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Sample records for ebv nuclear antigen

  1. Radioimmunoassay for Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV)-associated Nuclear Antigen (EBNA). Binding of iodinated antibodies to antigen immobilized in polyacrylamide gel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dolken, G.; Klein, G.

    1977-01-01

    A solid-phase radioimmunoassay was developed for the EBV-associated nuclear antigen (EBNA). Total homogenates of EBV-DNA and EBNA positive or negative cells were polymerized in polyacrylamide gel and compared for their ability to bind 125 I-IgG prepared from anti-EBNA positive and anti-EBNA negative sera. EBNA specific binding was demonstrated and confirmed by serological and cellular specificity controls. The assay allows the quantitation of antigen or antibody even in the presence of detergents and is suitable for biochemical characterization of the antigen. Reciprocal blocking studies with extracts from different cell lines showed quantitative and qualitative differences. One part of the EBNA specificiti(es) present in the human Burkitt lymphoma derived lines RAJI, DAUDI and AW-RAMOS was lacking in B96-8, a marmoset line carrying EBV derived from a human infectious mononucleosis line. This result may reflect differences in the viral genomes derived from Burkitt lymphoma and infectious mononucleosis lines or differences in the host cells. (author)

  2. Epstein-Barr nuclear antigen 1 induces expression of the cellular microRNA hsa-miR-127 and impairing B-cell differentiation in EBV-infected memory B cells. New insights into the pathogenesis of Burkitt lymphoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onnis, A; Navari, M; Antonicelli, G; Morettini, F; Mannucci, S; De Falco, G; Vigorito, E; Leoncini, L

    2012-01-01

    Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV) is a γ-herpesvirus that infects >90% of the human population. Although EBV persists in its latent form in healthy carriers, the virus is also associated with several human cancers. EBV is strongly associated with Burkitt lymphoma (BL), even though there is still no satisfactory explanation of how EBV participates in BL pathogenesis. However, new insights into the interplay between viruses and microRNAs (miRNAs) have recently been proposed. In particular, it has been shown that B-cell differentiation in EBV-positive BL is impaired at the post-transcriptional level by altered expression of hsa-miR-127. Here, we show that the overexpression of hsa-miR-127 is due to the presence of the EBV-encoded nuclear antigen 1 (EBNA1) and give evidence of a novel mechanism of direct regulation of the human miRNA by this viral product. Finally, we show that the combinatorial expression of EBNA1 and hsa-miR-127 affects the expression of master B-cell regulators in human memory B cells, confirming the scenario previously observed in EBV-positive BL primary tumors and cell lines. A good understanding of these mechanisms will help to clarify the complex regulatory networks between host and pathogen, and favor the design of more specific treatments for EBV-associated malignancies

  3. Inhibitory activities of microalgal extracts against Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV antigen expression in lymphoblastoid cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koh Yih Yih

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The inhibitory activities of microalgal extracts against the expression of three EBV antigens, latent membrane protein (LMP1, Epstein-Barr nuclear antigen (EBNA1 and Z Epstein-Barr reactivation activator (ZEBRA were assessed by immunocytochemistry. The observation that the methanol extracts and their fractions from Ankistrodesmus convolutus, Synechococcus elongatus and Spirulina platensis exhibited inhibitory activity against EBV proteins in three Burkitt’s lymphoma cell lines at concentrations as low as 20 μg/ml suggests that microalgae could be a potential source of antiviral compounds against EBV.

  4. Antibodies to early EBV, CMV, and HHV6 antigens in systemic lupus erythematosus patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, N S; Draborg, A H; Nielsen, C T

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: We investigated the antibody levels against early antigens of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), cytomegalovirus (CMV), and human herpesvirus 6 (HHV6) in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) patients and healthy controls, and further correlated these antibodies to haematology/biochemistry, serol......OBJECTIVES: We investigated the antibody levels against early antigens of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), cytomegalovirus (CMV), and human herpesvirus 6 (HHV6) in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) patients and healthy controls, and further correlated these antibodies to haematology...

  5. Epstein-Barr virus early antigen diffuse (EBV-EA/D)-directed immunoglobulin A antibodies in systemic lupus erythematosus patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Draborg, A H; Jørgensen, J M; Müller, H

    2012-01-01

    We sought to determine whether the serological response towards lytic cycle antigens of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is altered in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) patients.......We sought to determine whether the serological response towards lytic cycle antigens of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is altered in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) patients....

  6. Emergence of CD4+ and CD8+ Polyfunctional T Cell Responses Against Immunodominant Lytic and Latent EBV Antigens in Children With Primary EBV Infection

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    Janice K. P. Lam

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Long term carriers were shown to generate robust polyfunctional T cell (PFC responses against lytic and latent antigens of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV. However, the time of emergence of PFC responses against EBV antigens, pattern of immunodominance and difference between CD4+ and CD8+ T cell responses during various stages of EBV infection are not clearly understood. A longitudinal study was performed to assess the development of antigen-specific PFC responses in children diagnosed to have primary symptomatic (infectious mononucleosis [IM] and asymptomatic (AS EBV infection. Evaluation of IFN-γ secreting CD8+ T cell responses upon stimulation by HLA class I-specific peptides of EBV lytic and latent proteins by ELISPOT assay followed by assessment of CD4+ and CD8+ PFC responses upon stimulation by a panel of overlapping EBV peptides for co-expression of IFN-γ, TNF-α, IL-2, perforin and CD107a by flow cytometry were performed. Cytotoxicity of T cells against autologous lymphoblastoid cell lines (LCLs as well as EBV loads in PBMC and plasma were also determined. Both IM and AS patients had elevated PBMC and plasma viral loads which declined steadily during a 12-month period from the time of diagnosis whilst decrease in the magnitude of CD8+ T cell responses toward EBV lytic peptides in contrast to increase toward latent peptides was shown with no significant difference between those of IM and AS patients. Both lytic and latent antigen-specific CD4+ and CD8+ T cells demonstrated polyfunctionality (defined as greater or equal to three functions concurrent with enhanced cytotoxicity against autologous LCLs and steady decrease in plasma and PBMC viral loads over time. Immunodominant peptides derived from BZLF1, BRLF1, BMLF1 and EBNA3A-C proteins induced the highest proportion of CD8+ as well as CD4+ PFC responses. Diverse functional subtypes of both CD4+ and CD8+ PFCs were shown to emerge at 6–12 months. In conclusion, EBV antigen-specific CD4+ and CD

  7. Epstein-Barr virus nuclear antigen 2 specifically induces expression of the B-cell activation antigen CD23

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, F.; Gregory, C.D.; Rowe, M.; Rickinson, A.B.; Wang, D.; Birkenbach, M.; Kikutani, H.; Kishimoto, T.; Kieff, E.

    1987-01-01

    Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection of EBV-negative Burkitt lymphoma (BL) cells includes some changes similar to those seen in normal B lymphocytes that have been growth transformed by EBV. The role of individual EBV genes in this process was evaluated by introducing each of the viral genes that are normally expressed in EBV growth-transformed and latently infected lymphoblasts into an EBV-negative BL cell line, using recombinant retrovirus-mediated transfer. Clones of cells were derived that stably express the EBV nuclear antigen 1 (EBNA-1), EBNA-2, EBNA-3, EBNA-leader protein, or EBV latent membrane protein (LMP). These were compared with control clones infected with the retrovirus vector. All 10 clones converted to EBNA-2 expression differed from control clones or clones expressing other EBV proteins by growth in tight clumps and by markedly increased expression of one particular surface marker of B-cell activation, CD23. Other activation antigens were unaffected by EBNA-2 expression, as were markers already expressed on the parent BL cell line. The results indicate that EBNA-2 is a specific direct or indirect trans-activator of CD23. This establishes a link between an EBV gene and cell gene expression. Since CD23 has been implicated in the transduction of B-cell growth signals, its specific induction by EBNA-2 could be important in EBV induction of B-lymphocyte transformation

  8. Triterpenoids from Ganoderma lucidum inhibit the activation of EBV antigens as telomerase inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Dong-Shu; Chen, Liang-Shu

    2017-10-01

    Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is a malignant disease that threatens the health of humans. To find effective agents for the inhibition of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection, which is associated with NPC, a phytochemical investigation of Ganoderma lucidum was carried out in the present study. Five triterpenoids were identified, including ganoderic acid A (compound 1), ganoderic acid B (compound 2), ganoderol B (compound 3), ganodermanontriol (compound 4), and ganodermanondiol (compound 5), on the basis of spectroscopic analysis. An inhibition of EBV antigens activation assay was implemented to elucidate the triterpenoids from G. lucidum and potentially prevent NPC. All the triterpenoids showed significant inhibitory effects on both EBV EA and CA activation at 16 nmol. At 3.2 nmol, all the compounds moderately inhibited the activation of the two antigens. The activity of telomerase was inhibited by these triterpenoids at 10 µM. Molecular docking demonstrated that compound 1 was able to inhibit telomerase as a ligand. In addition, the physicochemical properties of these compounds were calculated to elucidate their drug-like properties. These results provided evidence for the application of these triterpenoids and whole G. lucidum in the treatment of NPC.

  9. A recombinant modified vaccinia ankara vaccine encoding Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV) target antigens: a phase I trial in UK patients with EBV-positive cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Graham S; Jia, Hui; Harrington, Kevin; Lee, Lip Wai; Turner, James; Ladell, Kristin; Price, David A; Tanday, Manjit; Matthews, Jen; Roberts, Claudia; Edwards, Ceri; McGuigan, Lesley; Hartley, Andrew; Wilson, Steve; Hui, Edwin P; Chan, Anthony T C; Rickinson, Alan B; Steven, Neil M

    2014-10-01

    Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is associated with several cancers in which the tumor cells express EBV antigens EBNA1 and LMP2. A therapeutic vaccine comprising a recombinant vaccinia virus, MVA-EL, was designed to boost immunity to these tumor antigens. A phase I trial was conducted to demonstrate the safety and immunogenicity of MVA-EL across a range of doses. Sixteen patients in the United Kingdom (UK) with EBV-positive nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) received three intradermal vaccinations of MVA-EL at 3-weekly intervals at dose levels between 5 × 10(7) and 5 × 10(8) plaque-forming units (pfu). Blood samples were taken at screening, after each vaccine cycle, and during the post-vaccination period. T-cell responses were measured using IFNγ ELISpot assays with overlapping EBNA1/LMP2 peptide mixes or HLA-matched epitope peptides. Polychromatic flow cytometry was used to characterize functionally responsive T-cell populations. Vaccination was generally well tolerated. Immunity increased after vaccination to at least one antigen in 8 of 14 patients (7/14, EBNA1; 6/14, LMP2), including recognition of epitopes that vary between EBV strains associated with different ethnic groups. Immunophenotypic analysis revealed that vaccination induced differentiation and functional diversification of responsive T-cell populations specific for EBNA1 and LMP2 within the CD4 and CD8 compartments, respectively. MVA-EL is safe and immunogenic across diverse ethnicities and thus suitable for use in trials against different EBV-positive cancers globally as well as in South-East Asia where NPC is most common. The highest dose (5 × 10(8) pfu) is recommended for investigation in current phase IB and II trials. ©2014 American Association for Cancer Research.

  10. Improving nuclear envelope dynamics by EBV BFRF1 facilitates intranuclear component clearance through autophagy.

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    Liu, Guan-Ting; Kung, Hsiu-Ni; Chen, Chung-Kuan; Huang, Cheng; Wang, Yung-Li; Yu, Cheng-Pu; Lee, Chung-Pei

    2018-02-26

    Although a vesicular nucleocytoplasmic transport system is believed to exist in eukaryotic cells, the features of this pathway are mostly unknown. Here, we report that the BFRF1 protein of the Epstein-Barr virus improves vesicular transport of nuclear envelope (NE) to facilitate the translocation and clearance of nuclear components. BFRF1 expression induces vesicles that selectively transport nuclear components to the cytoplasm. With the use of aggregation-prone proteins as tools, we found that aggregated nuclear proteins are dispersed when these BFRF1-induced vesicles are formed. BFRF1-containing vesicles engulf the NE-associated aggregates, exit through from the NE, and putatively fuse with autophagic vacuoles. Chemical treatment and genetic ablation of autophagy-related factors indicate that autophagosome formation and autophagy-linked FYVE protein-mediated autophagic proteolysis are involved in this selective clearance of nuclear proteins. Remarkably, vesicular transport, elicited by BFRF1, also attenuated nuclear aggregates accumulated in neuroblastoma cells. Accordingly, induction of NE-derived vesicles by BFRF1 facilitates nuclear protein translocation and clearance, suggesting that autophagy-coupled transport of nucleus-derived vesicles can be elicited for nuclear component catabolism in mammalian cells.-Liu, G.-T., Kung, H.-N., Chen, C.-K., Huang, C., Wang, Y.-L., Yu, C.-P., Lee, C.-P. Improving nuclear envelope dynamics by EBV BFRF1 facilitates intranuclear component clearance through autophagy.

  11. Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) provides survival factors to EBV+ diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) lines and modulates cytokine induced specific chemotaxis in EBV+  DLBCL.

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    Wu, Liang; Ehlin-Henriksson, Barbro; Zhou, Xiaoying; Zhu, Hong; Ernberg, Ingemar; Kis, Lorand L; Klein, George

    2017-12-01

    Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL), the most common type of malignant lymphoma, accounts for 30% of adult non-Hodgkin lymphomas. Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) -positive DLBCL of the elderly is a newly recognized subtype that accounts for 8-10% of DLBCLs in Asian countries, but is less common in Western populations. Five DLBCL-derived cell lines were employed to characterize patterns of EBV latent gene expression, as well as response to cytokines and chemotaxis. Interleukin-4 and interleukin-21 modified LMP1, EBNA1 and EBNA2 expression depending on cell phenotype and type of EBV latent programme (type I, II or III). These cytokines also affected CXCR4- or CCR7-mediated chemotaxis in two of the cell lines, Farage (type III) and Val (type II). Further, we investigated the effect of EBV by using dominant-negative EBV nuclear antigen 1(dnEBNA1) to eliminate EBV genomes. This resulted in decreased chemotaxis. By employing an alternative way to eliminate EBV genomes, Roscovitine, we show an increase of apoptosis in the EBV-positive lines. These results show that EBV plays an important role in EBV-positive DLBCL lines with regard to survival and chemotactic response. Our findings provide evidence for the impact of microenvironment on EBV-carrying DLBCL cells and might have therapeutic implications. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Characterization of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) BZLF1 gene promoter variants and comparison of cellular gene expression profiles in Japanese patients with infectious mononucleosis, chronic active EBV infection, and EBV-associated hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imajoh, Masayuki; Hashida, Yumiko; Murakami, Masanao; Maeda, Akihiko; Sato, Tetsuya; Fujieda, Mikiya; Wakiguchi, Hiroshi; Daibata, Masanori

    2012-06-01

    Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) genotypes can be distinguished based on gene sequence differences in EBV nuclear antigens 2, 3A, 3B, and 3C, and the BZLF1 promoter zone (Zp). EBV subtypes and BZLF1 Zp variants were examined in Japanese patients with infectious mononucleosis, chronic active EBV infection, and EBV-associated hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis. The results of EBV typing showed that samples of infectious mononucleosis, chronic active EBV infection, and EBV-associated hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis all belonged to EBV type 1. However, sequencing analysis of BZLF1 Zp found three polymorphic Zp variants in the same samples. The Zp-P prototype and the Zp-V3 variant were both detected in infectious mononucleosis and chronic active EBV infection. Furthermore, a novel variant previously identified in Chinese children with infectious mononucleosis, Zp-V1, was also found in 3 of 18 samples of infectious mononucleosis, where it coexisted with the Zp-P prototype. This is the first evidence that the EBV variant distribution in Japanese patients resembles that found in other Asian patients. The expression levels of 29 chronic active EBV infection-associated cellular genes were also compared in the three EBV-related disorders, using quantitative real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction analysis. Two upregulated genes, RIPK2 and CDH9, were identified as common specific markers for chronic active EBV infection in both in vitro and in vivo studies. RIPK2 activates apoptosis and autophagy, and could be responsible for the pathogenesis of chronic active EBV infection. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. EBV-Associated Cancer and Autoimmunity: Searching for Therapies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Capone

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Epstein-Barr virus (EBV infects B-, T-, and NK cells and has been associated not only with a wide range of lymphoid malignancies but also with autoimmune diseases such as lupus erythematosus, rheumatoid arthritis and, in particular, multiple sclerosis. Hence, effective immunotherapeutic approaches to eradicate EBV infection might overthrow cancer and autoimmunity incidence. However, currently no effective anti-EBV immunotherapy is available. Here we use the concept that protein immunogenicity is allocated in rare peptide sequences and search the Epstein-Barr nuclear antigen 1 (EBNA1 sequence for peptides unique to the viral protein and absent in the human host. We report on a set of unique EBV EBNA1 peptides that might be used in designing peptide-based therapies able to specifically hitting the virus or neutralizing pathogenic autoantibodies.

  14. Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) recombinants: use of positive selection markers to rescue mutants in EBV-negative B-lymphoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, F; Marchini, A; Kieff, E

    1991-04-01

    The objective of these experiments was to develop strategies for creation and identification of recombinant mutant Epstein-Barr viruses (EBV). EBV recombinant molecular genetics has been limited to mutations within a short DNA segment deleted from a nontransforming EBV and an underlying strategy which relies on growth transformation of primary B lymphocytes for identification of recombinants. Thus, mutations outside the deletion or mutations which affect transformation cannot be easily recovered. In these experiments we investigated whether a toxic drug resistance gene, guanine phosphoribosyltransferase or hygromycin phosphotransferase, driven by the simian virus 40 promoter can be recombined into the EBV genome and can function to identify B-lymphoma cells infected with recombinant virus. Two different strategies were used to recombine the drug resistance marker into the EBV genome. Both utilized transfection of partially permissive, EBV-infected B95-8 cells and positive selection for cells which had incorporated a functional drug resistance gene. In the first series of experiments, B95-8 clones were screened for transfected DNA that had recombined into the EBV genome. In the second series of experiments, the transfected drug resistance marker was linked to the plasmid and lytic EBV origins so that it was maintained as an episome and could recombine with the B95-8 EBV genome during virus replication. The recombinant EBV from either experiment could be recovered by infection and toxic drug selection of EBV-negative B-lymphoma cells. The EBV genome in these B-lymphoma cells is frequently an episome. Virus genes associated with latent infection of primary B lymphocytes are expressed. Expression of Epstein-Barr virus nuclear antigen 2 (EBNA-2) and the EBNA-3 genes is variable relative to that of EBNA-1, as is characteristic of some naturally infected Burkitt tumor cells. Moreover, the EBV-infected B-lymphoma cells are often partially permissive for early replicative

  15. Modulation of Epstein–Barr Virus Nuclear Antigen 2-dependent transcription by protein arginine methyltransferase 5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Cheng-Der; Cheng, Chi-Ping; Fang, Jia-Shih; Chen, Ling-Chih; Zhao, Bo; Kieff, Elliott; Peng, Chih-Wen

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Catalytic active PRMT5 substantially binds to the EBNA2 RG domain. ► PRMT5 augments the EBNA2-dependent transcription. ► PRMT5 triggers the symmetric dimethylation of the EBNA2 RG domain. ► PRMT5 enhances the promoter occupancy of EBNA2 on its target promoters. -- Abstract: Epstein–Barr Virus Nuclear Antigen (EBNA) 2 features an Arginine–Glycine repeat (RG) domain at amino acid positions 335–360, which is a known target for protein arginine methyltransferaser 5 (PRMT5). In this study, we performed protein affinity pull-down assays to demonstrate that endogenous PRMT5 derived from lymphoblastoid cells specifically associated with the protein bait GST-E2 RG. Transfection of a plasmid expressing PRMT5 induced a 2.5- to 3-fold increase in EBNA2-dependent transcription of both the LMP1 promoter in AKATA cells, which contain the EBV genome endogenously, and a Cp-Luc reporter plasmid in BJAB cells, which are EBV negative. Furthermore, we showed that there was a 2-fold enrichment of EBNA2 occupancy in target promoters in the presence of exogenous PRMT5. Taken together, we show that PRMT5 triggers the symmetric dimethylation of EBNA2 RG domain to coordinate with EBNA2-mediated transcription. This modulation suggests that PRMT5 may play a role in latent EBV infection

  16. Asymmetric Arginine dimethylation of Epstein-Barr virus nuclear antigen 2 promotes DNA targeting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gross, Henrik; Barth, Stephanie; Palermo, Richard D.; Mamiani, Alfredo; Hennard, Christine; Zimber-Strobl, Ursula; West, Michelle J.; Kremmer, Elisabeth; Graesser, Friedrich A.

    2010-01-01

    The Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) growth-transforms B-lymphocytes. The virus-encoded nuclear antigen 2 (EBNA2) is essential for transformation and activates gene expression by association with DNA-bound transcription factors such as RBPJκ (CSL/CBF1). We have previously shown that EBNA2 contains symmetrically dimethylated Arginine (sDMA) residues. Deletion of the RG-repeat results in a reduced ability of the virus to immortalise B-cells. We now show that the RG repeat also contains asymmetrically dimethylated Arginines (aDMA) but neither non-methylated (NMA) Arginines nor citrulline residues. We demonstrate that only aDMA-containing EBNA2 is found in a complex with DNA-bound RBPJκ in vitro and preferentially associates with the EBNA2-responsive EBV C, LMP1 and LMP2A promoters in vivo. Inhibition of methylation in EBV-infected cells results in reduced expression of the EBNA2-regulated viral gene LMP1, providing additional evidence that methylation is a prerequisite for DNA-binding by EBNA2 via association with the transcription factor RBPJκ.

  17. Modulation of Epstein–Barr Virus Nuclear Antigen 2-dependent transcription by protein arginine methyltransferase 5

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Cheng-Der; Cheng, Chi-Ping; Fang, Jia-Shih; Chen, Ling-Chih [Department of Life Sciences, Tzu-Chi University, 701 Chung-Yang Rd. Sec 3, Hualien 97004, Taiwan (China); Zhao, Bo; Kieff, Elliott [Department of Medicine and Microbiology and Molecular Genetics, Channing Laboratory, Brigham and Women’s Hospital and Harvard Medical School, 181 Longwood Ave., Boston 02115, MA (United States); Peng, Chih-Wen, E-mail: pengcw@mail.tcu.edu.tw [Department of Life Sciences, Tzu-Chi University, 701 Chung-Yang Rd. Sec 3, Hualien 97004, Taiwan (China)

    2013-01-18

    Highlights: ► Catalytic active PRMT5 substantially binds to the EBNA2 RG domain. ► PRMT5 augments the EBNA2-dependent transcription. ► PRMT5 triggers the symmetric dimethylation of the EBNA2 RG domain. ► PRMT5 enhances the promoter occupancy of EBNA2 on its target promoters. -- Abstract: Epstein–Barr Virus Nuclear Antigen (EBNA) 2 features an Arginine–Glycine repeat (RG) domain at amino acid positions 335–360, which is a known target for protein arginine methyltransferaser 5 (PRMT5). In this study, we performed protein affinity pull-down assays to demonstrate that endogenous PRMT5 derived from lymphoblastoid cells specifically associated with the protein bait GST-E2 RG. Transfection of a plasmid expressing PRMT5 induced a 2.5- to 3-fold increase in EBNA2-dependent transcription of both the LMP1 promoter in AKATA cells, which contain the EBV genome endogenously, and a Cp-Luc reporter plasmid in BJAB cells, which are EBV negative. Furthermore, we showed that there was a 2-fold enrichment of EBNA2 occupancy in target promoters in the presence of exogenous PRMT5. Taken together, we show that PRMT5 triggers the symmetric dimethylation of EBNA2 RG domain to coordinate with EBNA2-mediated transcription. This modulation suggests that PRMT5 may play a role in latent EBV infection.

  18. Quantitative Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) serology in lung transplant recipients with primary EBV infection and/or post-transplant lymphoproliferative disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verschuuren, E; van der Bij, W; de Boer, W; Timens, W; Middeldorp, J; The, TH

    The Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-specific antibody response was studied in lung transplant patients to assess their value in the diagnosis and prognosis of post-transplant lymphoproliferative disease. Recently developed synthetic peptides representing Epstein-Barr nuclear antigen-1 (EBNA-1), diffuse

  19. Quantitative Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) serology in lung transplant recipients with primary EBV infection and/or post-transplant lymphoproliferative disease.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verschuuren, E; van der Bij, W; Boer, W.; Timens, W.; Middeldorp, J.M.; The, T.H.

    2003-01-01

    The Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-specific antibody response was studied in lung transplant patients to assess their value in the diagnosis and prognosis of post-transplant lymphoproliferative disease. Recently developed synthetic peptides representing Epstein-Barr nuclear antigen-1 (EBNA-1), diffuse

  20. Comparison of two automated instruments for Epstein-Barr virus serology in a large adult hospital and implementation of an Epstein-Barr virus nuclear antigen-based testing algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Sidairi, Hilal; Binkhamis, Khalifa; Jackson, Colleen; Roberts, Catherine; Heinstein, Charles; MacDonald, Jimmy; Needle, Robert; Hatchette, Todd F; LeBlanc, Jason J

    2017-11-01

    Serology remains the mainstay for diagnosis of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection. This study compared two automated platforms (BioPlex 2200 and Architect i2000SR) to test three EBV serological markers: viral capsid antigen (VCA) immunoglobulins of class M (IgM), VCA immunoglobulins of class G (IgG) and EBV nuclear antigen-1 (EBNA-1) IgG. Using sera from 65 patients at various stages of EBV disease, BioPlex demonstrated near-perfect agreement for all EBV markers compared to a consensus reference. The agreement for Architect was near-perfect for VCA IgG and EBNA-1 IgG, and substantial for VCA IgM despite five equivocal results. Since the majority of testing in our hospital was from adults with EBNA-1 IgG positive results, post-implementation analysis of an EBNA-based algorithm showed advantages over parallel testing of the three serologic markers. This small verification demonstrated that both automated systems for EBV serology had good performance for all EBV markers, and an EBNA-based testing algorithm is ideal for an adult hospital.

  1. Epstein-Barr virus nuclear antigen 1 (EBNA1) induced cytotoxicity in epithelial cells is associated with EBNA1 degradation and processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, Richard J.; Smith, Laura J.; Dawson, Christopher W.; Haigh, Tracy; Blake, Neil W.; Young, Lawrence S.

    2003-01-01

    Epstein-Barr virus nuclear antigen 1 (EBNA1) has a central role in the maintenance and segregation of the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) episome and by virtue of a glycine-alanine repeat domain is prevented from being endogenously processed for recognition by HLA class I restricted cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs). We found that EBNA1 expression resulted in growth inhibition and a G2/M arrest in human squamous epithelial cell lines (SCC12F, SVK) but not epithelial cell lines of glandular origin (Hela, Ad/AH). The cytotoxicity of EBNA1 was associated with EBNA1 degradation and both these effects were blocked in SCC12F cells expressing either the anti-apoptotic bcl-2 protein or the EBV homolog of bcl-2, BHRF1. The endogenous degradation of EBNA1 in SVK epithelial cells was associated with specific CTL recognition, an effect not evident in EBNA1-expressing Hela cells. Consistent with the inability of SVK cells to tolerate EBNA1 expression, studies with a recombinant EBV demonstrated that SVK cells are unable to maintain stable virus infection, whereas Hela cells are able to efficiently establish latent EBV infection. These data have important implications for both the cellular requirements necessary to sustain a stable EBV infection and for the possible role of CTL responses in controlling EBV infection of epithelial cells

  2. Detection of a nuclear, EBNA-type antigen in apparently EBNA-negative Herpesvirus papio (HVP)-transformed lymphoid lines by the acid-fixed nuclear binding technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohno, S; Luka, J; Falk, L; Klein, G

    1977-12-15

    In agreement with the findings of previous authors, we could not detect a virally determined nuclear antigen in Herpesvirus papio (HVP)-transformed baboon lymphoid lines by anticomplementary staining in situ, as for EBNA. However, by means of our recently developed acid-fixed nuclear binding technique an EBNA-like antigen could be readily demonstrated, after extraction from both producer and non-producer lines. We propose to designate the antigen as HUPNA. It can be detected by a human anti-EBNA antibody, suggesting cross-reactivity, if not identity, between EBNA and HUPNA. HVP-DNA carrying non-producer lines, negative for in situ ACIF stainability but capable of yielding HUPNA by the nuclear binding technique, can be superinfected with EBV, with brilliant EBNA expression as the result, suggesting that the defective in situ staining is a property associated with the baboon HVP, rather than the baboon lymphoid cell per se.

  3. Conserved cell cycle regulatory properties within the amino terminal domain of the Epstein-Barr virus nuclear antigen 3C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, Nikhil; Knight, Jason S.; Robertson, Erle S.

    2006-01-01

    The gammaherpesviruses Rhesus lymphocryptovirus (LCV) and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) are closely related phylogenetically. Rhesus LCV efficiently immortalizes Rhesus B cells in vitro. However, despite a high degree of conservation between the Rhesus LCV and EBV genomes, Rhesus LCV fails to immortalize human B cells in vitro. This species restriction may, at least in part, be linked to the EBV nuclear antigens (EBNAs) and latent membrane proteins (LMPs), known to be essential for B cell transformation. We compared specific properties of EBNA3C, a well-characterized and essential EBV protein, with its Rhesus counterpart to determine whether EBNA3C phenotypes which contribute to cell cycle regulation are conserved in the Rhesus LCV. We show that both EBNA3C and Rhesus EBNA3C bind to a conserved region of mammalian cyclins, regulate pRb stability, and modulate SCF Skp2 -dependent ubiquitination. These results suggest that Rhesus LCV restriction from human B cell immortalization is independent of the conserved cell cycle regulatory functions of the EBNA3C protein

  4. Small molecule and peptide-mediated inhibition of Epstein-Barr virus nuclear antigen 1 dimerization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Sun Young; Song, Kyung-A; Kieff, Elliott; Kang, Myung-Soo

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Evidence that targeting EBNA1 dimer, an EBV onco-antigen, can be achievable. ► A small molecule and a peptide as EBNA1 dimerization inhibitors identified. ► Both inhibitors associated with EBNA1 and blocked EBNA1 DNA binding activity. ► Also, prevented its dimerization, and repressed viral gene transcription. -- Abstract: Latent Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection is associated with human B cell lymphomas and certain carcinomas. EBV episome persistence, replication, and gene expression are dependent on EBV-encoded nuclear antigen 1 (EBNA1)’s DNA binding domain (DBD)/dimerization domain (DD)-mediated sequence-specific DNA binding activity. Homodimerization of EBNA1 is essential for EBNA1 DNA binding and transactivation. In this study, we characterized a novel small molecule EBNA1 inhibitor EiK1, screened from the previous high throughput screening (HTS). The EiK1 compound specifically inhibited the EBNA1-dependent, OriP-enhanced transcription, but not EBNA1-independent transcription. A Surface Plasmon Resonance Biacore assay revealed that EiK1 associates with EBNA1 amino acid 459–607 DBD/DD. Consistent with the SPR data, in vitro gel shift assays showed that EiK1 suppressed the activity of EBNA1 binding to the cognate familial repeats (FR) sequence, but not control RBP-Jκ binding to the Jκ site. Subsequently, a cross-linker-mediated in vitro multimerization assay and EBNA1 homodimerization-dependent yeast two-hybrid assay showed that EiK1 significantly inhibited EBNA1 dimerization. In an attempt to identify more highly specific peptide inhibitors, small peptides encompassing the EBNA1 DBD/DD were screened for inhibition of EBNA1 DBD-mediated DNA binding function. The small peptide P85, covering EBNA1 a.a. 560–574, significantly blocked EBNA1 DNA binding activity in vitro, prevented dimerization in vitro and in vivo, associated with EBNA1 in vitro, and repressed EBNA1-dependent transcription in vivo. Collectively, this study describes two

  5. Small molecule and peptide-mediated inhibition of Epstein-Barr virus nuclear antigen 1 dimerization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Sun Young; Song, Kyung-A [Samsung Advanced Institute for Health Sciences and Technology (SAIHST), Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Samsung Biomedical Research Institute (SBRI), Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kieff, Elliott [Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women' s Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115 (United States); Kang, Myung-Soo, E-mail: mkang@skku.edu [Samsung Advanced Institute for Health Sciences and Technology (SAIHST), Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Samsung Biomedical Research Institute (SBRI), Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women' s Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115 (United States)

    2012-07-27

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Evidence that targeting EBNA1 dimer, an EBV onco-antigen, can be achievable. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A small molecule and a peptide as EBNA1 dimerization inhibitors identified. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Both inhibitors associated with EBNA1 and blocked EBNA1 DNA binding activity. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Also, prevented its dimerization, and repressed viral gene transcription. -- Abstract: Latent Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection is associated with human B cell lymphomas and certain carcinomas. EBV episome persistence, replication, and gene expression are dependent on EBV-encoded nuclear antigen 1 (EBNA1)'s DNA binding domain (DBD)/dimerization domain (DD)-mediated sequence-specific DNA binding activity. Homodimerization of EBNA1 is essential for EBNA1 DNA binding and transactivation. In this study, we characterized a novel small molecule EBNA1 inhibitor EiK1, screened from the previous high throughput screening (HTS). The EiK1 compound specifically inhibited the EBNA1-dependent, OriP-enhanced transcription, but not EBNA1-independent transcription. A Surface Plasmon Resonance Biacore assay revealed that EiK1 associates with EBNA1 amino acid 459-607 DBD/DD. Consistent with the SPR data, in vitro gel shift assays showed that EiK1 suppressed the activity of EBNA1 binding to the cognate familial repeats (FR) sequence, but not control RBP-J{kappa} binding to the J{kappa} site. Subsequently, a cross-linker-mediated in vitro multimerization assay and EBNA1 homodimerization-dependent yeast two-hybrid assay showed that EiK1 significantly inhibited EBNA1 dimerization. In an attempt to identify more highly specific peptide inhibitors, small peptides encompassing the EBNA1 DBD/DD were screened for inhibition of EBNA1 DBD-mediated DNA binding function. The small peptide P85, covering EBNA1 a.a. 560-574, significantly blocked EBNA1 DNA binding activity in vitro, prevented dimerization in vitro and in vivo, associated

  6. Epstein–Barr virus nuclear antigen 3C interact with p73: Interplay between a viral oncoprotein and cellular tumor suppressor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sahu, Sushil Kumar; Mohanty, Suchitra; Kumar, Amit; Kundu, Chanakya N.; Verma, Subhash C.; Choudhuri, Tathagata

    2014-01-01

    The p73 protein has structural and functional homology with the tumor suppressor p53, which plays an important role in cell cycle regulation, apoptosis, and DNA repair. The p73 locus encodes both a tumor suppressor (TAp73) and a putative oncogene (ΔNp73). p73 May play a significant role in p53-deficient lymphomas infected with Epstein–Barr virus (EBV). EBV produces an asymptomatic infection in the majority of the global population, but it is associated with several human B-cell malignancies. The EBV-encoded Epstein–Barr virus nuclear antigen 3C (EBNA3C) is thought to disrupt the cell cycle checkpoint by interacting directly with p53 family proteins. Doxorubicin, a commonly used chemotherapeutic agent, induces apoptosis through p53 and p73 signaling such that the lowΔNp73 level promotes the p73-mediated intrinsic pathway of apoptosis. In this report, we investigated the mechanism by which EBV infection counters p73α-induced apoptosis through EBNA3C. - Highlights: • EBV-encoded EBNA3C suppresses doxorubicin-induced apoptosis in B-cell lymphomas. • EBNA3C binds to p73 to suppress its apoptotic effect. • EBNA3C maintains latency by regulating downstream mitochondrial pathways

  7. Epstein–Barr virus nuclear antigen 3C interact with p73: Interplay between a viral oncoprotein and cellular tumor suppressor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sahu, Sushil Kumar; Mohanty, Suchitra; Kumar, Amit [Division of Infectious Disease Biology, Institute of Life Sciences, Nalco Square, Chandrasekharpur, Bhubaneswar 751023 (India); Kundu, Chanakya N. [School of Biotechnology, KIIT University, Bhubaneswar (India); Verma, Subhash C. [Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Nevada, School of Medicine, Reno, NV 89557 (United States); Choudhuri, Tathagata, E-mail: tatha@ils.res.in [Division of Infectious Disease Biology, Institute of Life Sciences, Nalco Square, Chandrasekharpur, Bhubaneswar 751023 (India); Department of Biotechnology, Siksha Bhavana, Visva Bharati, Santiniketan, Bolpur (India)

    2014-01-05

    The p73 protein has structural and functional homology with the tumor suppressor p53, which plays an important role in cell cycle regulation, apoptosis, and DNA repair. The p73 locus encodes both a tumor suppressor (TAp73) and a putative oncogene (ΔNp73). p73 May play a significant role in p53-deficient lymphomas infected with Epstein–Barr virus (EBV). EBV produces an asymptomatic infection in the majority of the global population, but it is associated with several human B-cell malignancies. The EBV-encoded Epstein–Barr virus nuclear antigen 3C (EBNA3C) is thought to disrupt the cell cycle checkpoint by interacting directly with p53 family proteins. Doxorubicin, a commonly used chemotherapeutic agent, induces apoptosis through p53 and p73 signaling such that the lowΔNp73 level promotes the p73-mediated intrinsic pathway of apoptosis. In this report, we investigated the mechanism by which EBV infection counters p73α-induced apoptosis through EBNA3C. - Highlights: • EBV-encoded EBNA3C suppresses doxorubicin-induced apoptosis in B-cell lymphomas. • EBNA3C binds to p73 to suppress its apoptotic effect. • EBNA3C maintains latency by regulating downstream mitochondrial pathways.

  8. Epstein-Barr Virus Nuclear Antigen Leader Protein Coactivates EP300.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chong; Zhou, Hufeng; Xue, Yong; Liang, Jun; Narita, Yohei; Gerdt, Catherine; Zheng, Amy Y; Jiang, Runsheng; Trudeau, Stephen; Peng, Chih-Wen; Gewurz, Benjamin E; Zhao, Bo

    2018-05-01

    Epstein-Barr virus nuclear antigen (EBNA) leader protein (EBNALP) is one of the first viral genes expressed upon B-cell infection. EBNALP is essential for EBV-mediated B-cell immortalization. EBNALP is thought to function primarily by coactivating EBNA2-mediated transcription. Chromatin immune precipitation followed by deep sequencing (ChIP-seq) studies highlight that EBNALP frequently cooccupies DNA sites with host cell transcription factors (TFs), in particular, EP300, implicating a broader role in transcription regulation. In this study, we investigated the mechanisms of EBNALP transcription coactivation through EP300. EBNALP greatly enhanced EP300 transcription activation when EP300 was tethered to a promoter. EBNALP coimmunoprecipitated endogenous EP300 from lymphoblastoid cell lines (LCLs). EBNALP W repeat serine residues 34, 36, and 63 were required for EP300 association and coactivation. Deletion of the EP300 histone acetyltransferase (HAT) domain greatly reduced EBNALP coactivation and abolished the EBNALP association. An EP300 bromodomain inhibitor also abolished EBNALP coactivation and blocked the EP300 association with EBNALP. EBNALP sites cooccupied by EP300 had significantly higher ChIP-seq signals for sequence-specific TFs, including SPI1, RelA, EBF1, IRF4, BATF, and PAX5. EBNALP- and EP300-cooccurring sites also had much higher H3K4me1 and H3K27ac signals, indicative of activated enhancers. EBNALP-only sites had much higher signals for DNA looping factors, including CTCF and RAD21. EBNALP coactivated reporters under the control of NF-κB or SPI1. EP300 inhibition abolished EBNALP coactivation of these reporters. Clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat interference targeting of EBNALP enhancer sites significantly reduced target gene expression, including that of EP300 itself. These data suggest a previously unrecognized mechanism by which EBNALP coactivates transcription through subverting of EP300 and thus affects the expression of

  9. Adoptive transfer of EBV specific CD8+ T cell clones can transiently control EBV infection in humanized mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Antsiferova

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Epstein Barr virus (EBV infection expands CD8+ T cells specific for lytic antigens to high frequencies during symptomatic primary infection, and maintains these at significant numbers during persistence. Despite this, the protective function of these lytic EBV antigen-specific cytotoxic CD8+ T cells remains unclear. Here we demonstrate that lytic EBV replication does not significantly contribute to virus-induced B cell proliferation in vitro and in vivo in a mouse model with reconstituted human immune system components (huNSG mice. However, we report a trend to reduction of EBV-induced lymphoproliferation outside of lymphoid organs upon diminished lytic replication. Moreover, we could demonstrate that CD8+ T cells against the lytic EBV antigen BMLF1 can eliminate lytically replicating EBV-transformed B cells from lymphoblastoid cell lines (LCLs and in vivo, thereby transiently controlling high viremia after adoptive transfer into EBV infected huNSG mice. These findings suggest a protective function for lytic EBV antigen-specific CD8+ T cells against EBV infection and against virus-associated tumors in extra-lymphoid organs. These specificities should be explored for EBV-specific vaccine development.

  10. Prevalence and molecular profiling of Epstein Barr virus (EBV) among healthy blood donors from different nationalities in Qatar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smatti, Maria K; Yassine, Hadi M; AbuOdeh, Raed; AlMarawani, Asmaa; Taleb, Sara A; Althani, Asmaa A; Nasrallah, Gheyath K

    2017-01-01

    The Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is the causative agent of infectious mononucleosis. EBV is highly prevalent lymphotropic herpesvirus and has been linked to several malignancies. Transmission is generally by oral secretions, but can be through blood transfusions and organ transplantations. This study aimed to determine the seroprevalence, viremia rates, and circulating genotypes of EBV in healthy blood donors in Qatar. Blood samples from 673 blood donors of different nationalities residing in Qatar (mainly Qatar, Egypt, Syria, Jordan, Pakistan, and India) were collected and tested for anti-EBV capsid (VCA; IgG & IgM), nuclear (EBNA; IgG), and early (EA-D; IgG) antigens. Avidity testing was determined when active infection was suspected. DNA was extracted from the buffy coat and subjected to EBV-DNA quantification using qRT-PCR. Genotyping was performed using nested-PCR targeting EBV-EBNA2 gene, and phylogeny by sequence analysis of the LMP-1 gene. 97.9% (673/659) of the samples were seropositive as indicated by the presence VCA-IgG, while 52.6% (354/673) had detectible EBV-DNA. EBV seroprevalence and viremia rates increased significantly with age. Genotyping of 51 randomly selected samples showed predominance of Genotype 1 (72.5%, 37/51) as compared to genotype 2 (3.5%), and mixed infections were detected in 4% of the samples. Sub-genotyping for these samples revealed that the Mediterranean strain was predominant (65.3%), followed by B95.8 prototype and North Carolina strains (12.2% each), and China1 strain (6%). As a first study to evaluate EBV infection in highly diverse population in Qatar, where expatriates represent more than 85% of the population, our results indicated high seroprevalence and viremia rate of EBV in different nationalities, with genotype 1 and Mediterranean strain being predominant. Clinical significance of these finding have not been investigated and shall be evaluated in future studies.

  11. Epstein-Barr virus nuclear antigen 3C stabilizes Gemin3 to block p53-mediated apoptosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiliang Cai

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The Epstein-Barr nuclear antigen 3C (EBNA3C, one of the essential latent antigens for Epstein-Barr virus (EBV-induced immortalization of primary human B lymphocytes in vitro, has been implicated in regulating cell proliferation and anti-apoptosis via interaction with several cellular and viral factors. Gemin3 (also named DDX20 or DP103 is a member of DEAD RNA helicase family which exhibits diverse cellular functions including DNA transcription, recombination and repair, and RNA metabolism. Gemin3 was initially identified as a binding partner to EBNA2 and EBNA3C. However, the mechanism by which EBNA3C regulates Gemin3 function remains unclear. Here, we report that EBNA3C directly interacts with Gemin3 through its C-terminal domains. This interaction results in increased stability of Gemin3 and its accumulation in both B lymphoma cells and EBV transformed lymphoblastoid cell lines (LCLs. Moreover, EBNA3C promotes formation of a complex with p53 and Gemin3 which blocks the DNA-binding affinity of p53. Small hairpin RNA based knockdown of Gemin3 in B lymphoma or LCL cells remarkably attenuates the ability of EBNA3C to inhibit the transcription activity of p53 on its downstream genes p21 and Bax, as well as apoptosis. These findings provide the first evidence that Gemin3 may be a common target of oncogenic viruses for driving cell proliferation and anti-apoptotic activities.

  12. Zinc coordination is required for and regulates transcription activation by Epstein-Barr nuclear antigen 1.

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    Siddhesh Aras

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Epstein-Barr Nuclear Antigen 1 (EBNA1 is essential for Epstein-Barr virus to immortalize naïve B-cells. Upon binding a cluster of 20 cognate binding-sites termed the family of repeats, EBNA1 transactivates promoters for EBV genes that are required for immortalization. A small domain, termed UR1, that is 25 amino-acids in length, has been identified previously as essential for EBNA1 to activate transcription. In this study, we have elucidated how UR1 contributes to EBNA1's ability to transactivate. We show that zinc is necessary for EBNA1 to activate transcription, and that UR1 coordinates zinc through a pair of essential cysteines contained within it. UR1 dimerizes upon coordinating zinc, indicating that EBNA1 contains a second dimerization interface in its amino-terminus. There is a strong correlation between UR1-mediated dimerization and EBNA1's ability to transactivate cooperatively. Point mutants of EBNA1 that disrupt zinc coordination also prevent self-association, and do not activate transcription cooperatively. Further, we demonstrate that UR1 acts as a molecular sensor that regulates the ability of EBNA1 to activate transcription in response to changes in redox and oxygen partial pressure (pO(2. Mild oxidative stress mimicking such environmental changes decreases EBNA1-dependent transcription in a lymphoblastoid cell-line. Coincident with a reduction in EBNA1-dependent transcription, reductions are observed in EBNA2 and LMP1 protein levels. Although these changes do not affect LCL survival, treated cells accumulate in G0/G1. These findings are discussed in the context of EBV latency in body compartments that differ strikingly in their pO(2 and redox potential.

  13. Real-time Epstein-Barr virus PCR for the diagnosis of primary EBV infections and EBV reactivation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Luderer (Rianne); M. Kok (Marieke); H.G.M. Niesters (Bert); R. Schuurman (Rob); O. de Weerdt (Okke); S.F. Thijsen (Steven)

    2005-01-01

    textabstractBackground: The serological diagnosis of primary Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infections is often difficult, whereas the relevance of elevated immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies against early antigen (EA) for the diagnosis of EBV reactivation has increasingly become a matter of dispute.

  14. Heterogeneity of the Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV) Major Internal Repeat Reveals Evolutionary Mechanisms of EBV and a Functional Defect in the Prototype EBV Strain B95-8.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ba Abdullah, Mohammed M; Palermo, Richard D; Palser, Anne L; Grayson, Nicholas E; Kellam, Paul; Correia, Samantha; Szymula, Agnieszka; White, Robert E

    2017-12-01

    Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is a ubiquitous pathogen of humans that can cause several types of lymphoma and carcinoma. Like other herpesviruses, EBV has diversified through both coevolution with its host and genetic exchange between virus strains. Sequence analysis of the EBV genome is unusually challenging because of the large number and lengths of repeat regions within the virus. Here we describe the sequence assembly and analysis of the large internal repeat 1 of EBV (IR1; also known as the BamW repeats) for more than 70 strains. The diversity of the latency protein EBV nuclear antigen leader protein (EBNA-LP) resides predominantly within the exons downstream of IR1. The integrity of the putative BWRF1 open reading frame (ORF) is retained in over 80% of strains, and deletions truncating IR1 always spare BWRF1. Conserved regions include the IR1 latency promoter (Wp) and one zone upstream of and two within BWRF1. IR1 is heterogeneous in 70% of strains, and this heterogeneity arises from sequence exchange between strains as well as from spontaneous mutation, with interstrain recombination being more common in tumor-derived viruses. This genetic exchange often incorporates regions of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infects the majority of the world population but causes illness in only a small minority of people. Nevertheless, over 1% of cancers worldwide are attributable to EBV. Recent sequencing projects investigating virus diversity to see if different strains have different disease impacts have excluded regions of repeating sequence, as they are more technically challenging. Here we analyze the sequence of the largest repeat in EBV (IR1). We first characterized the variations in protein sequences encoded across IR1. In studying variations within the repeat of each strain, we identified a mutation in the main laboratory strain of EBV that impairs virus function, and we suggest that tumor-associated viruses may be more likely to contain DNA mixed from two strains. The

  15. Reduced response to Epstein–Barr virus antigens by T-cells in systemic lupus erythematosus patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Draborg, Anette Holck; Jacobsen, Søren; Westergaard, Marie; Mortensen, Shila; Larsen, Janni Lisander; Houen, Gunnar; Duus, Karen

    2014-01-01

    Objective Epstein–Barr virus (EBV) has for long been associated with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). In this study, we investigated the levels of latent and lytic antigen EBV-specific T-cells and antibodies in SLE patients. Methods T cells were analyzed by flow cytometry and antibodies were analyzed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Results SLE patients showed a significantly reduced number of activated (CD69) T-cells upon ex vivo stimulation with EBV nuclear antigen (EBNA) 1 or EBV early antigen diffuse (EBV-EA/D) in whole blood samples compared with healthy controls. Also, a reduced number of T-cells from SLE patients were found to produce interferon-γ upon stimulation with these antigens. Importantly, responses to a superantigen were normal in SLE patients. Compared with healthy controls, SLE patients had fewer EBV-specific T-cells but higher titres of antibodies against EBV. Furthermore, an inverse correlation was revealed between the number of lytic antigen EBV-specific T-cells and disease activity of the SLE patients, with high-activity SLE patients having fewer T-cells than low-activity SLE patients. Conclusions These results indicate a limited or a defective EBV-specific T-cell response in SLE patients, which may suggest poor control of EBV infection in SLE with an immune reaction shift towards a humoral response in an attempt to control viral reactivation. A role for decreased control of EBV as a contributing agent in the development or exacerbation of SLE is proposed. PMID:25396062

  16. Nonsteroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs Quickly Resolve Symptoms Associated with EBV-Induced Infectious Mononucleosis in Patients with Atopic Predispositions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazama, Itsuro; Miura, Chieko; Nakajima, Toshiyuki

    2016-02-14

    Infectious mononucleosis is a clinical syndrome most commonly associated with primary Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection. In adults, the symptoms can often be severe and prolonged, sometimes causing serious complications. Analgesic or antipyretic drugs are normally used to relieve the symptoms. However, there is no causal treatment for the disease. Two cases of adult patients with atopic predispositions developed nocturnal fever, general fatigue, pharyngitis and lymphadenopathy after an exacerbation of atopic symptoms or those of allergic rhinitis. Due to the positive results for EBV viral-capsid antigen (VCA) IgM and negative results for EBV nuclear antigen (EBNA) IgG, diagnoses of infectious mononucleosis induced by EBV were made in both cases. Although oral antibiotics or acetaminophen alone did not improve the deteriorating symptoms, including fever, headache and general fatigue, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), such as tiaramide or loxoprofen, completely improved the symptoms quickly after the initiation. In these cases, given the atopic predispositions of the patients, an enhanced immunological response was likely to be mainly responsible for the pathogenesis of the symptoms. In such cases, NSAIDs, that are known to reduce the activity of EBV, may dramatically improve the deteriorating symptoms quickly after the initiation. In the present cases, the immunosuppressive property of these drugs was considered to suppress the activity of lymphocytes and thus provide the rapid and persistent remission of the disease.

  17. Epstein-Barr virus nuclear antigen EBNA-LP is essential for transforming naïve B cells, and facilitates recruitment of transcription factors to the viral genome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szymula, Agnieszka; Palermo, Richard D; Bayoumy, Amr; Groves, Ian J; Ba Abdullah, Mohammed; Holder, Beth; White, Robert E

    2018-02-01

    The Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) nuclear antigen leader protein (EBNA-LP) is the first viral latency-associated protein produced after EBV infection of resting B cells. Its role in B cell transformation is poorly defined, but it has been reported to enhance gene activation by the EBV protein EBNA2 in vitro. We generated EBNA-LP knockout (LPKO) EBVs containing a STOP codon within each repeat unit of internal repeat 1 (IR1). EBNA-LP-mutant EBVs established lymphoblastoid cell lines (LCLs) from adult B cells at reduced efficiency, but not from umbilical cord B cells, which died approximately two weeks after infection. Adult B cells only established EBNA-LP-null LCLs with a memory (CD27+) phenotype. Quantitative PCR analysis of virus gene expression after infection identified both an altered ratio of the EBNA genes, and a dramatic reduction in transcript levels of both EBNA2-regulated virus genes (LMP1 and LMP2) and the EBNA2-independent EBER genes in the first 2 weeks. By 30 days post infection, LPKO transcription was the same as wild-type EBV. In contrast, EBNA2-regulated cellular genes were induced efficiently by LPKO viruses. Chromatin immunoprecipitation revealed that EBNA2 and the host transcription factors EBF1 and RBPJ were delayed in their recruitment to all viral latency promoters tested, whereas these same factors were recruited efficiently to several host genes, which exhibited increased EBNA2 recruitment. We conclude that EBNA-LP does not simply co-operate with EBNA2 in activating gene transcription, but rather facilitates the recruitment of several transcription factors to the viral genome, to enable transcription of virus latency genes. Additionally, our findings suggest that EBNA-LP is essential for the survival of EBV-infected naïve B cells.

  18. Epstein-Barr virus nuclear antigen EBNA-LP is essential for transforming naïve B cells, and facilitates recruitment of transcription factors to the viral genome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szymula, Agnieszka; Palermo, Richard D.; Bayoumy, Amr; Groves, Ian J.

    2018-01-01

    The Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) nuclear antigen leader protein (EBNA-LP) is the first viral latency-associated protein produced after EBV infection of resting B cells. Its role in B cell transformation is poorly defined, but it has been reported to enhance gene activation by the EBV protein EBNA2 in vitro. We generated EBNA-LP knockout (LPKO) EBVs containing a STOP codon within each repeat unit of internal repeat 1 (IR1). EBNA-LP-mutant EBVs established lymphoblastoid cell lines (LCLs) from adult B cells at reduced efficiency, but not from umbilical cord B cells, which died approximately two weeks after infection. Adult B cells only established EBNA-LP-null LCLs with a memory (CD27+) phenotype. Quantitative PCR analysis of virus gene expression after infection identified both an altered ratio of the EBNA genes, and a dramatic reduction in transcript levels of both EBNA2-regulated virus genes (LMP1 and LMP2) and the EBNA2-independent EBER genes in the first 2 weeks. By 30 days post infection, LPKO transcription was the same as wild-type EBV. In contrast, EBNA2-regulated cellular genes were induced efficiently by LPKO viruses. Chromatin immunoprecipitation revealed that EBNA2 and the host transcription factors EBF1 and RBPJ were delayed in their recruitment to all viral latency promoters tested, whereas these same factors were recruited efficiently to several host genes, which exhibited increased EBNA2 recruitment. We conclude that EBNA-LP does not simply co-operate with EBNA2 in activating gene transcription, but rather facilitates the recruitment of several transcription factors to the viral genome, to enable transcription of virus latency genes. Additionally, our findings suggest that EBNA-LP is essential for the survival of EBV-infected naïve B cells. PMID:29462212

  19. Individuazione di un nuovo marker da impiegare per una corretta stadiazione dell’infezione da EBV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luana Coltella

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Epstein Barr Virus (EBV, also classified as Human Herpes Virus 4, infects the vast majority of adults worldwide and establishes both non-productive (latent and productive (lytic infection. Classical EBV diagnosis includes quantitative determination of viral DNA and serological analysis, based on the determination of IgG and IgM responses against the viral capsid antigen (VCA and the IgG response against the EBV nuclear antigen-1 (EBNA-1. EBV-serology can be misleading in some cases, such as acute infections with low or undetectable VCA IgM, convalescent patients with persistent or reactivated VCA IgM and negative anti- EBNA-1 IgG, due to a loss of this marker during immunosuppression. In all these cases avidity determination of IgG is helpful to prevent false diagnosis. Avidity represents the stability of the antigen-antibody interaction. Its value increases during the infection, so high avidity never associates with a primary acute infection. We studied the importance of avidity determination of p18 (VCA-IgG to achieve unequivocal interpretation of serological results. The amount of IgG and IgM is determined by Chemiluminescent Immune Assay (CLIA, a rapid and highly sensitive method suitable for automation. The intensity of luminous signal produced by antibody-antigen recognition is expressed as Relative Light Unit (RLU. p-18 IgG is determined using a recombinant p18 antigen expressed in E. coli. Avidity index is determined in CLIA by the ratio between denaturated and not denaturated IgG specific antibodies expressed in RLU. These results demonstrate that avidity determination represents an important additional marker particularly in cases with aberrant serological profile.

  20. Evaluation of the presence of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) in Iranian patients with thyroid papillary carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homayouni, Maryam; Mohammad Arabzadeh, Seyed Ali; Nili, Fatemeh; Razi, Farideh; Amoli, Mahsa Mohammad

    2017-07-01

    Papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) is the most common thyroid cancer. EBV is one of the most important viruses related to different types of malignancies. This study investigated the relationship between EBV and papillary thyroid carcinoma. In this study the presence of Epstein-Barr Nuclear Antigen 1 (EBNA1) gene in papillary thyroid carcinoma tissues were examined by nested-PCR method. Paraffin-embedded tissues (N=41) blocks of thyroid cancer were used. DNA was extracted from all samples and then samples were evaluated for the presence of EBV gene. In 41 samples, EBNA1 was detected in 65.8% of patients with papillary thyroid carcinoma which was significantly higher in younger ages. The significant presence of EBV genome in papillary thyroid carcinoma suggests that this virus may play a role in this cancer especially in younger ages. As a result, monitoring of patients with EBV latent infection for PTC can be very important. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  1. KSHV LANA and EBV LMP1 induce the expression of UCH-L1 following viral transformation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bentz, Gretchen L.; Bheda-Malge, Anjali; Wang, Ling [Lineberger Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill (United States); Shackelford, Julia [Lineberger Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill (United States); Department of Cell and Developmental Biology, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill (United States); Damania, Blossom [Lineberger Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill (United States); Departments of Medicine and of Microbiology and Immunology, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC (United States); Pagano, Joseph S., E-mail: joseph_pagano@med.unc.edu [Lineberger Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill (United States); Departments of Medicine and of Microbiology and Immunology, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC (United States)

    2014-01-05

    Ubiquitin C-terminal Hydrolase L1 (UCH-L1) has oncogenic properties and is highly expressed during malignancies. We recently documented that Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection induces uch-l1 expression. Here we show that Kaposi's Sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) infection induced UCH-L1 expression, via cooperation of KSHV Latency-Associated Nuclear Antigen (LANA) and RBP-Jκ and activation of the uch-l1 promoter. UCH-L1 expression was also increased in Primary Effusion Lymphoma (PEL) cells co-infected with KSHV and EBV compared with PEL cells infected only with KSHV, suggesting EBV augments the effect of LANA on uch-l1. EBV latent membrane protein 1 (LMP1) is one of the few EBV products expressed in PEL cells. Results showed that LMP1 was sufficient to induce uch-l1 expression, and co-expression of LMP1 and LANA had an additive effect on uch-l1 expression. These results indicate that viral latency products of both human γ-herpesviruses contribute to uch-l1 expression, which may contribute to the progression of lymphoid malignancies. - Highlights: • Infection of endothelial cells with KSHV induced UCH-L1 expression. • KSHV LANA is sufficient for the induction of uch-l1. • Co-infection with KSHV and EBV (observed in some PELs) results in the additive induction of uch-l1. • EBV LMP1 also induced UCH-L1 expression. • LANA- and LMP1-mediated activation of the uch-l1 promoter is in part through RBP-Jκ.

  2. Prevalence and molecular profiling of Epstein Barr virus (EBV among healthy blood donors from different nationalities in Qatar.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria K Smatti

    Full Text Available The Epstein-Barr virus (EBV is the causative agent of infectious mononucleosis. EBV is highly prevalent lymphotropic herpesvirus and has been linked to several malignancies. Transmission is generally by oral secretions, but can be through blood transfusions and organ transplantations. This study aimed to determine the seroprevalence, viremia rates, and circulating genotypes of EBV in healthy blood donors in Qatar.Blood samples from 673 blood donors of different nationalities residing in Qatar (mainly Qatar, Egypt, Syria, Jordan, Pakistan, and India were collected and tested for anti-EBV capsid (VCA; IgG & IgM, nuclear (EBNA; IgG, and early (EA-D; IgG antigens. Avidity testing was determined when active infection was suspected. DNA was extracted from the buffy coat and subjected to EBV-DNA quantification using qRT-PCR. Genotyping was performed using nested-PCR targeting EBV-EBNA2 gene, and phylogeny by sequence analysis of the LMP-1 gene.97.9% (673/659 of the samples were seropositive as indicated by the presence VCA-IgG, while 52.6% (354/673 had detectible EBV-DNA. EBV seroprevalence and viremia rates increased significantly with age. Genotyping of 51 randomly selected samples showed predominance of Genotype 1 (72.5%, 37/51 as compared to genotype 2 (3.5%, and mixed infections were detected in 4% of the samples. Sub-genotyping for these samples revealed that the Mediterranean strain was predominant (65.3%, followed by B95.8 prototype and North Carolina strains (12.2% each, and China1 strain (6%.As a first study to evaluate EBV infection in highly diverse population in Qatar, where expatriates represent more than 85% of the population, our results indicated high seroprevalence and viremia rate of EBV in different nationalities, with genotype 1 and Mediterranean strain being predominant. Clinical significance of these finding have not been investigated and shall be evaluated in future studies.

  3. EBV CHRONIC INFECTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eligio Pizzigallo

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The infection from Epstein-Barr virus (EBV or virus of infectious mononucleosis, together with other herpesviruses’ infections, represents a prototype of persistent viral infections characterized by the property of the latency. Although the reactivations of the latent infection are associated with the resumption of the viral replication and eventually with the “shedding”, it is still not clear if this virus can determine chronic infectious diseases, more or less evolutive. These diseases could include some pathological conditions actually defined as “idiopathic”and characterized by the “viral persistence” as the more credible pathogenetic factor. Among the so-called idiopathic syndromes, the “chronic fatigue syndrome” (CFS aroused a great interest around the eighties of the last century when, just for its relationship with EBV, it was called “chronic mononucleosis” or “chronic EBV infection”. Today CFS, as defined in 1994 by the CDC of Atlanta (USA, really represents a multifactorial syndrome characterized by a chronic course, where reactivation and remission phases alternate, and by a good prognosis. The etiopathogenetic role of EBV is demonstrated only in a well-examined subgroup of patients, while in most of the remaining cases this role should be played by other infectious agents - able to remain in a latent or persistent way in the host – or even by not infectious agents (toxic, neuroendocrine, methabolic, etc.. However, the pathogenetic substrate of the different etiologic forms seems to be the same, much probably represented by the oxidative damage due to the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines as a response to the triggering event (infectious or not infectious. Anyway, recently the scientists turned their’s attention to the genetic predisposition of the subjects affected by the syndrome, so that in the last years the genetic studies, together with those of molecular biology, received a great impulse

  4. Novel Epstein-Barr virus-like particles incorporating gH/gL-EBNA1 or gB-LMP2 induce high neutralizing antibody titers and EBV-specific T-cell responses in immunized mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez, Elizabeth M; Foley, Joslyn; Tison, Timelia; Silva, Rute; Ogembo, Javier Gordon

    2017-03-21

    Previous Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) prophylactic vaccines based on the major surface glycoprotein gp350/220 as an immunogen have failed to block viral infection in humans, suggesting a need to target other viral envelope glycoproteins. In this study, we reasoned that incorporating gH/gL or gB, critical glycoproteins for viral fusion and entry, on the surface of a virus-like particle (VLP) would be more immunogenic than gp350/220 for generating effective neutralizing antibodies to prevent viral infection of both epithelial and B cell lines. To boost the humoral response and trigger cell-mediated immunity, EBV nuclear antigen 1 (EBNA1) and latent membrane protein 2 (LMP2), intracellular latency proteins expressed in all EBV-infected cells, were also included as critical components of the polyvalent EBV VLP. gH/gL-EBNA1 and gB-LMP2 VLPs were efficiently produced in Chinese hamster ovary cells, an FDA-approved vehicle for mass-production of biologics. Immunization with gH/gL-EBNA1 and gB-LMP2 VLPs without adjuvant generated both high neutralizing antibody titers in vitro and EBV-specific T-cell responses in BALB/c mice. These data demonstrate that will be invaluable not only in preventing EBV infection, but importantly, in preventing and treating the 200,000 cases of EBV-associated cancers that occur globally every year.

  5. Performance of the architect EBV antibody panel for determination of Epstein-Barr virus infection stage in immunocompetent adolescents and young adults with clinical suspicion of infectious mononucleosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerrero-Ramos, Alvaro; Patel, Mauli; Kadakia, Kinjal; Haque, Tanzina

    2014-06-01

    The Architect EBV antibody panel is a new chemiluminescence immunoassay system used to determine the stage of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection based on the detection of IgM and IgG antibodies to viral capsid antigen (VCA) and IgG antibodies against Epstein-Barr nuclear antigen 1 (EBNA-1). We evaluated its diagnostic accuracy in immunocompetent adolescents and young adults with clinical suspicion of infectious mononucleosis (IM) using the RecomLine EBV IgM and IgG immunoblots as the reference standard. In addition, the use of the antibody panel in a sequential testing algorithm based on initial EBNA-1 IgG analysis was assessed for cost-effectiveness. Finally, we investigated the degree of cross-reactivity of the VCA IgM marker during other primary viral infections that may present with an EBV IM-like picture. High sensitivity (98.3% [95% confidence interval {CI}, 90.7 to 99.7%]) and specificity (94.2% [95% CI, 87.9 to 97.8%]) were found after testing 162 precharacterized archived serum samples. There was perfect agreement between the use of the antibody panel in sequential and parallel testing algorithms, but substantial cost savings (23%) were obtained with the sequential strategy. A high rate of reactive VCA IgM results was found in primary cytomegalovirus (CMV) infections (60.7%). In summary, the Architect EBV antibody panel performs satisfactorily in the investigation of EBV IM in immunocompetent adolescents and young adults, and the application of an EBNA-1 IgG-based sequential testing algorithm is cost-effective in this diagnostic setting. Concomitant testing for CMV is strongly recommended to aid in the interpretation of EBV serological patterns. Copyright © 2014, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  6. Expression of alpha V integrin is modulated by Epstein-Barr virus nuclear antigen 3C and the metastasis suppressor Nm23-H1 through interaction with the GATA-1 and Sp1 transcription factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choudhuri, Tathagata; Verma, Subhash C.; Lan, Ke; Robertson, Erle S.

    2006-01-01

    Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is a lymphotrophic herpesvirus infecting most of the world's population. It is associated with a number of human lymphoid and epithelial tumors and lymphoproliferative diseases in immunocompromised patients. A subset of latent EBV antigens is required for immortalization of primary B-lymphocytes. The metastatic suppressor Nm23-H1 which is downregulated in human invasive breast carcinoma reduces the migration and metastatic activity of breast carcinoma cells when expressed from a heterologous promoter. Interestingly, the EBV nuclear antigen 3C (EBNA3C) reverses these activities of Nm23-H1. The alpha V integrins recognize a variety of ligands for signaling and are involved in cell migration and proliferation and also serve as major receptors for extracellular-matrix-mediated cell adhesion and migration. The goal of this study was to determine if Nm23-H1 and EBNA3C can modulate alpha V integrin expression and downstream activities. The results of our studies indicate that Nm23-H1 downregulates alpha V intregrin expression in a dose responsive manner. In contrast, EBNA3C can upregulate alpha V integrin expression. Furthermore, the study showed that the association of the Sp1 and GATA transcription factors with Nm23-H1 is required for modulation of the alpha V integrin activity. Thus, these results suggest a direct correlation between the alpha V integrin expression and the interaction of Nm23-H1 with EBNA3C

  7. Genome-wide analysis of host-chromosome binding sites for Epstein-Barr Virus Nuclear Antigen 1 (EBNA1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Pu

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV Nuclear Antigen 1 (EBNA1 protein is required for the establishment of EBV latent infection in proliferating B-lymphocytes. EBNA1 is a multifunctional DNA-binding protein that stimulates DNA replication at the viral origin of plasmid replication (OriP, regulates transcription of viral and cellular genes, and tethers the viral episome to the cellular chromosome. EBNA1 also provides a survival function to B-lymphocytes, potentially through its ability to alter cellular gene expression. To better understand these various functions of EBNA1, we performed a genome-wide analysis of the viral and cellular DNA sites associated with EBNA1 protein in a latently infected Burkitt lymphoma B-cell line. Chromatin-immunoprecipitation (ChIP combined with massively parallel deep-sequencing (ChIP-Seq was used to identify cellular sites bound by EBNA1. Sites identified by ChIP-Seq were validated by conventional real-time PCR, and ChIP-Seq provided quantitative, high-resolution detection of the known EBNA1 binding sites on the EBV genome at OriP and Qp. We identified at least one cluster of unusually high-affinity EBNA1 binding sites on chromosome 11, between the divergent FAM55 D and FAM55B genes. A consensus for all cellular EBNA1 binding sites is distinct from those derived from the known viral binding sites, suggesting that some of these sites are indirectly bound by EBNA1. EBNA1 also bound close to the transcriptional start sites of a large number of cellular genes, including HDAC3, CDC7, and MAP3K1, which we show are positively regulated by EBNA1. EBNA1 binding sites were enriched in some repetitive elements, especially LINE 1 retrotransposons, and had weak correlations with histone modifications and ORC binding. We conclude that EBNA1 can interact with a large number of cellular genes and chromosomal loci in latently infected cells, but that these sites are likely to represent a complex ensemble of direct and indirect EBNA

  8. An Animal Model for Human EBV-Associated Hemophagocytic Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Kazuhiko; Ohara, Nobuya; Teramoto, Norihiro; Onoda, Sachiyo; Chen, Hong-Li; Oka, Takashi; Kondo, Eisaku; Yoshino, Tadashi; Takahashi, Kiyoshi; Yates, John; Akagi, Tadaatsu

    2001-01-01

    Epstein-Barr virus-associated hemophagocytic syndrome (EBV-AHS) is often associated with fatal infectious mononucleosis. However, the animal model for EBV-AHS has not been developed. We reported the first animal model for EBV-AHS using rabbits infected with EBV-related herpesvirus of baboon (HVP). Eleven of 13 (85%) rabbits inoculated intravenously with HVP-producing cells developed fatal lymphoproliferative disorders (LPD) between 22 and 105 days after inoculation. LPD was also accompanied by hemophagocytic syndrome (HPS) in nine of these 11 rabbits. The peroral spray of cell-free HVP induced the virus infection with increased anti-EBV-viral capsid antigen-IgG titers in three of five rabbits, and two of these three infected rabbits died of LPD with HPS. Autopsy revealed hepatosplenomegaly and swollen lymph nodes. Atypical lymphoid T cells expressing EBV-encoded small RNA-1 infiltrated diffusely in many organs, frequently involving the lymph nodes, spleen, and liver. Hemophagocytic histiocytosis was observed in the lymph nodes, spleen, bone marrow, and thymus. HVP-DNA was detected in the tissues and peripheral blood from the infected rabbits by polymerase chain reaction or Southern blot analysis. Reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction revealed both HVP-EBNA1 and HVP-EBNA2 transcripts, suggesting latency type III infection. These data indicate that the high rate of rabbit LPD with HPS induction is caused by HVP. This system is useful for studying the pathogenesis, prevention, and treatment of human EBV-AHS. PMID:11290571

  9. EBV CHRONIC INFECTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delia Racciatti

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available

    The infection from Epstein-Barr virus (EBV or virus of infectious mononucleosis, together with other herpesviruses’ infections, represents a prototype of persistent viral infections characterized by the property of the latency. Although the reactivations of the latent infection are associated with the resumption of the viral replication and eventually with the “shedding”, it is still not clear if this virus can determine chronic infectious diseases, more or less evolutive. These diseases could include some pathological conditions actually defined as “idiopathic”and characterized by the “viral persistence” as the more credible pathogenetic factor. Among the so-called idiopathic syndromes, the “chronic fatigue syndrome” (CFS aroused a great interest around the eighties of the last century when, just for its relationship with EBV, it was called “chronic mononucleosis” or “chronic EBV infection”.

    Today CFS, as defined in 1994 by the CDC of Atlanta (USA, really represents a multifactorial syndrome characterized by a chronic course, where reactivation and remission phases alternate, and by a good prognosis

  10. Phosphorylation of the Epstein-Barr virus nuclear antigen 2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grässer, F A; Göttel, S; Haiss, P

    1992-01-01

    A major in vivo phosphorylation site of the Epstein-Barr virus nuclear antigen 2 (EBNA-2) was found to be localized at the C-terminus of the protein. In vitro phosphorylation studies using casein kinase 1 (CK-1) and casein kinase 2 (CK-2) revealed that EBNA-2 is a substrate for CK-2, but not for CK......-1. The CK-2 specific phosphorylation site was localized in the 140 C-terminal amino acids using a recombinant trpE-C-terminal fusion protein. In a similar experiment, the 58 N-terminal amino acids expressed as a recombinant trpE-fusion protein were not phosphorylated. Phosphorylation of a synthetic...

  11. Immunofluorescent staining of nuclear antigen in lymphoid cells transformed by Herpesvirus papio (HVP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitz, H

    1981-01-01

    An improved fixation method for antigen detection in lymphoblastoid cells is described. Herpesvirus papio nuclear antigen (HUPNA) could be stained in several transformed lymphoid cell lines by anti-complement immunofluorescence (ACIF). Antibody to HUPNA was detected in many human sera containing antibodies to Epstein-Barr virus capsid and nuclear antigen (EBNA). Rheumatoid arthritis sera showed a high incidence of both anti-EBNA and anti-HUPNA antibodies.

  12. The Epstein-Barr virus nuclear antigen-6 protein co-localizes with EBNA-3 and survival of motor neurons protein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krauer, Kenia G.; Buck, Marion; Belzer, Deanna K.; Flanagan, James; Chojnowski, Grace M.; Sculley, Tom B.

    2004-01-01

    The Epstein-Barr virus nuclear antigen (EBNA)-6 protein is essential for Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-induced immortalization of primary human B-lymphocytes in vitro. In this study, fusion proteins of EBNA-6 with green fluorescent protein (GFP) have been used to characterize its nuclear localization and organization within the nucleus. EBNA-6 associates with nuclear structures and in immunofluorescence demonstrate a punctate staining pattern. Herein, we show that the association of EBNA-6 with these nuclear structures was maintained throughout the cell cycle and with the use of GFP-E6 deletion mutants, that the region amino acids 733-808 of EBNA-6 contains a domain that can influence the association of EBNA-6 with these nuclear structures. Co-immunofluorescence and confocal analyses demonstrated that EBNA-6 and EBNA-3 co-localize in the nucleus of cells. Expression of EBNA-6, but not EBNA-3, caused a redistribution of nuclear survival of motor neurons protein (SMN) to the EBNA-6 containing nuclear structures resulting in co-localization of SMN with EBNA-6

  13. Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV) Latent Protein EBNA3A Directly Targets and Silences the STK39 Gene in B Cells Infected by EBV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazot, Quentin; Paschos, Kostas; Allday, Martin J

    2018-04-01

    Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) establishes latent infection in human B cells and is associated with a wide range of cancers. The EBV nuclear antigen 3 (EBNA3) family proteins are critical for B cell transformation and function as transcriptional regulators. It is well established that EBNA3A and EBNA3C cooperate in the regulation of cellular genes. Here, we demonstrate that the gene STK39 is repressed only by EBNA3A. This is the first example of a gene regulated only by EBNA3A in EBV-transformed lymphoblastoid cell lines (LCLs) without the help of EBNA3C. This was demonstrated using a variety of LCLs carrying either knockout, revertant, or conditional EBNA3 recombinants. Investigating the kinetics of EBNA3A-mediated changes in STK39 expression showed that STK39 becomes derepressed quickly after EBNA3A inactivation. This derepression is reversible as EBNA3A reactivation represses STK39 in the same cells expressing a conditional EBNA3A. STK39 is silenced shortly after primary B cell infection by EBV, and no STK39 -encoded protein (SPAK) is detected 3 weeks postinfection. Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) analysis indicates that EBNA3A directly binds to a regulatory region downstream of the STK39 transcription start site. For the first time, we demonstrated that the polycomb repressive complex 2 with the deposition of the repressive mark H3K27me3 is not only important for the maintenance of an EBNA3A target gene ( STK39 ) but is also essential for the initial establishment of its silencing. Finally, we showed that DNA methyltransferases are involved in the EBNA3A-mediated repression of STK39 IMPORTANCE EBV is well known for its ability to transform B lymphocytes to continuously proliferating lymphoblastoid cell lines. This is achieved in part by the reprogramming of cellular gene transcription by EBV transcription factors, including the EBNA3 proteins that play a crucial role in this process. In the present study, we found that EBNA3A epigenetically silences STK39 This

  14. Nuclear lamins and peripheral nuclear antigens during fertilization and embryogenesis in mice and sea urchins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schatten, G.; Schatten, H.; Simerly, C.; Maul, G. G.; Chaly, N.

