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Sample records for ebro delta spain

  1. Quantifying the effects of land conditions on rice growth : a case study in the Ebro Delta (Spain) using remote sensing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Casanova, D.

    1998-01-01

    This thesis represents detailed research on the "rice-soils-weather" system of the Ebro Delta (Spain) providing knowledge on how temperature, radiation, soil properties and farm management determine rice growth. After an introductory chapter, the findings are developed step-by-step. (i)

  2. Distribution of phototrophic populations and primary production in a microbial mat from the Ebro Delta, Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Alonso, Maira; Mir, Joan; Caumette, Pierre; Gaju, Núria; Guerrero, Ricardo; Esteve, Isabel

    2004-03-01

    Microbial mats arising in the sand flats of the Ebro Delta (Tarragona, Spain) were investigated during the summer season, when the community was highly developed. These mats are composed of three pigmented layers of phototrophic organisms, an upper brown layer mainly composed of Lyngbya aestuarii and diatoms, an intermediate green layer of the cyanobacterium Microcoleus chthonoplastes, and an underlying pink layer of a so-far unidentified purple sulfur bacterium. In the photic zone, oxygenic phototrophs constitute about 58% of total photosynthetic biomass, measured as biovolume, and anoxygenic phototrophs represent 42%. Diatoms constitute 11.8% of the oxygenic biomass, M. chthonoplastes 61.2%, and L. aestuarii and coccoid cyanobacteria 20.6 and 6.4%, respectively. In this laminated community, organic matter has an autochthonous origin, and photosynthesis is the most important source of organic carbon. Oxygen production reaches up to 27.2 mmol O(2) m(-2) h(-1), measured at 1000 microE m(-2) s(-1) light intensity, whereas oxidation of sulfide in the light has been calculated to be 18.6 mmol S m(-2) h(-1). This amount represents 26% of the total photosynthetic production in terms of photoassimilated carbon, demonstrating the important role of anoxygenic phototrophs as primary producers in the pink layer of Ebro Delta microbial mats.

  3. The responses of photosynthesis and oxygen consumption to short-term changes in temperature and irradiance in a cyanobacterial mat (Ebro Delta, Spain)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Epping, E.H.G.; Kühl, Michael

    2000-01-01

    We have evaluated the effects of short-term changes in incident irradiance and temperature on oxygenic photosynthesis and oxygen consumption in a hypersaline cyanobacterial mat from the Ebro Delta, Spain, in which Microcoleus chthonoplastes was the dominant phototrophic organism. The mat was incu......We have evaluated the effects of short-term changes in incident irradiance and temperature on oxygenic photosynthesis and oxygen consumption in a hypersaline cyanobacterial mat from the Ebro Delta, Spain, in which Microcoleus chthonoplastes was the dominant phototrophic organism. The mat...... was incubated in the laboratory at 15, 20, 25 and 308C at incident irradiances ranging from 0 to 1000 mmol photons m22 s21. Oxygen microsensors were used to measure steady-state oxygen profiles and the rates of gross photosynthesis, which allowed the calculation of areal gross photosynthesis, areal net oxygen...... production, and oxygen consumption in the aphotic layer of the mat. The lowest surface irradiance that resulted in detectable rates of gross photosynthesis increased with increasing temperature from 50 mmol photons m22 s21 at 158C to 500 mmol photons m22 s21 at 308C. These threshold irradiances were also...

  4. Reservoir impacts downstream in highly regulated river basins: the Ebro delta and the Guadalquivir estuary in Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. J. Polo

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Regulation by reservoirs affects both the freshwater regime and the sediment delivery at the area downstream, and may have a significant impact on water quality in the final transitional water bodies. Spain is one the countries with more water storage capacity by reservoirs in the world. Dense reservoir networks can be found in most of the hydrographic basins, especially in the central and southern regions. The spatial redistribution of the seasonal and annual water storage in reservoirs for irrigation and urban supply, mainly, has resulted in significant changes of water flow and sediment load regimes, together with a fostered development of soil and water uses, with environmental impacts downstream and higher vulnerability of these areas to the sea level rise and drought occurrence. This work shows these effects in the Guadalquivir and the Ebro River basins, two of the largest regulated areas in Spain. The results show a 71 % decrease of the annual freshwater input to the Guadalquivir River estuary during 1930–2014, an increase of 420 % of the irrigated area upstream the estuary, and suspended sediment loads up to 1000 % the initial levels. In the Ebro River delta, the annual water yield has decreased over a 30 % but, on the contrary, the big reservoirs are located in the main stream, and the sediment load has decreased a 99 %, resulting in a delta coastal regression up to 10 m per year and the massive presence of macrophytes in the lower river. Adaptive actions proposed to face these impacts in a sea level rise scenario are also analyzed.

  5. Assessing Flood Risk Under Sea Level Rise and Extreme Sea Levels Scenarios: Application to the Ebro Delta (Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayol, J. M.; Marcos, M.

    2018-02-01

    This study presents a novel methodology to estimate the impact of local sea level rise and extreme surges and waves in coastal areas under climate change scenarios. The methodology is applied to the Ebro Delta, a valuable and vulnerable low-lying wetland located in the northwestern Mediterranean Sea. Projections of local sea level accounting for all contributions to mean sea level changes, including thermal expansion, dynamic changes, fresh water addition and glacial isostatic adjustment, have been obtained from regionalized sea level projections during the 21st century. Particular attention has been paid to the uncertainties, which have been derived from the spread of the multi-model ensemble combined with seasonal/inter-annual sea level variability from local tide gauge observations. Besides vertical land movements have also been integrated to estimate local relative sea level rise. On the other hand, regional projections over the Mediterranean basin of storm surges and wind-waves have been used to evaluate changes in extreme events. The compound effects of surges and extreme waves have been quantified using their joint probability distributions. Finally, offshore sea level projections from extreme events superimposed to mean sea level have been propagated onto a high resolution digital elevation model of the study region in order to construct flood hazards maps for mid and end of the 21st century and under two different climate change scenarios. The effect of each contribution has been evaluated in terms of percentage of the area exposed to coastal hazards, which will help to design more efficient protection and adaptation measures.

  6. Bioaccumulation of lead, mercury, and cadmium in the greater white-toothed shrew, Crocidura russula, from the Ebro Delta (NE Spain); Sex- and age-dependent variation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez-Chardi, Alejandro [Departament de Biologia Animal (Vertebrats), Facultat de Biologia, Universitat de Barcelona, Avinguda Diagonal 645, 08028 Barcelona (Spain)]. E-mail: a.sanchez.chardi@ub.edu; Lopez-Fuster, Maria Jose [Departament de Biologia Animal (Vertebrats), Facultat de Biologia, Universitat de Barcelona, Avinguda Diagonal 645, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Nadal, Jacint [Departament de Biologia Animal (Vertebrats), Facultat de Biologia, Universitat de Barcelona, Avinguda Diagonal 645, 08028 Barcelona (Spain)

    2007-01-15

    We quantified bioaccumulation of lead, mercury, and cadmium in bones from 105 greater white-toothed shrews (Crocidura russula) collected at the Ebro Delta, a polluted area, and the Medas Islands, a control site. Lead and mercury levels varied with site, age, and sex, although statistical significances depended on each factor. Globally, shrews from the polluted area exhibited significantly higher concentrations of Pb and Hg. Increment of Pb with age was particularly remarkable in wetland animals and was interpreted in relation to human activities, namely hunting. Unlike males, females from the Ebro Delta maintained low Hg levels, which were associated with gestation and lactation. Cadmium levels did not differ between sites, sexes, or ages. This study provides the first data on heavy metals in mammals from this wetland and suggests that C. russula is a good bioindicator of metal pollution. We concluded that sex and age may represent an important source of variation in the bioaccumulation of these metals in wild populations. - Bioaccumulation patterns of Pb and Hg reveal sex and age-related differences in the large bones of the greater white-toothed shrew from a polluted Mediterranean wetland.

  7. Growth of Octopus vulgaris (Cuvier, 1797 in tanks in the Ebro Delta (NE Spain: effects of temperature, salinity and culture density

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    Marina Delgado

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available To assess the possibility of O. vulgaris ongrowing using tanks or cages in the bays of the Ebro Delta, we performed several growth trials of common octopus held in tanks. Effects of environmental factors (temperature and salinity and zootechnical aspects (culture density were studied. The thermal ranges that defined positive growth periods in the bays of the Ebro Delta were 19.5ºC to 23ºC (spring-summer and 23.5ºC to 12.3ºC (autumn-winter, the latter being the most suitable period for ongrowing. Salinity did not affect survival (100% or growth within the range tested (34-29 psu, though feeding rates (AFR, SFR were directly related to salinity. On the other hand, after 60 days, final culture density increased three-fold (D1: 12.36 → 44.37 kg m–3; D2: 24.13 → 67.76 kg m–3, with optimal survival results ( > 90% for the two densities tested. Growth and feeding rates showed a slight inverse relationship with density. Finally, growth and feeding rates showed a clear dependence on temperature in the two experiments (density and salinity. Our results conclude that industrial production of O. vulgaris in tanks is promising: this system offers an alternative to cages and allows for a more exhaustive control of culture.

  8. Succession of earthquakes in the Ebro Delta. A sequence to research pupils’ ideas and the prac tice of using evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blanca Puig Mauriz

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A “socially live” issue related to Geology is dealt with: the controversy surrounding the succession of earthquakes in the Ebro Delta (Spain. This article examines both students’ ideas about earthquakes and the practice of using evidence in the context of choosing a causal explanation of Delta’s earthquakes. The study is part of the researches on reasoning about socioscientific issues in Geology. Three groups are involved: one belonging to CSE 4th grade (students aged from 16 to 17 and two to baccalaureate 1st grade (aged from 17 to 18. The results indicate that most of students understand an earthquake as a common phenomenon, and relate it exclusively to the tectonics plates. Regarding the controversy of Ebro Delta most choose as the cause of earthquakes the combination of natural causes and human activity, and focus on building an explanation, rather than justify their choice based on evidence.

  9. Large-scale coastal and fluvial models constrain the late Holocene evolution of the Ebro Delta

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    J. H. Nienhuis

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The distinctive plan-view shape of the Ebro Delta coast reveals a rich morphologic history. The degree to which the form and depositional history of the Ebro and other deltas represent autogenic (internal dynamics or allogenic (external forcing remains a prominent challenge for paleo-environmental reconstructions. Here we use simple coastal and fluvial morphodynamic models to quantify paleo-environmental changes affecting the Ebro Delta over the late Holocene. Our findings show that these models are able to broadly reproduce the Ebro Delta morphology, with simple fluvial and wave climate histories. Based on numerical model experiments and the preserved and modern shape of the Ebro Delta plain, we estimate that a phase of rapid shoreline progradation began approximately 2100 years BP, requiring approximately a doubling in coarse-grained fluvial sediment supply to the delta. River profile simulations suggest that an instantaneous and sustained increase in coarse-grained sediment supply to the delta requires a combined increase in both flood discharge and sediment supply from the drainage basin. The persistence of rapid delta progradation throughout the last 2100 years suggests an anthropogenic control on sediment supply and flood intensity. Using proxy records of the North Atlantic Oscillation, we do not find evidence that changes in wave climate aided this delta expansion. Our findings highlight how scenario-based investigations of deltaic systems using simple models can assist first-order quantitative paleo-environmental reconstructions, elucidating the effects of past human influence and climate change, and allowing a better understanding of the future of deltaic landforms.

  10. Source of sulphur in the Ebro Basin (Northern Spain). Tertiary nonmarine evaporite deposits as evidenced by sulphur isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Birnbaum, S.J.; Coleman, D.

    1979-01-01

    The Ebro Basin is an intermontane basin, located in northern Spain, filled with Tertiary (largely Oligocene and Miocene) elastic and chemical deposits. Sulphur isotopes are utilized to determine the source of sulphur in the sulphate deposits (predominantly gypsum with accessory thenardite, mirabolite and epsomite). Data obtained from Tertiary gypsum rocks produce a range of delta 34 S values from +9.16% to + 14.02% with a mean of +13.61%. Data obtained from Triassic gypsum rocks (in source area) produce a range from +13.73% to +15.14%, with a mean of +14.66%. Values for Tertiary marine water range from +18% to +24%. These data indicate a nonmarine origin for sulpur within the Tertiary sulphate rocks. The contribution of Triassic sulphur to the groundwater system, plus varying degrees of dilution by isotopically lighter (atmospheric and sulphide) sulphur, best explains the isotopic ratios observed in the Tertiary Basin deposits. (Auth.)

  11. Monitoring of perfluoroalkyl substances in the Ebro and Guadalquivir River basins (Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenzo, Maria; Campo, Julian; Andreu, Vicente; Pico, Yolanda; Farre, Marinella; Barcelo, Damia

    2015-04-01

    Relevant concentrations of a broad range of pollutants have been found in Spanish Mediterranean River basins, as consequence of anthropogenic pressures and overexploitation (Campo et al., 2014). In this study, the occurrence and sources of 21 perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) were determined in water and sediment of the Ebro and Guadalquivir River basins (Spain). PFASs are persistent, bio-accumulative and toxic, which make them a hazard to human health and wildlife. The Ebro and Guadalquivir Rivers are the two most important rivers of Spain. They are representative examples of Mediterranean rivers heavily managed, and previous researches have reported their high pesticide contamination (Masiá et al., 2013). Analytes were extracted by solid phase extraction (SPE) and determined by liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS-MS). In water samples, from 21 analytes screened, 11 were found in Ebro samples and 9 in Guadalquivir ones. In both basins, the most frequents were PFBA, PFPeA, PFHxS and PFOS. Maximum concentration was detected for PFBA, with 251.3 ng L-1 in Ebro and 742.9 ng L-1 in Guadalquivir. Regarding the sediment samples, 8 PFASs were detected in those coming from Ebro basin and 9 in those from Guadalquivir. The PFASs most frequently detected were PFBA, PFPeA, PFOS and PFBS. Maximum concentration in Ebro samples was detected for PFOA, with 32.4 ng g-1 dw, and in Guadalquivir samples for PFBA with 63.8 ng g-1 dw. Ubiquity of these compounds in the environment was proved with high PFAS concentration values detected in upper parts of the rivers. Results confirm that most of the PFASs are only partially eliminated during the secondary treatment suggesting that they can be a focal point of contamination to the rivers where they can bio-accumulate and produce adverse effects on wildlife and humans. Acknowledgment The Spanish Ministry of Economy and Competitiveness has supported this work through the projects SCARCE-CSD2009-00065, CGL2011

  12. Characterizing the surface circulation in the Ebro Delta using a HF radar data-model approach

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    Lorente Jimenez, Pablo; Piedracoba Varela, Silvia; Soto-Navarro, Javier; Garcia-Sotillo, Marcos; Alvarez Fanjul, Enrique

    2016-04-01

    One year-long (2014) quality-controlled current observations from a CODAR SeaSonde High Frequency (HF) radar network deployed in the Ebro Delta (northwestern Mediterranean) were combined with operational products provided by a regional ocean forecasting system named IBI (Iberia-Biscay-Ireland) in order to comprehensively portray the ocean state and its variability. First, accurate HF radar data were used as benchmark for the rigorous validation of IBI performance by means of the computation of skill metrics and quality indicators. The analysis of the monthly averaged current maps for 2014 showed that IBI properly captured the prevailing dynamic features of the coastal circulation observed by the HF radar, according to the resemblance of circulation patterns and the eddy kinetic energy spatial distribution. The model skill assessment was completed with an exploration of dominant modes of variability both in time and space. The EOF analysis confirmed that the modeled surface current field evolved in space and time according to three significantly dominant modes of variability which accounted for the 49.2% of the total variance, in close agreement with the results obtained for the HF radar (46.1%). The response of the subtidal surface current field to prevalent wind regimes in the study area was examined in terms of induced circulation structures by performing a conditional averaging approach. This data-model synergistic approach has proved to be valid to operationally monitor and describe the complex coastal circulation in Ebro Delta despite the observed model drawbacks in terms of reduced energy content in surface currents and some inaccuracies in the wind-driven low frequency response. This integrated methodology constitutes a powerful tool for improving operational ocean forecasting systems at European level within the frame of the Copernicus Marine Environment Monitoring Service (CMEMS). It also facilitates high-stakes decision-making for coastal management and

  13. Human-induced erosion and sedimentation during the Holocene in the central Ebro depression, Spain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Constante, A.; Pena-Monne, J. L.

    2009-07-01

    Small secondary valleys in the Central Ebro Depression in northeast Spain have tended to be infield with sediment, and record a complex sequence of accumulations and incisions of Holocebe age. Level N3, the main accumulation level based on extent and depth, is characterized by a long period of sedimentation (from the Late Epipaleolithic to the end of the Late Roman period), the dominance of gypsiferous silt resulting from hill slope erosion, and a thickness up to 15 m. This deposit does not connect directly to the fluvial terraces of the Ebro River, and it accumulated over a long period of climate fluctuations. Thus, its evolution appears to have been largely independent of climate variability, but is closely related to human activities (deforestation, forest fires, farming development), particularly those associated with the main human settlements. (Author) 8 refs.

  14. Human-induced erosion and sedimentation during the Holocene in the central Ebro depression, Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Constante, A.; Pena-Monne, J. L.

    2009-01-01

    Small secondary valleys in the Central Ebro Depression in northeast Spain have tended to be infield with sediment, and record a complex sequence of accumulations and incisions of Holocebe age. Level N3, the main accumulation level based on extent and depth, is characterized by a long period of sedimentation (from the Late Epipaleolithic to the end of the Late Roman period), the dominance of gypsiferous silt resulting from hill slope erosion, and a thickness up to 15 m. This deposit does not connect directly to the fluvial terraces of the Ebro River, and it accumulated over a long period of climate fluctuations. Thus, its evolution appears to have been largely independent of climate variability, but is closely related to human activities (deforestation, forest fires, farming development), particularly those associated with the main human settlements. (Author) 8 refs.

  15. Analysis of micronucleated erythrocytes in heron nestlings from reference and impacted sites in the Ebro basin (N.E. Spain)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quiros, Laia; Ruiz, Xavier; Sanpera, Carolina; Jover, Lluis; Pina, Benjamin

    2008-01-01

    The frequency of micronuclei (MN) in peripheral erythrocytes was tested for 59 heron nestlings (Ardea purpurea, Egretta garzetta and Bubulcus ibis) sampled at two areas (polluted and reference) on the River Ebro (NE Spain) and at its Delta during Spring 2006. Flow-cytometry analysis revealed higher (three- to six-fold) MN counts in samples from the most polluted site relative to samples from the reference area. Samples from the Delta showed intermediate values. Age, morphometric parameters (weight, tarsus size and bill-head length) and maturation status showed no significant differences among the different populations for each species; nor were they correlated with MN levels. The data suggest that elevated levels of MN in chicks in impacted areas reflected the chemical pollution of their nesting sites. The use of nestlings for this assay appears to be a convenient, non-destructive method to assess the impact of pollution in natural bird populations. - Frequency of micronucleated erythrocytes in peripheral blood of waterbird nestlings correlates with chemical pollution loads in their nesting sites

  16. Blood biomarkers and contaminant levels in feathers and eggs to assess environmental hazards in heron nestlings from impacted sites in Ebro basin (NE Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barata, C; Fabregat, M C; Cotín, J; Huertas, D; Solé, M; Quirós, L; Sanpera, C; Jover, L; Ruiz, X; Grimalt, J O; Piña, B

    2010-03-01

    Blood biomarkers and levels of major pollutants in eggs and feathers were used to determine pollution effects in nestlings of the Purple Heron Ardea purpurea and the Little Egret Egretta garzetta, sampled on three Ebro River (NE Spain) areas: a reference site, a site affected by the effluents of a chlor-alkali industry and the river Delta. The two impacted heron populations showed mutually different pollutant and response patterns, suggesting different sources of contamination. In the population nesting near the chlor-alkali plant, elevated levels of hexachlorobenzene (HCB) and polychlorobiphenyls (PCBs) in eggs, and mercury in feathers in A. purpurea chicks were related with reduced blood antioxidant defenses and increased levels of micronuclei. In Ebro Delta, high levels of plasmatic lactate dehydrogenase in A. purpurea chicks and high frequency of micronuclei in blood of both species were tentatively associated with intensive agricultural activities taking place in the area. These results provide the first evidence of a biological response in heron chicks to the release of pollutants at a chlor-alkali plant. Copyright (c) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Blood biomarkers and contaminant levels in feathers and eggs to assess environmental hazards in heron nestlings from impacted sites in Ebro basin (NE Spain)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barata, C.; Fabregat, M.C.; Cotin, J.; Huertas, D.; Sole, M.; Quiros, L.; Sanpera, C.; Jover, L.; Ruiz, X.; Grimalt, J.O.; Pina, B.

    2010-01-01

    Blood biomarkers and levels of major pollutants in eggs and feathers were used to determine pollution effects in nestlings of the Purple Heron Ardea purpurea and the Little Egret Egretta garzetta, sampled on three Ebro River (NE Spain) areas: a reference site, a site affected by the effluents of a chlor-alkali industry and the river Delta. The two impacted heron populations showed mutually different pollutant and response patterns, suggesting different sources of contamination. In the population nesting near the chlor-alkali plant, elevated levels of hexachlorobenzene (HCB) and polychlorobiphenyls (PCBs) in eggs, and mercury in feathers in A. purpurea chicks were related with reduced blood antioxidant defenses and increased levels of micronuclei. In Ebro Delta, high levels of plasmatic lactate dehydrogenase in A. purpurea chicks and high frequency of micronuclei in blood of both species were tentatively associated with intensive agricultural activities taking place in the area. These results provide the first evidence of a biological response in heron chicks to the release of pollutants at a chlor-alkali plant. - High levels of organochlorine and mercury levels in eggs and feathers were related with altered blood biomarkers of heron nesting chicks.

  18. Ocio, negocio y protección: un equilibrio en evolución en el Delta del Ebro

    OpenAIRE

    Galiana Llasat, Pau

    2011-01-01

    The thesis analyzes the social construction of the Ebro Delta Natural Park – from its beginnings up to the implementation of the second phase of the European Charter for Sustainable Tourism. This is done through a simultaneous study of the park, relevant public administrations, and leisure activity firms which emerge thanks to the area being designated a Protected Natural Area. The analysis is taken from an interpretative perspective and an epistemological position of social construction of a...

  19. Factors controlling late Cenozoic continental margin growth from the Ebro Delta to the western Mediterranean deep sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, C.H.; Maldonado, A.

    1990-01-01

    The Ebro continental margin sedimentation system originated with a Messinian fluvial system. This system eroded both a major subaerial canyon cutting the margin southeastward from the present Ebro Delta and an axial valley that drained northeastward down Valencia Trough. Post-Messinian submergence of this topography and the Pliocene regime of high sea levels resulted in a marine hemipelagic drape over the margin. Late Pliocene to Pleistocene glacial climatic cycles, drainagebasin deforestation, and sea-level lowstands combined to increase sediment supply, cause the margin to prograde, and create a regime of lowstand sediment-gravity flows in the deeper margin. The depositional patterns of regressive, transgressive and highstand sea-level regimes suggest that location of the sediment source near the present Ebro Delta throughout the late Cenozoic, southward current advection of sediment, and greater subsidence in the southern margin combined to cause generally asymmetric progradation of the margin to the southeast. Thicker, less stable deposits filling the Messinian subaerial canyon underwent multiple retrograde failures, eroded wide gullied canyons and formed unchanneled base-of-slope sediment aprons in the central margin area; other margin areas to the north and south developed a series of channel-levee complexes. On the basin floor, the formation of Valencia Valley over the Messinian subaerial valley and earlier faults led to draining of about 20% of the Ebro Pleistocene sediment from channel-levee complexes through the valley to prograde Valencia Fan as much as 500 km northeast of the margin. Thus, the Ebro margin has two growth directions, mainly southeastward during higher sea levels, and eastward to northeastward during lower sea levels. The northeastward draining of turbidity currents has produced unusually thin and widely dispersed turbidite systems compared to those on ponded basin floors. During the past few centuries, man's impact has exceeded natural

  20. Thermal shock and splash effects on burned gypseous soils from the Ebro Basin (NE Spain)

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    León, J.; Seeger, M.; Badía, D.; Peters, P.; Echeverría, M. T.

    2014-03-01

    Fire is a natural factor of landscape evolution in Mediterranean ecosystems. The middle Ebro Valley has extreme aridity, which results in a low plant cover and high soil erodibility, especially on gypseous substrates. The aim of this research is to analyze the effects of moderate heating on physical and chemical soil properties, mineralogical composition and susceptibility to splash erosion. Topsoil samples (15 cm depth) were taken in the Remolinos mountain slopes (Ebro Valley, NE Spain) from two soil types: Leptic Gypsisol (LP) in a convex slope and Haplic Gypsisol (GY) in a concave slope. To assess the heating effects on the mineralogy we burned the soils at 105 and 205 °C in an oven and to assess the splash effects we used a rainfall simulator under laboratory conditions using undisturbed topsoil subsamples (0-5 cm depth of Ah horizon). LP soil has lower soil organic matter (SOM) and soil aggregate stability (SAS) and higher gypsum content than GY soil. Gypsum and dolomite are the main minerals (>80%) in the LP soil, while gypsum, dolomite, calcite and quartz have similar proportions in GY soil. Clay minerals (kaolinite and illite) are scarce in both soils. Heating at 105 °C has no effect on soil mineralogy. However, heating to 205 °C transforms gypsum to bassanite, increases significantly the soil salinity (EC) in both soil units (LP and GY) and decreases pH only in GY soil. Despite differences in the content of organic matter and structural stability, both soils show no significant differences (P pores is reduced by heating, as derived from variations in soil water retention capacity.

  1. Use of tritium to predict soluble pollutants transport in Ebro River waters (Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pujol, L; Sanchez-Cabeza, J A

    2000-05-01

    The Ebro River, in Northeast Spain, discharges into the Mediterranean Sea after flowing through several large cities and agricultural, mining and industrial areas. The Ascó nuclear power plant (NPP) is located in its lower section and comprises two pressurised water reactor units, from which low-level liquid radioactive waste is released to river waters under authority control. Tritium routinely released by the NPP was used as a radiotracer to determine the longitudinal dispersion coefficient and velocity of the river waters. Several field experiments, in co-ordination with the NPP, were carried out during 1991 and 1992. During each field experiment, the flow rate was kept constant by dams located upstream from the NPP. After each tritium release, water was sampled downstream at periodic intervals over several hours and tritium was measured with a low-background liquid scintillation counter. Velocity and dispersion coefficient were determined in river waters for several river discharges using an analytical, box-type and numerical approach to solve the one-dimensional advection-diffusion equation. The set of calibrated parameters was used to predict the displacement and dispersion of soluble pollutants in river waters. Velocity was determined as a function of river discharge and river slope, and dispersion coefficient was determined as a function of distance. Finally, sensitivity of the model predictions was studied and uncertainties of the fitted parameters were estimated.

  2. Análisis de las formaciones dunares activas de la flecha del Fangar (Delta del Ebro)

    OpenAIRE

    Rodríguez, Inmaculada; Sánchez, M. J.; Montoya, I.; Serra, J.; Moreno, L.; Gracia, F.J.; Muñoz-Perez, Juan J.

    2009-01-01

    Este artículo muestra los trabajos realizados sobre los campos de dunas activas de la Flecha del Fangar al amparo del Proyecto de Investigación “Cuantificación y Contribución del Transporte Eólico en los Procesos Dinámicos y Ambientales en el Delta del Ebro. Aplicación a su Gestión Integrada y a la Conservación de los Ambientes Marginales” (AGITE), concedido por el Ministerio de Educación y Ciencia 473 dentro del Plan Nacional de I+D+i (2005-2008). En dicho proyecto se ha po...

  3. Hydrological Impacts of Climate Change: A Case Study on the Ebro River Basin (Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zambrano-Bigiarini, M.; Bellin, A.; Majone, B.; Bovolo, C. I.; Blenkinsop, S.

    2009-12-01

    Uncertainty in projections from climate models limits the understanding of future hydrological impacts and complicates the assessment of mitigation policies. This work presents hydrological simulations of the Ebro River Basin (Spain), using both control (1961-1990) and future (2071-2100) climate scenarios, in order to investigate the effect of climate change on the water availability of the basin. Using the SWAT model, hydrological simulations were carried out for four catchments with different climatological regimes. Sets of model parameters were identified using sensitivity analysis, long-term calibration and uncertainty analysis procedures, which enabled the historical behaviour of the catchments to be reproduced. Following validation, the parameters were used to simulate the effects of climate change on future streamflow. Bias-corrected daily time series of precipitation and mean temperature from an ensemble of 6 Regional Climate Models (RCMs), using the SRES A2 emissions scenario, were used as drivers of the hydrological simulations during the future scenarios. Important annual and seasonal differences in the projected future precipitation and temperature fields were observed among the RCMs. However, a general decrease in annual mean precipitation and an increase in annual mean temperature relative to the control period were observed, with the strongest differences during the summer season. When these changes were used to project future streamflows, a general decrease was observed at the outlet of the catchments. Changes in streamflows were in general agreement with the projections of daily precipitation and temperature fields, with a larger drop in predicted monthly streamflows for catchments with more semi-arid climatological regimes, and seasonal differences that are related to the elevation range of the catchments.

  4. Hydrologic and landscape changes in the Middle Ebro River (NE Spain: implications for restoration and management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Cabezas

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available The changes of landscape (1927–2003, discharge regime and anthropic activities with the river-floodplain of one reach at the Middle Ebro River (NE Spain were investigated with the objective to identify the factors that best explain the natural ecotope succession and propose a realistic restoration option with consideration of the landscape dynamics during the last century and the socio-economic context. Our results indicate that hydrological and landscape patterns have been dramatically changed during the last century as a consequence of human alteration of the fluvial dynamics within the studied reach. The magnitude and variability of river discharge events have decreased at the end of the last century, and flood protection structures have disrupted the river floodplain connectivity. As a result, the succesional pathways of riparian ecotopes have been heavily modified because natural rejuvenation no longer takes place, resulting in decreased landscape diversity. It is apparent from these data that floodplain restoration must be incorporated as a significant factor into river management plans if a more natural functioning wants to be retrieved. The ecotope structure and dynamics of the 1927–1957 period should be adopted as the guiding image, whereas current hydrologic and landscape (dykes, raised surfaces patterns should be considered. Under the current socio-economic context, the more realistic option seems to create a dynamic river corridor reallocating dykes and lowering floodplain heights. The extent of this river corridor should adapt to the restored flow regime, although periodic economic investments could be an option if the desired self-sustained dynamism is not reached.

  5. Pilot survey of a broad range of priority pollutants in sediment and fish from the Ebro river basin (NE Spain)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lacorte, Silvia; Raldua, Demetrio; Martinez, Elena; Navarro, Alicia; Diez, Sergi; Bayona, Josep M.; Barcelo, Damia

    2006-01-01

    Priority organic pollutants were investigated in sediments and fish collected along the Ebro river basin (NE Spain) to evaluate their occurrence, transport and bioavailability. Sediments were collected in 18 sites and two species of fish were captured in nine sites according to the availability in each area. The sampling sites covered industrial, urban and agricultural areas. Four methods were used to detect 20 organochlorine compounds (OCs), 8 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, 3 organotin compounds, 2 alkylphenols and 40 polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) from purified extracts. The contamination pattern was site specific and no downstream increase in concentration of pollutants was observed but rather a generalized low level diffuse pollution. Target compounds were detected in sediments at 0.01 to 2331 μg/kg dry weight, and only OCs and PBDEs were accumulated in benthopelagic fish. Toxicological assessment was performed according to predicted environmental levels and revealed sites where adverse effects could occur. - Organic pollutants were monitored in sediments and fish from the Ebro river basin (NE Spain)

  6. Drainage reorganization and divide migration induced by the excavation of the Ebro basin (NE Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vacherat, Arnaud; Bonnet, Stéphane; Mouthereau, Frédéric

    2018-05-01

    Intracontinental endorheic basins are key elements of source-to-sink systems as they preserve sediments eroded from the surrounding catchments. Drainage reorganization in such a basin in response to changing boundary conditions has strong implications on the sediment routing system and on landscape evolution. The Ebro and Duero basins represent two foreland basins, which developed in response to the growth of surrounding compressional orogens, the Pyrenees and the Cantabrian mountains to the north, the Iberian Ranges to the south, and the Catalan Coastal Range to the east. They were once connected as endorheic basins in the early Oligocene. By the end of the Miocene, new post-orogenic conditions led to the current setting in which the Ebro and Duero basins are flowing in opposite directions, towards the Mediterranean Sea and the Atlantic Ocean. Although these two hydrographic basins recorded a similar history, they are characterized by very different morphologic features. The Ebro basin is highly excavated, whereas relicts of the endorheic stage are very well preserved in the Duero basin. The contrasting morphological preservation of the endorheic stage represents an ideal natural laboratory to study the drivers (internal and/or external) of post-orogenic drainage divide mobility, drainage network, and landscape evolution. To that aim, we use field and map observations and we apply the χ analysis of river profiles along the divide between the Ebro and Duero drainage basins. We show here that the contrasting excavation of the Ebro and Duero basins drives a reorganization of their drainage network through a series of captures, which resulted in the southwestward migration of their main drainage divide. Fluvial captures have a strong impact on drainage areas, fluxes, and their respective incision capacity. We conclude that drainage reorganization driven by the capture of the Duero basin rivers by the Ebro drainage system explains the first-order preservation of

  7. Evaluation of the effect of temperature, pH, and bioproduction on Hg concentration in sediments, water, molluscs and algae of the delta of the Ebro river.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuhmacher, M; Domingo, J L; Llobet, J M; Corbella, J

    1993-01-01

    The effects of temperature, pH, and bioproduction on mercury levels in sediments, water, molluscs and algae from the delta of the Ebro river (NE Spain) were determined in this study. Mercury concentrations were measured in a cold-vapor atomic absorption spectrophotometer. The ranges of mercury concentrations were the following: sediments, 0.014-0.185 microgram g-1; water, 0.001-0.018 microgram g-1; molluscs, 0.118-0.861 microgram g-1; and algae 0.008-0.026 microgram g-1. Although not statistically significant, a decrease in the pH of the water corresponded with a diminution in the content of mercury in sediments and molluscs, while the mercury levels in water and algae were lower in the areas with high levels of bioproduction. The concentrations of mercury in water significantly decreased with temperature. However, the differences with temperature of the mercury concentrations in sediments did not reach the level of significance. Consequently, water would not be an adequate indicator to determine the levels of mercury contamination, although both sediments and molluscs can be used for this purpose.

  8. Thermal shock and splash effects on burned gypseous soils from the Ebro Basin (NE Spain)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leon, J.; Seeger, M.; Badia, D.; Peters, P.; Echeverria, M.T.

    2014-01-01

    Fire is a natural factor of landscape evolution in Mediterranean ecosystems. The middle Ebro Valley has extreme aridity, which results in a low plant cover and high soil erodibility, especially on gypseous substrates. The aim of this research is to analyze the effects of moderate heating on physical

  9. Recent floods in the Middle Ebro River, Spain: hydrometeorological aspects and floodplain management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domenech, S.; Espejo, F.; Ollero, A.; Sánchez-Fabre, M.

    2009-09-01

    The Ebro River has the largest Mediterranean basin in the Iberian Peninsula and the third one by surface among those of the Mediterranean Sea. The middle stretch of this river is especially interesting because it constitutes a very economically important axis of population in a semi-arid environment context. Flooding processes are common in the Middle Ebro River, but the combination among decrease of discharges, dam construction and expansion and reinforcement of defences created an unusually quiet period as regards flooding events during the last quarter of the previous century. Nevertheless, with the turn of the century it seems that the Middle Ebro River has entered into new dynamics, with bigger and more frequent floods, the appearance of which has changed its seasonal nature. The most relevant examples are those of February 2003 and March-April 2007. The present paper examines these recent trends and discusses their possible causes from the points of view of hydro-meteorology, flood management through the use of reservoirs, and floodplain management. The consequences of recent floods in the Middle Ebro River have reopened the debate about possible risk management measures.

  10. First record of the mangrove palm Nypa from the northeastern Ebro Basin, Spain: with taphonomic criteria to evaluate the drifting duration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreno-Dominguez, R.; Cascales-Minana, B.; Ferrer, J.; Diez, J.B.

    2016-07-01

    Fossil fruits pertaining to the mangrove palm genus Nypa Steck, (Arecaceae, Arecales) were collected from a new plant-bearing assemblage in the Arguis Formation (Fm.), northeastern Ebro Basin (Arguis, Huesca Province, Spain). This formation is Bartonian to early Priabonian in age and comprises pro-delta and carbonate platform deposits. The new assemblage consists of nine specimens of fossil Nypa fruits and one monocotyledon leaf fragment. Over half of these fossil fruits are nearly-complete (i.e. with preserved mesocarps) while the other represent endocarps. From the point of view of morphology and size they resemble other European records of this genus. The type of remain preserved (fruits or endocarps), presence of abrasion, Teredo borings and sedimentary facies provide criteria to infer contrasting lengths of transport (drifting). However, they indicate in all cases that these fossil fruits were afloat in seawater for a considerable time. The discovery of Nypa fruits suggests a tropical-subtropical climate in the area, as well as the presence of a coastal environment and littoral forests during deposition. This interpretation corroborates previous findings from the nearby Eocene outcrops of the Catalan Central Depression (Eastern Pyrenees range). (Author)

  11. Triangular facets of slope in the region of Tudela (Ebro Basin, Navarra, Spain)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marin, C.; Desir, G.; Gutierrez, M.

    2009-01-01

    Some triangular slope facets are localized to the south of Bardenas Reales (central-west of Ebro Basin), elaborated on Tudela Formation deposits, Aragonian in age. Three of them have been dated by OSL resulting on ages of 35,588±2,488 yr. BP, 35,355±2,446 yr. BP and 40.185±2,411 yr. BP. The origin of these facets is ought to an alternation between accumulation and incision phases produced by vegetation cover variation percentage. Those vegetation cover changes are estimated to be due to climatic changes. (Author) 21 refs.

  12. Fluvial response to climate variations and anthropogenic perturbations for the Ebro River, Spain in the last 4,000 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Fei; Kettner, Albert J; Ashton, Andrew; Giosan, Liviu; Ibáñez, Carles; Kaplan, Jed O

    2014-03-01

    Fluvial sediment discharge can vary in response to climate changes and human activities, which in return influences human settlements and ecosystems through coastline progradation and retreat. To understand the mechanisms controlling the variations of fluvial water and sediment discharge for the Ebro drainage basin, Spain, we apply a hydrological model HydroTrend. Comparison of model results with a 47-year observational record (AD 1953-1999) suggests that the model adequately captures annual average water discharge (simulated 408 m(3)s(-1) versus observed 425 m(3)s(-1)) and sediment load (simulated 0.3 Mt yr(-1) versus observed 0.28 ± 0.04 Mt yr(-1)) for the Ebro basin. A long-term (4000-year) simulation, driven by paleoclimate and anthropogenic land cover change scenarios, indicates that water discharge is controlled by the changes in precipitation, which has a high annual variability but no long-term trend. Modeled suspended sediment load, however, has an increasing trend over time, which is closely related to anthropogenic land cover variations with no significant correlation to climatic changes. The simulation suggests that 4,000 years ago the annual sediment load to the ocean was 30.5 Mt yr(-1), which increased over time to 47.2 Mt yr(-1) (AD 1860-1960). In the second half of the 20th century, the emplacement of large dams resulted in a dramatic decrease in suspended sediment discharge, eventually reducing the flux to the ocean by more than 99% (mean value changes from 38.1 Mt yr(-1) to 0.3 Mt yr(-1)). Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. The socioeconomic impacts of the 2004-2008 drought in the Ebro river basin (Spain): A comprehensive and critical assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Mora, N.; Garrido, A.; Gil, M.

    2012-04-01

    Water scarcity and drought are particularly relevant phenomena in Spain, a country with a Mediterranean climate and intense pressure on existing water resources. Spain's drought management policies have evolved significantly over time, and today Spain is at the forefront of drought management and mitigation planning in Europe. However, drought management policies are not informed by comprehensive or accurate estimations of the socioeconomic impacts of drought, nor by the efficiency or efficacy of drought management and mitigation measures. Previous studies attempting to estimate on the impacts of drought are based on direct economic users of water, primarily irrigated agriculture and hydropower. Existing analyses do not take into consideration the impacts on other economic sectors, such as recreational uses, which have a growing importance from a socioeconomic perspective. Additionally, the intangible or non-market impacts (on social welfare and wellbeing and on the environment) are not considered or measured, although they can be significant. This paper presents the mid-point results of the PREEMPT project (Policy relevant assessment of the socioeconomic effects of droughts and floods, ECHO - grant agreement # 070401/2010/579119/SUB/C4), an effort to provide a comprehensive assessment of the socioeconomic impacts of the 2004-2008 drought in the Ebro river basin. The study gathers existing information on direct and indirect economic impacts of drought on different sectors, completing existing gaps and comparing the results of studies that use different methodologies. It also estimates the welfare losses resulting from domestic water use restrictions and environmental degradation as a result of the drought using a value transfer approach from results derived from value choice experiments developed for other Spanish and international river basins. Results indicate that there is a clear need to improve our knowledge of the direct and indirect impacts of drought and to

  14. Radar-based dynamic testing of the cable-suspended bridge crossing the Ebro River at Amposta, Spain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gentile, Carmelo [Politecnico di Milano, Dept. of Architecture, Built environment and Construction engineering (ABC), Piazza Leonardo da Vinci 32, 20133 Milan (Italy); Luzi, Guido [Centre Tecnòlogic de Telecomunicacions de Catalunya (CTTC), Division of Geomatics, Av. Gauss, 7 E-08860 Castelldefels (Barcelona) (Spain)

    2014-05-27

    Microwave remote sensing is the most recent experimental methodology suitable to the non-contact measurement of deflections on large structures, in static or dynamic conditions. After a brief description of the radar measurement system, the paper addresses the application of microwave remote sensing to ambient vibration testing of a cable-suspended bridge. The investigated bridge crosses the Ebro River at Amposta, Spain and consists of two steel stiffening trusses and a series of equally spaced steel floor beams; the main span is supported by inclined stay cables and two series of 8 suspension cables. The dynamic tests were performed in operational conditions, with the sensor being placed in two different positions so that the response of both the steel deck and the arrays of suspension elements was measured. The experimental investigation confirms the simplicity of use of the radar and the accuracy of the results provided by the microwave remote sensing as well as the issues often met in the clear localization of measurement points.

  15. Radar-based dynamic testing of the cable-suspended bridge crossing the Ebro River at Amposta, Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gentile, Carmelo; Luzi, Guido

    2014-01-01

    Microwave remote sensing is the most recent experimental methodology suitable to the non-contact measurement of deflections on large structures, in static or dynamic conditions. After a brief description of the radar measurement system, the paper addresses the application of microwave remote sensing to ambient vibration testing of a cable-suspended bridge. The investigated bridge crosses the Ebro River at Amposta, Spain and consists of two steel stiffening trusses and a series of equally spaced steel floor beams; the main span is supported by inclined stay cables and two series of 8 suspension cables. The dynamic tests were performed in operational conditions, with the sensor being placed in two different positions so that the response of both the steel deck and the arrays of suspension elements was measured. The experimental investigation confirms the simplicity of use of the radar and the accuracy of the results provided by the microwave remote sensing as well as the issues often met in the clear localization of measurement points

  16. Triangular facets of slope in the region of Tudela (Ebro Basin, Navarra, Spain); Facetas triangulares de ladera en la region de Tudela (Depresion del Ebro, Navarra, Espana)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marin, C.; Desir, G.; Gutierrez, M.

    2009-07-01

    Some triangular slope facets are localized to the south of Bardenas Reales (central-west of Ebro Basin), elaborated on Tudela Formation deposits, Aragonian in age. Three of them have been dated by OSL resulting on ages of 35,588{+-}2,488 yr. BP, 35,355{+-}2,446 yr. BP and 40.185{+-}2,411 yr. BP. The origin of these facets is ought to an alternation between accumulation and incision phases produced by vegetation cover variation percentage. Those vegetation cover changes are estimated to be due to climatic changes. (Author) 21 refs.

  17. Selection of bioindicators to detect lead pollution in Ebro delta microbial mats, using high-resolution microscopic techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maldonado, J.; Sole, A.; Puyen, Z.M.; Esteve, I.

    2011-01-01

    Lead (Pb) is a metal that is non-essential to any metabolic process and, moreover, highly deleterious to life. In microbial mats - benthic stratified ecosystems - located in coastal areas, phototrophic microorganisms (algae and oxygenic phototrophic bacteria) are the primary producers and they are exposed to pollution by metals. In this paper we describe the search for bioindicators among phototrophic populations of Ebro delta microbial mats, using high-resolution microscopic techniques that we have optimized in previous studies. Confocal laser scanning microscopy coupled to a spectrofluorometric detector (CLSM-λscan) to determine in vivo sensitivity of different cyanobacteria to lead, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM), both coupled to energy dispersive X-ray microanalysis (EDX), to determine the extra- and intracellular sequestration of this metal in cells, were the techniques used for this purpose. Oscillatoria sp. PCC 7515, Chroococcus sp. PCC 9106 and Spirulina sp. PCC 6313 tested in this paper could be considered bioindicators for lead pollution, because all of these microorganisms are indigenous, have high tolerance to high concentrations of lead and are able to accumulate this metal externally in extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) and intracellularly in polyphosphate (PP) inclusions. Experiments made with microcosms demonstrated that Phormidium-like and Lyngbya-like organisms selected themselves at the highest concentrations of lead assayed. In the present study it is shown that all cyanobacteria studied (both in culture and in microcosms) present PP inclusions in their cytoplasm and that these increase in number in lead polluted cultures and microcosms. We believe that the application of these microscopic techniques open up broad prospects for future studies of metal ecotoxicity.

  18. Selection of bioindicators to detect lead pollution in Ebro delta microbial mats, using high-resolution microscopic techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maldonado, J.; Sole, A.; Puyen, Z.M. [Departament de Genetica i Microbiologia, Facultat de Biociencies, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, Edifici C, Campus de la UAB, Cerdanyola del Valles, Bellaterra (Spain); Esteve, I., E-mail: isabel.esteve@uab.cat [Departament de Genetica i Microbiologia, Facultat de Biociencies, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, Edifici C, Campus de la UAB, Cerdanyola del Valles, Bellaterra (Spain)

    2011-07-15

    Lead (Pb) is a metal that is non-essential to any metabolic process and, moreover, highly deleterious to life. In microbial mats - benthic stratified ecosystems - located in coastal areas, phototrophic microorganisms (algae and oxygenic phototrophic bacteria) are the primary producers and they are exposed to pollution by metals. In this paper we describe the search for bioindicators among phototrophic populations of Ebro delta microbial mats, using high-resolution microscopic techniques that we have optimized in previous studies. Confocal laser scanning microscopy coupled to a spectrofluorometric detector (CLSM-{lambda}scan) to determine in vivo sensitivity of different cyanobacteria to lead, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM), both coupled to energy dispersive X-ray microanalysis (EDX), to determine the extra- and intracellular sequestration of this metal in cells, were the techniques used for this purpose. Oscillatoria sp. PCC 7515, Chroococcus sp. PCC 9106 and Spirulina sp. PCC 6313 tested in this paper could be considered bioindicators for lead pollution, because all of these microorganisms are indigenous, have high tolerance to high concentrations of lead and are able to accumulate this metal externally in extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) and intracellularly in polyphosphate (PP) inclusions. Experiments made with microcosms demonstrated that Phormidium-like and Lyngbya-like organisms selected themselves at the highest concentrations of lead assayed. In the present study it is shown that all cyanobacteria studied (both in culture and in microcosms) present PP inclusions in their cytoplasm and that these increase in number in lead polluted cultures and microcosms. We believe that the application of these microscopic techniques open up broad prospects for future studies of metal ecotoxicity.

  19. Selection of bioindicators to detect lead pollution in Ebro delta microbial mats, using high-resolution microscopic techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maldonado, J; Solé, A; Puyen, Z M; Esteve, I

    2011-07-01

    Lead (Pb) is a metal that is non-essential to any metabolic process and, moreover, highly deleterious to life. In microbial mats - benthic stratified ecosystems - located in coastal areas, phototrophic microorganisms (algae and oxygenic phototrophic bacteria) are the primary producers and they are exposed to pollution by metals. In this paper we describe the search for bioindicators among phototrophic populations of Ebro delta microbial mats, using high-resolution microscopic techniques that we have optimized in previous studies. Confocal laser scanning microscopy coupled to a spectrofluorometric detector (CLSM-λscan) to determine in vivo sensitivity of different cyanobacteria to lead, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM), both coupled to energy dispersive X-ray microanalysis (EDX), to determine the extra- and intracellular sequestration of this metal in cells, were the techniques used for this purpose. Oscillatoria sp. PCC 7515, Chroococcus sp. PCC 9106 and Spirulina sp. PCC 6313 tested in this paper could be considered bioindicators for lead pollution, because all of these microorganisms are indigenous, have high tolerance to high concentrations of lead and are able to accumulate this metal externally in extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) and intracellularly in polyphosphate (PP) inclusions. Experiments made with microcosms demonstrated that Phormidium-like and Lyngbya-like organisms selected themselves at the highest concentrations of lead assayed. In the present study it is shown that all cyanobacteria studied (both in culture and in microcosms) present PP inclusions in their cytoplasm and that these increase in number in lead polluted cultures and microcosms. We believe that the application of these microscopic techniques open up broad prospects for future studies of metal ecotoxicity. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. A review of sediment quantity issues: examples from the River Ebro and adjacent basins (Northeastern Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batalla, Ramon J; Vericat, Damià

    2011-04-01

    Sediment flows naturally through the drainage network, from source areas to deposition zones. Sedimentary disequilibrium in rivers and coastlines is related to the imbalance within the fluvial system caused mostly by dams, instream mining, and changes in land use. This phenomenon is also responsible for ecological perturbations in rivers and streams. A broad need exists to establish comprehensive management strategies (soft measures) that would go beyond site-specific engineering practices (technical measures) typically taken to solve particular problems. Long-term programs are also required to monitor sediment transport in river basins, in order to assess the magnitude and variability of sediment transfer and potential deficits. This paper shows examples of rivers with important sediment disequilibrium in the Ebro and adjacent basins. These basins, like most in the Iberian Peninsula, experience sediment discontinuity in the catchment-river-coast system. Reservoir siltation is the main quantitative issue. Land use change and especially gravel mining downstream from dams accentuate the process. We also present and discuss recent developments on water and sediment management undertaken to improve the morphosedimentary dynamics of rivers. Copyright © 2010 SETAC.

  1. Comparison between land suitability and actual crop distribution in an irrigation district of the Ebro valley (Spain)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez-Casanovas, J. A.; Klaasse, A.; Nogues, J.; Ramos, M. C.

    2008-07-01

    The present research aims to obtain a better insight into the agreement between land evaluation results and actual crop spatial distribution by comparing biophysical land suitability with different crop frequency parameters and with crop rotations derived from multi-year crop maps. The research was carried out in the Flumen district (33,000 ha), which is located in the Ebro Valley (northeast Spain). Land evaluation was based on a 1:100,000 soil survey according to the FAO framework for the main crops in the study area (alfalfa, winter cereals, maize, rice and sunflower). Three crop frequency maps and a crop rotation map, derived from a time-series of Landsat TM and ETM+ images of the period 1993-2000 were used for comparison with land suitability maps. The relationships between the two types of variables were analyzed by means of statistical tests (Pearson chi-square ({chi}{sup 2}), Cramer Ls V, Gamma and Somers L D). The results show the existence of a significant (P=0.001) relationship between crops location and land suitability, except for opportunist crops as sunflower, which is very much influenced by subsidies in the study period. The alfalfa-based rotations show the highest distribution percentages (52%) on the land most suitable for agriculture in the area. The present multi temporal analysis approach offers a more realistic insight than the comparison between a land evaluation map and static year crop map in assessing the degree of agreement of land evaluation recommendations with crops actually cultivated by farmers. Additional key words: biophysical land suitability, crop rotation, land evaluation. (Author) 35 refs.

  2. Anticuerpos frente a virus West nile y otros virus transmitidos por artropodos en la poblacion del Delta del Ebro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lozano Alvaro

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available FUNDAMENTOS: El virus West Nile (VWN es un Flavivirus que se transmite al hombre a través de distintas especies de mosquitos y produce brotes y casos esporádicos de enfermedad en distintas regiones del Viejo Mundo, incluída la Cuenca Mediterránea. Las zonas húmedas europeas que acogen aves migratorias procedentes de África constituyen áreas de alto riesgo para esta infección, así como para otras infecciones víricas transmitidas por artrópodos. MÉTODOS: Con objeto de investigar la prevalencia de la infección por el VWN y otros virus de transmisión similar en la población humana del Delta del Ebro, se estudiaron 1037 muestras de suero, obtenidas en 10 localidades de la zona, para presencia de anticuerpos frente a VWN y otros 12 virus transmitidos por artrópodos (3 Alfavirus, 8 Flaviviridae y 1 Bunyaviridae mediante titulación por inhibición de la hemaglutinación (IHA. En algunos casos se estudió la presencia de IgM específica por IHA tras fraccionar el suero por centrifugación en gradientes de sacarosa. RESULTADOS: En total, se encontró reactividad significativa frente a alguno de los virus probados en 130 casos (12.5%; 4.1% frente a Alfavirus, 8.0% frente a Flaviviridae y 0.4% frente a Bunyaviridae. El análisis de los títulos de anticuerpos reveló porcentajes significativos de muestras con títulos elevados frente a antígenos de VWN y otros. La distribución de la seroprevalencia fue muy desigual, concentrándose fundamentalmente en 3 localidades del interior del Delta (Ampolla, San Jaime y Montells, donde la prevalencia de anticuerpos frente a Flaviviridae llegó a alcanzar el 30% y se observaron niveles residuales de IgM frente a VWN en algunos sueros. CONCLUSIONES: Estos resultados y los obtenidos previamente en otras regiones de la Península Ibérica sugieren que el VWN circula en la población humana de las zonas de riesgo y produce brotes epidémicos periódicos. Habida cuenta del alto porcentaje de

  3. Estimating extreme dry-spell risk in the Middle Ebro valley (Northeastern Spain). a comparative analysis of partial duration series with a General Pareto distribution and annual maxima series with a Gumbel distribution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vicente-Serrano, S.; Beguería, S.

    2003-01-01

    This paper analyses fifty-year time series of daily precipitation in a region of the middle Ebro valley (northern Spain) in order to predict extreme dry-spell risk. A comparison of observed and estimated maximum dry spells (50-year return period) showed that the Generalised Pareto (GP)

  4. LC-MS/MS Detection of Karlotoxins Reveals New Variants in Strains of the Marine Dinoflagellate Karlodinium veneficum from the Ebro Delta (NW Mediterranean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernd Krock

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available A liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS method was developed for the detection and quantitation of karlotoxins in the selected reaction monitoring (SRM mode. This novel method was based upon the analysis of purified karlotoxins (KcTx-1, KmTx-2, 44-oxo-KmTx-2, KmTx-5, one amphidinol (AM-18, and unpurified extracts of bulk cultures of the marine dinoflagellate Karlodinium veneficum strain CCMP2936 from Delaware (Eastern USA, which produces KmTx-1 and KmTx-3. The limit of detection of the SRM method for KmTx-2 was determined as 2.5 ng on-column. Collision induced dissociation (CID spectra of all putative karlotoxins were recorded to present fragmentation patterns of each compound for their unambiguous identification. Bulk cultures of K. veneficum strain K10 isolated from an embayment of the Ebro Delta, NW Mediterranean, yielded five previously unreported putative karlotoxins with molecular masses 1280, 1298, 1332, 1356, and 1400 Da, and similar fragments to KmTx-5. Analysis of several isolates of K. veneficum from the Ebro Delta revealed small-scale diversity in the karlotoxin spectrum in that one isolate from Fangar Bay produced KmTx-5, whereas the five putative novel karlotoxins were found among several isolates from nearby, but hydrographically distinct Alfacs Bay. Application of this LC-MS/MS method represents an incremental advance in the determination of putative karlotoxins, particularly in the absence of a complete spectrum of purified analytical standards of known specific potency.

  5. Identification of the Early Permian (Autunian) in the subsurface of the Ebro Basin, NE Spain, and its paleogeographic consequences

    OpenAIRE

    Arche, A.; Díez, J.B.; López-Gómez, José

    2007-01-01

    [EN] The Early Permian (Autunian) has not been identifi ed up to now in the subsurface of the Tertiary Ebro Basin because of the scarcity of oil well boreholes reaching the Variscan basement and the systematic attribution of a Carboniferous age, without any paleontological data, to the unmetamorfosed siliciclastic sediments found at the base of some of them, clearly above the Early Paleozoic basement. Grey and black shale samples recovered from cores preserved in the REPSOL-YPF archi...

  6. Hepatitis delta genotypes in chronic delta infection in the northeast of Spain (Catalonia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotrina, M; Buti, M; Jardi, R; Quer, J; Rodriguez, F; Pascual, C; Esteban, R; Guardia, J

    1998-06-01

    Based on genetic analysis of variants obtained around the world, three genotypes of the hepatitis delta virus have been defined. Hepatitis delta virus variants have been associated with different disease patterns and geographic distributions. To determine the prevalence of hepatitis delta virus genotypes in the northeast of Spain (Catalonia) and the correlation with transmission routes and clinical disease, we studied the nucleotide divergence of the consensus sequence of HDV RNA obtained from 33 patients with chronic delta hepatitis (24 were intravenous drug users and nine had no risk factors), and four patients with acute self-limited delta infection. Serum HDV RNA was amplified by the polymerase chain reaction technique and a fragment of 350 nucleotides (nt 910 to 1259) was directly sequenced. Genetic analysis of the nucleotide consensus sequence obtained showed a high degree of conservation among sequences (93% of mean). Comparison of these sequences with those derived from different geographic areas and pertaining to genotypes I, II and III, showed a mean sequence identity of 92% with genotype I, 73% with genotype II and 61% with genotype III. At the amino acid level (aa 115 to 214), the mean identity was 87% with genotype I, 63% with genotype II and 56% with genotype III. Conserved regions included the RNA editing domain, the carboxyl terminal 19 amino acids of the hepatitis delta antigen and the polyadenylation signal of the viral mRNA. Hepatitis delta virus isolates in the northeast of Spain are exclusively genotype I, independently of the transmission route and the type of infection. No hepatitis delta virus subgenotypes were found, suggesting that the origin of hepatitis delta virus infection in our geographical area is homogeneous.

  7. Erosion processes acting in semi-arid climate zone of the Ebro Basin (Bardenas Reales, NE of Spain)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marin, C.; Desir, G.

    2009-01-01

    Bardenas Reales is an erosive depression located in the central-western part of the Ebro Depression. May different erosion processes act on this zone: gullying, piping, mud slides and armoured mud balls among others that contribute to export great quantity of material outside the basin. Depending on lithology and physico-chemical properties erosion acting processes differ. The knowledge of that processes help us to understand the great amount of soil loss that take place on the studied zone, bigger than those recommended. (Author) 8 refs.

  8. Impact of industries in the accumulation of radionuclides in the lower part of Ebro river (Catalonia, Spain)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palomo, M.; Penalver, A.; Aguilar, C.; Borrull, F.

    2010-01-01

    Ebro River extends over almost 930 km and is the main Spanish river entering the Mediterranean Sea. There are several industries located along this river course including a di-calcium phosphate factory (DCP) and two nuclear power reactors. These installations, together with other factors such as the geology, can contribute to the radiological content of the river. Therefore, this study was performed to determine some natural and also some anthropogenic radionuclide concentrations in the Ebro River ecosystem. We analysed water samples, solid samples (rice field sludge and surface marine sediment samples), and also biota samples (Cladophora glomerata and Cynodon dactylon). For water samples, gross alpha, gross beta, tritium, uranium, thorium and also a group of gamma-emitting isotopes' activities were determined. The main contribution to radioactivity for these samples was due to some isotopes from the uranium and thorium chain. For the solid samples, we quantified some natural and artificial gamma radioisotopes, which may be related to the geological and/or industrial activities located in this zone. In the case of biota, the results indicate that the presence of the DCP has a significant influence, since the highest activity was observed in the surroundings of this industry (Flix), where isotopes such as 214 Bi and 214 Pb presented activity values of 105 ± 43 Bq/kg and 100 ± 58 Bq/kg, respectively. (authors)

  9. Towards the assessment of climate change and human activities impacts on the water resources of the Ebro catchment (Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milano, M.; Ruelland, D.; Dezetter, A.; Ardoin-Bardin, S.; Thivet, G.; Servat, E.

    2012-04-01

    Worldwide studies modelling the hydrological response to global changes have proven the Mediterranean area as one of the most vulnerable region to water crisis. It is characterised by limited and unequally distributed water resources, as well as by important development of its human activities. Since the late 1950s, water demand in the Mediterranean basin has doubled due to a significant expansion of irrigated land and urban areas, and has maintained on a constant upward curve. The Ebro catchment, third largest Mediterranean basin, is very representative of this context. Since the late 1970s, a negative trend in mean rainfall has been observed as well as an increase in mean temperature. Meanwhile, the Ebro River discharge has decreased by about 40%. However, climate alone cannot explain this downward trend. Another factor is the increase in water consumption for agricultural and domestic uses. Indeed, the Ebro catchment is a key element in the Spanish agricultural production with respectively 30% and 60% of the meat and fruit production of the country. Moreover, population has increased by 20% over the catchment since 1970 and the number of inhabitant doubles each summer due to tourism attraction. Finally, more than 250 storage dams have been built over the Ebro River for hydropower production and irrigation water supply purposes, hence regulating river discharge. In order to better understand the respective influence of climatic and anthropogenic pressures on the Ebro hydrological regime, an integrated water resources modelling framework was developed. This model is driven by water supplies, generated by a conceptual rainfall-runoff model and by a storage dam module that accounts for water demands and environmental flow requirements. Water demands were evaluated for the most water-demanding sector, i.e. irrigated agriculture (5 670 Hm3/year), and the domestic sector (252 Hm3/year), often defined as being of prior importance for water supply. A water allocation

  10. Distribution of naturally occurring radioactive materials in sediments from the Ebro river reservoir in Flix (Southern Catalonia, Spain)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mola, M.; Palomo, M.; Penalver, A.; Aguilar, C. [Departament de Quimica Analitica i Quimica Organica, Universitat Rovira i Virgili, Marcelli Domingo s/n, 43007 Tarragona (Spain); Unitat de Radioquimica Ambiental i Sanitaria (URAIS), Consorci d' Aiguees de Tarragona (CAT), Ctra Nacional 340, km 1094, 43895 L' Ampolla (Spain); Borrull, F., E-mail: francesc.borrull@urv.cat [Departament de Quimica Analitica i Quimica Organica, Universitat Rovira i Virgili, Marcelli Domingo s/n, 43007 Tarragona (Spain); Unitat de Radioquimica Ambiental i Sanitaria (URAIS), Consorci d' Aiguees de Tarragona (CAT), Ctra Nacional 340, km 1094, 43895 L' Ampolla (Spain)

    2011-12-30

    Industrial waste containing radioactive isotopes (from U-decay series) was released into Ebro river basin due to the activity of a dicalcium phosphate (DCP) plant for a period of more than two decades. Gross alpha, gross beta, {sup 40}K, {sup 226}Ra and {sup 210}Pb activities were determined in several sludge samples taken at different depths from different points in the area of influence of the DCP plant located in Flix. Samples were collected from two different zones: one in front of the DCP plant and the second in front of a wastewater treatment plant installed several years after the DCP plant. The data obtained verify the influence of industrial DCP production on radioactivity levels present in the area.

  11. Downscaling of surface moisture flux and precipitation in the Ebro Valley (Spain using analogues and analogues followed by random forests and multiple linear regression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Ibarra-Berastegi

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, reanalysis fields from the ECMWF have been statistically downscaled to predict from large-scale atmospheric fields, surface moisture flux and daily precipitation at two observatories (Zaragoza and Tortosa, Ebro Valley, Spain during the 1961–2001 period. Three types of downscaling models have been built: (i analogues, (ii analogues followed by random forests and (iii analogues followed by multiple linear regression. The inputs consist of data (predictor fields taken from the ERA-40 reanalysis. The predicted fields are precipitation and surface moisture flux as measured at the two observatories. With the aim to reduce the dimensionality of the problem, the ERA-40 fields have been decomposed using empirical orthogonal functions. Available daily data has been divided into two parts: a training period used to find a group of about 300 analogues to build the downscaling model (1961–1996 and a test period (1997–2001, where models' performance has been assessed using independent data. In the case of surface moisture flux, the models based on analogues followed by random forests do not clearly outperform those built on analogues plus multiple linear regression, while simple averages calculated from the nearest analogues found in the training period, yielded only slightly worse results. In the case of precipitation, the three types of model performed equally. These results suggest that most of the models' downscaling capabilities can be attributed to the analogues-calculation stage.

  12. Crop yields response to water pressures in the Ebro basin in Spain: risk and water policy implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quiroga, S.; Fernández-Haddad, Z.; Iglesias, A.

    2011-02-01

    The increasing pressure on water systems in the Mediterranean enhances existing water conflicts and threatens water supply for agriculture. In this context, one of the main priorities for agricultural research and public policy is the adaptation of crop yields to water pressures. This paper focuses on the evaluation of hydrological risk and water policy implications for food production. Our methodological approach includes four steps. For the first step, we estimate the impacts of rainfall and irrigation water on crop yields. However, this study is not limited to general crop production functions since it also considers the linkages between those economic and biophysical aspects which may have an important effect on crop productivity. We use statistical models of yield response to address how hydrological variables affect the yield of the main Mediterranean crops in the Ebro river basin. In the second step, this study takes into consideration the effects of those interactions and analyzes gross value added sensitivity to crop production changes. We then use Montecarlo simulations to characterize crop yield risk to water variability. Finally we evaluate some policy scenarios with irrigated area adjustments that could cope in a context of increased water scarcity. A substantial decrease in irrigated land, of up to 30% of total, results in only moderate losses of crop productivity. The response is crop and region specific and may serve to prioritise adaptation strategies.

  13. Risk of water scarcity and water policy implications for crop production in the Ebro Basin in Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quiroga, S.; Fernández-Haddad, Z.; Iglesias, A.

    2010-08-01

    The increasing pressure on water systems in the Mediterranean enhances existing water conflicts and threatens water supply for agriculture. In this context, one of the main priorities for agricultural research and public policy is the adaptation of crop yields to water pressures. This paper focuses on the evaluation of hydrological risk and water policy implications for food production. Our methodological approach includes four steps. For the first step, we estimate the impacts of rainfall and irrigation water on crop yields. However, this study is not limited to general crop production functions since it also considers the linkages between those economic and biophysical aspects which may have an important effect on crop productivity. We use statistical models of yield response to address how hydrological variables affect the yield of the main Mediterranean crops in the Ebro River Basin. In the second step, this study takes into consideration the effects of those interactions and analyzes gross value added sensitivity to crop production changes. We then use Montecarlo simulations to characterize crop yield risk to water variability. Finally we evaluate some policy scenarios with irrigated area adjustments that could cope in a context of increased water scarcity. A substantial decrease in irrigated land, of up to 30% of total, results in only moderate losses of crop productivity. The response is crop and region specific and may serve to prioritise adaptation strategies.

  14. Evaluating the impact of hydrological uncertainty in assessing the impact of climate change on water resources of the Ebro River Basin (Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zambrano-Bigiarini, Mauricio; Bellin, Alberto; Majone, Bruno; Bovolo, C. Isabella; Blenkinsop, Stephen; Fowler, Hayley J.

    2010-05-01

    Quantification of the impacts of climate change on water resources depends on the emission scenario, climate model, downscaling technique and impact model used to drive the impact study. Uncertainties in projections of climate models and those involved in the quantification of its hydrological response limit the understanding of future impacts and complicate the assessment of mitigation policies. This work analyses the effects of climate change on water resources of the Ebro River Basin (NE Spain), considering the combined effect of uncertainty characterizing both the driving Regional Climate Model (RCM) and hydrological parameterization. In addition, we considered the relative importance of these two contributions. Hydrological simulations in a few test catchments within the basin were performed by using the SWAT model, a widely used hydrological model often applied to large-scale watersheds. After a preliminary sensitivity analysis with Latin Hypercube One-factor-At-a-Time (LH-OAT), the Generalized Likelihood Uncertainty Estimation (GLUE) methodology was used for selecting hydrological parameter sets that best reproduced the observed streamflow during the control period from 1961 to 1991, in terms of percentage of measured data bracketed by the 95% prediction uncertainty (95PPU), and the ratio between the average thickness of the 95PPU band and the standard deviation of the measured data. Following validation, the same parameter sets were used to simulate the effects of climate change on future streamflows. A simple bias-correction methodology was used for downscaling daily time series of precipitation and mean temperature from an ensemble of 6 RCM time-slice experiments. These were obtained from the PRUDENCE project for a control period (1961-1990) and for a future time period (2071-2100) using the medium-high SRES A2 emissions scenario. The bias-corrected future RCM scenarios were then used to drive the hydrological simulations during the future period

  15. Recent climate trends and multisecular climate variability: temperature and precipitation during the cold season (October-March) in the Ebro Basin (NE of Spain) betrween 1500 and 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saz-Sanchez, M.-A.; Cuadrat-Prats, J.-M.

    2009-09-01

    One of the goals of Paleoclimatology is to assess the importance and the exceptional nature of recent climate trends related to the anthropogenic climate change. Instrumental data enable the analysis of last century's climate, but do not give any information on previous periods' precipitation and temperature, during which there was no anthropic intervention on the climate system. Dendroclimatology is one of the paleoclimatic reconstruction sources giving best results when it comes to reconstructing the climate of the time before instruments could be used. This work presents the reconstructed series of precipitation and temperature of the cold season (October-March) In the central sector of the Ebro Valley (NE of Spain). The chronologies used for the reconstruction come on the one hand from the International Tree-Ring Data Bank (ITRDB) and on the other hand from the dendrochronological information bank created in the northern half of the Iberian Peninsula within the framework of the Spanish Interministerial Commission for Science and Technology (CICYT) CLI96-1862 project. The climate data used for chronology calibration and the reconstruction of the temperature and precipitation values are those of the instrumental observatory number 9910 (Pallaruelo) belonging to the Spanish State Meteorological Agency (Agencia Estatal de Meteorología or AEMET), located in the central sector of the Ebro Valley. The reconstruction obtained covers the 1500-1990 period. In order to extend the series up to 2008, instrumental information has been used. Thanks to data from a set of AEMET instrumental observatories close to the one used for chronology calibration, a regional series of temperatures as well as a precipitation one were generated. The series reconstructed through dendroclimatic methods and the regional series do not show statistically significant differences in their mean and variance values. R values between both series exceed 0.85. Taking these statistical characteristics

  16. Notas sobre la presencia de siálidos (Insecta: Sialidae en la cuenca del río Ebro (España = Notes on the presence of Sialidae (Insecta: Sialidae in the Ebro River Basin (Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Oscoz, A. Agorreta, C. Durán

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Muestreos de macroinvertebrados en diferentes ríos de la cuenca del Ebro (España aportaron capturas de larvas de siálidos (Insecta: Megaloptera: Sialidae que fueron clasificadas como tres especies (Sialis fuliginosa, Sialis lutaria y Sialis nigripes de las cuales se muestra el mapa de presencia en la cuenca del Ebro. Las tres especies se encontraron en general en tramos de cabecera o ríos de montaña con aguas de calidad "Muy Buena" o "Buena" según el índice biótico IBMWP, si bien dicha distribución podría estar influida por otros factores limitantes diferentes a la necesidad de una alta calidad en las aguas.

  17. Ca isotopes in the Ebro River Basin: mixing and lithological tracer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerrot, C.; Negrel, P. J.; Millot, R.; Petelet-Giraud, E.; Brenot, A.

    2012-12-01

    A large investigation of the Ebro River catchment was done in the past years regarding hydrogen, oxygen, lithium, boron, sulphur and oxygen from SO4 and strontium isotope measurements together with major and trace elements in the dissolved load of 25 river samples collected within the Ebro River Basin in Spain (Millot et al., Geophysical Research Abstracts, Vol. 14, EGU2012-2062, 2012). The Ebro River (928 km long, 85,530 km2 drainage basin) located in North-Eastern Spain rises near the Atlantic coast in the Cantabrian Mountains and flows into the western Mediterranean Sea through several large cities and agricultural, mining and industrial areas. The river is one of the largest contributors of freshwater in the Mediterranean Sea and ends in the Ebro delta, one of the most important wetlands in Europe. Bedrocks of the Ebro River Basin are mainly dominated by carbonates and evaporites from the Paleozoic and Mesozoic terrains. The Ebro river mainstream was sampled at Amposta one time per month between June 2005 and May 2006 and secondly, the Ebro River along its main course and its main tributaries were sampled during one field campaign in April 2006. The behaviour of Ca and its isotopes during water/rock interactions at the scale of a large river basin having various lithologies will be investigated in addition with Sr, S (SO4) and O (SO4) isotopes. One objective is to characterize the processes controlling the isotope signatures of a large river draining predominantly sedimentary bedrocks. The δ44Ca ratio (δ44/40 normalised to Seawater) ranged between -0.87 and -1.09‰ along the Ebro main stream, increasing towards the delta as the Ca content increase. In Amposta, the δ44Ca ratio ranged between -0.66 and -1.04‰ and tends to decrease with the increasing discharge. These variations are very similar to those given by the 87Sr/86Sr ratios and Sr contents. For the tributaries, the δ44Ca ratio ranged between -0.43 and -1.04‰ whereas the anhydrite-gypsum bedrock

  18. Erosion processes acting in semi-arid climate zone of the Ebro Basin (Bardenas Reales, NE of Spain); Procesos de erosion actuantes en una zona de clima semiarido de la Depresion del Ebro (Bardenas Reales, NE de Espana)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marin, C.; Desir, G.

    2009-07-01

    Bardenas Reales is an erosive depression located in the central-western part of the Ebro Depression. May different erosion processes act on this zone: gullying, piping, mud slides and armoured mud balls among others that contribute to export great quantity of material outside the basin. Depending on lithology and physico-chemical properties erosion acting processes differ. The knowledge of that processes help us to understand the great amount of soil loss that take place on the studied zone, bigger than those recommended. (Author) 8 refs.

  19. Dynamics of suprabenthos off the Ebro Delta (Catalan Sea: western Mediterranean): Spatial 13 and temporal patterns and relationships with environmental factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cartes, Joan E.; Papiol, Vanesa; Palanques, Albert; Guillén, Jorge; Demestre, Montserrat

    2007-12-01

    Dynamics of suprabenthos (hyperbenthos) composition and biomass have been simultaneously analyzed at two sites (S1, S2) off the Ebro River Delta (western Mediterranean). The stations, separated by ca. 5 km, differed in terms of depth (S1, 47 m; S2, 61 m), distance to the river mouth (S2 south of S1 and farther from the mouth) and fishing activity (S1 is a fishing ground; S2 is in an area closed to fishing). Peracarids (gammaridean amphipods, mysids, and cumaceans) were dominant among suprabenthic taxa. Seasonality was the main explanation for changes in taxonomic composition, with two seasonal groups indicated by MDS analyses (late summer-autumn, August-September, and November 2003; early summer, June and July samples). Peracarids at both S1 and S2 showed a peak of abundance in early July, with the highest densities reaching 5400 individuals (100 m) -2 at S2. There was a sharp decrease of density in late July (S1) and August (S2), then an increase in August (S1) and in September (S2), respectively. A secondary peak of abundance occurred in November (S1) and December (S2). There was, therefore, a similar picture in the dynamics of suprabenthic peracarids at both sites, though with a delay of 1 month at the deeper S2. This pattern coincided with changes in river discharge (specifically, a decrease of suprabenthos when influx was below 200 m 3 s -1 in the period June-September 2003), and with the formation of a thermal gradient (also in June-September 2003) between S1 and S2 associated with the 15 °C isotherm. In addition, the decrease of suprabenthos in late July-August also coincided with the massive occurrence of mucilaginous aggregates close to the bottom (at between 0 and 4 m above the bottom), in the usual habitat of suprabenthos. C/N ratios in sediments (an indicator of the degree of degradation of organic matter (OM)) increased during this peak abundance of mucilaginous aggregates. The impoverishment of sediments in total organic carbon (TOC) was parallel to

  20. Single-grain OSL dating of Early Middle Palaeolithic deposits at Cuesta de la Bajada, Ebro Basin, Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Lee; Demuro, Martina; Santonja, Manuel; Perez-Gonzalez, Alfredo; Pares, Josep

    2013-04-01

    The open-air site of Cuesta de la Bajada comprises a 2-2.5 m-thick sequence of fluvial-lacustrine sediments inset into the +50-60 m terrace deposits preserved along the south-eastern margins of the Alfambra river valley, Teruel, Spain. The main archaeological horizons lie ~20 m above the present-day river level and consists of an upward-fining sequence of massive fluvial silts and fine sands with dispersed gravels, detritic marls and shales that collectively overlie a series of planar bedded fluvial gravels. These units have yielded ~3000 lithic artefacts displaying reduction techniques characteristic of an early Middle Palaeolithic techno-complex, as well as a multitude of faunal remains indicative of a late Middle Pleistocene origin. The paucity of open-air Palaeolithic sites in the interior eastern sector of the Iberian Peninsula, and the relatively low number of documented early Middle Palaeolithic archives in this region, means that Cuesta de la Bajada is of key importance for understanding the coexistence/transition of Iberian Acheulean and Mousterian techno-complexes during the Middle Pleistocene period. Establishing reliable absolute chronologies at Cuesta de la Bajada remains essential for understanding the regional significance of this site. In an attempt to redress the existing chronological uncertainty we are undertaking an interdisciplinary dating study of the Middle Palaeolithic deposits using OSL dating, ESR/U-series dating of teeth and ESR dating of sedimentary quartz. Here we present results obtained using quartz single-grain OSL dating of 4 samples collected from a 7 m vertical profile bracketing the archaeological horizons. 2 samples were collected from the archaeology-bearing silt and fine sand horizons, while the remaining samples were obtained from well-bedded fine-sands and silts 3.5 m above and 3 m below the main excavation. The measured quartz grains are characterised by relatively bright OSL signals and typically display dose

  1. The effects of hydrological dynamics on benthic diatom community structure in a highly stratified estuary: The case of the Ebro Estuary (Catalonia, Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rovira, L.; Trobajo, R.; Leira, M.; Ibáñez, C.

    2012-04-01

    This study of the distribution of benthic diatom assemblages and their relationship with environmental factors in a highly stratified Mediterranean estuary, i.e. the Ebro Estuary, shows the importance of hydrological dynamics to explain the features of the diatom community in such an estuary, where river flow magnitude and fluctuations imply strong physicochemical variability especially in sites close to the sea. Eight sites along the estuary were sampled during 2007-2008 both at superficial and deep water layers, in order to gather both horizontal and vertical estuarine physicochemical and hydrological gradients. Canonical Variates Analysis and Hierarchical Cluster Analysis segregated diatom community in two assemblages depending on the dynamics of the salt-wedge. The diatom assemblages of riverine conditions (i.e. without salt-wedge influence) where characterised by high abundances of Cocconeis placentula var. euglypta and Amphora pediculus, meanwhile high abundances of Nizschia frustulum and Nitzschia inconspicua were characteristic of estuarine conditions (i.e. under salt-wedge influence). Redundancy Analysis showed that both diatom assemblages responded seasonally to Ebro River flows, especially in estuarine conditions, where fluctuating conditions affected diatom assemblages both at spatial and temporal scale.

  2. Integrating geomorphological mapping, InSAR, GPR and trenching for the identification and investigation of buried sinkholes in the mantled evaporite karst of the Ebro Valley (NE Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez, Francisco; Galve, Jorge Pedro; Lucha, Pedro; Bonachea, Jaime; Castañeda, Carmen

    2010-05-01

    The first and most important step in sinkhole hazard analysis is the construction of a cartographic sinkhole inventory. The effectiveness of the mitigation measures and the reliability of the susceptibility and hazard maps will depend on the completeness and accuracy of the sinkhole inventories on which they are based. Sinkhole data bases preferably should include information on the following aspects: (1) Precise location of the sinkholes edges. (2) Morphometric parameters. (3) Geomorphological and hydrological context. (4) Genetic type; that is subsidence mechanisms and material affected by subsidence. (5) Chronology; this information is essential to calculate probability of occurrence values. (6) Active or inactive character. (7) Kinematical regime (gradual, episodic or mixed). (8) Current and/or long-term subsidence rates. (9) Evolution of the subsidence and its relationship with causal factors. Sinkholes are generally mapped using conventional geomorphological methods like aerial photographs, topographic maps and field surveys. However, the usefulness of these methods may be limited in areas where the geomorphic expression of sinkholes has been obliterated by natural processes or anthropogenic fill. Additionally, gaining data on some of the practical aspects indicated above requires the application of other techniques. In this contribution we present the main findings learnt through the construction of a sinkhole inventory in a terrace of the Ebro River valley (NE Spain). The study area covers around 27.5 ha and is located west of Zaragoza city. The bedrock consists of subhorizontal evaporites including gypsum, halite and glauberite. The terrace is situated at 7-10 m above the channel and the alluvium, 10-30 m thick, is composed of unconsolidated gravels and subordinate fines. Previous studies carried out in this sector of the valley reveal that: (1) Three main types of sinkholes may be differentiated: cover collapse, cover and bedrock collapse, and cover and

  3. A combined QC methodology in Ebro Delta HF radar system: real time web monitoring of diagnostic parameters and offline validation of current data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorente, Pablo; Piedracoba, Silvia; Soto-Navarro, Javier; Ruiz, Maria Isabel; Alvarez Fanjul, Enrique

    2015-04-01

    Over recent years, special attention has been focused on the development of protocols for near real-time quality control (QC) of HF radar derived current measurements. However, no agreement has been worldwide achieved to date to establish a standardized QC methodology, although a number of valuable international initiatives have been launched. In this context, Puertos del Estado (PdE) aims to implement a fully operational HF radar network with four different Codar SeaSonde HF radar systems by means of: - The development of a best-practices robust protocol for data processing and QC procedures to routinely monitor sites performance under a wide variety of ocean conditions. - The execution of validation works with in-situ observations to assess the accuracy of HF radar-derived current measurements. The main goal of the present work is to show this combined methodology for the specific case of Ebro HF radar (although easily expandable to the rest of PdE radar systems), deployed to manage Ebro River deltaic area and promote the conservation of an important aquatic ecosystem exposed to a severe erosion and reshape. To this aim, a web interface has been developed to efficiently monitor in real time the evolution of several diagnostic parameters provided by the manufacturer (CODAR) and used as indicators of HF radar system health. This web, updated automatically every hour, examines sites performance on different time basis in terms of: - Hardware parameters: power and temperature. - Radial parameters, among others: Signal-to-Noise Ratio (SNR), number of radial vectors provided by time step, maximum radial range and bearing. - Total uncertainty metrics provided by CODAR: zonal and meridional standard deviations and covariance between both components. - Additionally, a widget embedded in the web interface executes queries against PdE database, providing the chance to compare current time series observed by Tarragona buoy (located within Ebro HF radar spatial domain) and

  4. Heavy metals contents in agricultural topsoils in the Ebro basin (Spain). Application of the multivariate geoestatistical methods to study spatial variations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez Martin, Jose Antonio; Arias, Manuel Lopez; Grau Corbi, Jose Manuel

    2006-01-01

    In this work the content of seven heavy metals (Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Ni, Pb and Zn) and other parameters (the pH, organic matter, carbonates and granulometric fraction) in agricultural topsoil in the Ebro basin are quantified, based on 624 samples collected according to an 8 by 8 km square mesh. The average concentrations (mg/kg) obtained were: Cd 0.415 ± 0.163, Cr 20.27 ± 13.21, Cu 17.33 ± 14.97, Ni 20.50 ± 22.71, Pb 17.54 ± 10.41, Zn 17.53 ± 24.19 and Hg 35.6 ± 42.05 μg/kg. The concentration levels are relatively low in areas of high pH and low organic matter content concentration. The results of factor analysis group Cd, Cu, Hg, Pb and Zn in F1 and Cr y Ni in F2. The spatial heavy metals component maps based on geostatistical analysis, show definite association of these factors with the soil parent material. The local anomalies (found in Cu, Zn and Pb) are attributed to anthropogenic influence. - Geostatistical analyses showed definite association of metals with soil parent materials

  5. Decline and changing profile of hepatitis delta among injection drug users in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilera, Antonio; Trastoy, Rocio; Barreiro, Pablo; Costa, José Javier; de Mendoza, Carmen; Peña, Jose M; Soriano, Vicente

    2018-01-01

    Roughly 15 million people worldwide have hepatitis delta, the most severe form of chronic viral hepatitis that often leads to cirrhosis and liver cancer. Injection drug users (IDUs) are the largest HDV reservoir. Their resurgence in North America and Europe may represent a new opportunity for HDV to spread more widely. We examined all consecutive active IDUs seen for the first time and enrolled in detoxification programmes at two clinics in Spain during two periods (1993-1996 and 2011-2014, respectively). Serum markers of HIV, HBV and HDV infection were tested. A total of 209 IDUs were examined in the first period. Mean age was 27-years-old. All had markers of past or current HBV infection. The rate of HIV-antibody (Ab), hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) and HDV-Ab was as follows: 122 (58.4%), 73 (34.9%) and 62 (29.7%), respectively. Serum HDV-Ab was recognized in 53.4% of HBsAg+ and 16.9% of HBsAg- patients (Pforeign immigrants. It may reflect the benefit of universal HBV vaccination as well as the success of needle exchange programmes in Spain.

  6. Controls of {delta}{sup 34}S and {delta}{sup 18}O in dissolved sulphate: Learning from a detailed survey in the Llobregat River (Spain)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Otero, Neus [Departament Cristal . lografia, Mineralogia i Diposits Minerals, Facultat de Geologia, Universitat de Barcelona, Marti i Franques, s/n, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Grup d' Hidrogeoquimica, Departament de Geologia Ambiental, Institut de Ciencies de la Terra ' Jaume Almera' , CSIC, Lluis Sole i Sabaris, s/n, 08028 Barcelona (Spain)], E-mail: notero@ub.edu; Soler, Albert; Canals, Angels [Departament Cristal . lografia, Mineralogia i Diposits Minerals, Facultat de Geologia, Universitat de Barcelona, Marti i Franques, s/n, 08028 Barcelona (Spain)

    2008-05-15

    The S and O isotopic composition of dissolved SO{sub 4}, used as a tracer for SO{sub 4} sources, was applied to the water of the Llobregat River system (NE Spain). The survey was carried out at 30 sites where surface water was sampled on a monthly basis over a period of 2a. The concentration of dissolved SO{sub 4} varied from 20 to 1575 mg L{sup -1}. Sulphur isotopic compositions clustered in two populations: one - 93% of the samples - had positive values with a mode of +9 per mille ; the other had negative values and a mode of -5 per mille . Data for {delta}{sup 18}O{sub SO{sub 4}} showed a mean value of +11 per mille , with no bi-modal distribution, though lower values of {delta}{sup 18}O corresponded to samples with negative {delta}{sup 34}S. These values can not be explained solely by the contribution of bedrock SO{sub 4} sources: that is, sulphide oxidation and the weathering of outcrops of sulphates, though numerous chemical sediments exist in the basin. Even in a river with a high concentration of natural sources of dissolved SO{sub 4}, such as the Llobregat River, the {delta}{sup 34}S values suggest that dissolved SO{sub 4} is controlled by a complex mix of both natural and anthropogenic sources. The main anthropogenic sources in this basin are fertilizers, sewage, potash mine effluent and power plant emissions. Detailed river water sampling, together with the chemical and isotopic characterisation of the main anthropogenic inputs, allowed determination of the influence of redox processes, as well as identification of the contribution of natural and anthropogenic SO{sub 4} sources and detection of spatial variations and seasonal changes among these sources. For instance, in the Llobregat River the input of fertilisers is well marked seasonally. Minimum values of {delta}{sup 34}S are reported during fertilization periods - from January to March - indicating a higher contribution of this source. The dual isotope approach, {delta}{sup 34}S and {delta}{sup 18}O

  7. Impact of industries in the accumulation of radionuclides in the lower part of Ebro river (Catalonia, Spain); Impact des industries dans l'accumulation de radionucleides dans le cours inferieur de l'Ebre (Catalogne, Espagne)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palomo, M.; Penalver, A.; Aguilar, C.; Borrull, F. [Unitat de Radioquimica Ambiental i Sanitaria, Universitat Rovira i Virgili, Consorci d' Aigues de Tarragona (CAT), L' Ampolla Tarragona (Spain)

    2010-10-15

    Ebro River extends over almost 930 km and is the main Spanish river entering the Mediterranean Sea. There are several industries located along this river course including a di-calcium phosphate factory (DCP) and two nuclear power reactors. These installations, together with other factors such as the geology, can contribute to the radiological content of the river. Therefore, this study was performed to determine some natural and also some anthropogenic radionuclide concentrations in the Ebro River ecosystem. We analysed water samples, solid samples (rice field sludge and surface marine sediment samples), and also biota samples (Cladophora glomerata and Cynodon dactylon). For water samples, gross alpha, gross beta, tritium, uranium, thorium and also a group of gamma-emitting isotopes' activities were determined. The main contribution to radioactivity for these samples was due to some isotopes from the uranium and thorium chain. For the solid samples, we quantified some natural and artificial gamma radioisotopes, which may be related to the geological and/or industrial activities located in this zone. In the case of biota, the results indicate that the presence of the DCP has a significant influence, since the highest activity was observed in the surroundings of this industry (Flix), where isotopes such as {sup 214}Bi and {sup 214}Pb presented activity values of 105 {+-} 43 Bq/kg and 100 {+-} 58 Bq/kg, respectively. (authors)

  8. Type of delta cycle in the Upper Westphalian of the Central coalfield (Spain)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colmenero, J R; Barba Regidor, P

    1985-01-01

    The deltas were one of the main depositional systems in Westphalian sedimentation of the Central Asturian Coalfield. A prograding shallow fluvial dominated deltaic cycle is analyzed in this paper. The prograding coarsening-upward sequence consists mainly of sandstone lithofacies deposited by small-scale distributary fluvial channels and bars. Several widely distributed bituminous coal seams in the delta-plain lithofacies reflect inactive stages without sedimentation before its definitive abandonment.

  9. Drainage and reclamation of salt-affected soils in the Bardenas area, Spain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martinez Beltran, J.

    1978-01-01

    Chapter 1

    The Ebro basin is situated in north-eastern Spain and forms a geographic unit bounded by high mountains. The Bardenas area lies in the Ebro basin and forms part of the Bardenas Alto - Aragón irrigation scheme, which was designed to make use of the surface water resources from the

  10. Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zoppo, C.E.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports on nuclear export activities in Spain, as elsewhere, which occur in a political, economic, and technological context. The factors operating the process are not always explicitly related in the public and the private sectors, nor between these sectors, by the relevant decision makers. A redefinition of Spain's policies in the nuclear sector has been going on since at least 1984, when a new energy plan was legislated by the newly elected Socialist government. It would be accurate to suggest that this process remains dynamic and not fully completed for policy purposes. This condition has resulted from the fact that Spain underwent a crucial political regime change from dictatorship to parliamentary democracy about a decade ago, with the transition to democracy only recently consolidated. Moreover, no policy in regard to nuclear nonproliferation existed during the Franco regime. Instead, Spain's official position was to maintain the right to preserve a nuclear option for national defense. However, this option was not developed into a concerted program to develop a nuclear military capability

  11. Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-03-01

    Spain is a constitutional monarchy with a population of 38.3 million growing at .5%/year. The most striking topographical features are the high plateaus and internal compartmentalization by mountain and river barriers. Nearly 3/4 of the country is arid. The Iberian peninsula was the scene of successive invasions and warfare for centuries. Phoenicians, Greeks, Carthaginians, Moors, Celts, Romans, and Visigoths all invaded at some time. The present language, religion, and laws stem from the Roman Period. The Reconquest from the North African Moors lasted over 700 years until they were driven out in 1492. The unification of present day Spain was complete by 1512. A period of dictatorial rule from 1923-31 ended with establishment of the Second Republic which saw increasing political polarization culminating in the Spanish Civil War. Franco's victory in 1939 was followed by official neutrality but pro-Axis policies during World War II. Spain's economy began to recover during the 1950s, but large scale modernization and development did not occur until the 1960s. Prince Juan Carlos de Borbon y Borbon, Franco's personally designated heir, assumed the title of king and chief of state with Franco's death in 1975. Franco's last prime minister was replaced in July 1976 in order to speed the pace of post-Franco liberalization. Spain's 1st parliamentary elections since 1936 were held in 1977, and a new constitution protecting human and civil rights and granting due process was overwhelmingly approved in 1978. The constitution also authorized creation of regional autonomous governments. By the mid-1970s, Spain had developed a strong and diversified industrial sector and a thriving tourist industry. From 1975-83, there were 8 years of double-digit inflation, an average growth rate of 1.5% in real terms, and an increase in unemployment from about 4.7% to 18.4%. By 1984 there was substantial improvement in inflation and the balance of payments. Goals of current government economic

  12. Differential accumulation of mercury and other trace metals in the food web components of a reservoir impacted by a chlor-alkali plant (Flix, Ebro River, Spain): Implications for biomonitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soto, David X., E-mail: david.soto@ec.gc.ca [Centre for Advanced Studies of Blanes (CEAB-CSIC), Acces a la Cala St. Francesc 14, 17300 Blanes (Spain); Roig, Romero; Gacia, Esperanca; Catalan, Jordi [Centre for Advanced Studies of Blanes (CEAB-CSIC), Acces a la Cala St. Francesc 14, 17300 Blanes (Spain)

    2011-06-15

    Comparative studies of biomonitors of trace metal contamination are relatively scarce. We took advantage of a point source pollution in a reservoir (Flix, Spain) to compare trace metal (Hg, Pb, Cd, Se, As, Zn, Cu, Cr) bioaccumulation patterns among 16 food web components. Our results indicate that most organisms are suitable for Hg biomonitoring, whereas other metals are better monitored by only some of them. Biofilms and zebra mussel were the organisms with larger and more diverse biomonitoring capacity. However, we show that using groups of biomonitors increase the scope and strengths of the conclusions and specific goals can be better addressed. We conclude providing an overview of the strengths and weaknesses of the main organisms considered for biomonitoring trace metals in rivers and reservoirs. - Highlights: > We compare many food web components of a reservoir for trace metal bioaccumulation. > Most organisms are suitable for Hg biomonitoring. > Biofilms and zebra mussel showed more general biomonitoring capacity. > Other organisms showed strengths for specific metals or environmental compartments. > The use of a group of biomonitors increases the scope and strengths of conclusions. - The use of a group of biomonitors increases the scope and strengths of conclusions in trace metal biomonitoring.

  13. Differential accumulation of mercury and other trace metals in the food web components of a reservoir impacted by a chlor-alkali plant (Flix, Ebro River, Spain): Implications for biomonitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soto, David X.; Roig, Romero; Gacia, Esperanca; Catalan, Jordi

    2011-01-01

    Comparative studies of biomonitors of trace metal contamination are relatively scarce. We took advantage of a point source pollution in a reservoir (Flix, Spain) to compare trace metal (Hg, Pb, Cd, Se, As, Zn, Cu, Cr) bioaccumulation patterns among 16 food web components. Our results indicate that most organisms are suitable for Hg biomonitoring, whereas other metals are better monitored by only some of them. Biofilms and zebra mussel were the organisms with larger and more diverse biomonitoring capacity. However, we show that using groups of biomonitors increase the scope and strengths of the conclusions and specific goals can be better addressed. We conclude providing an overview of the strengths and weaknesses of the main organisms considered for biomonitoring trace metals in rivers and reservoirs. - Highlights: → We compare many food web components of a reservoir for trace metal bioaccumulation. → Most organisms are suitable for Hg biomonitoring. → Biofilms and zebra mussel showed more general biomonitoring capacity. → Other organisms showed strengths for specific metals or environmental compartments. → The use of a group of biomonitors increases the scope and strengths of conclusions. - The use of a group of biomonitors increases the scope and strengths of conclusions in trace metal biomonitoring.

  14. Recent Trends in the Ebro River Basin: Is It All "Just" Climate Change?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutz, Stefanie; Merz, Ralf

    2016-04-01

    Water resources are under pressure from a variety of stressors such as industry, agriculture, water abstraction or pollution. Changing climate can potentially enhance the impact of these stressors, especially under water scarcity conditions. The aim of the GLOBAQUA project ("Managing the effects of multiple stressors on aquatic ecosystems under water scarcity") is, therefore, to analyze the combined effect of multiple stressors in the context of increasing water scarcity. As part of the GLOBAQUA project, this study examines recent trends in climate, water quantity and quality parameters in the Ebro River Basin in Northern Spain to identify stressors and determine their joint impact on water resources. Mann-Kendall trend analyses of temperature, precipitation, streamflow, groundwater level, streamwater and groundwater quality data (spanning between 15 and 40 years) were performed. Moreover, anthropogenic pressures such as land use and alteration of natural flow by reservoirs were considered. Climate data indicate increasing temperatures in the Ebro River Basin especially in summer and autumn, and decreasing precipitation particularly in summer. In contrast, precipitation mostly shows upwards trends in autumn, but these are counterbalanced by greater evapotranspiration due to higher temperatures. Overall, this results in annual and seasonal streamflow decreases at the majority of gauging stations. Declining trends in streamflow are most pronounced during summer and are also observed in subbasins without reservoirs. Diminishing water resources become also apparent in generally decreasing groundwater levels in the Ebro River Basin. This decrease is most pronounced in areas where groundwater serves as main origin for irrigation water, which demonstrates how land use acts as a local rather than regional driver of change. Increasing air temperatures correlate with increasing water temperatures over the past 30 years, which indicates the effect of changing climate on water

  15. Rome, Saguntum and the Ebro Treaty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Eckstein

    1984-06-01

    Full Text Available Pol. III 14, 9-10 makes it possible to argue that Rome's amicitia with Saguntum may have antedated the death of Hamilcar Barca, and so was no provocative innovation of the late 220's B. C. It is also unlikely that Rome's ties with Saguntum were affected by the terms of the Ebro Treaty of ca. 226, while Rome's right to such ties had a legal basis in the «Spanish terms» of the Roman-Punic Treaty of 348. It thus appears that in the late 220's it was Hannibal (not Rome who was seeking to change the existing status quo south of the Ebro.

  16. Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    Spanish low and intermediate level radioactive wastes are disposed of at the El Cabril Disposal Facility, in the province of Cordoba (SPAIN). The fundamental safety objective of the facility consists of the immediate and longer term protection of people and the environment. This objective leads to the need to isolate the wastes from the human surroundings, such that any release of the radionuclides contained in them does not pose any radiological risk for either people or the environment over the necessary time period. Consequently, it is necessary to fully protect the wastes against external aggression, from both the climatic and biological point of view (infiltration of water, temperature variations, chemical action of water, attacks by living macro and microorganisms, plants, etc.). This waste isolation is achieved by means of a multi-barrier system separating the activity stored from the aforementioned actions

  17. The Eastern delta-fan deposits on the Granada Basin as tectonic indicators of the Sierra Nevada uplift (Betic Cordillera, South Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roldán, Francisco Javier; Azañon, Jose Miguel; Mateos, Rosa Maria

    2014-05-01

    A geological mapping in detail of the Eastern sector of the Granada Basin (South Spain) reveals two different groups of Gilbert delta-fans related to the Sierra Nevada uplift. The first group, in the southern part and with a surface of 6 km2, has three major coarsening-upward sequences. They are composed of very coarse deposits, those of conglomerates, sands and silts. Progradational strata units to the basin have been observed. The dominantly fluvial facies association has locally developed shallow marine foreset deposits (partially with reef colonization) as well as topset red soils (Dabrio, et al., 1978; Braga et a., 1990; García-García, et al., 1999) . All the sequences are discordant over marine facies (calcarenites) dated over 8,26 Ma (Late Tortonian). The second group, in the northern part and with an extension of 12 km2, has similar characteristics, but some of the boulders have ostreids and lamellibranchs species which reveal their former position in a previous marine environment. The Sierra Nevada uplift caused the remobilization of these boulders, being transported by debris-flow inside the delta-fan bodies (García-García, et al., 2006). The dating of ostreids shells with Sr techniques reveals ages over 7,13, 6,61 and 5,45 Ma, from the lower to the upper delta-fan deposits, which are related to the three main sequences observed and with three major tectonic pulses during the Late Miocene. These interpretations are in agreement with apatite fision-track studies carried out in some boulders of these coarse delta-fan deposits (Clark and Dempster, 2013). They reveal a detailed record of Neogene denudation from the Sierra Nevada basement and with uplift periods between 5,45Ma- 2 Ma. The latest pulses affected the delta-fan sediments given rise to new fan systems in the Granada Basin (Alhambra Formation). The thoroughly study of the Miocene delta-fan sediments allows us to conclude that they were related to a sin-sedimentary tectonic activity linked to the

  18. E.B.R.O. 499 Union Gas settlement agreement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    This alternative dispute resolution agreement is for the consideration of the Ontario Energy Board in its determination of the 1999 rates for Union Gas Limited, under Docket No. E.B.R.O. 499. The agreement is supported by the evidence filed in E.B.R.O. 499. The topics discussed in this report are administration policy, rate base, operating revenue, cost of service, cost of capital, cost allocations, and rate design

  19. A NEW METHOD FOR ENVIRONMENTAL FLOW ASSESSMENT BASED ON BASIN GEOLOGY. APPLICATION TO EBRO BASIN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-02-01

    The determination of environmental flows is one of the commonest practical actions implemented on European rivers to promote their good ecological status. In Mediterranean rivers, groundwater inflows are a decisive factor in streamflow maintenance. This work examines the relationship between the lithological composition of the Ebro basin (Spain) and dry season flows in order to establish a model that can assist in the calculation of environmental flow rates.Due to the lack of information on the hydrogeological characteristics of the studied basin, the variable representing groundwater inflows has been estimated in a very simple way. The explanatory variable used in the proposed model is easy to calculate and is sufficiently powerful to take into account all the required characteristics.The model has a high coefficient of determination, indicating that it is accurate for the intended purpose. The advantage of this method compared to other methods is that it requires very little data and provides a simple estimate of environmental flow. It is also independent of the basin area and the river section order.The results of this research also contribute to knowledge of the variables that influence low flow periods and low flow rates on rivers in the Ebro basin.

  20. The combined use of chemical and biochemical markers to assess water quality along the Ebro River

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lavado, Ramon; Urena, Rocio; Martin-Skilton, Rebeca; Torreblanca, Amparo; Ramo, Jose del; Raldua, Demetrio; Porte, Cinta

    2006-01-01

    Carp (Cyprinus carpio) and barbel (Barbus graellsii) were collected from five sites along the Ebro River. The study was designed to assess levels of persistent organic pollutants and metals bioaccumulated by fish, and some biochemical responses (cytochrome P450 system, phase II activities, and metallothioneins) against those pollutants. The highest levels of PCBs and DDTs were detected in carp from industrialised areas, which also showed high levels of mercury and cadmium in the liver, and high levels of nonylphenol in bile. Significant alterations in some biochemical markers were observed and associated to combined exposure to pollutants. The activity 7-ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase ranged from 69 pmol/min/mg protein in carp from the reference site to 415 pmol/min/mg protein in those from polluted sites. Carp from the Ebro Delta, an agricultural area, had depressed acetylcholinesterase in muscle tissue. Metallothionein concentrations were positively correlated with copper residues, but no significant differences among sampling points were observed. - Fish accumulation of persistent organic pollutants is compared with various biochemical markers

  1. The combined use of chemical and biochemical markers to assess water quality along the Ebro River

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lavado, Ramon [Environmental Chemistry Department, IIQAB-CSIC, Jordi Girona 18, 08034 Barcelona (Spain); Urena, Rocio [Department of Functional Biology, University of Valencia, 46100 Burjassot, Valencia (Spain); Martin-Skilton, Rebeca [Environmental Chemistry Department, IIQAB-CSIC, Jordi Girona 18, 08034 Barcelona (Spain); Torreblanca, Amparo [Department of Functional Biology, University of Valencia, 46100 Burjassot, Valencia (Spain); Ramo, Jose del [Department of Functional Biology, University of Valencia, 46100 Burjassot, Valencia (Spain); Raldua, Demetrio [Environmental Chemistry Department, IIQAB-CSIC, Jordi Girona 18, 08034 Barcelona (Spain); Porte, Cinta [Environmental Chemistry Department, IIQAB-CSIC, Jordi Girona 18, 08034 Barcelona (Spain)]. E-mail: cpvqam@cid.csic.es

    2006-01-15

    Carp (Cyprinus carpio) and barbel (Barbus graellsii) were collected from five sites along the Ebro River. The study was designed to assess levels of persistent organic pollutants and metals bioaccumulated by fish, and some biochemical responses (cytochrome P450 system, phase II activities, and metallothioneins) against those pollutants. The highest levels of PCBs and DDTs were detected in carp from industrialised areas, which also showed high levels of mercury and cadmium in the liver, and high levels of nonylphenol in bile. Significant alterations in some biochemical markers were observed and associated to combined exposure to pollutants. The activity 7-ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase ranged from 69 pmol/min/mg protein in carp from the reference site to 415 pmol/min/mg protein in those from polluted sites. Carp from the Ebro Delta, an agricultural area, had depressed acetylcholinesterase in muscle tissue. Metallothionein concentrations were positively correlated with copper residues, but no significant differences among sampling points were observed. - Fish accumulation of persistent organic pollutants is compared with various biochemical markers.

  2. Numerical modelling of Quaternary terrace staircase formation in the Ebro foreland basin, southern Pyrenees, NE Iberia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Balen, R.T.; Stange, K.M.; Cloetingh, S.A.P.L.; Garcia-Castellanos, D.

    2016-01-01

    The southern foreland basin of the Pyrenees (Ebro basin) is an exorheic drainage basin since Late Miocene times. Remnants of an early exorheic Ebro drainage system are not preserved, but morphology provides evidence for the Pliocene–Quaternary drainage development. The incision history of the Ebro

  3. Implementing Integrated Water Resources Management in the Ebro River Basin: From Theory to Facts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Bielsa

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we analyze how successful the implementation of Integrated Water Resource Management (IWRM in the Ebro river catchment (in Spain has been. Our main aim is to show some gaps between theory and practice. This implies analyzing the political dimensions of governance and their change and reflecting on the interface between governance and technical knowledge about water. We highlight problems, such as the lack of institutional coordination, blind spots in technical information and path dependences. Actual water management has led to plans for further irrigation even though water availability is, and is expected to continue, shrinking due to climate change and other local factors. To overcome these mismatches, we propose further synchronization, innovative ways of public participation and knowledge sharing between institutions and researchers. As a showcase, we portray a practical real example of a desirable institutional arrangement in one sub-catchment.

  4. Integrated flood damage modelling in the Ebro river basin under hydrodynamic, socio-economic and environmental factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foudi, S.; Galarraga, I.; Osés, N.

