safety compliance.

  10. Analysis of the multistage cyclic loading test on resilient modulus value64

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sas Wojciech

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Analysis of the multistage cyclic loading test on resilient modulus value. Upon cyclic excitation of soil mass, two types of strain can be recognized, namely elastic and plastic one. Proper analysis of these two types of deformations can help engineers in designing more reliable structures. In this study, a multistage uniaxial cyclic loading in unconfined conditions was performed. Tests were performed in order to characterize strain response to repeated excitation. Soil sample under cyclic loading was recognized as exhibiting the symptoms of a plastic strain growth during the cyclic loading process with exponential manner, when compared to number of cycles. Soil in this study was reconstituted and compacted by using the Proctor method to simulate conditions similar to those affecting the road subbase. The soil was recognized as sandy clay. Results were analysed and a proposition of empirical formula for plastic strain calculation with the use of characteristic stress values was presented. The resilient modulus values were also calculated. The Mr value was within range from 45 to 105 MPa. The conclusions concerning the cyclically loaded soil in uniaxial conditions were presented.

  11. Creep lifing methodologies applied to a single crystal superalloy by use of small scale test techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeffs, S.P., E-mail: s.p.jeffs@swansea.ac.uk [Institute of Structural Materials, Swansea University, Singleton Park SA2 8PP (United Kingdom); Lancaster, R.J. [Institute of Structural Materials, Swansea University, Singleton Park SA2 8PP (United Kingdom); Garcia, T.E. [IUTA (University Institute of Industrial Technology of Asturias), University of Oviedo, Edificio Departamental Oeste 7.1.17, Campus Universitario, 33203 Gijón (Spain)

    2015-06-11

    In recent years, advances in creep data interpretation have been achieved either by modified Monkman–Grant relationships or through the more contemporary Wilshire equations, which offer the opportunity of predicting long term behaviour extrapolated from short term results. Long term lifing techniques prove extremely useful in creep dominated applications, such as in the power generation industry and in particular nuclear where large static loads are applied, equally a reduction in lead time for new alloy implementation within the industry is critical. The latter requirement brings about the utilisation of the small punch (SP) creep test, a widely recognised approach for obtaining useful mechanical property information from limited material volumes, as is typically the case with novel alloy development and for any in-situ mechanical testing that may be required. The ability to correlate SP creep results with uniaxial data is vital when considering the benefits of the technique. As such an equation has been developed, known as the k{sub SP} method, which has been proven to be an effective tool across several material systems. The current work now explores the application of the aforementioned empirical approaches to correlate small punch creep data obtained on a single crystal superalloy over a range of elevated temperatures. Finite element modelling through ABAQUS software based on the uniaxial creep data has also been implemented to characterise the SP deformation and help corroborate the experimental results.

  12. Pinworm test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oxyuriasis test; Enterobiasis test; Tape test ... diagnose this infection is to do a tape test. The best time to do this is in ... lay their eggs at night. Steps for the test are: Firmly press the sticky side of a ...

  13. Predictive Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... you want to learn. Search form Search Predictive testing You are here Home Testing & Services Testing for ... you make the decision. What Is Predictive Genetic Testing Predictive genetic testing searches for genetic changes, or ...

  14. Pharmacogenomic Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... you want to learn. Search form Search Pharmacogenomic testing You are here Home Testing & Services Testing for ... to fit your genetic makeup What Is Pharmacogenomic Testing? Pharmacogenomic testing is done before your healthcare provider ...

  15. Mono Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Heterophile Test Heterophile Antibody Test Monospot Formal Name Infectious Mononucleosis Rapid Test This article was last reviewed on ... Why Get Tested? To detect and help diagnose infectious mononucleosis (mono) When To Get Tested? When a person, ...

  16. Layer- and Direction-Specific Material Properties, Extreme Extensibility and Ultimate Material Strength of Human Abdominal Aorta and Aneurysm: A Uniaxial Extension Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teng, Zhongzhao; Feng, Jiaxuan; Zhang, Yongxue; Huang, Yuan; Sutcliffe, Michael P F; Brown, Adam J; Jing, Zaiping; Gillard, Jonathan H; Lu, Qingsheng