    1985-01-01

    Nuclear structural changes during fertilization and embryogenesis in mice and sea urchins are traced using four antibodies. The oocytes from virgin female mice, morulae and blastocytes from mated females, and gametes from the sea urchin Lytechnius variegatis are studied using mouse monoclonal antibodies to nuclear lamin A/C, monoclonal antibody to P1, human autoimmune antibodies to lamin A/C, and to lamin B. The mouse fertilization data reveal no lamins on the oocyte; however, lamins are present on the pronuclei, and chromosomes are found on the oocytes and pronuclei. It is detected that on the sea urchin sperm the lamins are reduced to acrosomal and centriolar fossae and peripheral antigens are around the sperm nucleus. The mouse sperm bind lamin antibodies regionally and do not contain antigens. Lamins and antigens are observed on both pronuclei and chromosomes during sea urchin fertilization. Mouse embryogenesis reveals that lamin A/C is not recognized at morula and blastocyst stages; however, lamin B stains are retained. In sea urchin embryogenesis lamin recognition is lost at the blastrula, gastrula, and plutei stages. It is noted that nuclear lamins lost during spermatogenesis are restored at fertilization and peripheral antigens are associated with the surface of chromosomes during meiosis and mitosis and with the periphery of the pronuclei and nuclei during interphase.

  15. The spacing between adjacent binding sites in the family of repeats affects the functions of Epstein-Barr nuclear antigen 1 in transcription activation and stable plasmid maintenance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hebner, Christy; Lasanen, Julie; Battle, Scott; Aiyar, Ashok

    2003-07-05

    Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) and the closely related Herpesvirus papio (HVP) are stably replicated as episomes in proliferating latently infected cells. Maintenance and partitioning of these viral plasmids requires a viral sequence in cis, termed the family of repeats (FR), that is bound by a viral protein, Epstein-Barr nuclear antigen 1 (EBNA1). Upon binding FR, EBNA1 maintains viral genomes in proliferating cells and activates transcription from viral promoters required for immortalization. FR from either virus encodes multiple binding sites for the viral maintenance protein, EBNA1, with the FR from the prototypic B95-8 strain of EBV containing 20 binding sites, and FR from HVP containing 8 binding sites. In addition to differences in the number of EBNA1-binding sites, adjacent binding sites in the EBV FR are typically separated by 14 base pairs (bp), but are separated by 10 bp in HVP. We tested whether the number of binding sites, as well as the distance between adjacent binding sites, affects the function of EBNA1 in transcription activation or plasmid maintenance. Our results indicate that EBNA1 activates transcription more efficiently when adjacent binding sites are separated by 10 bp, the spacing observed in HVP. In contrast, using two separate assays, we demonstrate that plasmid maintenance is greatly augmented when adjacent EBNA1-binding sites are separated by 14 bp, and therefore, presumably lie on the same face of the DNA double helix. These results provide indication that the functions of EBNA1 in transcription activation and plasmid maintenance are separable.

  16. The spacing between adjacent binding sites in the family of repeats affects the functions of Epstein-Barr nuclear antigen 1 in transcription activation and stable plasmid maintenance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hebner, Christy; Lasanen, Julie; Battle, Scott; Aiyar, Ashok

    2003-01-01

    Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) and the closely related Herpesvirus papio (HVP) are stably replicated as episomes in proliferating latently infected cells. Maintenance and partitioning of these viral plasmids requires a viral sequence in cis, termed the family of repeats (FR), that is bound by a viral protein, Epstein-Barr nuclear antigen 1 (EBNA1). Upon binding FR, EBNA1 maintains viral genomes in proliferating cells and activates transcription from viral promoters required for immortalization. FR from either virus encodes multiple binding sites for the viral maintenance protein, EBNA1, with the FR from the prototypic B95-8 strain of EBV containing 20 binding sites, and FR from HVP containing 8 binding sites. In addition to differences in the number of EBNA1-binding sites, adjacent binding sites in the EBV FR are typically separated by 14 base pairs (bp), but are separated by 10 bp in HVP. We tested whether the number of binding sites, as well as the distance between adjacent binding sites, affects the function of EBNA1 in transcription activation or plasmid maintenance. Our results indicate that EBNA1 activates transcription more efficiently when adjacent binding sites are separated by 10 bp, the spacing observed in HVP. In contrast, using two separate assays, we demonstrate that plasmid maintenance is greatly augmented when adjacent EBNA1-binding sites are separated by 14 bp, and therefore, presumably lie on the same face of the DNA double helix. These results provide indication that the functions of EBNA1 in transcription activation and plasmid maintenance are separable

  17. Heat shock factor 1 upregulates transcription of Epstein–Barr Virus nuclear antigen 1 by binding to a heat shock element within the BamHI-Q promoter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Feng-Wei; Wu, Xian-Rui; Liu, Wen-Ju; Liao, Yi-Ji; Lin, Sheng; Zong, Yong-Sheng; Zeng, Mu-Sheng; Zeng, Yi-Xin; Mai, Shi-Juan; Xie, Dan

    2011-01-01

    Epstein–Barr virus (EBV) nuclear antigen 1 (EBNA1) is essential for maintenance of the episome and establishment of latency. In this study, we observed that heat treatment effectively induced EBNA1 transcription in EBV-transformed B95-8 and human LCL cell lines. Although Cp is considered as the sole promoter used for the expression of EBNA1 transcripts in the lymphoblastoid cell lines, the RT-PCR results showed that the EBNA1 transcripts induced by heat treatment arise from Qp-initiated transcripts. Using bioinformatics, a high affinity and functional heat shock factor 1 (HSF1)-binding element within the − 17/+4 oligonucleotide of the Qp was found, and was determined by electrophoretic mobility shift assay and chromatin immunoprecipitation assay. Moreover, heat shock and exogenous HSF1 expression induced Qp activity in reporter assays. Further, RNA interference-mediated HSF1 gene silencing attenuated heat-induced EBNA1 expression in B95-8 cells. These results provide evidence that EBNA1 is a new target for the transcription factor HSF1.

  18. Heat shock factor 1 upregulates transcription of Epstein-Barr Virus nuclear antigen 1 by binding to a heat shock element within the BamHI-Q promoter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Feng-Wei [The State Key Laboratory of Oncology in South China, Cancer Center, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou (China); Wu, Xian-Rui [Department of Surgery, Sixth Affiliated Hospital, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou (China); Liu, Wen-Ju; Liao, Yi-Ji [The State Key Laboratory of Oncology in South China, Cancer Center, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou (China); Lin, Sheng [Laboratory of Integrated Biosciences, School of Life Science, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou (China); Zong, Yong-Sheng; Zeng, Mu-Sheng; Zeng, Yi-Xin [The State Key Laboratory of Oncology in South China, Cancer Center, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou (China); Mai, Shi-Juan, E-mail: maishj@sysucc.org.cn [The State Key Laboratory of Oncology in South China, Cancer Center, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou (China); Xie, Dan, E-mail: xied@mail.sysu.edu.cn [The State Key Laboratory of Oncology in South China, Cancer Center, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou (China)

    2011-12-20

    Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) nuclear antigen 1 (EBNA1) is essential for maintenance of the episome and establishment of latency. In this study, we observed that heat treatment effectively induced EBNA1 transcription in EBV-transformed B95-8 and human LCL cell lines. Although Cp is considered as the sole promoter used for the expression of EBNA1 transcripts in the lymphoblastoid cell lines, the RT-PCR results showed that the EBNA1 transcripts induced by heat treatment arise from Qp-initiated transcripts. Using bioinformatics, a high affinity and functional heat shock factor 1 (HSF1)-binding element within the - 17/+4 oligonucleotide of the Qp was found, and was determined by electrophoretic mobility shift assay and chromatin immunoprecipitation assay. Moreover, heat shock and exogenous HSF1 expression induced Qp activity in reporter assays. Further, RNA interference-mediated HSF1 gene silencing attenuated heat-induced EBNA1 expression in B95-8 cells. These results provide evidence that EBNA1 is a new target for the transcription factor HSF1.

  19. EBV promotes human CD8 NKT cell development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuling He

    2010-05-01

    reaggregated thymic organ cultures. Thymic antigen-presenting EBV-infected dendritic cells are required for this process. IL-7, produced mainly by thymic dendritic cells, is a major and essential factor for CD8(+ NKT cell differentiation in EBV-challenged human-thymus/liver-SCID chimeras and fetal thymic organ cultures. Additionally, these EBV-induced CD8(+ NKT cells produce remarkably more perforin than that in counterpart CD4(+ NKT cells, and predominately express CD8alphaalpha homodimer in their co-receptor. Thus, upon interaction with certain viruses, CD8 lineage-specific NKT cells are developed, differentiated and matured intrathymically, a finding with potential therapeutic importance against viral infections and tumors.

  20. Detection of proliferating cell nuclear antigens and interleukin-2 beta receptor molecules on mitogen- and antigen-stimulated lymphocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hesketh, J; Dobbelaere, D; Griffin, J F; Buchan, G

    1993-01-01

    The expression of interleukin-2 receptors (IL-2R) and proliferating cell nuclear antigens (PCNA) were compared for their usefulness as markers of lymphocyte activation. Heterologous polyclonal (anti-bovine IL-2R) and monoclonal (anti-human PCNA) antibodies were used to detect the expression of these molecules on activated deer lymphocytes. Both molecules were co-expressed on blast cells which had been activated with mitogen [concanavalin A (Con A)]. There was detectable up-regulation of IL-2R expression in response to antigen [Mycobacterium bovis-derived purified protein derivative (PPD)] stimulation while PCNA expression mimicked lymphocyte transformation (LT) reactivity. PCNA expression was found to more accurately reflect both antigen- and mitogen-activated lymphocyte activation, as estimated by LT activity. The expression of PCNA was used to identify antigen reactive cells from animals exposed to M. bovis. A very low percentage (1.1 +/- 0.4%) of peripheral blood lymphocytes from non-infected animals could be stimulated to express PCNA by in vitro culture with antigen (PPD). Within the infected group both diseased and healthy, 'in-contact', animals expressed significantly higher levels of PCNA upon antigen stimulation. PMID:8104884

  1. Interaction of Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen With DNA at the Single Molecule Level

    KAUST Repository

    Raducanu, Vlad-Stefan

    2016-01-01

    Proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) is a key factor involved in Eukaryotic DNA replication and repair, as well as other cellular pathways. Its importance comes mainly from two aspects: the large numbers of interacting partners

  2. Nuclear localization of Merkel cell polyomavirus large T antigen in Merkel cell carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamura, Tomoyuki; Sato, Yuko; Watanabe, Daisuke; Ito, Hideki; Shimonohara, Nozomi; Tsuji, Takahiro; Nakajima, Noriko; Suzuki, Yoshio; Matsuo, Koma; Nakagawa, Hidemi; Sata, Tetsutaro; Katano, Harutaka

    2010-01-01

    To clarify whether mutations in the large T gene encoded by Merkel cell polyomavirus affect the expression and function of large T antigen in Merkel cell carcinoma cases, we investigated the expression of large T antigen in vitro and in vivo. Immunohistochemistry using a rabbit polyclonal antibody revealed that large T antigen was expressed in the nuclei of Merkel cell carcinoma cells with Merkel cell polyomavirus infection. Deletion mutant analyses identified an Arg-Lys-Arg-Lys sequence (amino acids 277-280) as a nuclear localization signal in large T antigen. Sequence analyses revealed that there were no mutations in the nuclear localization signal in any of the eleven Merkel cell polyomavirus strains examined. Furthermore, stop codons were not observed in the upstream of the nuclear localization signal in any of the Merkel cell carcinoma cases examined. These data suggest that the nuclear localization signal is highly conserved and functional in Merkel cell carcinoma cases.

  3. MYC-induced nuclear antigen (MINA) and preeclampsia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez-Fierro, Margarita L; Reyes-Oliva, Edwin A; Cabral-Pacheco, Griselda A; Garza-Veloz, Idalia; Aceves-Medina, Maria C; Luevano, Martha; Barbosa-Cisneros, Olga Y; Galvan-Valencia, Marisol; Yahuaca-Mendoza, Patricia; Delgado-Enciso, Ivan; Zamudio-Osuna, Michelle; Rodriguez-Sanchez, Iram P; Vazquez-Castro, Rosbel; Guerrero-Saucedo, Marycruz

    2016-05-01

    Inadequate trophoblast invasion and the subsequent inflammatory response have been implicated in preeclampsia (PE) pathogenesis. Because MYC-induced nuclear antigen (MINA) gene expression is involved in cell proliferation and differentiation, inflammatory response modulation, and the unpaired regulation of which is associated with human diseases, we sought to investigate the connection between MINA and PE. The aim of this study was to evaluate the possible relationship between the MINA rs4857304 variant and susceptibility to PE development as well as to estimate placental MINA gene expression and its association with PE. About 242 pregnant women (126 PE cases and 116 controls) were included. MINA genotyping and gene expression were evaluated by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction using TaqMan probes. The G/G genotype of the MINA rs4857304 variant was associated with severe PE (p = 0.027, OR = 1.8, 95% CI = 1.8-3.2). Carriers of one G allele of the MINA rs4857304 variant exhibited a 1.7-fold increased risk of severe PE (p = 0.029, 95% CI = 1.1-3.0). MINA was underexpressed in preeclamptic placentas and MINA expression differed between the mild and severe PE groups. Differences in the expression levels of MINA were found among women with the T/T genotype of the rs4857304 polymorphism and carriers of at least one G allele (p = 0.024). PE and its severity are associated with the underexpression of placental MINA, and the G/G genotype of the MINA rs4857304 variant may modify the risk of severe PE among the PE cases evaluated.

  4. Amino Acids of Epstein-Barr Virus Nuclear Antigen 3A Essential for Repression of Jκ-Mediated Transcription and Their Evolutionary Conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalbiès-Tran, Rozenn; Stigger-Rosser, Evelyn; Dotson, Travis; Sample, Clare E.

    2001-01-01

    Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) nuclear antigen 3A (EBNA-3A) is essential for virus-mediated immortalization of B lymphocytes in vitro and is believed to regulate transcription of cellular and/or viral genes. One known mechanism of regulation is through its interaction with the cellular transcription factor Jκ. This interaction downregulates transcription mediated by EBNA-2 and Jκ. To identify the amino acids that play a role in this interaction, we have generated mutant EBNA-3A proteins. A mutant EBNA-3A protein in which alanine residues were substituted for amino acids 199, 200, and 202 no longer downregulated transcription. Surprisingly, this mutant protein remained able to coimmunoprecipitate with Jκ. Using a reporter gene assay based on the recruitment of Jκ by various regions spanning EBNA-3A, we have shown that this mutation abolished binding of Jκ to the N-proximal region (amino acids 125 to 222) and that no other region of EBNA-3A alone was sufficient to mediate an association with Jκ. To determine the biological significance of the interaction of EBNA-3A with Jκ, we have studied its conservation in the simian lymphocryptovirus herpesvirus papio (HVP) by cloning HVP-3A, the homolog of EBNA-3A encoded by this virus. This 903-amino-acid protein exhibited 37% identity with its EBV counterpart, mainly within the amino-terminal half. HVP-3A also interacted with Jκ through a region located between amino acids 127 and 223 and also repressed transcription mediated through EBNA-2 and Jκ. The evolutionary conservation of this function, in proteins that have otherwise significantly diverged, argues strongly for an important biological role in virus-mediated immortalization of B lymphocytes. PMID:11119577

  5. EBV Seroepidemiology in Married and Unmarried Women and Men in Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Morteza Pourahamad; Farhang Hooshmand; Sara Olyaee Nezhad; Abdolali Sepidkar

    2014-01-01

    Background: Among the eight known human herpes viruses, Epstein- Barr virus (EBV) is considered to be sexually transmissible. This study was conducted to evaluate the seroepidemiology of this infection in married and unmarried Iranian couples. Methods: In this comparative observational and cross-sectional study, 160 men and women were divided into married and unmarried groups. Serum IgG and IgM antibodies to the EBV viral capsid antigen were analyzed by Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assays (...

  6. The role of EBV in MS pathogenesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Tove

    2006-01-01

    Environmental factors operate on a background of genetic susceptibility in the pathogenesis of MS. Human herpesviruses, notably Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), and human endogenous retroviruses are factors associated with MS. EBV association is found in epidemiological surveys where late EBV infection...... confers a higher risk of MS, and EBV reactivation also appears to be linked to disease activity in early MS. MS patients have elevated anti-EBV antibody responses, both in serum and cerebrospinal fluid. Molecular mimicry is found between certain EBV and myelin epitopes in the cell-mediated immune response....... EBV cannot stand alone as a causal factor of MS, but is likely to play an indirect role as an activator of the underlying disease process....

  7. Identifying Patient-Specific Epstein-Barr Nuclear Antigen-1 Genetic Variation and Potential Autoreactive Targets Relevant to Multiple Sclerosis Pathogenesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Tschochner

    Full Text Available Epstein-Barr virus (EBV infection represents a major environmental risk factor for multiple sclerosis (MS, with evidence of selective expansion of Epstein-Barr Nuclear Antigen-1 (EBNA1-specific CD4+ T cells that cross-recognize MS-associated myelin antigens in MS patients. HLA-DRB1*15-restricted antigen presentation also appears to determine susceptibility given its role as a dominant risk allele. In this study, we have utilised standard and next-generation sequencing techniques to investigate EBNA-1 sequence variation and its relationship to HLA-DR15 binding affinity, as well as examining potential cross-reactive immune targets within the central nervous system proteome.Sanger sequencing was performed on DNA isolated from peripheral blood samples from 73 Western Australian MS cases, without requirement for primary culture, with additional FLX 454 Roche sequencing in 23 samples to identify low-frequency variants. Patient-derived viral sequences were used to predict HLA-DRB1*1501 epitopes (NetMHCII, NetMHCIIpan and candidates were evaluated for cross recognition with human brain proteins.EBNA-1 sequence variation was limited, with no evidence of multiple viral strains and only low levels of variation identified by FLX technology (8.3% nucleotide positions at a 1% cut-off. In silico epitope mapping revealed two known HLA-DRB1*1501-restricted epitopes ('AEG': aa 481-496 and 'MVF': aa 562-577, and two putative epitopes between positions 502-543. We identified potential cross-reactive targets involving a number of major myelin antigens including experimentally confirmed HLA-DRB1*15-restricted epitopes as well as novel candidate antigens within myelin and paranodal assembly proteins that may be relevant to MS pathogenesis.This study demonstrates the feasibility of obtaining autologous EBNA-1 sequences directly from buffy coat samples, and confirms divergence of these sequences from standard laboratory strains. This approach has identified a number of

  8. Epstein-Barr virus nuclear antigen 3C targets p53 and modulates its transcriptional and apoptotic activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yi Fuming; Saha, Abhik; Murakami, Masanao; Kumar, Pankaj; Knight, Jason S.; Cai Qiliang; Choudhuri, Tathagata; Robertson, Erle S.

    2009-01-01

    The p53 tumor suppressor gene is one of the most commonly mutated genes in human cancers and the corresponding encoded protein induces apoptosis or cell-cycle arrest at the G1/S checkpoint in response to DNA damage. To date, previous studies have shown that antigens encoded by human tumor viruses such as SV40 large T antigen, adenovirus E1A and HPV E6 interact with p53 and disrupt its functional activity. In a similar fashion, we now show that EBNA3C, one of the EBV latent antigens essential for the B-cell immortalization in vitro, interacts directly with p53. Additionally, we mapped the interaction of EBNA3C with p53 to the C-terminal DNA-binding and the tetramerization domain of p53, and the region of EBNA3C responsible for binding to p53 was mapped to the N-terminal domain of EBNA3C (residues 130-190), previously shown to interact with a number of important cell-cycle components, specifically SCF Skp2 , cyclin A, and cMyc. Furthermore, we demonstrate that EBNA3C substantially represses the transcriptional activity of p53 in luciferase based reporter assays, and rescues apoptosis induced by ectopic p53 expression in SAOS-2 (p53 -/- ) cells. Interestingly, we also show that the DNA-binding ability of p53 is diminished in the presence of EBNA3C. Thus, the interaction between the p53 and EBNA3C provides new insights into the mechanism(s) by which the EBNA3C oncoprotein can alter cellular gene expression in EBV associated human cancers.

  9. Magnesium Presence Prevents Removal of Antigenic Nuclear-Associated Proteins from Bovine Pericardium for Heart Valve Engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalgliesh, Ailsa J; Liu, Zhi Zhao; Griffiths, Leigh G

    2017-07-01

    Current heart valve prostheses are associated with significant complications, including aggressive immune response, limited valve life expectancy, and inability to grow in juvenile patients. Animal derived "tissue" valves undergo glutaraldehyde fixation to mask tissue antigenicity; however, chronic immunological responses and associated calcification still commonly occur. A heart valve formed from an unfixed bovine pericardium (BP) extracellular matrix (ECM) scaffold, in which antigenic burden has been eliminated or significantly reduced, has potential to overcome deficiencies of current bioprostheses. Decellularization and antigen removal methods frequently use sequential solutions extrapolated from analytical chemistry approaches to promote solubility and removal of tissue components from resultant ECM scaffolds. However, the extent to which such prefractionation strategies may inhibit removal of antigenic tissue components has not been explored. We hypothesize that presence of magnesium in prefractionation steps causes DNA precipitation and reduces removal of nuclear-associated antigenic proteins. Keeping all variables consistent bar the addition or absence of magnesium (2 mM magnesium chloride hexahydrate), residual BP ECM scaffold antigenicity and removed antigenicity were assessed, along with residual and removed DNA content, ECM morphology, scaffold composition, and recellularization potential. Furthermore, we used proteomic methods to determine the mechanism by which magnesium presence or absence affects scaffold residual antigenicity. This study demonstrates that absence of magnesium from antigen removal solutions enhances solubility and subsequent removal of antigenic nuclear-associated proteins from BP. We therefore conclude that the primary mechanism of action for magnesium removal during antigen removal processes is avoidance of DNA precipitation, facilitating solubilization and removal of nuclear-associated antigenic proteins. Future studies are

  10. Serological profiling of the EBV immune response in Chronic Fatigue Syndrome using a peptide microarray.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madlen Loebel

    Full Text Available Epstein-Barr-Virus (EBV plays an important role as trigger or cofactor for various autoimmune diseases. In a subset of patients with Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (CFS disease starts with infectious mononucleosis as late primary EBV-infection, whereby altered levels of EBV-specific antibodies can be observed in another subset of patients.We performed a comprehensive mapping of the IgG response against EBV comparing 50 healthy controls with 92 CFS patients using a microarray platform. Patients with multiple sclerosis (MS, systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE and cancer-related fatigue served as controls. 3054 overlapping peptides were synthesised as 15-mers from 14 different EBV proteins. Array data was validated by ELISA for selected peptides. Prevalence of EBV serotypes was determined by qPCR from throat washing samples.EBV type 1 infections were found in patients and controls. EBV seroarray profiles between healthy controls and CFS were less divergent than that observed for MS or SLE. We found significantly enhanced IgG responses to several EBNA-6 peptides containing a repeat sequence in CFS patients compared to controls. EBNA-6 peptide IgG responses correlated well with EBNA-6 protein responses. The EBNA-6 repeat region showed sequence homologies to various human proteins.Patients with CFS had a quite similar EBV IgG antibody response pattern as healthy controls. Enhanced IgG reactivity against an EBNA-6 repeat sequence and against EBNA-6 protein is found in CFS patients. Homologous sequences of various human proteins with this EBNA-6 repeat sequence might be potential targets for antigenic mimicry.

  11. Reappraisal of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL): comparative analysis between EBV-positive and EBV-negative DLBCL with EBV-positive bystander cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohashi, Akiko; Kato, Seiichi; Okamoto, Akinao; Inaguma, Yoko; Satou, Akira; Tsuzuki, Toyonori; Emi, Nobuhiko; Okamoto, Masataka; Nakamura, Shigeo

    2017-07-01

    Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-positive diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) not otherwise specified is defined as monoclonal EBV+ B-cell proliferation affecting patients without any known immunosuppression. Non-neoplastic EBV+ cells proliferating in or adjacent to EBV- DLBCL were reported recently, but their clinical significance is unclear. Thus, the aim of this study was to investigate the prognostic impact of EBV+ cells in DLBCL. We compared the clinicopathological characteristics of 30 EBV+ DLBCL patients and 29 and 604 EBV- DLBCL patients with and without EBV+ bystander cells (median age of onset 71, 67 and 62 years, respectively). Both EBV+ DLBCL patients and EBV- DLBCL patients with EBV+ bystander cells tended to have high and high-intermediate International Prognostic Index scores (60% and 59%, respectively), as compared with only 46% of EBV- DLBCL patients without EBV+ bystander cells. EBV- DLBCL patients with EBV+ bystander cells showed a significantly higher incidence of lung involvement than those without EBV+ bystander cells (10% versus 2%, P bystander cells had a poorer prognosis than patients without any detectable EBV+ cells [median overall survival (OS) of 100 months and 40 months versus not reached, P bystander cells treated with rituximab showed overlapping survival curves (OS, P = 0.77; progression-free survival, P = 1.0). EBV- DLBCL with bystander EBV+ cells has similar clinical characteristics to EBV+ DLBCL. DLBCL with EBV+ bystander cells may be related to both age-related and microenvironment-related immunological deterioration. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Similarities between the Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV) Nuclear Protein EBNA1 and the Pioneer Transcription Factor FoxA: Is EBNA1 a “Bookmarking” Oncoprotein that Alters the Host Cell Epigenotype?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niller, Hans Helmut; Minarovits, Janos

    2012-01-01

    EBNA1, a nuclear protein expressed in all EBV-associated neoplasms is indispensable for the maintenance of the viral episomes in latently infected cells. EBNA1 may induce genetic alterations by upregulating cellular recombinases, production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and affecting p53 levels and function. All these changes may contribute to tumorigenesis. In this overview we focus, however, on the epigenetic alterations elicited by EBNA1 by drawing a parallel between EBNA1 and the FoxA family of pioneer transcription factors. Both EBNA1 and FoxA induce local DNA demethylation, nucleosome destabilization and bind to mitotic chromosomes. Local DNA demethylation and nucleosome rearrangement mark active promoters and enhancers. In addition, EBNA1 and FoxA, when associated with mitotic chromatin may “bookmark” active genes and ensure their reactivation in postmitotic cells (epigenetic memory). We speculate that DNA looping induced by EBNA1-EBNA1 interactions may reorganize the cellular genome. Such chromatin loops, sustained in mitotic chromatin similarly to the long-distance interactions mediated by the insulator protein CTCF, may also mediate the epigenetic inheritance of gene expression patterns. We suggest that EBNA1 has the potential to induce patho-epigenetic alterations contributing to tumorigenesis. PMID:25436603

  13. Syntropy in Children with EBV Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.A. Khodak

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The clinical manifestations of the disease caused by Epstein-Barr virus (EBV are diverse and include both infectious mononucleosis and damage of the liver, nervous system and other organs. Damage of the nervous system (meningoencephalitis caused by EBV may have isolated clinical course or run concurrently with infectious mononucleosis or hepatitis (syntropy. The paper presents a case of acute EBV infection in a 16-year-old child diagnosed with hepatitis and meningoencephalitis.

  14. Proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA): a new marker to study human colonic cell proliferation.

    OpenAIRE

    Kubben, F J; Peeters-Haesevoets, A; Engels, L G; Baeten, C G; Schutte, B; Arends, J W; Stockbrügger, R W; Blijham, G H

    1994-01-01

    Immunohistochemistry of the S phase related proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) was studied as an alternative to ex-vivo bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) immunohistochemistry for assessment of human colonic cell proliferation. From 16 subjects without colonic disease biopsy specimens were collected from five different sites along the colorectum and processed for BrdU and PCNA immunohistochemistry. The mean proliferation index of PCNA was significantly higher at 133% of the value obtained with B...

  15. Crystallization and X-ray diffraction studies of crustacean proliferating cell nuclear antigen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carrasco-Miranda, Jesus S.; Cardona-Felix, Cesar S.; Lopez-Zavala, Alonso A.; Re Vega, Enrique de la; De la Mora, Eugenio; Rudiño-Piñera, Enrique; Sotelo-Mundo, Rogerio R.; Brieba, Luis G.

    2012-01-01

    Proliferating cell nuclear antigen from Litopenaeus vannamei was recombinantly expressed, purified and crystallized. Diffraction data were obtained and processed to 3 Å. Proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), a member of the sliding clamp family of proteins, interacts specifically with DNA replication and repair proteins through a small peptide motif called the PCNA-interacting protein or PIP box. PCNA is recognized as one of the key proteins involved in DNA metabolism. In the present study, the recombinant PCNA from Litopenaeus vannamei (LvPCNA) was heterologously overexpressed and purified using metal ion-affinity chromatography. Crystals suitable for diffraction grew overnight using the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method. LvPCNA crystals belong to space group C2 with unit-cell parameters a = 144.6, b = 83.4, c = 74.3 Å, β = 117.6°. One data set was processed to 3 Å resolution, with an overall R meas of 0.09 and a completeness of 93.3%. Initial phases were obtained by molecular replacement using a homology model of LvPCNA as the search model. Refinement and structural analysis are underway. This report is the first successful crystallographic analysis of a marine crustacean decapod shrimp (L. vannamei) proliferating cell nuclear antigen

  16. EBV Seroepidemiology in Married and Unmarried Women and Men in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morteza Pourahamad

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Among the eight known human herpes viruses, Epstein- Barr virus (EBV is considered to be sexually transmissible. This study was conducted to evaluate the seroepidemiology of this infection in married and unmarried Iranian couples. Methods: In this comparative observational and cross-sectional study, 160 men and women were divided into married and unmarried groups. Serum IgG and IgM antibodies to the EBV viral capsid antigen were analyzed by Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assays (ELISAs. Results: In this study 78 men and 82 women were enrolled. Ninety percent of the married and 76.2% of the unmarried women were anti-EBV IgG positive (P = 0.08, while 80% of the married and 94% of the unmarried men were antiEBV IgG positive (P = 0.052. Conclusion: Seroepidemiology of EBV is not significantly different in married vs. unmarried women and men in Iran; therefore, sexual contact may not be the primary mechanism of EBV transmission in Iran and other developing countries. Attention to other possible routes of transmission is recommended.

  17. EBV seroepidemiology in married and unmarried women and men in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pourahamad, Morteza; Hooshmand, Farhang; Olyaee Nezhad, Sara; Sepidkar, Abdolali

    2014-04-01

    Among the eight known human herpes viruses, Epstein- Barr virus (EBV) is considered to be sexually transmissible. This study was conducted to evaluate the seroepidemiology of this infection in married and unmarried Iranian couples. In this comparative observational and cross-sectional study, 160 men and women were divided into married and unmarried groups. Serum IgG and IgM antibodies to the EBV viral capsid antigen were analyzed by Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assays (ELISAs). In this study 78 men and 82 women were enrolled. Ninety percent of the married and 76.2% of the unmarried women were anti-EBV IgG positive (P = 0.08), while 80% of the married and 94% of the unmarried men were antiEBV IgG positive (P = 0.052). Seroepidemiology of EBV is not significantly different in married vs. unmarried women and men in Iran; therefore, sexual contact may not be the primary mechanism of EBV transmission in Iran and other developing countries. Attention to other possible routes of transmission is recommended.

  18. Characterization of the nuclear localization signal of the hepatitis delta virus antigen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alves, Carolina; Freitas, Natalia; Cunha, Celso

    2008-01-01

    The delta antigen (HDAg) is the only protein encoded by the hepatitis delta virus (HDV) RNA genome. The HDAg contains an RNA binding domain, a dimerization domain, and a nuclear localization signal (NLS). The nuclear import of HDV RNPs is thought to be one of the first tasks of the HDAg during the HDV replication cycle. Using c-myc-PK fusions with several regions of the HDAg in transfection assays in Huh7 cells, we found that the HDAg NLS consists of a single stretch of 10 amino acids, EGAPPAKRAR, located in positions 66-75. Deletion and mutation analysis of this region showed that both the acidic glutamic acid residue at position 66 and the basic arginine residue at position 75 are essential for promoting nuclear import

  19. Association of Epstein Barr virus infection (EBV with breast cancer in rural Indian women.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepti Joshi

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Breast cancer is the most common malignancy affecting females worldwide but conventional risk factors are able to explain only a small proportion of these cases. A possible viral etiology for breast cancer has been proposed and Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV is a widely researched candidate virus. The aim of the present study, first one of its kind from India, was to determine if there is a greater association of EBV infection with breast cancer patients as compared to patients with benign breast diseases. METHODS: We looked for expression of Epstein-Barr Virus Nuclear Antigen-1 (EBNA-1 in breast cancer tissue specimens by employing immunohistochemistry (IHC. We also measured levels of anti-EBNA-1 Immunoglobulin (IgG antibodies in stored sera of these patients using commercial Enzyme linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA kit. Patients with benign breast diseases were used as a comparison group for both immunohistochemical and serological analysis. RESULTS: 58 cases of malignant breast disease and 63 of benign breast disease (controls were included in the study. Using manufacturer determined cut-off of 3 IU/ml, 50/55 tested (90.9% cases and 27/33 tested (81.8% controls were seropositive for anti-EBNA-1 IgG. Mean antibody levels were significantly higher for cases (54.22 IU/ml as compared to controls (18.68 IU/ml. IHC for EBNA-1 was positive in 28/51 cases (54.9%. No IHC positivity was noted in the tested 30 controls. Our results show that EBNA-1 expression is seen in a significant proportion of breast cancer tissue specimens from rural India and as compared to patients with benign breast diseases these patients also have a higher immunological response against EBNA-1.

  20. Analysis of a cDNA clone expressing a human autoimmune antigen: full-length sequence of the U2 small nuclear RNA-associated B antigen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Habets, W.J.; Sillekens, P.T.G.; Hoet, M.H.; Schalken, J.A.; Roebroek, A.J.M.; Leunissen, J.A.M.; Van de Ven, W.J.M.; Van Venrooij, W.J.

    1987-01-01

    A U2 small nuclear RNA-associated protein, designated B'', was recently identified as the target antigen for autoimmune sera from certain patients with systemic lupus erythematosus and other rheumatic diseases. Such antibodies enabled them to isolate cDNA clone λHB''-1 from a phage λgt11 expression library. This clone appeared to code for the B'' protein as established by in vitro translation of hybrid-selected mRNA. The identity of clone λHB''-1 was further confirmed by partial peptide mapping and analysis of the reactivity of the recombinant antigen with monospecific and monoclonal antibodies. Analysis of the nucleotide sequence of the 1015-base-pair cDNA insert of clone λHB''-1 revealed a large open reading frame of 800 nucleotides containing the coding sequence for a polypeptide of 25,457 daltons. In vitro transcription of the λHB''-1 cDNA insert and subsequent translation resulted in a protein product with the molecular size of the B'' protein. These data demonstrate that clone λHB''-1 contains the complete coding sequence of this antigen. The deduced polypeptide sequence contains three very hydrophilic regions that might constitute RNA binding sites and/or antigenic determinants. These findings might have implications both for the understanding of the pathogenesis of rheumatic diseases as well as for the elucidation of the biological function of autoimmune antigens

  1. Identification of the soluble HVP-associated antigen of the lymphoblastoid cell line established from lymphomatous baboon (Papio hamadryas).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voevodin, A F; Lapin, B A; Agrba, V Z; Timanovskaya, V V

    1978-01-01

    A new technique (indirect double immunodiffusion) for detection of EBV-associated soluble antigen and corresponding antibodies has been developed. This technique includes three steps: 1) simple double immunodiffusion with extracts of Raji cells (or other EBV-genome positive cells) and human sera containing antibodies against EBV-associated soluble antigen; 2) extensive washing and treatment with anti-human globulin; 3) extensive washing and treatment with tannic acid. Using this test it was shown that the soluble antigen indistinguishable from EBV-associated soluble antigen was present in KMPG-1 cells producing HVP.

  2. About Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is no specific treatment for EBV. However, some things can be done to help relieve symptoms, including drinking fluids to stay hydrated getting plenty of rest taking over-the-counter medications ...

  3. Serological response to Epstein-Barr virus early antigen is ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Serological response to Epstein-Barr virus early antigen is associated with gastric cancer and human immunodeficiency virus infection in Zambian adults: a ... EBV exposure is common among Zambian adults and that EBV EA seropositivity is associated with gastric cancer and HIV infection, but not premalignant lesions.

  4. Detection of antibodies to the extractable nuclear antigens by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aziz, Khalil A.; Fzizal, Abul A.

    2005-01-01

    Anti-extractable nuclear antigen (ENA) antibodies are a group of autoantibodies that are directed against various components of the cell nucleus. Antibodies to these antigens are closely associated with connective tissue disease. Early diagnosis of these diseases can prove very difficult and therefore clinicians rely on the use of anti-ENA antibody testing for the exclusion. Old methods of testing are time consuming and require great skills. For these reasons clinical immunology laboratories are switching to testing for anti-ENA antibodies by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The latter assays are more sensitive and require little skills. In the present study we have investigated a number of different ELISA preparations. The study was conducted at Birmingham Heartlands Hospital during the period 2003. We tested a number of ENA-positive and negative samples using 3 different commercial ELISA preparations and compared the results with traditional CCIE-assay. The present study revealed that some ELISA preparations can be more sensitive than CCIE method. Laboratories still using later method should switch to ELISA. However it is important that laboratories evaluate a long range of different ELISA preparations before selecting the most optimal one. In addition it is recommended that laboratories then audit results in order to determine true significance of such results. Finally until the true significance of ELISA generated results is known, positive ENA-results should be interpreted in conjunction with the clinical picture and this would require close liaison in between the clinical immunology laboratory and clinicians

  5. EBV tegument protein BNRF1 disrupts DAXX-ATRX to activate viral early gene transcription.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin Tsai

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Productive infection by herpesviruses involve the disabling of host-cell intrinsic defenses by viral encoded tegument proteins. Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV typically establishes a non-productive, latent infection and it remains unclear how it confronts the host-cell intrinsic defenses that restrict viral gene expression. Here, we show that the EBV major tegument protein BNRF1 targets host-cell intrinsic defense proteins and promotes viral early gene activation. Specifically, we demonstrate that BNRF1 interacts with the host nuclear protein Daxx at PML nuclear bodies (PML-NBs and disrupts the formation of the Daxx-ATRX chromatin remodeling complex. We mapped the Daxx interaction domain on BNRF1, and show that this domain is important for supporting EBV primary infection. Through reverse transcription PCR and infection assays, we show that BNRF1 supports viral gene expression upon early infection, and that this function is dependent on the Daxx-interaction domain. Lastly, we show that knockdown of Daxx and ATRX induces reactivation of EBV from latently infected lymphoblastoid cell lines (LCLs, suggesting that Daxx and ATRX play a role in the regulation of viral chromatin. Taken together, our data demonstrate an important role of BNRF1 in supporting EBV early infection by interacting with Daxx and ATRX; and suggest that tegument disruption of PML-NB-associated antiviral resistances is a universal requirement for herpesvirus infection in the nucleus.

  6. EBV Tegument Protein BNRF1 Disrupts DAXX-ATRX to Activate Viral Early Gene Transcription

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Kevin; Thikmyanova, Nadezhda; Wojcechowskyj, Jason A.; Delecluse, Henri-Jacques; Lieberman, Paul M.

    2011-01-01

    Productive infection by herpesviruses involve the disabling of host-cell intrinsic defenses by viral encoded tegument proteins. Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV) typically establishes a non-productive, latent infection and it remains unclear how it confronts the host-cell intrinsic defenses that restrict viral gene expression. Here, we show that the EBV major tegument protein BNRF1 targets host-cell intrinsic defense proteins and promotes viral early gene activation. Specifically, we demonstrate that BNRF1 interacts with the host nuclear protein Daxx at PML nuclear bodies (PML-NBs) and disrupts the formation of the Daxx-ATRX chromatin remodeling complex. We mapped the Daxx interaction domain on BNRF1, and show that this domain is important for supporting EBV primary infection. Through reverse transcription PCR and infection assays, we show that BNRF1 supports viral gene expression upon early infection, and that this function is dependent on the Daxx-interaction domain. Lastly, we show that knockdown of Daxx and ATRX induces reactivation of EBV from latently infected lymphoblastoid cell lines (LCLs), suggesting that Daxx and ATRX play a role in the regulation of viral chromatin. Taken together, our data demonstrate an important role of BNRF1 in supporting EBV early infection by interacting with Daxx and ATRX; and suggest that tegument disruption of PML-NB-associated antiviral resistances is a universal requirement for herpesvirus infection in the nucleus. PMID:22102817

  7. Structure and biochemical characterization of proliferating cellular nuclear antigen from a parasitic protozoon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cardona-Felix, Cesar S.; Lara-Gonzalez, Samuel; Brieba, Luis G. (LNLS)

    2012-02-08

    Proliferating cellular nuclear antigen (PCNA) is a toroidal-shaped protein that is involved in cell-cycle control, DNA replication and DNA repair. Parasitic protozoa are early-diverged eukaryotes that are responsible for neglected diseases. In this work, a PCNA from a parasitic protozoon was identified, cloned and biochemically characterized and its crystal structure was determined. Structural and biochemical studies demonstrate that PCNA from Entamoeba histolytica assembles as a homotrimer that is able to interact with and stimulate the activity of a PCNA-interacting peptide-motif protein from E. histolytica, EhDNAligI. The data indicate a conservation of the biochemical mechanisms of PCNA-mediated interactions between metazoa, yeast and parasitic protozoa.

  8. Nuclear antigen expression by ultraviolet light irradiation - a contribution to the UV-induced autoimmunity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wollina, U

    1986-05-01

    A review is given of nuclear antigen expression due to UVB, UVA, and PUVA. UVB alters DNA resulting in strong immunogenic UVDNA and complementary antibodies. Antibodies to UVDNA cross react with double-stranded DNA. UVDNA plays a (hypothetical) role in the induction of cutaneous lesions in lupus erythematosus (LE). Investigations of SS-A/Ro expression due to UVB seem to be more important under this view. Antibodies against SS-A/Ro are related to an increased photosensitivity in LE. PUVA and UVA are able to induce antinuclear antibodies of unknown specificity. It is likely that PUVA enhances SS-A/Ro expression in vitro. The results are discussed in sense of LE photobiology and unwanted side effects of photo(chemo)therapy in psoriasis. 54 references.

  9. Nuclear antigen expression by ultraviolet light irradiation - a contribution to the UV-induced autoimmunity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wollina, U.

    1986-01-01

    A review is given about nuclear antigen expression due to UVB, UVA, and PUVA. UVB alters DNA resulting in strong immunogenic UVDNA and complementary antibodies. Antibodies to UVDNA cross react with double-stranded DNA. UVDNA plays a (hypothetical) role in the induction of cutaneous lesions in lupus erythematosus (LE). Investigations about SS-A/Ro expression due to UVB seem to be more important under this view. Antibodies against SS-A/Ro are related to an increased photosensitivity in LE. PUVA and UVA are able to induce antinuclear antibodies of unknown specificity. It is likely that PUVA enhances SS-A/Ro expression in vitro. The results are discussed in sense of LE photobiology and unwanted side effects of photo(chemo)therapy in psoriasis. (author)

  10. HPV Infection, but Not EBV or HHV-8 Infection, Is Associated with Salivary Gland Tumours

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maja Hühns

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Benign and malignant salivary gland tumours are clinically heterogeneous and show different histology. Little is known about the role of human herpes virus 8 (HHV-8, Epstein-Barr virus (EBV, and human papillomavirus (HPV infection in salivary gland neoplasms. We investigated the presence of the three viruses in formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue samples in a cohort of 200 different salivary gland tumours. We performed EBV-LMP-1 and HHV-8 and p16 immunohistochemistry, a specific chip based hybridization assay for detection and typing of HPV and a chromogenic in situ hybridization for EBV analysis. Only one case, a polymorphic low-grade carcinoma, showed HHV-8 expression and one lymphoepithelial carcinoma was infected by EBV. In 17 cases (9% moderate or strong nuclear and cytoplasmic p16 expression was detected. The HPV type was investigated in all of these cases and additionally in 8 Warthin’s tumours. In 19 cases HPV type 16 was detected, mostly in Warthin’s tumour, adenoid cystic carcinoma, and adenocarcinoma NOS. We concluded that HHV-8 infection and EBV infection are not associated with salivary gland cancer, but HPV infection may play a role in these tumour entities.

  11. NCI International EBV-Gastric Cancer Consortium

    Science.gov (United States)

    A collaboration among NCI and extramural investigators, established by DCEG in 2006, that utilizes data and biospecimens from completed and ongoing case series and observational studies of gastric cancer to replicate and extend findings from previous studies hindered by small numbers of EBV-positive cases, and to stimulate multidisciplinary research in this area.

  12. EBV Latency Types Adopt Alternative Chromatin Conformations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tempera, Italo; Klichinsky, Michael; Lieberman, Paul M.

    2011-01-01

    Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV) can establish latent infections with distinct gene expression patterns referred to as latency types. These different latency types are epigenetically stable and correspond to different promoter utilization. Here we explore the three-dimensional conformations of the EBV genome in different latency types. We employed Chromosome Conformation Capture (3C) assay to investigate chromatin loop formation between the OriP enhancer and the promoters that determine type I (Qp) or type III (Cp) gene expression. We show that OriP is in close physical proximity to Qp in type I latency, and to Cp in type III latency. The cellular chromatin insulator and boundary factor CTCF was implicated in EBV chromatin loop formation. Combining 3C and ChIP assays we found that CTCF is physically associated with OriP-Qp loop formation in type I and OriP-Cp loop formation in type III latency. Mutations in the CTCF binding site located at Qp disrupt loop formation between Qp and OriP, and lead to the activation of Cp transcription. Mutation of the CTCF binding site at Cp, as well as siRNA depletion of CTCF eliminates both OriP-associated loops, indicating that CTCF plays an integral role in loop formation. These data indicate that epigenetically stable EBV latency types adopt distinct chromatin architectures that depend on CTCF and mediate alternative promoter targeting by the OriP enhancer. PMID:21829357

  13. EBV latency types adopt alternative chromatin conformations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Italo Tempera

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV can establish latent infections with distinct gene expression patterns referred to as latency types. These different latency types are epigenetically stable and correspond to different promoter utilization. Here we explore the three-dimensional conformations of the EBV genome in different latency types. We employed Chromosome Conformation Capture (3C assay to investigate chromatin loop formation between the OriP enhancer and the promoters that determine type I (Qp or type III (Cp gene expression. We show that OriP is in close physical proximity to Qp in type I latency, and to Cp in type III latency. The cellular chromatin insulator and boundary factor CTCF was implicated in EBV chromatin loop formation. Combining 3C and ChIP assays we found that CTCF is physically associated with OriP-Qp loop formation in type I and OriP-Cp loop formation in type III latency. Mutations in the CTCF binding site located at Qp disrupt loop formation between Qp and OriP, and lead to the activation of Cp transcription. Mutation of the CTCF binding site at Cp, as well as siRNA depletion of CTCF eliminates both OriP-associated loops, indicating that CTCF plays an integral role in loop formation. These data indicate that epigenetically stable EBV latency types adopt distinct chromatin architectures that depend on CTCF and mediate alternative promoter targeting by the OriP enhancer.

  14. Comparison of Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen Expression in Odontogenic Keratocyst and Ameloblastoma: An Immunohistochemical Study

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    Hiroshi Takahashi

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA is a nuclear protein synthesized in the late G1 and S phase of the cell cycle, and immunohistochemical detection of the protein represents a useful marker for the proliferating fraction of cells in tissue specimens. PCNA expression was studied in odontogenic keratocysts (n = 15 and ameloblastomas (n = 46 using an avidin–biotin–peroxidase complex method on routinely processed paraffin sections. The percentage of PCNA-positive cells determined by point counting was significantly lower in the ameloblastomas (mean 9.4%, standard deviation (SD 11.0 than in odontogenic keratocysts (mean 29.9%, SD 24.0. In ameloblastomas, the mean percentage of PCNA-positive cells was lowest in the acanthomatous pattern and highest in plexiform pattern. The mean percentage of PCNA-positive cells in plexiform pattern was non-significantly higher than that in follicular pattern. The mean percentage of PCNA-positive cells in plexiform and follicular patterns was significantly higher than that in cyctic and acanthomatous patterns. The frequency of PCNA-positive cells was significantly higher in the peripheral cells of follicular and plexiform patterns than in the central cells of both patterns (p < 0.01. Therefore, peripheral cells were regarded as reserve cell of central cells. The mean percentage of PCNA-positive cells in the epithelial lining of odontogenic keratocyst was not significantly different from those in the peripheral cells of follicular and plexiform patterns of ameloblastoma. In contrast, the odontogenic keratocyst exhibited a mean percentage of PCNA-positive cells which was statistically higher than that in other histological elements of ameloblastomas. The present study suggests that odontogenic keratocyst is regarded as benign odontogenic tumour.

  15. Human NTH1 physically interacts with p53 and proliferating cell nuclear antigen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oyama, Masaki; Wakasugi, Mitsuo; Hama, Takashi; Hashidume, Hatsuho; Iwakami, Yasutaka; Imai, Rika; Hoshino, Sanae; Morioka, Hiroshi; Ishigaki, Yasuhito; Nikaido, Osamu; Matsunaga, Tsukasa

    2004-01-01

    Thymine glycol (Tg) is one of predominant oxidative DNA lesions caused by ionizing radiation and other oxidative stresses. Human NTH1 is a bifunctional enzyme with DNA glycosylase and AP lyase activities and removes Tg as the first step of base excision repair (BER). We have searched for the factors interacting with NTH1 by using a pull-down assay and found that GST-NTH1 fusion protein precipitates proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) and p53 as well as XPG from human cell-free extracts. GST-NTH1 also bound to recombinant FLAG-tagged XPG, PCNA, and (His) 6 -tagged p53 proteins, indicating direct protein-protein interaction between those proteins. Furthermore, His-p53 and FLAG-XPG, but not PCNA, stimulated the Tg DNA glycosylase/AP lyase activity of GST-NTH1 or NTH1. These results provide an insight into the positive regulation of BER reaction and also suggest a possible linkage between BER of Tg and other cellular mechanisms

  16. Prognostic value of proliferating cell nuclear antigen in parotid gland cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stenner, Markus; Demgensky, Ariane; Molls, Christoph; Hardt, Aline; Luers, Jan C; Grosheva, Maria; Huebbers, Christian U; Klussmann, Jens P

    2012-04-01

    Although cell proliferation is related to tumour aggressiveness and prognosis, there are few studies describing the expression of proliferative markers in salivary gland cancer. Our aim was to assess the long-term prognostic value of the proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) in a large group of histologically different salivary gland cancers. We analysed the expression of PCNA in 159 patients with parotid gland cancer by means of immunohistochemistry. The mean follow-up time was 56.6 months. A high expression of PCNA showed a significant correlation to the patients' pathological lymph node stage (p = 0.004). A high PCNA expression significantly indicated a poor 5-year disease-free (p = 0.046) and overall survival rate (p = 0.018). The PCNA expression was the only prognostic factor for a worse 5-year disease-free and overall survival in acinic cell carcinomas (p = 0.004, p = 0.022). The correlation between PCNA expression and survival probabilities of salivary gland cancer might make proliferation markers helpful tools in patient follow-up, prognosis and targeted therapy in salivary gland cancer in future.

  17. Localization of latency-associated nuclear antigen (LANA) on mitotic chromosomes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahayu, Retno; Ohsaki, Eriko; Omori, Hiroko; Ueda, Keiji

    2016-01-01

    In latent infection of Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV), viral gene expression is extremely limited and copy numbers of viral genomes remain constant. Latency-associated nuclear antigen (LANA) is known to have a role in maintaining viral genome copy numbers in growing cells. Several studies have shown that LANA is localized in particular regions on mitotic chromosomes, such as centromeres/pericentromeres. We independently examined the distinct localization of LANA on mitotic chromosomes during mitosis, using super-resolution laser confocal microscopy and correlative fluorescence microscopy–electron microscopy (FM-EM) analyses. We found that the majority of LANA were not localized at particular regions such as telomeres/peritelomeres, centromeres/pericentromeres, and cohesion sites, but at the bodies of condensed chromosomes. Thus, LANA may undergo various interactions with the host factors on the condensed chromosomes in order to tether the viral genome to mitotic chromosomes and realize faithful viral genome segregation during cell division. - Highlights: • This is the first report showing LANA dots on mitotic chromosomes by fluorescent microscopy followed by electron microscopy. • LANA dots localized randomly on condensed chromosomes other than centromere/pericentromere and telomere/peritelomre. • Cellular mitotic checkpoint should not be always involved in the segregation of KSHV genomes in the latency.

  18. Localization of latency-associated nuclear antigen (LANA) on mitotic chromosomes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rahayu, Retno; Ohsaki, Eriko [Division of Virology, Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine, 2-2 Yamada-oka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Omori, Hiroko [Central Instrumentation Laboratory Research Institute for Microbial Diseases (BIKEN), Osaka University, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Ueda, Keiji, E-mail: kueda@virus.med.osaka-u.ac.jp [Division of Virology, Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine, 2-2 Yamada-oka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan)

    2016-09-15

    In latent infection of Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV), viral gene expression is extremely limited and copy numbers of viral genomes remain constant. Latency-associated nuclear antigen (LANA) is known to have a role in maintaining viral genome copy numbers in growing cells. Several studies have shown that LANA is localized in particular regions on mitotic chromosomes, such as centromeres/pericentromeres. We independently examined the distinct localization of LANA on mitotic chromosomes during mitosis, using super-resolution laser confocal microscopy and correlative fluorescence microscopy–electron microscopy (FM-EM) analyses. We found that the majority of LANA were not localized at particular regions such as telomeres/peritelomeres, centromeres/pericentromeres, and cohesion sites, but at the bodies of condensed chromosomes. Thus, LANA may undergo various interactions with the host factors on the condensed chromosomes in order to tether the viral genome to mitotic chromosomes and realize faithful viral genome segregation during cell division. - Highlights: • This is the first report showing LANA dots on mitotic chromosomes by fluorescent microscopy followed by electron microscopy. • LANA dots localized randomly on condensed chromosomes other than centromere/pericentromere and telomere/peritelomre. • Cellular mitotic checkpoint should not be always involved in the segregation of KSHV genomes in the latency.

  19. Immunohistochemical localization of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA in the pig ovary.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milan TomĂĄnek

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to determine the expression of proliferating cell nuclear antigen protein (PCNA in the pig ovary. The localization of PCNA was demonstrated in paraffin sections of pig ovarian tissue using primary mouse monoclonal anti-PCNA antibody. In primordial follicles, no remarkable staining for PCNA either in granulosa cells or in the oocytes was observed. In primary to secondary follicles, positive staining in oocytes and in some granulosa cells was detected. The advanced preantral and particularly actively growing small to large antral follicles showed extensive PCNA labeling in the layers of granulosa and theca cells and in the cumulus cells encircling the oocyte. PCNA labeling was expressed in nuclei of oocytes in preantral and small antral follicles. In atretic follicles, the level of PCNA protein expression was dependent on the stage of atresia. Follicles demonstrating advanced atresia showed only limited or no PCNA labeled granulosa and theca cells. The results of the study demonstrate that follicular growth and development in pig ovary may be effectively monitored by determining the granulosa cell expression of PCNA.

  20. Plasma EBV microRNAs in paediatric renal transplant recipients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Jaythoon; Dean, Jonathan; De Gascun, Cillian F; Riordan, Michael; Sweeney, Clodagh; Connell, Jeff; Awan, Atif

    2018-06-01

    Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) was the first human virus identified to express microRNA (miRNA). To date, 44 mature miRNAs are encoded for within the EBV genome. EBV miRNAs have not been profiled in paediatric renal transplant recipients. In this study, we investigated circulating EBV miRNA profiles as novel biomarkers in paediatric renal transplant patients. Forty-two microRNAs encoded within 2 EBV open reading frames (BART and BHRF) were examined in renal transplant recipients who resolved EBV infection (REI) or maintained chronic high viral loads (CHL), and in non-transplant patients with acute infectious mononucleosis (IM). Plasma EBV-miR-BART2-5p was present in higher numbers of IM (7/8) and CHL (7/10) compared to REI (7/12) patients. A trend was observed between the numbers of plasma EBV miRNAs expressed and EBV viral load (p < 0.07). Several EBV-miRs including BART7-3p, 15, 9-3p, 11-3p, 1-3p and 3-3p were detected in IM and CHL patients only. The lytic EBV-miRs, BHRF1-2-3p and 1-1, indicating active viral replication, were detected in IM patients only. One CHL patient developed post-transplant lymphoproliferative disease (PTLD) after several years and analysis of 10 samples over a 30-month period showed an average 24-fold higher change in plasma EBV-miR-BART2-5p compared to the CHL group and 110-fold higher change compared to the REI group. Our results suggest that EBV-miR-BART2-5p, which targets the stress-induced immune ligand MICB to escape recognition and elimination by NK cells, may have a role in sustaining high EBV viral loads in CHL paediatric kidney transplant recipients.

  1. An animal model for human EBV-associated hemophagocytic syndrome: herpesvirus papio frequently induces fatal lymphoproliferative disorders with hemophagocytic syndrome in rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, K; Ohara, N; Teramoto, N; Onoda, S; Chen, H L; Oka, T; Kondo, E; Yoshino, T; Takahashi, K; Yates, J; Akagi, T

    2001-04-01

    Epstein-Barr virus-associated hemophagocytic syndrome (EBV-AHS) is often associated with fatal infectious mononucleosis. However, the animal model for EBV-AHS has not been developed. We reported the first animal model for EBV-AHS using rabbits infected with EBV-related herpesvirus of baboon (HVP). Eleven of 13 (85%) rabbits inoculated intravenously with HVP-producing cells developed fatal lymphoproliferative disorders (LPD) between 22 and 105 days after inoculation. LPD was also accompanied by hemophagocytic syndrome (HPS) in nine of these 11 rabbits. The peroral spray of cell-free HVP induced the virus infection with increased anti-EBV-viral capsid antigen-IgG titers in three of five rabbits, and two of these three infected rabbits died of LPD with HPS. Autopsy revealed hepatosplenomegaly and swollen lymph nodes. Atypical lymphoid T cells expressing EBV-encoded small RNA-1 infiltrated diffusely in many organs, frequently involving the lymph nodes, spleen, and liver. Hemophagocytic histiocytosis was observed in the lymph nodes, spleen, bone marrow, and thymus. HVP-DNA was detected in the tissues and peripheral blood from the infected rabbits by polymerase chain reaction or Southern blot analysis. Reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction revealed both HVP-EBNA1 and HVP-EBNA2 transcripts, suggesting latency type III infection. These data indicate that the high rate of rabbit LPD with HPS induction is caused by HVP. This system is useful for studying the pathogenesis, prevention, and treatment of human EBV-AHS.

  2. Assembly and architecture of the EBV B cell entry triggering complex.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karthik Sathiyamoorthy

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV is an enveloped double-stranded DNA virus of the gammaherpesvirinae sub-family that predominantly infects humans through epithelial cells and B cells. Three EBV glycoproteins, gH, gL and gp42, form a complex that targets EBV infection of B cells. Human leukocyte antigen (HLA class II molecules expressed on B cells serve as the receptor for gp42, triggering membrane fusion and virus entry. The mechanistic role of gHgL in herpesvirus entry has been largely unresolved, but it is thought to regulate the activation of the virally-encoded gB protein, which acts as the primary fusogen. Here we study the assembly and function of the reconstituted B cell entry complex comprised of gHgL, gp42 and HLA class II. The structure from negative-stain electron microscopy provides a detailed snapshot of an intermediate state in EBV entry and highlights the potential for the triggering complex to bring the two membrane bilayers into proximity. Furthermore, gHgL interacts with a previously identified, functionally important hydrophobic pocket on gp42, defining the overall architecture of the complex and playing a critical role in membrane fusion activation. We propose a macroscopic model of the initiating events in EBV B cell fusion centered on the formation of the triggering complex in the context of both viral and host membranes. This model suggests how the triggering complex may bridge the two membrane bilayers, orienting critical regions of the N- and C- terminal ends of gHgL to promote the activation of gB and efficient membrane fusion.

  3. Endoplasmic reticulum stress causes EBV lytic replication

    OpenAIRE

    Taylor, Gwen Marie; Raghuwanshi, Sandeep K.; Rowe, David T.; Wadowsky, Robert M.; Rosendorff, Adam

    2011-01-01

    Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress triggers a homeostatic cellular response in mammalian cells to ensure efficient folding, sorting, and processing of client proteins. In lytic-permissive lymphoblastoid cell lines (LCLs), pulse exposure to the chemical ER-stress inducer thapsigargin (TG) followed by recovery resulted in the activation of the EBV immediate-early (BRLF1, BZLF1), early (BMRF1), and late (gp350) genes, gp350 surface expression, and virus release. The protein phosphatase 1 a (PP1a)...

  4. Establishment and operation of a Good Manufacturing Practice-compliant allogeneic Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-specific cytotoxic cell bank for the treatment of EBV-associated lymphoproliferative disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vickers, Mark A; Wilkie, Gwen M; Robinson, Nicolas; Rivera, Nadja; Haque, Tanzina; Crawford, Dorothy H; Barry, Jacqueline; Fraser, Neil; Turner, David M; Robertson, Victoria; Dyer, Phil; Flanagan, Peter; Newlands, Helen R; Campbell, John; Turner, Marc L

    2014-11-01

    Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is associated with several malignancies, including post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder (PTLD). Conventional treatments for PTLD are often successful, but risk organ rejection and cause significant side effects. EBV-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) generated in vitro from peripheral blood lymphocytes provide an alternative treatment modality with few side effects, but autologous CTLs are difficult to use in clinical practice. Here we report the establishment and operation of a bank of EBV-specific CTLs derived from 25 blood donors with human leucocyte antigen (HLA) types found at high frequency in European populations. Since licensure, there have been enquiries about 37 patients, who shared a median of three class I and two class II HLA types with these donors. Cells have been infused into ten patients with lymphoproliferative disease, eight of whom achieved complete remission. Neither patient with refractory disease was matched for HLA class II. Both cases of EBV-associated non-haematopoietic sarcoma receiving cells failed to achieve complete remission. Thirteen patients died before any cells could be issued, emphasizing that the bank should be contacted before patients become pre-terminal. Thus, this third party donor-derived EBV-specific CTL cell bank can supply most patients with appropriately matched cells and most recipients have good outcomes. © 2014 The Authors. British Journal of Haematology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Kinetics of Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV) Neutralizing and Virus-Specific Antibodies after Primary Infection with EBV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bu, Wei; Hayes, Gregory M.; Liu, Hui; Gemmell, Lorraine; Schmeling, David O.; Radecki, Pierce; Aguilar, Fiona; Burbelo, Peter D.; Woo, Jennifer; Balfour, Henry H.

    2016-01-01

    Prospective studies of antibodies to multiple Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) proteins and EBV neutralizing antibodies in the same individuals before, during, and after primary EBV infection have not been reported. We studied antibody responses to EBV in college students who acquired primary EBV infection during prospective surveillance and correlated the kinetics of antibody response with the severity of disease. Neutralizing antibodies and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) antibodies to gp350, the major target of neutralizing antibody, reached peak levels at medians of 179 and 333 days after the onset of symptoms of infectious mononucleosis, respectively. No clear correlation was found between the severity of the symptoms of infectious mononucleosis and the peak levels of antibody to individual viral proteins or to neutralizing antibody. In summary, we found that titers of neutralizing antibody and antibodies to multiple EBV proteins increase over many months after primary infection with EBV. PMID:26888186

  6. Endoplasmic reticulum stress causes EBV lytic replication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Gwen Marie; Raghuwanshi, Sandeep K; Rowe, David T; Wadowsky, Robert M; Rosendorff, Adam

    2011-11-17

    Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress triggers a homeostatic cellular response in mammalian cells to ensure efficient folding, sorting, and processing of client proteins. In lytic-permissive lymphoblastoid cell lines (LCLs), pulse exposure to the chemical ER-stress inducer thapsigargin (TG) followed by recovery resulted in the activation of the EBV immediate-early (BRLF1, BZLF1), early (BMRF1), and late (gp350) genes, gp350 surface expression, and virus release. The protein phosphatase 1 a (PP1a)-specific phosphatase inhibitor Salubrinal (SAL) synergized with TG to induce EBV lytic genes; however, TG treatment alone was sufficient to activate EBV lytic replication. SAL showed ER-stress-dependent and -independent antiviral effects, preventing virus release in human LCLs and abrogating gp350 expression in 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA)-treated B95-8 cells. TG resulted in sustained BCL6 but not BLIMP1 or CD138 expression, which is consistent with maintenance of a germinal center B-cell, rather than plasma-cell, phenotype. Microarray analysis identified candidate genes governing lytic replication in LCLs undergoing ER stress.

  7. Association of GATA2 Deficiency With Severe Primary Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV) Infection and EBV-associated Cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Jeffrey I; Dropulic, Lesia; Hsu, Amy P; Zerbe, Christa S; Krogmann, Tammy; Dowdell, Kennichi; Hornung, Ronald L; Lovell, Jana; Hardy, Nancy; Hickstein, Dennis; Cowen, Edward W; Calvo, Katherine R; Pittaluga, Stefania; Holland, Steven M

    2016-07-01

    Most patients infected with Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) are asymptomatic, have nonspecific symptoms, or have self-limiting infectious mononucleosis. EBV, however, may result in severe primary disease or cancer. We report EBV diseases associated with GATA2 deficiency at one institution and describe the hematology, virology, and cytokine findings. Seven patients with GATA2 deficiency developed severe EBV disease. Three presented with EBV infectious mononucleosis requiring hospitalization, 1 had chronic active EBV disease (B-cell type), 1 had EBV-associated hydroa vacciniforme-like lymphoma with hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis, and 2 had EBV-positive smooth muscle tumors. Four of the 7 patients had severe warts and 3 had disseminated nontuberculous mycobacterial infections. All of the patients had low numbers of monocytes, B cells, CD4 T cells, and natural killer cells. All had elevated levels of EBV in the blood; 2 of 3 patients tested had expression of the EBV major immediate-early gene in the blood indicative of active EBV lytic infection. Mean plasma levels of tumor necrosis factor α, interferon γ, and interferon gamma-induced protein 10 were higher in patients with GATA2 deficiency than in controls. GATA2 is the first gene associated with EBV hydroa vacciniforme-like lymphoma. GATA2 deficiency should be considered in patients with severe primary EBV infection or EBV-associated cancer, especially in those with disseminated nontuberculous mycobacterial disease and warts. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America 2016. This work is written by (a) US Government employee(s) and is in the public domain in the US.

  8. ATM Protein Physically and Functionally Interacts with Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen to Regulate DNA Synthesis*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamper, Armin M.; Choi, Serah; Matsumoto, Yoshihiro; Banerjee, Dibyendu; Tomkinson, Alan E.; Bakkenist, Christopher J.

    2012-01-01

    Ataxia telangiectasia (A-T) is a pleiotropic disease, with a characteristic hypersensitivity to ionizing radiation that is caused by biallelic mutations in A-T mutated (ATM), a gene encoding a protein kinase critical for the induction of cellular responses to DNA damage, particularly to DNA double strand breaks. A long known characteristic of A-T cells is their ability to synthesize DNA even in the presence of ionizing radiation-induced DNA damage, a phenomenon termed radioresistant DNA synthesis. We previously reported that ATM kinase inhibition, but not ATM protein disruption, blocks sister chromatid exchange following DNA damage. We now show that ATM kinase inhibition, but not ATM protein disruption, also inhibits DNA synthesis. Investigating a potential physical interaction of ATM with the DNA replication machinery, we found that ATM co-precipitates with proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) from cellular extracts. Using bacterially purified ATM truncation mutants and in vitro translated PCNA, we showed that the interaction is direct and mediated by the C terminus of ATM. Indeed, a 20-amino acid region close to the kinase domain is sufficient for strong binding to PCNA. This binding is specific to ATM, because the homologous regions of other PIKK members, including the closely related kinase A-T and Rad3-related (ATR), did not bind PCNA. ATM was found to bind two regions in PCNA. To examine the functional significance of the interaction between ATM and PCNA, we tested the ability of ATM to stimulate DNA synthesis by DNA polymerase δ, which is implicated in both DNA replication and DNA repair processes. ATM was observed to stimulate DNA polymerase activity in a PCNA-dependent manner. PMID:22362778

  9. Interaction of Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen With DNA at the Single Molecule Level

    KAUST Repository

    Raducanu, Vlad-Stefan

    2016-05-01

    Proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) is a key factor involved in Eukaryotic DNA replication and repair, as well as other cellular pathways. Its importance comes mainly from two aspects: the large numbers of interacting partners and the mechanism of facilitated diffusion along the DNA. The large numbers of interacting partners makes PCNA a necessary factor to consider when studying DNA replication, either in vitro or in vivo. The mechanism of facilitated diffusion along the DNA, i.e. sliding along the duplex, reduces the six degrees of freedom of the molecule, three degrees of freedom of translation and three degrees of freedom of rotation, to only two, translation along the duplex and rotational tracking of the helix. Through this mechanism PCNA can recruit its partner proteins and localize them to the right spot on the DNA, maybe in the right spatial orientation, more effectively and in coordination with other proteins. Passive loading of the closed PCNA ring on the DNA without free ends is a topologically forbidden process. Replication factor C (RFC) uses energy of ATP hydrolysis to mechanically open the PCNA ring and load it on the dsDNA. The first half of the introduction gives overview of PCNA and RFC and the loading mechanism of PCNA on dsDNA. The second half is dedicated to a diffusion model and to an algorithm for analyzing PCNA sliding. PCNA and RFC were successfully purified, simulations and a mean squared displacement analysis algorithm were run and showed good stability and experimental PCNA sliding data was analyzed and led to parameters similar to the ones in literature.

  10. Immunochemical expression of proliferative cell nuclear antigen in aging cultured astrocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. C. Vanzani

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available Cell differentiation degree and mitotic activity were sequentially assessed by immunoperoxidase labeling of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP and proliferative cell nuclear antigen (PCNA, respectively, in rat brain cultured astrocytes maintained up to 60 days in vitro (DIV of first subculture, or weekly passaged until their 12th subculture. Cell count was performed through a 0.01 mm2 section reticule and morphometric analysis with a stereological grid. The number of double immunoreactive cells peaked by 2 DIV to achieve its lowest value at 60 DIV. At 24 hs of cell seeding of successive passages, such values peaked by the 6th subculture to gradually decrease thereafter. Increasing cell hypertrophy was found during the long-term first subculture but not after passaging. At the end of the observation period, doubly immunolabeled astrocytes were still recorded, thus evidencing retention of proliferative potential despite aging.El grado de diferenciación celular y la actividad mitótica fueron secuencialmente determinados mediante marcación por inmunoperoxidasa de la proteína gliofibrilar ácida (GFAP y del antígeno nuclear de proliferación celular (PCNA, respectivamente, en cultivos astrocitarios obtenidos de encéfalo de rata y mantenidos hasta 60 días in vitro (DIV de su primer subcultivo, o mediante pasajes semanales hasta el 12do subcultivo. El conteo celular se realizó mediante una retícula de 0.01-mm2 de sección y el análisis morfométrico con una grilla estereológica. El número de células doblemente inmunorreactivas alcanzó valores máximos a los 2 DIV para descender a los menores a los 60 DIV. A las 24 hs de sembrado celular de los sucesivos pasajes, esos valores ascendieron hacia el 6to subcultivo para luego declinar. En cuanto a la hipertrofia celular, se observó en todo el curso del primer subcultivo, pero no durante los posteriores pasajes. Al final del período de observación, todavía se continuaban detectando

  11. Quantificazione mediante PCR dell’EBV-DNA da biopsie cutanee di pazienti con linfomi cutanei primitivi (micosi fungoide e sindrome di Sèzary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiara Merlino

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Mycosis fungoides (MF, the most indolent form of CTCL, originates from a clonal expansion of epidermotropic helper/memory T cells. Sezary syndrome (SS is a rare primay epidermotropic cutaneous T-cell lymphoma in leukemic. The aetiopathogenesis of MF and SS remains obscure despite several investigations. Infectious, environmental and genetic factors have been implicated as potential aetiological agents. The studies investigating the role of EBV in CTCL present conflicting results. The different sensitivities of the technical methods used in the evaluation of the presence of viral DNA or virus-related antigens make comparison of the results difficult. The aim of this study was to retrospectively evaluate the EBV-DNA load in skin biopsies from MF and SS patients by a highly sensitive (1-10 EBV-DNA copies/reaction quantitative-competitive PCR (QC-PCR developed in our lab to better asses the relationship between EBV and CTCL. Skin biopsies were obtained from 21 MF and 10 SS patients; skin biopsies from a 8 patients with inflammatory skin disease were used as controls. EBV-DNA was detected in 70% of biopsies from SS patients vs. 0% of MF patients. No control patients resulted EBV-DNA positive, as expected. In addition, in SS patients, the survival from diagnosis is lesser in EBV-positive patients vs.EBV-negative patients even if not statistically significant.We are going to investigate the presence of EBV-DNA in peripheral blood of a larger number of patients and to evaluate the pattern of viral genes expression, to better assess the aetiopathogenetical role of EB virus in this kind of neoplasies.

  12. Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV-associated Haemophagocytic Syndrome

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    Lorenza Torti

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We describe the case of a 17- year old female who developed fatal haemophagocytic syndrome (HPS one month following acute infection caused by Epstein-Barr virus (EBV. Despite initiation of treatment and reduction of EBV load, laboratory signs of HPS as severe cytopenia, hypofibrinogenemia, hyperferritinemia and hypertriglyceridemia persisted, and the patient died of multiorgan failure. HPS is a rare, but life-threatening complication of EBV infection.

  13. Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV)-associated Gastric Carcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iizasa, Hisashi; Nanbo, Asuka; Nishikawa, Jun; Jinushi, Masahisa; Yoshiyama, Hironori

    2012-01-01

    The ubiquitous Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is associated with several human tumors, which include lymphoid and epithelial malignancies. It is known that EBV persistently infects the memory B cell pool of healthy individuals by activating growth and survival signaling pathways that can contribute to B cell lymphomagenesis. Although the monoclonal proliferation of EBV-infected cells can be observed in epithelial tumors, such as nasopharyngeal carcinoma and EBV-associated gastric carcinoma, the precise role of EBV in the carcinogenic progress is not fully understood. This review features characteristics and current understanding of EBV-associated gastric carcinoma. EBV-associated gastric carcinoma comprises almost 10% of all gastric carcinoma cases and expresses restricted EBV latent genes (Latency I). Firstly, definition, epidemiology, and clinical features are discussed. Then, the route of infection and carcinogenic role of viral genes are presented. Of particular interest, the association with frequent genomic CpG methylation and role of miRNA for carcinogenesis are topically discussed. Finally, the possibility of therapies targeting EBV-associated gastric carcinoma is proposed. PMID:23342366

  14. Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV-associated Gastric Carcinoma

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    Hironori Yoshiyama

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The ubiquitous Epstein-Barr virus (EBV is associated with several human tumors, which include lymphoid and epithelial malignancies. It is known that EBV persistently infects the memory B cell pool of healthy individuals by activating growth and survival signaling pathways that can contribute to B cell lymphomagenesis.  Although the monoclonal proliferation of EBV-infected cells can be observed in epithelial tumors, such as nasopharyngeal carcinoma and EBV-associated gastric carcinoma, the precise role of EBV in the carcinogenic progress is not fully understood. This review features characteristics and current understanding of EBV-associated gastric carcinoma. EBV-associated gastric carcinoma comprises almost 10% of all gastric carcinoma cases and expresses restricted EBV latent genes (Latency I. Firstly, definition, epidemiology, and clinical features are discussed. Then, the route of infection and carcinogenic role of viral genes are presented.  Of particular interest, the association with frequent genomic CpG methylation and role of miRNA for carcinogenesis are topically discussed. Finally, the possibility of therapies targeting EBV-associated gastric carcinoma is proposed. 

  15. EBV AND HIV-RELATED LYMPHOMA

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    Michele Bibas

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available HIV-associated lymphoproliferative disorders represent a heterogeneous group of diseases, arising in the presence of HIV-associated immunodeficiency. The overall prevalence of HIV-associated lymphoma is significantly higher compared to that of the general population and it continues to be relevant even after the wide availability of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART (1. Moreover, they still represent one of the most frequent cause of death in HIV-infected patients. Epstein–Barr virus (EBV, a γ-Herpesviruses, is involved in human lymphomagenesis, particularly in HIV immunocompromised patients. It has been largely implicated in the development of B-cell lymphoproliferative disorders as Burkitt lymphoma (BL, Hodgkin disease (HD, systemic non Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL, primary central nervous system lymphoma (PCNSL, nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NC. Virus-associated lymphomas are becoming of significant concern for the mortality of long-lived HIV immunocompromised patients, and therefore, research of advanced strategies for AIDS-related lymphomas is an important field in cancer chemotherapy. Detailed understanding of the EBV  lifecycle and related cancers at the molecular level is required for novel strategies of molecular-targeted cancer chemotherapy The linkage of HIV-related lymphoma with EBV infection of the tumor clone has several pathogenetic, prognostic and possibly therapeutic implications which are reviewed herein

  16. Cell proliferation-associated nuclear antigen defined by antibody Ki-67: a new kind of cell cycle-maintaining proteins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duchrow, M.; Schlueter, C.; Key, G.; Kubbutat, H.G.; Wohlenberg, C.; Flad, H.D.; Gerdes

    1995-01-01

    A decade of studies on the human nuclear antigen defined by monoclonal antibody Ki-67 (the 'Ki-67 proteins') has made it abundantly clear that this structure is strictly associated with human cell proliferation and the expression of this protein can be used to access the growth fraction of a given cell population. Until recently the Ki-67 protein was described as a nonhistone protein that is highly susceptible to protease treatment. We have isolated and sequenced cDNAs encoding for this antigen and found two isoforms of the full length cDNA of 11.5 and 12.5 kb, respectively, sequence and structure of which are thus far unique. The gene encoding the Ki-67 protein is organized in 15 exons and is localized on chromosome 10. The center of this gene is formed by an extraordinary 6845 bp exon containing 16 successively repeated homologous segments of 366 bp ('Ki-67 repeats'), each containing a highly conserved new motif of 66 bp ('Ki-67 motif'). The deduced peptide sequence of this central exon possesses 10 ProGluSerThr (PEST) motifs which are associated with high turnover proteins such as other cell cycle-related proteins, oncogenes and transcription factors, etc. Like the latter proteins the Ki-67 antigen plays a pivotal role in maintaining cell proliferation because Ki-67 protein antisense oligonucleotides significantly inhibit 3 H-thymidine incorporation in permanent human tumor cell lines in a dose-dependent manner. (author). 30 refs, 2 figs

  17. Characterization of variants in the promoter of BZLF1 gene of EBV in nonmalignant EBV-associated diseases in Chinese children

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    Yang Shuang

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Diseases associated with Epstein-Barr virus (EBV infections, such as infectious mononucleosis (IM, EBV-associated hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (EBV-HLH and chronic active EBV infection (CAEBV are not rare in Chinese children. The association of type 1 or type 2 EBV and variants of the EBV BZLF1 promoter zone (Zp with these diseases is unclear. Results The objective of this study was to investigate the relationship between EBV genotypes (Zp variants and EBV type 1 and 2 and the clinical phenotypes of EBV-associated diseases in Chinese children. The Zp region was directly sequenced in 206 EBV-positive DNA samples from the blood of patients with IM, EBV-HLH, CAEBV, and healthy controls. Type 1 or type 2 EBV was examined by PCR for EBNA2 and EBNA3C subtypes. Four polymorphic Zp variants were identified: Zp-P, Zp-V3, Zp-P4 and Zp-V1, a new variant. The Zp-V3 variant was significantly associated with CAEBV (P ≤ 0.01. The frequency of co-infection with Zp variants was higher in patients with CAEBV and EBV-HLH, compared with IM and healthy controls, mostly as Zp-P+V3 co-infection. Type 1 EBV was predominant in all categories (81.3-95% and there was no significant difference in the frequency of the EBV types 1 and 2 in different categories (P > 0.05. Conclusions Type 1 EBV and BZLF1 Zp-P of EBV were the predominant genotypes in nonmalignant EBV associated diseases in Chinese children and Zp-V3 variant may correlates with the developing of severe EBV infection diseases, such as CAEBV and EBV-HLH.

  18. Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) load in cerebrospinal fluid and peripheral blood of patients with EBV-associated central nervous system diseases after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Q-F; Ling, Y-W; Fan, Z-P; Jiang, Q-L; Sun, J; Wu, X-L; Zhao, J; Wei, Q; Zhang, Y; Yu, G-P; Wu, M-Q; Feng, R

    2013-08-01

    To evaluate the diagnostic and prognostic utility of monitoring the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) load in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and peripheral blood for the patients with EBV-associated central nervous system (CNS) diseases after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT), 172 patients undergoing allo-HSCT were enrolled in the study. The EBV DNA levels of blood were monitored regularly in recipients of transplants for 3 years post transplantation. The EBV DNA levels of CSF were monitored in patients with EBV-associated CNS diseases before the treatment and at different points following the treatment. Post-transplant EBV-associated diseases developed in 27 patients, including 12 patients with EBV-associated CNS diseases. The 3-year cumulative incidences of EBV-associated diseases and EBV-associated CNS diseases were 19.5 ± 3.5% and 8.6 ± 2.4%, respectively. Patients with EBV-associated diseases showed higher loads of EBV DNA in their blood compared with patients with EBV DNA-emia. No difference was seen between the EBV DNA levels of blood in patients with CNS involvement and patients without CNS involvement. The EBV DNA loads of blood increased 3-14 days before the clinical manifestations of EBV-associated diseases emerged. The EBV DNA loads of CSF were higher than that of blood in patients with EBV-associated CNS diseases. In 12 patients with EBV-associated CNS diseases, EBV DNA levels were declining in both blood and CSF with the control of diseases, and the EBV DNA loads of CSF decreased faster than that of blood in 5 patients who responded to treatment, and the EBV DNA levels of CSF increased in 5 patients who were unresponsive to treatment. On multivariate analysis, the use of anti-thymocyte globulin and intensified conditioning regimens were independent risk factors for EBV-associated diseases and EBV-associated CNS diseases. EBV-associated CNS diseases are not rare after allo-HSCT. The EBV DNA loads of CSF could act as an important

  19. Reduced response to Epstein-Barr virus antigens by T-cells in systemic lupus erythematosus patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Draborg, Anette Holck; Jacobsen, Søren; Westergaard, Marie

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) has for long been associated with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). In this study, we investigated the levels of latent and lytic antigen EBV-specific T-cells and antibodies in SLE patients. METHODS: T cells were analyzed by flow cytometry and antibodies were...

  20. Diagnostic dilemma: Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infectious mononucleosis with lung involvement or co-infection with Legionnaire's disease?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunha, Burke A; Gian, John

    Hospitalized adults with fever and "pneumonia" can be a difficult diagnostic challenge particularly when the clinical findings may be due to different infectious diseases. We recently had an elderly female who presented with fever, fatigue and dry cough with elevated serum transaminases and lung infiltrates. The diagnosis of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infectious mononucleosis (IM) was made based on a positive Monospot test, elevated EBV VCA IgM titer, and highly elevated EBV viral load. Her chest infiltrates were not accompanied by hilar adenopathy which may occur with EBV IM. Her dry cough persisted and she developed abdominal pain. Legionnaire's disease was considered because she had extra-pulmonary findings characteristic of Legionnaire's disease, e.g., relative bradycardia, abdominal pain, hyponatremia, hypophosphatemia, elevated ferritin levels, microscopic hematuria. Legionella titers were negative, but Legionella (serogroup 1) urinary antigen was positive. We present a diagnostic dilemma in an elderly female with both Legionnaire's disease and Epstein-Barr virus infectious mononucleosis with pulmonary involvement. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. EBV DNA polymerase inhibition of tannins from Eugenia uniflora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, M H; Chiou, J F; Yen, K Y; Yang, L L

    2000-06-30

    Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is one of the high population malignant tumors among Chinese in southern China and southeast Asia. Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is a human B lymphotropic herpes virus which is known to be closely associated with NPC. EBV DNA polymerase is a key enzyme during EBV replication and is measured by its radioactivity. The addition of phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate to Raji cell cultures led to a large increase in EBV DNA polymerase, which was purified by sequential DEAE-cellulose, phosphocellulose and DNA-cellulose column chromatography. Four tannins were isolated from the active fractions of Eugenia uniflora L., which were tested for the inhibition of EBV DNA polymerase. The results showed the 50% inhibitory concentration (IC(50)) values of gallocatechin, oenothein B, eugeniflorins D(1) and D(2) were 26.5 62.3, 3.0 and 3.5 microM, respectively. Furthermore, when compared with the positive control (phosphonoacetic acid), an inhibitor of EBV replication, the IC(50) value was 16.4 microM. In view of the results, eugeniflorins D(1) and D(2) are the potency principles in the inhibition of EBV DNA polymerase from E. uniflora.

  2. EBNA3C Directs Recruitment of RBPJ (CBF1) to Chromatin during the Process of Gene Repression in EBV Infected B Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalchschmidt, Jens S; Gillman, Adam C T; Paschos, Kostas; Bazot, Quentin; Kempkes, Bettina; Allday, Martin J

    2016-01-01

    It is well established that Epstein-Barr virus nuclear antigen 3C (EBNA3C) can act as a potent repressor of gene expression, but little is known about the sequence of events occurring during the repression process. To explore further the role of EBNA3C in gene repression-particularly in relation to histone modifications and cell factors involved-the three host genes previously reported as most robustly repressed by EBNA3C were investigated. COBLL1, a gene of unknown function, is regulated by EBNA3C alone and the two co-regulated disintegrin/metalloproteases, ADAM28 and ADAMDEC1 have been described previously as targets of both EBNA3A and EBNA3C. For the first time, EBNA3C was here shown to be the main regulator of all three genes early after infection of primary B cells. Using various EBV-recombinants, repression over orders of magnitude was seen only when EBNA3C was expressed. Unexpectedly, full repression was not achieved until 30 days after infection. This was accurately reproduced in established LCLs carrying EBV-recombinants conditional for EBNA3C function, demonstrating the utility of the conditional system to replicate events early after infection. Using this system, detailed chromatin immunoprecipitation analysis revealed that the initial repression was associated with loss of activation-associated histone modifications (H3K9ac, H3K27ac and H3K4me3) and was independent of recruitment of polycomb proteins and deposition of the repressive H3K27me3 modification, which were only observed later in repression. Most remarkable, and in contrast to current models of RBPJ in repression, was the observation that this DNA-binding factor accumulated at the EBNA3C-binding sites only when EBNA3C was functional. Transient reporter assays indicated that repression of these genes was dependent on the interaction between EBNA3C and RBPJ. This was confirmed with a novel EBV-recombinant encoding a mutant of EBNA3C unable to bind RBPJ, by showing this virus was incapable of

  3. Analysis of nuclear accumulation of influenza NP antigen in von Magnus virus-infected cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeno, K; Aoki, H; Hamaguchi, M; Iinuma, M; Nagai, Y; Matsumoto, T; Takeura, S; Shibata, M

    1981-01-01

    When 1-5C-4 cells were infected with von Magnus virus derived from influenza A/RI/5+ virus by successive undiluted passages in chick embryos, virus-specific proteins were synthesized but production of infectious virus was inhibited. In these cells the synthesis of viral RNA was suppressed and the nucleoprotein (NP) antigen was found predominantly in the nucleus in contrast to standard virus-infected cells in which the antigen was distributed throughout the whole cell. The intracellular location and migration of NP were determined by isotope labeling and sucrose gradient centrifugation of subcellular fractions. In standard virus-infected cell NP polypeptide was present predominantly in the cytoplasm in the form of viral ribonucleoprotein (RNP) and intranuclear RNP was detected in reduced amounts. In contrast, in von Magnus virus-infected cells NP polypeptide was present predominantly in the nucleus in a nonassembled, soluble from and the amount of cytoplasmic RNP was considerably reduced. After short-pulse labeling NP was detected exclusively in the cytoplasm in a soluble form and after a chase a large proportion of such soluble NP was seen in the nucleus. It is suggested that a large proportion of the NP synthesized in von Magnus virus-infected cells in not assembled into cytoplasmic RNP because of the lack of available RNA and the NP migrated into the nucleus and remained there.

  4. Evaluation of Urinary Nuclear Matrix Protein-22 as Tumor Marker Versus Tissue Polypeptide Specific Antigen in Bilharzial and Bladder Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, W.A.; El-Kabany, H.

    2004-01-01

    Urinary nuclear matrix protein-22 (NMP-22) and tissue polypeptide specific antigen (TPS) were determined as potential marker for early detection of bladder tumors in patients with high risk (Bilharzial-patients), monitoring and follow up bladder cancer patients. The objective was to determine sensitivity and specificity of markers for bilharzial and cancer lesions. The levels of two parameters were determined pre and post operation. A total of 110 individuals, 20 healthy, 20 bilharzial patients and 70 bladder cancer patients with confirmed diagnosis were investigated. Urine samples were assayed for NMP-22 and TPS test kits. Some bladder cancer patients were selected to follow up. NMP-22 showed highly significant increase (P,0.001) more than TPS (P<0.01) in bladder cancer patients when compared with bilharzial and control group. Overall sensitivity is 7.8% for TPS and 98.5% for NMP-22

  5. Flow cytometry in the diagnosis of myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) and the value of myeloid nuclear differentiation antigen (MNDA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellos, Frauke; Kern, Wolfgang

    2014-09-25

    Background: Confirming diagnosis of myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) is often challenging. Standard diagnostic methods are cytomorphology (CM) and cytogenetics (CG). Multiparameter flow cytometry (MFC) is upcoming in MDS diagnostic work up, comparability and investigator experience are critical. Myeloid nuclear differentiation antigen (MNDA) in myelomonocytic cells might be expressed more weakly in patients with MDS. The analysis of MNDA may thus improve diagnostic capabilities of MFC in MDS. Methods: Staining methods and antibody combinations for MFC in MDS are outlined, giving details for interpretation of results in regard to dyspoiesis. MFC results are correlated with CM and CG and with survival data. Use of myeloid nuclear differentiation antigen (MNDA) in MDS diagnostics was evaluated in 239 patients with MDS, AML, other cytopenic conditions and in 30 negative controls. Results: Strong correlation between findings in CM and MFC was found; MFC results correlated well with those of CG. Patients with higher grades of dysplasia in MFC had shorter overall survival. Percentages of granulocytes and monocytes with diminished MNDA expression (%dimG, %dimM) were higher in patients with MDS and AML. Mean fluorescence intensity (MFI) of MNDA in monocytes was lower in MDS and AML. Cut-off values for %dimG (12%) and %dimM (22%) as well as for MFI in monocytes (72) were defined discriminating between MDS and non-MDS. Conclusion: MFC adds significant information on dyspoiesis in the diagnostic work up for MDS and provides prognostic information. MNDA expression can be assessed by MFC and may facilitate evaluation of dyspoiesis when added to MDS MFC panels. © 2014 Clinical Cytometry Society. Copyright © 2014 Clinical Cytometry Society.

  6. Epigenetic Impact on EBV Associated B-Cell Lymphomagenesis

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    Shatadru Ghosh Roy

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Epigenetic modifications leading to either transcriptional repression or activation, play an indispensable role in the development of human cancers. Epidemiological study revealed that approximately 20% of all human cancers are associated with tumor viruses. Epstein-Barr virus (EBV, the first human tumor virus, demonstrates frequent epigenetic alterations on both viral and host genomes in associated cancers—both of epithelial and lymphoid origin. The cell type-dependent different EBV latent gene expression patterns appear to be determined by the cellular epigenetic machinery and similarly viral oncoproteins recruit epigenetic regulators in order to deregulate the cellular gene expression profile resulting in several human cancers. This review elucidates the epigenetic consequences of EBV–host interactions during development of multiple EBV-induced B-cell lymphomas, which may lead to the discovery of novel therapeutic interventions against EBV-associated B-cell lymphomas by alteration of reversible patho-epigenetic markings.

  7. Induction of the nuclear IκB protein IκB-ζ upon stimulation of B cell antigen receptor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hijioka, Kuniaki; Matsuo, Susumu; Eto-Kimura, Akiko; Takeshige, Koichiro; Muta, Tatsushi

    2007-01-01

    The nuclear IκB protein IκB-ζ is barely detectable in resting cells and is induced in macrophages and fibroblasts following stimulation of innate immunity via Toll-like receptors. The induced IκB-ζ associates with nuclear factor (NF)-κB in the nucleus and plays crucial roles in its transcriptional regulation. Here, we examined the induction of IκB-ζ in B lymphocytes, one of the major players in adaptive immunity. Upon crosslinking of the surface immunoglobulin complex, IκB-ζ mRNA was robustly induced in murine B-lymphoma cell line A20 cells. While the crosslinking activated NF-κB and induced its target gene, IκB-α, co-crosslinking of Fcγ receptor IIB to the surface immunoglobulin complex inhibited NF-κB activation and the induction of IκB-ζ and IκB-α, suggesting critical roles for NF-κB in the induction. These results indicate that IκB-ζ is also induced by stimulation of B cell antigen receptor, suggesting that IκB-ζ is involved in the regulation of adaptive immune responses

  8. Humoral markers of active Epstein-Barr virus infection associate with anti-extractable nuclear antigen autoantibodies and plasma galectin-3 binding protein in systemic lupus erythematosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, N S; Nielsen, C T; Houen, G; Jacobsen, S

    2016-12-01

    We investigated if signs of active Epstein-Barr virus and cytomegalovirus infections associate with certain autoantibodies and a marker of type I interferon activity in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus. IgM and IgG plasma levels against Epstein-Barr virus early antigen diffuse and cytomegalovirus pp52 were applied as humoral markers of ongoing/recently active Epstein-Barr virus and cytomegalovirus infections, respectively. Plasma galectin-3 binding protein served as a surrogate marker of type I interferon activity. The measurements were conducted in 57 systemic lupus erythematosus patients and 29 healthy controls using ELISAs. Regression analyses and univariate comparisons were performed for associative evaluation between virus serology, plasma galectin-3 binding protein and autoantibodies, along with other clinical and demographic parameters. Plasma galectin-3 binding protein concentrations were significantly higher in systemic lupus erythematosus patients (P = 0.009) and associated positively with Epstein-Barr virus early antigen diffuse-directed antibodies and the presence of autoantibodies against extractable nuclear antigens in adjusted linear regressions (B = 2.02 and 2.02, P = 0.02 and P = 0.002, respectively). Furthermore, systemic lupus erythematosus patients with anti-extractable nuclear antigens had significantly higher antibody levels against Epstein-Barr virus early antigen diffuse (P = 0.02). Our study supports a link between active Epstein-Barr virus infections, positivity for anti-extractable nuclear antigens and increased plasma galectin-3 binding protein concentrations/type I interferon activity in systemic lupus erythematosus patients. © The Author(s) 2016.

  9. In Vitro and In Vivo Antitumor Effect of Anti-CD33 Chimeric Receptor-Expressing EBV-CTL against CD33+ Acute Myeloid Leukemia

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    A. Dutour

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Genetic engineering of T cells with chimeric T-cell receptors (CARs is an attractive strategy to treat malignancies. It extends the range of antigens for adoptive T-cell immunotherapy, and major mechanisms of tumor escape are bypassed. With this strategy we redirected immune responses towards the CD33 antigen to target acute myeloid leukemia. To improve in vivo T-cell persistence, we modified human Epstein Barr Virus-(EBV- specific cytotoxic T cells with an anti-CD33.CAR. Genetically modified T cells displayed EBV and HLA-unrestricted CD33 bispecificity in vitro. In addition, though showing a myeloablative activity, they did not irreversibly impair the clonogenic potential of normal CD34+ hematopoietic progenitors. Moreover, after intravenous administration into CD33+ human acute myeloid leukemia-bearing NOD-SCID mice, anti-CD33-EBV-specific T cells reached the tumor sites exerting antitumor activity in vivo. In conclusion, targeting CD33 by CAR-modified EBV-specific T cells may provide additional therapeutic benefit to AML patients as compared to conventional chemotherapy or transplantation regimens alone.

  10. Phosphorylation at tyrosine 114 of Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen (PCNA) is required for adipogenesis in response to high fat diet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lo, Yuan-Hung; Ho, Po-Chun; Chen, Min-Shan; Hugo, Eric; Ben-Jonathan, Nira [Department of Cancer Biology, University of Cincinnati College of Medicine, 3125 Eden Avenue, Cincinnati, OH 45267-0521 (United States); Department of Environmental Health, University of Cincinnati College of Medicine, 3223 Eden Avenue, Kettering Laboratory, Cincinnati, OH 45267-0056 (United States); Wang, Shao-Chun, E-mail: shao-chun.wang@uc.edu [Department of Cancer Biology, University of Cincinnati College of Medicine, 3125 Eden Avenue, Cincinnati, OH 45267-0521 (United States); Department of Environmental Health, University of Cincinnati College of Medicine, 3223 Eden Avenue, Kettering Laboratory, Cincinnati, OH 45267-0056 (United States)

    2013-01-04

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen (PCNA) is phosphorylated at Y114. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Phospho-Y114 of PCNA is not required for cell proliferation for normal growth. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer MCE during adipogenesis is abolished in the lack of the phosphorylation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Homozygous Y114F mice are resistant to high fat diet induced obesity. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Our results shed light on the interface between proliferation and differentiation. -- Abstract: Clonal proliferation is an obligatory component of adipogenesis. Although several cell cycle regulators are known to participate in the transition between pre-adipocyte proliferation and terminal adipocyte differentiation, how the core DNA synthesis machinery is coordinately regulated in adipogenesis remains elusive. PCNA (Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen) is an indispensable component for DNA synthesis during proliferation. Here we show that PCNA is subject to phosphorylation at the highly conserved tyrosine residue 114 (Y114). Replacing the Y114 residue with phenylalanine (Y114F), which is structurally similar to tyrosine but cannot be phosphorylated, does not affect normal animal development. However, when challenged with high fat diet, mice carrying homozygous Y114F alleles (PCNA{sup F/F}) are resistant to adipose tissue enlargement in comparison to wild-type (WT) mice. Mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) harboring WT or Y114F mutant PCNA proliferate at similar rates. However, when subjected to adipogenesis induction in culture, PCNA{sup F/F} MEFs are not able to re-enter the cell cycle and fail to form mature adipocytes, while WT MEFs undergo mitotic clonal expansion in response to the adipogenic stimulation, accompanied by enhanced Y114 phosphorylation of PCNA, and differentiate to mature adipocytes. Consistent with the function of Y114 phosphorylation in clonal proliferation in adipogenesis, fat tissues isolated from WT

  11. Humoral markers of active Epstein-Barr virus infection associate with anti-extractable nuclear antigen autoantibodies and plasma galectin-3 binding protein in systemic lupus erythematosus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, N S; Nielsen, C T; Houen, G

    2016-01-01

    We investigated if signs of active Epstein-Barr virus and cytomegalovirus infections associate with certain autoantibodies and a marker of type I interferon activity in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus. IgM and IgG plasma levels against Epstein-Barr virus early antigen diffuse...... and cytomegalovirus pp52 were applied as humoral markers of ongoing/recently active Epstein-Barr virus and cytomegalovirus infections, respectively. Plasma galectin-3 binding protein served as a surrogate marker of type I interferon activity. The measurements were conducted in 57 systemic lupus erythematosus patients...... concentrations were significantly higher in systemic lupus erythematosus patients (P = 0.009) and associated positively with Epstein-Barr virus early antigen diffuse-directed antibodies and the presence of autoantibodies against extractable nuclear antigens in adjusted linear regressions (B = 2.02 and 2.02, P...

  12. Epstein-Barr virus (EBV Rta-mediated EBV and Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus lytic reactivations in 293 cells.

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    Yen-Ju Chen

    Full Text Available Epstein-Barr virus (EBV Rta belongs to a lytic switch gene family that is evolutionarily conserved in all gamma-herpesviruses. Emerging evidence indicates that cell cycle arrest is a common means by which herpesviral immediate-early protein hijacks the host cell to advance the virus's lytic cycle progression. To examine the role of Rta in cell cycle regulation, we recently established a doxycycline (Dox-inducible Rta system in 293 cells. In this cell background, inducible Rta modulated the levels of signature G1 arrest proteins, followed by induction of the cellular senescence marker, SA-β-Gal. To delineate the relationship between Rta-induced cell growth arrest and EBV reactivation, recombinant viral genomes were transferred into Rta-inducible 293 cells. Somewhat unexpectedly, we found that Dox-inducible Rta reactivated both EBV and Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV, to similar efficacy. As a consequence, the Rta-mediated EBV and KSHV lytic replication systems, designated as EREV8 and ERKV, respectively, were homogenous, robust, and concurrent with cell death likely due to permissive lytic replication. In addition, the expression kinetics of EBV lytic genes in Dox-treated EREV8 cells was similar to that of their KSHV counterparts in Dox-induced ERKV cells, suggesting that a common pathway is used to disrupt viral latency in both cell systems. When the time course was compared, cell cycle arrest was achieved between 6 and 48 h, EBV or KSHV reactivation was initiated abruptly at 48 h, and the cellular senescence marker was not detected until 120 h after Dox treatment. These results lead us to hypothesize that in 293 cells, Rta-induced G1 cell cycle arrest could provide (1 an ideal environment for virus reactivation if EBV or KSHV coexists and (2 a preparatory milieu for cell senescence if no viral genome is available. The latter is hypothetical in a transient-lytic situation.

  13. Recurrent Plasmodium falciparum malaria infections in Kenyan children diminish T-cell immunity to Epstein Barr virus lytic but not latent antigens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cynthia J Snider

    Full Text Available Plasmodium falciparum malaria (Pf-malaria and Epstein Barr Virus (EBV infections coexist in children at risk for endemic Burkitt's lymphoma (eBL; yet studies have only glimpsed the cumulative effect of Pf-malaria on EBV-specific immunity. Using pooled EBV lytic and latent CD8+ T-cell epitope-peptides, IFN-γ ELISPOT responses were surveyed three times among children (10 months to 15 years in Kenya from 2002-2004. Prevalence ratios (PR and 95% confidence intervals (CI were estimated in association with Pf-malaria exposure, defined at the district-level (Kisumu: holoendemic; Nandi: hypoendemic and the individual-level. We observed a 46% decrease in positive EBV lytic antigen IFN-γ responses among 5-9 year olds residing in Kisumu compared to Nandi (PR: 0.54; 95% CI: 0.30-0.99. Individual-level analysis in Kisumu revealed further impairment of EBV lytic antigen responses among 5-9 year olds consistently infected with Pf-malaria compared to those never infected. There were no observed district- or individual-level differences between Pf-malaria exposure and EBV latent antigen IFN-γ response. The gradual decrease of EBV lytic antigen but not latent antigen IFN-γ responses after primary infection suggests a specific loss in immunological control over the lytic cycle in children residing in malaria holoendemic areas, further refining our understanding of eBL etiology.

  14. Designing and overproducing a tandem epitope of gp350/220 that shows a potential to become an EBV vaccine

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    Widodo

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Epstein-Barr virus (EBV can cause cancer in people from around the world. There is no EBV vaccine available for use on a global scale. However, emerging evidence suggests that the epitope on the gp350/220 capsid protein may be developed into an EBV vaccine. Nevertheless, the production of small, single epitope is challenging of stability issues and possible alteration of peptide structure. In this study, a tandem epitope was developed consisting of three single epitopes, aimed to improve stability, antigenicity and preserve epitope structure. Materials and methods: A tandem epitope was designed using bioinformatics based on the epitope structure of the gp350/220 protein. The tandem epitope structure was analyzed using a protein folding method with Abalone software, which was further refined via YASARA force field and molecular repairing using a FoldX method. Immunogenicity was examined with Epitopia software, whereas allergen properties were tested using AlgPred. The pattern of the tandem epitope binding with anti-gp350/220 antibodies was performed using Z-dock and snugDock. The tandem epitope was then overproduced in E. coli strain BL21 as a host cell. Result: Our model demonstrated a successfully designed and overproduced tandem epitope. The tandem epitope demonstrated a similar structure compared with the epitope of whole protein gp350/220. Our epitope also demonstrated non-allergen and antigenicity properties, and possessed antibody binding patterns consistent with whole protein gp350/220. Conclusion and recommendation: These data suggest a novel tandem epitope composed of three similar epitopes demonstrates antigenicity, structure, and binding properties consistent with whole protein gp350/220. We also demonstrate successful production of the tandem epitope using E. coli strain BL21 as a host. Future in vivo experimental animal research is necessary to test the ability of this tandem epitope to stimulate antibody production

  15. Thioredoxin (Trxo1) interacts with proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) and its overexpression affects the growth of tobacco cell culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calderón, Aingeru; Ortiz-Espín, Ana; Iglesias-Fernández, Raquel; Carbonero, Pilar; Pallardó, Federico Vicente; Sevilla, Francisca; Jiménez, Ana

    2017-04-01

    Thioredoxins (Trxs), key components of cellular redox regulation, act by controlling the redox status of many target proteins, and have been shown to play an essential role in cell survival and growth. The presence of a Trx system in the nucleus has received little attention in plants, and the nuclear targets of plant Trxs have not been conclusively identified. Thus, very little is known about the function of Trxs in this cellular compartment. Previously, we studied the intracellular localization of PsTrxo1 and confirmed its presence in mitochondria and, interestingly, in the nucleus under standard growth conditions. In investigating the nuclear function of PsTrxo1 we identified proliferating cellular nuclear antigen (PCNA) as a PsTrxo1 target by means of affinity chromatography techniques using purified nuclei from pea leaves. Such protein-protein interaction was corroborated by dot-blot and bimolecular fluorescence complementation (BiFC) assays, which showed that both proteins interact in the nucleus. Moreover, PsTrxo1 showed disulfide reductase activity on previously oxidized recombinant PCNA protein. In parallel, we studied the effects of PsTrxo1 overexpression on Tobacco Bright Yellow-2 (TBY-2) cell cultures. Microscopy and flow-cytometry analysis showed that PsTrxo1 overexpression increases the rate of cell proliferation in the transformed lines, with a higher percentage of the S phase of the cell cycle at the beginning of the cell culture (days 1 and 3) and at the G2/M phase after longer times of culture (day 9), coinciding with an upregulation of PCNA protein. Furthermore, in PsTrxo1 overexpressed cells there is a decrease in the total cellular glutathione content but maintained nuclear GSH accumulation, especially at the end of the culture, which is accompanied by a higher mitotic index, unlike non-overexpressing cells. These results suggest that Trxo1 is involved in the cell cycle progression of TBY-2 cultures, possibly through its link with cellular PCNA

  16. Simultaneous cytoplasmic and nuclear protein expression of melanoma antigen-A family and NY-ESO-1 cancer-testis antigens represents an independent marker for poor survival in head and neck cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laban, Simon; Atanackovic, Djordje; Luetkens, Tim; Knecht, Rainald; Busch, Chia-Jung; Freytag, Marcus; Spagnoli, Giulio; Ritter, Gerd; Hoffmann, Thomas K; Knuth, Alexander; Sauter, Guido; Wilczak, Waldemar; Blessmann, Marco; Borgmann, Kerstin; Muenscher, Adrian; Clauditz, Till S

    2014-09-01

    The prognosis of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) patients remains poor. The identification of high-risk subgroups is needed for the development of custom-tailored therapies. The expression of cancer-testis antigens (CTAs) has been linked to a worse prognosis in other cancer types; however, their prognostic value in HNSCC is unclear because only few patients have been examined and data on CTA protein expression are sparse. A tissue microarray consisting of tumor samples from 453 HNSCC patients was evaluated for the expression of CTA proteins using immunohistochemistry. Frequency of expression and the subcellular expression pattern (nuclear, cytoplasmic, or both) was recorded. Protein expression of melanoma antigen (MAGE)-A family CTA, MAGE-C family CTA and NY-ESO-1 was found in approximately 30, 7 and 4% of tumors, respectively. The subcellular expression pattern in particular had a marked impact on the patients' prognosis. Median overall survival (OS) of patients with (i) simultaneous cytoplasmic and nuclear expression compared to (ii) either cytoplasmic or nuclear expression and (iii) negative patients was 23.0 versus 109.0 versus 102.5 months, for pan-MAGE (p family members or NY-ESO-1 represent a subgroup with an extraordinarily poor survival. The development of immunotherapeutic strategies targeting these CTA may, therefore, be a promising approach to improve the outcome of HNSCC patients. © 2014 UICC.

  17. Variable EBV DNA Load Distributions and Heterogeneous EBV mRNA Expression Patterns in the Circulation of Solid Organ versus Stem Cell Transplant Recipients

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    A. E. Greijer

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Epstein-Barr virus (EBV driven post-transplant lymphoproliferative disease (PTLD is a heterogeneous and potentially life-threatening condition. Early identification of aberrant EBV activity may prevent progression to B-cell lymphoma. We measured EBV DNA load and RNA profiles in plasma and cellular blood compartments of stem cell transplant (SCT; n=5, solid organ transplant recipients (SOT; n=15, and SOT having chronic elevated EBV-DNA load (n=12. In SCT, EBV DNA was heterogeneously distributed, either in plasma or leukocytes or both. In SOT, EBV DNA load was always cell associated, predominantly in B cells, but occasionally in T cells (CD4 and CD8 or monocytes. All SCT with cell-associated EBV DNA showed BARTs and EBNA1 expression, while LMP1 and LMP2 mRNA was found in 1 and 3 cases, respectively. In SOT, expression of BARTs was detected in all leukocyte samples. LMP2 and EBNA1 mRNA was found in 5/15 and 2/15, respectively, but LMP1 mRNA in only 1, coinciding with severe PTLD and high EBV DNA. Conclusion: EBV DNA is differently distributed between white cells and plasma in SOT versus SCT. EBV RNA profiling in blood is feasible and may have added value for understanding pathogenic virus activity in patients with elevated EBV-DNA.

  18. Proliferating cell nuclear antigen binds DNA polymerase-β and mediates 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium-induced neuronal death.

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    Zhentao Zhang

    Full Text Available The mechanisms leading to dopaminergic neuronal loss in the substantia nigra of patients with Parkinson disease (PD remain poorly understood. We recently reported that aberrant DNA replication mediated by DNA polymerase-β (DNA pol-β plays a causal role in the death of postmitotic neurons in an in vitro model of PD. In the present study, we show that both proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA and DNA pol-β are required for MPP(+-induced neuronal death. PCNA binds to the catalytic domain of DNA pol-β in MPP(+-treated neurons and in post-mortem brain tissues of PD patients. The PCNA-DNA pol-β complex is loaded into DNA replication forks and mediates DNA replication in postmitotic neurons. The aberrant DNA replication mediated by the PCNA-DNA pol-β complex induces p53-dependent neuronal cell death. Our results indicate that the interaction of PCNA and DNA pol-β contributes to neuronal death in PD.

  19. Programmed Cell Death, Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen and p53 Expression in Mouse Colon Mucosa during Diet-Induced Tumorigenesis

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    Mauro Risio

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Western‐style diets (WDs trigger and sustain the early phases of tumorigenesis in mouse colon, and when continued throughout the life span lead to the development of dysplastic crypts. In order to evaluate the roles both of cell proliferation and programmed cell death (PCD in WD‐induced tumorigenesis, immunohistochemical detection of proliferating nuclear antigen (PCNA, in situ end labeling (TUNEL of DNA breaks, and p53 protein were carried out in mouse colonic mucosa during prolonged feeding of two WDs. PCNA Labeling Index of colonic crypts was significantly higher in WD‐treated animals than in controls only at the beginning of the nutritional study, the gap rapidly bridged by increased cell proliferation spontaneously occurring in the colonic mucosa during aging. A transient early homeostatic activation of PCD at the base of the crypt also was observed in WD groups. No changes in PCD were seen in the upper third of the crypt or in surface epithelium throughout the study, indicating that PCD in that colonic crypt segment produces a constant flux of cell loss, uninfluenced by homeostatic fluctuations. A major finding was an irreversible, progressive, age‐related decline of PCD at the crypt base in both control and treated animals that occurred during the second half of the rodents  life span. p53 protein was not immunohistochemically detected, suggesting that neither overexpression of wild‐type nor mutated forms of the protein are involved in the above mentioned changes.

  20. The relationship between apoptosis and the expression of proliferating cell nuclear antigen and the clinical stages in gastric carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, K; Chen, D; Tian, Y; Lu, X; Yang, X

    2000-01-01

    The relationship between the apoptosis and the expression of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) and the clinical stages in gastric cancers was studied. By using terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated nick end labeling (TUNEL) technique and PCNA immunohistochemical staining, the apoptosis and the expression of PCNA in tissue of gastric carcinoma were assayed in situ, the index of apoptosis (AI), index of PCNA (PI) and the rate of AI/PI were calculated. AI and PI in gastric cancer tissues were (6.5 +/- 3.7)% and (49.8 +/- 15.9)% respectively, and the rate of AI/PI was 0.13 +/- 0.05, which were obviously different from those of normal gastric mucosa in paragastric cancer (P stages of gastric carcinoma, the AI was decreased, PI was increased and the rate of AI/PI decreased in gastric carcinoma. There was significant difference in them between the gastric cancer tissues and normal gastric mucosa in pericarcinoma in TNM stage II to IV (P gastric carcinoma. The AI, PI and the rate of AI/PI would become the prognostic factors in advanced gastric carcinoma.

  1. Structural insights into the adaptation of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) from Haloferax volcanii to a high-salt environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morgunova, Ekaterina; Gray, Fiona C.; MacNeill, Stuart A.; Ladenstein, Rudolf

    2009-01-01

    The crystal structure of PCNA from the halophilic archaeon H. volcanii reveals specific features of the charge distribution on the protein surface that reflect adaptation to a high-salt environment and suggests a different type of interaction with DNA in halophilic PCNAs. The sliding clamp proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) plays vital roles in many aspects of DNA replication and repair in eukaryotic cells and in archaea. Realising the full potential of archaea as a model for PCNA function requires a combination of biochemical and genetic approaches. In order to provide a platform for subsequent reverse genetic analysis, PCNA from the halophilic archaeon Haloferax volcanii was subjected to crystallographic analysis. The gene was cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli and the protein was purified by affinity chromatography and crystallized by the vapour-diffusion technique. The structure was determined by molecular replacement and refined at 3.5 Å resolution to a final R factor of 23.7% (R free = 25%). PCNA from H. volcanii was found to be homotrimeric and to resemble other homotrimeric PCNA clamps but with several differences that appear to be associated with adaptation of the protein to the high intracellular salt concentrations found in H. volcanii cells

  2. Influence of radiotherapy on expression of the proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) and c-fos in human cervical cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi Mei; Wei Lichun; Sun Chaoyang; Ma Haixin; Guo Yan

    2001-01-01

    Objective: To investigate changes of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) expression in human cervical cancer following irradiation. Methods: Immunohistochemical staining for PCNA was performed in frozen sections of formalin-fixed cervical cancer biopsy tissues. Results: The majority of the cancer cells showed PCNA-immunoreactivity before irradiation. Following irradiation (30-40 Gy/15-20 f) PCNA-immuno-positive staining was hardly detectable in most of the cancer cells. The PCNA-immunoreactivity, however, increased after radiotherapy, and moderate or heavy immuno-positive staining for PCNA was seen in irradiated mesenchymal tissue cells. On the other hand, after irradiation Fos-immunoreactivity decreased remarkably, and Fos-immuno-positive staining was hardly detectable in most of cancer cells. No obvious change in Fos-immuno-reactivity, however, was seen in mesenchymal connective tissue following irradiation. Conclusion: Irradiation inhibits PCNA and c-fos expression in cervical cancer cells whereas it induces the expression of PCNA in mesenchymal tissue cells. The present results suggest that expression of PCNA and c-fos may be regarded as a molecular marker for evaluating the cancer cell proliferation and mesenchymal tissue repair during radiotherapy of human cervical cancer

  3. The expressions of P53 protein and proliferating cell nuclear antigen in specimens by CT-guidance percutaneous lung biopsy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhuang Yiping; Shen Zongli; Zhang Jin; Kang Zheng; Zhu Yueqing; Feng Yong; Shen Wenrong; Wang Yaping

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate relations between lung cancer and the expressions of P53 protein together with proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) in specimens of lung lesions by needle biopsy. Methods: CT-guidance percutaneous biopsy of lung lesions were performed in 66 patients with the determination of expressions of p53 protein and PCNA by flow cytometer (FCM). Results: 1. The sensitivity of CT-guidance percutaneous biopsy was 94.3% in 53 cases of lung cancer with the diagnostic accuracy of 90.9% totally. The complication rate of pneumothorax was 4.6%. 2. The expression of P53 protein was (29.9 ± 2.7)% in lung cancer (53 cases), while (17.9 ± 2.8)% in benign lesions (13 cases) (t=2.0, P 2 =6.10, P 2 =9.71, P 0.05). Conclusions: FCM plays and valuable role in determining the expression of P53 protein and PCNA in the specimen of lung cancer by CT-guided percutaneous biopsy. The expression of p53 and PCNA may be useful in the diagnosis of lung cancer by providing the relation between imaging of lung cancer and the molecular mechanism, and furthermore revealing the characteristics of molecular biology of lung cancer at protein level. (authors)

  4. Exosomes released in vitro from Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-infected cells contain EBV-encoded latent phase mRNAs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canitano, Andrea; Venturi, Giulietta; Borghi, Martina; Ammendolia, Maria Grazia; Fais, Stefano

    2013-09-01

    EBV is a human herpesvirus associated with a number of malignancies. Both lymphoblastoid cell lines (LCLs), and EBV-infected nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) cells have been demonstrated to release exosomes containing the EBV-encoded latent membrane protein 1 (LMP1), and mature micro-RNAs (EBV-miRNAs). Here we analyze the EBV protein and nucleic acid content of exosomes from different EBV-infected cells (LCL, 721 and Daudi) and we show for the first time that exosomes released from LCLs and 721 also contain EBV-encoded latent phase mRNAs. This confirms and strengthens exosomes pathogenetic potential, and might provide insights for development of novel diagnostic and therapeutic strategies. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Nuclear insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor phosphorylates proliferating cell nuclear antigen and rescues stalled replication forks after DNA damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waraky, Ahmed; Lin, Yingbo; Warsito, Dudi; Haglund, Felix; Aleem, Eiman; Larsson, Olle

    2017-11-03

    We have previously shown that the insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor (IGF-1R) translocates to the cell nucleus, where it binds to enhancer-like regions and increases gene transcription. Further studies have demonstrated that nuclear IGF-1R (nIGF-1R) physically and functionally interacts with some nuclear proteins, i.e. the lymphoid enhancer-binding factor 1 (Lef1), histone H3, and Brahma-related gene-1 proteins. In this study, we identified the proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) as a nIGF-1R-binding partner. PCNA is a pivotal component of the replication fork machinery and a main regulator of the DNA damage tolerance (DDT) pathway. We found that IGF-1R interacts with and phosphorylates PCNA in human embryonic stem cells and other cell lines. In vitro MS analysis of PCNA co-incubated with the IGF-1R kinase indicated tyrosine residues 60, 133, and 250 in PCNA as IGF-1R targets, and PCNA phosphorylation was followed by mono- and polyubiquitination. Co-immunoprecipitation experiments suggested that these ubiquitination events may be mediated by DDT-dependent E2/E3 ligases ( e.g. RAD18 and SHPRH/HLTF). Absence of IGF-1R or mutation of Tyr-60, Tyr-133, or Tyr-250 in PCNA abrogated its ubiquitination. Unlike in cells expressing IGF-1R, externally induced DNA damage in IGF-1R-negative cells caused G 1 cell cycle arrest and S phase fork stalling. Taken together, our results suggest a role of IGF-1R in DDT. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  6. Immunohistochemical study of p53 and proliferating cell nuclear antigen expression in odontogenic keratocyst and periapical cyst

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    Thara Purath Sajeevan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: p53 protein is a product of p53 gene, which is now classified as a tumor suppressor gene. The gene is a frequent target for mutation, being seen as a common step in the pathogenesis of many human cancers. Proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA is an auxiliary protein of DNA polymerase delta and plays a critical role in initiation of cell proliferation. Aim: The aim of this study is to assess and compare the expression of p53 and PCNA in lining epithelium of odontogenic keratocyst (OKC and periapical cyst (PA. Materials and Methods: A total of 20 cases comprising 10 OKC and 10 PA were included in retrospective study. Three paraffin section of 4 μm were cut, one was used for routine hematoxylin and eosin stain, while the other two were used for immunohistochemistry. Statistical analysis was performed using Chi-square test. Results: The level of staining and intensity were assessed in all these cases. OKC showed PCNA expression in all cases (100%, whereas in perapical cyst only 60% of cases exhibited PCNA staining. (1 OKC showed p53 expression in 6 cases (60% whereas in PA only 10% of the cases exhibited p53 staining. Chi-square test showed PCNA staining intensity was more significant than p53 in OKC. (2 The staining intensity of PA using p53, PCNA revealed that PCNA stating intensity was more significant than p53. Conclusion: OKC shows significant proliferative activity than PA using PCNA and p53. PCNA staining was more intense when compared with p53 in both OKC and PA.

  7. The crystal structure of Haloferax volcanii proliferating cell nuclear antigen reveals unique surface charge characteristics due to halophilic adaptation

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    Morroll Shaun

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The high intracellular salt concentration required to maintain a halophilic lifestyle poses challenges to haloarchaeal proteins that must stay soluble, stable and functional in this extreme environment. Proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA is a fundamental protein involved in maintaining genome integrity, with roles in both DNA replication and repair. To investigate the halophilic adaptation of such a key protein we have crystallised and solved the structure of Haloferax volcanii PCNA (HvPCNA to a resolution of 2.0 Å. Results The overall architecture of HvPCNA is very similar to other known PCNAs, which are highly structurally conserved. Three commonly observed adaptations in halophilic proteins are higher surface acidity, bound ions and increased numbers of intermolecular ion pairs (in oligomeric proteins. HvPCNA possesses the former two adaptations but not the latter, despite functioning as a homotrimer. Strikingly, the positive surface charge considered key to PCNA's role as a sliding clamp is dramatically reduced in the halophilic protein. Instead, bound cations within the solvation shell of HvPCNA may permit sliding along negatively charged DNA by reducing electrostatic repulsion effects. Conclusion The extent to which individual proteins adapt to halophilic conditions varies, presumably due to their diverse characteristics and roles within the cell. The number of ion pairs observed in the HvPCNA monomer-monomer interface was unexpectedly low. This may reflect the fact that the trimer is intrinsically stable over a wide range of salt concentrations and therefore additional modifications for trimer maintenance in high salt conditions are not required. Halophilic proteins frequently bind anions and cations and in HvPCNA cation binding may compensate for the remarkable reduction in positive charge in the pore region, to facilitate functional interactions with DNA. In this way, HvPCNA may harness its environment as

  8. The crystal structure of Haloferax volcanii proliferating cell nuclear antigen reveals unique surface charge characteristics due to halophilic adaptation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winter, Jody A; Christofi, Panayiotis; Morroll, Shaun; Bunting, Karen A

    2009-01-01

    Background The high intracellular salt concentration required to maintain a halophilic lifestyle poses challenges to haloarchaeal proteins that must stay soluble, stable and functional in this extreme environment. Proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) is a fundamental protein involved in maintaining genome integrity, with roles in both DNA replication and repair. To investigate the halophilic adaptation of such a key protein we have crystallised and solved the structure of Haloferax volcanii PCNA (HvPCNA) to a resolution of 2.0 Å. Results The overall architecture of HvPCNA is very similar to other known PCNAs, which are highly structurally conserved. Three commonly observed adaptations in halophilic proteins are higher surface acidity, bound ions and increased numbers of intermolecular ion pairs (in oligomeric proteins). HvPCNA possesses the former two adaptations but not the latter, despite functioning as a homotrimer. Strikingly, the positive surface charge considered key to PCNA's role as a sliding clamp is dramatically reduced in the halophilic protein. Instead, bound cations within the solvation shell of HvPCNA may permit sliding along negatively charged DNA by reducing electrostatic repulsion effects. Conclusion The extent to which individual proteins adapt to halophilic conditions varies, presumably due to their diverse characteristics and roles within the cell. The number of ion pairs observed in the HvPCNA monomer-monomer interface was unexpectedly low. This may reflect the fact that the trimer is intrinsically stable over a wide range of salt concentrations and therefore additional modifications for trimer maintenance in high salt conditions are not required. Halophilic proteins frequently bind anions and cations and in HvPCNA cation binding may compensate for the remarkable reduction in positive charge in the pore region, to facilitate functional interactions with DNA. In this way, HvPCNA may harness its environment as opposed to simply surviving in

  9. Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen (PCNA) Regulates Primordial Follicle Assembly by Promoting Apoptosis of Oocytes in Fetal and Neonatal Mouse Ovaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yuanwei; Jiang, Xiaohua; Zhang, Huan; Ma, Tieliang; Zheng, Wei; Sun, Rui; Shen, Wei; Sha, Jiahao; Cooke, Howard J.; Shi, Qinghua

    2011-01-01

    Primordial follicles, providing all the oocytes available to a female throughout her reproductive life, assemble in perinatal ovaries with individual oocytes surrounded by granulosa cells. In mammals including the mouse, most oocytes die by apoptosis during primordial follicle assembly, but factors that regulate oocyte death remain largely unknown. Proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), a key regulator in many essential cellular processes, was shown to be differentially expressed during these processes in mouse ovaries using 2D-PAGE and MALDI-TOF/TOF methodology. A V-shaped expression pattern of PCNA in both oocytes and somatic cells was observed during the development of fetal and neonatal mouse ovaries, decreasing from 13.5 to 18.5 dpc and increasing from 18.5 dpc to 5 dpp. This was closely correlated with the meiotic prophase I progression from pre-leptotene to pachytene and from pachytene to diplotene when primordial follicles started to assemble. Inhibition of the increase of PCNA expression by RNA interference in cultured 18.5 dpc mouse ovaries strikingly reduced the apoptosis of oocytes, accompanied by down-regulation of known pro-apoptotic genes, e.g. Bax, caspase-3, and TNFα and TNFR2, and up-regulation of Bcl-2, a known anti-apoptotic gene. Moreover, reduced expression of PCNA was observed to significantly increase primordial follicle assembly, but these primordial follicles contained fewer guanulosa cells. Similar results were obtained after down-regulation by RNA interference of Ing1b, a PCNA-binding protein in the UV-induced apoptosis regulation. Thus, our results demonstrate that PCNA regulates primordial follicle assembly by promoting apoptosis of oocytes in fetal and neonatal mouse ovaries. PMID:21253613

  10. Proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA regulates primordial follicle assembly by promoting apoptosis of oocytes in fetal and neonatal mouse ovaries.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Xu

    Full Text Available Primordial follicles, providing all the oocytes available to a female throughout her reproductive life, assemble in perinatal ovaries with individual oocytes surrounded by granulosa cells. In mammals including the mouse, most oocytes die by apoptosis during primordial follicle assembly, but factors that regulate oocyte death remain largely unknown. Proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA, a key regulator in many essential cellular processes, was shown to be differentially expressed during these processes in mouse ovaries using 2D-PAGE and MALDI-TOF/TOF methodology. A V-shaped expression pattern of PCNA in both oocytes and somatic cells was observed during the development of fetal and neonatal mouse ovaries, decreasing from 13.5 to 18.5 dpc and increasing from 18.5 dpc to 5 dpp. This was closely correlated with the meiotic prophase I progression from pre-leptotene to pachytene and from pachytene to diplotene when primordial follicles started to assemble. Inhibition of the increase of PCNA expression by RNA interference in cultured 18.5 dpc mouse ovaries strikingly reduced the apoptosis of oocytes, accompanied by down-regulation of known pro-apoptotic genes, e.g. Bax, caspase-3, and TNFα and TNFR2, and up-regulation of Bcl-2, a known anti-apoptotic gene. Moreover, reduced expression of PCNA was observed to significantly increase primordial follicle assembly, but these primordial follicles contained fewer granulosa cells. Similar results were obtained after down-regulation by RNA interference of Ing1b, a PCNA-binding protein in the UV-induced apoptosis regulation. Thus, our results demonstrate that PCNA regulates primordial follicle assembly by promoting apoptosis of oocytes in fetal and neonatal mouse ovaries.

  11. Immunohistochemical study of p53 and proliferating cell nuclear antigen expression in odontogenic keratocyst and periapical cyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sajeevan, Thara Purath; Saraswathi, Tillai Rajasekaran; Ranganathan, Kannan; Joshua, Elizabeth; Rao, Uma Devi K

    2014-07-01

    p53 protein is a product of p53 gene, which is now classified as a tumor suppressor gene. The gene is a frequent target for mutation, being seen as a common step in the pathogenesis of many human cancers. Proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) is an auxiliary protein of DNA polymerase delta and plays a critical role in initiation of cell proliferation. The aim of this study is to assess and compare the expression of p53 and PCNA in lining epithelium of odontogenic keratocyst (OKC) and periapical cyst (PA). A total of 20 cases comprising 10 OKC and 10 PA were included in retrospective study. Three paraffin section of 4 μm were cut, one was used for routine hematoxylin and eosin stain, while the other two were used for immunohistochemistry. Statistical analysis was performed using Chi-square test. The level of staining and intensity were assessed in all these cases. OKC showed PCNA expression in all cases (100%), whereas in perapical cyst only 60% of cases exhibited PCNA staining. (1) OKC showed p53 expression in 6 cases (60%) whereas in PA only 10% of the cases exhibited p53 staining. Chi-square test showed PCNA staining intensity was more significant than p53 in OKC. (2) The staining intensity of PA using p53, PCNA revealed that PCNA stating intensity was more significant than p53. OKC shows significant proliferative activity than PA using PCNA and p53. PCNA staining was more intense when compared with p53 in both OKC and PA.

  12. EBV infection is common in gingival epithelial cells of the periodontium and worsens during chronic periodontitis.

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    Séverine Vincent-Bugnas

    Full Text Available An amplifying role for oral epithelial cells (ECs in Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV infection has been postulated to explain oral viral shedding. However, while lytic or latent EBV infections of oro/nasopharyngeal ECs are commonly detected under pathological conditions, detection of EBV-infected ECs in healthy conditions is very rare. In this study, a simple non-surgical tissue sampling procedure was used to investigate EBV infection in the periodontal epithelium that surrounds and attaches teeth to the gingiva. Surprisingly, we observed that the gingival ECs of the periodontium (pECs are commonly infected with EBV and may serve as an important oral reservoir of latently EBV-infected cells. We also found that the basal level of epithelial EBV-infection is significantly increased in chronic periodontitis, a common inflammatory disease that undermines the integrity of tooth-supporting tissues. Moreover, the level of EBV infection was found to correlate with disease severity. In inflamed tissues, EBV-infected pECs appear to be prone to apoptosis and to produce larger amounts of CCL20, a pivotal inflammatory chemokine that controls tissue infiltration by immune cells. Our discovery that the periodontal epithelium is a major site of latent EBV infection sheds a new light on EBV persistence in healthy carriers and on the role of this ubiquitous virus in periodontitis. Moreover, the identification of this easily accessible site of latent infection may encourage new approaches to investigate and monitor other EBV-associated disorders.

  13. Design and evaluation of protein expression in a recombinant plasmid encoding epitope gp 350/220 of the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Himmah, Karimatul; Dluha, Nurul; Anyndita, Nadya V. M.; Rifa'i, Muhaimin; Widodo

    2017-05-01

    The Epstein - Barr virus (EBV) causes severe infections that may lead to cancers such as nasopharyngeal carcinoma. Development of effective EBV vaccines is necessary to prevent the virus spreading throughout the community. TheEBV has a surface protein gp 350/220, which serves as an antigen to help interact with host cells. Epitopes of the protein can potentially serve as bases for a vaccine. In a previous study, we have found a conserved epitope of gp 350/220 from all strains EBV through an in silico approach. The aim of this study is to design and overproduce a recombinant peptide of epitope gp 350/220 in E. coli. DNA encoding the conserved epitope was synthesized and cloned into plasmid pET-22b(+); the recombinant plasmid was transformed into E. coli strains DH5α and BL21. The transformed plasmid DNA was isolated and confirmed by restriction using XbaI and PstI enzymes followed by DNA sequencing. Protein expression was induced by isopropyl-D-thiogalactopyranoside (IPTG) with final concentrations of 0.1, 0.2, 1, and 2 mM in consecutive times. An osmotic shock method was used to isolate protein from periplasmic fraction of E. coli DH5α and BL21. The SDS-PAGE analysis was carried out to detect peptide target (3.4 kDa). Based on this result, the induction process did not work properly, and thus needs further investigation.

  14. CTCF Prevents the Epigenetic Drift of EBV Latency Promoter Qp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tempera, Italo; Wiedmer, Andreas; Dheekollu, Jayaraju; Lieberman, Paul M.

    2010-01-01

    The establishment and maintenance of Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV) latent infection requires distinct viral gene expression programs. These gene expression programs, termed latency types, are determined largely by promoter selection, and controlled through the interplay between cell-type specific transcription factors, chromatin structure, and epigenetic modifications. We used a genome-wide chromatin-immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assay to identify epigenetic modifications that correlate with different latency types. We found that the chromatin insulator protein CTCF binds at several key regulatory nodes in the EBV genome and may compartmentalize epigenetic modifications across the viral genome. Highly enriched CTCF binding sites were identified at the promoter regions upstream of Cp, Wp, EBERs, and Qp. Since Qp is essential for long-term maintenance of viral genomes in type I latency and epithelial cell infections, we focused on the role of CTCF in regulating Qp. Purified CTCF bound ∼40 bp upstream of the EBNA1 binding sites located at +10 bp relative to the transcriptional initiation site at Qp. Mutagenesis of the CTCF binding site in EBV bacmids resulted in a decrease in the recovery of stable hygromycin-resistant episomes in 293 cells. EBV lacking the Qp CTCF site showed a decrease in Qp transcription initiation and a corresponding increase in Cp and Fp promoter utilization at 8 weeks post-transfection. However, by 16 weeks post-transfection, bacmids lacking CTCF sites had no detectable Qp transcription and showed high levels of histone H3 K9 methylation and CpG DNA methylation at the Qp initiation site. These findings provide direct genetic evidence that CTCF functions as a chromatin insulator that prevents the promiscuous transcription of surrounding genes and blocks the epigenetic silencing of an essential promoter, Qp, during EBV latent infection. PMID:20730088

  15. Partial Least Squares Based Gene Expression Analysis in EBV- Positive and EBV-Negative Posttransplant Lymphoproliferative Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Sa; Zhang, Xin; Li, Zhi-Ming; Shi, Yan-Xia; Huang, Jia-Jia; Xia, Yi; Yang, Hang; Jiang, Wen-Qi

    2013-01-01

    Post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder (PTLD) is a common complication of therapeutic immunosuppression after organ transplantation. Gene expression profile facilitates the identification of biological difference between Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) positive and negative PTLDs. Previous studies mainly implemented variance/regression analysis without considering unaccounted array specific factors. The aim of this study is to investigate the gene expression difference between EBV positive and negative PTLDs through partial least squares (PLS) based analysis. With a microarray data set from the Gene Expression Omnibus database, we performed PLS based analysis. We acquired 1188 differentially expressed genes. Pathway and Gene Ontology enrichment analysis identified significantly over-representation of dysregulated genes in immune response and cancer related biological processes. Network analysis identified three hub genes with degrees higher than 15, including CREBBP, ATXN1, and PML. Proteins encoded by CREBBP and PML have been reported to be interact with EBV before. Our findings shed light on expression distinction of EBV positive and negative PTLDs with the hope to offer theoretical support for future therapeutic study.

  16. Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) recombinants: use of positive selection markers to rescue mutants in EBV-negative B-lymphoma cells.

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, F; Marchini, A; Kieff, E

    1991-01-01

    The objective of these experiments was to develop strategies for creation and identification of recombinant mutant Epstein-Barr viruses (EBV). EBV recombinant molecular genetics has been limited to mutations within a short DNA segment deleted from a nontransforming EBV and an underlying strategy which relies on growth transformation of primary B lymphocytes for identification of recombinants. Thus, mutations outside the deletion or mutations which affect transformation cannot be easily recove...

  17. Construction and Antiapoptosis Activities of Recombinant Adenoviral Expression Vector Carrying EBV Latent Membrane Protein 2A

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xishuang Liu

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available To evaluate the possible effects of LMP2A (EBV latent membrane protein 2A on human gastric cancer cell line SGC-7901, LMP2A coding gene was subcloned into shuttle plasmid pAdTrackCMV to form transfer plasmid pAdTrackCMV-2A, which was linearized with PmeI and cotransformed into E.coli BJ5183 with adenovirus genomic plasmid of pAdeasy-1. The identified recombinant adenovirus plasmid DNA was digested with PacI and transfected into 293 cells to package recombinant adenovirus particles named vAd-2A. Then the expression and antiapoptosis activities of LMP2A on SGC-7901 infected with vAd-2A were analyzed. The vAd-2A was successfully constructed and identified by PCR, restriction digestion, and sequencing. LMP2A expression in SGC was identified by strong green fluorescence expression with fluorescence microscopic photograph and Southern blotting. The growth of LMP2A expressing SGC cells was apparently improved. Both cyclin E expression and S phase ratio in LMP2A expressing SGC cells were upregulated by cell cycle analysis and confocal microscopic analysis respectively. The replication-deficient recombinant adenovirus vector can express LMP2A antigen in SGC cells and inhibit their apoptosis. The results indicate that LMP2A might play an important role in pathogenesis of EBV-associated gastric cancer (EBVaGC. This study establishes a foundation for further study on EBVaGC and its gene therapy.

  18. A novel chromosome region maintenance 1-independent nuclear export signal of the large form of hepatitis delta antigen that is required for the viral assembly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, C H; Chang, S C; Wu, C H; Chang, M F

    2001-03-16

    Hepatitis delta virus (HDV) is a satellite virus of hepatitis B virus, as it requires hepatitis B virus for virion production and transmission. We have previously demonstrated that sequences within the C-terminal 19-amino acid domain flanking the isoprenylation motif of the large hepatitis delta antigen (HDAg-L) are important for virion assembly. In this study, site-directed mutagenesis and immunofluorescence staining demonstrated that in the absence of hepatitis B virus surface antigen (HBsAg), the wild-type HDAg-L was localized in the nuclei of transfected COS7 cells. Nevertheless, in the presence of HBsAg, the HDAg-L became both nuclei- and cytoplasm-distributed in about half of the cells. An HDAg-L mutant with a substitution of Pro-205 to alanine could neither form HDV-like particles nor shift the subcellular localization in the presence of HBsAg. In addition, nuclear trafficking of HDAg-L in heterokaryons indicated that HDAg-L is a nucleocytoplasmic shuttling protein. A proline-rich HDAg peptide spanning amino acid residues 198 to 210, designated NES(HDAg-L), can function as a nuclear export signal (NES) in Xenopus oocytes. Pro-205 is critical for the NES function. Furthermore, assembly of HDV is insensitive to leptomycin B, indicating that the NES(HDAg-L) directs nuclear export of HDAg-L to the cytoplasm via a chromosome region maintenance 1-independent pathway.

  19. Animal in vivo models of EBV-associated lymphoproliferative diseases: special references to rabbit models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, K; Teramoto, N; Akagi, T

    2002-10-01

    Animal models of human EBV-associated diseases are essential to elucidate the pathogenesis of EBV-associated diseases. Here we review those previous models using EBV or EBV-like herpesviruses and describe the details on our two newly-developed rabbit models of lymphoproliferative diseases (LPD) induced by simian EBV-like viruses. The first is Cynomolgus-EBV-induced T-cell lymphomas in rabbits inoculated intravenously (77-90%) and orally (82-89%) during 2-5 months. EBV-DNA was detected in peripheral blood by PCR from 2 days after oral inoculation, while anti-EBV-VCA IgG was raised 3 weeks later. Rabbit lymphomas and their cell lines contained EBV-DNA and expressed EBV-encoded RNA-1 (EBER-1). Rabbit lymphoma cell lines, most of which have specific chromosomal abnormality, showed tumorigenicity in nude mice. The second is the first animal model for EBV-infected T-cell LPD with virus-associated hemophagocytic syndrome (VAHS), using rabbits infected with an EBV-like herpesvirus, Herpesvirus papio (HVP). Rabbits inoculated intravenously with HVP-producing cells showed increased anti-EBV-VCA-IgG titers, and most (85%) subsequently died of fatal LPD and VAHS, with bleeding and hepatosplenomegaly, during 22-105 days. Peroral spray of cell-free HVP induced viral infection with seroconversion in 3 out of 5 rabbits, with 2 of the 3 infected rabbits dying of LPD with VAHS. Atypical T lymphocytes containing HVP-DNA and expressing EBER-1 were observed in many organs. Hemophagocytic histiocytosis was observed in the lymph nodes, spleen, bone marrow, and thymus. These rabbit models are also useful and inexpensive alternative experimental model systems for studying the biology and pathogenesis of EBV, and prophylactic and therapeutic regimens.

  20. EBV induces persistent NF-κB activation and contributes to survival of EBV-positive neoplastic T- or NK-cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Honami Takada

    Full Text Available Epstein-Barr virus (EBV has been detected in several T- and NK-cell neoplasms such as extranodal NK/T-cell lymphoma nasal type, aggressive NK-cell leukemia, EBV-positive peripheral T-cell lymphoma, systemic EBV-positive T-cell lymphoma of childhood, and chronic active EBV infection (CAEBV. However, how this virus contributes to lymphomagenesis in T or NK cells remains largely unknown. Here, we examined NF-κB activation in EBV-positive T or NK cell lines, SNT8, SNT15, SNT16, SNK6, and primary EBV-positive and clonally proliferating T/NK cells obtained from the peripheral blood of patients with CAEBV. Western blotting, electrophoretic mobility shift assays, and immunofluorescent staining revealed persistent NF-κB activation in EBV-infected cell lines and primary cells from patients. Furthermore, we investigated the role of EBV in infected T cells. We performed an in vitro infection assay using MOLT4 cells infected with EBV. The infection directly induced NF-κB activation, promoted survival, and inhibited etoposide-induced apoptosis in MOLT4 cells. The luciferase assay suggested that LMP1 mediated NF-κB activation in MOLT4 cells. IMD-0354, a specific inhibitor of NF-κB that suppresses NF-κB activation in cell lines, inhibited cell survival and induced apoptosis. These results indicate that EBV induces NF-κB-mediated survival signals in T and NK cells, and therefore, may contribute to the lymphomagenesis of these cells.

  1. Macaque homologs of EBV and KSHV show uniquely different associations with simian AIDS-related lymphomas.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Gregory Bruce

    Full Text Available Two gammaherpesviruses, Epstein-Barr virus (EBV (Lymphocryptovirus genus and Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV (Rhadinovirus genus have been implicated in the etiology of AIDS-associated lymphomas. Homologs of these viruses have been identified in macaques and other non-human primates. In order to assess the association of these viruses with non-human primate disease, archived lymphoma samples were screened for the presence of macaque lymphocryptovirus (LCV homologs of EBV, and macaque rhadinoviruses belonging to the RV1 lineage of KSHV homologs or the more distant RV2 lineage of Old World primate rhadinoviruses. Viral loads were determined by QPCR and infected cells were identified by immunolabeling for different viral proteins. The lymphomas segregated into three groups. The first group (n = 6 was associated with SIV/SHIV infections, contained high levels of LCV (1-25 genomes/cell and expressed the B-cell antigens CD20 or BLA.36. A strong EBNA-2 signal was detected in the nuclei of the neoplastic cells in one of the LCV-high lymphomas, indicative of a type III latency stage. None of the lymphomas in this group stained for the LCV viral capsid antigen (VCA lytic marker. The second group (n = 5 was associated with D-type simian retrovirus-2 (SRV-2 infections, contained high levels of RV2 rhadinovirus (9-790 genomes/cell and expressed the CD3 T-cell marker. The third group (n = 3 was associated with SIV/SHIV infections, contained high levels of RV2 rhadinovirus (2-260 genomes/cell and was negative for both CD20 and CD3. In both the CD3-positive and CD3/CD20-negative lymphomas, the neoplastic cells stained strongly for markers of RV2 lytic replication. None of the lymphomas had detectable levels of retroperitoneal fibromatosis herpesvirus (RFHV, the macaque RV1 homolog of KSHV. Our data suggest etiological roles for both lymphocryptoviruses and RV2 rhadinoviruses in the development of simian AIDS-associated lymphomas and indicate that

  2. Autoantibodies from patients with systemic lupus erythematosus bind a shared sequence of SmD and Epstein-Barr virus-encoded nuclear antigen EBNA I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabbatini, A; Bombardieri, S; Migliorini, P

    1993-05-01

    SmD is one of the small nuclear ribonucleoproteins frequently targeted by autoantibodies in systemic lupus erythematosus. We isolated and characterized the antibodies present in lupus sera that are specific for the C-terminal region of SmD (sequence 95-119). This region is highly homologous to sequence 35-58 of the EBNA I antigen, one of the nuclear antigens induced by infection with Epstein-Barr virus. Antibodies affinity purified over a peptide 95-119 column were able to recognize this sequence in the context of the whole SmD molecule, as they reacted with blotted recombinant SmD. Anti-SmD 95-119 antibodies bound also the EBNA I 35-58 peptide and detected the EBNA I molecule in a total cell extract from Epstein-Barr virus-infected lines. A population of anti-SmD antibodies is, therefore, able to bind an epitope shared by the autoantigen and the viral antigen EBNA I. To investigate the involvement of this shared epitope in the generation of anti-SmD antibodies, we immunized mice with the EBNA I 35-58 peptide. Sera from immunized animals displayed the same pattern of reactivity of spontaneously produced anti-SmD antibodies. They reacted in fact with the EBNA peptide as well as with SmD 95-119 and recombinant SmD. These data suggest that molecular mimicry may play a role in the induction of anti-SmD autoantibodies.

  3. Kaposi sarcoma herpes virus latency associated nuclear antigen protein release the G2/M cell cycle blocks by modulating ATM/ATR mediated checkpoint pathway.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amit Kumar

    Full Text Available The Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus infects the human population and maintains latency stage of viral life cycle in a variety of cell types including cells of epithelial, mesenchymal and endothelial origin. The establishment of latent infection by KSHV requires the expression of an unique repertoire of genes among which latency associated nuclear antigen (LANA plays a critical role in the replication of the viral genome. LANA regulates the transcription of a number of viral and cellular genes essential for the survival of the virus in the host cell. The present study demonstrates the disruption of the host G2/M cell cycle checkpoint regulation as an associated function of LANA. DNA profile of LANA expressing human B-cells demonstrated the ability of this nuclear antigen in relieving the drug (Nocodazole induced G2/M checkpoint arrest. Caffeine suppressed nocodazole induced G2/M arrest indicating involvement of the ATM/ATR. Notably, we have also shown the direct interaction of LANA with Chk2, the ATM/ATR signalling effector and is responsible for the release of the G2/M cell cycle block.

  4. RFHVMn ORF73 is structurally related to the KSHV ORF73 latency-associated nuclear antigen (LANA) and is expressed in retroperitoneal fibromatosis (RF) tumor cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burnside, Kellie L.; Ryan, Jonathan T.; Bielefeldt-Ohmann, Helle; Gregory Bruce, A.; Thouless, Margaret E.; Tsai, Che-Chung; Rose, Timothy M.

    2006-01-01

    Retroperitoneal fibromatosis herpesvirus (RFHV), the macaque homolog of the human rhadinovirus, Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV), was first identified in retroperitoneal fibromatosis (RF) tumor lesions of macaques with simian AIDS. We cloned and sequenced the ORF73 latency-associated nuclear antigen (LANA) of RFHVMn from the pig-tailed macaque. RFHVMn LANA is structurally analogous to KSHV ORF73 LANA and contains an N-terminal serine-proline-rich region, a large internal glutamic acidic-rich repeat region and a conserved C-terminal domain. RFHVMn LANA reacts with monoclonal antibodies specific for a glutamic acid-proline dipeptide motif and a glutamic acid-glutamine-rich motif in the KSHV LANA repeat region. Immunohistochemical and immunofluorescence analysis revealed that RFHVMn LANA is a nuclear antigen which is highly expressed in RF spindloid tumor cells. These data suggest that RFHV LANA is an ortholog of KSHV LANA and will function similarly to maintain viral latency and play a role in tumorigenicity in macaques

  5. Increased CD8+ T cell response to Epstein-Barr virus lytic antigens in the active phase of multiple sclerosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela F Angelini

    Full Text Available It has long been known that multiple sclerosis (MS is associated with an increased Epstein-Barr virus (EBV seroprevalence and high immune reactivity to EBV and that infectious mononucleosis increases MS risk. This evidence led to postulate that EBV infection plays a role in MS etiopathogenesis, although the mechanisms are debated. This study was designed to assess the prevalence and magnitude of CD8+ T-cell responses to EBV latent (EBNA-3A, LMP-2A and lytic (BZLF-1, BMLF-1 antigens in relapsing-remitting MS patients (n = 113 and healthy donors (HD (n = 43 and to investigate whether the EBV-specific CD8+ T cell response correlates with disease activity, as defined by clinical evaluation and gadolinium-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging. Using HLA class I pentamers, lytic antigen-specific CD8+ T cell responses were detected in fewer untreated inactive MS patients than in active MS patients and HD while the frequency of CD8+ T cells specific for EBV lytic and latent antigens was higher in active and inactive MS patients, respectively. In contrast, the CD8+ T cell response to cytomegalovirus did not differ between HD and MS patients, irrespective of the disease phase. Marked differences in the prevalence of EBV-specific CD8+ T cell responses were observed in patients treated with interferon-β and natalizumab, two licensed drugs for relapsing-remitting MS. Longitudinal studies revealed expansion of CD8+ T cells specific for EBV lytic antigens during active disease in untreated MS patients but not in relapse-free, natalizumab-treated patients. Analysis of post-mortem MS brain samples showed expression of the EBV lytic protein BZLF-1 and interactions between cytotoxic CD8+ T cells and EBV lytically infected plasma cells in inflammatory white matter lesions and meninges. We therefore propose that inability to control EBV infection during inactive MS could set the stage for intracerebral viral reactivation and disease relapse.

  6. Maribavir Inhibits Epstein-Barr Virus Transcription through the EBV Protein Kinase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitehurst, Christopher B.; Sanders, Marcia K.; Law, Mankit; Wang, Fu-Zhang; Xiong, Jie; Dittmer, Dirk P.

    2013-01-01

    Maribavir (MBV) inhibits Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) replication and the enzymatic activity of the viral protein kinase BGLF4. MBV also inhibits expression of multiple EBV transcripts during EBV lytic infection. Here we demonstrate, with the use of a BGLF4 knockout virus, that effects of MBV on transcription take place primarily through inhibition of BGLF4. MBV inhibits viral genome copy numbers and infectivity to levels similar to and exceeding levels produced by BGLF4 knockout virus. PMID:23449792

  7. Leflunomide/teriflunomide inhibit Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)- induced lymphoproliferative disease and lytic viral replication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilger, Andrea; Plowshay, Julie; Ma, Shidong; Nawandar, Dhananjay; Barlow, Elizabeth A; Romero-Masters, James C; Bristol, Jillian A; Li, Zhe; Tsai, Ming-Han; Delecluse, Henri-Jacques; Kenney, Shannon C

    2017-07-04

    EBV infection causes mononucleosis and is associated with specific subsets of B cell lymphomas. Immunosuppressed patients such as organ transplant recipients are particularly susceptible to EBV-induced lymphoproliferative disease (LPD), which can be fatal. Leflunomide (a drug used to treat rheumatoid arthritis) and its active metabolite teriflunomide (used to treat multiple sclerosis) inhibit de novo pyrimidine synthesis by targeting the cellular dihydroorotate dehydrogenase, thereby decreasing T cell proliferation. Leflunomide also inhibits the replication of cytomegalovirus and BK virus via both "on target" and "off target" mechanisms and is increasingly used to treat these viruses in organ transplant recipients. However, whether leflunomide/teriflunomide block EBV replication or inhibit EBV-mediated B cell transformation is currently unknown. We show that teriflunomide inhibits cellular proliferation, and promotes apoptosis, in EBV-transformed B cells in vitro at a clinically relevant dose. In addition, teriflunomide prevents the development of EBV-induced lymphomas in both a humanized mouse model and a xenograft model. Furthermore, teriflunomide inhibits lytic EBV infection in vitro both by preventing the initial steps of lytic viral reactivation, and by blocking lytic viral DNA replication. Leflunomide/teriflunomide might therefore be clinically useful for preventing EBV-induced LPD in patients who have high EBV loads yet require continued immunosuppression.

  8. Impaired Cytokine Responses to Epstein-Barr Virus Antigens in Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Draborg, Anette Holck; Sandhu, Noreen; Larsen, Nanna

    2016-01-01

    We analyzed cytokine responses against latent and lytic Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) antigens in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) patients and healthy controls (HCs) to obtain an overview of the distinctive immune regulatory response in SLE patients and to expand the previously determined impaired...

  9. Efficient Translation of Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV) DNA Polymerase Contributes to the Enhanced Lytic Replication Phenotype of M81 EBV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Church, Trenton Mel; Verma, Dinesh; Thompson, Jacob; Swaminathan, Sankar

    2018-03-15

    Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is linked to the development of both lymphoid and epithelial malignancies worldwide. The M81 strain of EBV, isolated from a Chinese patient with nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC), demonstrates spontaneous lytic replication and high-titer virus production in comparison to the prototype B95-8 EBV strain. Genetic comparisons of M81 and B95-8 EBVs were previously been performed in order to determine if the hyperlytic property of M81 is associated with sequence differences in essential lytic genes. EBV SM is an RNA-binding protein expressed during early lytic replication that is essential for virus production. We compared the functions of M81 SM and B95-8 SM and demonstrate that polymorphisms in SM do not contribute to the lytic phenotype of M81 EBV. However, the expression level of the EBV DNA polymerase protein was much higher in M81- than in B95-8-infected cells. The relative deficiency in the expression of B95-8 DNA polymerase was related to the B95-8 genome deletion, which truncates the BALF5 3' untranslated region (UTR). Similarly, the insertion of bacmid DNA into the widely used recombinant B95-8 bacmid creates an inefficient BALF5 3' UTR. We further showed that the while SM is required for and facilitates the efficient expression of both M81 and B95-8 mRNAs regardless of the 3' UTR, the BALF5 3' UTR sequence is important for BALF5 protein translation. These data indicate that the enhanced lytic replication and virus production of M81 compared to those of B95-8 are partly due to the robust translation of EBV DNA polymerase required for viral DNA replication due to a more efficient BALF5 3' UTR in M81. IMPORTANCE Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infects more than 90% of the human population, but the incidence of EBV-associated tumors varies greatly in different parts of the world. Thus, understanding the connection between genetic polymorphisms from patient isolates of EBV, gene expression phenotypes, and disease is important and may help in

  10. Interaction of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) with human B-lymphocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klein, George; Klein, Eva; Kashuba, Elena

    2010-01-01

    Epstein-Barr virus, EBV, and humans have a common history that reaches back to our primate ancestors. The virus co-evolved with man and has established a largely harmless and highly complex co-existence. It is carried as silent infection by almost all human adults. A serendipitous discovery established that it is the causative agent of infectious mononucleosis. Still, EBV became known first in 1964, in a rare, geographically prevalent malignant lymphoma of B-cell origin, Burkitt lymphoma BL. Its association with a malignancy prompted intensive studies and its capacity to immortalize B-lymphocytes in vitro was soon demonstrated. Consequently EBV was classified therefore as a potentially tumorigenic virus. Despite of this property however, the virus carrier state itself does not lead to malignancies because the transformed cells are recognized by the immune response. Consequently the EBV induced proliferation of EBV carrying B-lymphocytes is manifested only under immunosuppressive conditions. The expression of EBV encoded genes is regulated by the cell phenotype. The virus genome can be found in malignancies originating from cell types other than the B-lymphocyte. Even in the EBV infected B-cell, the direct transforming capacity is restricted to a defined window of differentiation. A complex interaction between virally encoded proteins and B-cell specific cellular proteins constitute the proliferation inducing program. In this short review we touch upon aspects which are the subject of our present work. We describe the mechanisms of some of the functional interactions between EBV encoded and cellular proteins that determine the phenotype of latently infected B-cells. The growth promoting EBV encoded genes are not expressed in the virus carrying BL cells. Still, EBV seems to contribute to the etiology of this tumor by modifying events that influence cell survival and proliferation. We describe a possible growth promoting mechanism in the genesis of Burkitt lymphoma

  11. Interaction of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) with human B-lymphocytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klein, George, E-mail: Georg.Klein@ki.se [Karolinska Institutet, Department of Microbiology, Tumor and Cell Biology (MTC), Box 280, S171 77 Stockholm (Sweden); Klein, Eva; Kashuba, Elena [Karolinska Institutet, Department of Microbiology, Tumor and Cell Biology (MTC), Box 280, S171 77 Stockholm (Sweden)

    2010-05-21

    Epstein-Barr virus, EBV, and humans have a common history that reaches back to our primate ancestors. The virus co-evolved with man and has established a largely harmless and highly complex co-existence. It is carried as silent infection by almost all human adults. A serendipitous discovery established that it is the causative agent of infectious mononucleosis. Still, EBV became known first in 1964, in a rare, geographically prevalent malignant lymphoma of B-cell origin, Burkitt lymphoma BL. Its association with a malignancy prompted intensive studies and its capacity to immortalize B-lymphocytes in vitro was soon demonstrated. Consequently EBV was classified therefore as a potentially tumorigenic virus. Despite of this property however, the virus carrier state itself does not lead to malignancies because the transformed cells are recognized by the immune response. Consequently the EBV induced proliferation of EBV carrying B-lymphocytes is manifested only under immunosuppressive conditions. The expression of EBV encoded genes is regulated by the cell phenotype. The virus genome can be found in malignancies originating from cell types other than the B-lymphocyte. Even in the EBV infected B-cell, the direct transforming capacity is restricted to a defined window of differentiation. A complex interaction between virally encoded proteins and B-cell specific cellular proteins constitute the proliferation inducing program. In this short review we touch upon aspects which are the subject of our present work. We describe the mechanisms of some of the functional interactions between EBV encoded and cellular proteins that determine the phenotype of latently infected B-cells. The growth promoting EBV encoded genes are not expressed in the virus carrying BL cells. Still, EBV seems to contribute to the etiology of this tumor by modifying events that influence cell survival and proliferation. We describe a possible growth promoting mechanism in the genesis of Burkitt lymphoma

  12. Autoantibodies in infectious mononucleosis have specificity for the glycine-alanine repeating region of the Epstein-Barr virus nuclear antigen

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-01-01

    Viruses have been postulated to be involved in the induction of autoantibodies by: autoimmunization with tissue proteins released by virally induced tissue damage; immunization with virally encoded antigens bearing molecular similarities to normal tissue proteins; or nonspecific (polyclonal) B cell stimulation by the infection. Infectious mononucleosis (IM) is an experiment of nature that provides the opportunity for examining these possibilities. We show here that IgM antibodies produced in this disease react with at least nine normal tissue proteins, in addition to the virally encoded Epstein-Barr nuclear antigen (EBNA-1). The antibodies are generated to configurations in the glycine-alanine repeat region of EBNA-1 and are crossreactive with the normal tissue proteins through similar configurations, as demonstrated by the effectiveness of a synthetic glycine-alanine peptide in inhibiting the reactions. The antibodies are absent in preillness sera and gradually disappear over a period of months after illness, being replaced by IgG anti-EBNA-1 antibodies that do not crossreact with the normal tissue proteins but that are still inhibited by the glycine-alanine peptide. These findings are most easily explained by either a molecular mimicry model of IgM autoantibody production or by the polyclonal activation of a germline gene for a crossreactive antibody. It also indicates a selection of highly specific, non-crossreactive anti-EBNA-1 antibodies during IgM to IgG isotype switching. PMID:2435830

  13. DNA-PK/Ku complex binds to latency-associated nuclear antigen and negatively regulates Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus latent replication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cha, Seho [Department of Life Science, Dongguk Univ-Seoul, Seoul 100-715 (Korea, Republic of); Lim, Chunghun [Department of Biological Sciences, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon 305-701 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jae Young [Department of Life Science, Dongguk Univ-Seoul, Seoul 100-715 (Korea, Republic of); Song, Yoon-Jae [Department of Life Science, Kyungwon University, Seongnam-Si, Kyeonggi-Do 461-701 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Junsoo [Division of Biological Science and Technology, Yonsei University, Wonju 220-100 (Korea, Republic of); Choe, Joonho [Department of Biological Sciences, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon 305-701 (Korea, Republic of); Seo, Taegun, E-mail: tseo@dongguk.edu [Department of Life Science, Dongguk Univ-Seoul, Seoul 100-715 (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-04-16

    During latent infection, latency-associated nuclear antigen (LANA) of Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) plays important roles in episomal persistence and replication. Several host factors are associated with KSHV latent replication. Here, we show that the catalytic subunit of DNA protein kinase (DNA-PKcs), Ku70, and Ku86 bind the N-terminal region of LANA. LANA was phosphorylated by DNA-PK and overexpression of Ku70, but not Ku86, impaired transient replication. The efficiency of transient replication was significantly increased in the HCT116 (Ku86 +/-) cell line, compared to the HCT116 (Ku86 +/+) cell line, suggesting that the DNA-PK/Ku complex negatively regulates KSHV latent replication.

  14. DNA-PK/Ku complex binds to latency-associated nuclear antigen and negatively regulates Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus latent replication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cha, Seho; Lim, Chunghun; Lee, Jae Young; Song, Yoon-Jae; Park, Junsoo; Choe, Joonho; Seo, Taegun

    2010-01-01

    During latent infection, latency-associated nuclear antigen (LANA) of Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) plays important roles in episomal persistence and replication. Several host factors are associated with KSHV latent replication. Here, we show that the catalytic subunit of DNA protein kinase (DNA-PKcs), Ku70, and Ku86 bind the N-terminal region of LANA. LANA was phosphorylated by DNA-PK and overexpression of Ku70, but not Ku86, impaired transient replication. The efficiency of transient replication was significantly increased in the HCT116 (Ku86 +/-) cell line, compared to the HCT116 (Ku86 +/+) cell line, suggesting that the DNA-PK/Ku complex negatively regulates KSHV latent replication.

  15. Membrane binding properties of EBV gp110 C-terminal domain; evidences for structural transition in the membrane environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Sung Jean; Seo, Min-Duk; Lee, Suk Kyeong; Lee, Bong Jin

    2008-01-01

    Gp110 of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) mainly localizes on nuclear/ER membranes and plays a role in the assembly of EBV nucleocapsid. The C-terminal tail domain (gp110 CTD) is essential for the function of gp110 and the nuclear/ER membranes localization of gp110 is ruled by its C-terminal unique nuclear localization signal (NLS), consecutive four arginines. In the present study, the structural properties of gp110 CTD in membrane mimics were investigated using CD, size-exclusion chromatography, and NMR, to elucidate the effect of membrane environment on the structural transition and to compare the structural feature of the protein in the solution state with that of the membrane-bound form. CD and NMR analysis showed that gp110 CTD in a buffer solution appears to adopt a stable folding intermediate which lacks compactness, and a highly helical structure is formed only in membrane environments. The helical content of gp110 CTD was significantly affected by the negative charge as well as the size of membrane mimics. Based on the elution profiles of the size-exclusion chromatography, we found that gp110 CTD intrinsically forms a trimer, revealing that a trimerization region may exist in the C-terminal domain of gp110 like the ectodomain of gp110. The mutation of NLS (RRRR) to RTTR does not affect the overall structure of gp110 CTD in membrane mimics, while the helical propensity in a buffer solution was slightly different between the wild-type and the mutant proteins. This result suggests that not only the helicity induced in membrane environment but also the local structure around NLS may be related to trafficking to the nuclear membrane. More detailed structural difference between the wild-type and the mutant in membrane environment was examined using synthetic two peptides including the wild-type NLS and the mutant NLS

  16. EBV-positive diffuse large B-cell lymphoma of the elderly

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.Y. Ok (Chi Young); T.G. Papathomas (Thomas); L.J. Medeiros (L. Jeffrey); K.H. Young (Ken)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractEpstein-Barr virus (EBV) positive diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) of the elderly, initially described in 2003, is a provisional entity in the 2008World Health Organization classification system and is defined as an EBV-positive monoclonal large B-cell proliferation that occurs in

  17. Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) reactivation is a frequent event after allogeneic stem cell transplantation (SCT) and quantitatively predicts EBV-lymphoproliferative disease following T-cell--depleted SCT

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Esser, J W; van der Holt, B; Meijer, E; Niesters, H G; Trenschel, R; Thijsen, S F; van Loon, A M; Frassoni, F; Bacigalupo, A; Schaefer, U W; Osterhaus, A D; Gratama, J W; Löwenberg, B; Verdonck, L F; Cornelissen, J J

    2001-01-01

    Reactivation of the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) after allogeneic stem cell transplantation (allo-SCT) may evoke a protective cellular immune response or may be complicated by the development of EBV-lymphoproliferative disease (EBV-LPD). So far, very little is known about the incidence, recurrence, and

  18. GAGE cancer-germline antigens are recruited to the nuclear envelope by germ cell-less (GCL)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gjerstorff, Morten F; Rösner, Heike I; Pedersen, Christina B

    2012-01-01

    GAGE proteins are highly similar, primate-specific molecules with unique primary structure and undefined cellular roles. They are restricted to cells of the germ line in adult healthy individuals, but are broadly expressed in a wide range of cancers. In a yeast two-hybrid screen we identified the...... different dsDNA fragments, suggesting sequence-nonspecific binding. Dual association of GAGE family members with GCL at the nuclear envelope inner membrane in cells, and with dsDNA in vitro, implicate GAGE proteins in chromatin regulation in germ cells and cancer cells....... the metazoan transcriptional regulator, Germ cell-less (GCL), as an interaction partner of GAGE12I. GCL directly binds LEM-domain proteins (LAP2β, emerin, MAN1) at the nuclear envelope, and we found that GAGE proteins were recruited to the nuclear envelope inner membrane by GCL. Based on yeast two...

  19. Оptimization of Treatment EBV Infectious Mononucleosis in Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. B. Kotlova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of observation of 103 children aged from 10 months to 15 years with EBV-associated infectious mononucleosis (IM, determined in 32% by acute primary Epstein-Barr virus infection (AEBVI and in 68% of cases by reactivation of chronic Epstein-Barr virus infection (CEBVI. Clinical and laboratory characteristics of the course, depending on the form of infection, were investigated. As a clinical outcome of infectious mononucleosis in patients with primary infection latent infection after a year is formed 5.8 times more often than in patients with chronic Epstein-Barr virus infection (CEBVI. The high efficiency of recombinant interferon monotherapy in patients with primary acute infection was recorded and the expediency of combined etiotropic therapy in the treatment of chronic Epstein-Barr virus infection was found out.

  20. Association analysis of anti-Epstein-Barr nuclear antigen-1 antibodies, anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide antibodies, the shared epitope and smoking status in Brazilian patients with rheumatoid arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michel Alexandre Yazbek

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Epstein-Barr virus exposure appears to be an environmental trigger for rheumatoid arthritis that interacts with other risk factors. Relationships among anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide antibodies, the shared epitope, and smoking status have been observed in patients with rheumatoid arthritis from different populations. OBJECTIVE: To perform an association analysis of anti-Epstein-Barr nuclear antigen-1 antibodies, anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide antibodies, the shared epitope, and smoking status in Brazilian patients with rheumatoid arthritis. METHODS: In a case-control study, 140 rheumatoid arthritis patients and 143 healthy volunteers who were matched for age, sex, and ethnicity were recruited. Anti-Epstein-Barr nuclear antigen-1 antibodies and anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide antibodies were examined using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and shared epitope alleles were identified by genotyping. Smoking information was collected from all subjects. A comparative analysis of anti-Epstein-Barr nuclear antigen-1 antibodies, anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide antibodies, the shared epitope, and smoking status was performed in the patient group. Logistic regression analysis models were used to analyze the risk of rheumatoid arthritis. RESULTS: Anti-Epstein-Barr nuclear antigen-1 antibodies were not associated with anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide antibodies, shared epitope alleles, or smoking status. Anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide antibody positivity was significantly higher in smoking patients with shared epitope alleles (OR = 3.82. In a multivariate logistic regression analysis using stepwise selection, only anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide antibodies were found to be independently associated with rheumatoid arthritis (OR = 247.9. CONCLUSION: Anti-Epstein-Barr nuclear antigen-1 antibodies did not increase the risk of rheumatoid arthritis and were not associated with the rheumatoid arthritis risk factors studied. Smoking

  1. Infectious mononucleosis accompanied by clonal proliferation of EBV-infected cells and infection of CD8-positive cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arai, Ayako; Yamaguchi, Takeshi; Komatsu, Honami; Imadome, Ken-Ichi; Kurata, Morito; Nagata, Kaoru; Miura, Osamu

    2014-01-01

    A 22-year-old male was admitted for a sustained fever of 2 months, lymphadenopathy, and liver dysfunction. Anti-VCA-IgM antibody was positive, with elevated Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-DNA load in the peripheral blood. Liver biopsy revealed infiltration of CD8-positive and EBV-positive cells. Most peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were also positive for CD8, and showed detectable levels of EBV-DNA. Monoclonal proliferation of EBV-infected cells was detected in the PBMCs by Southern blotting for EBV-terminal repeat (EBV-TR). Although EBV-positive T-cell lymphoproliferative disease (EBV-T-LPD) was suspected, the symptoms spontaneously resolved within 12 months. Anti-VCA-IgM antibody and the clonal band of EBV-TR were negative 1 year after the onset, while anti-EBNA antibody was positive. The final diagnosis was thus confirmed as infectious mononucleosis (IM). Our results indicate that EBV-infected CD8-positive cells and clonal proliferation of EBV-infected cells may be temporally detected in IM. EBV-T-LPDs should be carefully excluded in such cases.

  2. Antigen-binding properties of monoclonal antibodies reactive with EBNA1 and use in immunoaffinity chromatography.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah J Duellman

    Full Text Available Epstein-Barr virus (EBV nuclear antigen 1 (EBNA1 was overexpressed and purified from Escherichia coli. Mouse monoclonal antibodies (mAbs were prepared that react with EBNA1. Eleven high affinity mAbs were recovered. Nine mAbs are isotype IgG (all subisotype IgG(1 and two mAbs are isotype IgM. All mAbs react strongly with EBNA1 in an ELISA assay while only one mAb (designated 1EB6 fails to react in a Western blot assay. The epitopes for these mAbs were mapped to seven different regions, providing good coverage of the entire EBNA1 protein. The mAbs had differing affinity for an EBNA1/DNA complex with four mAbs able to supershift the complex completely. All mAbs can immunoprecipitate EBNA1 from E. coli overexpressing EBNA1. A modified ELISA assay, termed ELISA-elution assay, was used to screen for mAbs that release EBNA1 in the presence of a low molecular weight polyhydroxylated compound (polyol and a nonchaotropic salt. MAbs with this property, termed polyol-responsive (PR-mAbs, allow gentle elution of labile proteins and protein complexes. Four mAbs are polyol-responsive with two showing usefulness in gentle immunoaffinity chromatography. Purification with these PR-mAbs may be useful in purifying EBNA1 complexes and elucidating EBNA1-associated proteins. This panel of anti-EBNA1 mAbs will advance the study of EBV by providing new tools to detect and purify EBNA1.

  3. Characterization of the expanded T cell population in infectious mononucleosis: apoptosis, expression of apoptosis-related genes, and Epstein–Barr virus (EBV) status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verbeke, C S; Wenthe, U; Bergler, W F; Zentgraf, H

    2000-01-01

    Infectious mononucleosis (IM), a manifestation of primary infection with EBV, is characterized by a massive expansion of the T cell population. In this study we examined this expanded T cell population regarding its EBV status, its proliferative and apoptotic activity, and its expression of apoptosis-related genes. Whereas previous studies were performed on ex vivo cultures or on peripheral blood, our investigations included in vivo analysis of IM tonsillectomy specimens (14 cases) by in situ hybridization for viral RNA (EBERs) combined with immunohistochemistry (IHC; CD3, CD45RO, CD20, CD79a, Ki-67, Bcl-2, Bax, Fas, FasL) and the TUNEL method. Of the EBER+ cells 50–70% showed expression of the B cell markers CD20/CD79a. The remainder of the EBER+ cells expressed neither B nor T cell antigens. No co-expression of EBERs and T cell antigens was detected in any of the specimens. In accordance with a high rate of apoptosis (up to 2·37%) within the expanded T cell population, Bcl-2 expression was drastically reduced and FasL expression remarkably increased. The levels of Bax and Fas expression showed no or moderate up-regulation. In conclusion, the massive expansion of IM T cells is not caused by EBV infection of these cells but merely represents an intense immune reaction. Through altered expression of Bcl-2/Bax and Fas/FasL, the activated T cells are subject to enhanced apoptosis while residing within the lymphoid tissue, which eventually allows the efficient silencing of this potentially damaging T cell response. PMID:10792379

  4. Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus latency-associated nuclear antigen prolongs the life span of primary human umbilical vein endothelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Takahiro; Sugaya, Makoto; Atkins, April M; Aquilino, Elisabeth A; Yang, Aparche; Borris, Debra L; Brady, John; Blauvelt, Andrew

    2003-06-01

    Tumor spindle cells in all clinical types of Kaposi's sarcoma (KS) are infected with Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV). Although KSHV contains more than 80 genes, only a few are expressed in tumor spindle cells, including latency-associated nuclear antigen (LANA) and k-cyclin (kCYC). To assess the oncogenic potential of LANA and kCYC, primary human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) and murine NIH 3T3 cells were stably transduced by using recombinant retroviruses expressing these genes or the known viral oncogene simian virus 40 large T antigen (LTAg). Interestingly, LANA-transduced HUVEC proliferated faster and demonstrated a greatly prolonged life span (mean +/- standard deviation, 38.3 +/- 11.0 passages) than untransduced cells and vector-transduced cells (<20 passages). By contrast, kCYC-transduced HUVEC did not proliferate faster or live longer than control cells. LANA- and kCYC-transduced HUVEC, but not LTAg-transduced HUVEC, retained the ability to form normal vessel-like structures in an in vitro model of angiogenesis. In cellular assays of transformation, LANA- and kCYC-transduced NIH 3T3 cells demonstrated minimal or no anchorage-independent growth in soft agar and no tumorigenicity when injected into nude mice, unlike LTAg-transduced NIH 3T3 cells. Lastly, gene expression profiling revealed down-regulation, or silencing, of a number of genes within LANA-transduced HUVEC. Taken together, these results suggest that KSHV LANA is capable of inducing prolonged life span, but not transformation, in primary human cells. These findings may explain why LANA-expressing spindle cells proliferate within KS tumors, yet most often do not demonstrate biologic characteristics of transformation or true malignant conversion.

  5. GAGE cancer-germline antigens bind DNA and are recruited to the nuclear envelope by Germ cell-less

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gjerstorff, Morten; Rösner, Heike; Pedersen, Christina Bøg

    GAGE genes encode a highly similar, primate-specific protein family with unique primary structure and undefined roles in germ cells, various fetal cells and cancer cells. We report that GAGE proteins are intrinsically disordered proteins that provide novel interfaces between chromatin and the nuc......GAGE genes encode a highly similar, primate-specific protein family with unique primary structure and undefined roles in germ cells, various fetal cells and cancer cells. We report that GAGE proteins are intrinsically disordered proteins that provide novel interfaces between chromatin...... and the nuclear envelope. Structural analysis by NMR and CD spectroscopy showed GAGE proteins lack distinct secondary or tertiary structure and are therefore intrinsically disordered. In normal cells and cancer cells GAGE proteins localize predominantly in the nucleus; we found GAGE proteins formed stable......) at the nuclear envelope. Furthermore, exogenous and endogenous GAGE proteins were recruited to the nuclear envelope in GCL-overexpressing cells. Gene expression analysis and immunohistochemical staining suggest GAGE proteins and GCL interact physiologically in human cells that express both, including male germ...

  6. Comprehensive assessment of peripheral blood TCRβ repertoire in infectious mononucleosis and chronic active EBV infection patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shenglin; Zhang, Qian; Huang, Dongli; Zhang, Wenli; Zhong, Fengluan; Feng, Jia; Chen, Xueru; Meng, Qingxiang; Chen, Xiaofan; Zhang, Wei; Zhang, Hongyu

    2017-04-01

    Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) primary infection is usually asymptomatic, but it sometimes progresses to infectious mononucleosis (IM). Occasionally, some people develop chronic active EBV infection (CAEBV) with underlying immunodeficiency, which belongs to a continuous spectrum of EBV-associated lymphoproliferative disorders (EBV + LPD) with heterogeneous clinical presentations and high mortality. It has been well established that T cell-mediated immune response plays a critical role in the disease evolution of EBV infection. Recently, high-throughput sequencing of the hypervariable complementarity-determining region 3 (CDR3) segments of the T cell receptor (T cell receptor β (TCRβ)) has emerged as a sensitive approach to assess the T cell repertoire. In this study, we fully characterized the diversity of peripheral blood TCRβ repertoire in IM (n = 6) and CAEBV patients (n = 5) and EBV-seropositive controls (n = 5). Compared with the healthy EBV-seropositive controls, both IM and CAEBV patients demonstrate a significant decrease in peripheral blood TCRβ repertoire diversity, basically, including narrowed repertoire breadth, highly expanded clones, and skewed CDR3 length distribution. However, there is no significant difference between IM and CAEBV patients. Furthermore, we observed some disease-related preferences in TRBV/TRBJ usage and combinations, as well as lots of T cell clones shared by different groups (unique or overlapped) involved in public T cell responses, which provide more detailed insights into the divergent disease evolution.

  7. Examination of the effect of ovarian radiation injury induced by hysterosalpingography on ovarian proliferating cell nuclear antigen and the radioprotective effect of amifostine: an experimental study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Can B

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Behzat Can,1 Remzi Atilgan,1 Sehmus Pala,1 Tuncay Kuloğlu,2 Sule Kiray,3 Nevin Ilhan4 1Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Firat University School of Medicine, Elazig, Turkey; 2Department of Histology and Embryology, Firat University School of Medicine, Elazig, Turkey; 3Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Maltepe University School of Medicine, Istanbul, Turkey; 4Department of Biochemistry, Firat University School of Medicine, Elazig, Turkey Aim: The aim of this study was to examine the effect of amifostine on cellular injury in the ovarian tissue induced by hysterosalpingography (HSG.Methods: In total, forty 4-month old female Wistar Albino rats were assigned into 8 groups. Each group contained 5 rats. Group 1 (G1: rats were decapitated without any procedure. Group 2 (G2: rats were decapitated after 3 hours of total body irradiation. Group 3 (G3: rats were decapitated 3 hours after HSG procedure. Group 4 (G4: rats were decapitated 3 hours after HSG procedure performed 30 min after receiving amifostine 200 mg/kg intraperitoneally. Group 5 (G5: rats were decapitated after 1 month without any procedure. Group 6 (G6: rats were decapitated after 1 month of total body irradiation. Group 7 (G7: rats were decapitated 1 month after HSG procedure. Group 8 (G8: rats were decapitated 1 month after HSG procedure performed 30 min after receiving amifostine 200 mg/kg intraperitoneally. After rats were decapitated under general anesthesia in all groups, blood samples were obtained and bilateral ovaries were removed. One of the ovaries was placed in 10% formaldehyde solution for histological germinal epithelial degeneration, apoptosis and proliferating cell nuclear antigen scoring. The other ovary and blood sera were stored at –80°C. TNF-α, total antioxidant status, total oxidant status, and malondialdehyde levels were studied in tissue samples and anti-mullerian hormone levels in blood samples.Results: At the end of the first month, there was

  8. A multiplex calibrated real-time PCR assay for quantitation of DNA of EBV-1 and 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatto, Francesca; Cassina, Giulia; Broccolo, Francesco; Morreale, Giuseppe; Lanino, Edoardo; Di Marco, Eddi; Vardas, Efthiya; Bernasconi, Daniela; Buttò, Stefano; Principi, Nicola; Esposito, Susanna; Scarlatti, Gabriella; Lusso, Paolo; Malnati, Mauro S

    2011-12-01

    Accurate and highly sensitive tests for the diagnosis of active Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection are essential for the clinical management of individuals infected with EBV. A calibrated quantitative real-time PCR assay for the measurement of EBV DNA of both EBV-1 and 2 subtypes was developed, combining the detection of the EBV DNA and a synthetic DNA calibrator in a multiplex PCR format. The assay displays a wide dynamic range and a high degree of accuracy even in the presence of 1μg of human genomic DNA. This assay measures with the same efficiency EBV DNA from strains prevalent in different geographic areas. The clinical sensitivity and specificity of the system were evaluated by testing 181 peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMCs) and plasma specimens obtained from 21 patients subjected to bone marrow transplantation, 70 HIV-seropositive subjects and 23 healthy controls. Patients affected by EBV-associated post-transplant lymphoprolipherative disorders had the highest frequency of EBV detection and the highest viral load. Persons infected with HIV had higher levels of EBV DNA load in PBMCs and a higher frequency of EBV plasma viremia compared to healthy controls. In conclusion, this new assay provides a reliable high-throughput method for the quantitation of EBV DNA in clinical samples. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Epstein–Barr virus (EBV-associated epithelial and non-epithelial lesions of the oral cavity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kentaro Kikuchi

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Epstein–Barr virus (EBV is known to be associated with the development of malignant lymphoma and lymphoproliferative disorders (LPDs in immunocompromised patients. EBV, a B-lymphotropic gamma-herpesvirus, causes infectious mononucleosis and oral hairy leukoplakia, as well as various pathological types of lymphoid malignancy. Furthermore, EBV is associated with epithelial malignancies such as nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC, salivary gland tumor, gastric carcinoma and breast carcinoma. In terms of oral disease, there have been several reports of EBV-related oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC worldwide. However, the role of EBV in tumorigenesis of human oral epithelial or lymphoid tissue is unclear. This review summarizes EBV-related epithelial and non-epithelial tumors or tumor-like lesions of the oral cavity. In addition, we describe EBV latent genes and their expression in normal epithelium, inflamed gingiva, epithelial dysplasia and SCC, as well as considering LPDs (MTX- and age-related and DLBCLs of the oral cavity.

  10. B cell differentiation in EBV-positive Burkitt Lymphoma is impaired at post-transcriptional level by miRNA altered expression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leucci, E; Onnis, A; Cocco, M

    2009-01-01

    suggested that EBV-positive and EBV-negative BL have different cells of origin. In particular, according to immunoglobulin gene mutation analysis, EBV-negative BLs may originate from early centroblasts, whereas EBV-positive BLs appear to arise from postgerminal center B cells or memory B cells...

  11. Interaction of proliferating cell nuclear antigen with PMS2 is required for MutLα activation and function in mismatch repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genschel, Jochen; Kadyrova, Lyudmila Y; Iyer, Ravi R; Dahal, Basanta K; Kadyrov, Farid A; Modrich, Paul

    2017-05-09

    Eukaryotic MutLα (mammalian MLH1-PMS2 heterodimer; MLH1-PMS1 in yeast) functions in early steps of mismatch repair as a latent endonuclease that requires a mismatch, MutSα/β, and DNA-loaded proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) for activation. We show here that human PCNA and MutLα interact specifically but weakly in solution to form a complex of approximately 1:1 stoichiometry that depends on PCNA interaction with the C-terminal endonuclease domain of the MutLα PMS2 subunit. Amino acid substitution mutations within a PMS2 C-terminal 721 QRLIAP motif attenuate or abolish human MutLα interaction with PCNA, as well as PCNA-dependent activation of MutLα endonuclease, PCNA- and DNA-dependent activation of MutLα ATPase, and MutLα function in in vitro mismatch repair. Amino acid substitution mutations within the corresponding yeast PMS1 motif ( 723 QKLIIP) reduce or abolish mismatch repair in vivo. Coupling of a weak allele within this motif ( 723 AKLIIP) with an exo1 Δ null mutation, which individually confer only weak mutator phenotypes, inactivates mismatch repair in the yeast cell.

  12. Proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA)-associated KIAA0101/PAF15 protein is a cell cycle-regulated anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome substrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emanuele, Michael J; Ciccia, Alberto; Elia, Andrew E H; Elledge, Stephen J

    2011-06-14

    The anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C) is a cell cycle-regulated E3 ubiquitin ligase that controls the degradation of substrate proteins at mitotic exit and throughout the G1 phase. We have identified an APC/C substrate and cell cycle-regulated protein, KIAA0101/PAF15. PAF15 protein levels peak in the G2/M phase of the cell cycle and drop rapidly at mitotic exit in an APC/C- and KEN-box-dependent fashion. PAF15 associates with proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), and depletion of PAF15 decreases the number of cells in S phase, suggesting a role for it in cell cycle regulation. Following irradiation, PAF15 colocalized with γH2AX foci at sites of DNA damage through its interaction with PCNA. Finally, PAF15 depletion led to an increase in homologous recombination-mediated DNA repair, and overexpression caused sensitivity to UV-induced DNA damage. We conclude that PAF15 is an APC/C-regulated protein involved in both cell cycle progression and the DNA damage response.

  13. Building essential biodiversity variables (EBVs) of species distribution and abundance at a global scale

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kissling, W.D.; Ahumada, J.A.; Bowser, A.; Fernandez, M.; Fernández, N.; Garcia, E.A.; Guralnick, R.P.; Isaac, N.J.B.; Kelling, S.; Los, W.; McRae, L.; Mihoub, J.-B.; Obst, M.; Santamaria, M.; Skidmore, A.K.; Williams, K.J.; Agosti, D.; Amariles, D.; Arvanitidis, C.; Bastin, L.; De Leo, F.; Egloff, W.; Elith, J.; Hobern, D.; Martin, D.; Pereira, H.M.; Pesole, G.; Peterseil, J.; Saarenmaa, H.; Schigel, D.; Schmeller, D.S.; Segata, N.; Turak, E.; Uhlir, P.F.; Wee, B.; Hardisty, A.R.

    2018-01-01

    Much biodiversity data is collected worldwide, but it remains challenging to assemble the scattered knowledge for assessing biodiversity status and trends. The concept of Essential Biodiversity Variables (EBVs) was introduced to structure biodiversity monitoring globally, and to harmonize and

  14. Transcriptional activation signals found in the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) latency C promoter are conserved in the latency C promoter sequences from baboon and Rhesus monkey EBV-like lymphocryptoviruses (cercopithicine herpesviruses 12 and 15).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuentes-Pananá, E M; Swaminathan, S; Ling, P D

    1999-01-01

    The Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) EBNA2 protein is a transcriptional activator that controls viral latent gene expression and is essential for EBV-driven B-cell immortalization. EBNA2 is expressed from the viral C promoter (Cp) and regulates its own expression by activating Cp through interaction with the cellular DNA binding protein CBF1. Through regulation of Cp and EBNA2 expression, EBV controls the pattern of latent protein expression and the type of latency established. To gain further insight into the important regulatory elements that modulate Cp usage, we isolated and sequenced the Cp regions corresponding to nucleotides 10251 to 11479 of the EBV genome (-1079 to +144 relative to the transcription initiation site) from the EBV-like lymphocryptoviruses found in baboons (herpesvirus papio; HVP) and Rhesus macaques (RhEBV). Sequence comparison of the approximately 1,230-bp Cp regions from these primate viruses revealed that EBV and HVP Cp sequences are 64% conserved, EBV and RhEBV Cp sequences are 66% conserved, and HVP and RhEBV Cp sequences are 65% conserved relative to each other. Approximately 50% of the residues are conserved among all three sequences, yet all three viruses have retained response elements for glucocorticoids, two positionally conserved CCAAT boxes, and positionally conserved TATA boxes. The putative EBNA2 100-bp enhancers within these promoters contain 54 conserved residues, and the binding sites for CBF1 and CBF2 are well conserved. Cp usage in the HVP- and RhEBV-transformed cell lines was detected by S1 nuclease protection analysis. Transient-transfection analysis showed that promoters of both HVP and RhEBV are responsive to EBNA2 and that they bind CBF1 and CBF2 in gel mobility shift assays. These results suggest that similar mechanisms for regulation of latent gene expression are conserved among the EBV-related lymphocryptoviruses found in nonhuman primates.

  15. EBV-Associated Lymphoproliferative Disorder and Hemophagocytic Lymphohistiocytosis in a Patient with Severe Celiac Disease

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    John Jacob Kinross-Wright

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Epstein-Barr virus- (EBV- associated lymphoproliferative disease (LPD is a rare condition, usually occurring in immunocompromised patients. We report a case of EBV-associated LPD in a patient with severe celiac disease, the first report to describe this syndrome in a patient with this diagnosis. Case Summary. A 69-year-old Caucasian woman with recent diagnosis of celiac sprue presented to our hospital with persistent diarrhea, abdominal pain, weight loss, and fatigue despite adherence to gluten-free diet for a number of weeks prior to presentation. She underwent evaluation for occult malignancy and was found to have diffuse intra-abdominal mesenteric lymphadenopathy on CT scan. Biopsy of mesenteric nodes revealed an EBV positive, CD20 positive mixed lymphoproliferative process with T-cell predominance, but without a monoclonal cell population felt to be consistent with EBV-associated LPD. Bone marrow biopsy revealed hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis, complicating her course. She was treated with steroids and rituximab but continued to decline, eventually developing MSSA bacteremia and succumbing to her disease. Conclusion. To our knowledge, this is the first report of the constellation of celiac sprue, EBV-associated LPD, and hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis. Providers caring for patients with severe, uncontrolled celiac disease and adenopathy should consider EBV-associated LPD.

  16. Coinfection with EBV/CMV and other respiratory agents in children with suspected infectious mononucleosis

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    Wei Cong

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Numerous studies have shown that Epstein-Barr virus (EBV and cytomegalovirus (CMV can infect immunocompetent patients simultaneously with other agents. Nonetheless, multiple infections with other agents in EBV/CMV-infected children have received little attention. We conducted a retrospective study of children with suspected infectious mononucleosis. Peripheral blood samples were analyzed by indirect immunofluorescence to detect EBV, CMV and other respiratory agents including respiratory syncytial virus; adenovirus; influenza virus types A and B; parainfluenza virus types 1, 2 and 3; Chlamydia pneumoniae and Mycoplasma pneumoniae. A medical history was collected for each child. Results The occurrence of multipathogen infections was 68.9%, 81.3% and 63.6% in the children with primary EBV, CMV or EBV/CMV, respectively, which was significantly higher than that in the past-infected group or the uninfected group (p C. pneumoniae in children with primary infection was as high as 50%, significantly higher than in the other groups (p Conclusion Our study suggests that there is a high incidence of multipathogen infections in children admitted with EBV/CMV primary infection and that the distribution of these pathogens is not random.

  17. CUX1/Wnt signaling regulates Epithelial Mesenchymal Transition in EBV infected epithelial cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malizia, Andrea P.; Lacey, Noreen; Walls, Dermot; Egan, Jim J.; Doran, Peter P.

    2009-01-01

    Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a refractory and lethal interstitial lung disease characterized by alveolar epithelial cells apoptosis, fibroblast proliferation and extra-cellular matrix protein deposition. EBV, localised to alveolar epithelial cells of pulmonary fibrosis patients is associated with a poor prognosis. A strategy based on microarray-differential gene expression analysis to identify molecular drivers of EBV-associated lung fibrosis was utilized. Alveolar epithelial cells were infected with EBV to identify genes whose expression was altered following TGFβ1-mediated lytic phase. EBV lytic reactivation by TGFβ1 drives a selective alteration in CUX1 variant (a) (NCBI accession number NM 1 81552) expression, inducing activation of non-canonical Wnt pathway mediators, implicating it in Epithelial Mesenchymal Transition (EMT), the molecular event underpinning scar production in tissue fibrosis. The role of EBV in EMT can be attenuated by antiviral strategies and inhibition of Wnt signaling by using All-Trans Retinoic Acids (ATRA). Activation of non-canonical Wnt signaling pathway by EBV in epithelial cells suggests a novel mechanism of EMT via CUX1 signaling. These data present a framework for further description of the link between infectious agents and fibrosis, a significant disease burden.

  18. CUX1/Wnt signaling regulates Epithelial Mesenchymal Transition in EBV infected epithelial cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malizia, Andrea P.; Lacey, Noreen [Clinical Research Centre, School of Medicine and Medical Science, University College Dublin. 21, Nelson Street. Dublin, 7. Ireland (Ireland); Walls, Dermot [School of Biotechnology, Dublin City University. Dublin, 9. Ireland (Ireland); Egan, Jim J. [Advanced Lung Disease and Lung Transplant Program, Mater Misericordiae University Hospital. 44, Eccles Street. Dublin, 7. Ireland (Ireland); Doran, Peter P., E-mail: peter.doran@ucd.ie [Clinical Research Centre, School of Medicine and Medical Science, University College Dublin. 21, Nelson Street. Dublin, 7. Ireland (Ireland)

    2009-07-01

    Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a refractory and lethal interstitial lung disease characterized by alveolar epithelial cells apoptosis, fibroblast proliferation and extra-cellular matrix protein deposition. EBV, localised to alveolar epithelial cells of pulmonary fibrosis patients is associated with a poor prognosis. A strategy based on microarray-differential gene expression analysis to identify molecular drivers of EBV-associated lung fibrosis was utilized. Alveolar epithelial cells were infected with EBV to identify genes whose expression was altered following TGF{beta}1-mediated lytic phase. EBV lytic reactivation by TGF{beta}1 drives a selective alteration in CUX1 variant (a) (NCBI accession number NM{sub 1}81552) expression, inducing activation of non-canonical Wnt pathway mediators, implicating it in Epithelial Mesenchymal Transition (EMT), the molecular event underpinning scar production in tissue fibrosis. The role of EBV in EMT can be attenuated by antiviral strategies and inhibition of Wnt signaling by using All-Trans Retinoic Acids (ATRA). Activation of non-canonical Wnt signaling pathway by EBV in epithelial cells suggests a novel mechanism of EMT via CUX1 signaling. These data present a framework for further description of the link between infectious agents and fibrosis, a significant disease burden.

  19. Expression of Toll-like receptors and their detection of nuclear self-antigen leading to immune activation in JSLE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Midgley, Angela; Thorbinson, Colin; Beresford, Michael W

    2012-05-01

    Toll-like receptors (TLRs) essential in the functioning of the immune system have been implicated in the development of autoimmunity. TLR3, 7, 8 and 9 are capable of recognizing nucleic autoantigens typical of SLE. Their expression correlates positively with disease activity in adult-onset SLE. This study aimed to determine the role of TLRs in JSLE and whether apoptotic neutrophils are a source of nuclear autoantigen being detected through TLR3, 7, 8 and 9, leading to an inflammatory response. TLR3, 7, 8 and 9 mRNA and protein expression were measured in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) in JSLE patients compared with JIA and non-inflammatory controls. Activation of the TLRs by JSLE serum-induced apoptotic neutrophils was detected by measuring IFN-α mRNA and protein expression, and confirmed using myeloid differentiation factor 88 (MyD88) and TIR domain-containing adapter-inducing IFN-β (TRIF) inhibitors. JSLE patients have increased TLR3, 8 and 9 mRNA and protein expression compared with controls (P < 0.05). Incubation of PBMCs with apoptotic neutrophils demonstrated a dose-response relationship for IFN-α mRNA expression. Inhibition of TLR signalling by blocking MyD88 and TRIF signalling decreased IFN-α mRNA expression in PBMCs incubated with apoptotic neutrophils (P < 0.05). This study demonstrated significantly increased TLR expression in JSLE compared with controls. Our data indicate that apoptotic neutrophils trigger TLR activation through their presentation of autoantigens. The role of TLRs in this inflammatory response was demonstrated by a dose-response relationship to apoptotic neutrophil concentration and confirmed by a decrease in IFN-α production after inhibition of TLR signalling.

  20. The role of oxidative stress in EBV lytic reactivation, radioresistance and the potential preventive and therapeutic implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Jianmin; Li, Hongde; Luo, Xiangjian; Li, Yueshuo; Bode, Ann; Cao, Ya

    2017-11-01

    Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is an important cancer causing virus. Cancer associated with EBV account for approximately 1.5% of all cancers, and represent 1.8% of all cancer deaths worldwide. EBV reactivation plays an important role in the development of EBV-related diseases and is closely related with patients' survival and clinical stages of EBV-related cancers. The therapy regarding to EBV-related cancers is very urgent, especially in endemic areas. Generating oxidative stress is a critical mechanism by which host cells defend against infection by virus. In addition, ROS-mediated oxidative stress plays a significant but paradoxical role acting as a "double-edged sword" to regulate cellular response to radiation, which is the main therapy strategy for EBV-related cancers, especially nasopharyngeal carcinoma. Therefore, in this review we primarily discuss the possible interplay among the oxidative stress, EBV lytic reactivation and radioresistance. Understanding the role of oxidative stress in EBV lytic reactivation and radioresistance will assist in the development of effective strategies for prevention and treatment of EBV-related cancers. © 2017 UICC.

  1. Epstein-Barr virus (EBV infection in Chinese children: a retrospective study of age-specific prevalence.

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    Geng Xiong

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV is a globally prevalent herpesvirus associated with infectious mononucleosis and many malignancies. The survey on EBV prevalence appears to be important to study EBV-related diseases and determine when to administer prophylactic vaccine. The purpose of this retrospective study was to collect baseline information about the prevalence of EBV infection in Chinese children. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDING: We collected 1778 serum samples from healthy children aged 0 to 10, who were enrolled in conventional health and nutrition examinations without any EBV-related symptom in 2012 and 2013 in North China (n = 973 and South China (n = 805. We detected four EBV-specific antibodies, i.e., anti-VCA-IgG and IgM, anti-EBNA-IgG and anti-EA-IgG, by ELISA, representing all of the phases of EBV infection. The overall EBV seroprevalence in samples from North and South China were 80.78% and 79.38% respectively. The EBV seropositivity rates dropped slightly at age 2, and then increased gradually with age. The seroprevalence became stabilized at over 90% after age 8. In this study, the seroprevalence trends between North and South China showed no difference (P>0.05, and the trends of average antibody concentrations were similar as well (P>0.05. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: EBV seroprevalence became more than 50% before age 3 in Chinese children, and exceed 90% after age 8. This study can be helpful to study the relationship between EBV and EBV-associated diseases, and supportive to EBV vaccine development and implementation.

  2. Clinical values of multiple Epstein-Barr virus (EBV serological biomarkers detected by xMAP technology

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    Chen Li-Zhen

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Serological examination of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV antibodies has been performed for screening nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC and other EBV-associated diseases. Methods By using xMAP technology, we examined immunoglobulin (Ig A antibodies against Epstein-Barr virus (EBV VCA-gp125, p18 and IgA/IgG against EA-D, EBNA1 and gp78 in populations with distinct diseases, or with different genetic or geographic background. Sera from Cantonese NPC patients (n = 547 and healthy controls (n = 542, 90 members of high-risk NPC families and 52 non-endemic healthy individuals were tested. Thirty-five of NPC patients were recruited to observe the kinetics of EBV antibody levels during and after treatment. Patients with other EBV-associated diseases were collected, including 16 with infectious mononucleosis, 28 with nasal NK/T cell lymphoma and 14 with Hodgkin's disease. Results Both the sensitivity and specificity of each marker for NPC diagnosis ranged 61–84%, but if combined, they could reach to 84.5% and 92.4%, respectively. Almost half of NPC patients displayed decreased EBV immunoactivities shortly after therapy and tumor recurrence was accompanied with high EBV antibody reactivates. Neither the unaffected members from high-risk NPC families nor non-endemic healthy population showed statistically different EBV antibody levels compared with endemic controls. Moreover, elevated levels of specific antibodies were observed in other EBV-associated diseases, but all were lower than those in NPC. Conclusion Combined EBV serological biomarkers could improve the diagnostic values for NPC. Diverse EBV serological spectrums presented in populations with different EBV-associated diseases, but NPC patients have the highest EBV activity.

  3. Rabbit Model for Human EBV-Associated Hemophagocytic Syndrome (HPS)

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    Hayashi, Kazuhiko; Jin, Zaishun; Onoda, Sachiyo; Joko, Hiromasa; Teramoto, Norihiro; Ohara, Nobuya; Oda, Wakako; Tanaka, Takehiro; Liu, Yi-Xuan; Koirala, Tirtha Raj; Oka, Takashi; Kondo, Eisaku; Yoshino, Tadashi; Takahashi, Kiyoshi; Akagi, Tadaatsu

    2003-01-01

    Epstein-Barr virus-associated hemophagocytic syndrome (EBV-AHS) is often associated with fatal infectious mononucleosis or T-cell lymphoproliferative diseases (LPD). To elucidate the true nature of fatal LPD observed in Herpesvirus papio (HVP)-induced rabbit hemophagocytosis, reactive or neoplastic, we analyzed sequential development of HVP-induced rabbit LPD and their cell lines. All of the seven Japanese White rabbits inoculated intravenously with HVP died of fatal LPD 18 to 27 days after inoculation. LPD was also accompanied by hemophagocytic syndrome (HPS) in five of these seven rabbits. Sequential autopsy revealed splenomegaly and swollen lymph nodes, often accompanied by bleeding, which developed in the last week. Atypical lymphoid cells infiltrated many organs with a “starry sky” pattern, frequently involving the spleen, lymph nodes, and liver. HVP-small RNA-1 expression in these lymphoid cells was clearly demonstrated by a newly developed in situ hybridization (ISH) system. HVP-ISH of immunomagnetically purified lymphoid cells from spleen or lymph nodes revealed HVP-EBER1+ cells in each CD4+, CD8+, or CD79a+ fraction. Hemophagocytic histiocytosis was observed in the lymph nodes, spleen, bone marrow, and thymus. HVP-DNA was detected in the tissues and peripheral blood from the infected rabbits by PCR or Southern blot analysis. Clonality analysis of HVP-induced LPD by Southern blotting with TCR gene probe revealed polyclonal bands, suggesting polyclonal proliferation. Six IL-2-dependent rabbit T-cell lines were established from transplanted scid mouse tumors from LPD. These showed latency type I/II HVP infection and had normal karyotypes except for one line, and three of them showed tumorigenicity in nude mice. These data suggest that HVP-induced fatal LPD in rabbits is reactive polyclonally in nature. PMID:12707056

  4. Exosomes released by EBV-infected nasopharyngeal carcinoma cells convey the viral Latent Membrane Protein 1 and the immunomodulatory protein galectin 9

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keryer-Bibens, Cécile; Pioche-Durieu, Catherine; Villemant, Cécile; Souquère, Sylvie; Nishi, Nozomu; Hirashima, Mitsuomi; Middeldorp, Jaap; Busson, Pierre

    2006-01-01

    Nasopharyngeal carcinomas (NPC) are consistently associated with the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV). Their malignant epithelial cells contain the viral genome and express several antigenic viral proteins. However, the mechanisms of immune escape in NPCs are still poorly understood. EBV-transformed B-cells have been reported to release exosomes carrying the EBV-encoded latent membrane protein 1 (LMP1) which has T-cell inhibitory activity. Although this report suggested that NPC cells could also produce exosomes carrying immunosuppressive proteins, this hypothesis has remained so far untested. Malignant epithelial cells derived from NPC xenografts – LMP1-positive (C15) or negative (C17) – were used to prepare conditioned culture medium. Various microparticles and vesicles released in the culture medium were collected and fractionated by differential centrifugation. Exosomes collected in the last centrifugation step were further purified by immunomagnetic capture on beads carrying antibody directed to HLA class II molecules. Purified exosomes were visualized by electron microscopy and analysed by western blotting. The T-cell inhibitory activities of recombinant LMP1 and galectin 9 were assessed on peripheral blood mononuclear cells activated by CD3/CD28 cross-linking. HLA-class II-positive exosomes purified from C15 and C17 cell supernatants were containing either LMP1 and galectin 9 (C15) or galectin 9 only (C17). Recombinant LMP1 induced a strong inhibition of T-cell proliferation (IC50 = 0.17 nM). In contrast recombinant galectin 9 had a weaker inhibitory effect (IC50 = 46 nM) with no synergy with LMP1. This study provides the proof of concept that NPC cells can release HLA class-II positive exosomes containing galectin 9 and/or LMP1. It confirms that the LMP1 molecule has intrinsic T-cell inhibitory activity. These findings will encourage investigations of tumor exosomes in the blood of NPC patients and assessment of their effects on various types of target cells

  5. Immunity to tumour antigens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Geng; Ali, Selman A; McArdle, Stephanie E B; Mian, Shahid; Ahmad, Murrium; Miles, Amanda; Rees, Robert C

    2005-01-01

    During the last decade, a large number of human tumour antigens have been identified. These antigens are classified as tumour-specific shared antigens, tissue-specific differentiation antigens, overexpressed antigens, tumour antigens resulting from mutations, viral antigens and fusion proteins. Antigens recognised by effectors of immune system are potential targets for antigen-specific cancer immunotherapy. However, most tumour antigens are self-proteins and are generally of low immunogenicity and the immune response elicited towards these tumour antigens is not always effective. Strategies to induce and enhance the tumour antigen-specific response are needed. This review will summarise the approaches to discovery of tumour antigens, the current status of tumour antigens, and their potential application to cancer treatment.

  6. Immunohistochemical expression of protein 53, murine double minute 2, B-cell lymphoma 2, and proliferating cell nuclear antigen in odontogenic cysts and keratocystic odontogenic tumor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galvão, Hebel Cavalcanti; Gordón-Núñez, Manuel Antonio; de Amorim, Rivadavio Fernandes Batista; Freitas, Roseana de Almeida; de Souza, Lelia Batista

    2013-01-01

    Even though odontogenic cysts share a similar histogenesis, they show different growth and differentiation profile due to differences in the proliferative cellular activity. We perform an immunohistochemical assessment of protein 53 (p53), proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), B-cell lymphoma 2 (bcl-2), and murine double minute 2 (MDM2) expression in odontogenic cysts and keratocystic odontogenic tumor analyzing their correlation with the biological behavior of these lesions. By the streptavidin-biotin-peroxidase method with antibodies against p53, PCNA, bcl-2, and MDM2 proteins, 11 radicular cysts, 11 dentigerous cysts, and 11 keratocystic odontogenic tumor were analyzed. The non-parametric Mann-Whitney U-test and Kruskall-Wallis test (P ≤ 0.05) were used to analyze the data. Immunopositivity for PCNA was observed in all cases appraised, predominantly in the suprabasal layer of keratocystic odontogenic tumor epithelial lining (SD ± 19.44), but no significant differences were found among the groups of lesions. Bcl-2 immunoexpression was observed especially in the basal layer of keratocystic odontogenic tumor. PCNA LI was significantly higher than bcl-2 LI in keratocystic odontogenic tumor. MDM2 and p53 immunoexpression were not detected in the lesions studied. Among the evaluated lesions, the keratocystic odontogenic tumor showed different immunoexpression of the proliferation and apoptosis markers. The results of this study suggest that the keratocystic odontogenic tumor presents distinct biological behavior of the odontogenic cysts, as for the processes of proliferation, apoptosis, and differentiation, reinforcing the information in favor of the neoplastic nature of this lesion.

  7. Relation of prostatic specific antigen, bone scan and Gleason score in prostate cancer Nuclear Medicine Center IPEN - INEN, 1993-1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mendoza Perez, German E.

    2006-01-01

    Objectives: To establish the relationship of serum prostate specific antigen (PSA), Gleason score and bone scan, to determine bone metastases in prostate cancer patients (PC). Material and Methods: A retrospective cases and series study was performed in patients with prostate cancer derived to the Centre of Nuclear Medicine IPEN-INEN from 1993 to 1995. 165 patients were included. Frequency charts were done for every study variable, quantitative variables were expressed by mean ± SD; for qualitative variables percentages were used. To confirm relations a Chi-square (χ2) test was applied. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value for a 20 ng/mL cut off point of PSA and a Gleason score of 8 were carried out using contingency charts. Diagnostic performance of this tests were performed applying R.O.C. curve. Results: Mean age was 71.27 ± 7.6 years. Bone metastases were found in 84 (50.9%) patients. For a 20 ng/mL PSA, sensitivity was of 0.92, specificity of 0.47, PPV of 0.64 and NPV of 0.84; for a Gleason score of 8, sensitivity was 0.59, specificity 0.69, PPV O.67 and NPV 0.62. The probability to have a positive bone scan with a Gleason score of 8 is up to 10% for ≤ 4 ng/mL PSA; 15% for ≤ 10 ng/mL PSA, and 20% if PSA level is ≤ 20 ng/mL. Conclusions: We conclude, for the studied population, that it is necessary to perform a bone scan in all recently diagnosed prostate cancer patients, independently of PSA levels and Gleason score, in order to determine if bone metastases are present. (author)

  8. Functional homology of gHs and gLs from EBV-related γ-herpesviruses for EBV-induced membrane fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Omerovic, Jasmina; Longnecker, Richard

    2007-01-01

    Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is a human γ-herpesvirus that primarily infects B lymphocytes and epithelial cells. Entry of EBV into B cells requires the viral glycoproteins gp42, gH/gL and gB, while gp42 is not necessary for infection of epithelial cells. In EBV, gH and gL form two distinct complexes, a bipartite complex that contains only gH and gL, used for infection of epithelial cells, and a tripartite complex that additionally includes gp42, used for infection of B cells. The gH/gL complex is conserved within the herpesvirus family, but its exact role in entry and mechanism of fusion is not yet known. To understand more about the functionality of EBVgH/gL, we investigated the functional homology of gHs and gLs from human herpesvirus 8 (HHV8) and two primate (rhesus and marmoset) γ-herpesviruses in EBV-mediated virus-free cell fusion assay. Overall, gHs and gLs from the more homologous primate herpesviruses were better at complementing EBV gH and gL in fusion than HHV8 gH and gL. Interestingly, marmoset gH was able to complement fusion with epithelial cells, but not B cells. Further investigation of this led to the discovery that EBVgH is the binding partner of gp42 in the tripartite complex and the absence of fusion with B cells in the presence of marmoset gH/gL is due to its inability to bind gp42

  9. Ganetespib, an HSP90 inhibitor, kills Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-infected B and T cells and reduces the percentage of EBV-infected cells in the blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shatzer, Amber; Ali, Mir A; Chavez, Mayra; Dowdell, Kennichi; Lee, Min-Jung; Tomita, Yusuke; El-Hariry, Iman; Trepel, Jane B; Proia, David A; Cohen, Jeffrey I

    2017-04-01

    HSP90 inhibitors have been shown to kill Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-infected cells by reducing the level of EBV EBNA-1 and/or LMP1. We treated virus-infected cells with ganetespib, an HSP90 inhibitor currently being evaluated in multiple clinical trials for cancer and found that the drug killed EBV-positive B and T cells and reduced the level of both EBV EBNA-1 and LMP1. Treatment of cells with ganetespib also reduced the level of pAkt. Ganetespib delayed the onset of EBV-positive lymphomas and prolonged survival in SCID mice inoculated with one EBV-transformed B-cell line, but not another B-cell line. The former cell line showed lower levels of EBNA-1 after treatment with ganetespib in vitro. Treatment of a patient with T-cell chronic active EBV with ganetespib reduced the percentage of EBV-positive cells in the peripheral blood. These data indicate that HSP90 inhibitors may have a role in the therapy of certain EBV-associated diseases.

  10. The ORF59 DNA polymerase processivity factor homologs of Old World primate RV2 rhadinoviruses are highly conserved nuclear antigens expressed in differentiated epithelium in infected macaques

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    Burnside Kellie L

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background ORF59 DNA polymerase processivity factor of the human rhadinovirus, Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV, is required for efficient copying of the genome during virus replication. KSHV ORF59 is antigenic in the infected host and is used as a marker for virus activation and replication. Results We cloned, sequenced and expressed the genes encoding related ORF59 proteins from the RV1 rhadinovirus homologs of KSHV from chimpanzee (PtrRV1 and three species of macaques (RFHVMm, RFHVMn and RFHVMf, and have compared them with ORF59 proteins obtained from members of the more distantly-related RV2 rhadinovirus lineage infecting the same non-human primate species (PtrRV2, RRV, MneRV2, and MfaRV2, respectively. We found that ORF59 homologs of the RV1 and RV2 Old World primate rhadinoviruses are highly conserved with distinct phylogenetic clustering of the two rhadinovirus lineages. RV1 and RV2 ORF59 C-terminal domains exhibit a strong lineage-specific conservation. Rabbit antiserum was developed against a C-terminal polypeptide that is highly conserved between the macaque RV2 ORF59 sequences. This anti-serum showed strong reactivity towards ORF59 encoded by the macaque RV2 rhadinoviruses, RRV (rhesus and MneRV2 (pig-tail, with no cross reaction to human or macaque RV1 ORF59 proteins. Using this antiserum and RT-qPCR, we determined that RRV ORF59 is expressed early after permissive infection of both rhesus primary fetal fibroblasts and African green monkey kidney epithelial cells (Vero in vitro. RRV- and MneRV2-infected foci showed strong nuclear expression of ORF59 that correlated with production of infectious progeny virus. Immunohistochemical studies of an MneRV2-infected macaque revealed strong nuclear expression of ORF59 in infected cells within the differentiating layer of epidermis corroborating previous observations that differentiated epithelial cells are permissive for replication of KSHV-like rhadinoviruses

  11. Binding of the heterogeneous ribonucleoprotein K (hnRNP K to the Epstein-Barr virus nuclear antigen 2 (EBNA2 enhances viral LMP2A expression.

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    Henrik Gross

    Full Text Available The Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV -encoded EBNA2 protein, which is essential for the in vitro transformation of B-lymphocytes, interferes with cellular processes by binding to proteins via conserved sequence motifs. Its Arginine-Glycine (RG repeat element contains either symmetrically or asymmetrically di-methylated arginine residues (SDMA and ADMA, respectively. EBNA2 binds via its SDMA-modified RG-repeat to the survival motor neurons protein (SMN and via the ADMA-RG-repeat to the NP9 protein of the human endogenous retrovirus K (HERV-K (HML-2 Type 1. The hypothesis of this work was that the methylated RG-repeat mimics an epitope shared with cellular proteins that is used for interaction with target structures. With monoclonal antibodies against the modified RG-repeat, we indeed identified cellular homologues that apparently have the same surface structure as methylated EBNA2. With the SDMA-specific antibodies, we precipitated the Sm protein D3 (SmD3 which, like EBNA2, binds via its SDMA-modified RG-repeat to SMN. With the ADMA-specific antibodies, we precipitated the heterogeneous ribonucleoprotein K (hnRNP K. Specific binding of the ADMA- antibody to hnRNP K was demonstrated using E. coli expressed/ADMA-methylated hnRNP K. In addition, we show that EBNA2 and hnRNP K form a complex in EBV- infected B-cells. Finally, hnRNP K, when co-expressed with EBNA2, strongly enhances viral latent membrane protein 2A (LMP2A expression by an unknown mechanism as we did not detect a direct association of hnRNP K with DNA-bound EBNA2 in gel shift experiments. Our data support the notion that the methylated surface of EBNA2 mimics the surface structure of cellular proteins to interfere with or co-opt their functional properties.

  12. Biopsy-proven case of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-associated vasculitis of the central nervous system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kano, Kohei; Katayama, Takayuki; Takeguchi, Shiori; Asanome, Asuka; Takahashi, Kae; Saito, Tsukasa; Sawada, Jun; Saito, Masato; Anei, Ryogo; Kamada, Kyousuke; Miyokawa, Naoyuki; Nishihara, Hiroshi; Hasebe, Naoyuki

    2017-06-01

    A 75-year-old woman was admitted to our hospital with rapidly deteriorating consciousness disturbance. She had a 7-year history of rheumatoid arthritis (RA), which had been treated with methotrexate (MTX) and prednisolone. Brain T2-weighted MRI showed diffuse high-intensity lesions in the cerebral subcortical and deep white matter, bilateral basal ganglia and thalamus. A cerebrospinal fluid examination revealed elevated protein levels and positive Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) DNA. Human immunodeficiency virus was negative. Brain biopsy showed perivascular lymphocytic infiltration in the parenchyma and meninx with EBV-encoded small RNA (EBER). Since this case did not fulfill the criteria for chronic active EBV infection (CAEBV), she was diagnosed with Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-associated vasculitis of the central nervous system. High-dose methylprednisolone, acyclovir, ganciclovir and foscarnet were not effective. Although EBV is a causative agent of infectious mononucleosis (IM), lymphomas and nasopharyngeal carcinomas, vasculitic pathology of the central nervous system with EBV reactivation in the elderly is rare. Immunosuppressive drugs such as steroids and MTX are widely used to treat autoimmune disorders, but may exacerbate the reactivation of EBV. This is the first case of biopsy-proven EBV-positive/HIV-negative vasculitis during the treatment of RA with MTX and steroids. This case indicates that EBV-associated vasculitis needs to be considered as a differential diagnosis of CNS vasculitis. © 2016 Japanese Society of Neuropathology.

  13. Primary EBV infection induces an expression profile distinct from other viruses but similar to hemophagocytic syndromes.

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    Samantha K Dunmire

    Full Text Available Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV causes infectious mononucleosis and establishes lifelong infection associated with cancer and autoimmune disease. To better understand immunity to EBV, we performed a prospective study of natural infection in healthy humans. Transcriptome analysis defined a striking and reproducible expression profile during acute infection but no lasting gene changes were apparent during latent infection. Comparing the EBV response profile to multiple other acute viral infections, including influenza A (influenza, respiratory syncytial virus (RSV, human rhinovirus (HRV, attenuated yellow fever virus (YFV, and Dengue fever virus (DENV, revealed similarity only to DENV. The signature shared by EBV and DENV was also present in patients with hemophagocytic syndromes, suggesting these two viruses cause uncontrolled inflammatory responses. Interestingly, while EBV induced a strong type I interferon response, a subset of interferon induced genes, including MX1, HERC5, and OAS1, were not upregulated, suggesting a mechanism by which viral antagonism of immunity results in a profound inflammatory response. These data provide an important first description of the response to a natural herpesvirus infection in humans.

  14. Chronic active EBV infection: the experience of the Samsung Medical Center in South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Tae-Hee; Ko, Young-Hyeh

    Chronic active EBV infection (CAEBV) of T-cell or NK-cell type is an EBV+ polyclonal, oligoclonal or often monoclonal lymphoproliferative disorder (LPD) recognized as representing the spectrum of EBV-associated T-cell and NK-cell LPD with different clinical presentations; one systemic and two cutaneous disorders including hydroa vacciniforme-like T-cell LPD and mosquito bite hypersensitivity. The systemic form of the disease is characterized by fever, persistent hepatitis, hepatosplenomegaly and lymphadenopathy, which shows varying degrees of clinical severity depending on the immune response of the host and the EBV viral load. We described the clinicopathological findings of two children with CAEBV with a brief review of the literature. Recognition of the disease is important for adequate management of the patient. EBV analysis should be included in the principal diagnostic tests for febrile children. Copyright © 2015 Hospital Infantil de México Federico Gómez. Publicado por Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.

  15. Primary EBV Infection Induces an Expression Profile Distinct from Other Viruses but Similar to Hemophagocytic Syndromes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunmire, Samantha K.; Odumade, Oludare A.; Porter, Jean L.; Reyes-Genere, Juan; Schmeling, David O.; Bilgic, Hatice; Fan, Danhua; Baechler, Emily C.; Balfour, Henry H.; Hogquist, Kristin A.

    2014-01-01

    Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV) causes infectious mononucleosis and establishes lifelong infection associated with cancer and autoimmune disease. To better understand immunity to EBV, we performed a prospective study of natural infection in healthy humans. Transcriptome analysis defined a striking and reproducible expression profile during acute infection but no lasting gene changes were apparent during latent infection. Comparing the EBV response profile to multiple other acute viral infections, including influenza A (influenza), respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), human rhinovirus (HRV), attenuated yellow fever virus (YFV), and Dengue fever virus (DENV), revealed similarity only to DENV. The signature shared by EBV and DENV was also present in patients with hemophagocytic syndromes, suggesting these two viruses cause uncontrolled inflammatory responses. Interestingly, while EBV induced a strong type I interferon response, a subset of interferon induced genes, including MX1, HERC5, and OAS1, were not upregulated, suggesting a mechanism by which viral antagonism of immunity results in a profound inflammatory response. These data provide an important first description of the response to a natural herpesvirus infection in humans. PMID:24465555

  16. Arsenic mediated disruption of promyelocytic leukemia protein nuclear bodies induces ganciclovir susceptibility in Epstein-Barr positive epithelial cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sides, Mark D.; Block, Gregory J.; Shan, Bin; Esteves, Kyle C.; Lin, Zhen; Flemington, Erik K.; Lasky, Joseph A.

    2011-01-01

    Promyelocytic leukemia protein nuclear bodies (PML NBs) have been implicated in host immune response to viral infection. PML NBs are targeted for degradation during reactivation of herpes viruses, suggesting that disruption of PML NB function supports this aspect of the viral life cycle. The Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) Latent Membrane Protein 1 (LMP1) has been shown to suppress EBV reactivation. Our finding that LMP1 induces PML NB immunofluorescence intensity led to the hypothesis that LMP1 may modulate PML NBs as a means of maintaining EBV latency. Increased PML protein and morphometric changes in PML NBs were observed in EBV infected alveolar epithelial cells and nasopharyngeal carcinoma cells. Treatment with low dose arsenic trioxide disrupted PML NBs, induced expression of EBV lytic proteins, and conferred ganciclovir susceptibility. This study introduces an effective modality to induce susceptibility to ganciclovir in epithelial cells with implications for the treatment of EBV associated pathologies.

  17. Comparison of EBV DNA viral load in whole blood, plasma, B-cells and B-cell culture supernatant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouedraogo, David Eric; Bollore, Karine; Viljoen, Johannes; Foulongne, Vincent; Reynes, Jacques; Cartron, Guillaume; Vendrell, Jean-Pierre; Van de Perre, Philippe; Tuaillon, Edouard

    2014-05-01

    Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) genome quantitation in whole blood is used widely for therapeutic monitoring of EBV-associated disorders in immunosuppressed individuals and in patients with EBV-associated lymphoma. However, the most appropriate biological material to be used for EBV DNA quantitation remains a subject of debate. This study compare the detection rate and levels of EBV DNA from whole blood, plasma, enriched B-cells, and B-cell short-term culture supernatant using quantitative real-time PCR. Samples were collected from 33 subjects with either HIV infection or B-cell lymphoma. Overall, EBV DNA was detected in 100% of enriched B-cell samples, in 82% of B-cell culture supernatants, in 57% of plasma, and 42% of whole blood samples. A significant correlation for EBV viral load was found between enriched B-cell and B-cell culture supernatant material (ρ = 0.92; P cells (ρ = -0.02; P = 0.89), whole blood and plasma (ρ = 0.24; P = 0.24), or enriched B-cells and plasma (ρ = 0.08; P = 0.77). Testing of enriched B-cells appeared to be the most sensitive method for detection of EBV DNA as well as for exploration of the cellular reservoir. Quantitation of EBV DNA in plasma and B-cell culture supernatant may be of interest to assess EBV reactivation dynamics and response to treatment as well as to decipher EBV host-pathogen interactions in various clinical scenarios. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Carcinoma-associated antigens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartorelli, A.; Accinni, R.

    1981-01-01

    This invention relates to novel antigens associated with breast carcinoma, anti-sera specific to said antigens, 125 I-labeled forms of said antigens and methods of detecting said antigens in serum or plasma. The invention also relates to a diagnostic kit containing standardised antigens or antisera or marked forms thereof for the detection of said antigens in human blood, serum or plasma. (author)

  19. Immune Activation and Benefit From Avelumab in EBV-Positive Gastric Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panda, Anshuman; Mehnert, Janice M; Hirshfield, Kim M; Riedlinger, Greg; Damare, Sherri; Saunders, Tracie; Kane, Michael; Sokol, Levi; Stein, Mark N; Poplin, Elizabeth; Rodriguez-Rodriguez, Lorna; Silk, Ann W; Aisner, Joseph; Chan, Nancy; Malhotra, Jyoti; Frankel, Melissa; Kaufman, Howard L; Ali, Siraj; Ross, Jeffrey S; White, Eileen P; Bhanot, Gyan; Ganesan, Shridar

    2018-03-01

    Response to immune checkpoint therapy can be associated with a high mutation burden, but other mechanisms are also likely to be important. We identified a patient with metastatic gastric cancer with meaningful clinical benefit from treatment with the anti-programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) antibody avelumab. This tumor showed no evidence of high mutation burden or mismatch repair defect but was strongly positive for presence of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) encoded RNA. Analysis of The Cancer Genome Atlas gastric cancer data (25 EBV+, 80 microsatellite-instable [MSI], 310 microsatellite-stable [MSS]) showed that EBV-positive tumors were MSS. Two-sided Wilcoxon rank-sum tests showed that: 1) EBV-positive tumors had low mutation burden (median = 2.07 vs 3.13 in log10 scale, P < 10-12) but stronger evidence of immune infiltration (median ImmuneScore 2212 vs 1295, P < 10-4; log2 fold-change of CD8A = 1.85, P < 10-6) compared with MSI tumors, and 2) EBV-positive tumors had higher expression of immune checkpoint pathway (PD-1, CTLA-4 pathway) genes in RNA-seq data (log2 fold-changes: PD-1 = 1.85, PD-L1 = 1.93, PD-L2 = 1.50, CTLA-4 = 1.31, CD80 = 0.89, CD86 = 1.31, P < 10-4 each), and higher lymphocytic infiltration by histology (median tumor-infiltrating lymphocyte score = 3 vs 2, P < .001) compared with MSS tumors. These data suggest that EBV-positive low-mutation burden gastric cancers are a subset of MSS gastric cancers that may respond to immune checkpoint therapy.

  20. Cell cycle accumulation of the proliferating cell nuclear antigen PCN-1 transitions from continuous in the adult germline to intermittent in the early embryo of C. elegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocsisova, Zuzana; Kornfeld, Kerry; Schedl, Tim

    2018-05-30

    The proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA or PCN-1 in C. elegans), an essential processivity factor for DNA polymerase δ, has been widely used as a marker of S-phase. In C. elegans early embryos, PCN-1 accumulation is cyclic, localizing to the nucleus during S-phase and the cytoplasm during the rest of the cell cycle. The C. elegans larval and adult germline is an important model systems for studying cell cycle regulation, and it was observed that the cell cycle regulator cyclin E (CYE-1 in C. elegans) displays a non-cyclic, continuous accumulation pattern in this tissue. The accumulation pattern of PCN-1 has not been well defined in the larval and adult germline, and the objective of this study was to determine if the accumulation pattern is cyclic, as in other cells and organisms, or continuous, similar to cyclin E. To study the larval and adult germline accumulation of PCN-1 expressed from its native locus, we used CRISPR/Cas9 technology to engineer a novel allele of pcn-1 that encodes an epitope-tagged protein. S-phase nuclei were labeled using EdU nucleotide incorporation, and FLAG::PCN-1 was detected by antibody staining. All progenitor zone nuclei, including those that were not in S-phase (as they were negative for EdU staining) showed PCN-1 accumulation, indicating that PCN-1 accumulated during all cell cycle phases in the germline progenitor zone. The same result was observed with a GFP::PCN-1 fusion protein expressed from a transgene. pcn-1 loss-of-function mutations were analyzed, and pcn-1 was necessary for robust fertility and embryonic development. In the C. elegans early embryo as well as other organisms, PCN-1 accumulates in nuclei only during S-phase. By contrast, in the progenitor zone of the germline of C. elegans, PCN-1 accumulated in nuclei during all cell cycle stages. This pattern is similar to accumulation pattern of cyclin E. These observations support the model that mitotic cell cycle regulation in the germline stem and progenitor

  1. Direct Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) typing on peripheral blood mononuclear cells: no association between EBV type 2 infection or superinfection and the development of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome-related non-Hodgkin's lymphoma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Baarle, D.; Hovenkamp, E.; Kersten, M. J.; Klein, M. R.; Miedema, F.; van Oers, M. H.

    1999-01-01

    In the literature, a correlation has been suggested between the occurrence of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS)-related non-Hodgkin's lymphomas (NHL) and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) type 2 infection. To further investigate a possible role for EBV type 2 infection in the development of AIDS-NHL,

  2. EBV-encoded miRNAs target ATM-mediated response in nasopharyngeal carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lung, Raymond W-M; Hau, Pok-Man; Yu, Ken H-O; Yip, Kevin Y; Tong, Joanna H-M; Chak, Wing-Po; Chan, Anthony W-H; Lam, Ka-Hei; Lo, Angela Kwok-Fung; Tin, Edith K-Y; Chau, Shuk-Ling; Pang, Jesse C-S; Kwan, Johnny S-H; Busson, Pierre; Young, Lawrence S; Yap, Lee-Fah; Tsao, Sai-Wah; To, Ka-Fai; Lo, Kwok-Wai

    2018-04-01

    Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is a highly invasive epithelial malignancy that is prevalent in southern China and Southeast Asia. It is consistently associated with latent Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection. In NPC, miR-BARTs, the EBV-encoded miRNAs derived from BamH1-A rightward transcripts, are abundantly expressed and contribute to cancer development by targeting various cellular and viral genes. In this study, we establish a comprehensive transcriptional profile of EBV-encoded miRNAs in a panel of NPC patient-derived xenografts and an EBV-positive NPC cell line by small RNA sequencing. Among the 40 miR-BARTs, predominant expression of 22 miRNAs was consistently detected in these tumors. Among the abundantly expressed EBV-miRNAs, BART5-5p, BART7-3p, BART9-3p, and BART14-3p could negatively regulate the expression of a key DNA double-strand break (DSB) repair gene, ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM), by binding to multiple sites on its 3'-UTR. Notably, the expression of these four miR-BARTs represented more than 10% of all EBV-encoded miRNAs in tumor cells, while downregulation of ATM expression was commonly detected in all of our tested sequenced samples. In addition, downregulation of ATM was also observed in primary NPC tissues in both qRT-PCR (16 NP and 45 NPC cases) and immunohistochemical staining (35 NP and 46 NPC cases) analysis. Modulation of ATM expression by BART5-5p, BART7-3p, BART9-3p, and BART14-3p was demonstrated in the transient transfection assays. These findings suggest that EBV uses miRNA machinery as a key mechanism to control the ATM signaling pathway in NPC cells. By suppressing these endogenous miR-BARTs in EBV-positive NPC cells, we further demonstrated the novel function of miR-BARTs in inhibiting Zta-induced lytic reactivation. These findings imply that the four viral miRNAs work co-operatively to modulate ATM activity in response to DNA damage and to maintain viral latency, contributing to the tumorigenesis of NPC. © 2017 The Authors

  3. Complex forms of mitochondrial DNA in human B cells transformed by Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Gunna; Christiansen, C; Zeuthen, J

    1983-01-01

    Human lymphocytes and lymphoid cell lines were analyzed for the presence of complex forms of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) by electron microscopy. A high frequency (9%-14.5%) of catenated dimers, circular dimers, or oligomers were found in samples from Epstein-Barr-virus-(EBV) transformed lymphoblast......Human lymphocytes and lymphoid cell lines were analyzed for the presence of complex forms of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) by electron microscopy. A high frequency (9%-14.5%) of catenated dimers, circular dimers, or oligomers were found in samples from Epstein-Barr-virus-(EBV) transformed...

  4. Prevention of EBV lymphoma development by oncolytic myxoma virus in a murine xenograft model of post-transplant lymphoproliferative disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Manbok, E-mail: manbok66@dankook.ac.kr [Department of Molecular Genetics and Microbiology, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32610 (United States); Rahman, Masmudur M. [Department of Molecular Genetics and Microbiology, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32610 (United States); Cogle, Christopher R. [Department of Hematology/Oncology, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32610 (United States); McFadden, Grant [Department of Molecular Genetics and Microbiology, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32610 (United States)

    2015-07-10

    Epstein–Barr virus (EBV) has been associated with a variety of epithelial and hematologic malignancies, including B-, T- and NK cell-lymphomas, Hodgkin's disease (HD), post-transplant lymphoproliferative diseases (LPDs), nasopharyngeal and gastric carcinomas, smooth muscle tumors, and HIV-associated lymphomas. Currently, treatment options for EBV-associated malignancies are limited. We have previously shown that myxoma virus specifically targets various human solid tumors and leukemia cells in a variety of animal models, while sparing normal human or murine tissues. Since transplant recipients of bone marrow or solid organs often develop EBV-associated post-transplant LPDs and lymphoma, myxoma virus may be of utility to prevent EBV-associated malignancies in immunocompromised transplant patients where treatment options are frequently limited. In this report, we demonstrate the safety and efficacy of myxoma virus purging as a prophylactic strategy for preventing post-transplant EBV-transformed human lymphomas, using a highly immunosuppressed mouse xenotransplantation model. This provides support for developing myxoma virus as a potential oncolytic therapy for preventing EBV-associated LPDs following transplantation of bone marrow or solid organ allografts. - Highlights: • Myxoma virus effectively infects and purges EBV lymphoma cells in vivo. • Oncolytic myxoma virus effectively eradicates oncogenic EBV tumorigenesis. • Ex vivo pre-treatment of myxoma virus can be effective as a preventive treatment modality for post-transplant lymphoproliferative diseases.

  5. Performance of the Real-Q EBV Quantification Kit for Epstein-Barr Virus DNA Quantification in Whole Blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huh, Hee Jae; Park, Jong Eun; Kim, Ji Youn; Yun, Sun Ae; Lee, Myoung Keun; Lee, Nam Yong; Kim, Jong Won; Ki, Chang Seok

    2017-03-01

    There has been increasing interest in standardized and quantitative Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) DNA testing for the management of EBV disease. We evaluated the performance of the Real-Q EBV Quantification Kit (BioSewoom, Korea) in whole blood (WB). Nucleic acid extraction and real-time PCR were performed by using the MagNA Pure 96 (Roche Diagnostics, Germany) and 7500 Fast real-time PCR system (Applied Biosystems, USA), respectively. Assay sensitivity, linearity, and conversion factor were determined by using the World Health Organization international standard diluted in EBV-negative WB. We used 81 WB clinical specimens to compare performance of the Real-Q EBV Quantification Kit and artus EBV RG PCR Kit (Qiagen, Germany). The limit of detection (LOD) and limit of quantification (LOQ) for the Real-Q kit were 453 and 750 IU/mL, respectively. The conversion factor from EBV genomic copies to IU was 0.62. The linear range of the assay was from 750 to 10⁶ IU/mL. Viral load values measured with the Real-Q assay were on average 0.54 log₁₀ copies/mL higher than those measured with the artus assay. The Real-Q assay offered good analytical performance for EBV DNA quantification in WB.

  6. Prevention of EBV lymphoma development by oncolytic myxoma virus in a murine xenograft model of post-transplant lymphoproliferative disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Manbok; Rahman, Masmudur M.; Cogle, Christopher R.; McFadden, Grant

    2015-01-01

    Epstein–Barr virus (EBV) has been associated with a variety of epithelial and hematologic malignancies, including B-, T- and NK cell-lymphomas, Hodgkin's disease (HD), post-transplant lymphoproliferative diseases (LPDs), nasopharyngeal and gastric carcinomas, smooth muscle tumors, and HIV-associated lymphomas. Currently, treatment options for EBV-associated malignancies are limited. We have previously shown that myxoma virus specifically targets various human solid tumors and leukemia cells in a variety of animal models, while sparing normal human or murine tissues. Since transplant recipients of bone marrow or solid organs often develop EBV-associated post-transplant LPDs and lymphoma, myxoma virus may be of utility to prevent EBV-associated malignancies in immunocompromised transplant patients where treatment options are frequently limited. In this report, we demonstrate the safety and efficacy of myxoma virus purging as a prophylactic strategy for preventing post-transplant EBV-transformed human lymphomas, using a highly immunosuppressed mouse xenotransplantation model. This provides support for developing myxoma virus as a potential oncolytic therapy for preventing EBV-associated LPDs following transplantation of bone marrow or solid organ allografts. - Highlights: • Myxoma virus effectively infects and purges EBV lymphoma cells in vivo. • Oncolytic myxoma virus effectively eradicates oncogenic EBV tumorigenesis. • Ex vivo pre-treatment of myxoma virus can be effective as a preventive treatment modality for post-transplant lymphoproliferative diseases

  7. Sequence analysis of the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) latent membrane protein-1 gene and promoter region

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandvej, Kristian; Gratama, J W; Munch, M

    1997-01-01

    Sequence variations in the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) encoded latent membrane protein-1 (LMP-1) gene have been described in a Chinese nasopharyngeal carcinoma-derived isolate (CAO), and in viral isolates from various EBV-associated tumors. It has been suggested that these genetic changes, which...... include loss of a Xho I restriction site (position 169425) and a C-terminal 30-base pair (bp) deletion (position 168287-168256), define EBV genotypes associated with increased tumorigenicity or with disease among particular geographic populations. To determine the frequency of LMP-1 variations in European...... wild-type virus isolates, we sequenced the LMP-1 promoter and gene in EBV from lymphoblastoid cell lines from healthy carriers and patients without EBV-associated disease. Sequence changes were often present, and defined at least four main groups of viral isolates, which we designate Groups A through D...

  8. The Effect of Antiretroviral Combination Treatment on Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV) Genome Load in HIV-Infected Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friis, Anna M. C.; Gyllensten, Katarina; Aleman, Anna; Ernberg, Ingemar; Åkerlund, Börje

    2010-01-01

    We evaluated the effect of combination anti-retroviral treatment (cART) on the host control of EBV infection in moderately immunosuppressed HIV-1 patients. Twenty HIV-1 infected individuals were followed for five years with repeated measurements of EBV DNA load in peripheral blood lymphocytes in relation to HIV-RNA titers and CD4+ cell counts. Individuals with optimal response, i.e. durable non-detectable HIV-RNA, showed a decline of EBV load to the level of healthy controls. Individuals with non-optimal HIV-1 control did not restore their EBV control. Long-lasting suppression of HIV-replication after early initiation of cART is a prerequisite for re-establishing the immune control of EBV. PMID:21994658

  9. The Effect of Antiretroviral Combination Treatment on Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV Genome Load in HIV-Infected Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna M. C. Friis

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available We evaluated the effect of combination anti-retroviral treatment (cART on the host control of EBV infection in moderately immunosuppressed HIV-1 patients. Twenty HIV-1 infected individuals were followed for five years with repeated measurements of EBV DNA load in peripheral blood lymphocytes in relation to HIV-RNA titers and CD4+ cell counts. Individuals with optimal response, i.e. durable non-detectable HIV-RNA, showed a decline of EBV load to the level of healthy controls. Individuals with non-optimal HIV-1 control did not restore their EBV control. Long-lasting suppression of HIV-replication after early initiation of cART is a prerequisite for re-establishing the immune control of EBV.

  10. EBV-positive diffuse large B-cell lymphoma in young adults: is this a distinct disease entity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, J Y; Yoon, D H; Suh, C; Huh, J; Do, I-G; Sohn, I; Jo, J; Jung, S-H; Hong, M E; Yoon, H; Ko, Y H; Kim, S J; Kim, W S

    2015-03-01

    Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-positive diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) of the elderly is defined only in adults older than 50 years. However, EBV-positive DLBCL can affect younger patients. We investigated the prevalence, clinical characteristics and survival outcomes of EBV-positive DLBCL in young adults. We analyzed patients with de novo DLBCL who were registered in the Samsung Medical Center (SMC) retrospective lymphoma cohort and prospective SMC Lymphoma Cohort Study I (ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT00822731). A total of 571 cases were included in the analysis. The prevalence of EBV positivity was 6.7% (13/195) and 9.3% (35/376) in the young group (≤50 years) and in the elderly group (>50 years), respectively. EBV status was closely associated with unique unfavorable clinical characteristics [older age, more advanced stage, two or more sites of extranodal involvement, higher International Prognostic Index (IPI), and age-adjusted IPI risk] only in the elderly group. Poor prognostic impact of EBV positivity on overall survival was observed only in the elderly group [hazard ratio (HR) 2.86; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.83-4.47; P young group (HR 1.17; 95% CI 0.35-3.89; P = 0.801). A substantial proportion of EBV-positive DLBCL of the elderly can occur in young adults. EBV positivity of DLBCL in young adults was not associated with unfavorable clinical characteristics or worse outcomes. We suggest that EBV-positive DLBCL should not be confined only in the elderly and 'EBV-positive DLBCL in young adults' needs to be considered as a clinically distinct disease entity. ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT02060435. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Society for Medical Oncology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. P-glycoprotein is expressed and causes resistance to chemotherapy in EBV-positive T-cell lymphoproliferative diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshimori, Mayumi; Takada, Honami; Imadome, Ken-Ichi; Kurata, Morito; Yamamoto, Kouhei; Koyama, Takatoshi; Shimizu, Norio; Fujiwara, Shigeyoshi; Miura, Osamu; Arai, Ayako

    2015-01-01

    Epstein–Barr virus-positive T-cell lymphoproliferative diseases (EBV-T-LPDs) are rare lymphomas with poor prognosis. Although chemotherapeutic strategies such as CHOP have been often selected, they have exhibited only limited efficacy. To clarify the mechanism of chemoresistance, we examined P-glycoprotein (P-gp) expression. P-gp acts as an energy-dependent efflux pump that excretes drugs from the cytoplasm, resulting in low-intracellular drug concentrations and poor sensitivity to chemotherapy. We examined P-gp expression in EBV-positive cells by immunohistochemistry staining in three patients of EBV-T-LPDs and the expression was detected in all patients. We also examined mdr1 mRNA expression by reverse-transcriptase polymerase-chain reaction (RT-PCR) in EBV-positive tumor cells from these patients and additional three patients. The expression was detected in all examined patients. In five EBV-T-LPDs patients, P-gp function was detected by Rhodamine-123 efflux assay in these cells. The efflux was inhibited by treatment with a P-gp inhibitor, cyclosporine A (CsA). We also examined and detected P-gp expression in EBV-positive T-cell lines SNT8 and SNT16 established from EBV-T-LPDs patients, by RT-PCR and western blotting. The function was also detected by Rhodamine-123 efflux in these cell lines. Inhibition and knock down of P-gp by CsA and siRNA, respectively, enhanced etoposide- and doxorubicin-induced cell death in the EBV-positive T-cell lines. Finally, we infected the T-cell line MOLT4 with EBV, and found that mdr1 mRNA expression and Rhodamine 123 efflux were upregulated after infection. These results indicated that enhanced P-gp expression contributed to the chemoresistance of EBV-T-LPDs

  12. Unusual MRI findings in an immunocompetent patient with EBV encephalitis: a case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Di Carlo, Paola; Trizzino, Marcello; Titone, Lucina; Capra, Giuseppina; Colletti, Piero; Mazzola, Giovanni; Pistoia, Daniela; Sarno, Caterina

    2011-01-01

    It is well-known that Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) can affect the central nervous system (CNS). Herein the authors report unusual timely Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) brain scan findings in an immunocompetent patient with EBV encephalitis. Diffusion weighted MRI sequence performed during the acute phase of the disease was normal, whereas the Fast Relaxation Fast Spin Echo T2 image showed diffuse signal intensity changes in white matter. The enhancement pattern suggested an inflammatory response restricted to the brain microcirculation. Acyclovir and corticosteroid therapy was administered. After three weeks, all signal intensities returned to normal and the patient showed clinical recovery. This report demonstrates that EBV in an immunocompetent adult can present with diffuse, reversible brain white matter involvement in the acute phase of mononucleosis. Moreover, our case suggests that a negative DWI sequence is associated with a favorable improvement in severe EBV CNS infection. More extensive studies are needed to assess what other instrumental data can help to distinguish viral lesions from other causes in the acute phase of disease

  13. Towards global interoperability for supporting biodiversity research on Essential Biodiversity Variables (EBVs)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kissling, W.D.; Hardisty, A.; García, E.A.; Santamaria, M.; De Leo, F.; Pesole, G.; Freyhof, J.; Manset, D.; Wissel, S.; Konijn, J.; Los, W.

    2015-01-01

    Essential biodiversity variables (EBVs) have been proposed by the Group on Earth Observations Biodiversity Observation Network (GEO BON) to identify a minimum set of essential measurements that are required for studying, monitoring and reporting biodiversity and ecosystem change. Despite the initial

  14. BZLF1 Expression of EBV is correlated with PARP1 Regulation on Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma Tissues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wahyu nur laili fajri, Ahmad Rofi'i, Fatchiyah Fatchiyah

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Nasopharyngeal carcinomas (NPC is a cancer that arises in the epithelial tissue that covers the inside of the nasopharyngeal mucosa and nasopharynx. Infected Epstein Barr Virus (EBV cell in a latent infection associated with the expression of nine latent proteins. Latent Membrane Protein 1 (LMP1 is one of latent proteins, and mayor EBV oncoprotein, with functions including virus growth, and to activate BamHI-Z Leftward Reading Frame 1 (BZLF1-EBV, which can inhibit p53 to induce apoptotic resistance, metastasis, and immune modulation. The body will respond to the expansion of EBV infection with activation of Poly(ADP-ribosePolymerase-1 (PARP1. The objective of study is to observe the expression of BZLF1 and determine PARP1 regulation in nasopharyngeal tissues. NPC-T2, NPC-T3 and polyp tissues slides are from Ulin Hospital, Banjarmasin. To characterize the necrotic cells such as pyknosis, karyorrhexsis, and karyolysis, histological slides were stained by HE that the necrotic cells measured by using a BX-53 microscope (Olympus with CellSens Standard software. Tissues slides were stained by using immunofluorohistochemistry with EBV-BZLF1 antibody-Mouse anti-EBV monoclonal antibody against Goat anti-mouse IgG-FITC and anti-PARP1 antibody (MC-10 against Goat anti-mouse IgG labeled Rhodamin. The expression intensities were measured by Confocal Laser Scanning Microscope (Olympus. The percentage number of necrotic cells and BZLF1 and PARP1 expression intensity were analyzed using SPSS 16.0 by one-way ANOVA test with α = 0.05, beside that we use correlate and regression analyze. The research showed that the amount of karryorhexis higher than pyknosis and karyolysis in both tissues. BZLF1 expression 1.79 INT/sel (in polyp, 2.76 INT/sel (NPC Type 2 and 4.36 INT/sel (NPC Type 3, PARP1 expression 2.25 INT/sel (in polyp, 3.31 INT/sel (NPC Type 2, dan 5.93 INT/sel (NPC Type 3.The high of intensity of expression BZLF1 induced the increasing of PARP1 expression

  15. Absolute level of Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV) DNA in human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infection is not predictive of AIDS-related non-Hodgkin lymphoma.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D. van Baarle (Debbie); K.C. Wolthers (Katja); E. Hovenkamp (Egbert); A.D.M.E. Osterhaus (Albert); F. Miedema (Frank); M.H.J. van Oers (Marinus); H.G.M. Niesters (Bert)

    2002-01-01

    textabstractTo study whether Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) load can be used to predict the occurrence of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome-related non-Hodgkin lymphoma (AIDS-NHL), we determined EBV load longitudinally for individuals infected with human immunodeficiency virus type 1. EBV load in

  16. CD44+ cancer stem-like cells in EBV-associated nasopharyngeal carcinoma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samantha Wei-Man Lun

    Full Text Available Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC is a unique EBV-associated epithelial malignancy, showing highly invasive and metastatic phenotype. Despite increasing evidence demonstrating the critical role of cancer stem-like cells (CSCs in the maintenance and progression of tumors in a variety of malignancies, the existence and properties of CSC in EBV-associated NPC are largely unknown. Our study aims to elucidate the presence and role of CSCs in the pathogenesis of this malignant disease. Sphere-forming cells were isolated from an EBV-positive NPC cell line C666-1 and its tumor-initiating properties were confirmed by in vitro and in vivo assays. In these spheroids, up-regulation of multiple stem cell markers were found. By flow cytometry, we demonstrated that both CD44 and SOX2 were overexpressed in a majority of sphere-forming C666-1 cells. The CD44+SOX2+ cells was detected in a minor population in EBV-positive xenografts and primary tumors and considered as potential CSC in NPC. Notably, the isolated CD44+ NPC cells were resistant to chemotherapeutic agents and with higher spheroid formation efficiency, showing CSC properties. On the other hand, microarray analysis has revealed a number of differentially expressed genes involved in transcription regulation (e.g. FOXN4, GLI1, immune response (CCR7, IL8 and transmembrane transport (e.g. ABCC3, ABCC11 in the spheroids. Among these genes, increased expression of CCR7 in CD44+ CSCs was confirmed in NPC xenografts and primary tumors. Importantly, blocking of CCR7 abolished the sphere-forming ability of C666-1 in vitro. Expression of CCR7 was associated with recurrent disease and distant metastasis. The current study defined the specific properties of a CSC subpopulation in EBV-associated NPC. Our findings provided new insights into developing effective therapies targeting on CSCs, thereby potentiating treatment efficacy for NPC patients.

  17. CD44+ Cancer Stem-Like Cells in EBV-Associated Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lun, Samantha Wei-Man; Cheung, Siu Tim; Cheung, Phyllis Fung Yi; To, Ka-Fai; Woo, John Kong-Sang; Choy, Kwong-Wai; Chow, Chit; Cheung, Chartia Ching-Mei; Chung, Grace Tin-Yun; Cheng, Alice Suk-Hang; Ko, Chun-Wai; Tsao, Sai-Wah; Busson, Pierre; Ng, Margaret Heung-Ling; Lo, Kwok-Wai

    2012-01-01

    Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is a unique EBV-associated epithelial malignancy, showing highly invasive and metastatic phenotype. Despite increasing evidence demonstrating the critical role of cancer stem-like cells (CSCs) in the maintenance and progression of tumors in a variety of malignancies, the existence and properties of CSC in EBV-associated NPC are largely unknown. Our study aims to elucidate the presence and role of CSCs in the pathogenesis of this malignant disease. Sphere-forming cells were isolated from an EBV-positive NPC cell line C666-1 and its tumor-initiating properties were confirmed by in vitro and in vivo assays. In these spheroids, up-regulation of multiple stem cell markers were found. By flow cytometry, we demonstrated that both CD44 and SOX2 were overexpressed in a majority of sphere-forming C666-1 cells. The CD44+SOX2+ cells was detected in a minor population in EBV-positive xenografts and primary tumors and considered as potential CSC in NPC. Notably, the isolated CD44+ NPC cells were resistant to chemotherapeutic agents and with higher spheroid formation efficiency, showing CSC properties. On the other hand, microarray analysis has revealed a number of differentially expressed genes involved in transcription regulation (e.g. FOXN4, GLI1), immune response (CCR7, IL8) and transmembrane transport (e.g. ABCC3, ABCC11) in the spheroids. Among these genes, increased expression of CCR7 in CD44+ CSCs was confirmed in NPC xenografts and primary tumors. Importantly, blocking of CCR7 abolished the sphere-forming ability of C666-1 in vitro. Expression of CCR7 was associated with recurrent disease and distant metastasis. The current study defined the specific properties of a CSC subpopulation in EBV-associated NPC. Our findings provided new insights into developing effective therapies targeting on CSCs, thereby potentiating treatment efficacy for NPC patients. PMID:23285037

  18. Mean nuclear volume

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, O.; Sørensen, Flemming Brandt; Bichel, P.

    1999-01-01

    We evaluated the following nine parameters with respect to their prognostic value in females with endometrial cancer: four stereologic parameters [mean nuclear volume (MNV), nuclear volume fraction, nuclear index and mitotic index], the immunohistochemical expression of cancer antigen (CA125...

  19. Epstein-Barr virus (EBV antibody in childhood Hodgkin's disease (HD at Imam khomeini Medical Complex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nahid M

    1998-08-01

    Full Text Available Association of EBV with the tumor cells of HD has been proven by a variety of the methods, using serologic and immunohistochemical techniques and in the recent years with molecular biologic techniques which can detect EBV genome in tumor biopsies. In this regard we prompted to perform a case control study on 25 childhood HD cases with respected to their antibodies gainst EBNA and EBV-IgM antibodies in Imam Khomeini Hospital in Tehran. In our study the ratio of positive titers was significantly higher among HD patients compared with age and sex-matched healthy controls.

  20. Demonstration of the serum antibody to Epstein-Barr virus specific DNA polymerased (EBV-DP) from patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tan, R.S.; Li, J.S.; Grill, S.; Nutter, L.M.; Cheng, Y.C.

    1986-03-05

    Raji cells, an EBV genome carrying and nonproducer cell line, treated with tetradecanoyl-phorbol-13-acetate (TPA) and n-butyrate could induce a special DNA polymerase which has properties that are similar to the EBV-DP induced by TPA in P/sub 3/HR-I cells, an EBV producer cell line. Since EBV was found to have a strong association with NPC, and antibodies against EBV proteins or enzymes were found in high levels in sera from these patients, the possible presence of serum antibody against EBV-DP was examined. The serum titer of antibody to EBV-DP was found to have 190 +/- 84 units/ml serum (mean +/- S.D.) in 48 sera from patients with NPC. The titer in 52 healthy donors was 31.4 +/- 28 unit/ml serum (p < 0.01). The antibody was found to be associated with the IgG but not the IgA fraction. The antibody titers against EBV-DP were not correlated with the titer against EBV-DNase or VCA-IgA. Whether the antibody observed is against an EBV-DP core protein or its stimulating protein, as demonstrated by this laboratory previously, is still being investigated. This study demonstrated the high frequency and high titer of antibody against EBV-DP in serum from patients with NPC, and suggested the potential of utilizing this antibody titer to compliment other methods for the early diagnosis or prognosis of NPC.

  1. Establishment and operation of a Good Manufacturing Practice-compliant allogeneic Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-specific cytotoxic cell bank for the treatment of EBV-associated lymphoproliferative disease

    OpenAIRE

    Vickers, Mark A; Wilkie, Gwen M; Robinson, Nicolas; Rivera, Nadja; Haque, Tanzina; Crawford, Dorothy H; Barry, Jacqueline; Fraser, Neil; Turner, David M; Robertson, Victoria; Dyer, Phil; Flanagan, Peter; Newlands, Helen R; Campbell, John; Turner, Marc L

    2014-01-01

    Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is associated with several malignancies, including post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder (PTLD). Conventional treatments for PTLD are often successful, but risk organ rejection and cause significant side effects. EBV-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) generated in vitro from peripheral blood lymphocytes provide an alternative treatment modality with few side effects, but autologous CTLs are difficult to use in clinical practice. Here we report the establis...

  2. Prognostic significance of EBV latent membrane protein 1 expression in lymphomas: evidence from 15 studies.

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    Yuan Mao

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Epstein-Barr virus (EBV infection has been associated with lymphoma development. EBV latent membrane protein 1 (LMP1 is essential for EBV-mediated transformation and progression of different human cells, including lymphocytes. This meta-analysis investigated LMP1 expression with prognosis of patients with lymphoma. METHODS: The electronic databases of PubMed, Embase, and Chinese Biomedicine Databases were searched. There were 15 published studies available for a random effects model analysis. Quality assessment was performed using the Newcastle-Ottawa Quality Assessment Scale for cohort studies. A funnel plot was used to investigate publication bias, and sources of heterogeneity were identified by meta-regression analysis. The combined hazard ratios (HR and their corresponding 95% confidence intervals of LMP1 expression were calculated by comparison to the overall survival. RESULTS: Overall, there was no statistical significance found between LMP1 expression and survival of lymphoma patients (HR 1.25 [95% CI, 0.92-1.68]. In subgroup analyses, LMP1 expression was associated with survival in patients with non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL (HR = 1.84, 95% CI: 1.02-3.34, but not with survival of patients with Hodgkin disease (HD (HR = 1.03, 95% CI: 0.74-1.44. In addition, significant heterogeneity was present and the meta-regression revealed that the outcome of analysis was mainly influenced by the cutoff value. CONCLUSIONS: This meta-analysis demonstrated that LMP1 expression appears to be an unfavorable prognostic factor for overall survival of NHL patients. The data suggested that EBV infection and LMP1 expression may be an important factor for NHL development or progression.

  3. The impact of targeting repetitive BamHI-W sequences on the sensitivity and precision of EBV DNA quantification.

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    Armen Sanosyan

    Full Text Available Viral load monitoring and early Epstein-Barr virus (EBV DNA detection are essential in routine laboratory testing, especially in preemptive management of Post-transplant Lymphoproliferative Disorder. Targeting the repetitive BamHI-W sequence was shown to increase the sensitivity of EBV DNA quantification, but the variability of BamHI-W reiterations was suggested to be a source of quantification bias. We aimed to assess the extent of variability associated with BamHI-W PCR and its impact on the sensitivity of EBV DNA quantification using the 1st WHO international standard, EBV strains and clinical samples.Repetitive BamHI-W- and LMP2 single- sequences were amplified by in-house qPCRs and BXLF-1 sequence by a commercial assay (EBV R-gene™, BioMerieux. Linearity and limits of detection of in-house methods were assessed. The impact of repeated versus single target sequences on EBV DNA quantification precision was tested on B95.8 and Raji cell lines, possessing 11 and 7 copies of the BamHI-W sequence, respectively, and on clinical samples.BamHI-W qPCR demonstrated a lower limit of detection compared to LMP2 qPCR (2.33 log10 versus 3.08 log10 IU/mL; P = 0.0002. BamHI-W qPCR underestimated the EBV DNA load on Raji strain which contained fewer BamHI-W copies than the WHO standard derived from the B95.8 EBV strain (mean bias: - 0.21 log10; 95% CI, -0.54 to 0.12. Comparison of BamHI-W qPCR versus LMP2 and BXLF-1 qPCR showed an acceptable variability between EBV DNA levels in clinical samples with the mean bias being within 0.5 log10 IU/mL EBV DNA, whereas a better quantitative concordance was observed between LMP2 and BXLF-1 assays.Targeting BamHI-W resulted to a higher sensitivity compared to LMP2 but the variable reiterations of BamHI-W segment are associated with higher quantification variability. BamHI-W can be considered for clinical and therapeutic monitoring to detect an early EBV DNA and a dynamic change in viral load.

  4. The impact of targeting repetitive BamHI-W sequences on the sensitivity and precision of EBV DNA quantification.

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    Sanosyan, Armen; Fayd'herbe de Maudave, Alexis; Bollore, Karine; Zimmermann, Valérie; Foulongne, Vincent; Van de Perre, Philippe; Tuaillon, Edouard

    2017-01-01

    Viral load monitoring and early Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) DNA detection are essential in routine laboratory testing, especially in preemptive management of Post-transplant Lymphoproliferative Disorder. Targeting the repetitive BamHI-W sequence was shown to increase the sensitivity of EBV DNA quantification, but the variability of BamHI-W reiterations was suggested to be a source of quantification bias. We aimed to assess the extent of variability associated with BamHI-W PCR and its impact on the sensitivity of EBV DNA quantification using the 1st WHO international standard, EBV strains and clinical samples. Repetitive BamHI-W- and LMP2 single- sequences were amplified by in-house qPCRs and BXLF-1 sequence by a commercial assay (EBV R-gene™, BioMerieux). Linearity and limits of detection of in-house methods were assessed. The impact of repeated versus single target sequences on EBV DNA quantification precision was tested on B95.8 and Raji cell lines, possessing 11 and 7 copies of the BamHI-W sequence, respectively, and on clinical samples. BamHI-W qPCR demonstrated a lower limit of detection compared to LMP2 qPCR (2.33 log10 versus 3.08 log10 IU/mL; P = 0.0002). BamHI-W qPCR underestimated the EBV DNA load on Raji strain which contained fewer BamHI-W copies than the WHO standard derived from the B95.8 EBV strain (mean bias: - 0.21 log10; 95% CI, -0.54 to 0.12). Comparison of BamHI-W qPCR versus LMP2 and BXLF-1 qPCR showed an acceptable variability between EBV DNA levels in clinical samples with the mean bias being within 0.5 log10 IU/mL EBV DNA, whereas a better quantitative concordance was observed between LMP2 and BXLF-1 assays. Targeting BamHI-W resulted to a higher sensitivity compared to LMP2 but the variable reiterations of BamHI-W segment are associated with higher quantification variability. BamHI-W can be considered for clinical and therapeutic monitoring to detect an early EBV DNA and a dynamic change in viral load.

  5. Diagnostic significance of DNA and antibodies against capsid antigens of anti-Epstein–Barr virus antibodies levels in blood plasma of nasopharyngeal carcinoma patients from non-endemic region

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    V. E. Gurtsevich

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Epstein–Barr virus (EBV, a representative of the herpesvirus family, is the etiological agent for a number of benign and malignant human neoplasms. Among the latter, the nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC occupies a special place. In NPC development EBV plays a key role stimulating the progression of the pathological process from precancerous lesions to the cancer development. For most NPC patients, elevated levels of humoral IgG and IgA antibodies against capsid and early EBV antigens are characteristic and their antibody titers rise to high levels long before the diagnosis of cancer. Using this phenomenon, virus-specific antibodies are used for many years as markers for NPC screening, especially in cases of undiagnosed primary lesion. In recent years, in endemic for NPC regions (South China, South-East Asia a great attention has been paid to the use of quantitative determination of EBV DNA copies in the blood plasma of patients with NPC as a method of early cancer detection and monitoring.The aim of this study was to compare clinical significance of EBV DNA and humoral antibodies levels in blood plasma of NPC patients in non-endemic region, Russia. The results obtained indicate that both markers DNA / EBV and IgA antibodies against capsid EBV antigens can be successfully used for diagnosis of NPC in non-endemic region. However, in comparison with the virus-specific antibody titers, the viral DNA levels in the patients plasma are more sensitive and specific as NPC marker reflecting the efficacy of the therapy, and the state of remission or relapse.

  6. EBV, HSV, CMV and HPV in laryngeal and oropharyngeal carcinoma in Polish patients.

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    Polz-Gruszka, Dorota; Stec, Agnieszka; Dworzański, Jakub; Polz-Dacewicz, Małgorzata

    2015-03-01

    The role of viruses in the etiology of oral cancer has been proposed in many studies. The aim of the present study was to analyze the prevalence of Epstein-Barr virus, Human Herpes virus type 1, Cytomegalovirus and Human Papilloma virus among patients with oral squamous cell carcinoma in a Polish population. We investigated fresh-frozen tumor tissue fragments obtained from 80 patients with OSCC using the polymerase chain reaction assay. HPV was detected in 32.5% (22.5% were HPV 16), more often in laryngeal (36%) than in oropharyngeal carcinoma (26.6%). EBV was identified in 57.5%, HHV-1 in 7.5%, and CMV in 10% of patients. Co-infection with one or more viruses was detected in 30% of cases and most frequently it was co-infection with EBV and HPV (15%). Further studies are necessary to determine the potential role of EBV and the possible importance of HHV-1 as an infection co-factor in oropharyngeal cancer. Copyright© 2015 International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. John G. Delinassios), All rights reserved.

  7. The Correlation between the Virus- and Brain Antigen-Specific B Cell Response in the Blood of Patients with Multiple Sclerosis.

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    Wunsch, Marie; Hohmann, Christopher; Milles, Bianca; Rostermund, Christina; Lehmann, Paul V; Schroeter, Michael; Bayas, Antonios; Ulzheimer, Jochen; Mäurer, Mathias; Ergün, Süleyman; Kuerten, Stefanie

    2016-04-23

    There is a largely divergent body of literature regarding the relationship between Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection and brain inflammation in multiple sclerosis (MS). Here, we tested MS patients during relapse (n = 11) and in remission (n = 19) in addition to n = 22 healthy controls to study the correlation between the EBV- and brain-specific B cell response in the blood by enzyme-linked immunospot (ELISPOT) and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Cytomegalovirus (CMV) was used as a control antigen tested in n = 16 MS patients during relapse and in n = 35 patients in remission. Over the course of the study, n = 16 patients were untreated, while n = 33 patients received immunomodulatory therapy. The data show that there was a moderate correlation between the frequencies of EBV- and brain-reactive B cells in MS patients in remission. In addition we could detect a correlation between the B cell response to EBV and disease activity. There was no evidence of an EBV reactivation. Interestingly, there was also a correlation between the frequencies of CMV- and brain-specific B cells in MS patients experiencing an acute relapse and an elevated B cell response to CMV was associated with higher disease activity. The trend remained when excluding seronegative subjects but was non-significant. These data underline that viral infections might impact the immunopathology of MS, but the exact link between the two entities remains subject of controversy.

  8. The Correlation between the Virus- and Brain Antigen-Specific B Cell Response in the Blood of Patients with Multiple Sclerosis

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    Marie Wunsch

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available There is a largely divergent body of literature regarding the relationship between Epstein-Barr virus (EBV infection and brain inflammation in multiple sclerosis (MS. Here, we tested MS patients during relapse (n = 11 and in remission (n = 19 in addition to n = 22 healthy controls to study the correlation between the EBV- and brain-specific B cell response in the blood by enzyme-linked immunospot (ELISPOT and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA. Cytomegalovirus (CMV was used as a control antigen tested in n = 16 MS patients during relapse and in n = 35 patients in remission. Over the course of the study, n = 16 patients were untreated, while n = 33 patients received immunomodulatory therapy. The data show that there was a moderate correlation between the frequencies of EBV- and brain-reactive B cells in MS patients in remission. In addition we could detect a correlation between the B cell response to EBV and disease activity. There was no evidence of an EBV reactivation. Interestingly, there was also a correlation between the frequencies of CMV- and brain-specific B cells in MS patients experiencing an acute relapse and an elevated B cell response to CMV was associated with higher disease activity. The trend remained when excluding seronegative subjects but was non-significant. These data underline that viral infections might impact the immunopathology of MS, but the exact link between the two entities remains subject of controversy.

  9. Molecular Pathogenesis of EBV Susceptibility in XLP as Revealed by Analysis of Female Carriers with Heterozygous Expression of SAP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palendira, Umaimainthan; Low, Carol; Chan, Anna; Hislop, Andrew D.; Ho, Edwin; Phan, Tri Giang; Deenick, Elissa; Cook, Matthew C.; Riminton, D. Sean; Choo, Sharon; Loh, Richard; Alvaro, Frank; Booth, Claire; Gaspar, H. Bobby; Moretta, Alessandro; Khanna, Rajiv; Rickinson, Alan B.; Tangye, Stuart G.

    2011-01-01

    X-linked lymphoproliferative disease (XLP) is a primary immunodeficiency caused by mutations in SH2D1A which encodes SAP. SAP functions in signalling pathways elicited by the SLAM family of leukocyte receptors. A defining feature of XLP is exquisite sensitivity to infection with EBV, a B-lymphotropic virus, but not other viruses. Although previous studies have identified defects in lymphocytes from XLP patients, the unique role of SAP in controlling EBV infection remains unresolved. We describe a novel approach to this question using female XLP carriers who, due to random X-inactivation, contain both SAP+ and SAP− cells. This represents the human equivalent of a mixed bone marrow chimera in mice. While memory CD8+ T cells specific for CMV and influenza were distributed across SAP+ and SAP− populations, EBV-specific cells were exclusively SAP+. The preferential recruitment of SAP+ cells by EBV reflected the tropism of EBV for B cells, and the requirement for SAP expression in CD8+ T cells for them to respond to Ag-presentation by B cells, but not other cell types. The inability of SAP− clones to respond to Ag-presenting B cells was overcome by blocking the SLAM receptors NTB-A and 2B4, while ectopic expression of NTB-A on fibroblasts inhibited cytotoxicity of SAP− CD8+ T cells, thereby demonstrating that SLAM receptors acquire inhibitory function in the absence of SAP. The innovative XLP carrier model allowed us to unravel the mechanisms underlying the unique susceptibility of XLP patients to EBV infection in the absence of a relevant animal model. We found that this reflected the nature of the Ag-presenting cell, rather than EBV itself. Our data also identified a pathological signalling pathway that could be targeted to treat patients with severe EBV infection. This system may allow the study of other human diseases where heterozygous gene expression from random X-chromosome inactivation can be exploited. PMID:22069374

  10. Molecular pathogenesis of EBV susceptibility in XLP as revealed by analysis of female carriers with heterozygous expression of SAP.

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    Umaimainthan Palendira

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available X-linked lymphoproliferative disease (XLP is a primary immunodeficiency caused by mutations in SH2D1A which encodes SAP. SAP functions in signalling pathways elicited by the SLAM family of leukocyte receptors. A defining feature of XLP is exquisite sensitivity to infection with EBV, a B-lymphotropic virus, but not other viruses. Although previous studies have identified defects in lymphocytes from XLP patients, the unique role of SAP in controlling EBV infection remains unresolved. We describe a novel approach to this question using female XLP carriers who, due to random X-inactivation, contain both SAP(+ and SAP(- cells. This represents the human equivalent of a mixed bone marrow chimera in mice. While memory CD8(+ T cells specific for CMV and influenza were distributed across SAP(+ and SAP(- populations, EBV-specific cells were exclusively SAP(+. The preferential recruitment of SAP(+ cells by EBV reflected the tropism of EBV for B cells, and the requirement for SAP expression in CD8(+ T cells for them to respond to Ag-presentation by B cells, but not other cell types. The inability of SAP(- clones to respond to Ag-presenting B cells was overcome by blocking the SLAM receptors NTB-A and 2B4, while ectopic expression of NTB-A on fibroblasts inhibited cytotoxicity of SAP(- CD8(+ T cells, thereby demonstrating that SLAM receptors acquire inhibitory function in the absence of SAP. The innovative XLP carrier model allowed us to unravel the mechanisms underlying the unique susceptibility of XLP patients to EBV infection in the absence of a relevant animal model. We found that this reflected the nature of the Ag-presenting cell, rather than EBV itself. Our data also identified a pathological signalling pathway that could be targeted to treat patients with severe EBV infection. This system may allow the study of other human diseases where heterozygous gene expression from random X-chromosome inactivation can be exploited.

  11. Detection of EBV Infection and Gene Expression in Oral Cancer from Patients in Taiwan by Microarray Analysis

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    Ching-Yu Yen

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Epstein-Barr virus is known to cause nasopharyngeal carcinoma. Although oral cavity is located close to the nasal pharynx, the pathogenetic role of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV in oral cancers is unclear. This molecular epidemiology study uses EBV genomic microarray (EBV-chip to simultaneously detect the prevalent rate and viral gene expression patterns in 57 oral squamous cell carcinoma biopsies (OSCC collected from patients in Taiwan. The majority of the specimens (82.5% were EBV-positive that probably expressed coincidently the genes for EBNAs, LMP2A and 2B, and certain structural proteins. Importantly, the genes fabricated at the spots 61 (BBRF1, BBRF2, and BBRF3 and 68 (BDLF4 and BDRF1 on EBV-chip were actively expressed in a significantly greater number of OSCC exhibiting exophytic morphology or ulceration than those tissues with deep invasive lesions (P=.0265 and .0141, resp.. The results may thus provide the lead information for understanding the role of EBV in oral cancer pathogenesis.

  12. Successful Immunosuppressive Therapy for Severe Infectious Mononucleosis in a Patient with Clonal Proliferation of EBV-infected CD8-positive Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosoi, Hiroki; Sonoki, Takashi; Murata, Shogo; Mushino, Toshiki; Kuriyama, Kodai; Nishikawa, Akinori; Hanaoka, Nobuyoshi; Ohshima, Koichi; Imadome, Ken-Ichi; Nakakuma, Hideki

    2015-01-01

    A 30-year-old woman was diagnosed with severe infectious mononucleosis (IM). The Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) had infected both CD19- and CD8-positive cells, and clonal proliferation of EBV-infected cells and T-cells was detected. Although we suspected malignant lymphoma, her condition improved following immunosuppressive therapy. A similar case was recently reported; therefore, this case is the second case of IM with EBV-infected CD8-positive cells and clonal proliferation of EBV-infected cells. Our results demonstrate that the clonal proliferation of EBV-infected cells is not always an indication for chemotherapy in the primary infection phase and that monitoring the EBV viral load is useful for therapeutic decision-making.

  13. Building essential biodiversity variables (EBVs) of species distribution and abundance at a global scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kissling, W Daniel; Ahumada, Jorge A; Bowser, Anne; Fernandez, Miguel; Fernández, Néstor; García, Enrique Alonso; Guralnick, Robert P; Isaac, Nick J B; Kelling, Steve; Los, Wouter; McRae, Louise; Mihoub, Jean-Baptiste; Obst, Matthias; Santamaria, Monica; Skidmore, Andrew K; Williams, Kristen J; Agosti, Donat; Amariles, Daniel; Arvanitidis, Christos; Bastin, Lucy; De Leo, Francesca; Egloff, Willi; Elith, Jane; Hobern, Donald; Martin, David; Pereira, Henrique M; Pesole, Graziano; Peterseil, Johannes; Saarenmaa, Hannu; Schigel, Dmitry; Schmeller, Dirk S; Segata, Nicola; Turak, Eren; Uhlir, Paul F; Wee, Brian; Hardisty, Alex R

    2018-02-01

    Much biodiversity data is collected worldwide, but it remains challenging to assemble the scattered knowledge for assessing biodiversity status and trends. The concept of Essential Biodiversity Variables (EBVs) was introduced to structure biodiversity monitoring globally, and to harmonize and standardize biodiversity data from disparate sources to capture a minimum set of critical variables required to study, report and manage biodiversity change. Here, we assess the challenges of a 'Big Data' approach to building global EBV data products across taxa and spatiotemporal scales, focusing on species distribution and abundance. The majority of currently available data on species distributions derives from incidentally reported observations or from surveys where presence-only or presence-absence data are sampled repeatedly with standardized protocols. Most abundance data come from opportunistic population counts or from population time series using standardized protocols (e.g. repeated surveys of the same population from single or multiple sites). Enormous complexity exists in integrating these heterogeneous, multi-source data sets across space, time, taxa and different sampling methods. Integration of such data into global EBV data products requires correcting biases introduced by imperfect detection and varying sampling effort, dealing with different spatial resolution and extents, harmonizing measurement units from different data sources or sampling methods, applying statistical tools and models for spatial inter- or extrapolation, and quantifying sources of uncertainty and errors in data and models. To support the development of EBVs by the Group on Earth Observations Biodiversity Observation Network (GEO BON), we identify 11 key workflow steps that will operationalize the process of building EBV data products within and across research infrastructures worldwide. These workflow steps take multiple sequential activities into account, including identification and

  14. Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) in infectious mononucleosis: detection of the virus in tonsillar B lymphocytes but not in desquamated oropharyngeal epithelial cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niedobitek, G; Agathanggelou, A; Steven, N; Young, L S

    2000-01-01

    Aims—Despite its well established tropism for B cells, the nature of the cellular compartment(s) mediating primary and persistent Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection is still a matter of controversy. In view of the association of EBV with several lymphoid and epithelial malignancies, resolution of this issue is important. Methods—Desquamated oropharyngeal epithelial cells from 10 patients with acute infectious mononucleosis and from seven chronic virus carriers were studied for evidence of EBV infection using in situ hybridisation for the detection of the small EBV encoded RNAs (EBERs) and of the viral genome. In addition, immunocytochemistry was used to detect the BZLF1 transactivator protein of EBV. Results—There was no evidence of latent or replicative EBV infection in oropharyngeal epithelial cells in any of the samples. In contrast, EBV infected B cells were readily identified in a tonsil from a patient with infectious mononucleosis. Conclusions—The results suggest that oropharyngeal epithelial cells are not a major site of EBV infection and provide further support for the notion that B cells mediate primary and persistent EBV infection. PMID:10884920

  15. Use of different marker pre-selection methods based on single SNP regression in the estimation of Genomic-EBVs

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    Corrado Dimauro

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Two methods of SNPs pre-selection based on single marker regression for the estimation of genomic breeding values (G-EBVs were compared using simulated data provided by the XII QTL-MAS workshop: i Bonferroni correction of the significance threshold and ii Permutation test to obtain the reference distribution of the null hypothesis and identify significant markers at P<0.01 and P<0.001 significance thresholds. From the set of markers significant at P<0.001, random subsets of 50% and 25% markers were extracted, to evaluate the effect of further reducing the number of significant SNPs on G-EBV predictions. The Bonferroni correction method allowed the identification of 595 significant SNPs that gave the best G-EBV accuracies in prediction generations (82.80%. The permutation methods gave slightly lower G-EBV accuracies even if a larger number of SNPs resulted significant (2,053 and 1,352 for 0.01 and 0.001 significance thresholds, respectively. Interestingly, halving or dividing by four the number of SNPs significant at P<0.001 resulted in an only slightly decrease of G-EBV accuracies. The genetic structure of the simulated population with few QTL carrying large effects, might have favoured the Bonferroni method.

  16. Encephalitis treatment – a case report with long-term follow-up of EBV PCR in cerebrospinal fluid

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    Zarlasht F

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Fnu Zarlasht,1 Mashal Salehi,2 Mohammad Abu-Hishmeh,3 Muzammil Khan2 1Department of Medicine, Lourdes Hospital, Binghamton, NY, USA, 2Department of Medicine, NYC Health + Hospital/Harlem, Columbia University, NY, USA, 3Department of Medicine, Lincoln Medical and Mental Health Centre, Bronx NY, USA Background: Epstein–Barr virus (EBV has been found to cause infectious mononucleosis multiple times, but has been associated rarely with EBV encephalitis. Also, whenever it is diagnosed, it is always treated symptomatically.Case report: A case of confirmed EBV encephalitis is presented, which was treated with antiviral therapy resulting in complete clearance of the virus in cerebrospinal fluid and minimal neurologic symptoms after hospital discharge.Conclusion: The Infectious Diseases Society of America guidelines state that intravenous acyclovir is not recommended for EBV-related encephalitis. But we reviewed the literature and found similar cases, and we believe that antiviral therapy should be recommended for EBV encephalitis because it is a potentially fatal disease and if left untreated, can lead to raised intracranial pressure, craniotomy and even death. Keywords: Epstein–Barr virus, intravenous, human immune deficiency virus, HIV

  17. EBV Positive Diffuse Large B Cell Lymphoma and Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia Patients Exhibit Increased Anti-dUTPase Antibodies

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    Marshall Williams

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The Epstein-Barr virus (EBV, which is a ubiquitous γ-herpesvirus, establishes a latent infection in more than 90% of the global adult population. EBV-associated malignancies have increased by 14.6% over the last 20 years, and account for approximately 1.5% of all cancers worldwide and 1.8% of all cancer deaths. However, the potential involvement/contribution of lytic proteins to the pathophysiology of EBV-associated cancers is not well understood. We have previously demonstrated that the EBV-deoxyuridine triphosphate nucleotidohydrolase (dUTPase modulates innate and adaptive immune responses by engaging the Toll-Like Receptor 2 (TLR2, which leads to the modulation of downstream genes involved in oncogenesis, chronic inflammation, and in effector T-cell function. Furthermore, examination of serum samples from diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL and chronic lymphocytic leukemia patients revealed the presence of increased levels of anti-dUTPase antibodies in both cohorts compared to controls with the highest levels (3.67-fold increase observed in DLBCL female cases and the lowest (2.12-fold increase in DLBCL males. Using computer-generated algorithms, dUTPase amino acid sequence alignments, and functional studies of BLLF3 mutants, we identified a putative amino acid motif involved with TLR2 interaction. These findings suggest that the EBV-dUTPase: TLR2 interaction is a potential molecular target that could be used for developing novel therapeutics (small molecules/vaccines.

  18. Prevalence of HPV and EBV infection and their relationship with the p53 and PCNA expression in oral carcinoma patients.

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    Dayahindara Veitía

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Infection caused by potentially oncogenic viruses, such as HPV and EBV, favors the role of certain oncoproteins that can induce dysplasias and malignant lesions. Objective: To evaluate the prevalence of HPV and EBV and their relation with the expression of p53 and PCNA in patients with oral carcinoma. Methodology: Twenty-seven oral squamous cell carcinomas (OSCC were evaluated; DNA extraction was conducted using the QIAamp DNA mini kit; viral detection was obtained using the INNO-LiPA kit for HPV, and nested PCR was used for EBV. The evaluation of molecular markers was performed through immunohistochemical staining. Results: The mean age of the patients was 60.55±13.94 years, and 52% of these were female. Of the patients, 59% were tobacco users and 63% were alcohol consumers. HPV was detected in 70% of the patients with the predominance of genotype 16 (60%. As for EBV infection, it was observed in 59% of cases. p53 and PCNA immunopositivity corresponded to 44% and 59%, respectively. The tongue was the anatomical location with highest positivity for both viruses as well as for the expression of molecular markers. The 48% of the cases presented infection by both viruses. Conclusion: HPV and EBV infection together with the expression of p53 and PCNA were more frequently observed in advanced stages of the disease, suggesting a more relevant role in the progression than in tumor genesis.

  19. Investigation of the function of the putative self-association site of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) glycoprotein 42 (gp42)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rowe, Cynthia L.; Matsuura, Hisae; Jardetzky, Theodore S.; Longnecker, Richard

    2011-01-01

    The Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) glycoprotein 42 (gp42) is a type II membrane protein essential for entry into B cells but inhibits entry into epithelial cells. X-ray crystallography suggests that gp42 may form dimers when bound to human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class II receptor (Mullen et al., 2002) or multimerize when not bound to HLA class II (Kirschner et al., 2009). We investigated this self-association of gp42 using several different approaches. We generated soluble mutants of gp42 containing mutations within the self-association site and found that these mutants have a defect in fusion. The gp42 mutants bound to gH/gL and HLA class II, but were unable to bind wild-type gp42 or a cleavage mutant of gp42. Using purified gp42, gH/gL, and HLA, we found these proteins associate 1:1:1 by gel filtration suggesting that gp42 dimerization or multimerization does not occur or is a transient event undetectable by our methods.

  20. EBV+ HHV-8+ Multicentric Castleman Disease With Plasmablastic Aggregates in an HIV+ Man: An Evolving Clinicopathologic Entity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shivane, Aditya; Pearce, Amy; Khatib, Nadia; Smith, Mark E F

    2018-06-01

    We report a case of EBV+ and HHV-8+ multicentric Castleman disease with plasmablastic aggregates in an HIV-positive individual. A 41-year-old man presented in early 2015 with fevers, sweats, weight loss, intractable itching, and on subsequent testing was found to be HIV positive. Investigations showed cervical lymphadenopathy and splenomegaly. He was treated for HIV and his symptoms resolved. His symptoms recurred in January 2016, and a provisional diagnosis of multicentric Castleman disease was entertained. The HHV-8 (human herpesvirus-8) and EBV (Epstein-Barr virus) viral load was elevated. A left supraclavicular lymph node core biopsy was performed, which showed features of multicentric Castleman disease with plasmablastic aggregates that are EBV (EBER) and HHV-8 positive. He responded well to rituximab treatment and remains well with no symptoms at recent follow-up.

  1. Exposure to the Epstein–Barr Viral Antigen Latent Membrane Protein 1 Induces Myelin-Reactive Antibodies In Vivo

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    Yakov Lomakin

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Multiple sclerosis (MS is an autoimmune chronic inflammatory disease of the central nervous system (CNS. Cross-reactivity of neuronal proteins with exogenous antigens is considered one of the possible mechanisms of MS triggering. Previously, we showed that monoclonal myelin basic protein (MBP-specific antibodies from MS patients cross-react with Epstein–Barr virus (EBV latent membrane protein 1 (LMP1. In this study, we report that exposure of mice to LMP1 results in induction of myelin-reactive autoantibodies in vivo. We posit that chronic exposure or multiple acute exposures to viral antigen may redirect B cells from production of antiviral antibodies to antibodies, specific to myelin antigen. However, even in inbred animals, which are almost identical in terms of their genomes, such an effect is only observed in 20–50% of animals, indicating that this change occurs by chance, rather than systematically. Cross-immunoprecipitation analysis showed that only part of anti-MBP antibodies from LMP1-immunized mice might simultaneously bind LMP1. In contrast, the majority of anti-LMP1 antibodies from MBP-immunized mice bind MBP. De novo sequencing of anti-LMP1 and anti-MBP antibodies by mass spectrometry demonstrated enhanced clonal diversity in LMP1-immunized mice in comparison with MBP-immunized mice. We suggest that induction of MBP-reactive antibodies in LMP1-immunized mice may be caused by either Follicular dendritic cells (FDCs or by T cells that are primed by myelin antigens directly in CNS. Our findings help to elucidate the still enigmatic link between EBV infection and MS development, suggesting that myelin-reactive antibodies raised as a response toward EBV protein LMP1 are not truly cross-reactive but are primarily caused by epitope spreading.

  2. Exposure to the Epstein–Barr Viral Antigen Latent Membrane Protein 1 Induces Myelin-Reactive Antibodies In Vivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lomakin, Yakov; Arapidi, Georgii Pavlovich; Chernov, Alexander; Ziganshin, Rustam; Tcyganov, Evgenii; Lyadova, Irina; Butenko, Ivan Olegovich; Osetrova, Maria; Ponomarenko, Natalia; Telegin, Georgy; Govorun, Vadim Markovich; Gabibov, Alexander; Belogurov, Alexey

    2017-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an autoimmune chronic inflammatory disease of the central nervous system (CNS). Cross-reactivity of neuronal proteins with exogenous antigens is considered one of the possible mechanisms of MS triggering. Previously, we showed that monoclonal myelin basic protein (MBP)-specific antibodies from MS patients cross-react with Epstein–Barr virus (EBV) latent membrane protein 1 (LMP1). In this study, we report that exposure of mice to LMP1 results in induction of myelin-reactive autoantibodies in vivo. We posit that chronic exposure or multiple acute exposures to viral antigen may redirect B cells from production of antiviral antibodies to antibodies, specific to myelin antigen. However, even in inbred animals, which are almost identical in terms of their genomes, such an effect is only observed in 20–50% of animals, indicating that this change occurs by chance, rather than systematically. Cross-immunoprecipitation analysis showed that only part of anti-MBP antibodies from LMP1-immunized mice might simultaneously bind LMP1. In contrast, the majority of anti-LMP1 antibodies from MBP-immunized mice bind MBP. De novo sequencing of anti-LMP1 and anti-MBP antibodies by mass spectrometry demonstrated enhanced clonal diversity in LMP1-immunized mice in comparison with MBP-immunized mice. We suggest that induction of MBP-reactive antibodies in LMP1-immunized mice may be caused by either Follicular dendritic cells (FDCs) or by T cells that are primed by myelin antigens directly in CNS. Our findings help to elucidate the still enigmatic link between EBV infection and MS development, suggesting that myelin-reactive antibodies raised as a response toward EBV protein LMP1 are not truly cross-reactive but are primarily caused by epitope spreading. PMID:28729867

  3. Exposure to the Epstein-Barr Viral Antigen Latent Membrane Protein 1 Induces Myelin-Reactive Antibodies In Vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lomakin, Yakov; Arapidi, Georgii Pavlovich; Chernov, Alexander; Ziganshin, Rustam; Tcyganov, Evgenii; Lyadova, Irina; Butenko, Ivan Olegovich; Osetrova, Maria; Ponomarenko, Natalia; Telegin, Georgy; Govorun, Vadim Markovich; Gabibov, Alexander; Belogurov, Alexey

    2017-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an autoimmune chronic inflammatory disease of the central nervous system (CNS). Cross-reactivity of neuronal proteins with exogenous antigens is considered one of the possible mechanisms of MS triggering. Previously, we showed that monoclonal myelin basic protein (MBP)-specific antibodies from MS patients cross-react with Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) latent membrane protein 1 (LMP1). In this study, we report that exposure of mice to LMP1 results in induction of myelin-reactive autoantibodies in vivo . We posit that chronic exposure or multiple acute exposures to viral antigen may redirect B cells from production of antiviral antibodies to antibodies, specific to myelin antigen. However, even in inbred animals, which are almost identical in terms of their genomes, such an effect is only observed in 20-50% of animals, indicating that this change occurs by chance, rather than systematically. Cross-immunoprecipitation analysis showed that only part of anti-MBP antibodies from LMP1-immunized mice might simultaneously bind LMP1. In contrast, the majority of anti-LMP1 antibodies from MBP-immunized mice bind MBP. De novo sequencing of anti-LMP1 and anti-MBP antibodies by mass spectrometry demonstrated enhanced clonal diversity in LMP1-immunized mice in comparison with MBP-immunized mice. We suggest that induction of MBP-reactive antibodies in LMP1-immunized mice may be caused by either Follicular dendritic cells (FDCs) or by T cells that are primed by myelin antigens directly in CNS. Our findings help to elucidate the still enigmatic link between EBV infection and MS development, suggesting that myelin-reactive antibodies raised as a response toward EBV protein LMP1 are not truly cross-reactive but are primarily caused by epitope spreading.

  4. The presence of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) in diffuse large B-cell lymphomas (DLBCLs) in Turkey: special emphasis on 'EBV-positive DLBCL of the elderly'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uner, Aysegul; Akyurek, Nalan; Saglam, Arzu; Abdullazade, Samir; Uzum, Nuket; Onder, Sevgen; Barista, Ibrahim; Benekli, Mustafa

    2011-04-01

    Accumulated evidence has shown the importance of Epstein-Barr virus in the pathogenesis of various lymphomas. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of Epstein-Barr virus expression and its effect on survival amongst diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) cases from two large tertiary care centres in Turkey with a particular interest in identifying cases of 'Epstein-Barr virus-positive DLBCL of the elderly'. Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma cases diagnosed between 1999 and 2009 were retrieved and 340 cases were used to construct tissue microarrays. The presence of Epstein-Barr virus small ribonucleic acids was examined by in situ hybridization using Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-encoded small RNA (EBER) oligonucleotides. A total of 18 cases (5.3%) showed Epstein-Barr virus expression. Twelve cases were classified as Epstein-Barr virus-positive DLBCL of the elderly. Epstein-Barr virus-positive DLBCL cases showed a significantly inferior overall survival as compared with Epstein-Barr virus-negative cases (p < 0.001). In our study group Epstein-Barr virus expression is not prevalent in DLBCLs. Epstein-Barr virus-positive DLBCL of the elderly is also rare in the Turkish population. The presence of Epstein-Barr virus, however, is associated with poor prognosis. © 2011 The Authors. APMIS © 2011 APMIS.

  5. Proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) interacts with a meiosis-specific RecA homologues, Lim15/Dmc1, but does not stimulate its strand transfer activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamada, Fumika N.; Koshiyama, Akiyo; Namekawa, Satoshi H.; Ishii, Satomi; Iwabata, Kazuki; Sugawara, Hiroko; Nara, Takayuki Y.; Sakaguchi, Kengo; Sawado, Tomoyuki

    2007-01-01

    PCNA is a multi-functional protein that is involved in various nuclear events. Here we show that PCNA participates in events occurring during early meiotic prophase. Analysis of protein-protein interactions using surface plasmon resonance indicates that Coprinus cinereus PCNA (CoPCNA) specifically interacts with a meiotic specific RecA-like factor, C. cinereus Lim15/Dmc1 (CoLim15) in vitro. The binding efficiency increases with addition of Mg 2+ ions, while ATP inhibits the interaction. Co-immunoprecipitation experiments indicate that the CoLim15 protein interacts with the CoPCNA protein in vitro and in the cell extracts. Despite the interaction between these two factors, no enhancement of CoLim15-dependent strand transfer activity by CoPCNA was found in vitro. We propose that the interaction between Lim15/Dmc1 and PCNA mediates the recombination-associated DNA synthesis during meiosis

  6. Carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ephraim, K.H.; Cox, P.H.; Hamer, C.J.A. v.d.; Berends, W.; Delhez, H.

    1977-01-01

    The carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) is a complex of antigen determinants and also the carrier of these determinants. Chemically it is a glycoprotein. Its occurrence in blood serum or urine is correlated with malignant disease. Several radioimmunoassays (RIA) have been developed, one by Hoffmann-Laroche and one by the Rotterdam Radiotherapeutic Institute. Both methods and the Hoffmann assay kit are tested. Specifications are given for isolation of the antigen, preparation of the antiserum, and the execution of the RIA. Biochemical and clinical aspects are discussed

  7. Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen-dependent Rapid Recruitment of Cdt1 and CRL4Cdt2 at DNA-damaged Sites after UV Irradiation in HeLa Cells*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishii, Takashi; Shiomi, Yasushi; Takami, Toshihiro; Murakami, Yusuke; Ohnishi, Naho; Nishitani, Hideo

    2010-01-01

    The licensing factor Cdt1 is degraded by CRL4Cdt2 ubiquitin ligase dependent on proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) during S phase and when DNA damage is induced in G1 phase. Association of both Cdt2 and PCNA with chromatin was observed in S phase and after UV irradiation. Here we used a micropore UV irradiation assay to examine Cdt2 accumulation at cyclobutane pyrimidine dimer-containing DNA-damaged sites in the process of Cdt1 degradation in HeLa cells. Cdt2, present in the nucleus throughout the cell cycle, accumulated rapidly at damaged DNA sites during G1 phase. The recruitment of Cdt2 is dependent on prior PCNA chromatin binding because Cdt2 association was prevented when PCNA was silenced. Cdt1 was also recruited to damaged sites soon after UV irradiation through its PIP-box. As Cdt1 was degraded, the Cdt2 signal at damaged sites was reduced, but PCNA, cyclobutane pyrimidine dimer, and XPA (xeroderma pigmentosum, complementation group A) signals remained at the same levels. These findings suggest that Cdt1 degradation following UV irradiation occurs rapidly at damaged sites due to PCNA chromatin loading and the recruitment of Cdt1 and CRL4Cdt2, before DNA damage repair is completed. PMID:20929861

  8. A naturally derived gastric cancer cell line shows latency I Epstein-Barr virus infection closely resembling EBV-associated gastric cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oh, Sang Taek; Seo, Jung Seon; Moon, Uk Yeol; Kang, Kyeong Hee; Shin, Dong-Jik; Yoon, Sungjoo Kim; Kim, Woo Ho; Park, Jae-Gahb; Lee, Suk Kyeong

    2004-01-01

    In a process seeking out a good model cell line for Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-associated gastric cancer, we found that one previously established gastric adenocarcinoma cell line is infected with type 1 EBV. This SNU-719 cell line from a Korean patient expressed cytokeratin without CD19 or CD21 expression. In SNU-719, EBNA1 and LMP2A were expressed, while LMP1 and EBNA2 were not. None of the tested lytic EBV proteins were detected in this cell line unless stimulated with phorbol ester. EBV infection was also shown in the original carcinoma tissue of SNU-719 cell line. Our results support the possibility of a CD21-independent EBV infection of gastric epithelial cells in vivo. As the latent EBV gene expression pattern of SNU-719 closely resembles that of the EBV-associated gastric cancer, this naturally derived cell line may serve as a valuable model system to clarify the precise role of EBV in gastric carcinogenesis

  9. Discordance of epstein-barr virus (ebv) specific humoral and cellular immunity in patients with malignant lymphomas : Elevated antibody titers and lowered invitro lymphocyte-reactivity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ten Napel, C. H. H.; The, T. Hauw; van Egten-Bijker, J; de Gast, G. C.; Halie, M. R.; Langenhuysen, M. M. A. C.

    1978-01-01

    The relationship between specific viral cellular and humoral immunity to the Epstein–Barr Virus (EBV) was investigated in thirty-one untreated patients with malignant lymphoma (ML) and sex- and age-matched controls. In vitro reactivity of peripheral blood lymphocytes to heatinactivated purified EBV,

  10. Effect of IL-6 on proliferation and IG production of human EBV-transformed cell lines in serum free culture media

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jochems, G. J.; Jordens, R.; van Lier, R. A.; Zeijlemaker, W. P.

    1990-01-01

    To optimalize growth and Ig production of EBV transformed B cells for large scale tissue culture, we analyzed five stable monoclonal EBV-B cell lines for their responsiveness to interleukin (IL)-6 in standard medium with 5% FCS and in several serum-free media. As we previously demonstrated these

  11. Aberrant Expression of ID2 protein and its correlation with EBV-LMP1 and P16(INK4A) in Classical Hodgkin Lymphoma in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, Po; Lu, Yali; Liu, Lin; Zhong, Mei

    2008-01-01

    The relationships between the expression of ID2, EBV-LMP1 and P16(INK4A) in Chinese classical Hodgkin lymphoma are unknown and need exploring. Samples of classical Hodgkin lymphoma from 60 Chinese patients were analyzed for the expression of ID2, EBV-LMP1 and p16(INK4A) proteins by immunohistochemistry. ID2 protein was expressed in 83.3% of this group of classical Hodgkin lymphoma, staining strongly in both cytoplasm and nucleus of the Hodgkin and Reed-Sternberg (HRS) cells. EBV-LMP1 and P16(INK4A) were overexpressed in 85.0% and 71.7% of Hodgkin lymphoma, respectively. EBV-LMP1 was noted in the cytoplasm, membrane and nucleus of HRS cells; P16(INK4A) was in the nucleus and cytoplasm. Microscopically, ID2, EBV-LMP1 and P16(INK4A) staining distinguished the HRS cells from the complex background of lymphocytes. ID2 was positively correlated with EBV-LMP1(P < 0.01), but P16(INK4A) was inversely related to EBV-LMP1 (P < 0.05). It is suggested that ID2, EBV-LMP1 and P16(INK4A) could play an important role in the evolution of classical Hodgkin lymphoma, and be considered as potential adjunct markers to identify HRS cells in diagnosis

  12. Nuclear

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    This document proposes a presentation and discussion of the main notions, issues, principles, or characteristics related to nuclear energy: radioactivity (presence in the environment, explanation, measurement, periods and activities, low doses, applications), fuel cycle (front end, mining and ore concentration, refining and conversion, fuel fabrication, in the reactor, back end with reprocessing and recycling, transport), the future of the thorium-based fuel cycle (motivations, benefits and drawbacks), nuclear reactors (principles of fission reactors, reactor types, PWR reactors, BWR, heavy-water reactor, high temperature reactor of HTR, future reactors), nuclear wastes (classification, packaging and storage, legal aspects, vitrification, choice of a deep storage option, quantities and costs, foreign practices), radioactive releases of nuclear installations (main released radio-elements, radioactive releases by nuclear reactors and by La Hague plant, gaseous and liquid effluents, impact of releases, regulation), the OSPAR Convention, management and safety of nuclear activities (from control to quality insurance, to quality management and to sustainable development), national safety bodies (mission, means, organisation and activities of ASN, IRSN, HCTISN), international bodies, nuclear and medicine (applications of radioactivity, medical imagery, radiotherapy, doses in nuclear medicine, implementation, the accident in Epinal), nuclear and R and D (past R and D programmes and expenses, main actors in France and present funding, main R and D axis, international cooperation)

  13. Analysis of the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) latent membrane protein 1 (LMP-1) gene and promoter in Hodgkin's disease isolates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandvej, K; Andresen, B S; Zhou, X G

    2000-01-01

    AIMS: To study the distribution of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) variants containing mutations in the latent membrane protein 1 (LMP-1) oncogene and promoter in EBV associated Hodgkin's disease and infectious mononucleosis compared with previous findings in asymptomatic EBV carriers. METHODS: Sequence...... analysis of the EBV LMP-1 promoter and gene in isolates from Danish patients with Hodgkin's disease (n = 61) and infectious mononucleosis (n = 10). RESULTS: Viruses (previously designated group D) that contain two mutations in the activating transcription factor/cAMP response element (ATF/CRE) in the LMP-1...... promoter, which are known to decrease promoter activity greatly, were significantly less frequent in Hodgkin's disease than in both infectious mononucleosis (p = 0.0081) and asymptomatic EBV carriers (p = 0.0084). In some cases, the LMP-1 gene contained mutations in a recently identified cytotoxic T cell...

  14. Antigen injection (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leprosy is caused by the organism Mycobacterium leprae . The leprosy test involves injection of an antigen just under ... if your body has a current or recent leprosy infection. The injection site is labeled and examined ...

  15. EBV AND HHV-6 CIRCULATING SUBTYPES IN PEOPLE LIVING WITH HIV IN BURKINA FASO, IMPACT ON CD4 T CELL COUNT AND HIV VIRAL LOAD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lassina TRAORE

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Epstein Barr Virus (EBV and Human Herpes Virus 6 (HHV-6 are responsible for severe diseases, particularly in immunocompromised persons. There are poor data on the infection with these opportunistic viruses in Burkina Faso. The purpose of this study is to characterize EBV and HHV-6 subtypes and to assess their impact on CD4 T cell count, HIV-1 viral load and antiretroviral treatment in people living with HIV-1. The study population consisted of 238 HIV-positive patients with information on CD4 count, HIV-1 viral load and HAART. Venous blood samples collected on EDTA tubes were used for EBV and HHV-6 Real Time PCR subtyping. An infection rate of 6.7% (16/238 and 7.1% (17/238 were found respectively for EBV and HHV-6 in the present study. Among EBV infections, similar prevalences were noted for both subtypes (3.9% [9/238] for EBV-1 vs 4.6% [11/238] for EBV-2 with 2.1% (5/238 of co-infection. HHV-6A infection represented 6.3% (15/238 of the study population against 5.0% (12/238 for HHV-6B. . EBV-2 infection was significantly higher in patients with CD4 count ≥ 500 compared to those with CD4 count less than 500 cells (1.65% vs 8.56%, p = 0,011. The prevalence of EBV and HHV-6 infections were almost similar in HAART-naive and HAART-experienced patients. The present study provides information on the prevalence of EBV and HHV-6 subtypes in people living with HIV-1 in Burkina Faso. The study also suggests that HAART treatment has no effect on infection with these opportunistic viruses in people living with HIV-1.

  16. Mg2+ Regulates Cytotoxic Functions of NK and CD8 T Cells in Chronic EBV Infection Through NKG2D

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chaigne-Delalande, Benjamin; Li, Feng-Yen; O'Connor, Geraldine M.; Lukacs, Marshall J.; Jiang, Ping; Zheng, Lixin; Shatzer, Amber; Biancalana, Matthew; Pittaluga, Stefania; Matthews, Helen F.; Jancel, Timothy J.; Bleesing, Jack J.; Marsh, Rebecca A.; Kuijpers, Taco W.; Nichols, Kim E.; Lucas, Carrie L.; Nagpal, Sunil; Mehmet, Huseyin; Su, Helen C.; Cohen, Jeffrey I.; Uzel, Gulbu; Lenardo, Michael J.

    2013-01-01

    The magnesium transporter 1 (MAGT1) is a critical regulator of basal intracellular free magnesium (Mg2+) concentrations. Individuals with genetic deficiencies in MAGT1 have high levels of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) and a predisposition to lymphoma. We show that decreased intracellular free Mg2+ causes

  17. The dynamics of EBV shedding implicate a central role for epithelial cells in amplifying viral output.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vey Hadinoto

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available To develop more detailed models of EBV persistence we have studied the dynamics of virus shedding in healthy carriers. We demonstrate that EBV shedding into saliva is continuous and rapid such that the virus level is replaced in < or =2 minutes, the average time that a normal individual swallows. Thus, the mouth is not a reservoir of virus but a conduit through which a continuous flow stream of virus passes in saliva. Consequently, virus is being shed at a much higher rate than previously thought, a level too high to be accounted for by replication in B cells in Waldeyer's ring alone. Virus shedding is relatively stable over short periods (hours-days but varies through 3.5 to 5.5 logs over longer periods, a degree of variation that also cannot be accounted for solely by replication in B cells. This variation means, contrary to what is generally believed, that the definition of high and low shedder is not so much a function of variation between individuals but within individuals over time. The dynamics of shedding describe a process governing virus production that is occurring independently < or =3 times at any moment. This process grows exponentially and is then randomly terminated. We propose that these dynamics are best explained by a model where single B cells sporadically release virus that infects anywhere from 1 to 5 epithelial cells. This infection spreads at a constant exponential rate and is terminated randomly, resulting in infected plaques of epithelial cells ranging in size from 1 to 10(5 cells. At any one time there are a very small number (< or =3 of plaques. We suggest that the final size of these plaques is a function of the rate of infectious spread within the lymphoepithelium which may be governed by the structural complexity of the tissue but is ultimately limited by the immune response.

  18. Inhibition of EBV-mediated membrane fusion by anti-gHgL antibodies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sathiyamoorthy, Karthik; Jiang, Jiansen; Möhl, Britta S.; Chen, Jia; Zhou, Z. Hong; Longnecker, Richard; Jardetzky, Theodore S. (UCLA); (Stanford-MED); (NWU)

    2017-09-22

    Herpesvirus entry into cells requires the coordinated action of multiple virus envelope glycoproteins, including gH, gL, and gB. For EBV, the gp42 protein assembles into complexes with gHgL heterodimers and binds HLA class II to activate gB-mediated membrane fusion with B cells. EBV tropism is dictated by gp42 levels in the virion, as it inhibits entry into epithelial cells while promoting entry into B cells. The gHgL and gB proteins are targets of neutralizing antibodies and potential candidates for subunit vaccine development, but our understanding of their neutralizing epitopes and the mechanisms of inhibition remain relatively unexplored. Here we studied the structures and mechanisms of two anti-gHgL antibodies, CL40 and CL59, that block membrane fusion with both B cells and epithelial cells. We determined the structures of the CL40 and CL59 complexes with gHgL using X-ray crystallography and EM to identify their epitope locations. CL59 binds to the C-terminal domain IV of gH, while CL40 binds to a site occupied by the gp42 receptor binding domain. CL40 binding to gHgL/gp42 complexes is not blocked by gp42 and does not interfere with gp42 binding to HLA class II, indicating that its ability to block membrane fusion with B cells represents a defect in gB activation. These data indicate that anti-gHgL neutralizing antibodies can block gHgL-mediated activation of gB through different surface epitopes and mechanisms.

  19. The effect of EBV on WIF1, NLK, and APC gene methylation and expression in gastric carcinoma and nasopharyngeal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Zhenzhen; Liu, Wen; Liu, Jincheng; Wang, Jiayi; Luo, Bing

    2017-10-01

    Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is an important DNA tumor virus that is associated with approximately 10% of gastric carcinomas and 99% of nasopharyngeal cancers (NPC). DNA methylation and microRNAs (miRNAs) are the most studied epigenetic mechanisms that can prompt disease susceptibility. This study aimed to detect the effect of EBV on Wnt inhibitory factor 1 (WIF1), Nemo-like kinase (NLK), and adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) gene methylation, and expression in gastric carcinoma and NPC. The WIF1, NLK, and APC gene mRNA expression levels were measured by real-time quantitative RT-PCR in four EBV-positive cell lines and four EBV-negative cell lines. Bisulfite genomic sequencing or methylation-specific PCR was used to detect the methylation status of the WIF1, NLK, and APC promoters. All cell lines were treated with 5-azacytidine (5-aza-dC), miR-BART19-3p mimics or an inhibitor, and analyzed by flow cytometry and MTT cell proliferation assays. The WIF1, NLK, and APC promoters were hypermethylated in all eight cell lines. 5-Aza-dC displayed a growth inhibitory effect on cells . After transfection with miR-BART19-3p mimics, the expression of WIF1, and APC decreased, and the cellular proliferation rate increased. After transfection with the miR-BART19-3p inhibitor, the expression levels were higher, and the cell growth was inhibited. In the NPC and GC cell lines, the promoters of WIF1, NLK, and APC are highly methylated, and the expression of these three genes is regulated by miR-BART19-3p. The activity of the Wnt pathway in EBV-associated tumors may be enhanced by miR-BART19-3p. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Mapping regions of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) glycoprotein B (gB) important for fusion function with gH/gL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plate, Aileen E.; Reimer, Jessica J.; Jardetzky, Theodore S.; Longnecker, Richard

    2011-01-01

    Glycoproteins gB and gH/gL are required for entry of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) into cells, but the role of each glycoprotein and how they function together to mediate fusion is unclear. Analysis of the functional homology of gB from the closely related primate gammaherpesvirus, rhesus lymphocryptovirus (Rh-LCV), showed that EBV gB could not complement Rh gB due to a species-specific dependence between gB and gL. To map domains of gB required for this interaction, we constructed a panel of EBV/Rh gB chimeric proteins. Analysis showed that insertion of Rh gB from residues 456 to 807 restored fusion function of EBV gB with Rh gH/gL, suggesting this region of gB is important for interaction with gH/gL. Split YFP bimolecular complementation (BiFC) provided evidence of an interaction between EBV gB and gH/gL. Together, our results suggest the importance of a gB-gH/gL interaction in EBV-mediated fusion with B cells requiring the region of EBV gB from 456 to 807.

  1. Screening for PTLD in lung and heart-lung transplant recipients by measuring EBV DNA load in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid using real time PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michelson, Peter; Watkins, Bradley; Webber, Steven A; Wadowsky, Robert; Michaels, Marian G

    2008-06-01

    Pediatric L-HLTx recipients are at risk for developing PTLD with the lung being a primary site of disease. We hypothesized that BALF is a better sample than peripheral blood for measuring EBV DNA load in this high-risk population. Archived BALF specimens from pediatric L-HLTx recipients with and without PTLD were assayed for EBV DNA load using a quantitative real time TaqMan PCR assay. These values were compared with values determined in peripheral blood by a competitive PCR assay. Fifty-five BALF specimens from 16 L-HLTx patients were evaluated. Three patients with PTLD had mean BALF EBV DNA load values almost 50-fold higher than subjects without PTLD (4.6 x 10(5) copies/mL vs. 1.0 x 10(4) copies/mL). Patients who were EBV seronegative pretransplantation (i.e., high risk for PTLD) had elevated EBV DNA load values vs. patients who were EBV seropositive pretransplantation, regardless of the diagnosis of PTLD (mean values of 3.2 x 10(5) copies/mL vs. 1.1 x 10(4) copies/mL). Lastly, BALF analysis identified all subjects with PTLD, whereas peripheral blood analysis identified only one of these cases. Therefore, it can be concluded that monitoring EBV DNA load in BALF following L-HLTx facilitates detection of PTLD in high-risk patients and may be superior to peripheral blood assays.

  2. Boron neutron capture synovectomy (BNCS) as a potential therapy for rheumatoid arthritis: radiobiological studies at RA-1 Nuclear Reactor in a model of antigen-induced arthritis in rabbits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trivillin, Veronica A.; Schwint, Amanda E. [Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica (CNEA), Department of Radiobiology, San Martin, Provincia Buenos Aires (Argentina); Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Cientificas y Tecnicas (CONICET), Ciudad Autonoma de Buenos Aires (Argentina); Bruno, Leandro J.; Gatti, David A. [Universidad Nacional de Rosario, LABOATEM (Laboratorio de Biologia Osteoarticular, Ingenieria Tisular y Terapias Emergentes), Facultad de Ciencias Medicas, Rosario (Argentina); Stur, Mariela [Universidad Nacional de Rosario, Catedra de Diagnostico por Imagenes, Facultad de Ciencias Medicas, Rosario (Argentina); Garabalino, Marcela A.; Hughes, Andrea Monti [Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica (CNEA), Department of Radiobiology, San Martin, Provincia Buenos Aires (Argentina); Castillo, Jorge; Wentzeis, Luis; Scolari, Hugo [Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica (CNEA), Department of Reactors, San Martin, Provincia Buenos Aires (Argentina); Pozzi, Emiliano C.C. [Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica (CNEA), Department of Research and Production Reactors, Ezeiza, Province Buenos Aires (Argentina); Feldman, Sara [Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Cientificas y Tecnicas (CONICET), Ciudad Autonoma de Buenos Aires (Argentina); Universidad Nacional de Rosario, LABOATEM (Laboratorio de Biologia Osteoarticular, Ingenieria Tisular y Terapias Emergentes), Facultad de Ciencias Medicas, Rosario (Argentina)

    2016-11-15

    Rheumatoid arthritis is a chronic autoimmune pathology characterized by the proliferation and inflammation of the synovium. Boron neutron capture synovectomy (BNCS), a binary treatment modality that combines the preferential incorporation of boron carriers to target tissue and neutron irradiation, was proposed to treat the pathological synovium in arthritis. In a previous biodistribution study, we showed the incorporation of therapeutically useful boron concentrations to the pathological synovium in a model of antigen-induced arthritis (AIA) in rabbits, employing two boron compounds approved for their use in humans, i.e., decahydrodecaborate (GB-10) and boronophenylalanine (BPA). The aim of the present study was to perform low-dose BNCS studies at the RA-1 Nuclear Reactor in the same model. Neutron irradiation was performed post intra-articular administration of BPA or GB-10 to deliver 2.4 or 3.9 Gy, respectively, to synovium (BNCS-AIA). AIA and healthy animals (no AIA) were used as controls. The animals were followed clinically for 2 months. At that time, biochemical, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and histological studies were performed. BNCS-AIA animals did not show any toxic effects, swelling or pain on palpation. In BNCS-AIA, the post-treatment levels of TNF-α decreased in four of six rabbits and IFN-γ levels decreased in five of six rabbits. In all cases, MRI images of the knee joint in BNCS-AIA resembled those of no AIA, with no necrosis or periarticular effusion. Synovial membranes of BNCS-AIA were histologically similar to no AIA. BPA-BNCS and GB-10-BNCS, even at low doses, would be therapeutically useful for the local treatment of rheumatoid arthritis. (orig.)

  3. Boron neutron capture synovectomy (BNCS) as a potential therapy for rheumatoid arthritis: radiobiological studies at RA-1 Nuclear Reactor in a model of antigen-induced arthritis in rabbits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trivillin, Veronica A.; Schwint, Amanda E.; Bruno, Leandro J.; Gatti, David A.; Stur, Mariela; Garabalino, Marcela A.; Hughes, Andrea Monti; Castillo, Jorge; Wentzeis, Luis; Scolari, Hugo; Pozzi, Emiliano C.C.; Feldman, Sara

    2016-01-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis is a chronic autoimmune pathology characterized by the proliferation and inflammation of the synovium. Boron neutron capture synovectomy (BNCS), a binary treatment modality that combines the preferential incorporation of boron carriers to target tissue and neutron irradiation, was proposed to treat the pathological synovium in arthritis. In a previous biodistribution study, we showed the incorporation of therapeutically useful boron concentrations to the pathological synovium in a model of antigen-induced arthritis (AIA) in rabbits, employing two boron compounds approved for their use in humans, i.e., decahydrodecaborate (GB-10) and boronophenylalanine (BPA). The aim of the present study was to perform low-dose BNCS studies at the RA-1 Nuclear Reactor in the same model. Neutron irradiation was performed post intra-articular administration of BPA or GB-10 to deliver 2.4 or 3.9 Gy, respectively, to synovium (BNCS-AIA). AIA and healthy animals (no AIA) were used as controls. The animals were followed clinically for 2 months. At that time, biochemical, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and histological studies were performed. BNCS-AIA animals did not show any toxic effects, swelling or pain on palpation. In BNCS-AIA, the post-treatment levels of TNF-α decreased in four of six rabbits and IFN-γ levels decreased in five of six rabbits. In all cases, MRI images of the knee joint in BNCS-AIA resembled those of no AIA, with no necrosis or periarticular effusion. Synovial membranes of BNCS-AIA were histologically similar to no AIA. BPA-BNCS and GB-10-BNCS, even at low doses, would be therapeutically useful for the local treatment of rheumatoid arthritis. (orig.)

  4. Fusion of Epstein-Barr virus nuclear antigen-1-derived glycine-alanine repeat to trans-dominant HIV-1 Gag increases inhibitory activities and survival of transduced cells in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammer, Diana; Wild, Jens; Ludwig, Christine; Asbach, Benedikt; Notka, Frank; Wagner, Ralf

    2008-06-01

    Trans-dominant human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) Gag derivatives have been shown to efficiently inhibit late steps of HIV-1 replication in vitro by interfering with Gag precursor assembly, thus ranking among the interesting candidates for gene therapy approaches. However, efficient antiviral activities of corresponding transgenes are likely to be counteracted in particular by cell-mediated host immune responses toward the transgene-expressing cells. To decrease this potential immunogenicity, a 24-amino acid Gly-Ala (GA) stretch derived from Epstein-Barr virus nuclear antigen-1 (EBNA1) and known to overcome proteasomal degradation was fused to a trans-dominant Gag variant (sgD1). To determine the capacity of this fusion polypeptide to repress viral replication, PM-1 cells were transduced with sgD1 and GAsgD1 transgenes, using retroviral gene transfer. Challenge of stably transfected permissive cell lines with various viral strains indicated that N-terminal GA fusion even enhanced the inhibitory properties of sgD1. Further studies revealed that the GA stretch increased protein stability by blocking proteasomal degradation of Gag proteins. Immunization of BALB/c mice with a DNA vaccine vector expressing sgD1 induced substantial Gag-specific immune responses that were, however, clearly diminished in the presence of GA. Furthermore, recognition of cells expressing the GA-fused transgene by CD8(+) T cells was drastically reduced, both in vitro and in vivo, resulting in prolonged survival of the transduced cells in recipient mice.

  5. DNA Damage Signaling Is Induced in the Absence of Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV) Lytic DNA Replication and in Response to Expression of ZEBRA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang'ondu, Ruth; Teal, Stuart; Park, Richard; Heston, Lee; Delecluse, Henri; Miller, George

    2015-01-01

    Epstein Barr virus (EBV), like other oncogenic viruses, modulates the activity of cellular DNA damage responses (DDR) during its life cycle. Our aim was to characterize the role of early lytic proteins and viral lytic DNA replication in activation of DNA damage signaling during the EBV lytic cycle. Our data challenge the prevalent hypothesis that activation of DDR pathways during the EBV lytic cycle occurs solely in response to large amounts of exogenous double stranded DNA products generated during lytic viral DNA replication. In immunofluorescence or immunoblot assays, DDR activation markers, specifically phosphorylated ATM (pATM), H2AX (γH2AX), or 53BP1 (p53BP1), were induced in the presence or absence of viral DNA amplification or replication compartments during the EBV lytic cycle. In assays with an ATM inhibitor and DNA damaging reagents in Burkitt lymphoma cell lines, γH2AX induction was necessary for optimal expression of early EBV genes, but not sufficient for lytic reactivation. Studies in lytically reactivated EBV-positive cells in which early EBV proteins, BGLF4, BGLF5, or BALF2, were not expressed showed that these proteins were not necessary for DDR activation during the EBV lytic cycle. Expression of ZEBRA, a viral protein that is necessary for EBV entry into the lytic phase, induced pATM foci and γH2AX independent of other EBV gene products. ZEBRA mutants deficient in DNA binding, Z(R183E) and Z(S186E), did not induce foci of pATM. ZEBRA co-localized with HP1β, a heterochromatin associated protein involved in DNA damage signaling. We propose a model of DDR activation during the EBV lytic cycle in which ZEBRA induces ATM kinase phosphorylation, in a DNA binding dependent manner, to modulate gene expression. ATM and H2AX phosphorylation induced prior to EBV replication may be critical for creating a microenvironment of viral and cellular gene expression that enables lytic cycle progression.

  6. Identification of potential hot spots in the carboxy-terminal part of the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) BNLF-1 gene in both malignant and benign EBV-associated diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandvej, K; Peh, S C; Andresen, B S

    1994-01-01

    mononucleosis (IM). Our study showed that some of the 7 single-base mutations and the 30-bp deletion previously detected between codons of amino acid 322 and 366 in the BNLF-1 gene of the nasopharyngeal carcinoma cell line CAO were present in all Malaysian PTLs and in 60% of the Danish PTLs. In HD and the IM......In this study, we have sequenced the C-terminal part of the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-BNLF-1 gene encoding for the latent membrane protein-1 from tissues of EBV-positive Danish Hodgkin's disease (HD) and of Danish and Malaysian peripheral T-cell lymphomas (PTLs) and from tonsils of Danish infectious...

  7. Antigen smuggling in tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudrisier, Denis; Neyrolles, Olivier

    2014-06-11

    The importance of CD4 T lymphocytes in immunity to M. tuberculosis is well established; however, how dendritic cells activate T cells in vivo remains obscure. In this issue of Cell Host & Microbe, Srivastava and Ernst (2014) report a mechanism of antigen transfer for efficient activation of antimycobacterial T cells. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Antigen detection systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Infectious agents or their constituent parts (antigens or nucleic acids) can be detected in fresh, frozen, or fixed tissues or other specimens, using a variety of direct or indirect assays. The assays can be modified to yield the greatest sensitivity and specificity but in most cases a particular m...

  9. Isocyanate test antigens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karol, M.H.; Alarie, Y.C.

    1980-01-01

    A test antigen for detecting antibodies to a diisocyanate comprises the reaction product of a protein and a monoisocyanate derived from the same radical as the diisocyanate. The diisocyanates most usually encountered and therefore calling for antibody detection are those of toluene, hexamethylene, methylene, isophorone and naphthylene. The preferred protein is human serum albumin. (author)

  10. β-endorphin antigen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    This invention relates to the production of antigens comprising β-endorphin, βsub(h)-endorphin, or βsub(c)-endorphin, in covalent conjugation with human gammaglobulin as immunogenic carrier material, and an antibody having the property of specifically binding β-endorphin or fragments thereof, containing the (6-15) residue sequence. (U.K.)

  11. Tanzanian malignant lymphomas: WHO classification, presentation, ploidy, proliferation and HIV/EBV association

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Background In Tanzania, the International Working Formulation [WF] rather than the WHO Classification is still being used in diagnosing malignant lymphomas (ML) and the biological characterization including the HIV/EBV association is sketchy, thus restraining comparison, prognostication and application of established therapeutic protocols. Methods Archival, diagnostic ML biopsies (N = 336), available sera (N = 35) screened by ELISA for HIV antibodies and corresponding clinical/histological reports at Muhimbili National Hospital (MNH) in Tanzania between 1996 and 2006 were retrieved and evaluated. A fraction (N = 174) were analyzed by histopathology and immunohistochemistry (IHC). Selected biopsies were characterized by flow-cytometry (FC) for DNA ploidy (N = 60) and some by in-situ hybridization (ISH) for EBV-encoded RNA (EBER, N = 37). Results A third (38.8%, 109/281) of the ML patients with available clinical information had extranodal disease presentation. A total of 158 out of 174 biopsies selected for immunophenotyping were confirmed to be ML which were mostly (84. 8%, 134/158) non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL). Most (83.6%, 112/134) of NHL were B-cell lymphomas (BCL) (CD20+), of which 50.9%, (57/112) were diffuse large B-cell (DLBCL). Out of the 158 confirmed MLs, 22 (13.9%) were T-cell [CD3+] lymphomas (TCL) and 24 (15.2%) were Hodgkin lymphomas (HL) [CD30+]. Furthermore, out of the 60 FC analyzed ML cases, 27 (M:F ratio 2:1) were DLBCL, a slight majority (55.6%, 15/27) with activated B-cell like (ABC) and 45% (12/27) with germinal center B-cell like (GCB) immunophenotype. Overall, 40% (24/60) ML were aneuploid mostly (63.0%, 17/27) the DLBCL and TCL (54.5%, 6/11). DNA index (DI) of FC-analyzed ML ranged from 1.103-2.407 (median = 1.51) and most (75.0%) aneuploid cases showed high (>40%) cell proliferation by Ki-67 reactivity. The majority (51.4%, 19/37) of EBER ISH analyzed lymphoma biopsies were positive. Of the serologically tested MLs, 40.0% (14/35) were HIV

  12. A importância da contra-imunoeletroforese na detecção de antígenos nucleares extraíveis para o diagnóstico de doenças reumáticas sistêmicas The importance of counterimmunoelectrophoresis in the detection of extractable nuclear antigens for the diagnosis of systemic rheumatic diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita de Cassia Siqueira Bruder

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available Os antígenos nucleares extraíveis (ENAs são encontrados no soro da maioria dos pacientes com doença reumática sistêmica. Os principais ENAs estudados são SS-A/Ro, SS-B/La, RNP, Sm, Scl-70 e Jo-1. Objeti-vou-se neste trabalho: a padronizar a técnica de contra-imunoeletroforese (CIE para a detecção de ENAs; b padronizar o substrato antigênico (ENAs para a CIE a partir de baço de cão; c comparar os resultados da CIE com as técnicas de imunofluorescência indireta (IFI e Elisa para esses antígenos. Para tal foram estudados 40 soros de pacientes com doença reumática sistêmica confirmada por exames clínico e laboratorial (sorológico e biópsia. Como controle negativo foram utilizados dez soros de doadores de sangue normais, e, como controles positivos, seis soros-padrão anti-Ro, anti-La, anti-RNP, anti-Sm, anti-Scl-70, anti-Jo-1, para caracterizar os antígenos presentes no extrato de baço. Neste último foram detectados vários ENAs, exceto RNP e Scl-70. A técnica de CIE apresentou boas sensibilidade (70% e especificidade (100% em relação às outras técnicas (IFI e Elisa. A titulação dos soros pela CIE revelou positividade até diluições de 1:16 em 32,5% dos casos. Concluímos que a CIE e os antígenos extraídos de baço de cão podem ser utilizados na rotina laboratorial para triagem destes ENAs, com a vantagem, em relação à IFI, de poderem ser titulados.Extractable nuclear antigens (ENAs are detected in the sera of the majority of patients with rheumatic systemic disease. The main ENAs studied are SS-A/Ro, SS-B/La, RNP, Sm, Scl-70 and Jo-1. The aim of this work was: a to standardize the counterimmunoelectrophoresis technique (CIE to detect ENAs; b to standardize the extration of ENAs from dog spleen as a substract for CIE test; c to compare the results obtained by CIE with those of indirect immunofluorescence (IFI and Elisa for these antigens. Forty sera from individuals with rheumatic systemic disease confirmed by

  13. EBV latent membrane protein 1 abundance correlates with patient age but not with metastatic behavior in north African nasopharyngeal carcinomas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boudawara Tahia

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Undifferentiated nasopharyngeal carcinomas are rare in a majority of countries but they occur at a high incidence in South China and to a lesser extent in North Africa. They are constantly associated with the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV regardless of patient geographic origin. In North Africa, the distribution of NPC cases according to patient age is bi-modal with a large group of patients being around 50 years old (80% and a smaller group below 25 years old. We and others have previously shown that the juvenile form of NPC has distinct biological characteristics including a low amount of p53 and Bcl2 in the tumor tissue and a low level of anti-EBV IgG and IgA in the peripheral blood. Results To get more insight on potential oncogenic mechanisms specific of these two forms, LMP1 abundance was assessed in 82 NPC patients of both groups, using immuno-histochemistry and semi-quantitative evaluation of tissue staining. Serum levels of anti-EBV antibodies were simultaneously assessed. For LMP1 staining, we used the S12 antibody which has proven to be more sensitive than the common anti-LMP1 CS1-4 for analysis of tissue sections. In all NPC biopsies, at least a small fraction of cells was positively stained by S12. LMP1 abundance was strongly correlated to patient age, with higher amounts of the viral protein detected in specimens of the juvenile form. In contrast, LMP1 abundance was not correlated to the presence of lymph node or visceral metastases, nor to the risk of metastatic recurrence. It was also independent of the level of circulating anti-EBV antibodies. Conclusion The high amount of LMP1 recorded in tumors from young patients confirms that the juvenile form of NPC has specific features regarding not only cellular but also viral gene expression.

  14. Changes in Tonsil B Cell Phenotypes and EBV Receptor Expression in Children Under 5-Years-Old.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wohlford, Eric M; Baresel, Paul C; Wilmore, Joel R; Mortelliti, Anthony J; Coleman, Carrie B; Rochford, Rosemary

    2018-03-01

    Palatine tonsils are principally B cell organs that are the initial line of defense against many oral pathogens, as well as the site of infection for others. While the size of palatine tonsils changes greatly in the first five years of life, the cellular changes during this period are not well studied. Epstein Barr virus (EBV) is a common orally transmitted virus that infects tonsillar B cells. Naïve B cells are thought to be the target of primary infection with EBV in vivo, suggesting that they are targeted by the virus. EBV enters B cells through CD21, but studies of older children and adults have not shown differences in surface CD21 between naïve B cells and other tonsil B cell populations. In this study, we used an 11-color flow cytometry panel to detail the changes in B cell subpopulations in human tonsils over the first five years of life from 33 healthy US children. We provide reference ranges for tonsil B cell subpopulations over this age range. We show that the frequency of naïve tonsil B cells decreases over the early years of life, and that naïve B cells expressed higher surface levels of CD21 relative to other tonsil B cell populations. We show that young children have a higher frequency of naïve tonsil B cells, and importantly that these cells express increased surface EBV receptor, suggesting that young children have a larger pool of cells that can be infected by the virus. © 2017 International Clinical Cytometry Society. © 2017 International Clinical Cytometry Society.

  15. Human pathogenic Mycoplasma species induced cytokine gene expression in Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-positive lymphoblastoid cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schäffner, E; Opitz, O; Pietsch, K; Bauer, G; Ehlers, S; Jacobs, E

    1998-04-01

    We addressed the question whether the in vitro interaction of two Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-genome-positive B cell lines (EB-3 and HilB-gamma) with either Mycoplasma pneumoniae or M. hominis, with the mycoplasma species (M. fermentans, M. fermentans subsp. incognitus, M. penetrans, M. genitalium) or with mycoplasma species known to be mere commensals of the respiratory tract (M. orale and M. salivarium) would result in expression of mRNAs for IL-2, IL-2R, IL-4 and IL-6 as determined by reverse transcriptase (RT)-PCR after 4 and 24 h of cocultivation. The pattern of cytokine gene expression observed depended on (i) the origin of the transformed cell line, (ii) the pathogenicity of the Mycoplasma species, and (iii) the length of cocultivation. The EBV-immortalized lymphoblastoid cell line HilB-gamma showed mRNA expression for IL-2, IL-2-receptor, IL-4 and IL-6 peaking 24 h after stimulation with M. pneumoniae and all AIDS-related mycoplasma species tested. The Burkitt lymphoma cell line EB-3 showed a distinct and isolated strong II-2/IL-2 R-mRNA expression within 4 h after contact with the pathogenic and all of the AIDS related mycoplasma species. In neither EBV-containing cell line cytokine was gene expression detectable after stimulation with the commensal mycoplasma species, M. orale and M. salivarium, indicating species differences in the ability of mycoplasmas to interact with and stimulate B-cell lines. Our data suggest that some mcyoplasma species may act as immunomodulatory cofactors by eliciting inappropriate cytokine gene expression in B cells latently infected with EBV. Therefore, this cultivation model may prove useful in evaluating the pathogenetic potential of novel isolated mycoplasma species. Copyright 1998 Academic Press Limited.

  16. Influence of Maximum Inbreeding Avoidance under BLUP EBV Selection on Pinzgau Population Diversity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radovan Kasarda

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Evaluated was effect of mating (random vs. maximum avoidance of inbreeding under BLUP EBV selection strategy. Existing population structure was under Monte Carlo stochastic simulation analyzed from the point to minimize increase of inbreeding. Maximum avoidance of inbreeding under BLUP selection resulted into comparable increase of inbreeding then random mating in average of 10 generation development. After 10 generations of simulation of mating strategy was observed ΔF= 6,51 % (2 sires, 5,20 % (3 sires, 3,22 % (4 sires resp. 2,94 % (5 sires. With increased number of sires selected, decrease of inbreeding was observed. With use of 4, resp. 5 sires increase of inbreeding was comparable to random mating with phenotypic selection. For saving of genetic diversity and prevention of population loss is important to minimize increase of inbreeding in small populations. Classical approach was based on balancing ratio of sires and dams in mating program. Contrariwise in the most of commercial populations small number of sires was used with high mating ratio.

  17. Lack of evidence for an association of Epstein–Barr virus infection with breast carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herrmann, Kathrin; Niedobitek, Gerald

    2003-01-01

    Epstein–Barr virus (EBV) is a ubiquitous human γ-herpes virus infecting more than 90% of the population worldwide. EBV is associated with certain malignancies (e.g. Burkitt lymphoma, Hodgkin lymphoma and nasopharyngeal carcinoma). Recent studies have raised the possibility that EBV may also be involved in the pathogenesis of breast carcinoma, the most common carcinoma of females. If substantiated, this finding would have major implications regarding prevention and therapy of the disease. The studies published so far have employed diverse methods, however, and the results have been controversial. Using the EBV DNA PCR, EBV DNA in situ hybridisation and in situ hybridisation for the detection of the EBV-encoded RNAs, and using immunohistochemistry for the demonstration of the EBV-encoded nuclear antigen 1, we have studied a series of 59 invasive breast carcinomas for evidence of EBV infection. EBV-encoded RNA-specific in situ hybridisation and EBV-encoded nuclear antigen 1 immunohistochemistry were negative in all cases. Using the PCR, EBV DNA was detected in four out of 59 cases. These cases were further studied by EBV DNA in situ hybridisation, showing an absence of viral DNA from the tumour cells. These results indicate that breast carcinoma is not an EBV-associated tumour

  18. Nuclear

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2000-01-01

    The first text deals with a new circular concerning the collect of the medicine radioactive wastes, containing radium. This campaign wants to incite people to let go their radioactive wastes (needles, tubes) in order to suppress any danger. The second text presents a decree of the 31 december 1999, relative to the limitations of noise and external risks resulting from the nuclear facilities exploitation: noise, atmospheric pollution, water pollution, wastes management and fire prevention. (A.L.B.)

  19. Comparative method of protein expression and isolation of EBV epitope in E.coli DH5α

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anyndita, Nadya V. M.; Dluha, Nurul; Himmah, Karimatul; Rifa'i, Muhaimin; Widodo

    2017-11-01

    Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV) or human herpes virus 4 (HHV-4) is a virus that infects human B cell and leads to nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). The prevention of this disease remains unsuccessful since the vaccine has not been discovered. The objective of this study is to over-produce EBV gp350/220 epitope using several methods in E.coli DH5α. EBV epitope sequences were inserted into pMAL-p5x vector, then transformed into DH5α E.coli and over-produced using 0.3, 1 and 2 mM IPTG. Plasmid transformation was validated using AflIII restriction enzyme in 0.8% agarose. Periplasmic protein was isolated using 2 comparative methods and then analyzed using SDS-PAGE. Method A produced a protein band around 50 kDa and appeared only at transformant. Method B failed to isolate the protein, indicated by no protein band appearing. In addition, any variations in IPTG concentration didn't give a different result. Thus it can be concluded that even the lowest IPTG concentration is able to induce protein expression.

  20. Anti-MOG antibody-positive ADEM following infectious mononucleosis due to a primary EBV infection: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Yoshitsugu; Nakajima, Hideto; Tani, Hiroki; Hosokawa, Takafumi; Ishida, Shimon; Kimura, Fumiharu; Kaneko, Kimihiko; Takahashi, Toshiyuki; Nakashima, Ichiro

    2017-04-19

    Anti-Myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG) antibodies are detected in various demyelinating diseases, such as pediatric acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM), recurrent optic neuritis, and aquaporin-4 antibody-seronegative neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder. We present a patient who developed anti-MOG antibody-positive ADEM following infectious mononucleosis (IM) due to Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection. A 36-year-old healthy man developed paresthesia of bilateral lower extremities and urinary retention 8 days after the onset of IM due to primary EBV infection. The MRI revealed the lesions in the cervical spinal cord, the conus medullaris, and the internal capsule. An examination of the cerebrospinal fluid revealed pleocytosis. Cell-based immunoassays revealed positivity for anti-MOG antibody with a titer of 1:1024 and negativity for anti-aquaporin-4 antibody. His symptoms quickly improved after steroid pulse therapy followed by oral betamethasone. Anti-MOG antibody titer at the 6-month follow-up was negative. This case suggests that primary EBV infection would trigger anti-MOG antibody-positive ADEM. Adult ADEM patients can be positive for anti-MOG antibody, the titers of which correlate well with the neurological symptoms.

  1. Characterization of EBV gB indicates properties of both class I and class II viral fusion proteins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Backovic, Marija; Leser, George P.; Lamb, Robert A.; Longnecker, Richard; Jardetzky, Theodore S.

    2007-01-01

    To gain insight into Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) glycoprotein B (gB), recombinant, secreted variants were generated. The role of putative transmembrane regions, the proteolytic processing and the oligomerization state of the gB variants were investigated. Constructs containing 2 of 3 C-terminal hydrophobic regions were secreted, indicating that these do not act as transmembrane anchors. The efficiency of cleavage of the gB furin site was found to depend on the nature of C-terminus. All of the gB constructs formed rosette structures reminiscent of the postfusion aggregates formed by other viral fusion proteins. However, substitution of putative fusion loop residues, WY 112-113 and WLIY 193-196 , with less hydrophobic amino acids from HSV-1 gB, produced trimeric protein and abrogated the ability of the EBV gB ectodomains to form rosettes. These data demonstrate biochemical features of EBV gB that are characteristic of other class I and class II viral fusion proteins, but not of HSV-1 gB

  2. Measurement of CD8+ and CD4+ T Cell Frequencies Specific for EBV LMP1 and LMP2a Using mRNA-Transfected DCs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dae-Hee Sohn

    Full Text Available An EBV-specific cellular immune response is associated with the control of EBV-associated malignancies and lymphoproliferative diseases, some of which have been successfully treated by adoptive T cell therapy. Therefore, many methods have been used to measure EBV-specific cellular immune responses. Previous studies have mainly used autologous EBV-transformed B-lymphoblastoid cell lines (B-LCLs, recombinant viral vectors transfected or peptide pulsed dendritic cells (DCs as stimulators of CD8(+ and CD4(+ T lymphocytes. In the present study, we used an interferon-γ (IFN-γ enzyme-linked immunospot (ELISPOT assay by using isolated CD8(+ and CD4(+ T cells stimulated with mRNA-transfected DCs. The frequency of latent membrane protein 1 (LMP1-specific IFN-γ producing CD4(+ T cells was significantly higher than that of LMP2a. The frequency of IFN-γ producing CD4(+ T cells was significantly correlated with that of CD8(+ T cells in LMP1-specific immune responses (r = 0.7187, Pc < 0.0001. To determine whether there were changes in LMP1- or LMP2a-specific immune responses, subsequent peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs samples were analyzed. Significant changes were observed in 5 of the 10 donors examined, and CD4(+ T cell responses showed more significant changes than CD8(+ T cell responses. CD8(+ and CD4(+ T cells from EBV-seropositive donors secreted only the Th1 cytokines IFN-γ, TNF-α, and IL-2, while Th2 (IL-4 and Th17 (IL-17a cytokines were not detected. CD4(+ T cells secreted significantly higher cytokine levels than did CD8(+ T cells. Analysis of EBV-specific T cell responses using autologous DCs transfected with mRNA might provide a comprehensive tool for monitoring EBV infection and new insights into the pathogenesis of EBV-associated diseases.

  3. Targeting the Ca2+ Sensor STIM1 by Exosomal Transfer of Ebv-miR-BART13-3p is Associated with Sjögren's Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessia Gallo

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Primary Sjögren's syndrome (pSS is a systemic autoimmune disease that is associated with inflammation and dysfunction of salivary and lacrimal glands. The molecular mechanism(s underlying this exocrinopathy is not known, although the syndrome has been associated with viruses, such as the Epstein Barr Virus (EBV. We report herein that an EBV-specific microRNA (ebv-miR-BART13-3p is significantly elevated in salivary glands (SGs of pSS patients and we show that it targets stromal interacting molecule 1 (STIM1, a primary regulator of the store-operated Ca2+ entry (SOCE pathway that is essential for SG function, leading to loss of SOCE and Ca2+-dependent activation of NFAT. Although EBV typically infects B cells and not salivary epithelial cells, ebv-miR-BART13-3p is present in both cell types in pSS SGs. Importantly, we further demonstrate that ebv-miR-BART13-3p can be transferred from B cells to salivary epithelial cells through exosomes and it recapitulates its functional effects on calcium signaling in a model system.

  4. An Epstein-Barr virus encoded inhibitor of Colony Stimulating Factor-1 signaling is an important determinant for acute and persistent EBV infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Makoto Ohashi

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Acute Epstein-Barr virus (EBV infection is the most common cause of Infectious Mononucleosis. Nearly all adult humans harbor life-long, persistent EBV infection which can lead to development of cancers including Hodgkin Lymphoma, Burkitt Lymphoma, nasopharyngeal carcinoma, gastric carcinoma, and lymphomas in immunosuppressed patients. BARF1 is an EBV replication-associated, secreted protein that blocks Colony Stimulating Factor 1 (CSF-1 signaling, an innate immunity pathway not targeted by any other virus species. To evaluate effects of BARF1 in acute and persistent infection, we mutated the BARF1 homologue in the EBV-related herpesvirus, or lymphocryptovirus (LCV, naturally infecting rhesus macaques to create a recombinant rhLCV incapable of blocking CSF-1 (ΔrhBARF1. Rhesus macaques orally challenged with ΔrhBARF1 had decreased viral load indicating that CSF-1 is important for acute virus infection. Surprisingly, ΔrhBARF1 was also associated with dramatically lower virus setpoints during persistent infection. Normal acute viral load and normal viral setpoints during persistent rhLCV infection could be restored by Simian/Human Immunodeficiency Virus-induced immunosuppression prior to oral inoculation with ΔrhBARF1 or infection of immunocompetent animals with a recombinant rhLCV where the rhBARF1 was repaired. These results indicate that BARF1 blockade of CSF-1 signaling is an important immune evasion strategy for efficient acute EBV infection and a significant determinant for virus setpoint during persistent EBV infection.

  5. Detection and quantification of Epstein-Barr virus EBER1 in EBV-infected cells by fluorescent in situ hybridization and flow cytometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stowe, R. P.; Cubbage, M. L.; Sams, C. F.; Pierson, D. L.; Barrett, A. D.

    1998-01-01

    A rapid and highly sensitive fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) assay was developed to detect Epstein Barr virus (EBV)-infected cells in peripheral blood. Multiple fluorescein-labeled antisense oligonucleotide probes were designed to hybridize to the EBER1 transcript, which is highly expressed in latently infected cells. After a rapid (30 min) hybridization, the cells were analyzed by flow cytometry. EBER1 was detected in several positive control cell lines that have variable numbers of EBV genome copies. No EBER1 was detected in two known EBV-negative cell lines. Northern blot analyses confirmed the presence and quantity of EBER1 transcripts in each cell line. This method was used to quantify the number of EBV-infected cells in peripheral blood from a patient with chronic mononucleosis. These results indicate that EBV-infected cells can be detected at the single cell level, and that this assay can be used to quantify the number of EBV-infected cells in clinical samples.

  6. Deteksi Antigen pada Kriptokokosis

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    Robiatul Adawiyah

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available AbstrakKriptokokosis merupakan infeksi sistemik yang disebabkan Cryptococcus sp. Predileksi jamur tersebut adalah susunan saraf pusat dan selaput otak. Terdapat 5 spesies Cryptococcus sp. yang menyebabkan penyakit pada manusia; yang paling banyak adalah Cr. neoformans dan Cr. gattii. Diagnosis kriptokokosis ditegakkan berdasarkan gejala klinis, pemeriksaan laboratoris serta radiologis. Pemeriksaan laboratoris dilakukan dengan identifikasi morfologi, serologi danPCR. Pemeriksaan secara morfologi dengan tinta India positif  bila jumlah sel jamur 10  sel/ml spesimen. Kultur dilakukan di media sabouraud dextrose agar (SDA dan niger sheed agar (NSA, jamur tumbuh setelah 5-7 hari. Deteksi antigen dan antibodi dilakukan pada cairan tubuh dan tidak membutuhkan waktu lama. Deteksi antibodi Cr.neoformans memiliki kelemahan yaitu tidak menunjukkan hasil positif pada infeksi akut, IgA masih positif setelah 1-2 tahun fase penyembuhan, IgG dapat persisten, pada individu imunokompromis menunjukkan hasil yang sangat kompleks dan dalam menentukan diagnosis sering tidak konsisten. Polisakarida adalah komponen paling berperan dalam virulensi Cr. neoformans. Komponen polisakarida terutama glucuronoxylomannan merupakan petanda penting dalam diagnosis kriptokokosis secara serologis. Deteksi antigen Cr. neoformans memiliki kelebihan yaitu menunjukkan hasil positif pada infeksi akut/kronis, sensitivitas dan spesifisitas tinggi, dapat mendeteksi polisakarida hingga 10 ng/ml sehingga dengan kadarantigen yang minimal tetap dapat mendiagnosis kriptokokosis.Kata kunci: Cr. neoformans, glucuronoxylomannan, antigenAbstractCryptococcosis is systemic infection that caused by Cryptococcus sp. Predilection of this fungi is the central nervous system and brain membrane. There are 5 species of Cryptococcus sp. that cause cryptococcosis in human; but the majority are caused by Cr. neoformans and Cr. gattii. The diagnosis of cryptococcosis is made based on clinical symptoms

  7. Tanzanian malignant lymphomas: WHO classification, presentation, ploidy, proliferation and HIV/EBV association

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    Castro Juan

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In Tanzania, the International Working Formulation [WF] rather than the WHO Classification is still being used in diagnosing malignant lymphomas (ML and the biological characterization including the HIV/EBV association is sketchy, thus restraining comparison, prognostication and application of established therapeutic protocols. Methods Archival, diagnostic ML biopsies (N = 336, available sera (N = 35 screened by ELISA for HIV antibodies and corresponding clinical/histological reports at Muhimbili National Hospital (MNH in Tanzania between 1996 and 2006 were retrieved and evaluated. A fraction (N = 174 were analyzed by histopathology and immunohistochemistry (IHC. Selected biopsies were characterized by flow-cytometry (FC for DNA ploidy (N = 60 and some by in-situ hybridization (ISH for EBV-encoded RNA (EBER, N = 37. Results A third (38.8%, 109/281 of the ML patients with available clinical information had extranodal disease presentation. A total of 158 out of 174 biopsies selected for immunophenotyping were confirmed to be ML which were mostly (84. 8%, 134/158 non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL. Most (83.6%, 112/134 of NHL were B-cell lymphomas (BCL (CD20+, of which 50.9%, (57/112 were diffuse large B-cell (DLBCL. Out of the 158 confirmed MLs, 22 (13.9% were T-cell [CD3+] lymphomas (TCL and 24 (15.2% were Hodgkin lymphomas (HL [CD30+]. Furthermore, out of the 60 FC analyzed ML cases, 27 (M:F ratio 2:1 were DLBCL, a slight majority (55.6%, 15/27 with activated B-cell like (ABC and 45% (12/27 with germinal center B-cell like (GCB immunophenotype. Overall, 40% (24/60 ML were aneuploid mostly (63.0%, 17/27 the DLBCL and TCL (54.5%, 6/11. DNA index (DI of FC-analyzed ML ranged from 1.103-2.407 (median = 1.51 and most (75.0% aneuploid cases showed high (>40% cell proliferation by Ki-67 reactivity. The majority (51.4%, 19/37 of EBER ISH analyzed lymphoma biopsies were positive. Of the serologically tested MLs, 40.0% (14/35 were HIV positive

  8. Role of plasma EBV DNA levels in predicting recurrence of nasopharyngeal carcinoma in a western population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferrari, Daris; Alterio, Daniela; Foa, Paolo; Codecà, Carla; Bertuzzi, Cecilia; Broggio, Francesca; Crepaldi, Francesca; Luciani, Andrea; Floriani, Irene; Ansarin, Mohssen; Chiesa, Fausto

    2012-01-01

    Loco-regionally advanced nasopharyngeal carcinomas can be cured by the combination of chemotherapy and radiotherapy. In Eastern countries, plasma levels of viral Epstein-Barr deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) are accurate in predicting recurrence, but few data are available in Western populations. The aim of this prospective study was to evaluate the relationship between viral Epstein-Barr DNA copy numbers in plasma and the response rate, progression-free survival and overall survival in a cohort of Western patients with stage IIb-IVb nasopharyngeal cancer. We evaluated plasma samples from 36 consecutive patients treated with induction chemotherapy followed by chemoradiation. EBV copy numbers were determined after DNA extraction using real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Survival curves were estimated using the Kaplan–Meier method. Circulating Epstein-Barr virus DNA levels were measured before treatment, at the end of concomitant chemo- and radiotherapy, and during the follow-up period. Pre-treatment levels significantly correlated with the initial stage and probability of relapse. Their increase was 100% specific and 71.3% sensitive in detecting loco-regional or metastatic recurrence (an overall accuracy of 94.4%). Three-year progression-free and overall survival were respectively 78.2% and 97.1%. The results of this study confirm that patients from a Western country affected by loco-regionally advanced nasopharyngeal carcinoma have high plasma Epstein-Barr virus DNA levels at diagnosis. The monitoring of plasma levels is sensitive and highly specific in detecting disease recurrence and metastases

  9. Carcino-Embryonic Antigen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akute, O.

    1999-02-01

    Tumour marker analysis has increased our understanding of the presence of tumours in the body. Carcino-embryonic antigen, CEA, is one of the best studied tumour markers and has proved an ideal diagnostic adjuvant. It has helped in quantifying the amount of disease present in a patient and thence to make accurate prognosis on the various diagnosed ailments. At UCH, it is observed that there is an increase in cancer related ailments and therefore the need for early diagnosis is more compelling in our environment to mitigate future cost of managing advanced manifestation

  10. T-cell receptor (TCR) phenotype of nodal Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-positive cytotoxic T-cell lymphoma (CTL): a clinicopathologic study of 39 cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Seiichi; Asano, Naoko; Miyata-Takata, Tomoko; Takata, Katsuyoshi; Elsayed, Ahmed Ali; Satou, Akira; Takahashi, Emiko; Kinoshita, Tomohiro; Nakamura, Shigeo

    2015-04-01

    Among Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-positive cytotoxic T/NK-cell lymphoma, there are only a few reports on the clinicopathologic features of patients with primary nodal presentation (nodal EBV cytotoxic T-cell lymphoma [CTL]). Here, we compared the clinicopathologic profiles of 39 patients with nodal EBV CTL with those of 27 cases of "extranasal" NK/T-cell lymphoma of nasal type (ENKTL), especially addressing their T-cell receptor (TCR) phenotype. Histologically, 22 of 39 nodal EBV CTL cases (56%) were unique in having centroblastoid appearance, which was contrasted with the lower incidence of this feature in ENKTL (15%, P=0.001). In contrast, pleomorphic appearance was more frequently seen in ENKTL than in nodal EBV CTL (67% vs. 23%, P=0.001). Thirty-three of 39 nodal EBV CTL cases (85%) were of T-cell lineage on the basis of TCR expression and/or TCRγ gene rearrangement; in detail, 18 cases (46%) were TCRβ positive (αβ T), 5 (13%) were TCRγ and/or δ positive (γδ T), and 10 (26%) were TCR-silent type with clonal TCRγ gene rearrangement but no expression of TCRβ, γ, or δ. These results were clearly contrasted by a lower incidence of T-cell lineage in ENKTL (7 cases, 26%, P<0.001). Notably, the survival time of the 5 nodal lymphoma patients with γδ T-cell phenotype was within 3 months, which was inferior to those of αβ T and TCR-silent types (P=0.003), and 3 of those with available clinical information were all found to be associated with autoimmune diseases. These data suggest that nodal EBV CTL is distinct from ENKTL.

  11. Lipopolysaccharide Antigens of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Design of Novel Vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-09-01

    Studies on the Lipopolysaccharide Antigens of Seven Immunotypes of P a_ n , SELAQ, Proc. 3 VL Seminario Latinoamericano J1 Quimica , pp. 143-159 (1979). 7...Bioolymers, 19 (1980) 1801-1814. 74" , 8. Derek Horton and David A. Riley, Phosphorus-31 Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy of Lipopolysaccharides...Amer. Chem. Soc., 87 (1965), 1345-1353. 40. D. Horton and D. A. Riley, "Phosphorus-31 Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy of Lipopolysaccharides

  12. “Hemophagocytic Lymphohistiocytosis after EBV reactivation and ibrutinib treatment in relapsed/refractory Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia”

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    Maurizio Cavallari

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Hemophagocytic Lymphohistiocytosis (HLH is a rare syndrome characterized by ineffective T-cell and NK response. We report the clinical course of a patient with relapsed CLL who developed acute symptoms soon after starting ibrutinib. Hyperpyrexia, splenomegaly, hyperferritinemia, hypertriglyceridemia, cytopenias, and a typical cytokine pattern, i.e. high interleukin (IL−6, IL10 and IL18, were consistent with a diagnosis of HLH. Coexistent Epstein Barr virus reactivation was documented. Ibrutinib-induced impairment of NK degranulation, associated with EBV reactivation and CLL-related immunodeficiency may have contributed to the development of HLH in our patient.

  13. Oncogenic S1P signalling in EBV-associated nasopharyngeal carcinoma activates AKT and promotes cell migration through S1P receptor 3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hui Min; Lo, Kwok-Wai; Wei, Wenbin; Tsao, Sai Wah; Chung, Grace Tin Yun; Ibrahim, Maha Hafez; Dawson, Christopher W; Murray, Paul G; Paterson, Ian C; Yap, Lee Fah

    2017-05-01

    Undifferentiated nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is a cancer with high metastatic potential that is consistently associated with Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection. In this study, we have investigated the functional contribution of sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) signalling to the pathogenesis of NPC. We show that EBV infection or ectopic expression of the EBV-encoded latent genes (EBNA1, LMP1, and LMP2A) can up-regulate sphingosine kinase 1 (SPHK1), the key enzyme that produces S1P, in NPC cell lines. Exogenous addition of S1P promotes the migration of NPC cells through the activation of AKT; shRNA knockdown of SPHK1 resulted in a reduction in the levels of activated AKT and inhibition of cell migration. We also show that S1P receptor 3 (S1PR3) mRNA is overexpressed in EBV-positive NPC patient-derived xenografts and a subset of primary NPC tissues, and that knockdown of S1PR3 suppressed the activation of AKT and the S1P-induced migration of NPC cells. Taken together, our data point to a central role for EBV in mediating the oncogenic effects of S1P in NPC and identify S1P signalling as a potential therapeutic target in this disease. Copyright © 2017 Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. Antigen antibody interactions

    CERN Document Server

    DeLisi, Charles

    1976-01-01

    1. 1 Organization of the Immune System One of the most important survival mechanisms of vertebrates is their ability to recognize and respond to the onslaught of pathogenic microbes to which they are conti- ously exposed. The collection of host cells and molecules involved in this recognition­ 12 response function constitutes its immune system. In man, it comprises about 10 cells 20 (lymphocytes) and 10 molecules (immunoglobulins). Its ontogenic development is c- strained by the requirement that it be capable of responding to an almost limitless variety of molecular configurations on foreign substances, while simultaneously remaining inert to those on self components. It has thus evolved to discriminate, with exquisite precision, between molecular patterns. The foreign substances which induce a response, called antigens, are typically large molecules such as proteins and polysaccharides. The portions of these with which immunoglobulins interact are called epitopes or determinants. A typical protein epitope m...

  15. Radioimmunoassays of hidden viral antigens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neurath, A.R.; Strick, N.; Baker, L.; Krugman, S.

    1982-01-01

    Antigens corresponding to infectious agents may be present in biological specimens only in a cryptic form bound to antibodies and, thus, may elude detection. We describe a solid-phase technique for separation of antigens from antibodies. Immune complexes are precipitated from serum by polyethylene glycol, dissociated with NaSCN, and adsorbed onto nitrocellulose or polystyrene supports. Antigens remain topographically separated from antibodies after removal of NaSCN and can be detected with radiolabeled antibodies. Genomes from viruses immobilized on nitrocellulose can be identified by nucleic acid hybridization. Nanogram quantities of sequestered hepatitis B surface and core antigens and picogram amounts of hepatitis B virus DNA were detected. Antibody-bound adenovirus, herpesvirus, and measles virus antigens were discerned by the procedure

  16. ASSOCIATION OF EPSTEIN-BARR VIRUS (EBV) BUT NOT HUMAN PAPILLOMAVIRUS (HPV) WITH GINGIVITIS AND/OR PERIODONTITIS IN TRANSPLANTED INDIVIDUALS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baez, Camila Freze; Savassi-Ribas, Flavia; Rocha, Wilker Menezes da; Almeida, Stéphanie G S; Gonçalves, Marianna T V; Guimarães, Maria Angelica A M; Cavalcanti, Silvia Maria B; Varella, Rafael B

    2016-07-11

    The aim of this study was to investigate the association of EBV and HPV with gingivitis and/or periodontitis according to the immunologic status. To this end, 74 oral biopsies from transplanted and non-transplanted individuals with the abovementioned oral manifestations were submitted to a screening by PCR for both viruses. According to the results, EBV was strongly associated with gingivitis and/or periodontitis in transplanted individuals (p = 0.011) but not HPV (p = 0.766). EBV-HPV co-detections did not enhance the presence of tissue injury as well. Although a causal relationship was not investigated in this study, the higher frequency of these two oncoviruses in lesion tissues must be investigated in follow-up studies, especially among immunocompromised individuals.

  17. Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) LMP2A alters normal transcriptional regulation following B-cell receptor activation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Portis, Toni; Longnecker, Richard

    2004-01-01

    The latent membrane protein 2A (LMP2A) of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is an important mediator of viral latency in infected B-lymphocytes. LMP2A inhibits B-cell receptor (BCR) signaling in vitro and allows for the survival of BCR-negative B cells in vivo. In this study, we compared gene transcription in BCR-activated B cells from non-transgenic and LMP2A Tg6 transgenic mice. We found that the transcriptional induction and down-regulation of many genes that normally occurs in B cells following BCR activation did not occur in B cells from LMP2A Tg6 transgenic mice. Furthermore, LMP2A induced the expression of various transcription factors and genes associated with DNA/RNA metabolism, which may allow for the altered transcriptional regulation observed in BCR-activated B cells from LMP2A Tg6 mice. These results suggest that LMP2A may inhibit the downstream effects of BCR signaling by directly or indirectly altering gene transcription to ensure EBV persistence in infected B cells

  18. Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) detection in gastric carcinomas from Ceará and São Paulo states, in Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Lima, Marcos Antonio Pereira de; Ferreira, Márcia Valéria Pitombeira; Barros, Marcos Aurélio Pessoa; Pardini, Maria Inês de Moura Campos; Ferrasi, Adriana Camargo; Rabenhorst, Silvia Helena Barem

    2011-01-01

    INTRODUÇÃO: O vírus Epstein-Barr (EBV) está associado a cerca de 10% dos adenocarcinomas gástricos, representando mais de 50 mil casos por ano no mundo. Apesar dos estudos realizados em várias partes do mundo, alguns aspectos clinicopatológicos permanecem controversos. OBJETIVOS: O presente estudo teve como objetivo analisar as características clinicopatológicas de casos de adenocarcinomas gástricos procedentes dos estados de São Paulo e Ceará, correlacionando-os com a detecção de EBV. MATERI...

  19. COLONOSCOPY AND CARCINOEMBRYONIC ANTIGEN VARIATIONS

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    Rita G SOUSA

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Context Colonoscopy is essential for synchronous and metachronous cancer detection. Carcinoembryonic antigen is a colorectal cancer tumor marker, important as a follow-up tool in patients with previous colorectal cancer. False-positive carcinoembryonic antigen elevation results in multiples exams and in patient anxiety. In literature, there is reference to transient carcinoembryonic antigen increase with colonoscopy. Objective To evaluate the influence of bowel preparation and colonoscopy in carcinoembryonic antigen blood levels. Methods We prospectively studied subjects that underwent routine colonoscopy in our institution. Blood samples were collected (1 before bowel cleaning, (2 before colonoscopy and (3 immediately after colonoscopy. Blood carcinoembryonic antigen levels were determined by “Sandwich” immunoassay. The statistical methods used were the paired t-test and ANOVA. Results Thirty-seven patients (22M/15F were included; age range 28-84 (mean 56 years. Mean carcinoembryonic antigen values were 1.9, 2 and 1.8 for (1, (2 and (3, respectively. An increase in value (2 compared with (1 was observed in 20/37 patients (P = 0.018, mainly in younger patients and in patients requiring more endoluminal interventions. In 29/37 patients, the CEA value decreased from (2 to (3 (P = 1.3x10-7. Conclusions A trend for carcinoembryonic antigen increase after bowel cleaning was observed, especially in younger patients and in patients with more endoluminal interventions, but without clinical meaning.

  20. Binding of antibodies to the extractable nuclear antigens SS-A/Ro and SS-B/La is induced on the surface of human keratinocytes by ultraviolet light (UVL): Implications for the pathogenesis of photosensitive cutaneous lupus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furukawa, F.; Kashihara-Sawami, M.; Lyons, M.B.; Norris, D.A.

    1990-01-01

    Autoantibodies to the non-histone nucleoprotein antigens SS-A/Ro, SS-B/La, and RNP are highly associated with photosensitive cutaneous lupus erythematosus (LE). In order to better understand the potential mechanisms of ultraviolet (UV) light on photosensitivity in patients with cutaneous LE, we designed immunopathologic in vitro and in vivo experiments to evaluate the effects of UV on the binding of such autoantibodies to the surface of human keratinocytes, one major target of immunologic damage in photosensitive LE. Short-term 2% paraformaldehyde fixation of suspensions of cultured human keratinocytes previously incubated with monospecific antiserum probes enabled the detection of ENA expression on the cell surface by flow-cytometry analysis. UVB light (280-320 nm) induced the binding of monospecific antibody probes for SS-A/Ro and SS-B/La on keratinocytes in a dose-dependent pattern with maximal induction observed at the dose of 200 mJ/cm2 UVB. Binding of SS-A/Ro, SS-B/La, and RNP antibody was augmented strongly, but binding of anti-Sm was very weak. In contrast, UVA (320-400 nm) light had no effect on the induction of binding of these antibody probes. Identical results were seen by standard immunofluorescence techniques. Hydroxyurea-treated keratinocytes showed similar induction of those antigens by UVB irradiation, which suggested that ENA expression on cultured keratinocytes by UVB were cell-cycle independent. Tunicamycin, an inhibitor of glycosylation of proteins, reduced UVB light effect on the SS-A/Ro and SS-B/La antigen's expression. These in vitro FACS analyses revealed that ENA augmentation on the keratinocyte cell surface was dose dependent, UVB dependent, glycosylation dependent, and cell-cycle independent. In vivo ENA augmentation on the keratinocyte surface was examined in suction blister epidermal roofs

  1. Oncogenic cancer/testis antigens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gjerstorff, Morten F; Andersen, Mads H; Ditzel, Henrik J

    2015-01-01

    Recent developments have set the stage for immunotherapy as a supplement to conventional cancer treatment. Consequently, a significant effort is required to further improve efficacy and specificity, particularly the identification of optimal therapeutic targets for clinical testing. Cancer....../testis antigens are immunogenic, highly cancer-specific, and frequently expressed in various types of cancer, which make them promising candidate targets for cancer immunotherapy, including cancer vaccination and adoptive T-cell transfer with chimeric T-cell receptors. Our current understanding of tumor...... immunology and immune escape suggests that targeting oncogenic antigens may be beneficial, meaning that identification of cancer/testis antigens with oncogenic properties is of high priority. Recent work from our lab and others provide evidence that many cancer/testis antigens, in fact, have oncogenic...

  2. Natural selection promotes antigenic evolvability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graves, Christopher J; Ros, Vera I D; Stevenson, Brian; Sniegowski, Paul D; Brisson, Dustin

    2013-01-01

    The hypothesis that evolvability - the capacity to evolve by natural selection - is itself the object of natural selection is highly intriguing but remains controversial due in large part to a paucity of direct experimental evidence. The antigenic variation mechanisms of microbial pathogens provide an experimentally tractable system to test whether natural selection has favored mechanisms that increase evolvability. Many antigenic variation systems consist of paralogous unexpressed 'cassettes' that recombine into an expression site to rapidly alter the expressed protein. Importantly, the magnitude of antigenic change is a function of the genetic diversity among the unexpressed cassettes. Thus, evidence that selection favors among-cassette diversity is direct evidence that natural selection promotes antigenic evolvability. We used the Lyme disease bacterium, Borrelia burgdorferi, as a model to test the prediction that natural selection favors amino acid diversity among unexpressed vls cassettes and thereby promotes evolvability in a primary surface antigen, VlsE. The hypothesis that diversity among vls cassettes is favored by natural selection was supported in each B. burgdorferi strain analyzed using both classical (dN/dS ratios) and Bayesian population genetic analyses of genetic sequence data. This hypothesis was also supported by the conservation of highly mutable tandem-repeat structures across B. burgdorferi strains despite a near complete absence of sequence conservation. Diversification among vls cassettes due to natural selection and mutable repeat structures promotes long-term antigenic evolvability of VlsE. These findings provide a direct demonstration that molecular mechanisms that enhance evolvability of surface antigens are an evolutionary adaptation. The molecular evolutionary processes identified here can serve as a model for the evolution of antigenic evolvability in many pathogens which utilize similar strategies to establish chronic infections.

  3. Natural selection promotes antigenic evolvability.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher J Graves

    Full Text Available The hypothesis that evolvability - the capacity to evolve by natural selection - is itself the object of natural selection is highly intriguing but remains controversial due in large part to a paucity of direct experimental evidence. The antigenic variation mechanisms of microbial pathogens provide an experimentally tractable system to test whether natural selection has favored mechanisms that increase evolvability. Many antigenic variation systems consist of paralogous unexpressed 'cassettes' that recombine into an expression site to rapidly alter the expressed protein. Importantly, the magnitude of antigenic change is a function of the genetic diversity among the unexpressed cassettes. Thus, evidence that selection favors among-cassette diversity is direct evidence that natural selection promotes antigenic evolvability. We used the Lyme disease bacterium, Borrelia burgdorferi, as a model to test the prediction that natural selection favors amino acid diversity among unexpressed vls cassettes and thereby promotes evolvability in a primary surface antigen, VlsE. The hypothesis that diversity among vls cassettes is favored by natural selection was supported in each B. burgdorferi strain analyzed using both classical (dN/dS ratios and Bayesian population genetic analyses of genetic sequence data. This hypothesis was also supported by the conservation of highly mutable tandem-repeat structures across B. burgdorferi strains despite a near complete absence of sequence conservation. Diversification among vls cassettes due to natural selection and mutable repeat structures promotes long-term antigenic evolvability of VlsE. These findings provide a direct demonstration that molecular mechanisms that enhance evolvability of surface antigens are an evolutionary adaptation. The molecular evolutionary processes identified here can serve as a model for the evolution of antigenic evolvability in many pathogens which utilize similar strategies to establish

  4. Assessment of IgG Antibodies Against HSV1, HSV2, CMV and EBV in Patients with Pemphigus Vulgaris versus Healthy People

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    Parichehr Ghalayani

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Regarding the implication of viruses particularly herpes in pemphigus vulgaris, we sought to assess and compare the level of immunoglobulin G (IgG antibodies against herpes simplex virus types 1 and 2 (HSV1 and HSV2, cytomegalovirus (CMV and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV in patients with pemphigus vulgaris and healthy people.    Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 25 patients with pemphigus vulgaris and 27 healthy individuals comprised the experimental and control groups, respectively. Serum samples were taken from both groups; the levels of IgG antibodies against HSV1, HSV2, CMV and EBV were measured using ELISA.  Results: Immunoglobulin G titer was higher for all four viruses in the patient group in comparison to the control group. This difference was significant for anti-EBV (P= 0.005, anti-CMV (P=0.0001 and anti-HSV2 (P=0.001 but not significant for anti-HSV1 (P= 0.36.Conclusion: Viruses including EBV, CMV, and HSV2 probably play a role in the pathogenesis of pemphigus in addition to the effects of genetics, toxins and other predisposing factors. In this study, no statistically significant relationship was observed between HSV1 and pemphigus vulgaris, which was probably due to the high titer of anti-HSV1 IgG in healthy individuals in the community. More studies must be done in this regard.

  5. Prevalence of Polyoma BK Virus (BKPyV), Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV) and Human Papilloma Virus (HPV) in Oropharyngeal Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polz-Gruszka, Dorota; Morshed, Kamal; Jarzyński, Adrian; Polz-Dacewicz, Małgorzata

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the prevalence of BK virus, Human Papillomavirus and Epstein-Barr virus in oropharyngeal cancer, and to test our hypothesis that BKV/HPV/EBV co-infection plays a role in oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma. The correlation between viral infection, OSCC, anatomic location, pre-treatment staging, evidence of metastases to lymph nodes, and grading was also investigated. The examination samples were collected from 62 patients from paraffin tissue blocks. Males (90.3%) with, smoking (83.9%) and alcohol abuse (67.7%) problems prevailed in the studied group. G2 histological type was recognized in 80.6% cases. T4 (77.4%) and N2 (56.5%) traits occurred in the majority of patients. No cases of metastasis were observed (M0 100%). HPV - 24.2%, EBV - 27.4% and BKV 17.7% were detected in the studied samples. We observed co-infection EBV/BKV in 8% of cases, HPV/BKV in 4.8%, and HPV/EBV in 9% cases. Only in two cases co-infection of all three viruses was found.

  6. Clinical-grade generation of peptide-stimulated CMV/EBV-specific T cells from G-CSF mobilized stem cell grafts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gary, Regina; Aigner, Michael; Moi, Stephanie; Schaffer, Stefanie; Gottmann, Anja; Maas, Stefanie; Zimmermann, Robert; Zingsem, Jürgen; Strobel, Julian; Mackensen, Andreas; Mautner, Josef; Moosmann, Andreas; Gerbitz, Armin

    2018-05-09

    A major complication after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (aSCT) is the reactivation of herpesviruses such as cytomegalovirus (CMV) and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV). Both viruses cause significant mortality and compromise quality of life after aSCT. Preventive transfer of virus-specific T cells can suppress reactivation by re-establishing functional antiviral immune responses in immunocompromised hosts. We have developed a good manufacturing practice protocol to generate CMV/EBV-peptide-stimulated T cells from leukapheresis products of G-CSF mobilized and non-mobilized donors. Our procedure selectively expands virus-specific CD8+ und CD4+ T cells over 9 days using a generic pool of 34 CMV and EBV peptides that represent well-defined dominant T-cell epitopes with various HLA restrictions. For HLA class I, this set of peptides covers at least 80% of the European population. CMV/EBV-specific T cells were successfully expanded from leukapheresis material of both G-CSF mobilized and non-mobilized donors. The protocol allows administration shortly after stem cell transplantation (d30+), storage over liquid nitrogen for iterated applications, and protection of the stem cell donor by avoiding a second leukapheresis. Our protocol allows for rapid and cost-efficient production of T cells for early transfusion after aSCT as a preventive approach. It is currently evaluated in a phase I/IIa clinical trial.

  7. A soluble form of Epstein-Barr virus gH/gL inhibits EBV-induced membrane fusion and does not function in fusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rowe, Cynthia L. [Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Feinberg School of Medicine, Northwestern University, Chicago, IL 60611 (United States); Connolly, Sarah A. [Department of Health Sciences, DePaul University, Chicago, IL 60614 (United States); Chen, Jia [Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Feinberg School of Medicine, Northwestern University, Chicago, IL 60611 (United States); Jardetzky, Theodore S. [Department of Structural Biology, Stanford University School of Medicine, 371 Serra Mall, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States); Longnecker, Richard, E-mail: r-longnecker@northwestern.edu [Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Feinberg School of Medicine, Northwestern University, Chicago, IL 60611 (United States)

    2013-02-05

    We investigated whether soluble EBV gH/gL (sgH/gL) functions in fusion and made a series of truncations of gH/gL domains based on the gH/gL crystal structure. We found sgH/gL failed to mediate cell-cell fusion both when co-expressed with the other entry glycoproteins and when added exogenously to fusion assays. Interestingly, sgH/gL inhibited cell-cell fusion in a dose dependent manner when co-expressed. sgH/gL from HSV was unable to inhibit EBV fusion, suggesting the inhibition was specific to EBV gH/gL. sgH/gL stably binds gp42, but not gB nor gH/gL. The domain mutants, DI/gL, DI-II/gL and DI-II-III/gL were unable to bind gp42. Instead, DI-II/gL, DI-II-III/gL and sgH/gL but not DI/gL decreased the expression of gp42, resulting in decreased overall fusion. Overall, our results suggest that domain IV may be required for proper folding and the transmembrane domain and cytoplasmic tail of EBV gH/gL are required for the most efficient fusion.

  8. TAFRO Syndrome Associated with EBV and Successful Triple Therapy Treatment: Case Report and Review of the Literature

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    Malorie Simons

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available TAFRO syndrome is a rare constellation of symptoms: thrombocytopenia, anasarca, reticulin fibrosis of the bone marrow, renal dysfunction, and organomegaly. Its pathogenesis involves an excessive and inappropriate cytokine storm, most notably from IL-6, causing multiorgan failure; however, its etiology is undetermined. Starting in 2012, TAFRO syndrome was first identified in Japan as an atypical variant of Castleman’s disease. Previous reports include various different treatment protocols with inconsistent survival outcomes. Here we report the first known American, EBV positive but HIV and HHV-8 negative, male with TAFRO syndrome. He was successfully treated with an unusual three-drug regimen including tocilizumab, etoposide, and rituximab. We review the literature of TAFRO syndrome, discuss its possible viral etiology, and propose an original treatment regimen.

  9. Anvendelse af prostataspecifikt antigen. En oversigt

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brasso, K; Skaarup, P; Roosen, Jens Ulrik

    1998-01-01

    Since it was first introduced, measurement of prostate specific antigen has gained increasing interest, and prostate specific antigen is regarded as being the best tumour marker available. The antigen lacks cancer specificity, limiting the usefulness in early diagnosis, The use of prostate specific...... antigen in early diagnosis, staging, and in monitoring patients with prostate cancer is reviewed....

  10. Solid-phase radioimmunoassay for Epstein-Barr virus-associated membrane antigen prepared from B95-8 cell culture supernatants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doelken, G.; Klein, G.

    1977-01-01

    Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-associated membrane antigen (MA) was concentrated from B95-8 cell culture media by precipitation with polyethylene glycol followed by chromatography on Bio-Gel A-50m. In a RAJI cell-binding assay, MA-positive material could only be found in the void volume of the column. After ultracentrifugation all antigenic activity appeared in the pellet, which suggested that MA was present in aggregates, presumably fragments of cellular membranes and/or virus envelopes. The MA-containing preparation was photopolymerized in polyacrylamide gel. The homogenized gel was used in a solid-phase radioimmunoassay with 125 I-labeled IgG from an anti-MA positive reference serum and an anti-MA negative control serum. The specificity of the reaction was confirmed in blocking tests with anti-EBV positive and negative sera. A good correlation was found between the results obtained in the radioimmunoassay and the results obtained in direct immunofluorescence tests for the detection of MA. The existence of at least two subspecificities of the MA complex could be confirmed by this radioimmunoassay

  11. Comparative characteristic of the methods of protein antigens epitope mapping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Yu. Galkin

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Comparative analysis of experimental methods of epitope mapping of protein antigens has been carried out. The vast majority of known techniques are involved in immunochemical study of the interaction of protein molecules or peptides with antibodies of corresponding specifici­ty. The most effective and widely applicable metho­dological techniques are those that use synthetic and genetically engineered peptides. Over the past 30 years, these groups of methods have travelled a notable evolutionary path up to the maximum automation and the detection of antigenic determinants of various types (linear and conformational epitopes, and mimotopes. Most of epitope searching algorithms were integrated into a computer program, which greatly facilitates the analysis of experimental data and makes it possible to create spatial models. It is possible to use comparative epitope mapping for solving the applied problems; this less time-consuming method is based on the analysis of competition between different antibodies interactions with the same antigen. The physical method of antigenic structure study is X-ray analysis of antigen-antibody complexes, which may be applied only to crystallizing­ proteins, and nuclear magnetic resonance.

  12. Associations between Burkitt lymphoma among children in Malawi and infection with HIV, EBV and malaria: results from a case-control study.

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    Nora Mutalima

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Burkitt lymphoma, a childhood cancer common in parts of sub-Saharan Africa, has been associated with Epstein Barr Virus (EBV and malaria, but its association with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV is not clear. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We conducted a case-control study of Burkitt lymphoma among children (aged < or = 15 years admitted to the pediatric oncology unit in Blantyre, Malawi between July 2005 and July 2006. Cases were 148 children diagnosed with Burkitt lymphoma and controls were 104 children admitted with non-malignant conditions or cancers other than hematological malignancies and Kaposi sarcoma. Interviews were conducted and serological samples tested for antibodies against HIV, EBV and malaria. Odds ratios for Burkitt lymphoma were estimated using unconditional logistic regression adjusting for sex, age, and residential district. Cases had a mean age of 7.1 years and 60% were male. Cases were more likely than controls to be HIV positive (Odds ratio (OR = 12.4, 95% Confidence Interval (CI 1.3 to 116.2, p = 0.03. ORs for Burkitt lymphoma increased with increasing antibody titers against EBV (p = 0.001 and malaria (p = 0.01. Among HIV negative participants, cases were thirteen times more likely than controls to have raised levels of both EBV and malaria antibodies (OR = 13.2; 95% CI 3.8 to 46.6; p = 0.001. Reported use of mosquito nets was associated with a lower risk of Burkitt lymphoma (OR = 0.2, 95% CI, 0.03 to 0.9, p = 0.04. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings support prior evidence that EBV and malaria act jointly in the pathogenesis of Burkitt lymphoma, suggesting that malaria prevention may decrease the risk of Burkitt lymphoma. HIV may also play a role in the etiology of this childhood tumor.

  13. Coinfection with Epstein–Barr Virus (EBV, Human Papilloma Virus (HPV and Polyoma BK Virus (BKPyV in Laryngeal, Oropharyngeal and Oral Cavity Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bartłomiej Drop

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Most research providing evidence for the role of oncogenic viruses in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (SCC development is focused on one type of virus without analyzing possible interactions between two or more types of viruses. The aim of this study was to analyse the prevalence of co-infection with human papillomavirus (HPV, Epstein–Barr virus (EBV and polyoma BK virus (BKPyV in oral, oropharyngeal and laryngeal squamous cell carcinomas in Polish patients. The correlations between viral infection, SCC, demographic parameters, evidence of metastases and grading were also investigated. Fresh-frozen tumour tissue samples were collected from 146 patients with laryngeal, oropharyngeal and oral cancer. After DNA extraction, the DNA of the studied viruses was detected using polymerase chain rection (PCR assay. Males (87.7% with a history of smoking (70.6% and alcohol abuse (59.6% prevailed in the studied group. Histological type G2 was recognized in 64.4% cases. The patients were most frequently diagnosed with T2 stage (36.3% and with N1 stage (45.8%. Infection with at least two viruses was detected in 56.2% of patients. In this group, co-infection with HPV/EBV was identified in 34.1% of cases, EBV/BKV in 23.2%, HPV/BKV in 22.0%, and HPV/EBV/BKV in 20.7%. No difference of multiple infection in different locations of cancer was observed. The prevalence of poorly differentiated tumours (G3 was more frequent in co-infection with all three viruses than EBV or BKV alone. A significant correlation was observed between tumour dimensions (T and lymph-node involvement (N in co-infected patients compared to single infection. Further studies are necessary to clarify whether co-infection plays an important role in the initiation and/or progression of oncogenic transformation of oral, oropharyngeal and laryngeal epithelial cells.

  14. Coinfection with Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV), Human Papilloma Virus (HPV) and Polyoma BK Virus (BKPyV) in Laryngeal, Oropharyngeal and Oral Cavity Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drop, Bartłomiej; Strycharz-Dudziak, Małgorzata; Kliszczewska, Ewa; Polz-Dacewicz, Małgorzata

    2017-12-19

    Most research providing evidence for the role of oncogenic viruses in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) development is focused on one type of virus without analyzing possible interactions between two or more types of viruses. The aim of this study was to analyse the prevalence of co-infection with human papillomavirus (HPV), Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) and polyoma BK virus (BKPyV) in oral, oropharyngeal and laryngeal squamous cell carcinomas in Polish patients. The correlations between viral infection, SCC, demographic parameters, evidence of metastases and grading were also investigated. Fresh-frozen tumour tissue samples were collected from 146 patients with laryngeal, oropharyngeal and oral cancer. After DNA extraction, the DNA of the studied viruses was detected using polymerase chain rection (PCR) assay. Males (87.7%) with a history of smoking (70.6%) and alcohol abuse (59.6%) prevailed in the studied group. Histological type G2 was recognized in 64.4% cases. The patients were most frequently diagnosed with T2 stage (36.3%) and with N1 stage (45.8%). Infection with at least two viruses was detected in 56.2% of patients. In this group, co-infection with HPV/EBV was identified in 34.1% of cases, EBV/BKV in 23.2%, HPV/BKV in 22.0%, and HPV/EBV/BKV in 20.7%. No difference of multiple infection in different locations of cancer was observed. The prevalence of poorly differentiated tumours (G3) was more frequent in co-infection with all three viruses than EBV or BKV alone. A significant correlation was observed between tumour dimensions (T) and lymph-node involvement (N) in co-infected patients compared to single infection. Further studies are necessary to clarify whether co-infection plays an important role in the initiation and/or progression of oncogenic transformation of oral, oropharyngeal and laryngeal epithelial cells.

  15. Coinfection with Epstein–Barr Virus (EBV), Human Papilloma Virus (HPV) and Polyoma BK Virus (BKPyV) in Laryngeal, Oropharyngeal and Oral Cavity Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drop, Bartłomiej; Strycharz-Dudziak, Małgorzata; Kliszczewska, Ewa; Polz-Dacewicz, Małgorzata

    2017-01-01

    Most research providing evidence for the role of oncogenic viruses in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) development is focused on one type of virus without analyzing possible interactions between two or more types of viruses. The aim of this study was to analyse the prevalence of co-infection with human papillomavirus (HPV), Epstein–Barr virus (EBV) and polyoma BK virus (BKPyV) in oral, oropharyngeal and laryngeal squamous cell carcinomas in Polish patients. The correlations between viral infection, SCC, demographic parameters, evidence of metastases and grading were also investigated. Fresh-frozen tumour tissue samples were collected from 146 patients with laryngeal, oropharyngeal and oral cancer. After DNA extraction, the DNA of the studied viruses was detected using polymerase chain rection (PCR) assay. Males (87.7%) with a history of smoking (70.6%) and alcohol abuse (59.6%) prevailed in the studied group. Histological type G2 was recognized in 64.4% cases. The patients were most frequently diagnosed with T2 stage (36.3%) and with N1 stage (45.8%). Infection with at least two viruses was detected in 56.2% of patients. In this group, co-infection with HPV/EBV was identified in 34.1% of cases, EBV/BKV in 23.2%, HPV/BKV in 22.0%, and HPV/EBV/BKV in 20.7%. No difference of multiple infection in different locations of cancer was observed. The prevalence of poorly differentiated tumours (G3) was more frequent in co-infection with all three viruses than EBV or BKV alone. A significant correlation was observed between tumour dimensions (T) and lymph-node involvement (N) in co-infected patients compared to single infection. Further studies are necessary to clarify whether co-infection plays an important role in the initiation and/or progression of oncogenic transformation of oral, oropharyngeal and laryngeal epithelial cells. PMID:29257122

  16. Genetic diversity of EBV-encoded LMP1 in the Swiss HIV Cohort Study and implication for NF-Κb activation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilie Zuercher

    Full Text Available Epstein-Barr virus (EBV is associated with several types of cancers including Hodgkin's lymphoma (HL and nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC. EBV-encoded latent membrane protein 1 (LMP1, a multifunctional oncoprotein, is a powerful activator of the transcription factor NF-κB, a property that is essential for EBV-transformed lymphoblastoid cell survival. Previous studies reported LMP1 sequence variations and induction of higher NF-κB activation levels compared to the prototype B95-8 LMP1 by some variants. Here we used biopsies of EBV-associated cancers and blood of individuals included in the Swiss HIV Cohort Study (SHCS to analyze LMP1 genetic diversity and impact of sequence variations on LMP1-mediated NF-κB activation potential. We found that a number of variants mediate higher NF-κB activation levels when compared to B95-8 LMP1 and mapped three single polymorphisms responsible for this phenotype: F106Y, I124V and F144I. F106Y was present in all LMP1 isolated in this study and its effect was variant dependent, suggesting that it was modulated by other polymorphisms. The two polymorphisms I124V and F144I were present in distinct phylogenetic groups and were linked with other specific polymorphisms nearby, I152L and D150A/L151I, respectively. The two sets of polymorphisms, I124V/I152L and F144I/D150A/L151I, which were markers of increased NF-κB activation in vitro, were not associated with EBV-associated HL in the SHCS. Taken together these results highlighted the importance of single polymorphisms for the modulation of LMP1 signaling activity and demonstrated that several groups of LMP1 variants, through distinct mutational paths, mediated enhanced NF-κB activation levels compared to B95-8 LMP1.

  17. Chemoselective ligation and antigen vectorization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gras-Masse, H

    2001-01-01

    The interest in cocktail-lipopeptide vaccines has now been confirmed by phase I clinical trials: highly diversified B-, T-helper or cytotoxic T-cell epitopes can be combined with a lipophilic vector for the induction of B- and T-cell responses of predetermined specificity. With the goal of producing an improved vaccine that should ideally induce a multispecific response in non-selected populations, increasing the diversity of the immunizing mixture represents one of the most obvious strategies.The selective delivery of antigens to professional antigen-presenting cells represents another promising approach for the improvement of vaccine efficacy. In this context, the mannose-receptor represents an attractive entry point for the targeting to dendritic cells of antigens linked to clustered glycosides or glycomimetics. In all cases, highly complex but fully characterized molecules must be produced. To develop a modular and flexible strategy which could be generally applicable to a large set of peptide antigens, we elected to explore the potentialities of chemoselective ligation methods. The hydrazone bond was found particularly reliable and fully compatible with sulphide ligation. Hydrazone/thioether orthogonal ligation systems could be developed to account for the nature of the antigens and the solubility of the vector systems. Copyright 2001 The International Association for Biologicals.

  18. Automation of the ELISpot assay for high-throughput detection of antigen-specific T-cell responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, Coral-Ann M; Roberts, Steven G; Laird, Rebecca; McKinnon, Elizabeth; Ahmed, Imran; Pfafferott, Katja; Turley, Joanne; Keane, Niamh M; Lucas, Andrew; Rushton, Ben; Chopra, Abha; Mallal, Simon; John, Mina

    2009-05-15

    The enzyme linked immunospot (ELISpot) assay is a fundamental tool in cellular immunology, providing both quantitative and qualitative information on cellular cytokine responses to defined antigens. It enables the comprehensive screening of patient derived peripheral blood mononuclear cells to reveal the antigenic restriction of T-cell responses and is an emerging technique in clinical laboratory investigation of certain infectious diseases. As with all cellular-based assays, the final results of the assay are dependent on a number of technical variables that may impact precision if not highly standardised between operators. When studies that are large scale or using multiple antigens are set up manually, these assays may be labour intensive, have many manual handling steps, are subject to data and sample integrity failure and may show large inter-operator variability. Here we describe the successful automated performance of the interferon (IFN)-gamma ELISpot assay from cell counting through to electronic capture of cytokine quantitation and present the results of a comparison between automated and manual performance of the ELISpot assay. The mean number of spot forming units enumerated by both methods for limiting dilutions of CMV, EBV and influenza (CEF)-derived peptides in six healthy individuals were highly correlated (r>0.83, pautomated system compared favourably with the manual ELISpot and further ensured electronic tracking, increased through-put and reduced turnaround time.

  19. Advancing Marine Biological Observations and Data Requirements of the Complementary Essential Ocean Variables (EOVs and Essential Biodiversity Variables (EBVs Frameworks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank E. Muller-Karger

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Measurements of the status and trends of key indicators for the ocean and marine life are required to inform policy and management in the context of growing human uses of marine resources, coastal development, and climate change. Two synergistic efforts identify specific priority variables for monitoring: Essential Ocean Variables (EOVs through the Global Ocean Observing System (GOOS, and Essential Biodiversity Variables (EBVs from the Group on Earth Observations Biodiversity Observation Network (GEO BON (see Data Sheet 1 in Supplementary Materials for a glossary of acronyms. Both systems support reporting against internationally agreed conventions and treaties. GOOS, established under the auspices of the Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission (IOC, plays a leading role in coordinating global monitoring of the ocean and in the definition of EOVs. GEO BON is a global biodiversity observation network that coordinates observations to enhance management of the world's biodiversity and promote both the awareness and accounting of ecosystem services. Convergence and agreement between these two efforts are required to streamline existing and new marine observation programs to advance scientific knowledge effectively and to support the sustainable use and management of ocean spaces and resources. In this context, the Marine Biodiversity Observation Network (MBON, a thematic component of GEO BON, is collaborating with GOOS, the Ocean Biogeographic Information System (OBIS, and the Integrated Marine Biosphere Research (IMBeR project to ensure that EBVs and EOVs are complementary, representing alternative uses of a common set of scientific measurements. This work is informed by the Joint Technical Commission for Oceanography and Marine Meteorology (JCOMM, an intergovernmental body of technical experts that helps international coordination on best practices for observing, data management and services, combined with capacity development expertise

  20. Natural selection promotes antigenic evolvability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Graves, C.J.; Ros, V.I.D.; Stevenson, B.; Sniegowski, P.D.; Brisson, D.

    2013-01-01

    The hypothesis that evolvability - the capacity to evolve by natural selection - is itself the object of natural selection is highly intriguing but remains controversial due in large part to a paucity of direct experimental evidence. The antigenic variation mechanisms of microbial pathogens provide

  1. Human peripheral blood monocytes display surface antigens recognized by monoclonal antinuclear antibodies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holers, V.M.; Kotzin, B.L.

    1985-01-01

    The authors used monoclonal anti-nuclear autoantibodies and indirect immunofluorescence to examine normal human peripheral blood mononuclear leukocytes for the presence of cell surface nuclear antigens. Only one monoclonal anti-histone antibody (MH-2) was found to bind to freshly isolated PBL, staining approximately 10% of large cells. However, after cells were placed into culture for 16-24 h, a high percentage (up to 60%) of large-sized cells were recognized by an anti-DNA (BWD-1) and several different antihistone monoclonal antibodies (BWH-1, MH-1, and MH-2). These antibodies recognize separate antigenic determinants on chromatin and histones extracted from chromatin. The histone antigen-positive cells were viable, and the monoclonal antibodies could be shown to be binding to the cell surface and not to the nucleus. Using monoclonal antibodies specific for monocytes and T cells, and complement-mediated cytotoxicity, the cells bearing histone antigens were shown to be primarily monocytes. The appearance of histone and DNA antigen-positive cells was nearly completely inhibited by the addition of low concentrations of cycloheximide at initiation of the cultures. In contrast, little effect on the percentage of positive cells was detected if cells were exposed to high doses of gamma irradiation before culture. These data further support the existence of cell surface nuclear antigens on selected cell subsets, which may provide insight into the immunopathogenesis of systemic lupus erythematosus and related autoimmune diseases

  2. Radiation-induced Epstein-Barr virus reactivation in gastric cancer cells with latent EBV infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nandakumar, Athira; Uwatoko, Futoshi; Yamamoto, Megumi; Tomita, Kazuo; Majima, Hideyuki J; Akiba, Suminori; Koriyama, Chihaya

    2017-07-01

    Epstein-Barr virus, a ubiquitous human herpes virus with oncogenic activity, can be found in 6%-16% of gastric carcinomas worldwide. In Epstein-Barr virus-associated gastric carcinoma, only a few latent genes of the virus are expressed. Ionizing irradiation was shown to induce lytic Epstein-Barr virus infection in lymphoblastoid cell lines with latent Epstein-Barr virus infection. In this study, we examined the effect of ionizing radiation on the Epstein-Barr virus reactivation in a gastric epithelial cancer cell line (SNU-719, an Epstein-Barr virus-associated gastric carcinoma cell line). Irradiation with X-ray (dose = 5 and 10 Gy; dose rate = 0.5398 Gy/min) killed approximately 25% and 50% of cultured SNU-719 cells, respectively, in 48 h. Ionizing radiation increased the messenger RNA expression of immediate early Epstein-Barr virus lytic genes (BZLF1 and BRLF1), determined by real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction, in a dose-dependent manner at 48 h and, to a slightly lesser extent, at 72 h after irradiation. Similar findings were observed for other Epstein-Barr virus lytic genes (BMRF1, BLLF1, and BcLF1). After radiation, the expression of transforming growth factor beta 1 messenger RNA increased and reached a peak in 12-24 h, and the high-level expression of the Epstein-Barr virus immediate early genes can convert latent Epstein-Barr virus infection into the lytic form and result in the release of infectious Epstein-Barr virus. To conclude, Ionizing radiation activates lytic Epstein-Barr virus gene expression in the SNU-719 cell line mainly through nuclear factor kappaB activation. We made a brief review of literature to explore underlying mechanism involved in transforming growth factor beta-induced Epstein-Barr virus reactivation. A possible involvement of nuclear factor kappaB was hypothesized.

  3. Molecular diversity of Epstein-Barr virus IgG and IgA antibody responses in nasopharyngeal carcinoma: a comparison of Indonesian, Chinese, and European subjects.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fachiroh, J.; Schouten, T; Hariwiyanto, B; Paramita, D.K.; Harijadi, A; Haryana, SM; Ng, MH; Middeldorp, J.M.

    2004-01-01

    Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-specific immunoblot analysis was used to reveal the molecular diversity of immunoglobulin (Ig) G and IgA antibody responses against Epstein-Barr nuclear antigen (EBNA), early antigen (EA), and viral capsid antigen (VCA) in serum samples from patients with nasopharyngeal

  4. Concepts and applications for influenza antigenic cartography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Zhipeng; Zhang, Tong; Wan, Xiu-Feng

    2011-01-01

    Influenza antigenic cartography projects influenza antigens into a two or three dimensional map based on immunological datasets, such as hemagglutination inhibition and microneutralization assays. A robust antigenic cartography can facilitate influenza vaccine strain selection since the antigenic map can simplify data interpretation through intuitive antigenic map. However, antigenic cartography construction is not trivial due to the challenging features embedded in the immunological data, such as data incompleteness, high noises, and low reactors. To overcome these challenges, we developed a computational method, temporal Matrix Completion-Multidimensional Scaling (MC-MDS), by adapting the low rank MC concept from the movie recommendation system in Netflix and the MDS method from geographic cartography construction. The application on H3N2 and 2009 pandemic H1N1 influenza A viruses demonstrates that temporal MC-MDS is effective and efficient in constructing influenza antigenic cartography. The web sever is available at http://sysbio.cvm.msstate.edu/AntigenMap. PMID:21761589

  5. Coinfection with Epstein–Barr Virus (EBV), Human Papilloma Virus (HPV) and Polyoma BK Virus (BKPyV) in Laryngeal, Oropharyngeal and Oral Cavity Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Drop, Bartłomiej; Strycharz-Dudziak, Małgorzata; Kliszczewska, Ewa; Polz-Dacewicz, Małgorzata

    2017-01-01

    Most research providing evidence for the role of oncogenic viruses in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) development is focused on one type of virus without analyzing possible interactions between two or more types of viruses. The aim of this study was to analyse the prevalence of co-infection with human papillomavirus (HPV), Epstein–Barr virus (EBV) and polyoma BK virus (BKPyV) in oral, oropharyngeal and laryngeal squamous cell carcinomas in Polish patients. The correlations between...

  6. EBV, HCMV, HHV6, and HHV7 Screening in Bone Marrow Samples from Children with Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales-Sánchez, A.; Pompa-Mera, E. N.; Fajardo-Gutiérrez, A.; Alvarez-Rodríguez, F. J.; Bekker-Méndez, V. C.; Flores-Chapa, J. de Diego; Flores-Lujano, J.; Jiménez-Hernández, E.; Peñaloza-González, J. G.; Rodríguez-Zepeda, M. C.; Torres-Nava, J. R.; Velázquez-Aviña, M. M.; Amador-Sánchez, R.; Alvarado-Ibarra, M.; Reyes-Zepeda, N.; Espinosa-Elizondo, R. M.; Pérez-Saldivar, M. L.; Núñez-Enríquez, J. C.; Mejía-Aranguré, J. M.; Fuentes-Pananá, E. M.

    2014-01-01

    Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) is the most common cancer in childhood worldwide and Mexico has reported one of the highest incidence rates. An infectious etiology has been suggested and supported by epidemiological evidences; however, the identity of the involved agent(s) is not known. We considered that early transmitted lymphotropic herpes viruses were good candidates, since transforming mechanisms have been described for them and some are already associated with human cancers. In this study we interrogated the direct role of EBV, HCMV, HHV6, and HHV7 human herpes viruses in childhood ALL. Viral genomes were screened in 70 bone marrow samples from ALL patients through standard and a more sensitive nested PCR. Positive samples were detected only by nested PCR indicating a low level of infection. Our result argues that viral genomes were not present in all leukemic cells, and, hence, infection most likely was not part of the initial genetic lesions leading to ALL. The high statistical power of the study suggested that these agents are not involved in the genesis of ALL in Mexican children. Additional analysis showed that detected infections or coinfections were not associated with prognosis. PMID:25309913

  7. Antigenic determinants and functional domains in core antigen and e antigen from hepatitis B virus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salfeld, J.; Pfaff, E.; Noah, M.; Schaller, H.

    1989-01-01

    The precore/core gene of hepatitis B virus directs the synthesis of two polypeptides, the 21-kilodalton subunit (p21c) forming the viral nucleocapsid (serologically defined as core antigen [HBcAg]) and a secreted processed protein (p17e, serologically defined as HBe antigen [HBeAg]). Although most of their primary amino acid sequences are identical, HBcAg and HBeAg display different antigenic properties that are widely used in hepatitis B virus diagnosis. To locate and to characterize the corresponding determinants, segments of the core gene were expressed in Escherichia coli and probed with a panel of polyclonal or monoclonal antibodies in radioimmunoassays or enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays, Western blots, and competition assays. Three distinct major determinants were characterized. It is postulated that HBcAg and HBeAg share common basic three-dimensional structure exposing the common linear determinant HBe1 but that they differ in the presentation of two conformational determinants that are either introduced (HBc) or masked (HBe2) in the assembled core. The simultaneous presentation of HBe1 and HBc, two distinctly different antigenic determinants with overlapping amino acid sequences, is interpreted to indicate the presence of slightly differently folded, stable conformational states of p21c in the hepatitis virus nucleocapsid

  8. Development of a Low-Cost Stem-Loop Real-Time Quantification PCR Technique for EBV miRNA Expression Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergallo, Massimiliano; Merlino, Chiara; Montin, Davide; Galliano, Ilaria; Gambarino, Stefano; Mareschi, Katia; Fagioli, Franca; Montanari, Paola; Martino, Silvana; Tovo, Pier-Angelo

    2016-09-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are short, single stranded, non-coding RNA molecules. They are produced by many different species and are key regulators of several physiological processes. miRNAs are also encoded by the genomes of multiple virus families, such as herpesvirus family. In particular, miRNAs from Epstein Barr virus were found at high concentrations in different associated pathologies, such as Burkitt's lymphoma, Hodgkin disease, and nasopharyngeal carcinoma. Thanks to their stability, these molecules could possibly serve as biomarkers for EBV-associated diseases. In this study, a stem-loop real-time PCR for miR-BART2-5p, miR-BART15, and miR-BART22 EBV miRNAs detection and quantification has been developed. Evaluation of these miRNAs in 31 serum samples (12 from patients affected by primary immunodeficiency, 9 from X-linked agammaglobulinemia and 10 from healthy subjects) has been carried out. The amplification performance showed a wide dynamic range (10(8)-10(2) copies/reaction) and sensibility equal to 10(2) copies/reaction for all the target tested. Serum samples analysis, on the other hand, showed a statistical significant higher level of miR-BART22 in primary immunodeficiency patients (P = 0.0001) compared to other groups and targets. The results confirmed the potential use of this assay as a tool for monitoring EBV-associated disease and for miRNAs expression profile analysis.

  9. Imunoexpressão da citoqueratina 16 e do antígeno nuclear Ki-67 no colesteatoma adquirido da orelha média Expression patterns of cytokeratin 16 and the nuclear antigen Ki-67 in acquired middle ear cholesteatoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celina S. B. Pereira

    2002-08-01

    properties which may cause destruction of the bone and lead to complications. Substances such as cytokeratin (CK 16 and Ki-67 are some of the markers of cellular proliferation and have been used to study this disease. CK 16 is a protein filament located in the cytoplasm of epithelial cells and typical of hyperproliferating epithelium. Ki-67 is a nuclear antigen found in cells that are in the proliferating stage. Aim: The objective of this research project was to study the expression of CK 16 and Ki-67 in acquired cholesteatomas. Study design: Clinical prospective. Material and Method: Samples were obtained from 31 patients submitted to otologic surgery for the removal of a middle ear cholesteatoma from 1998 to 2000. Twenty patients were adults and 11 were children. Samples were studied by histology and by immunohystochemistry for the expression of CK16 and Ki-67 in the matrix of the cholesteatoma. Results: CK 16 was found in the suprabasal layers of the matrix of the cholesteatoma, and Ki-67 was found from the basal layer all the way to the suprabasal and apical layers. Reaction to anti-CK 16 and Ki-67 antibodies was heterogeneous. There was a positive and significant relation between morphological variables such as epithelial acantosis and hyperplasia of the basal layer and the presence of suprabasal CK16 and Ki-67 in the matrix. Conclusion: Based on the results of this study, the authors conclude that cholesteatomas have hyperproliferating characteristics with a significant-expression of CK16 and Ki-67 in the matrix.

  10. [Molecular tests in diagnosis of Cytomegalovirus (CMV), human herpesvirus 6 (HHV-6) and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) using real-time PCR in HIV positive and HIV-negative pregnant women in Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouedraogo, Alice Rogomenoma; Kabre, Madeleine; Bisseye, Cyrille; Zohoncon, Théodora Mahoukèdè; Asshi, Maleki; Soubeiga, Serge Théophile; Diarra, Birama; Traore, Lassina; Djigma, Florencia Wendkuuni; Ouermi, Djénéba; Pietra, Virginio; Barro, Nicolas; Simpore, Jacques

    2016-01-01

    Herpesvirus EBV, CMV and HHV-6 are viruses that evolve based on pandemic modeling and are responsible for congenital infections causing severe sequelae in infants. This study aims to determine the prevalence of CMV, EBV and HHV-6 among HIV (+) and HIV (-) pregnant women in Ouagadougou. In this study 200 blood plasma samples taken from pregnant women, of whom 100 with HIV(+) and 100 with HIV(-), were analyzed using multiplex real-time PCR which detected three infections (EBV, CMV and HHV-6). Out of the 200 samples tested, 18(9.0%) were positive for at least one of the three viruses, 12(6.0%) were positive for EBV, 13(6.5%) were positive for CMV and 12(6.0%) were positive for HHV-6. Among the 18 cases with infections, 10 cases (55.6%) had co-infections of whom 90.0% (9/10) with multiple EBV/CMV/HHV6 infection and 10.0% with EBV/HHV6 co-infection. HHVs infection rate was higher among HIV (-) pregnant women than among HIV (+) pregnant women (12.0% versus 6.0%). Among HIV (+) pregnant women, PCR showed 7.1% (6/85) of HHVs infection in patients who were not treated with ARV against 0% in those treated with ARVs. Herpes virus infections are a common condition in pregnant women in Burkina Faso. They may represent a real threat to pregnant women because of complications and risks of infection in infants.

  11. Radioprotective activity of shigella antigens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klemparskaya, N.N.; Gorbunova, E.S.; Dobronravova, N.N.

    1981-01-01

    The possibility of using experimental microbe antigenous preparation out of Flexner and Zonne shigellas as a protector and a remedy in the case of gamma irradiation, is investigated. The experiments are carried out on mice of both sexes immunized before or after irradiation by two methods: subcutaneously and enerally. It is found that in most cases investigated, the introduction of the experimental preparation 3, 5, 7 and 10 days before irradiation increases the survivability of animals [ru

  12. 2B4-SAP signaling is required for the priming of naive CD8+ T cells by antigen-expressing B cells and B lymphoma cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Mutations in SH2D1A gene that encodes SAP (SLAM-associated protein) result in X-linked lymphoproliferative disease (XLP), a rare primary immunodeficiency disease defined by exquisite sensitivity to the B-lymphotropic Epstein–Barr virus (EBV) and B cell lymphomas. However, the precise mechanism of how the loss of SAP function contributes to extreme vulnerability to EBV and the development of B cell lymphomas remains unclear. Here, we investigate the hypothesis that SAP is critical for CD8+ T cell immune surveillance of antigen (Ag)-expressing B cells or B lymphoma cells under conditions of defined T cell receptor (TCR) signaling. Sh2d1a−/− CD8+ T cells exhibited greatly diminished proliferation relative to wild type when Ag-presenting-B cells or -B lymphoma cells served as the primary Ag-presenting cell (APC). By contrast, Sh2d1a−/− CD8+ T cells responded equivalently to wild-type CD8+ T cells when B cell-depleted splenocytes, melanoma cells or breast carcinoma cells performed Ag presentation. Through application of signaling lymphocyte activation molecule (SLAM) family receptor blocking antibodies or SLAM family receptor-deficient CD8+ T cells and APCs, we found that CD48 engagement on the B cell surface by 2B4 is crucial for initiating SAP-dependent signaling required for the Ag-driven CD8+ T cell proliferation and differentiation. Altogether, a pivotal role for SAP in promoting the expansion and differentiation of B cell-primed viral-specific naive CD8+ T cells may explain the selective immune deficiency of XLP patients to EBV and B cell lymphomas. PMID:28344876

  13. 2B4-SAP signaling is required for the priming of naive CD8+ T cells by antigen-expressing B cells and B lymphoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yu-Hsuan; Tsai, Kevin; Tan, Sara Y; Kang, Sohyeong; Ford, Mandy L; Harder, Kenneth W; Priatel, John J

    2017-01-01

    Mutations in SH2D1A gene that encodes SAP (SLAM-associated protein) result in X-linked lymphoproliferative disease (XLP), a rare primary immunodeficiency disease defined by exquisite sensitivity to the B-lymphotropic Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) and B cell lymphomas. However, the precise mechanism of how the loss of SAP function contributes to extreme vulnerability to EBV and the development of B cell lymphomas remains unclear. Here, we investigate the hypothesis that SAP is critical for CD8 + T cell immune surveillance of antigen (Ag)-expressing B cells or B lymphoma cells under conditions of defined T cell receptor (TCR) signaling. Sh2d1a - / - CD8 + T cells exhibited greatly diminished proliferation relative to wild type when Ag-presenting-B cells or -B lymphoma cells served as the primary Ag-presenting cell (APC). By contrast, Sh2d1a - / - CD8 + T cells responded equivalently to wild-type CD8 + T cells when B cell-depleted splenocytes, melanoma cells or breast carcinoma cells performed Ag presentation. Through application of signaling lymphocyte activation molecule (SLAM) family receptor blocking antibodies or SLAM family receptor-deficient CD8 + T cells and APCs, we found that CD48 engagement on the B cell surface by 2B4 is crucial for initiating SAP-dependent signaling required for the Ag-driven CD8 + T cell proliferation and differentiation. Altogether, a pivotal role for SAP in promoting the expansion and differentiation of B cell-primed viral-specific naive CD8 + T cells may explain the selective immune deficiency of XLP patients to EBV and B cell lymphomas.

  14. Chlorphenesin: an antigen-associated immunosuppressant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whang, H Y; Neter, E

    1970-07-01

    Chlorphenesin (3-p-chlorophenoxy-1,2-propanediol), when injected intravenously together with either of two common bacterial antigens, inhibits the antibody response of the rabbit. The antigens studied are those common to Enterobacteriaceae and to gram-positive bacteria. The immunosuppression is contingent upon incubation of chlorphenesin and antigen in vitro prior to administration, since separate injection of antigen and inhibitor or of mixtures without prior incubation yields undiminished antibody response. Chlorphenesin, as shown by hemagglutination-inhibition tests, does not alter the antigenic determinants, because antibody neutralization occurs in the presence or absence of the drug. The immunosuppressive effect is reversible, since precipitation of chlorphenesin at 4 C substantially restores immunogenicity. Animals immunized with antigen-drug mixtures, which fail to respond with significant antibody production, nonetheless are immunologically primed. It is concluded that chlorphenesin represents another example of antigen-associated immunosuppressants.

  15. Presentation of lipid antigens to T cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, Lucia; De Libero, Gennaro

    2008-04-15

    T cells specific for lipid antigens participate in regulation of the immune response during infections, tumor immunosurveillance, allergy and autoimmune diseases. T cells recognize lipid antigens as complexes formed with CD1 antigen-presenting molecules, thus resembling recognition of MHC-peptide complexes. The biophysical properties of lipids impose unique mechanisms for their delivery, internalization into antigen-presenting cells, membrane trafficking, processing, and loading of CD1 molecules. Each of these steps is controlled at molecular and celular levels and determines lipid immunogenicity. Lipid antigens may derive from microbes and from the cellular metabolism, thus allowing the immune system to survey a large repertoire of immunogenic molecules. Recognition of lipid antigens facilitates the detection of infectious agents and the initiation of responses involved in immunoregulation and autoimmunity. This review focuses on the presentation mechanisms and specific recognition of self and bacterial lipid antigens and discusses the important open issues.

  16. Magnitude of Alloresponses to MHC Class I/II Expressing Human Cardiac Myocytes is Limited by their Intrinsic Ability to Process and Present Antigenic Peptides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aftab A. Ansari

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available In this investigation we have explored the relationship between the weak allogenicity of cardiac myocytes and their capacity to present allo-antigens by examining the ability of a human cardiac myocyte cell line (W-1 to process and present nominal antigens. W-1 cells (HLA-A*0201 and HLA-DR β1*0301 pulsed with the influenza A matrix 1 (58-66 peptide (M1 were able to serve as targets for the HLA-A*0201 restricted CTL line PG, specific for M1-peptide. However, PG-CTLs were unable to lyse W-1 target cells infected with a recombinant vaccinia virus expressing the M1 protein (M1-VAC. Pretreatment of these M1-VAC targets with IFN-γ partially restored their ability to process and present the M1 peptide. However, parallel studies demonstrated that IFN-γ pretreated W-1's could not process tetanus toxin (TT or present the TT(830-843 peptide to HLA-DR3 restricted TT-primed T cells. Semi-quantitative RT-PCR measurements revealed significantly lower constitutive levels of expression for MHC class I, TAP-1/2, and LMP-2/7 genes in W-1s that could be elevated by pretreatment with IFN-γ to values equal to or greater than those expressed in EBV-PBLs. However, mRNA levels for the genes encoding MHC class II, Ii, CIITA, and DMA/B were markedly lower in both untreated and IFN-γ pretreated W-1s relative to EBV-PBLs. Furthermore, pulse-chase analysis of the corresponding genes revealed significantly lower protein levels and longer half-life expression in W-1s relative to EBV-PBLs. These results suggest that weak allogenicity of cardiac myocytes may be governed by their limited expression of MHC genes and gene products critical for antigen processing and presentation.

  17. Broadly reactive human CD8 T cells that recognize an epitope conserved between VZV, HSV and EBV.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Chiu

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Human herpesviruses are important causes of potentially severe chronic infections for which T cells are believed to be necessary for control. In order to examine the role of virus-specific CD8 T cells against Varicella Zoster Virus (VZV, we generated a comprehensive panel of potential epitopes predicted in silico and screened for T cell responses in healthy VZV seropositive donors. We identified a dominant HLA-A*0201-restricted epitope in the VZV ribonucleotide reductase subunit 2 and used a tetramer to analyze the phenotype and function of epitope-specific CD8 T cells. Interestingly, CD8 T cells responding to this VZV epitope also recognized homologous epitopes, not only in the other α-herpesviruses, HSV-1 and HSV-2, but also the γ-herpesvirus, EBV. Responses against these epitopes did not depend on previous infection with the originating virus, thus indicating the cross-reactive nature of this T cell population. Between individuals, the cells demonstrated marked phenotypic heterogeneity. This was associated with differences in functional capacity related to increased inhibitory receptor expression (including PD-1 along with decreased expression of co-stimulatory molecules that potentially reflected their stimulation history. Vaccination with the live attenuated Zostavax vaccine did not efficiently stimulate a proliferative response in this epitope-specific population. Thus, we identified a human CD8 T cell epitope that is conserved in four clinically important herpesviruses but that was poorly boosted by the current adult VZV vaccine. We discuss the concept of a "pan-herpesvirus" vaccine that this discovery raises and the hurdles that may need to be overcome in order to achieve this.

  18. PD-L1 expression in EBV-negative diffuse large B-cell lymphoma: clinicopathologic features and prognostic implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Wei; Dresser, Karen; Zhang, Rui; Evens, Andrew M; Yu, Hongbo; Woda, Bruce A; Chen, Benjamin J

    2016-09-13

    Programmed cell death ligand 1 (PD-L1) is a cell surface glycoprotein that regulates the cellular immune response and serves as a targetable immune checkpoint molecule. PD-L1 is expressed on tumor cells and the immune microenvironment of several human malignancies, including a subset of aggressive lymphomas. We sought to investigate further the clinical and pathologic features of EBV-negative diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) cases that express PD-L1. Immunohistochemical staining using an anti-PD-L1 monoclonal antibody was performed on DLBCL cases from 86 patients. These patients received standard chemotherapy treatment and were followed for up to 175 months. Overall, 14 cases (16%) were considered positive for PD-L1 in tumor cells. In comparison with PD-L1 negative cases, PD-L1 positive cases had a higher rate of non-GCB type (71% vs. 30%, P=0.0060), and higher Ann Arbor stage (II-IV) (100% vs. 73%, P=0.0327). No significant differences were seen in the immunohistochemical expression of BCL2, MYC, or Ki67. Patients with tumors expressing PD-L1 demonstrated inferior overall survival (OS) upon long term follow up (P=0.0447). Both age/sex-adjusted and multivariate analyses identified PD-L1 as an independent predictor for OS (P=0.0101 and P=0.0424). There was no significant difference, however, in terms of remission rates after first treatment, relapse rates, and progression free survival between the groups. Identification of DLBCL cases that express PD-L1 may serve to select a subset of patients that could further benefit from targeted immunotherapy.

  19. Effector CD4+ T cells recognize intravascular antigen presented by patrolling monocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westhorpe, Clare L V; Norman, M Ursula; Hall, Pam; Snelgrove, Sarah L; Finsterbusch, Michaela; Li, Anqi; Lo, Camden; Tan, Zhe Hao; Li, Songhui; Nilsson, Susan K; Kitching, A Richard; Hickey, Michael J

    2018-02-21

    Although effector CD4 + T cells readily respond to antigen outside the vasculature, how they respond to intravascular antigens is unknown. Here we show the process of intravascular antigen recognition using intravital multiphoton microscopy of glomeruli. CD4 + T cells undergo intravascular migration within uninflamed glomeruli. Similarly, while MHCII is not expressed by intrinsic glomerular cells, intravascular MHCII-expressing immune cells patrol glomerular capillaries, interacting with CD4 + T cells. Following intravascular deposition of antigen in glomeruli, effector CD4 + T-cell responses, including NFAT1 nuclear translocation and decreased migration, are consistent with antigen recognition. Of the MHCII + immune cells adherent in glomerular capillaries, only monocytes are retained for prolonged durations. These cells can also induce T-cell proliferation in vitro. Moreover, monocyte depletion reduces CD4 + T-cell-dependent glomerular inflammation. These findings indicate that MHCII + monocytes patrolling the glomerular microvasculature can present intravascular antigen to CD4 + T cells within glomerular capillaries, leading to antigen-dependent inflammation.

  20. Immunohistochemical detection of the latent nuclear antigen-1 of the human herpesvirus type 8 to differentiate cutaneous epidemic Kaposi sarcoma and its histological simulators Detecção imuno-histoquímica do antígeno nuclear latente-1 do herpesvirus tipo 8 para diferenciar o sarcoma de Kaposi epidêmico cutâneo de seus simuladores histológicos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Fonseca Pereira

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Kaposi's sarcoma is the most common neoplasia diagnosed in AIDS patients and the expression of the human herpesvirus-8 (HHV-8 latent nuclear antigen-1 has been useful for its histological diagnosis. The aim of this study is to confirm that immunohistochemistry is a valuable tool for differentiating KS from its simulators in skin biopsies of HIV patients. Immunohistochemical and histological analyses were performed in 49 Kaposi's sarcoma skin biopsies and 60 of its histological simulators. Positivity was present in the 49 Kaposi's sarcoma skin biopsies and no staining was observed in the 60 simulators analyzed, resulting in sensibility and specificity of 100%. HHV-8 immunohistochemical detection is an effective tool for diagnosing Kaposi's sarcoma, especially in early lesions in which neoplastic features are not evident. It also contributes to its histological differential diagnosis.O sarcoma de Kaposi é a neoplasia mais diagnosticada em pacientes com SIDA e a expressão do antígeno nuclear latente-1 do herpesvírus humano tipo-8 (HHV-8 tem se mostrado útil no seu diagnóstico histológico. O objetivo deste estudo é confirmar que o método imuno-histoquímico é uma ferramenta útil para diferenciar o sarcoma de Kaposi cutâneo de seus simuladores histológicos em pacientes HIV positivos. Análise histológica e imuno-histoquímica foram realizadas em 49 casos de sarcoma de Kaposi cutâneo e 60 casos de seus simuladores histológicos. Positividade à imuno-histoquímica para o antígeno nuclear latente 1 do HHV-8 foi observada nos 49 casos de sarcoma de Kaposi e nenhuma reação foi detectada nos 60 simuladores analisados, resultando em 100% de sensibilidade e especificidade. A detecção do HHV-8 por imuno-histoquímica é uma ferramenta útil para o diagnóstico de sarcoma de Kaposi, especialmente na lesão inicial cujo caráter neoplásico não é evidente, e contribui para seu diagnóstico diferencial histológico.

  1. Epstein-barr virus latent membrane protein 1 (EBV-LMP1) and tumor proliferation rate as predictive factors of nasopharyngeal cancer (NPC) radiation response

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gondhowiardjo, S. [Univ. of Indonesia, Jakarta (Indonesia). Faculty of Medicine

    2000-05-01

    Irradiation is still the treatment of choice in NPC treatment as one of highest malignancy in Indonesia as well as in Southeast Asia. Up to now there is no accurate predictor on radiation response, since that the similar histo-morphological pattern, as a well-known prognostic factor can revealed a wide range of treatment outcomes. Purpose of the study is to established the influence of EBV-LMP 1 as the most important protein expressed by EBV oncogenes in cellular behavior such as proliferation rate, tumor aggressivity in NPC and to find out the role of both, proliferation rate and EBV-LMP1 expression as a predictor on NPC radiation response. One-hundred seventy-two paraffin-embedded biopsy specimens from NPC patients were analysed flow-cytometrically to obtain the S-phase fraction value as the proliferation parameter. From this group of patients, 81 fresh specimen biopsies could be collected, and the EBV-LMP 1 expression were detected by western blotting technique (mAB S12-Karolinska Institute) could be done. Several variables such as clinical stage, pathology pattern and radiation response were also collected. The radiation responses were established clinically (by nasopharyngoscopy), by CT scanning and pathologically. Sixty-five percent of our patients belong to the T3 and T4, whereby the N2-3 group consists 75% of them. Fourteen percent of the patients are Hsu type I, 48% are Hs type II and the rest belong to Hsu type III. Our study revealed that the mean SPF value was 14.62% (10.18%, which correlated (p<0.05) with the tumor and nodal sizes). The rate of positive expression of the EBV-LMP1 was 50%, and did not show a correlation with the proliferation activity as well as the radiation response. However, it showed a significant correlation with the tumor and nodal size. There was a significant correlation between this proliferation value with the radiation response calculated by both, bivariate as well as by multivariate analysis. The complete and incomplete

  2. A simple procedure for the extraction of DNA from long-term formalin-preserved brain tissues for the detection of EBV by PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassani, Asma; Khan, Gulfaraz

    2015-12-01

    Long-term formalin fixed brain tissues are potentially an important source of material for molecular studies. Ironically, very few protocols have been published describing DNA extraction from such material for use in PCR analysis. In our attempt to investigate the role of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) in the pathogenesis of multiple sclerosis (MS), extracting PCR quality DNA from brain samples fixed in formalin for 2-22 years, proved to be very difficult and challenging. As expected, DNA extracted from these samples was not only of poor quality and quantity, but more importantly, it was frequently found to be non-amplifiable due to the presence of PCR inhibitors. Here, we describe a simple and reproducible procedure for extracting DNA using a modified proteinase K and phenol-chloroform methodology. Central to this protocol is the thorough pre-digestion washing of the tissues in PBS, extensive digestion with proteinase K in low SDS containing buffer, and using low NaCl concentration during DNA precipitation. The optimized protocol was used in extracting DNA from meninges of 26 MS and 6 non-MS cases. Although the quality of DNA from these samples was generally poor, small size amplicons (100-200 nucleotides) of the house-keeping gene, β-globin could be reliably amplified from all the cases. PCR for EBV revealed positivity in 35% (9/26) MS cases, but 0/6 non-MS cases. These findings indicate that the method described here is suitable for PCR detection of viral sequences in long-term formalin persevered brain tissues. Our findings also support a possible role for EBV in the pathogenesis of MS. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Characterization of Leishmania Soluble Exo-Antigen

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cui, Liwang

    2003-01-01

    .... Vaccine development is the ultimate solution for this problem. Our previous research indicates that Leishmania parasites secrete, excrete, or shed antigens into the medium during in vitro culture...

  4. Binding of hydrophobic antigens to surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2017-01-01

    A first aspect of the present invention is a method of detecting antibodies comprising the steps of: i) providing a first group of beads comprising a surface modified with C1-C10 alkyl groups comprising amine, ammonium, ether and/or hydroxyl groups, ii) contacting said first group of beads......-antigen-antibody conjugates, and v) detecting said bead-antigen-antibody conjugates. Further aspects include an antibody detection kit, a bead-antigen conjugate and a composition comprising at least two different groups of bead-antigen-conjugates....

  5. Accessory signals in T-T cell interactions between antigen- and alloantigen-specific, human memory T cells generated in vitro

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Odum, N; Ryder, L P; Georgsen, J

    1990-01-01

    The potential of activated HLA class II-positive T cells as antigen-/alloantigen-presenting cells remains controversial. In our model system we use in vitro-primed, HLA class II-specific T cells of the memory T-cell phenotype, CD4+, CD29+ (4B4+), and CD45RO+ (UCHL-1). We have previously shown......), or a calcium ionophore (A23187) enabled Ta to elicit alloantigen-specific memory T-cell responses and to present purified protein derivative (PPD) to PPD-specific T-cell lines. The addition of irradiated, Epstein-Barr virus-transformed B-cell lines (EBV-LCL) (but not their supernatants) had a similar but less...

  6. Leaky RAG Deficiency in Adult Patients with Impaired Antibody Production against Bacterial Polysaccharide Antigens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoph B Geier

    Full Text Available Loss of function mutations in the recombination activating genes RAG1 and RAG2 have been reported to cause a T-B-NK+ type of severe combined immunodeficiency. In addition identification of hypomorphic mutations in RAG1 and RAG2 has led to an expansion of the spectrum of disease to include Omenn syndrome, early onset autoimmunity, granuloma, chronic cytomegalovirus- or EBV-infection with expansion of gamma/delta T-cells, idiophatic CD4 lymphopenia and a phenotype resembling common variable immunodeficiency. Herein we describe a novel presentation of leaky RAG1 and RAG2 deficiency in two unrelated adult patients with impaired antibody production against bacterial polysaccharide antigens. Clinical manifestation included recurrent pneumonia, sinusitis, otitis media and in one patient recurrent cutaneous vasculitis. Both patients harbored a combination of a null mutation on one allele with a novel hypomorphic RAG1/2 mutation on the other allele. One of these novel mutations affected the start codon of RAG1 and resulted in an aberrant gene and protein expression. The second novel RAG2 mutation leads to a truncated RAG2 protein, lacking the C-terminus with intact core RAG2 and reduced VDJ recombination capacity as previously described in a mouse model. Both patients presented with severely decreased numbers of naïve CD4+ T cells and defective T independent IgG responses to bacterial polysaccharide antigens, while T cell-dependent IgG antibody formation e.g. after tetanus or TBEV vaccination was intact. In conclusion, hypomorphic mutations in genes responsible for SCID should be considered in adults with predominantly antibody deficiency.

  7. Ultraviolet radiation (UVR) induces cell-surface Ro/SSA antigen expression by human keratinocytes in vitro: a possible mechanism for the UVR induction of cutaneous lupus lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, S.K.

    1992-01-01

    Antinuclear antibodies are useful markers of connective tissue disease. In this study, UVB but not UVA induced the expression of Ro/SSA antigen on keratinocyte surfaces in vitro. This expression was also found with the extractable nuclear antigens RnP and Sm, but not with single or double-stranded DNA. The expression was prevented by blocking protein synthesis, suggesting that it was an active process. The results suggest that UVB exposure may result in the expression of Ro/SSA antigen on the surfaces of basal keratinocytes in vivo. This antigen could then bind circulating antibody leading to the cutaneous lesions in neonatal and subacute cutaneous lupus erythematosus. (Author)

  8. Virosomes for antigen and DNA delivery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Daemen, T; de Mare, A; Bungener, L; de Jonge, J; Huckriede, A; Wilschut, J

    2005-01-01

    Specific targeting and delivery as well as the display of antigens on the surface of professional antigen-presenting cells (APCs) are key issues in the design and development of new-generation vaccines aimed at the induction of both humoral and cell-mediated immunity. Prophylactic vaccination

  9. Radioimmunoassay for a human prostate specific antigen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Machida, T.; Miki, M.; Ohishi, Y.; Kido, A.; Morikawa, J.; Ogawa, Y.

    1983-01-01

    As a marker for prostatic cancer, a prostate-specific antigen was purified from human prostatic tissues. Double antibody radioimmunoassay utilizing immune reaction was developed on the basis of the purified prostatic antigen (PA). Measurement results have revealed that PA radioimmunoassay is much better than prostatic acid phosphatase (PAP) radioimmunoassay in the diagnosis of prostatic cancer

  10. Studies on antigenic cross-reactivity of Trichuris ovis with host mucosal antigens in goat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gautam Patra

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To ascertain whether immunodominant antigens of Trichuris ovis might share and cross react with host molecule. Methods: Two crude protein preparations from anterior and posterior parts of Trichuris ovis were characterized along with host mucosal antigen by double immunodiffusion, sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and western blotting technique. Conventional scanning electron microscopy was performed as per standard procedure. Results: Sharp and distinct bands of three antigens have been found in double immunodiffusion using hyperimmune serum raised in rabbit indicating the presence of specific antibody against each antigen. All three antigens have shown major and minor bands with molecular weight ranging from 15 to 110 kDa during sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Conclusions: The antigenic cross-reactivity was thought to result from shared antigens. The existence of paracloacal papillae found in the anterior part of the male was not a unique feature for species differentiation.

  11. The value of serum Hepatitis B surface antigen quantification in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The value of serum Hepatitis B surface antigen quantification in determining viralactivity in chronic Hepatitis B virus infection. ... ofCHB andalso higher in hepatitis e antigen positive patients compared to hepatitis e antigen negative patients.

  12. Detecção do vírus Epstein-Barr (EBV) em adenocarcinomas gástricos procedentes dos estados do Ceará e de São Paulo

    OpenAIRE

    Lima,Marcos Antonio Pereira de; Ferreira,Márcia Valéria Pitombeira; Barros,Marcos Aurélio Pessoa; Pardini,Maria Inês de Moura Campos; Ferrasi,Adriana Camargo; Rabenhorst,Silvia Helena Barem

    2011-01-01

    INTRODUÇÃO: O vírus Epstein-Barr (EBV) está associado a cerca de 10% dos adenocarcinomas gástricos, representando mais de 50 mil casos por ano no mundo. Apesar dos estudos realizados em várias partes do mundo, alguns aspectos clinicopatológicos permanecem controversos. OBJETIVOS: O presente estudo teve como objetivo analisar as características clinicopatológicas de casos de adenocarcinomas gástricos procedentes dos estados de São Paulo e Ceará, correlacionando-os com a detecção de EBV. MATERI...

  13. Carcinoembryonic antigen radioimmunoassay in hepatic tumor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aburano, Tamio; Tonami, Norihisa; Hisada, Kinichi

    1976-01-01

    Carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) radioimmunoassay with the sandwich method was performed in addition to both α 1 -fetoprotein (AFP) radioimmunoassay and liver scintigraphy to elevate the diagnostic accuracy of hepatic tumor in nuclear medicine. All of the ten healthy controls and 47 of 52 cases with benign disease showed a CEA titer less than 2.5ng/ml. 78 of 188 cases (41%) of malignant disease showed a titer of over 2.5ng/ml; however most positive cases were metastatic, especially to the liver. In metastatic liver cancer, thirtythree out of 46 cases (72%) showed a strongly positive CEA titer. Over 5ng/ml was taken as the lower limit for predicting metastasis to the liver. On the other hand, in primary liver cancer thirty-two out of 35 cases (91%) showed a strongly positive AFP titer over 200ng/ml, although only one case showed a CEA titer over 5ng/ml. Seven cases (15%) of metastatic liver cancer also showed a strongly positive AFP titer; however six of these positive cases showed a CEA titer over 5ng/ml. In metastatic liver cancer, eleven out of 46 cases (24%) showed no clearcut focal defects on liver scintigram. Nine of these negative cases showed a CEA titer over 5ng/ml, and at subsequent operation metastatic liver lesions were found. The overall diagnostic accuracy for detecting metastatic liver cancer with a combination of both methods was 95%. CEA radioimmunoassay was found to be useful for the elucidation of the nature of focal hepatic lesions in addition to AFP radioimmunoassay, and moreover could be used as an adjunct to liver scintigraphy for the detection of metastatic lesions in the liver. (auth.)

  14. Leukemia-associated antigens in man.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, G; Capellaro, D; Greaves, M

    1975-12-01

    Rabbit antisera raised against acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) cells were used to distinguish ALL from other leukemias, to identify rare leukemia cells in the bone marrow of patients in remission, and to define human leukemia-associated antigens. Antibody binding was studied with the use of immunofluorescence reagents and the analytic capacity of the Fluorescence Activated Cell Sorter-1 (FACS-1). The results indicated that most non-T-cell ALL have three leukemia-associated antigens on their surface which are absent from normal lymphoid cells: 1) an antigen shared with myelocytes, myeloblastic leukemia cells, and fetal liver (hematopoietic) cells; 2) an antigen shared with a subset of intermediate normoblasts in normal bone marrow and fetal liver; and 3) an antigen found thus far only on non-T-cell ALL and in some acute undifferentiated leukemias, which we therefore regard as a strong candidate for a leukemia-specific antigen. These antigens are absent from a subgroup of ALL patients in which the lymphoblasta express T-cell surface markers. Preliminary studies on the bone marrow samples of patients in remission indicated that rare leukemia cells were present in some samples. The implications of these findings with respect to the heterogeneity and cell origin(s) of ALL, its diagnosis, and its potential monitoring during treatment were discussed.

  15. Investigação da LMP1 do EBV e a coinfeçcão do HPV em lesões genitais de pacientes infectados ou não pelo HIV Investigation of the LMP1 EBV and co-infection by HPV in genital lesions of patients infected or not by HIV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiana Resende Rodrigues

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: Vários estudos têm demonstrado associação do vírus Epstein-Barr (EBV com neoplasias malignas, inclusive genitais, em que o papilomavírus humano (HPV é o principal vírus associado às neoplasias epiteliais benignas e malignas. OBJETIVO: Investigar a presença do EBV e do HPV em lesões genitais de ambos os sexos, em pacientes soropositivos (grupo A ou não (grupo B para o vírus da imunodeficiência humana (HIV. MATERIAL E MÉTODO: Selecionados 126 pacientes e 135 lesões anogenitais, sendo 67 pacientes (53% e 75 lesões (56% no grupo A e 59 pacientes (47% e 60 lesões (44% no grupo B, para análise imuno-histoquímica (IHQ por meio dos anticorpos monoclonais antiproteína latente de membrana 1 (LMP1 e HPV (DAKO®. RESULTADOS: A análise mostrou que o número total de lesões com imunopositividade para o HPV e para a LMP1 foi maior no grupo A (32 e 35, respectivamente quando comparado ao B (16 e seis, respectivamente. A análise estatística (nível de significância de 5% mostrou que as proporções para o HPV não são estatisticamente significativas (z = 1,93; valor p = 0,053. Entretanto, para a LMP1, a diferença (47% no grupo A e 10% no B é significativa (z = 4,60; valor p = 4,2×10-6. Do mesmo modo, a associação HPV-LMP1 (21% no grupo A e 7% no B também mostrou diferença estatisticamente significativa (z = 2,38; valor p = 0,017. CONCLUSÃO: Esses resultados indicam a possibilidade de sinergismo da infecção pelo EBV e a coinfecção EBV-HPV em lesões epiteliais genitais, particularmente em pacientes soropositivos para o HIV. Entretanto, investigações com metodologia de maior especificidade e sensibilidade são necessárias para a verificação da real participação do EBV na patogênese de lesões epiteliais genitais.INTRODUCTION: Several studies have demonstrated the association between Epstein-Barr virus (EBV and malignant neoplasias, including genital lesions, in which the human papillomavirus (HPV is the

  16. Posttransplant chimeric antigen receptor therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Melody; Zakrzewski, Johannes; James, Scott; Sadelain, Michel

    2018-03-08

    Therapeutic T-cell engineering is emerging as a powerful approach to treat refractory hematological malignancies. Its most successful embodiment to date is based on the use of second-generation chimeric antigen receptors (CARs) targeting CD19, a cell surface molecule found in most B-cell leukemias and lymphomas. Remarkable complete remissions have been obtained with autologous T cells expressing CD19 CARs in patients with relapsed, chemo-refractory B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia, chronic lymphocytic leukemia, and non-Hodgkin lymphoma. Allogeneic CAR T cells may also be harnessed to treat relapse after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. However, the use of donor T cells poses unique challenges owing to potential alloreactivity. We review different approaches to mitigate the risk of causing or aggravating graft-versus-host disease (GVHD), including CAR therapies based on donor leukocyte infusion, virus-specific T cells, T-cell receptor-deficient T cells, lymphoid progenitor cells, and regulatory T cells. Advances in CAR design, T-cell selection and gene editing are poised to enable the safe use of allogeneic CAR T cells without incurring GVHD. © 2018 by The American Society of Hematology.

  17. Epstein-Barr virus and human immunodeficiency virus serological responses and viral burdens in HIV-infected patients treated with HAART

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Sullivan, Cathal E.; Peng, RongSheng; Cole, Kelly Stefano; Montelaro, Ronald C.; Sturgeon, Timothy; Jenson, Hal B.; Ling, Paul D.; Butel, J. S. (Principal Investigator)

    2002-01-01

    Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) associated non-Hodgkin lymphoma is recognized as a complication of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. Little is known regarding the influence of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) on the biology of EBV in this population. To characterize the EBV- and HIV-specific serological responses together with EBV DNA levels in a cohort of HIV-infected adults treated with HAART, a study was conducted to compare EBV and HIV serologies and EBV DNA copy number (DNAemia) over a 12-month period after the commencement of HAART. All patients were seropositive for EBV at baseline. Approximately 50% of patients had detectable EBV DNA at baseline, and 27/30 had detectable EBV DNA at some point over the follow-up period of 1 year. Changes in EBV DNA copy number over time for any individual were unpredictable. Significant increases in the levels of Epstein-Barr nuclear antigen (EBNA) and Epstein-Barr early antigen (EA) antibodies were demonstrated in the 17 patients who had a good response to HAART. Of 29 patients with paired samples tested, four-fold or greater increases in titers were detected for EA in 12/29 (41%), for EBNA in 7/29 (24%), for VCA-IgG in 4/29 (14%); four-fold decreases in titers were detected in 2/29 (7%) for EA and 12/29 (41%) for EBNA. A significant decline in the titer of anti-HIV antibodies was also demonstrated. It was concluded that patients with advanced HIV infection who respond to HAART have an increase in their EBV specific antibodies and a decrease in their HIV-specific antibodies. For the cohort overall, there was a transient increase in EBV DNA levels that had declined by 12 months. Copyright 2002 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  18. Tumor Associated Antigenic Peptides in Prostate Cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Tiwari, Raj

    1999-01-01

    .... We proposed to identify these novel antigens in an experimental rat model using purified preparations of the heat shock protein gp96 and a library of synthetic distinct antibodies that were available...

  19. Prostate-Specific Antigen (PSA) Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Cancer Prostate Cancer Screening Research Prostate-Specific Antigen (PSA) Test On This Page What is the PSA ... parts of the body before being detected. The PSA test may give false-positive or false-negative ...

  20. Nuclear law - Nuclear safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pontier, Jean-Marie; Roux, Emmanuel; Leger, Marc; Deguergue, Maryse; Vallar, Christian; Pissaloux, Jean-Luc; Bernie-Boissard, Catherine; Thireau, Veronique; Takahashi, Nobuyuki; Spencer, Mary; Zhang, Li; Park, Kyun Sung; Artus, J.C.

    2012-01-01

    This book contains the contributions presented during a one-day seminar. The authors propose a framework for a legal approach to nuclear safety, a discussion of the 2009/71/EURATOM directive which establishes a European framework for nuclear safety in nuclear installations, a comment on nuclear safety and environmental governance, a discussion of the relationship between citizenship and nuclear, some thoughts about the Nuclear Safety Authority, an overview of the situation regarding the safety in nuclear waste burying, a comment on the Nome law with respect to electricity price and nuclear safety, a comment on the legal consequences of the Fukushima accident on nuclear safety in the Japanese law, a presentation of the USA nuclear regulation, an overview of nuclear safety in China, and a discussion of nuclear safety in the medical sector

  1. The significance of Epstein Barr Virus (EBV & DNA Topoisomerase II alpha (DNA-Topo II alpha immunoreactivity in normal oral mucosa, Oral Epithelial Dysplasia (OED and Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma (OSCC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osman Mohamed M

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Head and neck cancer including oral cancer is considered to develop by accumulated genetic alterations and the major pathway is cancerization from lesions such as intraepithelial dysplasia in oral leukoplakia and erythroplakia. The relationship of proliferation markers with the grading of dysplasia is uncertain. The involvement of EBV in oral carcinogenesis is not fully understood. Aim The present study was designed to investigate the role of EBV and DNA Topoisomerase II∝ (DNA-Topo II∝ during oral carcinogenesis and to examine the prognostic significance of these protein expressions in OSCCs. Methods Using specific antibodies for EBV and DNA-Topo II∝, we examined protein expressions in archival lesion tissues from 16 patients with oral epithelial dysplasia, 22 oral squamous cell carcinoma and 20 normal oral mucosa by immunohistochemistry. Clinical information was obtained through the computerized retrospective database from the tumor registry. Results DNA-Topo II∝ was expressed in all examined specimens. Analysis of Variance ANOVA revealed highly significant difference (P 0.05 in inferior surface of tongue and in hard palatal tissues. Significant differences were observed between OEDs and NSE (P Conclusion EBV and DNA Topo II-αLI expression are possible indicators in oral carcinogenesis and may be valuable diagnostic and prognostic indices in oral carcinoma.

  2. Nuclear accumulation of epidermal growth factor receptor and acceleration of G1/S stage by Epstein-Barr-encoded oncoprotein latent membrane protein 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tao Yongguang; Song Xing; Deng Xiyun; Xie Daxin; Lee, Leo M.; Liu Yiping; Li Wei; Li Lili; Deng Lin; Wu Qiao; Gong Jianping; Cao Ya

    2005-01-01

    Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-encoded latent membrane protein 1 (LMP1) is considered to be the major oncogenic protein of EBV-encoded proteins and has always been the core of the oncogenic mechanism of EBV. Advanced studies on nuclear translocation of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) family have greatly improved our knowledge of the biological function of cell surface receptors. In this study, we used the Tet-on LMP1 HNE2 cell line as a cell model, which is a dual-stable LMP1-integrated nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) cell line and the expression of LMP1 which could be regulated by the Tet system. We found that LMP1 could regulate the nuclear accumulation of EGFR in a dose-dependent manner quantitatively and qualitatively. We also demonstrated that the nuclear localization sequence of EGFR played some roles in the location of the protein within the nucleus under LMP1 regulation and EGFR in the nucleus could bind to the promoters of cyclinD1 and cyclinE, respectively. We further demonstrated that EGFR is involved in the acceleration of the G1/S phase transition by LMP1 through binding to cyclinD1 and cyclinE directly. These findings provided a novel view that the acceleration of LMP1 on the G1/S transition via the nuclear accumulation of EGFR was critical in the process of nasopharyngeal carcinoma

  3. Acute acalculous cholecystitis (AAC in the pediatric population associated with Epstein–Barr Virus (EBV infection. Case report and review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fuad Alkhoury

    2015-01-01

    PRESENTATION OF CASE: A 15-year-old female who came to the JDCH ER complaining of 3 days history of mild diffuse abdominal pain associated with two episodes of emesis. She also reports headache as well as a mild cough and low grade subjective fever. Blood test results showed mild leukocytosis with significant elevation in the lymphocytes (59%, High alkaline phosphatase (221 U/I, AST (191 U/I, ALT(221 U/I and bilirubin (Total 1.8 and direct 1.5. Abdominal US showed a contracted gallbladder with wall thickness and pericholecystic fluid. During hospital stay number 2–3 laboratory work up show a trending up in the bilirubin levels. MRCP was ordered and no abdnormalities were found. At this point Hospital stay number 3 EBV acute infection was suspected. Serum serological studies were subsequently diagnostic for this viral disease. Management was conservative and the patient was discharged asymptomatic on hospital day number six.

  4. Allosensibilisation to erythrocyte antigens (literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. V. Mineeva

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article literature review of the causes of allosensibilisation to erythrocyte antigens are presented. It is shown that the ability to produce antierythrocyte antibodies is affected by many factors, principal of whom it is difficult to identify. For the allosensibilisation development requires genetically determined differences in erythrocyte antigens phenotypes of donor and recipient, mother and fetus, which can lead to immune response and antibodies production. The biochemical nature of erythrocyte antigens, antigen dose (the amount of transfused doses, the number of antigens determinants on donor and fetus erythrocytes, the number of pregnancies are important. Individual patient characteristics: age, gender, diseases, the use of immunosuppressive therapy and the presence of inflammatory processes, are also relevant. Note that antibody to one erythrocyte antigens have clinical value, and to the other – have no. The actual data about frequency of clinically significant antibodies contribute to the development of post-transfusion hemolytic complications prophylaxis as well as the improvement of laboratory diagnosis of hemolytic disease of the newborn in the presence of maternal antierythrocyte antibodies.

  5. Therapeutic trials for a rabbit model of EBV-associated Hemophagocytic Syndrome (HPS): effects of vidarabine or CHOP, and development of Herpesvirus papio (HVP)-negative lymphomas surrounded by HVP-infected lymphoproliferative disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, K; Joko, H; Koirala, T R; Onoda, S; Jin, Z-S; Munemasa, M; Ohara, N; Oda, W; Tanaka, T; Oka, T; Kondo, E; Yoshino, T; Takahashi, K; Yamada, M; Akagi, T

    2003-10-01

    Epstein-Barr virus-associated hemophagocytic syndrome (EBV-AHS), which is often associated with fatal infectious mononucleosis or T-cell lymphoproliferative diseases (LPD), is a distinct disease characterized by high mortality. Treatment of patients with EBV-AHS has proved challenging. To develop some therapeutic interventions for EBV-AHS, we examined the effectiveness of an antiviral agent (vidarabine) or chemotherapy (CHOP), using a rabbit model for EBV-AHS. Fourteen untreated rabbits were inoculated intravenously with cell-free virions of the EBV-like virus Herpesvirus papio (HVP). All of the rabbits died of HVP-associated (LPD) and hemophagocytic syndrome (HPS) between 21 and 31 days after inoculation. Furthermore, three HVP-infected rabbits treated with vidarabine died between days 23 and 28 after inoculation, and their clinicopathological features were no different from those of untreated rabbits, indicating that this drug is not effective at all to treat HVP-induced rabbit LPD and HPS. Three of the infected rabbits that were treated with one course, with an incomplete set of three courses, or with three full courses of CHOP treatment died of HVP-induced LPD and HPS with a bleeding tendency and/or with opportunistic infections. They died on the 26th, 62nd and 105th day after virus inoculation, respectively. CHOP treatment transiently suppressed the HVP-induced LPD and contributed to the prolonged survival time of two infected rabbits. However, it did not remove all of the HVP-infected cells from the infected rabbits, and residual HVP-infected lymphocytes caused recurrences of rabbit LPD and HPS. The most interesting finding of this experiment was observed in the infected rabbit with the longest survival time of 105 days: HVP-negative lymphomas surrounded by HVP-induced LPD developed in the larynx and ileum of this rabbit, causing an obstruction of the lumen. We concluded that these were not secondary lymphomas caused by CHOP treatment, because no suspicious

  6. Oncogenic Viruses and Breast Cancer: Mouse Mammary Tumor Virus (MMTV), Bovine Leukemia Virus (BLV), Human Papilloma Virus (HPV), and Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawson, James S; Salmons, Brian; Glenn, Wendy K

    2018-01-01

    Although the risk factors for breast cancer are well established, namely female gender, early menarche and late menopause plus the protective influence of early pregnancy, the underlying causes of breast cancer remain unknown. The development of substantial recent evidence indicates that a handful of viruses may have a role in breast cancer. These viruses are mouse mammary tumor virus (MMTV), bovine leukemia virus (BLV), human papilloma viruses (HPVs), and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV-also known as human herpes virus type 4). Each of these viruses has documented oncogenic potential. The aim of this review is to inform the scientific and general community about this recent evidence. MMTV and human breast cancer-the evidence is detailed and comprehensive but cannot be regarded as conclusive. BLV and human breast cancer-the evidence is limited. However, in view of the emerging information about BLV in human breast cancer, it is prudent to encourage the elimination of BLV in cattle, particularly in the dairy industry. HPVs and breast cancer-the evidence is substantial but not conclusive. The availability of effective preventive vaccines is a major advantage and their use should be encouraged. EBV and breast cancer-the evidence is also substantial but not conclusive. Currently, there are no practical means of either prevention or treatment. Although there is evidence of genetic predisposition, and cancer in general is a culmination of events, there is no evidence that inherited genetic traits are causal. The influence of oncogenic viruses is currently the major plausible hypothesis for a direct cause of human breast cancer.

  7. Oncogenic Viruses and Breast Cancer: Mouse Mammary Tumor Virus (MMTV, Bovine Leukemia Virus (BLV, Human Papilloma Virus (HPV, and Epstein–Barr Virus (EBV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James S. Lawson

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundAlthough the risk factors for breast cancer are well established, namely female gender, early menarche and late menopause plus the protective influence of early pregnancy, the underlying causes of breast cancer remain unknown. The development of substantial recent evidence indicates that a handful of viruses may have a role in breast cancer. These viruses are mouse mammary tumor virus (MMTV, bovine leukemia virus (BLV, human papilloma viruses (HPVs, and Epstein–Barr virus (EBV-also known as human herpes virus type 4. Each of these viruses has documented oncogenic potential. The aim of this review is to inform the scientific and general community about this recent evidence.The evidenceMMTV and human breast cancer—the evidence is detailed and comprehensive but cannot be regarded as conclusive. BLV and human breast cancer—the evidence is limited. However, in view of the emerging information about BLV in human breast cancer, it is prudent to encourage the elimination of BLV in cattle, particularly in the dairy industry. HPVs and breast cancer—the evidence is substantial but not conclusive. The availability of effective preventive vaccines is a major advantage and their use should be encouraged. EBV and breast cancer—the evidence is also substantial but not conclusive. Currently, there are no practical means of either prevention or treatment. Although there is evidence of genetic predisposition, and cancer in general is a culmination of events, there is no evidence that inherited genetic traits are causal.ConclusionThe influence of oncogenic viruses is currently the major plausible hypothesis for a direct cause of human breast cancer.

  8. Ekspresi produk gen laten virus epstein-barr pada karsinoma sel skuamosa rongga mulut (The expressions of latent gene product of epstein-barr virus in oral squamous cell carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theresia Indah Budhy S

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC is a type of cancer often found in oral cavity and the area of head and neck at about 90%. Based on the geographical incidence oral SCC (OSCC has many types of different emerging. This case probably has connection with ethnic group, habit and social and economical condition. In East Java, the incidence is about 2.64% and it increases every year. The virus is known as one of the main factors that result in this disease. Epstein-Barr virus (EBV has potential capability of carcinogenesis. EBV is the family of herpesviridae that can infect cell through the linking of CD 21 receptor of the epithel with glycol protein 350/220 of the virus capsule. After primary infection, the virus will form latent-gene in human cell. Periodically, the latent-gene product can disturb proliferation and apoptotic regulator. In Indonesia, the expression of EBV latent geneproduct in the OSCC has not been reported yet. This study wanted to know the expression of EBV latent gene product found in the OSCC. This study found 25 cases of OSCC in which 17 were infected by EBV. Detection of EBV infection could be done by insitu hybridization to identify RNA EBV (EBER. To find the expression of EBV latent gene product, immunohistochemical analysis was done. The conclusion was that the emerging of expression of EBV latent gene product in OSCC were latent membrane protein-1 (LMP-1, EBV nuclear antigen-1 (EBNA-1 and RNA EBV (EBER. They were 28.28%, 25.26% and 46.47%. It was suggested to do the following research on OSCC infected by EBV and the emerging of expression of EBV latent gene product with regulator gene of proliferation and apoptotic in OSCC.

  9. Cell-permeable nanobodies for targeted immunolabelling and antigen manipulation in living cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herce, Henry D; Schumacher, Dominik; Schneider, Anselm F L; Ludwig, Anne K; Mann, Florian A; Fillies, Marion; Kasper, Marc-André; Reinke, Stefan; Krause, Eberhard; Leonhardt, Heinrich; Cardoso, M Cristina; Hackenberger, Christian P R

    2017-08-01

    Functional antibody delivery in living cells would enable the labelling and manipulation of intracellular antigens, which constitutes a long-thought goal in cell biology and medicine. Here we present a modular strategy to create functional cell-permeable nanobodies capable of targeted labelling and manipulation of intracellular antigens in living cells. The cell-permeable nanobodies are formed by the site-specific attachment of intracellularly stable (or cleavable) cyclic arginine-rich cell-penetrating peptides to camelid-derived single-chain VHH antibody fragments. We used this strategy for the non-endocytic delivery of two recombinant nanobodies into living cells, which enabled the relocalization of the polymerase clamp PCNA (proliferating cell nuclear antigen) and tumour suppressor p53 to the nucleolus, and thereby allowed the detection of protein-protein interactions that involve these two proteins in living cells. Furthermore, cell-permeable nanobodies permitted the co-transport of therapeutically relevant proteins, such as Mecp2, into the cells. This technology constitutes a major step in the labelling, delivery and targeted manipulation of intracellular antigens. Ultimately, this approach opens the door towards immunostaining in living cells and the expansion of immunotherapies to intracellular antigen targets.

  10. Utilization of Exocellular Mannan from Rhodotorula glutinis as an Immunoreactive Antigen in Diagnosis of Leptospirosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuo, Kouki; Isogai, Emiko; Araki, Yoshio

    2000-01-01

    Previously, Rhodotorula glutinis was reported to produce a large amount of exocellular mannan, having a repeating unit of →3)-d-Manp-(1→4)-d-Manp-(1→. Recently, we found that antigenic polysaccharides of Leptospira biflexa serovar patoc strain Patoc I have the same repeating unit and cross-react with antisera raised against extended strains of other leptospires (K. Matsuo, E. Isogai, and Y. Araki, Carbohydr. Res., in press). This structural identity and the difficulty of producing and isolating antigens led us to confirm the usefulness of Rhodotorula mannan as an immunoreactive antigen in a serological diagnosis of leptospirosis. In the present investigation, we confirmed the structural identity of an exocellular mannan isolated from R. glutinis AHU 3479 and tried to use it as an immunoreactive antigen in a serological diagnosis of leptospirosis. From its chemical analysis and 1H- and 13C-labeled nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometry, the Rhodotorula mannan was confirmed to consist of the same disaccharide units. Furthermore, such a preparation was shown to immunoreact to various sera from patients suffering with leptospirosis as well as to most rabbit antiserum preparations obtained from immunization with various strains of pathogenic leptospires. Therefore, the Rhodotorula mannan preparation is useful as an immunoreactive antigen in the serological diagnosis for leptospirosis. PMID:11015396

  11. Cell-permeable nanobodies for targeted immunolabelling and antigen manipulation in living cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herce, Henry D.; Schumacher, Dominik; Schneider, Anselm F. L.; Ludwig, Anne K.; Mann, Florian A.; Fillies, Marion; Kasper, Marc-André; Reinke, Stefan; Krause, Eberhard; Leonhardt, Heinrich; Cardoso, M. Cristina; Hackenberger, Christian P. R.

    2017-08-01

    Functional antibody delivery in living cells would enable the labelling and manipulation of intracellular antigens, which constitutes a long-thought goal in cell biology and medicine. Here we present a modular strategy to create functional cell-permeable nanobodies capable of targeted labelling and manipulation of intracellular antigens in living cells. The cell-permeable nanobodies are formed by the site-specific attachment of intracellularly stable (or cleavable) cyclic arginine-rich cell-penetrating peptides to camelid-derived single-chain VHH antibody fragments. We used this strategy for the non-endocytic delivery of two recombinant nanobodies into living cells, which enabled the relocalization of the polymerase clamp PCNA (proliferating cell nuclear antigen) and tumour suppressor p53 to the nucleolus, and thereby allowed the detection of protein-protein interactions that involve these two proteins in living cells. Furthermore, cell-permeable nanobodies permitted the co-transport of therapeutically relevant proteins, such as Mecp2, into the cells. This technology constitutes a major step in the labelling, delivery and targeted manipulation of intracellular antigens. Ultimately, this approach opens the door towards immunostaining in living cells and the expansion of immunotherapies to intracellular antigen targets.

  12. Expression of the VP40 antigen from the Zaire ebolavirus in tobacco plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monreal-Escalante, Elizabeth; Ramos-Vega, Abel A; Salazar-González, Jorge A; Bañuelos-Hernández, Bernardo; Angulo, Carlos; Rosales-Mendoza, Sergio

    2017-07-01

    The plant cell is able to produce the VP40 antigen from the Zaire ebolavirus , retaining the antigenicity and the ability to induce immune responses in BALB/c mice. The recent Ebola outbreak evidenced the need for having vaccines approved for human use. Herein we report the expression of the VP40 antigen from the Ebola virus as an initial effort in the development of a plant-made vaccine that could offer the advantages of being cheap and scalable, which is proposed to overcome the rapid need for having vaccines to deal with future outbreaks. Tobacco plants were transformed by stable DNA integration into the nuclear genome using the CaMV35S promoter and a signal peptide to access the endoplasmic reticulum, reaching accumulation levels up to 2.6 µg g -1 FW leaf tissues. The antigenicity of the plant-made VP40 antigen was evidenced by Western blot and an initial immunogenicity assessment in test animals that revealed the induction of immune responses in BALB/c mice following three weekly oral or subcutaneous immunizations at very low doses (125 and 25 ng, respectively) without accessory adjuvants. Therefore, this plant-based vaccination prototype is proposed as an attractive platform for the production of vaccines in the fight against Ebola virus disease outbreaks.

  13. Expression and Antigenic Evaluation of VacA Antigenic Fragment of Helicobacter Pylori

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasanzadeh, Leila; Ghaznavi-Rad, Ehsanollah; Soufian, Safieh; Farjadi, Vahideh; Abtahi, Hamid

    2013-01-01

    Objective(s) : Helicobacter pylori, a human specific gastric pathogen is a causative agent of chronic active gastritis. The vacuolating cytotoxin (VacA) is an effective virulence factor involved in gastric injury. The aim of this study was to construct a recombinant protein containing antigenic region of VacA gene and determine its antigenicity. Materials and Methods: The antigenic region of VacA gene was detected by bioinformatics methods. The polymerase chain reaction method was used to amplify a highly antigenic region of VacA gene from chromosomal DNA of H. pylori. The eluted product was cloned into the prokaryotic expression vector pET32a. The target protein was expressed in the Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3) pLysS. The bacteria including pET32a-VacA plasmids were induced by IPTG. The antigenicity was finally studied by western blotting using sera of 15 H. pylori infected patients after purification. Results: Enzyme digestion analysis, PCR and DNA sequencing results showed that the target gene was inserted correctly into the recombinant vector. The expressed protein was purified successfully via affinity chromatography. Data indicated that antigenic region of VacA protein from Helicobacter pylori was recognized by all 15 patient’s sera. Conclusion : Our data showed that antigenic region of VacA protein can be expressed by in E. co.li. This protein was recognized by sera patients suffering from H. pylori infection. the recombinant protein has similar epitopes and close antigenic properties to the natural form of this antigen. Recombinant antigenic region of VacA protein also seems to be a promising antigen for protective and serologic diagnosis . PMID:23997913

  14. Expression and Antigenic Evaluation of VacA Antigenic Fragment of Helicobacter Pylori

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leila Hasanzadeh

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective(s: Helicobacter pylori, a human specific gastric pathogen is a causative agent of chronic active gastritis. The vacuolating cytotoxin (VacA is an effective virulence factor involved in gastric injury. The aim of this study was to construct a recombinant protein containing antigenic region of VacA gene and determine its antigenicity.   Materials and Methods: The antigenic region of VacA gene was detected by bioinformatics methods. The polymerase chain reaction method was used to amplify a highly antigenic region of VacA gene from chromosomal DNA of H. pylori. The eluted product was cloned into the prokaryotic expression vector pET32a. The target protein was expressed in the Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3 pLysS. The bacteria including pET32a-VacA plasmids were induced by IPTG. The antigenicity was finally studied by western blotting using sera of 15 H. pylori infected patients after purification. Results: Enzyme digestion analysis, PCR and DNA sequencing results showed that the target gene was inserted correctly into the recombinant vector. The expressed protein was purified successfully via affinity chromatography. Data indicated that antigenic region of VacA protein from Helicobacter pylori was recognized by all 15 patient’s sera. Conclusion : Our data showed that antigenic region of VacA protein can be expressed by in E. co.li. This protein was recognized by sera patients suffering from H. pylori infection. the recombinant protein has similar epitopes and close antigenic properties to the natural form of this antigen. Recombinant antigenic region of VacA protein also seems to be a promising antigen for protective and serologic diagnosis .

  15. Antigen Cross-Presentation of Immune Complexes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Platzer, Barbara; Stout, Madeleine; Fiebiger, Edda

    2014-01-01

    The ability of dendritic cells (DCs) to cross-present tumor antigens has long been a focus of interest to physicians, as well as basic scientists, that aim to establish efficient cell-based cancer immune therapy. A prerequisite for exploiting this pathway for therapeutic purposes is a better understanding of the mechanisms that underlie the induction of tumor-specific cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL) responses when initiated by DCs via cross-presentation. The ability of humans DC to perform cross-presentation is of utmost interest, as this cell type is a main target for cell-based immunotherapy in humans. The outcome of a cross-presentation event is guided by the nature of the antigen, the form of antigen uptake, and the subpopulation of DCs that performs presentation. Generally, CD8α+ DCs are considered to be the most potent cross-presenting DCs. This paradigm, however, only applies to soluble antigens. During adaptive immune responses, immune complexes form when antibodies interact with their specific epitopes on soluble antigens. Immunoglobulin G (IgG) immune complexes target Fc-gamma receptors on DCs to shuttle exogenous antigens efficiently into the cross-presentation pathway. This receptor-mediated cross-presentation pathway is a well-described route for the induction of strong CD8+ T cell responses. IgG-mediated cross-presentation is intriguing because it permits the CD8− DCs, which are commonly considered to be weak cross-presenters, to efficiently cross-present. Engaging multiple DC subtypes for cross-presentation might be a superior strategy to boost CTL responses in vivo. We here summarize our current understanding of how DCs use IgG-complexed antigens for the efficient induction of CTL responses. Because of its importance for human cell therapy, we also review the recent advances in the characterization of cross-presentation properties of human DC subsets. PMID:24744762

  16. Studies on antigenic cross-reactivity of Trichuris ovis with host mucosal antigens in goat

    OpenAIRE

    Gautam Patra; Seikh Sahanawaz Alam; Sonjoy Kumar Borthakur; Hridayesh Prasad

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To ascertain whether immunodominant antigens of Trichuris ovis might share and cross react with host molecule. Methods: Two crude protein preparations from anterior and posterior parts of Trichuris ovis were characterized along with host mucosal antigen by double immunodiffusion, sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and western blotting technique. Conventional scanning electron microscopy was performed as per standard procedure. Results: Sharp...

