WorldWideScience

Sample records for ec member states

  1. Authorization procedure for containers and modalities of transport of radioactive substances within the EC Member States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amaducci, S.

    1977-02-01

    In all EC Member States, the transport of radioactive substances, the activity of which is higher than a specific level, is subject to regulatory requirements. Most of these requirements demand an administrative authorization before starting transport. In Belgium, authorization may take the form of a general, particular or special authorization, and in Luxembourg of a general or particular authorization. The latter applies in France and Italy but in these countries specific provisions also exist depending on the means of transport used. The latter specific provisions also exist in Germany and in the Netherlands. On the contrary in the United Kingdom, no administrative authorization is needed for such transport, except for special consignments. Finally, it is to be noted that neither in Denmark nor in Ireland have regulatory requirements been laid down with respect to such authorization procedure

  2. Present status of practical aspects of individual dosimetry. Pt. 1. EC Member States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goeksu, H.Y.; Regulla, D.; Drexler, G.

    1995-01-01

    The study reviews the present status of radiation protection practices of occupationally exposed persons in the Member States of the European Communities by taking account of the new legislative changes. A special emphasis is given to identify and describe the difference in procedures and methods of personnel monitoring, dose assessment, record keeping and collective dose assessment in each country. (orig./HP)

  3. Authorization procedure for the construction and operation of nuclear installations within the EC Member States, including supervision and control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amaducci, Sandro; Didier, J.M.

    1978-01-01

    This report is an updating of the report EUR 5284, Authorization procedure for the construction and operation of nuclear installations within the EEC Member States, prepared in 1974 by J.M. Didier and Associates. Recent developments regarding the authorization procedure for the construction and operation of nuclear installations have taken place in Italy (introduction of a site approval procedure) and in Denmark (adoption of an overall legislation on the subject, however not yet in force). With respect to supervision and control of nuclear installations during construction and operation, competences of, as well as their exercise by, supervisory authorities in all EC Member States, with the exception of Ireland, are also analysed in the current study

  4. EC Study: Radioactive waste and spent fuel data collection, reporting, record keeping and knowledge transfer by EU Member States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hilden, Wolfgang; )

    2012-01-01

    is also an issue. Responsibilities have to be defined as to waste data generation and recording, updating, preservation and reporting. As good practice with regard to the question of how to preserve RK and M (cf. Vision Document), the study recommends establishing one comprehensive national database, keeping the data of all waste packages, from all waste producers and all locations. It is recommended for data collection and storage to use methods building on formalization, preferably using a standardized software tool. Databases should be used with on-line or even automated input. Searchability, accessibility, flexibility and preservation are aspects to be considered when designing the system. Data should be evaluated at regular intervals as function of time and technical developments. For the long-term preservation of data, database backup techniques should be used. This should include backup servers, regular integrity check of backup copies, long-lasting backup media, separate sets of paper copies, regular transfer of waste data into national archives as well as geographical redundancy and use of dedicated electronic archives. The feasibility of a single, comprehensive national database was questioned, given the dynamism of the software industry. With regard to reporting, lessons can be learned from the IEAE guidelines. On the other hand, substantial differences were found between reports to the EU and to the IAEA. RK and M forms an important part of the new Council Directive on the management of SF and RW, (which asks member states to set up a national framework - to set up national programs (a project planning, including post closure) - and to make an inventory). The Commission therefore intends to turn the study Commission Recommendation by the end of 2013

  5. The 'deep' independent system operator. A new sophisticated institutional design for system operators in the 3rd energy package of September 2007 in comparison to the Proposal of the 8 EC-Member States for a Directive of the EP and the Council amending Directive 2003/54/EC concerning common rules for the internal market in electricity and repealing Directive 96/92/EC. A German perspective on implementing an effective and efficient unbundling of Transmission System Operator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saecker, F.J.

    2008-01-01

    The ownership unbundling-model and the 'deep' ISO-model (ISO stands for Independent System Operator) are not compatible with the EC-Treaty, if they were realized against the interest of the shareholder's assembly. The proposal of the eight EC member states for an effective and efficient unbundling avoids the constitutional problems and strengthens the independence of transmission system operators

  6. Electricity imports from outside the Community in the EC Internal Market in electricity. Commercial policy of the EC, a subject matter of the EU internal electricity market Directive, or within national law-making competence of the EU member states?; Stromimporte aus Drittstaaten im EG-Binnenmarkt fuer Energie. Handelspolitik der EG, Gegenstand der Binnenmarkt-Richtlinien oder eigene Regelungszustaendigkeit der Mitgliedstaaten?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gundel, J. [Freie Univ. Berlin (Germany). Inst. fuer Voelkerrecht, Euoparecht und Auslaendisches Oeffentliches Recht

    2000-07-01

    The author analyses in great depth the applicable laws and regulations as well as the Treaty of Rome in connection with the question of whether the implementation of the EU IEM Directive and the deregulation of electricity markets of EU member states really weakened the legal position of EC member states vis a vis non-member states to the extent that Community members have no means to defend themselves against dumping practices of electricity traders from outside the Community. The concluding statement of the legal analysis is that the EC member states do have the right to use the legal provisions governing competitive electricity trade inside the Community as well in dealing with traders from outside the Community. (orig./CB) [German] Der Beitrag untersucht die Frage, ob die Herstellung des Binnenmarkts fuer Elektrizitaet tatsaechlich dazu gefuehrt hat, dass Importeure aus Drittstaaten von den Mitgliedstaaten der Gemeinschaft in keiner Weise mehr beschraenkt werden koennen. Eine genauere Untersuchung der einschlaegigen Bestimmungen des EGV und des Sekundaerrechts ergibt ein differenziertes Bild; in jedem Fall sind die Mitgliedstaaten berechtigt, Beschraenkungen, die die Binnenmarkt-Richtlinien im Verhaeltnis zwischen den Mitgliedstaaten zulassen, auch im Verhaeltnis zu Drittstaaten anzuwenden. (orig./CB)

  7. Gas supplies from EC member states to customers in the Federal Republic of Germany; Gaslieferungen aus EG-Mitgliedstaaten an Abnehmer in der Bundesrepublik

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lukes, R. [Forschungsstelle Recht und Technik, Muenchen (Germany)

    2000-12-01

    After implementation of the EU Internal Gas Market Directive in Germany, marketers from EU member states are increasingly interested in entering the German natural gas market. In addition to the legal and competition aspects arising analogous to the internal market in electrity, as e.g. third party access to pipelines, management of physical transactions and use-of-pipeline pricing, natural gas trading of suppliers from EU member states in the German market has to be reviewed also from the angle of section 3 of the EnWG (German act for reform of the energy industry law), in which provisions are set forth governing and defining the case of energy supply to third parties, marketers being obliged to apply for a licence. The legal requirements and the various aspects to be considered are explained in detail. (Orig./CB) [German] Nach Ablauf der Umsetzungsfrist der Gas-Binnenmarktrichtlinie interessieren sich nunmehr auch GVU aus anderen Mitgliedstaaten fuer Gaslieferungen an Abnehmer in der Bundesrepublik. Allerdings tritt neben den beim Strom schon haeufig eroerterten Problemen von Netzzugang, Leitungskapazitaet, Nutzungsentgelt usw. die Frage auf, ob Gasversorgungsunternehmen (GVU) aus anderen Mitgliedstaaten bei Gaslieferungen an Abnehmer in der Bundesrepublik eine Energieversorgung anderer aufnehmen und deshalb der behoerdlichen Genehmigung nach Paragraph 3 EnWG beduerfen. Die Rechtslage wird analysiert. (orig./CB)

  8. DUBNA: Member States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    The political upheaval in what was the Soviet Union was reflected in an Extraordinary Plenipotentiaries Committee of Joint Institute for Nuclear Research (JINR) Member States, held in Dubna, near Moscow, on 10-13 December, with representatives of eleven sovereign republics of the former Soviet State taking part

  9. EC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports on what is being called the Single Europe, a natural evolution to its ultimate of what was once known as simply the European Common Market. So comprehensive is its scope that it will ultimately affect the design of appliances, the siting of tanks, the design of tank trucks, and the creation of harmonized safety rules across the spectrum of the 12-nation membership. Admittedly, the LPG industry is one of the smaller commercial entities in what is now called the European Community, but its members will share in the impact of the revolution that will be felt throughout the economic and social fabric of the member countries

  10. RWMC support to member countries and relationship with the IAEA, EC and other organisations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    This documents provides information on how the work of the NEA/RWMC supports the needs of NEA member countries and how it differs from, and complements, the related work of the IAEA and EC. In particular, the document reviews the respective roles and specificities of these organisations and their modus operandi, including co-operation and co-ordination mechanisms. (authors)

  11. Power reactors in member states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-01-01

    This is the first issue of a periodical computer-based listing of civilian nuclear power reactors in the Member States of the IAEA, presenting the situation as of 1 April 1975. It is intended as a replacement for the Agency's previous annual publication of ''Power and Research Reactors in Member States''. In the new format, the listing contains more information about power reactors in operation, under construction, planned and shut down. As far as possible all the basic design data relating to reactors in operation have been included. In future these data will be included also for other power reactors, so that the publication will serve to give a clear picture of the technical progress achieved. Test and research reactors and critical facilities are no longer listed. Of interest to nuclear power planners, nuclear system designers, nuclear plant operators and interested professional engineers and scientists

  12. Materials Delivered by Member States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1962-01-01

    The information given in this document is divided into two parts. In part I the Director General is reporting to the Members of the Agency, under Article IX. G of the Statute, the quantities of materials delivered up to 30 September 1962 by Member States in compliance with requests the Agency has made under Article IX. D. Part II contains information about materials which have not yet been delivered but which have been allocated, in accordance with Article XI. F. 1 of the Statute, to approved Agency projects for which project agreements were in force on 30 September 1962. Reports on subsequent deliveries of materials and revised information about allocated but undelivered materials will be issued from time to time

  13. Materials Delivered by Member States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1969-01-01

    In this document the Director General is reporting to the Members of the Agency, under Article IX. G of the Statute, the quantities of materials delivered by Members up to 30 June 1969 in compliance with requests the Agency had made under Article IX. D

  14. Materials Delivered by Member States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-01-01

    In this document the Director General is reporting to the Members of the Agency, under Article IX. G of the Statute, the quantities of materials which Members had delivered up to 30 June 1975, in compliance with requests the Agency had made under Article IX. D

  15. Materials Delivered by Member States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1974-01-01

    In this document the Director General is reporting to the Members of the Agency, under Article IX. G of the Statute, the quantities of materials which Members had delivered up to 31 March 1974, in compliance with requests the Agency had made under Article IX. D

  16. Materials Delivered by Member States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1971-01-01

    In this document the Director General is reporting to the Members of the Agency, under Article IX. G of the Statute, the quantities of materials which Members had delivered up to the end of 1970, in compliance with requests the Agency had made under Article IX. D

  17. Materials Delivered by Member States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1973-01-01

    In this document the Director General is reporting to the Members of the Agency, under Article IX. G of the Statute, the quantities of materials which Members had delivered up to the end of 1972, in compliance with requests the Agency had made under Article IX. D

  18. Materials Delivered by Member States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1972-01-01

    In this document the Director General is reporting to the Members of the Agency, under Article IX. G of the Statute, the quantities of materials which Members had delivered up to the end of 1971, in compliance with requests the Agency had made under Article IX. D

  19. The legal situation relating to the reprocessing in other EC member countries of spent fuel from German nuclear power stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haedrich, H.

    1993-01-01

    The author states that reprocessing can continue, showing by his analysis that discontinuing the reprocessing of spent fuel from Germany in installations in France or Great Britain would mean a breach of - prior-ranking - Euratom law, which offers equally efficient protection of public security and public health and safety in accordance with the internationally defined and accepted state of the art in science and technology. In addition, such a decision would mean an infringement of the basic principles of the free market economy as laid down by the Euratom treaty and by the EC treaty, as there are no facts or conditions allowing application of the exemption provision given by the EC treaty. (orig./HP) [de

  20. Materials Delivered by Member States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1966-01-01

    The information given in this document is divided into two parts. In part I the Director General is reporting to the Members of the Agency, under Article IX. G of the Statute, the quantities of materials delivered by Members up to 31 December 1965 in compliance with requests the Agency had made under Article IX. D. Part III contains information about materials which had not been delivered by 31 December but which had been allocated, in accordance with Article XI. F. 1 of the Statute, to approved Agency projects for which project arrangements were in force on that date

  1. Materials Delivered by Member States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1965-01-01

    The information given in this document is divided into two parts. In part I the Director General is reporting to the Members of the Agency, under Article IX. G of the Statute, the quantities of materials delivered by Members up to 31 December 1964 in compliance with requests the Agency had made under Article IX. D. Part II contains information about materials which had not been delivered by 31 December but which had been allocated, in accordance with Article XI. F. 1 of the Statute, to approved Agency projects for which project arrangements were in force on that date

  2. Materials Delivered by Member States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1968-01-01

    The information given in this document is divided into two parts. In part I the Director General is reporting to the Members of the Agency, under Article IX. G of the Statute, the quantities of materials delivered by Members up to 30 June 1968 in compliance with requests the Agency had made under Article IX,D. Part II contains information about materials which had not been delivered by 30 June 1968 but which had been allocated, in accordance with Article XI.F.I of the Statute, to approved Agency projects for which project arrangements were in force on that date

  3. Israel, CERN’s new Member State

    CERN Multimedia

    Brice, Maximilien

    2014-01-01

    On Wednesday, 15 January 2014, the official Israeli Flag-raising Ceremony took place to mark the accession of Israel to Membership of CERN, bringing the Organization’s number of Member States to 21.

  4. Migration processes in SCO member states

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina Sergeevna Antonyuk

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The article concerns modern state and development of migration processes in SCO member states. As a main method of research statistical analysis was applied. The article shows that migration streams between SCO member states are rather intensive, and the problem of labor migration becomes more and more urgent. The countries of consuming and supplying of labour force are clearly differentiated in the region. For some countries, labor export is the key sector of economy. At the same time, interstate relations between SCO member states sometimes are rather disputed. The most urgent factors causing the development of migration processes in the region were determined. Among them, thefactor of growing outflows from China isespecially noted. It is noted that migration processes are discussed by SCO member states nowadays in terms of illegal migration and international criminality connected with it. It means that the question of labor migration is a real problem. It is indicated that the creation of a specific joint commission on migration policy affiliated with the Council of Foreign Ministers of SCO member states is the necessary condition of effective interaction in migration questions within the framework of Shanghai Cooperation Organization.

  5. Members of the State Council of Geneva

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2002-01-01

    Luncheon hosted by the Director-General for members of the State Council of Geneva: From left to right A. Naudi; J. May; M. Carlo Lamprecht, State Council - Employement, Foreign Office and Economic Departement; M. Robert Hensler, State Chancellor; L. Maiani, CERN Director General; H.F. Hoffmann; M. Robert Cramer, State Council - Environment, Agriculture and Interior Departement; J.Van Der Boon; M. Laurent Moutinot, State Council - Installation, equipment and housing Departement; C. Détraz; C. Wyss; P. Jenni; G. Hentsch; M. Pierre-François Unger, State Council - Health and Social Action Departement; G. Stassinakis; M. Bourquin, CERN Council President.

  6. Israel, CERN’s new Member State

    CERN Multimedia

    Anaïs Schaeffer

    2014-01-01

    On Wednesday, 15 January 2014, the official Israeli Flag-raising Ceremony took place to mark the accession of Israel to Membership of CERN, bringing the Organization’s number of Member States to 21.     For more information, click here.

  7. Combating sexual orientation discrimination in employment: legislation in fifteen EU members states (France) : Report of the European Group of Experts on Combating sexual orientation discrimination about the implementation up to April 2004 of Directive 2000/78/EC establishing a general framework for equal treatement in employment and occupation

    OpenAIRE

    Borrillo , Daniel

    2004-01-01

    Report of the European Group of Experts on Combating sexual orientation discrimination about the implementation up to April 2004 of Directive 2000/78/EC establishing a general framework for equal treatement in employment and occupation; France was the first country in the world to discriminalize sodomy.....

  8. Member State Event: Telling CERN's Story

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    As part of the events to mark the Laboratory's fiftieth anniversary, members of the CERN personnel are telling the story of CERN. Robert Cailliau (on the right of the photograph), co-inventor of the Web and currently responsible for CERN's external communications, and Chiara Mariotti (in the center), a physicist working at CMS, were invited to talk about the history of CERN and the Web at a conference in the 'Science Thursdays' series entitled 'From the Quark to the Web' in Turin on 26 February. This was not their first appearance before a non-specialist audience (almost 1000 people that day!) eager to find out what goes on in a unique research centre like CERN as talking about the Laboratory's activities and its history are part and parcel of their work for the Organization. Anniversary Events in the Member States: This 'Science Thursday' event devoted to CERN was one of Italy's contributions to CERN's fiftieth anniversary celebrations. Coming up soon in the Member States: Italy International Centre...

  9. Transfer pricing rules in EU member states

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronika Solilová

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the important area of international taxes is transfer pricing. Transfer price is a price set by a taxpayer when selling to, buying from, or sharing resources with a related (associated person. The tran­sac­tions between these persons should be assessed at their arm’s length price in according the arm’s length principle – international accepted standard – as the price which would have been agreed between unrelated parties in free market conditions. This paper is focused on the tranfer pricing rules used in particular EU Member States so as if EU Member States apply the arm’s length principle, define the related persons, apply recommendations of the OECD Guidelines, use the transfer pricing methods, require TP Documentation, exercise specific transfer pricing audit or impose specific penalties and apply APAs. Transfer pricing rules should prevent taxpayers from shifting income to related person organized in tax havens or in countries where they enjoy some special tax benefit.

  10. EC-directive optical radiation - present state of consultation; EG-Richtlinie optische Strahlung - aktueller Beratungsstand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pipke, R. [Bundesanstalt fuer Arbeitschutz und Arbeitsmedizin, Dortmund (Germany)

    2004-07-01

    The draft of a directive on the protection of workers from risks related to radiation in the range from 100 nm to 1 mm (Laser, UV-radiation) is discussed on EC-level. The European concept of regulations on occupational safety and health is outlined and put into reference with other directives on the protection against physical agents (vibrations, noise, electromagnetic fields). Building up on this the present state of consultation of a directive on optical radiation is represented, including major points of consideration. (orig.)

  11. OSART Works to Help Member States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaiser, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Full text: Nuclear safety is a never ending pursuit for improvement, and one of the more prominent IAEA efforts that help Member States achieve higher levels of safety is the Operational Safety Review Team (OSART) programme. In OSART missions, the IAEA coordinates internationally-based teams of experts who conduct reviews of operational safety performance at nuclear power plants. The IAEA on 14 June 2013 marked the 30th anniversary of OSART. In 1983, the Agency conducted its first OSART mission to the Kori Nuclear Power Plant in the Republic of Korea, and it conducted a total of 174 OSART missions over the following 30 years. The reviews have been done in 34 nations at 103 nuclear sites. (author)

  12. Court of Justice of the European Communities ruling of September 22, 1988 - Rs 187/87: Radioactive effluents, EURATOM, Court of Justice of the EC - ruling concerning Art. 37 EURATOM Treaty (EAGV), nuclear power plants, member states - duties according to Art. 37 EAGV, radioactive effluents - approval of a plan of discharge according to Art. 37 EAGV, decision of the Commission concerning Art. 37 EAGV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1988-01-01

    Headnote: Article 37 of the treaty of March 25, 1957, establishing the European Atomic Energy Community (EURATOM) is to be interpreted as follows: General information regarding a plan for the discharge of radioactive material must be submitted to the Commission of the European Communities prior to the approval of such discharges by the authorities in charge in the respective member country. (orig./HP) [de

  13. DISTRIBUTION ASPECTS OF THE DIRECT PAYMENTS BETWEEN EU MEMBER STATES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gina FINTINERU

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available EC proposals concerning CAP reform for 2014-2020 try to cope both with the wide variety of agricultural systems and economic structures of the 27 EU MS but also with current global challenges that agriculture has to face: food security and poverty reduction, climate changes or biodiversity loss. This article aims to analyse the proposed measures consistency with the current situation of Romanian agriculture. Distribution aspects of the direct payments between Member States are concerned. The data are originated in FADN and Eurostat statistics, and a non parametric approach is used in order to better understand the correlation between the direct payments proposed for 2014 -2020 and some socio economic criteria.The paper provides a brief analysis of the existing research concerning the distributional aspects (studies and statistics and contributes to the debate by examining if the proposed redistribution is a consistent and coherent answer to the future challenges the agriculture has to meet in the future and to the targeted equity criteria.

  14. Member states buoy up beleagured EMBL

    CERN Multimedia

    Balter, M

    1999-01-01

    EMBL's governing council, made up of delegates from the lab's 16 member countries, agreed in principle to meet the costs of a multimillion-dollar pay claim, the result of a recent ruling by the ILO in Geneva (1 page).

  15. Medical research in emergency research in the European Union member states: tensions between theory and practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kompanje, Erwin J O; Maas, Andrew I R; Menon, David K; Kesecioglu, Jozef

    2014-04-01

    In almost all of the European Union member states, prior consent by a legal representative is used as a substitute for informed patient consent for non-urgent medical research. Deferred (patient and/or proxy) consent is accepted as a substitute in acute emergency research in approximately half of the member states. In 12 European Union member states emergency research is not mentioned in national law. Medical research in the European Union is covered by the Clinical Trial Directive 2001/20/EC. A proposal for a regulation by the European Commission is currently being examined by the European Parliament and the Council and will replace Directive 2001/20/EC. Deferred patient and/or proxy consent is allowed in the proposed regulation, but does not fit completely in the practice of emergency research. For example, deferred consent is only possible when legal representatives are not available. This criterion will delay inclusion of patients in acute life-threatening conditions in short time frames. As the regulation shall be binding in its entirety in all member states, emergency research in acute situations is still not possible as it should be.

  16. Geographic Data as Personal Data in Four EU Member States

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Jong, A. J.; van Loenen, B.; Zevenbergen, J. A.

    2016-06-01

    The EU Directive 95/46/EC on the protection of individuals with regard to the processing of personal data and on the free movement of such data aims at harmonising data protection legislation in the European Union. This should promote the free flow of products and services within the EU. This research found a wide variety of interpretations of the application of data protection legislation to geographic data. The variety was found among the different EU Member States, the different stakeholders and the different types of geographic data. In the Netherlands, the Data Protection Authority (DPA) states that panoramic images of streets are considered personal data. While Dutch case law judges that the data protection legislation does not apply if certain features are blurred and no link to an address is provided. The topographic datasets studied in the case studies do not contain personal data, according to the Dutch DPA, while the German DPA and the Belgian DPA judge that topographic maps of a large scale can contain personal data, and impose conditions on the processing of topographic maps. The UK DPA does consider this data outside of the scope of legal definition of personal data. The patchwork of differences in data protection legislation can be harmonised by using a traffic light model. This model focuses on the context in which the processing of the data takes place and has four categories of data: (1) sensitive personal data, (2) personal data, (3), data that can possibly lead to identification, and (4) non-personal data. For some geographic data, for example factual data that does not reveal sensitive information about a person, can be categorised in the third category giving room to opening up data under the INSPIRE Directive.

  17. Member State Event: Telling CERN's story !

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    As part of the events to mark the Laboratory's fiftieth anniversary, members of the CERN personnel are telling the story of CERN. Robert Cailliau (on the right), currently responsible for CERN's external communications, and Chiara Mariotti (in the center), a physicist working at CMS, were invited to talk about the history of CERN and the Web at a conference in the 'Science Thursdays' series entitled 'From the Quark to the Web' in Turin on 26 February.

  18. Periodic safety re-evaluations in NPPs in EC member states, Finland and Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    The work on periodic safety re-evaluations summarized in this report was performed by a Task Force of the CEC Working Group on the Safety of Thermal Reactors. The periodic safety re-evaluations under review in this study were those that are carried out in addition to other reviews which represent the primary means of safety assurance. The periodic safety re-evaluation is broader and more comprehensive in nature. The cumulative effects of experience (national and international), advances in knowledge and analysis techniques, improvements in safety standards and operating practices, overall effects of plant ageing, and the totality of all modifications over the period in question need to be taken into account. All countries have recognized the value of such periodic reviews, and licensees, either as a regulatory requirement or as a voluntary action, are carrying them out. The scope and contents of each country's review showed many similarities of approach, any differences being explained by the age and type of reactor in operation. Many similarities emerged in the topics selected for re-evaluation and in the approach to re-evaluation itself. The overall conclusion was that while approaches may differ in some respects, for practical purposes comparable levels of safety are achieved in the periodic safety re-evaluation of nuclear power plants

  19. Scientific collaboration between 'old' and 'new' member states

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Makkonen, Teemu; Mitze, Timo Friedel

    2016-01-01

    following the two enlargement waves 2004 and 2007 has significantly increased the co-publication intensity of the new member states with other member countries. The empirical results based on data collected from the Web of Science database and Difference-in-Difference estimations point towards a conclusion...... that joining the EU indeed has had an additional positive impact on the co-publication intensity between the new and old member states and, in particular, between the new member states themselves. These results give tentative support for the successfulness of the EU’s science policies in achieving a common...

  20. Space strategy and governance of ESA small member states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagath, Daniel; Papadimitriou, Angeliki; Adriaensen, Maarten; Giannopapa, Christina

    2018-01-01

    The European Space Agency (ESA) has twenty-two Member States with a variety of governance structures and strategic priorities regarding their space activities. The objective of this paper is to provide an up-to date overview and a holistic assessment of the national space governance structures and strategic priorities of the eleven smaller Member States (based on annual ESA contributions). A link is made between the governance structure and the main strategic objectives. The specific needs and interests of small and new Member States in the frame of European Space Integration are addressed. The first part of the paper focuses on the national space governance structures in the eleven smaller ESA Member States. The governance models of these Member States are identified including the responsible ministries and the entities entrusted with the implementation of space strategy/policy and programmes of the country. The second part of this paper focuses on the content and analysis of the national space strategies and indicates the main priorities and trends in the eleven smaller ESA Member States. The priorities are categorised with regards to technology domains, the role of space in the areas of sustainability and the motivators for space investments. In a third and final part, attention is given to the specific needs and interests of the smaller Member States in the frame of European space integration. ESA instruments are tailored to facilitate the needs and interests of the eleven smaller and/or new Member States.

  1. Analysis of Member State RED implementation. Final Report (Task 2)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peters, D.; Alberici, S.; Toop, G. [Ecofys, Utrecht (Netherlands); Kretschmer, B. [Institute for European Environmental Policy IEEP, London (United Kingdom)

    2012-12-15

    This report describes the way EU Member States have transposed the sustainability and chain of custody requirements for biofuels as laid down in the Renewable Energy Directive (RED) and Fuel Quality Directive (FQD). In the assessment of Member States' implementation, the report mainly focuses on effectiveness and administrative burden. Have Member States transposed the Directives in such a way that compliance with the sustainability criteria can be ensured as effectively as possible? To what extent does the Member States' implementation lead to unnecessary administrative burden for economic operators in the (bio)fuel supply chain? The report focuses specifically on the transposition of the sustainability and chain of custody requirements, not on the target for renewables on transport. This means that for example the double counting provision is not included as part of the scope of this report. This report starts with an introduction covering the implementation of the Renewable Energy (and Fuel Quality) Directive into national legislation, the methodology by which Member States were assessed against effectiveness and administrative burden and the categorisation of Member State's national systems for RED-implementation (Chapter 1). The report continues with a high level description of each Member State system assessed (Chapter 2). Following this, the report includes analysis of the Member States on the effectiveness and administrative burden of a number of key ('major') measures (Chapter 3). The final chapter presents the conclusions and recommendations (Chapter 4)

  2. The Foreign Policies of European Union Member States

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foreign Policies of EU Member States provides a clear and current overview of the motivations and outcomes of EU Member States regarding their foreign policy-making within and beyond the EU. It provides an in-depth analysis of intra-EU policy-making and sheds light, in an innovative and understan......Foreign Policies of EU Member States provides a clear and current overview of the motivations and outcomes of EU Member States regarding their foreign policy-making within and beyond the EU. It provides an in-depth analysis of intra-EU policy-making and sheds light, in an innovative...... prerogative exercised by all EU Member States is to construct their own foreign policies on everything from trade and defence with the rest of the world. This combination of clarity, thematic structure and empirical case studies make this an ideal textbook for all upper-level students of European foreign...

  3. EC tells Bonn let in UK coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-06-23

    The European Commission has told the German federal government to open the door for coal imports from other EC member countries. As an initial step, the Commission is suggesting that some of the power station coal which was to be sourced from German stockpiles under the November 1991 agreement between Rurhkohle AG, the state mining company and the generators, be supplied by other member states such as the UK. The implications of this move for the German coal industry are discussed. 2 tabs.

  4. Inflation persistence: is it similar in the new EU member states and the euro area members?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Franta, Michal; Saxa, Branislav; Šmídková, K.

    -, 25/2008 (2008), s. 1-35 Grant - others:Česká národní banka(CZ) B4/2003 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70850503 Keywords : inflation persistence * new EU member states * new hybrid Phillips curve Subject RIV: AH - Economics http://ies.fsv.cuni.cz/default/file/download/id/9070

  5. Inflation persistence in new EU member states: is it different than in the euro area members?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Franta, Michal; Saxa, Branislav; Šmídková, Kateřina

    -, č. 10 (2007), s. 1-37 ISSN 1803-2397 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70850503 Keywords : inflation persistence * new hybrid Phillips curve * new EU member states Subject RIV: AH - Economics http://www.cnb.cz/m2export/sites/www.cnb.cz/en/research/research_publications/cnb_wp/download/cnbwp_2007_10.pdf

  6. Computer Programme Library at Ispra: Service to IAEA Member States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1974-01-01

    In 1964, in view of the increasingly important role of computers in atomic energy, the Nuclear Energy Agency of the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development established a Computer Programme Library (CPL) at Ispra, Italy. The original purpose of this Library, then consisting chiefly of programmes for reactor calculations, was to improve communication between the originators of the computer programmes and the scientists and engineers in Member States of the OECD who used them, thus furthering the efficient and economic use of the many large and expensive computers in the countries concerned. During the first few years of the Library's operation, a growing interest in its activities became evident in countries which were not members of the OECD. The Director General of the International Atomic Energy Agency, aware that such countries which were Member States of the IAEA could benefit from the Library's services, concluded an agreement with the Nuclear Energy Agency in 1967 to the effect that these services would be extended to all IAEA Member States. In March 1968, the Director General announced by circular letter that these services were available, and requested the governments of Member States that were not members of OECD to nominate establishments to participate in the activities of the Computer Programme Library. By August 1973, 32 such establishments were regularly using the services of the CPL

  7. STATE REGULATION OF FRANCHISING IN THE EU MEMBER COUNTRIES

    OpenAIRE

    Solomiya Ohinok

    2015-01-01

    In despite of extensive research of franchising in the scientific community, there are a lot of unresolved issues relating to franchising, in particular its regulation at the national level and at the level of the European Union that is why the purpose of the paper is to summarise and present the difference between state regulation of franchising in the EU member states and to research the basic principles of state regulation of franchising in the EU also to analyze legislation of the franchi...

  8. Contribution of the Member State Support Programmes to IAEA safeguards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fortakov, V.; Gardiner, D.; Rautjaervi, J.

    1999-01-01

    Over the last twenty years, Member States of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) have provided invaluable technical support to IAEA Safeguards. This support has covered practically all aspects of traditional safeguards activities and also those activities recently proposed and introduced for strengthening the safeguards system. As of August 1997, there were fourteen Member States, plus EURATOM, with active programmes in support of IAEA safeguards and the activities conducted under these Member State Support Programmes (MSSPs) are currently valued at an annual twenty million dollars of extra-budgetary contribution to the IAEA. The overall administration in the IAEA of the support programmes is the responsibility of Support Programmes Administration (SPA) in the Safeguards Division of Technical Services. This paper describes the roles and the contributions of the MSSPs, the functions of the MSSP administration activities, and the vital importance the IAEA attaches to the MSSPs. (author)

  9. INDIRECT TAXATION TRENDS IN THE EUROPEAN UNION MEMBER STATES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARIUS CRISTIAN MILOŞ

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to outline the recent dynamics of the indirect taxation in the European Union member states, with a special focus on the Romanian case. We could notice that indirect taxation continues to play an important role for all the member states, in their attempt to recover from the global economic crisis. Morover, we have presented some of the recent changes in the legislative frameworks, which happened with a rather rapid pace, and contributed to a rather challenging business climate.

  10. Assessment Opt-Out Policies: State Responses to Parent Pushback. ECS Education Trends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aragon, Stephanie; Rowland, Julie; Wixom, Micah Ann

    2015-01-01

    With new state assessments kicking into full swing across the country, schools are seeing more and more parents wanting to opt out their children. Determining whether states allow assessment opt-outs can be complex and is constantly evolving. In some states the answer is clear: State policies either allow or prohibit state assessment opt-outs, or…

  11. When the grace period is over: Assessing the new Member States' compliance with EU requirements for oil stockholding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tosun, Jale

    2011-01-01

    The accumulation of appropriate emergency stocks of crude oil and petroleum products has been at the heart of the European Commission's efforts to increase the security of supply. This study investigates how effectively the 'new' Member States comply with the requirements of Council Directive 2006/67/EC, which imposes the obligation to maintain minimum stocks of crude oil and/or petroleum products. The empirical focus of this analysis is not only motivated by the practical relevance of this issue, but also by the fact that eleven of the twelve new Member States were given grace periods between one and seven years to bring their national stockholding arrangements in line with the European requirements. The granting of extended deadlines raises the question whether this instrument indeed facilitates the transposition process. The empirical findings show that except for Latvia, compliance with the EU stockholding requirements is generally very good. A more detailed analysis of the Latvian case highlights that the transposition delays principally stem from budgetary constraints. More generally, the individual new Member States' capacity to cope with the financial burdens and the degree of adjustment pressure determine the variation in oil stock levels. - Highlights: → Compliance with Council Directive 2006/67/EC is generally very good in the new Member States. → Solely Latvia faces difficulties in developing adequate oil stock levels. → Latvia's insufficient compliance can be attributed to severe budgetary constraints. → Financial capacity and adjustment pressure determine cross-country variation in stock levels.

  12. Party financing and referendum campaigns in EU member states

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Klingeren, M.; Orozco, M.; van Spanje, J.; de Vreese, C.

    2015-01-01

    This study has been prepared by the Amsterdam School of Communication Research (ASCoR), part of the Faculty of Social and Behavioural Sciences, University of Amsterdam (UvA). It comprises 1) an up-to-date inventory of party finance rules within the EU Member States, 2) an overview of the regulations

  13. EU member states' voting for authorizing genetically engineered crops

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smart, Richard D.; Blum, Matthias; Wesseler, Justus

    2015-01-01

    Several authors suggest a gridlock of the European Union's (EU's) approval process for genetically engineered (GE) crops. We analyse the voting behaviour of EU Member States (MSs) for voting results from 2003 to 2015 on the approval of GE crops to test for a gridlock; no reliable data are

  14. Inflation persistence : euro area and new EU member states

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Franta, Michal; Saxa, Branislav; Šmídková, K.

    -, č. 810 (2007), s. 1-39 ISSN 1725-2806 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC542 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70850503 Keywords : inflation persistence * new EU member states * time varying mean Subject RIV: AH - Economics http://www.ecb.int/pub/pdf/scpwps/ecbwp810.pdf

  15. 76 FR 7623 - Department of State Performance Review Board Members

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-10

    ...: February 2, 2011. Nancy J. Powell, Director General of the Foreign Service and Director of Human Resources... following individuals to the Department of State Performance Review Board for Non-Career Senior Executive Service members: Jeanne-Marie Smith, Chairperson, Senior Advisor, Deputy Secretary for Management and...

  16. STATE REGULATION OF FRANCHISING IN THE EU MEMBER COUNTRIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solomiya Ohinok

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In despite of extensive research of franchising in the scientific community, there are a lot of unresolved issues relating to franchising, in particular its regulation at the national level and at the level of the European Union that is why the purpose of the paper is to summarise and present the difference between state regulation of franchising in the EU member states and to research the basic principles of state regulation of franchising in the EU also to analyze legislation of the franchise relationship. Methodology. The survey is based on a comparison of data from all EU member countries and analisis of the legal framework of each country in particular and in general EU legislation. The article is devoted to a detailed analysis of main features of the franchise business in Europe. The mechanism of implementation of franchise relations between EU member states are studied. Government regulation of franchising in the EU member states are investigated. The rate of growth of franchising in Europe are analized. Results. By comparing different state laws and regulations of franchising we have identified the most effective and productive. We divided counties into two groups due to their regulation of franchising: countries which do not have a special government regulation of franchising; the countries which have state regulation of franchising; countries which have government regulation of franchising and it is governed by EU law, countries in which regulation is carried out in accordance with EU law. Thus, results of the survey showed that government regulation of franchising, as well as its regulation at the level of EU institutions have a positive impact on the development of franchising relationships. Practical implications of the results of the paper will help to develop well known network of franchise bussiness without legislative interference. Value/originality. It is first time we have grouped countries due to the main aspects of state

  17. Building and Benefiting from Member State Laboratory Capacities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    The Department of Nuclear Sciences and Applications implement a number of activities that are designed to enhance and capitalize upon the capacities of Member States’ laboratories worldwide. The Nuclear Sciences and Applications (NA) laboratories strengthen Member States’ analytical capacities through activities such as proficiency tests and inter-laboratory comparisons, and share the capacities of Member States’ laboratories with other Member States through the coordination of relevant networks and participation in the IAEA Collaborating Centre scheme. An example of these activities is the collaborative work carried out by the Terrestrial Environment Laboratory (TEL). The TEL cooperates with the IAEA Environment Laboratories in Monaco to distribute 92 types of reference materials for characterizing radionuclides, stable isotopes, trace elements or organic contaminants. These materials serve as international standards for establishing and evaluating the reliability and accuracy of analytical measurements. This collaborative work between NA laboratories, Member States and laboratories around the globe contribute to the IAEA’s mandate of fostering scientific and technical exchanges for the peaceful use of nuclear science and technology throughout the world

  18. THE FISCAL PRESSURE IN THE EU MEMBER STATES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DOBROTĂ GABRIELA

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The development of an economy is determined in a significant proportion by the tax system structure, by how it exercises its functions and ensures the collection of state resources. A high tax efficiency, due to the acceptability of tax provisions are the ideal conditions of any tax system. In this context, it is obvious that most tax systems have undergone significant changes under the impact of the action of a complex system of factors. Increased need for resources in various countries was reflected in attempts to identify the relationship that allows both the securing of the necessary funds and their economic and social development. The quantification of the fiscal pressure on the EU member states show a wide range of tax rates. This paper makes a comparative analysis of the degree of taxation in the EU member states.

  19. Operating experience with nuclear power stations in Member States in 2002

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-11-01

    published elsewhere. To avoid confusion, reference should be made to the definitions given in Section 3. In Section 4 this report presents figures illustrating worldwide performance indicators up to 2001. According to the information available to the Agency at the end of 2001, there were 438 nuclear power reactors operating in the world, with a total net capacity of 353 GW(e). During 2001, two new reactors having a total capacity of 1748 MW(e) were connected to the grid in Japan and the Russian Federation. There were 32 nuclear power plants under construction in the world. The information contained in the report was made available to the Agency through designated national correspondents, the Statistical Office of the European Commission (EC) and the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and Department of Energy (DOE). According to an agreement on co-ordination and collaboration, the EC has the responsibility of collecting operating experience reports from nuclear reactor operators in EC Member States and supplying this information to the Agency. For information on reactors operating in the USA, the Agency receives on an annual basis, through an arrangement with the USDOE and NRC, the computer version of the Licensed Operating Reactor Status Summary Report. The Agency appreciates the valuable assistance that it has obtained from the USDOE, NRC, the EC, national authorities, official correspondents and various electrical utilities in gathering the information for this report. This publication includes information received by the Agency up to 30 June 2002. Information received after that date, although not included in this publication, is available in the PRIS database. The report was compiled by staff of the Agency's Division of Nuclear Power. It is hoped that it will be useful to nuclear power plant operators, nuclear system designers, nuclear power planners, interested professional engineers and scientists and others concerned with the operating experience with nuclear

  20. Effectiveness of the current method of calculating member states' contributions

    CERN Document Server

    2002-01-01

    At its Two-hundred and eighty-sixth Meeting of 19 September 2001, the Finance Committee requested the Management to re-assess the effectiveness of the current method of forecasting Net National Income (NNI) for the purposes of calculating the Member States' contributions by comparing the results of the current weighted average method with a method based on a simple arithmetic average. The Finance Committee is invited to take note of this information.

  1. FISCAL SOVEREIGNTY IN ROMANIA – EUROPEAN UNION MEMBER STATE

    OpenAIRE

    Lidia Daniela I. Roman

    2008-01-01

    The Romania`s adhesion to the European Union involves multiple transformations with a direct impact upon many fields, such as law`s field, especially economic, fiscal laws. Taxation system should be both efficient and equitableone of the important problem is sovereignty of state became member of one regional organization, his fiscal sovereignty, state’s atributes in this field. Who can decide fiscal policy, direct taxes or taxes upon consumption? Is it attended by this adhesion to the soverei...

  2. EU MEMBER STATES AND FISCAL DECENTRALIZATION– EMPIRICAL COMPARISON

    OpenAIRE

    Žan Oplotnik; Mateja Finžgar

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of an article is to compare systems of fiscal decentralization in EU member states according to selected quantitative criteria and European Charter of Local Self-Government principles. The results show that a higher number of lower levels of government usually indicate a greater share of local finance within the total public finance, however, this finding does not confirm the inverse link. Even though the structure of expenditures in EU countries is similar, the shares of funds fo...

  3. Status of nuclear desalination in IAEA member states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    Some of the IAEA Member States have active nuclear desalination programmes and, during the last few years, substantial overall progress has been made in this field. As part of the ongoing activities within the IAEA's nuclear power programme, it was thus decided to prepare a status report, which would briefly describe the recent nuclear seawater desalination related developments and relevant IAEA activities. This status report briefly covers salient aspects of the new generation reactors and a few innovative reactors being considered for desalination and other non-electrical applications, the recent advances in the commonly employed desalination processes and their coupling to nuclear reactors. A summary of techno-economic feasibility studies carried out in interested Member States has been presented and the potable water cost reduction strategies from nuclear desalination plants have been discussed. The socio-economic and environmental benefits of nuclear power driven desalination plants have been elaborated. It is expected that the concise information provided in this report would be useful to the decision makers in the Member States and would incite them to consider or to accelerate the deployment of nuclear desalination projects in their respective countries

  4. The Analysis of Flexicurity in the EU Members States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzana LAPORŠEK

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to present the characteristics of labor markets in the EU Member States in terms of design and implementation of policy components of flexicurity, as well as to examine the relationship between flexicurity and labor productivity. The estimates of the characteristics of labor market flexibility and security, and flexicurity models in the EU are based on the descriptive statistics and cluster analysis. The impact of flexicurity on labor productivity is assessed using principal component analysis and linear regression analysis. The results of empirical analysis point on the existence of considerable differences in labor market flexibility and security across EU Member States. The least successful at simultaneous implementation of flexibility and security are New Member States, showing rigid labor market regulation at very low security of employees. On the other hand, the most balanced flexicurity policies, thus ensuring high levels of flexibility and security, can be found among Scandinavian countries. The latter, together with United Kingdom and Ireland, also achieve the highest macroeconomic performance. The positive impact of flexicurity on macroeconomic performance was confirmed by linear regression analysis, which showed a positive relationship between indicators of security in the labor market and labor productivity.

  5. Fostering member state implementation of the IAEA's transport regulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brittinger, M.T.M.; Wangler, M.E.

    2004-01-01

    Based on a 1959 mandate from the United Nations Economic and Social Council, international safety requirements are embodied in the ''Regulations for the Safe Transport of Radioactive Material'' that were first published by the International Atomic Energy Agency in 1961 and revised in 1967, 1973, 1985 and 1996 to keep them abreast of scientific and technical developments. The requirements are incorporated into the regulatory documents of the International Civil Aviation Organization for air transport, and the International Maritime Organization for marine transport. As the requirements of the latter documents are legally-binding for the member states of the corresponding organizations, the IAEA safety requirements thus also become mandatory in those countries. The same situation applies for the surface modes in Europe, by means of the regulatory documents of the European Community for rail, road and inland waterways. Nevertheless, the IAEA has not relaxed its efforts to ensure that its Transport Regulations stay abreast of scientific and technical developments; on the contrary, it has been undertaking a regular and vigorous review of its safety requirements, and continues to do so with the assistance of Member States and relevant international organizations. Beyond providing the regulatory basis for the safe transport of radioactive material, however, the IAEA also offers a work programme under which it assists Member States in complying with the regulatory requirements. This assistance comes in the form of providing training on the safety requirements, and publishing documents that facilitate the exchange of information

  6. Assessment of non-cost barriers to renewable energy growth in EU Member States - AEON

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-05-15

    The accelerated deployment of renewable energy technologies has become a major priority for public policy makers across the globe. In the last two decades, most of the debate concerning the promotion of renewables was focused on the financial support schemes and on improving grid access conditions for renewable electricity. Of course, these are crucial issues which will continue to deserve serious attention in the future. However, during the last few years, the importance of tackling non-financial and non-technical barriers to renewable electricity, heat and transport has gained the attention of many policy analysts. In June 2009, Directive 2009/28/EC on the promotion of the use of energy from renewable sources, entered into force. The articles 13, 14 and 16 of the Directive contain a number of requirements for Member States to address or remove non-cost barriers to the increased deployment of renewable energy sources. This study presents among others an overview of these barriers in all EU Member States; their history, their impact on renewable energy deployment and suggestions for policy solutions, where feasible. Separate studies were carried out for 27 EU-countries and made available in a zip-file.

  7. Electronic Payments and Consumer Protection : Should Recommendation 97/489/EC Be Replaced with a Directive?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schudelaro, A.A.P.

    2001-01-01

    This article examines the question whether the EC Regulation concerning transactions carried out by electronic payment instruments should be replaced by a Directive that is binding on all member states of the EU.

  8. Indicators assessing the performance of renewable energy support policies in 27 Member States. D17 Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steinhilber, S.; Ragwitz, M. [Fraunhofer Institute for Systems and Innovation Research ISI, Karlsruhe (Germany); Rathmann, M.; Klessmann, C.; Noothout, P. [Ecofys, Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2011-10-15

    The core objective of the RE-Shaping project is to assist Member State governments in preparing for the implementation of Directive 2009/28/EC (on the promotion of the use of energy from renewable sources) and to guide a European policy for RES (renewable energy sources) in the mid- to long term. The past and present success of policies for renewable energies will be evaluated and recommendations derived to improve future RES support schemes. The core content of this collaborative research activity comprises: Developing a comprehensive policy background for RES support instruments; Providing the European Commission and Member States with scientifically based and statistically robust indicators to measure the success of currently implemented RES policies; Proposing innovative financing schemes for lower costs and better capital availability in RES financing; Initiation of National Policy Processes which attempt to stimulate debate and offer key stakeholders a meeting place to set and implement RES targets as well as options to improve the national policies fostering RES market penetration; Assessing options to coordinate or even gradually harmonize national RES policy approaches. It is the objective of this report to assess the performance of Member States in promoting renewable energy technologies (RET) that has been achieved during recent years. The report was originally published in late 2010 and has now been updated using the latest available data. The focus shall be on the following aspects: Monitoring the historic success of RET-support with quantitative indicators; Extension of existing Policy Effectiveness Indicator and economic indicators; New: Deployment Status Indicator and Electricity Market Preparedness indicator; followed by Conclusions and recommendations.

  9. GRAPHICAL ANALYSIS OF LAFFER'S THEORY FOR EUROPEAN UNION MEMBER STATES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LILIANA BUNESCU

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Most times the current situation of one or another country depends on the historical development of own tax system. A practical question of any governance is to determine the optimal taxation rate level, bringing to the state the highest tax revenues. A good place to start is with what is popularly known as the Laffer curve. This paper aims to determine in graphical terms the level where European economies ranks by using Laffer curve based on the data series provided by the European Commission and the World Bank. Graphical analysis of Laffer's theory can emphasize only the positioning on one or another side of point for maximum tax revenues, a position that can influence fiscal policy decisions. Conclusions at European Union level are simple. Value of taxation rate for fiscal optimal point varies from one Member State to another, from 48.9% in Denmark to 28% in Romania, with an average of 37.1% for the EU-27.

  10. Ongoing and planned fuel safety research in NEA member states - Compiled from SEGFSM Members' Contributions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-10-01

    This report is in response to an action placed on SEGFSM members to compile ongoing and planned fuel safety research in NEA member states with the aim of providing CSNI an overview on related R and D international programmes and projects, along with the identification of current and future needs and priorities. A questionnaire was distributed to SEGFSM members on 18 October 2000, requesting them to identify fuel safety research programmes and to provide information on achievements and future plans. The questionnaire required respondents to provide information on the ongoing R and D programmes under the following headings: Title; Research Laboratory/Sponsor(s); Objectives/Goals; Status of Work; Brief description/presentation of the main results achieved; Future plans; References. Replies were received from organizations in the following countries: Belgium, Canada, Czech Republic, France, Germany, Hungary, Japan, Korea, Norway (Halden Reactor Project), Sweden, Switzerland, United Kingdom, USA. The report is based on the information provided in the replies received, as a consequence it cannot be viewed as comprehensive; programmes may well be in progress in addition to those detailed here. It is also possible that the detailed results of some programmes may remain proprietary and therefore not available in the short term. The report is organized in topic sections relating to: fuel and clad studies, integral fuel rod tests and PIE, LOCA and RIA studies including whole rods and bundles as well as single effects studies of fuel and cladding, code development for both steady state and transient fuel behaviour, thermal hydraulics, reactor physics codes and finally severe accident studies. The main issues for the current generation of reactors are those of high burn-up performance in normal operations, LOCA and RIA conditions and the main goal for the industry is to consolidate the safety issues to bring all countries up to a licensed discharge burn-up of ∼60 MWd/kg in

  11. Rogue States as the Stigmatized Members of International Society

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gleb V. Kotsur

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available At the turn of the century, the rogue state concept has become an integral part of the theory of international relations. However, even contemporary approaches lack the appropriate academic tools to reach a comprehensive understanding of the international community’s role in determining the normative frameworks of the proper behavior of the states as the main actors of international system, leaving the relations between global community and the rogues almost an uncharted territory on the international stage. The article considers the category of rogue states as “excluded” members of the international community through the sociological lens of “stigma” (E. Goffman and “labelling theory” (H. Becker and E. Lemert. Engaging an empirical case of Iraqi foreign policy during and after the Gulf War 1991, the author demonstrates two thresholds of the labelling state as the rogue: public initiation of the offender and self-fulfilling prophecy. It is possible to define some specific features of the outsider’s behavior on the international stage: the high level of cooperation among the representatives of the same category, “unsustainable bravado” as the set of fluid and inconsistent actions of the rogue state in foreign policy, finally, the tendency toward obtaining the “secondary gains”. Contrariwise, global community tends to pay greater attention to rogue states and exercise some discrimination practices on the ground of their outcast position in the world normative structure with the category of “wise” actors, for example China, being an exception from the common mainstream and maintaining close cooperation ties with rogues.

  12. Geographic data as personal data in four EU member states

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, A.-J.; van Loenen, B.; Zevenbergen, J.A.; Halounova, L.; Li, S.; Safár, V.; Tomková, M.; Rapant, P.; Brázdil, K.; Shi, W.; Anton, F.; Liu, Y.; Stein, A.; Cheng, T.; Pettit, C.; Li, Q.-Q.; Sester, M.; Mostafavi, M.A.; Madden, M.; Tong, X.; Brovelli, M.A.; Haekyong, K.; Kawashima, H.; Coltekin, A.

    2016-01-01

    The EU Directive 95/46/EC on the protection of individuals with regard to the processing of personal data and on the free movement of such data aims at harmonising data protection legislation in the European Union. This should promote the free flow of products and services within the EU. This

  13. Thirteenth meeting of representatives of RCA Member States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-07-01

    The 13th Meeting of Member States of RCA (Regional Co-operative Agreement for Research, Development and Training Related to Nuclear Science and Technology) was held on 26 September 1984 in Vienna. This document constitutes the report of that meeting. It includes the list of participants, agenda, summary of discussions, and 1984 costing table. The Report of Recommendations for the meeting consisted of the Summary Report of the Sixth RCA Working Group Meeting held in Kalpakkam, India, 20-23 March 1984. This Summary Report dealt with such topics as RCA research projects (including nuclear techniques to improve legume and buffalo production, radiosterilization of medical supplies, maintenance of nuclear instruments, isotope applications in hydrology and sedimentology), progress of the RCA/UNDP Industrial Project, and future programmes and budget

  14. THE COMPETITIVENESS OF EMU MEMBER STATES IN THE FINANCIAL CRISIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasilescu Felician

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available In the context of the financial crisis the imbalances in the euro area have been underlined. The issue had been previously debated during the years preceding the financial crisis, but the strong global economic expansion and the ongoing economic integration within the euro area partly masked the problems arising from these differential developments. This paper analyses the advantages and disavantages of the monetary union before and during the financial crisis and focuses on identifying solutions to correct the structural problems that are at the root of the economic divergencies within the euro area. Another issue that we discuss is how did price competitiveness diverged from one euro-area member state to another since the introduction of the euro, causing gains in price competitiveness for a small group of countries and significant losses for a larger group. The issue of competitiveness is essential for Romania as we are heading towards joining the euro zone.

  15. Directory of cyclotrons used for radionuclide production in Member States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    The directory of cyclotrons used for radionuclide production is an update of the data base on cyclotrons that was compiled in 1983 by the International Atomic Energy Agency. The directory contains technical, utilization and administrative information supplied to the IAEA as of October 1997. The directory was prepared through information collected by questionnaires sent to institutions that either have a cyclotron, or that were identified to be in the process of installation of a cyclotron. The directory contains 206 entries for cyclotrons operating in 34 Member States. The largest concentration of cyclotrons for radionuclide production are located in the United States of America (66), Japan (33) and Germany (22). The largest number of cyclotrons for a single country is the United States of America. The expansion in number of cyclotrons during the last decade has been driven by the advent of advances in medical imaging instrumentation (PET, SPET and more recently 511 KeV emission tomography); introduction of user friendly compact medical cyclotrons from several companies that manufacture cyclotrons; and recent decisions that {sup 15}O-oxygen PET studies in Japan, and {sup 18}F-FDG PET studies in Germany are eligible for reimbursement by government or insurance companies.

  16. Directory of cyclotrons used for radionuclide production in Member States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-03-01

    The directory of cyclotrons used for radionuclide production is an update of the data base on cyclotrons that was compiled in 1983 by the International Atomic Energy Agency. The directory contains technical, utilization and administrative information supplied to the IAEA as of October 1997. The directory was prepared through information collected by questionnaires sent to institutions that either have a cyclotron, or that were identified to be in the process of installation of a cyclotron. The directory contains 206 entries for cyclotrons operating in 34 Member States. The largest concentration of cyclotrons for radionuclide production are located in the United States of America (66), Japan (33) and Germany (22). The largest number of cyclotrons for a single country is the United States of America. The expansion in number of cyclotrons during the last decade has been driven by the advent of advances in medical imaging instrumentation (PET, SPET and more recently 511 KeV emission tomography); introduction of user friendly compact medical cyclotrons from several companies that manufacture cyclotrons; and recent decisions that 15 O-oxygen PET studies in Japan, and 18 F-FDG PET studies in Germany are eligible for reimbursement by government or insurance companies

  17. Development of Virtual Environment under Member State Support Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koh, Byungmarn; Lee, Nayoung

    2013-01-01

    Member State Support Program (MSSP) is comprised of various programs such as development of safeguards approach, training, information analysis and so on. Each support programs would be evaluated biennially through coordinators' meeting. IAEA publish 'Development and Implementation Support Programme for Nuclear Verification' so that the member state can review it. In the program, IAEA specify the need to develop the virtual reality based training tools. The objective of this project is to develop comprehensive training software dedicated to verification activities in the field based on the virtual environment. The training for the IAEA inspector is indispensable to maintain or improve their verification capability and to be prepared for the inspection of the complicated facilities. However, the grabbing of the available facility is not easy due to following limitations such as security, confidentiality, interference of the commercial operation and so on. Therefore, the virtual environment, which can replace a real facility, is required for the IAEA training. The objective of this software is to support the IAEA's verification capability. It is useful for the trainer and trainee to better understand how nuclear materials are processed in the fuel fabrication facility and what kind safeguards approaches are needed at each process before inspections. The final product will be integrated in the IAEA safeguards training courses to improve the efficiency of the safeguards training. Also we are going to make a decision if additional projects such as CANDU fuel parts or other facilities depending on evaluation results at the IAEA training course will be held on Korea in this year

  18. Development of Virtual Environment under Member State Support Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koh, Byungmarn; Lee, Nayoung [Korea Institute of Nuclear Non-proliferation and Control, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-05-15

    Member State Support Program (MSSP) is comprised of various programs such as development of safeguards approach, training, information analysis and so on. Each support programs would be evaluated biennially through coordinators' meeting. IAEA publish 'Development and Implementation Support Programme for Nuclear Verification' so that the member state can review it. In the program, IAEA specify the need to develop the virtual reality based training tools. The objective of this project is to develop comprehensive training software dedicated to verification activities in the field based on the virtual environment. The training for the IAEA inspector is indispensable to maintain or improve their verification capability and to be prepared for the inspection of the complicated facilities. However, the grabbing of the available facility is not easy due to following limitations such as security, confidentiality, interference of the commercial operation and so on. Therefore, the virtual environment, which can replace a real facility, is required for the IAEA training. The objective of this software is to support the IAEA's verification capability. It is useful for the trainer and trainee to better understand how nuclear materials are processed in the fuel fabrication facility and what kind safeguards approaches are needed at each process before inspections. The final product will be integrated in the IAEA safeguards training courses to improve the efficiency of the safeguards training. Also we are going to make a decision if additional projects such as CANDU fuel parts or other facilities depending on evaluation results at the IAEA training course will be held on Korea in this year.

  19. Breastfeeding practices and policies in WHO European Region Member States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagci Bosi, Ayse Tulay; Eriksen, Kamilla Gehrt; Sobko, Tanja; Wijnhoven, Trudy M A; Breda, João

    2016-03-01

    To provide an update on current practices and policy development status concerning breastfeeding in the WHO European Region. National surveys and studies conducted by national health institutions were prioritized. Sub-national data were included where no national data or studies existed. Information on national breastfeeding policies was collected mainly from the WHO Seventh Meeting of Baby-Friendly Hospital Initiative Coordinators and European Union projects. Owing to the different data sources and methods, any comparisons between countries must be made with caution. WHO European Member States. Data from fifty-three WHO European Member States were investigated; however, a large proportion had not reported any data. Rates of early initiation of breastfeeding, exclusive breastfeeding and continued breastfeeding to 1 year all varied considerably within the WHO European Region. Exclusive breastfeeding rates declined considerably after 4 months, and were low in infants under 6 months and at 6 months of age. The majority of the countries with existing data reported having a national infant and young child feeding policy and the establishment of a national committee on breastfeeding or infant and young child feeding. The majority of the countries with existing data reported having baby-friendly hospitals, although the proportion of baby-friendly hospitals to the total number of national hospitals with maternity units was low in most countries. Breastfeeding practices within the WHO European Region, especially exclusive breastfeeding rates, are far from complying with the WHO recommendations. There are marked differences between countries in breastfeeding practices, infant and young child feeding policy adoption and proportion of baby-friendly hospitals.

  20. The status of blood safety in ECO member states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seighali, Fariba; Hosseini Divkolaye, Nasim S.; Koohi, Ebrahim; Pourfathollah, Ali A.; Rahmani, Ahmad M.

    2015-01-01

    Background Access to the information concerning blood safety is essential for managing problems and overcoming the challenges that are faced in any given region. Information on the availability and safety of blood in countries of the Economic Cooperation Organisation (ECO) is largely lacking. To address this problem, the Iranian Blood Transfusion Organisation, in collaboration with other ECO member states, initiated a research project in 2009 to collect, analyse and compare statistics on blood safety in the region. Materials and methods A modified and summarised version of the Global Database on Blood Safety (GDBS) questionnaire was used to collect data. The questionnaire was sent to all ten countries in the ECO region. The heads of the national transfusion services or focal points were requested to complete the form. Related literature and websites were also reviewed. Results Only three countries (Afghanistan, Iran and Turkey) completed the questionnaire, while other countries provided their available data on some parts of the questionnaire. The number of donations per year varied from 5 to 27/1,000 population. The rate of donors positive for human immunodeficiency virus ranged from 0.003% to 0.2%. The rate of donors positive for hepatitis C virus antibody varied from 0.05% to 3.9% while that of hepatitis B virus surface antigen ranged from 0.15% to 3.91% respectively. Discussion There is very clear diversity in blood transfusion services among ECO member states. Most countries in the region do not have a data-recording system. It is generally estimated that the need for blood is much higher than the supply in this region. Deficiencies in donor screening and a high prevalence of transfusion-transmitted infections are other important challenges. PMID:26192779

  1. Directory of gamma processing facilities in Member States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-02-01

    Ionizing radiation can modify physical, chemical and biological properties of materials. This characteristic of radiation was recognised very soon after the discovery of radioactivity. At present, the principal applications concern sterilisation of health care products, food irradiation and materials modification for polymers. Besides naturally occurring radioactive isotopes, artificial ones were produced using cyclotrons. A significant impetus, however, was given to the radiation processing industry with the advent of nuclear reactors, which were used to produce radioisotopes. Gamma ray emitters like cobalt-60 became popular radiation sources for medical and industrial applications. Many gamma ray irradiators have been built and it is estimated that less than 200 are currently in operation all over the world. In recent times, the use of electron accelerators as a radiation source (sometimes equipped with X ray converter) is increasing. However, gamma irradiators are difficult to replace, especially in the case of non-uniform and high-density products. The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has several programmes related to industrial irradiation applications for processing of various products including those related to health care, pharmaceuticals, food and polymers, and applications associated with plant design, dosimetry and safety. Through the technical co-operation programme, the IAEA supports these activities in developing countries and helps them to build local capacity to implement various industrial applications of radiation processing. The IAEA also organises and conducts training courses and workshops, provides individual training to personnel, and sends experts to the radiation facilities in Member States where help is needed. All these activities can be carried out much more efficiently and effectively if there were a comprehensive directory of radiation facilities operating in Member States. Also, such a compilation would be a valuable tool for

  2. 'A Sense of Urgency': The EU, EU Member States and the Recognition of the Palestinian State

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martins, Bruno Oliveira

    2015-01-01

    In the aftermath of the July-August 2014 war in Gaza, the Swedish government officially recognized the State of Palestine. This decision triggered a cascade of resolutions adopted in national parliaments of European Union member states and, eventually, led to the adoption of a European Parliament...

  3. Plant food supplement (PFS) market structure in EC Member States, methods and techniques for the assessment of individual PFS intake

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vargas-Murga, L.; Garcia-Alvarez, A.; Roman-Vinas, B.; Ngo, J.; Ribas-Barba, L.; Berg, van den S.J.P.L.; Williamson, G.; Serra-Majem, L.

    2011-01-01

    The popularity of herbal products, especially plant food supplements (PFS) and herbal medicine is on the rise in Europe and other parts of the world, with increased use in the general population as well as among specific subgroups encompassing children, women or those suffering from diseases such as

  4. Study on the potential imports by member states of agricultural products containing radiocesium concentrations in excess of EC limits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weiss, D.; Feige, S.

    2013-01-01

    As a consequence of the Chernobyl accident, the European Commission maintains Council Regulation (EEC) number 737/90 which sets out the conditions governing the import of agricultural products originating in third countries and includes maximum permitted level (MPL) that shall be applied in respect of contamination with radiocesium. The main objective of the study was to identify agricultural products which might exceed the MPL of radiocesium. The results show that mushroom and berries from Norway or Russia or Belarus or Ukraine may exceed the MPL. Reindeer meat from Norway will stay suspicious for at least 30 years as well as meat from wild animals originating from Russia, Belarus and Ukraine and some other countries. Some agricultural products like living cows or horses, poultry,... can be excluded from the list except for products issued from areas with strong contamination

  5. Phosphorus flows and balances of the European Union Member States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dijk, Kimo C. van, E-mail: kimo.vandijk@wur.nl [Department of Soil Quality, Wageningen University and Research Centre, P.O. Box 47, 6700 AA, Wageningen (Netherlands); Lesschen, Jan Peter, E-mail: janpeter.lesschen@wur.nl [Department of Soil Quality, Wageningen University and Research Centre, P.O. Box 47, 6700 AA, Wageningen (Netherlands); Oenema, Oene, E-mail: oene.oenema@wur.nl [Department of Soil Quality, Wageningen University and Research Centre, P.O. Box 47, 6700 AA, Wageningen (Netherlands); Alterra, Wageningen University and Research Centre, P.O. Box 47, 6700 AA Wageningen (Netherlands)

    2016-01-15

    Global society faces serious “phosphorus challenges” given the scarcity, essentiality, unequal global distribution and, at the same time, regional excess of phosphorus (P). Phosphorus flow studies can be used to analyze these challenges, providing insight into how society (re)uses and loses phosphorus, identifying potential solutions. Phosphorus flows were analyzed in detail for EU-27 and its Member States. To quantify food system and non-food flows, country specific data and historical context were considered. The sectors covered were crop production (CP), animal production (AP), food processing (FP), non-food production (NF) and consumption (HC). The results show that the EU-27 imported 2392 Gg P in 2005, half of which accumulated in agricultural soils (924 Gg) and half was lost as waste (1217 Gg). Net accumulation was 4.9 kg P/ha/year ranging between + 23.2 (Belgium) and − 2.8 (Slovakia). From the system losses, 54% was lost from HC in diverse waste flows and 28% from FP, mainly through incinerated slaughter residues. The largest HC losses (655 Gg) were wastewater (55%), food waste (27%), and pet excreta (11%). Phosphorus recycling rates were 73% in AP, 29% in FP, 21% in HC and ~ 0% in NF. The phosphorus use efficiencies showed that, relative to sector input, about 70% was taken up by crops (CP), 24% was retained in animals (AP), 52% was contained in food products (FP), 76% was stored in non-food materials (NF), and 21% was recycled (HC). Although wide-ranging variation between countries, generally phosphorus use in EU-27 was characterized by relatively (1) large dependency on (primary) imports, (2) long-term accumulation in agricultural soils, especially in west European countries, (3) leaky losses throughout entire society, especially emissions to the environment and sequestered waste, (4) little recycling with the exception of manure, and (5) low use efficiencies, because of aforementioned issues, providing ample opportunities for improvement

  6. Phosphorus flows and balances of the European Union Member States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dijk, Kimo C. van; Lesschen, Jan Peter; Oenema, Oene

    2016-01-01

    Global society faces serious “phosphorus challenges” given the scarcity, essentiality, unequal global distribution and, at the same time, regional excess of phosphorus (P). Phosphorus flow studies can be used to analyze these challenges, providing insight into how society (re)uses and loses phosphorus, identifying potential solutions. Phosphorus flows were analyzed in detail for EU-27 and its Member States. To quantify food system and non-food flows, country specific data and historical context were considered. The sectors covered were crop production (CP), animal production (AP), food processing (FP), non-food production (NF) and consumption (HC). The results show that the EU-27 imported 2392 Gg P in 2005, half of which accumulated in agricultural soils (924 Gg) and half was lost as waste (1217 Gg). Net accumulation was 4.9 kg P/ha/year ranging between + 23.2 (Belgium) and − 2.8 (Slovakia). From the system losses, 54% was lost from HC in diverse waste flows and 28% from FP, mainly through incinerated slaughter residues. The largest HC losses (655 Gg) were wastewater (55%), food waste (27%), and pet excreta (11%). Phosphorus recycling rates were 73% in AP, 29% in FP, 21% in HC and ~ 0% in NF. The phosphorus use efficiencies showed that, relative to sector input, about 70% was taken up by crops (CP), 24% was retained in animals (AP), 52% was contained in food products (FP), 76% was stored in non-food materials (NF), and 21% was recycled (HC). Although wide-ranging variation between countries, generally phosphorus use in EU-27 was characterized by relatively (1) large dependency on (primary) imports, (2) long-term accumulation in agricultural soils, especially in west European countries, (3) leaky losses throughout entire society, especially emissions to the environment and sequestered waste, (4) little recycling with the exception of manure, and (5) low use efficiencies, because of aforementioned issues, providing ample opportunities for improvement

  7. Model Agreements for the granting of Associate Member Status Implementation arrangements concerning eligibility for personnel appointments and industrial participation for Associate Member States Progress report by the Management

    CERN Document Server

    2011-01-01

    Model Agreements for the granting of Associate Member Status Implementation arrangements concerning eligibility for personnel appointments and industrial participation for Associate Member States Progress report by the Management

  8. EU MEMBER STATES AND FISCAL DECENTRALIZATION– EMPIRICAL COMPARISON

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Žan Oplotnik

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of an article is to compare systems of fiscal decentralization in EU member states according to selected quantitative criteria and European Charter of Local Self-Government principles. The results show that a higher number of lower levels of government usually indicate a greater share of local finance within the total public finance, however, this finding does not confirm the inverse link. Even though the structure of expenditures in EU countries is similar, the shares of funds for the implementation of individual tasks differ significantly. On average, the countries allocate most funds to education, social security, healthcare, administration and political systems, with only a quarter of the countries recording the same or higher amounts of revenues than expenditures. Most of the countries still cover the existing deficit either through transfers from the central to lower levels of government or through equalization schemes or borrowing, which otherwise represents a departure from one of the basic principles of the Charter, which stipulates that financial resources must be commensurate with the responsibilities of local self-government.

  9. Prospects for renewable electricity in the new EU Member States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uyterlinde, M.A.; De Vries, H.J.; Barbu, A.D.

    2006-02-01

    The scope of this paper is to provide a brief overview of the overall context in which investments in RES-E will take place in short to medium term in the New Member States (NMS) of the EU and to present some preliminary results of a quantitative analysis on the potentials for various RES-E technologies to be deployed in the region in short to medium term as well as their cost. The main findings of this research suggest that factors likely to influence any future, large-scale deployment of RES-E technologies in the NMS include the choice of market strategy by the NMS governments and the energy business community in the European energy market, the ability to elaborate sound local energy plans integrated into a wider context for regional development, the investment climate and the degree to which new renewable ventures can contribute to creating new employment. With respect to the potential for RES-E electricity generation in the NMS, preliminary model results suggest that within the period 2005-2010, the NMS could provide a substantial contribution to the European commitments to increase the share of renewable energy sources in the fuel mix. While biomass and hydro (large and small) seem to be readily deployable in the region, other technologies can make it to the market too

  10. STATE AID AND COMPETITIVENESS COMPOSED INDICATORS FOR ROMANIA AND SLECTED EU MEMBER STATES. A COMPARATIVE ANALISYS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DODESCU D.B. ANCA

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Despite the proclaimed revival of the industrial policy, state aid granted by the EU still remain at a concerning low level. This may be explained by EU’s unique institutional achitecture, that allows the European Commission to monitor and restrict state aid related activities in the member states. Relying on 2007 –2013 statistical data published by Eurostat, AMECO and OCDE data bases, the main purpose of this paper refers to determining the corelation between state aid authorised by the European Comission for Romania and some selected member states and their competitiveness level, in the period 2007 – 2013. Even if the member states government would know which industry of company should br supported, the actual allocation of the public fund is strongly influenced by legitime interests. Therefor, state aid allocation is usualy dependent on political considerations and on the negotiation power of the involved parties, rather than on economic objectives. The main purose of this paper is the following: firstly to determine the relation State Ais – Competitiveness, analysing the cases of Romania, Germany, France, Austria and Poland between 2007 and 2013; and secondly t determine if there is a measurable impact at national level, and to identify new growth possibilities of state aid efficiency. Our main hypothesys is analysed with the help of an original system consisting in competitiveness agregated indicators and their corespondents from the state aid field, and the results obtained are graphicaly presented. This paper is based on the research for the PhD thesis entitled Competition versus competitineness. State aid impact in Romania in the context of EU integration context

  11. Agreement on the privileges and immunities of the Agency. Acceptances by Member States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-10-01

    The list of Member States shows the 65 Members which, by 30 September 1995, had accepted the Agreement on the Privileges and Immunities of the International Atomic Energy Agency, as provided for in Section 38 thereof

  12. Agreement on the privileges and immunities of the Agency. Acceptances by Member States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-10-01

    The list of Member States shows the 65 Members which, by 30 September 1995, had accepted the Agreement on the Privileges and Immunities of the International Atomic Energy Agency, as provided for in Section 38 thereof.

  13. Globalization and Public Policy Analysis: A Case Study of Foreign Policy of ASEAN Member States

    OpenAIRE

    Nattapol Pourprasert

    2016-01-01

    This study has an objective to analyze foreign policy of member states in globalization current, aiming to answer that the foreign policy of member states have been changed or remained the same and there are any factors affecting changing of foreign policy of the member states. From the study results, it is found that the foreign policy of Thailand is a friendly foreign policy with all states. The policy of Indonesia is more opened because of a change in leader, allowing ...

  14. INTERESTS OF THE MEMBER STATES IN THE EURASIAN ECONOMIC UNION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasz Michałowski

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the interests of the member countries in the Eurasian Economic Union (EEU, which is formed by Russia, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Armenia and Kyrgyzstan. The author argues that Russia has been involved in the project primarily for geopolitical reasons. Belarus, Kazakhstan, Armenia and Kyrgyzstan have perceived the integration within EEU primarily through the possible economic benefits. While analyzing the interests of the members in the EEU, the author also refers to the development of the economic situation in each country in recent years. The starting point for discussion is the analysis of benefits of economic integration in the light of theory.

  15. 77 FR 70875 - Department of State Performance Review Board Members

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-27

    ..., Department of State; Kevin P. O'Keefe, Director, Office of Plans, Policy, and Analysis, Bureau of Political...-Greenfield, Director General of the Foreign Service and Director of Human Resources, Department of State. [FR...

  16. Approaches for increasing the cooperation between Member States and IAEA under SSS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rheem, Karp-Soon; Park, Wan-Sou; Kim, Byung-Koo

    1997-01-01

    With introduction of the Strengthened Safeguards System (SSS), both the IAEA and Member States are concerned about the limited resources to carry out the SSS activity and the potential increase of additional cost and burdens. Even though the IAEA has recently prepared a procedure of the generalized New Partnership Approach (NPA), its wider application to the general Member States is difficult at the present time. For the generalized NPA necessitates that SSACs of the Member States have sufficient technical capability in safeguards to carry out the necessary activities. Unfortunately a few Member States seem to be qualified to have the sufficient technical capability that the IAEA desires. In this topic, a new approach to increase the cooperation between Member States and IAEA under SSS is proposed such that effective supports can be provided to all of its Member States that are not technically competent in terms of safeguards experience. This is realized by so called 'tunneling effort', meaning that desired goals are accomplished by efforts from both Member States and the IAEA. The Member States having high technical competence in safeguards provide technical assistance to the Member States that are not competent until they attain to a certain level in technical capability, while the IAEA provides the guidelines, and coordinates the process. The formal introduction of the Quality Control concept to the safeguards management is proposed as well so as to efficiently reduce burdens from the implementation of the SSS. (author)

  17. EC Competition law and environmental protection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rantala, M.

    1996-12-31

    Due to the increasing attention paid on environmental protection, by the European Community, the Member States and the consumers, undertakings are forced to adjust their policies to meet the new demands posed by public authorities and the market. This has an inevitable impact on competition. No matter how acceptable the goals were, the means are to be assessed also from the competition law point of view. The objective of this study is to analyze the situations where conflicts may take place, the main sources of research being the principles of law relating to the Treaty ,the judgements of the European Court of Justice, the Commission Decisions and other official documents of the Community as well as legal literature. This study classifies the Community and Member State instruments which are used for environmental protection into four categories. These are legislative, market-based, horizontal and financial supporting instruments. Undertakings` environmental practices, which are capable of affecting competition, are examined under Articles 85 and 86 EC, some attention being paid also to Article 90 EC. The touching points of competition policy and environmental protection in such cases are scrutinized under three headings. These are the two, in this case, most relevant public instruments, ie. legislative and market-based measures, and the voluntary actions of undertakings. (42 refs.)

  18. The progress of RES environment in the most recent member states of the EU

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patlitzianas, Konstantinos [Management and Decision Support Systems Lab (EPU-NTUA), School of Electrical and Computer Engineering, National Technical University of Athens, 9, Iroon Polytechniou str., 15773, Athens (Greece); Karagounis, Konstantinos [National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, Dental School, 2 Thivon Str., Goudi, 11527 Athens (Greece)

    2011-02-15

    The most recent EU member states seem to have important Renewable Energy Sources (RES) potential. However, they have serious structural difficulties in development and integration of RES policies. Indeed, the balanced development of RES between the member states is urgent today. The penetration of the RES in these member states is related to the existence of an appropriate environment (political, economical, social, and technological). The current paper is based on an analytical review and specific PEST analysis aiming to assess the current RES environment and the progress so far in each of these most recent EU members. (author)

  19. Member State Foreign Policy towards EU Military Operations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodt, Annemarie Peen

    2017-01-01

    Over the past decade the European Union has undertaken military operations in Macedonia, Bosnia-Herzegovina, twice in the Democratic Republic of Congo, jointly in the Central African Republic and Chad, both in and off the coast of Somalia and most recently in Mali. Ongoing discussions in Brussels...... suggest that another operation in CAR may be underway shortly. The EU’s military endeavours are particularly interesting to this enquiry, as they suggest a radical change in the cohort of member states’ foreign policy towards the Union, which until the turn of the Millennium had been considered by its MS......, amongst others, as a predominantly ‘civilian power’. The significance of such a change merits a chapter that delves deeper into MS foreign policy specifically related to EU military operations.The rationale for this research is to further unpack intra-EU foreign policy and its effect on the external...

  20. The shift of energy regulatory powers under the framework of Directive 2009/72/EC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grimm, N. S.

    2011-01-01

    The paper examines the powers of Member States' national regulatory authorities under the framework of Directive 2009/72/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 13 July 2009 concerning common rules for the internal market in electricity and repealing Directive 2003/54/EC (OJEU L 176/37) and analyses the implications of framework of Directive 2009/72/EC on the national laws of the Member States, in particular on the Austrian and German constitutional, administrative and energy laws. The Introductory Part gives a historical overview of the development of national energy regulators under European energy legislation. This Part shows that the national regulatory authorities attract increased attention and that their regulatory powers are on a constant rise. In order to understand the huge impact of the framework of Directive 2009/72/EC on the regulatory regimes of the Member States, this Part briefly examines the former and current powers of the national energy regulators under Austrian and German law. Part Two analyses whether the powers conferred upon national energy regulators under the framework of Directive 2009/72/EC have been enhanced in comparison to those established under the framework of Directive 2003/54/EC. The main focus lies thereby on the propositions made by the European Commission in its Proposal for a Directive of the European Parliament and of the Council amending Directive 2003/54/EC concerning common rules for the internal market in electricity (COM (2007) 528 final, 2.1) and laid down in Directive 2009/72/EC. Part Two comes to the conclusion that the powers of the national energy regulators under the framework of Directive 2009/72/EC have indeed been enhanced in comparison to former regime of Directive 2003/54/EC. Part Three demonstrates that the enhancement of national energy regulators' powers does not benefit the Member States. On the contrary, they lose considerable powers of control over their own national energy regulators. While

  1. Solid state conformational classification of eight-membered rings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pérez, J.; García, L.; Kessler, M.

    2005-01-01

    A statistical classification of the solid state conformation in the title complexes using data retrieved from the Cambridge Structural Database (CSD) has been made. Phosphate and phosphinate complexes show a chair conformation preferably. In phosphonate complexes, the most frequent conformations...

  2. Development of cooperation of the CIS member states in the peaceful use of atomic energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sobolev, A.Ye.

    2012-01-01

    Full text: Cooperation platform: Attraction of potential investors; Promotion of national goods and services; Pursuit of national and commercial interests. The Commission of the CIS Member States for the Peaceful Use of Atomic Energy is a nuclear cooperation body and the CIS intergovernmental coordinating and advisory authority. The Commission of the CIS Member States for the Peaceful Use of Atomic Energy coordinates and expands the spheres of cooperation. Members of the Commission- state-appointed heads of the authorized CIS member state bodies in the peaceful use of atomic energy; Secretariat is the working body of the Commission. Expert work groups formed within the CIS members States Commission: On the status of the draft Agreement on Coordination of Interstate Relations in the Peaceful Use of Atomic Energy in the CIS Territory; On the establishment of the CIS regional center for advanced training of medical physicists; Formation of an integrated system for the maintenance of safety of the nuclear research facilities. Issues of establishing the Coalition of the CIS Nuclear Research reactors; Formation of mechanisms for the convergence of the CIS member states legal and technical regulations in the peaceful use of atomic energy; Adaptation and introduction in the CIS members states of international standards in the field of using industrial radiation technologies and ensuring radiation safety; Basic forms of the CIS cooperation in ensuring economic security of projects for the peaceful use of atomic energy; Establishment of a system for the management of intellectual assets of the CIS members states; On the use of tele medical technologies of Ros atom State Cooperation- FMBA-MEPHI in diagnosis of oncologic diseases; Development of the major components of the Concept of Ensuring Nuclear, radiation and Radio ecological; Policy of the CIS Member States in the Peaceful Use of Atomic Energy; Joint implementation of the project to establish and implement a program of

  3. First UN member state conference on the climate framework convention

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lamprecht, F.

    1995-01-01

    The ''Framework Convention of the United Nations Concerning Climate Changes'' (Climate Framework Convention - KRK), which was passed at the 1992 World Environment Conference (UNCEO) in Rio de Janeiro and took effect on 21 March 1994, has instituted the UN Conference of Contracting Parties (VSK) as the organ presiding over this issue (Article 7 KRK). This annual conference has the task to implement the KRK and its associated legal instruments and pass the resolutions required to this end. Its premiere took place in Berlin (28 March to 7 April 1995). Delegates from 117 signatory and 53 observer states struggled before an audience of 2000 news reportes to find a solution to the pending tasks that might be tolerable for all participants. The present article gives a brief outline of these tasks and the results achieved in Berlin. The picture is rounded off by information on the different positions defended, lines of conflict and the course of the conference. (orig.) [de

  4. State of implementation of directive 2013/59/Euratom regarding radon protection in selected member states of the European Union

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hurst, Stephanie

    2015-01-01

    Directive 2013/59/Euratom came 6th February 2014 into force. The member states have to implement the directive into national legislation until 6th of February 2018. According to different legal structures in the member states legislation will be comparable with regards to content, but may be implemented in different legal areas. Additionally the different current experience regarding radon regulation as well as different expertise with all aspects of radon protection will affect the implementation. Activities for implementation started in many member states, but at present it is not possible to make a mandatory statement for any member state, which modifications will come until 2018. On the other hand it is assumed that member states who have engaged themselves with radon protection issues since many years will not change their plans basically until 2018. The member states mentioned in the following text are chosen exemplary. A comprehensive compilation of the situation in all member states of the European Union was not possible. The inclusion of Switzerland resulted from the fact, that this European country is basically orientating its radon regulations on the international state of the art and international (also European) legislation.

  5. "FACILS 2014: Microbially-driven facilitation systems in environmental biotechnology" (hereafter "FACILS") presented here by the European Commission (EC)-United States (US) Task Force on Biotechnology Research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Methe, Barbara

    2016-02-03

    As we enter the 21st century, the sustainability of the biosphere is a global challenge that can best be met with a global response. This includes how we train and promote our next generation of research scientists in the emerging arenas of genome-enabled biology and a bio-based economy. It is this fundamental issue that formed the motivation for designing and conducting a shortcourse entitled “FACILIS 2014: Microbially-driven facilitation systems in environmental biotechnology” (hereafter “FACILIS”) presented here by the European Commission (EC)-United States (US) Task Force on Biotechnology Research. This WG was established in 1994 under the umbrella of the US-EC Task Force on Biotechnology Research, a transatlantic collaborative group overseen by the US Office of Science and Technology Policy (OSTP) and the EC. The Environmental Biotechnology Working Group maintains several goals, including establishing research links between scientists in EU countries and the US and fostering the careers of junior scientists from both sides of the Atlantic to the global nature of scientific cooperation. To that end, a shortcourse was held at the University of Milan in Italy on July 12-25 2014 organized around cross-cutting themes of genomic science and designed to attract a stellar group of interdisciplinary early carrier researchers. A total of 22 students, 10 from the US and 12 from the EU participated. The course provided them with hands-on experience with the latest scientific methods in genomics and bioinformatics; using a format that combines lectures, laboratory research and field work with the final goal to enable researchers to finally turn data into knowledge.

  6. The uneven impact of the European Employment Strategy on member states' employment policies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Mikkel Mailand

    2008-01-01

    policies to varying degrees, but that the impact, generally speaking, has been limited. In the article, the author examines the impact of the strategy as a result of peer pressure and key actors' strategic use of the strategy and shows how these mechanisms work. Factors that can explain why greater impact......In the mid-1990s, EU member states decided to coordinate their national employment policies through a common European Employment Strategy (EES). Building on a systematic comparative study of four member states, the author argues that the strategy has influenced the member states' employment...

  7. Multidimensional Welfare Comparisons of EU Member States Before, During, and After the Financial Crisis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hussain, M. Azhar; Siersbæk, Nikolaj; Østerdal, Lars Peter

    How did the financial crisis affect population welfare in EU member states in key dimensions such as income, health, and education? Using EU-SILC data, we seek to answer this question by way of first order dominance comparisons between countries and over time. The novel feature of our study...... is that we perform welfare comparisons on the basis of multi-level multidimensional ordinal data. We find that the countries most often dominated are southern and eastern European member states, and the dominant countries are mostly northern and western European member states. However, for most country...

  8. Examples from Member State Inspection Programmes: Canada. Appendix VII

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    Section 26 of the Nuclear Safety and Control Act (NSCA) prohibits any person from preparing a site, constructing, operating, decommissioning or abandoning a nuclear facility without a licence granted by the Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission (CNSC) Tribunal. Subsection 24(4) of the NSCA states the following: 'No licence shall be issued, renewed, amended or replaced unless, in the opinion of the Commission, the applicant: (a) is qualified to carry on the activity that the licence will authorize the licensee to carry on; and (b) will, in carrying on that activity, make adequate provision for the protection of the environment, the health and safety of persons and the maintenance of national security and measures required to implement international obligations to which Canada has agreed.' Subsection 24(5) of the NSCA gives the CNSC Tribunal the authority to include in licences any term or condition that it considers necessary for the purposes of the NSCA. Section 30 of the NSCA authorizes CNSC staff to carry out inspections to verify licensee compliance with regulatory requirements, including any licence conditions. Licensees are expected to have a set of programmes and processes in place to adequately protect the environment, and the health and safety of workers and the public. The CNSC licensing system is administered in cooperation with federal, provincial and territorial government departments and agencies in such areas as health, environment, aboriginal consultation, transport and labour. Before the CNSC issues a licence, the concerns and responsibilities of these departments and agencies are taken into account in the licensing basis. Where necessary, agreements may be set up between the CNSC and those departments and agencies to determine roles and responsibilities for inspection activities where the licensee is concerned

  9. The Czech and Slovak Federal Republic - a member state of CERN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niederle, J.

    1992-01-01

    Czechoslovakia became a CERN member state on January 1, 1992 at a meeting of the CERN Board, the highest CERN body; the admission was based on the required unanimous approval by all the 16 CERN member country representatives. The establishment of CERN, its development, aims and fields of research activities are briefly outlined. (Z.S.). 8 figs

  10. Stress state of thin – walled member of the structure with operation damages under nonuniform loading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    В.В. Астанін

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available  The publication is dedicated to determining of stress state in particular the stress concentration factors for thin – walled members of the structures subject to nonuniform tension. A structure member has obtained the operation damage generation by corrosion and other causes.

  11. Patients in a persistent vegetative state attitudes and reactions of family members.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tresch, D D; Sims, F H; Duthie, E H; Goldstein, M D

    1991-01-01

    Patients in a persistent vegetative state (PVS) constituted approximately 3% of the population in four Milwaukee nursing homes. In order to understand family members' attitudes and reactions toward such patients, 33 (92%) of 36 family members of patients in PVS contacted were studied. The age of the patients ranged from 19 to 95 with a mean age of 73.4 +/- 17.2 years, and family members' ages ranged from 41 to 89 with a mean age of 61.8 +/- 3.3 years. The etiology of the PVS varied from dementia to cerebral trauma. The mean duration of the PVS was 54 +/- 8.4 months (range 12 to 204). Family members reported that they visited patients 260 times during the first year following the onset of the PVS and were still visiting at a rate of 209 visits yearly at the time of the interview. There was no significant correlation between the frequency of the family members visits and the duration of the PVS, the patient's or family member's age, or the family member's relationship to the patient. Ninety percent of patients were considered by family members to have some awareness of pain, light or darkness, environment, taste, verbal conversation, or the family member's presence. Most family members thought they understood the patient's medical condition, and the majority did not expect the patient to improve. Nevertheless, the majority of family members wanted the patient to undergo therapeutic interventions, including transfer to the acute hospital and surgery.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  12. Agreement on the Privileges and Immunities of the Agency. Acceptances by Member States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1973-01-01

    The list of Member States overleaf shows the 41 Members which, by 30 November 1972, had accepted the Agreement on the Privileges and Immunities of the International Atomic Energy Agency, as provided for in Section 38 thereof. Members are listed in alphabetical order, which is different in versions of this document in other languages. The list is followed by the texts of such reservations to the Agreement as some of the Members in question made when depositing their respective instruments of acceptance with the Director General. The reservations are reproduced in the sequence in which the instruments of acceptance to which they relate were deposited

  13. Agreement on the Privileges and Immunities of the Agency. Acceptances by Member States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1969-01-01

    The list of Member States overleaf shows the 35 Members which, by 1 November 1969, had accepted the Agreement on the Privileges and Immunities of the International Atomic Energy Agency, as provided for in Section 38 thereof. Members are listed in alphabetical order, which is different in versions of this document in other languages. The list is followed by the texts of such reservations to the Agreement as some of the Members in question made when depositing their respective instruments of acceptance with the Director General. The reservations are reproduced in the sequential order of the deposit of the instruments of acceptance to which they relate

  14. Agreement on the Privileges and Immunities of the Agency. Acceptances by Member States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1969-11-27

    The list of Member States overleaf shows the 35 Members which, by 1 November 1969, had accepted the Agreement on the Privileges and Immunities of the International Atomic Energy Agency, as provided for in Section 38 thereof. Members are listed in alphabetical order, which is different in versions of this document in other languages. The list is followed by the texts of such reservations to the Agreement as some of the Members in question made when depositing their respective instruments of acceptance with the Director General. The reservations are reproduced in the sequential order of the deposit of the instruments of acceptance to which they relate.

  15. Agreement on the Privileges and Immunities of the Agency. Acceptances by Member States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1973-01-15

    The list of Member States overleaf shows the 41 Members which, by 30 November 1972, had accepted the Agreement on the Privileges and Immunities of the International Atomic Energy Agency, as provided for in Section 38 thereof. Members are listed in alphabetical order, which is different in versions of this document in other languages. The list is followed by the texts of such reservations to the Agreement as some of the Members in question made when depositing their respective instruments of acceptance with the Director General. The reservations are reproduced in the sequence in which the instruments of acceptance to which they relate were deposited.

  16. Comparative analysis of government debt in the European Union's member states, 2000-2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Talpoş Ioan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a detailed comparative analysis of the evolution of government debt stocks in the E.U. Member States at the end of the period 31.12.2000-31.12.2013 from the point of view of the share of these debts in the GDP, with a focus on six groups of the E.U. Member States (E.U.-28 countries, E.U.-27 countries, Euro area-18 countries, Euro area-17 countries, Non Euro area-10 countries, Non Euro area-11 countries, on the E.U. Member States with a government debt stock share above or below 60% of the GDP at 31.12.2013, on the Member States which recorded very large deviations of the government debt stocks and of those stocks' shares in PIB in the analyzed period or which recorded a decrease in government debt stock shares in PIB - and, separately, on Romania as well.

  17. Problems Regarding The Possible Withdrawal Of Some Member States From The Euro Zone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silviu Marius ȘEITAN

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available By taking into consideration the actual difficult macroeconomic situation of some of the Member States of the Euro Zone, as it was already published, as a scenario, the possibility of the avoiding of the member State position, the present paper will propose, as analysis subjects, the main impact elements on the other European national economies of such producing scenario. The main risks associated of such scenario, even if such process will be an administrated one, are the following ones: - the depreciation of the Euro as a result of the economic instability perception at the Euro Zone level; - the reducing of the European Budget incomes; - the reducing of the European Central banks working founds; - a very important risk which also have the character of political risk and which have an important position being a source of complex and difficult European macroeconomic problems, could be the precedent thus created towards other member states possible process of avoiding the member state position.

  18. Priorities in national space strategies and governance of the member states of the European Space Agency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adriaensen, Maarten; Giannopapa, Christina; Sagath, Daniel; Papastefanou, Anastasia

    2015-12-01

    The European Space Agency (ESA) has twenty Member States with a variety of strategic priorities and governance structures regarding their space activities. A number of countries engage in space activities exclusively though ESA, while others have also their own national space programme. Some consider ESA as their prime space agency and others have additionally their own national agency with respective programmes. The main objective of this paper is to provide an up-to date overview and a holistic assessment of strategic priorities and the national space governance structures in 20 ESA Member States. This analysis and assessment has been conducted by analysing the Member States public documents, information provided at ESA workshop on this topic and though unstructured interviews. The paper is structured to include two main elements: priorities and trends in national space strategies and space governance in ESA Member States. The first part of this paper focuses on the content and analysis of the national space strategies and indicates the main priorities and trends in Member States. The priorities are categorised with regards to technology domains, the role of space in the areas of sustainability and the motivators that boost engagement in space. These vary from one Member State to another and include with different levels of engagement in technology domains amongst others: science and exploration, navigation, Earth observation, human space flight, launchers, telecommunications, and integrated applications. Member States allocate a different role of space as enabling tool adding to the advancement of sustainability areas including: security, resources, environment and climate change, transport and communication, energy, and knowledge and education. The motivators motivating reasoning which enhances or hinders space engagement also differs. The motivators identified are industrial competitiveness, job creation, technology development and transfer, social benefits

  19. IAEA technical co-operation with least developed Member States. Special evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    The main purposes of this evaluation were to: Review the overall situation with regard to IAEA technical co-operation with least developed Member States, including specific conditions in nuclear-related activities prevailing in these countries, approaches and practices used by the IAEA in providing assistance to LDCs, and the main results of the co-operation in question. Identify any adjustments to technical co-operation with LDC Member States that may strengthen this activity

  20. Predicting moisture state of timber members in a continuously varying climate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svensson, Staffan; Turk, Goran; Hozjan, Tomaz

    2011-01-01

    A prerequisite for a sensible estimate of moisture induced stresses in timber members is an accurate prediction of the members’ moisture states during their service life. There are, however, an infinite number of possible moisture states for an arbitrary timber member in a natural varying climate...... the realizations were made, are based on a fully coupled transport model including a model for the influential sorption hysteresis of wood. A format containing required information suitable for assessing the “moisture” action on timber members is proposed. In addition it is illustrated how a model of high...

  1. Council Regulation (EC) No. 1099/2009: State of the Art and Its Application in a Local Health Unit in Piedmont, Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paolucci, Ginevra; Cagnasso, Daniela; Cassani, Francesco

    2015-01-01

    In the last decade, the European Union has reinforced the concept of animal welfare throughout the food chain, from breeding to slaughtering. Studies and assessments of economic nature led to the adoption of Regulation EC 1099/2009 and at the end of 2014 this regulation will be applied to all the members involved in the food chain. For this reason several local health units organized different initiatives. The local health unit of Turin no. 4 (ASLTO4) has developed a project aimed to train food business operators (FBO) to fulfill all the criteria developed in this Regulation. This initiative was divided into four steps: i) communication to the companies about the criteria of the new regulation; ii) a training course for official veterinarians; iii) slaughterhouse audits in order to get information about animal welfare; iv) and a training course for the personnel involved in slaughterhouses. The purpose of this paper was to report the results of the audits in order to identify critical points of structural, instrumental and documentary facilities. Then, the results can be compared with similar studies in order to develop common strategies and intervention areas. PMID:27800389

  2. Council Regulation (EC No. 1099/2009: state of the art and its application in a local health unit in Piedmont, Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ginevra Paolucci

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In the last decade, the European Union has reinforced the concept of animal welfare throughout the food chain, from breeding to slaughtering. Studies and assessments of economic nature led to the adoption of Regulation EC 1099/2009 and at the end of 2014 this regulation will be applied to all the members involved in the food chain. For this reason several local health units organized different initiatives. The local health unit of Turin no. 4 (ASLTO4 has developed a project aimed to train food business operators (FBO to fulfill all the criteria developed in this Regulation. This initiative was divided into four steps: i communication to the companies about the criteria of the new regulation; ii a training course for official veterinarians; iii slaughterhouse audits in order to get information about animal welfare; iv and a training course for the personnel involved in slaughterhouses. The purpose of this paper was to report the results of the audits in order to identify critical points of structural, instrumental and documentary facilities. Then, the results can be compared with similar studies in order to develop common strategies and intervention areas.

  3. The EU internal market - a stake or a tool in European-Russian gas relations. The case of new member states gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loskot-Stachota, Agata; Ramsay, William C.

    2011-06-01

    Since 2010 we have observed a new quality in EU energy policy. It is related to the European Commission's more or less direct engagement in the bilateral gas relations of a part of the new member states - Poland, Bulgaria and Lithuania - with Russia. Although the long term outcome of this activity of the EC is as yet unclear it seems to be important for several reasons. Firstly it might increase the possibilities of the enforcement of the EU's directives liberalising the internal gas market and specifically their implementation in individual gas agreements with suppliers from third countries (Gazprom). The consistency and determination of the EC in this field may be decisive for the future direction and depth of the liberalization of the EU gas market. Furthermore, present developments may lead to an increase in EU and specifically EC competence in the field of energy policy, especially its external dimension. So what lessons can we draw from recent Commission activities on the following issues: - Implementing EU gas market 2. and 3. liberalization packages and their main provisions - EU energy policy and its external dimension - recent developments and the EU's role - EU-Russia gas relations - where Russian and EU interests diverge. (authors)

  4. Family Benefits In Member States Of The European Union: A Comparative Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stănescu Simona Maria

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The article intends to be a screening of family benefits in the 28 Member States of the European Union (EU and to contribute to the research of shared trends with respect to family approach in these countries. Four types of family benefits including eight distinctive categories are analysed: child-benefit, child care allowances, child-raising allowances, and other benefits (birth and adoption grants, allowance for single parents, special allowances for children with disabilities, advance payments for maintenance and other allowances. The paper is based on primary and secondary analysis of 28 sets of national data provided through the European Union's Mutual Information System on Social Protection (MISSOC. Three categories of member states are considered: founder member states of the EU, other “old” member states, and the new Central and Eastern ones. Chronological development of national regulations with impact on family benefits is analysed in connection with the moment of becoming a member state. Various forms of family benefits legislation and their main subjects of interest are further researched. The last part of the article looks at the coverage of family benefits. Seven member states operate in this respect based on regulations adopted before EU accession. Belgium, Finland, and Lithuania have the “most preserved” family regulations per category of member states. The first three topics of family regulations are: child, family, and allowance / benefit. The most frequently provided family benefits are: birth and adoption grants, and special allowance for children with disabilities. All eight family benefits are provided in France, Finland, Hungary, and Slovenia. Only two types of family benefits are available in Ireland, Spain, and Cyprus.

  5. Impact of multi-tiered pharmacy benefits on attitudes of plan members with chronic disease states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nair, Kavita V; Ganther, Julie M; Valuck, Robert J; McCollum, Marianne M; Lewis, Sonya J

    2002-01-01

    To evaluate the effects of 2- and 3-tiered pharmacy benefit plans on member attitudes regarding their pharmacy benefits. We performed a mail survey and cross-sectional comparison of the outcome variables in a large managed care population in the western United States. Participants were persons with chronic disease states who were in 2- or 3-tier copay drug plans. A random sample of 10,662 was selected from a total of 25,008 members who had received 2 or more prescriptions for a drug commonly used to treat one of 5 conditions: hypertension, diabetes, dyslipidemia, gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), or arthritis. Statistical analysis included bivariate comparisons and regression analysis of the factors affecting member attitudes, including satisfaction, loyalty, health plan choices, and willingness to pay a higher out-of-pocket cost for medications. A response rate of 35.8% was obtained from continuously enrolled plan members. Respondents were older, sicker, and consumed more prescriptions than nonrespondents. There were significant differences in age and health plan characteristics between 2- and 3-tier plan members: respondents aged 65 or older represented 11.7% of 2-tier plan members and 54.7% of 3-tier plan members, and 10.0% of 2-tier plan members were in Medicare+Choice plans versus 61.4% in Medicare+Choice plans for 3-tier plan members (Pbrand-name medications, in general, they were not willing to pay more than 10 dollars (in addition to their copayment amount) for these medications. Older respondents and sicker individuals (those with higher scores on the Chronic Disease Indicator) appeared to have more positive attitudes toward their pharmacy benefit plans in general. Higher reported incomes by respondents were also associated with greater satisfaction with prescription drug coverage and increased loyalty toward the pharmacy benefit plan. Conversely, the more individuals spent for either their health care or prescription medications, the less satisfied

  6. An overview of Compassionate Use Programs in the European Union member states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balasubramanian, Gayathri; Morampudi, Suman; Chhabra, Pankdeep; Gowda, Arun; Zomorodi, Behsad

    2016-11-01

    The past decade witnessed rapid development of novel drugs and therapeutic biological agents. The marketing authorization for novel therapies is often time consuming and distressing for patients. Earlier clinical trials were the only way to access new drugs under development. However, not every patient meets the enrolment criteria, and participation is difficult for patients with life-threatening, long-lasting or seriously debilitating diseases like rare diseases. Early access programs like "Compassionate Use Program (CUP)" have generated alternative channels for such patients. The European Medical Agency provides regulations and recommendations for compassionate use, upon which every European Union (EU) member state has developed its own rules and regulations. Despite previous reviews and studies, the available information is limited and gaps exist. This literature review explores CUP in 28 EU member states. Data was collected through literature review and use of country-specific search terms from the healthcare domain. Data sources were not limited to databases and articles published in journals, but also included grey literature. The results implied that CUP was present in 20 EU member states (71%). Of 28 EU states, 18 (∼64%) had nationalized regulations and processes were well-defined. Overall, this review identified CUP and its current status and legislation in 28 EU member states. The established legislation for CUP in the EU member states suggest their willingness to adopt processes that facilitate earlier and better access to new medicines. Further research and periodic reviews are warranted to understand the contemporary and future regulatory trends in early access programs.

  7. New Member States of the EU and EMU – Convergence and the Financial Crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ines Kersan-Škabić

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The theory of the Optimum Currency Area (OCA clearly accentuates the need for common economic characteristics among states if it is to work well. This paper analyses the extent to which the New Member States of the European Union (NMS satisfy the criteria of nominal and real convergence. Four of these Member States have introduced the Euro, whereas the rest are at different stages of becoming part of the Economic and Monetary Union (EMU. A financial crisis of global proportions implies a number of economic problems in all of the Member States of the EU, especially in the NMS where the new issues have added up to the already grave consequences of the transition period. What is needed is more unity and co-operation within the EU as well as significant financial aid from the IMF and the EU to the New Member States in order to sustain stability in the crisis period. The crisis has again raised the issue of introducing the Euro since membership of the EMU would buffer the effects of the financial crisis provided that the business cycles of the Member States were synchronized. Otherwise an independent monetary policy represents a key instrument in the liquidity regulation of the economy.

  8. THE IMPACT OF FISCAL AND BUDGETARY POLICIES ON THE UNEMPLOYMENT RATE IN THE EU MEMBER STATES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ALEXANDRU DRONCA

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The tax system is one of the main tools by which a State exercises sovereignty through the collection, allocation and redistribution of revenues in a given territory. This paper aims to highlight how the characteristics of tax systems, in the Member States of the European Union, affect the unemployment rate. To achieve this goal, indicators for the 28 Member States of the European Union for the period 2004-2012 where used in the study. Starting with an analysis of panel data models, developed using a range of indicators specific for tax systems (budget revenues, budget expenditures, public investment, direct taxes, indirect taxes and social contributions,as exogenous variables and the unemployment rate, as an endogenous variable. The results show that the fiscal and budgetary policies of EU Member States can play a positive role in reducing unemployment, provided that their application and use will meet certain standards and performance criteria and do not harm business.

  9. Agreement on the privileges and immunities of the Agency: Acceptances by Member States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-10-01

    The document lists the 61 Member States which, by 1 October 1989, had accepted the Agreement on the Privileges and Immunities of the International Atomic Energy Agency, as provided for in Section 38 thereof. The list is followed by the texts of such reservations to the Agreement as some of the Members in question made when depositing their respective instruments of acceptance with the Director General

  10. Comparing pharmaceutical pricing and reimbursement policies in Croatia to the European Union Member States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogler, Sabine; Habl, Claudia; Bogut, Martina; Vončina, Luka

    2011-01-01

    Aim To perform a comparative analysis of the pharmaceutical pricing and reimbursement systems in Croatia and the 27 European Union (EU) Member States. Methods Knowledge about the pharmaceutical systems in Croatia and the 27 EU Member States was acquired by literature review and primary research with stakeholders. Results Pharmaceutical prices are controlled at all levels in Croatia, which is also the case in 21 EU Member States. Like many EU countries, Croatia also applies external price referencing, ie, compares prices with other countries. While the wholesale remuneration by a statutorily regulated linear mark-up is applied in Croatia and in several EU countries, the pharmacy compensation for dispensing reimbursable medicines in the form of a flat rate service fee in Croatia is rare among EU countries, which usually apply a linear or regressive pharmacy mark-up scheme. Like in most EU countries, the Croatian Social Insurance reimburses specific medicines at 100%, whereas patients are charged co-payments for other reimbursable medicines. Criteria for reimbursement include the medicine’s importance from the public health perspective, its therapeutic value, and relative effectiveness. In Croatia and in many EU Member States, reimbursement is based on a reference price system. Conclusion The Croatian pharmaceutical system is similar to those in the EU Member States. Key policies, like external price referencing and reference price systems, which have increasingly been introduced in EU countries are also applied in Croatia and serve the same purpose: to ensure access to medicines while containing public pharmaceutical expenditure. PMID:21495202

  11. Comparing pharmaceutical pricing and reimbursement policies in Croatia to the European Union Member States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogler, Sabine; Habl, Claudia; Bogut, Martina; Voncina, Luka

    2011-04-15

    To perform a comparative analysis of the pharmaceutical pricing and reimbursement systems in Croatia and the 27 European Union (EU) Member States. Knowledge about the pharmaceutical systems in Croatia and the 27 EU Member States was acquired by literature review and primary research with stakeholders. Pharmaceutical prices are controlled at all levels in Croatia, which is also the case in 21 EU Member States. Like many EU countries, Croatia also applies external price referencing, i.e., compares prices with other countries. While the wholesale remuneration by a statutorily regulated linear mark-up is applied in Croatia and in several EU countries, the pharmacy compensation for dispensing reimbursable medicines in the form of a flat rate service fee in Croatia is rare among EU countries, which usually apply a linear or regressive pharmacy mark-up scheme. Like in most EU countries, the Croatian Social Insurance reimburses specific medicines at 100%, whereas patients are charged co-payments for other reimbursable medicines. Criteria for reimbursement include the medicine's importance from the public health perspective, its therapeutic value, and relative effectiveness. In Croatia and in many EU Member States, reimbursement is based on a reference price system. The Croatian pharmaceutical system is similar to those in the EU Member States. Key policies, like external price referencing and reference price systems, which have increasingly been introduced in EU countries are also applied in Croatia and serve the same purpose: to ensure access to medicines while containing public pharmaceutical expenditure.

  12. Econometric Assessment of the Degree of Economic Convergence between Member States of the European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Mădălina OPRIȚESCU

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available One of the important objectives of the European Union is to support economic growth based on economic, social and territorial cohesion between Member States. Due to the accession of relatively poor countries to the European Union, maintaining cohesion is and will remain a major challenge, with cohesion policy having to support the reduction of imbalances between the old Member States and also support the development of less developed regions. One of the main measures adopted by the European authorities emphasizes the importance of increasing the degree of economic convergence between Member States by promoting a common market along with an economic and monetary union. In addition, increasing productivity and convergence within the EU are the foundations of the Lisbon Strategy and remain an important pillar of the Europe 2020 Growth Strategy.

  13. Why the EU-15 Maintains Higher CIT Rates than the New Member States?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karpowicz Andrzej

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The European Union is not a homogenous area. This lack of homogeneity extends to taxes, which vary across jurisdictions. On average, Western Europe imposes significantly higher taxes on capital than New Member States, which joined the Community in 2004 and 2007. Often this fact is simply taken for granted. However, there are several arguments that can explain this variance. Although several of these arguments are well known and have been researched, they have not been assessed in combination, or used in a comparative analysis of corporate income tax (CIT rates between EU member states. Because of interest in harmonizing CIT throughout the EU, the roots of divergent CIT is of particular and timely value. Therefore, this article we attempts to demonstrate the differences in CIT rates in the EU-15 and New Member States. In so doing the general characteristics of these country grouping is identified, and then discussed in the context of the taxation theory.

  14. COORDINATES OF THE FISCAL POLICY IN THE MEMBER STATES OF EU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DOBROTĂ GABRIELA

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Regardless of the mode how is regarded the fiscal policy – a fundamental tool in the procurement of public funds, element determinant of economic growth, a means of influence of the consumption, saving or investments, it remains an important component of the general policy of the state, which can exert influences and also at the level of other states. Tax systems used by Member States of the European Union may become similar or different as a result of centralized or decentralized decisions, ie by mimicking successful practices in taxation or adapt to emerging standards. Each member state shall establish the coordinates of its own tax system, which creates the premises for tax competition. Important is the fact that it must be fair and transparent, otherwise being registered negative effects both in terms of the tax base and in that of revenues. Tax competition in the European Union is normal, observing that tax reforms are common especially after the entry of the new Member States. In this paper we performed analysis it refers to tax competition manifested in direct taxes, tax side testing of the European Union member states. Should be noted that tax competition manifestation occurs in the field of indirect taxes (which we will study done in future research, trying to look for the answer to "competition or tax harmonization in the EU".

  15. An overview of the EU Member States support schemes for the promotion of renewable energy sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poullikkas, Andreas; Kourtis, George; Hadjipaschalis, Ioannis [Electricity Authority of Cyprus, P.O. Box 24506, 1399 Nicosia (Cyprus)

    2012-07-01

    In this work, an overview of the European Union (EU) Member States support schemes for the promotion of renewable energy sources (RES) is provided. In particular, the status of the electricity generation capacity as well as the RES mixture in the Member States is described. Moreover, the different support schemes such as, investment support, feed-in tariffs (FiTs), tradable green certificates, and fiscal and financial measures which the Member States have adopted for the promotion of RES technologies are discussed in detail. Some Member States are implementing a single support scheme for the promotion of RES for power generation (RES-E), e.g., seven Member States use FiTs, or implement a hybrid support scheme by combining all or some of the four categories of the RES-E supporting schemes. Although, these support schemes have increased the penetration of the RES-E technologies in the Member States, still there is a long way in order to achieve the 2020 target. The reason for this may be that the way these schemes have been used so far, i.e., either as single support schemes or in combination of FiTs or tradable green certificates with investment support and fiscal and financial measures, has been ineffective. A more effective combination could be a hybrid scheme consisting of FiTs with tradable green certificates measures, as in the case of Italy and United Kingdom, that will increase the RES-E penetration and eliminate the possible technical problems which will arise from this increased penetration and have an effect in the stability of the power system.

  16. Should EU Citizens Living in other Member States Vote there in National Elections?

    OpenAIRE

    CAYALA, Philippe; SETH, Catriona; BAUBÖCK, Rainer

    2012-01-01

    The core right of EU citizenship is freedom of movement within the territory of the Union. But EU citizens who live in a member state other than their homeland cannot vote in the national elections of that country unless they first acquire its citizenship through naturalisation. In several member states they also lose their right to vote in national elections of their country of origin when they have lived abroad for too long. A group of EU citizens has started a European Citizens' Initiative...

  17. Member States in Top Gear. Opportunities for national policies to reduce GHG emissions in transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Essen, H.; Den Boer, E.; Warringa, G.

    2012-10-15

    National sustainable transport policies in EU Member States are compared, with a focus on both current legislation and long-term climate policy. The study is input for the conference 'Keep moving, towards sustainable mobility' to be held in Rotterdam, October 11, 2012, and organised by the European Environmental and Sustainable Development Advisory Councils (EEAC) and the Dutch Council for the Environment and Infrastructure (Rli). The study reviews the main trends in transport and climate policy in EU Member States, for ten of which an in-depth analysis of relevant policies was also performed.

  18. Development and localisation of casemix applications for inpatient hospital activity in EU member states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiley, M M

    1999-01-01

    The successful infiltration of casemix techniques across geographical, systemic and cultural boundaries provides an interesting and timely example of the translation of research evidence into health policy development. This paper explores the specifics of this policy development by reviewing the application of casemix techniques within the acute hospital systems of European Union member states. The fact that experimentation with or application of casemix measures can be reported for the majority of European Union member states would suggest that the deployment of these measures can be expected to continue to expand within these health systems into the new millennium.

  19. Renewables in Transport: Directive 2009/28/EC - Devils in its Details

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilkin, S.

    2009-01-01

    As part of the 3*20 targets reached in December 2008, the EC decided that the EU should, by 2020, source 20% of its Final Energy Consumption (FEC) renewably. Working towards this aim should in general contribute to the primary objective of reducing emissions, but there are two major issues with the implementation of the target in the Transport sector which run the risk of being irrelevant or even counterproductive. Firstly, the constraining stipulation that all Member States should source 10% of their Transport sector FEC renewably will be a struggle for some Member States to achieve, forcing them to invest large amounts of money which would be better spent elsewhere. Secondly, the relevant legislation gives unrepresentative weight to the benefits of Electric Vehicles (EVs), meaning that Member States which invest in EVs may give the illusion of having reached their national renewable targets without actually having done so. This paper is based on EC Directive 2009/28/EC (henceforth referred to as 'the Directive') and the National Renewable Energy Action Plans of Denmark, France, Germany, Italy, Spain, and the UK which were submitted in response. Each EU Member State has an individual target for the proportion of its FEC which is to come from renewable sources in 2020. The targets are based on the countries? existing renewable shares (as shown in Table 1 below) and their supposed capacity for improvement. Together, they give an average EU-wide target of 20% across the 27 Member States. (author)

  20. A method for the correction of the feed-in tariff price for cogeneration based on a comparison between Croatia and EU Member States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uran, Vedran; Krajcar, Slavko

    2009-01-01

    The European Commission has adopted Directive 2004/8/EC on the promotion of cogeneration, which the EU Member States, as well as candidates including Croatia, were obliged to accept. Among other terms and conditions, the Directive requires certain support mechanisms, such as feed-in tariff prices and premiums added to market electricity prices. In this paper, the cost effectiveness of selling electricity at the feed-in tariff prices in the selected EU Member States is compared to selling it on the European electricity market, with or without premiums. The results of this comparison will indicate whether correction of the Croatian feed-in tariff price to a higher value would be justified. The cost effectiveness ratio of a cogeneration unit upgraded with mean reverting and jump diffusion processes is used for comparison. At the end of this paper, a method is suggested for the correction of feed-in tariff prices, with examples of corrected prices for the years 2008 and 2009. Such corrections have been proven to be justified and are compared to the feed-in tariff prices in most of the selected EU Member States.

  1. Programming Amazon EC2

    CERN Document Server

    Vliet, Jurg

    2011-01-01

    If you plan to use Amazon Web Services to run applications in the cloud, the end-to-end approach in this book will save you needless trial and error. You'll find practical guidelines for designing and building applications with Amazon Elastic Compute Cloud (EC2) and a host of supporting AWS tools, with a focus on critical issues such as load balancing, monitoring, and automation. How do you move an existing application to AWS, or design your application so that it scales effectively? How much storage will you require? Programming Amazon EC2 not only helps you get started, it will also keep y

  2. 12 CFR 723.20 - How can a state supervisory authority develop and enforce a member business loan regulation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... state regulation minimizes the risk and accomplishes the overall objectives of NCUA's member business... and enforce a member business loan regulation? 723.20 Section 723.20 Banks and Banking NATIONAL CREDIT UNION ADMINISTRATION REGULATIONS AFFECTING CREDIT UNIONS MEMBER BUSINESS LOANS § 723.20 How can a state...

  3. The North Carolina State Health Plan for Teachers and State Employees: Strategies in Creating Financial Stability While Improving Member Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Dee; Horner, Beth

    2018-01-01

    The North Carolina State Health Plan provides health care coverage to more than 700,000 members, including teachers, state employees, retirees, current and former lawmakers, state university and community college personnel, and their dependents. The State Health Plan is a division of the North Carolina Department of State Treasurer, self-insured, and exempt from the Employee Retirement Income Security Act as a government-sponsored plan. With health care costs rising at rates greater than funding, the Plan must take measures to stem cost growth while ensuring access to quality health care. The Plan anticipates focusing on strategic initiatives that drive results and cost savings while improving member health to protect the Plan's financial future. ©2018 by the North Carolina Institute of Medicine and The Duke Endowment. All rights reserved.

  4. Family Members' Views on Seeking Placement in State-Supported Living Centers in Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colvin, Alex D.; Larke, Patricia J.

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the factors that influence family members' decisions to seek placement for relatives with intellectual and/or developmental disabilities (ID/DD) into state-supported living centers in Texas. The sample included 51 family caregivers between the ages of 26 and 95. Using descriptive statistics, correlation, and inferential…

  5. Competence-building in foreign subsidiaries: the case of new EU member states

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Filippov, S.; Duysters, G.M.

    2011-01-01

    This article examines patterns of competence-building in foreign subsidiaries located in new member states of the European Union. Among the theoretical foundations of this paper are the concepts of dynamic capabilities and subsidiary-specific advantages. We consider subsidiary competences as a

  6. Competence building in foreign subsidiaries : The case of new EU member states

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Filippov, S.; Duijsters, G.M.

    2011-01-01

    This article examines patterns of competence-building in foreign subsidiaries located in new member states of the European Union. Among the theoretical foundations of this paper are the concepts of dynamic capabilities and subsidiary-specific advantages. We consider subsidiary competences as a

  7. Member States must apply most favoured nation treatment under EU law

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Groot, I.M.

    2014-01-01

    According to case law from the Court of Justice of the European Union (CJEU), a Member State is not obliged to enact most favoured nation treatment if a tax treaty prescribes a certain type of tax treatment (bilateral most favoured nation treatment). In this article, the author discusses whether EU

  8. How IAEA NKM Approaches Support the Building and Sustaining Nuclear Capacity in Member States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grosbois, John de

    2014-01-01

    Implementing NKM in nuclear organizations by helping Member State organizations to: • develop policy and programmes; • identify critical knowledge; • evaluate knowledge gaps, knowledge loss risks; • implement effective approaches to prevent knowledge gaps and loss; • Integrate KM thinking and practices into the management system

  9. Economic separatism in the European Union member states as a factor of regional security

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A A Shakhina

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the examination of the economic separatism problem in the European Union member states. It considers specific of the regional separatist movements as exemplified by the conflicts in Scotland, Catalonia, Bavaria, Flanders. Various points of view on the relevance of the budgetary separatism for the European integration process are given in the article.

  10. Job creation and the quality of working life : a preliminary study from six member states

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Symes, V.; Kurjenoja, J.; Fouquet, A.; Hoffman, H.; Haam, F. de; Smit, A.; Collado, J.C.; Cressey, P.

    1997-01-01

    This study was designed to explore the question "Is quality of work an important factor in explaining the success of job creation schemes?". This was done by looking at the results of previous evaluations in six Member States. Nine million people in the European Union were long-term unemployed in

  11. 32 CFR 720.21 - Members or civilian employees subpoenaed as witnesses in State courts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) DEPARTMENT OF THE NAVY PERSONNEL DELIVERY OF PERSONNEL; SERVICE OF PROCESS AND SUBPOENAS; PRODUCTION OF OFFICIAL RECORDS Service of Process and Subpoenas Upon Personnel § 720.21 Members or civilian employees... (e.g., Medical Care Recovery Act cases), follow the procedures described in § 720.22. If State...

  12. Convergence of the EU Member States towards the EMU requirements, 1986 to 1993

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guldager, Peter

    1997-01-01

    that between 1986 and 1990 France, Ireland, Spain, Portugal and the United Kingdom progressed substantially towards convergence. Some backsliding, however, occured between the years 1991 to 1993. The performance of Greece deteriorated, while that of the other EU Member States remained largely stationary...

  13. Member States and International Legal Responsibility : Developments of the Institutional Veil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brölmann, C.

    2015-01-01

    The ‘institutional veil’ of international organizations is the linchpin for legal analysis and appraisal of the role and interrelation of international organizations, member States and organs. Through this lens the article examines in semi-broad strokes the position of international organizations’

  14. Study on Environmental Fiscal Reform Potential in 14 EU Member States: Main Report & Appendices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hogg, Dominic; Andersen, Mikael Skou; Elliott, Timothy

    2015-01-01

    Environment Agency between 2010 and 2013 on the potential for environmental fiscal reform in four EU Member States affected by the economic crisis. As with the last study for the European Commission, the intention of this study is to indicate where this potential may lie, and to demonstrate the order...

  15. Medical abortion practices: a survey of National Abortion Federation members in the United States

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiegerinck, Melanie M. J.; Jones, Heidi E.; O'Connell, Katharine; Lichtenberg, E. Steve; Paul, Maureen; Westhoff, Carolyn L.

    2008-01-01

    Little is known about clinical implementation of medical abortion in the United States following approval of mifepristone as an abortifacient by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in 2000. We collected information regarding medical abortion practices of National Abortion Federation (NAF) members

  16. EU membership and the press: An analysis of the Brussels correspondents from the new member states

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lecheler, S.

    2008-01-01

    In light of the 2004 and 2007 enlargement of the European Union with 12 new member states we need to reconsider what we know about the Brussels press corps. Brussels journalists play a pivotal role in the European integration process. They act as agents of Europeanization, wedged between complex

  17. POSSIBLE RISKS OF THE WITHDRAWAL OF A MEMBER STATE FROM THE EUROZONE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silviu-Marius SEITAN

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available By taking into consideration the actual difficult macroeconomic situation of some of the Member States of the Euro Zone, as it was already published, as a scenario, about the possibility of the avoiding the member State position, the present paper will propose, as analyzing subjects, the main impact elements on the other European national economies of such producing scenario.The main risks associated of such scenario, even if such process is an administrated one, are the following ones: the depreciation of the Euro as a result of the economic instability perception at the Euro Zone level; the reducing of the European Budget incomes; the reducing of the European Central banks working founds; a very important risk which also have the character of a political risk and which have an important position being a source of complex and difficult European macroeconomic problems and also which could become the precedent thus created towards other member states possible process of avoiding the member state position.

  18. Financial integration of stock markets among new EU member states and the euro area

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Babecký, Jan; Komárek, L.; Komárková, Z.

    -, č. 849 (2008), s. 1-27 ISSN 0083-7350 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70850503 Keywords : stock markets * convergence * new EU member states Subject RIV: AH - Economics http://www2.warwick.ac.uk/fac/soc/economics/ research /papers/twerp_849.pdf

  19. Competitors or collaborators: a comparison of commercial diplomacy policies and practices of EU member states.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stadman, A.; Ruel, Hubertus Johannes Maria; Ruel, H.J.M.

    2012-01-01

    Commercial diplomacy within the EU is currently a matter for the individual EU member states (MS). This results in different policies and practices. But to what extent do they really differ? This chapter presents the results of a comparative study on EU MS commercial diplomacy policies and

  20. World Health Organization Member States and Open Health Data: An Observational Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles J Greenberg

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background Open health data has implications for clinical care, research, public health, and health policy at regional, national, and global levels. No published attempts have been made to determine, collectively, whether WHO member states and governments have embraced the promise and effort required to officially share open health data. The observational study will provide evidence that World Health Organization (WHO member states individually and collectively have adopted open data recommended principles, providing access to open health data. Methods Using the WHO list of member states (n=194, the researchers identified the presence of open health data or initiatives. With each country, the following types of official government web pages were recorded: a Ministry of Health web page; a conspicuous link on a government web page to open health data; additional government health web sites; national government-sponsored open data repositories; unique attributes of national health data web sites; and adherence to the principles of open government data for health. A supplemental PDF file provides a representation of data used for analysis and observations. Our complete data is available at: https://goo.gl/Kwj7mb Observations and Discussion Open health data is easily discoverable in less than one-third of the WHO member states. 13 nations demonstrate the principle to provide comprehensive open data. Only 16 nations distribute primary, non-aggregated health data. 24 % of the WHO observed member states are providing some health data in a non-proprietary formats such as comma-separated values. The sixth, seventh, and eighth open government data principles for health, representing universal access, non-proprietary formats, and non-patent protection, are observed in about one-third of the WHO member states. While there are examples of organized national open health data, no more than a one-third minority of the world’s nations have portals set up to

  1. Periodic Safety Review of Nuclear Power Plants: Experience of Member States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-04-01

    Routine reviews of nuclear power plant operation (including modifications to hardware and procedures, operating experience, plant management and personnel competence) and special reviews following major events of safety significance are the primary means of safety verification. In addition, many Member States of the IAEA have initiated systematic safety reassessments, termed periodic safety reviews, of nuclear power plants, to assess the cumulative effects of plant ageing and plant modifications, operating experience, technical developments and siting aspects. The reviews include an assessment of plant design and operation against current safety standards and practices, and they have the objective of ensuring a high level of safety throughout the plant's operating lifetime. They are complementary to the routine and special safety reviews and do not replace them. Periodic safety reviews of nuclear power plants are considered an effective way to obtain an overall view of actual plant safety, and to determine reasonable and practical modifications that should be made in order to maintain a high level of safety. They can be used as a means of identifying time limiting features of the plant in order to determine nuclear power plant operation beyond the designed lifetime. The periodic safety review process can be used to support the decision making process for long term operation or licence renewal. Since 1994, the use of periodic safety reviews by Member States has substantially broadened and confirmed its benefits. Periodic safety review results have, for example, been used by some Member States to help provide a basis for continued operation beyond the current licence term, to communicate more effectively with stakeholders regarding nuclear power plant safety, and to help identify changes to plant operation that enhance safety. This IAEA-TECDOC is intended to assist Member States in the implementation of a periodic safety review. This publication complements the

  2. Regulatory competences of the EC in the energy sector; Regelungszustaendigkeiten der EG im Bereich Energie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baur, J.F.; Blask, H. [Koeln Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer das Recht der Europaeischen Gemeinschaften und Inst. fuer Energierecht

    2002-09-01

    In the light of necessary amendments of the Internal Electricity Market Directive and the Internal Gas Market Directive, a debate has evolved within the European Community about lawmaking powers for the energy sector. Whereas the Member States refer to the EC Treaty and deny any lawmaking powers of the EC for the energy sector, the EC defends its position that the EC should have and can derive lawmaking competence for energy policy decisions from the EC Treaty. The author reviews the situation from the legal point of view based on existing provisions and gives an outlook on a possible outcome of the ''constitutional convention'' of the EC which is to meet for discussing a revision of the EC Treaty. (orig./CB) [German] In Bezug auf die geplanten Aenderungen der Binnenmarktrichtlinien fuer Elektrizitaet und Gas werden moegliche Kompetenzen der EG im Bereich der Energiepolitik und ihre Grenzen eroertert. In einer Schlussbetrachtung werden die Ergebnisse zusammengefasst und ein kurzer Ausblick auf die Arbeit des 'Verfassungskonvents' der EU und die anstehende Vertragsrevision geworfen, in deren Rahmen die Implikation einer eigenstaendigen Spezialkompetenz im Bereich Energie erneut thematisiert werden koennte. (orig./CB)

  3. Comparative Analysis of Minimum Income Guaranteed Schemes within the Member States of the European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona Maria Stănescu

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The commitment of the European Union (EU Member States towards accomplishing the commonly agreed goals (1997 European Employment Strategy, Lisbon 2000, and Europe 2020 is supported by a continuous assessment of domestic social policy tendencies. From this perspective, the main goal of the paper is to comparatively analyse the last safety net for the most vulnerable people. The screening of guaranteed minimum resources provides an overview of the applicable statutory basis, schemes in place, types of social benefits concerned, financing and organisation mechanisms, eligibility conditions, duration and time limits. As methodology, the article uses the MISSOC database, and due to the current lack of comparable information, recommendations for further harmonisation are included. 20 of the EU member states follow the minimum income guaranteed (MIG regulations adopted already during the pre-accession period and updated after the accession phase. Seven types of domestic regulations are in force, among which the most frequent ones are acts and laws (ten countries. Common concepts used are social, and assistance. Provided allowances are mainly focused on elderly people, unemployment benefits, pensions, allowances supporting various house related costs, and benefits for disabled people. In line with 2007, 2010, and 2014 data, the financing of guaranteed minimum resources continues to remain mainly central with a shift in 2014 towards mixed financing (both central and local. The management in 2014 continues to be mainly centrally organised but the local stakeholders are also empowered. The residency is the most frequent eligibility condition. No nationality is required in 24 EU member states, for all allowances (21 countries or for particular ones (three countries. 17 member states require no age conditions. Unlimited guaranteed minimum resources were provided in 2014 as long as the eligibility criteria were met in 23 EU member states.

  4. Analysis of replies to an IAEA questionnaire on regulatory practices in Member States with nuclear power programmes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-10-01

    The survey of regulatory practices in Member States with nuclear power programmes by means of a questionnaire is the first stage of the programme developed by the IAEA to assist the Member States in the enhancement of their regulatory practices. The questionnaire, drafted by IAEA staff members and consultants, consisted of 120 detailed questions and its structure corresponds approximately to the Structure of Code on the Safety of Nuclear Power Plants: Governmental Organizations (IAEA Safety Series No. 50-C-G-Rev.1). The questionnaire was sent to 64 Member States on 7 July 1987 and the replies received from 44 Member States have been analysed by IAEA staff members with the assistance of two consultants in order to identify the main differences in approach and the important features of regulatory practices in Member States. This technical document is the summary report of this analysis

  5. The flags of CERN's member states in the parking lot next to the main entrance.

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1960-01-01

    CERN has always had a global mission. Its twelve founding Member States may well have been European, but the setting-up of the Laboratory owed much to the United States, for example, which wished to see the re-emergence of a strong European scientific community after the Second World War. There were thus exchanges with the American scientific community from the very start, particularly for the design of the PS. Similarly, CERN rapidly engaged in exchanges with Soviet institutes, even at the height of the Cold War. The twelve founding Member States, Belgium, Denmark, France, the Federal Republic of Germany, Greece, Italy, the Netherlands, Norway, Sweden, Switzerland, the United Kingdom and Yugoslavia (which left CERN in 1961), were joined by Austria (1959), Spain (1961, and again in 1983 having left in 1969), Portugal (1985), Finland and Poland (1991), Hungary (1992), the Czech and Slovak Republics (1993) and Bulgaria (1999)

  6. Situation and prospects of radioactive waste disposal in the member states of the European Community

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaller, K.H.; Orlowski, S.

    1990-01-01

    All Member States of the European Community with a nuclear power production programme are preparing for the disposal of radioactive waste produced in the nuclear fuel cycle and through the use of radionuclides in health care, research and industry. The situation of storage and planned, on-going - and already performed - disposal of radioactive waste in these States is first summarised. Suitable sites for disposal of radioactive waste of all categories exist in all Member States concerned. The general principles and international recommendations, and common principles, standards and requirements applicable to disposal in the European Community are then presented, followed by a description of existing disposal facilities and of those which are in an advanced planning stage, and the implementation of basic criteria by national authorities. Finally, policies and strategies for long-term storage and disposal for definitively shut-down nuclear installations, and contributions to research in this field in the ''Communities' Radioactive Waste Management Programme'' are discussed. (author)

  7. A 'sense of urgency': The EU, the EU member states and the recognition of the Palestinian state

    OpenAIRE

    Martins, Bruno Oliveira

    2015-01-01

    In the aftermath of the July-August 2014 war in Gaza, the Swedish government officially recognized the State of Palestine. This decision triggered a cascade of resolutions adopted in national parliaments of European Union member states and, eventually, led to the adoption of a European Parliament resolution supporting in principle the recognition of Palestinian statehood. Understood collectively, these efforts constitute a multifaceted European attempt to break with the status quo of the Isra...

  8. DETERMINANTS OF INTRA-INDUSTRY TRADE OF THE NEW MEMBER STATES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Sledziewska

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper aims to analyze the determinants of intra-industry trade (IIT = simultaneous export and import of similar goods produced in one industry of the New Member States (NMS defined as 14 countries accessing the EU in the years 2004 and 2007. In our empirical analysis we use panel data with variables controlling for membership of these countries in the EU. Though the time series contain the years before the EU enlargement, we mainly focus on the period since the EU-Eastern enlargement (2004-2013. We estimate the determinants for EU members and NMS what permits us to find out, whether the changes in trade specialization differ between the old and the new EU members. We expect more intensive IIT as a proof of progress of economic integration of the NMS in the framework of the EU membership. Moreover, we examine additional impact of regionalism on IIT that represents the EU Common Commercial Policy (CCP impact.

  9. THE ECONOMIC CRISIS IMPACT ON PUBLIC EXPENDITURES IN EU NEW MEMBER STATES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabau-Popa Diana Claudia

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes the main trends of public expenditures in the New Member States 12 in the last decade. We develop a synthetic analysis of the total public expenditures and also an analytical inquiry of major categories of public expenditures according to COFOG. Based on data provided by Eurostat from 2000 to 2010 we try to capture the impact of global financial crisis on the major trends of the public expenditures for new member states. Our purpose is to reveal a global view of the state of public expenditures in this group of EU countries and also we try to make a comparison between Romania and these countries considering that the stance of public finance is quite similar to the new member states. The major findings of this study are the high increase of the public expenditures for all the countries especially in 2009, due to a huge increase of the social protection expenditures. In this context we underline some correlations between the public expenditures evolution and economic growth.

  10. Mobbing in Bosnia and Herzegovina and the member states of the European Union

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodic, V.

    2016-08-01

    Mobbing as a specific form of discrimination which applies only to the labor law, is a very young branch of labor law. It began to develop during the eighties of last century. This kind of psychoterror that appears in the workplace, was first spotted, formulated and diagnosed by the Swedish psychologist of German origin prof. Dr. Heinz Lejman (Heinz Leymann July 17, 1932.; Wolfenbuttel, Germany - 1999 Stockholm, Sweden). Today, the legal regulation of mobbing in terms of prevention, rules of behavior and sanctions is indispensable to every modern democratic state. I'll make a comparison of the legislative regulation provided by BiH with several European Union member states. I will compare the results of a survey conducted by the European Foundation for the Improvement of Living and Working Condition, during the year 2000. In the European Union Member States, with the results of the questionnaire for employees, which I conducted in Bosnia and Herzegovina. The conclusion I came to in this paper is: Bosnia and Herzegovina is lagging behind a lot of European Union member states, both in terms of prevention of mobbing, as well as legislation, that is insufficient to regulate this complex issue. Results of the questionnaire for the employees that I conducted in Bosnia and Herzegovina are devastating and alarming.

  11. Budget Deficit And Public Debt - The Great Challenges For The Eu Member States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lupu, Iulia

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The financial crises had a strong impact on the public finance sectors from European countries. Even if in 2007 they started from relative good fiscal positions, the public debt and the budgetary deficits considerably deteriorated and registered historic values in European Union. With all measures taken to stimulate the economy, is a very favourable scenario to return at the taxes level from 2007. The aggregate numbers regarding the deficit and public debt incline to disguise the different evolutions of the European Union member states. The strong deterioration of fiscal indicators is caused by the automat effect of the economic productivity and also by measures taken by the governments of the member states. The past experiences can help to evaluate the fiscal measures that must be adopted in order to reduce the public debt and the deficit, without having an universal solution for all countries. Very important is the existing context for the implementation of adopted measures.

  12. The Sustanability of Public Finance in New Members States of European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian INCEU

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The issue of public finance sustainability is very important for all EU member states in the actual context after the economic crisis. This article makes an analysis of the sustainability of public finances for the new member states (which joined EU in 2004 and 2007. Firstly, we try to analyze the impact of the economic crisis on public finances sustainability. The sustainability of public finances can be reflected through the level of public debt and budget deficit for a country. For this reason the article presents the evolution of budget deficits for NMS 12 before and after the recent economic crisis. Based on the econometric regression the correlation between economic growth rate (indicator used for measuring the economic evolution and the budget deficit is revealed. Results for Romania and NMS 12 are quite similar; fact that tells us that the status of public finances is following the same trend in Romania as in the NMS 12.

  13. Public Attitudes towards Monetary Integration in Seven New Member States of the EU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szőcs Csongor-Ernő

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Existing work on euro support has provided insights into the dynamics of preferences, but most of these studies focus on older member states that already form an integral part of the Eurozone. This article inquires into public attitudes towards monetary integration in new member states of the EU: Poland, the Czech Republic, Romania, Hungary, Croatia, Bulgaria and Lithuania. Focusing on the cross-sectional variation of preferences, it applies multilevel logit regression to test three perspectives – economic, conceptual and political – using individual-level survey data and NUTS-2 regional statistical data from seven countries for 2013. One of its novel findings is that beliefs such as the one that European Monetary Union (EMU adherence will cause a spiral in economic inflation are powerful disincentives to euro support in these countries.

  14. FDI and Intra-industry Trade in the Automotive Industry in the New EU Member States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ambroziak Łukasz

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the extent to which foreign direct investment (FDI influenced intra-industry trade (IIT in automotive products in six New EU Member States (the Czech Republic, Hungary, Poland, Romania, Slovakia and Slovenia in the 1995–2014 period. Changes in IIT intensity are analysed using the Grubel-Lloyd indices. To examine the IIT pattern, IIT indices are divided into two types of trade: IIT in vertically differentiated products (low and high quality VIIT and IIT in horizontally differentiated products (HIIT. The research indicates that IIT in automotive products allowed manufacturers and consumers from the new EU Member States to benefit more from international trade. FDI inflow to the automotive sector of the NMS has been a key factor shaping IIT in automotive products.

  15. Tenth working group meeting of representatives of RCA Member States. Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-04-01

    The Tenth RCA (Regional Co-operative Agreement for Research, Development and Training Related to Nuclear Science and Technology) Working Group meeting of representatives of RCA Member States was held at the Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Beijing, between 11-14 April 1988. The report on the meeting consists of a presentation of the seven technical sessions which dealt with topics such as nuclear techniques in industry, agriculture and medicine, nuclear power and of the project reports under RCA

  16. Food production in Poland, compared to selected European Union Member States

    OpenAIRE

    Wrzesińska-Kowal, Joanna; Drabarczyk, Katarzyna

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to characterize the food sector in Poland during 2008-2012, compared to selected European Union Member States, and to define the factors affecting growth of the sector under consideration. The structure of sold production of the Polish food industry and the levels of food production in Europe are presented in the paper. Discussion covers quantitative fluctuations in the number of businesses and production value of food products, as well as employment and salaries ...

  17. Developments in Education and International Migrations in New Member States of the EU

    OpenAIRE

    Kultalahti, Olli

    2013-01-01

    The paper examines the development of education systems and international migrations in selected new Member States. The countries are Estonia, the Czech Republic and Slovakia. The paper focuses on various elements in the development of education systems making people able to cope with competition on global labour markets. The outcomes of these developments largely regulate the supply of labour and consequently its international demand. Some statistics on international migration and integratio...

  18. The Global Health Policies of the EU and its Member States: A Common Vision?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steurs, Lies; Van de Pas, Remco; Delputte, Sarah; Orbie, Jan

    2018-01-01

    Background: This article assesses the global health policies of the European Union (EU) and those of its individual member states. So far EU and public health scholars have paid little heed to this, despite the large budgets involved in this area. While the European Commission has attempted to define the ‘EU role in Global Health’ in 2010, member states are active in the domain of global health as well. Therefore, this article raises the question to what extent a common ‘EU’ vision on global health exists. Methods: This is examined through a comparative framing analysis of the global health policy documents of the European Commission and five EU member states (France, Germany, the United Kingdom, Belgium, and Denmark). The analysis is informed by a two-layered typology, distinguishing global health from international health and four ‘global health frames,’ namely social justice, security, investment and charity. Results: The findings show that the concept of ‘global health’ has not gained ground the same way within European policy documents. Consequently, there are also differences in how health is being framed. While the European Commission, Belgium, and Denmark clearly support a social justice frame, the global health strategies of the United Kingdom, Germany, and France put an additional focus on the security and investment frames. Conclusion: There are different understandings of global/international health as well as different framings within relevant documents of the EU and its member states. Therefore, the existence of an ‘EU’ vision on global health is questionable. Further research is needed on how this impacts on policy implementation. PMID:29764107

  19. Validity of historical simulation in EU new member and candidate states

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heri Bezić

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Market risk arises from movement in the underlying risk factors of a particular security, such as: equity prices, interest rates, exchange rates and commodity prices. With the approval of Basle Committee for Banking Supervision and European Commission on using internally developed market risk measurement models to calculate bank’s market risk provisions, the interest for market risk models has significantly increased. Because financial markets of EU new member and candidate states significantly differ from the developed markets, applying VaR models developed and tested in the developed and liquid financial markets, to the volatile and shallow financial markets of EU new member and candidate states is highly questionable. This paper tests whether using a wide spread market risk measurement model such as Historical simulation adequately measures the market risk in stock markets of EU new member and candidate states. In this paper, the stock market indexes of Bulgaria, Romania, Croatia and Turkey are used to test the adequacy of measuring market risk based on Historical simulation. The testing is performed out of the sample, with four different observation periods.

  20. Assisting IAEA Member States to Strengthen Regulatory Control, Particularly in the Medical Area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnston, P.

    2016-01-01

    As per its Statue and Mandate, IAEA is developing Safety Standards and is also providing assistance for their application in Member States. One target and very large audience of this programme is the community of national regulatory bodies for radiation safety, expected to be established in all 168 Member States. Ionizing radiation is being used throughout the world in medical practices and medical exposure is the most significant manmade source of exposure to the population from ionizing radiation. Radiation accidents involving medical uses have accounted for more injuries and early acute health effects than any other type of radiation accident, including accidents at nuclear facilities. With the constant emerging of new technologies using ionizing radiation for medical diagnostic and treatment, there are on-going challenges for Regulatory bodies. The presentation will highlight some figures related to the medical exposure worldwide, and then it will introduce the main safety standards and other publications developed specifically for Regulatory Bodies and focusing on medical practices. It will also highlight the most important and recent mechanisms (tools, peer reviews and advisory services, training courses, networks) that the Agency is offering to its Member States in order to cope with the main challenges worldwide, contributing thus to the efficiency and effectiveness of the regulatory oversight of medical facilities and activities. (author)

  1. Classification of the European Union member states according to the relative level of sustainable development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anna, Bluszcz

    Nowadays methods of measurement and assessment of the level of sustained development at the international, national and regional level are a current research problem, which requires multi-dimensional analysis. The relative assessment of the sustainability level of the European Union member states and the comparative analysis of the position of Poland relative to other countries was the aim of the conducted studies in the article. EU member states were treated as objects in the multi-dimensional space. Dimensions of space were specified by ten diagnostic variables describing the sustainability level of UE countries in three dimensions, i.e., social, economic and environmental. Because the compiled statistical data were expressed in different units of measure, taxonomic methods were used for building an aggregated measure to assess the level of sustainable development of EU member states, which through normalisation of variables enabled the comparative analysis between countries. Methodology of studies consisted of eight stages, which included, among others: defining data matrices, calculating the variability coefficient for all variables, which variability coefficient was under 10 %, division of variables into stimulants and destimulants, selection of the method of variable normalisation, developing matrices of normalised data, selection of the formula and calculating the aggregated indicator of the relative level of sustainable development of the EU countries, calculating partial development indicators for three studies dimensions: social, economic and environmental and the classification of the EU countries according to the relative level of sustainable development. Statistical date were collected based on the Polish Central Statistical Office publication.

  2. Testing popular VaR models in EU new member and candidate states

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saša Žiković

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The impact of allowing banks to calculate their capital requirement based on their internal VaR models, and the impact of regulation changes on banks in transitional countries has not been well studied. This paper examines whether VaR models that are created and suited for developed markets apply to the volatile stock markets of EU new member and candidate states (Bulgaria, Romania, Croatia and Turkey. Nine popular VaR models are tested on five stock indexes from EU new member and candidate states. Backtesting results show that VaR models commonly used in developed stock markets are not well suited for measuring market risk in these markets. Presented findings bear very important implications that have to be addressed by regulators and risk practitioners operating in EU new member andcandidate states. Risk managers have to start thinking outside the frames set by their parent companies or else investors present in these markets may find themselves in serious trouble, dealing with losses that they have not been expecting. National regulators have to take into consideration that simplistic VaR models that are widely used in some developed countries are not well suited for these illiquid and developing stock markets.

  3. Fostering member state implementation of the IAEA's transport regulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brittinger, M.T.M.; Wangler, M.E. [International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna (Austria)

    2004-07-01

    Based on a 1959 mandate from the United Nations Economic and Social Council, international safety requirements are embodied in the ''Regulations for the Safe Transport of Radioactive Material'' that were first published by the International Atomic Energy Agency in 1961 and revised in 1967, 1973, 1985 and 1996 to keep them abreast of scientific and technical developments. The requirements are incorporated into the regulatory documents of the International Civil Aviation Organization for air transport, and the International Maritime Organization for marine transport. As the requirements of the latter documents are legally-binding for the member states of the corresponding organizations, the IAEA safety requirements thus also become mandatory in those countries. The same situation applies for the surface modes in Europe, by means of the regulatory documents of the European Community for rail, road and inland waterways. Nevertheless, the IAEA has not relaxed its efforts to ensure that its Transport Regulations stay abreast of scientific and technical developments; on the contrary, it has been undertaking a regular and vigorous review of its safety requirements, and continues to do so with the assistance of Member States and relevant international organizations. Beyond providing the regulatory basis for the safe transport of radioactive material, however, the IAEA also offers a work programme under which it assists Member States in complying with the regulatory requirements. This assistance comes in the form of providing training on the safety requirements, and publishing documents that facilitate the exchange of information.

  4. Directory of cyclotrons used for radionuclide production in Member States [2006 update

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-10-01

    The present directory of cyclotron facilities used for the production of radionuclides in Member States is an update of the one compiled by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) in late 2001 and published in 2002. This directory was prepared through information collected by questionnaires that the IAEA sent to known institutions operating cyclotrons for radionuclide production. Technical as well as administrative data supplied to the IAEA as of November 2005 were taken into account. The directory is considered to include most of the cyclotrons of the world that are used at least partially for radionuclide production. There are 262 entries for cyclotrons operating in 39 Member States of the IAEA. This is an increase of 7% over the 246 reported in the 2002 cyclotron directory. This can be compared to the 350 or so cyclotrons believed to be presently operating in the world, which are involved in some aspects of radionuclide production. The increase has been in the number of cyclotrons in developed countries, but even more so in the developing countries. The increase in number during the last four years was driven by several factors, i.e. advent of advances in medical imaging, introduction of compact, user friendly medical cyclotron, and a recent decision that costs for 15 O-oxygen position emission tomography (PET) studies in Japan and 18 F-FDG PET studies in Germany and the United States of America are eligible for reimbursement by government or health insurance companies. There is no doubt that the fastest growing segment of the market is in the commercial distribution of FDG to local hospitals. The IAEA is promoting cyclotron technology as applied to nuclear medicine. Requests for cyclotron technology is steadily increasing; many developing Member States are interested in this technology. There is need to stimulate, build and maintain consulting capability in interested developing Member States. There are good reasons to believe that the number of cyclotron

  5. EC advances on IPC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chynoweth, Emma.

    1993-01-01

    The European Commission is putting the final touches on its draft proposal for a framework directive on integrated pollution control (IPC). The commission expects to adopt the draft within the next two months, after which the European Council will debate the subject. The philosophy behind IPC-balancing emissions to air, water, and land to give the best environmental impact overall-has already been written into legislation in the U.K., which is about to implement the law for existing plants. The European approach is said to resemble the U.K. regulation. However, there is likely to be a lively debate among European Community members regarding standards to be used in the directive. Germany favors best available techniques (BAT), and the U.K. supports environmental quality standards (EQS). In the current draft, the BAT definition states that methods must be industrially feasible from a technical and economic point of view. But EQS, set by the World Health Organization or other internationally recognized or national groups, will be used if BAT is not established, says the commission. The European Chemical Industry Council (CEFIC: Brussels) is preparing guidance notes on EQS and BAT, hoping to find a common CEFIC viewpoint. Specific activities that need to be controlled and substances that require limit values will be listed in the IPC framework directive, but detail will be left to supplementary directives or national control. A European network of environmental inspectorates is being set up to try to improve consistency of enforcement

  6. Training of nuclear power plant personnel in the member states of the European Community

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Misenta, R.; Matfield, R.S.; Volta, G.; Ancarani, A.; Lhoir, J.

    1981-01-01

    After the Three Mile Island accident the Commission of the European Communities undertook various actions in order to assess the status of the training of nuclear power plant personnel with particular attention to their training for incidents and accidents. This presentation attempts a review of the training situation in the six member states of the European Community together with some other European states, that are operating nuclear power plants. Schemes for the training of control room operators, shift leaders, major European training centres and simulator training will be described

  7. Costs and Benefits to EU Member States of 2030 Climate and Energy Targets - February 2014

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    Costs and Benefits to EU Member States of 2030 Climate and Energy Targets is based on analyses using the POLES-Enerdata model and presents an overview of the main European energy and climate policies: reduction of CO_2 emissions, development of renewable energies, and promotion of energy efficiency. The report looks forward to 2030 and beyond to evaluate possible targets and the goal of maintaining global temperature rise to 2 deg. C. This publication was produced by Enerdata's Global Energy Forecasting team, including the modelling and scenario analysis, within the framework of an external service contract to the UK's Department of Energy and Climate Change. This project looks ahead to 2030. To do this, scenarios were developed using the POLES-Enerdata model, a world energy-economy model that fully describes the energy system and associated GHG emissions. This report analyses the costs and benefits to all EU Member States under different scenarios of the level and type of EU targets defined within a 2030 climate and energy framework. Scenarios include progressively more stringent GHG targets in 2030 (40%, 50%, and 60% reductions compared to 1990), alternative assumptions on access to international credits (0%, 5% and 10% of 1990 emissions), the addition of RES burden shares by Member State, accelerated CCS commercial availability and reduced renewables learning rates. These are the sensitivities commissioned as part of this report; however, they are not a comprehensive range covering all possible outcomes that could arise in reality. What are the costs and benefits to Member States under different scenarios of the level and type of EU targets? The analysis assesses the benefits of different scenarios to improved air quality and health, diversity of energy supply, and reduced costs of meeting longer term emission reduction targets (notably the EU's commitment to reduce emissions by 80-95% by 2050). Relying on more low-carbon, domestic, or diversified sources of

  8. Psychological crisis intervention for the family members of patients in a vegetative state

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ya-Hong Li

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Family members of patients in a vegetative state have relatively high rates of anxiety and distress. It is important to recognize the problems faced by this population and apply psychological interventions to help them. This exploratory study describes the psychological stress experienced by family members of patients in a vegetative state. We discuss the effectiveness of a psychological crisis intervention directed at this population and offer suggestions for future clinical work. METHODS: A total of 107 family members of patients in a vegetative state were included in the study. The intervention included four steps: acquisition of facts about each family, sharing their first thoughts concerning the event, assessment of their emotional reactions and developing their coping abilities. The Symptom Check List-90 was used to evaluate the psychological distress of the participants at baseline and one month after the psychological intervention. Differences between the Symptom Check List-90 scores at the baseline and follow-up evaluations were analyzed. RESULTS: All participants in the study had significantly higher Symptom Check List-90 factor scores than the national norms at baseline. There were no significant differences between the intervention group and the control group at baseline. Most of the Symptom Check List-90 factor scores at the one-month follow-up evaluation were significantly lower than those at baseline for both groups; however, the intervention group improved significantly more than the control group on most subscales, including somatization, obsessive-compulsive behavior, depression, and anxiety. CONCLUSION: The results of this study indicate that the four-step intervention method effectively improves the mental health of the family members who received this treatment and lessens the psychological symptoms of somatization, obsessive-compulsive behavior, depression and anxiety.

  9. Austria's environmental law in comparison with the environmental law of the EC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jantscher, S.H.

    1991-11-01

    The thesis describes and compares the environmental legislation in Austria and the EC. A short introduction into structure and organization of EC-institutions and EC-legislation in followed by an examination of the constitutional foundations of environmental policy in Austria and the EC respectively. After the adoption for the Single European Act, the EEC-Treaty provides for objectives, orientation criteria and instruments regarding environmental protection. These provisions constitute a valid basis for environmental action. The adoption of a constitutional law does equally declare environmental protection as an objective of the state in Austria, however, its significance is regarded as rather controversial. Some provinces ('Laender') have shown a higher degree of sensitivity in their constitutions . The distribution of powers between the EC and its member stated in the field of environmental protection is of particular interests. It is shown, that the principle of subsidiarity and the safeguard-clauses leave discretion to the member states. Much will be determined by the European Court of Justice (ECJ) . Main emphasis has been placed on the description and comparison of Austria's and the EEC-environmental legislation. Environmental legislation of Austria as well as the EC is outlined sector by sector (i.e. water, air, chemicals, waste, soil, fauna and flora) and subsequently the object of a detailed comparison. Criteria, such as - preventiveness -stringency - focus, depth and comprehensiveness - clearness and legal force of the regulations have been applied. For most of the mentioned sectors it is correct to state, that Austria's legislation is more preventive, advanced, comprehensive and stringent (especially regulations related to water, waste, chemicals, also air) . However, there are particular areas (e.g. air quality objectives, noise limits for construction plants) where Austria' s legislation may well get a fresh impetus

  10. ST ECS error handling and detector safety

    CERN Document Server

    Esperante Pereira, D

    2010-01-01

    This note describes the automatic operation sequences that the ECS implements in order to operate the ST detector in a safe and reliable way. First, the start-up sequences to set the detector in a well known state are described. In addition the possible ST detector states based on the status of the different detector elements will be defined. The states are of crucial interest for the safe operation of the detector when the LHC beam is ready. Besides, the ECS automatic actions taken in case of abnormal status of any of the detector elements are reported. Next, the operational alarm ranges and the error recovery mechanisms are mentioned.

  11. The Regulation of Takeover Bids in Europe: The Impact of the Proposed 13th EC Company Law Directive on the Present Regulation in the EU Member States

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Karsten Engsig; Clausen, Nis Jul

    1999-01-01

    Artiklen analyserer forslaget til et 13. selskabsdirektiv om overtagelsestilbud, og vurderer på hvilke områder det kan forventes at ændre eksisterende national ret. Artiklen inddrager herved retsstillingen i 12 forskellige europæiske lande....

  12. Remarks at reception for Member States, 9 December 2009, Vienna, Austria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amano, Y.

    2009-01-01

    Full text: Dear friends and colleagues, It is a great pleasure to have this first opportunity to welcome you all since I took up my position as Director General last week. I do not wish to spoil your evening by making a long speech. But I would like to make a few remarks highlighting the areas to which I plan to give special attention in the months and years ahead. Let me say at the outset that my key objective is to address global issues related to nuclear technology, in accordance with the Statute of the IAEA. That means working for nuclear non-proliferation, enhancing nuclear safety and security, assisting Member States in meeting their energy needs, responding to concerns about climate change, helping to ensure food security and clean water and improving health care through the application of nuclear techniques. The Agency's technical cooperation programme, which aims to make the benefits of nuclear science and technology more widely available, is important to all Member States. My intention is to continue to focus on technical cooperation so that we can more effectively meet the needs of Member States, as identified by them. In this regard, the priority is capacity-building to help countries establish their own expertise in nuclear science and technology. I am planning to pay special attention in my first year to cancer control, and, next week, I will make my first official trip as Director General to Nigeria to learn first-hand about its efforts to build an effective cancer control programme, among other issues. In January, I will use my participation in the World Economic Forum in Davos to appeal for focussed global attention on the growing cancer epidemic. In September, cancer control will be the topic of the Scientific Forum. This does not mean, of course, neglecting other areas of our work, which will receive special attention in future years. I now turn to nuclear power, which is enjoying growing acceptance as a stable and clean source of energy that can

  13. Procedure of preliminary decision as a supranational judicial keynote of the European Union member states

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delia Magherescu

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The procedure of preliminary decision has been for a long time agreed unanimously both by doctrine and jurisprudence and considered as a keynote in developing notional law systems of the European Communities. In the national frame, it is similarly with submitting unconstitutional exception, regulated in several national jurisdictions of the EU Member States. The current paper aims at providing some argues based on a jurisprudence frame of the procedure of preliminary decision made by the Court of Justice of the European Union, as being directory for the national EU Member States’ courts of justice. It also focuses on the judicial issues whose solution is needed in order for the national justice to solve the cases they were invested with.

  14. Harmonisation of legislation and standards: views from a member State's perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Susanna, A.

    2002-01-01

    Surely everyone will agree that harmonisation of legislation and standards should be a must for any science based branch of knowledge; this holds in particular for radiation protection with its manifold social implications. Probably, most will also recognise that radiation protection is characterised all over the world by standards that are well harmonised at a high degree, particularly in comparison with other science based branches of knowledge. For this, ICRP certainly deserves unreserved praise because the authoritative body of experts making up the Commission has been able over the years to elaborate a set of recommendations that the majority of other experts in the world recognise as being state of the art or, in other words, the best on the basis of the scientific information available at a given time. Besides, we must not forget the important role that other International Organisations play in this respect, among which the role of IAEA together with NEA, WHO etc is foremost; indeed, as soon as new basic recommendations are published by ICRP these bodies start a meritorious work of preparing standards, based on ICRP recommendations, in order to help Member States to have an updated and harmonised radiation protection legislation. In Europe, this harmonisation role is played by the organs of the European Union; in this respect, it is well known that within the Union harmonisation takes a binding nature, because standards recommended by the EU are usually issued as directives that Member States have an obligation to transpose in their national legislation. It is also well known that the last Euratom directives no. 29 of the 1996 and no 43 of 1997 were to be transposed by May 2000 into national legislation by member States

  15. The regulatory framework of accounting and accounting standard-setting bodies in the European Union member states

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivana Mamić-Sačer

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available One of the principal features of accounting in the 21st century is harmonisation and stanardisation. Regulation of the European Parliament and European Council No. 1606/2002 harmonizes financial reporting for certain companies in the EU. However, national accounting principles are of great importance for financial reporting. The main purpose of this research was to investigate the application of generally accepted accounting principles, the regulatory accounting framework and the standard-setting bodies of EU member states. The analysis of these accounting issues was conducted with respect to all 28 EU member states. The results indicate that EU member states regulate their principal accounting issues through separate accounting acts or implement those issues in companies acts. Some EU member states do not have national accounting standards, the national accounting principles being incorporated in companies acts and accounting acts. Nevertheless, national accounting standard-setting bodies are governmental organisations in almost half the member states.

  16. DEPRESSION, ANXIETY, STRESS, AND THEIR ASSOCIATED FACTORS AMONG CORPS MEMBERS SERVING IN KEBBI STATE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balami, Ahmed D

    2015-01-01

    Depression, anxiety and stress, are not only health problems by themselves, but also associated with other negative health consequences. The national youth service is usually characterized by a number of new challenges and experiences which may require life style adjustments by the corps member. However, no previous study on psychological factors has been conducted among corps members. This study was conducted to determine the prevalence of depression, anxiety and, stress and their associated factors among corps members serving in Kebbi state. A cross-sectional study was conducted among 264 corps members from four local government areas of the state. Selection of the local government areas and the individual participants was by simple random sampling. Data was collected from May to June 2014 using a self-administered questionnaire. Data analysis used chi-square test to identify the relationship between categorical variables and multivariate logistic regression to identify the independent factors for depression, anxiety and stress each. The response rate was 97%. Most of the respondents were males (63.6%), single (85.5%), and above 20 years of age (71.6%). The overall prevalences of depression, anxiety and stress among the respondents were 36.4%, 54.5% and 18.2% respectively. The independent factors for depression were; being from the North central (OR = 5.99; 95% CI: 2.194-16.354) or South-south; and the perception of earning enough income (OR = 2.987; 95% CI: 1.062-8.400). For anxiety, male gender (OR = 0.411; 95% CI: 0.169-0.999); and being from the North central were significant risk factors (OR = 3.731; 95% CI: 1.450-9.599). Being above 26 years of age was an independent risk factor for stress (OR = 0.083; 95% CI: 0.018-0.381). Also, those who had ever schooled outside their towns of residence were less likely to be stressed compared to those who had never (OR = 0.30; 95% CI: 0.110-0.855). All other factors did not show any significant association with any of

  17. Communications received from certain Member States concerning their policies regarding the management of plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    The Director General has received a note verbale, dated 23 January 2007, from the Permanent Mission of Germany to the IAEA; notes verbales, dated 1 February 2007, from Permanent Missions of China, France, Japan, the Russian Federation, Switzerland and the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland to the IAEA; a note verbale, dated 7 February 2007, from the Permanent Mission of the United States of America to the IAEA; and a note verbale, dated 22 October 2008, from the Permanent Mission of Belgium to the IAEA, stating that in order to reflect recent developments with regard to the physical protection of nuclear material, their Governments will apply a revised version of paragraph 7 of the 'Guidelines for the Management of Plutonium' published in document INFCIRC/549. In light of the request expressed in the notes verbales, the texts of the notes verbales are enclosed for the information of all Member States

  18. BUILDING AN EU MEMBER STATE THROUGH DEMOCRACY PROMOTION: THE CASE OF CROATIA'S PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION REFORM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonja Grimm

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This contribution studies the process of building an EU member state through democracy promotion in the case of Croatia with a special focus on two reform initiatives in the field of Public Administration Reform (PAR. Croatia’s experience is representative of intense efforts of the international community to overcome the consequences of violent state dissolution and civil war. The EU in particular has assisted post-conflict democratization with diplomatic initiatives, the provision of aid, and political conditionality. The Croatian political elite showed great willingness to implement democratic reforms, while at the same time remaining critical of what they viewed as ‘too much’ external interference in domestic state affairs. Based on 30 interviews with Croatian officials, Croatian civil society actors, members of the EU delegation and other representatives of the International donor community, we empirically assess progress and setbacks in Croatia’s public administration reform and explain why some reform initiatives have been successfully implemented while others are still pending.

  19. Investigation of Limit States Specified for Reinforced Concrete Column Members in TEC–2007

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umut HASGÜL

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the deformation based limit states stipulated for reinforced concrete members in the Turkish Earthquake Code (TEC were experimentally investigated. Thus four RC cantilever columns which have low concrete compressive strengths and have not adequate confinement, were subjected to constant axial load and cyclic lateral load history. In the study, firstly, the strain values representing the damage limits were converted to top of the column lateral displacements by using fundamentals of structural mechanics. Subsequently the column damages corresponding to the displacement demands were observed, hence limit states were evaluated. After conducting all column tests, it was noted that no column damage was observed for the immediate occupancy (IO performance level defined in the code. For the life safety (LS and collapse prevention (CP performance levels, though somewhat residual deformations occurred on the critical regions, the column members can pretty much sustain their lateral load capacities. It was also observed for all columns that significant damages and strength losses occurred beyond the collapse prevention level. The results of experimental study indicate that the evaluation procedure in the TEC is still in good relationship with the limit states even if the columns have not adequate compressive strength and confinement.

  20. What factors influence smoking prevalence and smoke free policy enactment across the European Union Member States.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilze Bogdanovica

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Smoking prevention should be a primary public health priority for all governments, and effective preventive policies have been identified for decades. The heterogeneity of smoking prevalence between European Union (EU Member States therefore reflects, at least in part, a failure by governments to prioritise public health over tobacco industry or possibly other financial interests, and hence potentially government corruption. The aims of this study were to test the hypothesis that smoking prevalence is higher in countries with high levels of public sector corruption, and explore the ecological association between smoking prevalence and a range of other national characteristics in current EU Member States. METHODS: Ecological data from 27 EU Member States were used to estimate univariate and multivariate correlations between smoking prevalence and the Transparency International Corruption Perceptions Index, and a range of other national characteristics including economic development, social inclusion, quality of life and importance of religion. We also explored the association between the Corruption Perceptions Index and measures of the extent to which smoke-free policies have been enacted and are enforced. RESULTS: In univariate analysis, smoking prevalence was significantly higher in countries with higher scores for corruption, material deprivation, and gender inequality; and lower in countries with higher per capita Gross Domestic Product, social spending, life satisfaction and human development scores. In multivariate analysis, only the corruption perception index was independently related to smoking prevalence. Exposure to tobacco smoke in the workplace was also correlated with corruption, independently from smoking prevalence, but not with the measures of national smoke-free policy implementation. CONCLUSIONS: Corruption appears to be an important risk factor for failure of national tobacco control activity in EU countries, and

  1. What Factors Influence Smoking Prevalence and Smoke Free Policy Enactment across the European Union Member States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogdanovica, Ilze; McNeill, Ann; Murray, Rachael; Britton, John

    2011-01-01

    Background Smoking prevention should be a primary public health priority for all governments, and effective preventive policies have been identified for decades. The heterogeneity of smoking prevalence between European Union (EU) Member States therefore reflects, at least in part, a failure by governments to prioritise public health over tobacco industry or possibly other financial interests, and hence potentially government corruption. The aims of this study were to test the hypothesis that smoking prevalence is higher in countries with high levels of public sector corruption, and explore the ecological association between smoking prevalence and a range of other national characteristics in current EU Member States. Methods Ecological data from 27 EU Member States were used to estimate univariate and multivariate correlations between smoking prevalence and the Transparency International Corruption Perceptions Index, and a range of other national characteristics including economic development, social inclusion, quality of life and importance of religion. We also explored the association between the Corruption Perceptions Index and measures of the extent to which smoke-free policies have been enacted and are enforced. Results In univariate analysis, smoking prevalence was significantly higher in countries with higher scores for corruption, material deprivation, and gender inequality; and lower in countries with higher per capita Gross Domestic Product, social spending, life satisfaction and human development scores. In multivariate analysis, only the corruption perception index was independently related to smoking prevalence. Exposure to tobacco smoke in the workplace was also correlated with corruption, independently from smoking prevalence, but not with the measures of national smoke-free policy implementation. Conclusions Corruption appears to be an important risk factor for failure of national tobacco control activity in EU countries, and the extent to which key

  2. 19. working group meeting of representatives of RCA member States. Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-03-01

    The 19. RCA Working Group Meeting was hosted by the Myanmar Atomic Energy Committee in Yangon from 10-14 March 1997. The meeting marked the 25. anniversary of the RCA which commenced in 1972. It was attended by 29 delegates from 15 visiting RCA Member States, 15 participants from Myanmar and 4 from the IAEA. The report contains the statements of the following countries: Australia, Bangladesh, China, India, Indonesia, Japan, Republic of Korea, Malaysia, Mongolia, Myanmar, New Zealand, Pakistan, Philippines, Singapore, Sri Lanka, Thailand, and Viet Nam. Tabs

  3. 19. working group meeting of representatives of RCA member States. Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    The 19. RCA Working Group Meeting was hosted by the Myanmar Atomic Energy Committee in Yangon from 10-14 March 1997. The meeting marked the 25. anniversary of the RCA which commenced in 1972. It was attended by 29 delegates from 15 visiting RCA Member States, 15 participants from Myanmar and 4 from the IAEA. The report contains the statements of the following countries: Australia, Bangladesh, China, India, Indonesia, Japan, Republic of Korea, Malaysia, Mongolia, Myanmar, New Zealand, Pakistan, Philippines, Singapore, Sri Lanka, Thailand, and Viet Nam. Tabs.

  4. Operating Experience with Nuclear Power Stations in Member States in 2014. 2015 Edition (CD-ROM)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-01-01

    This CD-ROM contains the 46th edition of the IAEA’s series of annual reports on operating experience with nuclear power plants in Member States. It is a direct output from the IAEA’s Power Reactor Information System (PRIS) and contains information on electricity production and overall performance of individual plants during 2014. In addition to annual information, the report contains a historical summary of performance during the lifetime of individual plants and figures illustrating worldwide performance of the nuclear industry. The CD-ROM contains also an overview of design characteristics and dashboards of all operating nuclear power plants worldwide

  5. Operating Experience with Nuclear Power Stations in Member States in 2013. 2014 Edition (CD-ROM)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-07-01

    This CD-ROM contains the 45th edition of the IAEA's series of annual reports on operating experience with nuclear power plants in Member States. It is a direct output from the IAEA's Power Reactor Information System (PRIS) and contains information on electricity production and overall performance of individual plants during 2013. In addition to annual information, the report contains a historical summary of performance during the lifetime of individual plants and figures illustrating worldwide performance of the nuclear industry. The CD-ROM contains also an overview of design characteristics and dashboards (not included into the web version) of all operating nuclear power plants worldwide

  6. Operating Experience with Nuclear Power Stations in Member States in 2011. 2012 Edition (CD-ROM)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-08-01

    This CD contains the 43rd edition of the IAEA's series of annual reports on operating experience with nuclear power plants in Member States. It is a direct output from the IAEA's Power Reactor Information System (PRIS) and contains information on electricity production and overall performance of individual operational plants during 2011. In addition to annual information, the report contains a historical summary of performance during the lifetime of individual plants and figures illustrating worldwide performance of the nuclear industry. The CD contains also an overview of design characteristics and dashboards of all operating nuclear power plants worldwide.

  7. Urinary BPA measurements in children and mothers from six European member states

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Covaci, Adrian; Hond, Elly Den; Geens, Tinne

    2015-01-01

    -mother pairs were recruited through schools or population registers from six European member states (Belgium, Denmark, Luxembourg, Slovenia, Spain and Sweden). Children (5-12y) and mothers donated a urine sample. Information on socio-demographic characteristics, life style, dietary habits, and educational...... determinants. Consumption of canned food and social class (represented by the highest educational level of the family) were the most important predictors for the urinary levels of BPA in mothers and children. The individual BPA levels in children were significantly correlated with the levels in their mothers...

  8. Projected costs of nuclear and conventional base load electricity generation in some IAEA Member States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-09-01

    The cost of nuclear and conventional electricity is one of the most important parameters for power system planning, and in particular for decisions on base load power projects. This study reviews the projected levelized electricity generation costs of the base load power generation options expected to be available in the medium term, using an agreed common economic methodology. Cost projections were obtained and evaluated for nuclear and fossil fuelled (mainly coal-fired) plants that could be commissioned in the mid- to late 1990s in 10 IAEA Member States. 27 refs, figs and tabs

  9. Operating Experience with Nuclear Power Stations in Member States. 2016 Edition (CD-ROM)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-06-01

    This CD-ROM contains the 47th edition of the IAEA’s series of annual reports on operating experience with nuclear power plants in Member States. It is a direct output from the IAEA’s Power Reactor Information System (PRIS) and contains information on electricity production and overall performance of individual plants during 2015. In addition to annual information, the report contains a historical summary of performance during the lifetime of individual plants and figures illustrating worldwide performance of the nuclear industry. The CD-ROM contains also an overview of design characteristics and dashboards of all operating nuclear power plants worldwide

  10. Operating experience with nuclear power stations in Member States in 2008. 2009 edition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-08-01

    This edition is the fortieth in the IAEA's series of annual reports on operating experience with nuclear power plants in Member States. It is a direct output from the IAEA's Power Reactor Information System (PRIS) and contains information on electricity production and overall performance of individual plants during 2008. In addition to annual information, the report contains a historical summary of performance during the lifetime of individual plants and figures illustrating worldwide performance of the nuclear industry. The CD-ROM provides enhanced features for data search and analysis

  11. The First Steps Towards Harmonizing Public Sector Accounting for European Union Member States

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pontoppidan, Caroline Aggestam; Alijarde, Isabel Brusca

    2016-01-01

    This paper analyses the process that led the European Commission to the decision to develop European Public Sector Accounting Standards (EPSAS) for harmonizing public sector accounting practices within the European Union. The paper finds that there was limited scope in terms of stakeholder...... participation in the public consultation that served as a basis for the decision. In addition, the decision to adopt EPSAS for EU member states raises questions on the relationship between regional and global governance in the area of public sector accounting....

  12. Status of Radon Related Activities in Member States Participating in Technical Cooperation Projects in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2017-03-01

    This publication summarizes the status of radon programmes at the start of 2014 in the Member States in Europe participating in the IAEA technical cooperation project on establishing enhanced approaches to the control of public exposure to radon. The current status was determined from responses to a questionnaire covering the following elements of a national radon action plan: policies and strategies; radon measurement surveys; establishment of reference levels; managing radon in existing buildings and in future buildings; education and training of professionals; and public awareness initiatives.

  13. 2003-2004 ACADEMIC TRAINING PROGRAMME (Renewable) Energy Policy in the EU Members States and the Accession States

    CERN Multimedia

    Françoise Benz

    2003-01-01

    13, 14, 15, 16, 17 October 2003 2003-2004 ACADEMIC TRAINING PROGRAMME LECTURE SERIES Main Auditorium bldg. 500 (Renewable) Energy Policy in the EU Members States and the Accession States D. Reiche / Free University of Berlin, D The aim of this lecture is to discuss the transformation of the energy sectors in the EU with the main focus on obstacles and success conditions for renewable energy sources. Besides the EU-15 and the ten states which will join the EU in 2004, Bulgaria and Romania which will probably join in 2007 as well as Turkey are analysed. The factors which influence renewable energy development are described as the path dependencies/starting positions in energy policy (natural conditions for the RES, availability of fossil resources, use of nuclear power), the instruments for promoting renewable energies (as feed-in tariffs or quota obligations), the economic (level of energy prices, for example), technological (i.e. grid capacity), and cognitive environment.

  14. Romania - New E.U. Member State, A New Phase of Its Transition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marius PROFIROIU

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Ever since Romania started its transition in the 1990s, it consistently scored poorly in various comparative performance assessments aimed at rating developing countries. In this paper we analyze whether Romania has managed to overcome the transition period or not, by pointing out both the drawbacks as well as the progress that has been made over the transition period, but most of all since our accession to the European Union in 2007. We discuss the concept of good governance for a new EU member state, by focusing on the state of public governance in Romania, but also addressing the other two important actors in the society, the private sector and the civil society.

  15. Operating Experience with Nuclear Power Stations in Member States in 2012. 2013 Edition (CD-ROM)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-07-01

    This report is the forty-fourth in the IAEA’s series of annual reports on operating experience with nuclear power stations in Member States. This report provides annual performance data and outage information for individual nuclear power plants from around the world. Summaries of historical performance and outages during the lifetimes of those plants are also included. Additionally, in order to provide a broad picture of nuclear power usage, this report contains six figures that illustrate global operational statistics through 2012. The report is a direct output from the IAEA’s Power Reactor Information System (PRIS), whose databank contains all operating experience data published in the IAEA’s operating experience annual reports since 1970 and basic information on power reactors, including design data. It presents operating experience data for all worldwide nuclear power plants after starting commercial operation. The PRIS databank is available free of charge to IAEA Member States through its public website and on-line application PRIS-Statistics. The web-site www.iaea.org/pris contains publicly available information about reactor units and nuclear industry results. The PRIS-Statistics (http://pris.iaea.org) allows direct access to the database through the Internet. This application allows registered users report generation through pre-designed reports and filters

  16. Challenges of the Banking Integration Process in the Case of the New EU Member States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan Chirlean

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The creation of the single European market represents a 50 years long process which aimsat developing the most advanced economy in the world. In order to achieve this, political actions mustbe accompanied by economical and juridical changes in order to stimulate and foster the creation ofthe single European market. A key component of this process is represented by the integration of thefinancial sector. While several component of it have registered major transformations andachievements in the integration process, one of the least integrated parts is represented by theEuropean banking sector. Most of the European economies are funded directly through the bankingsector, thus the integration of this sector represents a major benchmarks in the European integrationprocess. This problem becomes more complex in the context of the European Union enlargement to27 member states. Thus, the aim of this paper is to underline the progresses achieved by the bankingsectors of the European Union new member states from Central and Eastern Europe in theirintegration process. In order to achieve this we will use an empirical analysis based on the Law of OnePrice, which will underline the progress made by the banking sectors of the panel countries: Poland,Czech Republic, Slovenia, Slovakia, Romania and Bulgaria. The results of the research will providean overview of the main achievements registered by these countries, while also underling hownational particularities of these sectors affect their integration.

  17. Trade in Value Added (TiVA in EU New Member States (EU NMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ines Kersan-Škabić

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Contemporary trade analysis indicates the necessity of calculating trade in value added (TiVA which is created through global value chains (GVCs. This paper aims to determine the characteristics and importance of GVC trade in the EU new member states (EU NMS with special emphasis placed on the industry level. The results demonstrate different levels of GVC participation of the EU NMS, where Hungary is the most integrated country and Croatia the least integrated. Regional GVCs exist because a huge part of value added (VA comes from EU member states, as in gross export as well as in final demand (Europe as a hub. The most important source countries are Germany and Italy and there is also evidence of geographical and historical relations between the countries. The domination of backward participation has been found in the analysis made on the industrial level, i.e. the EU NMS are highly dependent on the import of intermediates for the production and export of final products. Strong interconnections between imports of intermediate products and exports of final products have been found in the manufacture of computers, electronics and optical products; manufacture of wood, paper, printing and reproduction. This research has contributed to the scarce literature concerning GVC (TiVA in EU NMS and has opened up new possibilities for further research and analysis.

  18. The strategy of a european health policy of the who member states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johansen, K.S.

    1992-01-01

    The policy of Health for All is a challenge by the World Health Organization to its Member States to ensure each citizen an e conomically and socially productive life . The Regional Office for Europe created an expanded version of this policy, known as European Health for All, which urged each Member State to alter its policies to achieve the targets set out therein. This policy calls for more equity and social justice in health, for prevention of disease and promoting health and quality of life and for improving the human environment. One of the most important items is the call for delivering quality of care for everyone, by using a clear system for measuring the outcomes of care. Quality of care must apply equally to all parts of the cycle, from health promotion, prevention, diagnosis, treatment and rehabilitation. For quality development and assurance in the area of imaging and the role of dosimetry, the Health for All set a goal of ensuring optimal outcome from available resources. To reach this goal, it is necessary to set standards for guiding health outcome indicators in order to systematically assess health technologies

  19. Expanding opportunities. Strategic buying of utilities in new EU member states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LaBelle, Michael

    2009-01-01

    During the 1990s, limited investment opportunities in Western Europe, the opening of the energy markets in Eastern Europe, and the future expansion of the European Union (EU) prompted an expansionist strategy by energy companies from the original EU member states. In this paper, the acquisition and divestiture activities and strategies of utilities from France and Germany are analyzed in the context of the 2004 and 2007 EU enlargements. Through quantitative and qualitative data analysis, including the development of two case studies, the strategy for expansion and evolution in new member states is examined. The results demonstrate a concerted effort to establish economies of scale through ownership of distribution companies. A change in strategy occurs as these privatization opportunities disappear. Generation and trading activity become the growth area for these companies as electricity supply becomes another factor that can contribute to the economies of scale. Recent EU-supported efforts towards regionalization of electricity markets, positions these companies well due to their strong regional presence. This paper will explore these issues in the context of ownership and geographic distribution. (author)

  20. Distinct and yet not Separate: Revisiting the Welfare Models in the EU New Member States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena Tendera-Właszczuk

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The objective of this paper is to evaluate the welfare state models in the EU countries and to start the discussion if the new member states (NMS, i.e. those EU member states that joined the EU in 2004/2007, fit the Sapir typology (Nordic model, Continental model, Anglo-Saxon model, Mediterranean model. The second objective is to examine the labour market situation, reduction of poverty and social inequalities in the EU countries. The third one is to open the issue if the public spending can be managed both justly and effectively. Research Design & Methods: The linear regression function and correlation has been used to present effectiveness of social expenditures to reduce poverty, as well as evidence that public spending can be managed both justly and effectively. Findings: This paper demonstrates more similarities can be drawn across the NMS and the EU-15 than within the NMS and EU-15, respectively. The typology of welfare state models is applied to the NMS and their effectiveness is tested. Accordingly, we classify the Czech Republic, Slovenia and Cyprus as countries of the Nordic model; Hungary, Slovakia and Malta as the Continental model; Lithuania, Latvia and Estonia as the Anglo-Saxon model and, finally, Poland, Croatia, Romania and Bulgaria as the Mediterranean model. Implications & Recommendations: Recent data suggest that the global crisis has caused an increase in the level of poverty and social spending in the EU countries. However, this is just a temporary situation and it does reflect the solutions of models. Contribution & Value Added: The NMS tend to be examined as a separate group of countries that – as the literature suggests – depict different qualities of the welfare models than those pursued in the EU-15.

  1. Roles of major organizations in EC for decision making. EC no ishi kettei ni okeru shuyo kikan no yakuwari

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kodama, M.

    1992-12-01

    This paper considers authorization powers held by the major organizations in the EC, with the Maastricht Treaty kept in mind. One of the objectives of establishing the EC is to harmonize and develop the economic activities in the community on the whole, and promote making closer the relations among the member nations. The EC's supernationality has two aspects: finances (using financial sources from externally common tariffs as the EC's independent financial resources) and legislations (member nations delegating their own powers to the international organization). Organizations involving in the EC legislations are the European Assembly, the board of ministers, and the EC Committee. The Assembly has deciding powers at high levels on the EC budget decision, as well as vetoing power on the budget. The board of ministers is provided with deciding powers to assure achievement of the objectives defined in the official requirements. The Committee has a supernational character that each committee member can act independently free from being subjected to orders from his or her native country. Practically, however, the authorization relationship among the organizations has confrontations over the interests of the organizations and member nations. There have been such movements in this situation as the Luxemburg compromises, actions at the agricultural ministers meeting, and preparation of the unified European protocol. 2 figs., 4 tabs.

  2. Safety controls according to the non-proliferation treaty in EC countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pander, J. von.

    1978-01-01

    Above all, content and extent of the duty conferred upon the IAEA according to article III, paragraph 1 of the NP treaty which implies the conducting of safety controls and the consequences resulting here from are examined. Including the peaceful use of nuclear energy developing under international law the agreement on safety control signed on 5th April 1973 between IAEA and EURATOM as well as its seven non-nuclear-weapon member states is discussed, along with its technical and its implicit legal problems. In detail the manifold technical and judicial problems of IAEA safety controls are shown, their realization requiring a well-working cooperation between IAEA and the European Communities. As only the non-nuclear-weapon member states of the EC are subject to the IAEA safety control system within the frame of this agreement the following questions are discussed: 1. effects on the member status after the signing of the EURATOM contract and 2. granting the principle of equal treatment for all member states as against the nuclear-weapon member states of the EC, France and the United Kingdom. (orig./HP) [de

  3. Multidimensional Welfare Comparisons of EU Member States Before, During, and After the Financial Crisis: A Dominance Approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hussain, M. Azhar; Siersbæk, Nikolaj; Østerdal, Lars Peter

    How did the financial crisis affect population welfare in EU member states in key dimensions such as income, health, and education? Using EU-SILC data, we seek to answer this question by way of first order dominance comparisons between countries and over time. The novel feature of our study...... is that we perform welfare comparisons on the basis of multi-level multidimensional ordinal data. We nd that the countries most often dominated are southern and eastern European member states, and the dominant countries are mostly northern and western European member states. However, for most country...

  4. From pricing regulations of the feed-in scheme (EEG) through to financial security under the Atomic Energy Act (AtG): the German legal system for the energy sector in the context of EC legislation on state aid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuehling, J.

    2001-01-01

    This contribution is a comprehensive analysis of EC law on state aid and resulting possible impacts on the German legal system for the energy sector. The analysis reveals that, depending on the legal interpretation of Art. 87 of the EC Treaty, further non-compliance issues such as that currently under debate in connection with German legislation supporting market penetration of electricity from renewable energy sources, may arise in the future. Further examples referred to are the German system of liability reserves for the decommissioning of nuclear power plants, and the system of third party liability for nuclear power plant operators. The author addresses various problem areas and uses characteristic examples in explaining conceivable matters of conflict. (orig./CB) [de

  5. THE SEPARATION OF POWERS IN THE CONSTITUTIONS OF THE EU MEMBER STATES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silviu Gabriel BARBU

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study consists of realizing and offering an overview of the manner in which the principle of separation of powers is consecrated in the constitutions of the EU member states. We thereby aim to prove that there is no direct relationship between the form of government of a state, the expressis verbis constitutional regulation of the principle of separation of powers in the state and its effective observance, for the existence of the last fact being necessary the simultaneous concurrence of more social, economic and political factors at the level of the society as a whole. Also, we aim to offer a perspective as realistic and comprehensive as possible regarding what does the principle of separation of powers imply, mostly from a legal point of view, as well as about the implications that its respecting or lack of it, as the case, does have at the level of a society. Eventually, we hope to provide a relevant academic study regarding the subject of both great topicality and theoretical and practical interest regarding the fundamentals and especially the operating mode of the principle of separation of powers, a study which could serve, if it shall be taken into consideration by the political plan of the state, to the substantiation of some responsible decisions in the ongoing act of exercising the power.

  6. IAEA Assistance in Helping Member States Develop Effectively Independent and Robust Regulators for Nuclear Installation Safety

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nicic, A., E-mail: A.Nicic@iaea.org [International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), Department of Nuclear Safety and Security, Wagramer Strasse 5, P.O. Box 100, 1400 Vienna (Austria)

    2014-10-15

    Full text: The International Conference on Topical Issues in Nuclear Installation Safety will be focused on the exchange of information on the latest thinking and advances in the implementation of the concept of Defence-in-Depth (DID) in nuclear installations, and the associated challenges. The focus will be on operating nuclear installations, including nuclear power plants, research reactors and fuel cycle facilities, and on how lessons learned from operating experience and recent events (e.g. the Fukushima Daiichi accident) are used to enhance safety. The implementation of DID covers a number of elements that are directly related to the different states and phases of a nuclear facility. This presentation will discuss the importance of the regulatory body in its oversight role as a cross-cutting element of DID in helping to assure the safety of nuclear installations. Taking note of the numerous challenges in developing an effectively independent and robust regulatory body, the presentation will describe how the IAEA assists Member States in their development of the appropriate regulatory infrastructure and necessary capacity to carry out their regulatory responsibilities – consistent with the IAEA Safety Standards. The presentation will describe the importance of the self-assessment process which serves as a starting point for helping Member States gain an understanding of what support they need and when the support should be provided as they develop into a competent regulatory authority. The presentation will discuss recent improvements in the self-assessment process and related IAEA services in this regard. Once regulatory bodies are established, it is essential that they seek continuous improvement. In this regard, the presentation will describe the IAEA’s assistance provided through the Integrated Regulatory Review Service (IRRS) and recent activities to improve the IRRS, consistent with the IAEA’s Action Plan on Nuclear Safety. (author)

  7. Europol’s Cybercrime Centre (EC3), its Agreements with Third Parties and the Growing Role of Law Enforcement on the European Security Scene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vendius, Trine Thygesen

    2015-01-01

    The European Cyber Crime Centre, EC3, established under the umbrella of Europol, started operations on January 1 2013. It is to act as the focal point in the fight against cybercrime in the European Union. Using a “shared, cross-community approach” the EC3 is concluding partnerships with member...... states, European agencies, international partners and the private sector. This article describes the coming about of EC3 and its efforts to address cybercrime. Furthermore, the article is an attempt to assess the growing role of the European law enforcement community on the European security scene...

  8. Instructional Performance of Teacher Education Faculty Members in One State University in the Philippines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Estelito J. Punongbayan

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to assess the instructional performance of teacher education faculty members in one State University in the Philippines as perceived by themselves and CTE students during the Academic Year 2012-2013 with the end view of formulating an action plan to enhance the aforementioned situation. The study utilized the descriptive method of research. This method attempted to ascertain the prevailing conditions and sought to answer questions to the real facts relating to the existing conditions. Results found that instructors/professors perceived their instructional performance as very good. Faculty respondents believed that they are qualified to teach the subjects they are handling. This was manifested by having good interaction between them and the students inside the classroom, by way of assessing their performance tasks and by way of assessing through pencil-paper test. However, student respondents perceived that the instructor/professors’ instructional performance were only satisfactory. They perceived that CTE faculty members are all in better position to handle the subjects assigned to them. Interaction between them was effective. Relative to the findings, it is recommended that instructors/professors should exercise their full potential in teaching so as to become excellent.

  9. Evaluation of the implementation of radiation protection measures for aircrew in EU member states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thierfeldt, S.; Haider, C.; Hans, P.; Kaleve, M.; Neuenfeldt, F.

    2009-01-01

    An evaluation of the implementation of radiation protection measures for aircrew in EU Member States has recently been performed in a study sponsored by the European Commission. A comprehensive database has been gathered using questionnaires for civil aviation authorities, aircraft operators and radiation protection authorities in each country. The study has revealed the following results: all countries within the scope of this study where aircrew might receive annual doses >1 mSv have implemented appropriate legislation. The treatment of limits or constraints (action levels) for annual doses of 1, 6, 20 mSv could be an area where clear guidance by the European Commission might be needed. The way in which doses are determined might also be treated in a more harmonised way in the EU, including the transfer of dose data of freelancers or crew members working for other airlines. The establishment of the European Aviation Safety Agency leads to a gradual shift in responsibilities from the national civil aviation authorities towards this centralised European agency. Currently, however, tracking of doses for aircrew still lies with national bodies. (authors)

  10. THE INFLUENCE OF ECONOMIC CRISIS ON THE LABOUR IN THE EUROPEAN UNION’S MEMBER STATES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alina MĂRCUȚĂ

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The economic crisis is far to an end. After a recursion of the recession in 2012 and a continuance in 2013, its’ effects are increasingly stronger and the most tangible effect is the poverty increase among the active population. It is due to the revenues decrease, to poverty and exclusion’s risks, the attenuation of protection effects which are socially and initially carried out by the decrement of tax incomes and by the increase of expenditures level for social performances. These effects are being acutely experienced, particularly by the member states in the Southern and Eastern Europe. Therefore, at the E.U. point, one performed studies, one determined the causes and it is trying to find solutions. This scientific paper aims to analyze the main parameters onto one must interfere in and the actions that should be considered in order to increase population’s standard of living.

  11. The healthcare system and provision of oral healthcare in European Union member states. Part 4: Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damaskinos, P; Koletsi-Kounari, H; Economou, C; Eaton, K A; Widström, E

    2016-03-11

    This paper presents a description of the healthcare system and how oral healthcare is organised and provided in Greece, a country in a deep economic and social crisis. The national health system is underfunded, with severe gaps in staffing levels and the country has a large private healthcare sector. Oral healthcare has been largely provided in the private sector. Most people are struggling to survive and have no money to spend on general and oral healthcare. Unemployment is rising and access to healthcare services is more difficult than ever. Additionally, there has been an overproduction of dentists and no development of team dentistry. This has led to under or unemployment of dentists in Greece and their migration to other European Union member states, such as the United Kingdom, where over 600 Greek dentists are currently working.

  12. TRENDS IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF INDIRECT TAXES IN THE MEMBER STATES OF THE EUROPEAN UNION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARIA FELICIA CHIRCULESCU

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper it is showed the trends in the evolution of indirect taxes of the Member States of the European Union, using for this purpose, statistical series, because this category of taxes can be successfully used by the economic situation. As these taxes are placed on transactions, the yield of these taxes is influenced by developments in the tax bases of economic transactions volume, price and level of rates. The importance of the work is based on the fact that there are countries in the single market with different degrees of development and different living standards and fiscal policy through the transition from direct to indirect taxes. This creates a tax base budget by shifting the tax burden from operators for the whole population, consumption being heavily taxed. The consumer society is the company of the tax payer of the consumer society.

  13. Energy and Environmental Constraints The Dilemma Facing the European Union's New Member States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deshaies, Michel

    2007-01-01

    Coal and lignite remain the main source of energy throughout the EU's new member states. This phenomenon, which can be explained by the substantial resources and the communist heritage, results in high greenhouse gas emissions as well as environmental damage, heavily concentrated in the north Bohemian, Silesian (Poland) and Oltenian (Romania) basins. Pollution has, nevertheless, substantially decreased since the fall of the Communist regimes with the sharp decline of energy-consuming industries and the Central European countries seem to be the most conscientious in endeavouring to meet the terms of the Kyoto Protocol. On the other hand, increased individual car use is a new source of pollution. Environment constraints on energy policies within these countries have obliged them to modernize Soviet style nuclear plants. However, rather than increasing their energy dependence or greenhouse gas emissions, countries (Bulgaria and Lithuania) which have had to close down their reactors are planning to build new ones

  14. The new economic governance in the EU Member States. Macroeconomic results and statistical correlations for Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirela Cristea

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In the current economic context of economic and financial crisis, many European countries are facing with fundamental issues and trends that are unsustainable on the long term. In these circumstances, we have developed the present study which analyzes the EU strategies for establishing a new economic governance for all Member States. We present the perspective of Romania’s macroeconomic stability in the European context, in its process for accession to the EMU, through the nominal and real convergence criteria. On this background, we make a statistical study on the direction of causality relation between GDP and the main factors of the influence at the macroeconomic level. Reviving growth, as predicted by Romanian institutions, would produce major benefits to act extensively through coherent policies to balance the money market, the labor market and the fiscal framework

  15. The Value of the Junior Professional Officer Program to the IAEA and its Member States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pepper, Susan E.; Scholz, Melissa; Irola, Gisele; Amundson, Steven

    2014-01-01

    Benefits: • Augmented human resource: • JPOs are a form of extrabudgetary support and supplement the human resources that are supported by the regular budget; • Efficiency: • JPOs perform basic, yet essential work, and free experience staff to concentrate on more complex activities; • Increased input to the recruitment process: • Former JPOs who apply for regular staff positions can be evaluated based on past performance. • Improved communication: • Former JPOs can improve communication by acting as points-of-contact between member states and the IAEA due to their knowledge of the IAEA; • Experience for future positions at the IAEA: • JPO positions provide job experience that qualifies them for regular staff positions. • Insight into IAEA: • Insight to programs, work environment, and technical needs; • JPOs learn the procedures and techniques used by the IAEA; • JPOs transfer knowledge from the IAEA to employers and co-workers

  16. Teaching Effectiveness of the Teacher Education Faculty Members in Pangasinan State University Asingan Campus, Philippines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priscilla L. Agsalud

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Teaching effectiveness of the faculty is one of the most critical areas that need to be considered. The success of the students will depend to a great extent, upon how well the teachers have trained them. This paper evaluated the faculty members’ level of teaching effectiveness in the teacher education program in Pangasinan State University Asingan Campus, Philippines. Their professional background was assessed. Their level of teaching effectiveness along commitment, knowledge of the subject matter, teaching for independent learning and management of learning were considered. The study used the descriptive and evaluative methods of research. Questionnaire Checklist was used to gather data. The Faculty Evaluation Instrument (QCE of the NBC No.461 was adopted to evaluate the faculty members’ level of teaching effectiveness. It further tested significant relationship between the faculty members’ level of teaching effectiveness and their professional background. Salient findings are as follows: the teacher education faculty members in Pangasinan State University Asingan Campus are qualified professionals who possessed the maximum educational qualifications and eligibility to work in a state-run university. Only few of them graduated with honors and attended training and conferences in the national and international level.; their level of teaching effectiveness is Very Satisfactory; the profile variable awards/honors received influences the faculty members’ level of teaching effectiveness.

  17. CONSIDERATIONS REGARDING REGULATIONS ON FINANCIAL MARKETS IN THE CONDITIONS OF ROMANIA AS A EU MEMBER STATE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ALEXANDRU CRISTIAN DOBRE

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Financial markets are increasingly becoming an area of major interest to the European Union in its efforts to achieve competitive global development levels similar to those of the United States. The Lisbon Agenda is a testimony to this, although the latest assessments are not at all optimistic about the achievement of the target as expected for 2010. To meet its objectives, the EU has generated a comprehensive package of regulatory initiatives, composed of directives and regulations that translate its policies into the field. The paper aims at a careful review of all of them. Approximation of investment and capital markets is made from the two major chapters of Community policies whose freedom of movement within the internal market is a fundamental desideratum of the European Union: the free movement of capital and freedom of movement of services. Financial markets are an integral part of European capital under current conditions, so development regulation helps European Union member states achieve their financial goals. At the same time, by imposing these regulations, we observe the European Union's intention to act as a starter of systems to bring to the development of states and not to leave behind the countries that are in difficulty, through a rigorous and transparent regulation of the financial markets.

  18. Vaccination policies of immigrants in the EU/EEA Member States-the measles immunization example.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bica, Mihai A; Clemens, Ralf

    2018-06-01

    In 2015-16, the European Union/European Economic Area Member States (EU/EEA MSs) experienced an unprecedented volume and rate of migration, posing serious challenges to existing national immunization systems and strategies and raising the questions of where, when and who to vaccinate. We assessed existing strategies for vaccinating immigrant populations in the EU/EEA using measles as an example of the most important vaccine-preventable diseases. In this cross-sectional study, conducted from March to May 2016, an electronic questionnaire was sent to the Heads of National Immunization Technical Advisory Groups (NITAGs) or equivalent policy-making bodies in each of the 31 EU/EEA Member States. Responses were entered into a structured database and validated by survey responders for final analysis. Validated responses from all 31 EU/EEA NITAGs or equivalents showed that there is no common measles immunization policy for European immigrants. Policies vary widely from no policy at all (9 of 31, 29%) to vaccination of all comers (2 of 31, 6%), or vaccination of selected cohorts based on vaccination history (17 of 31, 55%) or serum antibody analysis (2 of 31, 6%). Further, the operational responsibilities for immigrant vaccination and documentation methods are not unified within the EU/EEA region. With some notable exceptions immunization policies to contain spread of infectious diseases through migration are either non-existent or vary widely between countries in the EU/EEA. With freedom of movement within the EU/EEA there ought to be harmonization and a common EU/EEA vaccination strategy to replace national policies for immigrant populations.

  19. The paradox of EU enlargement and member states' policies: Dilemmas and challenges: The case of Portugal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neves Santos Miguel

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper addresses the issue of EU enlargement with its dual nature: of an intra-EU process, related to the consolidation of a democratic-peace based on collective security, and an external process, involving EU foreign policy and impact on relations with other major global players. Although enlargement is a multidimensional process that combines different perspectives - candidate countries' enlargement politics, member states' politics/policy, EU enlargement politics and external global impact - the paper focuses on Member States policies towards enlargement by looking at the case of Portugal, in particular in relation with the Big Bang Eastern enlargement, and aims at explaining the paradox of Portugal's strong political support to enlargement while it was one of the main potential losers in terms of economic interests. A 'foreign policy analysis' framework is adopted in order to understand the process of decision-making and the interaction between the domestic and the EU levels. The argument put forward is that an exclusive constructivist approach does not provide a satisfactory explanation, as there was also rationalist-interest logic at play. The Portuguese policy towards enlargement was determined not only by the 'solidaritysimilarity' logic, dominant in the formal political discourse but also by the consideration of long-term interests in the EU related to the preservation of the strategic alliance with Germany. The overall systemic impact of enlargement tends to weaken the EU as it presents a major paradox functioning as a double-edged sword. While it has a positive impact by contributing to the enhancement of the EU international profile as it grows in size raising expectations about its potential global role, it also leads to greater heterogeneity, undermining the EU cohesion and its ability to act together with a single voice becoming a robust global player, thus frustrating the expectations raised in the first place.

  20. Legal frameworks and key concepts regulating diversion and treatment of mentally disordered offenders in European Union member states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dressing, Harald; Salize, Hans Joachim; Gordon, Harvey

    2007-10-01

    There is only limited research on the various legal regulations governing assessment, placement and treatment of mentally ill offenders in European Union member states (EU-member states). To provide a structured description and cross-boundary comparison of legal frameworks regulating diversion and treatment of mentally disordered offenders in EU-member states before the extension in May 2004. A special focus is on the concept of criminal responsibility. Information on legislation and practice concerning the assessment, placement and treatment of mentally ill offenders was gathered by means of a detailed, structured questionnaire which was filled in by national experts. The legal regulations relevant for forensic psychiatry in EU-member states are outlined. Definitions of mental disorders given within these acts are introduced and compared with ICD-10 diagnoses. Finally the application of the concept of criminal responsibility by the law and in routine practice is presented. Legal frameworks for the processing and placement of mentally disordered offenders varied markedly across EU-member states. Since May 2004 the European Union has expanded to 25 member states and in January 2007 it will reach 27. With increasing mobility across Europe, the need for increasing trans-national co-operation is becoming apparent in which great variation in legal tradition pertains.

  1. EC environmental legislation and the European oil industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luding, W.G.

    1993-01-01

    EUROPIA has 32 ordinary member companies which own and operate more than 95% of EC refining capacity, plus three associate member companies from EFTA countries. A large part of EUROPIA's efforts is devoted to environmental issues. Among its initial actions, EUROPIA developed Guiding Principles for environmental management which have been adopted by all member companies. This article can only highlight some of the key areas of EC environmental policy of interest to the oil industry. Most of the comments will refer to air pollution issues but, of course, water and ground pollution and waste are equally important subjects. (orig./HS)

  2. Finite impulse testing (FIT) system for Emergency Cooling System (ECS) in Dhruva

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Punekar, Parag; Ramkumar, N.; Kulkarni, U.S.; Darbhea, M.D.; Bharadhwaj, G; Jangra, L.R.; Geetha, Patil; Das, Shantanu; Sonnis, S.T.; Trevedi, P.; Patil, M.B.; Biswas, B.B.

    2006-01-01

    Finite Impulse Testing (FIT) system for Emergency Cooling System (ECS) is used to check healthiness of ECS logic circuits in an online mode. The ECS is an important safety system that ensures the cooling of reactor core during shutdown state of Main Coolant Pumps (MCPs), and hence FIT-ECS that monitors the health of ECS logic circuits in an online (real time) mode is an important part of it. Based on a Safety Related Unusual Occurrence in ECS system due to the malfunction of its earlier single channel FIT system, the new FIT-ECS system has been designed with new features and is commissioned. The FIT-ECS system feeds the simulated input signals (fine impulses of nominal width 575 μS) to the ECS logic circuits and read the outputs. These output (predicted) signals from ECS logic circuit are processed in the FIT-ECS system and in event of any discrepancy, the FIT-ECS system displays fault signature on local panel, detailed information of the fault on Operator Console (OC), and generates an alarm 'ECS logic Fail' in the control room. FIT-ECS also monitors the inputs and outputs of ECS logic circuit. All the information required is stored as a database that can be subsequently displayed in various formats. ECS system is designated as Category I-A system and is a hardwired system and FIT-ECS monitors the healthiness of the logics of the ECS System is a computerized system. As per IEC 1226, FIT-ECS is categorized as Category I-B system. This paper provides technical information on FIT-ECS system design, its important features, the testing carried on the FIT-ECS system, interconnections of FIT-ECS and ECS and the commissioning experience of FIT-ECS system. (author)

  3. Icelandic National Culture compared to National Cultures of 25 OECD member states using VSM94

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svala Guðmundsdóttir

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Researchers such as Hofstede (2002 and House, Hanges, Javidan, Dorfman and Gupta, (2004 have defined well-known cultural clusters such as, Anglo, Germanic, and Nordic cultural clusters. However, Iceland was not incorporated in these studies and therefore the research question of this paper is: In relation to Hofstede´s five cultural dimensions where does Iceland differ in relation to 25 of the OECD member states using VSM94? A questionnaire was sent to students at the University of Iceland, School of Social Sciences by e-mail in October 2013. The five dimensions of national culture were measured using scales developed by Hofstede called VSM 94. The results indicated that Iceland differs considerably from nations such as Slovakia, Japan, India, Thailand and China, which were found high in PDI and the MAS dimension while Iceland was found to be high in IDV and low in PDI. When considering the 25 OECD countries, Iceland is more similar to the Anglo cluster, C3, Canada, New Zealand, United Kingdon, Australia and United States than the Nordic cluster, C1 i.e. Denmark, Sweden and Norway. Iceland is similar to those countries in relation to high IDV, low PDI but differs in the dimensions MAS and UAI where Iceland scores higher.

  4. Nutritional state and dietary practices of gym members in the city of Aracaju, Sergipe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Silva Matos

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Currently there is growing media and society pressure on the cult of the perfect body. This often leads adolescents and young adults to adopt restrictive diets and dietary practices that are questionable from the health point of view. The aim of this study was to evaluate the nutritional state and dietary practices adopted by 712 individuals who carry out physical activities in seven fitness centers in the city of Aracaju. We used a semi-structured interview asking the number of daily meals, diet adoption and type and source of orientation. Weight and height were self-reported. Body mass index (BMI data of the participants were inconsistent with their physical conditions, invalidating recall technique for these measurements and for the classification of the nutritional state of this population. Out of the total 22% of the members claimed to adopt some kind of dieting alongside the physical activity. Out of these, 90.38% were hypocaloric diets. Only 26.14% of the dieters had indication from a professional nutritionist, whereas 73.85% had indication from non-recommended sources. Ninety-five percent of the informants exercised at least 3 times a week and 56% had 4 to 5 meals a day. The data show preoccupation with eating patterns and dieting, suggesting the need for nutritional education programs and diet changes monitored by professionals.

  5. Living Organ Donation by Minors: An Analysis of the Regulations in European Union Member States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thys, K; Van Assche, K; Nys, H; Sterckx, S; Borry, P

    2016-12-01

    Living organ donation (LD) is an increasingly established practice. Whereas in the United States and Canada LD by minors has occasionally been reported, LD by minors seems to be largely absent in the European Union (EU). It is currently unclear whether this is the result of a different legal approach. This study is the first to systematically analyze the regulations of EU member states, Norway, and Iceland toward LD by minors. Relevant regulations were identified by searching government websites, translated, compared, and sent for verification to national legal experts. We identified five countries where LD by minors is allowed. In two of these (Belgium and the United Kingdom), some minors may be deemed sufficiently mature to make an autonomous decision regarding LD. In contrast, in the three other countries (Luxembourg, Norway, and Sweden), LD by minors is only allowed subject to parental permission and the assent (or absence of objection) of the donor. Where allowed, regulations differ significantly with regard to the substantive and procedural safeguards in place. In view of the controversial nature of the procedure, as illustrated by recent reports and surveys, we argue for a very cautious approach and greater harmonization in countries where LD by minors is allowed. © Copyright 2016 The American Society of Transplantation and the American Society of Transplant Surgeons.

  6. Comparative analysis of diabetes self-management education programs in the European Union Member States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, Sarama; Riemenschneider, Henna; Müller, Gabriele; Levin-Zamir, Diane; Van den Broucke, Stephan; Schwarz, Peter E H

    2017-12-01

    Diabetes self-management education (DSME) is generally considered as an integral part of diabetes care. The availability of different types of self-management in the European Union Member States (EUMS) remains uncertain. The aim of this study is to perform a comparative analysis of existing DSME programs (DSMEP) implemented in EUMS. Unpublished data regarding DSME in the EUMS was assessed with Diabetes Literacy Survey using wiki tool (WT) targeting patients and different stakeholders. An additional literature review (LR) was performed in PubMed to identify published studies regarding DSMEP in the EUMS from 2004 to 2014. A total of 102 DSMEP implemented in EUMS were reported in the WT and 154 programs were identified from the LR. Comparative analysis of the data indicated that a majority of programs are aimed at adults and only a minority at children and elderly. Only a small percentage of the programs utilize information technology for teaching and learning, and only one out of five programs pay attention to depression. The identified DSMEP aimed primarily to empower patients through increasing knowledge and changing attitudes and beliefs towards diabetes. This study provides an overview of the present state-of-the-art on diabetes self-management education programs in the 28 EUMS. To increase participation, existing DSMEP should be made more accessible to the patients as well as tailored to specific patient groups. Copyright © 2017 Primary Care Diabetes Europe. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. 29 October 2013 - Former Director-General of IAEA H. Blix on the occasion of the Thorium Energy Conference at CERN with Chair of the ThEC13 Organization Committee E. Lillestol and Author of the book “Atome Vert” (Green Atom) J.-C. de Mestral; in the LHC tunnel at Point 1 with Technology Department, Machine Protection & Electrical Integrity Group, Performance Evaluation Section Member A. Verweij.

    CERN Multimedia

    Anna Pantelia

    2013-01-01

    29 October 2013 - Former Director-General of IAEA H. Blix on the occasion of the Thorium Energy Conference at CERN with Chair of the ThEC13 Organization Committee E. Lillestol and Author of the book “Atome Vert” (Green Atom) J.-C. de Mestral; in the LHC tunnel at Point 1 with Technology Department, Machine Protection & Electrical Integrity Group, Performance Evaluation Section Member A. Verweij.

  8. Public Availability to ECS Collected Datasets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, J. F.; Warnken, R.; McLean, S. J.; Lim, E.; Varner, J. D.

    2013-12-01

    Coastal nations have spent considerable resources exploring the limits of their extended continental shelf (ECS) beyond 200 nm. Although these studies are funded to fulfill requirements of the UN Convention on the Law of the Sea, the investments are producing new data sets in frontier areas of Earth's oceans that will be used to understand, explore, and manage the seafloor and sub-seafloor for decades to come. Although many of these datasets are considered proprietary until a nation's potential ECS has become 'final and binding' an increasing amount of data are being released and utilized by the public. Data sets include multibeam, seismic reflection/refraction, bottom sampling, and geophysical data. The U.S. ECS Project, a multi-agency collaboration whose mission is to establish the full extent of the continental shelf of the United States consistent with international law, relies heavily on data and accurate, standard metadata. The United States has made it a priority to make available to the public all data collected with ECS-funding as quickly as possible. The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's (NOAA) National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) supports this objective by partnering with academia and other federal government mapping agencies to archive, inventory, and deliver marine mapping data in a coordinated, consistent manner. This includes ensuring quality, standard metadata and developing and maintaining data delivery capabilities built on modern digital data archives. Other countries, such as Ireland, have submitted their ECS data for public availability and many others have made pledges to participate in the future. The data services provided by NGDC support the U.S. ECS effort as well as many developing nation's ECS effort through the U.N. Environmental Program. Modern discovery, visualization, and delivery of scientific data and derived products that span national and international sources of data ensure the greatest re-use of data and

  9. The IAEA Member States' database of discharges of radionuclides to the atmosphere and the aquatic environment (DIRATA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berkovskyy, Volodymyr; Hood, Graeme

    2008-01-01

    Full text: This paper provides the abstract model for authors. It embodies all the required formats and it is written complying with them. DIRATA is the IAEA Member States' database on discharges of radionuclides to the atmosphere and the aquatic environment (http://dirata.iaea.org/). It is a worldwide centralized repository of data submitted by IAEA Member States on a voluntary basis and each site dataset includes annual discharge and detection limits. Regulatory limits are given by Member States whenever available and a limited amount of information on the location of the site (country, geographical coordinates, water body into which radioactivity is released, number, names and types of installations) is also included. One of important purposes of DIRATA is to assist UNSCEAR in the preparation of the regular reports to the UN General Assembly and to serve Member States as a technical means for reporting and reviewing within the framework of the Joint Convention on the Safety of Spent Fuel Management and on the Safety of Radioactive Waste Management. The on-line version of the DIRATA database was deployed for the pilot application by Member States and the general public in 2006 and provides tools for: 1-)Input of the primary information by IAEA Member States and international organizations in batch or interactive (record by record) modes. The Microsoft Excel template is provided on the DIRATA website for the batch input; 2-) On-line access of Member States and the public to the dataset. The information contained in DIRATA is available for downloading (in CSV format) and interactive review. The new web-based version of DIRATA has inherited all of the important features contained on the previous CD-ROM versions, and has been extended by the number of principally new functionalities. The paper describes the structure, functionalities and content of the DIRATA database. (author)

  10. The Analysis of the Evolution of Tax Revenues in EU Member States during 2009-2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cornelia Elena Tureac

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The state budget is a financial plan at the macroeconomic level, and it is designed as a set of accounts of the nation, which reflects the current year and next year projections on all economic agents in the country / region. The size of the public sector varies significantly from one Member State to another, which means that the financial resources available to the public sector differ substantially at the European Union level. The paper includes an analysis of the evolution of the main indicators corresponding to public financial resources at EU level achieved between January 2009 - December 2012 or December 2013, where data processing was available. The information was taken from the Eurostat statistics database. The research methodology used in this work was done by the use of indicators: the share of total public revenue in GDP; the share of taxes in GDP of production and imports; the share of current taxes on income, wealth etc. in GDP; the share of social security contributions in GDP. In the analysis there were considered, of the total financial resources of government, only the taxes levied on production and imports, current taxes on income, wealth etc. and social security contributions. In conclusion, the share of government revenues in GDP increases, but there are states where it decreases, such as Estonia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Germany and Sweden. The public financial resources share in GDP at the level of the Eurozone was always higher in relation to the entire European Union, but always keeping the difference around 0.8 to 0.9 percentage points. France recorded the highest share of social security contributions in GDP (18.8% in 2009 and 19.4% in 2013 while Denmark has the lowest share of these financial resources in GDP, i.e. only 1.9% in 2009 and 1.8% in 2013.

  11. One voice or different choice?: Vote defection of European Union member states in the United Nations General Assembly

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burmester, Nicolas; Jankowski, Michael

    2018-01-01

    Existing research suggests that European Union member states are increasingly able to act in concert in the United Nations General Assembly. Based on several hundred co-ordination meetings per year, the European Union ‘speaks with one voice’ on most of the resolutions voted upon in the United...... Nations General Assembly. However, little is known about instances where the European Union member states do not vote coherently. Three questions remain unanswered. First, which aspects affect deviating voting behaviour of European Union member states? Second, who are the most frequent defectors from...... the European Union’s majority position? Third, which voting blocs within the European Union can be identified? The article answers these questions in a quantitative design by controlling for domestic factors, issues of resolutions and the position of the United States. The results suggest that domestic aspects...

  12. Environmental policies and regulations on the electricity market in EC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boucher, J.

    1990-01-01

    The use of natural resources like ground and water, the emissions of noxious gases and particles, the thermal rejections, the production of waste and the noise are the main environmental impacts associated with the production of electricity. Emission regulations and standards have been selected so far by the European Community (EC) and the different Member States to deal with the abatement problem. They simply consist in defining some ceilings or regulations for the different types of noxious gases and particles which are emitted by power plants and forcing the power generation companies to comply with these norms within some pre-determined time period. They can also take the form of a general constraint on the sulfur content of the fuel, for example. Tables of emission limits for various gases from existing and new plants are presented. 3 figs., 8 tabs

  13. The role of human resources on the economy: A study of the Balkan EU member states

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vuković Darko B.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we analyze the impact of the quality of human capital on the main economic indicators of South-Eastern Europe countries [SEE] at the NUTS 2 level. The subjects of this research are the human capital indicators of regional competitiveness. The quality of human capital depends largely on the age structure of the population and the quality of education. Those regions, which have the highest percentage of the working-age population and highly educated people, are able to achieve higher productivity and gain a competitive advantage over other regions. As main indicators of the quality of human capital we identified: population; persons aged 25-64 with tertiary education attainment; students in tertiary education and participation of adults aged 25-64 in education and training and human resources in science and technology. As main economic indicators, we identified: regional gross domestic product; employment and income of households. The aim of this paper is to determine whether there is a correlation between the indicators of the quality of human capital and economic indicators. As a main methodology we have used the correlation coefficient which shows interdependence of the analyzed indicators. As part of our analysis, we consider only EU member states that belong to the SEE countries: Slovenia, Croatia, Romania, Bulgaria and Greece. We conclude that in all countries there is a high multiple correlation coefficient between the indicators human resources in science and technology, number of students and employment. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 47007 III

  14. Operating experience with nuclear power stations in Member States in 1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-12-01

    This report is twenty-ninth in the IAEA series of annual reports on operating experience with nuclear power stations in Member States. The report is a direct output from the Agency's Power Reactor Information System (PRIS), whose database contains all operating experience data published in Agency's operating experience annual reports published since 1971 and basic information on power reactors, including design data. According to the information available to the Agency at the end of 1997, there were 437 nuclear power reactors having a total capacity of 351795 MW(e). During 1997 three new reactors having total capacity of 3555 MW(e) were connected to the grid in France and the Republic of Korea. There were 36 nuclear power plants under construction in the world. Load, operation and availability factors are used as the basic performance factors. In addition to annual performance data and outage information, the report contains a historical summary of performance and outages during the lifetime of individual plants and five figures illustrating worldwide performance and statistical data

  15. Radiological mass screening within the Member States of the European Community. Regulations, practices, effectiveness

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lochard, J. (ed.)

    1987-01-01

    Proceedings of the seminar ''Radiological mass screening within the Member States of the European Community'' organized by the Commission of the European Community in collaboration with the Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique and the Centre d'etude sur l'Evaluation de la Protection dans le domaine Nucleaire, France, from 3 to 4 December 1985. Part I presents rapporteurs' papers which summarize the salient points concerning: the status of regulations and practices in the different countries, mass chest screening, mammography screening and infants' hip dysplasia screening. Part II presents all the technical papers contributed by the participants. The overall conclusions of the seminar pointed up the importance of assessing the effectiveness of screening or prevention practices more systematically. Although some aspects of the problems associated with radiological mass screening were only qualitatively addressed, the papers presented did explain why the use of certain medical practices must be justified. It is hoped that these proceedings will be useful to national experts and bodies in the planning of future public health programmes which, in the light of current practices, will have to take account of the medical, economic and social dimension of mass screening.

  16. XRF Newsletter, No. 25, September 2013 [X Ray Fluorescence in the IAEA and its Member States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2014-02-15

    One of the main missions of any analytical laboratory is the provision of reliable results. Many X-ray fluorescence laboratories in the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) Member States (MSs) carry out research aimed at improving the performance and extending the applicability of various X-ray based techniques. The IAEA assists its MSs Laboratories to maintain their readiness by producing reference materials, by developing standardized analytical methods and by conducting interlaboratory comparisons and proficiency tests as tools for quality control. To achieve this aim and ensure a reliable worldwide, rapid and consistent response, the IAEA Nuclear Science and Instrumentation Laboratory (NSIL) organizes proficiency tests annually for X-ray spectrometry laboratories. The main objective of these tests is to enhance the capability of interested MSs in effective utilization of nuclear spectrometry and analytical services in industry, human health, agriculture, and in monitoring and evaluation of environmental pollution. Indeed, proficiency tests are designed to identify analytical problems, to support IAEA MSs laboratories to improve the quality of their analytical results, to maintain their accreditation and to provide a regular forum for discussion and technology transfer in this area. The type of samples and the concentration levels of the analytes are designed and chosen in a way to better enable identification of potential analytical problems. Since 2001, the NSIL has organized nine proficiency test exercises (PTXRFIAEA)

  17. VULNERABILITY OF AGRICULTURE TO CLIMATE CHANGE IN THE NEW MEMBER STATES OF EUROPEAN UNION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mária Fekete FARKASNÉ

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available During the last decade, as our Planet became more vulnerable, the demand for improved knowledge of environmental process and the impact of human activity on their dynamic increased. The debate over climate change has clearly entered a new phase that is focusing on what must be done related to mitigation and adaptation. It is there for clear how important agricultural land use change is for the global environment in all its varied components. Different factors, including demographic trends, economic growth and affluence, technology, agricultural and rural policies, institutional structure, social a ttitudes and values and other key driving forces, lead to changes in land use and land cover resulting in a range of impacts on yields, farm income, biodiversity, landscape identity water quality, flooding, greenhouse gas emissions, soil erosion. As the impacts of climate change become more noticeable, international, national and local awareness of the need to prepare for, and respond to, the impacts of climate change has grown. In the face of increasing uncertainty of climat e variability, and socio-economic situation their effectiveness may be reduced significantly. In such a context, prediction of socio-economic trends and the environment changing in space and time is clearly impossible. Given these constraints, an alternative technique for analysis is required. This paper is focusing on the methodology issues of vulnerability analysis in agriculture with special attention on new member states of EU.

  18. Occupational radiation exposure trends in the nuclear industry of NEA/IAEA Member States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ilari, O.; Horan, J.R.; Franzen, F.L.

    1980-01-01

    After various introductory statements on current occupational radiation exposure trends in nuclear facilities, the authors briefly discuss the problems involved in the application of the ICRP principle of optimization of radiological protection to the design and, in particular, the operation of nuclear plants, with the aim of comparing present exposure trends. To assemble an adequate data base for supporting the technical studies required to optimize radiological protection, the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency and the International Atomic Energy Agency have launched a survey aimed at collecting information on the levels and trends of occupational radiation exposure in the nuclear industry. The features of this study, based on the answers of NEA/IAEA Member States to a questionnaire, are described. The first results of the survey, regarding the situation and time trends of the average individual dose equivalents and collective dose equivalents for different plant types and for several countries, are also given. A preliminary analysis of the data collected allows certain considerations to be made relating to the influence of size, age and plant type, as well as of different national practices in plant operation and maintenance. (author)

  19. The Impact of EU Financial Crisis and the EU Member States Measures taken to Leave Recession

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona Moagăr-Poladian

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper is focussed on the financial packages and fiscal stimuli measures taken by EU as a group and by each EU country for supporting hard-hit sectors like automotive industry, tourism and construction. The economic crisis from 2008-2009 has led to a sharp decrease of investment climate and a massive contraction of economic activity. This means a sharp decrease of capacity utilisation that had led in time to an excessive unemployment especially in the most hit sectors. The financial rescue measures of EU are comprised in European Economic Recovery Plan (EERP. Measures approved are different from country to country, depending by the political support and the strategy chosen by the government. The EU's response to support the real economy during the economic crisis has been taken very fast and well-organized in certain countries and industries. By contrary, some Member States' recovery measures has been approved late and the rescue strategy wasn’t enough achieved. This has led to a deepening of financial instability and unemployment.

  20. Examination of corticothalamic fiber projections in United States service members with mild traumatic brain injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashid, Faisal M.; Dennis, Emily L.; Villalon-Reina, Julio E.; Jin, Yan; Lewis, Jeffrey D.; York, Gerald E.; Thompson, Paul M.; Tate, David F.

    2017-11-01

    Mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) is characterized clinically by a closed head injury involving differential or rotational movement of the brain inside the skull. Over 3 million mTBIs occur annually in the United States alone. Many of the individuals who sustain an mTBI go on to recover fully, but around 20% experience persistent symptoms. These symptoms often last for many weeks to several months. The thalamus, a structure known to serve as a global networking or relay system for the rest of the brain, may play a critical role in neurorehabiliation and its integrity and connectivity after injury may also affect cognitive outcomes. To examine the thalamus, conventional tractography methods to map corticothalamic pathways with diffusion-weighted MRI (DWI) lead to sparse reconstructions that may contain false positive fibers that are anatomically inaccurate. Using a specialized method to zero in on corticothalamic pathways with greater robustness, we noninvasively examined corticothalamic fiber projections using DWI, in 68 service members. We found significantly lower fractional anisotropy (FA), a measure of white matter microstructural integrity, in pathways projecting to the left pre- and postcentral gyri - consistent with sensorimotor deficits often found post-mTBI. Mapping of neural circuitry in mTBI may help to further our understanding of mechanisms underlying recovery post-TBI.

  1. Active animal health surveillance in European Union Member States: gaps and opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bisdorff, B; Schauer, B; Taylor, N; Rodríguez-Prieto, V; Comin, A; Brouwer, A; Dórea, F; Drewe, J; Hoinville, L; Lindberg, A; Martinez Avilés, M; Martínez-López, B; Peyre, M; Pinto Ferreira, J; Rushton, J; VAN Schaik, G; Stärk, K D C; Staubach, C; Vicente-Rubiano, M; Witteveen, G; Pfeiffer, D; Häsler, B

    2017-03-01

    Animal health surveillance enables the detection and control of animal diseases including zoonoses. Under the EU-FP7 project RISKSUR, a survey was conducted in 11 EU Member States and Switzerland to describe active surveillance components in 2011 managed by the public or private sector and identify gaps and opportunities. Information was collected about hazard, target population, geographical focus, legal obligation, management, surveillance design, risk-based sampling, and multi-hazard surveillance. Two countries were excluded due to incompleteness of data. Most of the 664 components targeted cattle (26·7%), pigs (17·5%) or poultry (16·0%). The most common surveillance objectives were demonstrating freedom from disease (43·8%) and case detection (26·8%). Over half of components applied risk-based sampling (57·1%), but mainly focused on a single population stratum (targeted risk-based) rather than differentiating between risk levels of different strata (stratified risk-based). About a third of components were multi-hazard (37·3%). Both risk-based sampling and multi-hazard surveillance were used more frequently in privately funded components. The study identified several gaps (e.g. lack of systematic documentation, inconsistent application of terminology) and opportunities (e.g. stratified risk-based sampling). The greater flexibility provided by the new EU Animal Health Law means that systematic evaluation of surveillance alternatives will be required to optimize cost-effectiveness.

  2. Mutual Recognition of Financial Penalties between the EU Member States. Critical Observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minodora Ioana Rusu

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available According to the special Romanian law, one of the forms of judicial assistance in criminal matters recognized in the relations between the EU member states is, among others, the one referringto the cooperation in applying the principle of mutual recognition of financial penalties. The European normative act that establishes the general cooperation norms in this matter is the Council’sDecision Frame 2005/214/JAI on February 24, 2005 on the application of the principle of mutual recognition of financial penalties. This European normative act has been transposed in the internallegislation through Law no.302/2004, according to the international judicial cooperation in criminal matters, with the subsequent amendments and completions, the latter being represented by Lawno.222/2008. The amendments and completions instituted by the abovementioned normative act establish the procedure of transmitting the decision, the procedures for recognition and execution ofsuch a decision by the competent Romanian judicial authorities, the grounds of non recognition and non execution, the definition of used terms, as well as other aspects referring to the recognition andexecution of such decisions. Commenting refers to a number of provisions in the law under both European and domestic in the special law, comments aimed in particular the replacement of terms ofrecognition or non-performance reasons, the procedure of identification of persons convicted when they are evade the enforcement of financial obligations and failure to transpose into national law of subsequent changes to European law.

  3. Implementing SDG 15.3 on Land Degradation Neutrality in the EU and EU Member States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wunder, Stephanie; Starke, Sue Martina; Frelih-Larsen, Ana; Kaphengst, Timo

    2017-04-01

    The continuing degradation of land and soils is a severe threat to the provision of ecosystem services and economic development. Sustainable use of land and soils are therefore an integral part of the "Agenda 2030" with its 17 Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) and 169 targets adopted by the UNGeneral Assembly in September 2015. The SDGs provide new opportunities for an ambitious and integrated environmental policy worldwide and in the EU. Among the many relevant targets that directly or indirectly address soils (such as goals on zero hunger, well being, clean energy, climate change, water and sustainable cities), target 15.3 that aims to achieve "a land degradation-neutral world" by 2030 is the most relevant. The concept of "Land Degradation Neutrality" (LDN) is not only about halting the loss of healthy and fertile land, but also actively reversing degradation by restoring land in order to counterbal-ance losses that cannot be avoided. It is a very ambitious target but due to a lack of balancing mechanisms for degradation and restoration in most countries also a new concept. Land Degra-dation Neutrality therefore both needs a scientific conceptual framework as well as a political debate about its implementation and development of instruments. In the EU and its Member States, this debate can also serve as a catalyst to revive the discussion on a common soil policy in Europe after the withdrawal of the proposal for a soil framework directive in 2014. To analyze options for the implementation of target 15.3 in Germany and Europe the research project "Implementing the Sustainable Development Goals on Soils in Germany" (http://ecologic.eu/12876) is currently carried out by the Ecologic Institute on behalf of the Ger-man Environment Agency (UBA) and the German Federal Environment Ministry (BMUB). The project will run until spring 2017 and the session "European Environmental Policies and Sustainability" at the EGU will be an ideal opportunity to present the final

  4. ANALYSIS OF PERSONAL INCOME TAX IN ROMANIA AND THE OTHER MEMBER STATES OF THE EUROPEAN UNION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CHIRCULESCU MARIA FELICIA

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The high tax burden on labor in the European Union is a subject of analysis often encountered in thespeciality literature. This is probably due the fact that are more convenient to implement from the political point ofview - there is the responsibility of an anonymous administration and not the responsibility of Prime Minister orPresident.In recent years the personal taxation had a substantial increase in most European Union member states, aphenomenon that has generated some repercussions: it affects employment in the labor market, encouraging thesubstitution of labor with capital, increase unemployment, increase tax burden on labor and tax evasion amplificationgenerates employment orientation towards the ground. Growing importance given to personal income tax is largelydue to the fact that direct taxes within the EU this is a more stable basis of taxation. In Romania reduction in taxrevenue from income tax was offset by increased tax revenues from value added tax. The evolution of tax revenues fromdirect taxes is normal if we consider that the remaining incomes to the taxpayers were available for consumption,which led to higher levels of indirect taxes collected to the budget.The influence of employment on the labor market due to the size of the labor tax is explained by the fact thatthe option for such taxes is due to the ease of implement for policy makers but also by the fact that employees are notalways aware of these taxes.

  5. Public Investment and Economic Growth in The European Union Member States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliana DONATH

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The issue of public investments becamea very challenging subject for public decisionmakerssince it incorporates the question of stateperformance, the quality of public finance and theireffects on growth. The quality of public finance is amultidimensional concept. It may be regarded asrepresenting all the arrangements and operationsregarding the financial politics that sustain themacroeconomic objectives, particularly the longtermeconomic growth. Financial policies atEuropean level highlight the fact that a concentrationof the public expenses in areas that stimulate theeconomic growth and a more efficient use of thepublic resources are key methods for sustainingthe economic growth. The empirical proofs seem tosupport the assumption according to which certaintypes of public expenses can supply incentivesand other can negatively influence the economicgrowth. The paper tries to reveal the effects ofcapital spending on economic growth (GDP percapita for the European Union member states.The GDP per capita and the capital expenses(functional classification of public expenses -“COFOG” have been obtained by consideringthe Eurostat statistics, the measurement unit forboth variables is Euro, while the period of analysisis of 7 years (2000-2006.

  6. FINANCING DEMOCRACY OR CORRUPTION? POLITICAL PARTY FINANCING IN THE EU’ S SOUTHEASTERN AND EASTERN MEMBER STATES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ada-Iuliana POPESCU

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Fighting public-sector corruption has become a priority for most governments and international organizations. The public sector is the source of many benefits. Realizing improper private gains from these benefits has long been the core definition of corruption. As the public sector grows and expands its activities, the complexity of its activities also increases. The opportunities for improper private gains grow, too. Therefore, not surprisingly, the EU admits that the public sector, including political parties and public administrations, are especially vulnerable to corruption. Political parties, for instance, depend on the funding destined for their capability to win elections and otherwise to influence public policies. In turn, this dependency creates opportunities for a variety of corrupt activities. Ensuring that campaign funding promotes democracy and not corruption requires well-crafted, vigorously enforced laws. This article analyzes the legal framework of political party financing in the Eastern and South-eastern European EU member states, in order to assess how well it works in preventing political party corruption.

  7. Operating trends and performance of nuclear power plants in IAEA member states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galori, F.

    1984-01-01

    The present status and short-term development of nuclear power programmes in IAEA member states is reviewed. A description of the IAEA Power Reactor Information System (PRIS) is given and the objectives for data collection and treatment are discussed. As indicated by the reports at the IAEA International Conference on Nuclear Power experience in 1982, there are considerable differences in the performances of nuclear power plants even within classes of plants which technically should be very similar and thus perform equally well. PRIS permist at least some preliminary conclusions about the reasons for differences to be drawn. It is becoming clear that reasons for good or bad performance must be sought in a number of factors including: type of plant (on-load/off-load refuelling, GCR, PHWR, LWR); age and vintage of plant; manufacturer of the main plant system; degree of standardization in plant and construction; competence of operating organization; regulatory climate. Analysis of the reported outages shows that major problems are: stress corrosion cracking in primary piping, also denting and wall thinning in tubes of steam generators; thermal fatigue cracking in the feedwater system and excessive errosion/corrosion problems in turbines. It is emphasized that international cooperation is important for creating an effective system for learning from operating experience

  8. Qualification, training, licensing/authorization and retraining of operating personnel in nuclear power plants. Some requirements and practices commonly shared in the European Community Member States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pele, J.P.

    1987-01-01

    At the end of the fifties a treaty was signed instituting between six countries of the European Community for Atomic Energy, or in brief, Euratom. This treaty, in addition to the Common Market Treaty and the Coal and Steel one, constitutes the legal frame of the European Community which, at present, comprises 12 Member States. A commission, the so-called Commission of the European Communities (or in brief CEC) has to implement the provisions laid down in the treaties. Qualification, training, licensing and re-training of operating personnel have been the subjects of an in-depth exchange of views and information in the frame of the work conducted by the Commission. The evaluation of the regulations and practices in countries of the EC and some other countries having a large nuclear energy program, has led to the identification of some generally valid concepts. This synthesis, made with the assistance of a consultant, is now published under the form of an EUR report (EUR 10981). The main topics addressed within this report are the following: shift staffing and staffing of the control room, personnel selection, qualifications necessary for recruitment, training and retraining, and licensing/authorization

  9. Strategies of the 'gree­n' member states in EU environmental pol­icy-making

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liefferink, D.; Andersen, M. S.

    2002-01-01

    and strategies of the ‘green’ member states after the accession of Sweden, Finland and Austria are analysed. It is concluded, among other things, that differences in strategies of articulating environmentally progressive positions in the EU may seriously thwart effective alliance-building between the ‘leaders......’. Denmark is identified as the most activist ‘green’ member state. In Sweden and Austria, pragmatism now prevails. The Netherlands and Finland have the most constructive approach. Germany has largely abandoned its activism of the 1980s in favour of more defensive tendencies. Because of its political...... and economic impact, the role of Germany is crucial among the ‘green’ member states....

  10. Air pollution by ozone across Europe during summer 2010. Overview of exceedances of EC ozone threshold values for April-September 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2011-06-15

    This report provides an evaluation of ground-level ozone pollution in Europe for April-September 2010, based on information submitted to the European Commission under Directive 2002/3/EC on ozone in ambient air. Since Members States have not yet finally validated the submitted data, the conclusions drawn in this report should be considered as preliminary. (Author)

  11. HNS-MS : Improving Member States preparedness to face an HNS pollution of the Marine System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legrand, Sébastien; Le Floch, Stéphane; Aprin, Laurent; Partenay, Valérie; Donnay, Eric; Parmentier, Koen; Ovidio, Fabrice; Schallier, Ronny; Poncet, Florence; Chataing, Sophie; Poupon, Emmanuelle; Hellouvry, Yann-Hervé

    2017-04-01

    When dealing with a HNS pollution incident, one of the priority requirements is the identification of the hazard and an assessment of the risk posed to the public and responder safety, the environment and socioeconomic assets upon which a state or coastal community depend. The primary factors which determine the safety, environmental and socioeconomic impact of the released substance(s) relate to their physico-chemical properties and fate in the environment. Until now, preparedness actions at various levels have primarily aimed at classifying the general environmental or public health hazard of an HNS, or at performing a risk analysis of HNS transported in European marine regions. Operational datasheets have been (MIDSIS-TROCS) or are being (MAR-CIS) developed collating detailed, substance-specific information for responders and covering information needs at the first stage of an incident. However, contrary to oil pollution preparedness and response tools, only few decision-support tools used by Member State authorities (Coastguard agencies or other) integrate 3D models that are able to simulate the drift, fate and behaviour of HNS spills in the marine environment. When they do, they usually consider simplified or steady-state environmental conditions. As a significant step forward, a 'one-stop shop' integrated HNS decision-support system has been developed in the framework of the HNS-MS project. Focussing on the Bonn Agreement area, the system integrates 1. A database containing the physico-chemical parameters needed to compute the behaviour in the marine environment of 120 relevant HNS; 2. A digital atlas of the HNS environmental and socioeconomic vulnerability maps ; 3. A three dimensional HNS spill drift and fate model able to simulate HNS behaviour in the marine environment (including floaters, sinkers, evaporators and dissolvers). 4. A user-friendly web-based interface allowing Coastguard stations to launch a HNS drift simulation and visualize post

  12. Communication received from the Permanent Mission of the Netherlands on behalf of the Member States of the Nuclear Suppliers Group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    The Director General has received a letter dated 4 April 2000 from the Permanent Mission of the Netherlands to the Agency on behalf of Member States of the 'Nuclear Suppliers Group' (NSG). Attached to this letter is an updated version of a paper entitled 'The Nuclear Suppliers Group: Its Origins, Roles and Activities'. The original version of the paper was issued as INFCIRC/539 on 15 September 1997. In the light of the wish expressed at the end of the letter, the revised version of the paper, attached hereto, is being circulated to Member States of the IAEA as INFCIRC/539/Rev.1

  13. The comparative burden of salmonellosis in the European Union member states, associated and candidate countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Jong Birgitta

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Salmonella is an infectious agents causing numerous cases of illness each year, and thereby having significant economic impact. Using returning Swedish travellers we estimated the burden of salmonellosis in different European countries. Methods From the Swedish database on notifiable communicable diseases 15,864 cases with travel-associated salmonellosis acquired in Europe from 1997–2003 were retrieved. These cases were compared to a dataset from the same years on 14,171 randomly selected Swedish residents, with a history of recent overnight travel in Europe. Distribution of salmonellosis in returning travellers and the distribution of Salmonella Enteritidis was analysed for different member states in the European Union, associated and candidate countries. The risk of being notified with a salmonella infection after return from each European country/region was calculated, and compared with official reporting data rom these countries. Using Norway as reference country, we could 1 construct comparable incidence estimates and 2 calculate the "under-reporting" in each country compared to Norway. Results The highest burden of salmonellosis was estimated for Bulgaria (2741/100,000, followed by Turkey with 2344/100 000 and Malta with 2141/100 000. S. Enteritidis is the dominating serotype, 66.9 % of all cases and phage type 4 accounts for 37.5 % of the S. Enteritidis cases Conclusion Using returning tourists as a sentinel population can provide a useful base for comparison of disease burdens in different countries/regions. Focusing prevention of salmonellosis to prevention of egg and poultry associated S. Enteritidis infection will have a major impact from a public health perspective and will significantly lower the burden of disease in most European countries.

  14. New legal requirements for submission of product information to poisons centres in EU member states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Groot, Ronald; Brekelmans, Pieter; Desel, Herbert; de Vries, Irma

    2018-01-01

    In the past eight years, the European Association of Poisons Centres and Clinical Toxicologists (EAPCCT) has been intensively involved in a European Commission led process to develop EU legislation on the information of hazardous products that companies have to notify to EU Poisons Centres (or equivalent "appointed bodies"). As a result of this process, the Commission adopted Regulation (EU) No 2017/542, amending the CLP Regulation by adding an Annex on harmonised product submission requirements. Harmonised mixture information requirements: Detailed and consistent information on the composition of the hazardous product will become available to EU Poisons Centres (PC). The information will be submitted by companies to PCs (or equivalent "appointed bodies") using a web-based software application or in-house software. Two new important features are introduced. Firstly, to be able to rapidly identify the product formula, a Unique Formula Identifier (UFI) on the product label links to the submitted information. Secondly, for better comparability of reports on poisonings between EU member states, a harmonised Product Categorisation System will specify the intended use of a product. Rapid product identification and availability of detailed composition information will lead to timely and adequate medical intervention. This may lead to considerable reduction in healthcare costs. Additionally, for companies trading across the EU, costs of submission of this information will be reduced significantly. Next steps: From 2017, an implementation period has started, consisting of a three-year period for stakeholders to implement the new requirements, followed by a gradual applicability for consumer products (2020), professional products (2021) and industrial use-only products (2024). Technical tools to generate the electronic format and the UFI together with guidance documents are expected to be made available by the end of 2017 by the European Chemicals Agency (ECHA). Guidance on

  15. Operating experience with nuclear power stations in Member States in 2005

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-10-01

    This report is the thirty-seventh in the Agency's series of annual reports on operating experience with nuclear power stations in Member States. For the first time it is issued purely in an electronic version. The report is a direct output from the Agency's Power Reactor Information System (PRIS), whose databank contains all operating experience data published in the Agency's operating experience annual reports since 1970 and basic information on power reactors, including design data. It presents operating experience data for all worldwide nuclear power plants after starting commercial operation. The PRIS databank is available free of charge to IAEA Member States through its two services: PRIS-PC, and PRIS CD-ROM. The PRIS-PC allows direct access to the database through the Internet. The PRIS-PC on CD-ROM only includes data for reactors in operation, under construction and shutdown. It keeps the same feature as in the current front-end-tool PRIS-PC interface. This front-end-tool interface allows to search and query through pre-designed statistics. The PRIS-PC on CD-ROM contains mapping interface including a view of the world map with zooming features to country, region and site map and links to PRIS database to retrieve related (nuclear power plant) information. PRIS data and related indicators are also available on the PRIS Website: www.iaea.org/programmes/a2. It contains publicly available information about reactor units and nuclear industry results. Load, operation and availability factors are used as the basic performance indicators. Energy unavailability factors, separate for planned and unplanned unavailability, due either to causes under plant management control or external causes out of plant management control, are used as a measure of energy lost through a unit not being available. However, some ambiguity remains in the operators' reports of the unavailability data, resulting in inconsistencies in these factors. It is recognized that there is an inherent

  16. Operating experience with nuclear power stations in Member States in 2006

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-08-01

    This report is the thirty-eighth in the Agency's series of annual reports on operating experience with nuclear power stations in Member States. For the second time it is issued purely in an electronic version. The report is a direct output from the Agency's Power Reactor Information System (PRIS), whose databank contains all operating experience data published in the Agency's operating experience annual reports since 1970 and basic information on power reactors, including design data. It presents operating experience data for all worldwide nuclear power plants after starting commercial operation. The PRIS databank is available free of charge to IAEA Member States through its services: web-based PRIS-Statistics (http://prisweb.iaea.org/statistics/), PRIS-PC, PRIS CD-ROM and PRIS Website. The PRIS-Statistics and PRIS-PC allow direct access to the database through the Internet. The PRIS-PC on CD-ROM only includes data for reactors in operation, under construction and shutdown. It keeps the same feature as in the current front-end-tool PRIS-PC interface. This front-endtool interface allows to search and query through pre-designed statistics. PRIS data and related indicators are also available on the PRIS Website: www.iaea.org/programmes/a2. It contains publicly available information about reactor units and nuclear industry results. Load, operation and availability factors are used as the basic performance indicators. Energy unavailability factors, separate for planned and unplanned unavailability, due either to causes under plant management control or external causes out of plant management control, are used as a measure of energy lost through a unit not being available. However, some ambiguity remains in the operators' reports of the unavailability data, resulting in inconsistencies in these factors. It is recognized that there is an inherent difficulty in reporting unavailability in energy due to external causes with relation to energy losses due to load following

  17. Human trafficking as a threat for the security of member states of EU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirela Kapo

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The topic “Trafficking of human beings” as subject to advanced studies has been chosen due to a growing interest linked with the phenomenon in question. The study introduces a legal criminal overview of the criminal activity consisted of the recruitment, transport, transfer or reception of persons by means of force or forms of fraud for exploitation purposes. Human trafficking represents a threat for the security of member states. The trend to penetrate to all spheres of the society has obliged the European states to draft a new directive reflecting the growing concern about the phenomenon in question, by respecting human rights in accordance with the legal framework under the United Nations, International Labor Organization (ILO, and Council of Europe etc. The new European priorities aim at victims’ identification, their protection and prevention of the phenomenon and more intense criminal prosecution of traffickers. With the view of fully developing this topic, the outline consists of four chapters preceded by a historical background of human trafficking. Special importance in this study, specifically in the second chapter, is attached to the assistance and protection of the victims of human trafficking. It is crucial that these victims exercise their rights effectively. Therefore, the European directives foresee assistance and support before, after and during the criminal proceeding. The third chapter refers to the relevant legal mechanisms in this field assuring the victims of trafficking legal defense, the right to information and their social, psychological and physical recovery. One of the “key” legal instruments is the Palermo Convention, which gives for the first time a detailed definition of the term of trafficking and smuggling and makes the differences between them. All legal instruments converge to one point: the consent of the human trafficking victim is not important when it is used any of the means of force, threat

  18. 12 CFR 225.121 - Acquisition of Edge corporation affiliate by State member banks of registered bank holding company.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Acquisition of Edge corporation affiliate by... Acquisition of Edge corporation affiliate by State member banks of registered bank holding company. (a) The... of the holding company's Edge corporation subsidiary organized under section 25(a) of the Federal...

  19. Cooperation of CMEA member states in the field of the manufacture and use of stable isotopes and compounds thus labelled

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ertel, G.; Ewald, G.

    1977-01-01

    The contribution presents a survey of scientific-technical cooperation of CMEA member states in the field of stable isotopes, it deals with the specialization of stable isotope production and compounds thus labelled, and gives the prospects for further development of this cooperation. (HK) [de

  20. Joint responsibility between the EU and Member States for non-performance of obligations under multilateral environmental agreements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nollkaemper, A.; Morgera, E.

    2012-01-01

    This chapter explores the basis and manifestations of joint responsibility between the European Union (EU) and its Member States for non-performance of obligations contained in multilateral environmental agreements (MEAs). Joint responsibility has often been advanced as an attractive solution where

  1. Joint Responsibility between the EU and Member States for Non-Performance of Obligations under Multilateral Environmental Agreements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nollkaemper, A.

    2011-01-01

    This chapter explores the basis and manifestations of joint responsibility between the European Union (EU) and its Member States for non-performance of obligations contained in multilateral environmental agreements (MEAs). Joint responsibility has often been advanced as an attractive solution where

  2. CFL Labeling Harmonization in the United States, China, Brazil andELI Member Countries: Specifications, Testing, and MutualRecognition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fridley, David; Lin, Jiang; Denver, Andrea; Biermayer, Peter; Dillavou, Tyler

    2005-07-20

    This report examines critical differences among energy-efficient labeling programs for CFLs in Brazil, China, the United States, and the seven members of the international Efficient Lighting Initiative (ELI) in terms of technical specifications and test procedures, and review issues related to international harmonization of these standards.

  3. The European PV market evaluation for potential investors - actual information on the 15 EU member state countries and Switzerland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurdziel, M.

    2004-01-01

    The EU has ambitious targets for the introduction of PV. According to the white book of the European Commission, the target for 2010 is to install 3000 MWp. In the following the European PV markets of the 15 EU member state countries and Switzerland are presented and evaluated for potential investors. (author)

  4. Argumentative patterns in the European Union directives : An effective tool to foster compliance by the Member States

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Andone, C.; Coman-Kund, F.

    This paper provides an account of the arguments advanced by the European Union (EU) legislator in the preamble of directives adopted for harmonization in the internal market, and assesses them as to their potential at convincing the Member States to implement the directive at issue. We show what

  5. School District Cabinet Member Task and Relationship Conflict Behavior during Budget Development in a State Fiscal Crisis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nickerson, John

    2009-01-01

    Purpose. The first purpose of this study was to determine to what extent task and relationship conflict occurred in school district cabinets during budget development in a state budget crisis. The second purpose was to determine which cabinet member task and relationship conflict behaviors were demonstrated during budget development in a state…

  6. Young driver accidents in Europe : characteristic young driver accidents in the member states of the European Union.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Twisk, D.A.M.

    1994-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a study into characteristic young driver accidents. The aim was to bundle the information from the research institutes in the member states of the European Union by using a questionnaire. Information was received from all but one country. All countries report a

  7. Opportunities to Learn about Europe at School. A Comparative Analysis among European Adolescents in 21 European Member States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verhaegen, Soetkin; Hooghe, Marc; Meeusen, Cecil

    2013-01-01

    In this article, we investigate the relationship between different learning methods and the formation of European identity among adolescents. The analysis is based on the European module of the International Civic and Citizenship Education Study (2009), with 70,502 respondents in 21 European member states. The results show that offering…

  8. Communication received from the Permanent Mission of the Netherlands on behalf of the Member States of the Nuclear Suppliers Group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    The document reproduces the text of the updated version of the paper entitled 'The Nuclear Suppliers Group: Its origins, role and activities' received by the Director General of IAEA on 4 April 2000, as attachment to a letter from the Permanent Mission of the Netherlands to the Agency on behalf of the Member States of the 'Nuclear Suppliers Group (NSG)'

  9. Long-run real exchange rate determinants : Evidence from eight new EU member states, 1993–2003

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Candelon, B.; Kool, C.J.M.; Raabe, K.; Veen, van A.P. (Tom)

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, we estimate bilateral equilibrium real exchange rates for a group of eight new EU member states against the euro, using new and sophisticated panel-cointegration techniques. We document a stable significant positive link between productivity levels and the corresponding real exchange

  10. 20 CFR 404.1019 - Work as a member of a uniformed service of the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Force Reserve Officers Training Corps, when ordered to annual training duty for 14 days or more... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Work as a member of a uniformed service of the United States. 404.1019 Section 404.1019 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION...

  11. HNS-MS : Improving Member States preparedness to face an HNS pollution of the Marine System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legrand, Sebastien; Le Floch, Stéphane; Aprin, Laurent; Parthenay, Valérie; Donnay, Eric; Parmentier, Koen; Ovidio, Fabrice; Schallier, Ronny; Poncet, Florence; Chataing, Sophie; Poupon, Emmanuelle; Hellouvry, Yann-Hervé

    2016-04-01

    When dealing with a HNS pollution incident, one of the priority requirements is the identification of the hazard and an assessment of the risk posed to the public and responder safety, the environment and socioeconomic assets upon which a state or coastal community depend. The primary factors which determine the safety, environmental and socioeconomic impact of the released substance(s) relate to their physico-chemical properties and fate in the environment. Until now, preparedness actions at various levels have primarily aimed at classifying the general environmental or public health hazard of an HNS, or at performing a risk analysis of HNS transported in European marine regions. Operational datasheets have been (MIDSIS-TROCS) or are being (MAR-CIS) developed collating detailed, substance-specific information for responders and covering information needs at the first stage of an incident. However, contrary to oil pollution preparedness and response tools, only few decision-support tools used by Member State authorities (Coastguard agencies or other) integrate 3D models that are able to simulate the drift, fate and behaviour of HNS spills in the marine environment. When they do, they usually consider simplified or steady-state environmental conditions. Moreover, the above-mentioned available HNS information is currently not sufficiently detailed or not suitably classified to be used as an input for an advanced HNS support decision tool. HNS-MS aims at developing a 'one-stop shop' integrated HNS decision-support tool that is able to predict the drift, behaviour and Fate of HNS spills under realistic environmental conditions and at providing key product information - drawing upon and in complement to existing studies and databases - to improve the understanding and evaluation of a HNS spill situation in the field and the environmental and safety-related issues at stake. The 3D HNS drift and fate model and decision-support tool will also be useful at the preparedness

  12. Effects Of Membership Of Cooperative Organisations And Determinants On Farmer-Members Income In Rural Anambra State Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nkechi Cordelia Ojiagu

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The study examined the effect of membership of cooperative societies on the economic activities of farmers as well as the determinants of their income in rural Nigeria focusing on Anambra State. Data from 2506 members selected through multi-stage stratified random sampling were analyzed. The study found among others that members incomes are dependent upon their socio-economic profile such as age marital status and membership or otherwise of cooperative societies education cooperative marketing credit gender and business expertise. Also respondents depend largely on farming related activities for generation of income in the study area. Furthermore it was found that the major challenge of the farmer-members is inadequate fund poor education and illiteracy among most members conflict among members and lack of access to farm input. The Nigerian government is advised to formulate policies that will incorporate information from the local level that can support planning implementation and evaluation of programmes that can enhance farmers income this however will influence the pattern of agricultural growth in ways that can change income level of rural farmers to grow fast. The study recommends that cooperatives should intensify their education of members to gain more benefits and that government non-governmental organizations and international development agencies should show interest in supervising and providing development support to Farmers Cooperative Societies in rural Nigeria.

  13. Greenhouse gas emission accounting for EU member states from 1991 to 2012

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Su, Meirong; Pauleit, Stephan; Yin, Xuemei; Zheng, Ying; Chen, Shaoqing; Xu, Chao

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • GHG emissions for the EU28 during 1991–2012 are accounted. • The EU28 are classified into four groups based on GHG emission structure. • It can facilitate classified management of GHG emissions. • The EU case shows the common but differentiated principle in emission reduction. - Abstract: Collectively, the EU is among the world’s largest greenhouse gas (GHG) emitters, though remarkable decreases in GHG emissions have been observed in recent years. In this work the GHG emissions for the 28 EU member states between 1991 and 2012 are accounted for and compared according to the inventory method of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). The structure of GHG emissions at a national level, their distribution between countries, and trends across the period are then analyzed. National emission sources and sinks are decomposed for each country to elucidate the contribution of each sector (energy, industrial processes, solvents and other product use, agriculture, land use/land-use change and forestry, and waste) to the national totals. Germany was the largest emitter, with net emissions totaling 939 Tg CO_2 equivalent in 2012, 60% more than the UK and 89% more than France, the second and third biggest emitters, respectively. The energy sector and agriculture were found to be the largest sources of emissions in most countries. Four quadrants were established to compare countries’ performance in emission intensity, carbon removal rate, and net reduction rate of GHG emissions. Slovenia, Portugal, Sweden, and Finland were located in Quadrant II as they displayed relatively low emission intensities and high carbon removal rates. Conversely, Hungary, Greece, Cyprus, the Czech Republic, and Poland were located in Quadrant IV because of their relatively high emission intensities and low carbon removal rates. Some suggestions for integrating the annual results and the trends both within and among countries into national and regional emissions

  14. CONVERGENCE AND DIVERGENCE IN EUROPEAN UNION: EVIDENCE FOR BETA CONVERGENCE AMONG NEW EU MEMBER STATES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioana Sorina Mihuț

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Convergence may be considered a central issue of the current economic literature, and not only, concentrating upon income distribution within different economies, but also focusing on different aspects of polarity and inequality that characterize especially the emerging economies. Testing convergence within economies may serve as a useful instrument for the validation of the economic growth models. While convergence was considered a defining element of the neoclassical growth models, the majority of the new endogenous growth models argue in favour of divergence across different economies. Testing convergence among European Union is even more challenging due to the high degree of heterogeneity that characterizes these economies. The recent accessions with ten new countries in 2004 and with another two in 2007 were considered only the first step towards assuring a sustainable convergence and finally adopting a common currency-the euro. A series of empirical studies concentrated upon testing convergence among EU, using as benchmark the real convergence quantified by the level of GDP/capita as an indicator for the living standards of every economy. The most popular approach rely on Beta and Sigma convergence, the first one being and indicator of the GDP/capita dispersion between different economies, and the later one being an estimator of the reverse relationship between GDP/capita and its initial level. The main purpose of this paper is to test Beta converge among the new EU member states, in order to obtained more information about the fact whether the poor countries are trying to catch-up with the more developed one. Also Beta convergence indicator embodies useful information about conditional and un-conditional convergence, two leading hypothesis within the neoclassical and endogenous growth models. For Beta convergence hypothesis to be valid it should be taken into consideration a ”catch-up” mechanism over a longer period of time

  15. Deciding when physicians are unfit to practise: an analysis of responsibilities, policy and practice in 11 European Union member states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Struckmann, Verena; Panteli, Dimitra; Legido-Quigley, Helena; Risso-Gill, Isabelle; McKee, Martin; Busse, Reinhard

    2015-08-01

    In 1974, the European Economic Community established mutual recognition of medical qualifications obtained in any of its member states. Subsequently, a series of directives has elaborated on the initial provisions, with the most recent enacted in 2013. However, greater movement of physicians across borders and some high-profile scandals have raised questions about how to prevent a physician sanctioned in one country from simply moving to another, without undermining the principle of free movement. A survey of key informants in 11 European Union (EU) member states was supplemented by a review of peer-reviewed and grey literature, with the results validated by independent reviewers. It examined processes, adjudicative and disciplinary measures that are in place to evaluate physicians about whom concerns arise, and related sanctions, along with other aspects of professional standards and regulation. Overall, responses varied greatly between participating countries, with respect to the institutions responsible for the regulation of medical professions, the investigation processes in place, and the terminology used in each member state. While the types of sanction (removal from the register of medical professionals and/or licence revocation, suspension, dismissal, reprimand, warnings, fines, as well as additional education and training) applied are similar, both the roles of the individuals involved and the level of public disclosure of information vary considerably. However, some key features, such as the involvement of professional peers in disciplinary panels and the involvement of courts in criminal cases, are similar in most member states studied. Given the variation in the regulatory context, individuals and processes involved that is illustrated by our findings, a common understanding of definitions of what constitutes competence to practise, its impairment and its potential impact on patient safety becomes particularly important. Public disclosure of

  16. The impact of European Union law on the possibilities of European Union Member States to adapt international tax rules to the business models of multinational enterprises

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Douma, S.; Kardachaki, A.

    2016-01-01

    European Union (EU) law has played a key role in enforcing the EU BEPS agenda, while also introducing limits to the application thereof. The European Commission (EC) sees a clear link between aggressive tax planning and competition law. Against this background, EU State aid law has been employed to

  17. Tax reforms in EU Member States - Tax policy challenges for economic growth and fiscal sustainability – 2012 Report

    OpenAIRE

    European Commission

    2012-01-01

    The 2012 edition of the report ‘Tax reforms in EU Member States’ intends to contribute to the tax policy debate in the EU. Following the successful 2011 edition, the report consists of two parts: i) a short analysis of tax revenue data and an overview of recent tax reforms in Member States, and ii) a discussion of selected up-to-date tax policy topics in the form of two analytical chapters. The first analytical chapter focuses on the economic implications and policy challenges of the EU VAT s...

  18. Economic and legal problems arising in connection with an EC tax on carbon dioxide emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ressing, W.

    1993-01-01

    Having regard to maintaining the competitiveness of the German industry, the German Federal Government decided not to start a solo attempt with introducing in Germany a tax on CO 2 emissions, but instead is backing a proposed directive of the EC Commission, suggesting such tax to be established in the EC member states. There are various concepts on the table open for debate, intended to safeguard competitiveness of the industries by a mix of principles including e.g.: conditionality, the tax to be neutral in its effect on revenue, conditions for tax relieves for energy-intensive business, and tax relieves for investment into technologies and equipment for CO 2 abatement. (orig.) [de

  19. The European Court of Justice and the National Interests of the European Union’s Member States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Тетяна Комарова

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the research of CJEU’s practice concerning the interpretation of national interests of the European Union’s Member States in resolving disputes submitted for its consideration. Analyzed decisions of the CJEU allows to trace its position on the matter and the evolution of practices regarding the balance between different interests – the interests of the Union and the States. Also in article there are analyzed actual problems of the modern European Union law (human rights, free enterprise, etc., its institutional system and direct the judicial authorities in the EU. For modern evolution of the EU it is highly important to have orientation not only on common interests of the EU but on interests of members states. In the late jurisprudence of the Court of Justice of the European Union there is a tendency of retreating from strict practice of favoring only to interests of the EU and interpreting interests of members states in order to find the balance between two types of interest especially after amendments of Lisbon treaty. In the context of this research it should be noted that the Court of Justice of the European Union during interpretation of national interests of member states uses the principle of self-restriction in interpretation of law. Herewith the Court quite flexible uses this principle and this leads to appearance of new highly important precedents.  It should be underlined that the Court has a negative to the application of acte claire doctrine because of some risk of been bound to act only in one direction without taking into consideration any possible changes of judicial practice in future. The conclusion is made that for the strengthening of European integration it is highly important not only the jurisprudence of the Court, but the activity of constitutional courts of member states and also their parliaments, which under Lisbon treaty got a lot of democratic competences. Exactly the cooperation of

  20. Nuclear power in the EC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charrault, J.C.

    1991-01-01

    Nuclear power accounts for some 35% of electricity production in the European Community (EC). Using a mathematical analysis, based on different scenarios, i.e. low/high electricity demand and nuclear moratorium/revival, various demand forecasts are made. A pragmatic approach, considering conventional power generation pollution problems, forecasts a revival of nuclear power

  1. EC6 safety design improvements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, S.; Lee, A.G.; Soulard, M. [Candu Energy Inc., Mississauga, ON (Canada)

    2014-07-01

    The Enhanced CANDU 6 (EC6) builds on the proven high performance design such as the Qinshan CANDU 6 reactor, and has made improvements to safety, operational performance, and has incorporated extensive operational feedback. Completion of all three phases of the pre-licensing design review by the Canadian Regulator - the Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission has provided a higher level of assurance that the EC6 reference design has taken modern regulatory requirements and expectations into account and further confirmed that there are no fundamental barriers to licensing the EC6 design in Canada. The EC6 design is based on the defence-in-depth principles in INSAG-10 and provides further safety features that address the lessons learned from Fukushima. With these safety features, the EC6 design has strengthened accident prevention as the first priority in the defence-in-depth strategy, as outlined in INSAG-10. As well, the EC6 design has incorporated further mitigation measures to provide additional protection of the public and the environment if the preventive measures fail. The EC6 design has an appropriate combination of inherent, passive safety characteristics, engineered features and administrative safety measures to effectively prevent and mitigate severe accident progressions. A strong contributor to the robustness and redundancy of CANDU design is the two-group separation philosophy. This ensures a high degree of independence between safety systems as well as physical separation and functional independence in how fundamental safety functions are provided. This paper will describe the following safety features based on the application of defence-in-depth and design approach to prevent beyond design basis events progressing to severe accidents and to mitigate the consequences if it occurs: Improved steam generator heat sink via a more reliable emergency heat removal system; Increased time before manual field actions are required via enhanced capacity of

  2. Development of a Safeguards Approach for a Pyroprocessing Plant by IAEA Member State Support Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shin, H. S.; Kim, H. D.; Song, D. Y.; Eom, S. H.; Lee, T. H.; Ahn, S. K.; Park, S. H.; Han, B. Y.; Choi, Y.

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this project is to analyze the safeguard ability of pyroprocess facility and to establish the safeguards system for pyroprocess by developing the technology of nuclear material accounting for unit process, surveillance technology and nuclear characteristic analysis technology which are needed to demonstrate the safeguards technology of pyroprocess. Therefore, the development of a safeguards approach for pyroprocessing facilities is required as the interest of pyroprocessing increases. Regarding this issue, the IAEA made a contract the 3-years long Member State Support Program (MSSP) for the 'Support for Development of a Safeguards Approach for a Pyroprocessing Plant' with the Republic of Korea (ROK) in July 2008. Even though the pyroprocess technology is currently being developed all over the world, its safeguards approach has not been established yet, and especially, nuclear material accountancy technology which is the core of safeguards has not been established as well. Therefore, the development of new accountancy technology which is appropriate for the construction of pyroprocess facility is needed. Due to the nature of the process, pyroprocess has various kinds of process material form, and the composition of Pu and U isotopes included in process material is not homogeneous. Also, the existing nuclear material accountancy technology for a wet reprocessing facility is hard to apply because of a large quantity of gamma-ray radiation which is emitted from the fissile products in process material. In this report, the study for the development of a safeguards approach for a pyroprocessing plant pyroprocessing has been described. As the previous results six pyroprocessing facility concepts suggested by US, Japan, and Republic of Korea had been summarized and analyzed, and the determination principles were established to determine a reference pyroprocessing facility concept. The reference pyroprocessing facility was determined to be the ESPF of KAERI

  3. Open letter to all Member State Delegates to CERN Finance Committee and CERN Council

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2014-01-01

    Geneva, 17 September 2014 Dear Delegate, We are surprised to read that the “Terms of reference of a Council Working Group on the CERN Pension Fund” is on the agenda of the Council Session of 18 September 2014. Once more the transformation of the current defined benefit scheme into a defined contribution scheme, as well as the question of how to “re-define” the pension conditions for members and beneficiaries will be investigated. Already in the framework of the Working Group 2 (WG2) studies, two legal experts demonstrated that the political and administrative bodies of an international organization which are responsible as employer for managing the staff, must respect the general principles inherent in the law of the international civil service in all their actions, especially when proposing changes in employment conditions. In particular Council must respect the principle of acquired rights of active or retired members of personnel. To reach full funding on a 30-...

  4. Staphylococcus aureus Colonization of Healthy Military Service Members in the United States and Afghanistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    different based on deployment status and exposure to an austere environment where antimalarial agents with MRSA/MSSA activity are used. However, the...adequate hygiene practices. Further, these deployments are often to geo- graphic regions that require antimalarial chemoprophy- laxis. The use of...genes. Methods Participants Two populations of healthy active duty service members (101 non-deployed personnel in San Antonio, Texas, USA and 100

  5. COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF TAX POLICIES APPLICABLE IN THE NEW AND ORIGINAL EU MEMBER-STATES

    OpenAIRE

    KvÄ›ta Kubátová

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to compare the tax policies of the twelve new countries of the European Union with those of the existing fifteen members. These countries have sometimes been criticized because of their tax-favoring policies especially lower rates and revenues and various tax exceptions, namely, for capital tax. Critical comments have even been made about the establishment of the flat tax in some of these countries. The indicators monitored in this comparison are the tax quota, ...

  6. The Quality of Life of Employees in EU Member States. Issues Related to the Nature and Organization of Work

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CRISTINA LEOVARIDIS

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The quality of life of employees has become one of the main concerns of European employment policies in the last ten years, with the strategies that were developed taking into account the new emerging risks related to the changes in the way work is organized (flexible work arrangements, increased work intensity in order to meet deadlines, increased share of highly skilled non-manual workers, etc.. The article presents a comparative analysis between member states with respect to the quality of the life of employees, from the point of view of the nature and organization of work, focusing on one of the negative effects of overworking, especially in non-manual occupations in new member states, which has increased in incidence in the last years: stress.

  7. International Atomic Energy Agency. Supporting member states to combat Zika virus outbreaks through its human health programme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becic, Taric; Paez, Diana; Abdel-Wahab, May [International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna (Austria). Div. of Human Health

    2016-10-15

    Zika virus, discovered in late 1940s in Uganda, has rapidly spread into other parts of Africa and Asia. Since 2007, outbreaks have been documented in a great number of countries and territories, with Latin America and Caribbean region carrying the highest burden. The IAEA has therefore undertaken immediate actions to support members states as part of the global effort led by WHO. Due to its well-established know-how in the use of molecular diagnostic techniques, the IAEA organised a training course for detection of Zika virus in coordination with WHO-PAHO and provided equipment and reagents to some member states in Central America and the Caribbean as well as Pacific islands. In addition, the IAEA's support also comprises SIT as part of integrated vector management control.

  8. International Atomic Energy Agency. Supporting member states to combat Zika virus outbreaks through its human health programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becic, Taric; Paez, Diana; Abdel-Wahab, May

    2016-01-01

    Zika virus, discovered in late 1940s in Uganda, has rapidly spread into other parts of Africa and Asia. Since 2007, outbreaks have been documented in a great number of countries and territories, with Latin America and Caribbean region carrying the highest burden. The IAEA has therefore undertaken immediate actions to support members states as part of the global effort led by WHO. Due to its well-established know-how in the use of molecular diagnostic techniques, the IAEA organised a training course for detection of Zika virus in coordination with WHO-PAHO and provided equipment and reagents to some member states in Central America and the Caribbean as well as Pacific islands. In addition, the IAEA's support also comprises SIT as part of integrated vector management control.

  9. Determinants of Foreign Direct Investment in South East European Countries and New Member States of European Union Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bardhyl Dauti

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper accounts for the main determinants of Foreign Direct Investment flows to 5-SEEC and the 10-New Member States of the EU countries by using an augmented Gravity Model. The study takes into account country specific institutional factors that determine foreign investors’ decisions from 14 core European Union countries to invest into SEE-5 and EU-NMS-10 countries. From the results of the study we find that gravity factors and institutional related determinants like control of corruption, political stability, bilateral FDI agreement, WTO membership and transition progress appear to significantly determine inward FDI flows from core EU countries to host economies of South East European region and new European Union member states.

  10. Are the EU Member States Ready for the New Union Customs Code: Emerging Legal Issues On the National Level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valantiejus Gediminas

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In 2016, the European Union has launched a new and ambitious project for the future regulation of international trade in the European Union and the rules of its taxation: since the 1 May 2016, the new Union Customs Code (UCC has entered into force. It revokes the old Community Customs Code (CCC, which was applied since 1992, and passed in the form of EU regulation sets brand-new rules for the application of Common Customs Tariff and calculation of customs duties (tariffs in all the EU Member States. It is oriented to the creation of the paperless environment for the formalisation of international trade operations (full electronic declaration of customs procedures and ensuring of a more uniform administration of customs duties in the tax and customs authorities of the Member States in the European Union. Therefore, the article raises and seeks to answer the problematic question whether the Member States of the European Union themselves are ready to implement these ambitious goals and does the actual practice of the Member States support that (considering the practice of the Republic of Lithuania. The research, which is based on the analysis of case law in the Republic of Lithuania (case study of recent tax disputes between the taxpayers and customs authorities that arose immediately before and after the entry into force of the UCC, leads to the conclusion that many problematic areas that may negatively impact the functioning of the new Customs Code remain and must be improved, including an adoption of new legislative solutions.

  11. Long-term labour productivity and GDP projections for the EU25 Member States : a production function framework

    OpenAIRE

    Carone, Giuseppe; Denis, Cécile; Mc Morrow, Kieran; Mourre, Gilles; Röger, Werner

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents the results of long run labour productivity and GDP growth rate projections (until 2050) for each of the 25 EU Member States and provides a detailed overview of the forecast methodology used. These projections were undertaken in order to provide an internationally comparable macroeconomic framework against which to assess the potential economic and fiscal effects of ageing populations. The projections presented in this paper, using a common production function methodology ...

  12. Long-term labour productivity and GDP projections for the EU25 Member States : a production function framework

    OpenAIRE

    Carone, Giuseppe; Denis, Cécile; Mc Morrow, Kieran; Mourre, Gilles; Röger, Werner

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents the results of long run labour productivity and GDP growth rate projections (until 2050) for each of the 25 EU Member States and provides a detailed overview of the forecast methodology used. These projections were undertaken in order to provide an internationally comparable macroeconomic framework against which to assess the potential economic and fiscal effects of ageing populations. The projections presented in this paper, using a common production function methodol...

  13. THE DEVELOPMENT OF LEGAL RESPONSIBILITY FOR A SOCIALLY RESPONSIBLE BEHAVIOR FOR BUSINESS OPERATORS IN ROMANIA, MEMBER STATE OF EUROPEAN UNION

    OpenAIRE

    Laura MURESAN

    2016-01-01

    Legal responsibility represents an important component of social responsibility, together with ethical responsibility, ecological responsibility, economical responsibility and philanthropic responsibility. The integration of social responsibility into the activity of business operators in the Member states of European Union is pursued at European Union level. The article analyses the opinion of the Brasov city citizens, in the framework of a marketing research performed in 2015, as regards th...

  14. The IAEA Code of Practice on quality assurance, and quality assurance requirements and practices in Member States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raisic, N.

    1982-01-01

    The IAEA Code of Practice on Quality Assurance for Safety in Nuclear Power Plants and the corresponding Safety Guides are reviewed and compared with quality assurance (QA) practices in the IAEA Member States. The QA requirements stipulated by the Code place on the nuclear power plant owner the responsibility to establish an overall QA programme for the plant. In selecting the QA programme level for specific activities, the Code allows of a flexible approach but does not specify gradation in programme requirements. The Code is placing the burden of quality-achieving and quality-assuring functions on the task-performing organizations, namely the designers, manufacturers, constructors and plant operators. The plant owner provides for the management of the overall QA programme, surveillance of activities and verifications of the effectiveness of the constituent programmes of all project participants through programme audits and evaluations. The Code and the supporting Safety Guides are consistent with existing QA practices in Member States. However, certain differences exist, which are mainly expressed in the different QA functions assigned to the various organizations participating in the overall QA programme. Also, some Member States place more emphasis on redundant verification activities than on quality-achieving functions. Tendencies are also identified to grade the QA requirements in respect of items and activities, in accordance with some pre-established criteria. In an annex to the paper, QA practices in Member States participating in the Agency's Technical Review Committee on Quality Assurance (TRC-QA) are reviewed, indicating their similarities to and differences from the Code

  15. Members of the Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    The new Member since the last list of Member States was issued (INFCIRC/2/Rev.63) is Palau which deposited its Instrument of Acceptance of the Statute on 2 March 2007. The Attachment hereto shows the dates on which the present 144 Member States became Members [fr

  16. Members of the Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    The new Member since the last list of Member States was issued (INFCIRC/2/Rev.63) is Palau which deposited its Instrument of Acceptance of the Statute on 2 March 2007. The Attachment hereto shows the dates on which the present 144 Member States became Members [es

  17. 25 years of European Union (EU) quality schemes for agricultural products and foodstuffs across EU Member States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albuquerque, Tânia G; Oliveira, M Beatriz Pp; Costa, Helena S

    2018-05-01

    Consumers are increasingly turning their attention to the quality and origin of products that they consume. European Union (EU) quality schemes are associated with a label, which was introduced to allow consumers to perform an informed choice and to protect producers from unfair practices. This present study provides an overview of the last 25 years of EU quality schemes [Protected Designations of Origin (PDO), Protected Geographical Indications (PGI) and Traditional Specialities Guaranteed (TSG)] on agricultural products and foodstuffs across the 28 EU Member States. According to the results, it was possible to conclude that Southern European countries have the highest number of registered products. The most used EU quality scheme is PGI, followed by PDO. Concerning the analysis of the evolution in the last 25 years, the number of registered products among EU Member States has increased significantly. The fruit, vegetables and cereals (fresh or processed) category is the one that accounts for the highest percentage (26.8%) of registered products, followed by cheeses and meat products (cooked, salted, smoked) categories, with 17.2% and 13.5%, respectively. Further investigations should address consumer preferences, knowledge and attitudes, especially Northern European countries with a lower number of registered products. Moreover, the investigation and registration of products should be encouraged among all EU Member States to allow the maintenance of important elements of the history, culture and heritage of the local areas, regions and countries. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  18. Results of environmental radioactivity measurements in the Member States of the European Community for air - deposition - water - milk - 1977

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-01-01

    The present document is the seventeenth report published by the Health and Safety Directorate of the Commission of the European Communities concerning ambient radioactivity. It was drawn up using the data collected by the stations responsible for environmental radioactivity monitoring in the Member States. The results are extracts from the data sent to the Commission in application of Article 36 of the Treaty of Rome establishing the European Atomic Energy Community. The results presented in this report deal with radioactive contamination of the air, precipitation and fallout, surface water and milk during 1977 in the nine Member States of the European Community, viz. Belgium, Denmark, the Federal Republic of Germany, France, Italy, Ireland, Luxembourg, the Netherlands and the United Kingdom. The report also contains supplementary data on short-lived radioelements detected during the fourth quarter of 1977, the list of sampling stations and laboratories together With a list of publications by Member States in this field. This report places special emphasis on the measurement results for specific radionuclides, but it also contains data on total beta activity so as to ensure continuity vis-a-vis previous reports and provide comparative values

  19. Results of environmental radioactivity measurements in the Member States of the European Community for air - deposition - water - milk. 1981

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-01-01

    This is the 21st report on ambient radioactivity published by the Health and Safety Directorate of the Commission of the European Communities. It was drawn up using the data collected by stations responsible for environmental radioactivity monitoring in Member States. The results are extracts from the data sent to the Commission under Article 36 of the Treaty of Rome establishing the European Atomic Energy Community. The results presented in this report deal with radioactivity of the air, deposition, surface water and milk during 1981 in the ten Member States of the European Community, viz. Belgium, Denmark, Federal Republic of Germany, Greece, France, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, the Netherlands and the United Kingdom. The results are presented under four main headings: artificial radioactivity in the air at ground level; artificial radioactivity in deposition; radioactivity of water; radioactivity of milk. The report also contains the list of sampling stations and laboratories, together with a list of publications by Member States in this field. This report places special emphasis on the measurement results for specific radionuclides, but it also contains data on total beta activity so as to ensure continuity vis-a-vis previous and provide comparative values

  20. Requirements on information of the site of the European Union from member states within the area of the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Virgovic, R.; Grofova, R; Sochorova, O.

    2005-01-01

    In this presentation authors deal with requirements on information of the site of the European Union from member states within the area of the environment. As of May 1, 2004 with entrance into the European Union for the Slovak Republic results the responsibility feeding reports about the environment. Reports about the environment (State of the environment Report - Slovak Republic) deal with the following areas: (A) Horizontally measures; (B) Air protection; (C) Waste management; (D) Water protection; (E) Nature protection; (F) Inspection of industrial pollution and risk management; (G) Chemical agents and genetically modified organisms; (H) Noise from motor-cars and machines; (I) Nuclear safety; (J) Civil protection

  1. The nuclear fuel cycle: review on R and D policies in the Member States of the European Communities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    This report presents an overview of the state of research in the field of the nuclear fuel cycle in the Member States of the European Communities. It covers the following steps of the fuel cycle: uranium enrichment, fuel fabrication, reprocessing, waste management and, in addition, decommissioning of nuclear facilities. Research carried out both in the public and private sectors has been covered. However, information on the scope and volume of research carried out in the private sector is only in part available, as access to such information is difficult, in particular where it concerns activities which have a competitive commercial character

  2. THE DEVELOPMENT OF LEGAL RESPONSIBILITY FOR A SOCIALLY RESPONSIBLE BEHAVIOR FOR BUSINESS OPERATORS IN ROMANIA, MEMBER STATE OF EUROPEAN UNION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura MURESAN

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Legal responsibility represents an important component of social responsibility, together with ethical responsibility, ecological responsibility, economical responsibility and philanthropic responsibility. The integration of social responsibility into the activity of business operators in the Member states of European Union is pursued at European Union level. The article analyses the opinion of the Brasov city citizens, in the framework of a marketing research performed in 2015, as regards the possibility that legal instruments should influence a socially responsible behavior for public or private business operators. The aspects analysed for business operators in Romania can represent a model for other European Union states as well.

  3. THE ECONOMIC STRUCTURES IN THE ROMANIAN REGIONS AND COUNTIES AND THE EU MEMBER STATES. COMPARATIVE ANALYSES.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marioara, IORDAN

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Bridging the gap between countries, and thus decresing poverty, is the greatest challenge of European countries in the context of the European social cohesion. The risk of future economic difficulties caused by the size of budget deficits is beared by the funds to be allocated to social inclusion in the EU and the EU member countries. They will be concerned in the post-crisis period with aligning the requirements of progress, of poverty reduction, but also of ensuring the sustainability of public finances. For Romania, cohesion is particularly important as most regions show significant differences as compared to the EU average and the national average. This group also includes the South Muntenia Region, which has many advantages for faster progress and to be able to exploit the opportunities offered by the implementation of the Europe 2020 strategy.

  4. Assessing the quality of corporate social responsibility reports: the case of reporting practices in selected European Union member states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hąbek, Patrycja; Wolniak, Radosław

    The organization may communicate its engagement in sustainability and may presents results achieved in this field by creating and publishing corporate social responsibility (CSR) reports. Today, we can observe a growing number of companies issuing such reports as a part of their annual reports or as stand-alone CSR reports. Despite the increase in the number of such reports their quality is different. CSR reports do not always provide complete data that readers desire, which in turn intensifies the problem with the evaluation and comparison of the organization's results achieved in this scope. Differences also occur between reporting models used in different EU countries caused by, inter alia, differently applied EU legislation on the disclosure of non-financial information in different Member States. This paper is one of the first attempts to perform a quantitative and qualitative analysis of corporate sustainability reporting practices in several European Union countries. The purpose of this article is to present the current state of CSR reporting practices in selected EU Member States and identify the differences in the quality and level of this kind of practices, taking into account the mandatory and voluntary model of disclosure. The study included separate CSR reports as well as annual reports with CSR sections and integrated reports published in 2012 in six selected EU Member States. The authors have used a specific evaluation tool in the examination of the individual reports. The assessment questionnaire consists of seventeen criteria grouped into two categories (relevance and credibility of information). In order to assess the quality of examined reports, the authors aggregated the indicators related with the reporting practices. The findings show that the quality level of the studied reports is generally low. Referring to its components, the relevance of the information provided in the assessed reports is at the higher level than its credibility. The

  5. DEFINITION OF PUBLIC SERVICE OBLIGATION POTENTIAL IN THE NEW EU MEMBER STATES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin HROMÁDKA

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with public service obligation, a form of state aid that applies to air services. The paper first provides general information on the European legislation applying to this form of state aid, and elaborates the legal framework and general principles. The second part is dedicated to a comparison of a similar subsidizing programme in the USA and Australia. An examination of current imposed public service obligation routes in Europe is provided in the following section. The coefficients defining the number of imposed PSO routes per various geo-economic variables have been defined.

  6. Medical abortion practices : a survey of National Abortion Federation members in the United States

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiegerinck, Melanie M. J.; Jones, Heidi E.; O'Connell, Katharine; Lichtenberg, E. Steve; Paul, Maureen; Westhoff, Carolyn L.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Little is known about clinical implementation of medical abortion in the United States following approval of mifepristone as an abortifacient by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in 2000. We collected information regarding medical abortion practices of National Abortion Federation

  7. 77 FR 23539 - WTO Dispute Settlement Proceeding Regarding European Communities and Certain Member States...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-19

    ... OFFICE OF THE UNITED STATES TRADE REPRESENTATIVE [Dispute No. WTO/DS316] WTO Dispute Settlement... Organization (``WTO Agreement''). That request may be found at www.wto.org contained in a document designated... a WTO dispute settlement panel. Consistent with this obligation, USTR is providing notice that it...

  8. Fiscal Sovereignty of Member States and Tax Harmonization on Mutual Assistance for the Recovery of Tax Claims

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arina DRAGODAN

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available This work presents the impact of harmonization of legislation on the recovery of claims relating to taxes and duties by the mutual assistance between the EU Member States for their tax sovereignty. The research is grounded upon previous studies on the same topic conducted in during the research stage within the Graduate School of Public Law and Tax Law at the University of Paris 1 Pantheon-Sorbonne, which was held during the year 2010. The objectives of the work aim at showing that tax sovereignty implies on the one hand the right of the National Parliament to determine taxes. On the other hand, taxation is the most important instrument of economic and social policy of the governments of member states. It is important to note that the States have broad discretion to create their own direct tax systems in a way that ensures best meet their objectives and internal politics as possible. With regard to the methodology, in order to realize this study it was used a combination of research methods, namely: bibliographical research, the systemic method, the logical method and the comparative method. We consider that our scientific approach presents timeliness and usefulness both academics and practitioners.

  9. Tax cooperation among member states of European Union and Directive on administrative cooperation in the field of taxation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josimovski Aleksandar G.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Countries have possibility to choose between several alternatives for cooperation in international tax matters at global level. They can decide not to cooperate or provide some form of tax cooperation. Because of harmful tax competition among countries and efforts of international organizations, all countries in the world are oblidged to comply with one of multiple alternatives for tax cooperation. Situation in European Union (hereinafter EU is specific. EU is not country or classic international organization. By the reason of its successful functioning, EU has need for tax cooperation. EU has attempted to harmonise tax policies of member states, but member states did not approve that. Only indirect taxes are harmonized on EU level, direct taxes are harmonized only to the point necessarily for functioning of single market. That is why tax cooperation instruments are so important. Object of this paper are procedures and measures, stipulated by the most important instrument in the field of tax cooperation enacted by institutions of EU, its development and status in international tax law. Regulatives and directives in field of tax cooperation in the EU are 'pioneers' in tax matters. EU instruments provide standards which are subsequently accepted by several international organizations - Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD and United Nations (UN. Our purpose is to present positive and negative aspects of tax cooperation in the EU. In time of crisis efficient tax cooperation provides higher revenues for the member states, on the other hand, taxpayers and tax administrations have increased expenses as result of tax cooperation which are not fairly distributed.

  10. Staphylococcus aureus colonization of healthy military service members in the United States and Afghanistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vento, Todd J; Calvano, Tatjana P; Cole, David W; Mende, Katrin; Rini, Elizabeth A; Tully, Charla C; Landrum, Michael L; Zera, Wendy; Guymon, Charles H; Yu, Xin; Beckius, Miriam L; Cheatle, Kristelle A; Murray, Clinton K

    2013-07-16

    Staphylococcus aureus [methicillin-resistant and methicillin-susceptible (MRSA/MSSA)] is a leading cause of infections in military personnel, but there are limited data regarding baseline colonization of individuals while deployed. We conducted a pilot study to screen non-deployed and deployed healthy military service members for MRSA/MSSA colonization at various anatomic sites and assessed isolates for molecular differences. Colonization point-prevalence of 101 military personnel in the US and 100 in Afghanistan was determined by swabbing 7 anatomic sites. US-based individuals had received no antibiotics within 30 days, and Afghanistan-deployed personnel were taking doxycycline for malaria prophylaxis. Isolates underwent identification and testing for antimicrobial resistance, virulence factors, and pulsed-field type (PFT). 4 individuals in the US (4 isolates- 3 oropharynx, 1 perirectal) and 4 in Afghanistan (6 isolates- 2 oropharynx, 2 nare, 1 hand, 1 foot) were colonized with MRSA. Among US-based personnel, 3 had USA300 (1 PVL+) and 1 USA700. Among Afghanistan-based personnel, 1 had USA300 (PVL+), 1 USA800 and 2 USA1000. MSSA was present in 40 (71 isolates-25 oropharynx, 15 nare) of the US-based and 32 (65 isolates- 16 oropharynx, 24 nare) of the Afghanistan-based individuals. 56 (79%) US and 41(63%) Afghanistan-based individuals had MSSA isolates recovered from extra-nare sites. The most common MSSA PFTs were USA200 (9 isolates) in the US and USA800 (7 isolates) in Afghanistan. MRSA/MSSA isolates were susceptible to doxycycline in all but 3 personnel (1 US, 2 Afghanistan; all were MSSA isolates that carried tetM). MRSA and MSSA colonization of military personnel was not associated with deployment status or doxycycline exposure. Higher S. aureus oropharynx colonization rates were observed and may warrant changes in decolonization practices.

  11. Communications received from certain Member States concerning their Policies regarding the Management of Plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    The Director General has received a note verbale, dated 23 January 2007, from the Permanent Mission of Germany to the IAEA; notes verbales, dated 1 February 2007, from Permanent Missions of China, France, Japan, the Russian Federation, Switzerland and the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland to the IAEA; a note verbale, dated 7 February 2007, from the Permanent Mission of the United States of America to the IAEA; and a note verbale, dated 22 October 2008, from the Permanent Mission of Belgium to the IAEA, stating that in order to reflect recent developments with regard to the physical protection of nuclear material, their Governments will apply a revised version of paragraph 7 of the 'Guidelines for the Management of Plutonium' published in document INFCIRC/549 [es

  12. Boundaries of Welfare between the EU and Member States during the ‘Great Recession’

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de la Porte, Caroline; Pochet, Philippe

    2014-01-01

    -state reform changes over time in line with socio-economic conditions as well as shifting political-party governmental coalitions in the Council. We argue that in particular the economically oriented actors, including the European Central Bank, have been successful in the context of the Great Recession. More...... recently, social priorities around notions such as social investment are becoming more central in the EU debate on economic and social policy....

  13. Communication received from certain Member States concerning their policies regarding the management of plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    The document reproduces the texts of the enclosures of the note verbale of 23 November 1999 received by the Director General of the IAEA from the Permanent Mission of the United States of America to the IAEA concerning its policies regarding the management of plutonium. The enclosures makes available an annual statement of its national holdings of civil unirradiated plutonium and of plutonium contained in spent civil reactor fuel, as of 31 December 1998

  14. Communication received from certain Member States concerning their policies regarding the management of plutonium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-10-11

    The document reproduces the texts of the enclosures of the note verbale of 17 September 1999 received by the Director General of the IAEA from the Permanent Mission of the United States of America to the IAEA concerning its policies regarding the management of plutonium. The enclosures makes available an annual statement of its national holdings of civil unirradiated plutonium and the estimated amounts of plutonium contained in spent civil reactor fuel, as of 31 December 1997.

  15. Communication received from certain Member States concerning their policies regarding the management of plutonium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-12-23

    The document reproduces the texts of the enclosures of the note verbale of 23 November 1999 received by the Director General of the IAEA from the Permanent Mission of the United States of America to the IAEA concerning its policies regarding the management of plutonium. The enclosures makes available an annual statement of its national holdings of civil unirradiated plutonium and of plutonium contained in spent civil reactor fuel, as of 31 December 1998.

  16. Communication received from certain Member States concerning their policies regarding the management of plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    The document reproduces the texts of the enclosures of the note verbale of 17 September 1999 received by the Director General of the IAEA from the Permanent Mission of the United States of America to the IAEA concerning its policies regarding the management of plutonium. The enclosures makes available an annual statement of its national holdings of civil unirradiated plutonium and the estimated amounts of plutonium contained in spent civil reactor fuel, as of 31 December 1997

  17. The Future of the European Union is Closely Related to a Stronger Economic Cooperation between Member States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreea Drăgoi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Since the onset of the crisis in the euro area, the EU has implemented a series of measures to respond to the major economic challenges and support the efforts to boost growth and create jobs in the Member States. In October 2012, EU leaders have decided that in order to overcome the challenges brought by the sovereign debt crisis is necessary to establish a closer economic cooperation between European countries. Our paper aims to analyze the main measures taken at European level to converge toward this goal, aiming to highlight the extent to which they are "successful steps" leading to the creation of banking, fiscal and economic union in Europe.

  18. Development of a new categorization system for pesticides exposure to support harmonized reporting between EU Member States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Settimi, Laura; Orford, Rob; Davanzo, Franca; Hague, Charlotte; Desel, Herbert; Pelclova, Daniela; Dragelyte, Gabija; Mathieu-Nolf, Monique; Adams, Richard; Duarte-Davidson, Raquel

    2016-05-01

    European legislation requires reporting from Member States on acute poisoning incidents involving pesticides. However, standard rules for data collection and reporting have not yet been set out. The new categorization system presented in this paper is aimed at enabling Member States to gather comparable data and provide standard reporting on pesticide poisoning exposures. European Regulations providing separate official categorization of biocidal and plant protection pesticides, were used as a basis to build up a unified pesticide categorization and coding system. Data on selected pesticide exposures collected by Poison Control Centres in six EU countries were reviewed, categorized and reported according to the proposed system. The resulting pesticide categorization system has two dimensions. The first part identifies the main category of use, i.e. biocide/plant protection pesticide/unknown, and the secondary category of use, e.g. Rodenticides, Insecticides and acaricides. The second part of the system is organized into two levels: level one identifies chemical grouping, e.g. Coumarins, Pyrethrins/pyrethroids, while level two identifies the active compound by using its Chemical Abstract Service Registry Number. The system was used to provide a unified categorization to compare exposures to plant protection and biocidal Rodenticides and Pyrethrins/pyrethroids Insecticides and acaricides identified by six EU member states. The developed pesticide categorization system was successfully applied to data extracted from different databases and was able to make the required information comparable. The data reported filling in common templates containing a pre-ordinate list of active compounds categorized according the proposed system, highlighted different capabilities in data collection and recording, showing that some of the collaborating centres were not able to distinguish between main categories of pesticide products or provide information on active compounds. The

  19. Capability and limits of EC policy and instruments for protection of the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jarass, H.D.; Neumann, L.F.; Pastowski, A.; Ruhr, H.J. von der; Schreiber, F.

    1994-01-01

    The authors who contributed to this compilation of studies start from different points of view in their approaches towards describing the existing (or desirable) balance between centralised and decentralised frameworks and instruments of the EC policy for protection of the environment: A total harmonisation of environmental protection standards would be inconsistent with the principles of competition and, in terms of environmental protection, would rather foster a climate tending to be hostile to innovation. The impetus given by the EC in support of free mobility in the transport sector of the internal market on the other hand ought to be flanked by mandatory ecological standards. Adhering to the economic theory of federalism would mean to decide for a high degree of decentralisation, which in turn does not seem to be altogether appropriate in view of the large scope of impact of environmental damage and the mutual ecological dependence of EC member states. A more centralised regulatory competence has to be accompanied by correspondingly strong, democratic institutions in order to fulfill the principles of constitutional law. The priority given to the principle of subsidiarity in the compromise laid down in the Treaty of Maastricht needs to be given concrete shape [de

  20. Communication received from certain Member States concerning their policies regarding the management of plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    The document reproduces the text of the enclosure of the note verbale of 8 January 1998 received by the Director General of the IAEA from the Permanent Mission to the IAEA of the United States of America concerning its policies regarding the management of plutonium. The enclosures give information on USA national holdings of civil unirradiated plutonium and of plutonium contained in spent civil reactor fuel as of 31 December 1996, and include a statement explaining the national policy of the USA concerning plutonium and the nuclear fuel cycle

  1. Communication received from certain Member States concerning their policies regarding the management of plutonium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-31

    The document reproduces the text of the enclosure of the note verbale of 8 January 1998 received by the Director General of the IAEA from the Permanent Mission to the IAEA of the United States of America concerning its policies regarding the management of plutonium. The enclosures give information on USA national holdings of civil unirradiated plutonium and of plutonium contained in spent civil reactor fuel as of 31 December 1996, and include a statement explaining the national policy of the USA concerning plutonium and the nuclear fuel cycle

  2. Communications received from Member States regarding guidelines for the export of nuclear material, equipment and technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-04-01

    The Director General has received notes verbales to the export of nuclear material, equipment and technology from the following Permanent Missions to the International Atomic Energy Agency: notes verbales dated 1 March 1994 from the Permanent Missions of Australia, Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Canada, the Czech Republic, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Hungary, Italy, Japan, the Netherlands, Poland, Portugal, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, the United States of America; and a note verbale dated 12 March 1994 from the Permanent Mission of Romania. The purpose of these notes verbales is to provide further information on these Governments' nuclear export policies and practices

  3. Communication of 28 August 2003 received from the Government of the United States of America on behalf of the Member States of the Nuclear Suppliers Group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    The Director General has received a letter dated 28 August 2003 from the Government of the United States of America on behalf of participating Governments of the 'Nuclear Suppliers Group' (NSG). Attached to this letter is an updated version of a paper entitled 'The Nuclear Suppliers Group: Its Origins, Role and Activities'. The original version of the paper was issued as INFCIRC/539 on 15 September 1997, and a revision was issued on 17 April 2000 as INFCIRC/539/Rev.1. 2. In the light of the wish expressed at the end of the letter, the revised version of the paper, attached hereto, is being circulated to Member States of the IAEA

  4. Labour Market Trends and Problems in the EU’s Central and Eastern European Member States: Is Flexicurity the Answer?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lothar Funk

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Throughout the 1990s, international organisations, such as the International Monetary Fund mainly based their policy proposals for transition economies and the high unemployment, low growth countries in Western Europe, on economic “orthodoxy”. This approach predominantly followed neoclassical economics in which market liberal solutions predominate. These suggestions were controversial; the early results of these policies appeared to be disappointing. Policymakers sought alternative reform proposals and the idea of “flexicurity” has gradually emerged to the political buzzword. Flexicurity combines flexibility with security and suggests that rather generous unemployment benefits and spending on active labour market policies can be aligned with a flexible, employment-friendly labour market. Originating in Denmark, the European Commission and the International Labour Organisation have promoted flexicurity more or less independent of specific single country cases, and based their approach on more abstract, generalised relationships between flexibility and security. These bodies argue for an alternative policy to pure orthodox deregulation and liberalisation for the member states of the European Union (EU and the former transition economies that joined the EU since 2004. After a review of common labour market-related characteristics and problems of the EU’s central and eastern European members, the article summarises and critically evaluates the main elements of flexicurity suggestions. It further compares them to the relevant policy proposals based primarily on more orthodox economic analysis. The analysis shows that several preconditions for a successful flexicurity strategy are still lacking across the new member states. Moreover, the article demonstrates that current proposals by the critics of a single-minded flexicurity approach by no means always disregard potentially positive effects of improving the supposed trade-offs between

  5. Communication received from certain Member States concerning their policies regarding the management of plutonium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-16

    The document reproduces the texts of the notes verbales received by the Director General of the IAEA on 1 December 1997, from the Permanent Missions to the IAEA of Belgium, China, Germany, Japan, the Russian Federation, Switzerland, the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland and the United States of America, and of the note verbale dated 28 November 1997, from the Permanent Mission of France to the IAEA. The purpose of these notes verbales is to provide information on the policies which these governments have decided to adopt in the management of plutonium. These policies are set out in the notes verbales and are specified in the document `Guidelines for the Management of Plutonium` which is attached to each of the notes verbales

  6. Communication received from certain Member States concerning their policies regarding the management of plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    The document reproduces the texts of the notes verbales received by the Director General of the IAEA on 1 December 1997, from the Permanent Missions to the IAEA of Belgium, China, Germany, Japan, the Russian Federation, Switzerland, the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland and the United States of America, and of the note verbale dated 28 November 1997, from the Permanent Mission of France to the IAEA. The purpose of these notes verbales is to provide information on the policies which these governments have decided to adopt in the management of plutonium. These policies are set out in the notes verbales and are specified in the document 'Guidelines for the Management of Plutonium' which is attached to each of the notes verbales

  7. The Correlation of Sovereign Rating and Bonds’ Interest Rate in EU Member States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilian-Constantin MIRICESCU

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The importance of borrowing is fundamental for central public administration and it consists in sources of f nancing budget def cit and ref nanc-ing government debt. In the last years, a lot of countries had diff culties regarding the payment of public loans at their maturity due to the burden of government debt to GDP ratio. In this situa-tion, investors lose their conf dence not only in the country that is facing problems, but also in other states that pay their debt at maturity. For this reason, they are careful at any change that affects sovereign rating. From our investigation we found that sover-eign rating has a negative inf uence on bonds’ interest rate. As such, decision makers from central public administration should focus on improving sovereign ratings in order to decrease interest rates.

  8. Safeguards surveillance equipment and data sharing between IAEA and a member state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Seung Sik

    1999-01-01

    Efficiency and reliability are two prongs of implementation of safeguards policy. Unattended surveillance is getting wide acceptance through its field trials and technical advances. In achieving goal of safeguards, new safeguards system should provide less intrusiveness than conventional inspection. Unattended surveillance data share will be a major issue among some countries that have own national inspection scheme in place in parallel with international safeguards to check the resources consuming incurred by the repeated installations. Nonetheless, the issue has not been focussed yet among the States concerned, especially for the country like Korea with national inspection in operation. For balanced development in safeguards regime between IAEA and Korea, sharing of unattended surveillance data with SSAC needs to be worked out in conjunction with the joint use of safeguards instruments that is in the process

  9. Governance within the World Health Assembly: a 13-year analysis of WHO Member States' contribution to global health governance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Rijt, Tess; Pang Pangestu, Tikki

    2015-03-01

    There is a widespread perception that developed countries in the Western world dictate the shaping and governance of global health. While there are many bodies that engage in global health governance, the World Health Organisation (WHO) is the only entity whereby 194 countries are invited to congregate together and engage in global health governance on an equal playing field. This paper examines the diversity of governance within the World Health Assembly (WHA), the supreme decision-making body of the WHO. It explores the degree and balance of policy influence between high, middle and low-income countries and the relevance of the WHO as a platform to exercise global governance. It finds that governance within the WHA is indeed diverse: relative to the number of Member States within the regions, all regions are well represented. While developed countries still dominate WHA governance, Western world countries do not overshadow decision-making, but rather there is evidence of strong engagement from the emerging economies. It is apparent that the WHO is still a relevant platform whereby all Member States can and do participate in the shaping of global health governance. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Analyzing the environmental and resource pressures from European energy activity: A comparative study of EU member states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    García-Álvarez, María Teresa; Moreno, Blanca; Soares, Isabel

    2016-01-01

    Sustainable development and environmental protection are key concepts in the European energy policy. The Europe 2020 Strategy establishes the necessity of reducing environmental pressure and resource consumption to increase sustainable development in the EU. In this context, the aim of this paper is to develop an Environmental and Resource Pressure Aggregated Index that considers these two dimensions. This index provides information about the achievement of the targets in the member states as well as the achieved effects of the environmental policies on energy policy and sustainable development. Therefore, it would help policy-makers to plan future policy actions. The results show that, among EU countries, Portugal, Latvia, Italy, Austria and France have low environmental and resource pressure. Recommendations are made for member states with the worst results (Estonia, Poland, Cyprus, Czech Republic and Luxembourg) in order to improve their actions in climate change and energy policy. - Highlights: • An aggregated index about environmental protection in energy policy is obtained. • It aggregates environmental and resource pressures dimensions. • Portugal, Latvia, Italy, Austria and France have the best results. • Reinforcing policies are necessary in Estonia, Poland, Cyprus and Czech Republic.

  11. Catalogue of facilities in Member States of the European Community for testing the packaging of radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marchal, A.; Swindell, G.E.

    1983-01-01

    A group of experts convened by the Commission of the European Communities in Brussels on 2 July 1980 to suggest possible actions in connection with the safe transport of radioactive materials, recommended, among other things, that the Commission should collect and distribute information on packaging test facilities in Member States. In response to that recommendation a letter of enquiry was sent informally, on behalf of the Commission, to the competent authorities of the Member States. The purpose of the enquiry is to assist in the effective implementation of the internationally accepted Regulations for the Safe Transport of Radioactive Materials through the dissemination of information on test facilities and on the terms and conditions under which the services of these facilities could be made available for the testing of packaging designed in other countries. As an aid to the presentation of the material in a harmonized format, it was suggested that the information provided should cover relevant topics. The information received by the Commission has been assembled for each installation according to this format

  12. Questions of jurisdiction in the event of a nuclear accident in a member state of the European union

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galizzi, P.

    1996-01-01

    Jurisdictional problems are outlined that could be encountered by victims of a serious nuclear accident, with transboundary consequences, seeking to recover compensation (in a Member State of the European Union). The situation is only partly covered by existing treaty law and not all Member States are a party to the relevant treaties. A hypothetical case-study has been devised which supposes that a nuclear accident has occurred in the Netherlands causing damage in three selected countries. Of these, the first (Germany) is a party to the 1960 Paris Convention on Third Party Liability in the field of Nuclear Energy, the second (Hungary) is a party to the 1963 Vienna Convention on Civil Liability for Nuclear Damage, and the third (Luxembourg) is a not a party to either Convention. Answers are sought for two questions related to this hypothetical accident. Firstly, which courts have jurisdiction over private claims for damage caused in these various countries? Secondly, which law will the competent courts apply? (UK)

  13. Youth and Ethnic Movements and Their Impacts on Party Politics in ECOWAS Member States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taiwo A. Olaiya

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Although they historically played a pivotal role in the fight against colonial rule—as they have in recent attempts to entrench multiparty democratic processes—the role of youth in political parties in West Africa has received less than commensurate attention in studies on democratization. Unlike in advanced democracies where parties are key agents of political socialization and leadership, parties in West Africa are built on ethno-religious foundations. A peculiar character of highly marginalized youth thus becomes inevitable, both in politics and decision-making processes of the state. To assert themselves, the youth have also become agents of destabilization of the democracy they partook to build. Apart from their involvement in political violence, youths are now available as unconscientious “foot soldiers” of ethnic militias and terrorist groups that are constituting increased social problems in West Africa. In this article, we examine how parties and youth have interacted to define the emergence and character of threat to the nascent democracies in contemporary West Africa. The article interrogates how the notions of “youth” and “political participation” have continued to play out in different West African countries within the context of the opportunities and challenges of Africa’s youth bulge on the democratization process. The article observes that the marginalization of West African youths has been part and parcel of history only that their situation has further raised the stake as agent of social disorder in the absence of positive engagement in the recent times.

  14. Communications received from Member States regarding guidelines for the export of nuclear material, equipment and technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-11-01

    The Director General has received notes verbales relating to the export of nuclear material, equipment and technology from the following Permanent Missions to the International Atomic Energy Agency: notes verbales dated 15 June 1994 from the Permanent Missions of Argentina, Australia, Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Canada, the Czech Republic, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Ireland, Italy, Japan, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, the Slovak Republic, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland and the United States of America; and a note verbale dated 10 November 1994 from the Permanent Mission of the Russian Federation. The purpose of these notes verbales is to provide further information on these Governments' nuclear export policies and practices. In the light of the wish expressed at the end of each note verbale, the analogous text of the notes verbales is attached hereto. The enclosure of these notes verbales with the amendments to the ''Guidelines for Nuclear Transfers'' contained in INFCIRC/254/Rev.1/Part 1/Mod.1 is reproduced in the Annex

  15. Safety philosophy and licensing practice in different member states of IAEA: Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alonso, A.

    1981-01-01

    With the aim of presenting the licensing experience in Spain, the countries with nuclear activities are divided into three main groups: exporters, qualified importers and importers, being Spain in the second group. The licensing problems, and therefore the licensing experience, are different in the different groups of countries. Moreover, the experience in Spain is enriched by the following facts: an early start, a substantial program and a diversity of types, pressurized and boiling water reactors, and suppliers, American and German plants. Reference is made to the basic legal documents governing licensing in Spain, together with the difficulties in adopting and applying detailed regulations. Within this framework, the licensing experience in Spain is described with reference to the reference plant concept, later enlarged to include the reference-site reference plant concept, ending in the most practical approach of the reference problem concept. Finally specific licensing problems are introduced with reference to the Spanish operating nuclear power plants, the ones under commissioning and in an advanced state of construction and the ones just staring construction. (orig./RW)

  16. Amendment of the EC Sewage Sludge Regulation and the German Sewage Sludge Ordinance; Novellierung der EG-Klaerschlammrichtlinie und der deutschen Klaerschlammverordnung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergs, C.G.; Krebsbach, A. [Bundesministerium fuer Umwelt, Naturschutz und Reaktorsicherheit, Berlin (Germany)

    2001-03-01

    The EC Sewage Sludge Guideline of 12 June 1996 laid down the boundary conditions for sewage sludge utilisation in agriculture. The purpose of the regulation was the standardisation of member states regulations on sewage sludge treatment and the harmonisation of limiting values for pollutant emissions in the EC member states. [German] Mit der 'Richtlinie des Rates vom 12. Juni 1996 ueber den Schutz der Boeden bei der Verwendung von Klaerschlamm in der Landwirtschaft' (86/278/EWG) hat die Europaeische Kommission EU-weite Rahmenvorgaben fuer die landwirtschaftliche Klaerschlammverwertung geschaffen. Ziel der Richtlinie war es, eine Rechtsangleichung der Regelungen ueber die Klaerschlammverwertung und eine Harmonisierung der Schadstoffgrenzwerte in den Mitgliedstaaten zu erreichen. (orig.)

  17. Everyone talk about EC technology - What's about this technology? AC versus AC technology; Alle reden von EC-Technologie - was bringt sie wirklich? AC- versus EC-Motorentechnik

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    2010-12-15

    Meanwhile, the EC motor technology is the state of the art in fans. In the consciousness of a possible energy conservation, the EC motor technology is demanded to a large extent with the new installations of the customers. But how high are the possible savings actually? A comparative measurement at a condenser of Guentner AG (Fuerstenfeldbruck, Federal Republic of Germany) supports information.

  18. European regulation model for herbal medicine: The assessment of the EU monograph and the safety and efficacy evaluation in marketing authorization or registration in Member States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Liping; Zou, Wenjun; Wang, YiTao; Wang, Mei

    2018-03-15

    The European Union (EU) has created a regulatory framework for herbal medicinal products (HMPs) since the enforcement of Directive 2004/24/EC. Substantial achievements have been made, with 1719 traditional use marketing registrations (TURs) and 859 well-established use marketing authorizations (WEU-MAs) for HMPs granted by the end of 2016. Apparently, the European regulation model has worked out well and in that the essential feature is the use of EU herbal monographs into those granted WEU-MAs and TURs. A systematic analysis of the European regulation model for HMPs and the EU herbal monograph's part of this model are undertaken to assist understanding of the EU legislation particularly for interested parties those from outside EU area, and afterwards, to help in decision-making in the HMPs registration in European market for pharmaceutical companies, as well as in the establishment of legislation in countries with strong traditional use of herbal remedies. A search of PubMed, ScienceDirect, the European Medicines Agency website and the Heads of Medicines Agencies website was conducted (up to December 2017), and the available information on regulation of HMPs in the EU was collected. The evaluation of applications by National Competent Authorities (NCAs) at a national level together with the assessment of EU monographs by the Committee on Herbal Medicinal Products (HMPC) at the European level constitute the European regulation framework for HMPs. As the scientific opinion about the safety and efficacy of HMPs from HMPC, the EU herbal monographs have been given a constitutional-based meaning to the TURs and WEU-MAs of HMPs and play a supportive function in the marketing procedure in Member States. The European framework has provided a powerful regulation model for harmonization of scientific assessment and facilitation of product marketing. For the pharmaceutical industries particularly those outside the EU, optimal use of the EU herbal monograph in their marketing

  19. Radiological mass screening within the Member States of the European Community. Regulations, practices, effectiveness. Proceedings of a seminar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lochard, J.

    1987-01-01

    Under the Euratom Treaty it is the task of the Commission of the European Community to ensure the health protection of workers and the general public against the dangers of ionizing radiation. Dose limits and the principals of radiation protection were first laid down in a Council Directive of 1959, and have since been repeatedly adapted. The specific problems of radiation protection of persons undergoing medical examination or treatment are the subject of a separate Council Directive of 3 September 1984. This directive specifies that 'all medical exposures must be medically justified and kept as low as reasonably achievable'. The concept of justification is particularly critical in the case of mass-screening activities. For some diseases with low prevalence the radiological detriment to the population resulting from radiological mass-screening procedures might be greater than the individual benefit of the diagnosis. In addition the costs of public health care are rising in all Member States of the European Community and the effectiveness of public health care programmes like mass-screening must be carefully examined. A technical workshop on practices and regulations in the field of radiological mass-screening within the Member States (Luxembourg, 4-5 December 1984) and a seminar on the same subject (Luxembourg, 3-4 December 1985) were therefore organized by the Commission of the European Communities in cooperation with the Commissariat a l'energie Atomique, CEA, and the Centre d'etude sur l'evaluation de la protection dans le domaine nucleaire, CEPN (France). The workshop provided up-to-date information on effectiveness and cost of radiological mass-screening programmes in the Member States. The seminar provided the representatives of the national authorities responsible for radiation protection, public health and occupational medicine with an opportunity to discuss mass-screening practices with experts. This publication contains the papers presented at the

  20. (EC+β+) decay of 130Ce

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Shuwei; Zhang Tianmei; Xie Yuanxiang; Ma Ruichang; Ge Yuanxiu; Guo Yingxiang; Wang Chunfang; Li Zhankui; Guo Bing; Xing Jianping; Guo Tianrui; Zhu Shaofei; Xu Wang; Du Jinzhou

    1996-01-01

    The nuclide 130 Ce was produced by a ( 16 O, 4n) reaction on an enriched 118 Sn target. Reaction products were transported to a shielded location by using a helium-jet tape transport system. A 22.9 min activity in chemically separated cerium sample was identified as 130 Ce. The (EC+β + ) decay scheme of 130 Ce was proposed for the first time. This scheme includes 108 γ-lines, 107 γ-lines among them being new. More than 13 1 + low-lying states of 130 La are populated in the decay of 130 Ce. Two new isomers with half-life of 77±10 ns and 17±5 ns were observed by means of delayed γ-γ coincidence measurements. (orig.). With 5 figs., 3 tabs

  1. STATE-OWNED, ACQUISITION OR GREENFIELD BANKS IN THE NEW EU MEMBER STATES. A POST-CRISIS ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radu Alin Moruţan

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The political and economic changes taking place at the end of the 20th century have provided Western European banks the opportunity to enter into Central and Eastern European (CEE markets. Their entry was made either by greenfield investment or by acquisition of existing domestic banks. The motivations for the entry decision were various, e.g. managerial decisions, tightening profit margins in home markets, challengers imitation, profit-maximizations, looking for new customers in new markets, or keeping and extending relations with existing customers on the new markets where they are implanted. The expansion was amplified by the deregulation, the global capital expansion and the emergence of a single currency, throughout a period of prosperity and economic growth lasting for almost two decades (1990-2008. Until the crisis, changes in the CEE banking markets mainly concerned the increasing share of foreign capital (in market share, assets, number of branches and employees along with the diminishing importance of state-owned banks. After 2008, the process displays new features: the restructuring of banks, mergers or strategic acquisitions, reducing operations in certain countries or even exits, adjusting the number of units and employees, improving efficiency and profitability indicators etc. Domestic banks, both private and state-owned, have bridged the gap (at least in terms of efficiency separating them from the leaders, i.e. mostly the subsidiaries of large international banks. Apparently, greenfield banks are losing the importance they had in the preceding period (1990-2008. This paper aims at investigating the relation between foreign banks’ mode of entry into the emerging markets of CEE (i.e. acquisition vs greenfield and the strategies’ results on those markets, before and after the crisis. Although foreign banks have implemented common strategies at group level, often dependent on the entry mode, these strategies were influenced by

  2. THE ROLE AND IMPORTANCE OF ACCESSIBILITY IN CONSTITUTION OF STATE BUDGET REVENUE IN ROMANIA AND IN THE OTHER MEMBER STATES OF THE EUROPEAN UNION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CHIRCULESCU MARIA FELICIA

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The work is topical even though there have been many concerns over the time of the importance of revenues collected from excises at the level of the state budget in Romania and in other EU Member States. Due to the complex nature of the revenue generation to the state budget, the attempt to find the best modality of realizing the revenues to the state budget has not yet come to a solution. Regarding the objective of the paper, it is the exposition of the excise duty role in the constitution of the state budget revenues for the period 2010-2016 for Romania and for the period 2010-2015 for the European Union. The results of the excise tax analysis in establishing the state budget revenues in Romania for the period 2010- 2016 indicate that although in absolute terms the revenues realized to the state budget from excises increased by ROL 9,343.9 million, however, the influence generated in the gross domestic product If the level of excise duties in GDP was 317% at the level of 2016, this share was 3.37%. At European Union level, the share of excise tax in the average tax revenue is low (1.1%, but as it results from the content of the work in 2015 in Estonia there was a 13.2% level of the excise tax rate in the tax revenues, Well above the EU average, followed by Luxembourg (6.8% and Ireland (6.2%.

  3. Agricultural practice and water quality in the Netherlands in the 1992-2002 period. Background information for the third EU Nitrate Directive Member States report

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fraters B; Hotsma PH; Langenberg VT; Leeuwen TC van; Mol APA; Olsthoorn CSM; Schotten CGJ; Willems WJ; EC-LNV; RIKZ; LEI; RIZA; CBS; LDL

    2004-01-01

    This overview provides the background information for the Netherlands Member State report, 'Nitrate Directive, status and trends of aquatic environment and agricultural practice' to be submitted to the European Commission mid-2004. It documents current agricultural practice, and groundwater and

  4. Community incidence of pathogen-specific gastroenteritis: reconstructing the surveillance pyramid for seven pathogens in seven European Union member states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haagsma, J A; Geenen, P L; Ethelberg, S; Fetsch, A; Hansdotter, F; Jansen, A; Korsgaard, H; O'Brien, S J; Scavia, G; Spitznagel, H; Stefanoff, P; Tam, C C; Havelaar, A H

    2013-08-01

    By building reconstruction models for a case of gastroenteritis in the general population moving through different steps of the surveillance pyramid we estimated that millions of illnesses occur annually in the European population, leading to thousands of hospitalizations. We used data on the healthcare system in seven European Union member states in relation to pathogen characteristics that influence healthcare seeking. Data on healthcare usage were obtained by harmonized cross-sectional surveys. The degree of under-diagnosis and underreporting varied by pathogen and country. Overall, underreporting and under-diagnosis were estimated to be lowest for Germany and Sweden, followed by Denmark, The Netherlands, UK, Italy and Poland. Across all countries, the incidence rate was highest for Campylobacter spp. and Salmonella spp. Incidence estimates resulting from the pyramid reconstruction approach are adjusted for biases due to different surveillance systems and are therefore a better basis for international comparisons than reported data.

  5. Testing the macroeconomic impact of the budget deficit in EU Member States using linear regression with fixed effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dalian Marius DORAN

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The article aims to research impact of budget balance, whether surplus or deficit, on the main indicator characterizing the economic growth of a country, namely GDP and the inflation rate in the 27 European Union Member States and the United Kingdom. For this analysis was used panel data, taking into account the period from 2001 to 2015. The method used for the analysis is the linear regression with fixed effects and with Driscoll-Kraay standard errors. The dependent variables are the growth rate of real GDP and the inflation rate, and the independent variable is the budget balance (surplus or deficit. The results obtained after using econometric software Stata shows a positive impact of budget balance on growth in the European Union for the analyzed period.

  6. THE IMPACT OF TAX SYSTEM ON GLOBAL COMPETITIVENESS. ANALYSIS ON THE LEVEL OF EUROPEAN UNION MEMBER STATES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brandusa Tudose

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Summarizing the results of theoretical and empirical research, the paper aims to analyze the impact of tax system on global competitiveness through the following three variables: taxation on incentives to invest; total tax rate and taxation on incentives to work. Summarizing the analysis to the European Union member states, the paper presents rankings and provides interpretations for each case. Luxembourg is the country where there is registered: a the biggest impact on competitiveness of tax policies supporting investment, b the largest fiscal affordability (measured by GDP/capita and total tax rate and c the most generous labor taxation system in the EU. However, in the ranking realized based on the global competitiveness index Luxembourg ranks on the 22nd place, on the first place being Finland.

  7. SUSTAINABLE DECISION MAKING UNDER THE CRISIS FOR TOURISM BUSINESSES: A SURVEY OF THE LITERATURE FOR EU MEMBER STATES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefania Lucia BODOSCA

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The last years have proven to be particular problematic for member states of UE because of the financial crisis. When we discus about tourism businesses and the measures undertaken by managers to mitigate the effects of the crisis some of them were to reduce the part allocated for expenditures regarding innovation, technologic improvements and went for different types of approaches. An increased attention has been given to sustainable development, sustainable marketing and development in environmental accounting techniques and in our research we explore how they changed the course of the core of the business and how these initiatives are realistic. The overall finding is that sustainable actions exist and they are present in many strategies but they are poorly translated in real actions.

  8. Job Search Strategies and Labour Market Outcomes of Young Recent Migrants from Central & Eastern Europe in EU15 Member States

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leschke, Janine; Weiss, Silvana

    regulation and institutional settings and language and cultural proximity among others which in turn might impact on the importance and role of social networks in labour market outcomes. Our analysis shows that in all European country clusters recent NMS13 migrants more often found their current job through......This paper examines the use of social networks and its impact on the qualitative labour market integration of young recent EU migrants from Central and Eastern European member states to EU15 countries as well as Switzerland and Norway. The literature points to both positive and negative impacts...... of social networks on migrant workers’ outcomes. Social networks can facilitate access to employers and information on labour regulation and rights and thereby improve the quantitative and qualitative labour market outcomes of migrant workers. On the other hand, social networks can also contribute...

  9. Obtaining health care in another European Union Member State: how easy is it to find relevant information?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santoro, Alessio; Silenzi, Andrea; Ricciardi, Walter; McKee, Martin

    2015-02-01

    The European Union Directive on cross-border health care places an obligation on member states (MSs) to establish one or more national contact points (NCPs). We evaluated whether MSs were meeting their legal obligations. Two researchers created a set of criteria, drawn from the Directive, to evaluate the information that 18 MSs provide on their NCP websites. Some 15 of the 18 MSs evaluated provided >75% of the information sought. This report shows examples of best practices that could be used to encourage other MSs to improve the quality and quantity of information provided. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association. All rights reserved.

  10. The challenges of organising cervical screening programmes in the 15 old member states of the European Union

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arbyn, Marc; Rebolj, Matejka; De Kok, Inge M C M

    2009-01-01

    Cervical cancer incidence and mortality can be reduced substantially by organised cytological screening at 3 to 5 year intervals, as was demonstrated in the Nordic countries, the United Kingdom, the Netherlands and parts of Italy. Opportunistic screening, often proposed at yearly schedules, has...... also reduced the burden of cervical cancer in some, but not all, of the other old member states (belonging to the European Union since 1995) but at a cost that is several times greater. Well organised screening programmes have the potential to achieve greater participation of the target population......, France, Germany, Greece, Luxembourg, Portugal and Spain) have not yet started national organised implementation of screening for cervical cancer. A decision was made by the Irish government to extend their pilot programme nationally while new regional programmes commenced in Portugal and Spain...

  11. Communication received from the permanent mission of Australia on behalf of the Member States of the nuclear suppliers group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    The document reproduces the text of a letter dated 13 August 1997 received by the Director General of the IAEA from the Permanent Mission of Australia to the Agency on behalf of the Member States of the 'Nuclear Suppliers Group (NSG)'. Attached to this letter was a paper entitled 'The Nuclear Suppliers Group: Its origins, role and activities'. The purpose of the letter and the attached paper was to provide detailed background to the origins of guidelines that govern the export of items exclusively for nuclear use and the export of nuclear related dual-use items and technologies. These guidelines were published by the Agency in documents INFCIRC/254/Rev.3/Part 1 and INFCIRC/254/Rev.2/Part 2/Mod.1

  12. RESOURCES AND LABOUR PRODUCTIVITY OF FOOD INDUSTRY IN MEMBER STATES OF THE EUROPEAN UNION IN THE CONTEXT OF COMPETITIVENESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Łukiewska

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Labour resources are an important factor in competitiveness of the sector. The aim of the study was to evaluate the spatial concentration of labour resources, performance advantages and cost-price advantages that are associated with the work factor in the food industry in the European Union in 2010–2012. The results indicate that the greatest concentration of labour resources exists in Germany, France, Italy and Poland. The biggest performance advantage was observed in the old EU countries, mainly in Ireland, the Netherlands, Belgium and Denmark. Diff erences in labour productivity in the food industry, the new EU countries, in relation to the old member states, are getting smaller. The most signifi cant cost-price advantage was observed in Ireland and the Netherlands, and many of the new EU countries, which compensated for the lack of performance advantages of lower labour costs. These include Poland, Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Latvia, Lithuania, Hungary and Romania.

  13. Special report: EC oil market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    A European Commission report on the EC's oil market has conceded that the Community will not meet its official objective of reducing oil's share of energy consumption to 40% by 1995. The paper, a 'Communication' to the European Council entitled ''The Oil Market and the Refining Industry in the Community: Recent Developments and Prospects'' says oil will ''continue to account for a major share - of the order of 45% -of the Community's energy consumption'' up to the year 2000. Nonetheless, the report's authors insist the Commission has proposed ''a number of measures'' which could reduce the potential consumption of fossil fuels and help limit CO2 emissions. The report confirms that though lower in 1990 than 1980 at 530mt, oil demand picked up in the second half of the 1980s, reflecting world trends. Little impression has been made on the proportion of the Community's crude supply that is imported. However, one area where the report did find energy objectives successes was that of diversifying sources of crude oil supply. A major source of concern for the Commission at one stage in the second half of the 1980s was the possibility of massive imports of finished oil products from refineries in the oil producing countries. However, the fact that this threat did not materialise is taken as a vindication of the Commission's assessment in previous analyses that ''an open Community market should be maintained''. (author)

  14. Correlates of self-reported exposure to advertising of tobacco products and electronic cigarettes across 28 European Union member states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filippidis, Filippos T; Laverty, Anthony A; Fernandez, Esteve; Mons, Ute; Tigova, Olena; Vardavas, Constantine I

    2017-01-01

    Background Despite advertising bans in most European Union (EU) member states, outlets for promotion of tobacco products and especially e-cigarettes still exist. This study aimed to assess the correlates of self-reported exposure to tobacco products and e-cigarettee advertising in the EU. Methods We analysed data from wave 82.4 of the Eurobarometer survey (November–December 2014), collected through interviews in 28 EU member states (n=27 801 aged ≥15 years) and data on bans of tobacco advertising extracted from the Tobacco Control Scale (TCS, 2013). We used multilevel logistic regression to assess sociodemographic correlates of self-reported exposure to any tobacco and e-cigarette advertisements. Results 40% and 41.5% of the respondents reported having seen any e-cigarette and tobacco product advertisement respectively within the past year. Current smokers, males, younger respondents, those with financial difficulties, people who had tried e-cigarettes and daily internet users were more likely to report having seen an e-cigarette and a tobacco product advertisement. Respondents in countries with more comprehensive advertising bans were less likely to self-report exposure to any tobacco advertisements (OR 0.87; 95% CI 0.79 to 0.96 for one-unit increase in TCS advertising score), but not e-cigarette advertisements (OR 1.08; 95% CI 0.95 to 1.22). Conclusion Ten years after ratification of the Framework Convention for Tobacco Control, self-reported exposure to tobacco and e-cigarette advertising in the EU is higher in e-cigarette and tobacco users, as well as those with internet access. The implementation of the Tobacco Products Directive may result in significant changes in e-cigarette advertising, therefore improved monitoring of advertising exposure is required in the coming years. PMID:28607098

  15. Comparative Analysis of the Consumer Protection, Considering the Globalisation and Technological Changes, within Member States of the European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iulian Viorel Braşoveanu

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Recent globalization and technological changes have produced significant changes in consumption patterns, shopping online becoming increasingly more important. Under these conditions, in this article we analyze the most important issues relating to the level and quality of consumer protection in the European Union countries for the period 2008-2012 . In this article we aimed to analyze the most important issues related to the level and quality of consumer protection in European Union 27 countries in the period 2008-2012. For this scope, we have chosen the most important five consumer indicators, which are the components of the Consumer Conditions Index, which provide information on both the level and the quality of consumer protection: the protection perceived by consumers (feeling protected as a consumer, illicit commercial practices, the product safety, the consumer complaints, and the redress measures. Initial data were collected from the European Commission for each Member State of the European Union 27, for the last five years, from 2008 to 2012. We have used statistical and econometric methods. For the year 2012, using the selected indicators, we have presented the descriptive statistics in order to observe their caracteristics, we have analysed the correlation matrix and we have determined the structure of four clusters, which reveals common features of countries in each cluster. In order to capture the impact of the variables illegal commercial practices and redress measures on the dependent variable protection perceived by the consumers, we have realized panel regressions with cross-section fixed effects, using data for the period 2008-2012. Also for this period, comparative statistical analyzes were performed (average, minimum, maximum, trend between Member States. The results reflect the correlations between the analyzed indicators during the period 2008-2012, and a comprehensive scan of how these indicators developed in territorial

  16. OAS :: Member States

    Science.gov (United States)

    the Human Resources of the OAS, including its organizational structure, each organizational unit's contract and travel control measure reports, the applicable procurement rules and regulations, and the

  17. Gifts from Member States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1968-01-01

    At the Agency's Seibersdorf laboratory a mass spectrometer worth more dian $26 000 donated by the Federal Republic of Germany is now being used in the hydrology programme. The instrument, in which charged particles of selected materials are deflected by magnetic fields in directions which vary according to dieir mass, will help specialists to answer questions about sources and availability of water in certain areas and whether its use would prejudice other water supplies

  18. 18th May 2011 - Chinese State Administration of Foreign Experts Affairs (SAFEA) Deputy Director-General M. LU (State Council of China) in the ATLAS visitors centre with Collaboration Deputy Spokesperson A. Lankford and Collaboration member Z. Ren.

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2011-01-01

    18th May 2011 - Chinese State Administration of Foreign Experts Affairs (SAFEA) Deputy Director-General M. LU (State Council of China) in the ATLAS visitors centre with Collaboration Deputy Spokesperson A. Lankford and Collaboration member Z. Ren.

  19. Small power reactor projects in the United States of America and Canada. Information gathered as a result of invitations from Member States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1962-01-01

    As part of its activities in connection with the development of nuclear power, and in response to the resolutions adopted by the General Conference, the Agency has been undertaking a continuing study of the technology and economics of small and medium sized power reactors, particularly with reference to the needs of the less-developed countries. This report summarizes the information gathered on the small power reactor projects in the United States of America and Canada, as a result of the opportunity afforded by these Member States to the Agency. It may be recalled that, at the third regular session of the General Conference, the United States Government offered to provide the Agency with relevant technical and economic data on several small power reactor projects of its Atomic Energy Commission. The Agency accepted the offer and since June 1960 it has sent one or two staff members at approximately six-monthly intervals to follow the development of nine power reactor projects in the United States which represent six different reactor systems. Last year, the Agency issued a report summarizing the information obtained through their visits and study of available published literature. The present document, which should be read in conjunction with that document, brings the information up to date and provides additional information on certain phases of the projects already discussed in the last report. Three more power reactor projects are also dealt with, namely the experimental gas-cooled reactor (EGCR), the high temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) and the Hallam nuclear power facility (HNPF). Early in 1962, the Canadian Government expressed its willingness to make available to the Agency relevant information on the NPD and CANDU projects. The coverage of the NPD reactor is based upon the published information supplied by AECL of Canada and the visit by one of the staff members to the NPD site. The Agency wishes to acknowledge with thanks the co-operation extended

  20. Public Integrity, Economic Freedom and Governance Performance. A Comparative Study for the EU Member States and Acceding Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ani MATEI

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The studies concerning the impact of corruption on the effectiveness of governance are numerous, valorising profound approaches, based on criteria and standards related to good governance, organizational behaviour. The concepts and mechanisms specific for econometrics and statistics provide the quantitative support for qualitative analyses, substantiating public policies, in view to assure effectiveness in performance measurement. For EU Member States and acceding countries, the level of development and social organization determines specific ethical behaviours. In this context, the current paper aims a comparative economic and social evaluation of the correlations between corruption, performance and economic freedom in the states mentioned, following the various significant stages of the EU enlargement. The working hypotheses turn into consideration the following issues:# Corruption holds national specific character and the statistic, econometric or sociologic analyses reveal that it is stable during time.# The climate of economic freedom and the intensity of corruption influence powerfully the economic performance.# The EU membership, “seniority” in EU, regional context determine different attitudes and perceptions on the corruption phenomena.# For the newer EU states or the acceding countries, the strategies of integrity have mimetic character and the National Integrity Systems have structured powerful connections aimed at determining an action focused on public integrity.In the analyses achieved, the EU is approached globally, at least from statistic point of view, and the conclusions aim situations specific to the groups of states that have been or will be the beneficiaries of the EU enlargement. The quantitative analyses use both own results of the researches carried out by the authors and public results of World Bank or Heritage Foundation, as well as results of authorities responsible for national statistics. The paper uses the

  1. Correlates of self-reported exposure to advertising of tobacco products and electronic cigarettes across 28 European Union member states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filippidis, Filippos T; Laverty, Anthony A; Fernandez, Esteve; Mons, Ute; Tigova, Olena; Vardavas, Constantine I

    2017-12-01

    Despite advertising bans in most European Union (EU) member states, outlets for promotion of tobacco products and especially e-cigarettes still exist. This study aimed to assess the correlates of self-reported exposure to tobacco products and e-cigarettee advertising in the EU. We analysed data from wave 82.4 of the Eurobarometer survey (November-December 2014), collected through interviews in 28 EU member states (n=27 801 aged ≥15 years) and data on bans of tobacco advertising extracted from the Tobacco Control Scale (TCS, 2013). We used multilevel logistic regression to assess sociodemographic correlates of self-reported exposure to any tobacco and e-cigarette advertisements. 40% and 41.5% of the respondents reported having seen any e-cigarette and tobacco product advertisement respectively within the past year. Current smokers, males, younger respondents, those with financial difficulties, people who had tried e-cigarettes and daily internet users were more likely to report having seen an e-cigarette and a tobacco product advertisement. Respondents in countries with more comprehensive advertising bans were less likely to self-report exposure to any tobacco advertisements (OR 0.87; 95% CI 0.79 to 0.96 for one-unit increase in TCS advertising score), but not e-cigarette advertisements (OR 1.08; 95% CI 0.95 to 1.22). Ten years after ratification of the Framework Convention for Tobacco Control, self-reported exposure to tobacco and e-cigarette advertising in the EU is higher in e-cigarette and tobacco users, as well as those with internet access. The implementation of the Tobacco Products Directive may result in significant changes in e-cigarette advertising, therefore improved monitoring of advertising exposure is required in the coming years. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  2. A comparative analysis of Serbia and the EU member states in the context of networked readiness index values

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soldić-Aleksić Jasna

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays it is generally accepted that information and communication technologies (ICT are important drivers and ‘enabling’ technologies that have a broad impact on many sectors of the economy and social life. Therefore, measuring the level of ICT development, their economic and social impact, and the country’s readiness to use them are of great importance. In this paper we present the conceptual framework of the Networked Readiness Index (NRI proposed by the World Economic Forum, and analyse the relative position of Serbia and its ‘distance’ from the EU member states in the domain of NRI indicator variables. For this purpose we have applied the Kohonen Self-Organizing Map (the SOM algorithm, which provides the visual image, as a virtual map, of observed countries and their groupings. The resulting SOM map indicates that in the complex NRI space, Serbia is located in a group of EU states that includes Romania, Croatia, Bulgaria, Cyprus, Greece, Italy, Poland, the Czech Republic, and the Slovak Republic. In comparison to other countries, this group shows the poorest performance in the NRI landscape. In addition, our empirical analysis points to the areas in which policy intervention can boost the impact of ICT on Serbian economic development and growth. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 179005

  3. ZFHX4 interacts with the NuRD core member CHD4 and regulates the glioblastoma tumor initiating cell state

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chudnovsky, Yakov; Kim, Dohoon; Zheng, Siyuan; Whyte, Warren A.; Bansal, Mukesh; Bray, Mark-Anthony; Gopal, Shuba; Theisen, Matthew A.; Bilodeau, Steve; Thiru, Prathapan; Muffat, Julien; Yilmaz, Omer H.; Mitalipova, Maya; Woolard, Kevin; Lee, Jeongwu; Nishimura, Riko; Sakata, Nobuo; Fine, Howard A.; Carpenter, Anne E.; Silver, Serena J.; Verhaak, Roel G. W.; Califano, Andrea; Young, Richard A.; Ligon, Keith L.; Mellinghoff, Ingo K.; Root, David E.; Sabatini, David M.; Hahn, William C.; Chheda, Milan G.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Glioblastomas (GBM) harbor subpopulations of therapy-resistant tumor initiating cells (TICs) that are self-renewing and multipotent. To understand the regulation of the TIC state, we performed an image-based screen for genes regulating GBM TIC maintenance and identified ZFHX4, a 397-kDa transcription factor. ZFHX4 is required to maintain TIC-associated and normal human neural precursor cell phenotypes in vitro, suggesting that ZFHX4 regulates differentiation, and its suppression increases glioma-free survival in intracranial xenografts. ZFHX4 interacts with CHD4, a core member of the NuRD (nucleosome remodeling and deacetylase) complex. ZFHX4 and CHD4 bind to overlapping sets of genomic loci and control similar gene expression programs. Using expression data derived from GBM patients, we found that ZFHX4 significantly affects CHD4-mediated gene expression perturbations, which defines ZFHX4 as a master regulator of CHD4. These observations define ZFHX4 as a regulatory factor that links the chromatin remodeling NuRD complex and the GBM TIC state. PMID:24440720

  4. Tobacco control and the World Trade Organization: mapping member states' positions after the framework convention on tobacco control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckhardt, Jappe; Holden, Chris; Callard, Cynthia D

    2016-11-01

    To note the frequency of discussions and disputes about tobacco control measures at the World Trade Organization (WTO) before and after the coming into force of the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC). To review trends or patterns in the positions taken by members of the WTO with respect to tobacco control measures. To discuss possible explanations for these observed trends/patterns. We gathered data on tobacco-related disputes in the WTO since its establishment in 1995 and its forerunner, the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT), prior-FCTC and post-FCTC. We also looked at debates on tobacco control measures within the WTO more broadly. To this end, we classified and coded the positions of WTO member states during discussions on tobacco control and the FCTC, from 1995 until 2013, within the Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) Committee and the Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS) Council. There is a growing interest within the WTO for tobacco-related issues and opposition to tobacco control measures is moving away from high-income countries towards low(er) income countries. The growing prominence of tobacco issues in the WTO can be attributed at least in part to the fact that during the past decade tobacco firms have been marginalised from the domestic policy-making process in many countries, which has forced them to look for other ways and forums to influence decision-making. Furthermore, the finding that almost all recent opposition within the WTO to stronger tobacco regulations came from developing countries is consistent with a relative shift of transnational tobacco companies' lobbying efforts from developed to developing countries. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  5. THE ECONOMIC IMPACT OF THE DIGESTIVE DISEASES ACROSS THE EU MEMBER STATES. THE COSTS ANALYSIS IN CHOLECYSTECTOMY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uivaroşan Diana

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available United European Gastroenterology provide wide studies and researches on the economic impact of the digestive diseases across the countries that are members of the European Union, very useful in planning health services, in making the case for investment in research where there are clear gaps in knowledge, and in reflecting the economic differences across the EU member states in the funding available to support health services. These studies reflect that there are important disparities in the accessibility to high-quality healthcare even among the industrialized countries. Out of all the digestive diseases, the gallstone disease is one of the most common and expensive of the health problems, in industrialized countries, like those of the European Union are. In general, symptomatic or complicated gallstone disease is treated by cholecystectomy, with surgical removal of the gallbladder. The advent of laparoscopic cholecystectomy has revolutionized the management of the gallstone disease, causing an increase in the rate of cholecystectomies. This study represents an analysis of the hospitalization costs involved by two surgical treatment options: laparoscopic cholecystectomy and open cholecystectomy. The investigation of the costs was done according to the type of intervention chosen and comprised the direct costs of hospitalization, including diagnostic tests and general expenses of medical assistance, pharmaceutical and medical supplies. The results are based on the analysis of the costs of cholecystectomies in the surgical department of the Emergency County Hospital Oradea for the year 2014 (781 cases. The average cost per hospitalized patient was 1.970 RON, lower in patients with laparoscopic cholecystectomy (1.579 RON. The average cost per patient with open cholecystectomy was 55% higher than for laparoscopic surgery (2.442 RON. Even if the laparoscopic operation cost is higher because of the equipment it uses, the reduction of the number of

  6. Dual EC : a standardized back door

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bernstein, D.J.; Lange, T.; Niederhagen, R.F.

    2015-01-01

    Dual EC is an algorithm to compute pseudorandom numbers starting from some random input. Dual EC was standardized by NIST, ANSI, and ISO among other algorithms to generate pseudorandom numbers. For a long time this algorithm was considered suspicious -- the entity designing the algorithm could have

  7. Judges in the Formation of the Nation- State: Professional Experiences, Academic Background and Geographic Circulation of Members of the Supreme Courts of Brazil and the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciano Da Ros

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available This article compares the career profiles of judges from the highest bodies of the Judiciary in Brazil and the United States of America, examining the biographies of all the ministros of the Supreme Court of Justice (Empire and of the Supreme Federal Tribunal (Republic in Brazil, and of all the justices of the Supreme Court of the United States, appointed until 2008 in both cases. Based on the sociology of political elites perspective, the article examines data concerning academic background, geographic circulation and the different professional experiences — legal, political and linked to the administration of the State’s coercive activity (police or military — lived through by future members of the Supreme Courts of Brazil and the United States so as to identify the types of individuals recommended to join the top bodies of the Judiciary in the two countries. In this sense, different State-building processes are identified on the basis of the examination of Brazilian and US judicial elites, suggesting a more fragmented and diverse trajectory in the case of US justices, and greater homogeneity and centralization in the case of their Brazilian counterparts.

  8. State of implementation of directive 2013/59/Euratom regarding radon protection in selected member states of the European Union; Stand der Umsetzung der Richtlinie 2013/59/Euratom hinsichtlich des Radonschutzes in ausgewaehlten Mitgliedstaaten der EU

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hurst, Stephanie [Saechsisches Staatsministerium fuer Umwelt und Landwirtschaft (Germany)

    2015-07-01

    Directive 2013/59/Euratom came 6th February 2014 into force. The member states have to implement the directive into national legislation until 6th of February 2018. According to different legal structures in the member states legislation will be comparable with regards to content, but may be implemented in different legal areas. Additionally the different current experience regarding radon regulation as well as different expertise with all aspects of radon protection will affect the implementation. Activities for implementation started in many member states, but at present it is not possible to make a mandatory statement for any member state, which modifications will come until 2018. On the other hand it is assumed that member states who have engaged themselves with radon protection issues since many years will not change their plans basically until 2018. The member states mentioned in the following text are chosen exemplary. A comprehensive compilation of the situation in all member states of the European Union was not possible. The inclusion of Switzerland resulted from the fact, that this European country is basically orientating its radon regulations on the international state of the art and international (also European) legislation.

  9. Business oriented EU human cell and tissue product legislation will adversely impact Member States' health care systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirnay, Jean-Paul; Vanderkelen, Alain; De Vos, Daniel; Draye, Jean-Pierre; Rose, Thomas; Ceulemans, Carl; Ectors, Nadine; Huys, Isabelle; Jennes, Serge; Verbeken, Gilbert

    2013-12-01

    The transplantation of conventional human cell and tissue grafts, such as heart valve replacements and skin for severely burnt patients, has saved many lives over the last decades. The late eighties saw the emergence of tissue engineering with the focus on the development of biological substitutes that restore or improve tissue function. In the nineties, at the height of the tissue engineering hype, industry incited policymakers to create a European regulatory environment, which would facilitate the emergence of a strong single market for tissue engineered products and their starting materials (human cells and tissues). In this paper we analyze the elaboration process of this new European Union (EU) human cell and tissue product regulatory regime-i.e. the EU Cell and Tissue Directives (EUCTDs) and the Advanced Therapy Medicinal Product (ATMP) Regulation and evaluate its impact on Member States' health care systems. We demonstrate that the successful lobbying on key areas of regulatory and policy processes by industry, in congruence with Europe's risk aversion and urge to promote growth and jobs, led to excessively business oriented legislation. Expensive industry oriented requirements were introduced and contentious social and ethical issues were excluded. We found indications that this new EU safety and health legislation will adversely impact Member States' health care systems; since 30 December 2012 (the end of the ATMP transitional period) there is a clear threat to the sustainability of some lifesaving and established ATMPs that were provided by public health institutions and small and medium-sized enterprises under the frame of the EUCTDs. In the light of the current economic crisis it is not clear how social security systems will cope with the inflation of costs associated with this new regulatory regime and how priorities will be set with regard to reimbursement decisions. We argue that the ATMP Regulation should urgently be revised to focus on delivering

  10. Using Patent Development, Education Policy and Research and Development Expenditure Policy to Increase Technological Competitiveness of Small European Union Member States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferraro Simona

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The Chinese Belt and Road Initiative will open new trade routes between China and the European Union (EU and increase competition pressures on smaller EU member states. This article ranks where states like Estonia stand internationally in terms of innovativeness (and consequent competitiveness by conducting an econometric study of patent development, education policy and research and development (R&D expenditure policy. The authors claim that small member states such as Estonia should follow the example of countries such as Germany and adopt policies which focus more on increased public spending on R&D and innovation in public universities of science and technology, and raise support for high tech startups with a strong focus on international patenting. Member States must go further and subsidise R&D activities by focusing, inter alia, on filing of foreign patents such as triadic patents.

  11. Effect of unaffordable medical need on distress level of family member: analyses of 1997?2013 United States National Health Interview Surveys

    OpenAIRE

    Chih, Hui Jun; Liang, Wenbin

    2017-01-01

    Background Reduced funding to public health care systems during economic downturns is a common phenomenon around the world. The effect of health care cost on family members of the patients has not been established. This paper aims to explore the relationship between affordability of health care and vulnerability of family members to distress levels. Methods Data of a total of 262,843 participants were obtained from 17 waves (1997?2013) of the United States National Health Interview Survey. Mu...

  12. Comparative study of microfacies variation in two samples from the Chittenango member, Marcellus shale subgroup, western New York state, USA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balulla, Shama, E-mail: shamamohammed77@outlook.com; Padmanabhan, E., E-mail: eswaran-padmanabhan@petronas.com.my [Department of Geoscience, Faculty of Geosciencs and Petroleum Engineering Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS, Tronoh (Malaysia); Over, Jeffrey, E-mail: over@geneseo.edu [Department of geological sciences, Geneseo, NY (United States)

    2015-07-22

    This study demonstrates the significant lithologic variations that occur within the two shale samples from the Chittenango member of the Marcellus shale formation from western New York State in terms of mineralogical composition, type of lamination, pyrite occurrences and fossil content using thin section detailed description and field emission Scanning electron microscope (FESEM) with energy dispersive X-Ray Spectrum (EDX). This study is classified samples as laminated clayshale and fossiliferous carbonaceous shale. The most important detrital constituents of these shales are the clay mineral illite and chlorite, quartz, organic matter, carbonate mineral, and pyrite. The laminated clayshale has a lower amount of quartz and carbonate minerals than fossiliferous carbonaceous shale while it has a higher amount of clay minerals (chlorite and illite) and organic matter. FESEM analysis confirms the presence of chlorite and illite. The fossil content in the laminated clayshale is much lower than the fossiliferous carbonaceous shale. This can provide greater insights about variations in the depositional and environmental factors that influenced its deposition. This result can be compiled with the sufficient data to be helpful for designing the horizontal wells and placement of hydraulic fracturing in shale gas exploration and production.

  13. Renewable energy and greenhouse gas emissions from the waste sectors of European Union member states: a panel data analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domingos, Hélde Araujo; De Melo Faria, Alexandre Magno; Fuinhas, José Alberto; Marques, António Cardoso

    2017-08-01

    In the last two decades, there has been a rich debate about the environmental degradation that results from exposure to solid urban waste. Growing public concern with environmental issues has led to the implementation of various strategic plans for waste management in several developed countries, especially in the European Union. In this paper, the relationships were assessed between economic growth, renewable energy extraction and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in the waste sector. The Environmental Kuznets Curve hypothesis was analysed for the member states of the European Union, in the presence of electricity generation, landfill and GHG emissions for the period 1995 to 2012. The results revealed that there is no inverted-U-shaped relationship between income and GHG emissions in European Union countries. The renewable fuel extracted from waste contributes to a reduction in GHG, and although the electricity produced also increases emissions somewhat, they would be far greater if the waste-based generation of renewable energy did not take place. The waste sector needs to strengthen its political, economic, institutional and social communication instruments to meet its aims for mitigating the levels of pollutants generated by European economies. To achieve the objectives of the Horizon 2020 programme, currently in force in the countries of the European Union, it will be necessary to increase the share of renewable energy in the energy mix.

  14. Analysis of greenhouse gas emissions in the European Union member states with the use of an agglomeration algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Kijewska

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of fossil fuels as sources of energy is related to the emission of pollutants into the atmosphere. The implementation of international commitments on reducing emissions requires their continuous monitoring. The main energy resources for electricity production in the world include fossil fuels, i.e. oil, coal and natural gas, and according to projections their dominant role in the market of energy resources will persist for at least the next two decades. The aim of this article is to analyse the level of differentiation of European Union member states in terms of emissions of four greenhouse gases and to identify groups of similar countries based on these criteria. Such studies will provide information that will enrich our knowledge about the contribution of each European Union country to the emissions of greenhouse gases. This article uses a taxonomic method - cluster analysis, namely the agglomerative algorithm, which enables the extraction of objects that are similar to each other from the data and then to merge them into groups. In this way, a number of homogeneous subsets can be obtained from one heterogeneous set of objects. European Union countries make up the objects of segmentation. Each of them are described by their level of greenhouse gas emissions, such as carbon dioxide, methane, nitrogen oxides and nitrous oxides. Groups of homogeneous countries are distinguished due to total emissions and due to the level of their emissions per capita. Analysis is based on annual Eurostat reports concerning greenhouse gas emissions.

  15. European concerted action on offshore wind energy deployment: inventory and analysis of power transmission barriers in eight member states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woyte, Achim; Gardner, Paul; Snodin, Helen

    2007-01-01

    The European Concerted Action for Offshore Wind Energy Deployment (COD) was carried out by eight sea-bordering European Union member states, with the objective to remove not explicitly technical barriers to offshore wind energy. Within the COD, an inventory of relevant aspects affecting the grid integration of offshore wind energy on a large scale in the eight countries has been made. Collected data items for this inventory are national plans and prospects for offshore wind energy, information about the transmission system, possibilities for grid connection, aspects of the grid codes, balancing, connection and energy pricing. The comprehensive COD reports were published and presented in October 2005 during the Copenhagen Offshore wind conference. This paper provides a short description of the situation for each country. Thereafter, country-specific information is grouped based on geography and membership in a synchronous zone. Additionally, a view is developed on the desirable facilities for the trans-European exchange of power from large wind farms. Finally, we elaborate overall conclusions in order to arrive at generalized observations, recommendations for policy makers and issues that will emerge in the near future. As a general conclusion, many things need to be done on a technical level in order to integrate large amounts of offshore wind power into our power systems. However, none of these measures is technically unknown. Therefore, the feasibility of integrating large amounts of offshore wind power is mainly a question of finance and hence based on political decisions. (Author)

  16. Exploring Determinant Factors of Differences Between Governmental Accounting And National Accounts Budgetary Balances in EU Member States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susana Margarida JORGE

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Framed by the earnings management ap-proach, this paper addresses the relationship be-tween budgetary balances according to Govern-mental Accounting (GA and National Accounts (NA, exploring factors that may explain both the materiality and diversity of the adjustments required when translating data from one into the other. Using data from Excessive Defcits Proce-dure reporting for all EU member states from 2007 to 2010, the analysis confrms that GA-NA adjustments refect conceptual differences be-tween the two systems, namely concerning rec-ognition criteria. Regarding potential factors ex-plaining adjustments, while none of the economic policy variables considered was found relevant in explaining either diversity or materiality, all tech-nical accounting variables analyzed explained materiality, although only GA accounting basis explained diversity.The research shows that changing GA re-porting basis into accruals reduces adjustments’ materiality and diversity. Therefore, in order to improve the quality of Government Finance Statistics (GFS, it is highly recommendable to achieve a GA system harmonized across Eu-rope, such as IPSASs or EPSASs, allowing only very few options and imposing the accrual basis in both budgetary and fnancial systems. Also relevant is the need to strengthen the role of con-trol and auditing in the GA reporting process (by Supreme Audit Institutions and external private frms, in order to avoid accounting discretion.

  17. Measuring performance in off-patent drug markets: a methodological framework and empirical evidence from twelve EU Member States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanavos, Panos

    2014-11-01

    This paper develops a methodological framework to help evaluate the performance of generic pharmaceutical policies post-patent expiry or after loss of exclusivity in non-tendering settings, comprising five indicators (generic availability, time delay to and speed of generic entry, number of generic competitors, price developments, and generic volume share evolution) and proposes a series of metrics to evaluate performance. The paper subsequently tests this framework across twelve EU Member States (MS) by using IMS data on 101 patent expired molecules over the 1998-2010 period. Results indicate that significant variation exists in generic market entry, price competition and generic penetration across the study countries. Size of a geographical market is not a predictor of generic market entry intensity or price decline. Regardless of geographic or product market size, many off patent molecules lack generic competitors two years after loss of exclusivity. The ranges in each of the five proposed indicators suggest, first, that there are numerous factors--including institutional ones--contributing to the success of generic entry, price decline and market penetration and, second, MS should seek a combination of supply and demand-side policies in order to maximise cost-savings from generics. Overall, there seems to be considerable potential for faster generic entry, uptake and greater generic competition, particularly for molecules at the lower end of the market. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  18. Information and training on radiation protection for trade union representatives from the nine Member States of the European Communities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-01-01

    As part of its training and information programme on radiation protection, the Directorate-General for Employment and Social Affairs (Health and Safety Directorate) organized for the third and fourth time (in October 1977 and 1978) seminars on radiation protection on behalf of trade union representatives from the nine Member States; the seminars served in particular as a forum for the exchange of ideas and experiences. The present volume reproduces the papers read on those occasions, covering the following topics: the independence of radiaton protection units; training and information in radiation protection; analysis of the main innovations in radiological protection concepts emerging from ICRP Publication No 26; the protection of occasionally exposed workers; the work of the United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation; the concept of optimization; future developments in dosimetry. Although the publication is destined mainly for the participants in the two meetings, the information it contains may also be of use to anyone interested in the problems of radiation protection and the spreading of knowledge in this field

  19. The public principle of the EC environmental law. Das Oeffentlichkeitsprinzip des EG-Umweltrechts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwanenfluegel, M von

    1991-01-15

    The author discusses questions concerning the significance of the Directive on Free Access to Information Concerning the Environment approved by the European Council of Ministers on 7 June 1990 and first considers the relative importance of free access to information. Further sections deal with the right to information in the member states, EC environmental law and the information of the public. The essential regulations of the directive are presented in detail: the prehistory of the directive, aims, definition of 'information concerning the environment' and public authority, exceptions and procedures. In an outlook consequences for individual regulations of the Law on Administrative Procedures and the Rules of the Administrative Courts are addressed and the urgency of a corresponding ruling for the institutions of the Community themselves is pointed out; the Commission has already announced such a proposal. (RST).

  20. The Members of the Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    The new Member since the last list of Member States was issued (INFCIRC/2/Rev.63) is Palau which deposited its Instrument of Acceptance of the Statute on 2 March 2007. The Attachment hereto shows the dates on which the present 144 Member States became Members

  1. The Members of the Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    The new Member since the last list of Member States was issued (INFCIRC/2/Rev.67) is Cambodia which deposited its Instrument of Acceptance of the Statute on 23 November 2009. The Attachment hereto shows the dates on which the present 151 Member States became Members

  2. The Members of the Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    The new Member since the last list of Member States was issued (INFCIRC/2/Rev.64) is Nepal which deposited its Instrument of Acceptance of the Statute on 8 July 2008. The Attachment hereto shows the dates on which the present 145 Member States became Members

  3. The Members of the Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    The new Members since the last list of Member States was issued (INFCIRC/2/Rev.61) are Belize, Mozambique and Malawi, which deposited their Instruments of Acceptance of the Statute on 31 March 2006, 18 September 2006 and 2 October 2006 respectively. The Attachment hereto shows the dates on which the present 142 Member States became Members

  4. The Members of the Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    The new Members since the last list of Member States was issued (INFCIRC/2/Rev.66) are Bahrain, Burundi, Congo and Lesotho which deposited their Instruments of Acceptance of the Statute on 23 June 2009, 24 June 2009, 15 July 2009 and 13 July 2009, respectively. The Attachment hereto shows the dates on which the present 150 Member States became Members

  5. The Members of the Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    The new Member since the last list of Member States was issued (INFCIRC/2/Rev.62) is Montenegro which deposited its Instrument of Acceptance of the Statute on 30 October 2006. The Attachment hereto shows the dates on which the present 143 Member States became Members

  6. The Members of the Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    The new Members since the last list of Member States was issued (INFCIRC/2/Rev.66) are Bahrain, Burundi, Congo and Lesotho which deposited their Instruments of Acceptance of the Statute on 23 June 2009, 24 June 2009, 15 July 2009 and 13 July 2009, respectively. The Attachment hereto shows the dates on which the present 150 Member States became Members [ru

  7. The Members of the Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    The new Member since the last list of Member States was issued (INFCIRC/2/Rev.67) is Cambodia which deposited its Instrument of Acceptance of the Statute on 23 November 2009. The Attachment hereto shows the dates on which the present 151 Member States became Members [fr

  8. The Members of the Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    The new Members since the last list of Member States was issued (INFCIRC/2/Rev.61) are Belize, Mozambique and Malawi, which deposited their Instruments of Acceptance of the Statute on 31 March 2006, 18 September 2006 and 2 October 2006 respectively. The Attachment hereto shows the dates on which the present 142 Member States became Members [fr

  9. The Members of the Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    The new Members since the last list of Member States was issued (INFCIRC/2/Rev.66) are Bahrain, Burundi, Congo and Lesotho which deposited their Instruments of Acceptance of the Statute on 23 June 2009, 24 June 2009, 15 July 2009 and 13 July 2009, respectively. The Attachment hereto shows the dates on which the present 150 Member States became Members [fr

  10. The Members of the Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    The new Member since the last list of Member States was issued (INFCIRC/2/Rev.65) is the Sultanate of Oman which deposited its Instrument of Acceptance of the Statute on 5 February 2009. The Attachment hereto shows the dates on which the present 146 Member States became Members [fr

  11. The Members of the Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    The new Member since the last list of Member States was issued (INFCIRC/2/Rev.59) is the Islamic Republic of Mauritania, which deposited the instrument of acceptance of the Statute on 23 November 2004. The Attachment hereto shows the dates on which the present 138 Member States became Members

  12. The Members of the Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    The new Members since the last list of Member States was issued (INFCIRC/2/Rev.66) are Bahrain, Burundi, Congo and Lesotho which deposited their Instruments of Acceptance of the Statute on 23 June 2009, 24 June 2009, 15 July 2009 and 13 July 2009, respectively. The Attachment hereto shows the dates on which the present 150 Member States became Members [es

  13. The Members of the Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    The new Member since the last list of Member States was issued (INFCIRC/2/Rev.67) is Cambodia which deposited its Instrument of Acceptance of the Statute on 23 November 2009. The Attachment hereto shows the dates on which the present 151 Member States became Members [es

  14. The Members of the Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    The new Member since the last list of Member States was issued (INFCIRC/2/Rev.60) is Chad, which deposited the instrument of acceptance of the Statute on 2 November 2005. The Attachment hereto shows the dates on which the present 139 Member States became Members

  15. The Members of the Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    The new Member since the last list of Member States was issued (INFCIRC/2/Rev.65) is the Sultanate of Oman which deposited its Instrument of Acceptance of the Statute on 5 February 2009. The Attachment hereto shows the dates on which the present 146 Member States became Members [es

  16. The Members of the Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    The new Member since the last list of Member States was issued (INFCIRC/2/Rev.58) is Kyrgyzstan, which deposited the instrument of acceptance of the Statute on 10 September 2003. The list shows the dates on which the present 137 Member States became Members

  17. The Members of the Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    The new Member since the last list of Member States was issued (INFCIRC/2/Rev.65) is the Sultanate of Oman which deposited its Instrument of Acceptance of the Statute on 5 February 2009. The Attachment hereto shows the dates on which the present 146 Member States became Members

  18. The Members of the Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    The new Member since the last list of Member States was issued (INFCIRC/2/Rev.67) is Cambodia which deposited its Instrument of Acceptance of the Statute on 23 November 2009. The Attachment hereto shows the dates on which the present 151 Member States became Members [ru

  19. Status of nuclear data needed for radiation therapy and existing data development activities in Member States. Summary report of a consultants' meeting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kocherov, N.P.

    1997-01-01

    The present report contains the summary of the IAEA Consultants' Meeting on the ''Status of nuclear data needed for radiation therapy and existing data development activities in Member States'' held at the IAEA Headquarters, Vienna, 9-11 December 1996. The present activities on nuclear data for radiotherapy are summarized in Member States, the present status of nuclear data for photon, neutron and proton therapy is reviewed and topics which are not presently covered by other institutions are identified. (author). 4 refs, 2 figs

  20. Canada files WTO complaint against EC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    In December 1998, Canada filed a complaint alleging that the European Communities (EC) had adopted regulations that amounted to a scheme to extend patent terms, limited to pharmaceutical and agricultural chemical products.

  1. Sports and exercise cardiology in the United States: cardiovascular specialists as members of the athlete healthcare team.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawless, Christine E; Olshansky, Brian; Washington, Reginald L; Baggish, Aaron L; Daniels, Curt J; Lawrence, Silvana M; Sullivan, Renee M; Kovacs, Richard J; Bove, Alfred A

    2014-04-22

    In recent years, athletic participation has more than doubled in all major demographic groups, while simultaneously, children and adults with established heart disease desire participation in sports and exercise. Despite conferring favorable long-term effects on well-being and survival, exercise can be associated with risk of adverse events in the short term. Complex individual cardiovascular (CV) demands and adaptations imposed by exercise present distinct challenges to the cardiologist asked to evaluate athletes. Here, we describe the evolution of sports and exercise cardiology as a unique discipline within the continuum of CV specialties, provide the rationale for tailoring of CV care to athletes and exercising individuals, define the role of the CV specialist within the athlete care team, and lay the foundation for the development of Sports and Exercise Cardiology in the United States. In 2011, the American College of Cardiology launched the Section of Sports and Exercise Cardiology. Membership has grown from 150 to over 4,000 members in just 2 short years, indicating marked interest from the CV community to advance the integration of sports and exercise cardiology into mainstream CV care. Although the current athlete CV care model has distinct limitations, here, we have outlined a new paradigm of care for the American athlete and exercising individual. By practicing and promoting this new paradigm, we believe we will enhance the CV care of athletes of all ages, and serve the greater athletic community and our nation as a whole, by allowing safest participation in sports and physical activity for all individuals who seek this lifestyle. Copyright © 2014 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Special Issue: Selected papers from ECS'97

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    1999-01-01

    This Special Issue of Analog Integrated Circuits and Signal Processing presents extended versions of selected papers from the First Electronic Circuits and Systems Conference (ECS'97) which was held on September 4-5, 1997, in Bratislava, Slovakia.......This Special Issue of Analog Integrated Circuits and Signal Processing presents extended versions of selected papers from the First Electronic Circuits and Systems Conference (ECS'97) which was held on September 4-5, 1997, in Bratislava, Slovakia....

  3. The EC discourse on vocational training

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cort, Pia

    2009-01-01

    This article traces the EC vocational training policy historically and describes the discursive alignments which brought the policy from a ‘common vocational training policy' as laid down in Article 128, in the Treaty of Rome to the Lisbon Lifelong Learning strategy. The argument is that vocational...... EC vocational training policy (Ball, What is policy? Texts, trajectories and toolboxes. Discourse, 13(2), 1993)....

  4. The EC-ASEAN COGEN programme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pennington, M.; Lacrosse, L. [Asian Institute of Technology (Thailand); Schenkel, Y. [Centre de Recherches Agronomiques (Belgium)

    1996-12-31

    The EC-ASEAN COGEN Programme is a co-operation programme between the European Commission (EC) and the Association of South East Asian Nations (ASEAN) co-ordinated by the Asian Institute of Technology (AIT), Bangkok, Thailand. Its aim is to accelerate the implementation of proven technologies generating heat and/or power from wood and agroindustrial residues through partnerships between European and ASEAN companies. (orig.)

  5. The EC-ASEAN COGEN programme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pennington, M; Lacrosse, L [Asian Institute of Technology (Thailand); Schenkel, Y [Centre de Recherches Agronomiques (Belgium)

    1997-12-31

    The EC-ASEAN COGEN Programme is a co-operation programme between the European Commission (EC) and the Association of South East Asian Nations (ASEAN) co-ordinated by the Asian Institute of Technology (AIT), Bangkok, Thailand. Its aim is to accelerate the implementation of proven technologies generating heat and/or power from wood and agroindustrial residues through partnerships between European and ASEAN companies. (orig.)

  6. EC static high-temperature leach test. Summary report of an European Community interlaboratory round robin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koennecke, R.; Kirsch, J.

    1985-01-01

    The results of an interlaboratory static high-temperature leach test conducted by the Commission of the European Communities in 1983 over a period of 9 months are compiled and statistically evaluated. A total of 12 laboratories - 10 from Member States of the EC and one from Finland and the USA - provided information concerning the test method and the analytical test results in the frame of a round robin test (RRT). All together these laboratories tested 366 waste from specimens of the borosilicate glass UK 209 containing simulated high-level radioactive waste. Leach tests were performed on the basis of the ''Document on the EC static high-temperature leach test method'' in autoclaves at leaching temperatures of 90 0 C, 110 0 C, 150 0 C, and 190 0 C over time periods of 3,7,14,28 and 56 days using dionized water as leachant. The resulting leachates were analysed for the elemental concentrations of Si,B,Sr,Nd and Cs by all laboratories and for the concentrations of the optional elements Na, Al,Ce,Mo,Cr,Fe,Li,Mg and Zn by some of the participating laboratories. Additionally, the F content of the blank leachates was analysed by all laboratories

  7. Non-ETS emission targets for 2030. Indication of emission targets for the Netherlands and other EU Member States under the European Effort Sharing Decision

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verdonk, M.; Hof, A.

    2013-10-15

    As European Member States are making progress towards their 2020 targets in the Effort Sharing Decision, the attention of policymakers is shifting to a framework beyond 2020. The European Commission launched a discussion with its Green Paper on a possible policy framework for 2030. This PBL Note aims to contribute to that discussion by analysing the effects of various assumptions on Member States' non-ETS emission targets for 2030. The effort sharing of the current European target for 2020 has resulted in an emission target of +20% relative to 2005 levels for the least wealthy Member State and -20% for the three wealthiest Member States. The targets for all other Member States were determined based on per-capita income levels of 2005. For possible non-ETS targets for 2030, we assumed a Europe-wide emission reduction target of 40% for 2030, compared to 1990 levels. This target is considered by the European Commission as the most cost-efficient to achieve a low-carbon economy by 2050. The 2030 target was split into a target for emissions covered by the EU Emissions Trading System (ETS) and one for emissions that are not covered by the ETS (non-ETS). According to our estimations, European non-ETS emissions need to be reduced by around 30% by 2030, compared to 2005 levels. We distributed the non-ETS reduction target of 30% over the Member States by using similar effort sharing principles that are applied in the EU Effort Sharing Decision for 2020, but with different targets assumed for the least wealthy Member State. We also took recent per-capita income levels into account. However, we did not take into account the costs and effects of emission reductions on GDP. This PBL Note analyses two possible scenarios that differ in the target assumed for the least wealthy Member State, in order to assess the effects of differing assumptions on the 2030 non-ETS targets. These scenarios should be considered as 'what if' scenarios and not as political positions

  8. Present status of developing petroleum-substituting energy (EC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-03-01

    The EC has had approximately 50% of its total energy demand supplied by imports from the exterior of the Community. Hence, it is getting important to develop oil-substituting renewable energy as well as to curtail the emission of carbon dioxide. In consideration of these situations, the results of investigation on the energy policy of the European Community are described. The policy comprises three courses: European Energy Charter, formation of an open European Community energy market, and environmental conservation. Particularly, concerning the reduction of carbon dioxide emission, the EC Council has decided to introduce carbon dioxide taxation so as to suppress the carbon dioxide emission in the year 2000 to the 1990 level. The arrangement for its introduction, however, encountered with difficulties because of the opposition of various countries other than the European Community and the industrial world of the European Community. Legislation of the investment promotion law for energy saving and the construction of infrastructure footing and an information network are ineffective due to the sluggish fuel price and economic recession. A plurality of EC member countries are advancing a comprehensive activity within the framework of the joint programs of research, development, and demonstration set for the renewable energy policy ensuring energy supply and environmental harmonization.

  9. Agreement on the privileges and immunities of the Agency. Acceptances by Member States. Status as of 31 December 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    The document lists the 65 Members which have accepted the Agreement on the Privileges and Immunities of the International Atomic Energy Agency as of 31 December 1996. The list is followed by the texts of reservations made to the Agreement

  10. X-ray fluorescence in Member States: Cuba. Activities in Centre for Technological Applications and Nuclear Development (CEADEN)[X-ray Fluorescence in the IAEA and its Member States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Padilla-Alvarez, Roman [Centre for Technological Applications and Nuclear Development, CEADEN, Havana (Cuba)

    2007-08-15

    the detection limits. The development of a compact design holder for secondary target excitation (X-PRISM) and its combination with a digital signal processing spectrometer (DSP) allowed achieving a significant improvement in the instrumental sensitivity. This configuration has been successfully implemented in three laboratories of the IAEA Member States: CNEA Paraguay, OBIMAR (Puerto Quetzal, Guatemala) and CEAC (Cienfuegos, Cuba) in frame of various IAEA technical co-operation projects.

  11. Multi-Omics Research Trends in Sepsis: A Bibliometric, Comparative Analysis Between the United States, the European Union 28 Member States, and China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evangelatos, Nikolaos; Satyamoorthy, Kapaettu; Levidou, Georgia; Bauer, Pia; Brand, Helmut; Kouskouti, Christina; Lehrach, Hans; Brand, Angela

    2018-03-01

    "-Omics" research is in transition with the recent rise of multi-omics technology platforms. Integration of "-omics" and multi-omics research is of high priority in sepsis, a heterogeneous syndrome that is widely recognized as a global health burden and a priority biomedical funding field. We report here an original study on bibliometric trends in the use of "-omics" technologies, and multi-omics approaches in particular, in sepsis research in three (supra)national settings, the United States, the European Union 28 Member States (EU-28), and China. Using a 5-year longitudinal bibliometric study design from 2011 to 2015, we analyzed the sepsis-related research articles in English language that included at least one or multi-omics technologies in publicly available form in Medline (free full texts). We found that the United States has had the lead (almost one-third of publications) in the inclusion of an "-omics" or multi-omics technology in sepsis within the study period. However, both China and the EU-28 displayed a significant increase in the number of publications that employed one or more types of "-omics" research (p < 0.005), while the EU-28 displayed a significant increase especially in multi-omics research articles in sepsis (p < 0.05). Notably, more than half of the multi-omics research studies in the sepsis knowledge domain had a university or government/state funding source. Among the multi-omics research publications in sepsis, the combination of genomics and transcriptomics was the most frequent (40.5%), followed by genomics and proteomics (20.4%). We suggest that the lead of the United States in the field of "-omics" and multi-omics research in sepsis is likely at stake, with both the EU-28 and China rapidly increasing their research capacity. Moreover, "triple omics" that combine genomics, proteomics, and metabolomics analyses appear to be uncommon in sepsis, and yet much needed for triangulation of systems science data. These observations

  12. 12 CFR 250.142 - Meaning of “obligor or maker” in determining limitation on securities investments by member State...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... of Governors of the Federal Reserve System has been asked whether a member State bank may invest up... any time 10 per centum of its capital stock * * * and surplus fund”. That limitation is made... invests in such bonds cannot be reasonably considered as doing so in reliance on the promise and...

  13. Communications of 17 October 1996 received from Member States regarding the export of nuclear material and of certain categories of equipment and other materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    The document is a correction to the document of 26 April 1999, issued as INFCIRC/209/Rev.1/Mod.4, bringing it in line with the usual format for modifications to INFCIRC/209. Additionally, the revised document includes details of communications from three Member States which were not mentioned in INFCIRC/209/Rev.1/Mod.4

  14. What if Member States Subjected Non-Resident Taxpayers to Unlimited Income Taxation whilst Granting Double Tax Relief under a Netherlands-Style Tax Exemption?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.F. de Wilde (Maarten)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractIn this article, the author seeks to illustrate, through examples dealing with cross-border business losses, what the result would be if Member States were to subject non-resident taxpayers to unlimited income taxation whilst granting double tax relief under a Netherlands-style tax

  15. Currency Exchange Results - What If Member States Subjected Taxpayers to Unlimited Income Taxation Whilst Granting Double Tax Relief under a Netherlands-Style Tax Exemption?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.F. de Wilde (Maarten)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractThe author, in this article, examines, through examples, the effects of Member States subjecting taxpayers to unlimited income taxation whilst granting double tax relief under a Netherlands-style tax exemption with regard to how such an approach would affect the cross-border taxation of

  16. Intra-Firm Transactions: What if Member States Subjected Taxpayers to Unlimited Income Taxation whilst Granting Double Tax Relief under a Netherlands-Style Tax Exemption?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.F. de Wilde (Maarten)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractIn this article, the author examines, through examples, the effects of Member States subjecting taxpayers to unlimited income taxation whilst granting double tax relief under a Netherlands-style tax exemption from the perspective of how such an approach would affect the cross-border

  17. The quest for a European civic culture : The EU and EU Citizenship in policies and practices of citizenship education in seven EU member states

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, W.E.; van der Kolk, M.; Berkeley, Dominic; Koska, Viktor

    2017-01-01

    Since the Treaty of Maastricht (1992) all nationals of EU member states hold EU citizenship too. EU citizens hold EU citizenship rights in addition to their national rights. These rights include civil, social, economic and political rights. Holding these rights does not guarantee actual

  18. What if Member States Subjected Non-Resident Taxpayers to Unlimited Income Taxation whilst Granting Double Tax Relief under a Netherlands-Style Tax Exemption?

    OpenAIRE

    Wilde, Maarten

    2011-01-01

    textabstractIn this article, the author seeks to illustrate, through examples dealing with cross-border business losses, what the result would be if Member States were to subject non-resident taxpayers to unlimited income taxation whilst granting double tax relief under a Netherlands-style tax exemption method.

  19. Is there flexibility in the European Semester process? : Exploring interactions between the EU and member states within post-crisis socio-economic governance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bekker, Sonja

    The consequences of the Eurozone crisis has spurred increased coordination of member state public finances at European level. This also entails the scrutiny of socio-economic issues within the framework of the European semester. However, this process also includes aspects of negotiation in which the

  20. Currency Exchange Results - What If Member States Subjected Taxpayers to Unlimited Income Taxation Whilst Granting Double Tax Relief under a Netherlands-Style Tax Exemption?

    OpenAIRE

    Wilde, Maarten

    2011-01-01

    textabstractThe author, in this article, examines, through examples, the effects of Member States subjecting taxpayers to unlimited income taxation whilst granting double tax relief under a Netherlands-style tax exemption with regard to how such an approach would affect the cross-border taxation of currency exchange results.

  1. Intra-Firm Transactions: What if Member States Subjected Taxpayers to Unlimited Income Taxation whilst Granting Double Tax Relief under a Netherlands-Style Tax Exemption?

    OpenAIRE

    Wilde, Maarten

    2011-01-01

    textabstractIn this article, the author examines, through examples, the effects of Member States subjecting taxpayers to unlimited income taxation whilst granting double tax relief under a Netherlands-style tax exemption from the perspective of how such an approach would affect the cross-border taxation of intra-firm transactions.

  2. Attitudes to Agricultural Policy and Farming Futures in the Context of the 2003 CAP Reform: A Comparison of Farmers in Selected Established and New Member States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorton, Matthew; Douarin, Elodie; Davidova, Sophia; Latruffe, Laure

    2008-01-01

    Farmers' attitudes, to agricultural production, diversification and policy support, and behavioural intentions in five Member States of the EU (France, Lithuania, Slovakia, Sweden, England) are analysed comparatively. Groups of farmers with similarly held attitudes are identified using cluster analysis to investigate whether differences in…

  3. Competence and Human Resource Development in Multinational Companies in Three European Union Member States: A Comparative Analysis between Austria, the Netherlands and the United Kingdom. CEDEFOP Panorama Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markowitsch, Jorg; Kollinger, Iris; Warmerdam, John; Moerel, Hans; Konrad, John; Burell, Catherine; Guile, David

    A comparative analysis of human resources development and management in the subsidiaries of three multinational companies (Xerox, Glaxo Wellcome, and AXA Nordstern Colonia) was conducted in these three European Union (EU) member states: Austria, the United Kingdom, and the Netherlands. Case studies were used, focusing on competence needs and…

  4. Implementation - More than Monitoring and Enforcement: Evidence from the Implementation of the 1989 Municipal Waste Incineration Directive (89/429/EEC) in Four Member States

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schucht, Simone; Bültman, Alexandra; Eames, Malcolm; Lulofs, Kristiaan R.D.

    2000-01-01

    Researchers and policy-makers accept that implementation decisively influences the effectiveness of European (EU) environmental policy. Some Member States lead the development of EU policy and implement Directives with little problem. Others follow a variety of compliance (or non-compliance) paths.

  5. The International Obligations of the European Union and its Member States with regard to Economic Relations with Israeli Settlements, CNCD, FIDH, 71 p.

    OpenAIRE

    Dubuisson, François

    2014-01-01

    The report will demonstrate that under existing international law the EU and its member states have the obligation to refrain from any form of trade or economic relations with Israeli companies established or conducting activities in Palestinian territories. This obligation arises from customary principles that govern States’ international responsibilities and set out the consequences, for third States, of serious breaches of peremptory norms of international law. We will first describe how t...

  6. Secession and EU Membership - Is an EU member state secessionist territory automatically within EU after archiving its independence or have to reapply for membership?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spiro Paço

    2015-07-01

    To answer to this question I will analyses the possible past experiences in secessionist territory getting membership in international organization like UN. The Vienna Convention on Succession of States in Respect of Treaties is a good material to use in case of succession but the fact that is not in force and not signed by the greatest part of EU member state make it only advisory and not binding.

  7. Two-year trends and predictors of e-cigarette use in 27 European Union member states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filippidis, Filippos T; Laverty, Anthony A; Gerovasili, Vasiliki; Vardavas, Constantine I

    2017-01-01

    This study assessed changes in levels of ever use, perceptions of harm from e-cigarettes and sociodemographic correlates of use among European Union (EU) adults during 2012-2014, as well as determinants of current use in 2014. We analysed data from the 2012 (n=26 751) and 2014 (n=26 792) waves of the adult Special Eurobarometer for Tobacco survey. Point prevalence of current and ever use was calculated and logistic regression assessed correlates of current use and changes in ever use, and perception of harm. Correlates examined included age, gender, tobacco smoking, education, area of residence, difficulties in paying bills and reasons for trying an e-cigarette. The prevalence of ever use of e-cigarettes increased from 7.2% in 2012 to 11.6% in 2014 (adjusted OR (aOR)=1.91). EU-wide coefficient of variation in ever e-cigarette use was 42.1% in 2012 and 33.4% in 2014. The perception that e-cigarettes are harmful increased from 27.1% in 2012 to 51.6% in 2014 (aOR=2.99), but there were major differences in prevalence and trends between member states. Among those who reported that they had ever tried an e-cigarette in the 2014 survey, 15.3% defined themselves as current users. Those who tried an e-cigarette to quit smoking were more likely to be current users (aOR=2.82). Ever use of e-cigarettes increased during 2012-2014. People who started using e-cigarettes to quit smoking tobacco were more likely to be current users, but the trends vary by country. These findings underscore the need for more research into factors influencing e-cigarette use and its potential benefits and harms. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  8. The healthcare system and the provision of oral healthcare in European Union member states. Part 8: Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bindi, M; Paganelli, C; Eaton, K A; Widström, E

    2017-05-26

    . In December 2014, there were 59,324 practicing dentists with a ratio of one dentist every 1025 inhabitants, about 90,000 dental chair-side assistants, about 26,000 dental technicians and about 4000 dental hygienists. To enrol in an Italian dental school a student must pass a competitive national entrance examination after obtaining a high school leaving certificate. For entry in the 2015-2016 cycle, there were 792 places for dentistry. In comparison with dental schools in other EU member states, the number of dental students per school is low with an average of 20 students per year, per school and a range of 10 to 60. The aims of this paper are to give a brief description of the organisation of healthcare in Italy, to outline the system for the provision of oral healthcare in Italy and to explain and discuss the latest changes.

  9. Convergence of the Policies for Promoting Total Quality Management in the Public Administrations of Balkan States – European Union Member States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ani MATEI

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available In the past three decades, total quality management (TQM has been appreciated as “fundamental modality in view to improve the activity in the public and private sectors” (Boyne and Walker, 2002, p. 1. For the time being, in public administrations, we witness an extension of the policies for promoting TQM, although the experiences have not always been positive.The European Administrative Space (EAS incorporates TQM, in different manners at national level, taking into consideration its recognised impact on the efficiency of public administration, one of EAS fundamental principles (Zurga, 2008, pp. 39-49. In the context of analysing EAS evolution, the administrative convergence will also comprise the convergence of TQM policies. In fact, the field literature (Hackman, Wageman, 1995 reveals, in the context of national TQM policy-making, the concepts of ”Convergent validity” and ”Discriminant validity”, reflecting ”the degree to which the version of TQM promulgated by the founders and observed in organizational practice share a common set of assumptions and prescriptions” (Hackman, Wageman, 1995, pp. 318-319.By a comparative analysis on TQM policies in the national public administrations of Balkan states, EU Member States: Greece, Cyprus, Slovenia, Bulgaria and Romania, the current paper aims to reveal the level of their convergence as well as the theoretical consistency of the conceptual and practical framework for TQM assertion.The comparative analysis will be based on a comprehensive vision on TQM, provided by Dean and Bowen (1994, Boyne and Walker (2002, namely its approach should be characterised on own principles, practices and techniques, grouped on customer focus, continuous improvement and team work (Boyne and Walker, 2002, pp. 4-5.The tradition on promoting TQM in public administration in the above-mentioned states is relatively recent: since 1990s – Cyprus, since 1995 – Greece and Slovenia, since 2000 – Bulgaria and

  10. Status of implementation and organization of cancer screening in The European Union Member States-Summary results from the second European screening report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basu, Partha; Ponti, Antonio; Anttila, Ahti; Ronco, Guglielmo; Senore, Carlo; Vale, Diama Bhadra; Segnan, Nereo; Tomatis, Mariano; Soerjomataram, Isabelle; Primic Žakelj, Maja; Dillner, Joakim; Elfström, Klara Miriam; Lönnberg, Stefan; Sankaranarayanan, Rengaswamy

    2018-01-01

    The second report on the implementation status of cancer screening in European Union (EU) was published in 2017. The report described the implementation status, protocols and organization (updated till 2016) and invitation coverage (for index year 2013) of breast, cervical and colorectal cancer screening in the EU. Experts in screening programme monitoring (N = 80) from the EU Member States having access to requisite information in their respective countries provided data on breast, cervical and colorectal cancer screening through online questionnaires. Data was collected for screening performed in the framework of publicly mandated programmes only. Filled in questionnaires were received from 26 Member States for all three sites and from one Member State for breast cancer only. Substantial improvement in screening implementation using population-based approach was documented. Among the age-eligible women, 94.7% were residents of Member States implementing or planning population-based breast cancer screening in 2016, compared to 91.6% in 2007. The corresponding figures for cervical cancer screening were 72.3 and 51.3% in 2016 and 2007, respectively. Most significant improvement was documented for colorectal cancer screening with roll-out ongoing or completed in 17 Member States in 2016, compared to only five in 2007. So the access to population-based screening increased to 72.4% of the age-eligible populations in 2016 as opposed to only 42.6% in 2007. The invitation coverage was highly variable, ranging from 0.2-111% for breast cancer, 7.6-105% for cervical cancer and 1.8-127% for colorectal cancer in the target populations. In spite of the considerable progress, much work remains to be done to achieve optimal effectiveness. Continued monitoring, regular feedbacks and periodic reporting are needed to ensure the desired impacts of the programmes. © 2017 UICC.

  11. Effect of unaffordable medical need on distress level of family member: analyses of 1997-2013 United States National Health Interview Surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chih, Hui Jun; Liang, Wenbin

    2017-09-02

    Reduced funding to public health care systems during economic downturns is a common phenomenon around the world. The effect of health care cost on family members of the patients has not been established. This paper aims to explore the relationship between affordability of health care and vulnerability of family members to distress levels. Data of a total of 262,843 participants were obtained from 17 waves (1997-2013) of the United States National Health Interview Survey. Multinomial logistic regression was used to investigate psychological distress level as a result of having family members who experienced unmet medical needs due to cost. Among participants without family members who experienced unmet needs for medical care due to cost, risks of having 'moderate' (score of 5-12) or 'serious' (score of 13 or above) level of psychological distress were 1.0% and 11.5%, respectively. Risks of having 'moderate' or 'serious' level of psychological distress were 3.1% and 23.4%, respectively among participants with family members who experienced unmet needs. The adjusted relative risk ratio of 'moderate' and 'serious', as compared to 'normal' level of psychological distress, were 1.58 (95% confidence interval: 1.47-1.69) and 2.09 (95% confidence interval: 1.78-2.45) if one's family members experienced unmet medical needs. Unmet medical needs due to cost increases risk of distress levels experienced by family members. Careful planning and adequate funding to public health care system could be implemented to prevent any unnecessary detrimental effect on mental health among family members of the unwell and any further increment of the prevalence of mental illnesses. This recommendation aligns with the World Health Organization Mental Health Action Plan 2013-2020.

  12. Longitudinal Changes in Psychological States in Online Health Community Members: Understanding the Long-Term Effects of Participating in an Online Depression Community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Albert; Conway, Mike

    2017-03-20

    Major depression is a serious challenge at both the individual and population levels. Although online health communities have shown the potential to reduce the symptoms of depression, emotional contagion theory suggests that negative emotion can spread within a community, and prolonged interactions with other depressed individuals has potential to worsen the symptoms of depression. The goals of our study were to investigate longitudinal changes in psychological states that are manifested through linguistic changes in depression community members who are interacting with other depressed individuals. We examined emotion-related language usages using the Linguistic Inquiry and Word Count (LIWC) program for each member of a depression community from Reddit. To measure the changes, we applied linear least-squares regression to the LIWC scores against the interaction sequence for each member. We measured the differences in linguistic changes against three online health communities focusing on positive emotion, diabetes, and irritable bowel syndrome. On average, members of an online depression community showed improvement in 9 of 10 prespecified linguistic dimensions: "positive emotion," "negative emotion," "anxiety," "anger," "sadness," "first person singular," "negation," "swear words," and "death." Moreover, these members improved either significantly or at least as much as members of other online health communities. We provide new insights into the impact of prolonged participation in an online depression community and highlight the positive emotion change in members. The findings of this study should be interpreted with caution, because participating in an online depression community is not the sole factor for improvement or worsening of depressive symptoms. Still, the consistent statistical results including comparative analyses with different communities could indicate that the emotion-related language usage of depression community members are improving either

  13. State of Diabetes Self-Management Education in the European Union Member States and Non-EU Countries: The Diabetes Literacy Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henna Riemenschneider

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Diabetes self-management education (DSME is considered essential for improving the prevention and care of diabetes through empowering patients to increase agency in their own health and care processes. However, existing evidence regarding DSME in the EU Member States (EU MS is insufficient to develop an EU-wide strategy. Objectives. This study presents the state of DSME in the 28 EU MS and contrasts it with 3 non-EU countries with comparable Human Development Index score: Israel, Taiwan, and the USA (ITU. Because type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM disproportionately affects minority and low-income groups, we paid particular attention to health literacy aspects of DSME for vulnerable populations. Methods. Data from multiple stakeholders involved in diabetes care were collected from Feb 2014 to Jan 2015 using an online Diabetes Literacy Survey (DLS. Of the 379 respondents (249 from EU MS and 130 from ITU, most were people with diabetes (33% in the EU MS, 15% in ITU and care providers (47% and 72%. These data were supplemented by an expert survey (ES administered to 30 key informants. Results. Access to DSME varies greatly in the EU MS: an average of 29% (range 21% to 50% of respondents report DSME programs are tailored for people with limited literacy, educational attainment, and language skills versus 63% in ITU. More than half of adult T2DM patients and children/adolescents participate in DSME in EU MS; in ITU, participation of T1DM patients and older people is lower. Prioritization of DSME (6.1 ± 2.8 out of 10 and the level of satisfaction with the current state of DSME (5.0 ± 2.4 out of 10 in the EU MS were comparable with ITU. Conclusion. Variation in availability and organization of DSME in the EU MS presents a clear rationale for developing an EU-wide diabetes strategy to improve treatment and care for people with diabetes.

  14. The regulatory framework for storage and disposal of radioactive waste in the member states of the European Community

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burholt, G.D.; Martin, A.

    1988-01-01

    The purpose of the study is to collate information and to summarise the present situation with regard to the regulatory framework for the storage and disposal of radioactive waste in each of the member countries of the European Community together with several important countries outside the Community. (author)

  15. A Study of the Need for Cross-Cultural Capability Development in the Members of the United States Military

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-06-16

    past. According to cultural anthropologist Montgomery McFate, “Our ethnocentrism , biased assumptions and mirror-imagining have had negative outcomes...Center is staffed by experts in the field of culture and has accumulated volumes of culturally relevant information to assist Air Force members in

  16. Views of United States Physicians and Members of the American Medical Association House of Delegates on Physician-assisted Suicide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitney, Simon N.; Brown, Byron W.; Brody, Howard; Alcser, Kirsten H.; Bachman, Jerald G.; Greely, Henry T.

    2001-01-01

    Ascertained the views of physicians and physician leaders toward legalization of physician-assisted suicide. Results indicated members of AMA House of Delegates strongly oppose physician-assisted suicide, but rank-and-file physicians show no consensus either for or against its legalization. Although the debate is adversarial, most physicians are…

  17. Legislation on food irradiation adopted in member states in the period of 31/12/71-31/12/76

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-01-01

    This paper provides information complementary to that contained in Annex A to the 1972 Report by a Consultation Group on the Legal Aspects of Food Irradiation. It reviews legislation on food irradiation in several IAEA Member countries, namely Austria, Brazil, France, Japan, South Africa, Thailand and the United Kingdom. (NEA) [fr

  18. Agreement on the privileges and immunities of the IAEA. Status list as of 12 September 2000. Acceptances by Member States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    The document lists the 67 Members which, by 12 September 2000, had accepted the Agreement on the Privileges and Immunities of the International Atomic Energy Agency, as provided for in Section 38 thereof. The list is followed by the texts of declarations/reservations made to the Agreement

  19. Energy conservation in the EC glass industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waal, H. de [TNO Institute of Applied Physics, Delft (Netherlands)

    1994-12-31

    The data presented in this survey are based mainly on a recent study, performed by the Energy Technology Support Unit ETSU. Harwell Laboratory, United Kingdom, in the context of the EC-Thermie programme. Also, use has been made of a paper `Glass Manufacture, energy and CO{sub 2}-emissions`, presented by G.J. Copley of the British Glass Manufacturers Confederation, Sheffield, United Kingdom, presented at the Thermie Seminar in Wiesbaden, 1992. A third source of information has been the data collected by the CPIV, the European Glass Manufacturers Federation on the present and future economic situation of the EC Glass Industry. (orig.)

  20. EC Transmission Line Risk Identification and Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bigelow, Tim S [ORNL

    2012-04-01

    The purpose of this document is to assist in evaluating and planning for the cost, schedule, and technical project risks associated with the delivery and operation of the EC (Electron cyclotron) transmission line system. In general, the major risks that are anticipated to be encountered during the project delivery phase associated with the implementation of the Procurement Arrangement for the EC transmission line system are associated with: (1) Undefined or changing requirements (e.g., functional or regulatory requirements) (2) Underperformance of prototype, first unit, or production components during testing (3) Unavailability of qualified vendors for critical components Technical risks associated with the design and operation of the system are also identified.

  1. Rapid procedure to calibrate EC-10 and EC-20 capacitance sensors ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A rapid calibration procedure for EC-10 and EC-20 sensors is introduced to promote the commercial use of these sensors for hydroponic irrigation management in coir. The method is comprised of taking one sensor reading, by a sensor installed under hydroponic crop production conditions, and one gravimetric sample, ...

  2. The Members of the Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    The document lists the 135 Member States of the Agency as of 19 March 2003. The new Member since the last issue of the list (INFCIRC/2/56) is the Republic of Honduras. The dates on which the present 135 Member States became Members are given in an Attachment. It also shows the States whose application for membership of the Agency has been approved by the General Conference but which has not yet deposited an instrument of acceptance of the Statute

  3. The Members of the Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    The document lists the 130 Member States of the Agency as of 1 December 1999. The new Member since the last issue of the list (INFCIRC/2/52) is Angola. The dates on which the present 130 Member States became Members, and the state Honduras) whose application for membership of the Agency has been approved by the General Conference but which has not yet deposited an instrument of acceptance of the Statute are given in an Attachment

  4. The Members of the Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    The new Member since the last list of Member States was issued (INFCIRC/2/Rev.55) is the Republic of Botswana, which deposited the instrument of acceptance of the Statute on 20 March 2002. The Attachment hereto shows the dates on which the present 134 Member States became Members. It also shows the State whose application for membership of the Agency has been approved by the General Conference, but which has not yet deposited an instrument of acceptance of the Statute

  5. The Members of the Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    The document lists the 132 Member States of the Agency as of 1 June 2001. The new Members since the last issue of the list (INFCIRC/2/53) are Central African Republic and Azerbaijan. The dates on which the present 132 Member States became Members are given in an Attachment. It also shows the States whose application for membership of the Agency has been approved by the General Conference but which has not yet deposited an instrument of acceptance of the Statute

  6. Impact of Transposition of the Directive 2013/34/EU into the National Laws of EU Member States Emphatically V4

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana Gláserová

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The European Union has published the Directive 2013/34/EU of the European Parliament and of the Council of 26 June 2013 on the annual financial statements, consolidated financial statements and related reports of certain types of undertakings for reasons of increasing of the competitive advantage and productivity of small and medium‑sized enterprises. The EU Member States have to incorporate the rules of the Directive with their national law by 20 July 2015 at the latest during the year 2016. The intention of this paper is to determine and to evaluate the impacts of transposition of the Directive into the Czech Accounting Law and into the national accounting laws of EU Member States chosen. There is an identification of main differences of Czech Accounting Law and of amended Czech Accounting Law issued 1st of January 2016. There is an impact of implementation of the Directive 2013/34/EU on financial statements and at the same time on requirements of audit for individual categories of Czech accounting entities. In this paper, there is also an analysis of impact of the Directive 2013/34/EU on national accounting laws V4 States and on several further EU Member States. On the basis of comparison of differences recognized, there is an deduction of findings for companies falling into the same group.

  7. New EC Directive on the limitation of emissions from large combustion plants. Implications for German power plants; Neue EG-Richtlinie ueber nationale Emissionshoechstmengen. Folgerung fuer deutsche Kraftwerke

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hildebrand, M. [VDEW - e.V., Frankfurt am Main (Germany). Bereich Recht und Umwelt

    2002-03-25

    The Directive 2001/80/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council, on the limitation of emissions of certain pollutants into the air from large combustion plants uses a regulatory instrument for limiting emissions at the national levels of EU member states. This approach is completely new and the author of this article therefore expects problems to arise in the context of transfer of this EC Directive into national law. Another aspect discussed is the assessment of implications for the operating power plants in Germany. (orig./CB) [German] Mit der im Herbst 2001 durch das Europaeische Parlament und durch den Umweltministerrat verabschiedeten Richtlinie ueber nationale Emissionshoechstmengen wurde vom europaeischen Vorschriftengeber ein in Deutschland bislang systemfremdes Regelungsinstrument geschaffen, dessen Umsetzung in nationales Recht und dessen anlagenspezifische Konsequenzen - zumindest hierzulande -bislang noch reichlich unklar sind. (orig.)

  8. Methods and Teaching Strategies Used by Teacher Education Faculty Members in one State University in the Philippines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amado C. Ramos

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Institutions of higher learning across the nation are responding to political, economic, social and technological pressures to be more responsive to students' needs and more concerned about how well students are prepared to assume future societal roles. This study aimed to determine the methods and teaching strategies used by the PSU – CTE faculty members of Bayambang Campus, Bayambang, Pangasinan during the first semester of the school year 2013-2014. The descriptivecorrelational method of research was employed in this study where it involved the collection of pertinent data in order to answer questions concerning the current status of the subject of the study. Majority of the faculty members are females, they are master’s degree holders, have a permanent position with an academic rank of instructor, and most of the faculty members are graduate of SUCs. They also have high attitude toward teaching; generally, the faculty members perceived themselves to be often in using teaching approaches and teaching methods; and sometimes in using teaching techniques/styles, instructional support activities, and non-formal activities; and no significant relationships exist between the faculty members’ profile variables and their level of pedagogical approaches in teaching approaches, teaching methods, teaching techniques/styles, non-formal activities and instructional support activities. Teachers should be encouraged to pursue/finish higher education, likewise they should be motivated to conduct research studies like action researches as part of their functions, particularly along their area of specialization. Teachers should be encouraged to explore and view other effective teaching strategies and find more ways to entice other students challenge themselves to create their own strategies to use in the field and to become more global in perspective. The use computer technology can be an effective teaching strategy, especially when students are given

  9. Influence of a Viscoelastic Insole on Foot, Knee and Back Pain among Members of the United States Army Band

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-13

    Attenuation of spinal transients at heel strike using viscoelastic heel insoles: an in vivo study. Preventive Medicine. 2004;39:351-354. 30...2009 – March 2010 A-4 35. Bender JA, Pierson JK, Kaplan HM, Johnson AJ. Factors affecting the occurrence of knee injuries . Journal of the...EPIDEMIOLOGICAL REPORT NO. 12-HF-97G010-09 INFLUENCE OF A VISCOELASTIC INSOLE ON FOOT, KNEE AND BACK PAIN AMONG MEMBERS

  10. The Members of the Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    The new Member since the last list of Member States was issued (INFCIRC/2/Rev.69) is the Commonwealth of Dominica, which deposited its instrument of acceptance of the Statute on 17 February 2012. The Attachment hereto shows the dates on which the present 153 Member States deposited instruments of ratification or acceptance of the Statute with the depositary Government

  11. The Members of the Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    The new Member since the last list of Member States was issued (INFCIRC/2/Rev.70) is Papua New Guinea, which deposited its instrument of acceptance of the Statute on 4 April 2012. The Attachment hereto shows the dates on which the present 154 Member States deposited instruments of ratification or acceptance of the Statute with the depositary Government

  12. The Members of the Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    The new Member since the last list of Member States was issued (INFCIRC/2/Rev.69) is the Commonwealth of Dominica, which deposited its instrument of acceptance of the Statute on 17 February 2012. The Attachment hereto shows the dates on which the present 153 Member States deposited instruments of ratification or acceptance of the Statute with the depositary Government [es

  13. The Members of the Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    The new Member since the last list of Member States was issued (INFCIRC/2/Rev.74) is Swaziland, which deposited its instrument of acceptance of the Statute on 15 February 2013. The Attachment hereto shows the dates on which the present 159 Member States deposited instruments of ratification or acceptance of the Statute with the depositary Government

  14. The Members of the Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    The new Member since the last list of Member States was issued (INFCIRC/2/Rev.71) is Rwanda, which deposited its instrument of acceptance of the Statute on 4 September 2012. The Attachment hereto shows the dates on which the present 155 Member States deposited instruments of ratification or acceptance of the Statute with the depositary Government

  15. The Members of the Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    The new Member since the last list of Member States was issued (INFCIRC/2/Rev.68) is the Lao People's Democratic Republic which deposited its instrument of acceptance of the Statute on 4 November 2011. The Attachment hereto shows the dates on which the present 152 Member States deposited instruments of ratification or acceptance of the Statue with the depositary Government [fr

  16. The Members of the Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    The new Member since the last list of Member States was issued (INFCIRC/2/Rev.73) is Trinidad and Tobago, which deposited its instrument of acceptance of the Statute on 9 November 2012. The Attachment hereto shows the dates on which the present 158 Member States deposited instruments of ratification or acceptance of the Statute with the depositary Government [fr

  17. The Members of the Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    The new Member since the last list of Member States was issued (INFCIRC/2/Rev.70) is Papua New Guinea, which deposited its instrument of acceptance of the Statute on 4 April 2012. The Attachment hereto shows the dates on which the present 154 Member States deposited instruments of ratification or acceptance of the Statute with the depositary Government [ru

  18. The Members of the Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    The new Member since the last list of Member States was issued (INFCIRC/2/Rev.76) is Brunei Darussalam, which deposited its instrument of acceptance of the Statute on 18 February 2014. The Attachment hereto shows the dates on which the present 162 Member States deposited instruments of ratification or acceptance of the Statute with the depositary Government [fr

  19. The Members of the Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    The new Member since the last list of Member States was issued (INFCIRC/2/Rev.70) is Papua New Guinea, which deposited its instrument of acceptance of the Statute on 4 April 2012. The Attachment hereto shows the dates on which the present 154 Member States deposited instruments of ratification or acceptance of the Statute with the depositary Government [fr

  20. The Members of the Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    The new Member since the last list of Member States was issued (INFCIRC/2/Rev.71) is Rwanda, which deposited its instrument of acceptance of the Statute on 4 September 2012. The Attachment hereto shows the dates on which the present 155 Member States deposited instruments of ratification or acceptance of the Statute with the depositary Government [fr

  1. The Members of the Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    The new Member since the last list of Member States was issued (INFCIRC/2/Rev.69) is the Commonwealth of Dominica, which deposited its instrument of acceptance of the Statute on 17 February 2012. The Attachment hereto shows the dates on which the present 153 Member States deposited instruments of ratification or acceptance of the Statute with the depositary Government [fr

  2. The members of the Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    The 42nd revision of INFCIRC/2 lists the 113 Member States of the International Atomic Energy Agency as of 1 January 1993. It includes Slovenia as a new Member State as of 21 September 1992, Cambodia replaces the former name ''Democratic Kampuchea'' and Czechoslovakia was deleted as it ceased to be a member of the Agency as of 1 January 1993 (INFCIRC/417)

  3. The Members of the Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    The new Member since the last list of Member States was issued (INFCIRC/2/Rev.68) is the Lao People's Democratic Republic which deposited its instrument of acceptance of the Statute on 4 November 2011. The Attachment hereto shows the dates on which the present 152 Member States deposited instruments of ratification or acceptance of the Statue with the depositary Government [es

  4. The Members of the Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    The new Member since the last list of Member States was issued (INFCIRC/2/Rev.73) is Trinidad and Tobago, which deposited its instrument of acceptance of the Statute on 9 November 2012. The Attachment hereto shows the dates on which the present 158 Member States deposited instruments of ratification or acceptance of the Statute with the depositary Government [es

  5. The Members of the Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    The new Member since the last list of Member States was issued (INFCIRC/2/Rev.70) is Papua New Guinea, which deposited its instrument of acceptance of the Statute on 4 April 2012. The Attachment hereto shows the dates on which the present 154 Member States deposited instruments of ratification or acceptance of the Statute with the depositary Government [es

  6. The Members of the Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    The new Member since the last list of Member States was issued (INFCIRC/2/Rev.71) is Rwanda, which deposited its instrument of acceptance of the Statute on 4 September 2012. The Attachment hereto shows the dates on which the present 155 Member States deposited instruments of ratification or acceptance of the Statute with the depositary Government [es

  7. The Members of the Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    The new Member since the last list of Member States was issued (INFCIRC/2/Rev.76) is Brunei Darussalam, which deposited its instrument of acceptance of the Statute on 18 February 2014. The Attachment hereto shows the dates on which the present 162 Member States deposited instruments of ratification or acceptance of the Statute with the depositary Government [es

  8. The Members of the Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    The new Members since the last list of Member States was issued (INFCIRC/2/Rev.72) are Fiji and Togo, which deposited their instruments of acceptance of the Statute on 2 November 2012 and 1 November 2012, respectively. The Attachment hereto shows the dates on which the present 157 Member States deposited instruments of ratification or acceptance of the Statute with the depositary Government

  9. The Members of the Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    The new Member since the last list of Member States was issued (INFCIRC/2/Rev.76) is Brunei Darussalam, which deposited its instrument of acceptance of the Statute on 18 February 2014. The Attachment hereto shows the dates on which the present 162 Member States deposited instruments of ratification or acceptance of the Statute with the depositary Government

  10. The Members of the Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    The new Member since the last list of Member States was issued (INFCIRC/2/Rev.73) is Trinidad and Tobago, which deposited its instrument of acceptance of the Statute on 9 November 2012. The Attachment hereto shows the dates on which the present 158 Member States deposited instruments of ratification or acceptance of the Statute with the depositary Government

  11. The Members of the Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    The new Member since the last list of Member States was issued (INFCIRC/2/Rev.68) is the Lao People's Democratic Republic which deposited its instrument of acceptance of the Statute on 4 November 2011. The Attachment hereto shows the dates on which the present 152 Member States deposited instruments of ratification or acceptance of the Statue with the depositary Government

  12. The Members of the Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    The new Member since the last list of Member States was issued (INFCIRC/2/Rev.71) is Rwanda, which deposited its instrument of acceptance of the Statute on 4 September 2012. The Attachment hereto shows the dates on which the present 155 Member States deposited instruments of ratification or acceptance of the Statute with the depositary Government [ru

  13. Policy responses to viral hepatitis B and C among people who inject drugs in Member States of the WHO European region

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spina, Alexander; Eramova, Irina; Lazarus, Jeffrey V

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Unsafe injections, through infectious bodily fluids, are a major route of transmission for hepatitis B and C. Viral hepatitis burden among people who inject drugs is particularly high in many Member States of central and Eastern Europe while national capacity and willingness to address......, with less than one-third reportedly conducting regular serosurveys among people who inject drugs. CONCLUSIONS: Findings highlight key gaps requiring attention in order to improve national policies and programmes in the region and ensure an adequate response to injection drug use-associated viral hepatitis...... of a national policy for hepatitis prevention and control; however less than one-third (27%) reported having written national strategies. Under half of the responding Member States reported holding events for World Hepatitis Day 2012. One-fifth reported offering hepatitis B and C testing free of charge...

  14. Switzerland: What does the EURATOM Directive imply for a non-EU-Member State?; Schweiz: was bedeutet die EURATOM-Richtlinie fuer ein Nicht-EG-Land?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeschki, W. [Hauptabt. fuer die Sicherheit der Kernanlagen (HSK), Villigen (Switzerland). Abt. Strahlenschutz und Notfallplanung; Stoll, E. [Hauptabt. fuer die Sicherheit der Kernanlagen (HSK), Villigen (Switzerland). Sektion Radiologischer Arbeitsschutz

    1997-12-31

    Member States of the EU are obliged to transform the Directive and its legal and administrative provisions into national laws by 13 March 2000. Switzerland is not a Member State, and hence is not obliged to provide for harmonisation of its legal regime with the European provisions, but there are reasons advocating consideration of the European Basic Standards and appropriate necessary action at the national level. The contribution here explains relevant aspects and the impacts on the radiation protection regime in Switzerland. (orig./CB) [Deutsch] Die Mitgliedstaaten der EU sind aufgefordert, bis zum 13. Maerz 2000 die erforderlichen Rechts- und Verwaltungsvorschriften zu schaffen, um der Richtlinie 96/29 EURATOM nachzukommen. Die Schweiz gehoert derzeit nicht zur EG. Sie muss daher ihre Strahlenschutz-Gesetzgebung nicht nach der EG-Richtlinie ausrichten. Dennoch gibt es Gruende, dass sich die Schweiz mit der Richtlinie auseinandersetzt. Die Bedeutung fuer den Strahlenschutz in der Schweiz wird im Folgenden erlaeutert. (orig.)

  15. Experience with WASP and MAED among IAEA Member States participating in the Regional Co-operative Agreement (RCA) in Asia and the Pacific Region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-10-01

    The report includes the proceedings and papers presented during the workshop on the experience with WASP/MAED computer programs among IAEA Member States participating in the regional co-operative agreement (RCA) in Asia and the Pacific Region, organized by the IAEA and held in Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia) between 5-9 December 1988. A separate abstract was prepared for each of the 14 papers presented. Refs, figs and tabs

  16. Delivery 7 Report on the impact of conflicts/synergies and policy proposals for implementing the EU Action Plan in member states

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beck, Anne-Marie Tyroll; Michelsen, Johannes

    This report on “Implementing the European Organic Action Plan in EU member states - stakeholders’ perceptions of implementation problems and coping strategies” recapitulates the results of a series of national workshops undertaken in winter/spring 2007. It brings together very different views...... and perceptions on organic action plans and possible evaluation methodologies and can be seen as ORGAP’s stakeholder oriented or public oriented step....

  17. Sustainable Electricity Supply Scenarios for West Africa. A Case Study Conducted by IAEA Member States in West Africa with the Support of the IAEA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-06-01

    This publication covers topics relevant to Member States in the process of evaluation of future electricity supply options and strategies, from resource evaluation to electricity demand analysis and connections to overall social, economic and demographic developments. It is an outcome of a study carried out in West Africa, providing a coherent sub regional platform for the development of a robust policy framework for an enhanced and sustainable provision of electricity services to support socio economic growth

  18. Implementation - more than monitoring and enforcement: evidence from the implementation of the 1989 municipal waste incineration directive (89/429/EEC) in four member states

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schucht, S. [CERNA, Centre d' Economie Industrielle, Ecole Nationale Superieure des Mines de Paris, 75 - Paris (France); Bultmann, A. [UFZ-Center for Environmental Research (Germany); Eames, M. [Sussex Univ., Brighton (United Kingdom). Science Policy Research Unit; Lulofs, K. [Twente Univ.-CSTM, Enschede (Netherlands)

    2000-12-01

    Researchers and policy-makers accept that implementation decisively influences the effectiveness of European (EU) environmental policy. Some Member States lead the development of EU policy and implement Directives with little problem. Others follow a variety of compliance (or non-compliance) paths. Implementation gaps and policy failures are prevalent. Policy outcomes often differ radically between even neighbouring Member States. What are the reasons for these differences? Why do Member States follow different compliance paths? Why do implementation gaps and policy failures occur? What factors can explain the different policy outcomes achieved? Is it only 'classical' implementation variables i.e. the monitoring and enforcement actions of public authorities that count? What lessons can we draw for the future? This paper addresses these questions through a comparative analysis of the implementation of the European Directive on the reduction of air pollution from existing municipal waste incineration plants (89/429/EEC) in Germany, the Netherlands, France and the United Kingdom: four neighbouring Member States that exhibit quite divergent compliance paths and policy outcomes. Monitoring and enforcement are found to have only limited explanatory power. In practice national contextual variables, such as: public and political environmental awareness; interactions both with environmental and non-environmental policies; regulatory anticipation and uncertainty; the degree of autonomy and scope of regulatory agencies; and, industrial and market structure of the regulated industry, must also be considered. The article is structured as follows. Section two presents the emission standards imposed by the Directive, briefly summarises the transposition of the Directive into national legislation and presents the compliance paths of the four countries. In sections three to six the specific implementation processes in the four countries are described, focusing on factors

  19. Guidelines for radiation oncology centres in AFRA Member States intending to make a transition from 2-D to 3-D treatment planning and delivery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meghzifene, A.

    2007-01-01

    The IAEA Regional Technical Cooperation Project RAF/6/031 on Medical Physics in Support of Cancer Management aims to strengthen national and regional medical physics capabilities to sustain radiotherapy treatments in the AFRA1 Member States. In particular, it aims at increasing the number of qualified medical physicists in the region as well as improving the level of medical physics by establishing regional training and continuous development programmes. Eighteen National Project Coordinators (NPCs) nominated by participating AFRA Member States are engaged in the project. RAF/6/031 was approved by the IAEA in 2005 for an initial five year duration. A coordination meeting is held every two years where the NPCs and IAEA Technical and Project Management Officers establish the project's training and development programmes. During the first coordination meeting at Cape Town in November 2005, it was decided to convene a Task Force Meeting to review the status of treatment planning in radiotherapy in AFRA Member States and prepare a guidance document on the transition from 2-D to 3-D treatment planning. This Task Force Meeting took place at the IAEA's Headquarters in Vienna on 23-26 April 2007. The resulting guidance document highlights the milestones that have to be achieved by radiotherapy centres routinely implementing 2-D computerized treatment planning before making a transition to 3-D treatment planning and delivery. The implementation of 3-D planning by radiotherapy centres that have not yet met these milestones could lead to serious mistakes in treatments. A self-assessment questionnaire was also prepared during the Task Force Meeting. Member States that are planning to make a transition to 3-D planning are advised to assess their existing capabilities through this questionnaire. The same questionnaire could also be useful for the IAEA staff and external experts when assessing the readiness of a radiotherapy centre to make a safe and effective transition to 3-D

  20. Effects of intergroup upward comparison, trait self-esteem, and identity shift on state self-esteem and affect in upward comparison with in-group members

    OpenAIRE

    Isobe, Chikae; Ura, Mitsuhiro

    2006-01-01

    The present study investigated factors that protect people low in trait self-esteem (Low-SEs), who may be less skilled at constructing information in self-enhancing manners, from threats after interpersonal upward comparison with in-group members. We hypothesized that even Low-SEs can maintain their state self-esteem under intergroup upward comparison. Furthermore, this study explored the possibility that individuals used identity-shift, a strategy to maintain their personal identity, even in...