    2015-11-01

    Mechanical analysis has the potential to provide complementary information to aneurysm morphology in assessing its vulnerability. Reliable calculations require accurate material properties of individual aneurysmal components. Quantification of extreme extensibility and ultimate material strength of the tissue are important if rupture is to be modelled. Tissue pieces from 11 abdomen aortic aneurysm (AAA) from patients scheduled for elective surgery and from 8 normal aortic artery (NAA) from patients who scheduled for kidney/liver transplant were collected at surgery and banked in liquid nitrogen with the use of Cryoprotectant solution to minimize frozen damage. Prior to testing, specimen were thawed and longitudinal and circumferential tissue strips were cut from each piece and adventitia, media and thrombus if presented were isolated for the material test. The incremental Young's modulus of adventitia of NAA was direction-dependent at low stretch levels, but not the media. Both adventitia and media had a similar extreme extensibility in the circumferential direction, but the adventitia was much stronger. For aneurysmal tissues, no significant differences were found when the incremental moduli of adventitia, media or thrombus in both directions were compared. Adventitia and media from AAA had similar extreme extensibility and ultimate strength in both directions and thrombus was the weakest material. Adventitia and media from AAA were less extensible compared with those of NAA, but the ultimate strength remained similar. The material properties, including extreme extensibility and ultimate strength, of both healthy aortic and aneurysmal tissues were layer-dependent, but not direction-dependent.

  17. Evaluation of seepage failure resistance potential of dam foundation with simplified tests; Kan`i shiken ni yoru dam kiso jiban no shinto hakai teikosei no hyoka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamaguchi, Y.; Kawasaki, M. [Public Works Research Institute, Tsukuba (Japan); Ogawa, N. [Hokkaido Development Bureau, Hokkaido Development Agency, Sapporo (Japan); Nakamura, A. [Ministry of Construction, Tokyo (Japan). Hokuriku Regional Construction Bureau

    1997-08-10

    Because not a very few dam sites have been structured on a soft rock or gravel bed in Japan in recent years, the strength of the ground is too small as a foundation, hence evaluation is required on its seepage failure resistance potential at the dam design stage. Therefore, in order to discuss the evaluation on seepage failure resistance potential with simplified tests, three kinds of tests comprising a needle penetration test, a pick penetration test and a scour test were performed, as well as a uniaxial compression test and an indoor seepage failure test on 32 kinds of soils and soft rocks of Quarternary Pleistocene epoch. The following findings were obtained: high correlation with a correlation coefficient of about 0.8 was seen between the uniaxial compression strength `qu` whose correlation with the limiting hydraulic gradient `icr` being a parameter for the seepage failure resistance potential is relatively high, and the needle penetration gradient `NP` and the pick penetration gradient `PP`; and measurement values useful for the evaluation may be obtained in such a way that the condition of a ground bed requiring detailed discussions on the seepage fault resistance potential as a dam foundation ground may be set as qu {<=} 1, NP {<=} 2 and PP {<=} 4. 13 refs., 15 figs., 4 tabs.

  18. Influence of grain orientation on evolution of surface features in fatigued polycrystalline copper: a comparison of thermal and uniaxial mechanical fatigue results

    CERN Document Server

    Aicheler, M

    2010-01-01

    Surface state plays a major role in the crack nucleation process of pure metals in the High-Cycle-Fatigue (HCF) as well as in the Ultra-High-Cycle-Fatigue (UHCF) regime. Therefore, in studies dealing with HCF or UHCF, special attention is paid to the evolution of surface degradation during fatigue life. The accelerating structures of the future Compact Linear Collider (CLIC) under study at CERN will be submitted to a high number of thermal-mechanical fatigue cycles, arising from Radio Frequency (RF) induced eddy currents, causing local superficial cyclic heating. The number of cycles during the foreseen lifetime of CLIC reaches 2x10(11). Fatigue may limit the lifetime of CLIC structures. In order to assess the effects of superficial fatigue, specific tests are defined and performed on polycrystalline Oxygen Free Electronic (OFE) grade Copper, a candidate material for the structures. Surface degradation depends on the orientation of near-surface grains. Copper samples thermally fatigued in two different fatigu...

  19. Digital image correlation and infrared measurements to determine the influence of a uniaxial pre-strain on fatigue properties of a dual phase steel.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Calloch S.

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The high cycle fatigue (HCF is a major element for a great design of automotive parts. A wide part of the steel sheets for the automotive industry are stamped, sometimes deeply. During this operation, the steel is plastically strained in different directions, so that a good prediction of the fatigue behavior requires the determination of the fatigue properties of the pre-strained material. Nowadays, the evolution of HCF properties is often neglected, because of prohibitive time dedicated to traditional fatigue campaigns. To reduce the characterization time, self-heating measurements are used. This approach permits to identify the influence of homogeneous pre-strain on fatigue properties. The aim of this paper is to develop an original experimental test to identify this influence for a wide range of pre-strain with only one specimen. The study of a particular case of specimen with a constant gradient of pre-strain is presented. Digital image correlation is a way to determine the heterogeneity of the plastic pre-strain on the specimen and infrared measurements with a ”1D” approach allows the determination of the influence of a plastic pre-strain on the fatigue properties of the studied steel.

  20. Ham test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acid hemolysin test; Paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria - Ham test; PNH - Ham test ... BJ. In: Chernecky CC, Berger BJ, eds. Laboratory Tests and Diagnostic Procedures . 6th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier ...