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  1. EBV Infection of Mice with Reconstituted Human Immune System Components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Münz, Christian

    2015-01-01

    Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) was discovered 50 years ago as the first candidate human tumor virus. Since then, we have realized that this human γ-herpesvirus establishes persistent infection in the majority of adult humans, but fortunately causes EBV-associated diseases only in few individuals. This is an incredible success story of the human immune system, which controls EBV infection and its transforming capacity for decades. A better understanding of this immune control would not only benefit patients with EBV-associated malignancies, but could also provide clues how to establish such a potent, mostly cell-mediated immune control against other pathogens and tumors. However, the functional relevance of EBV-specific immune responses can only be addressed in vivo, and mice with reconstituted human immune system components (huMice) constitute a small animal model to interrogate the protective value of immune compartments during EBV infection, but also might provide a platform to test EBV-specific vaccines. This chapter will summarize the insights into EBV immunobiology that have already been gained in these models and provide an outlook into promising future avenues to develop this in vivo model of EBV infection and human immune responses further.

  2. Interaction of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) with human B-lymphocytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klein, George, E-mail: Georg.Klein@ki.se [Karolinska Institutet, Department of Microbiology, Tumor and Cell Biology (MTC), Box 280, S171 77 Stockholm (Sweden); Klein, Eva; Kashuba, Elena [Karolinska Institutet, Department of Microbiology, Tumor and Cell Biology (MTC), Box 280, S171 77 Stockholm (Sweden)

    2010-05-21

    Epstein-Barr virus, EBV, and humans have a common history that reaches back to our primate ancestors. The virus co-evolved with man and has established a largely harmless and highly complex co-existence. It is carried as silent infection by almost all human adults. A serendipitous discovery established that it is the causative agent of infectious mononucleosis. Still, EBV became known first in 1964, in a rare, geographically prevalent malignant lymphoma of B-cell origin, Burkitt lymphoma BL. Its association with a malignancy prompted intensive studies and its capacity to immortalize B-lymphocytes in vitro was soon demonstrated. Consequently EBV was classified therefore as a potentially tumorigenic virus. Despite of this property however, the virus carrier state itself does not lead to malignancies because the transformed cells are recognized by the immune response. Consequently the EBV induced proliferation of EBV carrying B-lymphocytes is manifested only under immunosuppressive conditions. The expression of EBV encoded genes is regulated by the cell phenotype. The virus genome can be found in malignancies originating from cell types other than the B-lymphocyte. Even in the EBV infected B-cell, the direct transforming capacity is restricted to a defined window of differentiation. A complex interaction between virally encoded proteins and B-cell specific cellular proteins constitute the proliferation inducing program. In this short review we touch upon aspects which are the subject of our present work. We describe the mechanisms of some of the functional interactions between EBV encoded and cellular proteins that determine the phenotype of latently infected B-cells. The growth promoting EBV encoded genes are not expressed in the virus carrying BL cells. Still, EBV seems to contribute to the etiology of this tumor by modifying events that influence cell survival and proliferation. We describe a possible growth promoting mechanism in the genesis of Burkitt lymphoma

  3. CTCF prevents the epigenetic drift of EBV latency promoter Qp.

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    Italo Tempera

    Full Text Available The establishment and maintenance of Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV latent infection requires distinct viral gene expression programs. These gene expression programs, termed latency types, are determined largely by promoter selection, and controlled through the interplay between cell-type specific transcription factors, chromatin structure, and epigenetic modifications. We used a genome-wide chromatin-immunoprecipitation (ChIP assay to identify epigenetic modifications that correlate with different latency types. We found that the chromatin insulator protein CTCF binds at several key regulatory nodes in the EBV genome and may compartmentalize epigenetic modifications across the viral genome. Highly enriched CTCF binding sites were identified at the promoter regions upstream of Cp, Wp, EBERs, and Qp. Since Qp is essential for long-term maintenance of viral genomes in type I latency and epithelial cell infections, we focused on the role of CTCF in regulating Qp. Purified CTCF bound approximately 40 bp upstream of the EBNA1 binding sites located at +10 bp relative to the transcriptional initiation site at Qp. Mutagenesis of the CTCF binding site in EBV bacmids resulted in a decrease in the recovery of stable hygromycin-resistant episomes in 293 cells. EBV lacking the Qp CTCF site showed a decrease in Qp transcription initiation and a corresponding increase in Cp and Fp promoter utilization at 8 weeks post-transfection. However, by 16 weeks post-transfection, bacmids lacking CTCF sites had no detectable Qp transcription and showed high levels of histone H3 K9 methylation and CpG DNA methylation at the Qp initiation site. These findings provide direct genetic evidence that CTCF functions as a chromatin insulator that prevents the promiscuous transcription of surrounding genes and blocks the epigenetic silencing of an essential promoter, Qp, during EBV latent infection.

  4. CTCF prevents the epigenetic drift of EBV latency promoter Qp.

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    Tempera, Italo; Wiedmer, Andreas; Dheekollu, Jayaraju; Lieberman, Paul M

    2010-08-12

    The establishment and maintenance of Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV) latent infection requires distinct viral gene expression programs. These gene expression programs, termed latency types, are determined largely by promoter selection, and controlled through the interplay between cell-type specific transcription factors, chromatin structure, and epigenetic modifications. We used a genome-wide chromatin-immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assay to identify epigenetic modifications that correlate with different latency types. We found that the chromatin insulator protein CTCF binds at several key regulatory nodes in the EBV genome and may compartmentalize epigenetic modifications across the viral genome. Highly enriched CTCF binding sites were identified at the promoter regions upstream of Cp, Wp, EBERs, and Qp. Since Qp is essential for long-term maintenance of viral genomes in type I latency and epithelial cell infections, we focused on the role of CTCF in regulating Qp. Purified CTCF bound approximately 40 bp upstream of the EBNA1 binding sites located at +10 bp relative to the transcriptional initiation site at Qp. Mutagenesis of the CTCF binding site in EBV bacmids resulted in a decrease in the recovery of stable hygromycin-resistant episomes in 293 cells. EBV lacking the Qp CTCF site showed a decrease in Qp transcription initiation and a corresponding increase in Cp and Fp promoter utilization at 8 weeks post-transfection. However, by 16 weeks post-transfection, bacmids lacking CTCF sites had no detectable Qp transcription and showed high levels of histone H3 K9 methylation and CpG DNA methylation at the Qp initiation site. These findings provide direct genetic evidence that CTCF functions as a chromatin insulator that prevents the promiscuous transcription of surrounding genes and blocks the epigenetic silencing of an essential promoter, Qp, during EBV latent infection.

  5. Characterization of variants in the promoter of BZLF1 gene of EBV in nonmalignant EBV-associated diseases in Chinese children

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    Yang Shuang

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Diseases associated with Epstein-Barr virus (EBV infections, such as infectious mononucleosis (IM, EBV-associated hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (EBV-HLH and chronic active EBV infection (CAEBV are not rare in Chinese children. The association of type 1 or type 2 EBV and variants of the EBV BZLF1 promoter zone (Zp with these diseases is unclear. Results The objective of this study was to investigate the relationship between EBV genotypes (Zp variants and EBV type 1 and 2 and the clinical phenotypes of EBV-associated diseases in Chinese children. The Zp region was directly sequenced in 206 EBV-positive DNA samples from the blood of patients with IM, EBV-HLH, CAEBV, and healthy controls. Type 1 or type 2 EBV was examined by PCR for EBNA2 and EBNA3C subtypes. Four polymorphic Zp variants were identified: Zp-P, Zp-V3, Zp-P4 and Zp-V1, a new variant. The Zp-V3 variant was significantly associated with CAEBV (P ≤ 0.01. The frequency of co-infection with Zp variants was higher in patients with CAEBV and EBV-HLH, compared with IM and healthy controls, mostly as Zp-P+V3 co-infection. Type 1 EBV was predominant in all categories (81.3-95% and there was no significant difference in the frequency of the EBV types 1 and 2 in different categories (P > 0.05. Conclusions Type 1 EBV and BZLF1 Zp-P of EBV were the predominant genotypes in nonmalignant EBV associated diseases in Chinese children and Zp-V3 variant may correlates with the developing of severe EBV infection diseases, such as CAEBV and EBV-HLH.

  6. Characterization of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) BZLF1 gene promoter variants and comparison of cellular gene expression profiles in Japanese patients with infectious mononucleosis, chronic active EBV infection, and EBV-associated hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis.

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    Imajoh, Masayuki; Hashida, Yumiko; Murakami, Masanao; Maeda, Akihiko; Sato, Tetsuya; Fujieda, Mikiya; Wakiguchi, Hiroshi; Daibata, Masanori

    2012-06-01

    Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) genotypes can be distinguished based on gene sequence differences in EBV nuclear antigens 2, 3A, 3B, and 3C, and the BZLF1 promoter zone (Zp). EBV subtypes and BZLF1 Zp variants were examined in Japanese patients with infectious mononucleosis, chronic active EBV infection, and EBV-associated hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis. The results of EBV typing showed that samples of infectious mononucleosis, chronic active EBV infection, and EBV-associated hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis all belonged to EBV type 1. However, sequencing analysis of BZLF1 Zp found three polymorphic Zp variants in the same samples. The Zp-P prototype and the Zp-V3 variant were both detected in infectious mononucleosis and chronic active EBV infection. Furthermore, a novel variant previously identified in Chinese children with infectious mononucleosis, Zp-V1, was also found in 3 of 18 samples of infectious mononucleosis, where it coexisted with the Zp-P prototype. This is the first evidence that the EBV variant distribution in Japanese patients resembles that found in other Asian patients. The expression levels of 29 chronic active EBV infection-associated cellular genes were also compared in the three EBV-related disorders, using quantitative real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction analysis. Two upregulated genes, RIPK2 and CDH9, were identified as common specific markers for chronic active EBV infection in both in vitro and in vivo studies. RIPK2 activates apoptosis and autophagy, and could be responsible for the pathogenesis of chronic active EBV infection.

  7. An Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV) mutant with enhanced BZLF1 expression causes lymphomas with abortive lytic EBV infection in a humanized mouse model.

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    Ma, Shi-Dong; Yu, Xianming; Mertz, Janet E; Gumperz, Jenny E; Reinheim, Erik; Zhou, Ying; Tang, Weihua; Burlingham, William J; Gulley, Margaret L; Kenney, Shannon C

    2012-08-01

    Immunosuppressed patients are at risk for developing Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV)-positive lymphomas that express the major EBV oncoprotein, LMP1. Although increasing evidence suggests that a small number of lytically infected cells may promote EBV-positive lymphomas, the impact of enhanced lytic gene expression on the ability of EBV to induce lymphomas is unclear. Here we have used immune-deficient mice, engrafted with human fetal hematopoietic stem cells and thymus and liver tissue, to compare lymphoma formation following infection with wild-type (WT) EBV versus infection with a "superlytic" (SL) mutant with enhanced BZLF1 (Z) expression. The same proportions (2/6) of the WT and SL virus-infected animals developed B-cell lymphomas by day 60 postinfection; the remainder of the animals had persistent tumor-free viral latency. In contrast, all WT and SL virus-infected animals treated with the OKT3 anti-CD3 antibody (which inhibits T-cell function) developed lymphomas by day 29. Lymphomas in OKT3-treated animals (in contrast to lymphomas in the untreated animals) contained many LMP1-expressing cells. The SL virus-infected lymphomas in both OKT3-treated and untreated animals contained many more Z-expressing cells (up to 30%) than the WT virus-infected lymphomas, but did not express late viral proteins and thus had an abortive lytic form of EBV infection. LMP1 and BMRF1 (an early lytic viral protein) were never coexpressed in the same cell, suggesting that LMP1 expression is incompatible with lytic viral reactivation. These results show that the SL mutant induces an "abortive" lytic infection in humanized mice that is compatible with continued cell growth and at least partially resistant to T-cell killing.

  8. Methylation of Epstein-Barr virus Rta promoter in EBV primary infection, reactivation and lymphoproliferation.

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    Germi, Raphaële; Guigue, Nicolas; Lupo, Julien; Semenova, Touyana; Grossi, Laurence; Vermeulen, Odile; Epaulard, Olivier; de Fraipont, Florence; Morand, Patrice

    2016-10-01

    During Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) latency, the EBV genome is largely silenced by methylation. This silencing is overturned during the switch to the lytic cycle. A key event is the production of the viral protein Zta which binds to three Zta-response elements (ZRE) from the Rta promoter (Rp), two of which (ZRE2 and ZRE3) include three CpG motifs methylated in the latent genome. The bisulphite pyrosequencing reaction was used to quantify the methylation of ZRE2, ZRE3a, and ZRE3b in EBV-positive cell lines and in ex vivo samples of EBV-related diseases, in order to assess whether the level of methylation in these ZREs could provide additional information to viral DNA load and serology in the characterization of EBV-associated diseases. In PBMC from two patients with infectious mononucleosis, over time Rp became increasingly methylated whereas EBV load decreased. In tonsil from patients with chronic tonsillitis, the methylation was less than in EBV-associated tumors, regardless of the viral load. This was even more striking when only the ZRE3a and ZRE3b were considered since some samples presented unbalanced profiles on ZRE2. EBV reactivation in cell culture showed that the reduction in the overall level of methylation was closely related to the production of unmethylated virions. Thus, an assessment of the level of methylation may help to better characterize EBV replication in PBMC and in biopsies with high EBV load, during infectious mononucleosis and EBV-associated cancers. J. Med. Virol. 88:1814-1820, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Induction of Epstein-Barr Virus Lytic Replication by Recombinant Adenoviruses Expressing the Zebra Gene with EBV Specific Promoters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lu CHEN; Juan YIN; Yi CHEN; Jiang ZHONG

    2005-01-01

    The latent Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is found in the cells of many tumors. For example, EBV is detectable in almost all cases, and in almost all tumor cells, of non-keratinizing nasopharyngeal carcinoma.Activating the latent virus, which will result in its lytic replication and the death of tumor cells, is a potential approach for the treatment of EBV-associated cancers. In this study, three recombinant adenoviruses were constructed to express the Zebra gene, an EBV gene responsible for switching from the latent state to lytic replication. EBV-specific promoters were used in order to limit Zebra expression in EBV-positive cells, and reduce the potential side effects. The EBV promoters used were Cp, Zp and a dual promoter combining both promoters, CpZp. The Zebra protein was detected in HEK293 cells as well as the EBV-positive D98-HR1 cells infected with recombinant viruses. An EBV lytic replication early antigen, EA-D, was also detected in infected D98-HR1, implying the initiation of lytic replication. In the cell viability assay, Zebra-expressing adenoviruses had little effect on EBV-negative HeLa cells, while significantly reducing the cell viability and proliferation of D98-HR1 cells. The results indicate that EBV virus promoters can be used in adenovirus vectors to express the Zebra gene and induce EBV lytic replication in D98-HR1 cells.

  10. The Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-induced tumor suppressor microRNA MiR-34a is growth promoting in EBV-infected B cells.

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    Forte, Eleonora; Salinas, Raul E; Chang, Christina; Zhou, Ting; Linnstaedt, Sarah D; Gottwein, Eva; Jacobs, Cassandra; Jima, Dereje; Li, Qi-Jing; Dave, Sandeep S; Luftig, Micah A

    2012-06-01

    Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection of primary human B cells drives their indefinite proliferation into lymphoblastoid cell lines (LCLs). B cell immortalization depends on expression of viral latency genes, as well as the regulation of host genes. Given the important role of microRNAs (miRNAs) in regulating fundamental cellular processes, in this study, we assayed changes in host miRNA expression during primary B cell infection by EBV. We observed and validated dynamic changes in several miRNAs from early proliferation through immortalization; oncogenic miRNAs were induced, and tumor suppressor miRNAs were largely repressed. However, one miRNA described as a p53-targeted tumor suppressor, miR-34a, was strongly induced by EBV infection and expressed in many EBV and Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV)-infected lymphoma cell lines. EBV latent membrane protein 1 (LMP1) was sufficient to induce miR-34a requiring downstream NF-κB activation but independent of functional p53. Furthermore, overexpression of miR-34a was not toxic in several B lymphoma cell lines, and inhibition of miR-34a impaired the growth of EBV-transformed cells. This study identifies a progrowth role for a tumor-suppressive miRNA in oncogenic-virus-mediated transformation, highlighting the importance of studying miRNA function in different cellular contexts.

  11. The spliced BZLF1 gene of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) transactivates an early EBV promoter and induces the virus productive cycle.

    OpenAIRE

    1989-01-01

    A spliced cDNA spanning the Epstein-Barr virus BZLF1 gene expresses the BZLF1 protein and is active in inducing the virus productive cycle. A deletion mutant which lacks the N-terminal half of the protein is inactive. Cotransfection experiments in EBV-negative B-lymphocyte cell lines demonstrated that the BZLF1 gene activates the promoter for the BSLF2 + BMLF1 gene in the absence of any other EBV gene product. These results confirmed that the spliced BZLF1 gene is the transactivating gene str...

  12. EBV-Induced Human CD8+ NKT Cells Synergize CD4+ NKT Cells Suppressing EBV-Associated Tumors upon Induction of Th1-Bias

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei Xiao; Li Li; Rui Zhou; Ruijing Xiao; Yujuan Wang; Xiang Ji; Mengjun Wu; Lan Wang; Wei Huang; Xiaoling Zheng; Xinti Tan; Lang Chen; Tao Xiong; Jie Xiong; Youxin Jin; Jinquan Tan; Yuling He

    2009-01-01

    CD8+ natural killer T (NKT) cells from EBV-associated turnout patients are quantitatively and functionally impaired. EBV-induced CD8+ NKT cells drive syngeneic T cells into a Thl-bias response to suppress EBV-associated malignancies. IL-4-biased CD4+ NKT cells do not affect either syngeneic T cell cytotoxicity or Th cytokine secretion. Circulating mDC1 cells from patients with EBV-associated malignancies impair the production of IFN-γ by CD8+ NKT cells. In this study, we have established a human-thymus-SCID chimaera model to further investigate the underlying mechanism of EBV-induced CD8+ NKT cells in suppressing EBV-associated malignancies. In the human-thymus-SCID chimera, EBV-induced CD8+ NKT cells suppress EBV-associated malignancies in a manner dependent on the Th1-bias response and syngeneic CD3+ T cells. However, adoptive transfer with CD4+ NKT cells alone inhibits T cell immunity. Interestingly, CD4+ NKT cells themselves secrete high levels of IL-2, enhancing the persistence of adoptively transferred CD8+ NKT cells and T cells, thereby leading to a more pronounced T cell anti-tumour response in chimaeras co-transferred with CD4+ and CD8+ NKT cells. Thus, immune reconstitution with EBV-induced CD4+ and CD8+ NKT cells synergistically enhances T cell tumour immunity, providing a potential prophylactic and therapeutic treatment for EBV-associated malignancies. Cellular & Molecular Immunology. 2009;6(5):367-379.

  13. Epstein-Barr Viruses (EBVs) Deficient in EBV-Encoded RNAs Have Higher Levels of Latent Membrane Protein 2 RNA Expression in Lymphoblastoid Cell Lines and Efficiently Establish Persistent Infections in Humanized Mice.

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    Gregorovic, Goran; Boulden, Elizabeth A; Bosshard, Rachel; Elgueta Karstegl, Claudio; Skalsky, Rebecca; Cullen, Bryan R; Gujer, Cornelia; Rämer, Patrick; Münz, Christian; Farrell, Paul J

    2015-11-01

    Functions of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-encoded RNAs (EBERs) were tested in lymphoblastoid cell lines containing EBER mutants of EBV. Binding of EBER1 to ribosomal protein L22 (RPL22) was confirmed. Deletion of EBER1 or EBER2 correlated with increased levels of cytoplasmic EBV LMP2 RNA and with small effects on specific cellular microRNA (miRNA) levels, but protein levels of LMP1 and LMP2A were not affected. Wild-type EBV and EBER deletion EBV had approximately equal abilities to infect immunodeficient mice reconstituted with a human hematopoietic system.

  14. Systematic analysis of human oncogenic viruses in colon cancer revealed EBV latency in lymphoid infiltrates.

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    Fiorina, Loretta; Ricotti, Mattia; Vanoli, Alessandro; Luinetti, Ombretta; Dallera, Elena; Riboni, Roberta; Paolucci, Stefania; Brugnatelli, Silvia; Paulli, Marco; Pedrazzoli, Paolo; Baldanti, Fausto; Perfetti, Vittorio

    2014-01-01

    Environmental factors may play a role in colon cancer. In this view, several studies investigated tumor samples for the presence of various viral DNA with conflicting results. We undertook a systematic DNA analysis of 44 consecutive, prospectively collected primary tumor samples by real time and qualitative PCR for viruses of known or potential oncogenic role in humans, including polyomavirus (JCV, BKV, Merkel cell polyomavirus), HPV, HTLV, HHV-8 and EBV. Negative controls consisted of surgical resection margins. No evidence of genomic DNA fragments from tested virus were detected, except for EBV, which was found in a significant portion of tumors (23/44, 52%). Real-time PCR showed that EBV DNA was present at a highly variable content (median 258 copies in 10(5) cells, range 15-4837). Presence of EBV DNA had a trend to be associated with high lymphocyte infiltration (p = 0.06, χ2 test), and in situ hybridization with EBER1-2 probes revealed latency in a fraction of these lymphoid cells, with just a few scattered plasma cells positive for BZLF-1, an immediate early protein expressed during lytic replication. LMP-1 expression was undetectable by immunohistochemistry. These results argue against a significant involvement of the tested oncogenic viruses in established colon cancer.

  15. EBV Nuclear Antigen 3C Mediates Regulation of E2F6 to Inhibit E2F1 Transcription and Promote Cell Proliferation.

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    Pei, Yonggang; Banerjee, Shuvomoy; Sun, Zhiguo; Jha, Hem Chandra; Saha, Abhik; Robertson, Erle S

    2016-08-01

    Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is considered a ubiquitous herpesvirus with the ability to cause latent infection in humans worldwide. EBV-association is evidently linked to different types of human malignancies, mainly of epithelial and lymphoid origin. Of interest is the EBV nuclear antigen 3C (EBNA3C) which is critical for EBV-mediated immortalization. Recently, EBNA3C was shown to bind the E2F1 transcription regulator. The E2F transcription factors have crucial roles in various cellular functions, including cell cycle, DNA replication, DNA repair, cell mitosis, and cell fate. Specifically, E2F6, one of the unique E2F family members, is known to be a pRb-independent transcription repressor of E2F-target genes. In our current study, we explore the role of EBNA3C in regulating E2F6 activities. We observed that EBNA3C plays an important role in inducing E2F6 expression in LCLs. Our study also shows that EBNA3C physically interacts with E2F6 at its amino and carboxy terminal domains and they form a protein complex in human cells. In addition, EBNA3C stabilizes the E2F6 protein and is co-localized in the nucleus. We also demonstrated that both EBNA3C and E2F6 contribute to reduction in E2F1 transcriptional activity. Moreover, E2F1 forms a protein complex with EBNA3C and E2F6, and EBNA3C competes with E2F1 for E2F6 binding. E2F6 is also recruited by EBNA3C to the E2F1 promoter, which is critical for EBNA3C-mediated cell proliferation. These results demonstrate a critical role for E2F family members in EBV-induced malignancies, and provide new insights for targeting E2F transcription factors in EBV-associated cancers as potential therapeutic intervention strategies.

  16. Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) gene expression in interstitial pneumonitis in Brazilian human immunodeficiency virus-1-infected children: is EBV associated or not?

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    Toro, Adyléia A D C; Altemani, Albina M A; da Silva, Marcos T N; Morcillo, André M; Vilela, Maria Marluce S

    2010-01-01

    To gain further knowledge on the subject we evaluated Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) gene expression and TCD4+, TCD8+, and B lymphocyte counts in lung tissue samples from 20 human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected children with chronic lung disease. Twenty HIV-1 infected children with chronic pulmonary disease underwent open lung biopsy to define the diagnosis. Histological section of this material was submitted to nonisotopic in situ hybridization (ISH) using EBV-encoded RNA (EBER) 1/2 probes and TCD4+, TCD8+, and CD20+ B-cell counts by immunohistochemistry. The histology of 16 out of the 20 children (median age 53.5 months) proved to be examples of pulmonary lymphoid hyperplasia/lymphoid interstitial pneumonitis (PLH/LIP) complex, 13 of which were EBER positive, but no significant association was found (Fisher exact test P = 0.439). Four patients had non-LIP diseases (3, nonspecific interstitial pneumonia; 1, diffuse advanced alveolar damage), two being EBER negative. Nineteen children showed a predominant T-CD8+ cell response (CD4+/CD8+ PLH/LIP complex, but without significant difference between EBER positive and EBER negative samples. EBV gene expression was detected in the majority of the lung samples but without significant association with PLH/LIP complex or with TCD4+, TCD8+, B cells and the TCD4+/TCD8+ ratio. Regarding the pattern of lung disease in HIV-1 infected children, associated or not to EBV, the findings are of importance concerning the possible role of EBV in the pathogenesis of PLH/LIP.

  17. Absolute level of Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV) DNA in human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infection is not predictive of AIDS-related non-Hodgkin lymphoma.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D. van Baarle (Debbie); K.C. Wolthers (Katja); E. Hovenkamp (Egbert); A.D.M.E. Osterhaus (Albert); F. Miedema (Frank); M.H.J. van Oers (Marinus); H.G.M. Niesters (Bert)

    2002-01-01

    textabstractTo study whether Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) load can be used to predict the occurrence of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome-related non-Hodgkin lymphoma (AIDS-NHL), we determined EBV load longitudinally for individuals infected with human immunodeficiency virus type 1. EBV load in periphe

  18. Complex forms of mitochondrial DNA in human B cells transformed by Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Gunna; Christiansen, C; Zeuthen, J

    1983-01-01

    Human lymphocytes and lymphoid cell lines were analyzed for the presence of complex forms of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) by electron microscopy. A high frequency (9%-14.5%) of catenated dimers, circular dimers, or oligomers were found in samples from Epstein-Barr-virus-(EBV) transformed lymphoblast......Human lymphocytes and lymphoid cell lines were analyzed for the presence of complex forms of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) by electron microscopy. A high frequency (9%-14.5%) of catenated dimers, circular dimers, or oligomers were found in samples from Epstein-Barr-virus-(EBV) transformed...... lymphoblastoid cell lines. These complex forms of mtDNA were present in much lower frequencies in lymphocytes isolated from donor blood (1.3%-4.6%). Similar low frequencies were found with primary fibroblasts (1.1%) or freshly isolated monkey liver cells (2.1%). Samples from cultures of Burkitt lymphoma (BL......) cell lines of EBV-positive or -negative origin contained intermediate (5%-7%) frequencies of complex forms of mtDNA....

  19. Indole-3-carbinol induces cMYC and IAP-family downmodulation and promotes apoptosis of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-positive but not of EBV-negative Burkitt's lymphoma cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez-Chacon, Gema; de Los Rios, Cristobal; Zapata, Juan M

    2014-11-01

    Indole-3-carbinol (I3C) is a natural product found in broadly consumed plants of the Brassica genus, such as broccoli, cabbage, and cauliflower, which exhibits anti-tumor effects through poorly defined mechanisms. I3C can be orally administered and clinical trials have demonstrated that I3C and derivatives are safe in humans. In this study we show that I3C efficiently induces apoptosis in cell lines derived from EBV-positive Burkitt's lymphomas (virus latency I/II), while it does not have any cytotoxic activity against EBV-negative Burkitt's lymphomas and immortalized EBV-infected lymphoblastoid cell lines (virus latency III). The effect of I3C in EBV-positive Burkitt's lymphoma is very specific, since only I3C and its C6-methylated derivative, but not other 3-substituted indoles, have an effect on cell viability. I3C treatment caused apoptosis characterized by loss of mitochondria membrane potential and caspase activation. I3C alters the expression of proteins involved in the control of apoptosis and transcription regulation in EBV-positive Burkitt's lymphoma cell lines. Among those, cMYC, cIAP1/2 and XIAP downmodulation at mRNA and protein level precede apoptosis induction, thus suggesting a role in I3C cytotoxicity. We also showed that I3C and, more particularly, its condensation dimer 3,3'-diindolylmethane (DIM) prolonged survival and reduced tumor burden of mice xenotransplanted with EBV-positive Burkitt's lymphoma Daudi cells. In summary these results, together with previous reports from clinical trials indicating the lack of toxicity in humans of I3C and derivatives, support the use of these compounds as a new therapeutic approach for treating patients with endemic (EBV-positive) Burkitt's lymphoma.

  20. The role of EBV in MS pathogenesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Tove

    2006-01-01

    Environmental factors operate on a background of genetic susceptibility in the pathogenesis of MS. Human herpesviruses, notably Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), and human endogenous retroviruses are factors associated with MS. EBV association is found in epidemiological surveys where late EBV infection ....... EBV cannot stand alone as a causal factor of MS, but is likely to play an indirect role as an activator of the underlying disease process.......Environmental factors operate on a background of genetic susceptibility in the pathogenesis of MS. Human herpesviruses, notably Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), and human endogenous retroviruses are factors associated with MS. EBV association is found in epidemiological surveys where late EBV infection...

  1. Quercetin-induced apoptosis prevents EBV infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Minjung; Son, Myoungki; Ryu, Eunhyun; Shin, Yu Su; Kim, Jong Gwang; Kang, Byung Woog; Sung, Gi-Ho; Cho, Hyosun; Kang, Hyojeung

    2015-01-01

    Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is a human gamma-1 herpesvirus that establishes a lifelong latency in over 90% of the world's population. During latency, virus exists predominantly as a chromatin-associated, multicopy episome in the nuclei of a variety of tumor cells derived from B cells, T cells, natural killer (NK) cells, and epithelial cells. Licorice is the root of Glycyrrhiza uralensis or G. glabra that has traditionally cultivated in eastern part of Asia. Licorice was reported to have anti-viral, anti-inflammatory, anti-atopic, hepatoprotective, anti-neurodegenerative, anti-tumor, anti-diabetic effects and so forth. Quercetin and isoliquiritigenin are produced from licorice and highly similar in molecular structure. They have diverse bioactive effects such as antiviral activity, anti-asthmatic activity, anti-cancer activity, anti-inflammation activity, monoamine-oxidase inhibitor, and etc. To determine anti-EBV and anti-EBVaGC (Epstein-Barr virus associated gastric carcinoma) effects of licorice, we investigated antitumor and antiviral effects of quercetin and isoliquiritigenin against EBVaGC. Although both quercetin and isoliquiritigenin are cytotoxic to SNU719 cells, quercetin induced more apoptosis in SNU719 cells than isoliquiritigenin, more completely eliminated DNMT1 and DNMT3A expressions than isoliquiritigenin, and more strongly affects the cell cycle progression of SNU719 than isoliquiritigenin. Both quercetin and isoliquiritigenin induce signal transductions to stimulate apoptosis, and induce EBV gene transcription. Quercetin enhances frequency of F promoter use, whereas isoliquiritigenin enhances frequency of Q promoter use. Quercetin reduces EBV latency, whereas isoliquiritigenin increases the latency. Quercetin increases more the EBV progeny production, and inhibits more EBV infection than isoliquiritigenin. These results indicate that quercetin could be a promising candidate for antiviral and antitumor agents against EBV and human gastric carcinoma

  2. Quercetin-induced apoptosis prevents EBV infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Minjung; Son, Myoungki; Ryu, Eunhyun; Shin, Yu Su; Kim, Jong Gwang; Kang, Byung Woog; Cho, Hyosun; Kang, Hyojeung

    2015-05-20

    Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is a human gamma-1 herpesvirus that establishes a lifelong latency in over 90% of the world's population. During latency, virus exists predominantly as a chromatin-associated, multicopy episome in the nuclei of a variety of tumor cells derived from B cells, T cells, natural killer (NK) cells, and epithelial cells. Licorice is the root of Glycyrrhiza uralensis or G. glabra that has traditionally cultivated in eastern part of Asia. Licorice was reported to have anti-viral, anti-inflammatory, anti-atopic, hepatoprotective, anti-neurodegenerative, anti-tumor, anti-diabetic effects and so forth. Quercetin and isoliquiritigenin are produced from licorice and highly similar in molecular structure. They have diverse bioactive effects such as antiviral activity, anti-asthmatic activity, anti-cancer activity, anti-inflammation activity, monoamine-oxidase inhibitor, and etc. To determine anti-EBV and anti-EBVaGC (Epstein-Barr virus associated gastric carcinoma) effects of licorice, we investigated antitumor and antiviral effects of quercetin and isoliquiritigenin against EBVaGC. Although both quercetin and isoliquiritigenin are cytotoxic to SNU719 cells, quercetin induced more apoptosis in SNU719 cells than isoliquiritigenin, more completely eliminated DNMT1 and DNMT3A expressions than isoliquiritigenin, and more strongly affects the cell cycle progression of SNU719 than isoliquiritigenin. Both quercetin and isoliquiritigenin induce signal transductions to stimulate apoptosis, and induce EBV gene transcription. Quercetin enhances frequency of F promoter use, whereas isoliquiritigenin enhances frequency of Q promoter use. Quercetin reduces EBV latency, whereas isoliquiritigenin increases the latency. Quercetin increases more the EBV progeny production, and inhibits more EBV infection than isoliquiritigenin. These results indicate that quercetin could be a promising candidate for antiviral and antitumor agents against EBV and human gastric carcinoma.

  3. Analysis of the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) latent membrane protein 1 (LMP-1) gene and promoter in Hodgkin's disease isolates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandvej, K; Andresen, B S; Zhou, X G

    2000-01-01

    analysis of the EBV LMP-1 promoter and gene in isolates from Danish patients with Hodgkin's disease (n = 61) and infectious mononucleosis (n = 10). RESULTS: Viruses (previously designated group D) that contain two mutations in the activating transcription factor/cAMP response element (ATF/CRE) in the LMP-1...

  4. The role of EBV in MS pathogenesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Tove

    2006-01-01

    Environmental factors operate on a background of genetic susceptibility in the pathogenesis of MS. Human herpesviruses, notably Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), and human endogenous retroviruses are factors associated with MS. EBV association is found in epidemiological surveys where late EBV infection....... EBV cannot stand alone as a causal factor of MS, but is likely to play an indirect role as an activator of the underlying disease process....

  5. Sequence analysis of the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) latent membrane protein-1 gene and promoter region

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandvej, K; Gratama, J W; Munch, M

    1997-01-01

    Sequence variations in the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) encoded latent membrane protein-1 (LMP-1) gene have been described in a Chinese nasopharyngeal carcinoma-derived isolate (CAO), and in viral isolates from various EBV-associated tumors. It has been suggested that these genetic changes, which inc...

  6. Human-derived IgG level as an indicator for EBV-associated lymphoma model in Hu-PBL/SCID chimeras.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Yunlian; He, Rongfang; Zhang, Yang; Liu, Fang; Cheng, Ailan; Wu, Yimou; Gan, Runliang

    2011-05-09

    Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) has a close association with various types of human lymphomas. Animal models are essential to elucidate the pathogenesis of human EBV-associated lymphomas. The aim of the present study is to evaluate the association between human IgG concentration and EBV-associated lymphoma development in huPBL/SCID mice. Human peripheral blood lymphocytes (hu-PBL) from EBV-seropositive donors were inoculated intraperitoneally into SCID mouse. Immunohistochemical staining was used to examine differentiated antigens of tumor cells. EBV infection of the induced tumors was detected by in situ hybridization. IgG concentrations in the serums of 12 SCID mice were measured by unidirectional immunodiffusion assay. 21 out of 29 mice developed tumors in their body. Immunohistochemical staining showed that all induced tumors were LCA (leukocyte common antigen) positive, B-cell markers (CD20, CD79a) positive, and T-cell markers (both CD3 and CD45RO) negative. The tumors can be diagnosed as human B-cell lymphomas by these morphological and immunohistochemical features. In situ hybridization exhibited resultant tumor cells had EBV encoded small RNA-1 (EBER-1). Human-derived IgG could be found in the serum from SCID mice on the 15th day following hu-PBL transplantation, and IgG levels increased with the tumor development in 6 hu-PBL/SCID chimeras. Intraperitoneal transfer of hu-PBLs from EBV+ donors to SCID mice leads to high human IgG levels in mouse serum and B cell lymphomas. Our findings suggest that increasing levels of human-derived IgG in peripheral blood from hu-PBL/SCID mice could be used to monitor EBV-related human B-cell lymphoma development in experimental animals.

  7. EBV-induced human CD8+ NKT cells synergize CD4+NKT cells suppressing EBV-associated tumors upon induction of Th1 bias

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei Xiao; Xiaoling Zheng; Xinti Tan; Lang Chen; Tao Xiong; Jie Xiong; Youxin Jin; Jinquan Tan; Yuling He; Li Li; Rui Zhou; Ruijing Xiao; Yujuan Wang; Xiang Ji; Mengjun Wu; Lan Wang; Wei Huang

    2011-01-01

    @@ The authors inadvertently published histograms in the fourth panel to the right in both rows of Figure 4c that were actually the data of CD8+NKT cells from EBV-exposed CD8+ NKT cell-transferred, or EBV-exposed CD4 + and CD8 + NKT-transferred hu-thym-SCID chimeras.The corrected figure included here contains the histograms that correctly represent the data of T ceils from EBV-exposed CD4+ and CD8+NKT-transferred hu-thym-SCID chimeras.Since the fourth panels to the right in both rows of Figure 4c show the cellular proliferation using the CFSE labeling technique, the histogram substitutions do not alter the conclusions that were drawn from the original data.The authors would like to apologize for their mistake.

  8. Detection of EBV, HBV, HCV, HIV-1, HTLV-I and -II, and SMRV in human and other primate cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uphoff, Cord C; Denkmann, Sabine A; Steube, Klaus G; Drexler, Hans G

    2010-01-01

    The high prevalence of contaminated cell cultures suggests that viral contaminations might be distributed among cultures. We investigated more than 460 primate cell lines for Epstein-Barr (EBV), hepatitis B (HBV), hepatitis C (HCV), human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1), human T-cell leukemia/lymphoma virus I and II (HTLV-I/-II), and squirrel monkey retrovirus (SMRV) infections for risk assessment. None of the cell lines were infected with HCV, HIV-1, or HTLV-I/-II. However, one cell line displayed reverse transcriptase activity. Thirty-nine cell lines harbored EBV DNA sequences. Studies on the lytic phase of EBV revealed that five cell lines produce EBV particles and six further cell lines produced EBV upon stimulation. One cell line contained an integrated HBV genome fragment but showed no virus production. Six cell lines were SMRV-infected. Newly established cell lines should be tested for EBV infections to detect B-lymphoblastoid cell lines (B-LCL). B-LCLs established with EBV from cell line B95-8 should be tested for SMRV infections.

  9. Proof for EBV's Sustaining Role in Burkitt's Lymphomas

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    We have found that not all Epstein-Barr viral (EBV) plasmids are duplicated each cell cycle. This inefficiency is intrinsic to EBV's mechanism of DNA synthesis in latently infected cells and necessarily leads to a loss of EBV plasmids from proliferating cells. If EBV provides its host cells advantages that allow those cells that retain EBV to outgrow those that lose it, then such proliferating populations will be EBV-positive. EBV-associated human tumors are EBV-positive. Thus the presence of...

  10. EBV CHRONIC INFECTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eligio Pizzigallo

    2010-08-01

    excluded from these forms and mantain their nosographic (e.g. T or B cell or NK type lymphomas and pathogenetic collocation, even when they occur within chronic forms of EBV infection. In the pathogenesis, near to the programs of latency of the virus, the genetic and environmental factors, independent from the real natural history of EBV infection, play a crucial role. Finally, it was realized a review of cases - not much numerous in literature – of chronic EBV infection associated to chronic liver and neurological diseases, where the modern techniques of molecular biology should be useful to obtain a more exact etiologic definition, not always possibile to reach in the past. The wide variety of clinical forms associated to the EBV chronic infection makes difficult the finding of a univocal pathogenetic link. There is no doubt, however, that a careful examination of the different clinical forms described in this review should be useful to open new horizons to the study of the persistent viral infections and the still not well cleared pathologies that they can induce in the human host.

  11. Human NK cells activated by EBV+ lymphoblastoid cells overcome anti-apoptotic mechanisms of drug resistance in haematological cancer cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Martínez, Diego; Azaceta, Gemma; Muntasell, Aura; Aguiló, Nacho; Núñez, David; Gálvez, Eva M; Naval, Javier; Anel, Alberto; Palomera, Luis; Vilches, Carlos; Marzo, Isabel; Villalba, Martín; Pardo, Julián

    2015-01-01

    Natural killer (NK) cells recognize and eliminate transformed or infected cells that have downregulated MHC class-I and express specific activating ligands. Recent evidence indicates that allogeneic NK cells are useful to eliminate haematological cancer cells independently of MHC-I expression. However, it is unclear if transformed cells expressing mutations that confer anti-apoptotic properties and chemoresistance will be susceptible to NK cells. Allogeneic primary human NK cells were activated using different protocols and prospectively tested for their ability to eliminate diverse mutant haematological and apoptotic-resistant cancer cell lines as well as patient-derived B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia cells with chemotherapy multiresistance. Here, we show that human NK cells from healthy donors activated in vitro with Epstein Barr virus positive (EBV+)-lymphoblastoid cells display an enhanced cytotoxic and proliferative potential in comparison to other protocols of activation such a K562 cells plus interleukin (IL)2. This enhancement enables them to kill more efficiently a variety of haematological cancer cell lines, including a panel of transfectants that mimic natural mutations leading to oncogenic transformation and chemoresistance (e.g., overexpression of Bcl-2, Bcl-XL and Mcl-1 or downregulation of p53, Bak/Bax or caspase activity). The effect was also observed against blasts from B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia patients showing multi-resistance to chemotherapy. Our findings demonstrate that particular in vitro activated NK cells may overcome anti-apoptotic mechanisms and oncogenic alterations frequently occurring in transformed cells, pointing toward the use of EBV+-lymphoblastoid cells as a desirable strategy to activate NK cells in vitro for the purpose of treating haematological neoplasia with poor prognosis. PMID:25949911

  12. EBV CHRONIC INFECTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delia Racciatti

    2010-02-01

    factors, independent from the real natural history of EBV infection, play a crucial role.

    Finally, it was realized a review of cases - not much numerous in literature – of chronic EBV infection associated to chronic liver and neurological diseases, where the modern techniques of molecular biology should be useful to obtain a more exact etiologic definition, not always possibile to reach in the past.

    The wide variety of clinical forms associated to the EBV chronic infection makes difficult the finding of a univocal pathogenetic link. There is no doubt, however, that a careful examination of the different clinical forms described in this review should be useful to open new horizons to the study of the persistent viral infections and the still not well cleared pathologies that they can induce in the human host. 

  13. Prevalence of Polyoma BK Virus (BKPyV), Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV) and Human Papilloma Virus (HPV) in Oropharyngeal Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polz-Gruszka, Dorota; Morshed, Kamal; Jarzyński, Adrian; Polz-Dacewicz, Małgorzata

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the prevalence of BK virus, Human Papillomavirus and Epstein-Barr virus in oropharyngeal cancer, and to test our hypothesis that BKV/HPV/EBV co-infection plays a role in oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma. The correlation between viral infection, OSCC, anatomic location, pre-treatment staging, evidence of metastases to lymph nodes, and grading was also investigated. The examination samples were collected from 62 patients from paraffin tissue blocks. Males (90.3%) with, smoking (83.9%) and alcohol abuse (67.7%) problems prevailed in the studied group. G2 histological type was recognized in 80.6% cases. T4 (77.4%) and N2 (56.5%) traits occurred in the majority of patients. No cases of metastasis were observed (M0 100%). HPV - 24.2%, EBV - 27.4% and BKV 17.7% were detected in the studied samples. We observed co-infection EBV/BKV in 8% of cases, HPV/BKV in 4.8%, and HPV/EBV in 9% cases. Only in two cases co-infection of all three viruses was found.

  14. CDH1 gene promoter hypermethylation in gastric cancer - Relationship to Goseki grading, microsatellite instability status, and EBV invasion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zazula, M; Ferreira, AM; Czopek, JP; Kolodziejczyk, P; Sinczak-Kuta, A; Klimkowska, A; Wojcik, P; Okon, K; Bialas, M; Kulig, J; Stachura, J

    2006-01-01

    Hypermethylation of the CDH1 promoter region seems to be the most common epigenetic mechanism in this gene silencing in gastric cancer. In this study, CDH1 promoter hypermethylation was observed in 54.8% (46/84) of the analyzed sporadic gastric carcinomas. We introduce a new relation: clustering of

  15. Oxytocin promotes human ethnocentrism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Dreu, Carsten K W; Greer, Lindred L; Van Kleef, Gerben A; Shalvi, Shaul; Handgraaf, Michel J J

    2011-01-25

    Human ethnocentrism--the tendency to view one's group as centrally important and superior to other groups--creates intergroup bias that fuels prejudice, xenophobia, and intergroup violence. Grounded in the idea that ethnocentrism also facilitates within-group trust, cooperation, and coordination, we conjecture that ethnocentrism may be modulated by brain oxytocin, a peptide shown to promote cooperation among in-group members. In double-blind, placebo-controlled designs, males self-administered oxytocin or placebo and privately performed computer-guided tasks to gauge different manifestations of ethnocentric in-group favoritism as well as out-group derogation. Experiments 1 and 2 used the Implicit Association Test to assess in-group favoritism and out-group derogation. Experiment 3 used the infrahumanization task to assess the extent to which humans ascribe secondary, uniquely human emotions to their in-group and to an out-group. Experiments 4 and 5 confronted participants with the option to save the life of a larger collective by sacrificing one individual, nominated as in-group or as out-group. Results show that oxytocin creates intergroup bias because oxytocin motivates in-group favoritism and, to a lesser extent, out-group derogation. These findings call into question the view of oxytocin as an indiscriminate "love drug" or "cuddle chemical" and suggest that oxytocin has a role in the emergence of intergroup conflict and violence.

  16. Epstein-Barr Virus Infection of Mammary Epithelial Cells Promotes Malignant Transformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Hai; Luo, Man-Li; Desmedt, Christine; Nabavi, Sheida; Yadegarynia, Sina; Hong, Alex; Konstantinopoulos, Panagiotis A; Gabrielson, Edward; Hines-Boykin, Rebecca; Pihan, German; Yuan, Xin; Sotirious, Christos; Dittmer, Dirk P; Fingeroth, Joyce D; Wulf, Gerburg M

    2016-07-01

    Whether the human tumor virus, Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV), promotes breast cancer remains controversial and a potential mechanism has remained elusive. Here we show that EBV can infect primary mammary epithelial cells (MECs) that express the receptor CD21. EBV infection leads to the expansion of early MEC progenitor cells with a stem cell phenotype, activates MET signaling and enforces a differentiation block. When MECs were implanted as xenografts, EBV infection cooperated with activated Ras and accelerated the formation of breast cancer. Infection in EBV-related tumors was of a latency type II pattern, similar to nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). A human gene expression signature for MECs infected with EBV, termed EBVness, was associated with high grade, estrogen-receptor-negative status, p53 mutation and poor survival. In 11/33 EBVness-positive tumors, EBV-DNA was detected by fluorescent in situ hybridization for the viral LMP1 and BXLF2 genes. In an analysis of the TCGA breast cancer data EBVness correlated with the presence of the APOBEC mutational signature. We conclude that a contribution of EBV to breast cancer etiology is plausible, through a mechanism in which EBV infection predisposes mammary epithelial cells to malignant transformation, but is no longer required once malignant transformation has occurred.

  17. Epstein–Barr Virus Infection of Mammary Epithelial Cells Promotes Malignant Transformation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hai Hu

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Whether the human tumor virus, Epstein–Barr Virus (EBV, promotes breast cancer remains controversial and a potential mechanism has remained elusive. Here we show that EBV can infect primary mammary epithelial cells (MECs that express the receptor CD21. EBV infection leads to the expansion of early MEC progenitor cells with a stem cell phenotype, activates MET signaling and enforces a differentiation block. When MECs were implanted as xenografts, EBV infection cooperated with activated Ras and accelerated the formation of breast cancer. Infection in EBV-related tumors was of a latency type II pattern, similar to nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC. A human gene expression signature for MECs infected with EBV, termed EBVness, was associated with high grade, estrogen-receptor-negative status, p53 mutation and poor survival. In 11/33 EBVness-positive tumors, EBV-DNA was detected by fluorescent in situ hybridization for the viral LMP1 and BXLF2 genes. In an analysis of the TCGA breast cancer data EBVness correlated with the presence of the APOBEC mutational signature. We conclude that a contribution of EBV to breast cancer etiology is plausible, through a mechanism in which EBV infection predisposes mammary epithelial cells to malignant transformation, but is no longer required once malignant transformation has occurred.

  18. Combined Transfection with EBV-Specific Epitopes and HLA-A2 genes is More Effective than Separate Transfection in Promoting CTL Lysis against Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Weijun Ding; Choylen Fong

    2004-01-01

    To augment specific cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) lysis is a promising strategy for cancer therapy. In this study,we examined the boosting effect of CTLs upon autologous lymphoblastoid B cell lines (LCLs) transfected with diverse plasmids, to explore the possible CTL-based immunotherapy of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC).FCM analysis displayed rather high ratio (>30%) of successfully transfected LCLs by utilizing the DMRIE-C kit. CTL assays demonstrated that substantially higher ratio of CTL specific lysis was observed upon the LCLs transfected with both expression vectors encoding EBV-specific epitopes and their presentation molecule HLA-A2, in contrast with those transfected separately. By transfecting the vector encoding HLA-A2 alone, only the LCLs of HLA-A2+ donors elicited markedly higher CTL lysis. CTL assays also showed that there existed no marked differences upon transfection by either different vectors (pcDNA3, pNGVL3 or pNGVL3-hFlex), or different EBV-derived peptides (LMP2Pep1 or LMP2Pep2), or with or without the doubled DNA sequence encoding peptides. This study indicated a promising immunotherapy strategy on NPC through boosting and eliciting the EBV-specific CTL activation by transferring vectors encoding both EBV-specific epitopes and their presentation molecule HLA-A2 into autologous LCL, the presentation cells of MHC/peptide tetrameric complex.

  19. Combined Transfection with EBV-Specific Epitopes and HLA-A2 genes is More Effective than Separate Transfection in Promoting CTL Lysis against Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WeijunDing; ChoylenFong

    2004-01-01

    To augment specific cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) lysis is a promising strategy for cancer therapy. In this study,we examined the boosting effect of CTLs upon autologous lymphoblastoid B cell lines (LCLs) transfected with diverse plasmids, to explore the possible CTL-based immunotherapy of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC).FCM analysis displayed rather high ratio (>30%) of successfully transfected LCLs by utilizing the DMRIE-C kit. CTL assays demonstrated that substantially higher ratio of CTL specific lysis was observed upon the LCLs transfected with both expression vectors encoding EBV-specific epitopes and their presentation molecule HLA-A2, In contrast with those transfected separately. By transfecting the vector encoding HLA-A2 alone, only the LCLs of HLA-A2+ donors elicited markedly higher CTL lysis. CTL assays also showed that there existed no marked differences upon transfection by either different vectors (pcDNA3, pNGVL3 or pNGVL3-hFIex), or different EBV-derived peptides (LMP2Pep1 or LMP2Pep2), or with or without the doubled DNA sequence encoding peptides. This study indicated a promising immunotherapy strategy on NPC through boosting and eliciting the EBV-specific CTL activation by transferring vectors encoding both EBV-specific epitopes and their presentation molecule HLA-A2 into autologous LCL, the presentation cells of MHC/peptide tetrameric complex.

  20. EBV-miR-BHRF1-2 targets PRDM1/Blimp1: potential role in EBV lymphomagenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, J; Nie, K; Redmond, D; Liu, Y; Elemento, O; Knowles, D M; Tam, W

    2016-03-01

    PRDM1/Blimp1, a master regulator of B-cell terminal differentiation, has been identified as a tumor suppressor gene in aggressive lymphomas, including diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL). It has been shown in DLBCL and Hodgkin lymphoma that PRDM1 is downregulated by cellular microRNAs. In this study, we identify the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) microRNA (miRNA), EBV-miR-BHRF1-2, as a viral miRNA regulator of PRDM1. EBV-miR-BHRF1-2 repressed luciferase reporter activity by specific interaction with the seed region within the PRDM1 3' untranslated region. EBV-miR-BHRF1-2 inhibition upregulated PRDM1 protein expression in lymphoblastoid cell lines (LCL), supporting a role of miR-BHRF1-2 in PRDM1 downregulation in vivo. Discordance of PRDM1 messenger RNA and protein expressions is associated with high EBV-miR-BHRF1-2 levels in LCLs and primary post-transplant EBV-positive DLBCL. Enforced expression of PRDM1-induced apoptosis and cell cycle arrest in LCL cells. Inhibition of EBV-miR-BHRF1-2 negatively regulates cell cycle and decreases expression of SCARNA20, a small nucleolar RNA that is also downregulated by PRDM1 overexpression. The interaction between EBV-miR-BHRF1-2 and PRDM1 may be one of the mechanisms by which EBV-miR-BHRF1-2 promotes EBV lymphomagenesis. Our results support the potential of EBV-miR-BHRF1-2 as a therapeutic target in EBV-associated lymphoma.

  1. [Role of tumor-derived secretary small RNAs in EBV related lymphoma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotani, Ai

    2014-01-01

    EB virus (EBV) is associated with heterogeneous lymphomas. In these lymphomas EBV+ lymphoma cells are embedded in non-neoplastic bystanders: B and T cells, macrophages. Without these bystander cells, the lymphoma cells are incapable of being engrafted in immunodeficient mice. In this context, the bystanders are tumor-supportive "inflammatory niche". Recently, EBV-infected cells produce exosomes that contain EBV specifically encoded miRNAs (EBV-miRNAs). Accordingly, we hypothesized that exosomal EBV-miRNAs might redirect tumor surrounding immune cells from tumor reactive into tumor-supportive "inflammatory niche". The EBV-miRNAs in the exosome secreted from EBV positive lymphoma cells significantly influenced on monocyte/macrophage Mo/Mf in inducing CD69, IL-10, and TNF, suggesting that EBV-miRNAs might polarize Mo/Mf into tumor associated Mf (TAM). EBV-miRNAs were required to develop lymphoproliferative disease (LPD) in vivo mouse model. Moreover, when Mfs were depleted by clodronate liposome, EBV positive tumor cells disappeared. These results suggest that lymphoma-derived secretary EBV-miRNAs regulate Mo/Mf to support the lymphoma survival or development. Most importantly, exosomal EBV-miRNAs derived from the lymphoma cells were transferred to Mf in human EBV+ lymphoma samples, which showed correlation with prognosis.

  2. Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV)-associated gastric carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iizasa, Hisashi; Nanbo, Asuka; Nishikawa, Jun; Jinushi, Masahisa; Yoshiyama, Hironori

    2012-12-01

    The ubiquitous Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is associated with several human tumors, which include lymphoid and epithelial malignancies. It is known that EBV persistently infects the memory B cell pool of healthy individuals by activating growth and survival signaling pathways that can contribute to B cell lymphomagenesis. Although the monoclonal proliferation of EBV-infected cells can be observed in epithelial tumors, such as nasopharyngeal carcinoma and EBV-associated gastric carcinoma, the precise role of EBV in the carcinogenic progress is not fully understood. This review features characteristics and current understanding of EBV-associated gastric carcinoma. EBV-associated gastric carcinoma comprises almost 10% of all gastric carcinoma cases and expresses restricted EBV latent genes (Latency I). Firstly, definition, epidemiology, and clinical features are discussed. Then, the route of infection and carcinogenic role of viral genes are presented. Of particular interest, the association with frequent genomic CpG methylation and role of miRNA for carcinogenesis are topically discussed. Finally, the possibility of therapies targeting EBV-associated gastric carcinoma is proposed.

  3. EBV latency types adopt alternative chromatin conformations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Italo Tempera

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV can establish latent infections with distinct gene expression patterns referred to as latency types. These different latency types are epigenetically stable and correspond to different promoter utilization. Here we explore the three-dimensional conformations of the EBV genome in different latency types. We employed Chromosome Conformation Capture (3C assay to investigate chromatin loop formation between the OriP enhancer and the promoters that determine type I (Qp or type III (Cp gene expression. We show that OriP is in close physical proximity to Qp in type I latency, and to Cp in type III latency. The cellular chromatin insulator and boundary factor CTCF was implicated in EBV chromatin loop formation. Combining 3C and ChIP assays we found that CTCF is physically associated with OriP-Qp loop formation in type I and OriP-Cp loop formation in type III latency. Mutations in the CTCF binding site located at Qp disrupt loop formation between Qp and OriP, and lead to the activation of Cp transcription. Mutation of the CTCF binding site at Cp, as well as siRNA depletion of CTCF eliminates both OriP-associated loops, indicating that CTCF plays an integral role in loop formation. These data indicate that epigenetically stable EBV latency types adopt distinct chromatin architectures that depend on CTCF and mediate alternative promoter targeting by the OriP enhancer.

  4. [Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) and Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV, HHV-8)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katano, Harutaka

    2010-12-01

    Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) and Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV or human herpesvirus 8, HHV-8) are members of gamma-herpes virus family. Both viruses infect to B cells and cause malignancies such as lymphoma. Since EBV and HHV-8 are so-called 'oncovirus', their oncogenecities have been focused in the researches on EBV and KSHV for a long time. EBV was discovered in 1964, whereas KSHV was identified in 1994. However, KSHV was analyzed rapidly in these fifteen years. One of the recent progresses in the research on EBV and KSHV is that virus-encoded small RNAs were identified in their genomes and characterized. EBV is the first human virus in whose genome microRNA was identified. The oncogenecity of EBV and KSHV remains unclear. Here, I discuss the pathogenesis by EBV and KSHV with special reference to recent progress in this field.

  5. A workflow for in silico design of hIL-10 and ebvIL-10 inhibitors using well-known miniprotein scaffolds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dueñas, Salvador; Aguila, Sergio A; Pimienta, Genaro

    2017-04-01

    The over-expression of immune-suppressors such as IL-10 is a crucial landmark in both tumor progression, and latent viral and parasite infection. IL-10 is a multifunctional protein. Besides its immune-cell suppressive function, it also promotes B-cell tumorigenesis of lymphomas and melanoma. Human pathogens like unicellular parasites and viruses that remain latent inside B cells promote the over-expression of hIL-10 upon infection, which inhibits cell-mediated immune surveillance, and at the same time mediates B cell proliferation. The B-cell specific oncogenic latent virus Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) encodes a viral homologue of hIL-10 (ebvIL-10), expressed during lytic viral proliferation. Once expressed, ebvIL-10 inhibits cell-mediated immune surveillance, assuring EBV re-infection. During long-term latency, EBV-infected B cells over-express hIL-10 to assure B-cell proliferation, occasionally inducing EBV-mediated lymphomas. The amino acid sequences of hIL-10 and ebvIL-10 are more than 80% identical and thus have a very similar tridimensional structure. Based on their published crystallographic structures bound to their human receptor IL10R1, we report a structure-based design of hIL-10 and ebvIL-10 inhibitors based on 3 loops from IL10R1 that establish specific hydrogen bonds with the two IL10s. We have grafted these loops onto a permissible loop in three well-known miniprotein scaffolds-the Conus snail toxin MVIIA, the plant-derived trypsin inhibitor EETI, and the human appetite modulator AgRP. Our computational workflow described in detail below was invigorated by the negative and positive controls implemented, and therefore paves the way for future in vitro and in vivo validation assays of the IL-10 inhibitors engineered.

  6. KSHV LANA and EBV LMP1 induce the expression of UCH-L1 following viral transformation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bentz, Gretchen L.; Bheda-Malge, Anjali; Wang, Ling [Lineberger Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill (United States); Shackelford, Julia [Lineberger Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill (United States); Department of Cell and Developmental Biology, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill (United States); Damania, Blossom [Lineberger Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill (United States); Departments of Medicine and of Microbiology and Immunology, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC (United States); Pagano, Joseph S., E-mail: joseph_pagano@med.unc.edu [Lineberger Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill (United States); Departments of Medicine and of Microbiology and Immunology, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC (United States)

    2014-01-05

    Ubiquitin C-terminal Hydrolase L1 (UCH-L1) has oncogenic properties and is highly expressed during malignancies. We recently documented that Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection induces uch-l1 expression. Here we show that Kaposi's Sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) infection induced UCH-L1 expression, via cooperation of KSHV Latency-Associated Nuclear Antigen (LANA) and RBP-Jκ and activation of the uch-l1 promoter. UCH-L1 expression was also increased in Primary Effusion Lymphoma (PEL) cells co-infected with KSHV and EBV compared with PEL cells infected only with KSHV, suggesting EBV augments the effect of LANA on uch-l1. EBV latent membrane protein 1 (LMP1) is one of the few EBV products expressed in PEL cells. Results showed that LMP1 was sufficient to induce uch-l1 expression, and co-expression of LMP1 and LANA had an additive effect on uch-l1 expression. These results indicate that viral latency products of both human γ-herpesviruses contribute to uch-l1 expression, which may contribute to the progression of lymphoid malignancies. - Highlights: • Infection of endothelial cells with KSHV induced UCH-L1 expression. • KSHV LANA is sufficient for the induction of uch-l1. • Co-infection with KSHV and EBV (observed in some PELs) results in the additive induction of uch-l1. • EBV LMP1 also induced UCH-L1 expression. • LANA- and LMP1-mediated activation of the uch-l1 promoter is in part through RBP-Jκ.

  7. Exosomes released in vitro from Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-infected cells contain EBV-encoded latent phase mRNAs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canitano, Andrea; Venturi, Giulietta; Borghi, Martina; Ammendolia, Maria Grazia; Fais, Stefano

    2013-09-01

    EBV is a human herpesvirus associated with a number of malignancies. Both lymphoblastoid cell lines (LCLs), and EBV-infected nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) cells have been demonstrated to release exosomes containing the EBV-encoded latent membrane protein 1 (LMP1), and mature micro-RNAs (EBV-miRNAs). Here we analyze the EBV protein and nucleic acid content of exosomes from different EBV-infected cells (LCL, 721 and Daudi) and we show for the first time that exosomes released from LCLs and 721 also contain EBV-encoded latent phase mRNAs. This confirms and strengthens exosomes pathogenetic potential, and might provide insights for development of novel diagnostic and therapeutic strategies.

  8. Epstein-Barr Virus nuclear antigen 1 (EBNA1) confers resistance to apoptosis in EBV-positive B-lymphoma cells through up-regulation of survivin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Jie; Murakami, Masanao; Verma, Subhash C; Cai, Qiliang; Haldar, Sabyasachi; Kaul, Rajeev; Wasik, Mariusz A; Middeldorp, Jaap; Robertson, Erle S

    2011-02-05

    Resistance to apoptosis is an important component of the overall mechanism which drives the tumorigenic process. EBV is a ubiquitous human gamma-herpesvirus which preferentially establishes latent infection in viral infected B-lymphocytes. EBNA1 is typically expressed in most forms of EBV-positive malignancies and is important for replication of the latent episome in concert with replication of the host cells. Here, we investigate the effects of EBNA1 on survivin up-regulation in EBV-infected human B-lymphoma cells. We present evidence which demonstrates that EBNA1 forms a complex with Sp1 or Sp1-like proteins bound to their cis-element at the survivin promoter. This enhances the activity of the complex and up-regulates survivin. Knockdown of survivin and EBNA1 showed enhanced apoptosis in infected cells and thus supports a role for EBNA1 in suppressing apoptosis in EBV-infected cells. Here, we suggest that EBV encoded EBNA1 can contribute to the oncogenic process by up-regulating the apoptosis suppressor protein, survivin in EBV-associated B-lymphoma cells.

  9. Epigenetic Impact on EBV Associated B-Cell Lymphomagenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shatadru Ghosh Roy

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Epigenetic modifications leading to either transcriptional repression or activation, play an indispensable role in the development of human cancers. Epidemiological study revealed that approximately 20% of all human cancers are associated with tumor viruses. Epstein-Barr virus (EBV, the first human tumor virus, demonstrates frequent epigenetic alterations on both viral and host genomes in associated cancers—both of epithelial and lymphoid origin. The cell type-dependent different EBV latent gene expression patterns appear to be determined by the cellular epigenetic machinery and similarly viral oncoproteins recruit epigenetic regulators in order to deregulate the cellular gene expression profile resulting in several human cancers. This review elucidates the epigenetic consequences of EBV–host interactions during development of multiple EBV-induced B-cell lymphomas, which may lead to the discovery of novel therapeutic interventions against EBV-associated B-cell lymphomas by alteration of reversible patho-epigenetic markings.

  10. Assembly and architecture of the EBV B cell entry triggering complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sathiyamoorthy, Karthik; Jiang, Jiansen; Hu, Yao Xiong; Rowe, Cynthia L; Möhl, Britta S; Chen, Jia; Jiang, Wei; Mellins, Elizabeth D; Longnecker, Richard; Zhou, Z Hong; Jardetzky, Theodore S

    2014-08-01

    Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV) is an enveloped double-stranded DNA virus of the gammaherpesvirinae sub-family that predominantly infects humans through epithelial cells and B cells. Three EBV glycoproteins, gH, gL and gp42, form a complex that targets EBV infection of B cells. Human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class II molecules expressed on B cells serve as the receptor for gp42, triggering membrane fusion and virus entry. The mechanistic role of gHgL in herpesvirus entry has been largely unresolved, but it is thought to regulate the activation of the virally-encoded gB protein, which acts as the primary fusogen. Here we study the assembly and function of the reconstituted B cell entry complex comprised of gHgL, gp42 and HLA class II. The structure from negative-stain electron microscopy provides a detailed snapshot of an intermediate state in EBV entry and highlights the potential for the triggering complex to bring the two membrane bilayers into proximity. Furthermore, gHgL interacts with a previously identified, functionally important hydrophobic pocket on gp42, defining the overall architecture of the complex and playing a critical role in membrane fusion activation. We propose a macroscopic model of the initiating events in EBV B cell fusion centered on the formation of the triggering complex in the context of both viral and host membranes. This model suggests how the triggering complex may bridge the two membrane bilayers, orienting critical regions of the N- and C- terminal ends of gHgL to promote the activation of gB and efficient membrane fusion.

  11. Assembly and architecture of the EBV B cell entry triggering complex.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karthik Sathiyamoorthy

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV is an enveloped double-stranded DNA virus of the gammaherpesvirinae sub-family that predominantly infects humans through epithelial cells and B cells. Three EBV glycoproteins, gH, gL and gp42, form a complex that targets EBV infection of B cells. Human leukocyte antigen (HLA class II molecules expressed on B cells serve as the receptor for gp42, triggering membrane fusion and virus entry. The mechanistic role of gHgL in herpesvirus entry has been largely unresolved, but it is thought to regulate the activation of the virally-encoded gB protein, which acts as the primary fusogen. Here we study the assembly and function of the reconstituted B cell entry complex comprised of gHgL, gp42 and HLA class II. The structure from negative-stain electron microscopy provides a detailed snapshot of an intermediate state in EBV entry and highlights the potential for the triggering complex to bring the two membrane bilayers into proximity. Furthermore, gHgL interacts with a previously identified, functionally important hydrophobic pocket on gp42, defining the overall architecture of the complex and playing a critical role in membrane fusion activation. We propose a macroscopic model of the initiating events in EBV B cell fusion centered on the formation of the triggering complex in the context of both viral and host membranes. This model suggests how the triggering complex may bridge the two membrane bilayers, orienting critical regions of the N- and C- terminal ends of gHgL to promote the activation of gB and efficient membrane fusion.

  12. 5-hydroxymethylation of the EBV genome regulates the latent to lytic switch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wille, Coral K; Nawandar, Dhananjay M; Henning, Amanda N; Ma, Shidong; Oetting, Kayla M; Lee, Dennis; Lambert, Paul; Johannsen, Eric C; Kenney, Shannon C

    2015-12-29

    Latent Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection and cellular hypermethylation are hallmarks of undifferentiated nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). However, EBV infection of normal oral epithelial cells is confined to differentiated cells and is lytic. Here we demonstrate that the EBV genome can become 5-hydroxymethylated and that this DNA modification affects EBV lytic reactivation. We show that global 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5hmC)-modified DNA accumulates during normal epithelial-cell differentiation, whereas EBV+ NPCs have little if any 5hmC-modified DNA. Furthermore, we find that increasing cellular ten-eleven translocation (TET) activity [which converts methylated cytosine (5mC) to 5hmC] decreases methylation, and increases 5hmC modification, of lytic EBV promoters in EBV-infected cell lines containing highly methylated viral genomes. Conversely, inhibition of endogenous TET activity increases lytic EBV promoter methylation in an EBV-infected telomerase-immortalized normal oral keratinocyte (NOKs) cell line where lytic viral promoters are largely unmethylated. We demonstrate that these cytosine modifications differentially affect the ability of the two EBV immediate-early proteins, BZLF1 (Z) and BRLF1 (R), to induce the lytic form of viral infection. Although methylation of lytic EBV promoters increases Z-mediated and inhibits R-mediated lytic reactivation, 5hmC modification of lytic EBV promoters has the opposite effect. We also identify a specific CpG-containing Z-binding site on the BRLF1 promoter that must be methylated for Z-mediated viral reactivation and show that TET-mediated 5hmC modification of this site in NOKs prevents Z-mediated viral reactivation. Decreased 5-hydroxymethylation of cellular and viral genes may contribute to NPC formation.

  13. ASSOCIATION OF EPSTEIN-BARR VIRUS (EBV) BUT NOT HUMAN PAPILLOMAVIRUS (HPV) WITH GINGIVITIS AND/OR PERIODONTITIS IN TRANSPLANTED INDIVIDUALS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baez, Camila Freze; Savassi-Ribas, Flavia; Rocha, Wilker Menezes da; Almeida, Stéphanie G S; Gonçalves, Marianna T V; Guimarães, Maria Angelica A M; Cavalcanti, Silvia Maria B; Varella, Rafael B

    2016-07-11

    The aim of this study was to investigate the association of EBV and HPV with gingivitis and/or periodontitis according to the immunologic status. To this end, 74 oral biopsies from transplanted and non-transplanted individuals with the abovementioned oral manifestations were submitted to a screening by PCR for both viruses. According to the results, EBV was strongly associated with gingivitis and/or periodontitis in transplanted individuals (p = 0.011) but not HPV (p = 0.766). EBV-HPV co-detections did not enhance the presence of tissue injury as well. Although a causal relationship was not investigated in this study, the higher frequency of these two oncoviruses in lesion tissues must be investigated in follow-up studies, especially among immunocompromised individuals.

  14. ASSOCIATION OF EPSTEIN-BARR VIRUS (EBV) BUT NOT HUMAN PAPILLOMAVIRUS (HPV) WITH GINGIVITIS AND/OR PERIODONTITIS IN TRANSPLANTED INDIVIDUALS

    Science.gov (United States)

    BAEZ, Camila Freze; SAVASSI-RIBAS, Flavia; da ROCHA, Wilker Menezes; ALMEIDA, Stéphanie G. S.; GONÇALVES, Marianna T. V.; GUIMARÃES, Maria Angelica A. M.; CAVALCANTI, Silvia Maria B.; VARELLA, Rafael B.

    2016-01-01

    SUMMARY The aim of this study was to investigate the association of EBV and HPV with gingivitis and/or periodontitis according to the immunologic status. To this end, 74 oral biopsies from transplanted and non-transplanted individuals with the abovementioned oral manifestations were submitted to a screening by PCR for both viruses. According to the results, EBV was strongly associated with gingivitis and/or periodontitis in transplanted individuals (p = 0.011) but not HPV (p = 0.766). EBV-HPV co-detections did not enhance the presence of tissue injury as well. Although a causal relationship was not investigated in this study, the higher frequency of these two oncoviruses in lesion tissues must be investigated in follow-up studies, especially among immunocompromised individuals. PMID:27410918

  15. EBV-Associated Cancer and Autoimmunity: Searching for Therapies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Capone

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Epstein-Barr virus (EBV infects B-, T-, and NK cells and has been associated not only with a wide range of lymphoid malignancies but also with autoimmune diseases such as lupus erythematosus, rheumatoid arthritis and, in particular, multiple sclerosis. Hence, effective immunotherapeutic approaches to eradicate EBV infection might overthrow cancer and autoimmunity incidence. However, currently no effective anti-EBV immunotherapy is available. Here we use the concept that protein immunogenicity is allocated in rare peptide sequences and search the Epstein-Barr nuclear antigen 1 (EBNA1 sequence for peptides unique to the viral protein and absent in the human host. We report on a set of unique EBV EBNA1 peptides that might be used in designing peptide-based therapies able to specifically hitting the virus or neutralizing pathogenic autoantibodies.

  16. EBV-1 and HCMV in aggressive periodontitis in Brazilian patients EBV-1 e HCMV na periodontite agressiva em pacientes brasileiros

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soraia Almeida Watanabe

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present investigation was to compare the presence of Epstein-Barr virus type 1 (EBV-1 and of Human Cytomegalovirus (HCMV in crevicular fluid samples from deep and shallow periodontal pocket sites of Brazilian patients with aggressive periodontitis. A total of 30 systemically healthy patients with aggressive periodontitis participated in the study. Paper points were inserted into 2 gingivitis sites ( 5 mm in each patient. PCR assay was used to identify genomic copies of HCMV and EBV-1. Twenty-three patients (77% were positive for EBV-1, while only 2 patients (6% were positive for HCMV. The McNemar test revealed a positive association between EBV-1 and periodontal lesions (p = 0.043. Thirty-four (57% out of 60 periodontitis sites were positive for EBV-1, whereas 18 (30% gingivitis sites were positive (p = 0.01. Only two sites (6.7% were positive for HCMV. No positive association was found between HCMV and periodontitis or gingivitis (p = 0.479. The elevated occurrence of EBV-1 DNA in periodontal pockets of patients with aggressive periodontitis supports a possible periodontopathic role of this virus.O objetivo do presente estudo foi comparar a presença do vírus Epstein-Barr tipo 1 (EBV-1 e do Citomegalovírus Humano (HCMV em amostras de fluido crevicular de bolsas periodontais rasas e profundas de pacientes brasileiros com periodontite agressiva. Trinta pacientes sistemicamente saudáveis com periodontite agressiva participaram deste estudo. Cones de papel foram inseridos em 2 sítios de gengivite ( 5 mm de cada paciente. Reações de PCR foram usadas para identificar cópias de DNA genômico de HCMV e EBV-1. Em 23 pacientes (77%, os testes foram positivos para EBV-1, enquanto apenas 2 pacientes (6% foram positivos para HCMV. O teste de McNemar apontou associação positiva entre EBV-1 e lesões periodontais (p = 0,043. Trinta e quatro (57% dos 60 sítios de periodontites foram positivos para o EBV-1, enquanto 18 (30% dos s

  17. HSV-tk/GCV gene therapy mediated by EBV-LMP1 for EBV-associated cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Midan Ai

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To investigate the feasibility of gene therapy in treating Epstein-Barr virus (EBV-associated cancer by employing the suicide gene, herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase/ganciclovir (HSV-tk/GCV, which uses the signaling pathway through the HIV-long terminal repeat (LTR gene which is expressed from a nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB-binding motif-containing promoter that is regulated by EBV-latent membrane protein 1 (LMP1 via NF-κB. Methods First, we constructed the plasmid pVLTR-tk, which was regulated by EBV-LMP1 via NF-κB, and then investigated the cytotoxic effect of the pVLTR-tk/GCV on cancer cells, using MTT assays, clonogenic assays, flow cytometry, and animal experiments. Results The activation of TK was increased after transfection of the pVLTR-tk into the EBV-LMP1 positive cells. After GCV treatment, the clonogenicity and survival of the cells substantially declined, and a bystander effect was also observed. The LMP1 positive cells exhibited remarkable apoptosis following pVLTR-tk/GCV treatment, and the pVLTR-tk/GCV restrained tumor growth in vivo for EBV-LMP1 positive cancers. Conclusion The pVLTR-tk/GCV suicide gene system may be used as a new gene targeting strategy for EBV-associated cancer.

  18. HLA-DQ β1 alleles associated with Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infectivity and EBV gp42 binding to cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bu, Wei; Gabriel, Erin; Aguilar, Fiona; Hoshino, Yo; Miyadera, Hiroko; Hess, Christoph; Hornung, Ronald L.

    2017-01-01

    Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infects B cells and ~95% of adults are infected. EBV glycoprotein gp42 is essential for entry of virus into B cells. EBV gp42 binds to the β1 chain of HLA-DQ, -DR, and -DP on B cells, and uses these molecules for infection. To investigate if certain HLA-DQ alleles are associated with EBV seronegativity, we recruited ~3,300 healthy adult blood donors, identified 106 EBV-seronegative individuals, and randomly selected a control group of EBV-seropositive donors from the donor pool. A larger than expected proportion of EBV-seronegative subjects were HLA-DQ β1 *04/*05 and *06/*06, and to a lesser extent, *02/*03, compared with the control group, while a larger than expected portion of EBV-seropositive persons were HLA-DQ β1 *02/*02. We examined the ability of EBV gp42 to bind to different HLA-DQ molecules using human and mouse cells stably expressing these alleles. EBV gp42 bound less effectively to cells expressing HLA-DQ β1 *04/*05, *06/*06, or *03/*03 than to cells expressing HLA-DQ β1 *02/*02. These data are consistent with our observations of increased EBV seronegativity with DQ β1 *04/*05 or *06/*06 alleles. These findings emphasize the importance of a single genetic locus (HLA-DQ β1) to influence infectivity with EBV. PMID:28239644

  19. EBV reactivation as a target of luteolin to repress NPC tumorigenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chung-Chun; Fang, Chih-Yeu; Hsu, Hui-Yu; Chuang, Hsin-Ying; Cheng, Yu-Jhen; Chen, Yen-Ju; Chou, Sheng-Ping; Huang, Sheng-Yen; Lin, Su-Fang; Chang, Yao; Tsai, Ching-Hwa; Chen, Jen-Yang

    2016-04-05

    Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is a malignancy derived from the epithelial cells of the nasopharynx. Although a combination of radiotherapy with chemotherapy is effective for therapy, relapse and metastasis after remission remain major causes of mortality. Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is believed to be one of causes of NPC development. We demonstrated previously that EBV reactivation is important for the carcinogenesis of NPC. We sought, therefore, to determine whether EBV reactivation can be a target for retardation of relapse of NPC. After screening, we found luteolin is able to inhibit EBV reactivation. It inhibited EBV lytic protein expression and repressed the promoter activities of two major immediate-early genes, Zta and Rta. Furthermore, luteolin was shown to reduce genomic instability induced by recurrent EBV reactivation in NPC cells. EBV reactivation-induced NPC cell proliferation and migration, as well as matrigel invasiveness, were also repressed by luteolin treatment. Tumorigenicity in mice, induced by EBV reactivation, was decreased profoundly following luteolin administration. Together, these results suggest that inhibition of EBV reactivation is a novel approach to prevent the relapse of NPC.

  20. EB病毒相关淋巴增生性疾病的分类和治疗%Classification and treatment of EBV-associated lymphoproliferative disorders

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王学文

    2009-01-01

    Since its discovery as the first human tumor associated virus, Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) has been implicated in the development of a wide range of B-cell lymphoproliferative disorders, including Burkitt' slymphoma, classic Hodgkin' s lymphoma and lymphomas arising in immunocompromised individuals (posttransplant and HIV-associated lymphoproliferative disorders). T-cell lymphoproliferative disorders that have been reported to be EBV associated include a subset of peripheral T-cell lymphomas, angioimmunoblastic T-cell lymphoma, extranodal nasal type natural killer/T-cell lymphoma, and other rare histotypes. EBV encodes a series of products interacting with or exhibiting homology to wide variety of antiapoptotic molecules,cytokines, and signal transducers, hence promoting EBV infection, immortalization and transformation.However, the exact mechanism by which EBV promotes oncogenesis is still an area of active debate. This review is focused on the pathology, diagnosis, classification, and pathogenesis of EBV-associated lymphomas.Recent advances in EBV cell-based immunotherapy, which is beginning to show promise in the treatment of EBV-related disorders, are discussed.%自从EB病毒(EBV)作为第一种人类肿瘤病毒被发现以来,EBV已涉及广泛的B细胞淋巴增生性疾病(LPD)的发生,包括伯基特(Burkitt)淋巴瘤、经典的霍奇金淋巴瘤(cHL)及免疫减损个体发生的淋巴瘤(移植后和HIV相关的LPD).EBV相关的T细胞LPD已有报道,包括外周T细胞淋巴瘤、血管性免疫母细胞性T细胞淋巴瘤及其他罕见的组织学类型.EBV编码一系列与之相互作用或同源的产物,它包括多种抗凋亡分子、细胞因子和信号转导蛋白,从而促进EBV感染、无限增生化(永生)和转化.EBV促发肿瘤的确切机制正在被活跃地思考和讨论中.文章重点综述EBV相关淋巴瘤的病理学、诊断、分类、发病学以及以EBV的细胞为基础的免疫治疗用于EBV相关疾病,后者在临床应用中已展示希望.

  1. Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) load determination using real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Hongxin; Robetorye, Ryan S

    2013-01-01

    Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infects virtually the entire human population and infection persists throughout the lifetime of its host. EBV has been associated with the development of a wide variety of neoplasms, including lymphoma, carcinoma, and sarcoma. In addition, EBV-associated lymphoproliferative disorders are particularly prevalent in immunosuppressed individuals, including AIDS patients, transplant recipients, and patients with congenital immunodeficiencies. In recent years, EBV viral load assessment has been extensively implemented in clinical practice for the diagnosis and monitoring of EBV-associated malignancies and lymphoproliferative disorders. The real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RQ-PCR) has become the method of choice for quantification of specific EBV nucleic acid sequences. This method is fast, extremely sensitive, and accurate, requires only very small amounts of input nucleic acid, and is relatively simple to perform. These characteristics have made it the method of choice for EBV viral load determination. This chapter describes the use of a laboratory-developed RQ-PCR EBV viral load assay for the detection of EBV DNA in cell-free plasma and cerebrospinal fluid samples.

  2. The identification of upregulated ebv-mir-BHRF1-2-5p targeting MALT1 and ebv-miR-BHRF1-3 in the circulation of patients with multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yifei; He, Dandan; Liang, Hongwei; Yang, Dan; Yue, Hui; Zhang, Xuemei; Wang, Rui; Li, Bing; Yang, Hongxia; Liu, Yuan; Chen, Yao; Duan, Yuxiao; Zhang, ChenYu; Chen, Xi; Fu, Jin

    2017-03-02

    Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is a well-documented etiologic factor for multiple sclerosis (MS). EBV encodes at least 44 microRNAs (miRNAs) that are readily detectable in the circulation of human. Previous studies have demonstrated that EBV-encoded miRNAs regulate host immune response and may serve as biomarkers for EBV-associated diseases. However, the roles of EBV miRNAs in MS are still unkown. To fill the gap, we conducted a comprehensive profiling of 44 mature EBV miRNAs in 30 relapse-remitting MS (RRMS) patients at relapse and 30 matched healthy controls. Expression levels of ebv-miR-BHRF1-2-5p and ebv-miR-BHRF1-3 were significantly elevated in the circulation and positively correlated with expanded disability status scale (EDSS) scores of MS patients. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analyses confirmed that the expression of these two miRNAs clearly distinguished MS patients from healthy controls. Luciferase assays revealed that ebv-miR-BHRF1-2-5p may directly target MALT1 (mucosa associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma transport protein 1), a key regulator of immune homeostasis. In conclusion, we described the expression of EBV miRNAs in MS and preliminarily validated the potential target genes of significantly altered EBV miRNAs. The findings may pave the way for prospective study about the pathogenesis of MS. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  3. Differentiation-Dependent KLF4 Expression Promotes Lytic Epstein-Barr Virus Infection in Epithelial Cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dhananjay M Nawandar

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Epstein-Barr virus (EBV is a human herpesvirus associated with B-cell and epithelial cell malignancies. EBV lytically infects normal differentiated oral epithelial cells, where it causes a tongue lesion known as oral hairy leukoplakia (OHL in immunosuppressed patients. However, the cellular mechanism(s that enable EBV to establish exclusively lytic infection in normal differentiated oral epithelial cells are not currently understood. Here we show that a cellular transcription factor known to promote epithelial cell differentiation, KLF4, induces differentiation-dependent lytic EBV infection by binding to and activating the two EBV immediate-early gene (BZLF1 and BRLF1 promoters. We demonstrate that latently EBV-infected, telomerase-immortalized normal oral keratinocyte (NOKs cells undergo lytic viral reactivation confined to the more differentiated cell layers in organotypic raft culture. Furthermore, we show that endogenous KLF4 expression is required for efficient lytic viral reactivation in response to phorbol ester and sodium butyrate treatment in several different EBV-infected epithelial cell lines, and that the combination of KLF4 and another differentiation-dependent cellular transcription factor, BLIMP1, is highly synergistic for inducing lytic EBV infection. We confirm that both KLF4 and BLIMP1 are expressed in differentiated, but not undifferentiated, epithelial cells in normal tongue tissue, and show that KLF4 and BLIMP1 are both expressed in a patient-derived OHL lesion. In contrast, KLF4 protein is not detectably expressed in B cells, where EBV normally enters latent infection, although KLF4 over-expression is sufficient to induce lytic EBV reactivation in Burkitt lymphoma cells. Thus, KLF4, together with BLIMP1, plays a critical role in mediating lytic EBV reactivation in epithelial cells.

  4. A multiplex calibrated real-time PCR assay for quantitation of DNA of EBV-1 and 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatto, Francesca; Cassina, Giulia; Broccolo, Francesco; Morreale, Giuseppe; Lanino, Edoardo; Di Marco, Eddi; Vardas, Efthiya; Bernasconi, Daniela; Buttò, Stefano; Principi, Nicola; Esposito, Susanna; Scarlatti, Gabriella; Lusso, Paolo; Malnati, Mauro S

    2011-12-01

    Accurate and highly sensitive tests for the diagnosis of active Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection are essential for the clinical management of individuals infected with EBV. A calibrated quantitative real-time PCR assay for the measurement of EBV DNA of both EBV-1 and 2 subtypes was developed, combining the detection of the EBV DNA and a synthetic DNA calibrator in a multiplex PCR format. The assay displays a wide dynamic range and a high degree of accuracy even in the presence of 1μg of human genomic DNA. This assay measures with the same efficiency EBV DNA from strains prevalent in different geographic areas. The clinical sensitivity and specificity of the system were evaluated by testing 181 peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMCs) and plasma specimens obtained from 21 patients subjected to bone marrow transplantation, 70 HIV-seropositive subjects and 23 healthy controls. Patients affected by EBV-associated post-transplant lymphoprolipherative disorders had the highest frequency of EBV detection and the highest viral load. Persons infected with HIV had higher levels of EBV DNA load in PBMCs and a higher frequency of EBV plasma viremia compared to healthy controls. In conclusion, this new assay provides a reliable high-throughput method for the quantitation of EBV DNA in clinical samples.

  5. T cell re-targeting to EBV antigens following TCR gene transfer: CD28-containing receptors mediate enhanced antigen-specific IFNgamma production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    N. van der Schaft (Niels); B. Lankiewicz (Birgit); H.A. Drexhage (Hemmo); C.A. Berrevoets (Cor); D.J. Moss (Denis); V. Levitsky (Victor); M. Bonneville (Marc); S.P. Lee (Steven); A.J. McMichael (Andrew); J.W. Gratama (Jan-Willem); R.L.H. Bolhuis (Reinder); R.A. Willemsen (Ralph); J.E.M.A. Debets (Reno)

    2006-01-01

    textabstractAbstract EBV is associated with a broad range of malignancies. Adoptive immunotherapy of these tumors with EBV-specific CTL proved useful. We generated a panel of primary human T cells specific to various EBV antigens (i.e. Epstein-Barr nuclear antigen 3A, 3B and BamHI-M leftward reading

  6. CONSTRUCTION OF HU-PBL/SCID CHIMERAS AND DEVELOPMENT OF EBV-RELATED LYMPHOMAS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Run-liang Gan; Ke Lan; Zhi-hua Yin; Li-jiang Wang; Ying Song; Kai-tai Yao

    2005-01-01

    Objective To construct hu-PBL/SCID chimeras and to investigate the development of lymphoma and oncogenicity of the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV).Mtehods Human peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBLs) were isolated from healthy adult donors and transplanted intraperitoneally into severe combined immunodeficient (SCID) mice. Mice with hu-PBL engraftment from healthy EBV seronegative donors were injected intraperitoneally with EBV-containing supematant from suspension culture of B95-8 cell line (active infection), whereas mice receiving lymphocytes from healthy EBV seropositive donors were not re-infected with B95-8 derived EBV (latent infection). Pathological examination and molecular analysis were performed on experimental animals and induced neoplasms.Results In the early stage of this experiment, 12 mice died of acute graft-versus-host disease, mortality was 34.3%(12/35 mice) with an average life span of 17.5 days. In 19 survival hu-PBL/SCID chimeric recipients from 12 healthy donors,tumor incidence was 84.2% (16/19 mice). The average survival time of tumor-bearing mice was 65.5 days. EBV-related neoplasms in SCID mice were nodular tumors with aggressive and fatal features. Histological morphology of tumors exhibited diffuse large cell lymphomas. Immunohistochemistry revealed that LCA (CD45) and L26 (CD20) were positive, but both PS1 (CD3) and UCHL-1 (CD45RO) were negative, and EBV products ZEBRA, LMP1, and EBNA2 were expressed in a small number of tumor cells. EB virus particles were seen in the nuclei of some tumor cells by electron microscopy, and EBV DNA could be amplified in the tumor tissues by PCR. In situ hybridization indicated that the nuclei of tumor cells contained human-specific Alu sequence.Conclusions EBV-induced tumors were human B-cell malignant lymphomas. We obtained direct causative evidence dealing with EBV-associated tumor deriving from normal human cells.

  7. Restricted TET2 Expression in Germinal Center Type B Cells Promotes Stringent Epstein-Barr Virus Latency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wille, Coral K; Li, Yangguang; Rui, Lixin; Johannsen, Eric C; Kenney, Shannon C

    2017-03-01

    Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) latently infects normal B cells and contributes to the development of certain human lymphomas. Newly infected B cells support a highly transforming form (type III) of viral latency; however, long-term EBV infection in immunocompetent hosts is limited to B cells with a more restricted form of latency (type I) in which most viral gene expression is silenced by promoter DNA methylation. How EBV converts latency type is unclear, although it is known that type I latency is associated with a germinal center (GC) B cell phenotype, and type III latency with an activated B cell (ABC) phenotype. In this study, we have examined whether expression of TET2, a cellular enzyme that initiates DNA demethylation by converting 5-methylcytosine (5mC) into 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5hmC), regulates EBV latency type in B cells. We found that TET2 expression is inhibited in normal GC cells and GC type lymphomas. In contrast, TET2 is expressed in normal naive B cells and ABC type lymphomas. We also demonstrate that GC type cell lines have increased 5mC levels and reduced 5hmC levels in comparison to those of ABC type lines. Finally, we show that TET2 promotes the ability of the EBV transcription factor EBNA2 to convert EBV-infected cells from type I to type III latency. These findings demonstrate that TET2 expression is repressed in GC cells independent of EBV infection and suggest that TET2 promotes type III EBV latency in B cells with an ABC or naive phenotype by enhancing EBNA2 activation of methylated EBV promoters.IMPORTANCE EBV establishes several different types of viral latency in B cells. However, cellular factors that determine whether EBV enters the highly transforming type III latency, versus the more restricted type I latency, have not been well characterized. Here we show that TET2, a cellular enzyme that initiates DNA demethylation by converting 5-methylcytosine (5mC) into 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5hmC), regulates EBV latency type in B cells by

  8. EBV AND HIV-RELATED LYMPHOMA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele Bibas

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available HIV-associated lymphoproliferative disorders represent a heterogeneous group of diseases, arising in the presence of HIV-associated immunodeficiency. The overall prevalence of HIV-associated lymphoma is significantly higher compared to that of the general population and it continues to be relevant even after the wide availability of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART (1. Moreover, they still represent one of the most frequent cause of death in HIV-infected patients. Epstein–Barr virus (EBV, a γ-Herpesviruses, is involved in human lymphomagenesis, particularly in HIV immunocompromised patients. It has been largely implicated in the development of B-cell lymphoproliferative disorders as Burkitt lymphoma (BL, Hodgkin disease (HD, systemic non Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL, primary central nervous system lymphoma (PCNSL, nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NC. Virus-associated lymphomas are becoming of significant concern for the mortality of long-lived HIV immunocompromised patients, and therefore, research of advanced strategies for AIDS-related lymphomas is an important field in cancer chemotherapy. Detailed understanding of the EBV  lifecycle and related cancers at the molecular level is required for novel strategies of molecular-targeted cancer chemotherapy The linkage of HIV-related lymphoma with EBV infection of the tumor clone has several pathogenetic, prognostic and possibly therapeutic implications which are reviewed herein

  9. Reappraisal of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL): comparative analysis between EBV-positive and EBV-negative DLBCL with EBV-positive bystander cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohashi, Akiko; Kato, Seiichi; Okamoto, Akinao; Inaguma, Yoko; Satou, Akira; Tsuzuki, Toyonori; Emi, Nobuhiko; Okamoto, Masataka; Nakamura, Shigeo

    2017-07-01

    Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-positive diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) not otherwise specified is defined as monoclonal EBV+ B-cell proliferation affecting patients without any known immunosuppression. Non-neoplastic EBV+ cells proliferating in or adjacent to EBV- DLBCL were reported recently, but their clinical significance is unclear. Thus, the aim of this study was to investigate the prognostic impact of EBV+ cells in DLBCL. We compared the clinicopathological characteristics of 30 EBV+ DLBCL patients and 29 and 604 EBV- DLBCL patients with and without EBV+ bystander cells (median age of onset 71, 67 and 62 years, respectively). Both EBV+ DLBCL patients and EBV- DLBCL patients with EBV+ bystander cells tended to have high and high-intermediate International Prognostic Index scores (60% and 59%, respectively), as compared with only 46% of EBV- DLBCL patients without EBV+ bystander cells. EBV- DLBCL patients with EBV+ bystander cells showed a significantly higher incidence of lung involvement than those without EBV+ bystander cells (10% versus 2%, P bystander cells had a poorer prognosis than patients without any detectable EBV+ cells [median overall survival (OS) of 100 months and 40 months versus not reached, P bystander cells treated with rituximab showed overlapping survival curves (OS, P = 0.77; progression-free survival, P = 1.0). EBV- DLBCL with bystander EBV+ cells has similar clinical characteristics to EBV+ DLBCL. DLBCL with EBV+ bystander cells may be related to both age-related and microenvironment-related immunological deterioration. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. "Primary Immunodeficiencies Inducing EBV-Associated Severe Illnesses "

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toshio Miyawaki

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Epstein-Barr virus (EBV is a ubiquitous human -herpesvirus that infects about 95% of the adult population. The majority of primary infections occurs in early childhood and is generally subclinical; it can cause infectious mononucleosis (IM, which is usually a self-limiting lymphoproliferative disorder. However, infection of EBV occasionally results in severe, often lethal diseases, which include fatal IM, hemophagocytic syndrome, polyclonal lymphoproliferative disorders, and malignant lymphoma. These severe EBV-related illnesses occur secondary to some primary immunodeficiency diseases showing inefficient immune reaction to EBV. One example is X-linked lymphoproliferative disease (XLP, which is caused by mutations in the SLAM-associated protein (SAP gene. The major clinical manifestations of XLP are fulminant IM, malignant lymphoma and dysgammaglobulinemia. Aplastic anemia, virus-associated hemophagocytic syndrome, and vasculitis have also been reported in XLP. We have developed a flow cytometric method using the anti-SAP monoclonal antibody to search for XLP. This clinically useful assay has successfully been used to identify XLP patients in Japan. In this review, clinical and mutational characteristics of XLP in Japan are mainly described. In addition, it is shown that the similar situations to XLP can occur in other primary immunodeficiencies involving T-cell killing function, such as autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome caused by Fas gene mutations or familial hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis caused by perforin gene mutations. Finally, the EBV-related terrible disease condition, namely chronic active EBV infection, which is common in Asian areas but its genetic background remains to be elucidated, will be toughed on.

  11. Syntropy in Children with EBV Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.A. Khodak

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The clinical manifestations of the disease caused by Epstein-Barr virus (EBV are diverse and include both infectious mononucleosis and damage of the liver, nervous system and other organs. Damage of the nervous system (meningoencephalitis caused by EBV may have isolated clinical course or run concurrently with infectious mononucleosis or hepatitis (syntropy. The paper presents a case of acute EBV infection in a 16-year-old child diagnosed with hepatitis and meningoencephalitis.

  12. [Novel bidirectional promoter from human genome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orekhova, A S; Sverdlova, P S; Spirin, P V; Leonova, O G; Popenko, V I; Prasolov, V S; Rubtsov, P M

    2011-01-01

    In human and other mammalian genomes a number of closely linked gene pairs transcribed in opposite directions are found. According to bioinformatic analysis up to 10% of human genes are arranged in this way. In present work the fragment of human genome was cloned that separates genes localized at 2p13.1 and oriented "head-to-head", coding for hypothetical proteins with unknown functions--CCDC (Coiled Coil Domain Containing) 142 and TTC (TetraTricopeptide repeat Containing) 31. Intergenic CCDC142-TTC31 region overlaps with CpG-island and contains a number of potential binding sites for transcription factors. This fragment functions as bidirectional promoter in the system ofluciferase reporter gene expression upon transfection of human embryonic kidney (HEK293) cells. The vectors containing genes of two fluorescent proteins--green (EGFP) and red (DsRed2) in opposite orientations separated by the fragment of CCDC142-TTC31 intergenic region were constructed. In HEK293 cells transfected with these vectors simultaneous expression of two fluorescent proteins is observed. Truncated versions of intergenic region were obtained and their promoter activity measured. Minimal promoter fragment contains elements Inr, BRE, DPE characteristic for TATA-less promoters. Thus, from the human genome the novel bidirectional promoter was cloned that can be used for simultaneous constitutive expression of two genes in human cells.

  13. Antibodies to early EBV, CMV, and HHV6 antigens in systemic lupus erythematosus patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, N S; Draborg, A H; Nielsen, C T

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: We investigated the antibody levels against early antigens of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), cytomegalovirus (CMV), and human herpesvirus 6 (HHV6) in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) patients and healthy controls, and further correlated these antibodies to haematology...

  14. Points of recombination in Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) strain P3HR-1-derived heterogeneous DNA as indexes to EBV DNA recombinogenic events in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikuta, Kazufumi; Srinivas, Shamala K; Schacker, Tim; Miyagi, Jun-ichi; Scott, Rona S; Sixbey, John W

    2008-12-01

    Deletions and rearrangements in the genome of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) strain P3HR-1 generate subgenomic infectious particles that, unlike defective interfering particles in other viral systems, enhance rather than restrict EBV replication in vitro. Reports of comparable heterogeneous (het) DNA in EBV-linked human diseases, based on detection of an abnormal juxtaposition of EBV DNA fragments BamHI W and BamHI Z that disrupts viral latency, prompted us to determine at the nucleotide level all remaining recombination joints formed by the four constituent segments of P3HR-1-derived het DNA. Guided by endonuclease restriction maps, we chose PCR primer pairs that approximated and framed junctions creating the unique BamHI M/B1 and E/S fusion fragments. Sequencing of PCR products revealed points of recombination that lacked regions of extensive homology between constituent fragments. Identical recombination junctions were detected by PCR in EBV-positive salivary samples from human immunodeficiency virus-infected donors, although the W/Z rearrangement that induces EBV reactivation was frequently found in the absence of the other two. In vitro infection of lymphoid cells similarly indicated that not all three het DNA rearrangements need to reside on a composite molecule. These results connote a precision in the recombination process that dictates both composition and regulation of gene segments altered by genomic rearrangement. Moreover, the apparent frequency of het DNA at sites of EBV replication in vivo is consistent with a likely contribution to the pathogenesis of EBV reactivation.

  15. Innate immune control of EBV-infected B cells by invariant natural killer T cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Brian K; Tsai, Kevin; Allan, Lenka L; Zheng, Dong Jun; Nie, Johnny C; Biggs, Catherine M; Hasan, Mohammad R; Kozak, Frederick K; van den Elzen, Peter; Priatel, John J; Tan, Rusung

    2013-10-10

    Individuals with X-linked lymphoproliferative disease lack invariant natural killer T (iNKT) cells and are exquisitely susceptible to Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection. To determine whether iNKT cells recognize or regulate EBV, resting B cells were infected with EBV in the presence or absence of iNKT cells. The depletion of iNKT cells increased both viral titers and the frequency of EBV-infected B cells. However, EBV-infected B cells rapidly lost expression of the iNKT cell receptor ligand CD1d, abrogating iNKT cell recognition. To determine whether induced CD1d expression could restore iNKT recognition in EBV-infected cells, lymphoblastoid cell lines (LCL) were treated with AM580, a synthetic retinoic acid receptor-α agonist that upregulates CD1d expression via the nuclear protein, lymphoid enhancer-binding factor 1 (LEF-1). AM580 significantly reduced LEF-1 association at the CD1d promoter region, induced CD1d expression on LCL, and restored iNKT recognition of LCL. CD1d-expressing LCL elicited interferon γ secretion and cytotoxicity by iNKT cells even in the absence of exogenous antigen, suggesting an endogenous iNKT antigen is expressed during EBV infection. These data indicate that iNKT cells may be important for early, innate control of B cell infection by EBV and that downregulation of CD1d may allow EBV to circumvent iNKT cell-mediated immune recognition.

  16. Spironolactone blocks Epstein-Barr virus production by inhibiting EBV SM protein function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Dinesh; Thompson, Jacob; Swaminathan, Sankar

    2016-03-29

    Clinically available drugs active against Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) and other human herpesviruses are limited to those targeting viral DNA replication. To identify compounds directed against other steps in the viral life cycle, we searched for drugs active against the EBV SM protein, which is essential for infectious virus production. SM has a highly gene-specific mode of action and preferentially enhances expression of several late lytic cycle EBV genes. Here we demonstrate that spironolactone, a mineralocorticoid receptor antagonist approved for clinical use, inhibits SM function and infectious EBV production. Expression of EBV viral capsid antigen is highly SM dependent, and spironolactone inhibits viral capsid antigen synthesis and capsid formation, blocking EBV virion production at a step subsequent to viral DNA replication. In addition, spironolactone inhibits expression of other SM-dependent genes necessary for infectious virion formation. We further demonstrate that molecules structurally related to spironolactone with similar antimineralocorticoid blocking activity do not inhibit EBV production. These findings pave the way for development of antiherpesvirus drugs with new mechanisms of action directed against SM and homologous essential proteins in other herpesviruses.

  17. Whole blood EBV-DNA predicts outcome in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tisi, Maria Chiara; Cupelli, Elisa; Santangelo, Rosaria; Maiolo, Elena; Alma, Eleonora; Giachelia, Manuela; Martini, Maurizio; Bellesi, Silvia; D'Alò, Francesco; Voso, Maria Teresa; Pompili, Maurizio; Leone, Giuseppe; Larocca, Luigi Maria; Hohaus, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    An association between Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV) infection and lymphoproliferative diseases has been reported with EBV + diffuse large B cell-lymphoma (DLBCL) of the elderly described as a distinct entity. In a cohort of 218 human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-negative patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphomas, we detected EBV-DNA in 25% of whole blood (WB) samples at diagnosis. Presence and viral load in WB, mononuclear cells or plasma did not predict the presence of EBV in the tumor biopsy. Positive Hepatitis C virus (HCV) serology was associated with a higher frequency of EBV in WB. Patients with EBV-DNA in WB had a significantly shorter progression-free (p = 0.02) and overall survival (p = 0.05) after immunochemotherapy with R-CHOP (Rituximab, Cyclophosphamide, Doxorubicin, Vincristine, Prednisolone). We conclude that detection of EBV in WB is not a surrogate marker for EBV-association in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, however it associates with worse outcome.

  18. 非对称PCR-FP技术同步检测HSV-1/-2、CMV和EBV%Simultaneous detection of four major human herpesviruses by asymmetric PCR-fluorescence polarization assay

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张菊; 吴中亮; 李丁; 王香玲; 梁平; 郭宴海; 李宏伟; 颜真

    2009-01-01

    目的 应用非对称PCR-荧光偏振(FP)技术建立一种同步检测全血中4种主要疱疹病毒(单纯疱疹病毒1/2型,巨细胞病毒、EB病毒)的新方法.方法 以人疱疹病毒属通用引物行非对称PCR,扩增从179例样本中抽提的DNA.PCR扩增产物与特异性单纯疱疹病毒1/2型(HSV-1/2)、巨细胞病毒(CMV)和EB病毒(EBV)寡核苷酸探针混合物温育杂交,荧光偏振检测技术检测杂交液荧光偏振值,据荧光偏振值判断病毒感染类型,并以DNA序列测定结果为参照.结果 与DNA序列测定的阳性检测符合率为100%,但DNA序列测定检测均未检出多重混合感染.非对称PCR-FP方法对HSV-1/-2检测的灵敏度达到1.0×10~3拷贝/ml,时EBV和cMV检测的灵敏度达到2.0×10~3拷贝/ml.结论 本法对于4种主要疱疹病毒感染的筛查及预防、预后判断具重要价值.%Objective To establish a novel method to detect four major human herpesvirus simultaneously by fluorescence polarization (FP) assay based on asymmetric PCR. Methods A consensus primer system in human herpesvirus was used in an asymmetric PCR. The probes of herpes simplex virus types 1 and 2 (HSV-1/-2) ,cytomegalovirus (CMV) ,and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) labeled with different fluorophores were hybridized respectively with target amplicons. The infection was determined by the increased FP value. The DNA extracted from 179 samples was subjected to FP and sequence assay to evaluate the feasibility of this method. Results The mini-mum detection level of FP assay was 10 genome copies for HSV -1/ -2 , 20 genome copies for both EBV and CMV. FP assay could detect co-infections more effectively than sequence assay. Conclusions A practical method was developed for the simultaneous detection of the four major human herpesviruses by FP assay based on an asymmetric PCR.

  19. HLA expression and HLA type associations in relation to EBV status in Hispanic Hodgkin lymphoma patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fletcher, Luke B; Veenstra, Rianne N; Loo, Eric Y; Hwang, Amie E; Siddiqi, Imran N; Visser, Lydia; Hepkema, Bouke G; Nolte, Ilja M; van den Berg, Anke; Cozen, Wendy; Diepstra, Arjan

    2017-01-01

    A proportion of classical Hodgkin lymphomas harbor the Epstein Barr virus (EBV). We previously demonstrated that associations between Human Leukocyte Antigen (HLA) alleles and susceptibility to EBV+ classical Hodgkin lymphoma differ between European and Chinese populations. Data on Hispanic populations is missing. Here we examined the association between HLA type, tumor cell HLA expression and other characteristics in Hispanic Hodgkin lymphoma patients. Hispanic Hodgkin lymphoma patients diagnosed at the Los Angeles County-University of Southern California Medical Center from 2000-2012 were included (n = 65). Formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tumor tissue was analyzed for EBV by in situ hybridization and for HLA class I and class II expression by immunohistochemistry. HLA typing was performed by HLA-A specific quantitative PCR of genomic DNA from tissue. Thirty patients (46%) had EBV+ tumors. Expression of HLA class I (p = 0.0006) was significantly associated with EBV+ tumor status in Hispanic patients, similar to Europeans and Chinese. A positive association between HLA class II expression and EBV+ tumor status, as present in large studies in Europeans, was not found (p = 0.06). The prevalences of the specific European HLA-A*01 risk and European HLA-A*02 protective types were not significantly associated with EBV+ tumors among these Hispanic patients, however numbers were too low to draw firm conclusions. The HLA-A*02:07 allele, that is associated with EBV+ Hodgkin lymphoma in Chinese, was absent. In conclusion, the association between EBV positivity in tumor cells and HLA class I expression appears to be consistent across different populations. Larger studies in Hispanics are needed to evaluate HLA allele susceptibility associations.

  20. Interpreting the Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV) Epigenome Using High-Throughput Data

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    The Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) double-stranded DNA genome is subject to extensive epigenetic regulation. Large consortiums and individual labs have generated a vast number of genome-wide data sets on human lymphoblastoid and other cell lines latently infected with EBV. Analysis of these data sets reveals important new information on the properties of the host and viral chromosome structure organization and epigenetic modifications. We discuss the mapping of these data sets and the subsequent in...

  1. Prevention of EBV lymphoma development by oncolytic myxoma virus in a murine xenograft model of post-transplant lymphoproliferative disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Manbok, E-mail: manbok66@dankook.ac.kr [Department of Molecular Genetics and Microbiology, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32610 (United States); Rahman, Masmudur M. [Department of Molecular Genetics and Microbiology, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32610 (United States); Cogle, Christopher R. [Department of Hematology/Oncology, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32610 (United States); McFadden, Grant [Department of Molecular Genetics and Microbiology, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32610 (United States)

    2015-07-10

    Epstein–Barr virus (EBV) has been associated with a variety of epithelial and hematologic malignancies, including B-, T- and NK cell-lymphomas, Hodgkin's disease (HD), post-transplant lymphoproliferative diseases (LPDs), nasopharyngeal and gastric carcinomas, smooth muscle tumors, and HIV-associated lymphomas. Currently, treatment options for EBV-associated malignancies are limited. We have previously shown that myxoma virus specifically targets various human solid tumors and leukemia cells in a variety of animal models, while sparing normal human or murine tissues. Since transplant recipients of bone marrow or solid organs often develop EBV-associated post-transplant LPDs and lymphoma, myxoma virus may be of utility to prevent EBV-associated malignancies in immunocompromised transplant patients where treatment options are frequently limited. In this report, we demonstrate the safety and efficacy of myxoma virus purging as a prophylactic strategy for preventing post-transplant EBV-transformed human lymphomas, using a highly immunosuppressed mouse xenotransplantation model. This provides support for developing myxoma virus as a potential oncolytic therapy for preventing EBV-associated LPDs following transplantation of bone marrow or solid organ allografts. - Highlights: • Myxoma virus effectively infects and purges EBV lymphoma cells in vivo. • Oncolytic myxoma virus effectively eradicates oncogenic EBV tumorigenesis. • Ex vivo pre-treatment of myxoma virus can be effective as a preventive treatment modality for post-transplant lymphoproliferative diseases.

  2. Epstein-Barr virus immediate-early gene product trans-activates gene expression from the human immunodeficiency virus long terminal repeat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kenney, S.; Kamine, J.; Markovitz, D.; Fenrick, R.; Pagano, J.

    1988-03-01

    Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome patients are frequently coinfected with Epstein-Barr virus (EBV). In this report, the authors demonstrate that an EBV immediate-early gene product, BamHI MLF1, stimulates expression of the bacterial chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (CAT) gene linked to the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) promoter. The HIV promoter sequences necessary for trans-activation by EBV do not include the tat-responsive sequences. In addition, in contrast to the other herpesvirus trans-activators previously studied, the EBV BamHI MLF1 gene product appears to function in part by a posttranscriptional mechanism, since it increases pHIV-CAT protein activity more than it increases HIV-CAT mRNA. This ability of an EBV gene product to activate HIV gene expression may have biologic consequences in persons coinfected with both viruses.

  3. Hypermethylation of the tumor suppressor gene PRDM1/Blimp-1 supports a pathogenetic role in EBV-positive Burkitt lymphoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, T; Ma, J; Nie, K; Yan, J; Liu, Y; Bacchi, C E; Queiroga, E M; Gualco, G; Sample, J T; Orazi, A; Knowles, D M; Tam, W

    2014-01-01

    PRDM1/Blimp-1 is a tumor suppressor gene in the activated B-cell subtype of diffuse large B-cell lymphomas. Its inactivation contributes to pathogenesis in this setting by impairing terminal B-cell differentiation induced by constitutive nuclear factor-κB activation. The role of PRDM1 in Burkitt lymphoma (BL) lymphomagenesis is not known. Here we identified hypermethylation of the promoter region and exon 1 of PRDM1 in all six Epstein–Barr virus (EBV)-positive BL cell lines and 12 of 23 (52%) primary EBV-positive BL or BL-related cases examined, but in none of the EBV-negative BL cell lines or primary tumors that we assessed, implying a tumor suppressor role for PRDM1 specifically in EBV-associated BL. A direct induction of PRDM1 hypermethylation by EBV is unlikely, as PRDM1 hypermethylation was not observed in EBV-immortalized B lymphoblastoid cell lines. Treatment of EBV-positive BL cells with 5′ azacytidine resulted in PRDM1 induction associated with PRDM1 demethylation, consistent with transcriptional silencing of PRDM1 as a result of DNA methylation. Overexpression of PRDM1 in EBV-positive BL cell lines resulted in cell cycle arrest. Our results expand the spectrum of lymphoid malignancies in which PRDM1 may have a tumor suppressor role and identify an epigenetic event that likely contributes to the pathogenesis of BL. PMID:25382611

  4. Interpreting the Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV Epigenome Using High-Throughput Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul M. Lieberman

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The Epstein-Barr virus (EBV double-stranded DNA genome is subject to extensive epigenetic regulation. Large consortiums and individual labs have generated a vast number of genome-wide data sets on human lymphoblastoid and other cell lines latently infected with EBV. Analysis of these data sets reveals important new information on the properties of the host and viral chromosome structure organization and epigenetic modifications. We discuss the mapping of these data sets and the subsequent insights into the chromatin structure and transcription factor binding patterns on latent EBV genomes. Colocalization of multiple histone modifications and transcription factors at regulatory loci are considered in the context of the biology and regulation of EBV.

  5. Interpreting the Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV) epigenome using high-throughput data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arvey, Aaron; Tempera, Italo; Lieberman, Paul M

    2013-04-02

    The Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) double-stranded DNA genome is subject to extensive epigenetic regulation. Large consortiums and individual labs have generated a vast number of genome-wide data sets on human lymphoblastoid and other cell lines latently infected with EBV. Analysis of these data sets reveals important new information on the properties of the host and viral chromosome structure organization and epigenetic modifications. We discuss the mapping of these data sets and the subsequent insights into the chromatin structure and transcription factor binding patterns on latent EBV genomes. Colocalization of multiple histone modifications and transcription factors at regulatory loci are considered in the context of the biology and regulation of EBV.

  6. About Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Spreads Easily EBV is spread by saliva through kissing sharing drinks and food using the same cups, ... infection. You can help protect yourself by not kissing or sharing drinks, food, or personal items, like ...

  7. Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV) DNA in sera of patients with primary EBV infection

    OpenAIRE

    2001-01-01

    Detection of Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV) DNA by PCR in serum had a sensitivity of 80%, a specificity of 94%, and positive and negative predictive values of 95 and 79%, respectively, for the diagnosis of primary EBV infection. We suggest that this is a useful addition to the panel of tests used for this purpose.

  8. Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-encoded dUTPase and chronic restraint induce impaired learning and memory and sickness responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aubrecht, Taryn G; Weil, Zachary M; Ariza, Maria Eugenia; Williams, Marshall; Reader, Brenda F; Glaser, Ronald; Sheridan, John F; Nelson, Randy J

    2014-10-01

    Most adult humans have been infected with Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) and carry the latent virus. The EBV genome codes for several proteins that form an early antigen complex important for viral replication; one of these proteins is deoxyuridine triphosphate nucleotidohydrolase (dUTPase). The EBV-encoded dUTPase can induce sickness responses in mice. Because stress can increase latent virus reactivation, we hypothesized that chronic restraint would exacerbate sickness behaviors elicited by EBV-encoded dUTPase. Male Swiss-Webster mice were injected daily for 15 days with either saline or EBV-encoded dUTPase. Additionally, half of the mice from each condition were either restrained for 3h daily or left undisturbed. Restraint stress impaired learning and memory in the passive avoidance chamber; impaired learning and memory was due to EBV-encoded dUTPase injected into restrained mice. EBV-encoded dUTPase induced sickness responses and restraint stress interacts with EBV-encoded dUTPase to exacerbate the sickness response. These data support a role for EBV-encoded dUTPase and restraint stress in altering the pathophysiology of EBV independent of viral replication.

  9. Gene expression profiling reveals clear differences between EBV-positive and EBV-negative posttransplant lymphoproliferative disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morscio, J; Dierickx, D; Ferreiro, J F; Herreman, A; Van Loo, P; Bittoun, E; Verhoef, G; Matthys, P; Cools, J; Wlodarska, I; De Wolf-Peeters, C; Sagaert, X; Tousseyn, T

    2013-05-01

    Posttransplant patients are at risk of developing a potentially life-threatening posttransplantation lymphoproliferative disorder (PTLD), most often of diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL) morphology and associated with Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV) infection. The aim of this study was to characterize the clinicopathological and molecular-genetic characteristics of posttransplant DLBCL and to elucidate whether EBV(+) and EBV(-) posttransplant DLBCL are biologically different. We performed gene expression profiling studies on 48 DLBCL of which 33 arose posttransplantation (PT-DLBCL; 72% EBV+) and 15 in immunocompetent hosts (IC-DLBCL; none EBV+). Unsupervised hierarchical analysis showed clustering of samples related to EBV-status rather than immune status. Except for decreased T cell signaling these cases were inseparable from EBV(-) IC-DLBCL. In contrast, a viral response signature clearly segregated EBV(+) PT-DLBCL from EBV(-) PT-DLBCL and IC-DLBCL cases that were intermixed. The broad EBV latency profile (LMP1+/EBNA2+) was expressed in 59% of EBV(+) PT-DLBCL and associated with a more elaborate inflammatory response compared to intermediate latency (LMP1+/EBNA2-). Inference analysis revealed a role for innate and tolerogenic immune responses (including VSIG4 and IDO1) in EBV(+) PT-DLBCL. In conclusion we can state that the EBV signature is the most determining factor in the pathogenesis of EBV(+) PT-DLBCL.

  10. Cells in G2/M phase increased in human nasopharyngeal carcinoma cell line by EBV-LMP1 through activation of NF-κB and AP-1

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIN DENG; JING YANG; XIAO RONG ZHAO; XI YUN DENG; LIANG ZENG; HUAN HUA GU; MIN TANG; YA CAO

    2003-01-01

    Although previous studies showed that the principal oncoprotein encoded by Epstein-Barr virus, latentmembrane protein 1(LMP1), could induce the nasopharyngeal carcinoma cells in G2/M phase increased, littleis known about the target molecules and mechanisms. The present study demonstrated that LMP1 couldinduce the accumulation of p53 protein and upregulate its transactivity in a dose dependent manner, whichresulted in the decrease of the kinase activity of cdc2/cyclin B complex and inducing arrest at G2/M phasethrough the activation of NF-κB and AP-1 signaling pathways, and the effect of NF-κB was more obviousthan that of AP-1. This study provided some significant evidence for further elucidating the molecularmechanisms that LMP1 had effects on the surveillance mechanism of cell cycle and promoting the survivalof transformed cells and tumorigenesis.

  11. Transcriptional directionality of the human insulin-degrading enzyme promoter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lang; Wang, Pan; Ding, Qingyang; Wang, Zhao

    2013-10-01

    Unidirectional promoters dominate among mammalian genomes. However, the mechanism through which the transcriptional directionality of promoters is accomplished remains to be clarified. Insulin-degrading enzyme (IDE) is a ubiquitously expressed zinc metalloprotease, whose promoter contains a CpG island. We previously showed that the basal promoter region of mouse IDE has bidirectional transcriptional activity, but an upstream promoter element blocks its antisense transcription. Therefore, we wonder whether the human IDE promoter contains an analogous element. Similarly, the basal promoter region of human IDE (-102 ~ +173 and -196 ~ +173 relative to the transcription start site) showed bidirectional transcriptional activity. However, the region from -348 to +173 could only be transcribed from the normal orientation, implying that an upstream promoter element between -348 and -196 blocks the antisense transcription of the human IDE promoter. Through promoter deletion and mutagenesis analysis, we mapped this element precisely and found that the upstream promoter element locates between -318 and -304. Furthermore, the transcription-blocking elements in the mouse and human IDE promoters inhibited the transcription of the SV40 promoter when put downstream of it. In conclusion, we identify an upstream promoter element which blocks the antisense transcription of the human IDE promoter. Our studies are helpful to clarify the transcriptional directionality of promoters.

  12. Promotion of health and human functionality

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    Ana Cristhina de Oliveira Brasil

    2013-08-01

    diverse environmental barriers, whether they are physical, geographic, technological, legal, among others(5. Such health problems that generated those impairments are harmful not only to the citizens but also to the State, since they burden the social security system (health, welfare and social security, leading to decreased quality of life, especially of those affected by such problems. Despite the finding of facts as the major expenses with medium and high complexity services in health, sickness benefit and early retirements that could have been avoided, one can perceive the lack of specific and properly planned actions, the implementation of which depends on political and administrative will and on a paradigm shift regarding the expanded focus on the etiology of all these health problems. And yet, no public policies are known in Brazil, to follow up, in a transversal and integral way, all the stages of the life cycle or to delineate the profile of functionality and the monitoring of the incidence of disabilities, but also, in particular, actions focused on future generations, based on the expanded concept of health proposed by WHO and defended in the principles and guidelines of SUS. Far more required than simply creating reintegration services is to avoid / prevent social restriction. Therefore, policies must be drawned with a new perspective on the human being, that respects the constitutional principles and guidelines of the NHS and meet the consequences of demographic and epidemiological transitions in order to promote health so that people live without major disabilities an increased life expectancy that has already been settled in Brazil. At the 13th National Conference on Health, the unprecedented proposal n.144 has been approved on Axis II - Public Policies for Health and Quality of Life: SUS in Social Security and the Pact for Health, along with the motion n. 84, aiming to develop and implement a national health functional policy crossing all health policies

  13. Promotion of Health and Human Functionality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Cristhina de Oliveira Brasil

    2013-03-01

    environmental barriers, whether they are physical, geographic, technological, legal, among others(5.Such health problems that generated those impairments are harmful not only to the citizens but also to the State, since they burden the social security system (health, welfare and social security, leading to decreased quality of life, especially of those affected by such problems.Despite the finding of facts as the major expenses with medium and high complexity services in health, sickness benefit and early retirements that could have been avoided, one can perceive the lack of specific and properly planned actions, the implementation of which depends on political and administrative will and on a paradigm shift regarding the expanded focus on the etiology of all these health problems.And yet, no public policies are known in Brazil, to follow up, in a transversal and integral way, all the stages of the life cycle or to delineate the profile of functionality and the monitoring of the incidence of disabilities, but also, in particular, actions focused on future generations, based on the expanded concept of health proposed by WHO and defended in the principles and guidelines of SUS.Far more required than simply creating reintegration services is to avoid / prevent social restriction. Therefore, policies must be drawned with a new perspective on the human being, that respects the constitutional principles and guidelines of the NHS and meet the consequences of demographic and epidemiological transitions in order to promote health so that people live without major disabilities an increased life expectancy that has already been settled in Brazil.At the 13th National Conference on Health, the unprecedented proposal n.144 has been approved on Axis II - Public Policies for Health and Quality of Life: SUS in Social Security and the Pact for Health, along with the motion n. 84, aiming to develop and implement a national health functional policy crossing all health policies at their different

  14. Primary EBV infection induces an expression profile distinct from other viruses but similar to hemophagocytic syndromes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunmire, Samantha K; Odumade, Oludare A; Porter, Jean L; Reyes-Genere, Juan; Schmeling, David O; Bilgic, Hatice; Fan, Danhua; Baechler, Emily C; Balfour, Henry H; Hogquist, Kristin A

    2014-01-01

    Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV) causes infectious mononucleosis and establishes lifelong infection associated with cancer and autoimmune disease. To better understand immunity to EBV, we performed a prospective study of natural infection in healthy humans. Transcriptome analysis defined a striking and reproducible expression profile during acute infection but no lasting gene changes were apparent during latent infection. Comparing the EBV response profile to multiple other acute viral infections, including influenza A (influenza), respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), human rhinovirus (HRV), attenuated yellow fever virus (YFV), and Dengue fever virus (DENV), revealed similarity only to DENV. The signature shared by EBV and DENV was also present in patients with hemophagocytic syndromes, suggesting these two viruses cause uncontrolled inflammatory responses. Interestingly, while EBV induced a strong type I interferon response, a subset of interferon induced genes, including MX1, HERC5, and OAS1, were not upregulated, suggesting a mechanism by which viral antagonism of immunity results in a profound inflammatory response. These data provide an important first description of the response to a natural herpesvirus infection in humans.

  15. Primary EBV infection induces an expression profile distinct from other viruses but similar to hemophagocytic syndromes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samantha K Dunmire

    Full Text Available Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV causes infectious mononucleosis and establishes lifelong infection associated with cancer and autoimmune disease. To better understand immunity to EBV, we performed a prospective study of natural infection in healthy humans. Transcriptome analysis defined a striking and reproducible expression profile during acute infection but no lasting gene changes were apparent during latent infection. Comparing the EBV response profile to multiple other acute viral infections, including influenza A (influenza, respiratory syncytial virus (RSV, human rhinovirus (HRV, attenuated yellow fever virus (YFV, and Dengue fever virus (DENV, revealed similarity only to DENV. The signature shared by EBV and DENV was also present in patients with hemophagocytic syndromes, suggesting these two viruses cause uncontrolled inflammatory responses. Interestingly, while EBV induced a strong type I interferon response, a subset of interferon induced genes, including MX1, HERC5, and OAS1, were not upregulated, suggesting a mechanism by which viral antagonism of immunity results in a profound inflammatory response. These data provide an important first description of the response to a natural herpesvirus infection in humans.

  16. Epstein-Barr virus-specific methylation of human genes in gastric cancer cells

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    Coleman William B

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV is found in 10% of all gastric adenocarcinomas but its role in tumor development and maintenance remains unclear. The objective of this study was to examine EBV-mediated dysregulation of cellular factors implicated in gastric carcinogenesis. Methods Gene expression patterns were examined in EBV-negative and EBV-positive AGS gastric epithelial cells using a low density microarray, reverse transcription PCR, histochemical stains, and methylation-specific DNA sequencing. Expression of PTGS2 (COX2 was measured in AGS cells and in primary gastric adenocarcinoma tissues. Results In array studies, nearly half of the 96 human genes tested, representing 15 different cancer-related signal transduction pathways, were dysregulated after EBV infection. Reverse transcription PCR confirmed significant impact on factors having diverse functions such as cell cycle regulation (IGFBP3, CDKN2A, CCND1, HSP70, ID2, ID4, DNA repair (BRCA1, TFF1, cell adhesion (ICAM1, inflammation (COX2, and angiogenesis (HIF1A. Demethylation using 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine reversed the EBV-mediated dysregulation for all 11 genes listed here. For some promoter sequences, CpG island methylation and demethylation occurred in an EBV-specific pattern as shown by bisulfite DNA sequencing. Immunohistochemistry was less sensitive than was western blot for detecting downregulation of COX2 upon EBV infection. Virus-related dysregulation of COX2 levels in vitro was not recapitulated in vivo among naturally infected gastric cancer tissues. Conclusions EBV alters human gene expression in ways that could contribute to the unique pathobiology of virus-associated cancer. Furthermore, the frequency and reversability of methylation-related transcriptional alterations suggest that demethylating agents have therapeutic potential for managing EBV-related carcinoma.

  17. Hypomethylation and Over-Expression of the Beta Isoform of BLIMP1 is Induced by Epstein-Barr Virus Infection of B Cells; Potential Implications for the Pathogenesis of EBV-Associated Lymphomas

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    Katerina Vrzalikova

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available B-lymphocyte-induced maturation protein 1 (BLIMP1 exists as two major isoforms, α and β, which arise from alternate promoters. Inactivation of the full length BLIMP1α isoform is thought to contribute to B cell lymphomagenesis by blocking post-germinal centre (GC B cell differentiation. In contrast, the shorter β isoform is functionally impaired and over-expressed in several haematological malignancies, including diffuse large B cell lymphomas (DLBCL. We have studied the influence on BLIMP1β expression of the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV, a human herpesvirus that is implicated in the pathogenesis of several GC-derived lymphomas, including a subset of DLBCL and Hodgkin’s lymphoma (HL. We show that BLIMP1β expression is increased following the EBV infection of normal human tonsillar GC B cells. We also show that this change in expression is accompanied by hypomethylation of the BLIMP1β-specific promoter. Furthermore, we confirmed previous reports that the BLIMP1β promoter is hypomethylated in DLBCL cell lines and show for the first time that BLIMP1β is hypomethylated in the Hodgkin/Reed-Sternberg (HRS cells of HL. Our results provide evidence in support of a role for BLIMP1β in the pathogenesis of EBV-associated B cell lymphomas.

  18. Comprehensive Transcriptome and Mutational Profiling of Endemic Burkitt Lymphoma Reveals EBV Type-Specific Differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaymaz, Yasin; Oduor, Cliff I; Yu, Hongbo; Otieno, Juliana A; Ong'echa, John Michael; Moormann, Ann M; Bailey, Jeffrey A

    2017-05-01

    Endemic Burkitt lymphoma (eBL) is the most common pediatric cancer in malaria-endemic equatorial Africa and nearly always contains Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), unlike sporadic Burkitt lymphoma (sBL) that occurs with a lower incidence in developed countries. Given these differences and the variable clinical presentation and outcomes, we sought to further understand pathogenesis by investigating transcriptomes using RNA sequencing (RNAseq) from multiple primary eBL tumors compared with sBL tumors. Within eBL tumors, minimal expression differences were found based on: anatomical presentation site, in-hospital survival rates, and EBV genome type, suggesting that eBL tumors are homogeneous without marked subtypes. The outstanding difference detected using surrogate variable analysis was the significantly decreased expression of key genes in the immunoproteasome complex (PSMB9/β1i, PSMB10/β2i, PSMB8/β5i, and PSME2/PA28β) in eBL tumors carrying type 2 EBV compared with type 1 EBV. Second, in comparison with previously published pediatric sBL specimens, the majority of the expression and pathway differences was related to the PTEN/PI3K/mTOR signaling pathway and was correlated most strongly with EBV status rather than geographic designation. Third, common mutations were observed significantly less frequently in eBL tumors harboring EBV type 1, with mutation frequencies similar between tumors with EBV type 2 and without EBV. In addition to the previously reported genes, a set of new genes mutated in BL, including TFAP4, MSH6, PRRC2C, BCL7A, FOXO1, PLCG2, PRKDC, RAD50, and RPRD2, were identified. Overall, these data establish that EBV, particularly EBV type 1, supports BL oncogenesis, alleviating the need for certain driver mutations in the human genome. Genomic and mutational analyses of Burkitt lymphoma tumors identify key differences based on viral content and clinical outcomes suggesting new avenues for the development of prognostic molecular biomarkers and therapeutic

  19. Down-regulation of EBV-LMP1 radio-sensitizes nasal pharyngeal carcinoma cells via NF-κB regulated ATM expression.

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    Xiaoqian Ma

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The latent membrane protein 1 (LMP1 encoded by EBV is expressed in the majority of EBV-associated human malignancies and has been suggested to be one of the major oncogenic factors in EBV-mediated carcinogenesis. In previous studies we experimentally demonstrated that down-regulation of LMP1 expression by DNAzymes could increase radiosensitivity both in cells and in a xenograft NPC model in mice. RESULTS: In this study we explored the molecular mechanisms underlying the radiosensitization caused by the down-regulation of LMP1 in nasopharyngeal carcinoma. It was confirmed that LMP1 could up-regulate ATM expression in NPCs. Bioinformatic analysis of the ATM ptomoter region revealed three tentative binding sites for NF-κB. By using a specific inhibitor of NF-κB signaling and the dominant negative mutant of IkappaB, it was shown that the ATM expression in CNE1-LMP1 cells could be efficiently suppressed. Inhibition of LMP1 expression by the DNAzyme led to attenuation of the NF-κB DNA binding activity. We further showed that the silence of ATM expression by ATM-targeted siRNA could enhance the radiosensitivity in LMP1 positive NPC cells. CONCLUSIONS: Together, our results indicate that ATM expression can be regulated by LMP1 via the NF-κB pathways through direct promoter binding, which resulted in the change of radiosensitivity in NPCs.

  20. EBV 搞体与 EBV DNA 水平的影响因素及其相关性分析%A study of the relationship between EBV DNA and EBV antibody levels

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陆海英; 魏秀琴; 徐小元; 于岩岩; 吴赤红; 刘丹

    2015-01-01

    目的:分析 EB 病毒(EBV)抗体及 EBV DNA 的影响因素及关联性。方法回顾性分析2014年1-9月在北京大学第一医院就诊的143例患者的年龄、性别、血常规、肝功能、EBV 抗体及 DNA 检查结果,用 Spearman 相关性分析对 EBV 抗体及 EBV DNA 的相关影响因素进行分析,多个独立样本间比较使用 Kruskal -Wallis H 检验,独立样本间两两比较使用 Mann -Whitney U 检验。结果血清 EBV DNA(r =0.169~0.693,P <0.05)、EBV -VCA -IgM(r =0.153~0.434,P <0.05)均与外周血淋巴细胞 EBV DNA 、ALT、AST、ALP、GGT、白细胞(WBC)及异形淋巴细胞呈正相关,并且两者也呈正相关(r =0.434,P =0.00);外周血淋巴细胞 EBV DNA 与血清EBV DNA、EBV -VCA -IgM、AST、ALP、WBC 及异形淋巴细胞呈正相关(r =0.207~0.693,P <0.05)。外周血淋巴细胞 EBV DNA 阳性率70.6%(101/143),血清 EBV DNA 阳性率32.2%(46/143)。EBV -VCA -IgM阳性率22.4%(32/143),22.5%(25/111)的 EBV-VCA -IgM阴性患者血清 EBV DNA 阳性。血清 EBV DNA 阳性患者 EBV -VCA -IgM阳性率(21/46,45.7%)明显高于外周血淋巴细胞 EBV DNA 阳性者(29/101,28.7%),差异有统计学意义(χ2=7.95,P <0.01)。结论血清 EBV DNA 和 EBV -VCA -IgM有较强的关联性,并且前者的阳性率高于后者,更有助于 EBV 感染的早期诊断,联合检测两项指标可提高 EBV 现症感染的检出率。%Objective To study the relationship between Epstein -Barr virus (EBV)DNA and EBV antibody levels.Methods A retrospec-tive study was conducted on 143 patients who underwent EBV DNA testing in serum and lymphocytes from January to August,2014.The clini-cal data,including age,sex,blood routine and biochemical examination,serum/lymphocyte EBV DNA,EBV -VCA -IgM,and EBV -VCA -IgG were recorded

  1. EBV tegument protein BNRF1 disrupts DAXX-ATRX to activate viral early gene transcription.

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    Kevin Tsai

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Productive infection by herpesviruses involve the disabling of host-cell intrinsic defenses by viral encoded tegument proteins. Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV typically establishes a non-productive, latent infection and it remains unclear how it confronts the host-cell intrinsic defenses that restrict viral gene expression. Here, we show that the EBV major tegument protein BNRF1 targets host-cell intrinsic defense proteins and promotes viral early gene activation. Specifically, we demonstrate that BNRF1 interacts with the host nuclear protein Daxx at PML nuclear bodies (PML-NBs and disrupts the formation of the Daxx-ATRX chromatin remodeling complex. We mapped the Daxx interaction domain on BNRF1, and show that this domain is important for supporting EBV primary infection. Through reverse transcription PCR and infection assays, we show that BNRF1 supports viral gene expression upon early infection, and that this function is dependent on the Daxx-interaction domain. Lastly, we show that knockdown of Daxx and ATRX induces reactivation of EBV from latently infected lymphoblastoid cell lines (LCLs, suggesting that Daxx and ATRX play a role in the regulation of viral chromatin. Taken together, our data demonstrate an important role of BNRF1 in supporting EBV early infection by interacting with Daxx and ATRX; and suggest that tegument disruption of PML-NB-associated antiviral resistances is a universal requirement for herpesvirus infection in the nucleus.

  2. Studies on the induction of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) DNA polymerase (POL) and deoxyribonuclease (DNase) by the combined action of 12-O-tetradecanoyl-phorbol-13-acetate (TPA) and N-butyrate (SB in EBV-carrying cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nutter, L.M.; Tan, R.S.; Grill, S.; Li, J.S.; Cheng, Y.C.

    1986-03-05

    TPA and SB were found to induce EBV early antigen in EBV-carrying Raji cells, a Burkitt's Lymphoma-derived human cell line. The mode of interaction of these agents was unclear. They have examined the induction of EBV-POL and DNase activities by TPA and SB. It was found that neither agent alone could induce EBV-POL and DNase activities, even though the virus DNA could be induced by either compound alone. Induction of virus enzymes could only occur when cells were exposed to both compounds. A 2h exposure to TPA followed by 46h to SB resulted in levels of induction of EBV-POL and DNase activities comparable to those induced with simultaneous exposure to both agents for 48h. No induction of the enzymes will occur if the sequence of exposure to these agents is reversed. Phospholipase C, which increases intracellular diacylglycerol (and subsequently the activation of Protein Kinase C), and 5-Aza-deoxycytidine, a DNA hypomethylating agent, were able to partially substitute for TPA and SB, respectively. These results suggest that the mechanism of induction of EBV enzyme activities by TPA and SB could involve both Protein Kinase C activation and DNA hypomethylation. Furthermore, the synthesis of EBV DNA is not sufficient for induction of these virus enzyme activities.

  3. HPV Infection, but Not EBV or HHV-8 Infection, Is Associated with Salivary Gland Tumours

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    Maja Hühns

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Benign and malignant salivary gland tumours are clinically heterogeneous and show different histology. Little is known about the role of human herpes virus 8 (HHV-8, Epstein-Barr virus (EBV, and human papillomavirus (HPV infection in salivary gland neoplasms. We investigated the presence of the three viruses in formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue samples in a cohort of 200 different salivary gland tumours. We performed EBV-LMP-1 and HHV-8 and p16 immunohistochemistry, a specific chip based hybridization assay for detection and typing of HPV and a chromogenic in situ hybridization for EBV analysis. Only one case, a polymorphic low-grade carcinoma, showed HHV-8 expression and one lymphoepithelial carcinoma was infected by EBV. In 17 cases (9% moderate or strong nuclear and cytoplasmic p16 expression was detected. The HPV type was investigated in all of these cases and additionally in 8 Warthin’s tumours. In 19 cases HPV type 16 was detected, mostly in Warthin’s tumour, adenoid cystic carcinoma, and adenocarcinoma NOS. We concluded that HHV-8 infection and EBV infection are not associated with salivary gland cancer, but HPV infection may play a role in these tumour entities.

  4. Endogenous retroviral promoter exaptation in human cancer

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    Artem Babaian

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Cancer arises from a series of genetic and epigenetic changes, which result in abnormal expression or mutational activation of oncogenes, as well as suppression/inactivation of tumor suppressor genes. Aberrant expression of coding genes or long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs with oncogenic properties can be caused by translocations, gene amplifications, point mutations or other less characterized mechanisms. One such mechanism is the inappropriate usage of normally dormant, tissue-restricted or cryptic enhancers or promoters that serve to drive oncogenic gene expression. Dispersed across the human genome, endogenous retroviruses (ERVs provide an enormous reservoir of autonomous gene regulatory modules, some of which have been co-opted by the host during evolution to play important roles in normal regulation of genes and gene networks. This review focuses on the “dark side” of such ERV regulatory capacity. Specifically, we discuss a growing number of examples of normally dormant or epigenetically repressed ERVs that have been harnessed to drive oncogenes in human cancer, a process we term onco-exaptation, and we propose potential mechanisms that may underlie this phenomenon.

  5. EBV Persistence--Introducing the Virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorley-Lawson, David A

    2015-01-01

    Persistent infection by EBV is explained by the germinal center model (GCM) which provides a satisfying and currently the only explanation for EBVs disparate biology. Since the GCM touches on every aspect of the virus, this chapter will serve as an introduction to the subsequent chapters. EBV is B lymphotropic, and its biology closely follows that of normal mature B lymphocytes. The virus persists quiescently in resting memory B cells for the lifetime of the host in a non-pathogenic state that is also invisible to the immune response. To access this compartment, the virus infects naïve B cells in the lymphoepithelium of the tonsils and activates these cells using the growth transcription program. These cells migrate to the GC where they switch to a more limited transcription program, the default program, which helps rescue them into the memory compartment where the virus persists. For egress, the infected memory cells return to the lymphoepithelium where they occasionally differentiate into plasma cells activating viral replication. The released virus can either infect more naïve B cells or be amplified in the epithelium for shedding. This cycle of infection and the quiescent state in memory B cells allow for lifetime persistence at a very low level that is remarkably stable over time. Mathematically, this is a stable fixed point where the mechanisms regulating persistence drive the state back to equilibrium when perturbed. This is the GCM of EBV persistence. Other possible sites and mechanisms of persistence will also be discussed.

  6. NCI International EBV-Gastric Cancer Consortium

    Science.gov (United States)

    A collaboration among NCI and extramural investigators, established by DCEG in 2006, that utilizes data and biospecimens from completed and ongoing case series and observational studies of gastric cancer to replicate and extend findings from previous studies hindered by small numbers of EBV-positive cases, and to stimulate multidisciplinary research in this area.

  7. Modeling HLA associations with EBV-positive and -negative Hodgkin lymphoma suggests distinct mechanisms in disease pathogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Paul C D; McAulay, Karen A; Montgomery, Dorothy; Lake, Annette; Shield, Lesley; Gallagher, Alice; Little, Ann-Margaret; Shah, Anila; Marsh, Steven G E; Taylor, G Malcolm; Jarrett, Ruth F

    2015-09-01

    HLA genotyping and genome wide association studies provide strong evidence for associations between Human Leukocyte Antigen (HLA) alleles and classical Hodgkin lymphoma (cHL). Analysis of these associations is complicated by the extensive linkage disequilibrium within the major histocompatibility region and recent data suggesting that associations with EBV-positive and EBV-negative cHL are largely distinct. To distinguish independent and therefore potentially causal associations from associations confounded by linkage disequilibrium, we applied a variable selection regression modeling procedure to directly typed HLA class I and II genes and selected SNPs from EBV-stratified patient subgroups. In final models, HLA-A*01:01 and B*37:01 were associated with an increased risk of EBV-positive cHL whereas DRB1*15:01 and DPB1*01:01 were associated with decreased risk. Effects were independent of a prior history of infectious mononucleosis. For EBV-negative cHL the class II SNP rs6903608 remained the strongest predictor of disease risk after adjusting for the effects of common HLA alleles. Associations with "all cHL" and differences by case EBV status reflected the subgroup analysis. In conclusion, this study extends previous findings by identifying novel HLA associations with EBV-stratified subgroups of cHL, highlighting those alleles likely to be biologically relevant and strengthening evidence implicating genetic variation associated with the SNP rs6903608.

  8. Memory CD8(+) T cells elicited by HIV-1 lipopeptide vaccines display similar phenotypic profiles but differences in term of magnitude and multifunctionality compared with FLU- or EBV-specific memory T cells in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueiredo, Suzanne; Charmeteau, Benedicte; Surenaud, Mathieu; Salmon, Dominique; Launay, Odile; Guillet, Jean-Gérard; Hosmalin, Anne; Gahery, Hanne

    2014-01-16

    Differentiation marker, multifunctionality and magnitude analyses of specific-CD8(+) memory T cells are crucial to improve development of HIV vaccines designed to generate cell-mediated immunity. Therefore, we fully characterized the HIV-specific CD8(+) T cell responses induced in volunteers vaccinated with HIV lipopeptide vaccines for phenotypic markers, tetramer staining, cytokine secretion, and cytotoxic activities. The frequency of ex vivo CD8(+) T cells elicited by lipopeptide vaccines is very rare and central-memory phenotype and functions of these cells were been shown to be important in AIDS immunity. So, we expanded them using specific peptides to compare the memory T cell responses induced in volunteers by HIV vaccines with responses to influenza (FLU) or Epstein Barr virus (EBV). By analyzing the differentiation state of IFN-γ-secreting CD8(+) T cells, we found a CCR7(-)CD45RA(-)CD28(+int)/CD28(-) profile (>85%) belonging to a subset of intermediate-differentiated effector T cells for HIV, FLU, and EBV. We then assessed the quality of the response by measuring various T cell functions. The percentage of single IFN-γ T cell producers in response to HIV was 62% of the total of secreting T cells compared with 35% for FLU and EBV, dual and triple (IFN-γ/IL-2/CD107a) T cell producers could also be detected but at lower levels (8% compared with 37%). Finally, HIV-specific T cells secreted IFN-γ and TNF-α, but not the dual combination like FLU- and EBV-specific T cells. Thus, we found that the functional profile and magnitude of expanded HIV-specific CD8(+) T precursors were more limited than those of to FLU- and EBV-specific CD8(+) T cells. These data show that CD8(+) T cells induced by these HIV vaccines have a similar differentiation profile to FLU and EBV CD8(+) T cells, but that the vaccine potency to induce multifunctional T cells needs to be increased in order to improve vaccination strategies.

  9. [Significance of detecting the EBV-DNA level in peripheral blood mononuclear cells and the EBV-infected cell type in patients with chronic active EBV infection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Yan; Song, Hong-mei; Wu, Xiao-yan; Wang, Wei; Wei, Min

    2011-07-01

    To study the difference in the EBV-DNA level in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) and the type of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-infected cells in pediatric patients with chronic active EBV (CAEBV) infection, acute EBV infection (AEBV) and healthy children, and to analyze the relationship between the above difference and the clinical manifestation of CAEBV. Real-time fluorescent quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was used to detect the EBV-DNA levels in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) in 12 normal children, 10 pediatric patients with CAEBV infection and 13 pediatric patients with AEBV infection in our hospital between March 2004 and April 2008. Immunomagnetic bead cell fractionation and fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) by EBV encoding RNA-1 ( EBER-1) probe were used in the healthy children, EBV-DNA positive CAEBV patients and AEBV patients to detect the type of EBV-infected cells. The average EBV-DNA level in CAEBV patients' PBMC was (6.8 x 10(7) +/- 1.1 x 10(8)) copies/ml, while the average EBV-DNA level of AEBV patients' PBMC was (1.3 x 10(6) +/- 1.6 x 10(6)) copies/ml. The average EBV-DNA level of CAEBV infected patients' PBMC was significantly higher than that of AEBV infected patients' PBMC (Pblood cells. In 1 CAEBV patient the infection was mainly found in NK cells, who presented with hypersensitivity to mosquito biting and high IgE level (2500 U/ml). But EBV in seven AEBV patients infection was found only in B cells who presented with only IM for one time and no EBV-infected PBMC were found in the remaining 6 healthy children. There are much more EBV replications and different EBV-infected cell types in CAEBV patients. Detection of EBV-DNA level by real-time fluorescent quantitative PCR and the detection of the type of EBV-infected cells may help in diagnosis, treatment and development evaluation of children with CAEBV infection.

  10. Benevolent characteristics promote cooperative behaviour among humans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valerio Capraro

    Full Text Available Cooperation is fundamental to the evolution of human society. We regularly observe cooperative behaviour in everyday life and in controlled experiments with anonymous people, even though standard economic models predict that they should deviate from the collective interest and act so as to maximise their own individual payoff. However, there is typically heterogeneity across subjects: some may cooperate, while others may not. Since individual factors promoting cooperation could be used by institutions to indirectly prime cooperation, this heterogeneity raises the important question of who these cooperators are. We have conducted a series of experiments to study whether benevolence, defined as a unilateral act of paying a cost to increase the welfare of someone else beyond one's own, is related to cooperation in a subsequent one-shot anonymous Prisoner's dilemma. Contrary to the predictions of the widely used inequity aversion models, we find that benevolence does exist and a large majority of people behave this way. We also find benevolence to be correlated with cooperative behaviour. Finally, we show a causal link between benevolence and cooperation: priming people to think positively about benevolent behaviour makes them significantly more cooperative than priming them to think malevolently. Thus benevolent people exist and cooperate more.

  11. Prevention of EBV lymphoma development by oncolytic myxoma virus in a murine xenograft model of post-transplant lymphoproliferative disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Manbok; Rahman, Masmudur M; Cogle, Christopher R; McFadden, Grant

    2015-07-10

    Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) has been associated with a variety of epithelial and hematologic malignancies, including B-, T- and NK cell-lymphomas, Hodgkin's disease (HD), post-transplant lymphoproliferative diseases (LPDs), nasopharyngeal and gastric carcinomas, smooth muscle tumors, and HIV-associated lymphomas. Currently, treatment options for EBV-associated malignancies are limited. We have previously shown that myxoma virus specifically targets various human solid tumors and leukemia cells in a variety of animal models, while sparing normal human or murine tissues. Since transplant recipients of bone marrow or solid organs often develop EBV-associated post-transplant LPDs and lymphoma, myxoma virus may be of utility to prevent EBV-associated malignancies in immunocompromised transplant patients where treatment options are frequently limited. In this report, we demonstrate the safety and efficacy of myxoma virus purging as a prophylactic strategy for preventing post-transplant EBV-transformed human lymphomas, using a highly immunosuppressed mouse xenotransplantation model. This provides support for developing myxoma virus as a potential oncolytic therapy for preventing EBV-associated LPDs following transplantation of bone marrow or solid organ allografts.

  12. [Sequential monitoring of plasma EBV-DNA level in a patient with EBV-positive Hodgkin lymphoma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchida, Emi; Honma, Riko; Igarashi, Aiko; Kurata, Morito; Imadome, Ken-Ichi; Omoto, Eijiro; Miura, Osamu; Arai, Ayako

    2012-01-01

    A 58-year-old woman was admitted to our hospital because of fever, systemic lymphadenopathy with abnormal Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) antibody titers, and a high EBV-DNA load in the serum. She had been diagnosed as possibly having chronic active EBV infection (CAEBV) during a previous hospitalization. The EBV-DNA load of the plasma (pEBV-DNA), examined at our hospital, was elevated to 1.8×10(4) copies/ml, whereas that of the peripheral blood mononuclear cells was 3.4×10(1) copies/μg DNA, which was not clearly elevated, unlike in cases with CAEBV. Biopsy of the cervical lymph node was performed and the diagnosis of mixed cellularity classical Hodgkin lymphoma, Stage4B was made. Hodgkin cells were positive for EBV. COPP therapy was started and pEBV-DNA decreased drastically. The treatment was followed by ABVD therapy and pEBV-DNA turned negative after one course of ABVD therapy. She achieved complete response after 4 courses of the treatment. Reports from abroad indicate that pEBV-DNA parallels the disease state of EBV-positive Hodgkin lymphoma. Our results were consistent with these reports, and demonstrated that, in a Japanese patient, EBV-DNA load and its localization in the peripheral blood fractions could be useful tools for diagnosis as well as evaluating the disease status.

  13. Kinetics of Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV) Neutralizing and Virus-Specific Antibodies after Primary Infection with EBV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bu, Wei; Hayes, Gregory M; Liu, Hui; Gemmell, Lorraine; Schmeling, David O; Radecki, Pierce; Aguilar, Fiona; Burbelo, Peter D; Woo, Jennifer; Balfour, Henry H; Cohen, Jeffrey I

    2016-04-01

    Prospective studies of antibodies to multiple Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) proteins and EBV neutralizing antibodies in the same individuals before, during, and after primary EBV infection have not been reported. We studied antibody responses to EBV in college students who acquired primary EBV infection during prospective surveillance and correlated the kinetics of antibody response with the severity of disease. Neutralizing antibodies and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) antibodies to gp350, the major target of neutralizing antibody, reached peak levels at medians of 179 and 333 days after the onset of symptoms of infectious mononucleosis, respectively. No clear correlation was found between the severity of the symptoms of infectious mononucleosis and the peak levels of antibody to individual viral proteins or to neutralizing antibody. In summary, we found that titers of neutralizing antibody and antibodies to multiple EBV proteins increase over many months after primary infection with EBV.

  14. Molecular pathogenesis of EBV susceptibility in XLP as revealed by analysis of female carriers with heterozygous expression of SAP.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umaimainthan Palendira

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available X-linked lymphoproliferative disease (XLP is a primary immunodeficiency caused by mutations in SH2D1A which encodes SAP. SAP functions in signalling pathways elicited by the SLAM family of leukocyte receptors. A defining feature of XLP is exquisite sensitivity to infection with EBV, a B-lymphotropic virus, but not other viruses. Although previous studies have identified defects in lymphocytes from XLP patients, the unique role of SAP in controlling EBV infection remains unresolved. We describe a novel approach to this question using female XLP carriers who, due to random X-inactivation, contain both SAP(+ and SAP(- cells. This represents the human equivalent of a mixed bone marrow chimera in mice. While memory CD8(+ T cells specific for CMV and influenza were distributed across SAP(+ and SAP(- populations, EBV-specific cells were exclusively SAP(+. The preferential recruitment of SAP(+ cells by EBV reflected the tropism of EBV for B cells, and the requirement for SAP expression in CD8(+ T cells for them to respond to Ag-presentation by B cells, but not other cell types. The inability of SAP(- clones to respond to Ag-presenting B cells was overcome by blocking the SLAM receptors NTB-A and 2B4, while ectopic expression of NTB-A on fibroblasts inhibited cytotoxicity of SAP(- CD8(+ T cells, thereby demonstrating that SLAM receptors acquire inhibitory function in the absence of SAP. The innovative XLP carrier model allowed us to unravel the mechanisms underlying the unique susceptibility of XLP patients to EBV infection in the absence of a relevant animal model. We found that this reflected the nature of the Ag-presenting cell, rather than EBV itself. Our data also identified a pathological signalling pathway that could be targeted to treat patients with severe EBV infection. This system may allow the study of other human diseases where heterozygous gene expression from random X-chromosome inactivation can be exploited.

  15. Molecular Pathogenesis of EBV Susceptibility in XLP as Revealed by Analysis of Female Carriers with Heterozygous Expression of SAP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palendira, Umaimainthan; Low, Carol; Chan, Anna; Hislop, Andrew D.; Ho, Edwin; Phan, Tri Giang; Deenick, Elissa; Cook, Matthew C.; Riminton, D. Sean; Choo, Sharon; Loh, Richard; Alvaro, Frank; Booth, Claire; Gaspar, H. Bobby; Moretta, Alessandro; Khanna, Rajiv; Rickinson, Alan B.; Tangye, Stuart G.

    2011-01-01

    X-linked lymphoproliferative disease (XLP) is a primary immunodeficiency caused by mutations in SH2D1A which encodes SAP. SAP functions in signalling pathways elicited by the SLAM family of leukocyte receptors. A defining feature of XLP is exquisite sensitivity to infection with EBV, a B-lymphotropic virus, but not other viruses. Although previous studies have identified defects in lymphocytes from XLP patients, the unique role of SAP in controlling EBV infection remains unresolved. We describe a novel approach to this question using female XLP carriers who, due to random X-inactivation, contain both SAP+ and SAP− cells. This represents the human equivalent of a mixed bone marrow chimera in mice. While memory CD8+ T cells specific for CMV and influenza were distributed across SAP+ and SAP− populations, EBV-specific cells were exclusively SAP+. The preferential recruitment of SAP+ cells by EBV reflected the tropism of EBV for B cells, and the requirement for SAP expression in CD8+ T cells for them to respond to Ag-presentation by B cells, but not other cell types. The inability of SAP− clones to respond to Ag-presenting B cells was overcome by blocking the SLAM receptors NTB-A and 2B4, while ectopic expression of NTB-A on fibroblasts inhibited cytotoxicity of SAP− CD8+ T cells, thereby demonstrating that SLAM receptors acquire inhibitory function in the absence of SAP. The innovative XLP carrier model allowed us to unravel the mechanisms underlying the unique susceptibility of XLP patients to EBV infection in the absence of a relevant animal model. We found that this reflected the nature of the Ag-presenting cell, rather than EBV itself. Our data also identified a pathological signalling pathway that could be targeted to treat patients with severe EBV infection. This system may allow the study of other human diseases where heterozygous gene expression from random X-chromosome inactivation can be exploited. PMID:22069374

  16. Molecular pathogenesis of EBV susceptibility in XLP as revealed by analysis of female carriers with heterozygous expression of SAP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palendira, Umaimainthan; Low, Carol; Chan, Anna; Hislop, Andrew D; Ho, Edwin; Phan, Tri Giang; Deenick, Elissa; Cook, Matthew C; Riminton, D Sean; Choo, Sharon; Loh, Richard; Alvaro, Frank; Booth, Claire; Gaspar, H Bobby; Moretta, Alessandro; Khanna, Rajiv; Rickinson, Alan B; Tangye, Stuart G

    2011-11-01

    X-linked lymphoproliferative disease (XLP) is a primary immunodeficiency caused by mutations in SH2D1A which encodes SAP. SAP functions in signalling pathways elicited by the SLAM family of leukocyte receptors. A defining feature of XLP is exquisite sensitivity to infection with EBV, a B-lymphotropic virus, but not other viruses. Although previous studies have identified defects in lymphocytes from XLP patients, the unique role of SAP in controlling EBV infection remains unresolved. We describe a novel approach to this question using female XLP carriers who, due to random X-inactivation, contain both SAP(+) and SAP(-) cells. This represents the human equivalent of a mixed bone marrow chimera in mice. While memory CD8(+) T cells specific for CMV and influenza were distributed across SAP(+) and SAP(-) populations, EBV-specific cells were exclusively SAP(+). The preferential recruitment of SAP(+) cells by EBV reflected the tropism of EBV for B cells, and the requirement for SAP expression in CD8(+) T cells for them to respond to Ag-presentation by B cells, but not other cell types. The inability of SAP(-) clones to respond to Ag-presenting B cells was overcome by blocking the SLAM receptors NTB-A and 2B4, while ectopic expression of NTB-A on fibroblasts inhibited cytotoxicity of SAP(-) CD8(+) T cells, thereby demonstrating that SLAM receptors acquire inhibitory function in the absence of SAP. The innovative XLP carrier model allowed us to unravel the mechanisms underlying the unique susceptibility of XLP patients to EBV infection in the absence of a relevant animal model. We found that this reflected the nature of the Ag-presenting cell, rather than EBV itself. Our data also identified a pathological signalling pathway that could be targeted to treat patients with severe EBV infection. This system may allow the study of other human diseases where heterozygous gene expression from random X-chromosome inactivation can be exploited.

  17. CRISPR/Cas9-mediated genome editing of Epstein-Barr virus in human cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuen, Kit-San; Chan, Chi-Ping; Wong, Nok-Hei Mickey; Ho, Chau-Ha; Ho, Ting-Hin; Lei, Ting; Deng, Wen; Tsao, Sai Wah; Chen, Honglin; Kok, Kin-Hang; Jin, Dong-Yan

    2015-03-01

    The CRISPR (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats)/Cas9 (CRISPR-associated 9) system is a highly efficient and powerful tool for RNA-guided editing of the cellular genome. Whether CRISPR/Cas9 can also cleave the genome of DNA viruses such as Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), which undergo episomal replication in human cells, remains to be established. Here, we reported on CRISPR/Cas9-mediated editing of the EBV genome in human cells. Two guide RNAs (gRNAs) were used to direct a targeted deletion of 558 bp in the promoter region of BART (BamHI A rightward transcript) which encodes viral microRNAs (miRNAs). Targeted editing was achieved in several human epithelial cell lines latently infected with EBV, including nasopharyngeal carcinoma C666-1 cells. CRISPR/Cas9-mediated editing of the EBV genome was efficient. A recombinant virus with the desired deletion was obtained after puromycin selection of cells expressing Cas9 and gRNAs. No off-target cleavage was found by deep sequencing. The loss of BART miRNA expression and activity was verified, supporting the BART promoter as the major promoter of BART RNA. Although CRISPR/Cas9-mediated editing of the multicopy episome of EBV in infected HEK293 cells was mostly incomplete, viruses could be recovered and introduced into other cells at low m.o.i. Recombinant viruses with an edited genome could be further isolated through single-cell sorting. Finally, a DsRed selectable marker was successfully introduced into the EBV genome during the course of CRISPR/Cas9-mediated editing. Taken together, our work provided not only the first genetic evidence that the BART promoter drives the expression of the BART transcript, but also a new and efficient method for targeted editing of EBV genome in human cells.

  18. The Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) glycoprotein B cytoplasmic C-terminal tail domain regulates the energy requirement for EBV-induced membrane fusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jia; Zhang, Xianming; Jardetzky, Theodore S; Longnecker, Richard

    2014-10-01

    The entry of enveloped viruses into host cells is preceded by membrane fusion, which in Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is thought to be mediated by the refolding of glycoprotein B (gB) from a prefusion to a postfusion state. In our current studies, we characterized a gB C-terminal tail domain (CTD) mutant truncated at amino acid 843 (gB843). This truncation mutant is hyperfusogenic as monitored by syncytium formation and in a quantitative fusion assay and is dependent on gH/gL for fusion activity. gB843 can rescue the fusion function of other glycoprotein mutants that have null or decreased fusion activity in epithelial and B cells. In addition, gB843 requires less gp42 and gH/gL for fusion, and can function in fusion at a lower temperature than wild-type gB, indicating a lower energy requirement for fusion activation. Since a key step in fusion is the conversion of gB from a prefusion to an active postfusion state by gH/gL, gB843 may access this activated gB state more readily. Our studies indicate that the gB CTD may participate in the fusion function by maintaining gB in an inactive prefusion form prior to activation by receptor binding. Importance: Diseases resulting from Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection in humans range from the fairly benign disease infectious mononucleosis to life-threatening cancer. As an enveloped virus, EBV must fuse with a host cell membrane for entry and infection by using glycoproteins gH/gL, gB, and gp42. Among these glycoproteins, gB is thought to be the protein that executes fusion. To further characterize the function of the EBV gB cytoplasmic C-terminal tail domain (CTD) in fusion, we used a previously constructed CTD truncation mutant and studied its fusion activity in the context of other EBV glycoprotein mutants. From these studies, we find that the gB CTD regulates fusion by altering the energy requirements for the triggering of fusion mediated by gH/gL or gp42. Overall, our studies may lead to a better understanding of EBV fusion

  19. The clinical significance of EBV DNA in the plasma and peripheral blood mononuclear cells of patients with or without EBV diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanakry, Jennifer A; Hegde, Aparna M; Durand, Christine M; Massie, Allan B; Greer, Amy E; Ambinder, Richard F; Valsamakis, Alexandra

    2016-04-21

    Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is a ubiquitous virus that establishes a latent infection within the host and in some cases can lead to the development of EBV-associated lymphomas, lymphoproliferative disorders, hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis, solid tumors, and other diseases. We studied the clinical significance of detecting EBV DNA in the plasma and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of 2146 patients who had blood specimens sent to the Johns Hopkins Hospital clinical laboratory for viral quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction assay over a 5-year period. Within this largely immunocompromised and hospitalized cohort, 535 patients (25%) had EBV detected in plasma or PBMCs. When EBV was detected in the absence of an EBV(+)disease (n = 402), it was present only in PBMCs in 69% of cases. Immunocompromised patients were less likely to have EBV in plasma than in PBMCs in the absence of EBV(+)disease. In patients with active, systemic EBV(+)diseases (n = 105), EBV was detected in plasma in 99% of cases but detected in PBMCs in only 54%. Across a range of copy number cutoffs, EBV in plasma had higher specificity and sensitivity for EBV(+)disease as compared with EBV in PBMCs. EBV copy number in plasma distinguished untreated, EBV(+)lymphoma from EBV(+)lymphoma in remission and EBV(-)lymphoma, and also distinguished untreated, EBV(+)posttransplantation lymphoproliferative disorder (PTLD) from EBV(+)PTLD in remission and EBV(-)PTLD. EBV copy number quantification is a useful diagnostic marker across the spectrum of EBV(+)diseases, even among immunocompromised patients, with plasma specimens more indicative of EBV(+)disease than PBMCs.

  20. The Relationship between EBV Gene Methylation and Tumorigenesis%EB病毒基因甲基化与肿瘤的关系

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    路素丽

    2011-01-01

    EB virus ( EBV ) DNA methylation leads to genomic instability and plays an important role in tumorigenesis.EBV promoter is inactivated mainly due to the methylation of promoter.EBV gene hypermethylation helps EBV to escape from immune monitoring and persist in host cells.The speculation that EBV controls viral gene promoter through epigenetic mechanisms,in particular through the methylation of EBV genes to regulate expression of viral genes, thus,leads to tumorigenesis.The occurrence of EBV methylation is closely related to the development of many cancers.This article reviews the relationship between EBV gene methylation and tumorigenesis.%EB病毒(EBV)中DNA甲基化导致了基因组的不稳定,对肿瘤发生起着重要作用.EBV启动子的失活主要是由于启动子被甲基化,EBV基因的高甲基化状态有助于其逃避免疫系统的监视作用,并长期存在于宿主细胞内.推测EBV可能通过表观遗传机制调控病毒基因启动子,尤其是通过EBV基因甲基化状态来调控病毒基因的表达,从而导致肿瘤的发生.EBV甲基化与多种肿瘤的发生发展密切相关,在此对EBV基因甲基化与肿瘤的关系进行简要综述.

  1. Safeguarding and Promoting Human Rights and Building a Harmonious World

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN SHIQIU

    2007-01-01

    @@ It is the common wish of the people from all over the world as well as the inexorable demand for the progress of human society to build a harmonious world of lasting peace and common prosperity. Many preconditions are indispensable for building a harmonious world, one of which is to abide by the international laws on human rights and safeguard and promote human rights.

  2. Comparison of the artus Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) PCR kit and the Abbott RealTime EBV assay for measuring plasma EBV DNA loads in allogeneic stem cell transplant recipients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinuesa, Víctor; Solano, Carlos; Giménez, Estela; Navarro, David

    2017-02-24

    The ability of the artus Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) PCR kit and the Abbott RealTime EBV PCR assay to detect and quantify plasma EBV DNAemia was compared. The agreement between these assays was 95.8%. The EBV DNA loads measured by the two assays significantly correlated (P=< 0.0001).

  3. The application of humanization theory to health-promoting practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norton, Elizabeth

    2015-05-01

    It has been identified that if public health interventions do not account for what it means to be human, they are likely to fail. The aim of this article is to introduce humanization theory and to show how it can be applied to health-promoting practice. Health promotion can feature humanizing and dehumanizing elements, and these appear to impact on how people may (or may not) engage with interventions. The primary prevention of skin cancer in young people is an illustration of this. The practice implications of applying humanization theory to health promotion are potentially vast and complex; however, it is proposed that considering the dimensions of humanization may be a useful activity to inform the early stages of health-promotion intervention designs. Furthermore, developing the qualitative research evidence base about peoples' experiences of humanizing dimensions of health promotion would also be a valuable step towards ensuring that interventions account for the 'human dimension'. Applying humanization theory to the specific example of skin cancer prevention in young people has been a new venture but based on work so far, suggestions for humanizing principles for skin cancer prevention would need to be inclusive of the needs of young people, to support them and to involve them in research and intervention development.

  4. Finding human promoter groups based on DNA physical properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Jia; Cao, Xiao-Qin; Zhao, Hongya; Yan, Hong

    2009-10-01

    DNA rigidity is an important physical property originating from the DNA three-dimensional structure. Although the general DNA rigidity patterns in human promoters have been investigated, their distinct roles in transcription are largely unknown. In this paper, we discover four highly distinct human promoter groups based on similarity of their rigidity profiles. First, we find that all promoter groups conserve relatively rigid DNAs at the canonical TATA box [a consensus TATA(A/T)A(A/T) sequence] position, which are important physical signals in binding transcription factors. Second, we find that the genes activated by each group of promoters share significant biological functions based on their gene ontology annotations. Finally, we find that these human promoter groups correlate with the tissue-specific gene expression.

  5. Finding human promoter groups based on DNA physical properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Jia; Cao, Xiao-Qin; Zhao, Hongya; Yan, Hong

    2009-10-01

    DNA rigidity is an important physical property originating from the DNA three-dimensional structure. Although the general DNA rigidity patterns in human promoters have been investigated, their distinct roles in transcription are largely unknown. In this paper, we discover four highly distinct human promoter groups based on similarity of their rigidity profiles. First, we find that all promoter groups conserve relatively rigid DNAs at the canonical TATA box [a consensus TATA(A/T)A(A/T) sequence] position, which are important physical signals in binding transcription factors. Second, we find that the genes activated by each group of promoters share significant biological functions based on their gene ontology annotations. Finally, we find that these human promoter groups correlate with the tissue-specific gene expression.

  6. Deregressed EBV as the response variable yield more reliable genomic predictions than traditional EBV in pure-bred pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ostersen, Tage; Christensen, Ole Fredslund; Henryon, Mark

    2011-01-01

    Background Genomic selection can be implemented by a multi-step procedure, which requires a response variable and a statistical method. For pure-bred pigs, it was hypothesised that deregressed estimated breeding values (EBV) with the parent average removed as the response variable generate higher...... reliabilities of genomic breeding values than EBV, and that the normal, thick-tailed and mixture-distribution models yield similar reliabilities. Methods Reliabilities of genomic breeding values were estimated with EBV and deregressed EBV as response variables and under the three statistical methods, genomic...... and feed conversion ratio. Results Using deregressed EBV as the response variable yielded 18 to 39% higher reliabilities of the genomic breeding values than using EBV as the response variable. For daily gain, the increase in reliability due to deregression was significant and approximately 35%, whereas...

  7. Cross talk between EBV and telomerase: the role of TERT and NOTCH2 in the switch of latent/lytic cycle of the virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giunco, S; Celeghin, A; Gianesin, K; Dolcetti, R; Indraccolo, S; De Rossi, A

    2015-05-28

    Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-associated malignancies, as well as lymphoblastoid cell lines (LCLs), obtained in vitro by EBV infection of B cells, express latent viral proteins and maintain their ability to grow indefinitely through inappropriate activation of telomere-specific reverse transcriptase (TERT), the catalytic component of telomerase. Our previous studies demonstrated that high levels of TERT expression in LCLs prevent the activation of EBV lytic cycle, which is instead triggered by TERT silencing. As lytic infection promotes the death of EBV-positive tumor cells, understanding the mechanism(s) by which TERT affects the latent/lytic status of EBV may be important for setting new therapeutic strategies. BATF, a transcription factor activated by NOTCH2, the major NOTCH family member in B cells, negatively affects the expression of BZLF1, the master regulator of viral lytic cycle. We therefore analyzed the interplay between TERT, NOTCH and BATF in LCLs and found that high levels of endogenous TERT are associated with high NOTCH2 and BATF expression levels. In addition, ectopic expression of TERT in LCLs with low levels of endogenous telomerase was associated with upregulation of NOTCH2 and BATF at both mRNA and protein levels. By contrast, infection of LCLs with retroviral vectors expressing functional NOTCH2 did not alter TERT transcript levels. Luciferase reporter assays, demonstrated that TERT significantly activated NOTCH2 promoter in a dose-dependent manner. We also found that NF-κB pathway is involved in TERT-induced NOTCH2 activation. Lastly, pharmacologic inhibition of NOTCH signaling triggers the EBV lytic cycle, leading to the death of EBV-infected cells. Overall, these results indicate that TERT contributes to preserve EBV latency in B cells mainly through the NOTCH2/BAFT pathway, and suggest that NOTCH2 inhibition may represent an appealing therapeutic strategy against EBV-associated malignancies.

  8. Epstein-Barr virus-encoded small RNAs (EBERs) are present in fractions related to exosomes released by EBV-transformed cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Waqar; Philip, Pretty S; Tariq, Saeed; Khan, Gulfaraz

    2014-01-01

    Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is an oncogenic herpesvirus associated with a number of human malignancies of epithelial and lymphoid origin. However, the mechanism of oncogenesis is unclear. A number of viral products, including EBV latent proteins and non-protein coding RNAs have been implicated. Recently it was reported that EBV-encoded small RNAs (EBERs) are released from EBV infected cells and they can induce biological changes in cells via signaling from toll-like receptor 3. Here, we investigated if these abundantly expressed non-protein coding EBV RNAs (EBER-1 and EBER-2) are excreted from infected cells in exosomal fractions. Using differential ultracentrifugation we isolated exosomes from three EBV positive cell lines (B95-8, EBV-LCL, BL30-B95-8), one EBER-1 transfected cell line (293T-pHEBo-E1) and two EBV-negative cell lines (BL30, 293T-pHEBo). The identity of purified exosomes was determined by electron microscopy and western blotting for CD63. The presence of EBERs in cells, culture supernatants and purified exosomal fractions was determined using RT-PCR and confirmed by sequencing. Purified exosomal fractions were also tested for the presence of the EBER-1-binding protein La, using western blotting. Both EBER-1 and EBER-2 were found to be present not only in the culture supernatants, but also in the purified exosome fractions of all EBV-infected cell lines. EBER-1 could also be detected in exosomal fractions from EBER-1 transfected 293T cells whilst the fractions from vector only transfectants were clearly negative. Furthermore, purified exosomal fractions also contained the EBER-binding protein (La), supporting the notion that EBERs are most probably released from EBV infected cells in the form of EBER-La complex in exosomes.

  9. Epstein-Barr virus-encoded small RNAs (EBERs are present in fractions related to exosomes released by EBV-transformed cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waqar Ahmed

    Full Text Available Epstein-Barr virus (EBV is an oncogenic herpesvirus associated with a number of human malignancies of epithelial and lymphoid origin. However, the mechanism of oncogenesis is unclear. A number of viral products, including EBV latent proteins and non-protein coding RNAs have been implicated. Recently it was reported that EBV-encoded small RNAs (EBERs are released from EBV infected cells and they can induce biological changes in cells via signaling from toll-like receptor 3. Here, we investigated if these abundantly expressed non-protein coding EBV RNAs (EBER-1 and EBER-2 are excreted from infected cells in exosomal fractions. Using differential ultracentrifugation we isolated exosomes from three EBV positive cell lines (B95-8, EBV-LCL, BL30-B95-8, one EBER-1 transfected cell line (293T-pHEBo-E1 and two EBV-negative cell lines (BL30, 293T-pHEBo. The identity of purified exosomes was determined by electron microscopy and western blotting for CD63. The presence of EBERs in cells, culture supernatants and purified exosomal fractions was determined using RT-PCR and confirmed by sequencing. Purified exosomal fractions were also tested for the presence of the EBER-1-binding protein La, using western blotting. Both EBER-1 and EBER-2 were found to be present not only in the culture supernatants, but also in the purified exosome fractions of all EBV-infected cell lines. EBER-1 could also be detected in exosomal fractions from EBER-1 transfected 293T cells whilst the fractions from vector only transfectants were clearly negative. Furthermore, purified exosomal fractions also contained the EBER-binding protein (La, supporting the notion that EBERs are most probably released from EBV infected cells in the form of EBER-La complex in exosomes.

  10. Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection in epithelial cells in vivo: rare detection of EBV replication in tongue mucosa but not in salivary glands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frangou, Phroso; Buettner, Maike; Niedobitek, Gerald

    2005-01-15

    Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is transmitted through saliva, but the cellular source is controversial. Putative reservoirs include oral epithelium and salivary glands. Tongue mucosal samples, salivary glands, and tongue carcinomas were studied, by immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization, for evidence of EBV infection. EBV replication was seen in 1.3% of tongue mucosal samples. No latent infection was found at this site. EBV infection was detected neither in normal salivary glands nor in tongue carcinomas. Thus, EBV replication occurs infrequently in tongue epithelial cells, and salivary glands are unlikely to harbor EBV. EBV is unlikely to be involved in the pathogenesis of tongue cancer.

  11. Frequency of TERT promoter mutations in human cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinagre, João; Almeida, Ana; Pópulo, Helena; Batista, Rui; Lyra, Joana; Pinto, Vasco; Coelho, Ricardo; Celestino, Ricardo; Prazeres, Hugo; Lima, Luis; Melo, Miguel; da Rocha, Adriana Gaspar; Preto, Ana; Castro, Patrícia; Castro, Ligia; Pardal, Fernando; Lopes, José Manuel; Santos, Lúcio Lara; Reis, Rui Manuel; Cameselle-Teijeiro, José; Sobrinho-Simões, Manuel; Lima, Jorge; Máximo, Valdemar; Soares, Paula

    2013-01-01

    Reactivation of telomerase has been implicated in human tumorigenesis, but the underlying mechanisms remain poorly understood. Here we report the presence of recurrent somatic mutations in the TERT promoter in cancers of the central nervous system (43%), bladder (59%), thyroid (follicular cell-derived, 10%) and skin (melanoma, 29%). In thyroid cancers, the presence of TERT promoter mutations (when occurring together with BRAF mutations) is significantly associated with higher TERT mRNA expression, and in glioblastoma we find a trend for increased telomerase expression in cases harbouring TERT promoter mutations. Both in thyroid cancers and glioblastoma, TERT promoter mutations are significantly associated with older age of the patients. Our results show that TERT promoter mutations are relatively frequent in specific types of human cancers, where they lead to enhanced expression of telomerase.

  12. Nominal dysphasia and euphoria caused by EBV encephalitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carman, Kursat Bora; Yakut, Ayten; Ekici, Arzu; Isikay, Sedat

    2013-01-01

    Encephalitis is an uncommon neurological complication of Ebstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection and usually presents with confusion, decreased level of consciousness, fever, epileptic seizure, emotional instability and chorea. We present a patient with EBV encephalitis, characterised by nominal dysphasia, euphoria and personality changes. PMID:23307455

  13. Epigenetic regulation of transposable element derived human gene promoters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huda, Ahsan; Bowen, Nathan J; Conley, Andrew B; Jordan, I King

    2011-04-01

    It was previously thought that epigenetic histone modifications of mammalian transposable elements (TEs) serve primarily to defend the genome against deleterious effects associated with their activity. However, we recently showed that, genome-wide, human TEs can also be epigenetically modified in a manner consistent with their ability to regulate host genes. Here, we explore the ability of TE sequences to epigenetically regulate individual human genes by focusing on the histone modifications of promoter sequences derived from TEs. We found 1520 human genes that initiate transcription from within TE-derived promoter sequences. We evaluated the distributions of eight histone modifications across these TE-promoters, within and between the GM12878 and K562 cell lines, and related their modification status with the cell-type specific expression patterns of the genes that they regulate. TE-derived promoters are significantly enriched for active histone modifications, and depleted for repressive modifications, relative to the genomic background. Active histone modifications of TE-promoters peak at transcription start sites and are positively correlated with increasing expression within cell lines. Furthermore, differential modification of TE-derived promoters between cell lines is significantly correlated with differential gene expression. LTR-retrotransposon derived promoters in particular play a prominent role in mediating cell-type specific gene regulation, and a number of these LTR-promoter genes are implicated in lineage-specific cellular functions. The regulation of human genes mediated by histone modifications targeted to TE-derived promoters is consistent with the ability of TEs to contribute to the epigenomic landscape in a way that provides functional utility to the host genome.

  14. Hypoxia-inducible factor-1α plays roles in Epstein-Barr virus's natural life cycle and tumorigenesis by inducing lytic infection through direct binding to the immediate-early BZLF1 gene promoter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraus, Richard J; Yu, Xianming; Cordes, Blue-Leaf A; Sathiamoorthi, Saraniya; Iempridee, Tawin; Nawandar, Dhananjay M; Ma, Shidong; Romero-Masters, James C; McChesney, Kyle G; Lin, Zhen; Makielski, Kathleen R; Lee, Denis L; Lambert, Paul F; Johannsen, Eric C; Kenney, Shannon C; Mertz, Janet E

    2017-06-01

    When confronted with poor oxygenation, cells adapt by activating survival signaling pathways, including the oxygen-sensitive transcriptional regulators called hypoxia-inducible factor alphas (HIF-αs). We report here that HIF-1α also regulates the life cycle of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV). Incubation of EBV-positive gastric carcinoma AGS-Akata and SNU-719 and Burkitt lymphoma Sal and KemIII cell lines with a prolyl hydroxylase inhibitor, L-mimosine or deferoxamine, or the NEDDylation inhibitor MLN4924 promoted rapid and sustained accumulation of both HIF-1α and lytic EBV antigens. ShRNA knockdown of HIF-1α significantly reduced deferoxamine-mediated lytic reactivation. HIF-1α directly bound the promoter of the EBV primary latent-lytic switch BZLF1 gene, Zp, activating transcription via a consensus hypoxia-response element (HRE) located at nt -83 through -76 relative to the transcription initiation site. HIF-1α did not activate transcription from the other EBV immediate-early gene, BRLF1. Importantly, expression of HIF-1α induced EBV lytic-gene expression in cells harboring wild-type EBV, but not in cells infected with variants containing base-pair substitution mutations within this HRE. Human oral keratinocyte (NOK) and gingival epithelial (hGET) cells induced to differentiate by incubation with either methyl cellulose or growth in organotypic culture accumulated both HIF-1α and Blimp-1α, another cellular factor implicated in lytic reactivation. HIF-1α activity also accumulated along with Blimp-1α during B-cell differentiation into plasma cells. Furthermore, most BZLF1-expressing cells observed in lymphomas induced by EBV in NSG mice with a humanized immune system were located distal to blood vessels in hypoxic regions of the tumors. Thus, we conclude that HIF-1α plays central roles in both EBV's natural life cycle and EBV-associated tumorigenesis. We propose that drugs that induce HIF-1α protein accumulation are good candidates for development of a lytic

  15. Anti-Helicobacter pylori Antibody Profiles in Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-Positive and EBV-Negative Gastric Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camargo, M Constanza; Kim, Kyoung-Mee; Matsuo, Keitaro; Torres, Javier; Liao, Linda M; Morgan, Douglas R; Michel, Angelika; Waterboer, Tim; Zabaleta, Jovanny; Dominguez, Ricardo L; Yatabe, Yasushi; Kim, Sung; Rocha-Guevara, Erick R; Lissowska, Jolanta; Pawlita, Michael; Rabkin, Charles S

    2016-04-01

    Helicobacter pylori is the primary cause of gastric cancer, but about 9% of cases harbor Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) in the tumor cells. There is limited evidence on the possible interaction or antagonism between these infectious agents in gastric carcinogenesis. We compared H. pylori serologic profiles of EBV-positive (n = 58) and EBV-negative (n = 111) noncardia gastric cancer patients from the United States National Cancer Institute's International EBV-Gastric Cancer Consortium. EBV positivity of tumors was assessed by in situ hybridization. Serum levels of 15 antibodies to immunogenic proteins of H. pylori (Cad, CagA, Cagδ, CagM, Catalase, GroEL, HcpC, HP0231, HP0305, HpaA, HyuA, NapA, Omp, UreA, VacA) were assessed using bead-based multiplex serology. Logistic regression models were used to adjust odds ratios (OR) for country, age, sex, and year of diagnosis. Seropositivity to individual proteins ranged up to 90% overall. Antibodies to Catalase were borderline associated with tumor EBV positivity (adjusted OR = 3.15, p = .0024, Bonferroni corrected p = .036). Distributions of other antibodies did not vary by tumor EBV status. Similarity of host-response indicates the essential etiological role of H. pylori in EBV-positive gastric cancer. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Real-time Epstein-Barr virus PCR for the diagnosis of primary EBV infections and EBV reactivation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Luderer (Rianne); M. Kok (Marieke); H.G.M. Niesters (Bert); R. Schuurman (Rob); O. de Weerdt (Okke); S.F. Thijsen (Steven)

    2005-01-01

    textabstractBackground: The serological diagnosis of primary Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infections is often difficult, whereas the relevance of elevated immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies against early antigen (EA) for the diagnosis of EBV reactivation has increasingly become a matter of dispute. Recen

  17. Detection and quantification of EBV, HHV-6 and CMV DNA in the gastrointestinal tract of HIV-positive patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falasca, F; Maida, P; Gaeta, A; Verzaro, S; Mezzaroma, I; Fantauzzi, A; Donato, G; Bonci, E; Castilletti, C; Antonelli, G; Turriziani, O

    2014-12-01

    Human herpes viruses (HHVs) have been frequently detected in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract and may contribute to the development of gastric cancer. In the present study, the detection rate and viral load of Epstein Barr virus (EBV), HHV-6 and Cytomegalovirus (CMV) were assessed in the GI tract of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) positive patients and of uninfected patients. The analysis revealed a significantly higher detection rate of EBV and HHV-6 in HIV-infected individuals than in uninfected subjects (88.5 vs 63%; p = 0.03). Moreover, EBV DNA load was significantly higher in the stomach of HIV patients than in controls. These data suggest that the HIV infection status may increase the persistence of these viruses in the GI compartment. Intriguingly, CMV DNA was undetectable in all biopsy specimens analyzed.

  18. Delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) immune response related with EBV-DNA in nasopharyngeal carcinoma treated with autologous dendritic cell vaccination after radiotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Feng; Song, Dan; Lu, Yue; Zhu, Huanfeng; Chen, Zhenzhang; He, Xia

    2013-04-01

    The aim of this work was to investigate the outcome of an autologous dendritic cell (DC) vaccination in patients with stage II/III nasopharyngeal carcinomas (NPC). From 38 patients with stage II/III Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-associated NPCs after a radiotherapy, 16 human leukocyte antigen-A2 (HLA-A2)-positive patients were enrolled and medicated with autologous DCs, which were pulsed with HLA-A2-restricted EBV-encoded latent membrane protein 2A (LMP2A) peptides. The lymphocyte subsets, serum cytokines, and EBV-DNA levels as well as the delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) responses were determined after vaccination combined with a radiotherapy/chemotherapy. The serum levels of interleukin-2 and interferon-γ (PEBV LMP2A peptides in a DTH test. The serum EBV-DNA level decreased significantly from 1519 ± 384 to 1214 ± 211 copies/mL in the 9 DTH-positive patients (P=0.0310). No unanticipated or serious toxicity was observed and the vaccine was well tolerated. In conclusion, in NPC patients vaccinated after radiotherapy with autologous DCs, which were pulsed with EBV LMP2A peptides, Th1-specific immune responses were elicited particularly in DTH test positive individuals. The clinical results obtained are encouraging and the EBV-specific HLA-A2-restricted DC vaccination is a promising treatment for EBV-related NPCs.

  19. Do EBV Encoded Small RNAs Interfere with Tumor Suppressor APC in EBV Associated Breast Cancers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-08-01

    estrogen negative invasive breast cancers and in large numbers of rapidly growing fibroadenomas of the breast in immunocompromised patients.1-3 One...growing fibroadenomas of the breast in immuno-compromised patients. EBV is associated with variety of malignant diseases including Burkitt’s Lymphoma (BL...Tseng MD, Gutsch DE, et al. Detection of Epstein-Barr virus in rapidly growing fibroadenomas of the breast in immunosuppressed hosts. Modern Pathology

  20. Isolation of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-negative cell clones from the EBV-positive Burkitt's lymphoma (BL) line Akata: malignant phenotypes of BL cells are dependent on EBV.

    OpenAIRE

    1994-01-01

    During cultivation of the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-positive Burkitt's lymphoma (BL) line Akata, it was noted that EBV DNA is lost from some of the cells. Isolation of EBV-positive and EBV-negative clones with the same origin made it possible to examine the effects of EBV in BL cells. The results indicate that malignant phenotypes of BL, such as growth in low serum, anchorage-independent growth in soft agar, and tumorigenicity in nude mice, are dependent on the presence of EBV genomes and unde...

  1. Genome-wide analysis of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) isolated from EBV-associated gastric carcinoma (EBVaGC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ying; Yang, Wenjun; Pan, Yaqi; Ji, Jiafu; Lu, Zheming; Ke, Yang

    2016-01-26

    Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is linked to the development of a variety of malignancies, including EBV-associated gastric carcinoma (EBVaGC). In this study, EBVaGC was detected in 15 (7.3%) of 206 GC cases. To identify the EBV genomic variation, EBV genomic sequences isolated from 9 EBVaGC biopsy specimens were successfully retrieved, designated EBVaGC1 to EBVaGC9. By comparative analysis of these strains with another 6 completely sequenced EBV strains, EBV-wild type, B95-8, AG876, GD1, GD2, and HKNPC1, it was demonstrated that EBVaGC1 to 9 were most closely related to the GD1 strain. Phylogenetic analysis of the GC biopsy specimen-derived EBV (GC-EBV) genomes was subsequently performed to assess their genomic diversity and it exhibited the greatest divergence from the type 2 strain, AG876. Compared with the reference EBV strain GD1, they harbored 961 variations in total, including 919 substitutions, 23 insertions, and 19 deletions. Single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) density varied substantially across all known open reading frames and was highest in latency-associated genes. Moreover, we identified 2 interstrain recombinants at the EBNA1 locus, which provided a further mechanism for the generation of diversity. Some T-cell epitope sequences in EBNA1 and LMP2A genes showed extensive variation across strains, which implied their importance in the development of vaccines and T-cell therapy. In conclusion, we reported the first genome-wide view of sequence variation of EBV isolated from primary EBVaGC biopsy specimens, which might serve as an effective method for further understanding the genomic variations contribute to EBVaGC carcinogenesis and treatment.

  2. DNA structure in human RNA polymerase II promoters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Anders Gorm; Baldi, Pierre; Chauvin, Yves

    1998-01-01

    the high-bendability regions position nucleosomes at the downstream end of the transcriptional start point, and consider the possibility of interaction between histone-like TAFs and this area. We also propose the use of this structural signature in computational promoter-finding algorithms.......The fact that DNA three-dimensional structure is important for transcriptional regulation begs the question of whether eukaryotic promoters contain general structural features independently of what genes they control. We present an analysis of a large set of human RNA polymerase II promoters...... with a very low level of sequence similarity. The sequences, which include both TATA-containing and TATA-less promoters, are aligned by hidden Markov models. Using three different models of sequence-derived DNA bendability, the aligned promoters display a common structural profile with bendability being low...

  3. Cloning and characterization of the human USP22 gene promoter.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianjun Xiong

    Full Text Available Ubiquitin-specific processing enzyme 22 (USP22 plays a direct role in regulating cell cycle, and its overexpression has been reported to be involved in tumor progression. However, little is known about the regulation of USP22 transcription. In this study, we cloned and characterized the human USP22 promoter. Using 5' RACE (rapid amplification of cDNA ends analysis, the transcriptional initiation site was identified. Promoter deletion analysis showed that the sequence between -210 and -7 contains the basal promoter for USP22 in human fibroblast and tumor cells. Surprisingly, mutations in a putative Sp1 binding site immediately upstream of the USP22 transcriptional start site (-13 to -7 resulted in a significant induction of promoter activity. Further study revealed that Sp1 binds to this site in human normal fibroblast cells, and treatment with the Sp1 inhibitor mithramycin A led to a marked increase in USP22 transcript levels. Forced expression of exogenous Sp1 repressed the USP22 promoter activity in HeLa cells. In contrast, knockdown of Sp1 enhanced USP22 promoter activity and mRNA levels. These data suggest that Sp1 is a crucial regulator of USP22 transcription.

  4. Establishment and operation of a Good Manufacturing Practice-compliant allogeneic Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-specific cytotoxic cell bank for the treatment of EBV-associated lymphoproliferative disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vickers, Mark A; Wilkie, Gwen M; Robinson, Nicolas; Rivera, Nadja; Haque, Tanzina; Crawford, Dorothy H; Barry, Jacqueline; Fraser, Neil; Turner, David M; Robertson, Victoria; Dyer, Phil; Flanagan, Peter; Newlands, Helen R; Campbell, John; Turner, Marc L

    2014-11-01

    Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is associated with several malignancies, including post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder (PTLD). Conventional treatments for PTLD are often successful, but risk organ rejection and cause significant side effects. EBV-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) generated in vitro from peripheral blood lymphocytes provide an alternative treatment modality with few side effects, but autologous CTLs are difficult to use in clinical practice. Here we report the establishment and operation of a bank of EBV-specific CTLs derived from 25 blood donors with human leucocyte antigen (HLA) types found at high frequency in European populations. Since licensure, there have been enquiries about 37 patients, who shared a median of three class I and two class II HLA types with these donors. Cells have been infused into ten patients with lymphoproliferative disease, eight of whom achieved complete remission. Neither patient with refractory disease was matched for HLA class II. Both cases of EBV-associated non-haematopoietic sarcoma receiving cells failed to achieve complete remission. Thirteen patients died before any cells could be issued, emphasizing that the bank should be contacted before patients become pre-terminal. Thus, this third party donor-derived EBV-specific CTL cell bank can supply most patients with appropriately matched cells and most recipients have good outcomes.

  5. The lymphokine eosinophil stimulation promoter and human schistosomiasis mansoni.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazura, J W; Mahmoud, A A; Karb, K S; Warren, K S

    1975-12-01

    An in vitro assay for the new lymphokine eosinophil stimulation promoter has been adapted for use with human material. Peripheral eosinophils from patients with schistosomiasis mansoni were specifically induced to migrate on incubation with egg antigen. Furthermore, the peripheral lymphocytes of these patients on incubation with the egg antigen secreted the lymphokine eosinophil stimulation promoter, which enhanced the migration of purified eosinophils from patients with or without schistosomiasis. The test can be easily performed with human target cells and may be helpful for diagnostic or investigative purposes.

  6. Increased EBV Shedding in Astronaut Saliva During Spaceflight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierson, D. L.; Stowe, R. P.; Phillips, T.; Lugg, D. J.; Mehta, S. K.

    2003-01-01

    Shedding of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) by astronauts before, during, and after space shuttle missions was quantified. Of 1398 saliva specimens from 32 astronauts, 314 (23%) were positive for EBV DNA by PCR analysis. Of the saliva specimens collected before flight, 29% were positive for EBV DNA and of those collected during or after flight, 16% were EBV-positive. The number of EBV DNA copies from samples taken during the flight was 417+/-31, significantly higher (P EBV DNA with a frequency of 3.7% and a copy number of 40+/-2 per ml saliva. Ten days before flight and on landing day, antibody titers to EBV viral capsid antigen (VCA) were significantly (P < 0.05) higher than baseline levels. On landing day, urinary level of cortiso1 and catecholamines, and plasma levels of substance P and other neuropeptides, were increased over their preflight value. Results suggested that stress associated with spaceflight decreases cellular immunity and thereby leads to increased viral reactivation.

  7. Promoting human rights : National Human Rights Commissions in Indonesia and Malaysia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Setiawan, Ken Marijtje Prahari

    2013-01-01

    Since the 1990s, the number of National Human Rights Institutions (NHRIs) has grown rapidly worldwide. NHRIs are widely believed to be able to contribute to the realisation of human rights, by embedding international norms in domestic structures. Promoting Human Rights: National Human Rights

  8. Promoting human rights : National Human Rights Commissions in Indonesia and Malaysia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Setiawan, Ken Marijtje Prahari

    2013-01-01

    Since the 1990s, the number of National Human Rights Institutions (NHRIs) has grown rapidly worldwide. NHRIs are widely believed to be able to contribute to the realisation of human rights, by embedding international norms in domestic structures. Promoting Human Rights: National Human Rights Commi

  9. A promoter DNA demethylation landscape of human hematopoietic differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvanese, Vincenzo; Fernández, Agustín F; Urdinguio, Rocío G; Suárez-Alvarez, Beatriz; Mangas, Cristina; Pérez-García, Vicente; Bueno, Clara; Montes, Rosa; Ramos-Mejía, Verónica; Martínez-Camblor, Pablo; Ferrero, Cecilia; Assenov, Yassen; Bock, Christoph; Menendez, Pablo; Carrera, Ana Clara; Lopez-Larrea, Carlos; Fraga, Mario F

    2012-01-01

    Global mechanisms defining the gene expression programs specific for hematopoiesis are still not fully understood. Here, we show that promoter DNA demethylation is associated with the activation of hematopoietic-specific genes. Using genome-wide promoter methylation arrays, we identified 694 hematopoietic-specific genes repressed by promoter DNA methylation in human embryonic stem cells and whose loss of methylation in hematopoietic can be associated with gene expression. The association between promoter methylation and gene expression was studied for many hematopoietic-specific genes including CD45, CD34, CD28, CD19, the T cell receptor (TCR), the MHC class II gene HLA-DR, perforin 1 and the phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) and results indicated that DNA demethylation was not always sufficient for gene activation. Promoter demethylation occurred either early during embryonic development or later on during hematopoietic differentiation. Analysis of the genome-wide promoter methylation status of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) generated from somatic CD34(+) HSPCs and differentiated derivatives from CD34(+) HSPCs confirmed the role of DNA methylation in regulating the expression of genes of the hemato-immune system, and indicated that promoter methylation of these genes may be associated to stemness. Together, these data suggest that promoter DNA demethylation might play a role in the tissue/cell-specific genome-wide gene regulation within the hematopoietic compartment.

  10. Respecting and Promoting Human Rights And Constructing a Harmonious World

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIANG ZHENGHUA

    2007-01-01

    @@ ESITOR'S NOTE: An international symposium held in Beijing with the theme of "Respecting and Promoting Human Rights and Constructing a Harmonious World"was held in Beijing from November 22 to 24, 2006. The following are excerpts from the speeches and papers of some partcipants.

  11. Promoting Human Development through the Global Poverty Project

    OpenAIRE

    Franklin Obeng-Odoom

    2010-01-01

    The Global Poverty Project has been launched in Australia with the aim of promoting human development through the eradication of global poverty. Enjoying the support of the Australian government and the UN, the project has been enthusiastically covered by the media. Franklin Obeng-Odoom asks how the project proposes to end global poverty and questions the effectiveness of its framework?

  12. Promoting Instructional Improvement: A Strategic Human Resource Management Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smylie, Mark A.; Wenzel, Stacy A.

    2006-01-01

    This report argues that instructional improvement, which goes hand-in-hand with efforts at education reform, can be promoted through the strategic use of human resource management (HRM) practices at the school, district, and state levels. The authors present information from the organizational and management literatures on how firms in several…

  13. Amplification of Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV) DNA by Superinfection with a Strain of EBV Derived from Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma

    OpenAIRE

    1988-01-01

    Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) from a nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) hybrid cell line (NPC-KT) lacking defective viral DNA molecules superinfected Raji cells and induced EBV early antigens (EA), as did virus from P3HR-1 cells, which contained defective molecules. The EBV polypeptides induced by NPC-KT appeared to be identical to those induced by P3HR-1 virus. The ability of NPC-KT virus to induce EA was enhanced more than 10-fold by treatment of superinfected cells with dimethyl sulfoxide; however,...

  14. The Biology and Clinical Utility of EBV Monitoring in Blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanakry, Jennifer; Ambinder, Richard

    2015-01-01

    Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) DNA in blood can be quantified in peripheral blood mononuclear cells, in circulating cell-free (CCF) DNA specimens, or in whole blood. CCF viral DNA may be actively released or extruded from viable cells, packaged in virions or passively shed from cells during apoptosis or necrosis. In infectious mononucleosis, viral DNA is detected in each of these kinds of specimens, although it is only transiently detected in CCF specimens. In nasopharyngeal carcinoma, CCF EBV DNA is an established tumor marker. In EBV-associated Hodgkin lymphoma and in EBV-associated extranodal NK-/T-cell lymphoma, there is growing evidence for the utility of CCF DNA as a tumor marker.

  15. Cytokines and Epstein Barr virus (EBV) genes expression in blood chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL) cells and their immortalised CLL cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laytragoon-Lewin, Nongnit; Chen, Fu; Castro, Juan; Avila-Carino, Javier; Lewin, Freddi

    2003-01-01

    We have encountered two unique chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL) patients, PG and NN. Some blood CLL cells of these patients have been infected and carry Epstein Barr virus (EBV) in vivo. In spite of their early-activated G0/G1 stage of post germinal center (GC) memory cells, ex vivo EBV-carrying blood CLL cells of PG clone expressed LMPs and used specific QUK splice for their EBNA1 expression, similar to the EBV-carrying cells of non-B origin. Interestingly, EBV-carrying CLL cells of NN clone expressed LMP2a and used UK-splice for their EBNA1 expression, similar to the in vivo EBV-carrying high density normal B cells in the blood of healthy individuals. The CLL-derived lines but not normal lymphoblastoid cell line (LCL) used QUK- and YUK-splice for their EBNA1 expression. As expected, LCL and their permanent CLL-derived lines used Cp promoter and up-regulated their EBNA2 expression. Blood CLL cells and the CLL-derived cell lines of these patients spontaneously produced cytokines as shown by microarray assay. The types and quantities of cytokines might relate to their CLL origin and viral strain in the given CLL cells. Neither blood CLL nor their CLL-derived cell lines express any detectable apoptosis-inducer ligands, CD95L or Apo 3L. As a consequence of cell cycle progression, CLL-derived cell lines up-regulated their co-stimulator molecules CD80 and apoptosis-related receptor CD95. Since only the rare EBV-carrying CLL cells grew in vitro, the combination of viral genome and cytokines seems to be critical for the outgrowth of EBV-carrying CLL cells over their EBV-negative counterpart in vitro but not in vivo.

  16. Isolation and functional characterization of the human 90K promoter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brakebusch, C; Sures, I; Jallal, B;

    1999-01-01

    90K is a secreted protein thought to be involved in the body's defense against pathogens and cancer. To elucidate its transcriptional regulation, the promoter of human 90K (HGMW-approved symbol LGAL S3BP) was isolated and characterized. Analysis of the 3. 3-kb 5'-flanking region revealed that it ......90K is a secreted protein thought to be involved in the body's defense against pathogens and cancer. To elucidate its transcriptional regulation, the promoter of human 90K (HGMW-approved symbol LGAL S3BP) was isolated and characterized. Analysis of the 3. 3-kb 5'-flanking region revealed...... that it is a TATA-less promoter, but neither GC-rich nor dependent on SP1 sites. RNase protection assays detected one major transcription start site (+1) and several minor transcription start sites upstream and downstream. Deletion studies defined a minimal promoter (-103 --> -49) and indirectly suggested positive...... synergism between different elements within it. Consistent with the proposed function of 90K, its promoter activity could be stimulated by poly(I). poly(C), mimicking viral infection. Two regions mediating induction by poly(I). poly(C) (-171 --> -112, -32 --> 46) were identified by deletion mutants. A small...

  17. An Epstein-Barr virus encoded inhibitor of Colony Stimulating Factor-1 signaling is an important determinant for acute and persistent EBV infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohashi, Makoto; Fogg, Mark H; Orlova, Nina; Quink, Carol; Wang, Fred

    2012-12-01

    Acute Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection is the most common cause of Infectious Mononucleosis. Nearly all adult humans harbor life-long, persistent EBV infection which can lead to development of cancers including Hodgkin Lymphoma, Burkitt Lymphoma, nasopharyngeal carcinoma, gastric carcinoma, and lymphomas in immunosuppressed patients. BARF1 is an EBV replication-associated, secreted protein that blocks Colony Stimulating Factor 1 (CSF-1) signaling, an innate immunity pathway not targeted by any other virus species. To evaluate effects of BARF1 in acute and persistent infection, we mutated the BARF1 homologue in the EBV-related herpesvirus, or lymphocryptovirus (LCV), naturally infecting rhesus macaques to create a recombinant rhLCV incapable of blocking CSF-1 (ΔrhBARF1). Rhesus macaques orally challenged with ΔrhBARF1 had decreased viral load indicating that CSF-1 is important for acute virus infection. Surprisingly, ΔrhBARF1 was also associated with dramatically lower virus setpoints during persistent infection. Normal acute viral load and normal viral setpoints during persistent rhLCV infection could be restored by Simian/Human Immunodeficiency Virus-induced immunosuppression prior to oral inoculation with ΔrhBARF1 or infection of immunocompetent animals with a recombinant rhLCV where the rhBARF1 was repaired. These results indicate that BARF1 blockade of CSF-1 signaling is an important immune evasion strategy for efficient acute EBV infection and a significant determinant for virus setpoint during persistent EBV infection.

  18. An Epstein-Barr virus encoded inhibitor of Colony Stimulating Factor-1 signaling is an important determinant for acute and persistent EBV infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Makoto Ohashi

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Acute Epstein-Barr virus (EBV infection is the most common cause of Infectious Mononucleosis. Nearly all adult humans harbor life-long, persistent EBV infection which can lead to development of cancers including Hodgkin Lymphoma, Burkitt Lymphoma, nasopharyngeal carcinoma, gastric carcinoma, and lymphomas in immunosuppressed patients. BARF1 is an EBV replication-associated, secreted protein that blocks Colony Stimulating Factor 1 (CSF-1 signaling, an innate immunity pathway not targeted by any other virus species. To evaluate effects of BARF1 in acute and persistent infection, we mutated the BARF1 homologue in the EBV-related herpesvirus, or lymphocryptovirus (LCV, naturally infecting rhesus macaques to create a recombinant rhLCV incapable of blocking CSF-1 (ΔrhBARF1. Rhesus macaques orally challenged with ΔrhBARF1 had decreased viral load indicating that CSF-1 is important for acute virus infection. Surprisingly, ΔrhBARF1 was also associated with dramatically lower virus setpoints during persistent infection. Normal acute viral load and normal viral setpoints during persistent rhLCV infection could be restored by Simian/Human Immunodeficiency Virus-induced immunosuppression prior to oral inoculation with ΔrhBARF1 or infection of immunocompetent animals with a recombinant rhLCV where the rhBARF1 was repaired. These results indicate that BARF1 blockade of CSF-1 signaling is an important immune evasion strategy for efficient acute EBV infection and a significant determinant for virus setpoint during persistent EBV infection.

  19. Estrogen sulfotransferase/SULT1E1 promotes human adipogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ihunnah, Chibueze A; Wada, Taira; Philips, Brian J; Ravuri, Sudheer K; Gibbs, Robert B; Kirisci, Levent; Rubin, J Peter; Marra, Kacey G; Xie, Wen

    2014-05-01

    Estrogen sulfotransferase (EST/SULT1E1) is known to catalyze the sulfoconjugation and deactivation of estrogens. The goal of this study is to determine whether and how EST plays a role in human adipogenesis. By using human primary adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs) and whole-fat tissues from the abdominal subcutaneous fat of obese and nonobese subjects, we showed that the expression of EST was low in preadipocytes but increased upon differentiation. Overexpression and knockdown of EST in ASCs promoted and inhibited differentiation, respectively. The proadipogenic activity of EST in humans was opposite to the antiadipogenic effect of the same enzyme in rodents. Mechanistically, EST promoted adipogenesis by deactivating estrogens. The proadipogenic effect of EST can be recapitulated by using an estrogen receptor (ER) antagonist or ERα knockdown. In contrast, activation of ER in ASCs inhibited adipogenesis by decreasing the recruitment of the adipogenic peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) onto its target gene promoters, whereas ER antagonism increased the recruitment of PPARγ to its target gene promoters. Linear regression analysis revealed a positive correlation between the expression of EST and body mass index (BMI), as well as a negative correlation between ERα expression and BMI. We conclude that EST is a proadipogenic factor which may serve as a druggable target to inhibit the turnover and accumulation of adipocytes in obese patients.

  20. Mechanosensitive promoter region in the human HB-GAM gene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liedert, Astrid; Kassem, Moustapha; Claes, Lutz;

    2009-01-01

    expression through specific transcription factor binding sites in the promoter region of mechanosensitive genes. In the present study, we demonstrate that the expression of HB-GAM, which is known to have stimulating effects on osteogenic differentiation, is rapidly induced by mechanical loading in hMSC-TERT4...... cells. Analysis of the human HB-GAM gene upstream regulatory region with luciferase reporter gene assays revealed that the upregulation of HB-GAM expression occurred at the transcriptional level and was mainly dependent on the HB-GAM promoter region most upstream containing three potential AP-1 binding...

  1. Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-positive sporadic burkitt lymphoma: an age-related lymphoproliferative disorder?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satou, Akira; Asano, Naoko; Nakazawa, Atsuko; Osumi, Tomoo; Tsurusawa, Masahito; Ishiguro, Atsushi; Elsayed, Ahmed Ali; Nakamura, Naoya; Ohshima, Koichi; Kinoshita, Tomohiro; Nakamura, Shigeo

    2015-02-01

    Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is detected in 20% to 30% of sporadic Burkitt lymphoma (sBL). However, only a few studies of EBV-positive (EBV) sBL have been reported, and its characteristics still remain controversial. To highlight the features of EBV sBL, we compared the clinicopathologic characteristics of 33 cases of EBV and 117 cases of EBV-negative (EBV) sBL in Japan. EBV sBL showed significantly higher age distribution (median, 42 vs. 13 y; PEBV group showed significantly higher incidence of involvement of tonsil (P=0.027), adrenal gland (P=0.011), and cervical lymph node (P=0.040). In addition, the EBV group tended to have higher incidence of nodal involvement (P=0.078) and involvement of para-aorta lymph node (P=0.084) and heart (P=0.050). In contrast, the gastrointestinal tract was less frequently affected in EBV sBL (P=0.024). In addition, the less positivity for MUM1 (P=0.020) of EBV sBL was highlighted. These results indicate that biological behavior and pathogenesis of EBV sBL might be different from those of EBV sBL. Our results demonstrate that EBV sBL has an aspect of age-related disease and is a distinct clinicopathologic subtype, which should be distinguished from EBV sBL.

  2. Is gastric lymphoepithelioma-like carcinoma a special subtype of EBV-associated gastric carcinoma? New insight based on clinicopathological features and EBV genome polymorphisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Na; Hui, Da-yang; Liu, Yong; Zhang, Na-na; Jiang, Ye; Han, Jing; Li, Hai-Gang; Ding, Yun-Gang; Du, Hong; Chen, Jian-Ning; Shao, Chun-Kui

    2015-04-01

    Gastric lymphoepithelioma-like carcinoma (LELC) is a rare entity that is closely associated with Epstein-Barr virus (EBV). However, the EBV latency pattern and genome polymorphisms in gastric LELC have not been systematically explored. The clinicopathological features, EBV latency pattern and genome polymorphisms of EBV-positive gastric LELC in Guangzhou, southern China were investigated and compared with those of ordinary EBV-associated gastric carcinoma (EBVaGC) in the same area. Ten (1.42%) of 702 gastric carcinoma cases were identified as gastric LELC, in which eight (80%) cases were EBV-positive. The clinicopathological characteristics and EBV latency pattern of EBV-positive gastric LELC were similar to those of ordinary EBVaGC. In EBV genotype analysis, type A strain, type F, I, mut-W1/I, XhoI- and del-LMP1 variants were predominant among EBV-positive gastric LELCs, accounting for eight (100%), six (75%), eight (100%), seven (87.5%), five (62.5%) and six (75%) cases, respectively, which are similar to those in ordinary EBVaGC. For EBNA1 polymorphisms, the V-leu and P-ala subtypes were predominant in EBV-positive gastric LELC, which is different from the predominant V-val subtype in ordinary EBVaGC. EBV-positive gastric LELC has a favorable prognosis when compared to ordinary EBVaGC (median survival time 43.0 vs. 18.0 months). Gastric LELC is strongly associated with EBV and EBV-positive gastric LELC should be regarded as a special subtype of EBVaGC. This, to our best knowledge, is the first time in the world that the EBV latency pattern and genome polymorphisms of EBV-positive gastric LELC are systematically revealed.

  3. Variable EBV DNA Load Distributions and Heterogeneous EBV mRNA Expression Patterns in the Circulation of Solid Organ versus Stem Cell Transplant Recipients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Greijer, A. E.; Stevens, S. J.; Verkuijlen, S. A.; Juwana, H.; Fleig, S. C.; Verschuuren, E. A.; Hepkema, B. G.; Cornelissen, J. J.; Brooimans, R. A.; Verdonck, L. F.; Middeldorp, J. M.

    2012-01-01

    Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) driven post-transplant lymphoproliferative disease (PTLD) is a heterogeneous and potentially life-threatening condition. Early identification of aberrant EBV activity may prevent progression to B-cell lymphoma. We measured EBV DNA load and RNA profiles in plasma and cellular

  4. Variable EBV DNA load distributions and heterogeneous EBV mRNA expression patterns in the circulation of solid organ versus stem cell transplant recipients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.E. Greijer; S.J. Stevens; S.A. Verkuijlen; H. Juwana; S.C. Fleig; E.A. Verschuuren; B.G. Hepkema (Bouke); J.J. Cornelissen (Jan); R.A. Brooimans (Rik); L.F. Verdonck (Leo); J.M. Middeldorp (Jaap)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractEpstein-Barr virus (EBV) driven post-transplant lymphoproliferative disease (PTLD) is a heterogeneous and potentially life-threatening condition. Early identification of aberrant EBV activity may prevent progression to B-cell lymphoma. We measured EBV DNA load and RNA profiles in plasma

  5. Plasma EBV-DNA monitoring in Epstein-Barr virus-positive Hodgkin lymphoma patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spacek, Martin; Hubacek, Petr; Markova, Jana; Zajac, Miroslav; Vernerova, Zdenka; Kamaradova, Katerina; Stuchly, Jan; Kozak, Tomas

    2011-01-01

    Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is associated with approximately one-third of Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) cases. EBV-DNA is often present in the plasma and whole blood of EBV-associated HL patients. However, the significance of EBV-DNA monitoring is debated. In a cohort of 165 adult HL patients, EBV-DNA viral load was prospectively monitored both in the plasma and whole blood. Diagnostic tissue samples of all patients were histologically reviewed; in 72% nodular sclerosis was detected, 24% presented with mixed cellularity (MC), and 5% had other type of HL. Tissues from 150 patients were also analyzed for the presence of latent EBV infection using in situ hybridization for EBV-encoded RNA (EBER) and immunohistochemistry for latent membrane protein (LMP1). Using these methods, 29 (19%) patients were classified as EBV positive. Using real-time quantitative PCR, 22 (76%) of EBV-positive HL patients had detectable EBV-DNA in the plasma and 19 (66%) patients in whole blood prior to therapy. In the group of EBV-negative HL cases, three (2%) patients had detectable plasma EBV-DNA and 30 (25%) patients whole blood EBV-DNA before treatment. EBV-positive HL was significantly associated with EBV-DNA positivity both in the plasma and whole blood in pretreatment samples, increasing age and MC subtype. Serial analysis of plasma EBV-DNA showed that response to therapy was associated with decline in viral load. Moreover, significantly increased plasma EBV-DNA level recurred before disease relapse in one patient. Our results further suggest that the assessment of plasma EBV-DNA viral load might be of value for estimation of prognosis and follow-up of patients with EBV-positive HL.

  6. Multiple distinct stimuli increase measured nucleosome occupancy around human promoters.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuong D Pham

    Full Text Available Nucleosomes can block access to transcription factors. Thus the precise localization of nucleosomes relative to transcription start sites and other factor binding sites is expected to be a critical component of transcriptional regulation. Recently developed microarray approaches have allowed the rapid mapping of nucleosome positions over hundreds of kilobases (kb of human genomic DNA, although these approaches have not yet been widely used to measure chromatin changes associated with changes in transcription. Here, we use custom tiling microarrays to reveal changes in nucleosome positions and abundance that occur when hormone-bound glucocorticoid receptor (GR binds to sites near target gene promoters in human osteosarcoma cells. The most striking change is an increase in measured nucleosome occupancy at sites spanning ∼1 kb upstream and downstream of transcription start sites, which occurs one hour after addition of hormone, but is lost at 4 hours. Unexpectedly, this increase was seen both on GR-regulated and GR-non-regulated genes. In addition, the human SWI/SNF chromatin remodeling factor (a GR co-activator was found to be important for increased occupancy upon hormone treatment and also for low nucleosome occupancy without hormone. Most surprisingly, similar increases in nucleosome occupancy were also seen on both regulated and non-regulated promoters during differentiation of human myeloid leukemia cells and upon activation of human CD4+ T-cells. These results indicate that dramatic changes in chromatin structure over ∼2 kb of human promoters may occur genomewide and in response to a variety of stimuli, and suggest novel models for transcriptional regulation.

  7. Glutamine analogs promote cytoophidium assembly in human and Drosophila cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kangni Chen; Jing Zhang; (O)mür Yilmaz Tastan; Zillah Anne Deussen; Mayte Yu-Yin Siswick; Ji-Long Liu

    2011-01-01

    CTP synthase is compartmentalized within a subcellular structure,termed the cytoophidium,in a range of organisms including bacteria,yeast,fruit fly and rat.Here we show that CTP synthase is also compartmentalized into cytoophidia in human cells.Surprisingly,the occurrence of cyloophidia in human cells increases upon treatment with a glutamine analog 6-diazo-5-oxo-L-norleucine (DON),an inhibitor of glutaminedependent enzymes including CTP synthase.Experiments in flies confirmned that DON globally promotes cytoophidium assembly.Clonal analysis via CTP synthase RNA interference in somatic cells indicates that CTP synthase expression level is critical for the formation of cytoophidia.Moreover,DON facilitates cytoophidium assembly even when CTP synthase level is low.A second glutamine analog azaserine also promotes cytoophidum formation.Our data demonstrate that glutamine analogs serve as useful tools in the study of cytoophidia.

  8. Properties of an EBV-B cell line derived interleukin 1 (IL 1) receptor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsushima, K.; Akahoshi, T.; Yamada, M.; Furutani, Y.; Oppenheim, J.J.

    1986-03-01

    The properties of an human IL 1 receptor on a human EBV-B line were studied. Purified human IL 1-..beta.. produced by a myelomonocytic cell line (THP-1) was labeled with /sup 125/I by the Bolton-Hunter method without loss of biological activity. Among four EBV-B cell lines tested, a pre-B cell type (VDS-O) specifically bound the most /sup 125/I IL-..beta... Maximal binding was reached within 20 min at 4/sup 0/C. Scatchard analysis of the binding of /sup 125/I-IL 1-..beta.. to VDS-O cells yielded a Kd of 2.4-5.9 x 10/sup -00/ M with 110 to 220 binding (receptor) sites/cell. The binding of /sup 125/I-IL 1-..beta.. to VDS-O cells was inhibited by anti-human IL 1 antibody, natural and recombinant human IL 1-..cap alpha.. as well as IL 1-..beta.., but not by IFN-..cap alpha.., TNF, or LT, suggesting that IL 1-..cap alpha.. and IL 1-..beta.. specifically bind to the same receptor. The mw of the IL 1 receptor on human EBV-B cells was estimated to be 60 Kd both by a chemical crosslinking method and by HPLC gel filtration analysis of solubilized receptor extracted from membranes by a nonionic detergent (CHAPS). The pI of solubilized human IL 1 receptor was 7.3 by HPLC chromatofocusing. Data showing that VDS-O cells proliferate in response to exogenously added IL 1, express IL 1 receptors and also produce IL 1 all support the hypothesis that IL 1 may function as an autocrine signal for B lymphocytes.

  9. Promoting human rights: National Human Rights Commissions in Indonesia and Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Setiawan, Ken Marijtje Prahari

    2013-01-01

    Since the 1990s, the number of National Human Rights Institutions (NHRIs) has grown rapidly worldwide. NHRIs are widely believed to be able to contribute to the realisation of human rights, by embedding international norms in domestic structures. Promoting Human Rights: National Human Rights Commissions in Indonesia and Malaysia addresses this issue by a comparative analysis of two NHRIs in Southeast Asia. It traces the development of both organisations since their inception, as well as their...

  10. Prognostic significance of EBV latent membrane protein 1 expression in lymphomas: evidence from 15 studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan Mao

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Epstein-Barr virus (EBV infection has been associated with lymphoma development. EBV latent membrane protein 1 (LMP1 is essential for EBV-mediated transformation and progression of different human cells, including lymphocytes. This meta-analysis investigated LMP1 expression with prognosis of patients with lymphoma. METHODS: The electronic databases of PubMed, Embase, and Chinese Biomedicine Databases were searched. There were 15 published studies available for a random effects model analysis. Quality assessment was performed using the Newcastle-Ottawa Quality Assessment Scale for cohort studies. A funnel plot was used to investigate publication bias, and sources of heterogeneity were identified by meta-regression analysis. The combined hazard ratios (HR and their corresponding 95% confidence intervals of LMP1 expression were calculated by comparison to the overall survival. RESULTS: Overall, there was no statistical significance found between LMP1 expression and survival of lymphoma patients (HR 1.25 [95% CI, 0.92-1.68]. In subgroup analyses, LMP1 expression was associated with survival in patients with non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL (HR = 1.84, 95% CI: 1.02-3.34, but not with survival of patients with Hodgkin disease (HD (HR = 1.03, 95% CI: 0.74-1.44. In addition, significant heterogeneity was present and the meta-regression revealed that the outcome of analysis was mainly influenced by the cutoff value. CONCLUSIONS: This meta-analysis demonstrated that LMP1 expression appears to be an unfavorable prognostic factor for overall survival of NHL patients. The data suggested that EBV infection and LMP1 expression may be an important factor for NHL development or progression.

  11. Individuazione di un nuovo marker da impiegare per una corretta stadiazione dell’infezione da EBV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luana Coltella

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Epstein Barr Virus (EBV, also classified as Human Herpes Virus 4, infects the vast majority of adults worldwide and establishes both non-productive (latent and productive (lytic infection. Classical EBV diagnosis includes quantitative determination of viral DNA and serological analysis, based on the determination of IgG and IgM responses against the viral capsid antigen (VCA and the IgG response against the EBV nuclear antigen-1 (EBNA-1. EBV-serology can be misleading in some cases, such as acute infections with low or undetectable VCA IgM, convalescent patients with persistent or reactivated VCA IgM and negative anti- EBNA-1 IgG, due to a loss of this marker during immunosuppression. In all these cases avidity determination of IgG is helpful to prevent false diagnosis. Avidity represents the stability of the antigen-antibody interaction. Its value increases during the infection, so high avidity never associates with a primary acute infection. We studied the importance of avidity determination of p18 (VCA-IgG to achieve unequivocal interpretation of serological results. The amount of IgG and IgM is determined by Chemiluminescent Immune Assay (CLIA, a rapid and highly sensitive method suitable for automation. The intensity of luminous signal produced by antibody-antigen recognition is expressed as Relative Light Unit (RLU. p-18 IgG is determined using a recombinant p18 antigen expressed in E. coli. Avidity index is determined in CLIA by the ratio between denaturated and not denaturated IgG specific antibodies expressed in RLU. These results demonstrate that avidity determination represents an important additional marker particularly in cases with aberrant serological profile.

  12. α-Helix peptides designed from EBV-gH protein display higher antigenicity and induction of monocyte apoptosis than the native peptide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urquiza, Mauricio; Melo-Cardenas, Johanna; Guevara, Tatiana; Echeverria, Ignacia; Rodriguez, Isabel C; Vanegas, Magnolia; Amzel, Mario; Patarroyo, Manuel E

    2010-11-01

    We tested the hypothesis that stabilizing α-helix of Epstein-Barr virus gH-derived peptide 11438 used for binding human cells will increase its biological activity. Non-stable α-helix of peptide 11438 was unfolded in an entropy-driven process, despite the opposing effect of the enthalpy factor. Adding and/or changing amino acids in peptide 11438 allowed the designing of peptides 33207, 33208 and 33210; peptides 33208 and 33210 displayed higher helical content due to a decreased unfolding entropy change as was determined by AGADIR, molecular dynamics and circular dichroism analysis. Peptides 33207, 33208 and 33210 inhibited EBV invasion of peripheral blood mononuclear cells and displayed epitopes more similar to native protein than peptide 11438; these peptides could be useful for detecting antibodies induced by native gH protein since they displayed high reactivity with anti-EBV antibodies. Anti-peptide 33207 antibodies showed higher reactivity with EBV than anti-peptide 11438 antibodies being useful for inducing antibodies against EBV. Anti-peptide 33210 antibodies inhibit EBV invasion of epithelial cells better than anti-peptide 11438 antibodies. Peptide 33210 bound to normal T lymphocytes and Raji cells stronger than peptide 11438 and also induced apoptosis of monocytes and Raji cells but not of normal T cells in a similar way to EBV-gH. Peptide 33210 inhibited the monocytes' development toward dendritic cells better than EBV and peptide 11438. In conclusion, stabilizing the α-helix in peptides 33208 and 33210 designed from peptide 11438 increased the antigenicity and the ability of the antibodies induced by peptides of inhibiting EBV invasion of host cells.

  13. 转导EB病毒转录的核内小RNA促进OSC-19细胞恶性化%Malignant transformation of a human oral squamous cell carcinoma cell strain OSC-19 by EBV encoded small RNAs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任庆春; 佐藤博; 吕宏光

    2004-01-01

    目的:通过转导EB病毒(EBV)转录的核内小RNA(EBERs)探讨其对舌癌细胞株OSC-19细胞生长特性的影响.方法:EBERs基因编码区序列是利用聚合酶链反应(PCR)技术从EB病毒阳性的鼻咽癌(NPC)细胞株NPC-KT细胞中扩增出.为了在细胞内大量表达EBERs,利用分子生物学技术制作了EBERs片段的4次重复排列4EBERs和10次重复排列10EBERs,分别亚克隆到pCEP4载体质粒并转染OSC-19细胞.利用Northern Blot法确定细胞内EBERs的表达后,对EBERs转染后的OSC-19细胞在培养中的生长特性、软琼脂中的细胞克隆的形成进行了观察.结果:在培养中大量表达EBERs的OSC-19细胞之间丧失了细胞间的相互连接,细胞呈纺锤状,并在软琼脂中形成大量细胞克隆.而非表达EBERs的OSC-19细胞没有发现细胞生长特性的改变,在软琼脂中没有形成大量细胞克隆.结论:EBERs的大量表达可以导致OSC-19细胞的分散活性和基质非依赖性,提示EBERs在上皮细胞株OSC-19细胞中有致癌作用;大量表达EBERs的OSC-19细胞为进一步研究EBERs的作用提供了一个有用的上皮细胞模型.

  14. The Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-encoded protein kinase, EBV-PK, but not the thymidine kinase (EBV-TK), is required for ganciclovir and acyclovir inhibition of lytic viral production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Qiao; Hagemeier, Stacy R; Fingeroth, Joyce D; Gershburg, Edward; Pagano, Joseph S; Kenney, Shannon C

    2010-05-01

    Ganciclovir (GCV) and acyclovir (ACV) are guanine nucleoside analogues that inhibit lytic herpesvirus replication. GCV and ACV must be monophosphorylated by virally encoded enzymes to be converted into nucleotides and incorporated into viral DNA. However, whether GCV and/or ACV phosphorylation in Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-infected cells is mediated primarily by the EBV-encoded protein kinase (EBV-PK), the EBV-encoded thymidine kinase (EBV-TK), or both is controversial. To examine this question, we constructed EBV mutants containing stop codons in either the EBV-PK or EBV-TK open reading frame and selected for stable 293T clones latently infected with wild-type EBV or each of the mutant viruses. Cells were induced to the lytic form of viral replication with a BZLF1 expression vector in the presence and absence of various doses of GCV and ACV, and infectious viral titers were determined by a green Raji cell assay. As expected, virus production in wild-type EBV-infected 293T cells was inhibited by both GCV (50% inhibitory concentration [IC(50)] = 1.5 microM) and ACV (IC(50) = 4.1 microM). However, the EBV-PK mutant (which replicates as well as the wild-type (WT) virus in 293T cells) was resistant to both GCV (IC(50) = 19.6 microM) and ACV (IC(50) = 36.4 microM). Expression of the EBV-PK protein in trans restored GCV and ACV sensitivity in cells infected with the PK mutant virus. In contrast, in 293T cells infected with the TK mutant virus, viral replication remained sensitive to both GCV (IC(50) = 1.2 microM) and ACV (IC(50) = 2.8 microM), although susceptibility to the thymine nucleoside analogue, bromodeoxyuridine, was reduced. Thus, EBV-PK but not EBV-TK mediates ACV and GCV susceptibilities.

  15. Promotion of research in human reproduction: global needs and perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fathalla, M F

    1988-01-01

    The WHO Special Programme of Research, Development and Research Training in Human Reproduction was established in 1972, to respond to a global expansion in research needs in human reproduction, especially in the area of fertility regulation. The Programme's limited resources come from voluntary contributions by governments and international agencies. The emphasis is always on the needs of developing countries. The Programme has to keep the field under continuous review, and to direct its limited resources to the major unmet needs. This paper presents, from a global perspective, the needs and priorities in the promotion of research in human reproduction. It is emphasized that research has to be backed up by political commitment and resources if it is to have an impact on reproductive health. The role of determinants of health, other than and beyond the medical services, has also to be recognized. Promotion of research in human reproduction, to serve developing country needs, has to move into two directions. One is the mobilization of a global effort to develop and test technologies, where the available technologies are not satisfactory to meet the needs and where the research is slackening. The second is the strengthening of in-country resources for research to deal with country-specific problems and to enable countries to utilize, to the best, available technologies.

  16. Antioxidants of the beverage tea in promotion of human health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddiqui, Imtiaz A; Afaq, Farrukh; Adhami, Vaqar M; Ahmad, Nihal; Mukhtar, Hasan

    2004-06-01

    Tea that contains many antioxidants is a pleasant and safe drink that is enjoyed by people across the globe. Tea leaves are manufactured as black, green, or oolong. Black tea represents approximately 78% of total consumed tea in the world, whereas green tea accounts for approximately 20% of tea consumed. The concept of "use of tea for promotion of human health and prevention and cure of diseases" has become a subject of intense research in the last decade. Diseases for which tea drinkers appear to have lower risk are simple infections, like bacterial and viral, to chronic debilitating diseases, including cancer, coronary heart disease, stroke, and osteoporosis. Initial work on green tea suggested that it possesses human health-promoting effects. In recent years, the research efforts have been expanded to black tea as well. Research conducted in recent years reveals that both black and green tea have very similar beneficial attributes in lowering the risk of many human diseases, including several types of cancer and heart diseases. For cancer prevention, evidence is so overwhelming that the Chemoprevention Branch of the National Cancer Institute has initiated a plan for developing tea compounds as cancer-chemopreventive agents in human trials. Thus, modern medical research is confirming the ancient wisdom that therapy of many diseases may reside in an inexpensive beverage in a "teapot."

  17. Epstein-Barr virus (EBV Rta-mediated EBV and Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus lytic reactivations in 293 cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yen-Ju Chen

    Full Text Available Epstein-Barr virus (EBV Rta belongs to a lytic switch gene family that is evolutionarily conserved in all gamma-herpesviruses. Emerging evidence indicates that cell cycle arrest is a common means by which herpesviral immediate-early protein hijacks the host cell to advance the virus's lytic cycle progression. To examine the role of Rta in cell cycle regulation, we recently established a doxycycline (Dox-inducible Rta system in 293 cells. In this cell background, inducible Rta modulated the levels of signature G1 arrest proteins, followed by induction of the cellular senescence marker, SA-β-Gal. To delineate the relationship between Rta-induced cell growth arrest and EBV reactivation, recombinant viral genomes were transferred into Rta-inducible 293 cells. Somewhat unexpectedly, we found that Dox-inducible Rta reactivated both EBV and Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV, to similar efficacy. As a consequence, the Rta-mediated EBV and KSHV lytic replication systems, designated as EREV8 and ERKV, respectively, were homogenous, robust, and concurrent with cell death likely due to permissive lytic replication. In addition, the expression kinetics of EBV lytic genes in Dox-treated EREV8 cells was similar to that of their KSHV counterparts in Dox-induced ERKV cells, suggesting that a common pathway is used to disrupt viral latency in both cell systems. When the time course was compared, cell cycle arrest was achieved between 6 and 48 h, EBV or KSHV reactivation was initiated abruptly at 48 h, and the cellular senescence marker was not detected until 120 h after Dox treatment. These results lead us to hypothesize that in 293 cells, Rta-induced G1 cell cycle arrest could provide (1 an ideal environment for virus reactivation if EBV or KSHV coexists and (2 a preparatory milieu for cell senescence if no viral genome is available. The latter is hypothetical in a transient-lytic situation.

  18. Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) Rta-mediated EBV and Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus lytic reactivations in 293 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yen-Ju; Tsai, Wan-Hua; Chen, Yu-Lian; Ko, Ying-Chieh; Chou, Sheng-Ping; Chen, Jen-Yang; Lin, Su-Fang

    2011-03-10

    Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) Rta belongs to a lytic switch gene family that is evolutionarily conserved in all gamma-herpesviruses. Emerging evidence indicates that cell cycle arrest is a common means by which herpesviral immediate-early protein hijacks the host cell to advance the virus's lytic cycle progression. To examine the role of Rta in cell cycle regulation, we recently established a doxycycline (Dox)-inducible Rta system in 293 cells. In this cell background, inducible Rta modulated the levels of signature G1 arrest proteins, followed by induction of the cellular senescence marker, SA-β-Gal. To delineate the relationship between Rta-induced cell growth arrest and EBV reactivation, recombinant viral genomes were transferred into Rta-inducible 293 cells. Somewhat unexpectedly, we found that Dox-inducible Rta reactivated both EBV and Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV), to similar efficacy. As a consequence, the Rta-mediated EBV and KSHV lytic replication systems, designated as EREV8 and ERKV, respectively, were homogenous, robust, and concurrent with cell death likely due to permissive lytic replication. In addition, the expression kinetics of EBV lytic genes in Dox-treated EREV8 cells was similar to that of their KSHV counterparts in Dox-induced ERKV cells, suggesting that a common pathway is used to disrupt viral latency in both cell systems. When the time course was compared, cell cycle arrest was achieved between 6 and 48 h, EBV or KSHV reactivation was initiated abruptly at 48 h, and the cellular senescence marker was not detected until 120 h after Dox treatment. These results lead us to hypothesize that in 293 cells, Rta-induced G1 cell cycle arrest could provide (1) an ideal environment for virus reactivation if EBV or KSHV coexists and (2) a preparatory milieu for cell senescence if no viral genome is available. The latter is hypothetical in a transient-lytic situation.

  19. Distinctive effects of the Epstein-Barr virus family of repeats on viral latent gene promoter activity and B-lymphocyte transformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Ahmed K M; Saito, Satoru; Shibata, Sachiko; Takada, Kenzo; Kanda, Teru

    2009-09-01

    The Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), a human B-lymphotropic gamma herpesvirus, contains multiple repetitive sequences within its genome. A group of repetitive sequences, known as the family of repeats (FR), contains multiple binding sites for the viral trans-acting protein EBNA-1. The FR sequences are important for viral genome maintenance and for the regulation of the promoter involved in viral latent gene expression. It has been reported that a palindromic sequence with a putative secondary structure exists at the 3' end of the FR in the genome of the EBV B95-8 strain and that this palindromic sequence has been deleted from the FR of the commonly used EBV miniplasmids. For the first time, we cloned an EBV B95-8 DNA fragment containing the full-length FR, which enabled us to examine the functional difference between full-length and deleted FRs. The full-length FR, like the deleted FR, functioned as a transcriptional enhancer of the viral latent gene promoter, but that transactivation was significantly attenuated in the case of the full-length FR. No significant enhancement of replication was observed when the deleted FR was replaced with the full-length FR in an EBV miniplasmid. By contrast, when the same set of FR sequences were tested in the context of the complete EBV genome, the full-length FR resulted in more-efficient B-cell transformation than the deleted FR. We propose that the presence of the full-length FR contributes to the precise regulation of the viral latent promoter and increases the efficiency of B-cell transformation.

  20. Promoting Human Rights,Building a Harmonious World

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周觉

    2007-01-01

    @@ More than 50 years ago,the United Nations adopted the renowned Universal Declaration of Human Rights. And 40 years passed since the adoption by the United Nations of the International Convention on Civil and Political Rights and the International Convention on Economic,Social and Cultural Rights, and we are also celebrating the 20th anniversary of the adoption of the Declaration on the Right to Development. Our gathering here in Bei-jing, which is themed on "respecting and promoting human rights and building a harmonious world," is therefore important.May I extend, on behalf of the China Society for Human Rights Studies, extend a warm welcome to guests, experts, scholars and other friends present on this occasion.

  1. Variable EBV DNA Load Distributions and Heterogeneous EBV mRNA Expression Patterns in the Circulation of Solid Organ versus Stem Cell Transplant Recipients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. E. Greijer

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Epstein-Barr virus (EBV driven post-transplant lymphoproliferative disease (PTLD is a heterogeneous and potentially life-threatening condition. Early identification of aberrant EBV activity may prevent progression to B-cell lymphoma. We measured EBV DNA load and RNA profiles in plasma and cellular blood compartments of stem cell transplant (SCT; n=5, solid organ transplant recipients (SOT; n=15, and SOT having chronic elevated EBV-DNA load (n=12. In SCT, EBV DNA was heterogeneously distributed, either in plasma or leukocytes or both. In SOT, EBV DNA load was always cell associated, predominantly in B cells, but occasionally in T cells (CD4 and CD8 or monocytes. All SCT with cell-associated EBV DNA showed BARTs and EBNA1 expression, while LMP1 and LMP2 mRNA was found in 1 and 3 cases, respectively. In SOT, expression of BARTs was detected in all leukocyte samples. LMP2 and EBNA1 mRNA was found in 5/15 and 2/15, respectively, but LMP1 mRNA in only 1, coinciding with severe PTLD and high EBV DNA. Conclusion: EBV DNA is differently distributed between white cells and plasma in SOT versus SCT. EBV RNA profiling in blood is feasible and may have added value for understanding pathogenic virus activity in patients with elevated EBV-DNA.

  2. Successful management of EBV-PTLD in allogeneic bone marrow transplant recipient by virological-immunological monitoring of EBV infection, prompt diagnosis and early treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiereghin, Angela; Bertuzzi, Clara; Piccirilli, Giulia; Gabrielli, Liliana; Squarzoni, Diego; Turello, Gabriele; Ferioli, Martina; Sessa, Mariarosaria; Bonifazi, Francesca; Zanoni, Lucia; Sabattini, Elena; Lazzarotto, Tiziana

    2016-02-01

    Epstein-Barr virus-related post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder (EBV-PTLD) is an uncommon, but frequently fatal, complication after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant. Prospective post-transplant virological and immunological monitoring allowed to successfully manage a patient who developed both polymorphic and monomorphic, "diffuse large B-cell lymphoma like", as an EBV-PTLD, 65days after allogeneic bone marrow transplant. Early detection of significant increase in EBV DNA level in patient's peripheral blood (peak of viral load equal to 119,039copies/mL whole blood, +56day after transplant) led to administration of pre-emptive anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody (rituximab) and close clinical monitoring. After one week, physical exam revealed laterocervical adenopathy. Histopathologic features, immunohistochemical characterization and in situ hybridization study allowed to establish a diagnosis of EBV-related PTLD. Immunological monitoring showed no EBV-specific T-cell responses during EBV replication, thus potentially explaining the occurrence of high EBV load with subsequent PTLD development. A total of four doses of anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody were administered and at the end of the treatment, EBV infection was cleared and imaging technique showed complete disease remission. In conclusion, the early use of anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody proved to be a safe and effective treatment strategy for EBV-PTLD. Moreover, combined virological-immunological monitoring of EBV infection may more accurately assess patients at higher risk for EBV-PTLD.

  3. Senegenin promotes in vitro proliferation of human neural progenitor cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fang Shi; Zhigang Liang; Zixuan Guo; Ran Li; Fen Yu; Zhanjun Zhang; Xuan Wang; Xiaomin Wang

    2011-01-01

    Senegenin, an effective component of Polygala tenuifolia root extract, promotes proliferation and differentiation of neural progenitor cells in the hippocampus.However, the effects of senegenin on mesencephalon-derived neural progenitor cells remain poorly understood.Cells from a ventral mesencephalon neural progenitor cell line (ReNcell VM) were utilized as models for pharmaceutical screening.The effects of various senegenin concentrations on cell proliferation were analyzed,demonstrating that high senegenin concentrations (5, 10, 50, and 100 pmo/L), particularly 50 pmol/L, significantly promoted proliferation of ReNcell VM cells.In the mitogen-activated protein kinase signal transduction pathway, senegenin significantly increased phosphorylation levels of extracellular signal-regulated kinases.Moreover, cell proliferation was suppressed by extracellular signal-regulated kinase inhibitors.Results suggested that senegenin contributed to in vitro proliferation of human neural progenitor cells by upregulating phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase.

  4. Reactivation of persistent Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) causes secretion of thyrotropin receptor antibodies (TRAbs) in EBV-infected B lymphocytes with TRAbs on their surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagata, Keiko; Nakayama, Yuji; Higaki, Katsumi; Ochi, Marika; Kanai, Kyosuke; Matsushita, Michiko; Kuwamoto, Satoshi; Kato, Masako; Murakami, Ichiro; Iwasaki, Takeshi; Nanba, Eiji; Kimura, Hiroshi; Hayashi, Kazuhiko

    2015-01-01

    Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is a ubiquitous virus that infects most adults latently. It persists in B lymphocytes and reactivates occasionally. Graves' disease is an autoimmune hyperthyroidism caused by thyrotropin receptor antibodies (TRAbs). We have reported that Graves' disease patients and healthy controls have EBV-infected lymphocytes that have TRAbs on their surface (TRAb(+)EBV(+) cells) in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). EBV reactivation is known to be associated with plasma cell differentiation and antibody production of B cells. In this study, we investigated whether TRAb(+)EBV(+) cells really produce TRAbs or not when persistent EBV is reactivated. We cultured PBMCs from 12 Graves' disease patients and 12 healthy controls for several days with cyclosporine A to expand the EBV-infected cell population, and then compared TRAb levels between EBV reactivation by 33 °C culture and EBV nonreactivation by 37 °C culture of PBMCs. Flow cytometry confirmed that all samples at day 0 (reactivation starting point) contained TRAb(+)EBV(+) cells. During 33 °C culture, EBV-reactivated cells with EBV-gp350/220 expression increased from about 1 to 4%. We quantified TRAb levels in culture fluids by radio-receptor assay, and detected an increased concentration for at least one sampling point at 33 °C (from days 0 to 12) for all patients and healthy controls. TRAb levels were significantly higher in supernatants of 33 °C culture than of 37 °C culture, and also significantly higher in supernatants from patients than those from controls. This study revealed TRAb production from TRAb(+)EBV(+) cells in response to reactivation induction of persistent EBV in different efficiencies between patients and controls.

  5. Promoter methylation analysis of IDH genes in human gliomas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon eFlanagan

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Mutations in isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH -1 or -2 are found in the majority of WHO grade II and III astrocytomas and oligodendrogliomas, and secondary glioblastomas. Almost all described mutations are heterozygous missense mutations affecting a conserved arginine residue in the substrate binding site of IDH1 (R132 or IDH2 (R172. But the exact mechanism of IDH mutations in neoplasia is not understood. It has been proposed that IDH mutations impart a ‘toxic gain of function’ to the mutant protein, however a dominant-negative effect of mutant IDH has also been described, implying that IDH may function as a tumour suppressor gene. As most, if not all, tumour suppressor genes are inactivated by epigenetic silencing, in a wide variety of tumours, we asked if IDH1 or IDH2 carry the epigenetic signature of a tumour suppressor by assessing cytosine methylation at their promoters. Methylation was quantified in 68 human brain tumours, including both IDH-mutant and IDH wildtype, by bisulfite pyrosequencing. In all tumours examined, CpG methylation levels were less than 8%. Our data demonstrate that inactivation of IDH function through promoter hypermethylation is not common in human gliomas and other brain tumours. These findings do not support a tumour suppressor role for IDH genes in human gliomas.

  6. Human neuronal tau promoting the melting temperature of DNA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    The hyperchromic effect of ultraviolet spectroscopy shows that adding recombinant human neuronal tau to the solution of calf thymus DNA will promote the melting temperature (Tm) from 67℃ to 81℃. Similar result has been detected when adding tau to plasmid pBluescript-Ⅱ SK, by raising Tm from 75℃ to 85℃. The kinetics of thermal denaturation of DNA with tau is much slower than that of control. It suggests that tau may stabilize the double helix conformation of DNA.

  7. Simultaneous genital ulcer and meningitis: a case of EBV infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunes, Jairo Tavares; Lopes, Leonardo da Costa; Prokopowitsch, Aleksander Snioka

    2016-01-01

    The Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is associated with a broad spectrum of diseases, mainly because of its genomic characteristics, which result in different latency patterns in immune cells and infective mechanisms. The patient described in this report is a previously healthy young man who presented to the emergency department with clinical features consistent with meningitis and genital ulcers, which raised concern that the herpes simplex virus was the causative agent. However, the polymerase chain reaction of cerebral spinal fluid was positive for EBV. The authors highlight the importance of this infection among the differential diagnosis of central nervous system involvement and genital ulceration. PMID:27547743

  8. Triiodothyronine inhibits transcription from the human growth hormone promoter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morin, A; Louette, J; Voz, M L; Tixier-Vidal, A; Belayew, A; Martial, J A

    1990-07-09

    Three DNA constructs, the natural human growth hormone gene (hGH-hGH) its 500 bp promoter linked to the chloramphenicol acetyl transferase reporter gene (hGH-CAT), and its structural part linked to the herpes virus thymidine kinase promoter (TK-hGH) were introduced into rat pituitary GC cells by DEAE-dextran transfection. Transient expression was followed as a function of triiodothyronine (T3) concentration. The hGH-CAT expression was specifically inhibited by T3 following a typical dose-response curve while hGH-GH gene expression was not significantly modified. The transient expression of TK-hGH increased as a function of T3 concentration. These results indicate that T3 exerts two opposite effects on hGH gene expression. First, it down-regulates expression by acting on the promoter; second, it up-regulates expression by acting on the structural part of the gene. These action could be due to regulation of transcription and mRNA stabilization, respectively.

  9. EBV-associated gastric carcinoma in high- and low-incidence areas for nasopharyngeal carcinoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boysen, T.; Mohammadi, M.; Melbye, M.;

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Approximately 10% of gastric carcinomas are associated with Epstein-Barr virus (EBV). The Inuit in Greenland have a high incidence of EBV-associated nasopharyngeal carcinoma. METHODS: We conducted a population-based case-control study comparing gastric carcinomas in Greenland...... and in Denmark. RESULTS: The prevalence rate of EBV-associated gastric carcinomas was 8.5% in both populations. CONCLUSION: The findings of this study argue against a general susceptibility to EBV-associated carcinomas among the Inuit....

  10. EB病毒检测与EB病毒感染诊断的研究%Study on EBV detection and diagnosis of EBV infection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李金颖; 付丽娟; 邸顺祥; 宋晓燕; 朱庆玲

    2008-01-01

    目的 探讨EB病毒(EBV)检测在EBV感染诊断中的临床意义.方法 应用酶联免疫吸附方法 和荧光定量PCR方法 同步检测38例疑诊EBV感染患儿入院时及起病1、3、6、9个月血浆中EBV VCR-IgM及外周血全血、血浆、单个核细胞(PBMC)中EBV DNA,比较EBV感染患儿病程中4种检测方法 的检出率.结果 在疑诊EBV感染初期,全血和PBMC中EBV DNA阳性率最高,与EBV VCR-IgM及血浆EBV DNA相比,差异具有显著性(P<0.05);起病后的1、3、6及9个月,4种检出方法 的阳性率均逐渐减低,但PBMC中EBV DNA敏感性始终高于其他3种方法 .结论 EBV感染初期,检测全血和PBMC中EBV DNA是早期、快速、敏感的检测方法 ;EBV可长期存在于PBMC中,荧光定量PCR法检测外周血PBMC中EBV DNA对EBV感染的诊断有重要价值,可作为判断疗效及监测病情的一种有效手段.%Objective To investigate the clinical significance of Epstein-Barr virus(EBV) detection and the diagnosis of EBV infection.Methods Thirty eight children with suspected EBV infection hospitalized frow May 2005 to December 2007 served as study objects.The VCR-IgM in plasma,EBV DNA in peripheral whole blood,in plasma and in PBMC were detected synchronously by using ELISA and fluorescence quantitative PCR at the time of admission and one,three,six,nine months from onset.The changes of positive rate of the four detection methods in the course of EBV infection were compared.Results In the early days of EBV infection,the positive rates of EBV DNA in whole blood and in PBMC were higher than that of EBV VCR-IgM and EBV DNA in plasma (P<0.05).At the time of one,three,six and nine months from onset,the positive rates of four detection methods decreased gradually,but the sensitivity of EBV DNA in PBMCs was higher than the other methods.Conclusion In the early days of EBV infection,it is an early,rapid and sensitive diagnosis method to detect EBV DNA in whole blood and PBMC.EBV may exist in PBMC for a long

  11. EBV infection is common in gingival epithelial cells of the periodontium and worsens during chronic periodontitis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Séverine Vincent-Bugnas

    Full Text Available An amplifying role for oral epithelial cells (ECs in Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV infection has been postulated to explain oral viral shedding. However, while lytic or latent EBV infections of oro/nasopharyngeal ECs are commonly detected under pathological conditions, detection of EBV-infected ECs in healthy conditions is very rare. In this study, a simple non-surgical tissue sampling procedure was used to investigate EBV infection in the periodontal epithelium that surrounds and attaches teeth to the gingiva. Surprisingly, we observed that the gingival ECs of the periodontium (pECs are commonly infected with EBV and may serve as an important oral reservoir of latently EBV-infected cells. We also found that the basal level of epithelial EBV-infection is significantly increased in chronic periodontitis, a common inflammatory disease that undermines the integrity of tooth-supporting tissues. Moreover, the level of EBV infection was found to correlate with disease severity. In inflamed tissues, EBV-infected pECs appear to be prone to apoptosis and to produce larger amounts of CCL20, a pivotal inflammatory chemokine that controls tissue infiltration by immune cells. Our discovery that the periodontal epithelium is a major site of latent EBV infection sheds a new light on EBV persistence in healthy carriers and on the role of this ubiquitous virus in periodontitis. Moreover, the identification of this easily accessible site of latent infection may encourage new approaches to investigate and monitor other EBV-associated disorders.

  12. Atypical prediagnosis Epstein-Barr virus serology restricted to EBV-positive Hodgkin lymphoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, Lynn I; Chang, Ellen T; Ambinder, Richard F; Lennette, Evelyne T; Rubertone, Mark V; Mann, Risa B; Borowitz, Michael; Weir, Edward G; Abbondanzo, Susan L; Mueller, Nancy E

    2012-11-01

    An altered anti-Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) serologic profile preceding diagnosis is associated with an increased risk of Hodgkin lymphoma. It is unknown whether this atypical pattern predicts Hodgkin lymphoma risk further subdivided by determination of EBV in tumor cells. A nested case-control study of 128 incident Hodgkin lymphoma cases and 368 matched controls from active-duty military personnel with archived serum in the US Department of Defense Serum Repository was conducted to determine whether a panel of anti-EBV antibody titers differed in EBV(+) and EBV(-) Hodgkin lymphoma. Among 40 EBV(+) Hodgkin lymphoma cases and matched controls, statistically significant increased risks were associated with elevated anti-EBV VCA IgG antibody titers (relative risk = 3.1; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.1-8.7), and an anti-EBNA-1/anti-EBNA-2 antibody ratio ≤ 1.0 versus > 1.0 (relative risk = 4.7; 95% CI, 1.6-13.8). In contrast, no significant associations were found among 88 EBV(-) Hodgkin lymphoma cases relative to their matched controls. In case-case analysis, EBV(+) disease was significantly associated with a low anti-EBNA-1/anti-EBNA-2 antibody ratio. This distinctive serologic response to EBV latent antigens, indicative of immune dysfunction in other clinical settings, is associated with an increased risk of developing EBV(+) but not EBV(-) Hodgkin lymphoma.

  13. File list: Oth.Bld.20.EBV-ZEBRA.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  1. Promoter hypomethylation regulates CD133 expression in human gliomas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kouichi Tabu; Ken Sasai; Taichi Kimura; Lei Wang; Eiko Aoyanagi; Shinji Kohsaka; Mishie Tanino; Hiroshi Nishihara; Shinya Tanaka

    2008-01-01

    Brain tumor-initiating cells (BTICs) have been enriched using antibodies against the cell surface protein CD133;however,the biological relevance and the regulatory mechanism of CD133 expression in human gliomas are not yet understood.In this study,we initially demonstrated that CD133 was overexpressed in high-grade human glioblastomas where CD133-positive cells were focally observed as a micro-cluster.In addition,CD133 transcripts with exon 1A,1B,or 1C were predominantly expressed in glioblastomas.To elucidate the mechanism regulating this aberrant expression of CD133,three proximal promoters (P1,P2,and P3) containing a CpG island were isolated.In U251MG and T98Gglioblastoma cells,the P1 region flanking exon 1A exhibited the highest activity among the three promoters,and this activity was significantly inactivated by in vitro methylation.After treatment with the demethylating agent 5-azacytidine and/or the histone deacetylase inhibitor valproic acid,the expression level of CD133 mRNA was significantly restored in glioma cells.Importantly,hypomethylation of CpG sites within the P1,P2,and P3 regions was observed by bisulfite sequencing in human glioblastoma tissues with abundant CD133 mRNA.Taken together,our results indicate that DNA hypomethylation is an important determinant of CD133 expression in glioblastomas,and this epigenetic event may be associated with the development of BTICs expressing CD133.

  2. Human mediator subunit MED15 promotes transcriptional activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakatsubo, Takuya; Nishitani, Saori; Kikuchi, Yuko; Iida, Satoshi; Yamada, Kana; Tanaka, Aki; Ohkuma, Yoshiaki

    2014-10-01

    In eukaryotes, the Mediator complex is an essential transcriptional cofactor of RNA polymerase II (Pol II). In humans, it contains up to 30 subunits and consists of four modules: head, middle, tail, and CDK/Cyclin. One of the subunits, MED15, is located in the tail module, and was initially identified as Gal11 in budding yeast, where it plays an essential role in the transcriptional regulation of galactose metabolism with the potent transcriptional activator Gal4. For this reason, we investigated the function of the human MED15 subunit (hMED15) in transcriptional activation. First, we measured the effect of hMED15 knockdown on cell growth in HeLa cells. The growth rate was greatly reduced. By immunostaining, we observed the colocalization of hMED15 with the general transcription factors TFIIE and TFIIH in the nucleus. We measured the effects of siRNA-mediated knockdown of hMED15 on transcriptional activation using two different transcriptional activators, VP16 and SREBP1a. Treatment with siRNAs reduced transcriptional activation, and this reduction could be rescued by overexpression of HA/Flag-tagged, wild-type hMED15. To investigate hMED15 localization, we treated human MCF-7 cells with the MDM2 inhibitor Nutlin-3, thus inducing p21 transcription. We found that hMED15 localized to both the p53 binding site and the p21 promoter region, along with TFIIE and TFIIH. These results indicate that hMED15 promotes transcriptional activation.

  3. EBV Infection and Multiple Sclerosis : Lessons from a Marmoset Model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hart, 't Bert; Kap, Yolanda S.; Morandi, Elena; Laman, Jon D.; Gran, Bruno

    2016-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is thought to be initiated by the interaction of genetic and environmental factors, eliciting an autoimmune attack on the central nervous system. Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is the strongest infectious risk factor, but an explanation for the paradox between high infection preval

  4. Functional analysis of Drosophila HSP70 promoter with different HSE numbers in human cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kust, Nadezda; Rybalkina, Ekaterina; Mertsalov, Ilya; Savchenko, Ekaterina; Revishchin, Alexander; Pavlova, Gali

    2014-01-01

    The activation of genetic constructs including the Drosophila hsp70 promoter with four and eight HSE sequences in the regulatory region has been described in human cells. The promoter was shown to be induced at lower temperatures compared to the human hsp70 promoter. The promoter activity increased after a 60-min heat shock already at 38 °C in human cells. The promoter activation was observed 24 h after heat shock for the constructs with eight HSEs, while those with four HSEs required 48 h. After transplantation of in vitro heat-shocked transfected cells, the promoter activity could be maintained for 3 days with a gradual decline. The promoter activation was confirmed in vivo without preliminary heat shock in mouse ischemic brain foci. Controlled expression of the Gdnf gene under a Drosophila hsp70 promoter was demonstrated. This promoter with four and eight HSE sequences in the regulatory region can be proposed as a regulated promoter in genetic therapeutic systems.

  5. EBV-positive mucocutaneous ulcer in organ transplant recipients: a localized indolent posttransplant lymphoproliferative disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Melissa; Thakral, Beenu; Yohe, Sophia; Balfour, Henry H; Singh, Charanjeet; Spears, Michael; McKenna, Robert W

    2014-11-01

    Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-positive mucocutaneous ulcer (EBV MCU) is a B-cell lymphoproliferative disorder occurring in elderly or iatrogenic immunocompromised patients. It has not been reported in solid organ transplant recipients. We observed 7 patients with EBV MCU in a cohort of 70 transplant recipients with EBV posttransplant lymphoproliferative disorder (PTLD). Transplants included: 5 renal, 1 heart, and 1 lung. Median patient age was 61; 5 were male. EBV MCU was observed in oral mucosa in 4 and gastrointestinal tract in 3. Duration of immunosuppressive therapy before EBV MCU was 0.6 to 13 years. Ulcers were undermined by inflammatory cells and polymorphic or monomorphic large cell lymphoproliferation. Reed-Sternberg-like cells were present in 5/7. Large B cells were CD20, CD30, and EBV-encoded RNA positive in all cases. Diagnosis in 3 recent patients was EBV MCU; 4 patients diagnosed before familiarity with EBV MCU were classified as monomorphic large cell (n=3) and polymorphic (n=1) PTLD. None of the patients had EBV DNA in their blood (<1000 copies/mL) at diagnosis or follow-up versus 35/44 transplant patients with systemic PTLD (P<0.001). All lesions resolved with reduced immunosuppression (7/7), change in immunosuppression (2/7), and rituximab (3/7). Five patients are living: 4 healthy, 1 awaiting second renal transplant. Two patients died 3 and 5 years after resolution of EBV MCU. No patient recurred with EBV MCU or other PTLDs. EBV MCU mimics more aggressive categories of PTLD but lacks EBV DNA in blood, which may be a useful distinguishing feature. Lesions are likely to resolve with conservative management. Awareness of EBV MCU in the posttransplant setting is necessary for appropriate diagnosis and treatment.

  6. The frequent evolutionary birth and death of functional promoters in mouse and human

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Young, Robert S.; Hayashizaki, Yosihide; Andersson, Robin;

    2015-01-01

    sequence changes at promoters, we show that dramatic changes such as the complete gain and loss (collectively turnover) of functional promoters are common. Using quantitative measures of transcription initiation in both humans and mice across 52 matched tissues we discriminate promoter sequence gains from...... the same biological systems are similarly inclined to transcriptional rewiring. The genes affected by promoter turnover show evidence of adaptive evolution. In mice, promoters are primarily lost through deletion of the promoter containing sequence; whereas in humans, many promoters appear to be gradually...

  7. Oxytocin receptor genetic variation promotes human trust behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank eKrueger

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Given that human trust behavior is heritable and intranasal administration of oxytocin enhances trust, the oxytocin receptor (OXTR gene is an excellent candidate to investigate genetic contributions to individual variations in trust behavior. Although a single-nucleotide polymorphism involving an adenine (A/ guanine (G transition (rs53576 has been associated with socio-emotional phenotypes, its link to trust behavior is unclear. We combined genotyping of healthy male students with the administration of a trust game experiment. Our results show that a naturally occurring genetic variation (rs53576 in the OXTR gene is reliably associated with trust behavior rather than a general increase in trustworthy or risk behaviors. Individuals homozygous for the G allele (GG showed higher trust behavior than individuals with A allele carriers (AA/AG. Although the molecular functionality of this polymorphism is still unknown, future research should clarify how the OXTR gene interacts with other genes and the environment in promoting socio-emotional behaviors.

  8. Data-driven human rights: using the electronic health record to promote human rights in jail.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glowa-Kollisch, Sarah; Andrade, Kelly; Stazesky, Richard; Teixeira, Paul; Kaba, Fatos; Macdonald, Ross; Rosner, Zachary; Selling, Daniel; Parsons, Amanda; Venters, Homer

    2014-06-14

    The electronic health record (EHR) is a commonplace innovation designed to promote efficiency, quality, and continuity of health services. In the New York City jail system, we implemented an EHR across 12 jails between 2008 and 2011. During the same time, our work increasingly focused on the importance of human rights as an essential element to the provision of medical and mental health care for our patients. Consequently, we made major modifications to the EHR to allow for better surveillance of vulnerable populations and enable reporting and analysis of patterns of abuse, neglect, and other patient concerns related to human rights. These modifications have improved our ability to find and care for patients injured in jail and those with mental health exacerbations. More work is needed, however, to optimize the potential of the EHR as a tool to promote human rights among patients in jail.

  9. Clinical significance of variations in levels of Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV) antigen and adaptive immune response during chronic active EBV infection in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Yan; Song, Hong Mei; Wei, Min; Liu, Yu; Zhang, Yu Hua; Gao, Li

    2013-01-01

    Pediatric patients were recruited to analyze differences in Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) copy numbers and adaptive immune reactions in children with chronic active vs acute EBV infection (CAEBVI vs AEBVI), as well as to examine the relationship between these parameters and the pathogenesis of CAEBVI. Fluorescent qPCR was used to assess EBV-DNA levels, while ELISA, antibody affinity, flow cytometry, and heterophil agglutination (HA) assays were used to evaluate patient EBV-adaptive humoral and cellular immunity. Lastly, ELISPOT was employed to assess interferon (IFN)-γ secretory functions of EBV-specific cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (CTL) as a marker of subject EBV-specific adaptive cellular immunity. The results indicated that, compared with AEBVI patients or normal children, there was a dramatic elevation in viral copy levels, viral capsid antigen (VCA)-IgA, early antigen (EA)-IgA, and EA-IgG, but a lack of EBV nuclear antigen (EBNA)-IgG and a negative HA in CAEBVI patients (p EBV-specific CTL function compared with normal children (p EBV antigen availability and in both the adaptive humoral and cellular immune responses in patients with CAEBVI, and that these outcomes may be associated with the chronic active re-infection process itself associated with CAEBVI.

  10. Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-encoded small RNA is released from EBV-infected cells and activates signaling from Toll-like receptor 3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwakiri, Dai; Zhou, Li; Samanta, Mrinal; Matsumoto, Misako; Ebihara, Takashi; Seya, Tsukasa; Imai, Shosuke; Fujieda, Mikiya; Kawa, Keisei; Takada, Kenzo

    2009-09-28

    Epstein-Barr virus-encoded small RNA (EBER) is nonpolyadenylated, noncoding RNA that forms stem-loop structure by intermolecular base-pairing, giving rise to double-stranded RNA (dsRNA)-like molecules, and exists abundantly in EBV-infected cells. Here, we report that EBER induces signaling from the Toll-like receptor 3 (TLR3), which is a sensor of viral double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) and induces type I IFN and proinflammatory cytokines. A substantial amount of EBER, which was sufficient to induce signaling from TLR3, was released from EBV-infected cells, and the majority of the released EBER existed as a complex with a cellular EBER-binding protein La, suggesting that EBER was released from the cells by active secretion of La. Sera from patients with infectious mononucleosis (IM), chronic active EBV infection (CAEBV), and EBV-associated hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (EBV-HLH), whose general symptoms are caused by proinflammatory cytokines contained EBER, and addition of RNA purified from the sera into culture medium induced signaling from TLR3 in EBV-transformed lymphocytes and peripheral mononuclear cells. Furthermore, DCs treated with EBER showed mature phenotype and antigen presentation capacity. These findings suggest that EBER, which is released from EBV-infected cells, is responsible for immune activation by EBV, inducing type I IFN and proinflammatory cytokines. EBER-induced activation of innate immunity would account for immunopathologic diseases caused by active EBV infection.

  11. Gold nano-particles (AuNPs) carrying anti-EBV-miR-BART7-3p inhibit growth of EBV-positive nasopharyngeal carcinoma

    OpenAIRE

    Cai, Longmei; Li, Jinbang; Zhang,Xiaona; Lu, Yaoyong; WANG, Jianguo; Lyu, Xiaoming; Chen, Yuxiang; Liu, Jinkun; Cai, Hongbing; Wang, Ying; Li, Xin

    2015-01-01

    Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection is a major etiological factor for nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). Several EBV-encoded BART miRNAs have been associated with viral latency, immune escape, cell survival, cell proliferation and apoptosis. Here, we report that EBV-miR-BART7-3p, an EBV-encoded BART miRNA highly expressed in NPC, was correlated with cell-cycle progression in vitro and increased tumor formation in vivo. This viral miRNA stimulated the PTEN/PI3K/Akt pathway and induced c-Myc and c-...

  12. TWIST1 promotes invasion through mesenchymal change in human glioblastoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wakimoto Hiroaki

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tumor cell invasion into adjacent normal brain is a mesenchymal feature of GBM and a major factor contributing to their dismal outcomes. Therefore, better understandings of mechanisms that promote mesenchymal change in GBM are of great clinical importance to address invasion. We previously showed that the bHLH transcription factor TWIST1 which orchestrates carcinoma metastasis through an epithelial mesenchymal transition (EMT is upregulated in GBM and promotes invasion of the SF767 GBM cell line in vitro. Results To further define TWIST1 functions in GBM we tested the impact of TWIST1 over-expression on invasion in vivo and its impact on gene expression. We found that TWIST1 significantly increased SNB19 and T98G cell line invasion in orthotopic xenotransplants and increased expression of genes in functional categories associated with adhesion, extracellular matrix proteins, cell motility and locomotion, cell migration and actin cytoskeleton organization. Consistent with this TWIST1 reduced cell aggregation, promoted actin cytoskeletal re-organization and enhanced migration and adhesion to fibronectin substrates. Individual genes upregulated by TWIST1 known to promote EMT and/or GBM invasion included SNAI2, MMP2, HGF, FAP and FN1. Distinct from carcinoma EMT, TWIST1 did not generate an E- to N-cadherin "switch" in GBM cell lines. The clinical relevance of putative TWIST target genes SNAI2 and fibroblast activation protein alpha (FAP identified in vitro was confirmed by their highly correlated expression with TWIST1 in 39 human tumors. The potential therapeutic importance of inhibiting TWIST1 was also shown through a decrease in cell invasion in vitro and growth of GBM stem cells. Conclusions Together these studies demonstrated that TWIST1 enhances GBM invasion in concert with mesenchymal change not involving the canonical cadherin switch of carcinoma EMT. Given the recent recognition that mesenchymal change in GBMs is

  13. Evaluation of the Architect Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV) viral capsid antigen (VCA) IgG, VCA IgM, and EBV nuclear antigen 1 IgG chemiluminescent immunoassays for detection of EBV antibodies and categorization of EBV infection status using immunofluorescence assays as the reference method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corrales, Isabel; Giménez, Estela; Navarro, David

    2014-05-01

    Commercial immunoassays for detecting IgG and IgM antibodies against Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), viral capsid antigens (VCA), and IgGs toward EBV nuclear antigen-1 (EBNA-1) are routinely used in combination to categorize EBV infection status. In this study, we evaluated the performances of the Architect EBV VCA IgG, VCA IgM, and EBNA-1 IgG chemiluminescent microparticle assays (CMIAs) in EBV serological analyses using indirect immunofluorescence assays and anticomplement immunofluorescence assays as the reference methods for VCA IgG, VCA IgM, and EBNA-1 IgG antibody detection, respectively. A total of 365 serum samples representing different EBV serological profiles were included in this study. The κ values (concordances between the results) obtained in the Architect CMIA and those in the reference assays were 0.905 (P EBV infection, and 92.42% and 97.82% for diagnosing the absence of an EBV infection. In summary, we demonstrated that the Architect EBV antibody panel performs very well for EBV antibody detection and correctly categorizes clinically relevant EBV infection states.

  14. Vanadium promotes hydroxyl radical formation by activated human neutrophils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fickl, Heidi; Theron, Annette J; Grimmer, Heidi; Oommen, Joyce; Ramafi, Grace J; Steel, Helen C; Visser, Susanna S; Anderson, Ronald

    2006-01-01

    This study was undertaken to investigate the effects of vanadium in the +2, +3, +4, and +5 valence states on superoxide generation, myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity, and hydroxyl radical formation by activated human neutrophils in vitro, using lucigenin-enhanced chemiluminescence (LECL), autoiodination, and electron spin resonance with 5,5-dimethyl-l-pyrroline N-oxide as the spin trap, respectively. At concentrations of up to 25 microM, vanadium, in the four different valence states used, did not affect the LECL responses of neutrophils activated with either the chemoattractant, N-formyl-l-methionyl-l-leucyl-l-phenylalanine (1 microM), or the phorbol ester, phorbol 12-myristate 12-acetate (25 ng/ml). However, exposure to vanadium in the +2, +3, and +4, but not the +5, valence states was accompanied by significant augmentation of hydroxyl radical formation by activated neutrophils and attenuation of MPO-mediated iodination. With respect to hydroxyl radical formation, similar effects were observed using cell-free systems containing either hydrogen peroxide (100 microM) or xanthine/xanthine oxidase together with vanadium (+2, +3, +4), while the activity of purified MPO was inhibited by the metal in these valence states. These results demonstrate that vanadium in the +2, +3, and +4 valence states interacts prooxidatively with human neutrophils, competing effectively with MPO for hydrogen peroxide to promote formation of the highly toxic hydroxyl radical.

  15. Edible Mushrooms: Improving Human Health and Promoting Quality Life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Elena Valverde

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Mushrooms have been consumed since earliest history; ancient Greeks believed that mushrooms provided strength for warriors in battle, and the Romans perceived them as the “Food of the Gods.” For centuries, the Chinese culture has treasured mushrooms as a health food, an “elixir of life.” They have been part of the human culture for thousands of years and have considerable interest in the most important civilizations in history because of their sensory characteristics; they have been recognized for their attractive culinary attributes. Nowadays, mushrooms are popular valuable foods because they are low in calories, carbohydrates, fat, and sodium: also, they are cholesterol-free. Besides, mushrooms provide important nutrients, including selenium, potassium, riboflavin, niacin, vitamin D, proteins, and fiber. All together with a long history as food source, mushrooms are important for their healing capacities and properties in traditional medicine. It has reported beneficial effects for health and treatment of some diseases. Many nutraceutical properties are described in mushrooms, such as prevention or treatment of Parkinson, Alzheimer, hypertension, and high risk of stroke. They are also utilized to reduce the likelihood of cancer invasion and metastasis due to antitumoral attributes. Mushrooms act as antibacterial, immune system enhancer and cholesterol lowering agents; additionally, they are important sources of bioactive compounds. As a result of these properties, some mushroom extracts are used to promote human health and are found as dietary supplements.

  16. High Levels of EBV-Encoded RNA 1 (EBER1) Trigger Interferon and Inflammation-Related Genes in Keratinocytes Expressing HPV16 E6/E7

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aromseree, Sirinart; Middeldorp, Jaap M.; Pientong, Chamsai; van Eijndhoven, Monique; Ramayanti, Octavia; Lougheed, Sinéad M.; Pegtel, D. Michiel; Steenbergen, Renske D. M.; Ekalaksananan, Tipaya

    2017-01-01

    Different types of cells infected with Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) can release exosomes containing viral components that functionally affect neighboring cells. Previously, we found that EBV was localized mostly in infiltrating lymphocytes within the stromal layer of cervical lesions. In this study, we aimed to determine effects of exosome-transferred EBV-encoded RNAs (EBERs) on keratinocytes expressing human papillomavirus (HPV) 16 E6/E7 (DonorI-HPV16 HFKs). Lipid transfection of in vitro-transcribed EBER1 molecules (ivt EBER1) into DonorI-HPV16 HFKs caused strong induction of interferon (IFN)-related genes and interleukin 6 (IL-6). To gain insights into the physiological situation, monocyte-derived dendritic cells (moDCs), low passage DonorI-HPV16 HFKs and primary keratinocytes were used as recipient cells for internalization of exosomes from wild-type EBV (wt EBV) or B95-8 EBV-infected lymphoblastoid cell lines (LCLs). qRT-PCR was used to determine the expression of EBER1, HPV16 E6/E7, IFN-related genes and IL-6 in recipient cells. The secretion of inflammatory cytokines was investigated using cytometric bead array. Wt EBV-modified exosomes induced both IFN-related genes and IL-6 upon uptake into moDCs, while exosomes from B95-8 EBV LCLs induced only IL-6 in moDCs. Internalization of EBV–modified exosomes was demonstrated in DonorI-HPV16 HFKs, yielding only EBER1 but not EBER2. However, EBER1 transferred by exosomes did not induce IFN-related genes or IL-6 expression and inflammatory cytokine secretion in DonorI-HPV16 HFKs and primary keratinocytes. EBER1 copy numbers in exosomes from wt EBV-infected LCLs were 10-fold higher than in exosomes from B95-8 LCLs (equal cell equivalent), whereas ivt EBER1 was used at approximately 100-fold higher concentration than in exosomes. These results demonstrated that the induction of IFN-related genes and IL-6 by EBER1 depends on quantity of EBER1 and type of recipient cells. High levels of EBER1 in cervical cells or

  17. [Work as a basic human need and health promoting factor].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertazzi, P A

    2010-01-01

    The Italian Constitution (1948) defines 'work' as the founding value of the Italian Republic. This choice was not motivated by mere economic reasons, but rather stemmed from the recognition that work is the most appropriate tool for the expression of the human personality in society, that it is an asset and a right that will increase the dignity of every person, and which corresponds to a fundamental human desire to fulfil oneself in relationship with other persons and the entire world This view of work, including its technical and manual aspects, was unknown to the ancient mentality and became familiar to us through the monastic orders of the early middle ages, which began to conceive and practise human work as a means of participating in the work of creation and transmitted this value over the centuries. As we experience today, if occupation is lacking, a basic condition for the development of the person and for his/her contribution to the growth of society is lost. Given the meaning of work in human experience, it is not surprising that unemployment represents not only a worrisome economic indicator, but also the cause of ill health. At the end of 2009 unemployment in the European Union reached 10%, similar to the rate in the US; in Italy it was estimated at 8.5% in December 2009 and is expected to reach 10% in 2010. In Lombardy, although employment had been constantly increasing between 1995 and 2008, and the current unemployment rate is as low as 4.9%, 100,000 jobs were lost in 2009. Several scientific papers have demonstrated the association between lack of occupation and lack of physical and mental health. In the present period of crisis, increases of 30% in cases of anxiety syndrome and of 15% in cases of depression have been reported. An increase in suicides among unemployed persons has been documented in several countries even if there are still problems of interpretation of the causal chain of events. Mortality among the unemployed increased, not only

  18. Epstein-Barr virus in oral mucosa from human immunodeficiency virus positive patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larissa Santos

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: the detection rate of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV is higher in people living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV. In an attempt to contribute to our epidemiological understanding of this coinfection and to investigate the activity of EBV in normal oral mucosa, we performed a cross-sectional study with HIV-positive patients. Methods: oral smears from 145 HIV-positive patients were collected between March 2010 and March 2011. Nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR and reverse transcriptase-PCR (RT-PCR were used to genotype EBV and to detect EBNA-2 expression, respectively. Results: EBV DNA was detected in 48.3% of the study participants, of whom 32.85% were EBV-1 and 45.71% were EBV-2 carriers. Additionally, 14.28% were coinfected with both types. EBNA-2 mRNA was expressed in 45.7% of the EBV -positive samples, including 20.0% with EBV-1 only, 20.0% with EBV-2 only and 1.4% with both genotypes. Immune status affected the overall EBV infection, and EBV-2 positivity was significantly correlated with sexual lifestyle of the participants. EBV co-infection with both viral types was dependent upon HIV viral load and the activity of the EBNA-2 gene. Conclusion: we report a high prevalence of active EBV in the oral mucosa of asymptomatic HIV-seropositive individuals. This study addresses the need for monitoring and treatment of HIV-infected patients with EBV reactivation.

  19. Detailed kinetics of EBV-specific CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells during primary EBV infection in a kidney transplant patient

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E.R.W.A.N. Piriou; K. van Dort; J.F.L. Weel; F.J. Bemelman; L.E. Gamadia; M.H.J. van Oers; D. van Baarle

    2006-01-01

    The etiology of infectious mononucleosis is poorly understood and usually detected many weeks after infection. Here, we present a unique case of primary symptomatic EBV infection after kidney transplantation, in whom we analyzed both EBV-specific CD4(+) and CD8(+)T cells in detail from the moment of

  20. Genetic factors involved in EBV-postitive and EBV-negative Hodgkin lymphoma susceptibility : Role of HLA-A and chemokine polymorphisms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Niens, Marijke

    2007-01-01

    Bij de ontwikkeling van Hodgkin lymfomen (lymfeklierkanker) spelen behalve immuno­logische factoren ook genetische en omgevingsfactoren een rol. De meest belangrijke omgevingsfactor is het Epstein Barr Virus (EBV). Normaal herkent het afweersysteem cellen die met EBV zijn geïnfecteerd en worden de

  1. Sequence analysis of EBV DNA isolated from mouth washings and PBMCs of healthy individuals and blood of EBV-LPD patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Kooij, B; Thijsen, S F T; Meijer, E; Niesters, H G M; van Esser, J W J; Cornelissen, J J; Verdonck, L F; van Loon, A M

    2003-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Lymphoproliferative disorder (LPD) caused by Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is a severe complication of bone marrow transplantation. The EBV strain causing LPD is of either donor or recipient origin, however, available data are limited to only a small number of cases. To obtain solid evidence,

  2. Genetic factors involved in EBV-postitive and EBV-negative Hodgkin lymphoma susceptibility : Role of HLA-A and chemokine polymorphisms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Niens, Marijke

    2007-01-01

    Bij de ontwikkeling van Hodgkin lymfomen (lymfeklierkanker) spelen behalve immuno­logische factoren ook genetische en omgevingsfactoren een rol. De meest belangrijke omgevingsfactor is het Epstein Barr Virus (EBV). Normaal herkent het afweersysteem cellen die met EBV zijn geïnfecteerd en worden de g

  3. Genetic factors involved in EBV-postitive and EBV-negative Hodgkin lymphoma susceptibility : role of HLA-A and chemokine polymorphisms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Niens, Marijke

    2007-01-01

    Bij de ontwikkeling van Hodgkin lymfomen (lymfeklierkanker) spelen behalve immuno­logische factoren ook genetische en omgevingsfactoren een rol. De meest belangrijke omgevingsfactor is het Epstein Barr Virus (EBV). Normaal herkent het afweersysteem cellen die met EBV zijn geïnfecteerd en worden de g

  4. Unexpected instability of family of repeats (FR, the critical cis-acting sequence required for EBV latent infection, in EBV-BAC systems.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teru Kanda

    Full Text Available A group of repetitive sequences, known as the Family of Repeats (FR, is a critical cis-acting sequence required for EBV latent infection. The FR sequences are heterogeneous among EBV strains, and they are sometimes subject to partial deletion when subcloned in E. coli-based cloning vectors. However, the FR stability in EBV-BAC (bacterial artificial chromosome system has never been investigated. We found that the full length FR of the Akata strain EBV was not stably maintained in a BAC vector. By contrast, newly obtained BAC clones of the B95-8 strain of EBV stably maintained the full length FR during recombinant virus production and B-cell transformation. Investigation of primary DNA sequences of Akata-derived EBV-BAC clones indicates that the FR instability is most likely due to a putative secondary structure of the FR region. We conclude that the FR instability in EBV-BAC clones can be a pitfall in E. coli-mediated EBV genetics.

  5. Unexpected instability of family of repeats (FR), the critical cis-acting sequence required for EBV latent infection, in EBV-BAC systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanda, Teru; Shibata, Sachiko; Saito, Satoru; Murata, Takayuki; Isomura, Hiroki; Yoshiyama, Hironori; Takada, Kenzo; Tsurumi, Tatsuya

    2011-01-01

    A group of repetitive sequences, known as the Family of Repeats (FR), is a critical cis-acting sequence required for EBV latent infection. The FR sequences are heterogeneous among EBV strains, and they are sometimes subject to partial deletion when subcloned in E. coli-based cloning vectors. However, the FR stability in EBV-BAC (bacterial artificial chromosome) system has never been investigated. We found that the full length FR of the Akata strain EBV was not stably maintained in a BAC vector. By contrast, newly obtained BAC clones of the B95-8 strain of EBV stably maintained the full length FR during recombinant virus production and B-cell transformation. Investigation of primary DNA sequences of Akata-derived EBV-BAC clones indicates that the FR instability is most likely due to a putative secondary structure of the FR region. We conclude that the FR instability in EBV-BAC clones can be a pitfall in E. coli-mediated EBV genetics.

  6. Gold nano-particles (AuNPs) carrying anti-EBV-miR-BART7-3p inhibit growth of EBV-positive nasopharyngeal carcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jianguo; Lyu, Xiaoming; Chen, Yuxiang; Liu, Jinkun; Cai, Hongbing; Wang, Ying; Li, Xin

    2015-01-01

    Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection is a major etiological factor for nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). Several EBV-encoded BART miRNAs have been associated with viral latency, immune escape, cell survival, cell proliferation and apoptosis. Here, we report that EBV-miR-BART7-3p, an EBV-encoded BART miRNA highly expressed in NPC, was correlated with cell-cycle progression in vitro and increased tumor formation in vivo. This viral miRNA stimulated the PTEN/PI3K/Akt pathway and induced c-Myc and c-Jun. Knockdown of PTEN mimicked EBV-miR-BART7-3p-induced tumorigenic phenotype. Based on these results, we conducted a therapeutic experiment by using gold nano-particles (AuNPs) carrying anti-EBV-miR-BART7-3p. Silencing of EBV-miR-BART7-3p reduced tumor growth in animal model. We conclude that EBV-miR-BART7-3p favors carcinogenesis, representing a potential target for miRNA-based therapy. PMID:25691053

  7. Human umbilical mesenchymal stem cells promote recovery after ischemic stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yu-Ching; Ko, Tsui-Ling; Shih, Yang-Hsin; Lin, Maan-Yuh Anya; Fu, Tz-Win; Hsiao, Hsiao-Sheng; Hsu, Jung-Yu C; Fu, Yu-Show

    2011-07-01

    Stroke is a cerebrovascular defect that leads to many adverse neurological complications. Current pharmacological treatments for stroke remain unclear in their effectiveness, whereas stem cell transplantation shows considerable promise. Previously, we have shown that human umbilical mesenchymal stem cells (HUMSCs) can differentiate into neurons in neuronal-conditioned medium. Here we evaluate the therapeutic potential of HUMSC transplantation for ischemic stroke in rats. Focal cerebral ischemia was produced by middle cerebral artery occlusion and reperfusion. The HUMSCs treated with neuronal-conditioned medium or not treated were transplanted into the ischemic cortex 24 hours after surgery. Histology and MRI revealed that rats implanted with HUMSCs treated with neuronal-conditioned medium or not treated exhibited a trend toward less infarct volume and significantly less atrophy compared with the control group, which received no HUMSCs. Moreover, rats receiving HUMSCs showed significant improvements in motor function, greater metabolic activity of cortical neurons, and better revascularization in the infarct cortex. Implanted HUMSCs, treated or not treated, survived in the infarct cortex for at least 36 days and released neuroprotective and growth-associated cytokines, including brain-derived neurotrophic factor, platelet-derived growth factor-AA, basic fibroblast growth factor, angiopoietin-2, CXCL-16, neutrophil-activating protein-2, and vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-3. Our results demonstrate the therapeutic benefits of HUMSC transplantation for ischemic stroke, likely due to the ability of the cells to produce growth-promoting factors. Thus, HUMSC transplantation may be an effective therapy in the future.

  8. Genetic background affects human glial fibrillary acidic protein promoter activity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xianshu Bai

    Full Text Available The human glial fibrillary acidic protein (hGFAP promoter has been used to generate numerous transgenic mouse lines, which has facilitated the analysis of astrocyte function in health and disease. Here, we evaluated the expression levels of various hGFAP transgenes at different ages in the two most commonly used inbred mouse strains, FVB/N (FVB and C57BL/6N (B6N. In general, transgenic mice maintained on the B6N background displayed weaker transgene expression compared with transgenic FVB mice. Higher level of transgene expression in B6N mice could be regained by crossbreeding to FVB wild type mice. However, the endogenous murine GFAP expression was equivalent in both strains. In addition, we found that endogenous GFAP expression was increased in transgenic mice in comparison to wild type mice. The activities of the hGFAP transgenes were not age-dependently regulated. Our data highlight the importance of proper expression analysis when non-homologous recombination transgenesis is used.

  9. Centralized sanctioning and legitimate authority promote cooperation in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldassarri, Delia; Grossman, Guy

    2011-07-01

    Social sanctioning is widely considered a successful strategy to promote cooperation among humans. In situations in which individual and collective interests are at odds, incentives to free-ride induce individuals to refrain from contributing to public goods provision. Experimental evidence from public goods games shows that when endowed with sanctioning powers, conditional cooperators can discipline defectors, thus leading to greater levels of cooperation. However, extant evidence is based on peer punishment institutions, whereas in complex societies, systems of control are often centralized: for instance, we do not sanction our neighbors for driving too fast, the police do. Here we show the effect of centralized sanctioning and legitimate authority on cooperation. We designed an adaptation of the public goods game in which sanctioning power is given to a single monitor, and we experimentally manipulated the process by which the monitor is chosen. To increase the external validity of the study, we conducted lab-in-the-field experiments involving 1,543 Ugandan farmers from 50 producer cooperatives. This research provides evidence of the effectiveness of centralized sanctioning and demonstrates the causal effect of legitimacy on cooperation: participants are more responsive to the authority of an elected monitor than a randomly chosen monitor. Our essay contributes to the literature on the evolution of cooperation by introducing the idea of role differentiation. In complex societies, cooperative behavior is not only sustained by mechanisms of selection and reciprocity among peers, but also by the legitimacy that certain actors derive from their position in the social hierarchy.

  10. Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-associated lymphoid lesions of the head and neck.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auerbach, Aaron; Aguilera, Nadine S

    2015-01-01

    Epstein Barr virus (EBV)-related lymphoproliferative processes occur in the head and neck ranging from reactive processes such as infectious mononucleosis to high grade malignant lymphomas. EBV is a ubiquitous herpes virus that infects more than 90% of adults worldwide, and is generally transferred though saliva. Primary infection can occur throughout life. EBV is the first virus linked to malignancies, both epithelial and lymphoid. Both T and B cell lymphomas can be associated with EBV and evidence shows that an individual's response to the acute EBV infection may be critical in the development of subsequent lymphoma. Currently, in situ hybridization for EBER is the most sensitive available test to detect EBV and should be routinely performed in lymphoproliferative lesions of the head and neck. Immunohistochemistry for EBV related proteins, such as LMP1, is much less sensitive than EBER in situ hybridization, but can help determine latency patterns of EBV infection. Although relatively rare, primary EBV-related lymphomas must be considered in the differential of atypical lymphoid proliferations in the head and neck. We present selected EBV-related disorders of the head and neck discussing etiology as well as differential diagnosis.

  11. THE MOLECULAR MECHANISMS OF EPSTEINBARR VIRUS PERSISTENCE IN THE HUMAN ORGANISM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Volyanskiy A.Yu.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This review describes advances in molecular aspects of EBV infection and disease. We discuss the spectrum of clinical illness due to EBV persistent infection. The main characteristic of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV is that initial infection results in lifelong persistence. EBV infects nearly all humans by the time they reach adulthood. Healthy humans have approximately 1 to 50 infected cells per million leukocytes. EBV is one of the eight known human herpesviruses. EBV virions have a doublestranded linear DNA and 100 genes had been described in virus genome. Initial infection is thought to occur in the oral compartment. The host cells of EBV are mainly lymphocytes and epithelial cells. EBV attaches to B cells via binding of the viral gp350 protein to CD21 receptor. The consequence of EBV infection is cells proliferation and differentiation into memory B lymphocyte in the germinal center. Infected memory B cells are released into the peripheral circulation. EBV persists mostly in the memory B cell. Latency is the state of persistent viral infection without active viral production. In latently infected B cells EBV virus exist as episomes. During the latent phase episomal replication occurs via host DNA polymerase. Genes of the nuclear antigens (EBNA and latent membrane proteins (LMP are transcribed during latency. These include EBNA1, EBNA2, EBNA3A, EBNA3B, EBNA3C, EBNA leader protein (EBNALP, LMP1 and LMP2 genes. All nuclear antigens are transcription transactivators which bind to cis-regulatory DNA elements of cell or virus genomes directly or in complex with other proteins. LMP2A and LMP1 can function to coordinately mimic B-cell receptor and CD40 coreceptor signaling in latently infected B cells. LMP proteins activate cell signaling systems and as the consequence different gene expression programs. Characterization of gene expression patterns in different cell lines and pathologic conditions has revealed that there are at least three different

  12. Developmental- and differentiation-specific patterns of human gamma- and beta-globin promoter DNA methylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mabaera, Rodwell; Richardson, Christine A; Johnson, Kristin; Hsu, Mei; Fiering, Steven; Lowrey, Christopher H

    2007-08-15

    The mechanisms underlying the human fetal-to-adult beta-globin gene switch remain to be determined. While there is substantial experimental evidence to suggest that promoter DNA methylation is involved in this process, most data come from studies in nonhuman systems. We have evaluated human gamma- and beta-globin promoter methylation in primary human fetal liver (FL) and adult bone marrow (ABM) erythroid cells. Our results show that, in general, promoter methylation and gene expression are inversely related. However, CpGs at -162 of the gamma promoter and -126 of the beta promoter are hypomethylated in ABM and FL, respectively. We also studied gamma-globin promoter methylation during in vitro differentiation of erythroid cells. The gamma promoters are initially hypermethylated in CD34(+) cells. The upstream gamma promoter CpGs become hypomethylated during the preerythroid phase of differentiation and are then remethylated later, during erythropoiesis. The period of promoter hypomethylation correlates with transient gamma-globin gene expression and may explain the previously observed fetal hemoglobin production that occurs during early adult erythropoiesis. These results provide the first comprehensive survey of developmental changes in human gamma- and beta-globin promoter methylation and support the hypothesis that promoter methylation plays a role in human beta-globin locus gene switching.

  13. Developmental- and differentiation-specific patterns of human γ- and β-globin promoter DNA methylation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mabaera, Rodwell; Richardson, Christine A.; Johnson, Kristin; Hsu, Mei; Fiering, Steven

    2007-01-01

    The mechanisms underlying the human fetal-to-adult β-globin gene switch remain to be determined. While there is substantial experimental evidence to suggest that promoter DNA methylation is involved in this process, most data come from studies in nonhuman systems. We have evaluated human γ- and β-globin promoter methylation in primary human fetal liver (FL) and adult bone marrow (ABM) erythroid cells. Our results show that, in general, promoter methylation and gene expression are inversely related. However, CpGs at −162 of the γ promoter and −126 of the β promoter are hypomethylated in ABM and FL, respectively. We also studied γ-globin promoter methylation during in vitro differentiation of erythroid cells. The γ promoters are initially hypermethylated in CD34+ cells. The upstream γ promoter CpGs become hypomethylated during the preerythroid phase of differentiation and are then remethylated later, during erythropoiesis. The period of promoter hypomethylation correlates with transient γ-globin gene expression and may explain the previously observed fetal hemoglobin production that occurs during early adult erythropoiesis. These results provide the first comprehensive survey of developmental changes in human γ- and β-globin promoter methylation and support the hypothesis that promoter methylation plays a role in human β-globin locus gene switching. PMID:17456718

  14. Promotion of Bilateral Cooperative Programs in Nuclear Human Resources Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, E. J.; Han, K. W.; Nam, Y. M. (and others)

    2009-08-15

    The purpose of this project is strengthening of bilateral cooperation with those countries for sharing Korea's technology, and providing of education and training on Korean experience regarding national nuclear policy, technology self reliance, and technology itself, in the field of nuclear power generation and the application of radioisotopes and radiation. This project covers an analysis on the need of nuclear human resource development in countries having interest in the introduction of nuclear power and/or promotion of the use of nuclear energy, and provision of courses on 'nuclear power policy, planning and management' and 'design and operation of nuclear research reactor, and application of radiation technology' along with the country specific needs. Education and training of key members in nuclear energy development from Egypt: It was implemented through bilateral cooperation and support by KOICA program. The first part, which targeted staff members from Egypt Nuclear Commission, was held for 2 months providing a KOICA course on policy, planning and management for nuclear power project, and second part was on the job training in Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power and Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety, KAERI respectively. On the job training of 1 scientist from Vietnam was implemented on the basis of bilateral cooperation in a research laboratory on radioactive waste treatment technology, at KAERI. Education and training for scientists from South East RCA countries were carried out for 11 participants from Vietnam, Thailand, Indonesia, China, Pakistan, Malaysia, Philippines, and Bangladesh. The course dealt with nuclear research reactor and radiation application technology. Development of nuclear education and training programs for key persons involved in nuclear power projects from countries of Middle East: The developed program consists of 15 courses addressing 3 technical levels, i.e. high level policy makers, middle level project

  15. In Vitro and In Vivo Antitumor Effect of Anti-CD33 Chimeric Receptor-Expressing EBV-CTL against CD33+ Acute Myeloid Leukemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Dutour

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Genetic engineering of T cells with chimeric T-cell receptors (CARs is an attractive strategy to treat malignancies. It extends the range of antigens for adoptive T-cell immunotherapy, and major mechanisms of tumor escape are bypassed. With this strategy we redirected immune responses towards the CD33 antigen to target acute myeloid leukemia. To improve in vivo T-cell persistence, we modified human Epstein Barr Virus-(EBV- specific cytotoxic T cells with an anti-CD33.CAR. Genetically modified T cells displayed EBV and HLA-unrestricted CD33 bispecificity in vitro. In addition, though showing a myeloablative activity, they did not irreversibly impair the clonogenic potential of normal CD34+ hematopoietic progenitors. Moreover, after intravenous administration into CD33+ human acute myeloid leukemia-bearing NOD-SCID mice, anti-CD33-EBV-specific T cells reached the tumor sites exerting antitumor activity in vivo. In conclusion, targeting CD33 by CAR-modified EBV-specific T cells may provide additional therapeutic benefit to AML patients as compared to conventional chemotherapy or transplantation regimens alone.

  16. In Vitro and In Vivo Antitumor Effect of Anti-CD33 Chimeric Receptor-Expressing EBV-CTL against CD33 Acute Myeloid Leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutour, A; Marin, V; Pizzitola, I; Valsesia-Wittmann, S; Lee, D; Yvon, E; Finney, H; Lawson, A; Brenner, M; Biondi, A; Biagi, E; Rousseau, R

    2012-01-01

    Genetic engineering of T cells with chimeric T-cell receptors (CARs) is an attractive strategy to treat malignancies. It extends the range of antigens for adoptive T-cell immunotherapy, and major mechanisms of tumor escape are bypassed. With this strategy we redirected immune responses towards the CD33 antigen to target acute myeloid leukemia. To improve in vivo T-cell persistence, we modified human Epstein Barr Virus-(EBV-) specific cytotoxic T cells with an anti-CD33.CAR. Genetically modified T cells displayed EBV and HLA-unrestricted CD33 bispecificity in vitro. In addition, though showing a myeloablative activity, they did not irreversibly impair the clonogenic potential of normal CD34(+) hematopoietic progenitors. Moreover, after intravenous administration into CD33(+) human acute myeloid leukemia-bearing NOD-SCID mice, anti-CD33-EBV-specific T cells reached the tumor sites exerting antitumor activity in vivo. In conclusion, targeting CD33 by CAR-modified EBV-specific T cells may provide additional therapeutic benefit to AML patients as compared to conventional chemotherapy or transplantation regimens alone.

  17. EBV-negative monomorphic B-cell post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorders are pathologically distinct from EBV-positive cases and frequently contain TP53 mutations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Courville, Elizabeth L; Yohe, Sophia; Chou, David; Nardi, Valentina; Lazaryan, Aleksandr; Thakral, Beenu; Nelson, Andrew C; Ferry, Judith A; Sohani, Aliyah R

    2016-10-01

    Monomorphic post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder commonly resembles diffuse large B-cell lymphoma or Burkitt lymphoma, and most are Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) positive. We retrospectively identified 32 cases of monomorphic post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder from two institutions and evaluated EBV in situ hybridization; TP53 mutation status; p53, CD30, myc, and BCL2 expression by immunohistochemistry; proliferation index by Ki67; and germinal center vs non-germinal center immunophenotype by Hans criteria. Post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder arose after hematopoietic stem cell transplant in five and solid organ transplant in 27 patients, a median of 4 and 96 months after transplant, respectively (overall median latency 71 months, range 2-295). The most common morphology was diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (28 cases), with three cases of Burkitt lymphoma, and one case of plasmablastic lymphoma. Ten cases (31%) were EBV negative. Of those with the morphology of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, the EBV-negative cases were more frequently TP53-mutated (Pnegative (Ppost-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder were older with a longer latency from time of transplant to diagnosis (Ppost-transplant setting and underscores differences between EBV-positive and EBV-negative post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder in terms of immunophenotype and TP53 mutation frequency, supporting an alternative pathogenesis for EBV-negative post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder.

  18. Epstein-Barr virus nuclear antigen 2 transactivates the long terminal repeat of human immunodeficiency virus type 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scala, G; Quinto, I; Ruocco, M R; Mallardo, M; Ambrosino, C; Squitieri, B; Tassone, P; Venuta, S

    1993-05-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1)-infected subjects show a high incidence of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection. This suggests that EBV may function as a cofactor that affects HIV-1 activation and may play a major role in the progression of AIDS. To test this hypothesis, we generated two EBV-negative human B-cell lines that stably express the EBNA2 gene of EBV. These EBNA2-positive cell lines were transiently transfected with plasmids that carry either the wild type or deletion mutants of the HIV-1 long terminal repeat (LTR) fused to the chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (CAT) gene. There was a consistently higher HIV-1 LTR activation in EBNA2-expressing cells than in control cells, which suggested that EBNA2 proteins could activate the HIV-1 promoter, possibly by inducing nuclear factors binding to HIV-1 cis-regulatory sequences. To test this possibility, we used CAT-based plasmids carrying deletions of the NF-kappa B (pNFA-CAT), Sp1 (pSpA-CAT), or TAR (pTAR-CAT) region of the HIV-1 LTR and retardation assays in which nuclear proteins from EBNA2-expressing cells were challenged with oligonucleotides encompassing the NF-kappa B or Sp1 region of the HIV-1 LTR. We found that both the NF-kappa B and the Sp1 sites of the HIV-1 LTR are necessary for EBNA2 transactivation and that increased expression resulted from the induction of NF-kappa B-like factors. Moreover, experiments with the TAR-deleted pTAR-CAT and with the tat-expressing pAR-TAT plasmids indicated that endogenous Tat-like proteins could participate in EBNA2-mediated activation of the HIV-1 LTR and that EBNA2 proteins can synergize with the viral tat transactivator. Transfection experiments with plasmids expressing the EBNA1, EBNA3, and EBNALP genes did not cause a significant HIV-1 LTR activation. Thus, it appears that among the latent EBV genes tested, EBNA2 was the only EBV gene active on the HIV-1 LTR. The transactivation function of EBNA2 was also observed in the HeLa epithelial cell line

  19. 192 Tourism: A Promoter of Human Development Aniekan Etim ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    is to promote the sustainable development of the tourism industry through capacity ... in spite of the realities of the global economy nowadays, has demonstrated a .... existing infrastructure such as airports, roads, water supply, electricity, hotels ...

  20. Red Ginseng Extract Promotes the Hair Growth in Cultured Human Hair Follicles

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Gyeong-Hun; Park, Ki-young; Cho, Hong-il; Lee, Sang-Min; Han, Ji Su; Won, Chong Hyun; Chang, Sung Eun; Lee, Mi Woo; Choi, Jee Ho; Moon, Kee Chan; Shin, Hyoseung; KANG, YONG JUNG; Lee, Dong Hun

    2015-01-01

    Ginseng has been shown to promote hair growth in several recent studies. However, its effects on human hair follicles and its mechanisms of action have not been sufficiently elucidated. This study aimed to investigate the hair growth-promoting effects of red ginseng extract (RGE) and its ginsenosides. The proliferative activities of cultured human hair follicles treated with RGE and ginsenoside-Rb1 were assessed using Ki-67 immunostaining. Their effects on isolated human dermal papilla cells ...

  1. The impact of HLA class I and EBV latency-II antigen-specific CD8(+) T cells on the pathogenesis of EBV(+) Hodgkin lymphoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, K; Wockner, L; Brennan, R M; Keane, C; Chattopadhyay, P K; Roederer, M; Price, D A; Cole, D K; Hassan, B; Beck, K; Gottlieb, D; Ritchie, D S; Seymour, J F; Vari, F; Crooks, P; Burrows, S R; Gandhi, M K

    2016-02-01

    In 40% of cases of classical Hodgkin lymphoma (cHL), Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) latency-II antigens [EBV nuclear antigen 1 (EBNA1)/latent membrane protein (LMP)1/LMP2A] are present (EBV(+) cHL) in the malignant cells and antigen presentation is intact. Previous studies have shown consistently that HLA-A*02 is protective in EBV(+) cHL, yet its role in disease pathogenesis is unknown. To explore the basis for this observation, gene expression was assessed in 33 cHL nodes. Interestingly, CD8 and LMP2A expression were correlated strongly and, for a given LMP2A level, CD8 was elevated markedly in HLA-A*02(-) versus HLA-A*02(+) EBV(+) cHL patients, suggesting that LMP2A-specific CD8(+) T cell anti-tumoral immunity may be relatively ineffective in HLA-A*02(-) EBV(+) cHL. To ascertain the impact of HLA class I on EBV latency antigen-specific immunodominance, we used a stepwise functional T cell approach. In newly diagnosed EBV(+) cHL, the magnitude of ex-vivo LMP1/2A-specific CD8(+) T cell responses was elevated in HLA-A*02(+) patients. Furthermore, in a controlled in-vitro assay, LMP2A-specific CD8(+) T cells from healthy HLA-A*02 heterozygotes expanded to a greater extent with HLA-A*02-restricted compared to non-HLA-A*02-restricted cell lines. In an extensive analysis of HLA class I-restricted immunity, immunodominant EBNA3A/3B/3C-specific CD8(+) T cell responses were stimulated by numerous HLA class I molecules, whereas the subdominant LMP1/2A-specific responses were confined largely to HLA-A*02. Our results demonstrate that HLA-A*02 mediates a modest, but none the less stronger, EBV-specific CD8(+) T cell response than non-HLA-A*02 alleles, an effect confined to EBV latency-II antigens. Thus, the protective effect of HLA-A*02 against EBV(+) cHL is not a surrogate association, but reflects the impact of HLA class I on EBV latency-II antigen-specific CD8(+) T cell hierarchies.

  2. A human CD5+ B cell clone that secretes an idiotype-specific high affinity IgM monoclonal antibody.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.W.J. van der Heijden (Roger); H. Bunschoten; A.C. Hoek (Aad); J. van Es (Johan); M. Punter; A.D.M.E. Osterhaus (Albert); F.G.C.M. Uytdehaag (Fons)

    1991-01-01

    textabstractWe previously demonstrated the occurrence of a naturally arisen human anti-idiotypic B cell clone, that we transformed with EBV (EBV383). We show evidence that EBV383 not only expresses the CD5 surface Ag, but also contains the 2.7-kb mRNA transcript encoding this protein. In addition, w

  3. Tourism And Environment: Toward Promoting Sustainable Development Of Tourism: A Human Rights Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ni Ketut Supasti Dharmawan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Tourism activities in era globalization bring positive and negative impacts especially for the host countries destination. To minimize the negative impacts it is very important to always promote the sustainable development of tourism including from a human rights perspective. This paper will discuss concerning who have responsibility to promote a human rights related with sustainable development of tourism. To explore the topic in this article, Author will study both international human rights instruments and environmental convention as well as the soft law regarding the tourism sector such as the UN WTO Global Code Of Ethics. The Law No. 10 Year 2009 concerning Indonesia Tourism Law is also part of legal material studied in this paper. There are national, international legal instruments of the human rights as well as UNWTO Global Codes of Ethics which can be utilized to promote sustainable tourism through human rights perspective. It is considered that all stakeholders have responsibility to promote sustainable development of tourism.

  4. Functional analysis of Drosophila HSP70 promoter with different HSE numbers in human cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadezda Kust

    Full Text Available The activation of genetic constructs including the Drosophila hsp70 promoter with four and eight HSE sequences in the regulatory region has been described in human cells. The promoter was shown to be induced at lower temperatures compared to the human hsp70 promoter. The promoter activity increased after a 60-min heat shock already at 38 °C in human cells. The promoter activation was observed 24 h after heat shock for the constructs with eight HSEs, while those with four HSEs required 48 h. After transplantation of in vitro heat-shocked transfected cells, the promoter activity could be maintained for 3 days with a gradual decline. The promoter activation was confirmed in vivo without preliminary heat shock in mouse ischemic brain foci. Controlled expression of the Gdnf gene under a Drosophila hsp70 promoter was demonstrated. This promoter with four and eight HSE sequences in the regulatory region can be proposed as a regulated promoter in genetic therapeutic systems.

  5. Priming of protective T cell responses against virus-induced tumors in mice with human immune system components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strowig, Till; Gurer, Cagan; Ploss, Alexander; Liu, Yi-Fang; Arrey, Frida; Sashihara, Junji; Koo, Gloria; Rice, Charles M; Young, James W; Chadburn, Amy; Cohen, Jeffrey I; Münz, Christian

    2009-06-08

    Many pathogens that cause human disease infect only humans. To identify the mechanisms of immune protection against these pathogens and also to evaluate promising vaccine candidates, a small animal model would be desirable. We demonstrate that primary T cell responses in mice with reconstituted human immune system components control infection with the oncogenic and persistent Epstein-Barr virus (EBV). These cytotoxic and interferon-gamma-producing T cell responses were human leukocyte antigen (HLA) restricted and specific for EBV-derived peptides. In HLA-A2 transgenic animals and similar to human EBV carriers, T cell responses against lytic EBV antigens dominated over recognition of latent EBV antigens. T cell depletion resulted in elevated viral loads and emergence of EBV-associated lymphoproliferative disease. Both loss of CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells abolished immune control. Therefore, this mouse model recapitulates features of symptomatic primary EBV infection and generates T cell-mediated immune control that resists oncogenic transformation.

  6. Comprehensive profiling of EBV gene expression in nasopharyngeal carcinoma through paired-end transcriptome sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Lijuan; Lin, Zhirui; Wu, Yanheng; Dong, Juqin; Zhao, Bo; Cheng, Yanbing; Huang, Peiyu; Xu, Lihua; Xia, Tianliang; Xiong, Dan; Wang, Hongbo; Li, Manzhi; Guo, Ling; Kieff, Elliott; Zeng, Yixin; Zhong, Qian; Zeng, Musheng

    2016-03-01

    The latent expression pattern of Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV) genes in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) has been extensively investigated, and the expression of several lytic genes in NPC has been reported. However, comprehensive information through EBV transcriptome analysis in NPC is limited. We performed paired-end RNA-seq to systematically and comprehensively characterize the expression of EBV genes in NPC tissue and C666-1 NPC cell line, which consistently carries EBV. In addition to the transcripts restricted to type II latency infection, the type III latency EBNA3s genes and a substantial number of lytic genes, such as BZLF1, BRLF1, and BMRF1, were detected through RNA-seq and were further verified in C666-1 cells and NPC tissue through realtime PCR.We also performed clustering analysis to classify NPC patient groups in terms of EBV gene expression, which presented two subtypes of NPC samples. Results revealed interesting patterns of EBV gene expression in NPC patients. This clustering was correlated with many signaling pathways, such as those related to heterotrimeric G-protein signaling, inflammation mediated by chemokine and cytokine signaling, ribosomes, protein metabolism, influenza infection, and ECM-receptor interaction. Our combined findings suggested that the expression of EBV genes in NPC is restricted not only to type II latency genes but also to type III latency and lytic genes. This study provided further insights into the potential role of EBV in the development of NPC.

  7. Identification of Novel Small Organic Compounds with Diverse Structures for the Induction of Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV) Lytic Cycle in EBV-Positive Epithelial Malignancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Chung King; Ho, Dona N; Hui, Kwai Fung; Kao, Richard Y; Chiang, Alan K S

    2015-01-01

    Phorbol esters, which are protein kinase C (PKC) activators, and histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors, which cause enhanced acetylation of cellular proteins, are the main classes of chemical inducers of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) lytic cycle in latently EBV-infected cells acting through the PKC pathway. Chemical inducers which induce EBV lytic cycle through alternative cellular pathways may aid in defining the mechanisms leading to lytic cycle reactivation and improve cells' responsiveness towards lytic induction. We performed a phenotypic screening on a chemical library of 50,240 novel small organic compounds to identify novel class(es) of strong inducer(s) of EBV lytic cycle in gastric carcinoma (GC) and nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) cells. Five hit compounds were selected after three successive rounds of increasingly stringent screening. All five compounds are structurally diverse from each other and distinct from phorbol esters or HDAC inhibitors. They neither cause hyperacetylation of histone proteins nor significant PKC activation at their working concentrations, suggesting that their biological mode of action are distinct from that of the known chemical inducers. Two of the five compounds with rapid lytic-inducing action were further studied for their mechanisms of induction of EBV lytic cycle. Unlike HDAC inhibitors, lytic induction by both compounds was not inhibited by rottlerin, a specific inhibitor of PKCδ. Interestingly, both compounds could cooperate with HDAC inhibitors to enhance EBV lytic cycle induction in EBV-positive epithelial cancer cells, paving way for the development of strategies to increase cells' responsiveness towards lytic reactivation. One of the two compounds bears structural resemblance to iron chelators and the other strongly activates the MAPK pathways. These structurally diverse novel organic compounds may represent potential new classes of chemicals that can be used to investigate any alternative mechanism(s) leading to EBV

  8. Promoting safety improvements via potential human error audits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simpson, G.C. (International Mining Consultants (United Kingdom). Ergonomics and Safety Management)

    1994-08-01

    It has become increasingly recognised that human error plays a major role in mining accident causation. Moreover, it also recognised that this aspect of accident causation has had relatively little systematic attention in the past. Recent studies within British Coal have succeeded in developing a Potential Human Error Audit as a means of targeting accident prevention initiatives. 7 refs., 2 tabs.

  9. Sibling rivalry among paralogs promotes evolution of the human brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyler-Smith, Chris; Xue, Yali

    2012-05-11

    Geneticists have long sought to identify the genetic changes that made us human, but pinpointing the functionally relevant changes has been challenging. Two papers in this issue suggest that partial duplication of SRGAP2, producing an incomplete protein that antagonizes the original, contributed to human brain evolution.

  10. Promoting translational research in human and veterinary medical virology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Yi-Wei

    2013-07-26

    Translational research serves as a bench-to-field "translation" of basic scientific research into practical diagnostic procedures and therapies useful in human and veterinary clinical services. The productivity of translational research involving infectious diseases relevant to both human and animal health (e.g., influenza diagnosis and epidemiology using emerging molecular detection and identification methods) can be maximized when both human and veterinary medical virology disciplines are integrated. Influenza viruses are continually evolving through site-specific mutation and segment reassortment, and these processes occur in all potential carrier species - including birds, humans, and many agriculturally important animals. This evolutionary plasticity occasionally allows "novel" influenzas to move from animal hosts to humans, potentially causing destructive pandemics; therefore, a rapid laboratory technique that can detect and identify "novel" influenza viruses is clinically and epidemiologically desirable. A technique-focused translational research approach is pursued to enhance detection and characterization of emerging influenza viruses circulating in both humans and other animal hosts. The PLEX-ID System, which incorporates multi-locus PCR and electrospray ionization/mass spectrometry, uses deliberately nonspecific primers that amplify all known variants (all H/N subtypes) of influenza virus, including human, other mammalian, and avian influenzas, and is therefore likely to generate analyzable amplicons from any novel influenza that might emerge in any host. Novel technology development and implementation such as the PLEX-ID System forms a key component of human and veterinary medical virology translational research. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Oropharyngeal malignant epithelial cell, lymphocyte and macrophage CD44 surface receptors for hyaluronate are expressed in sustained EBV infection: immunohistochemical data and EBV DNA tissue indices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groma, Valerija; Kazanceva, Anna; Nora-Krukle, Zaiga; Murovska, Modra

    2012-09-15

    The role of CD44 in Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-related epithelial tumors is poorly understood. We studied the expression of CD44 in EBV infection in patients with oral squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) and nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) and measured the EBV DNA. Whole blood, plasma and tissue samples from 8 male and 2 female patients with oral SCC, NPC, salivary gland lymphoepithelioma, normal salivary gland and buccal mucosa were assayed for EBV DNA. Expression of CD44, latent membrane protein (LMP), and labeling of lymphocytes, macrophages and dendritic cells were estimated by immunohistochemistry. Tissue EBV DNA was detected in 7 of 8 cases (87.5%) of oral malignant, benign and border-line lesions. LMP expression levels in tumors varied from absence and minimal to moderate - 50.3, 43.6, 6.0% and 91.1, 6.7, 2.2% for SCC and NPC, respectively. Levels of CD44 positivity in neoplasms were minimal (15.5 and 16.7%), moderate (30.3 and 47.8%), and diffuse (54.2 and 35.5%) for SCC and NPC, respectively, thus deviating from normal oral mucosa revealing heavily stained (100.0%) epithelial contours. CD19-positive B lymphocytes and S100-positive dendritic cells were intermixed with neoplastic cells. Collectively, CD44 mediated signaling may be implicated in EBV infection associated with the pathogenesis of oral SCC and NPC.

  12. Evaluation in health promotion: thoughts from inside a human research ethics committee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Judy; Flack, Felicity

    2015-12-01

    Health promotion research, quality improvement and evaluation are all activities that raise ethical issues. In this paper, the Chair and a member of human resear ch ethics committees provide an insiders' point of view on how to demonstrate ethical conduct in health promotion research and quality improvement. Several common issues raised by health promotion research and evaluation are discussed including researcher integrity, conflicts of interest, use of information, consent and privacy.

  13. Human papillomavirus type 16 E7 oncoprotein mediates CCNA1 promoter methylation

    OpenAIRE

    Chalertpet, Kanwalat; Pakdeechaidan, Watcharapong; Patel, Vyomesh; Mutirangura, Apiwat; Yanatatsaneejit, Pattamawadee

    2015-01-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) oncoproteins drive distinctive promoter methylation patterns in cancer. However, the underlying mechanism remains to be elucidated. Cyclin A1 (CCNA1) promoter methylation is strongly associated with HPV-associated cancer. CCNA1 methylation is found in HPV-associated cervical cancers, as well as in head and neck squamous cell cancer. Numerous pieces of evidence suggest that E7 may drive CCNA1 methylation. First, the CCNA1 promoter is methylated in HPV-positive epithe...

  14. Higher methylation intensity induced by EBV LMP1 via NF-κB/DNMT3b signaling contributes to silencing of PTEN gene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyu, Xiaoming; Jiang, Qiang; Wang, Jianguo; Lu, Juan; Yao, Kaitai; Liu, Kunping; Li, Jinbang; Li, Xin

    2016-01-01

    Phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) is a major tumor suppressor and usually silenced via the deletion, insertion and mutation. We previously discovered its inactivation via aberrant CpG island methylation. Here, we provide further evidence that EBV latent membrane protein 1(LMP1) can induce a higher intensity of DNA methylation at PTEN CpG islands, inactivating PTEN at the cellular and molecular level. Initially, increased methylation intensity of PTEN CpG islands was observed in EBV-infected nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) cells, accompanied by decreased PTEN expression. In NPC tissue samples showing the methylation at PTEN promoter, LMP1 was highly expressed in higher methylation intensity group relative to lower intensity group, and DNA methyltransferase 3b (DNMT3b) expression was positively correlated with LMP1 expression. Moreover, transfection of LMP1 gene into EBV-negative NPC cells demonstrated that LMP1 up-regulated DNMT3b expression, leading to a higher intensity of PTEN CpG island methylation. Mechanistically, computational prediction and luciferase reporter assay identified a functional NF-κB binding site on DNMT3b promoter and the mutated NF-κB binding site abolished LMP1-mediated DNMT3b activation. Chromatin immunoprecipitation displayed that NF-κB p65 subunit constitutively bound to DNMT3b promoter, supporting the activation of DNMT3b by EBV LMP1 via NF-κB signaling. Furthermore, the expression level of DNMT3b was observed to be increased in the nuclei of LMP1-expressing NPC cells, and a NF-κB inhibitor, PDTC, counteracted LMP1-mediated DNMT3b overexpression. Thus, this study first reports that LMP1-mediated NF-κB can up-regulate DNMT3b transcription, thereby leading to relatively higher methylation intensity at PTEN CpG islands, and ultimately silencing major tumor suppressor PTEN. PMID:27223069

  15. Higher methylation intensity induced by EBV LMP1 via NF-κB/DNMT3b signaling contributes to silencing of PTEN gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Hong; Chen, Yuxiang; Gong, Pinggui; Cai, Longmei; Lyu, Xiaoming; Jiang, Qiang; Wang, Jianguo; Lu, Juan; Yao, Kaitai; Liu, Kunping; Li, Jinbang; Li, Xin

    2016-06-28

    Phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) is a major tumor suppressor and usually silenced via the deletion, insertion and mutation. We previously discovered its inactivation via aberrant CpG island methylation. Here, we provide further evidence that EBV latent membrane protein 1(LMP1) can induce a higher intensity of DNA methylation at PTEN CpG islands, inactivating PTEN at the cellular and molecular level. Initially, increased methylation intensity of PTEN CpG islands was observed in EBV-infected nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) cells, accompanied by decreased PTEN expression. In NPC tissue samples showing the methylation at PTEN promoter, LMP1 was highly expressed in higher methylation intensity group relative to lower intensity group, and DNA methyltransferase 3b (DNMT3b) expression was positively correlated with LMP1 expression. Moreover, transfection of LMP1 gene into EBV-negative NPC cells demonstrated that LMP1 up-regulated DNMT3b expression, leading to a higher intensity of PTEN CpG island methylation. Mechanistically, computational prediction and luciferase reporter assay identified a functional NF-κB binding site on DNMT3b promoter and the mutated NF-κB binding site abolished LMP1-mediated DNMT3b activation. Chromatin immunoprecipitation displayed that NF-κB p65 subunit constitutively bound to DNMT3b promoter, supporting the activation of DNMT3b by EBV LMP1 via NF-κB signaling. Furthermore, the expression level of DNMT3b was observed to be increased in the nuclei of LMP1-expressing NPC cells, and a NF-κB inhibitor, PDTC, counteracted LMP1-mediated DNMT3b overexpression. Thus, this study first reports that LMP1-mediated NF-κB can up-regulate DNMT3b transcription, thereby leading to relatively higher methylation intensity at PTEN CpG islands, and ultimately silencing major tumor suppressor PTEN.

  16. Detection of EBV genomes in plasmablasts/plasma cells and non-B cells in the blood of most patients with EBV lymphoproliferative disorders by using Immuno-FISH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calattini, Sara; Sereti, Irini; Scheinberg, Philip; Kimura, Hiroshi; Childs, Richard W; Cohen, Jeffrey I

    2010-11-25

    Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is present in B cells in the blood of healthy people; few studies have looked for EBV in other cell types in blood from patients with lymphoproliferative disorders. We use a new technique combining immunofluorescent cell-surface staining and fluorescent in situ hybridization to quantify both EBV copy number per cell and cell types in blood from patients with high EBV DNA loads. In addition to CD20(+) B cells, EBV was present in plasmablast/plasma cells in the blood of 50% of patients, in monocytes or T cells in a small proportion of patients, and in "non-B, non-T, non-monocytes" in 69% of patients. The mean EBV copy number in B cells was significantly higher than in plasmablast/plasma cells. There was no correlation between EBV load and virus copy number per cell. Although we detected CD21, the EBV B-cell receptor, on EBV-infected B cells, we could not detect it on virus-infected T cells. These findings expand the range of cell types infected in the blood. Determining the number of EBV genomes per cell and the type of cells infected in patients with high EBV loads may provide additional prognostic information for the development of EBV lymphoproliferative diseases.

  17. Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) reactivation is a frequent event after allogeneic stem cell transplantation (SCT) and quantitatively predicts EBV-lymphoproliferative disease following T-cell--depleted SCT

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Esser, J W; van der Holt, B; Meijer, E; Niesters, H G; Trenschel, R; Thijsen, S F; van Loon, A M; Frassoni, F; Bacigalupo, A; Schaefer, U W; Osterhaus, A D; Gratama, J W; Löwenberg, B; Verdonck, L F; Cornelissen, J J

    2001-01-01

    Reactivation of the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) after allogeneic stem cell transplantation (allo-SCT) may evoke a protective cellular immune response or may be complicated by the development of EBV-lymphoproliferative disease (EBV-LPD). So far, very little is known about the incidence, recurrence, and

  18. ON THE ISSUE OF THE PROMOTION OF SOCIAL INNOVATION IN HUMAN CAPITAL OF OLDER WORKERS MANAGEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lyudmila N. Ivanova-Schvets

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This article describes the promotion ofsocial innovation in human capital of olderworkers the management by employers. The article examines tools effects on various factors of competitiveness ofolder workers.

  19. A new theory of health promoting schools based on human functioning, school organisation and pedagogic practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markham, Wolfgang A; Aveyard, Paul

    2003-03-01

    This paper outlines a novel explanatory frame for understanding how schools may intervene in order to promote pupils' health. The new theory is synthesised from an Aristotelian interpretation of human functioning and a theory of cultural transmission. In keeping with recent influential theoretical developments, it is proposed that health has its roots in human functioning. It follows from this concept that the promotion of pupils' health is facilitated by the promotion of pupil functioning and the primary mechanisms through which schools promote pupil functioning and, hence, health, are through the influences of school organisation, curriculum development and pedagogic practice on pupil development. According to the new theory, good human functioning is dependent on the realisation of a number of identified essential human capacities and the meeting of identified fundamental human needs. Two essential capacities, the capacity for practical reasoning and the capacity for affiliation with other humans, plan and organise the other essential capacities. The realisation of these two capacities should, it is argued, be the primary focus of health promoting schools. Additionally, health promoting schools should ensure that fundamental human needs concerning non-useful pain and information about the body are met. A number of testable hypotheses are generated from the new theory. Comparisons with existing interpretations of health promoting schools indicate there are similarities in the actions schools should take to promote health. However, the new theory can, uniquely, be used to predict which pupils will enjoy the best health at school and in adulthood. Additionally, according to the new theory, schools do not need designated health education classes or teaching staff with specialist health education roles in order to be health promoting. It is concluded that the new theory may have a number of advantages over existing theories at both the policy and intervention levels.

  20. Distribution, silencing potential and evolutionary impact of promoter DNA methylation in the human genome.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weber, M.; Hellmann, I.; Stadler, M.B.; Ramos, L.; Paabo, S.; Rebhan, M.; Schubeler, D.

    2007-01-01

    To gain insight into the function of DNA methylation at cis-regulatory regions and its impact on gene expression, we measured methylation, RNA polymerase occupancy and histone modifications at 16,000 promoters in primary human somatic and germline cells. We find CpG-poor promoters hypermethylated in

  1. Identification of the transcriptional promoters in the proximal regions of human microRNA genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Yue-Sheng; Deng, Guang-Fei; Sun, Xun-Sha; Yi, Yong-Hong; Su, Tao; Zhao, Qi-Hua; Liao, Wei-Ping

    2011-08-01

    To identify the transcriptional promoters in the proximal regions of human microRNA (miRNA) genes, we analyzed the 5' flanking regions of intergenic miRNAs and intronic miRNAs. With the TSSG program prediction, we found that the ratio of intronic-s miRNA genes with a least one promoter was significantly lower than those of intergenic miRNA genes and intronic-a miRNA genes. More than half of the miRNA genes have only one promoter and less than 20% of the miRNA genes have more than three promoters in the 5-kb upstream regions. All potential promoters are randomly distributed within these regions. Approximately 60% of the miRNA promoters have a TATA-like box, being significantly higher than that of all human promoters. Luciferase reporter assays showed that 22 of the 30 promoters drove gene expression in HEK-293 cells, indicating a high accuracy of the promoter prediction. This study lays a foundation for future investigation into the transcriptional regulatory mechanisms of human miRNA genes.

  2. [Study and analysis on the quantitive detection of EBV-DNA in adenoidal hypertrophic and tonsillitis tissues of children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaotong; Li, Hongyue; Liu, Xuemei; Zhang, Qing; Liu, Hui; Wang, Xiangling; Ling, Ying

    2009-12-01

    To investigate the epidemiology of EBV in adenoidal hypertrophy and chronic tonsillitis and discuss the affection of EBV on the nosogenesis of adenoidal hypertrophy and tonsillitis of children. Fifty-two children with chronic tonsillitis and/or adenoidal hypertrophy had the operations of the tonsillectomy and/or the adenoidectomy. These tissues resected and plasma of all cases were detected to find EBV-DNA by RQ PCR. The infection rate of EBV in the tissues of adenoidal hypertrophy and tonsillitis of children was 51.9%. The boys' infection rate of EBV was 50.0%, and the girls' infection rate of EBV was 55.6%, which had not significantly different. The EBV infection rate in the tissues of tonsillitis was 40.4%, The EBV infection rate in the tissues of adenoidal hypertrophy was 48.9%, which had not significant difference. The school age group (7- to 14-years-old) presented higher infection rate of EBV in the tissues of adenoid and tonsil (65.5%) than the pre-school children group (2- to 6-years-old) (34.8%). Comparing the copies numbers of EBV-DNA in the different degrees of adenoidal hypertrophy, we found that the copies numbers of EBV-DNA in the severe hypertrophy group were higher than the midrange and slight hypertrophy groups (Pchildrens' blood plasma by RQ-PCR. No blood plasma was detected EBV-DNA copies higher than normal (tonsillitis had same sensitivity to EBV. There was not significant difference between the infection rates of the boys and girls with adenoidal hypertrophy and/or tonsillitis. With these children growing up and the course of diseases prolonging, the infection rate of EBV increased correspondingly. There was a certain correlation between the hypertrophy of adenoid and EBV. There were no EBV-DNA fragments in blood plasma of the children with adenoidal hypertrophy and/or tonsillitis. So there were essential different between benign hyperplasia and nasopharyngeal carcinoma.

  3. Associations between Burkitt lymphoma among children in Malawi and infection with HIV, EBV and malaria: results from a case-control study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nora Mutalima

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Burkitt lymphoma, a childhood cancer common in parts of sub-Saharan Africa, has been associated with Epstein Barr Virus (EBV and malaria, but its association with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV is not clear. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We conducted a case-control study of Burkitt lymphoma among children (aged < or = 15 years admitted to the pediatric oncology unit in Blantyre, Malawi between July 2005 and July 2006. Cases were 148 children diagnosed with Burkitt lymphoma and controls were 104 children admitted with non-malignant conditions or cancers other than hematological malignancies and Kaposi sarcoma. Interviews were conducted and serological samples tested for antibodies against HIV, EBV and malaria. Odds ratios for Burkitt lymphoma were estimated using unconditional logistic regression adjusting for sex, age, and residential district. Cases had a mean age of 7.1 years and 60% were male. Cases were more likely than controls to be HIV positive (Odds ratio (OR = 12.4, 95% Confidence Interval (CI 1.3 to 116.2, p = 0.03. ORs for Burkitt lymphoma increased with increasing antibody titers against EBV (p = 0.001 and malaria (p = 0.01. Among HIV negative participants, cases were thirteen times more likely than controls to have raised levels of both EBV and malaria antibodies (OR = 13.2; 95% CI 3.8 to 46.6; p = 0.001. Reported use of mosquito nets was associated with a lower risk of Burkitt lymphoma (OR = 0.2, 95% CI, 0.03 to 0.9, p = 0.04. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings support prior evidence that EBV and malaria act jointly in the pathogenesis of Burkitt lymphoma, suggesting that malaria prevention may decrease the risk of Burkitt lymphoma. HIV may also play a role in the etiology of this childhood tumor.

  4. Src kinase and Syk activation initiate PI3K signaling by a chimeric latent membrane protein 1 in Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)+ B cell lymphomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatton, Olivia; Lambert, Stacie L; Krams, Sheri M; Martinez, Olivia M

    2012-01-01

    The B lymphotrophic γ-herpesvirus EBV is associated with a variety of lymphoid- and epithelial-derived malignancies, including B cell lymphomas in immunocompromised and immunosuppressed individuals. The primary oncogene of EBV, latent membrane protein 1 (LMP1), activates the PI3K/Akt pathway to induce the autocrine growth factor, IL-10, in EBV-infected B cells, but the mechanisms underlying PI3K activation remain incompletely understood. Using small molecule inhibition and siRNA strategies in human B cell lines expressing a chimeric, signaling-inducible LMP1 protein, nerve growth factor receptor (NGFR)-LMP1, we show that NGFR-LMP1 utilizes Syk to activate PI3K/Akt signaling and induce IL-10 production. NGFR-LMP1 signaling induces phosphorylation of BLNK, a marker of Syk activation. Whereas Src kinases are often required for Syk activation, we show here that PI3K/Akt activation and autocrine IL-10 production by NGFR-LMP1 involves the Src family kinase Fyn. Finally, we demonstrate that NGFR-LMP1 induces phosphorylation of c-Cbl in a Syk- and Fyn-dependent fashion. Our results indicate that the EBV protein LMP1, which lacks the canonical ITAM required for Syk activation, can nevertheless activate Syk, and the Src kinase Fyn, resulting in downstream c-Cbl and PI3K/Akt activation. Fyn, Syk, and PI3K/Akt antagonists thus may present potential new therapeutic strategies that target the oncogene LMP1 for treatment of EBV+ B cell lymphomas.

  5. Src kinase and Syk activation initiate PI3K signaling by a chimeric latent membrane protein 1 in Epstein-Barr virus (EBV+ B cell lymphomas.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivia Hatton

    Full Text Available The B lymphotrophic γ-herpesvirus EBV is associated with a variety of lymphoid- and epithelial-derived malignancies, including B cell lymphomas in immunocompromised and immunosuppressed individuals. The primary oncogene of EBV, latent membrane protein 1 (LMP1, activates the PI3K/Akt pathway to induce the autocrine growth factor, IL-10, in EBV-infected B cells, but the mechanisms underlying PI3K activation remain incompletely understood. Using small molecule inhibition and siRNA strategies in human B cell lines expressing a chimeric, signaling-inducible LMP1 protein, nerve growth factor receptor (NGFR-LMP1, we show that NGFR-LMP1 utilizes Syk to activate PI3K/Akt signaling and induce IL-10 production. NGFR-LMP1 signaling induces phosphorylation of BLNK, a marker of Syk activation. Whereas Src kinases are often required for Syk activation, we show here that PI3K/Akt activation and autocrine IL-10 production by NGFR-LMP1 involves the Src family kinase Fyn. Finally, we demonstrate that NGFR-LMP1 induces phosphorylation of c-Cbl in a Syk- and Fyn-dependent fashion. Our results indicate that the EBV protein LMP1, which lacks the canonical ITAM required for Syk activation, can nevertheless activate Syk, and the Src kinase Fyn, resulting in downstream c-Cbl and PI3K/Akt activation. Fyn, Syk, and PI3K/Akt antagonists thus may present potential new therapeutic strategies that target the oncogene LMP1 for treatment of EBV+ B cell lymphomas.

  6. Phenobarbital-mediated tumor promotion in transgenic mice with humanized CAR and PXR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braeuning, Albert; Gavrilov, Alina; Brown, Susan; Wolf, C Roland; Henderson, Colin J; Schwarz, Michael

    2014-08-01

    The nuclear receptors CAR (constitutive androstane receptor) and possibly PXR (pregnane X receptor) mediate the hepatic effects of phenobarbital (PB) and similar-acting compounds. Although PB is a potent nongenotoxic tumor promoter in rodent liver, epidemiological data from epilepsy patients treated with phenobarbital do not show a specific role of PB in human liver cancer risk. That points to species differences in the susceptibility to tumor promotion by PB, which might be attributed to divergent functions of the PB receptors CAR and PXR in mice and humans. In the present study, male transgenic mice expressing human CAR and PXR were used to detect possible differences between wild-type (WT) and humanized mice in their response to CAR activation in a tumor initiation/promotion experiment with a single injection of the tumor initiator N-nitrosodiethylamine preceding chronic PB treatment for 10 months. Analysis of liver tumor burden revealed that PB strongly promoted the outgrowth of hepatocellular adenoma driven by activated β-catenin in WT mice, whereas the tumor-promoting effect of PB was much less pronounced in the humanized group. In conclusion, the present findings demonstrate that human CAR and PXR support tumor promotion by PB in mouse liver, but to a significantly lesser extent than the WT murine receptors. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Toxicology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Absolute level of Epstein-Barr virus DNA in human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infection is not predictive of AIDS-related non-Hodgkin lymphoma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Baarle, Debbie; Wolthers, Katja C; Hovenkamp, Egbert; Niesters, Hubert G M; Osterhaus, Albert D M E; Miedema, Frank; Van Oers, Marinus H J

    2002-01-01

    To study whether Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) load can be used to predict the occurrence of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome-related non-Hodgkin lymphoma (AIDS-NHL), we determined EBV load longitudinally for individuals infected with human immunodeficiency virus type 1. EBV load in peripheral blood mo

  8. EBV抗体和EBV-DNA在鼻咽癌诊断及分期的研究%Assessment of EBV antibodies and EBV-DNA in the diagnosis and stages of nasopha-ryngeal carcinoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    俞霞; 季明芳; 程伟民; 黄玉玲; 李付贵

    2016-01-01

    目的:评估EBNA1/IgA、Zta/IgA、VCA/IgA和EBV-DNA对不同分期鼻咽癌的诊断效能,探讨各指标阳性率与鼻咽癌分期的关系。方法:收集2010年3月至2015年9月中山大学附属中山医院收治的初诊鼻咽癌患者152例,健康体检者675例。采用酶联免疫吸附法(ELISA)检测血清EBNA1/IgA、Zta/IgA和VCA/IgA抗体ROD值,荧光定量PCR(fluorescence quantitative PCR,FQ-PCR)检测血浆EBV-DNA水平。比较单独和联合应用EBV标记物对各期鼻咽癌的诊断效能,同时分析各指标阳性率与鼻咽癌分期的关系。结果:鼻咽癌患者EBNA1/IgA、Zta/IgA、VCA/IgA和EBV-DNA阳性率显著高于健康体检者(P<0.01)。EBNA1/IgA在早期鼻咽癌表达相对较高,灵敏度为77.8%,而EBV-DNA在晚期鼻咽癌的灵敏度最高为88.8%,两者特异度均在96%以上。联合检测中EBNA1/IgA并联EBV-DNA检测的灵敏度为92.1%(早期为82.5%、晚期为98.9%),特异度为96.9%。EBV-DNA阳性率与鼻咽癌临床分期和N分期呈正相关,Zta/IgA阳性率与N分期呈正相关(P<0.01)。结论:在无症状人群中进行鼻咽癌筛查,单项指标首选EBNA1/IgA。晚期患者的辅助诊断则推荐EBV-DNA。两者并联检测可进一步提高鼻咽癌诊断效能。EBV-DNA是鼻咽癌分期和病情监测的重要指标,Zta/IgA可间接反映淋巴结转移情况,有望对患者病情评估起到参考作用。%Objective:To evaluate the efficacy of Epstein-Barr nuclear antigen 1/immunoglobulin A (EBNA1/IgA), BamH1 Z transactivator/IgA (Zta/IgA), capsid antigen/IgA (VCA/IgA), and Epstein-Barr virus deoxyribonucleic acid (EBV-DNA) in detecting different stages of na-sopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). The relationship between the EBV markers and stages of NPC was also analyzed. Methods:Blood sam-ples of 152 untreated patients with NPC and 675 healthy subjects were collected.ELISA was used to detect the serum levels of EBNA1/IgA, Zta/IgA, and VCA

  9. Diagnostic significance of detection of EBV-IgM and EBV-DNA load in infectious mononucleosis%EBV-IgM、EBV-DNA在传染性单核细胞增多症急性期的诊断意义研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨细媚; 万祥辉; 段荣; 柯江维

    2013-01-01

    目的 分析EB病毒(epstein-barr virus,EBV)抗体IgM和EBV-DNA水平在传染性单核细胞增多症(infectious mononucleosis,IM)急性期不同时间段的分布规律,探讨其在IM诊断中的价值.方法 收集2011年1月-2012年12月于我院就诊的163例IM患儿血清标本,采用酶联免疫法检测EBV-IgM,荧光定量PCR法检测EBV-DNA载量.对感染后第1、2、3、4周的EBV-IgM、EBV-DNA检测结果进行统计学分析.结果 EBV-IgM在第1、2、3、4周的阳性率分别为80.5%(70/87),89.6%(43/48),72.1%(31/43)和48.7%(19/39).EBV-DNA在第1、2、3、4周的阳性率分别为64.4%(47/73),38.0%(19/50),25.7%(9/35)和0%(0/27).EBV-IgM与EBV-DNA联合检测第1、2、3、4周的阳性率分别为93.2%(109/117)、97.8%(45/46)、75.0%(36/48)和48.7%(19/39),与单独用EBV-IgM检测的阳性率比较,除第1周差异有统计学意义(P<0.05)外,其他时间检测阳性率差异均无统计学意义(P均>0.05).结论 EBV-IgM在第1、2、3、4周的阳性率均高于EBV-DNA,联合检测两指标在第1周时可显著提高敏感性,有利于IM的早期诊断,但第2-4周时联合检测意义不大.

  10. Urgent need for human resources to promote global cardiovascular health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vedanthan, Rajesh; Fuster, Valentin

    2011-02-01

    The World Health Organization estimates the existence of a global shortage of over 4 million health-care workers. Given the growing global burden of cardiovascular disease (CVD), the shortfall in global human resources for health (HRH) is probably even greater than predicted. A critical challenge going forward is to determine how to integrate CVD-related human resource needs into the overall global HRH agenda. We describe the CVD implications of core HRH objectives, including coverage, motivation, and competence, in addition to issues such as health-care worker migration and the need for input from multiple stakeholders to successfully address the current problems. We emphasize gaps in knowledge regarding HRH for global CVD-related care and research opportunities. In light of the current global epidemiologic transition from communicable to noncommunicable diseases, now is the time for the global health community to focus on CVD-related human resource needs.

  11. Apolipoprotein E promotes lipid accumulation and differentiation in human adipocytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lasrich, Dorothee; Bartelt, Alexander [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Cell Biology, University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Martinistr. 52, 20246 Hamburg (Germany); Grewal, Thomas, E-mail: thomas.grewal@sydney.edu.au [Faculty of Pharmacy A15, The University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia); Heeren, Joerg, E-mail: heeren@uke.de [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Cell Biology, University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Martinistr. 52, 20246 Hamburg (Germany)

    2015-09-10

    Several studies in mice indicate a role for apolipoprotein E (APOE) in lipid accumulation and adipogenic differentiation in adipose tissue. However, little is yet known if APOE functions in a similar manner in human adipocytes. This prompted us to compare lipid loading and expression of adipocyte differentiation markers in APOE-deficient and control adipocytes using the differentiated human mesenchymal stem cell line hMSC-Tert as well as primary human and mouse adipocytes as model systems. Differentiated hMSC-Tert were stably transduced with or without siRNA targeting APOE while murine adipocytes were isolated from wild type and Apoe knockout mice. Human APOE knockdown hMSC-Tert adipocytes accumulated markedly less triglycerides compared to control cells. This correlated with strongly decreased gene expression levels of adipocyte markers such as adiponectin (ADIPOQ) and fatty acid binding protein 4 (FABP4) as well as the key transcription factor driving adipocyte differentiation, peroxisome proliferator activator receptor gamma (PPARG), in particular the PPARG2 isoform. Similarly, differentiation of murine Apoe-deficient adipocytes was characterized by reduced gene expression of Adipoq, Fabp4 and Pparg. Interestingly, incubation of APOE-deficient hMSC-Tert adipocytes with conditioned media from APOE3-overexpressing adipocytes or APOE-containing Very Low Density Lipoprotein (VLDL) partially restored triglyceride accumulation, but were unable to induce adipocyte differentiation, as judged by expression of adipocyte markers. Taken together, depletion of endogenous APOE in human adipocytes severely impairs lipid accumulation, which is associated with an inability to initiate differentiation. - Highlights: • Immortalized human mesenchymal stem cells were used to study adipocyte development. • Knockdown of endogenous APOE lead to impaired lipid accumulation and adipogenesis. • APOE supplementation partially restored lipid accumulation but not differentiation.

  12. Human leukocyte telomere length is associated with DNA methylation levels in multiple subtelomeric and imprinted loci.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buxton, Jessica L; Suderman, Matthew; Pappas, Jane J; Borghol, Nada; McArdle, Wendy; Blakemore, Alexandra I F; Hertzman, Clyde; Power, Christine; Szyf, Moshe; Pembrey, Marcus

    2014-05-14

    In humans, leukocyte telomere length (LTL) is positively correlated with lifespan, and shorter LTL is associated with increased risk of age-related disease. In this study we tested for association between telomere length and methylated cytosine levels. Measurements of mean telomere length and DNA methylation at >450,000 CpG sites were obtained for both blood (N = 24) and EBV-transformed cell-line (N = 36) DNA samples from men aged 44-45 years. We identified 65 gene promoters enriched for CpG sites at which methylation levels are associated with leukocyte telomere length, and 36 gene promoters enriched for CpG sites at which methylation levels are associated with telomere length in DNA from EBV-transformed cell-lines. We observed significant enrichment of positively associated methylated CpG sites in subtelomeric loci (within 4 Mb of the telomere) (P telomere length, DNA methylation and gene expression in health and disease.

  13. ATF-2 stimulates the human insulin promoter through the conserved CRE2 sequence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hay, Colin W; Ferguson, Laura A; Docherty, Kevin

    2007-02-01

    The insulin promoter contains a number of dissimilar cis-acting regulatory elements that bind a range of tissue specific and ubiquitous transcription factors. Of the regulatory elements within the insulin promoter, the cyclic AMP responsive element (CRE) binds by far the most diverse array of transcription factors. Rodent insulin promoters have a single CRE site, whereas there are four CREs within the human insulin gene, of which CRE2 is the only one conserved between species. The aim of this study was to characterise the human CRE2 site and to investigate the effects of the two principal CRE-associated transcription factors; CREB-1 and ATF-2. Co-transfection of INS-1 pancreatic beta-cells with promoter constructs containing the human insulin gene promoter placed upstream of the firefly luciferase reporter gene and expression plasmids for ATF-2 or CREB-1 showed that ATF-2 stimulated transcriptional activity while CREB-1 elicited an inhibitory effect. Mutagenesis of CRE2 diminished the effect of ATF-2 but not that of CREB-1. ATF-2 was shown to bind to the CRE2 site by electrophoretic mobility shift assay and by chromatin immunoprecipitation, while siRNA mediated knockdown of ATF-2 diminished the stimulatory effects of cAMP related signalling on promoter activity. These results suggest that ATF-2 may be a key regulator of the human insulin promoter possibly stimulating activity in response to extracellular signals.

  14. SIRT1 promotes metastasis of human osteosarcoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ning; Xie, Tao; Xian, Miao; Wang, Yi-Jie; Li, Heng-Yuan; Ying, Mei-Dan; Ye, Zhao-Ming

    2016-11-29

    Pulmonary metastasis is the leading cause of mortality in patients with osteosarcoma; however, the underlying mechanism remains unclear. The NAD+-dependent deacetylase, sirtuin 1 (SIRT1), has been reported to play a key role in carcinogenesis through deacetylation of important regulatory proteins. Here, we report that SIRT1 promotes osteosarcoma metastasis by regulating the expression of metastatic-associated genes. The SIRT1 protein was significantly upregulated in most primary osteosarcoma tumours, compared with normal tissues, and the SIRT1 expression level may be coupled with metastatic risk in patients with osteosarcoma. Moreover, the results of cell migration and wound-healing assays further suggested that higher expression of SIRT1 promoted invasive activity of osteosarcoma cells. Importantly, downregulating SIRT1 with shRNA inhibited the migration ability of osteosarcoma cells in vitro and suppressed tumour lung metastasis in mice. Finally, a gene expression analysis showed that knockdown of SIRT1 profoundly activated translation of its downstream pathway, particularly at migration and invasion. In summary, high levels of SIRT1 may be a biomarker for a high metastatic rate in osteosarcoma patients; inhibiting SIRT1 could be a potent therapeutic intervention for these patients.

  15. Genome-wide prediction of transcriptional regulatory elements of human promoters using gene expression and promoter analysis data

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    Kim Seon-Young

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A complete understanding of the regulatory mechanisms of gene expression is the next important issue of genomics. Many bioinformaticians have developed methods and algorithms for predicting transcriptional regulatory mechanisms from sequence, gene expression, and binding data. However, most of these studies involved the use of yeast which has much simpler regulatory networks than human and has many genome wide binding data and gene expression data under diverse conditions. Studies of genome wide transcriptional networks of human genomes currently lag behind those of yeast. Results We report herein a new method that combines gene expression data analysis with promoter analysis to infer transcriptional regulatory elements of human genes. The Z scores from the application of gene set analysis with gene sets of transcription factor binding sites (TFBSs were successfully used to represent the activity of TFBSs in a given microarray data set. A significant correlation between the Z scores of gene sets of TFBSs and individual genes across multiple conditions permitted successful identification of many known human transcriptional regulatory elements of genes as well as the prediction of numerous putative TFBSs of many genes which will constitute a good starting point for further experiments. Using Z scores of gene sets of TFBSs produced better predictions than the use of mRNA levels of a transcription factor itself, suggesting that the Z scores of gene sets of TFBSs better represent diverse mechanisms for changing the activity of transcription factors in the cell. In addition, cis-regulatory modules, combinations of co-acting TFBSs, were readily identified by our analysis. Conclusion By a strategic combination of gene set level analysis of gene expression data sets and promoter analysis, we were able to identify and predict many transcriptional regulatory elements of human genes. We conclude that this approach will aid in decoding

  16. Shape of the human nasal cavity promotes retronasal smell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trastour, Sophie; Melchionna, Simone; Mishra, Shruti; Zwicker, David; Lieberman, Daniel E.; Kaxiras, Efthimios; Brenner, Michael P.

    2015-11-01

    Humans are exceptionally good at perceiving the flavor of food. Flavor includes sensory input from taste receptors but is dominated by olfactory (smell) receptors. To smell food while eating, odors must be transported to the nasal cavity during exhalation. Olfactory performance of this retronasal route depends, among other factors, on the position of the olfactory receptors and the shape of the nasal cavity. One biological hypothesis is that the derived configuration of the human nasal cavity has resulted in a greater capacity for retronasal smell, hence enhanced flavor perception. We here study the air flow and resulting odor deposition as a function of the nasal geometry and the parameters of exhalation. We perform computational fluid dynamics simulations in realistic geometries obtained from CT scans of humans. Using the resulting flow fields, we then study the deposition of tracer particles in the nasal cavity. Additionally, we derive scaling laws for the odor deposition rate as a function of flow parameters and geometry using boundary layer theory. These results allow us to assess which changes in the evolution of the human nose led to significant improvements of retronasal smell.

  17. Promoting the Reading Culture Towards Human Capital and Global Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olasehinde, M. O.; Akanmode, O. A.; Alaiyemola, A. T.; Babatunde, O. T.

    2015-01-01

    It is commonly agreed that a country cannot be fully developed without large-scale investment in her educational scheme since the breakthrough of a country is directly proportional to her educational level. Since the acquisition of effective reading skills has a positive effect on all school subjects, then reading is sine-qua-non for human capital…

  18. The Role of the Chinese Government in Promoting Human Rights

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LUO YANHUA

    2007-01-01

    @@ Along with the reform and opening policy adopted at the end of 1970s, great changes have taken place in China's human rights field.What kind of role has the Chinese government played in this process? I will try to answer the question in this paper.

  19. Characterization of the human MSX-1 promoter and an enhancer responsible for retinoic acid induction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, R; Chen, Y; Huang, L; Vitale, E; Solursh, M

    1994-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that the expression of some human HOX genes can be induced by retinoic acid (RA) in cultured embryonal carcinoma (EC) cells. However, the mechanisms for the regulation of HOX gene expression by RA are still unclear. We have examined the effects of RA on the human MSX-1 (formerly named HOX-7) gene expression in cultured EC cells (NT2/D1). Furthermore, we have cloned and characterized the human MSX-1 promoter and analyzed the activities of the promoter in response to RA. Our results demonstrate that transcription of human MSX-1 is activated by RA in cultured EC cells. This activation is dose and time responsive. The MSX-1 promoter was shown to be TATA-box independent and able to promote transcription in RA-treated EC cells. DNase-I footprinting studies revealed protection of several GAGA factor binding sites and an NF-kappa B site upstream to the transcription start site by nuclear extracts prepared from EC cells. A downstream sequence was differentially protected by the nuclear extract from RA treated cells. This differential binding of the sequence with the nuclear extract was further confirmed by gel shift assays. This sequence confers to a heterologous promoter with the ability to respond to RA induction. Point mutation within this DNA fragment abolished the binding of the fragment to the nuclear extract and the response of this element in a heterologous promoter to RA induction. Deletion of this enhancer element together with the adjacent NF-kappa B and GAGA sites abolished the ability of the promoter to direct transcription in RA-treated EC cells. However, removal of a downstream DNA fragment from the promoter endowed the promoter with the ability to direct transcription in RA-untreated cells. Taken together, both positive and negative regulatory cis-elements are involved in the regulation of the MSX-1 promoter and coordinate to control the gene expression.

  20. Differences in gastric carcinoma microenvironment stratify according to EBV infection intensity: implications for possible immune adjuvant therapy.

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    Michael J Strong

    Full Text Available Epstein-Barr virus (EBV is associated with roughly 10% of gastric carcinomas worldwide (EBVaGC. Although previous investigations provide a strong link between EBV and gastric carcinomas, these studies were performed using selected EBV gene probes. Using a cohort of gastric carcinoma RNA-seq data sets from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA, we performed a quantitative and global assessment of EBV gene expression in gastric carcinomas and assessed EBV associated cellular pathway alterations. EBV transcripts were detected in 17% of samples but these samples varied significantly in EBV coverage depth. In four samples with the highest EBV coverage (hiEBVaGC - high EBV associated gastric carcinoma, transcripts from the BamHI A region comprised the majority of EBV reads. Expression of LMP2, and to a lesser extent, LMP1 were also observed as was evidence of abortive lytic replication. Analysis of cellular gene expression indicated significant immune cell infiltration and a predominant IFNG response in samples expressing high levels of EBV transcripts relative to samples expressing low or no EBV transcripts. Despite the apparent immune cell infiltration, high levels of the cytotoxic T-cell (CTL and natural killer (NK cell inhibitor, IDO1, was observed in the hiEBVaGCs samples suggesting an active tolerance inducing pathway in this subgroup. These results were confirmed in a separate cohort of 21 Vietnamese gastric carcinoma samples using qRT-PCR and on tissue samples using in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry. Lastly, a panel of tumor suppressors and candidate oncogenes were expressed at lower levels in hiEBVaGC versus EBV-low and EBV-negative gastric cancers suggesting the direct regulation of tumor pathways by EBV.

  1. Three promoters regulate the transcriptional activity of the human holocarboxylase synthetase gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Mengna; Malkaram, Sridhar A; Zempleni, Janos

    2013-11-01

    Holocarboxylase synthetase (HLCS) is the only protein biotin ligase in the human proteome. HLCS-dependent biotinylation of carboxylases plays crucial roles in macronutrient metabolism. HLCS appears to be an essential part of multiprotein complexes in the chromatin that cause gene repression and contribute toward genome stability. Consistent with these essential functions, HLCS knockdown causes strong phenotypes including shortened life span and low stress resistance in Drosophila melanogaster, and de-repression of long-terminal repeats in humans, other mammalian cell lines and Drosophila. Despite previous observations that the expression of HLCS depends on biotin status in rats and in human cell lines, little is known about the regulation of HLCS expression. The goal of this study was to identify promoters that regulate the expression of the human HLCS gene. Initially, the human HLCS locus was interrogated in silico using predictors of promoters including sequences of HLCS mRNA and expressed sequence tags, CpG islands, histone marks denoting transcriptionally poised chromatin, transcription factor binding sites and DNaseI hypersensitive regions. Our predictions revealed three putative HLCS promoters, denoted P1, P2 and P3. Promoters lacked a TATA box, which is typical for housekeeping genes. When the three promoters were cloned into a luciferase reporter plasmid, reporter gene activity was at least three times background noise in human breast, colon and kidney cell lines; activities consistently followed the pattern P1>P3>P2. Promoter activity depended on the concentration of biotin in culture media, but the effect was moderate. We conclude that we have identified promoters in the human HLCS gene.

  2. Replacing the Promoter of the Murine Gene Encoding P-selectin with the Human Promoter Confers Human-like Basal and Inducible Expression in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhenghui; Zhang, Nan; Shao, Bojing; Panicker, Sumith R; Fu, Jianxin; McEver, Rodger P

    2016-01-15

    In humans and mice, megakaryocytes/platelets and endothelial cells constitutively synthesize P-selectin and mobilize it to the plasma membrane to mediate leukocyte rolling during inflammation. TNF-α, interleukin 1β, and LPS markedly increase P-selectin mRNA in mice but decrease P-selectin mRNA in humans. Transgenic mice bearing the entire human SELP gene recapitulate basal and inducible expression of human P-selectin and reveal human-specific differences in P-selectin function. Differences in the human SELP and murine Selp promoters account for divergent expression in vitro, but their significance in vivo is not known. Here we generated knockin mice that replace the 1.4-kb proximal Selp promoter with the corresponding SELP sequence (Selp(KI)). Selp(KI) (/) (KI) mice constitutively expressed more P-selectin on platelets and more P-selectin mRNA in tissues but only slightly increased P-selectin mRNA after injection of TNF-α or LPS. Consistent with higher basal expression, leukocytes rolled more slowly on P-selectin in trauma-stimulated venules of Selp(KI) (/) (KI) mice. However, TNF-α did not further reduce P-selectin-dependent rolling velocities. Blunted up-regulation of P-selectin mRNA during contact hypersensitivity reduced P-selectin-dependent inflammation in Selp(KI) (/-) mice. Higher basal P-selectin in Selp(KI) (/) (KI) mice compensated for this defect. Therefore, divergent sequences in a short promoter mediate most of the functionally significant differences in expression of human and murine P-selectin in vivo.

  3. Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) association and latency profile in pediatric Burkitt's lymphoma: experience of a single institution in Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lara, Julia; Cohen, Melina; De Matteo, Elena; Aversa, Luis; Preciado, Maria Victoria; Chabay, Paola

    2014-05-01

    The aim of this study is to characterize EBV expression and latency pattern in pediatric Burkitt's lymphoma in a single institution in Argentina. EBV-encoded RNA or protein was analyzed in 27 patients. EBERs was expressed in 37% of patients (29% of immunocompetent and 100% of immunosuppressed patients). EBV-positive cases were observed exclusively in patients younger than 5 years old. EBV association with immunocompetent patients exhibits the sporadic pattern in region under study, while its presence in patients infected with HIV was higher than described previously. EBV latency I profile was present in most of the patients, except for two immunosuppressed patients who displayed LMP1 expression.

  4. miRNA gene promoters are frequent targets of aberrant DNA methylation in human breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vrba, Lukas; Muñoz-Rodríguez, José L; Stampfer, Martha R; Futscher, Bernard W

    2013-01-01

    miRNAs are important regulators of gene expression that are frequently deregulated in cancer, with aberrant DNA methylation being an epigenetic mechanism involved in this process. We previously identified miRNA promoter regions active in normal mammary cell types and here we analyzed which of these promoters are targets of aberrant DNA methylation in human breast cancer cell lines and breast tumor specimens. Using 5-methylcytosine immunoprecipitation coupled to miRNA tiling microarray hybridization, we performed comprehensive evaluation of DNA methylation of miRNA gene promoters in breast cancer. We found almost one third (55/167) of miRNA promoters were targets for aberrant methylation in breast cancer cell lines. Breast tumor specimens displayed DNA methylation of majority of these miRNA promoters, indicating that these changes in DNA methylation might be clinically relevant. Aberrantly methylated miRNA promoters were, similar to protein coding genes, enriched for promoters targeted by polycomb in normal cells. Detailed analysis of selected miRNA promoters revealed decreased expression of miRNA linked to increased promoter methylation for mir-31, mir-130a, let-7a-3/let-7b, mir-155, mir-137 and mir-34b/mir-34c genes. The proportion of miRNA promoters we found aberrantly methylated in breast cancer is several fold larger than that observed for protein coding genes, indicating an important role of DNA methylation in miRNA deregulation in cancer.

  5. Human periprostatic adipose tissue promotes prostate cancer aggressiveness in vitro

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    Ribeiro Ricardo

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Obesity is associated with prostate cancer aggressiveness and mortality. The contribution of periprostatic adipose tissue, which is often infiltrated by malignant cells, to cancer progression is largely unknown. Thus, this study aimed to determine if periprostatic adipose tissue is linked with aggressive tumor biology in prostate cancer. Methods Supernatants of whole adipose tissue (explants or stromal vascular fraction (SVF from paired fat samples of periprostatic (PP and pre-peritoneal visceral (VIS anatomic origin from different donors were prepared and analyzed for matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs 2 and 9 activity. The effects of those conditioned media (CM on growth and migration of hormone-refractory (PC-3 and hormone-sensitive (LNCaP prostate cancer cells were measured. Results We show here that PP adipose tissue of overweight men has higher MMP9 activity in comparison with normal subjects. The observed increased activities of both MMP2 and MMP9 in PP whole adipose tissue explants, likely reveal the contribution of adipocytes plus stromal-vascular fraction (SVF as opposed to SVF alone. MMP2 activity was higher for PP when compared to VIS adipose tissue. When PC-3 cells were stimulated with CM from PP adipose tissue explants, increased proliferative and migratory capacities were observed, but not in the presence of SVF. Conversely, when LNCaP cells were stimulated with PP explants CM, we found enhanced motility despite the inhibition of proliferation, whereas CM derived from SVF increased both cell proliferation and motility. Explants culture and using adipose tissue of PP origin are most effective in promoting proliferation and migration of PC-3 cells, as respectively compared with SVF culture and using adipose tissue of VIS origin. In LNCaP cells, while explants CM cause increased migration compared to SVF, the use of PP adipose tissue to generate CM result in the increase of both cellular proliferation and migration

  6. Inhibitory activities of microalgal extracts against Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV antigen expression in lymphoblastoid cells

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    Koh Yih Yih

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The inhibitory activities of microalgal extracts against the expression of three EBV antigens, latent membrane protein (LMP1, Epstein-Barr nuclear antigen (EBNA1 and Z Epstein-Barr reactivation activator (ZEBRA were assessed by immunocytochemistry. The observation that the methanol extracts and their fractions from Ankistrodesmus convolutus, Synechococcus elongatus and Spirulina platensis exhibited inhibitory activity against EBV proteins in three Burkitt’s lymphoma cell lines at concentrations as low as 20 μg/ml suggests that microalgae could be a potential source of antiviral compounds against EBV.

  7. 91例EB病毒相关疾病儿童血浆EB病毒DNA的检测%Determination of plasma EBV DNA in 91 children with EBV-associated diseases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    段红梅; 姚瑶; 谢正德; 闫静; 胡英慧; 幺远; 周玲; 申昆玲

    2009-01-01

    Objective To determine the plasma level of Epstein-Barr virus ( EBV) DNA in children with EBV-associated diseases, and to investigate the dynamic changes of EBV DNA level after initial infection as well as the relationship between EBV-DNA level and the diseases severity. Methods The subjects consisted of 73 children with primary EBV infection (infectious mononucleosis, pneumonia,etc. ) and 18 children with severe EBV-associated diseases (chronic active EBV infection, hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis, etc. ). The plasma EBV DNA level was detected by a real-time PCR assay. Results The plasma EBV DNA level decreased with the infection time in children with primary EBV infection. Two weeks after infection, plasma EBV DNA was almost undetectable. The positive rate of plasma EBV DNA in children with severe EBV-associated diseases increased significantly when compared with that in children with primary EBV infection (89% vs 16% ; P < 0.05). Conclusions The level of EBV replication may be reduced with the infection time. Dynamic determination of blood EBV DNA is useful for the evaluation of disease severity in children with EBV infection.%目的 了解EB病毒(EBV)感染患儿外周血血浆中游离EBV DNA的拷贝数,确定EBV原发感染后外周血血浆中EBV游离DNA的拷贝数与发病天数及病情轻重的关系.方法 应用荧光定量PCR方法,测定73例EBV原发感染和18例EBV相关重症疾病患儿外周血血浆中EBV游离DNA.结果 ①原发EBV感染患儿外周血血浆中EBV游离DNA随发病天数呈下降趋势,发病2周后很难检测到.②EBV相关重症疾病组患儿外周血血浆中EBV游离DNA阳性率明显高于原发EBV感染组,差异有显著性(89%vs 16%,P<0.05).结论 原发EBV感染后随病程天数的增加,病毒复制水平逐渐下降.血浆中EBV游离DNA检测对评价EBV相关疾病的严重程度有一定参考价值.

  8. Delocalized Claudin-1 promotes metastasis of human osteosarcoma cells

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    Jian, Yuekui; Chen, Changqiong; Li, Bo; Tian, Xiaobin, E-mail: drtxb_guiyang@sina.com

    2015-10-23

    Tight junction proteins (TJPs) including Claudins, Occludin and tight junction associated protein Zonula occludens-1 (ZO-1), are the most apical component of junctional complex that mediates cell–cell adhesion in epithelial and endothelial cells. In human malignancies, TJPs are often deregulated and affect cellular behaviors of tumor cells. In this study, we investigated alternations of TJPs and related biological characteristics in human osteosarcoma (OS). Claudin1 was increased in the metastatic OS cells (KRIB and KHOS) compared with the normal osteoblast cells (hFOB1.19) or primary tumor cells (HOS and U2OS), whereas no significant difference was found in Occludin and ZO-1. Immunohistochemistry, immunofluorescence and Western blotting revealed that Claudin1 was initially localized at cell junctions of normal osteoblasts, but substantially delocalized to the nucleus of metastatic OS cells. Phenotypically, inhibition of the nucleus Claudin1 expression compromised the metastatic potential of KRIB and KHOS cells. Moreover, we found that protein kinase C (PKC) but not PKA phosphorylation influenced Claudin1 expression and cellular functions, as PKC inhibitor (Go 6983 and Staurosporine) or genetic silencing of PKC reduced Claudin1 expression and decreased the motility of KRIB and KHOS cells. Taken together, our study implied that delocalization of claudin-1 induced by PKC phosphorylation contributes to metastatic capacity of OS cells. - Highlights: • Claudin1 is increased during the malignant transformation of human OS. • Delocalization of Claudin1 in metastatic OS cells. • Silencing nuclear Claudin1 expression inhibits cell invasion of OS. • Deregulated Claudin1 is regulated by PKC.

  9. Transcription Activity of Ectogenic Human Carcinoembryonic Antigen Promoter in Lung Adenocarcinoma Cells A549

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIONG Weining; FANG Huijuan; XU Yongjian; XIONG Shendao; CAO Yong; SONG Qingfeng; ZENG Daxiong; ZHANG Huilan

    2006-01-01

    The transcription activity of ectogenic human carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) promoter in lung adenocarcinoma cells A549 was investigated for the further gene-targeting therapy. The reporter gene green fluorescent protein (GFP) driven by CEA promoter and human cytomegalovirus (CMV) promoter were relatively constructed and named plasmid pCEA-EGFP and pCMV-GFP respectively. The intensity of fluorescence was detected by fluorescence microscope and flow cytometry analysis after the pCEA-GFP and pSNAV-GFP plasmids were transfected into A549 cells through liposome respectively. The results showed (4.08±0.63) % of the A549 cells transfected with pCEA-AFP plasmid expressed, significantly lower than that of the A549 cells transfected with pCMV-GFP [(43.27±3.54) %]. It was suggested that ectogenic human CEA promoter in lung adenocarcinoma cells A549 was weakly expressed. The distinct specificity of CEA promoter in CEA high expression cells was regarded as a tool in selective gene therapy, but the transcription activity of ectogenic human CEA promoter was needed to increase in the future.

  10. Omeprazole promotes proximal duodenal mucosal bicarbonate secretion in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mertz-Nielsen, A; Hillingsø, J; Bukhave, K; Rask-Madsen, J

    1996-01-01

    The proton pump inhibitor, omeprazole, surprisingly resulted in higher rates of proximal duodenal mucosal bicarbonate secretion than previously reported using an H2 receptor antagonist for gastric acid inhibition. Gastroduodenal perfusions were performed in healthy volunteers to evaluate whether this incidental finding is explained by more potent gastric acid inhibition by omeprazole or might be caused by the different mode of drug action. Basal and stimulated gastric and duodenal bicarbonate secretion rates were measured in the same subjects in control experiments (n = 17) and after pretreatment with high dose omeprazole (n = 17) and ranitidine (n = 9), respectively, by use of a technique permitting simultaneous measurements. Concentrations of bicarbonate were measured in the respective effluents by the method of back titration. Both omeprazole and ranitidine completely inhibited gastric acid secretion (pH 6.9 v 6.8; p > 0.05). Omeprazole caused higher rates of basal (mean (SEM)) (597 (48) v 351 (39) mumol/h; p 0.05) duodenal bicarbonate secretion compared with control experiments. Also the combination of omeprazole and ranitidine increased (p = 0.05) duodenal bicarbonate secretion, while ranitidine alone caused no change in either basal or stimulated secretion. In the stomach basal as well as vagally stimulated bicarbonate secretion was independent of the means of acid inhibition. These results show that the proton pump inhibitor, omeprazole, promotes proximal duodenal mucosal bicarbonate secretion apparently independent of its gastric acid inhibitory effect. The mechanism of action remains speculative.

  11. Health – promoting effect of quercetin in human diet

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    Agnieszka Kobylińska

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Quercetin is a plant flavonoid phytochemical exhibiting a broad spectrum of properties i.a. antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory. However, the effect of quercetin is not clear. This compound at low concentrations can stimulate proliferation of human cells, so it can be a potential drug in the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases and in high concentrations, it induces apoptosis thereby eliminating the infected or abnormal cells and can serve as a potential anticancer drug with wide clinical application. Action of quercetin can be explained by its interference with cellular enzymes, receptors, transporters and signalling system. Due to its widespread occurrence in the plant world, it is an integral component of the human diet. The dietary quercetin occurs most often in the form of β-glycosides connected mostly with rutinose, rhamnose and glucose. Depending on the nutritional habits, the daily intake of flavonoids, including quercetin, ranges from 3 to 70 mg. Epidemiological studies confirm an inverse correlation between the consumption of flavonoids and the incidence of lifestyle diseases and tumor formation. Published data indicate that consumption of foods rich in flavonoids reduces the risk of coronary heart disease. Thus, flavonoids - including quercetin – seem to be an interesting pro-health agent.

  12. [Health--promoting effect of quercetin in human diet].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobylińska, Agnieszka; Janas, Krystyna M

    2015-01-09

    Quercetin is a plant flavonoid phytochemical exhibiting a broad spectrum of properties i.a. antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory. However, the effect of quercetin is not clear. This compound at low concentrations can stimulate proliferation of human cells, so it can be a potential drug in the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases and in high concentrations, it induces apoptosis thereby eliminating the infected or abnormal cells and can serve as a potential anticancer drug with wide clinical application. Action of quercetin can be explained by its interference with cellular enzymes, receptors, transporters and signalling system. Due to its widespread occurrence in the plant world, it is an integral component of the human diet. The dietary quercetin occurs most often in the form of β-glycosides connected mostly with rutinose, rhamnose and glucose. Depending on the nutritional habits, the daily intake of flavonoids, including quercetin, ranges from 3 to 70 mg. Epidemiological studies confirm an inverse correlation between the consumption of flavonoids and the incidence of lifestyle diseases and tumor formation. Published data indicate that consumption of foods rich in flavonoids reduces the risk of coronary heart disease. Thus, flavonoids - including quercetin - seem to be an interesting pro-health agent.

  13. Human handling promotes compliant behavior in adult laboratory rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swennes, Alton G; Alworth, Leanne C; Harvey, Stephen B; Jones, Carolyn A; King, Christopher S; Crowell-Davis, Sharon L

    2011-01-01

    Routine laboratory procedures can be stressful for laboratory animals. We wanted to determine whether human handling of adult rabbits could induce a degree of habituation, reducing stress and facilitating research-related manipulation. To this end, adult New Zealand white rabbits were handled either frequently or minimally. After being handled over 3 wk, these rabbits were evaluated by novel personnel and compared with minimally handled controls. Evaluators subjectively scored the rabbits for their relative compliance or resistance to being scruffed and removed from their cages, being transported to a treatment room, and their behavior at all stages of the exercise. Upon evaluation, handled rabbits scored significantly more compliant than nontreated controls. During evaluation, behaviors that the rabbits displayed when they were approached in their cages and while being handled outside their cages were recorded and compared between study groups. Handled rabbits displayed behavior consistent with a reduction in human-directed fear. This study illustrates the potential for handling to improve compliance in laboratory procedures and reduce fear-related behavior in laboratory rabbits. Such handling could be used to improve rabbit welfare through the reduction of stress and exposure to novel stimuli.

  14. DNA Epstein-Barr virus (EBV sebagai biomaker diagnosis karsinoma nasofaring

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    Janti Sudiono

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC is a malignant neoplasm arising from the mucosal epithelium of the nasopharynx with various cells differentiation. Nasopharyngeal carcinoma is vastly more common in certain regions of East Asia, South Asia and Africa with viral, dietary which is typically includes consumption of salted vegetables, fish, meat and genetic factors that implicated in its causation. The undifferentiated is the most common type of NPC and strongly associated with Epstein-Barr virus (EBV infection. Purpose: This paper was aimed to review about molecular biomarker as non invasive diagnosis of NPC especially in related to EBV infection in nasopharyngeal epithelial cells. Reviews: The pathogenesis of NPC particularly the endemic type seems to follow a multi-step process, in which EBV, ethnic background, and environmental carcinogens all seem to play important role. EBV DNA plasm level is used continuously in clinic as a promise, sensitive and specific molecular marker diagnostic that reflected the stage, treatment response and prognosis of NPC. Detection of nuclear antigen associated with Epstein-Barr virus (EBNA and viral DNA has revealed that EBV can infect epithelial cells and associated with their transformation in carcinogenesis. Latent membrane protein (LMP-1 and LMP-2 oncogenes EBV encoded related to proliferative gene expression indicated invasive and progressive growth of NPC. Conclusion: The new biomarkers for NPC, including EBV DNA in serum; EBV DNA and BamH1-A Reading Frame-1 (BARF1 mRNA in NPC brushings have been developed for the molecular non invasive diagnosis of this tumour.Latar belakang: Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC, sering dikenal sebagai kanker nasofaring merupakan tumor ganas yang berasal dari epitel mukosa nasofaring dengan derajat diferensiasi sel yang bervariasi. Paling banyak ditemukan di Asia Selatan, Asia Timur, dan Afrika. Virus, pola diet tipikal seperti konsumsi sayuran, ikan dan daging yang

  15. Cloning and characterization of the human PAX7 promoter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murmann, O V; Niggli, F; Schäfer, B W

    2000-04-01

    PAX7, a member of the PAX transcription factor gene family, is normally expressed at high levels during development in the neural tube and in skeletal muscle precursor cells. Interestingly, PAX7 expression was also identified in tumor cells developing from these cell types. To date not much is known about the molecular mechanisms controlling the regulation of PAX7 expression. Therefore, we have cloned and sequenced part of the proximal 5'-flanking region of the human PAX7 gene. Computer-based sequence analysis identified putative binding sites for basic transcription factors. Analysis of a series of deletion constructs in different cell types suggested that a distal region containing several E-boxes might be involved in muscle-specific expression of PAX7, and that a distinct proximal region can enhance basal PAX7 expression in tumor cells.

  16. Viruses and human cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gallo, R.C.; Haseltine, W.; Klein, G.; Zur Hausen, H.

    1987-01-01

    This book contains papers on the following topics: Immunology and Epidemiology, Biology and Pathogenesis, Models of Pathogenesis and Treatment, Simian and Bovine Retroviruses, Human Papilloma Viruses, EBV and Herpesvirus, and Hepatitis B Virus.

  17. Salt Promotes Passive Overconsumption of Dietary Fat in Humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolhuis, Dieuwerke P; Costanzo, Andrew; Newman, Lisa P; Keast, Russell Sj

    2016-04-01

    Excess fat consumption has been linked to the development of obesity. Fat and salt are a common and appetitive combination in food; however, the effect of either on food intake is unclear. Fat taste sensitivity has been negatively associated with dietary fat intake, but how fat taste sensitivity influences the intake of fat within a meal has, to our knowledge, not yet been investigated. Our objectives were, first, to investigate the effects of both fat and salt on ad libitum food intake and, second, to investigate the effects of fat taste sensitivity on satiation responses to fat and whether this was affected by salt. Forty-eight healthy adults [16 men and 32 women, aged 18-54 y, body mass index (kg/m(2)): 17.8-34.4] were recruited and their fat taste sensitivity was measured by determination of the detection threshold of oleic acid (18:1n-6). In a randomized 2 × 2 crossover design, participants attended 4 lunchtime sessions after a standardized breakfast. Meals consisted of elbow macaroni (56%) with sauce (44%); sauces were manipulated to be1) low-fat (0.02% fat, wt:wt)/low-salt (0.06% NaCl, wt:wt),2) low-fat/high-salt (0.5% NaCl, wt:wt),3) high-fat (34% fat, wt:/wt)/low-salt, or4) high-fat/high-salt. Ad libitum intake (primary outcome) and eating rate, pleasantness, and subjective ratings of hunger and fullness (secondary outcomes) were measured. Salt increased food and energy intakes by 11%, independent of fat concentration (P= 0.022). There was no effect of fat on food intake (P= 0.6), but high-fat meals increased energy intake by 60% (Pintake of high-fat meals but only in the presence of low salt (fat taste × salt interaction on delta intake of high-fat - low-fat meals;P= 0.012). The results suggest that salt promotes passive overconsumption of energy in adults and that salt may override fat-mediated satiation in individuals who are sensitive to the taste of fat. This trial was registered at the Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry (www

  18. Evolutionary trend of exceptionally long human core promoter short tandem repeats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohadi, M; Mohammadparast, S; Darvish, H

    2012-10-01

    Short tandem repeats (STRs) are variable elements that play a significant role in genome evolution by creating and maintaining quantitative genetic variation. Because of their proximity to the +1 transcription start site (TSS) and polymorphic nature, core promoter STRs may be considered a novel source of variation across species. In a genome-scale analysis of the entire human protein-coding genes annotated in the GeneCards database (19,927), we analyze the prevalence and repeat numbers of different classes of core promoter STRs in the interval between -120 and +1 to the TSS. We also analyze the evolutionary trend of exceptionally long core promoter STRs of ≥6-repeats. 133 genes (~2%) had core promoter STRs of ≥6-repeats. In the majority of those genes, the STR motifs were found to be conserved across evolution. Di-nucleotide repeats had the highest representation in the human core promoter long STRs (72 genes). Tri- (52 genes), tetra-, penta-, and hexa-nucleotide STRs (9 genes) were also present in the descending prevalence. The majority of those genes (84 genes) revealed directional expansion of core promoter STRs from mouse to human. However, in a number of genes, the difference in average allele size across species was sufficiently small that there might be a constraint on the evolution of average allele size. Random drift of STRs from mouse to human was also observed in a minority of genes. Future work on the genes listed in the current study may further our knowledge into the potential importance of core promoter STRs in human evolution.

  19. Promotion of The Human Skeletal Heritage: A Milanese Perspective

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    Cristina Cattaneo

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The history and cultural heritage of a city can be evaluated not only through the study of the works of art, artifacts or buildings, but also through the examination of the remains of persons who walked the city in the past millennia. Therefore several thousands of skeletal remains found in Lombardia, especially in Milano, act as cultural assets, though in an the ethical scenario of full respect of human remains. In this way the skeletons tell a history concerning the conditions of health, the richness, culture and even violence, which may confirm, integrate or deny the historical sources when available. Preliminary studies performed on skeletons from different areas of Lombardia have already demonstrated the potential of skeletal material in highlighting for example the evolution of infectious diseases from the Roman age to the Middle Ages, the multiethnicity of Milan at the time of St Ambrose, the heavy labor of children which seems to be present among the Longobards who inhabited the geographic areas of Bergamo as well as Manzoni’s plague affecting the remains found under the Spanish walls. How were they different from us for what concerns life expectancy, diseases, interpersonal violence and lifestyle? In this the skeleton comes through as a true cultural asset.

  20. Design of phosphorylated dendritic architectures to promote human monocyte activation.

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    Poupot, Mary; Griffe, Laurent; Marchand, Patrice; Maraval, Alexandrine; Rolland, Olivier; Martinet, Ludovic; L'Faqihi-Olive, Fatima-Ezzahra; Turrin, Cédric-Olivier; Caminade, Anne-Marie; Fournié, Jean-Jacques; Majoral, Jean-Pierre; Poupot, Rémy

    2006-11-01

    As first defensive line, monocytes are a pivotal cell population of innate immunity. Monocyte activation can be relevant to a range of immune conditions and responses. Here we present new insights into the activation of monocytes by a series of phosphonic acid-terminated, phosphorus-containing dendrimers. Various dendritic or subdendritic structures were synthesized and tested, revealing the basic structural requirements for monocyte activation. We showed that multivalent character and phosphonic acid capping of dendrimers are crucial for monocyte targeting and activation. Confocal videomicroscopy showed that a fluorescein-tagged dendrimer binds to isolated monocytes and gets internalized within a few seconds. We also found that dendrimers follow the phagolysosomial route during internalization by monocytes. Finally, we performed fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) experiments between a specifically designed fluorescent dendrimer and phycoerythrin-coupled antibodies. We showed that the typical innate Toll-like receptor (TLR)-2 is clearly involved, but not alone, in the sensing of dendrimers by monocytes. In conclusion, phosphorus-containing dendrimers appear as precisely tunable nanobiotools able to target and activate human innate immunity and thus prove to be good candidates to develop new drugs for immunotherapies.

  1. Motor Skill Acquisition Promotes Human Brain Myelin Plasticity

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    Bimal Lakhani

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Experience-dependent structural changes are widely evident in gray matter. Using diffusion weighted imaging (DWI, the neuroplastic effect of motor training on white matter in the brain has been demonstrated. However, in humans it is not known whether specific features of white matter relate to motor skill acquisition or if these structural changes are associated to functional network connectivity. Myelin can be objectively quantified in vivo and used to index specific experience-dependent change. In the current study, seventeen healthy young adults completed ten sessions of visuomotor skill training (10,000 total movements using the right arm. Multicomponent relaxation imaging was performed before and after training. Significant increases in myelin water fraction, a quantitative measure of myelin, were observed in task dependent brain regions (left intraparietal sulcus [IPS] and left parieto-occipital sulcus. In addition, the rate of motor skill acquisition and overall change in myelin water fraction in the left IPS were negatively related, suggesting that a slower rate of learning resulted in greater neuroplastic change. This study provides the first evidence for experience-dependent changes in myelin that are associated with changes in skilled movements in healthy young adults.

  2. Meeting the family: promoting humanism in gross anatomy.

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    Crow, Sheila M; O'Donoghue, Dan; Vannatta, Jerry B; Thompson, Britta M

    2012-01-01

    Human dissection commonly occurs early in the undergraduate medical school curriculum, thus presenting an immediate opportunity for educators to teach and encourage humanistic qualities of respect, empathy, and compassion. The purpose of this study was to measure the impact of the Donor Luncheon, a unique program in which medical students meet the families of the anatomical donor prior to dissection in the anatomy course at the University of Oklahoma College of Medicine. Students were randomized into groups of 8 to attend the luncheon and either met with family of the donor or attended the luncheon with no donor family present. A questionnaire measured students' attitudes at 2 weeks, 6 weeks, and at the conclusion of the anatomy course. Factor analysis revealed 5 scales. Analysis revealed statistically significant differences across time for Donor as Person, Dissection Process, and Donor as Patient and statistically significant differences between groups for Donor as Person and Donor as Patient. These results suggest that this program can provide students with the opportunity to maintain more humanistic attitudes at the beginning of their medical education career.

  3. Primary bilateral adrenal B-cell lymphoma associated with EBV and JCV infection

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    Guzzardo Vincenza

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Primary lymphoma of the adrenal gland is a rare and highly aggressive disease, with only a few reports in the literature. The pathogenesis is unknown, but detection of Epstein Barr virus (EBV genome sequences and gene expression in some cases of primary adrenal lymphomas suggested the virus might be a causative agent of the malignancy. While investigating the presence of genome sequences of oncogenic viruses in a large series of adrenal tumors, both EBV and JC polyomavirus (JCV DNA sequences were detected in a diffuse large primary bilateral B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma of the adrenal gland, which was diagnosed only at postmortem examination in a 77 year-old woman with incidentally discovered adrenal masses and primary adrenal insufficiency. The presence of both EBV and JCV genome sequences suggests the relevance of EBV and JCV coinfection in the pathogenesis of this rare form of B-cell lymphoma.

  4. A Therapeutic Approach to Nasopharyngeal Carcinomas by DNAzymes Targeting EBV LMP-1 Gene

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    Lun-Quan Sun

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Epstein-Barr virus (EBV-encoded latent membrane protein 1 (LMP1 has been known to have oncogenic properties during latent infection in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC. Genetic manipulation of LMP1 expression may provide a novel strategy for the treatment of NPC. DNAzymes are synthetic, single-stranded DNA catalysts that can be engineered to bind and cleave the target mRNA of a disease-causing gene. By targeting the LMP1 mRNA, we successfully obtained a phosphorothioate-modified ‘‘10–23’’ DNAzyme namely DZ1, through screening a series of DNAzymes. DZ1 could significantly down-regulate the expression of LMP1 in NPC cells, inhibit cell proliferation, metastasis, promote apoptosis and enhance radiosensitivity of NPC through interfering signal pathways which are abnormally activated by LMP1, including NF-κB, AP-1 and STAT3 signal pathways. Together, interfering LMP1 signaling pathway could be a promising strategy to target the malignant phenotypes of NPC.

  5. Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) DNA in whole blood as a superior prognostic and monitoring factor than EBV-encoded small RNA in situ hybridization in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, J-H; Lu, T-X; Tian, T; Wang, L; Fan, L; Xu, J; Zhang, R; Gong, Q-X; Zhang, Z-H; Li, J-Y; Xu, W

    2015-06-01

    Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) status was retrospectively analysed by the use of EBV-encoded small RNA (EBER) in situ hybridization (ISH) and EBV DNA analysis in whole blood with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, to assess the clinical significance for diagnosis, prognostication, and monitoring of tumour burden. Three hundred and twenty-nine patients were retrospectively enrolled, with 232 patients being available for EBER ISH analysis, 189 patients for EBV DNA analysis, and 138 patients for both analyses. EBER was positive in 24 (10.3%) patients, and EBV DNA was positive in 18 (9.5%) patients; the two analyses had 92.8% concordance. Patients with pretreatment EBER positivity had worse overall survival (OS) than those without EBER positivity (p 0.03); the same pattern was observed for EBV DNA (p EBV DNA were combined (p EBV DNA (hazard ratio 3.71, 95% CI 1.78-7.74, p EBV DNA, the transformation from positive to negative after cycle 3 with chemotherapy may have the most capacity to distinguish a superior from an inferior outcome. These findings suggest that EBV DNA in whole blood has good concordance with EBER ISH, and that it may be a better prognostic and monitoring biomarker than EBER.

  6. Bradykinin promotes migration and invasion of human immortalized trophoblasts

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    Lisboa Francisco

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Having demonstrated that the bradykinin B2 receptor (B2R is expressed in cells that participate in trophoblast invasion in humans and guinea-pigs, we investigated the role of bradykinin (BK on cell migration and invasion in the HTR-8/SVneo trophoblast cell line using wound healing and invasion assays. First, we documented that HTR-8/SVneo cells expressed kallikrein, B2R, B1R, MMP-2 and MMP-9 using immunocytochemistry. Incubation with BK (10.0 microMol/L for 18 hours increased the migration index 3-fold in comparison to controls or to cells preincubated with the B2R antagonist HOE-140. BK (10.0 microMol/L incubation yielded a similar number of proliferating and viable cells as controls, therefore the enhanced closure of the wound cannot be attributed to proliferating cells. Incubation with BK (10.0 microMol/L for 18 hours increased the invasion index 2-fold in comparison to controls or to cells preincubated with the antagonist of the B2R. Neither the B1R ligand Lys-des-Arg9 BK, nor its antagonist Lys-(des-Arg9-Leu8, modified migration and invasion. Further support for the stimulatory effect of B2R activation on migration and invasion is provided by the 3-fold increase in the number of filopodia per cell versus controls or cells preincubated with the B2R antagonist. Bradykinin had no effect on the cellular protein content of the B2R, nor the MMP-9 and MMP-2 gelatinase activity in the culture media varied after incubation with BK. This study adds bradykinin-acting on the B2R-to the stimuli of trophoblast migration and invasion, an effect that should be integrated to other modifications of the kallikrein-kinin system in normal and pathological pregnancies.

  7. Ghrelin promotes differentiation of human embryonic stem cells into cardiomyocytes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jin YANG; Guo-qiang LIU; Rui WEI; Wen-fang HOU; Mei-juan GAO; Ming-xia ZHU; Hai-ning WANG; Gui-an CHEN; Tian-pei HONG

    2011-01-01

    Aim:Ghrelin is involved in regulating the differentiation of mesoderm-derived precursor cells.The aim of this study was to investigate whether ghrelin modulated the differentiation of human embryonic stem (hES) cells into cardiomyocytes and,if so,whether the effect was mediated by growth hormone secretagogue receptor 1α (GHS-R1α).Methods:Cardiomyocyte differentiation from hES cells was performed according to an embryoid body (EB)-based protocol.The cumulative percentage of beating EBs was calculated.The expression of cardiac-specific markers including cardiac troponin Ⅰ (cTnl) and α-myosin heavy chain (α-MHC) was detected using RT-PCR,real-time PCR and Western blot.The dispersed beating EBs were examined using immunofluorescent staining.Results:The percentage of beating EBs and the expression of cTnl were significantly increased after ghrelin (0.1 and 1 nmol/L) added into the differentiation medium.From 6 to 18 d of differentiation,the increased expression of cTnl and α-MHC by ghrelin (1 nmol/L)was time-dependent,and in line with the alteration of the percentages of beating EBs.Furthermore,the dispersed beating EBs were double-positively immunostained with antibodies against cTnl and α-actinin.However,blockage of GHS-R1α with its specific antagonist D-[lys3]-GHRP-6 (1 μmol/L) did not alter the effects of ghrelin on cardiomyocyte differentiation.Conclusion:Our data show that ghrelin enhances the generation of cardiomyocytes from hES cells,which is not mediated via GHS-R1α.

  8. Human neural progenitor cells promote photoreceptor survival in retinal explants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Englund-Johansson, Ulrica; Mohlin, Camilla; Liljekvist-Soltic, Ingela; Ekström, Per; Johansson, Kjell

    2010-02-01

    Different types of progenitor and stem cells have been shown to provide neuroprotection in animal models of photoreceptor degeneration. The present study was conducted to investigate whether human neural progenitor cells (HNPCs) have neuroprotective properties on retinal explants models with calpain- and caspase-3-dependent photoreceptor cell death. In the first experiments, HNPCs in a feeder layer were co-cultured for 6 days either with postnatal rd1 mouse or normal rat retinas. Retinal histological sections were used to determine outer nuclear layer (ONL) thickness, and to detect the number of photoreceptors with labeling for calpain activity, cleaved caspase-3 and TUNEL. The ONL thickness of co-cultured rat and rd1 retinas was found to be almost 10% and 40% thicker, respectively, compared to controls. Cell counts of calpain activity, cleaved caspase-3 and TUNEL labeled photoreceptors in both models revealed a 30-50% decrease when co-cultured with HNPCs. The results represent significant increases of photoreceptor survival in the co-cultured retinas. In the second experiments, for an identification of putative survival factors, or a combination of them, a growth factor profile was performed on conditioned medium. The relative levels of various growth factors were analyzed by densitometric measurements of growth factor array membranes. Following growth factors were identified as most potential survival factors; granulocyte colony stimulating factor (G-CSF), granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor (GMCSF), insulin-like growth factor II (IGF-II), neurotrophic factor 3 (NT-3), placental growth factor (PIGF), transforming growth factors (TGF-beta1 and TGF-beta2) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF-D). HNPCs protect both against calpain- and caspase-3-dependent photoreceptor cell death in the rd1 mouse and against caspase-3-dependent photoreceptor cell death in normal rat retinas in vitro. The protective effect is possibly achieved by a variety of

  9. Virus and autoantigen-specific CD4+ T cells are key effectors in a SCID mouse model of EBV-associated post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorders.

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    Linnerbauer, Stefanie; Behrends, Uta; Adhikary, Dinesh; Witter, Klaus; Bornkamm, Georg W; Mautner, Josef

    2014-05-01

    Polyclonal Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-infected B cell line (lymphoblastoid cell lines; LCL)-stimulated T-cell preparations have been successfully used to treat EBV-positive post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorders (PTLD) in transplant recipients, but function and specificity of the CD4+ component are still poorly defined. Here, we assessed the tumor-protective potential of different CD4+ T-cell specificities in a PTLD-SCID mouse model. Injection of different virus-specific CD4+ T-cell clones showed that single specificities were capable of prolonging mouse survival and that the degree of tumor protection directly correlated with recognition of target cells in vitro. Surprisingly, some CD4+ T-cell clones promoted tumor development, suggesting that besides antigen recognition, still elusive functional differences exist among virus-specific T cells. Of several EBV-specific CD4+ T-cell clones tested, those directed against virion antigens proved most tumor-protective. However, enriching these specificities in LCL-stimulated preparations conferred no additional survival benefit. Instead, CD4+ T cells specific for unknown, probably self-antigens were identified as principal antitumoral effectors in LCL-stimulated T-cell lines. These results indicate that virion and still unidentified cellular antigens are crucial targets of the CD4+ T-cell response in this preclinical PTLD-model and that enriching the corresponding T-cell specificities in therapeutic preparations may enhance their clinical efficacy. Moreover, the expression in several EBV-negative B-cell lymphoma cell lines implies that these putative autoantigen(s) might also qualify as targets for T-cell-based immunotherapy of virus-negative B cell malignancies.

  10. Macaque homologs of EBV and KSHV show uniquely different associations with simian AIDS-related lymphomas.

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    A Gregory Bruce

    Full Text Available Two gammaherpesviruses, Epstein-Barr virus (EBV (Lymphocryptovirus genus and Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV (Rhadinovirus genus have been implicated in the etiology of AIDS-associated lymphomas. Homologs of these viruses have been identified in macaques and other non-human primates. In order to assess the association of these viruses with non-human primate disease, archived lymphoma samples were screened for the presence of macaque lymphocryptovirus (LCV homologs of EBV, and macaque rhadinoviruses belonging to the RV1 lineage of KSHV homologs or the more distant RV2 lineage of Old World primate rhadinoviruses. Viral loads were determined by QPCR and infected cells were identified by immunolabeling for different viral proteins. The lymphomas segregated into three groups. The first group (n = 6 was associated with SIV/SHIV infections, contained high levels of LCV (1-25 genomes/cell and expressed the B-cell antigens CD20 or BLA.36. A strong EBNA-2 signal was detected in the nuclei of the neoplastic cells in one of the LCV-high lymphomas, indicative of a type III latency stage. None of the lymphomas in this group stained for the LCV viral capsid antigen (VCA lytic marker. The second group (n = 5 was associated with D-type simian retrovirus-2 (SRV-2 infections, contained high levels of RV2 rhadinovirus (9-790 genomes/cell and expressed the CD3 T-cell marker. The third group (n = 3 was associated with SIV/SHIV infections, contained high levels of RV2 rhadinovirus (2-260 genomes/cell and was negative for both CD20 and CD3. In both the CD3-positive and CD3/CD20-negative lymphomas, the neoplastic cells stained strongly for markers of RV2 lytic replication. None of the lymphomas had detectable levels of retroperitoneal fibromatosis herpesvirus (RFHV, the macaque RV1 homolog of KSHV. Our data suggest etiological roles for both lymphocryptoviruses and RV2 rhadinoviruses in the development of simian AIDS-associated lymphomas and indicate that

  11. Efficient immortalization of primary nasopharyngeal epithelial cells for EBV infection study.

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    Yim Ling Yip

    Full Text Available Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC is common among southern Chinese including the ethnic Cantonese population living in Hong Kong. Epstein-Barr virus (EBV infection is detected in all undifferentiated type of NPC in this endemic region. Establishment of stable and latent EBV infection in premalignant nasopharyngeal epithelial cells is an early event in NPC development and may contribute to its pathogenesis. Immortalized primary nasopharyngeal epithelial cells represent an important tool for investigation of EBV infection and its tumorigenic potential in this special type of epithelial cells. However, the limited availability and small sizes of nasopharyngeal biopsies have seriously restricted the establishment of primary nasopharyngeal epithelial cells for immortalization. A reliable and effective method to immortalize primary nasopharyngeal epithelial cells will provide unrestricted materials for EBV infection studies. An earlier study has reported that Bmi-1 expression could immortalize primary nasopharyngeal epithelial cells. However, its efficiency and actions in immortalization have not been fully characterized. Our studies showed that Bmi-1 expression alone has limited ability to immortalize primary nasopharyngeal epithelial cells and additional events are often required for its immortalization action. We have identified some of the key events associated with the immortalization of primary nasopharyngeal epithelial cells. Efficient immortalization of nasopharyngeal epithelial cells could be reproducibly and efficiently achieved by the combined actions of Bmi-1 expression, activation of telomerase and silencing of p16 gene. Activation of MAPK signaling and gene expression downstream of Bmi-1 were detected in the immortalized nasopharyngeal epithelial cells and may play a role in immortalization. Furthermore, these newly immortalized nasopharyngeal epithelial cells are susceptible to EBV infection and supported a type II latent EBV infection

  12. Changing patterns in the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)and Hodgkin lymphoma association in Tunisia.

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    Dhiab, Myriam Ben; Ziadi, Sonia; Saad, Hanene; Louhichi, Teheni; Trimeche, Mounir

    2016-09-01

    We compared the features of the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) and Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) association in Tunisia in two periods of time, 1991-2001 (111 cases) and 2002-2012 (122 cases). The investigation of the EBV status by EBER in situ hybridization showed a significant decrease in the prevalence of EBV-positive HL from 69.3 % for the period 1991-2001 to 40.1 % for the 2002-2012 period (p = 0.00001). EBV positivity has decreased in all age groups but was more pronounced among young patients, in the 15-24-year age group (46.1 vs 10.3 %, p = 0.003), in the 25-34-year age group (56.2 vs 25 %, p = 0.04), and among children (88.4 vs 59.2 %, p = 0.01). This decrease in EBV-positive HL over time contrasted with a remarkable increase in EBV-negative HL in young adults aged 15-34 years (51.2 vs 83 %; p = 0.001), especially among women (59.1 vs 91.2 %; p = 0.01). The decrease in EBV-positive HL over time concerns particularly the nodular sclerosis histological subtype (69.2 vs 31.6 %, p = 0.000001). These results indicate that the epidemiology of HL and its association with EBV are changing over time, with a trend toward a Western profile, and point toward the emergence of other environmental causative factors, especially among young women, which remain to be identified.

  13. Meta-analysis of nasopharyngeal carcinoma microarray data explores mechanism of EBV-regulated neoplastic transformation

    OpenAIRE

    Liao ZhiJun; Zheng WenLing; Liang Shuang; Chen Xia; Shang Tao; Ma WenLi

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) presumably plays an important role in the pathogenesis of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC), but the molecular mechanism of EBV-dependent neoplastic transformation is not well understood. The combination of bioinformatics with evidences from biological experiments paved a new way to gain more insights into the molecular mechanism of cancer. Results We profiled gene expression using a meta-analysis approach. Two sets of meta-genes were obtained. Meta-A...

  14. Meta-analysis of nasopharyngeal carcinoma microarray data explores mechanism of EBV-regulated neoplastic transformation

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Xia; Liang, Shuang; ZHENG, WENLING; Liao, Zhijun; Shang, Tao; Ma, WenLi

    2008-01-01

    Background Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) presumably plays an important role in the pathogenesis of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC), but the molecular mechanism of EBV-dependent neoplastic transformation is not well understood. The combination of bioinformatics with evidences from biological experiments paved a new way to gain more insights into the molecular mechanism of cancer. Results We profiled gene expression using a meta-analysis approach. Two sets of meta-genes were obtained. Meta-A genes we...

  15. Latent Expression of the Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV)-Encoded Major Histocompatibility Complex Class I TAP Inhibitor, BNLF2a, in EBV-Positive Gastric Carcinomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strong, Michael J; Laskow, Thomas; Nakhoul, Hani; Blanchard, Eugene; Liu, Yaozhong; Wang, Xia; Baddoo, Melody; Lin, Zhen; Yin, Qinyan; Flemington, Erik K

    2015-10-01

    The Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) BNLF2a gene product provides immune evasion properties to infected cells through inhibition of transporter associated with antigen processing (TAP)-mediated transport of antigen peptides. Although BNLF2a is considered to be a lytic gene, we demonstrate that it is expressed in nearly half of the EBV-associated gastric carcinomas analyzed. Further, we show that BNLF2a expression is dissociated from lytic gene expression. BNLF2a is therefore expressed in this latency setting, potentially helping protect the infected tumor cells from immunosurveillance.

  16. Coinfection with EBV/CMV and other respiratory agents in children with suspected infectious mononucleosis

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    Wei Cong

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Numerous studies have shown that Epstein-Barr virus (EBV and cytomegalovirus (CMV can infect immunocompetent patients simultaneously with other agents. Nonetheless, multiple infections with other agents in EBV/CMV-infected children have received little attention. We conducted a retrospective study of children with suspected infectious mononucleosis. Peripheral blood samples were analyzed by indirect immunofluorescence to detect EBV, CMV and other respiratory agents including respiratory syncytial virus; adenovirus; influenza virus types A and B; parainfluenza virus types 1, 2 and 3; Chlamydia pneumoniae and Mycoplasma pneumoniae. A medical history was collected for each child. Results The occurrence of multipathogen infections was 68.9%, 81.3% and 63.6% in the children with primary EBV, CMV or EBV/CMV, respectively, which was significantly higher than that in the past-infected group or the uninfected group (p C. pneumoniae in children with primary infection was as high as 50%, significantly higher than in the other groups (p Conclusion Our study suggests that there is a high incidence of multipathogen infections in children admitted with EBV/CMV primary infection and that the distribution of these pathogens is not random.

  17. Application of circulating plasma/serum EBV DNA in the clinical management of nasopharyngeal carcinoma.

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    Yip, Timothy T C; Ngan, Roger K C; Fong, Alvin H W; Law, Stephen C K

    2014-06-01

    Elevated levels of circulating cell-free Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) DNA have been detected in plasma and serum samples from nasopharyngeal cancer (NPC) patients by quantitative real time PCR (qPCR) test. This qPCR test for circulating EBV DNA was found to be useful in the clinical management of NPC patients. For instance, EBV DNA qPCR test has good sensitivity and specificity in the detection of NPC at disease onset. Increase of the viral DNA load was found in NPC patients at late stages of disease. High EBV DNA load at disease onset or detectable viral load post-treatment was associated with poor survival or frequent relapse in NPC patients. Residual EBV DNA load after primary treatment could be a useful indicator to justify adjuvant chemotherapy. The qPCR test might also be applied to define a poor prognostic group in patients at early stage (I/II) for implementing concurrent chemo-radiotherapy (chemo-RT) to improve patients' outcome. The test is also useful to monitor distant metastases or response to radiotherapy, chemo-RT or surgery. Supplementary tests, however, are needed to pick up EBV negative WHO type I NPC and test improvement is needed to increase sensitivity in detecting stage I disease and local recurrence.

  18. Computational promoter analysis of mouse, rat and human antimicrobial peptide-coding genes

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    Kai Chikatoshi

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mammalian antimicrobial peptides (AMPs are effectors of the innate immune response. A multitude of signals coming from pathways of mammalian pathogen/pattern recognition receptors and other proteins affect the expression of AMP-coding genes (AMPcgs. For many AMPcgs the promoter elements and transcription factors that control their tissue cell-specific expression have yet to be fully identified and characterized. Results Based upon the RIKEN full-length cDNA and public sequence data derived from human, mouse and rat, we identified 178 candidate AMP transcripts derived from 61 genes belonging to 29 AMP families. However, only for 31 mouse genes belonging to 22 AMP families we were able to determine true orthologous relationships with 30 human and 15 rat sequences. We screened the promoter regions of AMPcgs in the three species for motifs by an ab initio motif finding method and analyzed the derived promoter characteristics. Promoter models were developed for alpha-defensins, penk and zap AMP families. The results suggest a core set of transcription factors (TFs that regulate the transcription of AMPcg families in mouse, rat and human. The three most frequent core TFs groups include liver-, nervous system-specific and nuclear hormone receptors (NHRs. Out of 440 motifs analyzed, we found that three represent potentially novel TF-binding motifs enriched in promoters of AMPcgs, while the other four motifs appear to be species-specific. Conclusion Our large-scale computational analysis of promoters of 22 families of AMPcgs across three mammalian species suggests that their key transcriptional regulators are likely to be TFs of the liver-, nervous system-specific and NHR groups. The computationally inferred promoter elements and potential TF binding motifs provide a rich resource for targeted experimental validation of TF binding and signaling studies that aim at the regulation of mouse, rat or human AMPcgs.

  19. Evaluation of Epstein-Barr Virus Latent Membrane Protein 2 Specific T-Cell Receptors Driven by T-Cell Specific Promoters Using Lentiviral Vector

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    Dongchang Yang

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Transduction of latent membrane protein 2 (LMP2-specific T-cell receptors into activated T lymphocytes may provide a universal, MHC-restricted mean to treat EBV-associated tumors in adoptive immunotherapy. We compared TCR-specific promoters of distinct origin in lentiviral vectors, that is, Vβ6.7, delta, luria, and Vβ5.1 to evaluate TCR gene expression in human primary peripheral blood monocytes and T cell line HSB2. Vectors containing Vβ 6.7 promoter were found to be optimal for expression in PBMCs, and they maintained expression of the transduced TCRs for up to 7 weeks. These cells had the potential to recognize subdominant EBV latency antigens as measured by cytotoxicity and IFN-γ secretion. The nude mice also exhibited significant resistance to the HLA-A2 and LMP2-positive CNE tumor cell challenge after being infused with lentiviral transduced CTLs. In conclusion, LMP2-specific CTLs by lentiviral transduction have the potential use for treatment of EBV-related tumors.

  20. EBV-associated post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder after umbilical cord blood transplantation in adults with hematological diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanz, J; Arango, M; Senent, L; Jarque, I; Montesinos, P; Sempere, A; Lorenzo, I; Martín, G; Moscardó, F; Mayordomo, E; Salavert, M; Cañigral, C; Boluda, B; Salazar, C; López-Hontangas, J L; Sanz, M A; Sanz, G F

    2014-03-01

    We analyzed the incidence, clinicopathological features, risk factors and prognosis of patients with EBV-associated post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder (EBV-PTLD) in 288 adults undergoing umbilical cord blood transplantation (UCBT) at a single institution. Twelve patients developed proven EBV-PTLD at a median time of 73 days (range, 36-812). Three-year cumulative incidence (CI) of EBV-PTLD was 4.3% (95% CI: 1.9-6.7). All patients presented with extranodal involvement. Most frequently affected sites were the liver, spleen, central nervous system (CNS), Waldeyer's ring and BM in 7, 6, 4, 3 and 3 patients, respectively. One patient had polymorphic and 11 had monomorphic EBV-PTLD (7 diffuse large B-cell lymphomas not otherwise specified, 4 plasmablastic lymphomas). We confirmed donor origin and EBV infection in all histological samples. EBV-PTLD was the cause of death in 11 patients at a median time of 23 days (range, 1-84). The 3-year CI of EBV-PTLD was 12.9% (95% CI: 3.2-22.5) and 2.6% (95% CI: 0.5-4.7) for patients receiving reduced-intensity conditioning (RIC) and myeloablative conditioning, respectively (P<0.0001). In conclusion, adults with EBV-PTLD after UCBT showed frequent visceral and CNS involvement. The prognosis was poor despite routine viral monitoring and early intervention. An increased risk of EBV-PTLD was noted among recipients of RIC regimens.

  1. Sickle cell trait is not associated with endemic Burkitt lymphoma: An ethnicity and malaria endemicity-matched case–control study suggests factors controlling EBV may serve as a predictive biomarker for this pediatric cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulama, David H; Bailey, Jeffrey A; Foley, Joslyn; Chelimo, Kiprotich; Ouma, Collins; Jura, Walter GZO; Otieno, Juliana; Vulule, John; Moormann, Ann M

    2014-01-01

    Endemic Burkitt lymphoma (eBL) is associated with Epstein–Barr virus (EBV) and Plasmodium falciparum coinfections. Malaria appears to dysregulate immunity that would otherwise control EBV, thereby contributing to eBL etiology. Juxtaposed to human genetic variants associated with protection from malaria, it has been hypothesized that such variants could decrease eBL susceptibility, historically referred to as “the protective hypothesis.” Past studies attempting to link sickle cell trait (HbAS), which is known to be protective against malaria, with protection from eBL were contradictory and underpowered. Therefore, using a case–control study design, we examined HbAS frequency in 306 Kenyan children diagnosed with eBL compared to 537 geographically defined and ethnically matched controls. We found 23.8% HbAS for eBL patients, which was not significantly different compared to 27.0% HbAS for controls [odds ratio (OR) = 0.85; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.61–1.17; p-value = 0.33]. Even though cellular EBV titers, indicative of the number of latently infected B cells, were significantly higher (p-value eBL protection. However, based on receiver operating characteristic curves factors that enable the establishment of EBV persistence, in contrast to those involved in EBV lytic reactivation, may have utility as an eBL precursor biomarker. This has implications for future human genetic association studies to consider variants influencing control over EBV in addition to malaria as risk factors for eBL. What's new? Although the hypothesis dates back to 1970, studies of the “protective effect” of sickle cell trait (HbAS) on the development of endemic Burkitt lymphoma (eBL) have led to contradictory conclusions. This new study analyzed an unprecedented number of eBL cases and highlighted the importance of matching controls on ethnicity as well as malaria endemicity. The findings contribute to resolving the controversy by showing that HbAS frequency does

  2. Genome-wide identification of human- and primate-specific core promoter short tandem repeats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bushehri, A; Barez, M R Mashhoudi; Mansouri, S K; Biglarian, A; Ohadi, M

    2016-08-01

    Recent reports of a link between human- and primate-specific genetic factors and human/primate-specific characteristics and diseases necessitate genome-wide identification of those factors. We have previously reported core promoter short tandem repeats (STRs) of extreme length (≥6-repeats) that have expanded exceptionally in primates vs. non-primates, and may have a function in adaptive evolution. In the study reported here, we extended our study to the human STRs of ≥3-repeats in the category of penta and hexaucleotide STRs, across the entire human protein coding gene core promoters, and analyzed their status in several superorders and orders of vertebrates, using the Ensembl database. The ConSite software was used to identify the transcription factor (TF) sets binding to those STRs. STR specificity was observed at different levels of human and non-human primate (NHP) evolution. 73% of the pentanucleotide STRs and 68% of the hexanucleotide STRs were found to be specific to human and NHPs. AP-2alpha, Sp1, and MZF were the predominantly selected TFs (90%) binding to the human-specific STRs. Furthermore, the number of TF sets binding to a given STR was found to be a selection factor for that STR. Our findings indicate that selected STRs, the cognate binding TFs, and the number of TF set binding to those STRs function as switch codes at different levels of human and NHP evolution and speciation.

  3. Transplantation of specific human astrocytes promotes functional recovery after spinal cord injury.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen J A Davies

    Full Text Available Repairing trauma to the central nervous system by replacement of glial support cells is an increasingly attractive therapeutic strategy. We have focused on the less-studied replacement of astrocytes, the major support cell in the central nervous system, by generating astrocytes from embryonic human glial precursor cells using two different astrocyte differentiation inducing factors. The resulting astrocytes differed in expression of multiple proteins thought to either promote or inhibit central nervous system homeostasis and regeneration. When transplanted into acute transection injuries of the adult rat spinal cord, astrocytes generated by exposing human glial precursor cells to bone morphogenetic protein promoted significant recovery of volitional foot placement, axonal growth and notably robust increases in neuronal survival in multiple spinal cord laminae. In marked contrast, human glial precursor cells and astrocytes generated from these cells by exposure to ciliary neurotrophic factor both failed to promote significant behavioral recovery or similarly robust neuronal survival and support of axon growth at sites of injury. Our studies thus demonstrate functional differences between human astrocyte populations and suggest that pre-differentiation of precursor cells into a specific astrocyte subtype is required to optimize astrocyte replacement therapies. To our knowledge, this study is the first to show functional differences in ability to promote repair of the injured adult central nervous system between two distinct subtypes of human astrocytes derived from a common fetal glial precursor population. These findings are consistent with our previous studies of transplanting specific subtypes of rodent glial precursor derived astrocytes into sites of spinal cord injury, and indicate a remarkable conservation from rat to human of functional differences between astrocyte subtypes. In addition, our studies provide a specific population of human

  4. Transplantation of specific human astrocytes promotes functional recovery after spinal cord injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Stephen J A; Shih, Chung-Hsuan; Noble, Mark; Mayer-Proschel, Margot; Davies, Jeannette E; Proschel, Christoph

    2011-03-02

    Repairing trauma to the central nervous system by replacement of glial support cells is an increasingly attractive therapeutic strategy. We have focused on the less-studied replacement of astrocytes, the major support cell in the central nervous system, by generating astrocytes from embryonic human glial precursor cells using two different astrocyte differentiation inducing factors. The resulting astrocytes differed in expression of multiple proteins thought to either promote or inhibit central nervous system homeostasis and regeneration. When transplanted into acute transection injuries of the adult rat spinal cord, astrocytes generated by exposing human glial precursor cells to bone morphogenetic protein promoted significant recovery of volitional foot placement, axonal growth and notably robust increases in neuronal survival in multiple spinal cord laminae. In marked contrast, human glial precursor cells and astrocytes generated from these cells by exposure to ciliary neurotrophic factor both failed to promote significant behavioral recovery or similarly robust neuronal survival and support of axon growth at sites of injury. Our studies thus demonstrate functional differences between human astrocyte populations and suggest that pre-differentiation of precursor cells into a specific astrocyte subtype is required to optimize astrocyte replacement therapies. To our knowledge, this study is the first to show functional differences in ability to promote repair of the injured adult central nervous system between two distinct subtypes of human astrocytes derived from a common fetal glial precursor population. These findings are consistent with our previous studies of transplanting specific subtypes of rodent glial precursor derived astrocytes into sites of spinal cord injury, and indicate a remarkable conservation from rat to human of functional differences between astrocyte subtypes. In addition, our studies provide a specific population of human astrocytes that

  5. Human uroporphyrinogen-III synthase: genomic organization, alternative promoters, and erythroid-specific expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aizencang, G; Solis, C; Bishop, D F; Warner, C; Desnick, R J

    2000-12-01

    Uroporphyrinogen-III (URO) synthase is the heme biosynthetic enzyme defective in congenital erythropoietic porphyria. The approximately 34-kb human URO-synthase gene (UROS) was isolated, and its organization and tissue-specific expression were determined. The gene had two promoters that generated housekeeping and erythroid-specific transcripts with unique 5'-untranslated sequences (exons 1 and 2A) followed by nine common coding exons (2B to 10). Expression arrays revealed that the housekeeping transcript was present in all tissues, while the erythroid transcript was only in erythropoietic tissues. The housekeeping promoter lacked TATA and SP1 sites, consistent with the observed low level expression in most cells, whereas the erythroid promoter contained GATA1 and NF-E2 sites for erythroid specificity. Luciferase reporter assays demonstrated that the housekeeping promoter was active in both erythroid K562 and HeLa cells, while the erythroid promoter was active only in erythroid cells and its activity was increased during hemin-induced erythroid differentiation. Thus, human URO-synthase expression is regulated during erythropoiesis by an erythroid-specific alternative promoter.

  6. The Role of the Community Nurse in Promoting Health and Human Dignity-Narrative Review Article.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Muntean

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Population health, as defined by WHO in its constitution, is out "a physical, mental and social complete wellbeing". At the basis of human welfare is the human dignity. This dimension requires an integrated vision of health care. The ecosystemical vision of Bronfenbrenner allows highlighting the unexpected connections between social macro system based on values and the micro system consisting of individual and family. Community nurse is aimed to transgression in practice of education and care, the respect for human dignity, the bonds among values and practices of the community and the physical health of individuals. In Romania, the promotion of community nurse began in 2002, through the project promoting the social inclusion by developing human and institutional resources within community nursery of the National School of Public Health, Management and Education in Healthcare Bucharest. The community nurse became apparent in 10 counties included in the project. Considering the respect for human dignity as an axiomatic value for the community nurse interventions, we stress the need for developing a primary care network in Romania. The proof is based on the analysis of the concept of human dignity within health care, as well as the secondary analysis of health indicators, in the year of 2010, of the 10 counties included in the project. Our conclusions will draw attention to the need of community nurse and, will open directions for new researches and developments needed to promote primary health in Romania.

  7. A hybrid neural network system for prediction and recognition of promoter regions in human genome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Chuan-bo; LI Tao

    2005-01-01

    This paper proposes a high specificity and sensitivity algorithm called PromPredictor for recognizing promoter regions in the human genome. PromPredictor extracts compositional features and CpG islands information from genomic sequence,feeding these features as input for a hybrid neural network system (HNN) and then applies the HNN for prediction. It combines a novel promoter recognition model, coding theory, feature selection and dimensionality reduction with machine learning algorithm.Evaluation on Human chromosome 22 was ~66% in sensitivity and ~48% in specificity. Comparison with two other systems revealed that our method had superior sensitivity and specificity in predicting promoter regions. PromPredictor is written in MATLAB and requires Matlab to run. PromPredictor is freely available at http://www.whtelecom.com/Prompredictor.htm.

  8. Functional analysis of the human somatic angiotensin I-converting enzyme gene promoter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Testut, P; Soubrier, F; Corvol, P; Hubert, C

    1993-08-01

    Angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE) is a key enzyme in the regulation of systemic blood pressure and plays a major role in the renin-angiotensin and bradykinin-kinin systems, at the luminal surface of the vascular endothelia. To identify the promoter region, the transcription regulatory elements and the cell specificity of the ACE gene, five successive DNA deletions of the 5' upstream region (-1214, -754, -472, -343, -132 bp relative to the start site of transcription) were isolated and fused in sense and antisense orientations to the bacterial chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (CAT) reporter gene in the promoterless plasmid pBLCAT3. Promoter activities were measured in transient transfection assays using three different cell lines from rabbit endothelium (RE), human embryocarcinoma (Tera-1) and hepatocarcinoma cells (HepG2). All five fragments of the ACE promoter region directed expression of the CAT gene when transfected into the endothelial and the embryocarcinoma cells, which contain endogenous ACE mRNA and express ACE activity. In contrast only minimal levels of promoter activity were obtained on transfection into hepatocarcinoma cells in which endogenous ACE mRNA and ACE activity were not detected. Transfection of RE and Tera-1 cells demonstrated that promoter activity was defined by the length of the ACE promoter sequence inserted into the construct. The 132 bases located upstream from the transcription start site were sufficient to confer ACE promoter activity, whereas the sequences upstream from -472 bp and between -343 bp and -132 bp were responsible for a decrease of promoter activity. Furthermore, the minimal 132 bp of the ACE promoter contains elements which direct cell-specific CAT expression. In addition, the DNA transfection study in the presence of dexamethasone suggested that the potential glucocorticoid regulatory elements, located in the sequence of the ACE promoter, are not functional.

  9. South African Educators' Mutually Inclusive Mandates to Promote Human Rights and Positive Discipline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coetzee, Susan; Mienie, Cathrine

    2013-01-01

    South African educators are mandated by international and national law to observe and promote human rights. However, given the realities of the limited teaching time available, educators cannot fulfill this obligation solely by teaching the curriculum. Another avenue needs to be found for educators to fulfill this obligation. Educators are also…

  10. RIVER DELL CENTER FOR THE PROMOTION OF THE HUMANITIES, ORADELL, NEW JERSEY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    River Dell Regional Schools, Oradell, NJ.

    A PROGRAM BEING DEVELOPED FOR THE PROMOTION OF THE HUMANITIES IS DESCRIBED. THE PROGRAM GREW OUT OF THE NEED TO GATHER AND DISSEMINATE INFORMATION ABOUT THE GREAT IDEAS OF MAN--THE PHILOSOPHY, RELIGION, ART, ARCHITECTURE, AND MUSIC OF PEOPLES IN EUROPE, ASIA, AFRICA, AND THE AMERICAS. THE PROGRAM WILL BE IMPLEMENTED IN FOUR STAGES--(1) CREATION OF…

  11. South African Educators' Mutually Inclusive Mandates to Promote Human Rights and Positive Discipline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coetzee, Susan; Mienie, Cathrine

    2013-01-01

    South African educators are mandated by international and national law to observe and promote human rights. However, given the realities of the limited teaching time available, educators cannot fulfill this obligation solely by teaching the curriculum. Another avenue needs to be found for educators to fulfill this obligation. Educators are also…

  12. Sequence analysis of EBV immune evasion gene BNLF2a in EBV associated tumors and healthy individuals from nasopharyngeal carcinoma endemic and non-endemic regions of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Song; Wang, Xiaofeng; Shu, Jun; Zhao, Zhenzhen; Sun, Zhifu; Luo, Bing

    2015-11-01

    BNLF2a is an Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) immune evasion gene. Its protein is located in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membrane, and can inhibit the antigen transporting function of TAP, thereby perturbing the immune response to EBV in lytic and prelatent phase. In order to explore whether the polymorphism of BNLF2a gene has a role in different types of EBV associated tumors, we conducted complete sequencing of the gene BNLF2a in 408 cases of EBV positive tumors (76 lymphomas, 45 gastric carcinomas, and 85 nasopharyngeal carcinomas in northern China and 27 lymphomas, 30 gastric carcinomas, and 57 nasopharyngeal carcinomas in southern China) and throat washings from healthy individuals (39 in northern China and 49 in southern China). Two main variant types of BNLF2a were identified. Type BNLF2a-A, which was similar to B95-8, was dominant in all sub-populations (66.7-100%) in this study. Type BNLF2a-B was characterized by the mutations at position 8 and 40. The variation patterns of BNLF2a were significantly different between samples from northern and southern China (P China (P China (33.3%), and the proportion of this type was higher in the northern than in the southern NPCs. These data demonstrate that the BNLF2a gene is highly conserved, and its polymorphism is geographically restricted. Type BNLF2a-B is more prevalent in northern China and may be less tumor transformative.

  13. Quantitative Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) serology in lung transplant recipients with primary EBV infection and/or post-transplant lymphoproliferative disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verschuuren, E; van der Bij, W; de Boer, W; Timens, W; Middeldorp, J; The, TH

    2003-01-01

    The Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-specific antibody response was studied in lung transplant patients to assess their value in the diagnosis and prognosis of post-transplant lymphoproliferative disease. Recently developed synthetic peptides representing Epstein-Barr nuclear antigen-1 (EBNA-1), diffuse ear

  14. The Human Pendrin Promoter Contains two N4 GAS Motifs with Different Functional Relevance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Vanoni

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Pendrin, an anion exchanger associated with the inner ear, thyroid and kidney, plays a significant role in respiratory tissues and diseases, where its expression is increased following IL-4 and IL-13 exposure. The mechanism leading to increased pendrin expression is in part due to binding of STAT6 to a consensus sequence (N4 GAS motif located in the pendrin promoter. As retrospective analyses of the 5' upstream sequence of the human pendrin promoter revealed an additional N4 GAS motif (1660 base pairs upstream of the one previously identified, we set out to define its contribution to IL-4 stimulated changes in pendrin promoter activity. Methods and Results: Electrophoretic mobility shift assays showed that STAT6 bound to oligonucleotides corresponding to both N4 GAS motifs in vitro, while dual luciferase promoter assays revealed that only one of the N4 GAS motifs was necessary for IL-4 -stimulated increases in pendrin promoter activity in living cells. We then examined the ability of STAT6 to bind each of the N4 GAS motifs in vivo with a site-specific ChIP assay, the results of which showed that STAT6 interacted with only the N4 GAS motif that was functionally implicated in increasing the activity of the pendrin promoter following IL-4 treatment. Conclusions: Of the two N4 GAS motifs located in the human pendrin promoter region analyzed in this study (nucleotides -3906 to +7, only the one located nearest to the first coding ATG participates in IL-4 stimulated increases in promoter activity.

  15. Potential transcriptional regulatory regions exist upstream of the human ezrin gene promoter in esophageal carcinoma cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shuying Gao; Yanpeng Dai; Meijun Yin; Jing Ye; Gang Li; Jie Yu

    2011-01-01

    We previously demonstrated that the region -87/+ 134 of the human ezrin gene (VIL2) exhibited promoter activity in human esophageal carcinoma EC109 cells, and a further upstream region -1324/-890 positively regulated transcription.In this study, to identify the transcriptional regulatory regions upstream of the VIL2 promoter, we cloned VIL2 - 1541/- 706 segment containing the -1324/-890, and investigated its transcriptional regulatory properties via luciferase assays in transiently transfected cells.In EC109 cells, it was found that VIL2 -1541/-706 possessed promoter and enhancer activities.We also localized transcriptional regulatory regions by fusing 5′- or 3′-deletion segments of VIL2 -1541/-706 to a luciferase reporter.We found that there were three positive and one negative transcriptional regulatory regions ithin VIL2 -1541/-706 in EC109 cells.When these regions were separately located upstream of the luciferase gene without promoter, or located upstream of the VIL2 promoter or SV40 promoter directing the luciferase gene, only VIL2 -1297/-1186 exhibited considerable promoter and enhancer activities, which were lower than those of -1541/-706.In addition, transient expression of Sp1 increased ezrin expression and the transcriptional activation of VIL2 -1297/-1186.Other three regions,although exhibiting significantly positive or negative transcriptional regulation in deletion experiments, showed a weaker or absent regulation.These data suggested that more than one region upstream of the VIL2 promoter participated in VIL2 transcription, and the VIL2 -1297/-1186, probably as a key transcriptional regulatory region, regulated VIL2 transcription in company with other potential regulatory regions.

  16. Novel strong tissue specific promoter for gene expression in human germ cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuzmin Denis

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tissue specific promoters may be utilized for a variety of applications, including programmed gene expression in cell types, tissues and organs of interest, for developing different cell culture models or for use in gene therapy. We report a novel, tissue-specific promoter that was identified and engineered from the native upstream regulatory region of the human gene NDUFV1 containing an endogenous retroviral sequence. Results Among seven established human cell lines and five primary cultures, this modified NDUFV1 upstream sequence (mNUS was active only in human undifferentiated germ-derived cells (lines Tera-1 and EP2102, where it demonstrated high promoter activity (~twice greater than that of the SV40 early promoter, and comparable to the routinely used cytomegaloviral promoter. To investigate the potential applicability of the mNUS promoter for biotechnological needs, a construct carrying a recombinant cytosine deaminase (RCD suicide gene under the control of mNUS was tested in cell lines of different tissue origin. High cytotoxic effect of RCD with a cell-death rate ~60% was observed only in germ-derived cells (Tera-1, whereas no effect was seen in a somatic, kidney-derived control cell line (HEK293. In further experiments, we tested mNUS-driven expression of a hyperactive Sleeping Beauty transposase (SB100X. The mNUS-SB100X construct mediated stable transgene insertions exclusively in germ-derived cells, thereby providing further evidence of tissue-specificity of the mNUS promoter. Conclusions We conclude that mNUS may be used as an efficient promoter for tissue-specific gene expression in human germ-derived cells in many applications. Our data also suggest that the 91 bp-long sequence located exactly upstream NDUFV1 transcriptional start site plays a crucial role in the activity of this gene promoter in vitro in the majority of tested cell types (10/12, and an important role - in the rest two cell lines.

  17. Long-term administration of valacyclovir reduces the number of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-infected B cells but not the number of EBV DNA copies per B cell in healthy volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoshino, Yo; Katano, Harutaka; Zou, Ping; Hohman, Patricia; Marques, Adriana; Tyring, Stephen K; Follmann, Dean; Cohen, Jeffrey I

    2009-11-01

    Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) establishes a latent infection in B cells in the blood, and the latent EBV load in healthy individuals is generally stable over time, maintaining a "set point." It is unknown if the EBV load changes after long-term antiviral therapy in healthy individuals. We treated volunteers with either valacyclovir (valaciclovir) or no antiviral therapy for 1 year and measured the amount of EBV DNA in B cells every 3 months with a novel, highly sensitive assay. The number of EBV-infected B cells decreased in subjects receiving valacyclovir (half-life of 11 months; P = 0.02) but not in controls (half-life of 31 years; P = 0.86). The difference in the slopes of the lines for the number of EBV-infected B cells over time for the valacyclovir group versus the control group approached significance (P = 0.054). In contrast, the number of EBV DNA copies per B cell remained unchanged in both groups (P = 0.62 and P = 0.92 for the control and valacyclovir groups, respectively). Valacyclovir reduces the frequency of EBV-infected B cells when administered over a long period and, in theory, might allow eradication of EBV from the body if reinfection does not occur.

  18. The Promotion and Integration of Human Rights in EU External Trade Relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samantha Velluti

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The European Union (EU has made the upholding of human rights an integral part of its external trade relations and requires that all trade, cooperation, partnership and association agreements with third countries, including unilateral trade instruments, contain with varying modalities and intensity a commitment to the respect for human rights. The paper discusses selected aspects of the EU’s promotion and integration of human rights in its external trade relations and assesses the impact of the changes introduced by the 2009 Treaty of Lisbon (ToL on EU practice.

  19. Low dose perfluorooctanoate exposure promotes cell proliferation in a human non-tumor liver cell line

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Hongxia; Cui, Ruina [Key Laboratory of Animal Ecology and Conservation Biology, Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101 (China); Guo, Xuejiang [State Key Laboratory of Reproductive Medicine, Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing 210029 (China); Hu, Jiayue [Key Laboratory of Animal Ecology and Conservation Biology, Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101 (China); Dai, Jiayin, E-mail: daijy@ioz.ac.cn [Key Laboratory of Animal Ecology and Conservation Biology, Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101 (China)

    2016-08-05

    Highlights: • Differential expression of proteins induced by PFOA in HL-7702 was identified. • Most of the differentially expressed proteins are related to cell proliferation. • A low dose of PFOA stimulates HL-7702 cell proliferation. • A high dose of PFOA inhibits HL-7702 cell proliferation. - Abstract: Perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) is a well-known persistent organic pollutant widely found in the environment, wildlife and humans. Medical surveillance and experimental studies have investigated the potential effects of PFOA on human livers, but the hepatotoxicity of PFOA on humans and its underlying mechanism remain to be clarified. We exposed a human liver cell line (HL-7702) to 50 μM PFOA for 48 h and 96 h, and identified 111 significantly differentially expressed proteins by iTRAQ analysis. A total of 46 proteins were related to cell proliferation and apoptosis. Through further analysis of the cell cycle, apoptosis and their related proteins, we found that low doses of PFOA (50–100 μM) promoted cell proliferation and numbers by promoting cells from the G1 to S phases, whereas high doses of PFOA (200–400 μM) led to reduced HL-7702 cell numbers compared with that of the control mainly due to cell cycle arrest in the G0/G1 phase. To our knowledge, this is the first report on the promotion of cell cycle progression in human cells following PFOA exposure.

  20. Prognostic impact of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-DNA copy number at diagnosis in chronic lymphocytic leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Jin-Hua; Gao, Rui; Xia, Yi; Gale, Robert Peter; Chen, Rui-Ze; Yang, Yu-Qiong; Wang, Li; Qu, Xiao-Yan; Qiu, Hai-Rong; Cao, Lei; Hong, Min; Wang, Rong; Wang, Yan; Fan, Lei; Chen, Yao-Yu; Hu, Zhi-Bin; Li, Jian-Yong; Xu, Wei

    2016-01-12

    Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-DNA is detected in the blood of some persons with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) at diagnosis. Whether this is important in the development or progression of CLL is controversial. We interrogated associations between blood EBV-DNA copy number and biological and clinical variables in 243 new-diagnosed consecutive subjects with CLL. Quantification of EBV-DNA copies was done by real-time quantitative PCR (RQ-PCR). All subjects had serological evidence of prior EBV-infection. However, only 24 subjects (10%) had a EBV-DNA-positive test at diagnosis. EBV-DNA-positive subjects at diagnosis had lower hemoglobin concentrations and platelet levels, higher thymidine kinase-1 and serum ferritin levels, un-mutated IGHV genes and a greater risk of Richter transformation compared with EBV-DNA-negative subjects. Percent CD20-, CD148- and ZAP70-positive cells and mean fluorescence intensity (MFI) of each cluster designation were also increased in EBV-DNA-positive subjects at diagnosis. EBV-DNA test positivity was associated with a briefer time-to-treatment interval (HR 1.85; [95% confidence interval, 1.13, 3.03]; P=0.014) and worse survival (HR 2.77; [1.18, 6.49]; P=0.019). Reduction in EBV copies was significantly associated with therapy-response. A positive blood EBV-DNA test at diagnosis and sequential testing of EBV copies during therapy were significantly associated with biological and clinical variables, time-to-treatment, therapy-response and survival. If validated these data may be added to CLL prognostic scoring systems.

  1. 全血EBV DNA载量检测在儿童EB病毒感染中的应用价值%Detection of whole blood EBV DNA load in children with EB virus infection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡荣盛; 徐亚丽; 俞晓春; 薛静俊

    2014-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the detection of whole blood Epstein- Barr virus (EBV) DNA load in childhood EBV in-fection. Methods Two hundred and thirty- one children with active EBV infection (174 cases with primary infection and 57 cases with recurrent infection), 258 children with previous EBV infection and 45 healthy children were enrol ed in the study. Whole blood EBV DNA load was detected with automatic nucleic acid extraction method and real- time PCR. The relationship between EBV DNA load and EBV infection was analyzed. Results The positive rate of whole blood EBV in children with active EBV infection was 81.8%and the EBV DNA load was 3.99±0.96lg copies/ml. There were no significant differences between primary infection and recurrent infection groups (x2=0.419, P=0.517 and t=1.236, P=0.221, respectively). The positive rate and whole blood EBV DNA load in children with inactive EBV infection were 10.9%and 2.89±0.20lg copies/ml respectively;there were significant dif-ferences between active and inactive patients(x2=251.6, P=0.0001 and t=3.389, P=0.001, respectively) . The positive rate of whole blood EBV DNA in healthy children was 0%. The positive rate of whole blood EBV DNA in primary EBV infection group was 82.7%, which was higher than that of EBV- CA IgM positive rate (75.8%, P=0.008 ) with a poor consistency (Kappa=0.687). The sensi-tivity, specificity and accuracy of positive blood EBV DNA for diagnosis of EBV infection were 81.8%, 89.5%and 85.9%, respec-tively. Taking DNA load of 3.00lg copies/ml as cut- off value the sensitivity, specificity and accuracy for diagnosis of active EBV infection were 70.1%, 95.3%and 83.4%, respectively. Conclusion Detection of whole blood EBV DNA load can be used for di-agnosis and prognosis of EB virus infection in children.%目的:评价全血EBV DNA载量检测在儿童EB病毒(EBV)感染中的应用价值。方法将231例EBV活动感染儿童(原发感染174例,复发感染57例)、258例非活

  2. Sequence variation of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) BCRF1 in lymphomas in non-endemic areas of nasopharyngeal carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Lu; Sun, Lingling; Zhao, Zhenzhen; Chao, Yan; Sun, Zhifu; Li, Hui; Luo, Bing

    2015-02-01

    To characterize the sequence variation and the potential implication of the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) oncogene in lymphoma, BamHI-C fragment rightward reading frame 1 (BCRF1) was sequenced in different types of EBV-positive lymphoma in northern China, and polymorphisms were compared with previous variation data from other malignancies. The dominate subtype of BCRF1 in EBV-positive lymphoma was the B95-8 prototype, and a mutation in the signal peptide was more strongly associated with Hodgkin's lymphoma. The high conservation of BCRF1 in EBV-positive lymphoma suggests its important role in maintaining the basic biological activity and immunosuppressive functions of the virus.

  3. Short-term inhibition of TERT induces telomere length-independent cell cycle arrest and apoptotic response in EBV-immortalized and transformed B cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celeghin, Andrea; Giunco, Silvia; Freguja, Riccardo; Zangrossi, Manuela; Nalio, Silvia; Dolcetti, Riccardo; De Rossi, Anita

    2016-01-01

    Besides its canonical role in stabilizing telomeres, telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT) may promote tumorigenesis through extra-telomeric functions. The possible therapeutic effects of BIBR1532 (BIBR), a powerful TERT inhibitor, have been evaluated in different cellular backgrounds, but no data are currently available regarding Epstein–Barr virus (EBV)-driven B-cell malignancies. Our aim was to characterize the biological effects of TERT inhibition by BIBR on EBV-immortalized lymphoblastoid cell lines (LCLs) and fully transformed Burkitt's lymphoma (BL) cell lines. We found that BIBR selectively inhibits telomerase activity in TERT-positive 4134/Late and 4134/TERT+ LCLs and EBV-negative BL41 and EBV-positive BL41/B95.8 BL cell lines. TERT inhibition led to decreased cell proliferation, accumulation of cells in the S-phase and ultimately to increased apoptosis, compared with mock-treated control cells. All these effects occurred within 72 h and were not observed in BIBR-treated TERT-negative 4134/TERT- and U2OS cells. The cell cycle arrest and apoptosis, consequent upon short-term TERT inhibition, were associated with and likely dependent on the activation of the DNA damage response (DDR), highlighted by the increased levels of γH2AX and activation of ATM and ATR pathways. Analyses of the mean and range of telomere lengths and telomere dysfunction-induced foci indicated that DDR after short-term TERT inhibition was not related to telomere dysfunction, thus suggesting that TERT, besides stabilizing telomere, may protect DNA via telomere-independent mechanisms. Notably, TERT-positive LCLs treated with BIBR in combination with fludarabine or cyclophosphamide showed a significant increase in the number of apoptotic cells with respect to those treated with chemotherapeutic agents alone. In conclusion, TERT inhibition impairs cell cycle progression and enhances the pro-apoptotic effects of chemotherapeutic agents in TERT-positive cells. These results support new

  4. Wnt/β-catenin promotes gastric fundus specification in mice and humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCracken, Kyle W; Aihara, Eitaro; Martin, Baptiste; Crawford, Calyn M; Broda, Taylor; Treguier, Julie; Zhang, Xinghao; Shannon, John M; Montrose, Marshall H; Wells, James M

    2017-01-12

    Despite the global prevalence of gastric disease, there are few adequate models in which to study the fundus epithelium of the human stomach. We differentiated human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) into gastric organoids containing fundic epithelium by first identifying and then recapitulating key events in embryonic fundus development. We found that disruption of Wnt/β-catenin signalling in mouse embryos led to conversion of fundic to antral epithelium, and that β-catenin activation in hPSC-derived foregut progenitors promoted the development of human fundic-type gastric organoids (hFGOs). We then used hFGOs to identify temporally distinct roles for multiple signalling pathways in epithelial morphogenesis and differentiation of fundic cell types, including chief cells and functional parietal cells. hFGOs are a powerful model for studying the development of the human fundus and the molecular bases of human gastric physiology and pathophysiology, and also represent a new platform for drug discovery.

  5. Human-specific gene ARHGAP11B promotes basal progenitor amplification and neocortex expansion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florio, Marta; Albert, Mareike; Taverna, Elena; Namba, Takashi; Brandl, Holger; Lewitus, Eric; Haffner, Christiane; Sykes, Alex; Wong, Fong Kuan; Peters, Jula; Guhr, Elaine; Klemroth, Sylvia; Prüfer, Kay; Kelso, Janet; Naumann, Ronald; Nüsslein, Ina; Dahl, Andreas; Lachmann, Robert; Pääbo, Svante; Huttner, Wieland B

    2015-03-27

    Evolutionary expansion of the human neocortex reflects increased amplification of basal progenitors in the subventricular zone, producing more neurons during fetal corticogenesis. In this work, we analyze the transcriptomes of distinct progenitor subpopulations isolated by a cell polarity-based approach from developing mouse and human neocortex. We identify 56 genes preferentially expressed in human apical and basal radial glia that lack mouse orthologs. Among these, ARHGAP11B has the highest degree of radial glia-specific expression. ARHGAP11B arose from partial duplication of ARHGAP11A (which encodes a Rho guanosine triphosphatase-activating protein) on the human lineage after separation from the chimpanzee lineage. Expression of ARHGAP11B in embryonic mouse neocortex promotes basal progenitor generation and self-renewal and can increase cortical plate area and induce gyrification. Hence, ARHGAP11B may have contributed to evolutionary expansion of human neocortex.

  6. Functional analysis of a novel human serotonin transporter gene promoter in immortalized raphe cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, O V; Thomassen, M; Larsen, M B

    1999-01-01

    To investigate the structural basis for genetic regulation of the human serotonin transporter gene, a 1.8 kb fragment upstream to the cap site was cloned and sequenced. The promoter possesses a polymorphic repeat region with 16 and 14 repeats, respectively. Both were cloned and characterized....... The promoter sequence revealed an internal 379 bp fragment not reported in previous publications. This novel fragment contains consensus sequences for several transcription factors including SpI and GATA. DNA from 48 unrelated individuals was PCR amplified, in this region, to test for allelic variations. All...

  7. Functional elements in the minimal promoter of the human proton-coupled folate transporter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stark, Michal; Gonen, Nitzan [The Fred Wyszkowski Cancer Research Laboratory, Dept. of Biology, Technion-Israel Institute of Technology, Haifa 32000 (Israel); Assaraf, Yehuda G., E-mail: assaraf@tx.technion.ac.il [The Fred Wyszkowski Cancer Research Laboratory, Dept. of Biology, Technion-Israel Institute of Technology, Haifa 32000 (Israel)

    2009-10-09

    The proton-coupled folate transporter (PCFT) is the dominant intestinal folate transporter, however, its promoter has yet to be revealed. Hence, we here cloned a 3.1 kb fragment upstream to the first ATG of the human PCFT gene and generated sequential deletion constructs evaluated in luciferase reporter assay. This analysis mapped the minimal promoter to 157 bp upstream to the first ATG. Crucial GC-box sites were identified within the minimal promoter and in its close vicinity which substantially contribute to promoter activity, as their disruption resulted in 94% loss of luciferase activity. We also identified upstream enhancer elements including YY1 and AP1 which, although distantly located, prominently transactivated the minimal promoter, as their inactivation resulted in 50% decrease in reporter activity. This is the first functional identification of the minimal PCFT promoter harboring crucial GC-box elements that markedly contribute to its transcriptional activation via putative interaction with distal YY1 and AP1 enhancer elements.

  8. Emphasizing humanities in medical education: Promoting the integration of medical scientific spirit and medical humanistic spirit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Peipei; Tang, Wei

    2017-05-23

    In the era of the biological-psychological-social medicine model, an ideal of modern medicine is to enhance the humanities in medical education, to foster medical talents with humanistic spirit, and to promote the integration of scientific spirit and humanistic spirit in medicine. Throughout the United States (US), United Kingdom (UK), other Western countries, and some Asian countries like Japan, many medical universities have already integrated the learning of medical humanities in their curricula and recognized their value. While in China, although medical education reform over the past decade has emphasized the topic of medical humanities to increase the professionalism of future physicians, the integration of medical humanity courses in medical universities has lagged behind the pace in Western countries. In addition, current courses in medical humanities were arbitrarily established due to a lack of organizational independence. For various reasons like a shortage of instructors, medical universities have failed to pay sufficient attention to medical humanities education given the urgent needs of society. The medical problems in contemporary Chinese society are not solely the purview of biomedical technology; what matters more is enhancing the humanities in medical education and fostering medical talents with humanistic spirit. Emphasizing the humanities in medical education and promoting the integration of medical scientific spirit and medical humanistic spirit have become one of the most pressing issues China must address. Greater attention should be paid to reasonable integration of humanities into the medical curriculum, creation of medical courses related to humanities and optimization of the curriculum, and actively allocating abundant teaching resources and exploring better methods of instruction.

  9. Prevalence of the initiator over the TATA box in human and yeast genes and identification of DNA motifs enriched in human TATA-less core promoters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chuhu; Bolotin, Eugene; Jiang, Tao; Sladek, Frances M; Martinez, Ernest

    2007-03-01

    The core promoter of eukaryotic genes is the minimal DNA region that recruits the basal transcription machinery to direct efficient and accurate transcription initiation. The fraction of human and yeast genes that contain specific core promoter elements such as the TATA box and the initiator (INR) remains unclear and core promoter motifs specific for TATA-less genes remain to be identified. Here, we present genome-scale computational analyses indicating that approximately 76% of human core promoters lack TATA-like elements, have a high GC content, and are enriched in Sp1-binding sites. We further identify two motifs - M3 (SCGGAAGY) and M22 (TGCGCANK) - that occur preferentially in human TATA-less core promoters. About 24% of human genes have a TATA-like element and their promoters are generally AT-rich; however, only approximately 10% of these TATA-containing promoters have the canonical TATA box (TATAWAWR). In contrast, approximately 46% of human core promoters contain the consensus INR (YYANWYY) and approximately 30% are INR-containing TATA-less genes. Significantly, approximately 46% of human promoters lack both TATA-like and consensus INR elements. Surprisingly, mammalian-type INR sequences are present - and tend to cluster - in the transcription start site (TSS) region of approximately 40% of yeast core promoters and the frequency of specific core promoter types appears to be conserved in yeast and human genomes. Gene Ontology analyses reveal that TATA-less genes in humans, as in yeast, are frequently involved in basic "housekeeping" processes, while TATA-containing genes are more often highly regulated, such as by biotic or stress stimuli. These results reveal unexpected similarities in the occurrence of specific core promoter types and in their associated biological processes in yeast and humans and point to novel vertebrate-specific DNA motifs that might play a selective role in TATA-independent transcription.

  10. Thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH promotes wound re-epithelialisation in frog and human skin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia T Meier

    Full Text Available There remains a critical need for new therapeutics that promote wound healing in patients suffering from chronic skin wounds. This is, in part, due to a shortage of simple, physiologically and clinically relevant test systems for investigating candidate agents. The skin of amphibians possesses a remarkable regenerative capacity, which remains insufficiently explored for clinical purposes. Combining comparative biology with a translational medicine approach, we report the development and application of a simple ex vivo frog (Xenopus tropicalis skin organ culture system that permits exploration of the effects of amphibian skin-derived agents on re-epithelialisation in both frog and human skin. Using this amphibian model, we identify thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH as a novel stimulant of epidermal regeneration. Moving to a complementary human ex vivo wounded skin assay, we demonstrate that the effects of TRH are conserved across the amphibian-mammalian divide: TRH stimulates wound closure and formation of neo-epidermis in organ-cultured human skin, accompanied by increased keratinocyte proliferation and wound healing-associated differentiation (cytokeratin 6 expression. Thus, TRH represents a novel, clinically relevant neuroendocrine wound repair promoter that deserves further exploration. These complementary frog and human skin ex vivo assays encourage a comparative biology approach in future wound healing research so as to facilitate the rapid identification and preclinical testing of novel, evolutionarily conserved, and clinically relevant wound healing promoters.

  11. Regulatory T cells and human myeloid dendritic cells promote tolerance via programmed death ligand-1.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shoba Amarnath

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Immunotherapy using regulatory T cells (Treg has been proposed, yet cellular and molecular mechanisms of human Tregs remain incompletely characterized. Here, we demonstrate that human Tregs promote the generation of myeloid dendritic cells (DC with reduced capacity to stimulate effector T cell responses. In a model of xenogeneic graft-versus-host disease (GVHD, allogeneic human DC conditioned with Tregs suppressed human T cell activation and completely abrogated posttransplant lethality. Tregs induced programmed death ligand-1 (PD-L1 expression on Treg-conditioned DC; subsequently, Treg-conditioned DC induced PD-L1 expression in vivo on effector T cells. PD-L1 blockade reversed Treg-conditioned DC function in vitro and in vivo, thereby demonstrating that human Tregs can promote immune suppression via DC modulation through PD-L1 up-regulation. This identification of a human Treg downstream cellular effector (DC and molecular mechanism (PD-L1 will facilitate the rational design of clinical trials to modulate alloreactivity.

  12. Unusual immunophenotypic variant of large B-cell lymphoma associated with HHV-8 and EBV in an HIV positive patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Ruiz-Cordero, MD

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Human herpesvirus type 8, also known as Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (HHV-8/KSHV has been associated with several lymphoproliferative disorders including Kaposi's sarcoma, primary effusion lymphoma (PEL, cases of multicentric Castleman's disease (MCD including plasmablastic lymphoma associated with MCD, and germinotropic lymphoproliferative disorder. These lymphoproliferative disorders, with the exception of the latter, usually arise in HIV-positive or profoundly immunosuppressed patients. Herein, we describe an unusual large B-cell lymphoma in a 43 year-old male infected with HIV who presented with multiple lymphadenopathies. The tumor cells were positive for EBV, HHV-8/KSHV, CD20 (small subset, PAX5, and IgM and negative for CD138, and IgG. This lymphoma is difficult to classify following the 2008 WHO criteria and expands the current spectrum of viral-associated lymphomas.

  13. Promotion of cell proliferation by HBXIP via upregulation of human telomerase reverse transcriptase in human mesenchymal stem cells1

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Feng-ze WANG; Li SHA; Li-hong YE; Xiao-dong ZHANG

    2008-01-01

    Aim: We previously found that the hepatitis B X-interacting protein (HBXIP) was able to promote the proliferation of cells. Telomerase activity is known to be critical in cellular senescence and its level is modulated by the regulation of the telomerase catalytic subunit, telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT), at both the transcriptional and post-transcriptional levels. To investigate the mechanism of promoting proliferation by HBXIP, the effect of HBXIP on human TERT (hTERT) was investigated in human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSC). Methods: BMMS-03 cells and hMSC from the bone marrow of a 4-month-old elicited fetus, were tran-siently transfected with the pcDNA3-hbxip plasmid encoding the HBXIP gene and pSilencer-hbxip plasmid encoding RNA interference (RNAi) targeting HBXIP mRNA, followed by the examination of the hTERT promoter reporter gene by luciferase assay, and the detection of telomerase activity by telomeric repeat amplication protocol, respectively, as well as the expression levels of hTERT, c-Myc, and Bcl-2 by Western blot analysis. Results: The overexpression of HBXIP led to a significant upregulation of hTERT promoter activity, telomerase activity, and the expression levels of hTERT, c-Myc, and Bcl-2 in BMMS-03 cells. RNAi target-ing HBXIP mRNA produced the opposite results completely. Conclusion: Our data demonstrated that HBXIP significantly stimulated the transcription and ex-pression of hTERT and increased the activity of telomerase in BMMS-03 cells, which provides a new insight into the mechanism of promoting cell proliferation by HBXIP.

  14. Study on RIZ1 gene promoter methylation status in human esophageal squamous cell carcinoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shang-Wen Dong; Peng Zhang; Yi-Mei Liu; Yuan-Tao Cui; Shuo Wang; Shao-Jie Liang; Zhun He; Pei Sun; Yuan-Guo Wang

    2012-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the promoter region methylation status of retinoblastoma protein-interacting zinc finger gene 1 (RIZ1) in the human esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) cell lines and tissues and verify the relationship between methylation of RIZ1 and oncogen-esis, tumor progression and metastasis etc of ESCC.METHODS: Methylation-specific polymerase chain reaction (MSP) was used to investigate the promoter region methylation status of RIZ1 in 6 ESCC cell lines. One cell line where RIZ1 promoter region methylation was detected was selected for the next study, where the cell line was treated with 5-aza-CdR. Real-time polymerase chain reaction was used to investigate its influence on the transcription of RIZ1. Experiments using frozen pathological specimens from 47 ESCC patients were performed using the same MSP methodology.RESULTS: Promoter methylation of RIZ1 gene was detected in TE13, CaEs17 and EC109 cell lines and the cell line TE13 was chosen for further study. The expression of RIZ1 mRNA in TE-13 was up-regulated after treatment with 5-aza-CdR. The rate of methylation in carcinomas tissues was significantly higher than those in matched neighboring normal and distal ending normal tissue, and the deviation of data was statistically significant (x2 = 24.136, P < 0.01). Analysis of the gender, age familial history, tumour deviation, tumour saturation, lymph gland displacement and clinical staging of 47 samples from ESCC patients showed that the fluctuation of data was not statistically significant.CONCLUSION: Promoter methylation may play an important role in the epigenetic silencing of RIZ1 gene expression in human ESCC. RIZ1 is considered to be a potential tumor suppressor gene and may be a biological parameter for testing early stage human ESCC.

  15. Anti-tumour promoter activity in Malaysian ginger rhizobia used in traditional medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vimala, S; Norhanom, A W; Yadav, M

    1999-04-01

    Zingiberaceae rhizomes commonly used in the Malaysian traditional medicine were screened for anti-tumour promoter activity using the short-term assay of inhibition of 12-O-tetradecanoyl phorbol-13-acetate (TPA)-induced Epstein-Barr virus early antigen (EBV-EA) in Raji cells. The inhibition of TPA-induced EBV-EA was detected using the indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA) and Western blot technique. The indirect IFA detected the expression/inhibition of EBV-EA-D (diffused EA antigen), whereas the Western blot technique detected the expression/inhibition of both EBV-EA-D and EA-R (restricted EA antigen). Seven rhizomes were found to possess inhibitory activity towards EBV activation, induced by TPA; they are: Curcuma domestica, C. xanthorrhiza, Kaempferia galanga, Zingiber cassumunar, Z. officinale, Z. officinale (red variety), and Z. zerumbet. A cytotoxicity assay was carried out to determine the toxicity of the Zingiberaceae rhizome extracts. The rhizome extracts that exhibited EBV activation inhibitory activity had no cytotoxicity effect in Raji cells. Therefore, the present study shows that several Zingiberaceae species used in Malaysian traditional medicine contain naturally occurring non-toxic compounds that inhibit the EBV activation, which, if further investigated, could contribute in the development of cancer prevention methods at the tumour-promoting stage.

  16. Promoting positive human development and social justice: Integrating theory, research and application in contemporary developmental science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerner, Richard M

    2015-06-01

    The bold claim that developmental science can contribute to both enhancing positive development among diverse individuals across the life span and promoting social justice in their communities, nations and regions is supported by decades of theoretical, methodological and research contributions. To explain the basis of this claim, I describe the relational developmental systems (RDS) metamodel that frames contemporary developmental science, and I present an example of a programme of research within the adolescent portion of the life span that is associated with this metamodel and is pertinent to promoting positive human development. I then discuss methodological issues associated with using RDS-based models as frames for research and application. Finally, I explain how the theoretical and methodological ideas associated with RDS thinking may provide the scholarly tools needed by developmental scientists seeking to contribute to human thriving and to advance social justice in the Global South. © 2015 International Union of Psychological Science.

  17. Comparison of EBV DNA viral load in whole blood, plasma, B-cells and B-cell culture supernatant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouedraogo, David Eric; Bollore, Karine; Viljoen, Johannes; Foulongne, Vincent; Reynes, Jacques; Cartron, Guillaume; Vendrell, Jean-Pierre; Van de Perre, Philippe; Tuaillon, Edouard

    2014-05-01

    Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) genome quantitation in whole blood is used widely for therapeutic monitoring of EBV-associated disorders in immunosuppressed individuals and in patients with EBV-associated lymphoma. However, the most appropriate biological material to be used for EBV DNA quantitation remains a subject of debate. This study compare the detection rate and levels of EBV DNA from whole blood, plasma, enriched B-cells, and B-cell short-term culture supernatant using quantitative real-time PCR. Samples were collected from 33 subjects with either HIV infection or B-cell lymphoma. Overall, EBV DNA was detected in 100% of enriched B-cell samples, in 82% of B-cell culture supernatants, in 57% of plasma, and 42% of whole blood samples. A significant correlation for EBV viral load was found between enriched B-cell and B-cell culture supernatant material (ρ = 0.92; P cells (ρ = -0.02; P = 0.89), whole blood and plasma (ρ = 0.24; P = 0.24), or enriched B-cells and plasma (ρ = 0.08; P = 0.77). Testing of enriched B-cells appeared to be the most sensitive method for detection of EBV DNA as well as for exploration of the cellular reservoir. Quantitation of EBV DNA in plasma and B-cell culture supernatant may be of interest to assess EBV reactivation dynamics and response to treatment as well as to decipher EBV host-pathogen interactions in various clinical scenarios.

  18. Human iPSC-Derived Immature Astroglia Promote Oligodendrogenesis by Increasing TIMP-1 Secretion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Jiang

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Astrocytes, once considered passive support cells, are increasingly appreciated as dynamic regulators of neuronal development and function, in part via secreted factors. The extent to which they similarly regulate oligodendrocytes or proliferation and differentiation of oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (OPCs is less understood. Here, we generated astrocytes from human pluripotent stem cells (hiPSC-Astros and demonstrated that immature astrocytes, as opposed to mature ones, promote oligodendrogenesis in vitro. In the PVL mouse model of neonatal hypoxic/ischemic encephalopathy, associated with cerebral palsy in humans, transplanted immature hiPSC-Astros promoted myelinogenesis and behavioral outcome. We further identified TIMP-1 as a selectively upregulated component secreted from immature hiPSC-Astros. Accordingly, in the rat PVL model, intranasal administration of conditioned medium from immature hiPSC-Astros promoted oligodendrocyte maturation in a TIMP-1-dependent manner. Our findings suggest stage-specific developmental interactions between astroglia and oligodendroglia and have important therapeutic implications for promoting myelinogenesis.

  19. Cloning and characterization of the human integrin β6 gene promoter.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingyan Xu

    Full Text Available The integrin β6 (ITGB6 gene, which encodes the limiting subunit of the integrin αvβ6 heterodimer, plays an important role in wound healing and carcinogenesis. The mechanism underlying ITGB6 regulation, including the identification of DNA elements and cognate transcription factors responsible for basic transcription of human ITGB6 gene, remains unknown. This report describes the cloning and characterization of the human ITGB6 promoter. Using 5'-RACE (rapid amplification of cDNA ends analysis, the transcriptional initiation site was identified. Promoter deletion analysis identified and functionally validated a TATA box located in the region -24 to -18 base pairs upstream of the ITGB6 promoter. The regulatory elements for transcription of the ITGB6 gene were predominantly located -289 to -150 from the ITGB6 promoter and contained putative binding sites for transcription factors such as STAT3 and C/EBPα. Using chromatin immunoprecipitation assays, this study has demonstrated, for the first time, that transcription factors STAT3 and C/EBPα are involved in the positive regulation of ITGB6 transcription in oral squamous cell carcinoma cells. These findings have important implications for unraveling the mechanism of abnormal ITGB6 activation in tissue remodeling and tumorigenesis.

  20. Wnt inhibitory factor (WIF)-1 promotes melanogenesis in normal human melanocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Tae Jun; Kim, Misun; Kim, Hyeran; Park, Sun Yi; Park, Kyoung-Chan; Ortonne, Jean-Paul; Kang, Hee Young

    2014-01-01

    Wnt signaling plays a role in the differentiation as well as the development of melanocytes. Using a microarray analysis, hyperpigmentary skin of melasma expressed high levels of Wnt inhibitory factor-1 (WIF-1) compared with perilesional normal skin. In this study, the expression and functional roles of WIF-1 on melanocytes were investigated. WIF-1 was expressed both in the melanocytes of normal human skin and in cultured melanocytes. The upregulation of WIF-1 on cultured normal human melanocytes significantly induced expressions of MITF and tyrosinase, which were associated with increased melanin content and tyrosinase activity. Consistent with the stimulatory effect of WIF-1, WIF-1 siRNA reduced melanogenesis in the cells. Moreover, WIF-1 increases pigmentation in melanocytes co-cultured with WIF-1-overexpressed fibroblasts and of organ-cultured human skin. These findings suggest that melanocytes express WIF-1 constitutively in vivo and in vitro and that WIF-1 promotes melanogenesis in normal human melanocytes.

  1. Ritual human sacrifice promoted and sustained the evolution of stratified societies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watts, Joseph; Sheehan, Oliver; Atkinson, Quentin D; Bulbulia, Joseph; Gray, Russell D

    2016-04-14

    Evidence for human sacrifice is found throughout the archaeological record of early civilizations, the ethnographic records of indigenous world cultures, and the texts of the most prolific contemporary religions. According to the social control hypothesis, human sacrifice legitimizes political authority and social class systems, functioning to stabilize such social stratification. Support for the social control hypothesis is largely limited to historical anecdotes of human sacrifice, where the causal claims have not been subject to rigorous quantitative cross-cultural tests. Here we test the social control hypothesis by applying Bayesian phylogenetic methods to a geographically and socially diverse sample of 93 traditional Austronesian cultures. We find strong support for models in which human sacrifice stabilizes social stratification once stratification has arisen, and promotes a shift to strictly inherited class systems. Whilst evolutionary theories of religion have focused on the functionality of prosocial and moral beliefs, our results reveal a darker link between religion and the evolution of modern hierarchical societies.

  2. Interferon gamma response region in the promoter of the human DPA gene.

    OpenAIRE

    1990-01-01

    The interferon gamma (IFN-gamma) response region of the human class II major histocompatibility complex gene, DPA, has been localized to a 52-base-pair (bp) DNA fragment in the proximal promotor at -107 to -55 bp after transfection into HeLa cells of a series of 5', 3', and gap deletion mutants linked to a reporter gene, human growth hormone, as well as of synthetic oligonucleotides fused to the heterologous promoter thymidine kinase. The 52-mer sequence contains the X and Y box elements cons...

  3. Aggressiveness of human melanoma xenograft models is promoted by aneuploidy-driven gene expression deregulation

    OpenAIRE

    Mathieu, Véronique; Pirker, Christine; Schmidt, Wolfgang M.; Spiegl-Kreinecker, Sabine; Lötsch, Daniela; Heffeter, Petra; Hegedus, Balazs; Grusch, Michael; Kiss, Robert; Berger, Walter

    2012-01-01

    Melanoma is a devastating skin cancer characterized by distinct biological subtypes. Besides frequent mutations in growth- and survival-promoting genes like BRAF and NRAS, melanomas additionally harbor complex non-random genomic alterations. Using an integrative approach, we have analysed genomic and gene expression changes in human melanoma cell lines (N=32) derived from primary tumors and various metastatic sites and investigated the relation to local growth aggressiveness as xenografts in ...

  4. THE ROLE OF HUMAN RESOURCES IN PROMOTING THE CORPORATE SOCIAL RESPONSABILITY

    OpenAIRE

    IOAN PASTOR; CAMELIA-OLIVIA ILIES

    2011-01-01

    In a global economy, organizations have the responsibility to demonstrate and promote corporate social responsibility. Long-term sustainability demands that organizations rethink their business goals and objectives from focusing on making a profit to corporate citizenship. Human resource managers play a critical role – that of leading and educating their companies regarding the importance of corporate social responsability while at the same time strategically implementing healthy management p...

  5. Red ginseng extract promotes the hair growth in cultured human hair follicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Gyeong-Hun; Park, Ki-young; Cho, Hong-il; Lee, Sang-Min; Han, Ji Su; Won, Chong Hyun; Chang, Sung Eun; Lee, Mi Woo; Choi, Jee Ho; Moon, Kee Chan; Shin, Hyoseung; Kang, Yong Jung; Lee, Dong Hun

    2015-03-01

    Ginseng has been shown to promote hair growth in several recent studies. However, its effects on human hair follicles and its mechanisms of action have not been sufficiently elucidated. This study aimed to investigate the hair growth-promoting effects of red ginseng extract (RGE) and its ginsenosides. The proliferative activities of cultured human hair follicles treated with RGE and ginsenoside-Rb1 were assessed using Ki-67 immunostaining. Their effects on isolated human dermal papilla cells (hDPCs) were evaluated using cytotoxicity assays, immunoblot analysis of signaling proteins, and the determination of associated growth factors. We examined the ability of RGE and ginsenosides to protect hair matrix keratinocyte proliferation against dihydrotestosterone (DHT)-induced suppression and their effects on the expression of androgen receptor. The in vivo hair growth-promoting effect of RGE was also investigated in C57BL/6 mice. Both RGE and ginsenoside-Rb1 enhanced the proliferation of hair matrix keratinocytes. hDPCs treated with RGE or ginsenoside-Rb1 exhibited substantial cell proliferation and the associated phosphorylation of ERK and AKT. Moreover, RGE, ginsenoside-Rb1, and ginsenoside-Rg3 abrogated the DHT-induced suppression of hair matrix keratinocyte proliferation and the DHT-induced upregulation of the mRNA expression of androgen receptor in hDPCs. Murine experiments revealed that the subcutaneous injection of 3% RGE resulted in more rapid hair growth than the negative control. In conclusion, RGE and its ginsenosides may enhance hDPC proliferation, activate ERK and AKT signaling pathways in hDPCs, upregulate hair matrix keratinocyte proliferation, and inhibit the DHT-induced androgen receptor transcription. These results suggest that red ginseng may promote hair growth in humans.

  6. TGF-β1 promotes acinar to ductal metaplasia of human pancreatic acinar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jun; Akanuma, Naoki; Liu, Chengyang; Naji, Ali; Halff, Glenn A; Washburn, William K; Sun, Luzhe; Wang, Pei

    2016-08-03

    Animal studies suggest that pancreatitis-induced acinar-to-ductal metaplasia (ADM) is a key event for pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) initiation. However, there has not been an adequate system to explore the mechanisms of human ADM induction. We have developed a flow cytometry-based, high resolution lineage tracing method and 3D culture system to analyse ADM in human cells. In this system, well-known mouse ADM inducers did not promote ADM in human cells. In contrast, TGF-β1 efficiently converted human acinar cells to duct-like cells (AD) in a SMAD-dependent manner, highlighting fundamental differences between the species. Functionally, AD cells gained transient proliferative capacity. Furthermore, oncogenic KRAS did not induce acinar cell proliferation, but did sustain the proliferation of AD cells, suggesting that oncogenic KRAS requires ADM-associated-changes to promote PDAC initiation. This ADM model provides a novel platform to explore the mechanisms involved in the development of human pancreatic diseases.

  7. Dysfunctional Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-specific CD8(+) T lymphocytes and increased EBV load in HIV-1 infected individuals progressing to AIDS-related non-Hodgkin lymphoma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D. van Baarle (Debbie); F. Miedema (Frank); E. Hovenkamp (Egbert); M.F.C. Callan (Margareth); K.C. Wolthers (Katja); S. Kostense; L.C. Tan; H.G.M. Niesters (Bert); A.D.M.E. Osterhaus (Albert); A.J. McMichael (Andrew); M.H.J. van Oers (Marinus)

    2001-01-01

    textabstractAcquired immunodeficiency syndrome-related non-Hodgkin lymphomas (AIDS-NHL) are thought to arise because of loss of Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV)-specific cellular immunity. Here, an investigation was done to determine whether cellular immunity to EBV is lost because of physical loss or dysfu

  8. Dysfunctional Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-specific CD8(+) T lymphocytes and increased EBV load in HIV-1 infected individuals progressing to AIDS-related non-Hodgkin lymphoma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Baarle, D; Hovenkamp, E; Callan, M F; Wolthers, K C; Kostense, S; Tan, L C; Niesters, H G; Osterhaus, A D; McMichael, A J; van Oers, M H; Miedema, F

    2001-01-01

    Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome-related non-Hodgkin lymphomas (AIDS-NHL) are thought to arise because of loss of Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV)-specific cellular immunity. Here, an investigation was done to determine whether cellular immunity to EBV is lost because of physical loss or dysfunction of EB

  9. Impaired recovery of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)--specific CD8+ T lymphocytes after partially T-depleted allogeneic stem cell transplantation may identify patients at very high risk for progressive EBV reactivation and lymphoproliferative disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P. Meij; B. Löwenberg (Bob); J.W. Gratama (Jan-Willem); J.J. Cornelissen (Jan); J.W.J. van Esser (Joost); H.G.M. Niesters (Bert); D. van Baarle (Debbie); F. Miedema (Frank); N. Blake; A.B. Rickinson; I. Leiner; E. Pamer

    2003-01-01

    textabstractEpstein-Barr virus (EBV)-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes are considered pivotal to prevent lymphoproliferative disease (LPD) in allogeneic stem cell transplantation (SCT) recipients. We evaluated the recovery of EBV-specific CD8+ T cells after partially T-cell-depleted

  10. Impaired recovery of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)--specific CD8+ T lymphocytes after partially T-depleted allogeneic stem cell transplantation may identify patients at very high risk for progressive EBV reactivation and lymphoproliferative disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meij, Pauline; van Esser, Joost W J; Niesters, Hubert G M; van Baarle, Debbie; Miedema, Frank; Blake, Neil; Rickinson, Alan B; Leiner, Ingrid; Pamer, Eric; Lowenberg, Bob; Cornelissen, Jan J; Gratama, Jan W

    2003-01-01

    Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes are considered pivotal to prevent lymphoproliferative disease (LPD) in allogeneic stem cell transplantation (SCT) recipients. We evaluated the recovery of EBV-specific CD8+ T cells after partially T-cell-depleted SCT and studied the interacti

  11. Stimulation of differentiated functions in human melanoma cells by tumor-promoting agents and dimethyl sulfoxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huberman, E.; Heckman, C.; Langenbach, R.

    1979-07-01

    Treatment of cultured human HO melanoma cells with the mouse skin tumor promoter phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate (PMA) at 5 x 10/sup -10/ to 5 x 10/sup -7/ M resulted in a dose-related inhibition of growth and a stimulation of differentiated functions. These included melanin synthesis and formation of dendrite-like structues. Higher doses of phorbol dibutyrate, a less potent tumor promoter, were required to produce an effect comparable to that of PMA for dendrite induction. Phorbol and two other phorbal esters, which lack tumor-promoting activity, were either inactive or elicited a poor response. In addition to morphological changes, treatment with PMA altered glucosamine incorporation into membrane gangliosides. After PMA treatment, glucosamine incorporation increased 8- to 10 fold in the G/sub m3/ ganglioside and decreased 2-fold in the G/sub m1/ ganglioside, as compared to phorbol or untreated control. Inhibition of cell growth and stimulation of melanin synthesis were also observed after treatment of the HO cells with dimethyl sulfoxide. Unlike the tumor-promoting agents, dimethyl sulfoxide did not induce the formation of dendrite-like structures in the cells. These findings indicate that HO melanoma cells can be stimulated into terminally differentiated cells after treatment with tumor-promoting agents such as phorbol diesters.

  12. Endogenous retroviral LTRs as promoters for human genes: a critical assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Carla J; Lock, Wynne M; Mager, Dixie L

    2009-12-15

    Gene regulatory changes are thought to be major factors driving species evolution, with creation of new regulatory regions likely being instrumental in contributing to diversity among vertebrates. There is growing appreciation for the role of transposable elements (TEs) in gene regulation and, indeed, laboratory investigations have confirmed many specific examples of mammalian genes regulated by promoters donated by endogenous retroviruses (ERVs) or other TEs. Bioinformatics studies have revealed hundreds of additional instances where this is likely to be the case. Since the long terminal repeats (LTRs) of retroviruses naturally contain abundant transcriptional regulatory signals, roles for ERV LTRs in regulating mammalian genes are eminently plausible. Moreover, it seems reasonable that exaptation of an LTR regulatory module provides opportunities for evolution of new gene regulatory patterns. In this Review we summarize known examples of LTRs that function as human gene alternative promoters, as well as the evidence that LTR exaptation has resulted in a pattern of novel gene expression significantly different from the pattern before LTR insertion or from that of gene orthologs lacking the LTR. Available data suggest that, while new expression patterns can arise as a result of LTR usage, this situation is relatively rare and is largely restricted to the placenta. In many cases, the LTR appears to be a minor, alternative promoter with an expression pattern similar to that of the native promoter(s) and hence likely exerts a subtle overall effect on gene expression. We discuss these findings and offer evolutionary models to explain these trends.

  13. The Human p73 Promoter: Characterization and Identification of Functional E2F Binding Sites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ratnam S. Seelan

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available p73, a member of the p53 family, is overexpressed in many cancers. To understand the mechanism(s underlying this overexpression, we have undertaken a detailed characterization of the human p73 promoter. The promoter is strongly activated in cells expressing exogenous E2F1 and suppressed by exogenous Rb. At least three functional E2F binding sites, located immediately upstream of exon 1 (at-284,-155 and-132 mediate this induction. 5' serially deleted promoter constructs and constructs harboring mutated E2F sites were analyzed for their response to exogenously expressed E2F1 or Rb to establish functionality of these sites. Authenticity of E2F sites was further confirmed by electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA using E2F1 /DP1 heterodimers synthesized in vitro, followed by competition assays with unlabeled wild-type or mutant oligonucleotides and supershift analysis using anti-E2F1 antibodies. In vivo binding of E2F1 to the p73 promoter was demonstrated using nuclear extracts prepared from E2F1-inducible Saos2 cells. The region conferring the highest promoter activity was found to reside between-113 to-217 of the p73 gene. Two of the three functional E2F sites (at-155 and-132 reside within this region. Our results suggest that regulation of p73 expression is primarily mediated through binding of E2 F1 to target sites at-155 and-132.

  14. Promoter characterization and genomic organization of the human X11β gene APBA2.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Hao, Yan

    2012-02-15

    Overexpression of neuronal adaptor protein X11β has been shown to decrease the production of amyloid-β, a toxic peptide deposited in Alzheimer\\'s disease brains. Therefore, manipulation of the X11β level may represent a potential therapeutic strategy for Alzheimer\\'s disease. As X11β expression can be regulated at the transcription level, we determined the genomic organization and the promoter of the human X11β gene, amyloid β A4 precursor protein-binding family A member 2 (APBA2). By RNA ligase-mediated rapid amplification of cDNA ends, a single APBA2 transcription start site and the complete sequence of exon 1 were identified. The APBA2 promoter was located upstream of exon 1 and was more active in neurons. The core promoter contains several CpG dinucleotides, and was strongly suppressed by DNA methylation. In addition, mutagenesis analysis revealed a putative Pax5-binding site within the promoter. Together, APBA2 contains a potent neuronal promoter whose activity may be regulated by DNA methylation and Pax5.

  15. YAP promotes proliferation, chemoresistance, and angiogenesis in human cholangiocarcinoma through TEAD transcription factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marti, Patricia; Stein, Claudia; Blumer, Tanja; Abraham, Yann; Dill, Michael T; Pikiolek, Monika; Orsini, Vanessa; Jurisic, Giorgia; Megel, Philippe; Makowska, Zuzanna; Agarinis, Claudia; Tornillo, Luigi; Bouwmeester, Tewis; Ruffner, Heinz; Bauer, Andreas; Parker, Christian N; Schmelzle, Tobias; Terracciano, Luigi M; Heim, Markus H; Tchorz, Jan S

    2015-11-01

    The Yes-associated protein (YAP)/Hippo pathway has been implicated in tissue development, regeneration, and tumorigenesis. However, its role in cholangiocarcinoma (CC) is not established. We show that YAP activation is a common feature in CC patient biopsies and human CC cell lines. Using microarray expression profiling of CC cells with overexpressed or down-regulated YAP, we show that YAP regulates genes involved in proliferation, apoptosis, and angiogenesis. YAP activity promotes CC growth in vitro and in vivo by functionally interacting with TEAD transcription factors (TEADs). YAP activity together with TEADs prevents apoptosis induced by cytotoxic drugs, whereas YAP knockdown sensitizes CC cells to drug-induced apoptosis. We further show that the proangiogenic microfibrillar-associated protein 5 (MFAP5) is a direct transcriptional target of YAP/TEAD in CC cells and that secreted MFAP5 promotes tube formation of human microvascular endothelial cells. High YAP activity in human CC xenografts and clinical samples correlates with increased MFAP5 expression and CD31(+) vasculature. These findings establish YAP as a key regulator of proliferation and antiapoptotic mechanisms in CC and provide first evidence that YAP promotes angiogenesis by regulating the expression of secreted proangiogenic proteins. © 2015 by the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases.

  16. microPIR: an integrated database of microRNA target sites within human promoter sequences.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jittima Piriyapongsa

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: microRNAs are generally understood to regulate gene expression through binding to target sequences within 3'-UTRs of mRNAs. Therefore, computational prediction of target sites is usually restricted to these gene regions. Recent experimental studies though have suggested that microRNAs may alternatively modulate gene expression by interacting with promoters. A database of potential microRNA target sites in promoters would stimulate research in this field leading to more understanding of complex microRNA regulatory mechanism. METHODOLOGY: We developed a database hosting predicted microRNA target sites located within human promoter sequences and their associated genomic features, called microPIR (microRNA-Promoter Interaction Resource. microRNA seed sequences were used to identify perfect complementary matching sequences in the human promoters and the potential target sites were predicted using the RNAhybrid program. >15 million target sites were identified which are located within 5000 bp upstream of all human genes, on both sense and antisense strands. The experimentally confirmed argonaute (AGO binding sites and EST expression data including the sequence conservation across vertebrate species of each predicted target are presented for researchers to appraise the quality of predicted target sites. The microPIR database integrates various annotated genomic sequence databases, e.g. repetitive elements, transcription factor binding sites, CpG islands, and SNPs, offering users the facility to extensively explore relationships among target sites and other genomic features. Furthermore, functional information of target genes including gene ontologies, KEGG pathways, and OMIM associations are provided. The built-in genome browser of microPIR provides a comprehensive view of multidimensional genomic data. Finally, microPIR incorporates a PCR primer design module to facilitate experimental validation. CONCLUSIONS: The proposed micro

  17. Performance of the Real-Q EBV Quantification Kit for Epstein-Barr Virus DNA Quantification in Whole Blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huh, Hee Jae; Park, Jong Eun; Kim, Ji Youn; Yun, Sun Ae; Lee, Myoung Keun; Lee, Nam Yong; Kim, Jong Won; Ki, Chang Seok

    2017-03-01

    There has been increasing interest in standardized and quantitative Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) DNA testing for the management of EBV disease. We evaluated the performance of the Real-Q EBV Quantification Kit (BioSewoom, Korea) in whole blood (WB). Nucleic acid extraction and real-time PCR were performed by using the MagNA Pure 96 (Roche Diagnostics, Germany) and 7500 Fast real-time PCR system (Applied Biosystems, USA), respectively. Assay sensitivity, linearity, and conversion factor were determined by using the World Health Organization international standard diluted in EBV-negative WB. We used 81 WB clinical specimens to compare performance of the Real-Q EBV Quantification Kit and artus EBV RG PCR Kit (Qiagen, Germany). The limit of detection (LOD) and limit of quantification (LOQ) for the Real-Q kit were 453 and 750 IU/mL, respectively. The conversion factor from EBV genomic copies to IU was 0.62. The linear range of the assay was from 750 to 10⁶ IU/mL. Viral load values measured with the Real-Q assay were on average 0.54 log₁₀ copies/mL higher than those measured with the artus assay. The Real-Q assay offered good analytical performance for EBV DNA quantification in WB.

  18. Epstein-Barr virus early antigen diffuse (EBV-EA/D)-directed immunoglobulin A antibodies in systemic lupus erythematosus patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Draborg, A H; Jørgensen, J M; Müller, H

    2012-01-01

    We sought to determine whether the serological response towards lytic cycle antigens of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is altered in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) patients.......We sought to determine whether the serological response towards lytic cycle antigens of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is altered in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) patients....

  19. EGCG debilitates the persistence of EBV latency by reducing the DNA binding potency of nuclear antigen 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Ya-Lin; Tsai, Hsing-Lyn [Department of Life Sciences, Tzu-Chi University, 701 Chung-Yang Rd. Sec 3, Hualien 97004, Taiwan (China); Peng, Chih-Wen, E-mail: pengcw@mail.tcu.edu.tw [Department of Life Sciences, Tzu-Chi University, 701 Chung-Yang Rd. Sec 3, Hualien 97004, Taiwan (China)

    2012-01-20

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Two cell-based reporter platforms were established for screening of EBNA1 inhibitors. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer EGCG acts as an inhibitor to block EBNA1 binding with the cognate oriP sequence. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer EGCG debilitates EBNA1-dependent transcription enhancement and episome maintenance. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer EGCG impairs persistence of EBV latency. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer EGCG is a potent anti-EBV agent for targeting the latent cascade of EBV. -- Abstract: Because the expression of EBNA1 is prevalent in all EBV-associated tumors, it has become one of the most attractive drug targets for the discovery of anti-EBV compounds. In a cell-based reporter system, EBNA1 consistently upregulated the transcription of an oriP-Luc mini-EBV episome by 6- to 8-fold. The treatment of cells with 50 {mu}M EGCG effectively blocked the binding of EBNA1 to oriP-DNA both in vivo and in vitro, which led to the abrogation of EBNA1-dependent episome maintenance and transcriptional enhancement. Importantly, the anti-EBNA1 effects caused by EGCG ultimately impaired the persistence of EBV latent infection. Our data suggest that the inhibition of EBNA1 activity by EGCG could be a promising starting point for the development of new protocols for anti-EBV therapy.

  20. Yes-associated protein 1 is widely expressed in human brain tumors and promotes glioblastoma growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orr, Brent A; Bai, Haibo; Odia, Yazmin; Jain, Deepali; Anders, Robert A; Eberhart, Charles G

    2011-07-01

    The hippo pathway and its downstream mediator yes-associated protein 1 (YAP1) regulate mammalian organ size in part through modulating progenitor cell numbers. YAP1 has also been implicated as an oncogene in multiple human cancers. Currently, little is known about the expression of YAP1 either in normal human brain tissue or in central nervous system neoplasms. We used immunohistochemistry to evaluate nuclear YAP1 expression in the fetal and normal adult human brains and in 264 brain tumors. YAP1 was expressed in fetal and adult brain regions known to harbor neural progenitor cells, but there was little YAP1 immunoreactivity in the adult cerebral cortex. YAP1 protein was also readily detected in the nuclei of human brain tumors. In medulloblastoma, the expression varied between histologic subtypes and was most prominent in nodular/desmoplastic tumors. In gliomas, it was frequently expressed in infiltrating astrocytomas and oligodendrogliomas but rarely in pilocytic astrocytomas. Using a loss-of-function approach, we show that YAP1 promoted growth of glioblastoma cell lines in vitro. High levels of YAP1 messenger RNA expression were associated with aggressive molecular subsets of glioblastoma and with a nonsignificant trend toward reduced mean survival in human astrocytoma patients. These findings suggest that YAP1 may play an important role in normal human brain development and that it could represent a new target in human brain tumors.

  1. Tumor-promoting effects of cannabinoid receptor type 1 in human melanoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpi, Sara; Fogli, Stefano; Polini, Beatrice; Montagnani, Valentina; Podestà, Adriano; Breschi, Maria Cristina; Romanini, Antonella; Stecca, Barbara; Nieri, Paola

    2017-04-01

    The role of endocannabinoid system in melanoma development and progression is actually not fully understood. This study was aimed at clarifying whether cannabinoid-type 1 (CB1) receptor may function as tumor-promoting or -suppressing signal in human cutaneous melanoma. CB1 receptor expression was measured in human melanoma cell lines by real-time PCR. A genetic deletion of CB1 receptors in selected melanoma cells was carried out by using three different short hairpin RNAs (shRNAs). Performance of target gene silencing was verified by real-time PCR and Western blot. The effects of CB1 receptor silencing on cell growth, clonogenicity, migration capability, cell cycle progression, and activation of mitogenic signals was tested. Lentiviral shRNAs vectors targeting different regions of the human CB1 gene led to a significant reduction in CB1 receptor mRNA and a near complete loss of CB1 receptor protein, compared to control vector (LV-c). The number of viable cells, the colony-forming ability and cell migration were significantly reduced in cells transduced with CB1 lentiviral shRNAs compared to LV-c. Cell cycle analyses showed arrest at G1/S phase. p-Akt and p-ERK expression were decreased in transduced versus control cells. Findings of this study suggest that CB1 receptor might function as tumor-promoting signal in human cutaneous melanoma. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Aberrant hypomethylation-mediated CD147 overexpression promotes aggressive tumor progression in human prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Yu-Xiang; Mo, Ru-Jun; He, Hui-Chan; Chen, Jia-Hong; Zou, Jun; Han, Zhao-Dong; Lu, Jian-Ming; Cai, Chao; Zeng, Yan-Ru; Zhong, Wei-De; Wu, Chin-Lee

    2015-05-01

    Our previous study revealed the potential role of CD147 in human prostate cancer (PCa). Here, we investigated the CD147 promoter methylation status and the correlation with tumorigenicity in human PCa. CD147 mRNA and protein expression levels were both significantly higher in the 4 PCa cell lines, than in the 2 non-tumorigenic benign human prostatic epithelial cell lines (all PCD147 in PCa cell lines with significant CD147 expression as compared to non-tumorigenic benign human prostatic epithelial cell lines slowly expressing CD147. Additionally, the treatment of methylated cell lines with 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine increased CD147 expression significantly in low-expressing cell lines and also activated the expression of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2, which may be one of the most important downstream targets of CD147. Furthermore, PCa tissues displayed decreased DNA methylation in the promoter region of CD147 compared to the corresponding non-cancerous prostate tissues, and methylation intensity correlated inversely with the CD147 mRNA levels. There was a significant negative correlation between CD147 mRNA levels and the number of methylated sites in PCa tissues (r=-0.467, PCD147 may be one of the regulatory mechanisms involved in the cancer-related overexpression of CD147 and may play a crucial role in the tumorigenesis of PCa.

  3. Ectopic expression of PTTG1/securin promotes tumorigenesis in human embryonic kidney cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malik Mohammed T

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pituitary tumor transforming gene1 (PTTG1 is a novel oncogene that is expressed in most tumors. It encodes a protein that is primarily involved in the regulation of sister chromatid separation during cell division. The oncogenic potential of PTTG1 has been well characterized in the mouse, particularly mouse fibroblast (NIH3T3 cells, in which it induces cell proliferation, promotes tumor formation and angiogenesis. Human tumorigenesis is a complex and a multistep process often requiring concordant expression of a number of genes. Also due to differences between rodent and human cell biology it is difficult to extrapolate results from mouse models to humans. To determine if PTTG1 functions similarly as an oncogene in humans, we have characterized its effects on human embryonic kidney (HEK293 cells. Results We report that introduction of human PTTG1 into HEK293 cells through transfection with PTTG1 cDNA resulted in increased cell proliferation, anchorage-independent growth in soft agar, and formation of tumors after subcutaneous injection of nu/nu mice. Pathologic analysis revealed that these tumors were poorly differentiated. Both analysis of HEK293 cells transiently transfected with PTTG1 cDNA and analysis of tumors developed on injection of HEK293 cells that had been stably transfected with PTTG1 cDNA indicated significantly higher levels of secretion and expression of bFGF, VEGF and IL-8 compared to HEK293 cells transfected with pcDNA3.1 vector or uninvolved tissues collected from the mice. Mutation of the proline-rich motifs at the C-terminal of PTTG1 abolished its oncogenic properties. Mice injected with this mutated PTTG1 either did not form tumors or formed very small tumors. Taken together our results suggest that PTTG1 is a human oncogene that possesses the ability to promote tumorigenesis in human cells at least in part through the regulation of expression or secretion of bFGF, VEGF and IL-8. Conclusions Our results

  4. The Effect of Antiretroviral Combination Treatment on Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV Genome Load in HIV-Infected Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna M. C. Friis

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available We evaluated the effect of combination anti-retroviral treatment (cART on the host control of EBV infection in moderately immunosuppressed HIV-1 patients. Twenty HIV-1 infected individuals were followed for five years with repeated measurements of EBV DNA load in peripheral blood lymphocytes in relation to HIV-RNA titers and CD4+ cell counts. Individuals with optimal response, i.e. durable non-detectable HIV-RNA, showed a decline of EBV load to the level of healthy controls. Individuals with non-optimal HIV-1 control did not restore their EBV control. Long-lasting suppression of HIV-replication after early initiation of cART is a prerequisite for re-establishing the immune control of EBV.

  5. The Effect of Antiretroviral Combination Treatment on Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV) Genome Load in HIV-Infected Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friis, Anna M. C.; Gyllensten, Katarina; Aleman, Anna; Ernberg, Ingemar; Åkerlund, Börje

    2010-01-01

    We evaluated the effect of combination anti-retroviral treatment (cART) on the host control of EBV infection in moderately immunosuppressed HIV-1 patients. Twenty HIV-1 infected individuals were followed for five years with repeated measurements of EBV DNA load in peripheral blood lymphocytes in relation to HIV-RNA titers and CD4+ cell counts. Individuals with optimal response, i.e. durable non-detectable HIV-RNA, showed a decline of EBV load to the level of healthy controls. Individuals with non-optimal HIV-1 control did not restore their EBV control. Long-lasting suppression of HIV-replication after early initiation of cART is a prerequisite for re-establishing the immune control of EBV. PMID:21994658

  6. Human amnion mesenchymal stem cells promote proliferation and osteogenic differentiation in human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yuli; Yin, Ying; Jiang, Fei; Chen, Ning

    2015-02-01

    Human amnion mesenchymal stem cells (HAMSCs) can be obtained from human amniotic membrane, a highly abundant and readily available tissue. HAMSC sources present fewer ethical issues, have low immunogenicity, anti-inflammatory properties, considerable advantageous characteristics, and are considered an attractive potential treatment material in the field of regenerative medicine. We used a co-culture system to determine whether HAMSCs could promote osteogenesis in human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (HBMSCs). We isolated HAMSCs from discarded amnion samples and collected them using pancreatin/collagenase digestion. We cultured HAMSCs and HBMSCSs in basal medium. Activity of alkaline phosphatase (ALP), an early osteogenesis marker, was increased in the co-culture system compared to the control single cultures, which we also confirmed by ALP staining. We used immunofluorescence testing to investigate the effects of co-culturing with HAMSCs on HBMSC proliferation, which revealed that the co-culturing enhanced EdU expression in HBMSCs. Western blotting and quantitative real-time PCR indicated that co-culturing promoted osteogenesis in HBMSCs. Furthermore, Alizarin red S staining revealed that extracellular matrix calcium levels in mineralized nodule formation produced by the co-cultures were higher than that in the controls. Using the same co-culture system, we further observed the effects of HAMSCs on osteogenic differentiation in primary osteoblasts by Western blotting, which better addressed the mechanism for HAMSCs in bone regeneration. The results showed HAMSCs are osteogenic and not only play a role in promoting HBMSC proliferation and osteogenic differentiation but also in osteoblasts, laying the foundation for new regenerative medicine methods.

  7. Genomic organization and promoter cloning of the human X11α gene APBA1.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Chai, Ka-Ho

    2012-05-01

    X11α is a brain specific multi-modular protein that interacts with the Alzheimer\\'s disease amyloid precursor protein (APP). Aggregation of amyloid-β peptide (Aβ), an APP cleavage product, is believed to be central to the pathogenesis of Alzheimer\\'s disease. Recently, overexpression of X11α has been shown to reduce Aβ generation and to ameliorate memory deficit in a transgenic mouse model of Alzheimer\\'s disease. Therefore, manipulating the expression level of X11α may provide a novel route for the treatment of Alzheimer\\'s disease. Human X11α is encoded by the gene APBA1. As evidence suggests that X11α expression can be regulated at transcription level, we have determined the gene structure and cloned the promoter of APBA1. APBA1 spans over 244 kb on chromosome 9 and is composed of 13 exons and has multiple transcription start sites. A putative APBA1 promoter has been identified upstream of exon 1 and functional analysis revealed that this is highly active in neurons. By deletion analysis, the minimal promoter was found to be located between -224 and +14, a GC-rich region that contains a functional Sp3 binding site. In neurons, overexpression of Sp3 stimulates the APBA1 promoter while an Sp3 inhibitor suppresses the promoter activity. Moreover, inhibition of Sp3 reduces endogenous X11α expression and promotes the generation of Aβ. Our findings reveal that Sp3 play an essential role in APBA1 transcription.

  8. The Role of Vocational Education and Training in Palestine in Addressing Inequality and Promoting Human Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Randa Hilal

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available UNESCO's new emphasis on vocational education and training as transformative, and concerns in particular with equity and sustainable human development, has been strongly influenced by a recent literature on VET and human development that has a particular focus on the most marginalised, especially young women, and is concerned with how their aspirations, agency and achievement of wellbeing can be promoted in the face of wide-ranging structural obstacles. This article seeks to further develop that account through an even stronger emphasis on VET in the context of extreme poverty, inequality and marginalisation as faced in Palestine. VET in Palestine serves many of the poorest and most disenfranchised in Palestinian society in a context of profound structural obstacles to wellbeing achievement. Our analysis show a very positive story of how VET has helped highly disadvantaged young Palestinians, particularly young women, to make progress on their human development.

  9. Effect of TNF{alpha} on activities of different promoters of human apolipoprotein A-I gene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orlov, Sergey V., E-mail: serge@iem.sp.ru [Department of Biochemistry, Institute of Experimental Medicine, Russian Academy of Medical Sciences, 197376 St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Department of Embryology, St. Petersburg State University, 199034 St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Mogilenko, Denis A. [Department of Biochemistry, Institute of Experimental Medicine, Russian Academy of Medical Sciences, 197376 St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Department of Embryology, St. Petersburg State University, 199034 St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Shavva, Vladimir S. [Department of Embryology, St. Petersburg State University, 199034 St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Dizhe, Ella B.; Ignatovich, Irina A. [Department of Biochemistry, Institute of Experimental Medicine, Russian Academy of Medical Sciences, 197376 St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Perevozchikov, Andrej P., E-mail: app@iem.sp.ru [Department of Biochemistry, Institute of Experimental Medicine, Russian Academy of Medical Sciences, 197376 St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Department of Embryology, St. Petersburg State University, 199034 St. Petersburg (Russian Federation)

    2010-07-23

    Research highlights: {yields} TNF{alpha} stimulates the distal alternative promoter of human apoA-I gene. {yields} TNF{alpha} acts by weakening of promoter competition within apoA-I gene (promoter switching). {yields} MEK1/2 and nuclear receptors PPAR{alpha} and LXRs take part in apoA-I promoter switching. -- Abstract: Human apolipoprotein A-I (ApoA-I) is a major structural and functional protein component of high-density lipoproteins. The expression of the apolipoprotein A-I gene (apoA-I) in hepatocytes is repressed by pro-inflammatory cytokines such as IL-1{beta} and TNF{alpha}. Recently, two novel additional (alternative) promoters for human apoA-I gene have been identified. Nothing is known about the role of alternative promoters in TNF{alpha}-mediated downregulation of apoA-I gene. In this article we report for the first time about the different effects of TNF{alpha} on two alternative promoters of human apoA-I gene. Stimulation of HepG2 cells by TNF{alpha} leads to activation of the distal alternative apoA-I promoter and downregulation of the proximal alternative and the canonical apoA-I promoters. This effect is mediated by weakening of the promoter competition within human apoA-I 5'-regulatory region (apoA-I promoter switching) in the cells treated by TNF{alpha}. The MEK1/2-ERK1/2 cascade and nuclear receptors PPAR{alpha} and LXRs are important for TNF{alpha}-mediated apoA-I promoter switching.

  10. Human hepatocyte growth factor promotes functional recovery in primates after spinal cord injury.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazuya Kitamura

    Full Text Available Many therapeutic interventions for spinal cord injury (SCI using neurotrophic factors have focused on reducing the area damaged by secondary, post-injury degeneration, to promote functional recovery. Hepatocyte growth factor (HGF, which is a potent mitogen for mature hepatocytes and a mediator of the inflammatory responses to tissue injury, was recently highlighted as a potent neurotrophic factor in the central nervous system. We previously reported that introducing exogenous HGF into the injured rodent spinal cord using a herpes simplex virus-1 vector significantly reduces the area of damaged tissue and promotes functional recovery. However, that study did not examine the therapeutic effects of administering HGF after injury, which is the most critical issue for clinical application. To translate this strategy to human treatment, we induced a contusive cervical SCI in the common marmoset, a primate, and then administered recombinant human HGF (rhHGF intrathecally. Motor function was assessed using an original open field scoring system focusing on manual function, including reach-and-grasp performance and hand placement in walking. The intrathecal rhHGF preserved the corticospinal fibers and myelinated areas, thereby promoting functional recovery. In vivo magnetic resonance imaging showed significant preservation of the intact spinal cord parenchyma. rhHGF-treatment did not give rise to an abnormal outgrowth of calcitonin gene related peptide positive fibers compared to the control group, indicating that this treatment did not induce or exacerbate allodynia. This is the first study to report the efficacy of rhHGF for treating SCI in non-human primates. In addition, this is the first presentation of a novel scale for assessing neurological motor performance in non-human primates after contusive cervical SCI.

  11. Human fetal liver stromal cells expressing erythropoietin promote hematopoietic development from human embryonic stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chao; Ji, Lei; Yue, Wen; Shi, Shuang-Shuang; Wang, Ruo-Yong; Li, Yan-Hua; Xie, Xiao-Yan; Xi, Jia-Fei; He, Li-Juan; Nan, Xue; Pei, Xue-Tao

    2012-02-01

    Blood cells transfusion and hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) transplantation are important methods for cell therapy. They are widely used in the treatment of incurable hematological disorder, infectious diseases, genetic diseases, and immunologic deficiency. However, their availability is limited by quantity, capacity of proliferation and the risk of blood transfusion complications. Recently, human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) have been shown to be an alternative resource for the generation of hematopoietic cells. In the current study, we describe a novel method for the efficient production of hematopoietic cells from hESCs. The stable human fetal liver stromal cell lines (hFLSCs) expressing erythropoietin (EPO) were established using the lentiviral system. We observed that the supernatant from the EPO transfected hFLSCs could induce the hESCs differentiation into hematopoietic cells, especially erythroid cells. They not only expressed fetal and embryonic globins but also expressed the adult-globin chain on further maturation. In addition, these hESCs-derived erythroid cells possess oxygen-transporting capacity, which indicated hESCs could generate terminally mature progenies. This should be useful for ultimately developing an animal-free culture system to generate large numbers of erythroid cells from hESCs and provide an experimental model to study early human erythropoiesis.

  12. Characterization of an unusual thyroid response unit in the promoter of the human placental lactogen gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voz, M L; Peers, B; Belayew, A; Martial, J A

    1991-07-15

    The human placental lactogen B (hCS-B) promoter activity is strongly stimulated by thyroid hormones in the rat pituitary GC cell line. The minimal DNA sequence required for stimulation, as determined by transfection with 5' and 3' deletion mutants, spans 67 base pairs, from coordinate -97 to -31. DNase I footprinting experiments show that this thyroid response unit includes two adjacent binding sites: one for the thyroid receptor (-67/-41), the other for the pituitary-specific factor GHF1 (-95/-68). Neither region alone is sufficient to confer thyroid responsiveness. The thyroid receptor binding element (TBE) does not contain any repeats or palindromes but is composed of two different domains, one of which is very similar to the half-palindromic motif described by Glass et al. (Glass, C.K., Holloway, J.M., Devary, O.L., and Rosenfeld, M.G. (1988) Cell 54, 313-323). The other is very rich in purine. The normal human growth hormone (hGH-N) promoter, which is 94% similar to the hCS-B promoter, differs from its hCS-B counterpart precisely in this TBE. This difference may explain the opposite 3,5,3'-triiodothyronine (T3) regulation of these two genes.

  13. NCYM promotes calpain-mediated Myc-nick production in human MYCN-amplified neuroblastoma cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shoji, Wataru [Division of Biochemistry and Innovative Cancer Therapeutics and Children' s Cancer Research Center, Chiba Cancer Center Research Institute, 666-2 Nitona, Chuo-ku, Chiba 260-8717 (Japan); Department of Pediatric Surgery, Graduate School of Medicine, Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8574 (Japan); Suenaga, Yusuke, E-mail: ysuenaga@chiba-cc.jp [Division of Biochemistry and Innovative Cancer Therapeutics and Children' s Cancer Research Center, Chiba Cancer Center Research Institute, 666-2 Nitona, Chuo-ku, Chiba 260-8717 (Japan); Cancer Genome Center, Chiba Cancer Center Research Institute, 666-2 Nitona, Chuo-ku, Chiba 260-8717 (Japan); Kaneko, Yoshiki; Islam, S.M. Rafiqul; Alagu, Jennifer [Division of Biochemistry and Innovative Cancer Therapeutics and Children' s Cancer Research Center, Chiba Cancer Center Research Institute, 666-2 Nitona, Chuo-ku, Chiba 260-8717 (Japan); Yokoi, Sana [Cancer Genome Center, Chiba Cancer Center Research Institute, 666-2 Nitona, Chuo-ku, Chiba 260-8717 (Japan); Nio, Masaki [Department of Pediatric Surgery, Graduate School of Medicine, Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8574 (Japan); Nakagawara, Akira, E-mail: nakagawara-a@koseikan.jp [Division of Biochemistry and Innovative Cancer Therapeutics and Children' s Cancer Research Center, Chiba Cancer Center Research Institute, 666-2 Nitona, Chuo-ku, Chiba 260-8717 (Japan)

    2015-06-05

    NCYM is a cis-antisense gene of MYCN and is amplified in human neuroblastomas. High NCYM expression is associated with poor prognoses, and the NCYM protein stabilizes MYCN to promote proliferation of neuroblastoma cells. However, the molecular mechanisms of NCYM in the regulation of cell survival have remained poorly characterized. Here we show that NCYM promotes cleavage of MYCN to produce the anti-apoptotic protein, Myc-nick, both in vitro and in vivo. NCYM and Myc-nick were induced at G2/M phase, and NCYM knockdown induced apoptotic cell death accompanied by Myc-nick downregulation. These results reveal a novel function of NCYM as a regulator of Myc-nick production in human neuroblastomas. - Highlights: • NCYM promotes cleavages of MYC and MYCN to produce Myc-nick in vitro. • NCYM increases Myc-nick production in MYCN-amplified neuroblastoma cells. • NCYM knockdown decreases Myc-nick production and induces apoptosis at G2/M phase.

  14. Rarity of DNA sequence alterations in the promoter region of the human androgen receptor gene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.F. Cabral

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available The human androgen receptor (AR gene promoter lies in a GC-rich region containing two principal sites of transcription initiation and a putative Sp1 protein-binding site, without typical "TATA" and "CAAT" boxes. It has been suggested that mutations within the 5'untranslated region (5'UTR may contribute to the development of prostate cancer by changing the rates of gene transcription and/or translation. In order to investigate this question, the aim of the present study was to search for the presence of mutations or polymorphisms at the AR-5'UTR in 92 prostate cancer patients, where histological diagnosis of adenocarcinoma was established in specimens obtained from transurethral resection or after prostatectomy. The AR-5'UTR was amplified by PCR from genomic DNA samples of the patients and of 100 healthy male blood donors, included as controls. Conformation-sensitive gel electrophoresis was used for DNA sequence alteration screening. Only one band shift was detected in one individual from the blood donor group. Sequencing revealed a new single nucleotide deletion (T in the most conserved portion of the promoter region at position +36 downstream from the transcription initiation site I. Although the effect of this specific mutation remains unknown, its rarity reveals the high degree of sequence conservation of the human androgen promoter region. Moreover, the absence of detectable variation within the critical 5'UTR in prostate cancer patients indicates a low probability of its involvement in prostate cancer etiology.

  15. P-glycoprotein is expressed and causes resistance to chemotherapy in EBV-positive T-cell lymphoproliferative diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshimori, Mayumi; Takada, Honami; Imadome, Ken-Ichi; Kurata, Morito; Yamamoto, Kouhei; Koyama, Takatoshi; Shimizu, Norio; Fujiwara, Shigeyoshi; Miura, Osamu; Arai, Ayako

    2015-10-01

    Epstein-Barr virus-positive T-cell lymphoproliferative diseases (EBV-T-LPDs) are rare lymphomas with poor prognosis. Although chemotherapeutic strategies such as CHOP have been often selected, they have exhibited only limited efficacy. To clarify the mechanism of chemoresistance, we examined P-glycoprotein (P-gp) expression. P-gp acts as an energy-dependent efflux pump that excretes drugs from the cytoplasm, resulting in low-intracellular drug concentrations and poor sensitivity to chemotherapy. We examined P-gp expression in EBV-positive cells by immunohistochemistry staining in three patients of EBV-T-LPDs and the expression was detected in all patients. We also examined mdr1 mRNA expression by reverse-transcriptase polymerase-chain reaction (RT-PCR) in EBV-positive tumor cells from these patients and additional three patients. The expression was detected in all examined patients. In five EBV-T-LPDs patients, P-gp function was detected by Rhodamine-123 efflux assay in these cells. The efflux was inhibited by treatment with a P-gp inhibitor, cyclosporine A (CsA). We also examined and detected P-gp expression in EBV-positive T-cell lines SNT8 and SNT16 established from EBV-T-LPDs patients, by RT-PCR and western blotting. The function was also detected by Rhodamine-123 efflux in these cell lines. Inhibition and knock down of P-gp by CsA and siRNA, respectively, enhanced etoposide- and doxorubicin-induced cell death in the EBV-positive T-cell lines. Finally, we infected the T-cell line MOLT4 with EBV, and found that mdr1 mRNA expression and Rhodamine 123 efflux were upregulated after infection. These results indicated that enhanced P-gp expression contributed to the chemoresistance of EBV-T-LPDs.

  16. Regulation of Human Cytomegalovirus Transcription in Latency: Beyond the Major Immediate-Early Promoter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Sinclair

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Lytic infection of differentiated cell types with human cytomegalovirus (HCMV results in the temporal expression of between 170–200 open reading frames (ORFs. A number of studies have demonstrated the temporal regulation of these ORFs and that this is orchestrated by both viral and cellular mechanisms associated with the co-ordinated recruitment of transcription complexes and, more recently, higher order chromatin structure. Importantly, HCMV, like all herpes viruses, establishes a lifelong latent infection of the host—one major site of latency being the undifferentiated haematopoietic progenitor cells resident in the bone marrow. Crucially, the establishment of latency is concomitant with the recruitment of cellular enzymes that promote extensive methylation of histones bound to the major immediate early promoter. As such, the repressive chromatin structure formed at the major immediate early promoter (MIEP elicits inhibition of IE gene expression and is a major factor involved in maintenance of HCMV latency. However, it is becoming increasingly clear that a distinct subset of viral genes is also expressed during latency. In this review, we will discuss the mechanisms that control the expression of these latency-associated transcripts and illustrate that regulation of these latency-associated promoters is also subject to chromatin mediated regulation and that the instructive observations previously reported regarding the negative regulation of the MIEP during latency are paralleled in the regulation of latent gene expression.

  17. An EBV recombinant deleted for residues 130-159 in EBNA3C can deregulate p53/Mdm2 and Cyclin D1/CDK6 which results in apoptosis and reduced cell proliferation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukla, Sanket Kumar; Jha, Hem Chandra; El-Naccache, Darine W; Robertson, Erle S

    2016-04-05

    Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), a gamma herpes virus is associated with B-cell malignancies. EBNA-3C is critical for in vitro primary B-cell transformation. Interestingly, the N terminal domain of EBNA3C which contains residues 130-159, interacts with various cellular proteins, such as p53, Mdm2, CyclinD1/Cdk6 complex, and E2F1. In the current reverse genetics study, we deleted the residues 130-159 aa within EBNA3C open reading frame (ORF) by BACmid recombinant engineering methodology. Our experiments demonstrated that deletion of the 130-159 aa showed a reduction in cell proliferation. Also, this recombinant virus showed with higher infectivity of human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) compared to wild type EBV. PBMCs- infected with recombinant EBV deleted for 130-159 residues have differential expression patterns for the p53/Mdm2, CyclinD1/Cdk6 and pRb/E2F1 pathways compared to wild type EBV-infected PBMCs. PBMCs infected with recombinant virus showed increased apoptotic cell death which further resulted in activation of polymerase 1 (PARP1), an important contributor to apoptotic signaling. Interestingly, cells infected with this recombinant virus showed a dramatic decrease in chromosomal instability, indicated by the presence of increased multinucleation and micronucleation. In addition infection with recombinant virus have increased cells in G0/G1 phase and decreased cells in S-G2M phase when compared to wild type infected cells. Thus, these differences in signaling activities due to 29 amino acid residues of EBNA3C is of particular significance in deregulation of cell proliferation in EBV-infected cells.

  18. Increased expression of CYP4Z1 promotes tumor angiogenesis and growth in human breast cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Wei [Department of Pharmacology, School of Medicine, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China); Chai, Hongyan [Center for Gene Diagnosis, Zhongnan Hospital, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China); Li, Ying; Zhao, Haixia; Xie, Xianfei; Zheng, Hao; Wang, Chenlong; Wang, Xue [Department of Pharmacology, School of Medicine, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China); Yang, Guifang [Department of Pathology, Zhongnan Hospital, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China); Cai, Xiaojun [Department of Ophthalmology, Zhongnan Hospital, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China); Falck, John R. [Department of Biochemistry, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX 75390 (United States); Yang, Jing, E-mail: yangjingliu@yahoo.com.cn [Department of Pharmacology, School of Medicine, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China); Research Center of Food and Drug Evaluation, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China)

    2012-10-01

    Cytochrome P450 (CYP) 4Z1, a novel CYP4 family member, is over-expressed in human mammary carcinoma and associated with high-grade tumors and poor prognosis. However, the precise role of CYP4Z1 in tumor progression is unknown. Here, we demonstrate that CYP4Z1 overexpression promotes tumor angiogenesis and growth in breast cancer. Stable expression of CYP4Z1 in T47D and BT-474 human breast cancer cells significantly increased mRNA expression and production of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-A, and decreased mRNA levels and secretion of tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-2 (TIMP-2), without affecting cell proliferation and anchorage-independent cell growth in vitro. Notably, the conditioned medium from CYP4Z1-expressing cells enhanced proliferation, migration and tube formation of human umbilical vein endothelial cells, and promoted angiogenesis in the zebrafish embryo and chorioallantoic membrane of the chick embryo. In addition, there were lower levels of myristic acid and lauric acid, and higher contents of 20-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (20-HETE) in CYP4Z1-expressing T47D cells compared with vector control. CYP4Z1 overexpression significantly increased tumor weight and microvessel density by 2.6-fold and 1.9-fold in human tumor xenograft models, respectively. Moreover, CYP4Z1 transfection increased the phosphorylation of ERK1/2 and PI3K/Akt, while PI3K or ERK inhibitors and siRNA silencing reversed CYP4Z1-mediated changes in VEGF-A and TIMP-2 expression. Conversely, HET0016, an inhibitor of the CYP4 family, potently inhibited the tumor-induced angiogenesis with associated changes in the intracellular levels of myristic acid, lauric acid and 20-HETE. Collectively, these data suggest that increased CYP4Z1 expression promotes tumor angiogenesis and growth in breast cancer partly via PI3K/Akt and ERK1/2 activation. -- Highlights: ► CYP4Z1 overexpression promotes human breast cancer growth and angiogenesis. ► The pro-angiogenic effects of CYP4Z1 have

  19. MRG15 activates the cdc2 promoter via histone acetylation in human cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pena, AndreAna N., E-mail: andreana.pena@gmail.com [Sam and Ann Barshop Institute for Longevity and Aging Studies, The University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio, San Antonio, TX (United States); Department of Cellular and Structural Biology, The University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio, San Antonio, TX (United States); Tominaga, Kaoru; Pereira-Smith, Olivia M. [Sam and Ann Barshop Institute for Longevity and Aging Studies, The University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio, San Antonio, TX (United States); Department of Cellular and Structural Biology, The University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio, San Antonio, TX (United States)

    2011-07-01

    Chromatin remodeling is required for transcriptional activation and repression. MRG15 (MORF4L1), a chromatin modulator, is a highly conserved protein and is present in complexes containing histone acetyltransferases (HATs) as well as histone deacetylases (HDACs). Loss of expression of MRG15 in mice and Drosophila results in embryonic lethality and fibroblast and neural stem/progenitor cells cultured from Mrg15 null mouse embryos exhibit marked proliferative defects when compared with wild type cells. To determine the role of MRG15 in cell cycle progression we performed chromatin immunoprecipitation with an antibody to MRG15 on normal human fibroblasts as they entered the cell cycle from a quiescent state, and analyzed various cell cycle gene promoters. The results demonstrated a 3-fold increase in MRG15 occupancy at the cdc2 promoter during S phase of the cell cycle and a concomitant increase in acetylated histone H4. H4 lysine 12 was acetylated at 24 h post-serum stimulation while there was no change in acetylation of lysine 16. HDAC1 and 2 were decreased at this promoter during cell cycle progression. Over-expression of MRG15 in HeLa cells activated a cdc2 promoter-reporter construct in a dose-dependent manner, whereas knockdown of MRG15 resulted in decreased promoter activity. In order to implicate HAT activity, we treated cells with the HAT inhibitor anacardic acid and determined that HAT inhibition results in loss of expression of cdc2 mRNA. Further, chromatin immunoprecipitation with Tip60 localizes the protein to the same 110 bp stretch of the cdc2 promoter pulled down by MRG15. Additionally, we determined that cotransfection of MRG15 with the known associated HAT Tip60 had a cooperative effect in activating the cdc2 promoter. These results suggest that MRG15 is acting in a HAT complex involving Tip60 to modify chromatin via acetylation of histone H4 at the cdc2 promoter to activate transcription.

  20. Human SIRT6 promotes DNA end resection through CtIP deacetylation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaidi, Abderrahmane; Weinert, Brian T; Choudhary, Chunaram

    2010-01-01

    SIRT6 belongs to the sirtuin family of protein lysine deacetylases, which regulate aging and genome stability. We found that human SIRT6 has a role in promoting DNA end resection, a crucial step in DNA double-strand break (DSB) repair by homologous recombination. SIRT6 depletion impaired...... the accumulation of replication protein A and single-stranded DNA at DNA damage sites, reduced rates of homologous recombination, and sensitized cells to DSB-inducing agents. We identified the DSB resection protein CtIP [C-terminal binding protein (CtBP) interacting protein] as a SIRT6 interaction partner...... and showed that SIRT6-dependent CtIP deacetylation promotes resection. A nonacetylatable CtIP mutant alleviated the effect of SIRT6 depletion on resection, thus identifying CtIP as a key substrate by which SIRT6 facilitates DSB processing and homologous recombination. These findings further clarify how SIRT6...

  1. Kaempferia parviflora ethanolic extract promoted nitric oxide production in human umbilical vein endothelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wattanapitayakul, Suvara K; Suwatronnakorn, Maneewan; Chularojmontri, Linda; Herunsalee, Angkana; Niumsakul, Somchit; Charuchongkolwongse, Suphan; Chansuvanich, Nuchattra

    2007-04-04

    The rhizomes of Kaempferia parviflora (KP) (Zingiberaceae) have been used in Thai traditional medicine for health promotion and for the treatment of digestive disorders and gastric ulcer. This study investigated effect of KP on endothelial function. Studies in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) showed that KP dose-dependently increased nitrite concentrations in culture media after 48 h incubation. eNOS mRNA and protein expression were also enhanced. The induction of eNOS mRNA was detected at 4 h and plateau at 48 h while iNOS expression was not observed. These data demonstrate that KP has a great potential for a supplemental use in vascular endothelial health promotion.

  2. HHV8/EBV Coinfection Lymphoproliferative Disorder: Rare Entity with a Favorable Outcome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dhouha Bacha

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available HHV8/EBV-associated germinotropic lymphoproliferative disorder (GLD is a challenging diagnosis given its rarity, the particular clinical presentation, and the lack of expression of markers usually used in establishing hematopoietic lineage. We report a new case of HHV8/EBV GLD in an immunocompetent 78-year-old woman. The diagnosis was made in an incidentally discovered lymphadenopathy. Histological examination showed a nodular lymphoid proliferation centered by aggregates of atypical plasmablastic cells admixed with small lymphoid cells. Tumor cells were strongly positive with EMA, HHV8, LMP1, CD38, CD138, and kappa light chains. They were negative with common lymphoma-associated markers (CD20, CD3, CD15, CD30, CD10, and bcl2. In situ hybridization confirmed the monotypic kappa light chains and the EBV infection (EBER+. A polyclonal pattern of Ig gene rearrangement was detected by PCR analysis. In the adjacent lymph node parenchyma, some germinal centers mimicked Castleman disease. In this case, the differential diagnosis was discussed with an early stage of large B-cell lymphoma arising in HHV8-associated multicentric Castleman disease. The clinical presentation, the immunophenotype, and the molecular results helped to make the accurate diagnosis. Through the review of the nine previously reported cases in literature, we discuss the clinical and pathologic features and the differential diagnosis of HHV8/EBV GLD.

  3. Expression of HSV-1 receptors in EBV-associated lymphoproliferative disease determines susceptibility to oncolytic HSV

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, P.Y.; Currier, M.A.; Hansford, L.; Kaplan, D.; Chiocca, E.A.; Uchida, H.; Goins, W.F.; Cohen, J.B.; Glorioso, J.C.; Kuppevelt, T.H. van; Mo, X.; Cripe, T.P.

    2013-01-01

    Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-associated B-cell lymphoproliferative disease (LPD) after hematopoietic stem cell or solid organ transplantation remains a life-threatening complication. Expression of the virus-encoded gene product, EBER, has been shown to prevent apoptosis via blockade of PKR activation. A

  4. A SURVEY OF EPSTEIN - BARR VIRUS (EBV INFECTION IN CHILDREN AND ADULTS IN TEHRAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sh. Modarres

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available A serological survey was carried out to determine the incidence of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV infection in childhood and adolescence in Tehran during 1996-1997. Sera from 480 children £ 14 years old and 740 males and females 15-40 years of age were investigated for EBV IgG antibodies to the viral caspid antigen (VCA by an enzyme-linked lmmunosorbant assay (ELISA. The incidence of EBV Infection increased from 50% at £ 3 years of age to about 70% in the 4-6 years old group, was stationary at the age of 7-14 years, and then increased old further progressively with age, to reach more than 90% in males and females by age ³ 40 years. There was a significant increase in incidence of infection with age (P<0.001, and no significant sex difference. The study indicates that infection with EBV has a rather early and widespread occurrence in Tehran compared with other developing areas.

  5. Relationship between abnormality of FHIT gene and EBV infection in gastric cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu-Ping Xiao; Cheng-Bo Han; Xiao-Yun Mao; Jin-Yi Li; Lei Xu; Chang-Shan Ren; Yan Xin

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To examine the aberrant expression of fragile histidine triad (FHIT) gene and protein in gastric cancer, and to evaluate the role of FHIT gene and the relationship between FHIT gene and EBV infection in gastric carcinogenesis.METHODS: FHIT transcripts were detected by nested RT PCR in 30 cases of gastric cancer and their products were sequenced. FHIT protein was detected by Western blot.EBV infection was detected by PCR method in 50 cases of gastric cancer.RESULTS: The wild type transcripts were detected in all 30 matched normal tissues of gastric cancer. Aberrant transcripts were found in 11/30 (36.7%) gastric cancerous tissues. Sequencing analysis of the aberrant fragments found an RT-PCR product missing exons 5-7 in one case of gastric cancer, and another product missing exons 4-7. Four of ten (40.0%) cases of primary gastric cancer showed absent or decreased expression of FHIT protein as compared with their matched normal tissues. EBV was detected in 5/50 (10%) gastric cancers, among which 4/5 (80%) had aberrant transcripts of FHIT gene. CONCLUSION: Loss of FHIT gene or FHIT protein p1ays an important role in carcinogenesis, development and progression of gastric cancer. EBV infection might influence carcinogenesis of gastric cancer by inducing the abnormality of FHIT gene.

  6. Chromatin remodeling of human subtelomeres and TERRA promoters upon cellular senescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thijssen, Peter E.; Tobi, Elmar W.; Balog, Judit; Schouten, Suzanne G.; Kremer, Dennis; El Bouazzaoui, Fatiha; Henneman, Peter; Putter, Hein; Eline Slagboom, P.; Heijmans, Bastiaan T.; Van der Maarel, Silvère M.

    2013-01-01

    Subtelomeres are patchworks of evolutionary conserved sequence blocks and harbor the transcriptional start sites for telomere repeat containing RNAs (TERRA). Recent studies suggest that the interplay between telomeres and subtelomeric chromatin is required for maintaining telomere function. To further characterize chromatin remodeling of subtelomeres in relation to telomere shortening and cellular senescence, we systematically quantified histone modifications and DNA methylation at the subtelomeres of chromosomes 7q and 11q in primary human WI-38 fibroblasts. Upon senescence, both subtelomeres were characterized by a decrease in markers of constitutive heterochromatin, suggesting relative chromatin relaxation. However, we did not find increased levels of markers of euchromatin or derepression of the 7q VIPR2 gene. The repressed state of the subtelomeres was maintained upon senescence, which could be attributed to a rise in levels of facultative heterochromatin markers at both subtelomeres. While senescence-induced subtelomeric chromatin remodeling was similar for both chromosomes, chromatin remodeling at TERRA promoters displayed chromosome-specific patterns. At the 7q TERRA promoter, chromatin structure was co-regulated with the more proximal subtelomere. In contrast, the 11q TERRA promoter, which was previously shown to be bound by CCCTC-binding factor CTCF, displayed lower levels of markers of constitutive heterochromatin that did not change upon senescence, whereas levels of markers of facultative heterochromatin decreased upon senescence. In line with the chromatin state data, transcription of 11q TERRA but not 7q TERRA was detected. Our study provides a detailed description of human subtelomeric chromatin dynamics and shows distinct regulation of the TERRA promoters of 7q and 11q upon cellular senescence. PMID:23644601

  7. Regulation of IL-8 promoter activity by verrucarin A in human monocytic THP-1 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jun; Simmons, Steve O; Pei, Ruoting

    2014-01-01

    Macrocyclic trichothecenes have been frequently detected in fungi in water-damaged buildings and exhibited higher toxicity than the well-studied trichothecenes; however, the mechanism underlying their toxicity has been poorly understood. In this study, transcriptional regulation of the cytokine interleukin (IL)-8 by a macrocyclic trichothecene, verrucarin A (VA), in human monocytic THP-1 cells is reported. Consistent with previous findings, VA was 100-fold more cytotoxic than deoxynivalenol (DON), while ochratoxin A (OA) was not cytotoxic. In cells transduced with the wild-type IL-8 promoter luciferase construct, VA induced a biphasic dose response composed of an upregulation of luciferase expression at low concentrations of 0.01-1 ng/ml and a downregulation at high levels of 10 ng/ml and higher. In contrast, DON induced a sigmoid-shaped dose response with the EC50 of 11.6 ng/ml, while OA did not markedly affect the IL-8 expression. When cells were transduced with IL-8 promoter with a mutation of transcription factor nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB)-binding site, VA (1 ng/ml), DON (1000 ng/ml), and tumor necrosis factor (TNF) α (20 ng/ml)-induced luciferase expression were impaired. In addition, the NF-κB inhibitor caffeic acid phenethyl ester inhibited VA-, DON-, and TNFα-induced luciferase expression. Mutation of the CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein (CEBP) β binding site of the IL-8 promoter affected only DON-, but not VA- and TNFα-induced luciferase expression. Taken together, these results suggested that VA activated IL-8 promoter via an NF-κB-dependent, but not CEBPβ-dependent, pathway in human monocytes.

  8. Structural analysis and promoter characterization of the human collagenase-3 gene (MMP13)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pendas, A.M.; Balbin, M.; Llano, E. [Universidad de Oviedo (Spain)] [and others

    1997-03-01

    Human collagenase-3 (MMP13) is a recently identified member of the matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) family that is expressed in breast carcinomas and in articular cartilage from arthritic patients. In this work we have isolated and characterized genomic clones coding for human collagenase-3. This gene is composed of 10 exons and 9 introns and spans over 12.5 kb. The overall organization of the collagenase-3 gene is similar to that of other MMP genes clustered at chromosome 11q22, including fibroblast collagenase (MMP-1), matrilysin (MMP-7), and macrophage metalloelastase (MMP-12), but is more distantly related to genes coding for stromelysin-3 (MMP-11), gelatinase-A (MMP-2), and gelatinase-B (MMP-9), which map outside of this gene cluster. Nucleotide sequence analysis of about 1 kb of the 5{prime}-flanking region of the collagenase-3 gene revealed the presence of a TATA box, an AP-1 motif, a PEA-3 consensus sequence, an osteoblast specific element (OSE-2), and a TGF-{beta} inhibitory element. Transient transfection experiments in HeLa and COS-1 cells with chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (CAT)-containing constructs showed that the AP-1 site is functional and responsible for the observed inducibility of the reporter gene by the tumor promoter 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA). However, and in contrast to other MMP genes, no significative synergistic effect on CAT activity between the AP-1 and PEA-3 elements found in the collagenase-3 gene promoter was found. DNA binding analysis with nuclear extracts from HeLa cells revealed the formation of specific complexes between collagenase-3 promoter sequences containing the AP-1 site and nuclear proteins. The presence of this AP-1 functional site, which is able to confer responsiveness to a variety of tumor promoters and oncogene products, may contribute to explaining the high-level expression of collagenase-3 in breast carcinomas and degenerative joint diseases. 48 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  9. Structure of the gene for human. beta. /sub 2/-adrenergic receptor: expression and promoter characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Emorine, L.J.; Marullo, S.; Delavier-Klutchko, C.; Kaveri, S.V.; Durieu-Trautmann, O.; Strosberg, A.D.

    1987-10-01

    The genomic gene coding for the human ..beta../sub 2/-adrenergic receptor (..beta../sub 2/AR) from A431 epidermoid cells has been isolated. Transfection of the gene into eukaryotic cells restores a fully active receptor/GTP-binding protein/adenylate cyclase complex with ..beta../sub 2/AR properties. Southern blot analyses with ..beta../sub 2/AR-specific probes show that a single ..beta../sub 2/AR gene is common to various human tissues and that its flanking sequences are highly conserved among humans and between man and rabbit, mouse, and hamster. Functional significance of these regions is supported by the presence of a promoter region (including mRNA cap sites, two TATA boxes, a CAAT box, and three G + C-rich regions that resemble binding sites for transcription factor Sp1) 200-300 base pairs 5' to the translation initiation codon. In the 3' flanking region, sequences homologous to glucocorticoid-response elements might be responsible for the increased expression of the ..beta../sub 2/AR gene observed after treatment of the transfected cells with hydrocortisone. In addition, 5' to the promoter region, an open reading frame encodes a 251-residue polypeptide that displays striking homologies with protein kinases and other nucleotide-binding proteins.

  10. Human Nanog pseudogene8 promotes the proliferation of gastrointestinal cancer cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uchino, Keita, E-mail: uchino13@intmed1.med.kyushu-u.ac.jp [Department of Medicine and Biosystemic Science, Kyushu University Graduate School of Medical Sciences, 3-1-1 Maidashi, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka 812-8582 (Japan); Hirano, Gen [Department of Medicine and Biosystemic Science, Kyushu University Graduate School of Medical Sciences, 3-1-1 Maidashi, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka 812-8582 (Japan); Hirahashi, Minako [Department of Anatomic Pathology, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan); Isobe, Taichi; Shirakawa, Tsuyoshi; Kusaba, Hitoshi; Baba, Eishi [Department of Medicine and Biosystemic Science, Kyushu University Graduate School of Medical Sciences, 3-1-1 Maidashi, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka 812-8582 (Japan); Tsuneyoshi, Masazumi [Department of Anatomic Pathology, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan); Akashi, Koichi [Department of Medicine and Biosystemic Science, Kyushu University Graduate School of Medical Sciences, 3-1-1 Maidashi, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka 812-8582 (Japan)

    2012-09-10

    There is emerging evidence that human solid tumor cells originate from cancer stem cells (CSCs). In cancer cell lines, tumor-initiating CSCs are mainly found in the side population (SP) that has the capacity to extrude dyes such as Hoechst 33342. We found that Nanog is expressed specifically in SP cells of human gastrointestinal (GI) cancer cells. Nucleotide sequencing revealed that NanogP8 but not Nanog was expressed in GI cancer cells. Transfection of NanogP8 into GI cancer cell lines promoted cell proliferation, while its inhibition by anti-Nanog siRNA suppressed the proliferation. Immunohistochemical staining of primary GI cancer tissues revealed NanogP8 protein to be strongly expressed in 3 out of 60 cases. In these cases, NanogP8 was found especially in an infiltrative part of the tumor, in proliferating cells with Ki67 expression. These data suggest that NanogP8 is involved in GI cancer development in a fraction of patients, in whom it presumably acts by supporting CSC proliferation. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Nanog maintains pluripotency by regulating embryonic stem cells differentiation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Nanog is expressed in cancer stem cells of human gastrointestinal cancer cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Nucleotide sequencing revealed that Nanog pseudogene8 but not Nanog was expressed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Nanog pseudogene8 promotes cancer stem cells proliferation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Nanog pseudogene8 is involved in gastrointestinal cancer development.

  11. BZLF1 Expression of EBV is correlated with PARP1 Regulation on Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma Tissues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wahyu nur laili fajri, Ahmad Rofi'i, Fatchiyah Fatchiyah

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Nasopharyngeal carcinomas (NPC is a cancer that arises in the epithelial tissue that covers the inside of the nasopharyngeal mucosa and nasopharynx. Infected Epstein Barr Virus (EBV cell in a latent infection associated with the expression of nine latent proteins. Latent Membrane Protein 1 (LMP1 is one of latent proteins, and mayor EBV oncoprotein, with functions including virus growth, and to activate BamHI-Z Leftward Reading Frame 1 (BZLF1-EBV, which can inhibit p53 to induce apoptotic resistance, metastasis, and immune modulation. The body will respond to the expansion of EBV infection with activation of Poly(ADP-ribosePolymerase-1 (PARP1. The objective of study is to observe the expression of BZLF1 and determine PARP1 regulation in nasopharyngeal tissues. NPC-T2, NPC-T3 and polyp tissues slides are from Ulin Hospital, Banjarmasin. To characterize the necrotic cells such as pyknosis, karyorrhexsis, and karyolysis, histological slides were stained by HE that the necrotic cells measured by using a BX-53 microscope (Olympus with CellSens Standard software. Tissues slides were stained by using immunofluorohistochemistry with EBV-BZLF1 antibody-Mouse anti-EBV monoclonal antibody against Goat anti-mouse IgG-FITC and anti-PARP1 antibody (MC-10 against Goat anti-mouse IgG labeled Rhodamin. The expression intensities were measured by Confocal Laser Scanning Microscope (Olympus. The percentage number of necrotic cells and BZLF1 and PARP1 expression intensity were analyzed using SPSS 16.0 by one-way ANOVA test with α = 0.05, beside that we use correlate and regression analyze. The research showed that the amount of karryorhexis higher than pyknosis and karyolysis in both tissues. BZLF1 expression 1.79 INT/sel (in polyp, 2.76 INT/sel (NPC Type 2 and 4.36 INT/sel (NPC Type 3, PARP1 expression 2.25 INT/sel (in polyp, 3.31 INT/sel (NPC Type 2, dan 5.93 INT/sel (NPC Type 3.The high of intensity of expression BZLF1 induced the increasing of PARP1 expression

  12. Pregnane X receptor activation and silencing promote steatosis of human hepatic cells by distinct lipogenic mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bitter, Andreas; Rümmele, Petra; Klein, Kathrin; Kandel, Benjamin A; Rieger, Jessica K; Nüssler, Andreas K; Zanger, Ulrich M; Trauner, Michael; Schwab, Matthias; Burk, Oliver

    2015-11-01

    In addition to its well-characterized role in the regulation of drug metabolism and transport by xenobiotics, pregnane X receptor (PXR) critically impacts on lipid homeostasis. In mice, both ligand-dependent activation and knockout of PXR were previously shown to promote hepatic steatosis. To elucidate the respective pathways in human liver, we generated clones of human hepatoma HepG2 cells exhibiting different PXR protein levels, and analyzed effects of PXR activation and knockdown on steatosis and expression of lipogenic genes. Ligand-dependent activation as well as knockdown of PXR resulted in increased steatosis in HepG2 cells. Activation of PXR induced the sterol regulatory element-binding protein (SREBP) 1-dependent lipogenic pathway via PXR-dependent induction of SREBP1a, which was confirmed in primary human hepatocytes. Inhibiting SREBP1 activity by blocking the cleavage-dependent maturation of SREBP1 protein impaired the induction of lipogenic SREBP1 target genes and triglyceride accumulation by PXR activation. On the other hand, PXR knockdown resulted in up-regulation of aldo-keto reductase (AKR) 1B10, which enhanced the acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC)-catalyzed reaction step of de novo lipogenesis. In a cohort of human liver samples histologically classified for non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, AKR1B10, SREBP1a and SREBP1 lipogenic target genes proved to be up-regulated in steatohepatitis, while PXR protein was reduced. In summary, our data suggest that activation and knockdown of PXR in human hepatic cells promote de novo lipogenesis and steatosis by induction of the SREBP1 pathway and AKR1B10-mediated increase of ACC activity, respectively, thus providing mechanistic explanations for a putative dual role of PXR in the pathogenesis of steatohepatitis.

  13. Lysophosphatidic acid acyltransferase β (LPAATβ promotes the tumor growth of human osteosarcoma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farbod Rastegar

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Osteosarcoma is the most common primary malignancy of bone with poorly characterized molecular pathways important in its pathogenesis. Increasing evidence indicates that elevated lipid biosynthesis is a characteristic feature of cancer. We sought to investigate the role of lysophosphatidic acid acyltransferase β (LPAATβ, aka, AGPAT2 in regulating the proliferation and growth of human osteosarcoma cells. LPAATβ can generate phosphatidic acid, which plays a key role in lipid biosynthesis as well as in cell proliferation and survival. Although elevated expression of LPAATβ has been reported in several types of human tumors, the role of LPAATβ in osteosarcoma progression has yet to be elucidated. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Endogenous expression of LPAATβ in osteosarcoma cell lines is analyzed by using semi-quantitative PCR and immunohistochemical staining. Adenovirus-mediated overexpression of LPAATβ and silencing LPAATβ expression is employed to determine the effect of LPAATβ on osteosarcoma cell proliferation and migration in vitro and osteosarcoma tumor growth in vivo. We have found that expression of LPAATβ is readily detected in 8 of the 10 analyzed human osteosarcoma lines. Exogenous expression of LPAATβ promotes osteosarcoma cell proliferation and migration, while silencing LPAATβ expression inhibits these cellular characteristics. We further demonstrate that exogenous expression of LPAATβ effectively promotes tumor growth, while knockdown of LPAATβ expression inhibits tumor growth in an orthotopic xenograft model of human osteosarcoma. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results strongly suggest that LPAATβ expression may be associated with the aggressive phenotypes of human osteosarcoma and that LPAATβ may play an important role in regulating osteosarcoma cell proliferation and tumor growth. Thus, targeting LPAATβ may be exploited as a novel therapeutic strategy for the clinical management of osteosarcoma. This

  14. Promoters for the human beta-hexosaminidase genes, HEXA and HEXB.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norflus, F; Yamanaka, S; Proia, R L

    1996-02-01

    Human lysosomal beta-hexosaminidases are encoded by two genes, HEXA and HEXB, specifying an alpha- and a beta-subunit, respectively. The subunits dimerize to form beta-hexosaminidase A (alpha beta), beta-hexosaminidase B (beta beta), and beta-hexosaminidase S (alpha alpha). This enzyme system has the capacity to degrade a variety of cellular substrates: oligosaccharides, glycosaminoglycans, and glycolipids containing beta-linked N-acetylglucosaminyl or N-galactosaminyl residues. Mutations in either the HEXA gene or HEXB gene lead to an accumulation of GM2 ganglioside in neurons, resulting in the severe neurodegenerative disorders termed the GM2 gangliosidoses. To identify the DNA elements responsible for hexosaminidase expression, we ligated the 5'-flanking sequences of both the human and mouse hexosaminidase genes to a chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (CAT) gene. The resulting plasmids were transfected into NIH-3T3 cells and CAT activity was determined as a measure of promoter strength. By 5' deletion analysis, it was found that essential sequences for HEXA expression resided within a 40-bp region between 100 bp and 60 bp upstream of the ATG initiation codon. This area contained two potential estrogen response element half-sites as well as potential binding sites for transcription factors NF-E1 and AP-2. Similarly, important HEXB promoter sequences were localized to a 60-bp region between 150 bp and 90 bp upstream of the ATG codon. By performing scanning mutagenesis on a 60-bp region within the 150-bp HEXB construct, we defined an essential promoter element of 12 bp that contained two potential AP-1 sites. The mouse Hexa and Hexb 5'-flanking sequences were found to contain regions similar in sequence, location, and activity to the essential promoter elements defined in the cognate human genes. No sequence similarity was found, however, between 5'-flanking regions of the HEXA and HEXB genes. These essential promoter elements represent potential sites for HEXA and

  15. FXN Promoter Silencing in the Humanized Mouse Model of Friedreich Ataxia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yogesh K Chutake

    Full Text Available Friedreich ataxia is caused by an expanded GAA triplet-repeat sequence in intron 1 of the FXN gene that results in epigenetic silencing of the FXN promoter. This silencing mechanism is seen in patient-derived lymphoblastoid cells but it remains unknown if it is a widespread phenomenon affecting multiple cell types and tissues.The humanized mouse model of Friedreich ataxia (YG8sR, which carries a single transgenic insert of the human FXN gene with an expanded GAA triplet-repeat in intron 1, is deficient for FXN transcript when compared to an isogenic transgenic mouse lacking the expanded repeat (Y47R. We found that in YG8sR the deficiency of FXN transcript extended both upstream and downstream of the expanded GAA triplet-repeat, suggestive of deficient transcriptional initiation. This pattern of deficiency was seen in all tissues tested, irrespective of whether they are known to be affected or spared in disease pathogenesis, in both neuronal and non-neuronal tissues, and in cultured primary fibroblasts. FXN promoter function was directly measured via metabolic labeling of newly synthesized transcripts in fibroblasts, which revealed that the YG8sR mouse was significantly deficient in transcriptional initiation compared to the Y47R mouse.Deficient transcriptional initiation accounts for FXN transcriptional deficiency in the humanized mouse model of Friedreich ataxia, similar to patient-derived cells, and the mechanism underlying promoter silencing in Friedreich ataxia is widespread across multiple cell types and tissues.

  16. Molecular analysis of the human SLC13A4 sulfate transporter gene promoter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jefferis, J. [Mater Medical Research Institute, South Brisbane, Queensland (Australia); Rakoczy, J. [Mater Medical Research Institute, South Brisbane, Queensland (Australia); School of Biomedical Sciences, University of Queensland, St. Lucia, Queensland (Australia); Translational Research Institute, Woolloongabba, Queensland (Australia); Simmons, D.G. [School of Biomedical Sciences, University of Queensland, St. Lucia, Queensland (Australia); Dawson, P.A., E-mail: paul.dawson@mmri.mater.org.au [Mater Medical Research Institute, South Brisbane, Queensland (Australia); Translational Research Institute, Woolloongabba, Queensland (Australia)

    2013-03-29

    Highlights: ► Basal promoter activity of SLC13A4 −57 to −192 nt upstream of transcription initiation site. ► Human SLC13A4 5′-flanking region has conserved motifs with other placental species. ► Putative NFY, SP1 and KLF7 motifs in SLC13A4 5′-flanking region enhance transcription. -- Abstract: The human solute linked carrier (SLC) 13A4 gene is primarily expressed in the placenta where it is proposed to mediate the transport of nutrient sulfate from mother to fetus. The molecular mechanisms involved in the regulation of SLC13A4 expression remain unknown. To investigate the regulation of SLC13A4 gene expression, we analysed the transcriptional activity of the human SLC13A4 5′-flanking region in the JEG-3 placental cell line using luciferase reporter assays. Basal transcriptional activity was identified in the region −57 to −192 nucleotides upstream of the SLC13A4 transcription initiation site. Mutational analysis of the minimal promoter region identified Nuclear factor Y (NFY), Specificity protein 1 (SP1) and Krüppel like factor 7 (KLF7) motifs which conferred positive transcriptional activity, as well as Zinc finger protein of the cerebellum 2 (ZIC2) and helix–loop–helix protein 1 (HEN1) motifs that repressed transcription. The conserved NFY, SP1, KLF7, ZIC2 and HEN1 motifs in the SLC13A4 promoter of placental species but not in non-placental species, suggests a potential role for these putative transcriptional factor binding motifs in the physiological control of SLC13A4 mRNA expression.

  17. Human tNASP promotes in vitro nucleosome assembly with histone H3.3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Daiki; Osakabe, Akihisa; Tachiwana, Hiroaki; Tanaka, Hiroki; Kurumizaka, Hitoshi

    2015-02-10

    Nuclear autoantigenic sperm proteins (NASPs) are members of the acidic histone chaperones, which promote nucleosome assembly. In humans, two splicing variants proposed for the somatic and testicular isoforms, sNASP and tNASP, respectively, have been found, and the shorter form, sNASP, reportedly promotes nucleosome assembly with the histone H3 isoforms, H3.1, H3.2, and H3.3. However, the biochemical properties of the longer form, tNASP, have not been reported. tNASP is considered to exist specifically in the testis. Our present results revealed that the tNASP protein is ubiquitously produced in various human tissues, in addition to testis. Unexpectedly, we found that the nucleosome assembly activity of purified tNASP was extremely low with the canonical histone H3.1 or H3.2, but was substantially detected with the replacement histone H3.3 variant. A mutational analysis revealed that the H3.3 Ile89 residue, corresponding to the H3.1 Val89 residue, is responsible for the tNASP-mediated nucleosome assembly with H3.3. A histone deposition assay showed that the H3.3-H4 complex is more efficiently deposited onto DNA by tNASP than the H3.1-H4 complex. These results provide evidence that tNASP is ubiquitously produced in various types of human tissues and promotes in vitro nucleosome assembly with H3 variant specificity.

  18. Construction of predictive promoter models on the example of antibacterial response of human epithelial cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wingender Edgar

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Binding of a bacteria to a eukaryotic cell triggers a complex network of interactions in and between both cells. P. aeruginosa is a pathogen that causes acute and chronic lung infections by interacting with the pulmonary epithelial cells. We use this example for examining the ways of triggering the response of the eukaryotic cell(s, leading us to a better understanding of the details of the inflammatory process in general. Results Considering a set of genes co-expressed during the antibacterial response of human lung epithelial cells, we constructed a promoter model for the search of additional target genes potentially involved in the same cell response. The model construction is based on the consideration of pair-wise combinations of transcription factor binding sites (TFBS. It has been shown that the antibacterial response of human epithelial cells is triggered by at least two distinct pathways. We therefore supposed that there are two subsets of promoters activated by each of them. Optimally, they should be "complementary" in the sense of appearing in complementary subsets of the (+-training set. We developed the concept of complementary pairs, i.e., two mutually exclusive pairs of TFBS, each of which should be found in one of the two complementary subsets. Conclusions We suggest a simple, but exhaustive method for searching for TFBS pairs which characterize the whole (+-training set, as well as for complementary pairs. Applying this method, we came up with a promoter model of antibacterial response genes that consists of one TFBS pair which should be found in the whole training set and four complementary pairs. We applied this model to screening of 13,000 upstream regions of human genes and identified 430 new target genes which are potentially involved in antibacterial defense mechanisms.

  19. The human desmin promoter drives robust gene expression for skeletal muscle stem cell-mediated gene therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonuschies, Jacqueline; Antoniou, Michael; Waddington, Simon; Boldrin, Luisa; Muntoni, Francesco; Thrasher, Adrian; Morgan, Jennifer

    2014-01-01

    Lentiviral vectors (LVs) represent suitable candidates to mediate gene therapy for muscular dystrophies as they infect dividing and non-dividing cells and integrate their genetic material into the host genome, thereby theoretically mediating longterm expression. We evaluated the ability of LVs where a GFP reporter gene was under the control of five different promoters, to transduce and mediate expression in myogenic and non-myogenic cells in vitro and in skeletal muscle fibres and stem (satellite) cells in vivo. We further analysed lentivirally-transduced satellite cell-derived myoblasts following their transplantation into dystrophic, immunodeficient mouse muscles. The spleen focus-forming virus promoter mediated the highest gene expression in all cell types; the CBX3-HNRPA2B1 ubiquitously-acting chromatin opening element (UCOE) promoter was also active in all cells, whereas the human desmin promoter in isolation or fused with UCOE had lower activity in non-muscle cells. Surprisingly, the human skeletal muscle actin promoter was also active in immune cells. The human desmin promoter mediated robust, persistent reporter gene expression in myogenic cells in vitro, and satellite cells and muscle fibres in vivo. The human desmin promoter combined with UCOE did not significantly increase transgene expression. Therefore, our data indicate that the desmin promoter is suitable for the development of therapeutic purposes.

  20. Plant science and human nutrition: challenges in assessing health-promoting properties of phytochemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traka, Maria H; Mithen, Richard F

    2011-07-01

    The rise in noncommunicable chronic diseases associated with changing diet and lifestyles throughout the world is a major challenge for society. It is possible that certain dietary components within plants have roles both in reducing the incidence and progression of these diseases. We critically review the types of evidence used to support the health promoting activities of certain phytochemicals and plant-based foods and summarize the major contributions but also the limitations of epidemiological and observational studies and research with the use of cell and animal models. We stress the need for human intervention studies to provide high-quality evidence for health benefits of dietary components derived from plants.

  1. Telomerase promoter reprogramming and interaction with general transcription factors in the human mesenchymal stem cell

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Serakinci, Nedime; Hoare, Stacey F.; Kassem, Moustapha

    2006-01-01

    The human adult mesenchymal stem cell (hMSC) does not express telomerase and has been shown to be the target for neoplastic transformation after transduction with hTERT. These findings lend support to the stem cell hypothesis of cancer development but by supplying hTERT, the molecular events...... and that modifications of the chromatin environment lead to reactivation of telomerase gene expression. It is shown that repression of hTERT expression in hMSCs is due to promoter-specific histone hypoacetylation coupled with low Pol II and TFIIB trafficking. This repression is overcome by treatment with Trichostatin...

  2. Pleiotropic expression of Epstein--Barr virus DNA in human epithelial cells.

    OpenAIRE

    1981-01-01

    We have attempted to establish a system that can be used to study the association of Epstein--Barr virus (EBV) with epithelial cells. Attempts were made to transfect human carcinoma cells with EBV DNA. Successful transfection was confirmed by the expression of EBV-specific early antigen (EA), virus capsid antigen, and the presence of virus DNA. The transfecting preparation contained a mixture of EBV and cellular DNA extracted from two producer cell lines, P3HR-1 and AG-876. Our data suggest t...

  3. Human platelet releasates combined with polyglycolic acid scaffold promote chondrocyte differentiation and phenotypic maintenance

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Giulia Bernardini; Federico Chellini; Bruno Frediani; Adriano Spreafico; Annalisa Santucci

    2015-03-01

    In the present study, we aimed to demonstrate the differentiating properties of platelet-rich plasma releasates (PRPr) on human chondrocytes seeded on a polygtlycolic acid (PGA) 3D scaffold. Gene expression and biochemical analysis were carried out to assess the improved quality of our PGA-based cartilage constructs supplemented with PRPr. We observed that the use of PRPr as cell cultures supplementation to PGA-chondrocyte constructs may promote chondrocyte differentiation, and thus may contribute to maintaining the chondrogenic phenotype longer than conventional supplementation by increasing high levels of important chondrogenic markers (e.g. sox9, aggrecan and type II collagen), without induction of type I collagen. Moreover, our constructs were analysed for the secretion and deposition of important ECM molecules (sGAG, type II collagen, etc.). Our results indicate that PRPr supplementation may synergize with PGA-based scaffolds to stimulate human articular chondrocyte differentiation, maturation and phenotypic maintenance.

  4. Promoting effect of lactoferrin on barrier function and epithelial differentiation of human keratinocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchida, Ryo; Aoki, Reiji; Aoki-Yoshida, Ayako; Tajima, Atsushi; Takayama, Yoshiharu

    2017-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to elucidate the effects of bovine lactoferrin on keratinocyte differentiation and barrier function. Addition of bovine lactoferrin to differentiating HaCaT human keratinocytes led to increased transepithelial electrical resistance (TER), a marker of epithelial barrier function. This elevation was followed by upregulation of two differentiation markers, involucrin and filaggrin. The expression level of sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1 was also enhanced by bovine lactoferrin. The lactoferrin-induced upregulation of involucrin and filaggrin expression were confirmed in normal human epidermal keratinocytes (NHEK). Treatment with SB203580, a p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) α inhibitor, impaired the upregulation of involucrin and filaggrin expression in response to lactoferrin. The elevation of p38 MAPK phosphorylation was further enhanced by lactoferrin in the initial stage of differentiation of HaCaT keratinocytes. The findings suggest that bovine lactoferrin promotes epithelial differentiation by a p38-MAPK-dependent mechanism.

  5. WWP2 promotes degradation of transcription factor OCT4 in human embryonic stem cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Huiming Xu; Weicheng Wang; Chunliang Li; Hongyao Yu; Acong Yang; Beibei Wang; Ying Jin

    2009-01-01

    POU transcription factor OCT4 not only plays an essential role in maintaining the pluripotent and self-renewing state of embryonic stem (ES) cells but also acts as a cell fate determinant through a gene dosage effect. However, the molecular mechanisms that control the intracellular OCT4 protein level remain elusive. Here, we report that human WWP2, an E3 ubiquitin (Ub)-protein ligase, interacts with OCT4 specifically through its WW domain and enhances Ub modification of OCT4 both in vitro and in vivo. We first demonstrated that endogenous OCT4 in hu-man ES cells can be post-translationally modified by Ub. Furthermore, we found that WWP2 promoted degradation of OCT4 through the 26S proteasome in a dosage-dependent manner, and the active site cysteine residue of WWP2 was required for both its enzymatic activity and proteolytic effect on OCT4. Remarkably, our data show that the en-dogenous OCT4 protein level was significantly elevated when WWP2 expression was downregulated by specific RNA interference (RNAi), suggesting that WWP2 is an important regulator for maintaining a proper OCT4 protein level in human ES cells. Moreover, northern blot analysis showed that the WWP2 transcript was widely present in diverse human tissues/organs and highly expressed in undifferentiated human ES cells. However, its expression level was quickly decreased after human ES cells differentiated, indicating that WWP2 expression might be developmentally regulated. Our findings demonstrate that WWP2 is an important regulator of the OCT4 protein level in human ES cells.

  6. Hypoxia Promotes Osteogenesis of Human Placental-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Qiaoli; Gu, Yanzheng; Shi, Qin; Yang, Huilin

    2016-08-01

    Placental-derived mesenchymal stem cells (pMSCs) are promising candidates for regenerative medicine because they possess high proliferative capacity and multi-differentiation potential. Human pMSCs are residing in an environment with low oxygen tension in the body. Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) is known to participate in the regulation of MSC differentiation. The present study aimed to investigate the impact of hypoxia on the osteogenic differentiation of human pMSCs, and to elucidate the role of HO-1 in the osteogenic differentiation of hypoxic pMSCs. Human pMSCs were cultured under normoxia (21% O2) or hypoxia (5% O2) for 3 days. We found that hypoxia maintained the morphology and immunophenotype of human pMSCs. The expression of stemness markers Oct4, Nanog, and Sox2 was increased under hypoxia. After a 5-day hypoxic culture, the proliferation ability of pMSCs was increased, which might be correlated with the increased expression of stem cell factor. During osteogenic induction, hypoxia increased the expression of osteogenic genes including osteopontin, osteocalcin, and alkaline phosphatase (ALP). Moreover, hypoxia increased the mineralization and ALP levels of human pMSCs as evidenced by Alizarin Red staining and ALP staining. Upregulation of HO-1 by cobalt-protoporphyrin treatment increased the osteogenic differentiation of pMSCs under hypoxia, while inhibition of HO-1 by Zn-protoporphyrin reduced the osteogenic differentiation of hypoxic pMSCs. Taken together, our data suggest that hypoxia can promote the osteogenic differentiation of human pMSCs. Upregulation of HO-1 can further increase the osteogenesis of human pMSCs under hypoxia. Our findings will highlight the therapeutic potential of MSCs in the tissue engineering of bones.

  7. Treatment with a BH3 mimetic overcomes the resistance of latency III EBV (+) cells to p53-mediated apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pujals, A; Renouf, B; Robert, A; Chelouah, S; Hollville, E; Wiels, J

    2011-07-28

    P53 inactivation is often observed in Burkitt's lymphoma (BL) cells due to mutations in the p53 gene or overexpression of its negative regulator, murine double minute-2 (MDM2). This event is now considered an essential part of the oncogenic process. Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is strongly associated with BL and is a cofactor in its development. We previously showed that nutlin-3, an antagonist of MDM2, activates the p53 pathway in BL cell lines harboring wild-type p53. However, nutlin-3 strongly induced apoptosis in EBV (-) or latency I EBV (+) cells, whereas latency III EBV (+) cells were much more resistant. We show here that this resistance to apoptosis is also observed in latency III EBV (+) lymphoblastoid cell lines. We also show that, in latency III EBV (+) cells, B-cell lymphona 2 (Bcl-2) is selectively overproduced and interacts with Bcl-2-associated X protein (Bax), preventing its activation. The treatment of these cells with the Bcl-2-homology domain 3 mimetic ABT-737 disrupts Bax/Bcl-2 interaction and allows Bax activation by nutlin-3. Furthermore, treatment with these two compounds strongly induces apoptosis. Thus, a combination of Mdm2 and Bcl-2 inhibitors might be a useful anti-cancer strategy for diseases linked to EBV infection.

  8. Human U6 promoter drives stronger shRNA activity than its schistosome orthologue in Schistosoma mansoni and human fibrosarcoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duvoisin, Raphaël; Ayuk, Mary A; Rinaldi, Gabriel; Suttiprapa, Sutas; Mann, Victoria H; Lee, Clarence M; Harris, Nicola; Brindley, Paul J

    2012-06-01

    Blood flukes or schistosomes are the causative agents of human schistosomiasis, one of the major neglected tropical diseases. Draft genome sequences have been reported for schistosomes, but functional genomics tools are needed to investigate the role and essentiality of the newly reported genes. Vector based RNA interference can contribute to functional genomics analysis for schistosomes. Using mRNA encoding reporter firefly luciferase as a model target, we compared the performance of a schistosome and a human promoter from the U6 gene in driving shRNA in human fibrosarcoma cells and in cultured schistosomes. Further, both a retroviral [Murine leukemia virus (MLV)] and plasmid (piggyBac, pXL-Bac II) vector were utilized. The schistosome U6 gene promoter was 270 bp in length, the human U6 gene promoter was 264 bp; they shared 41% identity. Following transduction of both HT1080 fibrosarcoma cells and schistosomules of Schistosoma mansoni with pseudotyped MLV virions, stronger knockdown of luciferase activity was seen with the virions encoding the human U6 promoter driven shRNA than the schistosome U6 promoter. A similar trend was seen after transfection of HT1080 cells and schistosomules with the pXL-Bac-II constructs-stronger knockdown of luciferase activity was seen with constructs encoding the human compared to schistosome U6 promoter. The findings indicate that a human U6 gene promoter drives stronger shRNA activity than its schistosome orthologue, not only in a human cancer cell line but also in larval schistosomes. This RNA polymerase III promoter represents a potentially valuable component for vector based RNA interference studies in schistosomes and related platyhelminth parasites.

  9. Inhibition of Sirt1 promotes neural progenitors toward motoneuron differentiation from human embryonic stem cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Yun; Wang, Jing [Department of Neurology, Peking University Third Hospital, 49 North Garden Road, Haidian District, Beijing 100191 (China); Clinical Stem Cell Center, Peking University Third Hospital, 49 North Garden Road, Haidian District, Beijing 100191 (China); Chen, Guian [Clinical Stem Cell Center, Peking University Third Hospital, 49 North Garden Road, Haidian District, Beijing 100191 (China); Reproductive Medical Center, Peking University Third Hospital, 49 North Garden Road, Haidian District, Beijing 100191 (China); Fan, Dongsheng, E-mail: dsfan@yahoo.cn [Department of Neurology, Peking University Third Hospital, 49 North Garden Road, Haidian District, Beijing 100191 (China); Clinical Stem Cell Center, Peking University Third Hospital, 49 North Garden Road, Haidian District, Beijing 100191 (China); Deng, Min, E-mail: dengmin1706@yahoo.com.cn [Department of Neurology, Peking University Third Hospital, 49 North Garden Road, Haidian District, Beijing 100191 (China); Clinical Stem Cell Center, Peking University Third Hospital, 49 North Garden Road, Haidian District, Beijing 100191 (China)

    2011-01-14

    Research highlights: {yields} Nicotinamide inhibit Sirt1. {yields} MASH1 and Ngn2 activation. {yields} Increase the expression of HB9. {yields} Motoneurons formation increases significantly. -- Abstract: Several protocols direct human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) toward differentiation into functional motoneurons, but the efficiency of motoneuron generation varies based on the human ESC line used. We aimed to develop a novel protocol to increase the formation of motoneurons from human ESCs. In this study, we tested a nuclear histone deacetylase protein, Sirt1, to promote neural precursor cell (NPC) development during differentiation of human ESCs into motoneurons. A specific inhibitor of Sirt1, nicotinamide, dramatically increased motoneuron formation. We found that about 60% of the cells from the total NPCs expressed HB9 and {beta}III-tubulin, commonly used motoneuronal markers found in neurons derived from ESCs following nicotinamide treatment. Motoneurons derived from ESC expressed choline acetyltransferase (ChAT), a positive marker of mature motoneuron. Moreover, we also examined the transcript levels of Mash1, Ngn2, and HB9 mRNA in the differentiated NPCs treated with the Sirt1 activator resveratrol (50 {mu}M) or inhibitor nicotinamide (100 {mu}M). The levels of Mash1, Ngn2, and HB9 mRNA were significantly increased after nicotinamide treatment compared with control groups, which used the traditional protocol. These results suggested that increasing Mash1 and Ngn2 levels by inhibiting Sirt1 could elevate HB9 expression, which promotes motoneuron differentiation. This study provides an alternative method for the production of transplantable motoneurons, a key requirement in the development of hESC-based cell therapy in motoneuron disease.

  10. Human umbilical mesenchymal stem cells conditioned medium promote primary wound healing regeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dwi Liliek Kusindarta

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Aim: This research was conducted to clarify the capability of human umbilical mesenchymal stem cells conditioned medium (HU-MSCM to promote regenerations of primary wound healing on the incision skin injury. Materials and Methods: In this study, two approaches in vitro and in vivo already done. On in vitro analysis, tube formation was performed using HU vein endothelial cells in the presence of HU-MSCM, in some experiments cells line was incubated prior the presence of lipopolysaccharide and HU-MSCM then apoptosis assay was performed. Furthermore, in vivo experiments 12 female rats (Rattus norvegicus were used after rats anesthetized, 7 mm wound was made by incision on the left side of the body. The wound was treated with HU-MSCM containing cream, povidone iodine was run as a control. Wound healing regenerations on the skin samples were visualized by hematoxylin-eosin staining. Results: In vitro models elucidate HU-MSCM may decreasing inflammation at the beginning of wound healing, promote cell migration and angiogenesis. In addition in vivo models show that the incision length on the skin is decreasing and more smaller, HE staining describe decreasing of inflammation phase, increasing of angiogenesis, accelerate fibroplasia, and maturation phase. Conclusions: Taken together our observation indicates that HU-MSCM could promote the acceleration of skin tissue regenerations in primary wound healing process.

  11. Identification and characterization of an alternative promoter of the human PGC-1{alpha} gene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshioka, Toyo; Inagaki, Kenjiro [Division of Diabetes, Metabolism, and Endocrinology, Department of Internal Medicine, Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine, 7-5-1 Kusunoki-cho, Chuo-ku, Kobe 650-0017 (Japan); Noguchi, Tetsuya, E-mail: noguchi@med.kobe-u.ac.jp [Division of Diabetes, Metabolism, and Endocrinology, Department of Internal Medicine, Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine, 7-5-1 Kusunoki-cho, Chuo-ku, Kobe 650-0017 (Japan); Sakai, Mashito; Ogawa, Wataru; Hosooka, Tetsuya [Division of Diabetes, Metabolism, and Endocrinology, Department of Internal Medicine, Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine, 7-5-1 Kusunoki-cho, Chuo-ku, Kobe 650-0017 (Japan); Iguchi, Haruhisa; Watanabe, Eijiro; Matsuki, Yasushi; Hiramatsu, Ryuji [Genomic Science Laboratories, DainipponSumitomo Pharma Co. Ltd., 4-2-1 Takatsukasa, Takarazuka 665-8555 (Japan); Kasuga, Masato [Division of Diabetes, Metabolism, and Endocrinology, Department of Internal Medicine, Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine, 7-5-1 Kusunoki-cho, Chuo-ku, Kobe 650-0017 (Japan); Research Institute, International Medical Center of Japan, 1-21-1 Toyama, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 162-8655 (Japan)

    2009-04-17

    The transcriptional regulator peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-{gamma} coactivator-1{alpha} (PGC-1{alpha}) controls mitochondrial biogenesis and energy homeostasis. Although physical exercise induces PGC-1{alpha} expression in muscle, the underlying mechanism of this effect has remained incompletely understood. We recently identified a novel muscle-enriched isoform of PGC-1{alpha} transcript (designated PGC-1{alpha}-b) that is derived from a previously unidentified first exon. We have now cloned and characterized the human PGC-1{alpha}-b promoter. The muscle-specific transcription factors MyoD and MRF4 transactivated this promoter through interaction with a proximal E-box motif. Furthermore, either forced expression of Ca{sup 2+}- and calmodulin-dependent protein kinase IV (CaMKIV), calcineurin A, or the p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38 MAPK) kinase MKK6 or the intracellular accumulation of cAMP activated the PGC-1{alpha}-b promoter in cultured myoblasts through recruitment of cAMP response element (CRE)-binding protein (CREB) to a putative CRE located downstream of the E-box. Our results thus reveal a potential molecular basis for isoform-specific regulation of PGC-1{alpha} expression in contracting muscle.

  12. Regional differences in gene expression and promoter usage in aged human brains

    KAUST Repository

    Pardo, Luba M.

    2013-02-19

    To characterize the promoterome of caudate and putamen regions (striatum), frontal and temporal cortices, and hippocampi from aged human brains, we used high-throughput cap analysis of gene expression to profile the transcription start sites and to quantify the differences in gene expression across the 5 brain regions. We also analyzed the extent to which methylation influenced the observed expression profiles. We sequenced more than 71 million cap analysis of gene expression tags corresponding to 70,202 promoter regions and 16,888 genes. More than 7000 transcripts were differentially expressed, mainly because of differential alternative promoter usage. Unexpectedly, 7% of differentially expressed genes were neurodevelopmental transcription factors. Functional pathway analysis on the differentially expressed genes revealed an overrepresentation of several signaling pathways (e.g., fibroblast growth factor and wnt signaling) in hippocampus and striatum. We also found that although 73% of methylation signals mapped within genes, the influence of methylation on the expression profile was small. Our study underscores alternative promoter usage as an important mechanism for determining the regional differences in gene expression at old age.

  13. Incorrect DNA methylation of the DAZL promoter CpG island associates with defective human sperm†

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro-Costa, Paulo; Nogueira, Paulo; Carvalho, Marta; Leal, Fernanda; Cordeiro, Isabel; Calhaz-Jorge, Carlos; Gonçalves, João; Plancha, Carlos E.

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND Successful gametogenesis requires the establishment of an appropriate epigenetic state in developing germ cells. Nevertheless, an association between abnormal spermatogenesis and epigenetic disturbances in germline-specific genes remains to be demonstrated. METHODS In this study, the DNA methylation pattern of the promoter CpG island (CGI) of two germline regulator genes—DAZL and DAZ, was characterized by bisulphite genomic sequencing in quality-fractioned ejaculated sperm populations from normozoospermic (NZ) and oligoasthenoteratozoospermic (OAT) men. RESULTS OAT patients display increased methylation defects in the DAZL promoter CGI when compared with NZ controls. Such differences are recorded when analyzing sperm fractions enriched either in normal or defective germ cells (P< 0.001 in both cases). Significant differences in DNA methylation profiles are also observable when comparing the qualitatively distinct germ cell fractions inside the NZ and OAT groups (P= 0.003 and P= 0.007, respectively). Contrastingly, the unmethylation pattern of the DAZ promoter CGI remains correctly established in all experimental groups. CONCLUSIONS An association between disrupted DNA methylation of a key spermatogenesis gene and abnormal human sperm is described here for the first time. These results suggest that incorrect epigenetic marks in germline genes may be correlated with male gametogenic defects. PMID:20685756

  14. EBV-positive Hodgkin lymphoma is associated with suppression of p21cip1/waf1 and a worse prognosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsu Su-Ming

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background About 30-50% of Hodgkin lymphomas (HLs harbor the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV, but the impact of EBV infection on clinical outcomes has been unclear. EBV-encoded small RNAs (EBERs are presented in all EBV-infected cells, but their functions are still less understood. Results EBER1 was transfected into two HL cell lines, KMH2 and L428, and microarrays were used to screen for EBER1-induced changes. We found that EBER1 suppressed p21cip1/waf1 transcription in HL cell lines. In addition, positive regulators of p21cip1/waf1 transcription, such as p53, EGR1, and STAT1, were decreased. Suppression of p21cip1/waf1 in the EBER1+ HL cell lines was associated with increased resistance to histone deacetylase inhibitors or proteasome inhibitors, drugs known to cause apoptosis by increasing p21cip1/waf1 levels. On biopsy specimens, EBV+ HLs had weaker expression of both p21cip1/waf1 and active caspase 3. Clinically, suppression of p21cip1/waf1 in EBV+ HLs was associated with a worse 2-year disease-free survival rate (45% for EBV+ HLs vs. 77% for EBV- HLs, p = 0.002. Conclusion Although the underlying mechanisms are still relatively unclear, EBER1 inhibits p21cip1/waf1 transcription and prevents apoptosis through down-regulation of p53, EGR1, and STAT1. The anti-apoptotic activity of EBER1 may be important in the rescue of Reed-Sternberg cells from drug-induced apoptosis and in the clinical behaviors of EBV+ HLs.

  15. A novel interferon-inducible domain: structural and functional analysis of the human interferon regulatory factor 1 gene promoter.

    OpenAIRE

    1993-01-01

    We have cloned and functionally characterized the human interferon regulatory factor 1 (IRF-1) gene promoter. The promoter contains a CpG island, with several GC boxes, a CAAT box, but no TATA box. IRF-1 mRNA is strongly induced by gamma interferon (IFN-gamma) but more weakly and transiently by IFN-alpha. There are several putative kappa B motifs and numerous AA(G/A)G(G/T)A and GAAANN motifs throughout the promoter. The IRF-1 promoter is not autoregulated by the IRF-1 gene product. IFN induci...

  16. Heterogeneous networks do not promote cooperation when humans play a Prisoner's Dilemma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gracia-Lázaro, Carlos; Ferrer, Alfredo; Ruiz, Gonzalo; Tarancón, Alfonso; Cuesta, José A; Sánchez, Angel; Moreno, Yamir

    2012-08-07

    It is not fully understood why we cooperate with strangers on a daily basis. In an increasingly global world, where interaction networks and relationships between individuals are becoming more complex, different hypotheses have been put forward to explain the foundations of human cooperation on a large scale and to account for the true motivations that are behind this phenomenon. In this context, population structure has been suggested to foster cooperation in social dilemmas, but theoretical studies of this mechanism have yielded contradictory results so far; additionally, the issue lacks a proper experimental test in large systems. We have performed the largest experiments to date with humans playing a spatial Prisoner's Dilemma on a lattice and a scale-free network (1,229 subjects). We observed that the level of cooperation reached in both networks is the same, comparable with the level of cooperation of smaller networks or unstructured populations. We have also found that subjects respond to the cooperation that they observe in a reciprocal manner, being more likely to cooperate if, in the previous round, many of their neighbors and themselves did so, which implies that humans do not consider neighbors' payoffs when making their decisions in this dilemma but only their actions. Our results, which are in agreement with recent theoretical predictions based on this behavioral rule, suggest that population structure has little relevance as a cooperation promoter or inhibitor among humans.

  17. Host Plasminogen Activator Inhibitor-1 Promotes Human Skin Carcinoma Progression in a Stage-Dependent Manner

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine Maillard

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Angiogenesis and tumor expansion are associated with extracellular matrix remodeling and involve various proteases such as the plasminogen (Pig/plasminogen activator (PA system. Recently, several experimental data have implicated the plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1 in tumor angiogenesis in murine systems. However, little is known about PAI-1 functions in human skin carcinoma progression. By generating immunodeficient mice (in Rag-1-/- or nude background deleted for PAI-1 gene (PAI-1-/- , we have evaluated the impact of host PAI-1 deficiency on the tumorigenicity of two malignant human skin keratinocyte cell lines HaCaT II-4 and HaCaT A5-RT3 forming low-grade and high-grade carcinomas, respectively. When using the surface transplantation model, angiogenesis and tumor invasion of these two cell lines are strongly reduced in PAI-1-deficient mice as compared to the wild-type control animals. After subcutaneous injection in PAI-1-/- mice, the tumor incidence is reduced for HaCaT II-4 cells, but not for those formed by HaCaT A5-RT3 cells. These data indicate that PAI-1 produced by host cells is an important contributor to earlier stages of human skin carcinoma progression. It exerts its tumor-promoting effect in a tumor stage-dependent manner, but PAI-1 deficiency is not sufficient to prevent neoplastic growth of aggressive tumors of the human skin.

  18. Epstein-Barr virus (EBV antibody in childhood Hodgkin's disease (HD at Imam khomeini Medical Complex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nahid M

    1998-08-01

    Full Text Available Association of EBV with the tumor cells of HD has been proven by a variety of the methods, using serologic and immunohistochemical techniques and in the recent years with molecular biologic techniques which can detect EBV genome in tumor biopsies. In this regard we prompted to perform a case control study on 25 childhood HD cases with respected to their antibodies gainst EBNA and EBV-IgM antibodies in Imam Khomeini Hospital in Tehran. In our study the ratio of positive titers was significantly higher among HD patients compared with age and sex-matched healthy controls.

  19. Association of a Human FABP1 Gene Promoter Region Polymorphism with Altered Serum Triglyceride Levels.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xian-E Peng

    Full Text Available Liver fatty acid-binding protein (L-FABP, also known as fatty acid-binding protein 1 (FABP1, is a key regulator of hepatic lipid metabolism. Elevated FABP1 levels are associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD and metabolic syndromes. In this study, we examine the association of FABP1 gene promoter variants with serum FABP1 and lipid levels in a Chinese population. Four promoter single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs of FABP1 gene were genotyped in a cross-sectional survey of healthy volunteers (n = 1,182 from Fuzhou city of China. Results showed that only the rs2919872 G>A variant was significantly associated with serum TG concentration(P = 0.032.Compared with the rs2919872 G allele, rs2919872 A allele contributed significantly to reduced serum TG concentration, and this allele dramatically decreased the FABP1 promoter activity(P < 0.05. The rs2919872 A allele carriers had considerably lower serum FABP1 levels than G allele carriers (P < 0.01. In the multivariable linear regression analysis, the rs2919872 A allele was negatively associated with serum FABP1 levels (β = -0.320, P = 0.003, while serum TG levels were positively associated with serum FABP1 levels (β = 0.487, P = 0.014. Our data suggest that compared with the rs2919872 G allele, the rs2919872 A allele reduces the transcriptional activity of FABP1 promoter, and thereby may link FABP1 gene variation to TG level in humans.

  20. Demonstration of the serum antibody to Epstein-Barr virus specific DNA polymerased (EBV-DP) from patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tan, R.S.; Li, J.S.; Grill, S.; Nutter, L.M.; Cheng, Y.C.

    1986-03-05

    Raji cells, an EBV genome carrying and nonproducer cell line, treated with tetradecanoyl-phorbol-13-acetate (TPA) and n-butyrate could induce a special DNA polymerase which has properties that are similar to the EBV-DP induced by TPA in P/sub 3/HR-I cells, an EBV producer cell line. Since EBV was found to have a strong association with NPC, and antibodies against EBV proteins or enzymes were found in high levels in sera from these patients, the possible presence of serum antibody against EBV-DP was examined. The serum titer of antibody to EBV-DP was found to have 190 +/- 84 units/ml serum (mean +/- S.D.) in 48 sera from patients with NPC. The titer in 52 healthy donors was 31.4 +/- 28 unit/ml serum (p < 0.01). The antibody was found to be associated with the IgG but not the IgA fraction. The antibody titers against EBV-DP were not correlated with the titer against EBV-DNase or VCA-IgA. Whether the antibody observed is against an EBV-DP core protein or its stimulating protein, as demonstrated by this laboratory previously, is still being investigated. This study demonstrated the high frequency and high titer of antibody against EBV-DP in serum from patients with NPC, and suggested the potential of utilizing this antibody titer to compliment other methods for the early diagnosis or prognosis of NPC.

  1. How to challenge a culturalization of human existence? Promoting interculturalism and ethical thinking in education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frédérique Brossard Børhaug

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available What if culture appears to be a universal solution – and problem – to all human encounters in the multicultural school? When teachers explain the problems encountered by minority pupils simply by reference to their cultural (religious backgrounds, one faces the danger of culturalization where the other’s difference is explained only by his/her ethnicity. Culturalization is highly problematic because it emphasizes stereotyped inter-group differences and by doing so erases intra-group and inter-individual differences. The article argues that culture is fundamental in human existence, but it should not be an ambiguous dimension if the school seeks to help the learner get a stronger capacity of voice and aspiration. In order to challenge culturalization of human existence, it is crucial for education to promote the paradigm of interculturalism. Such a paradigm requires educators to acknowledge multiple forms of identity belongings for the individual and to resist the interpretation of culture as common sense. Education becomes intercultural and provides liberating categorizations for the individual when it acknowledges the true value of chosen cultural affiliations and individual aspirations. Nonetheless, promoting interculturalism might not be sufficient. Facing the potential danger of culturalization, we also need to foster ethics in education, in order to deconstruct the categories of cultural identity and belonging. Drawing on the philosophy of Emmanuel Levinas (1905-1995 the article argues that loving the other implies the act of loving the other person as a brother and as a stranger. Responsibility understood as an ethical responsibility opens up the community’s traditional structures and promotes a politics of ethical difference. Justice, thus, is not only about how well rights and duties are enforced, but also a matter of the other’s right to be other. Difference as a category is in other words not cultural but refers to the

  2. Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-encoded small RNA is released from EBV-infected cells and activates signaling from toll-like receptor 3

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    Epstein-Barr virus–encoded small RNA (EBER) is nonpolyadenylated, noncoding RNA that forms stem-loop structure by intermolecular base-pairing, giving rise to double-stranded RNA (dsRNA)–like molecules, and exists abundantly in EBV-infected cells. Here, we report that EBER induces signaling from the Toll-like receptor 3 (TLR3), which is a sensor of viral double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) and induces type I IFN and proinflammatory cytokines. A substantial amount of EBER, which was sufficient to induc...

  3. Epstein-Barr virus associated central nervous system leiomyosarcoma occurring after renal transplantation: case report and review of the literature; Leiomyosarcome primitif du systeme nerveux central associe au virus d'Epstein-Barr (EBV) et survenu apres transplantation renale: a propos d'un cas et revue de la litterature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tahri, A.; Noel, G.; Feuvret, L.; Jauffret, E.; Brun, B.; Mazeron, J.J.; Baillet, F. [Centre des Tumeurs, Groupe Hospitalier Universitaire Pitie-Salpetriere, 75 - Paris (France); Feuvret, L. [Centre de Protontherapie d' Orsay, 91 (France); Figuerella-Branger, D. [Hopital de la Timone, Service d' Anatomopathologie, 13 - Marseille (France); Goncalves, A. [Institut Paoli-Calmettes, Service d' Oncologie Medicale, 13 - Marseille (France)

    2003-10-01

    Central nervous system leiomyosarcomas are extremely rare, however, they became more frequent among immuno-deficient patients, either in a patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), or after organ transplantation. The data of the literature indicate that the infection by Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) plays a causal role in the development of these tumours but its precise role in the onco-genesis remains unresolved. We report a new case of EBV associated leiomyosarcoma of the left cavernous sinus occurring after renal transplantation. The epidemiological, clinical, pathological and therapeutic characteristics of these tumours are discussed. (authors)

  4. Adiponectin Enhances Intercellular Adhesion Molecule-1 Expression and Promotes Monocyte Adhesion in Human Synovial Fibroblasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hsien-Te; Tsou, Hsi-Kai; Chen, Jui-Chieh; Shih, James Meng-Kun; Chen, Yen-Jen; Tang, Chih-Hsin

    2014-01-01

    Adiponectin is a protein hormone secreted predominantly by differentiated adipocytes and is involved in energy homeostasis. Adiponectin expression is significantly high in the synovial fluid of patients with osteoarthritis (OA). Intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) is an important adhesion molecule that mediates monocyte adhesion and infiltration during OA pathogenesis. Adiponectin-induced expression of ICAM-1 in human OA synovial fibroblasts (OASFs) was examined by using qPCR, flow cytometry and western blotting. The intracellular signaling pathways were investigated by pretreated with inhibitors or transfection with siRNA. The monocyte THP-1 cell line was used for an adhesion assay with OASFs. Stimulation of OASFs with adiponectin induced ICAM-1 expression. Pretreatment with AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) inhibitors (AraA and compound C) or transfection with siRNA against AMPKα1 and two AMPK upstream activator- liver kinase B1 (LKB1) and calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) diminished the adiponectin-induced ICAM-1 expression. Stimulation of OASFs with adiponectin increased phosphorylation of LKB1, CaMKII, AMPK, and c-Jun, resulting in c-Jun binding to AP-1 element of ICAM-1 promoter. In addition, adiponectin-induced activation of the LKB1/CaMKII, AMPK, and AP-1 pathway increased the adhesion of monocytes to the OASF monolayer. Our results suggest that adiponectin increases ICAM-1 expression in human OASFs via the LKB1/CaMKII, AMPK, c-Jun, and AP-1 signaling pathway. Adiponectin-induced ICAM-1 expression promoted the adhesion of monocytes to human OASFs. These findings may provide a better understanding of the pathogenesis of OA and can utilize this knowledge to design a new therapeutic strategy. PMID:24667577

  5. HCG-Activated Human Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells (PBMC) Promote Trophoblast Cell Invasion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Nan; Yan, Wenjie; Yin, Tailang; Wang, Yaqin; Guo, Yue; Zhou, Danni; Xu, Mei; Ding, Jinli; Yang, Jing

    2015-01-01

    Successful embryo implantation and placentation depend on appropriate trophoblast invasion into the maternal endometrial stroma. Human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) is one of the earliest embryo-derived secreted signals in the peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) that abundantly expresses hCG receptors. The aims of this study were to estimate the effect of human embryo-secreted hCG on PBMC function and investigate the role and underlying mechanisms of activated PBMC in trophoblast invasion. Blood samples were collected from women undergoing benign gynecological surgery during the mid-secretory phase. PBMC were isolated and stimulated with or without hCG for 0 or 24 h. Interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF) expressions in PBMC were detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The JAR cell line served as a model for trophoblast cells and was divided into four groups: control, hCG only, PBMC only, and PBMC with hCG. JAR cell invasive and proliferative abilities were detected by trans-well and CCK8 assays and matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 (MMP-2), MMP-9, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase (TIMP)-1, and TIMP-2 expressions in JAR cells were detected by western blotting and real-time PCR analysis. We found that hCG can remarkably promote IL-1β and LIF promotion in PBMC after 24-h culture. PBMC activated by hCG significantly increased the number of invasive JAR cells in an invasion assay without affecting proliferation, and hCG-activated PBMC significantly increased MMP-2, MMP-9, and VEGF and decreased TIMP-1 and TIMP-2 expressions in JAR cells in a dose-dependent manner. This study demonstrated that hCG stimulates cytokine secretion in human PBMC and could stimulate trophoblast invasion.

  6. A DNA methylation signature associated with aberrant promoter DNA hypermethylation of DNMT3B in human colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huidobro, Covadonga; Urdinguio, Rocío G; Rodríguez, Ramón María; Mangas, Cristina; Calvanese, Vincenzo; Martínez-Camblor, Pablo; Ferrero, Cecilia; Parra-Blanco, Adolfo; Rodrigo, Luis; Obaya, Alvaro J; Suárez-Fernández, Laura; Astudillo, Aurora; Hernando, Henar; Ballestar, Esteban; Fernández, Agustín F; Fraga, Mario F

    2012-09-01

    Altered promoter DNA methylation, one of the most important molecular alterations in cancer, is proposed to correlate with deregulation of DNA methyltransferases, although the molecular mechanisms implicated are still poorly understood. Here we show that the de novo DNA methyltransferase DNMT3B is frequently repressed in human colorectal cancer cell lines (CCL) and primary tumours by aberrant DNA hypermethylation of its distal promoter. At the epigenome level, DNMT3B promoter hypermethylation was associated with the hypomethylation of gene promoters usually hypermethylated in the healthy colon. Forced DNMT3B overexpression in cancer cells restored the methylation levels of these promoters in the healthy colon. Our results show a new molecular mechanism of aberrant DNMT3B regulation in colon cancer and suggest that its expression is associated with the methylation of constitutively hypermethylated promoters in the healthy colon. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Significance of detecting the EBV-DNA level in peripheral blood mononuclear cells and the EBV infected cell type in patients with chronic active EBV infection%慢性活动性EB病毒感染患儿外周血单个核细胞EB病毒DNA及感染细胞类型检测的临床意义

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邢燕; 宋红梅; 吴晓燕; 王薇; 魏珉

    2011-01-01

    目的 研究EB病毒(Epstein-Barr virus,EBV)慢性活动性感染(CAEBV)、急性感染(AEBV)以及正常儿童的外周血单个核细胞(PBMC)的EBV-DNA水平,以及EBV感染细胞类型的差异,探讨其与CAEBV临床表型的关系.方法 收集2004年3月至2008年4月在我院住院的CAEBV患儿10例,AEBV患儿13例,以及正常儿童12例的外周血单个核细胞,应用实时荧光定量PCR法检测EBV-DNA水平,并对EBV-DNA阳性的CAEBV和AEBV及正常儿童,用免疫磁珠法分选各种淋巴细胞后进行EBV编码的RNA-1(EBV encoding RNA-1,EBER-1)探针荧光原位杂交(FISH)确定EBV感染细胞的类型.结果 CAEBV组EBV-DNA载量为[(6.8×107)±(1.1 x 108)]/ml,AEBV组EBV-DNA载量为[(1.3×106)±(1.6×106)]/ml,两组比较差异有统计学意义,CAEBV组PBMC的EBV-DNA水平明显高于AEBV组(P<0.01);7例CAEBV患儿做细胞分选及FISH后,发现EBV不仅可以引起B细胞感染,而且还引起NK细胞、CD4+和CD8+T细胞不同程度的感染,临床表现为反复或持续的传染性单核细胞增多症(IM)样症状.6例患儿以感染T细胞为主,其中1例以CD8+T细胞感染为主,临床表现除高热,肝脾淋巴结大,伴严重的血液系统一系或三系降低外,还并发了爆发性的致死性T淋巴细胞增殖综合征而死亡.1 例以NK细胞感染为主,临床表现还伴有对蚊虫叮咬高度敏感且IgE高达2500 U/ml.AEBV组7例患儿均显示感染B淋巴细胞,临床表现为可以痊愈的IM.6例正常儿童均为阴性.结论 CAEBV患儿体内存在更多的EBV复制和不同的EBV感染细胞类型,实时荧光定量PCR检测EBV-DNA水平并测定EBV感染的淋巴细胞类型有可能协助CAEBV临床个体化诊治和评估病情进展.%Objective To study the difference in the EBV-DNA level in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) and the type of Epstein-Barr virus(EBV)-infected cells in pediatric patients with chronic active EBV(CAEBV) infection,acute EBV infection(AEBV)and healthy children,and to

  8. Evidence for multiple promoters of the human IL-5 receptor alpha subunit gene: a novel 6-base pair element determines cell-specific promoter function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, J; Kuvelkar, R; Cheewatrakoolpong, B; Williams, S; Egan, R W; Billah, M M

    1997-12-01

    In addition to a previously characterized promoter (P1), we now show the existence of a second promoter for the human IL-5Ralpha gene. Initially, a genomic region (P2) 5' upstream of human IL-5Ralpha exon 2 was cloned by an inverted PCR. The transcriptional start site was then mapped to a deoxycytidine (C) residue within P2 by analyzing cellular mRNA with both the 5' rapid amplification of cDNA end-PCR and S1 nuclease protection assays. Transfection of eosinophilic HL-60 cells with reporter gene constructs in which either P1 or P2 was linked to the bacterial chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (CAT) gene resulted in CAT expression; little or no CAT expression occurred in other myeloid and nonmyeloid cell lines. Deletion studies showed that a 66-bp region, ranging from -31 to +35, was sufficient to promote CAT expression in eosinophilic HL-60 cells. Analysis of linker-scanning mutants identified a novel 6-bp element (5' CTAATT 3') spanning -19 to -14 that was essential for P2 promoter activity. In electrophoretic mobility shift assays, a P2 region from -31 to +1 containing the unique 6-bp element, when used as a probe, formed a complex with a protein(s) that was found only in the eosinophilic cell line. This binding activity was lost upon replacement of the 6-bp element with a 6-bp linker, suggesting that this element likely serves as the binding site for an eosinophilic HL-60 cell-specific transcription factor(s). Together, these data suggest an important role for P2 promoter in the regulation of eosinophil-specific expression of the human IL-5 receptor alpha gene.

  9. Promotion of health and human functionality - 10.5020/18061230.2013.p5

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Cristhina de Oliveira Brasil

    2013-08-01

    diverse environmental barriers, whether they are physical, geographic, technological, legal, among others(5. Such health problems that generated those impairments are harmful not only to the citizens but also to the State, since they burden the social security system (health, welfare and social security, leading to decreased quality of life, especially of those affected by such problems. Despite the finding of facts as the major expenses with medium and high complexity services in health, sickness benefit and early retirements that could have been avoided, one can perceive the lack of specific and properly planned actions, the implementation of which depends on political and administrative will and on a paradigm shift regarding the expanded focus on the etiology of all these health problems. And yet, no public policies are known in Brazil, to follow up, in a transversal and integral way, all the stages of the life cycle or to delineate the profile of functionality and the monitoring of the incidence of disabilities, but also, in particular, actions focused on future generations, based on the expanded concept of health proposed by WHO and defended in the principles and guidelines of SUS. Far more required than simply creating reintegration services is to avoid / prevent social restriction. Therefore, policies must be drawned with a new perspective on the human being, that respects the constitutional principles and guidelines of the NHS and meet the consequences of demographic and epidemiological transitions in order to promote health so that people live without major disabilities an increased life expectancy that has already been settled in Brazil. At the 13th National Conference on Health, the unprecedented proposal n.144 has been approved on Axis II - Public Policies for Health and Quality of Life: SUS in Social Security and the Pact for Health, along with the motion n. 84, aiming to develop and implement a national health functional policy crossing all health policies

  10. 维吾尔族妇女宫颈癌发生与EBV及HPV感染的关系%The role of EBV and HPV infection in cervical cancer development of Uyghur women

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    阿比班·阿克拉; 米克热依·玉山江; 玛依努尔·尼牙孜; 阿布力孜·阿布杜拉; 阿比达·阿布都卡德尔

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Study on the role of Ebstein-Barr virus (EBV) and human papillomavirus (HPV) infection in the development of cervical cancer of Uyghur women. METHODS: We collected 178 cases of formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded cervical tissue specimens of Uyghur women with cervicitis, cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) I /II /HI and cervical squamous cell carcinoma (CSCC). EBV and HPV DNA was detected by polymerase-chain reaction (PCR) with the tissue DNA extracted, and the EBV protein expression was checked by immunohistochemistry. RESULTS: HPV DNA was detectable in 2.5%, 12.5%, 68.0% and 96.4% cases of cervicitis, CIN I , CIN II-III and cervical cancer, respectively; and EBV DNA in 0%, 3.1%, 28.0% and 69.6% cases, respectivelly; with a significant difference among groups of cervicits , CINII-III and cancer for both HPV and EBV(P>0.05). Further analysis indicated that cervical lesion pathogenesis was not only accompanied with gradual increasing rate for HPV or EBV DNA alone, but also positively correlated with the increase of HPV-EBV dual-infection(correlation coefficient r=0.46; X2=82.50, P < 0.01). EBV protein expression was 89.7% positive in EBV-DNA positive cases(34/39)and 6% positive in EBV-DNA negative cases (1/17). CONCLUSION: Uyghur cervical cancer development and progression may be closely associated with the dual infection by HPV and EBV.%目的:探讨维吾尔族妇女宫颈癌发生过程中EB病毒(Ebstein-Barr virus,EBV)及人乳头瘤病毒(human papillomavirus,HPV)感染的作用及其意义.方法:收集维吾尔族妇女宫颈炎、宫颈内上皮瘤样病变(cervical intraepithelial neoplasia,CIN)Ⅰ/Ⅱ/Ⅲ和宫颈鳞癌患者福尔马林浸泡与石蜡包埋组织标本共178例,提取DNA并采用PCR方法对EBV和HPV DNA进行检测;用免疫组织化学方法检测宫颈癌EBV蛋白表达.结果:病毒DNA检测结果显示,宫颈炎、CIN Ⅰ、CINⅡ~Ⅲ和宫颈癌患者各组HPVDNA检出率依次是2.5%、12.5%、68.0%、96

  11. Mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 4 (MAP2K4 promotes human prostate cancer metastasis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janet M Pavese

    Full Text Available Prostate cancer (PCa is the second leading cause of cancer death in the US. Death from PCa primarily results from metastasis. Mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 4 (MAP2K4 is overexpressed in invasive PCa lesions in humans, and can be inhibited by small molecule therapeutics that demonstrate favorable activity in phase II studies. However, MAP2K4's role in regulating metastatic behavior is controversial and unknown. To investigate, we engineered human PCa cell lines which overexpress either wild type or constitutive active MAP2K4. Orthotopic implantation into mice demonstrated MAP2K4 increases formation of distant metastasis. Constitutive active MAP2K4, though not wild type, increases tumor size and circulating tumor cells in the blood and bone marrow. Complementary in vitro studies establish stable MAP2K4 overexpression promotes cell invasion, but does not affect cell growth or migration. MAP2K4 overexpression increases the expression of heat shock protein 27 (HSP27 protein and protease production, with the largest effect upon matrix metalloproteinase 2 (MMP-2, both in vitro and in mouse tumor samples. Further, MAP2K4-mediated increases in cell invasion are dependent upon heat shock protein 27 (HSP27 and MMP-2, but not upon MAP2K4's immediate downstream targets, p38 MAPK or JNK. We demonstrate that MAP2K4 increases human PCa metastasis, and prolonged over expression induces long term changes in cell signaling pathways leading to independence from p38 MAPK and JNK. These findings provide a mechanistic explanation for human studies linking increases in HSP27 and MMP-2 to progression to metastatic disease. MAP2K4 is validated as an important therapeutic target for inhibiting human PCa metastasis.

  12. Aryl hydrocarbon receptor inhibition promotes hematolymphoid development from human pluripotent stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angelos, Mathew G; Ruh, Paige N; Webber, Beau R; Blum, Robert H; Ryan, Caitlin D; Bendzick, Laura; Shim, Seonhui; Yingst, Ashley M; Tufa, Dejene M; Verneris, Michael R; Kaufman, Dan S

    2017-06-29

    The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) plays an important physiological role in hematopoiesis. AHR is highly expressed in hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs) and inhibition of AHR results in a marked expansion of human umbilical cord blood-derived HSPCs following cytokine stimulation. It is unknown whether AHR also contributes earlier in human hematopoietic development. To model hematopoiesis, human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) were allowed to differentiate in defined conditions in the presence of the AHR antagonist StemReginin-1 (SR-1) or the AHR agonist 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD). We demonstrate a significant increase in CD34(+)CD31(+) hematoendothelial cells in SR-1-treated hESCs, as well as a twofold expansion of CD34(+)CD45(+) hematopoietic progenitor cells. Hematopoietic progenitor cells were also significantly increased by SR-1 as quantified by standard hematopoietic colony-forming assays. Using a clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)/CRISPR-associated protein 9 (Cas9)-engineered hESC-RUNX1c-tdTomato reporter cell line with AHR deletion, we further demonstrate a marked enhancement of hematopoietic differentiation relative to wild-type hESCs. We also evaluated whether AHR antagonism could promote innate lymphoid cell differentiation from hESCs. SR-1 increased conventional natural killer (cNK) cell differentiation, whereas TCDD treatment blocked cNK development and supported group 3 innate lymphoid cell (ILC3) differentiation. Collectively, these results demonstrate that AHR regulates early human hematolymphoid cell development and may be targeted to enhance production of specific cell populations derived from human pluripotent stem cells. © 2017 by The American Society of Hematology.

  13. Neuropeptides stimulate human osteoblast activity and promote gap junctional intercellular communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Wenhui; Zhang, Xuemin; Shi, Shushan; Zhang, Yingze

    2013-06-01

    Neuropeptides released from the skeletal nerve fibers have neurotransmitter and immunoregulatory roles; they exert paracrine biological effects on bone cells present close to the nerve endings expressing these signaling molecules. The aims of this study were a systematic investigation of the effects of the neuropeptides substance P (SP), calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP), vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP), Neuropeptide Y (NPY) and tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) on the cell viability and function of the human osteoblasts, and comparing their difference in the role of regulating bone formation. Cultures of normal human osteoblasts were treated with SP, CGRP, VIP, NPY or TH at three concentrations. We found that each of the five neuropeptides induced increases in cell viability of human osteoblasts. The stimulatory action of NPY was the highest, followed by VIP, SP and TH, while CGRP had the lowest stimulatory effect. The viability index of osteoblasts was inversely associated with the concentration of neuropeptides, and positively with the time of exposure. Moreover, the five neuropeptides increased the ALP activity and osteocalcin to different extents in a dose-dependent manner. The GJIC of osteoblasts was significantly promoted by neuropeptides. The results demonstrated that neuropeptides released from skeletal nerve endings after a stimulus appeared to be able to induce the proliferation and activity of osteoblasts via enhancing GJIC between cells, and further influence the bone formation. These findings may contribute toward a better understanding of the neural influence on bone remodeling and improving treatments related to bone diseases.

  14. Human Rights Promotion through Transnational Investment Regimes: An International Political Economy Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claire Cutler

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available International investment agreements are foundational instruments in a transnational investment regime that governs how states regulate the foreign-owned assets and the foreign investment activities of private actors. Over 3,000 investment agreements between states govern key governmental powers and form the basis for an emerging transnational investment regime. This transnational regime significantly decentralizes, denationalizes, and privatizes decision-making and policy choices over foreign investment. Investment agreements set limits to state action in a number of areas of vital public concern, including the protection of human and labour rights, the environment, and sustainable development. They determine the distribution of power between foreign investors and host states and their societies. However, the societies in which they operate seldom have any input into the terms or operation of these agreements, raising crucial questions of their democratic legitimacy as mechanisms of governance. This paper draws on political science and law to explore the political economy of international investment agreements and asks whether these agreements are potential vehicles for promoting international human rights. The analysis provides an historical account of the investment regime, while a review of the political economy of international investment agreements identifies what appears to be a paradox at the core of their operation. It then examines contract theory for insight into this apparent paradox and considers whether investment agreements are suitable mechanisms for advancing international human rights.

  15. Biological stimulation of the Human skin applying health promoting light and plasma sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Awakowicz, P.; Bibinov, N. [Center for Plasma Science and Technology, Ruhr-University, Bochum (Germany); Born, M.; Niemann, U. [Philips Research, Aachen (Germany); Busse, B. [Zell-Kontakt GmbH, Noerten-Hardenberg (Germany); Gesche, R.; Kuehn, S.; Porteanu, H.E. [Ferdinand-Braun-Institut fuer Hoechstfrequenztechnik, Berlin (Germany); Helmke, A. [University of Applied Sciences and Arts, Goettingen (Germany); Kaemling, A.; Wandke, D. [CINOGY GmbH, Duderstadt (Germany); Kolb-Bachofen, V.; Liebmann, J. [Institute for Immunobiology, Heinrich-Heine University, Duesseldorf (Germany); Kovacs, R.; Mertens, N.; Scherer, J. [Aurion Anlagentechnik GmbH, Seligenstadt (Germany); Oplaender, C.; Suschek, C. [Clinic for Plastic Surgery, University Clinic, Aachen (Germany); Vioel, W. [Laser-Laboratorium, Goettingen (Germany); University of Applied Sciences and Arts, Goettingen (Germany)

    2009-10-15

    In the frame of BMBF project ''BioLiP'', new physical treatment techniques aiming at medical treatment of the human skin have been developed. The acronym BioLiP stands for ''Desinfektion, Entkeimung und biologische Stimulation der Haut durch gesundheitsfoerdernde Licht- und Plasmaquellen'' (Disinfection, germ reduction and biological stimulation of the human skin by health promoting light and plasma sources). A source applying a low-temperature dielectric barrier discharge plasma (DBD) has been investigated on its effectiveness for skin disinfection and stimulation of biological material. Alternatively an atmospheric plasma source consisting of a microwave resonator combined with a solid state power oscillator has been examined. This concept which allows for a compact and efficient design avoiding external microwave power supply and matching units has been optimized with respect to nitrogen monoxide (NO) production in high yields. In both cases various application possibilities in the medical and biological domain are opened up. Light sources in the visible spectral range have been investigated with respect to the proliferation of human cell types. Intensive highly selective blue light sources based on LED technology can slow down proliferation rates without inducing toxic effects which offers new opportunities for treatments of so-called hyperproliferative skin conditions (e.g. with psoriasis or in wound healing) using UV-free light. (copyright 2009 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  16. Nanotopography Promotes Pancreatic Differentiation of Human Embryonic Stem Cells and Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jong Hyun; Kim, Hyung Woo; Cha, Kyoung Je; Han, Jiyou; Jang, Yu Jin; Kim, Dong Sung; Kim, Jong-Hoon

    2016-03-22

    Although previous studies suggest that nanotopographical features influence properties and behaviors of stem cells, only a few studies have attempted to derive clinically useful somatic cells from human pluripotent stem cells using nanopatterned surfaces. In the present study, we report that polystyrene nanopore-patterned surfaces significantly promote the pancreatic differentiation of human embryonic and induced pluripotent stem cells. We compared different diameters of nanopores and showed that 200 nm nanopore-patterned surfaces highly upregulated the expression of PDX1, a critical transcription factor for pancreatic development, leading to an approximately 3-fold increase in the percentage of differentiating PDX1(+) pancreatic progenitors compared with control flat surfaces. Furthermore, in the presence of biochemical factors, 200 nm nanopore-patterned surfaces profoundly enhanced the derivation of pancreatic endocrine cells producing insulin, glucagon, or somatostatin. We also demonstrate that nanopore-patterned surface-induced upregulation of PDX1 is associated with downregulation of TAZ, suggesting the potential role of TAZ in nanopore-patterned surface-mediated mechanotransduction. Our study suggests that appropriate cytokine treatments combined with nanotopographical stimulation could be a powerful tool for deriving a high purity of desired cells from human pluripotent stem cells.

  17. Human Rights Promotion through Transnational Investment Regimes: An International Political Economy Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claire Cutler

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available International investment agreements are foundational instruments in a transnational investment regime that governs how states regulate the foreign-owned assets and the foreign investment activities of private actors. Over 3,000 investment agreements between states govern key governmental powers and form the basis for an emerging transnational investment regime. This transnational regime significantly decentralizes, denationalizes, and privatizes decision-making and policy choices over foreign investment. Investment agreements set limits to state action in a number of areas of vital public concern, including the protection of human and labour rights, the environment, and sustainable development. They determine the distribution of power between foreign investors and host states and their societies. However, the societies in which they operate seldom have any input into the terms or operation of these agreements, raising crucial questions of their democratic legitimacy as mechanisms of governance. This paper draws on political science and law to explore the political economy of international investment agreements and asks whether these agreements are potential vehicles for promoting international human rights. The analysis provides an historical account of the investment regime, while a review of the political economy of international investment agreements identifies what appears to be a paradox at the core of their operation. It then examines contract theory for insight into this apparent paradox and considers whether investment agreements are suitable mechanisms for advancing international human rights.

  18. Down-regulati