  17. Early prostate cancer antigen expression in predicting presence of prostate cancer in men with histologically negative biopsies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansel, D E; DeMarzo, A M; Platz, E A; Jadallah, S; Hicks, J; Epstein, J I; Partin, A W; Netto, G J

    2007-05-01

    Early prostate cancer antigen is a nuclear matrix protein that was recently shown to be expressed in prostate adenocarcinoma and adjacent benign tissue. Previous studies have demonstrated early prostate cancer antigen expression in benign prostate tissue up to 5 years before a diagnosis of prostate carcinoma, suggesting that early prostate cancer antigen could be used as a potential predictive marker. We evaluated early prostate cancer antigen expression by immunohistochemistry using a polyclonal antibody (Onconome Inc., Seattle, Washington) on benign biopsies from 98 patients. Biopsies were obtained from 4 groups that included 39 patients with first time negative biopsy (group 1), 24 patients with persistently negative biopsies (group 2), 8 patients with initially negative biopsies who were subsequently diagnosed with prostate carcinoma (group 3) and negative biopsies obtained from 27 cases where other concurrent biopsies contained prostate carcinoma (group 4). Early prostate cancer antigen staining was assessed by 2 of the authors who were blind to the group of the examined sections. Staining intensity (range 0 to 3) and extent (range 1 to 3) scores were assigned. The presence of intensity 3 staining in any of the blocks of a biopsy specimen was considered as positive for early prostate cancer antigen for the primary outcome in the statistical analysis. In addition, as secondary outcomes we evaluated the data using the proportion of blocks with intensity 3 early prostate cancer antigen staining, the mean of the product of staining intensity and staining extent of all blocks within a biopsy, and the mean of the product of intensity 3 staining and extent. Primary outcome analysis revealed the proportion of early prostate cancer antigen positivity to be highest in group 3 (6 of 8, 75%) and lowest in group 2 (7 of 24, 29%, p=0.04 for differences among groups). A relatively higher than expected proportion of early prostate cancer antigen positivity was present in

  18. Carcinoembryonic Antigen Level in Liver Disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Kyoo Ok; Kim, Ki Whang; Park, Chang Yun [Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1978-09-15

    Carcinoembryonic antigen was initially known as tumor specific antigen and had a potential diagnostic value in the detection of digestive tract malignancies. However, subsequent studies showed CEA and CEA-like antigen present in benign disease, particularly in liver. We had collected sera from 58 patients who had liver scan and later were diagnosed clinically and histologically as liver disease. We estimated CEA values and correlations were made with liver function tests in liver cirrhosis cases. The results: 1) The raised plasma carcinoembryonic antigen level were found in 13 (68.4%) of 19 patients cirrhosis, 5 (27.8%) of 18 patients in hepatoma, 5 (71%) of 7 patients in chronic active hepatitis, all 3 patients in liver abscesses, 2 (66.7%) of 3 patients in liver abscesses, 2 (66.7%) of 3 patients in obstructive biliary disease and none in each one patient of traumatic liver hematoma, subphrenic abscess and clonorchiasis. 2) There is no linear correlation between carcinoembryonic antigen level and liver function tests including serum bilirubin, alkaline phosphatase, SGOT and prothrombin time in liver patients.

  19. Human Tumor Antigens Yesterday, Today, and Tomorrow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finn, Olivera J

    2017-05-01

    The question of whether human tumors express antigens that can be recognized by the immune system has been answered with a resounding YES. Most were identified through spontaneous antitumor humoral and cellular immune responses found in cancer patients and include peptides, glycopeptides, phosphopeptides, viral peptides, and peptides resulting from common mutations in oncogenes and tumor-suppressor genes, or common gene fusion events. Many have been extensively tested as candidates for anticancer vaccines. More recently, attention has been focused on the potentially large number of unique tumor antigens, mutated neoantigens, that are the predicted products of the numerous mutations revealed by exome sequencing of primary tumors. Only a few have been confirmed as targets of spontaneous immunity and immunosurveillance, and even fewer have been tested in preclinical and clinical settings. The field has been divided for a long time on the relative importance of shared versus mutated antigens in tumor surveillance and as candidates for vaccines. This question will eventually need to be answered in a head to head comparison in well-designed clinical trials. One advantage that shared antigens have over mutated antigens is their potential to be used in vaccines for primary cancer prevention. Cancer Immunol Res; 5(5); 347-54. ©2017 AACR . ©2017 American Association for Cancer Research.

  20. Carcinoembryonic Antigen Level in Liver Disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Kyoo Ok; Kim, Ki Whang; Park, Chang Yun

    1978-01-01

    Carcinoembryonic antigen was initially known as tumor specific antigen and had a potential diagnostic value in the detection of digestive tract malignancies. However, subsequent studies showed CEA and CEA-like antigen present in benign disease, particularly in liver. We had collected sera from 58 patients who had liver scan and later were diagnosed clinically and histologically as liver disease. We estimated CEA values and correlations were made with liver function tests in liver cirrhosis cases. The results: 1) The raised plasma carcinoembryonic antigen level were found in 13 (68.4%) of 19 patients cirrhosis, 5 (27.8%) of 18 patients in hepatoma, 5 (71%) of 7 patients in chronic active hepatitis, all 3 patients in liver abscesses, 2 (66.7%) of 3 patients in liver abscesses, 2 (66.7%) of 3 patients in obstructive biliary disease and none in each one patient of traumatic liver hematoma, subphrenic abscess and clonorchiasis. 2) There is no linear correlation between carcinoembryonic antigen level and liver function tests including serum bilirubin, alkaline phosphatase, SGOT and prothrombin time in liver patients.

  1. Original antigenic sin responses to influenza viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jin Hyang; Skountzou, Ioanna; Compans, Richard; Jacob, Joshy

    2009-09-01

    Most immune responses follow Burnet's rule in that Ag recruits specific lymphocytes from a large repertoire and induces them to proliferate and differentiate into effector cells. However, the phenomenon of "original antigenic sin" stands out as a paradox to Burnet's rule of B cell engagement. Humans, upon infection with a novel influenza strain, produce Abs against older viral strains at the expense of responses to novel, protective antigenic determinants. This exacerbates the severity of the current infection. This blind spot of the immune system and the redirection of responses to the "original Ag" rather than to novel epitopes were described fifty years ago. Recent reports have questioned the existence of this phenomenon. Hence, we revisited this issue to determine the extent to which original antigenic sin is induced by variant influenza viruses. Using two related strains of influenza A virus, we show that original antigenic sin leads to a significant decrease in development of protective immunity and recall responses to the second virus. In addition, we show that sequential infection of mice with two live influenza virus strains leads to almost exclusive Ab responses to the first viral strain, suggesting that original antigenic sin could be a potential strategy by which variant influenza viruses subvert the immune system.

  2. A structural study of the capsular antigens of Escherichia coli K36 and Klebsiella K68

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stanley, S.M.R.

    1986-01-01

    This thesis discusses the structural study of the capsular antigens of the bacteria, Escherichia coli K36 and Klebsiella K68. In the elucidation of bacterial polysaccharides chemically based analytical procedures and instrumental analytical techniques were used. Nuclear magnetic resonance is a powerful tool for obtaining structural information on poly-, oligo- and di-saccharides and a detailed discussion of this technique, and the results obtained in this study, is given

  3. Evaluation of Antigen-Conjugated Fluorescent Beads to Identify Antigen-Specific B Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correa, Isabel; Ilieva, Kristina M; Crescioli, Silvia; Lombardi, Sara; Figini, Mariangela; Cheung, Anthony; Spicer, James F; Tutt, Andrew N J; Nestle, Frank O; Karagiannis, Panagiotis; Lacy, Katie E; Karagiannis, Sophia N

    2018-01-01

    Selection of single antigen-specific B cells to identify their expressed antibodies is of considerable interest for evaluating human immune responses. Here, we present a method to identify single antibody-expressing cells using antigen-conjugated fluorescent beads. To establish this, we selected Folate Receptor alpha (FRα) as a model antigen and a mouse B cell line, expressing both the soluble and the membrane-bound forms of a human/mouse chimeric antibody (MOv18 IgG1) specific for FRα, as test antibody-expressing cells. Beads were conjugated to FRα using streptavidin/avidin-biotin bridges and used to select single cells expressing the membrane-bound form of anti-FRα. Bead-bound cells were single cell-sorted and processed for single cell RNA retrotranscription and PCR to isolate antibody heavy and light chain variable regions. Variable regions were then cloned and expressed as human IgG1/k antibodies. Like the original clone, engineered antibodies from single cells recognized native FRα. To evaluate whether antigen-coated beads could identify specific antibody-expressing cells in mixed immune cell populations, human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were spiked with test antibody-expressing cells. Antigen-specific cells could comprise up to 75% of cells selected with antigen-conjugated beads when the frequency of the antigen-positive cells was 1:100 or higher. In PBMC pools, beads conjugated to recombinant antigens FRα and HER2 bound antigen-specific anti-FRα MOv18 and anti-HER2 Trastuzumab antibody-expressing cells, respectively. From melanoma patient-derived B cells selected with melanoma cell line-derived protein-coated fluorescent beads, we generated a monoclonal antibody that recognized melanoma antigen-coated beads. This approach may be further developed to facilitate analysis of B cells and their antibody profiles at the single cell level and to help unravel humoral immune repertoires.

  4. Evaluation of Antigen-Conjugated Fluorescent Beads to Identify Antigen-Specific B Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel Correa

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Selection of single antigen-specific B cells to identify their expressed antibodies is of considerable interest for evaluating human immune responses. Here, we present a method to identify single antibody-expressing cells using antigen-conjugated fluorescent beads. To establish this, we selected Folate Receptor alpha (FRα as a model antigen and a mouse B cell line, expressing both the soluble and the membrane-bound forms of a human/mouse chimeric antibody (MOv18 IgG1 specific for FRα, as test antibody-expressing cells. Beads were conjugated to FRα using streptavidin/avidin-biotin bridges and used to select single cells expressing the membrane-bound form of anti-FRα. Bead-bound cells were single cell-sorted and processed for single cell RNA retrotranscription and PCR to isolate antibody heavy and light chain variable regions. Variable regions were then cloned and expressed as human IgG1/k antibodies. Like the original clone, engineered antibodies from single cells recognized native FRα. To evaluate whether antigen-coated beads could identify specific antibody-expressing cells in mixed immune cell populations, human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs were spiked with test antibody-expressing cells. Antigen-specific cells could comprise up to 75% of cells selected with antigen-conjugated beads when the frequency of the antigen-positive cells was 1:100 or higher. In PBMC pools, beads conjugated to recombinant antigens FRα and HER2 bound antigen-specific anti-FRα MOv18 and anti-HER2 Trastuzumab antibody-expressing cells, respectively. From melanoma patient-derived B cells selected with melanoma cell line-derived protein-coated fluorescent beads, we generated a monoclonal antibody that recognized melanoma antigen-coated beads. This approach may be further developed to facilitate analysis of B cells and their antibody profiles at the single cell level and to help unravel humoral immune repertoires.

  5. Evaluation of Antigen-Conjugated Fluorescent Beads to Identify Antigen-Specific B Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correa, Isabel; Ilieva, Kristina M.; Crescioli, Silvia; Lombardi, Sara; Figini, Mariangela; Cheung, Anthony; Spicer, James F.; Tutt, Andrew N. J.; Nestle, Frank O.; Karagiannis, Panagiotis; Lacy, Katie E.; Karagiannis, Sophia N.

    2018-01-01

    Selection of single antigen-specific B cells to identify their expressed antibodies is of considerable interest for evaluating human immune responses. Here, we present a method to identify single antibody-expressing cells using antigen-conjugated fluorescent beads. To establish this, we selected Folate Receptor alpha (FRα) as a model antigen and a mouse B cell line, expressing both the soluble and the membrane-bound forms of a human/mouse chimeric antibody (MOv18 IgG1) specific for FRα, as test antibody-expressing cells. Beads were conjugated to FRα using streptavidin/avidin-biotin bridges and used to select single cells expressing the membrane-bound form of anti-FRα. Bead-bound cells were single cell-sorted and processed for single cell RNA retrotranscription and PCR to isolate antibody heavy and light chain variable regions. Variable regions were then cloned and expressed as human IgG1/k antibodies. Like the original clone, engineered antibodies from single cells recognized native FRα. To evaluate whether antigen-coated beads could identify specific antibody-expressing cells in mixed immune cell populations, human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were spiked with test antibody-expressing cells. Antigen-specific cells could comprise up to 75% of cells selected with antigen-conjugated beads when the frequency of the antigen-positive cells was 1:100 or higher. In PBMC pools, beads conjugated to recombinant antigens FRα and HER2 bound antigen-specific anti-FRα MOv18 and anti-HER2 Trastuzumab antibody-expressing cells, respectively. From melanoma patient-derived B cells selected with melanoma cell line-derived protein-coated fluorescent beads, we generated a monoclonal antibody that recognized melanoma antigen-coated beads. This approach may be further developed to facilitate analysis of B cells and their antibody profiles at the single cell level and to help unravel humoral immune repertoires. PMID:29628923

  6. Epstein-Barr virus strains and variations: Geographic or disease-specific variants?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neves, Marco; Marinho-Dias, Joana; Ribeiro, Joana; Sousa, Hugo

    2017-03-01

    The Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV) is associated with the development of several diseases, including infectious mononucleosis (IM), Burkitt's Lymphoma (BL), Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma, and other neoplasias. The publication of EBV genome 1984 led to several studies regarding the identification of different viral strains. Currently, EBV is divided into EBV type 1 (B95-8 strain) and EBV type 2 (AG876 strain), also known as type A and type B, which have been distinguished based upon genetic differences in the Epstein-Barr nuclear antigens (EBNAs) sequence. Several other EBV strains have been described in the past 10 years considering variations on EBV genome, and many have attempted to clarify if these variations are ethnic or geographically correlated, or if they are disease related. Indeed, there is an increasing interest to describe possible specific disease associations, with emphasis on different malignancies. These studies aim to clarify if these variations are ethnic or geographically correlated, or if they are disease related, thus being important to characterize the epidemiologic genetic distribution of EBV strains on our population. Here, we review the current knowledge on the different EBV strains and variants and its association with different diseases. J. Med. Virol. 89:373-387, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Antigenic typing Polish isolates of canine parvovirus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mizak, B. [National Veterinary Research Institute, Pulawy (Poland); Plucienniczak, A. [Polish Academy ofd Sciences. Microbiology and Virology Center, Lodz (Poland)

    1995-12-31

    Polish strains of canine parvovirus isolated between 1982 and 1993 were examined to determine the extent to which the virus has evolved antigenically and genetically over eleven years. Two CPV isolates obtained in Warsaw in 1982 and Pulawy in 1993, were examined using monoclonal antibody typing, restriction analysis and sequencing VP-2 protein gene. Five other isolates from Warsaw and Pulawy were tested with the panel of monoclonal antibodies specific to CPV-2, CPV-2a and common for canine parvovirus, feline panleukopenia virus and milk enteritis virus. Results of the studies demonstrated that all isolates tested represented CPV-2a antigenic type. Rapid antigenic strain replacement recorded by Parrish and Senda in the U.S.A and Japan was not confirmed in Poland. (author). 30 refs, 2 tabs.

  8. Harnessing Dendritic Cells for Tumor Antigen Presentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nierkens, Stefan [Department of Tumor Immunology, Nijmegen Centre for Molecular Life Sciences, Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre, Geert Grooteplein 28, Nijmegen 6525 GA (Netherlands); Janssen, Edith M., E-mail: edith.janssen@cchmc.org [Division of Molecular Immunology, Cincinnati Children' s Hospital Research Foundation, University of Cincinnati College of Medicine, 3333 Burnet Avenue, Cincinnati, OH 45229 (United States)

    2011-04-26

    Dendritic cells (DC) are professional antigen presenting cells that are crucial for the induction of anti-tumor T cell responses. As a consequence, research has focused on the harnessing of DCs for therapeutic interventions. Although current strategies employing ex vivo-generated and tumor-antigen loaded DCs have been proven feasible, there are still many obstacles to overcome in order to improve clinical trial successes and offset the cost and complexity of customized cell therapy. This review focuses on one of these obstacles and a pivotal step for the priming of tumor-specific CD8{sup +} and CD4{sup +} T cells; the in vitro loading of DCs with tumor antigens.

  9. Antigenic typing Polish isolates of canine parvovirus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mizak, B.; Plucienniczak, A.

    1995-01-01

    Polish strains of canine parvovirus isolated between 1982 and 1993 were examined to determine the extent to which the virus has evolved antigenically and genetically over eleven years. Two CPV isolates obtained in Warsaw in 1982 and Pulawy in 1993, were examined using monoclonal antibody typing, restriction analysis and sequencing VP-2 protein gene. Five other isolates from Warsaw and Pulawy were tested with the panel of monoclonal antibodies specific to CPV-2, CPV-2a and common for canine parvovirus, feline panleukopenia virus and milk enteritis virus. Results of the studies demonstrated that all isolates tested represented CPV-2a antigenic type. Rapid antigenic strain replacement recorded by Parrish and Senda in the U.S.A and Japan was not confirmed in Poland. (author). 30 refs, 2 tabs

  10. Radiobiological inactivation of Epstein-Barr virus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henderson, E.; Heston, L.; Grogan, E.; Miller, G.

    1978-01-01

    Lymphocyte transforming properties of B95-8 strain Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) are very sensitive to inactivation by either uv or x irradiation. No dose of irradiation increases the transforming capacity of EBV. The x-ray dose needed for inactivation of EBV transformation (dose that results in 37% survival, 60,000 rads) is similar to the dose required for inactivation of plaque formation by herpes simplex virus type 1 (Fischer strain). Although herpes simplex virus is more sensitive than EBV to uv irradiation, this difference is most likely due to differences in the kinetics or mechanisms of repair of uv damage to the two viruses. The results lead to the hypothesis that a large part, or perhaps all, of the EBV genome is in some way needed to initiate transformation. The abilities of EBV to stimulate host cell DNA synthesis, to induce nuclear antigen, and to immortalize are inactivated in parallel. All clones of marmoset cells transformed by irradiated virus produce extracellular transforming virus. These findings suggest that the abilities of the virus to transform and to replicate complete progeny are inactivated together. The amounts of uv and x irradiation that inactivate transformation by B95-8 virus are less than the dose needed to inactivate early antigen induction by the nontransforming P 3 HR-1 strain of EBV. Based on radiobiological inactivation, 10 to 50% of the genome is needed for early antigen induction

  11. Original antigenic sin: A comprehensive review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vatti, Anup; Monsalve, Diana M; Pacheco, Yovana; Chang, Christopher; Anaya, Juan-Manuel; Gershwin, M Eric

    2017-09-01

    The concept of "original antigenic sin" was first proposed by Thomas Francis, Jr. in 1960. This phenomenon has the potential to rewrite what we understand about how the immune system responds to infections and its mechanistic implications on how vaccines should be designed. Antigenic sin has been demonstrated to occur in several infectious diseases in both animals and humans, including human influenza infection and dengue fever. The basis of "original antigenic sin" requires immunological memory, and our immune system ability to autocorrect. In the context of viral infections, it is expected that if we are exposed to a native strain of a pathogen, we should be able to mount a secondary immune response on subsequent exposure to the same pathogen. "Original antigenic sin" will not contradict this well-established immunological process, as long as the subsequent infectious antigen is identical to the original one. But "original antigenic sin" implies that when the epitope varies slightly, then the immune system relies on memory of the earlier infection, rather than mount another primary or secondary response to the new epitope which would allow faster and stronger responses. The result is that the immunological response may be inadequate against the new strain, because the immune system does not adapt and instead relies on its memory to mount a response. In the case of vaccines, if we only immunize to a single strain or epitope, and if that strain/epitope changes over time, then the immune system is unable to mount an accurate secondary response. In addition, depending of the first viral exposure the secondary immune response can result in an antibody-dependent enhancement of the disease or at the opposite, it could induce anergy. Both of them triggering loss of pathogen control and inducing aberrant clinical consequences. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Antigen processing and remodeling of the endosomal pathway: requirements for antigen cross-presentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Compeer, Ewoud Bernardus; Flinsenberg, Thijs Willem Hendrik; van der Grein, Susanna Geertje; Boes, Marianne

    2012-01-01

    Cross-presentation of endocytosed antigen as peptide/class I major histocompatibility complex complexes plays a central role in the elicitation of CD8(+) T cell clones that mediate anti-viral and anti-tumor immune responses. While it has been clear that there are specific subsets of professional antigen presenting cells capable of antigen cross-presentation, identification of mechanisms involved is still ongoing. Especially amongst dendritic cells (DC), there are specialized subsets that are highly proficient at antigen cross-presentation. We here present a focused survey on the cell biological processes in the endosomal pathway that support antigen cross-presentation. This review highlights DC-intrinsic mechanisms that facilitate the cross-presentation of endocytosed antigen, including receptor-mediated uptake, maturation-induced endosomal sorting of membrane proteins, dynamic remodeling of endosomal structures and cell surface-directed endosomal trafficking. We will conclude with the description of pathogen-induced deviation of endosomal processing, and discuss how immune evasion strategies pertaining endosomal trafficking may preclude antigen cross-presentation.

  13. Antigen processing and remodeling of the endosomal pathway: requirements for antigen cross-presentation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewoud Bernardus Compeer

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The cross-presentation of endocytosed antigen as peptide/class I MHC complexes plays a central role in the elicitation of CD8+ T cell clones that mediate anti-viral and anti-tumor immune responses. While it has been clear that there are specific subsets of professional antigen presenting cells (APC capable of antigen cross-presentation, description of mechanisms involved is still ongoing. Especially amongst dendritic cells (DC, there are specialized subsets that are highly proficient at antigen cross-presentation. We here present a focused survey on the cell biological processes in the endosomal pathway that support antigen cross-presentation. This review highlight DC-intrinsic mechanisms that facilitate the cross-presentation of endocytosed antigen, including receptor-mediated uptake, recycling and maturation including the sorting of membrane proteins, dynamic remodeling of endosomal structures and cell-surface directed endosomal trafficking. We will conclude with description of pathogen-induced deviation of endosomal processing, and discuss how immune evasion strategies pertaining endosomal trafficking may preclude antigen cross-presentation.

  14. Identification of antigenic proteins of setaria cervi by immunoblotting technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaushal, N.A.; Kaushal, D.C.; Ghatak, S.

    1987-01-01

    Identification and characterization of antigenic proteins of Setaria cervi (bovine filarial parasite) adults and microfilariae was done by immunoblotting technique using hyperimmune rabbit sera against S. cervi and Brugia malayi. The antigens recognized by these sera were detected by using 125 I protein-A followed by autoradiography. Fifteen different antigens were observed to be common between adult and microfilarial stages of the parasite. Some stage specific antigens were also identified. Many antigens of S. cervi adults and microfilariae were also recognized by rabbit anti-B.malayi serum showing the existence of common antigenic determinants between the bovine and human filarial parasites

  15. Nuclear Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Parents/Teachers Resource Links for Students Glossary Nuclear Medicine What is nuclear medicine? What are radioactive tracers? ... funded researchers advancing nuclear medicine? What is nuclear medicine? Nuclear medicine is a medical specialty that uses ...

  16. Nuclear safety. Seguranca nuclear

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aveline, A [Rio Grande do Sul Univ., Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica

    1981-01-01

    What is nuclear safety Is there any technical way to reduce risks Is it possible to put them at reasonable levels Are there competitiveness and economic reliability to employ the nuclear energy by means of safety technics Looking for answers to these questions the author describes the sources of potential risks to nuclear reactors and tries to apply the answers to the Brazilian Nuclear Programme. (author).

  17. [Radiocompetitive method of H antigen determination].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semenova, G B; Sokolov, Ia A; Liashenko, V A

    1978-06-01

    The authors describe a radiocompetitive method of H-d-monomere determination with the sensitivity of 2 ng/ml in double antibodies modification; this method was used for comparing the immunological affinity of the affiliated H-antigens. A difference between the immunological affinity to the antibodies in a monomere, polymere and the flagellum was shown.

  18. Immune responses to red blood cell antigens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stegmann, T.C.

    2016-01-01

    The research described in this thesis is aimed towards elucidation of the mechanism of action of anti-D. Anti-D is administered prophylactivly to prevent alloimmunization against the immunogenic D-antigen to D⁻ pregnant women carrying a D⁺ fetus. The plasma of women who became immunized during

  19. Antigen dynamics of follicular dendritic cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heesters, B.A.

    2015-01-01

    Stromal-derived follicular dendritic cells (FDCs) are a major depot for antigen that are essential for formation of germinal centers, the site where memory and effector B cells differentiate and high-affinity antibody production takes place. Historically, FDCs have been characterized as ‘accessory’

  20. Evaluation of an Antigen-Antibody

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    GB

    replication would lead to the production of various antigens. Today with BMT history of over 30 years, infection ... Study design: The study involved both retrospective and prospective laboratory-based analysis of ..... core protein of a molecular mass 19 x 103 Da, one picogram (pg) of virus core corresponds to 1.3 x. 105 HCV ...

  1. Lea blood group antigen on human platelets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunstan, R.A.; Simpson, M.B.; Rosse, W.F.

    1985-01-01

    One- and two-stage radioligand assays were used to determine if human platelets possess the Lea antigen. Goat IgG anti-Lea antibody was purified by multiple adsorptions with Le(a-b-) human red blood cells, followed by affinity chromatography with synthetic Lea substance and labeling with 125 I. Human IgG anti-Lea antibody was used either in a two stage radioassay with 125 I-labeled mouse monoclonal IgG anti-human IgG as the second antibody or, alternatively, purified by Staph protein A chromatography, labeled with 125 I, and used in a one-stage radioassay. Platelets from donors of appropriate red blood cell phenotypes were incubated with the antisera, centrifuged through phthalate esters, and assayed in a gamma scintillation counter. Dose response and saturation curve analysis demonstrate the presence of Lewis a antigen on platelets from Lea+ donors. Furthermore, platelets from an Le(a-b-) donor incubated in Le (a+b-) plasma adsorb Lea antigen in a similar manner to red blood cells. The clinical significance of these antigens in platelet transfusion remains undefined

  2. Antigenic characterisation of lyssaviruses in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernest Ngoepe

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available There are at least six Lyssavirus species that have been isolated in Africa, which include classical rabies virus, Lagos bat virus, Mokola virus, Duvenhage virus, Shimoni bat virus and Ikoma lyssavirus. In this retrospective study, an analysis of the antigenic reactivity patterns of lyssaviruses in South Africa against a panel of 15 anti-nucleoprotein monoclonal antibodies was undertaken. A total of 624 brain specimens, collected between 2005 and 2009, confirmed as containing lyssavirus antigen by direct fluorescent antibody test, were subjected to antigenic differentiation. The lyssaviruses were differentiated into two species, namely rabies virus (99.5% and Mokola virus (0.5%. Furthermore, rabies virus was further delineated into two common rabies biotypes in South Africa: canid and mongoose. Initially, it was found that the canid rabies biotype had two reactivity patterns; differential staining was observed with just one monoclonal antibody. This difference was likely to have been an artefact related to sample quality, as passage in cell culture restored staining. Mongoose rabies viruses were more heterogeneous, with seven antigenic reactivity patterns detected. Although Mokola viruses were identified in this study, prevalence and reservoir host species are yet to be established. These data demonstrate the usefulness of monoclonal antibody typing panels in lyssavirus surveillance with reference to emergence of new species or spread of rabies biotypes to new geographic zones.

  3. Radioimmunoassay for hepatitis B core antigen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sagnelli, E.; Pereira, C.; Triolo, G.; Vernace, S.; Paronetto, F.

    1982-01-01

    Serum hepatitis B core antigen (HBcAg) is an important marker of hepatitis B virus replication. We describe an easy, sensitive radioimmunoassay for determination of HBcAg in detergent-treated serum pellets containing Dane particles. Components of a commercial kit for anticore determination are used, and HBcAG is measured by competitive inhibition of binding of 125 I-labeled antibodies to HBcAg with HBcAg-coated beads. We assayed for HBcAG in the sera of 49 patients with hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg)-positive chronic hepatitis, 50 patients with HBsAg-negative chronic hepatitis, and 30 healthy volunteers. HBcAg was detected in 41% of patients with HBsAg-positive chronic hepatitis but not in patients with HBsAg-negative chronic hepatitis. Hepatitis Be antigen (an antigen closely associated with the core of Dane particles) determined in the same sera by radioimmunoassay, was not detected in 50% of HBcAg-positive sera

  4. Antigenic and genetic variability of human metapneumoviruses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Herfst (Sander); L. Sprong; P.A. Cane; E. Forleo-Neto; A.D.M.E. Osterhaus (Albert); R.A.M. Fouchier (Ron); R.L. de Swart (Rik); B.G. van den Hoogen (Bernadette)

    2004-01-01

    textabstractHuman metapneumovirus (HMPV) is a member of the subfamily Pneumovirinae within the family Paramyxo- viridae. Other members of this subfamily, respiratory syncytial virus and avian pneumovirus, can be divided into subgroups on the basis of genetic or antigenic differences or both. For

  5. Understanding original antigenic sin in influenza with a dynamical system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Keyao

    2011-01-01

    Original antigenic sin is the phenomenon in which prior exposure to an antigen leads to a subsequent suboptimal immune response to a related antigen. Immune memory normally allows for an improved and rapid response to antigens previously seen and is the mechanism by which vaccination works. I here develop a dynamical system model of the mechanism of original antigenic sin in influenza, clarifying and explaining the detailed spin-glass treatment of original antigenic sin. The dynamical system describes the viral load, the quantities of healthy and infected epithelial cells, the concentrations of naïve and memory antibodies, and the affinities of naïve and memory antibodies. I give explicit correspondences between the microscopic variables of the spin-glass model and those of the present dynamical system model. The dynamical system model reproduces the phenomenon of original antigenic sin and describes how a competition between different types of B cells compromises the overall effect of immune response. I illustrate the competition between the naïve and the memory antibodies as a function of the antigenic distance between the initial and subsequent antigens. The suboptimal immune response caused by original antigenic sin is observed when the host is exposed to an antigen which has intermediate antigenic distance to a second antigen previously recognized by the host's immune system.

  6. Increasing vaccine potency through exosome antigen targeting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartman, Zachary C; Wei, Junping; Glass, Oliver K; Guo, Hongtao; Lei, Gangjun; Yang, Xiao-Yi; Osada, Takuya; Hobeika, Amy; Delcayre, Alain; Le Pecq, Jean-Bernard; Morse, Michael A; Clay, Timothy M; Lyerly, Herbert K

    2011-11-21

    While many tumor associated antigens (TAAs) have been identified in human cancers, efforts to develop efficient TAA "cancer vaccines" using classical vaccine approaches have been largely ineffective. Recently, a process to specifically target proteins to exosomes has been established which takes advantage of the ability of the factor V like C1C2 domain of lactadherin to specifically address proteins to exosomes. Using this approach, we hypothesized that TAAs could be targeted to exosomes to potentially increase their immunogenicity, as exosomes have been demonstrated to traffic to antigen presenting cells (APC). To investigate this possibility, we created adenoviral vectors expressing the extracellular domain (ECD) of two non-mutated TAAs often found in tumors of cancer patients, carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) and HER2, and coupled them to the C1C2 domain of lactadherin. We found that these C1C2 fusion proteins had enhanced expression in exosomes in vitro. We saw significant improvement in antigen specific immune responses to each of these antigens in naïve and tolerant transgenic animal models and could further demonstrate significantly enhanced therapeutic anti-tumor effects in a human HER2+ transgenic animal model. These findings demonstrate that the mode of secretion and trafficking can influence the immunogenicity of different human TAAs, and may explain the lack of immunogenicity of non-mutated TAAs found in cancer patients. They suggest that exosomal targeting could enhance future anti-tumor vaccination protocols. This targeting exosome process could also be adapted for the development of more potent vaccines in some viral and parasitic diseases where the classical vaccine approach has demonstrated limitations. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. EBV-Negative Monomorphic B-Cell Posttransplant Lymphoproliferative Disorder with Marked Morphologic Pleomorphism and Pathogenic Mutations in ASXL1, BCOR, CDKN2A, NF1, and TP53.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogusz, Agata M

    2017-01-01

    Posttransplant lymphoproliferative disorders (PTLDs) are a diverse group of lymphoid or plasmacytic proliferations frequently driven by Epstein-Barr virus (EBV). EBV-negative PTLDs appear to represent a distinct entity. This report describes an unusual case of a 33-year-old woman that developed a monomorphic EBV-negative PTLD consistent with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) 13 years after heart-lung transplant. Histological examination revealed marked pleomorphism of the malignant cells including nodular areas reminiscent of classical Hodgkin lymphoma (cHL) with abundant large, bizarre Hodgkin-like cells. By immunostaining, the malignant cells were immunoreactive for CD45, CD20, CD79a, PAX5, BCL6, MUM1, and p53 and negative for CD15, CD30, latent membrane protein 1 (LMP1), and EBV-encoded RNA (EBER). Flow cytometry demonstrated lambda light chain restricted CD5 and CD10 negative B-cells. Fluorescence in situ hybridization studies (FISH) were negative for cMYC , BCL2, and BCL6 rearrangements but showed deletion of TP53 and monosomy of chromosome 17. Next-generation sequencing studies (NGS) revealed numerous genetic alterations including 6 pathogenic mutations in ASXL1, BCOR, CDKN2A, NF1, and TP53 (x2) genes and 30 variants of unknown significance (VOUS) in ABL1, ASXL1, ATM, BCOR, BCORL1, BRNIP3, CDH2, CDKN2A, DNMT3A, ETV6, EZH2, FBXW7, KIT, NF1, RUNX1, SETPB1, SF1, SMC1A, STAG2, TET2, TP53, and U2AF2.

  8. EBV-Negative Monomorphic B-Cell Posttransplant Lymphoproliferative Disorder with Marked Morphologic Pleomorphism and Pathogenic Mutations in ASXL1, BCOR, CDKN2A, NF1, and TP53

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agata M. Bogusz

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Posttransplant lymphoproliferative disorders (PTLDs are a diverse group of lymphoid or plasmacytic proliferations frequently driven by Epstein-Barr virus (EBV. EBV-negative PTLDs appear to represent a distinct entity. This report describes an unusual case of a 33-year-old woman that developed a monomorphic EBV-negative PTLD consistent with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL 13 years after heart-lung transplant. Histological examination revealed marked pleomorphism of the malignant cells including nodular areas reminiscent of classical Hodgkin lymphoma (cHL with abundant large, bizarre Hodgkin-like cells. By immunostaining, the malignant cells were immunoreactive for CD45, CD20, CD79a, PAX5, BCL6, MUM1, and p53 and negative for CD15, CD30, latent membrane protein 1 (LMP1, and EBV-encoded RNA (EBER. Flow cytometry demonstrated lambda light chain restricted CD5 and CD10 negative B-cells. Fluorescence in situ hybridization studies (FISH were negative for cMYC, BCL2, and BCL6 rearrangements but showed deletion of TP53 and monosomy of chromosome 17. Next-generation sequencing studies (NGS revealed numerous genetic alterations including 6 pathogenic mutations in ASXL1, BCOR, CDKN2A, NF1, and TP53(x2 genes and 30 variants of unknown significance (VOUS in ABL1, ASXL1, ATM, BCOR, BCORL1, BRNIP3, CDH2, CDKN2A, DNMT3A, ETV6, EZH2, FBXW7, KIT, NF1, RUNX1, SETPB1, SF1, SMC1A, STAG2, TET2, TP53, and U2AF2.

  9. Radioimmunoassay for tumor antigen of human cervical squamous cell carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kato, H.; Torigoe, T.

    1977-01-01

    A heterologous antiserum for human cervical squamous cell carcinoma was prepared and specificity determined by Ouchterlony immunodiffusion and immunofluorescence studies. With this antiserum, a tumor antigen was purified from human cervical squamous cell carcinoma tissue. The specificities of the antigen and the antiserum were then re-examined by a radioimmunoassay method using 125 I-labeled purified antigen. Although normal cervical tissue extract showed a moderate cross-reactivity in the radioimmunoassay, the circulating antigen activity could not be detected in normal women or in several patients with other carcinomas, whereas 27 of 35 patients with cervical squamous cell carcinoma showed detectable serum antigen activity. All patients with advanced stages of cervical squamous cell carcinoma showed detectable antigen levels. These results indicate that there is a quantitative abnormality, at least, of this tumor antigen in patients with cervical squamous cell carcinoma and that the radioimmunoassay for the antigen is a potentially useful tool in clinical care

  10. Evaluating the use of dedicated swab for rapid antigen detection ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Evaluating the use of dedicated swab for rapid antigen detection testing in group a ... African Journal of Clinical and Experimental Microbiology ... Several generations of rapid antigen detection tests (RADTs) have been developed to facilitate ...

  11. Cysteine proteases as potential antigens in antiparasitic DNA vaccines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Louise von Gersdorff; Buchmann, Kurt

    2011-01-01

    En litteraturgennemgang af muligheder for at bruge cystein proteaser som antigener i antiparasitære vacciner.......En litteraturgennemgang af muligheder for at bruge cystein proteaser som antigener i antiparasitære vacciner....

  12. Invisible nuclear; converting nuclear

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Jongmoon

    1993-03-01

    This book consists of 14 chapters which are CNN era and big science, from East and West to North and South, illusory nuclear strategy, UN and nuclear arms reduction, management of armaments, advent of petroleum period, the track of nuclear power generation, view of energy, internationalization of environment, the war over water in the Middle East, influence of radiation and an isotope technology transfer and transfer armament into civilian industry, the end of nuclear period and the nuclear Nonproliferation, national scientific and technological power and political organ and executive organ.

  13. Antigenic evaluation of a recombinant baculovirus-expressed Sarcocystis neurona SAG1 antigen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, G D; Lakritz, J; Saville, W J; Livingston, R S; Dubey, J P; Middleton, J R; Marsh, A E

    2004-10-01

    Sarcocystis neurona is the primary parasite associated with equine protozoal myeloencephalitis (EPM). This is a commonly diagnosed neurological disorder in the Americas that infects the central nervous system of horses. Current serologic assays utilize culture-derived parasites as antigen. This method requires large numbers of parasites to be grown in culture, which is labor intensive and time consuming. Also, a culture-derived whole-parasite preparation contains conserved antigens that could cross-react with antibodies against other Sarcocystis species and members of Sarcocystidae such as Neospora spp., Hammondia spp., and Toxoplasma gondii. Therefore, there is a need to develop an improved method for the detection of S. neurona-specific antibodies. The sera of infected horses react strongly to surface antigen 1 (SnSAG1), an approximately 29-kDa protein, in immunoblot analysis, suggesting that it is an immunodominant antigen. The SnSAG1 gene of S. neurona was cloned, and recombinant S. neurona SAG1 protein (rSnSAG1-Bac) was expressed with the use of a baculovirus system. By immunoblot analysis, the rSnSAG1-Bac antigen detected antibodies to S. neurona from naturally infected and experimentally inoculated equids, cats, rabbit, mice, and skunk. This is the first report of a baculovirus-expressed recombinant S. neurona antigen being used to detect anti-S. neurona antibodies in a variety of host species.

  14. EBV-associated post-transplantation B-cell lymphoproliferative disorder following allogenic stem cell transplantation for acute lymphoblastic leukaemia: tumor regression after reduction of immunosuppression - a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niedobitek Gerald

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Epstein-Barr virus (EBV-associated B-cell post-transplantation lymphoproliferative disorder (PTLD is a severe complication following stem cell transplantation. This is believed to occur as a result of iatrogenic immunosuppression leading to a relaxation of T-cell control of EBV infection and thus allowing viral reactivation and proliferation of EBV-infected B-lymphocytes. In support of this notion, reduction of immunosuppressive therapy may lead to regression of PTLD. We present a case of an 18-year-old male developing a monomorphic B-cell PTLD 2 months after receiving an allogenic stem cell transplant for acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Reduction of immunosuppressive therapy led to regression of lymphadenopathy. Nevertheless, the patient died 3 months afterwards due to extensive graft-vs.-host-disease and sepsis. As a diagnostic lymph node biopsy was performed only after reduction of immunosuppressive therapy, we are able to study the histopathological changes characterizing PTLD regression. We observed extensive apoptosis of blast cells, accompanied by an abundant infiltrate comprising predominantly CD8-positive, Granzyme B-positive T-cells. This observation supports the idea that regression of PTLD is mediated by cytotoxic T-cells and is in keeping with the observation that T-cell depletion, represents a major risk factor for the development of PTLD.

  15. Hypomethylation and Over-Expression of the Beta Isoform of BLIMP1 is Induced by Epstein-Barr Virus Infection of B Cells; Potential Implications for the Pathogenesis of EBV-Associated Lymphomas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katerina Vrzalikova

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available B-lymphocyte-induced maturation protein 1 (BLIMP1 exists as two major isoforms, α and β, which arise from alternate promoters. Inactivation of the full length BLIMP1α isoform is thought to contribute to B cell lymphomagenesis by blocking post-germinal centre (GC B cell differentiation. In contrast, the shorter β isoform is functionally impaired and over-expressed in several haematological malignancies, including diffuse large B cell lymphomas (DLBCL. We have studied the influence on BLIMP1β expression of the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV, a human herpesvirus that is implicated in the pathogenesis of several GC-derived lymphomas, including a subset of DLBCL and Hodgkin’s lymphoma (HL. We show that BLIMP1β expression is increased following the EBV infection of normal human tonsillar GC B cells. We also show that this change in expression is accompanied by hypomethylation of the BLIMP1β-specific promoter. Furthermore, we confirmed previous reports that the BLIMP1β promoter is hypomethylated in DLBCL cell lines and show for the first time that BLIMP1β is hypomethylated in the Hodgkin/Reed-Sternberg (HRS cells of HL. Our results provide evidence in support of a role for BLIMP1β in the pathogenesis of EBV-associated B cell lymphomas.

  16. Detection of EBV-DNA in serum samples of an immunosuppressed child during a three years follow-up: association of clinical and PCR data with active infection Detecção de EBV-DNA em amostras de soro de criança imunodeprimida durante três anos de seguimento: associação de dados clínicos e de PCR com a infecção ativa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thelma Suely Okay

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Twenty-four whole blood and serum samples were drawn from an eight year-old heart transplant child during a 36 months follow-up. EBV serology was positive for VCA-IgM and IgG, and negative for EBNA-IgG at the age of five years old when the child presented with signs and symptoms suggestive of acute infectious mononucleosis. After 14 months, serological parameters were: positive VCA-IgG, EBNA-IgG and negative VCA-IgM. This serological pattern has been maintained since then even during episodes suggestive of EBV reactivation. PCR amplified a specific DNA fragment from the EBV gp220 (detection limit of 100 viral copies. All twenty-four whole blood samples yielded positive results by PCR, while 12 out of 24 serum samples were positive. We aimed at analyzing whether detection of EBV-DNA in serum samples by PCR was associated with overt disease as stated by the need of antiviral treatment and hospitalization. Statistical analysis showed agreement between the two parameters evidenced by the Kappa test (value 0.750; p Vinte e quatro amostras de sangue total e de soro foram colhidas durante seguimento por 36 meses de criança de oito anos de idade, imunodeprimida devido a transplante cardíaco. O paciente apresentou VCA-IgG e IgM positivos e EBNA-IgG negativo aos cinco anos de idade quando foi diagnosticada mononucleose infecciosa. Quatorze meses depois o VCA-IgG e o EBNA-IgG eram positivos e o VCA-IgM negativo. Este padrão sorológico persiste desde aquela época mesmo durante episódios sugestivos de reativação. As amostras de sangue total e de soro foram analisadas pela Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase (PCR que amplificou fragmento oriundo da gp220 do EBV (detecção de 100 cópias virais. Todas as 24 amostras de sangue total e 12 amostras de soro foram positivas por PCR. Com o objetivo de verificar se a detecção de DNA do EBV em soro estaria associada à reativação da doença, os resultados de PCR foram analisados em relação à necessidade

  17. 21 CFR 660.40 - Hepatitis B Surface Antigen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Hepatitis B Surface Antigen. 660.40 Section 660.40...) BIOLOGICS ADDITIONAL STANDARDS FOR DIAGNOSTIC SUBSTANCES FOR LABORATORY TESTS Hepatitis B Surface Antigen § 660.40 Hepatitis B Surface Antigen. (a) Proper name and definition. The proper name of this product...

  18. Potential radioimmunoassay system for detection of Hanganutziu-Deicher type heterophile antigen(s) and antibodies in tissues and fluids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mukuria, J C; Naiki, Masaharu; Hashimoto, Masato; Nishiura, Katsumi; Okabe, Masahiro; Kato, Shiro

    1985-06-12

    A relatively simple, specific and sensitive radioimmunoassay system has been developed for the detection of heterophile Hanganutziu-Deicher (H-D) antigen(s) and antibodies. The SVI-labeled H-D antigen-active molecule used for the assay is a bovine erythrocyte major glycoprotein previously found to have a strong H-D antigen potency. Different H-D antigen-active molecules were compared for heterophile H-D antigen potency. Eight different lung cancer tissues were assayed for H-D antigen. The sera from the 8 lung cancer patients were also screened by ELISA and RIA in an attmept to correlate expression of H-D antigen on tissues with elevation of H-D antibodies.

  19. HLA antigens in juvenile onset diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kikuchi, T; Toyota, T; Ouchi, E

    1980-11-01

    To study association between juvenile onset diabetes (JOD) and major histocompatibility gene complex, 40 patients with childhood onset diabetes and 120 healthy subjects were typed for HLA. Bw54 was present in 33 percent of the patients with JOD, while it appeared in 8 percent of the controls. Expressed as a relative risk, the antigen Bw54 confers a susceptibility to the development of JOD which is 5.3 times that in the controls. JOD shows a little high degree of association with A9 (78%). However, the A9-antigen is common in the Japanese and appears in 58 percent. Though less striking, the decreased frequency of B12 was 3 percent of JOD, less than 15 percent of the controls (p less than 0.05). There was no association between Bw54 and JOD with family history of diabetes.

  20. Radionuclide-labelled antigens in serological epidemiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Felsenfeld, O.; Parrott, M.W.

    1977-01-01

    The feasibility of tests using radionuclide-labelled antigens in serological surveys was studied, with particular attention to the likely availability of facilities and personnel in the tropics and arctics, where measurements may be disturbed by climatic influences. The methodology required was to be simple, rapid and suitable for examining large numbers of sera, as for epidemological surveys. In the introduction, limitations of labelled antigen tests are discussed, the choice of radionuclide and measurement methods, test procedures and evaluation of results. Collection, preservation and shipment of speciments (serum, faeces, cerebrospinal fluid, sputum, etc.) are described. Experiments with bacteria and bacterial toxins (Enterobacteriaceae, vibrios, staphylococci, meningococci, etc.), with protozoa and metazoa (Entamoeba hystolytica, Schistosoma mansoni, Trypanosoma cruzi, Plasmodia and other parasites), with viruses (vaccinia, adeno-, polio-, and influenza viruses, etc.), and with fungi are discussed

  1. Conservation of myeloid surface antigens on primate granulocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Letvin, N L; Todd, R F; Palley, L S; Schlossman, S F; Griffin, J D

    1983-02-01

    Monoclonal antibodies reactive with myeloid cell surface antigens were used to study evolutionary changes in granulocyte surface antigens from primate species. Certain of these granulocyte membrane antigens are conserved in phylogenetically distant species, indicating the potential functional importance of these structures. The degree of conservation of these antigens reflects the phylogenetic relationship between primate species. Furthermore, species of the same genus show similar patterns of binding to this panel of anti-human myeloid antibodies. This finding of conserved granulocyte surface antigens suggests that non-human primates may provide a model system for exploring uses of monoclonal antibodies in the treatment of human myeloid disorders.

  2. A competitive-inhibiton radioimmunoassay for influenza virus envelope antigens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Russ, G.; Styk, B.; Vareckova, E.; Polakova, K.

    1976-01-01

    A double-antibody competitive-inhibition radioimmunoassay for influenza virus envelope antigens is described. A viral antigen preparation from influenza A virus recombinant MRC11 [antigenically identical to A/Port Chalmers/1/73 (H3N2)] consisting of haemagglutinin and neuraminidase was labelled with radioiodine. Rabbit antisera were allowed to react with the labelled antigen and the resultant antigen-antibody complexes were precipitated with the appropriate antiglobulin. The competitive-inhibition radioimmunoassay very sensitively elucidated differences even among closely related influenza virus strains. Attempts have been made to eliminate neuraminidase from radioimmunoprecipitation to obtain a competitive-inhibition radioimmunoassay system for haemagglutinin alone. (author)

  3. Polyclonal antibodies for the detection of Trypanosoma cruzi circulating antigens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edith S Málaga-Machaca

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Detection of Trypanosoma cruzi antigens in clinical samples is considered an important diagnostic tool for Chagas disease. The production and use of polyclonal antibodies may contribute to an increase in the sensitivity of immunodiagnosis of Chagas disease.Polyclonal antibodies were raised in alpacas, rabbits, and hens immunized with trypomastigote excreted-secreted antigen, membrane proteins, trypomastigote lysate antigen and recombinant 1F8 to produce polyclonal antibodies. Western blot analysis was performed to determine specificity of the developed antibodies. An antigen capture ELISA of circulating antigens in serum, plasma and urine samples was developed using IgY polyclonal antibodies against T. cruzi membrane antigens (capture antibody and IgG from alpaca raised against TESA. A total of 33 serum, 23 plasma and 9 urine samples were analyzed using the developed test. Among serum samples, compared to serology, the antigen capture ELISA tested positive in 55% of samples. All plasma samples from serology positive subjects were positive in the antigen capture ELISA. All urine positive samples had corresponding plasma samples that were also positive when tested by the antigen capture ELISA.Polyclonal antibodies are useful for detection of circulating antigens in both the plasma and urine of infected individuals. Detection of antigens is direct evidence of the presence of the parasite, and could be a better surrogate of current infection status.

  4. [Nuclear theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haxton, W.

    1990-01-01

    This report discusses research in nuclear physics. Topics covered in this paper are: symmetry principles; nuclear astrophysics; nuclear structure; quark-gluon plasma; quantum chromodynamics; symmetry breaking; nuclear deformation; and cold fusion

  5. Ultraviolet light-induced suppression of antigen presentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spellman, C.W.; Tomasi, T.B.

    1983-01-01

    Ultraviolet (UV) light irradiation of animals results in the development of specific T suppressor cells that inhibit antitumor immune responses. It is thought that suppression may arise as a consequence of altered antigen presentation by UV-irradiated epidermal cells. This hypothesis is based on evidence demonstrating that specific lymphoid tissues from UV-irradiated hosts exhibit impaired antigen-presenting function and that animals cannot be contact sensitized when antigens are applied to a UV-irradiated skin site. Langerhans cells of the skin are likely candidates as targets of UV-induced defects in antigen presentation as they bear Fc and C3b receptors, express Ia antigens, are of bone marrow origin, and are capable of presenting antigen in vitro. We speculate on the possible clinical usefulness of UV-induced tolerance to specific antigens such as those encountered in monoclonal antibody therapy and tissue transplantation

  6. Review of Mycobacteriumavium subsp. paratuberculosis antigen candidates with diagnostic potential

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Heidi; Aagaard, Claus; Nielsen, Søren Saxmose

    2011-01-01

    antigens, heat shock antigens and hypothetical antigens. Strategies for evaluation of novel antigen candidates are discussed critically. Relatively few of the described antigens were evaluated for their use in CMI based diagnostic assays and so far, no obvious candidate has been identified...... to development of antibodies and shedding of detectable amounts of MAP. At present, available diagnostic assays are limited by the lack of MAP specific antigens included in these assays resulting in poor specificity. The objective of this review is to provide a systematic overview of diagnostic MAP antigen...... faeces; however, these diagnostic tools are often not applicable until years after infection. Detection of MAP specific cell-mediated immune (CMI) responses can serve as an alternative and be implemented in a diagnostic tool. CMI responses can be measured at an early stage of infection, prior...

  7. Autoantibodies, histocompatibility antigens and testosterone in males with alcoholic liver cirrhosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gluud, C; Tage-Jensen, Ulrik Viggo; Bahnsen, M

    1981-01-01

    Titres and immunoglobulin classes of autoantibodies were examined in 69 male patients with alcoholic liver cirrhosis and the findings were related to particular human leucocyte antigens and serum concentration of testosterone. Both anti-nuclear antibodies (ANA) and smooth muscle antibodies (SMA...... had higher titres of ANA (n.s.) and SMA (P less than 0.05) than patients without these HLA antigens. Serum concentrations of testosterone were significantly lower in ANA-positive patients than in those negative (P less than 0.05), and a similar tendency was found in SMA-positive patients....... With increasing titres of ANA the concentration of testosterone fell. Serum concentration of testosterone correlated inversely (P less than 0.05) with plasma immunoglobulin G and A. It is concluded that both genetic and hormonal factors may influence the humoral immune response in these patients....

  8. Drug-induced hypersensitivity syndrome associated with Epstein-Barr virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Descamps, V; Mahe, E; Houhou, N; Abramowitz, L; Rozenberg, F; Ranger-Rogez, S; Crickx, B

    2003-05-01

    Association of drug-induced hypersensitivity syndrome with viral infection is debated. Human herpesvirus 6 (HHV-6) reactivation has been the most frequently reported infection associated with this syndrome. However, a case of cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection was recently described associated with anticonvulsant-induced hypersensitivity syndrome. We report a case of severe allopurinol-induced hypersensitivity syndrome with pancreatitis associated with Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection. Active EBV infection was demonstrated in two consecutive serum samples by the presence of anti-EBV early antigen (EA) IgM antibodies and an increase in anti-EBV EA IgG antibodies, whereas no anti-EBV nuclear antigen IgG antibodies were detected. EBV DNA was detected by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Reactivation of HHV-6 was suggested only by the presence of anti-HHV-6 IgM antibodies, but HHV-6 DNA was not detected by PCR in the serum. Other viral investigations showed previous infection (CMV, rubella, measles, parvovirus B19), immunization after vaccination (hepatitis B virus), or absence of previous infection (hepatitis C virus, human immunodeficiency virus). We suggest that EBV infection may participate in some cases, as do the other herpesviruses HHV-6 or CMV, in the development of drug-induced hypersensitivity syndrome.

  9. Characterization of Antigen-Specific B Cells Using Nominal Antigen-Coated Flow-Beads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akl, Ahmed; Lepetit, Maud; Crochette, Romain; Giral, Magali; Lepourry, Julie; Pallier, Annaick; Castagnet, Stéphanie; Dugast, Emilie; Guillot-Gueguen, Cécile; Jacq-Foucher, Marylène; Saulquin, Xavier; Cesbron, Anne; Laplaud, David; Nicot, Arnaud; Brouard, Sophie; Soulillou, Jean-Paul

    2013-01-01

    In order to characterize the reactivity of B cells against nominal antigens, a method based on the coupling of antigens onto the surface of fluorescent core polystyrene beads was developed. We first demonstrate that murine B cells with a human MOG-specific BCR are able to interact with MOG-coated beads and do not recognize beads coated with human albumin or pp65. B cells purified from human healthy volunteer blood or immunized individuals were tested for their ability to interact with various nominal antigens, including viral, vaccine, self and alloantigens, chosen for their usefulness in studying a variety of pathological processes. A substantial amount of B cells binding self-antigen MOG-coated beads can be detected in normal blood. Furthermore, greater frequencies of B cell against anti-Tetanic Toxin or anti-EBNA1 were observed in primed individuals. This method can reveal increased frequencies of anti-HLA committed B cells in patients with circulating anti-HLA antibodies compared to unsensitized patients and normal individuals. Of interest, those specific CD19 cells were preferentially identified within CD27−IgD+ (i-e naïve) subset. These observations suggest that a broad range of medical situations could benefit from a tool that allows the detection, the quantification and the characterization of antigen-specific blood B cells. PMID:24386360

  10. Limited antigenic variation in the Trypanosoma cruzi candidate vaccine antigen TSA-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight, J M; Zingales, B; Bottazzi, M E; Hotez, P; Zhan, B

    2014-12-01

    Chagas disease (American trypanosomiasis caused by Trypanosoma cruzi) is one of the most important neglected tropical diseases in the Western Hemisphere. The toxicities and limited efficacies of current antitrypanosomal drugs have prompted a search for alternative technologies such as a therapeutic vaccine comprised of T. cruzi antigens, including a recombinant antigen encoding the N-terminal 65 kDa portion of Trypomastigote surface antigen-1 (TSA-1). With at least six known genetically distinct T. cruzi lineages, variability between the different lineages poses a unique challenge for the development of broadly effective therapeutic vaccine. The variability across the major lineages in the current vaccine candidate antigen TSA-1 has not previously been addressed. To assess the variation in TSA-1, we cloned and sequenced TSA-1 from several different T. cruzi strains representing three of the most clinically relevant lineages. Analysis of the different alleles showed limited variation in TSA-1 across the different strains and fit with the current theory for the evolution of the different lineages. Additionally, minimal variation in known antigenic epitopes for the HLA-A 02 allele suggests that interlineage variation in TSA-1 would not impair the range and efficacy of a vaccine containing TSA-1. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Neuronal surface antigen antibodies in limbic encephalitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graus, F; Saiz, A; Lai, M; Bruna, J; López, F; Sabater, L; Blanco, Y; Rey, M J.; Ribalta, T; Dalmau, J

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To report the frequency and type of antibodies against neuronal surface antigens (NSA-ab) in limbic encephalitis (LE). Methods: Analysis of clinical features, neuropathologic findings, and detection of NSA-ab using immunochemistry on rat tissue and neuronal cultures in a series of 45 patients with paraneoplastic (23) or idiopathic (22) LE. Results: NSA-ab were identified in 29 patients (64%; 12 paraneoplastic, 17 idiopathic). Thirteen patients had voltage-gated potassium channels (VGKC)-ab, 11 novel NSA (nNSA)-ab, and 5 NMDA receptor (NMDAR)-ab. nNSA-ab did not identify a common antigen and were more frequent in paraneoplastic than idiopathic LE (39% vs 9%; p = 0.03). When compared with VGKC-ab or NMDAR-ab, the nNSA associated more frequently with intraneuronal antibodies (11% vs 73%; p = 0.001). Of 12 patients (9 nNSA-ab, 2 VGKC-ab, 1 NMDAR-ab) with paraneoplastic LE and NSA-ab, concomitant intraneuronal antibodies occurred in 9 (75%). None of these 12 patients improved with immunotherapy. The autopsy of three of them showed neuronal loss, microgliosis, and cytotoxic T cell infiltrates in the hippocampus and amygdala. These findings were compatible with a T-cell mediated neuronal damage. In contrast, 13 of 17 (76%) patients with idiopathic LE and NSA-ab (8 VGKC-ab, 4 NMDAR-ab, 1 nNSA-ab) and 1 of 5 (20%) without antibodies had clinical improvement (p = 0.04). Conclusions: In paraneoplastic limbic encephalitis (LE), novel antibodies against neuronal surface antigens (nNSA-ab) occur frequently, coexist with antibodies against intracellular antigens, and these cases are refractory to immunotherapy. In idiopathic LE, the likelihood of improvement is significantly higher in patients with NSA-ab than in those without antibodies. GLOSSARY GAD = glutamic acid decarboxylase; LE = limbic encephalitis; NMDAR = N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor; NSA = neuronal surface antigens; nNSA = novel NSA; SCLC = small-cell lung cancer; VGKC = voltage-gated potassium channels

  12. Nuclear topics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lukner, C.

    1982-07-01

    The pamphlet touches on all aspects of nuclear energy, from the world energy demands and consumption, the energy program of the Federal Government, nuclear power plants in the world, nuclear fusion, nuclear liability up to the nuclear fuel cycle and the shutdown of nuclear power plants. (HSCH) [de

  13. Nuclear power and nuclear weapons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaughen, V.C.A.

    1983-01-01

    The proliferation of nuclear weapons and the expanded use of nuclear energy for the production of electricity and other peaceful uses are compared. The difference in technologies associated with nuclear weapons and nuclear power plants are described

  14. Molecular Characteristics of Carcinoembryonic Antigen and Nonspecific Cross-reacting Antigen(Clinical Application of Tumor Antigen)

    OpenAIRE

    内山, 一晃; Uchiyama, Kazuaki

    1990-01-01

    Carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) is one of the most famous laboratory tests of tumor markers. CEA was first reported in 1965, but molecular structure of CEA was not clear untill recent years. Amino acid sequence of CEA was reported in 1987, by the success of cDNA clonig of CEA. The CEA molecule is composed of five major domains, called domain N, I, II, III, C from the -NH_2 terminal. But sugar chains of CEA are complicated and have much variety, so there are few informations about them. If CEA ...

  15. Genetic diversity and antigenicity variation of Babesia bovis merozoite surface antigen-1 (MSA-1) in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tattiyapong, Muncharee; Sivakumar, Thillaiampalam; Takemae, Hitoshi; Simking, Pacharathon; Jittapalapong, Sathaporn; Igarashi, Ikuo; Yokoyama, Naoaki

    2016-07-01

    Babesia bovis, an intraerythrocytic protozoan parasite, causes severe clinical disease in cattle worldwide. The genetic diversity of parasite antigens often results in different immune profiles in infected animals, hindering efforts to develop immune control methodologies against the B. bovis infection. In this study, we analyzed the genetic diversity of the merozoite surface antigen-1 (msa-1) gene using 162 B. bovis-positive blood DNA samples sourced from cattle populations reared in different geographical regions of Thailand. The identity scores shared among 93 msa-1 gene sequences isolated by PCR amplification were 43.5-100%, and the similarity values among the translated amino acid sequences were 42.8-100%. Of 23 total clades detected in our phylogenetic analysis, Thai msa-1 gene sequences occurred in 18 clades; seven among them were composed of sequences exclusively from Thailand. To investigate differential antigenicity of isolated MSA-1 proteins, we expressed and purified eight recombinant MSA-1 (rMSA-1) proteins, including an rMSA-1 from B. bovis Texas (T2Bo) strain and seven rMSA-1 proteins based on the Thai msa-1 sequences. When these antigens were analyzed in a western blot assay, anti-T2Bo cattle serum strongly reacted with the rMSA-1 from T2Bo, as well as with three other rMSA-1 proteins that shared 54.9-68.4% sequence similarity with T2Bo MSA-1. In contrast, no or weak reactivity was observed for the remaining rMSA-1 proteins, which shared low sequence similarity (35.0-39.7%) with T2Bo MSA-1. While demonstrating the high genetic diversity of the B. bovis msa-1 gene in Thailand, the present findings suggest that the genetic diversity results in antigenicity variations among the MSA-1 antigens of B. bovis in Thailand. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Abnormal antigens in breast cancer tissues and production of monoclonal antibodies against one of these antigens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohammed, M. E. A.

    2010-02-01

    Breast cancer is associated with up regulation, down regulation of normal antigens or abnormal antigens. These antigens are very useful candidates as targets for the different breast cancer therapies and for vaccination trials. This study was done to characterize abnormal antigens, extract one of them and to produce monoclonal antibodies against the extracted antigen. One hundred and twenty Sudanese female patients were included in this study after informed consent. The mean age was 47. 2 years (16-80). Two tissue samples were obtained from each patient and they were confirmed as normal and cancerous breast tissues microscopically. 2D PAGE was used to analyze the protein content of samples. LC/MS and nr. fast a database search were used for separation and indentification of the abnormal proteins. Three different patterns of 2D Page results were obtained, the first pattern involved detection of four abnormal proteins in 26.7% of the patient cancerous tissues while they were undetected in the normal tissues of the same patients. In the second 2D PAGE result pattern the cancerous and the normal tissues of 67.5% patients were identical and they did not contain the four abnormal proteins while the third 2D PAGE pattern involved the presence of two abnormal antigens (from the four) in the cancerous tissues of 5.8% of the patients and they were absent from the normal tissues of the same patients. The four abnormal proteins were identified as, human Thioredoxin (D60nmutant), x-ray crystal structure of human galectin-1, retrocopy of tropomyosin 3(rc TPM3) and beta-tropomyosin (isoform 2). The primary and the secondary structures were obtained from the SWISSPROT and the PDB databases. Beta tropomyosin spot was extracted and used as antigen for monoclonal antibody production. Monoclonal antibody against beta- tropomyosin with a concentration of 0.35 mg/ml and a G11 anti beta-tropomyosin hybridoma cell line were produced. The monoclonal antibody was with single bad and

  17. Abnormal antigens in breast cancer tissues and production of monoclonal antibodies against one of these antigens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohammed, M E. A. [University of Khartoum, Khartoum (Sudan)

    2010-02-15

    Breast cancer is associated with up regulation, down regulation of normal antigens or abnormal antigens. These antigens are very useful candidates as targets for the different breast cancer therapies and for vaccination trials. This study was done to characterize abnormal antigens, extract one of them and to produce monoclonal antibodies against the extracted antigen. One hundred and twenty Sudanese female patients were included in this study after informed consent. The mean age was 47. 2 years (16-80). Two tissue samples were obtained from each patient and they were confirmed as normal and cancerous breast tissues microscopically. 2D PAGE was used to analyze the protein content of samples. LC/MS and nr. fast a database search were used for separation and indentification of the abnormal proteins. Three different patterns of 2D Page results were obtained, the first pattern involved detection of four abnormal proteins in 26.7% of the patient cancerous tissues while they were undetected in the normal tissues of the same patients. In the second 2D PAGE result pattern the cancerous and the normal tissues of 67.5% patients were identical and they did not contain the four abnormal proteins while the third 2D PAGE pattern involved the presence of two abnormal antigens (from the four) in the cancerous tissues of 5.8% of the patients and they were absent from the normal tissues of the same patients. The four abnormal proteins were identified as, human Thioredoxin (D60nmutant), x-ray crystal structure of human galectin-1, retrocopy of tropomyosin 3(rc TPM3) and beta-tropomyosin (isoform 2). The primary and the secondary structures were obtained from the SWISSPROT and the PDB databases. Beta tropomyosin spot was extracted and used as antigen for monoclonal antibody production. Monoclonal antibody against beta- tropomyosin with a concentration of 0.35 mg/ml and a G11 anti beta-tropomyosin hybridoma cell line were produced. The monoclonal antibody was with single bad and

  18. Transformation and radiosensitivity of human diploid skin fibroblasts transfected with SV40 T-antigen mutants defective in RB and P53 binding domains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LingNah Su; Little, J.B.

    1992-01-01

    A series of human diploid fibroblast cell clones were developed by DNA transfection with either wild-type SV40 T-antigen (SV40T) or T-antigen mutants defective in its various functional domains. Cell clones expressing the wild-type SV40 T were significantly radioresistant as compared with clones transfected with the neo gene only (D o 192 ± 13 vs 127 ± 19). This radioresistance persisted in post-crisis, immortalized cell lines. A series of mutants with point or deletion mutations within each functionally active domain of SV40 T were also examined for their ability to alter radiosensitivity and induce morphological transformation. Cell clones transfected with T-antigen mutants defective in nuclear localization or origin binding showed increased radioresistance similar to clones transfected with wild-type T-antigen, and expressed morphological changes characteristic of SV40 T-transfected cells. (author)

  19. Protamine-based nanoparticles as new antigen delivery systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Aramundiz, José Vicente; Peleteiro Olmedo, Mercedes; González-Fernández, África; Alonso Fernández, María José; Csaba, Noemi Stefánia

    2015-11-01

    The use of biodegradable nanoparticles as antigen delivery vehicles is an attractive approach to overcome the problems associated with the use of Alum-based classical adjuvants. Herein we report, the design and development of protamine-based nanoparticles as novel antigen delivery systems, using recombinant hepatitis B surface antigen as a model viral antigen. The nanoparticles, composed of protamine and a polysaccharide (hyaluronic acid or alginate), were obtained using a mild ionic cross-linking technique. The size and surface charge of the nanoparticles could be modulated by adjusting the ratio of the components. Prototypes with optimal physicochemical characteristics and satisfactory colloidal stability were selected for the assessment of their antigen loading capacity, antigen stability during storage and in vitro and in vivo proof-of-concept studies. In vitro studies showed that antigen-loaded nanoparticles induced the secretion of cytokines by macrophages more efficiently than the antigen in solution, thus indicating a potential adjuvant effect of the nanoparticles. Finally, in vivo studies showed the capacity of these systems to trigger efficient immune responses against the hepatitis B antigen following intramuscular administration, suggesting the potential interest of protamine-polysaccharide nanoparticles as antigen delivery systems. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. [Limbic encephalitis with antibodies against intracellular antigens].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morita, Akihiko; Kamei, Satoshi

    2010-04-01

    Limbic encephalitis is a paraneoplastic syndrome that is often associated with small cell lung cancer (SCLC), breast cancer, testicular tumors, teratoma, Hodgkin's lymphoma and thymoma. The common clinical manifestations of limbic encephalitis are subacute onset, cognitive dysfunction, seizures and psychiatric symptoms. Paraneoplastic neurological disorders are considered to occur because of cytotoxic T cell responses and antibodies against target neuronal proteins that are usually expressed by an underlying tumor. The main intracellular antigens related to limbic encephalitis are Hu, Ma2, and less frequently CV2/CRMP5 and amphiphysin. The anti-Hu antibody, which is involved in cerebellar degeneration and extensive or multifocal encephalomyelitis such as limbic encephalitis is closely associated with a history of smoking and SCLC. The anti-Ma2 antibody is associated with encephalitis of the limbic system, hypothalamus and brain-stem. For this reason, some patients with limbic encephalitis have sleep disorders (including REM sleep abnormalities), severe hypokinesis and gaze palsy in addition to limbic dysfunction. In men aged less than 50 years, anti-Ma2 antibody encephalitis is almost always associated with testicular germ-cell tumors that are occasionally difficult to detect. In older men and women, the most common tumors are non-SCLC and breast cancer. Limbic encephalitis associated with cell-surface antigens (e.g., voltage-gated potassium channels, NMDA receptors) is mediated by antibodies and often improves after a reduction in the antibody titer and after tumor resection. Patients with antibodies against intracellular antigens, except for those with anti-Ma2 antibodies and testicular tumors, are less responsive. Early diagnosis and treatment with immunotherapy, tumor resection or both are important for improving or stabilizing the condition of limbic encephalitis.

  1. Nuclear rights - nuclear wrongs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paul, E.F.; Miller, F.D.; Paul, J.; Ahrens, J.

    1986-01-01

    This book contains 11 selections. The titles are: Three Ways to Kill Innocent Bystanders: Some Conundrums Concerning the Morality of War; The International Defense of Liberty; Two Concepts of Deterrence; Nuclear Deterrence and Arms Control; Ethical Issues for the 1980s; The Moral Status of Nuclear Deterrent Threats; Optimal Deterrence; Morality and Paradoxical Deterrence; Immoral Risks: A Deontological Critique of Nuclear Deterrence; No War Without Dictatorship, No Peace Without Democracy: Foreign Policy as Domestic Politics; Marxism-Leninism and its Strategic Implications for the United States; Tocqueveille War.

  2. Nuclear moments

    CERN Document Server

    Kopferman, H; Massey, H S W

    1958-01-01

    Nuclear Moments focuses on the processes, methodologies, reactions, and transformations of molecules and atoms, including magnetic resonance and nuclear moments. The book first offers information on nuclear moments in free atoms and molecules, including theoretical foundations of hyperfine structure, isotope shift, spectra of diatomic molecules, and vector model of molecules. The manuscript then takes a look at nuclear moments in liquids and crystals. Discussions focus on nuclear paramagnetic and magnetic resonance and nuclear quadrupole resonance. The text discusses nuclear moments and nucl

  3. False positive immunoglobulin m antibody to cytomegalovirus in child with infectious mononucleosis caused by epstein-barr virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jee Min; Shin, Jae Il; Lee, Jae Seung; Jang, Young Ho; Kim, Sung Hun; Lee, Kang Hyuk; Lee, Chang Hoon

    2009-10-31

    A 16-month-old boy was admitted because of cough that had lasted for 10 days. The patient showed severe hepatomegaly incidentally, and dual positivity of Immunoglobulin (Ig) M to Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) viral capsid antigen (VCA) and cytomegalovirus (CMV). On the basis of seroconversion to Epstein-Barr nuclear antigen (EBNA) Ig G positivity and reduced CMV Ig M titer with persistently negative CMV Ig G, a definite diagnosis of EBV-induced infectious mononucleosis was established 1 year 2 month later.

  4. Prostate specific antigen and its clinical application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Yang

    2000-01-01

    Prostate-Specific Antigen (PSA), a serine proteases, is a glycoprotein consisting of a single polypeptide chain. Secreted exclusively by epithelial cells of the prostate gland, PSA is found largely in seminal plasma. Only a small amount of PSA can be found in normal serum. Serum PSA levels are found to be, considerably increased in prostate cancer patients. A number of studies on PSA have made great achievement on its biochemistry, analytical method and clinical application. PSA as one of the most important tumor marker, is used to help diagnosis and monitor the therapeutic efficacy of prostate cancer

  5. Interference of heparin in carcinoembryonic antigen radioimmunoassays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, J.T.

    1983-01-01

    A false Roche carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) activity could be detected in all commercial and noncommercial heparin preparations examined. The possibility of 'due to contamination' has been ruled out. Using the Roche procedure, heparin solutions, in the absence of CEA, gave positive CEA activity; on the other hand, no CEA activity was detected in solutions containing only heparin when the Abbott Kit was used. When heparin was present in specimens containing CEA, the Abbott Kit underestimated the CEA activity, whereas the Roche Kit gave false elevated values. However, the negative effect of heparin could be reduced by heat treatment in the presence of plasma proteins. (Auth.)

  6. Antigen Presentation Keeps Trending in Immunotherapy Resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalbasi, Anusha; Ribas, Antoni

    2018-04-19

    Through a gain-of-function kinome screen, MEX3B was identified as a mediator of resistance to T-cell immunotherapy not previously identified using CRISPR-based screens. MEX3B is a posttranscriptional regulator of HLA-A, validating the critical role of tumor-intrinsic antigen presentation in T-cell immunotherapy and indicating a new putative molecular target. Clin Cancer Res; 24(14); 1-3. ©2018 AACR. See related article by Huang et al., p. xxxx . ©2018 American Association for Cancer Research.

  7. NF-κB Signaling Regulates Epstein–Barr Virus BamHI-Q-Driven EBNA1 Expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rob J. A. Verhoeven

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Epstein–Barr virus (EBV nuclear antigen 1 (EBNA1 is one of the few viral proteins expressed by EBV in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC, most likely because of its essential role in maintaining the viral genome in EBV-infected cells. In NPC, EBNA1 expression is driven by the BamHI-Q promoter (Qp, which is regulated by both cellular and viral factors. We previously determined that the expression of another group of EBV transcripts, BamHI-A rightward transcripts (BARTs, is associated with constitutively activated nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB signaling in NPC cells. Here, we show that, like the EBV BART promoter, the EBV Qp also responds to NF-κB signaling. NF-κB p65, but not p50, can activate Qp in vitro, and NF-κB signaling regulates Qp-EBNA1 expression in NPC cells, as well as in other EBV-infected epithelial cells. The introduction of mutations in the putative NF-κB site reduced Qp activation by the NF-κB p65 subunit. Binding of p65 to Qp was shown by chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP analysis, while electrophoretic mobility shift assays (EMSAs demonstrated that p50 can also bind to Qp. Inhibition of NF-κB signaling by the IκB kinase inhibitor PS-1145 resulted in the downregulation of Qp-EBNA1 expression in C666-1 NPC cells. Since EBNA1 has been reported to block p65 activation by inhibiting IKKα/β through an unknown mechanism, we suggest that, in NPC, NF-κB signaling and EBNA1 may form a regulatory loop which supports EBV latent gene expression, while also limiting NF-κB activity. These findings emphasize the role of NF-κB signaling in the regulation of EBV latency in EBV-associated tumors.

  8. Overview of Plant-Made Vaccine Antigens against Malaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Clemente

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is an overview of vaccine antigens against malaria produced in plants. Plant-based expression systems represent an interesting production platform due to their reduced manufacturing costs and high scalability. At present, different Plasmodium antigens and expression strategies have been optimized in plants. Furthermore, malaria antigens are one of the few examples of eukaryotic proteins with vaccine value expressed in plants, making plant-derived malaria antigens an interesting model to analyze. Up to now, malaria antigen expression in plants has allowed the complete synthesis of these vaccine antigens, which have been able to induce an active immune response in mice. Therefore, plant production platforms offer wonderful prospects for improving the access to malaria vaccines.

  9. Tissue distribution of histo-blood group antigens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravn, V; D