    2012-04-01

    This paper presents a model of flood damage measurement. It studies the socio-economic and environmental potential damage of floods in the Ebro river basin. We estimate the damage to the urban, rural and environmental sectors. In these sectors, we make distinctions between residential, non residential, cultural, agricultural, public facilities and utilities, environmental and human subsectors. We focus on both the direct, indirect, tangible and intangible impacts. The residential damages refer to the damages on housing, costs of repair and cleaning as direct effects and the re-housing costs as an indirect effect. The non residential and agricultural impacts concern the losses to the economic sectors (industry, business, agricultural): production, capital losses, costs of cleaning and repairs for the direct costs and the consequences of the suspension of activities for the indirect costs. For the human sector, we refer to the physical impacts (injuries and death) in the direct tangible effects and to the posttraumatic stress as indirect intangible impact. The environmental impacts focus on a site of Community Interests (pSCIs) in the case study area. The case study is located the Ebro river basin, Spain. The Ebro river basin is the larger river basin in term of surface and water discharge. The Ebro river system is subject to Atlantic and Mediterranean climatic influences. It gathers most of its water from the north of Spain (in the Pyrenees Mountains) and is the most important river basin of Spain in term of water resources. Most of the flooding occurs during the winter period. Between 1900- 2010, the National Catalogue of Historical Floods identifies 372 events: meanly 33 events every 10 years and up to 58 during the 1990-2000. Natural floods have two origins: (i) persistent rainfalls in large sub basins raised up by high temperature giving rise to a rapid thaw in the Pyrenees, (ii) local rainfalls of short duration and high intensity that gives rise to rapid and

  5. First evidence of endocrine disruption in feral carp from the Ebro River

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lavado, Ramon; Thibaut, Remi; Raldua, Demetrio; Martin, Rebeca; Porte, Cinta

    2004-01-01

    Feral carps (Cyprinus carpio) were collected in spring 2001 from five sites along the lower course of Ebro River (Spain) with the aim of investigating the existence of endocrine-disrupting effects. Several findings (low gonadosomatic index (GSI), plasmatic vitellogenin (VTG), depressed levels of testosterone, and histological alterations in gonads) detected in male carps downstream of Zaragoza's sewage treatment plant (STP) strongly suggest that the concentration of sewage effluent in the area is a major causal factor leading to the detected estrogenic effects. Important alterations (viz. delayed maturation in females, indications of arrested spermatogenesis in males) were detected in carps from Flix, a heavily industrialized area. Low ovarian P-450 aromatase and reduced glucuronidation of testosterone and estradiol in males were observed in Zaragoza and Canal Imperial de Aragon--an agricultural area--which suggest decreased estrogen synthesis, and possibly, reduced sex hormone excretion in those organisms. These results were related to some in vitro assays aimed to assess the interference of model compounds (atrazin, vinclozolin, diuron, pp'-DDE, dicofol, triphenyltin, nonylphenol, and fenarimol) with the glucuronidation of testosterone and estradiol by liver microsomal fractions. The fungicide fenarimol (10-20 μM) and nonylphenol (50 μM) were found to significantly inhibit (20%) both activities at relatively low doses. Overall, this work provides the first evidence of the existence of significant alterations of the endocrine system of carps from the medium-low course of the Ebro River and demonstrates the ability of several chemicals to modulate the inactivation of endogenous steroids

  6. Stratigraphic and structural controls on groundwater flow in an outcropping fossil fan delta: the case of Sant Llorenç del Munt range (NE Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anglés, Marc; Folch, Albert; Oms, Oriol; Maestro, Eudald; Mas-Pla, Josep

    2017-12-01

    Hydrogeological models of mountain regions present the opportunity to understand the role of geological factors on groundwater resources. The effects of sedimentary facies and fracture distribution on groundwater flow and resource exploitation are studied in the ancient fan delta of Sant Llorenç de Munt (central Catalonia, Spain) by integrating geological field observations (using sequence stratigraphy methods) and hydrogeological data (pumping tests, hydrochemistry and environmental isotopes). A comprehensive analysis of data portrays the massif as a single unit, constituted by different compartments determined by specific layers and sets of fractures. Two distinct flow systems—local and regional—are identified based on pumping test analysis as well as hydrochemical and isotopic data. Drawdown curves derived from pumping tests indicate that the behavior of the saturated layers, whose main porosity is given by the fracture network, corresponds to a confined aquifer. Pumping tests also reflect a double porosity within the system and the occurrence of impervious boundaries that support a compartmentalized model for the whole aquifer system. Hydrochemical data and associated spatial evolution show the result of water-rock interaction along the flow lines. Concentration of magnesium, derived from dolomite dissolution, is a tracer of the flow-path along distinct stratigraphic units. Water stable isotopes indicate that evaporation (near a 5% loss) occurs in a thick unsaturated zone within the massif before infiltration reaches the water table. The hydrogeological analysis of this outcropping system provides a methodology for the conceptualization of groundwater flow in similar buried systems where logging and hydrogeological information are scarce.

  7. Radionuclides in biota collected near a dicalcium phosphate plant, southern Catalonia, Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mola, M.; Palomo, M.; Penalver, A.; Aguilar, C.; Borrull, F.

    2013-01-01

    Industrial waste containing radioactive U-decay series isotopes was released into the Ebro River, Spain, over a period of >20 years from a dicalcium phosphate (DCP) plant. This release raised activities of several natural radionuclides (e.g. 238 U, 234 U, 230 Th, 232 Th and 226 Ra) in biota taken from the area near the DCP plant. Plants and animals selected for this study included the green algae (Cladophora glomerata), the blue mussel (Mytilus edulis), the zebra mussel (Dreissena polymorpha) and the scavenger catfish (Silurus glanis) because they are all common in the area. Multiple sampling points were chosen for this study: (1) a site in the Riba-Roja Reservoir, above the DCP plant's area of influence, (2) four sites in the area surrounding the DCP plant, close to the town of Flix, and (3) a location in the Ebro Delta Estuary in Fangar Bay. Significant differences in the activities (in Bq kg -1 of dry weight) for the radioisotopes included in this study among samples were attributed to sample location and the species evaluated. For instance, relatively high activities for uranium and radium were obtained in algae collected around the DCP plant, compared to results obtained for algae samples taken from the unimpacted Riba-Roja Reservoir. In contrast, for zebra mussels, enhanced activities were observed for all radionuclides and, in particular, for thorium and radium isotopes within the area of influence. Among catfish samples, activity values from different locations were not significantly different, though slightly higher activities were observed at the sampling point just downstream of the DCP factory. (author)

  8. Sea floor morphology of the Ebro Shelf in the region of the Columbretes Islands, Western Mediterranean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz, A.; Lastras, G.; Ballesteros, M.; Canals, M.; Acosta, J.; Uchupi, E.

    2005-12-01

    Widespread volcanism off eastern Spain in the western Mediterranean is associated with Cenozoic crustal attenuation and sinistral motion along the Trans-Moroccan-Western Mediterranean-European mega shear, extending from northern Morocco to the North Sea via the Alboran Basin, eastern Iberia, the Valencian and Lyons basins, France and Germany. The Quaternary Columbretes Islands volcanic field is the most prominent example of this volcanism associated with this mega shear. The islands are located in the Ebro continental shelf on top of a structural horst probably made of Paleozoic metamorphic rocks. Surrounding the emerged islands are volcanic structures and associated flows partially mantled by a sediment drift whose morphology is controlled by the southwestward flowing Catalan Current. This association is rather unique and appears to have never been described from a continental shelf in the Mediterranean Sea or outside the sea. The morphology of both kinds of structures, obtained by means of swath bathymetry data and very-high resolution seismic profiles, is presented in this study. They provide striking images of this previously unstudied part of the western Mediterranean seafloor. These images suggest that the volcanic structures are intruded into the surficial Holocene sediments indicating that volcanism in the Columbretes has extended into Holocene.

  9. TBT: Telecommunications-Based Training in the 90s (DELTA Programme--Action Line III). Proceedings of the Workshop (Madrid, Spain, January 21-22, 1991).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Commission of the European Communities, Brussels (Belgium).

    This report contains a collection of papers presented at a workshop on telecommunications-based training systems as part of the DELTA (Developing European Learning through Technological Advance) Action Line III, which addressed research in telecommunications for open and distance education. The following presentations are included: (1)…

  10. Pesticides in the Ebro River basin: Occurrence and risk assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ccanccapa, Alexander; Masiá, Ana; Navarro-Ortega, Alícia; Picó, Yolanda; Barceló, Damià

    2016-01-01

    In this study, 50 pesticides were analyzed in the Ebro River basin in 2010 and 2011 to assess their impact in water, sediment and biota. A special emphasis was placed on the potential effects of both, individual pesticides and their mixtures, in three trophic levels (algae, daphnia and fish) using Risk Quotients (RQs) and Toxic Units (TUs) for water and sediments. Chlorpyrifos, diazinon and carbendazim were the most frequent in water (95, 95 and 70% of the samples, respectively). Imazalil (409.73 ng/L) and diuron (150 ng/L) were at the highest concentrations. Sediment and biota were less contaminated. Chlorpyrifos, diazinon and diclofenthion were the most frequent in sediments (82, 45 and 21% of the samples, respectively). The only pesticide detected in biota was chlorpyrifos (up to 840.2 ng g"−"1). Ecotoxicological risk assessment through RQs showed that organophosphorus and azol presented high risk for algae; organophosphorus, benzimidazoles, carbamates, juvenile hormone mimic and other pesticides for daphnia, and organophosphorus, azol and juvenile hormone mimics for fish. The sum TU_s_i_t_e for water and sediments showed values < 1 for the three bioassays. In both matrices, daphnia and fish were more sensitive to the mixture of pesticide residues present. - Highlights: • Wide occurrence of pesticides in water and in lesser extent in sediment and biota. • Ecotoxicological pesticide risk assessment in the Ebro river and its tributaries. • Sum TU_s_i_t_e pointed out daphnia as more sensitive to the pesticide residue mixture. • Chronic toxicity test (RQ) showed risk in three trophic level (algae, daphnia and fish). - Evidence of water, sediment and biota contamination by a cocktail of pesticide residues especially hazardous for Daphnia.

  11. Sorption of alkylphenols on Ebro River sediments: Comparing isotherms with field observations in river water and sediments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Navarro, Alicia [Center of Applied Geoscience, University of Tuebingen, Sigwartstrasse 10, 72076 Tuebingen (Germany); Institute of Environmental Assessment and Water Research (IDAEA-CSIC), Jordi Girona 18-26, 08034 Barcelona (Spain)], E-mail: anoqam@iiqab.csic.es; Endo, Satoshi; Gocht, Tilman [Center of Applied Geoscience, University of Tuebingen, Sigwartstrasse 10, 72076 Tuebingen (Germany); Barth, Johannes A.C. [Center of Applied Geoscience, University of Tuebingen, Sigwartstrasse 10, 72076 Tuebingen (Germany); Lehrstuhl fuer Angewandte Geologie, GeoZentrum Nordbayern, Universitaet Erlangen-Nuernberg, Schlossgarten 5, 91054 Erlangen (Germany); Lacorte, Silvia [Institute of Environmental Assessment and Water Research (IDAEA-CSIC), Jordi Girona 18-26, 08034 Barcelona (Spain); Barcelo, Damia [Institute of Environmental Assessment and Water Research (IDAEA-CSIC), Jordi Girona 18-26, 08034 Barcelona (Spain); Institut Catala de Recerca de l' Aigua (ICRA), Parc Cientific i Tecnologic de la Universitat de Girona, Pic de Peguera, 15, 17003 Girona (Spain); Grathwohl, Peter [Center of Applied Geoscience, University of Tuebingen, Sigwartstrasse 10, 72076 Tuebingen (Germany)

    2009-02-15

    This study reports sorption isotherms of the endocrine disruptors nonylphenol (NP) and octylphenol (OP) in three sediment samples from the Ebro River basin (NE Spain), with organic carbon fractions (f{sub OC}) ranging from 0.0035 to 0.082 g{sub OC} g{sup -1}. All isotherms were fitted to the Freundlich model with slightly nonlinear exponents ranging from 0.80 to 0.94. The solubility of the compounds as well as the organic carbon (OC) content had the strongest influences on the sorption behavior of these compounds. Comparison of the laboratory-spiked samples with the native contamination of NP of 45 water and concurrent sediment samples resulted in reasonable matches between both data sets, even though the lowest concentrations in the field were not completely reached in laboratory tests. This good agreement indicates that sorption laboratory data can be extrapolated to environmental levels and therefore the distribution of nonylphenol between sediments and water can be predicted with a precision of one order of magnitude. Furthermore, laboratory experiments with simultaneous loading of NP and OP revealed negligible competition for sorption sites at low concentrations. - Laboratory sorption of nonylphenol compared to field concentrations showed good agreements.

  12. Sorption of alkylphenols on Ebro River sediments: Comparing isotherms with field observations in river water and sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Navarro, Alicia; Endo, Satoshi; Gocht, Tilman; Barth, Johannes A.C.; Lacorte, Silvia; Barcelo, Damia; Grathwohl, Peter

    2009-01-01

    This study reports sorption isotherms of the endocrine disruptors nonylphenol (NP) and octylphenol (OP) in three sediment samples from the Ebro River basin (NE Spain), with organic carbon fractions (f OC ) ranging from 0.0035 to 0.082 g OC g -1 . All isotherms were fitted to the Freundlich model with slightly nonlinear exponents ranging from 0.80 to 0.94. The solubility of the compounds as well as the organic carbon (OC) content had the strongest influences on the sorption behavior of these compounds. Comparison of the laboratory-spiked samples with the native contamination of NP of 45 water and concurrent sediment samples resulted in reasonable matches between both data sets, even though the lowest concentrations in the field were not completely reached in laboratory tests. This good agreement indicates that sorption laboratory data can be extrapolated to environmental levels and therefore the distribution of nonylphenol between sediments and water can be predicted with a precision of one order of magnitude. Furthermore, laboratory experiments with simultaneous loading of NP and OP revealed negligible competition for sorption sites at low concentrations. - Laboratory sorption of nonylphenol compared to field concentrations showed good agreements

  13. Integrated approach for sinkhole evaluation and evolution prediction in the Central Ebro Basin (NE Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar Pueyo Anchuela

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Evaluation of karst hazards benefits from the integration of different techniques, methodologies and approaches. Each one presents a different signature and is sensitive to certain indicators related to karst hazards. In some cases, detailed analysis permits the evaluation of representativeness either from isolated approaches or by means of integrated analyses. In this study, we present the evaluation of an area with high density of karstic collapses at different evolutionary stages through the integration of surficial, historical, geomorphological and geophysical data in order to finally define the evolutionary model for karst activity development. The obtained dataset permits to identify different steps in sinkhole evolution: (i cavities and open sinkholes, (ii filling of these cavities, with materials having different signatures, (iii the progression from collapses to subsidence sinkholes and (iv enlargement through collapses in marginal areas of previous sinkholes. The presence of different stages of this evolutionary model permits to determine their own signatures that can be of application in contexts where analysis cannot be so systematic and also to evaluate the definition of the marginal areas of previous sinkholes as the most hazardous sectors.

  14. Malaria resurgence risk in southern Europe: climate assessment in an historically endemic area of rice fields at the Mediterranean shore of Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sainz-Elipe, Sandra; Latorre, Jose Manuel; Escosa, Raul; Masià, Montserrat; Fuentes, Marius Vicent; Mas-Coma, Santiago; Bargues, Maria Dolores

    2010-07-31

    International travel and immigration have been related with an increase of imported malaria cases. This fact and climate change, prolonging the period favouring vector development, require an analysis of the malaria transmission resurgence risk in areas of southern Europe. Such a study is made for the first time in Spain. The Ebro Delta historically endemic area was selected due to its rice field landscape, the presence of only one vector, Anopheles atroparvus, with densities similar to those it presented when malaria was present, in a situation which pronouncedly differs from already assessed potential resurgence areas in other Mediterranean countries, such as France and Italy, where many different Anopheles species coexist and a different vector species dominates. The transmission risk was assessed analysing: 1) climate diagrams including the minimum temperature for Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax development; 2) monthly evolution of the Gradient Model Risk (GMR) index, specifying transmission risk period and number of potential Plasmodium generations; 3) ecological characteristics using remote sensing images with the Eurasia Land Cover characteristics database and the monthly evolution of the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI); 4) evaluation of A. atroparvus population dynamics. Climatological analyses and GMR index show that a transmission risk presently exists, lasting from May until September for P. falciparum, and from May until October for P. vivax. The GMR index shows that the temperature increase does not actually mean a transmission risk increase if accompanied by a precipitation decrease reducing the number of parasite generations and transmission period. Nevertheless, this limitation is offset by the artificial flooding of the rice fields. Maximum NDVI values and A. atroparvus maximum abundance correspond to months with maximum growth of the rice fields. The Ebro Delta presents the ecological characteristics that favour

  15. Exploitation of the nuclear plant Asco and the benthic community of the river Ebro; Explotacion de la central nuclear Asco y la comunidad bentonica del rio Ebro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Esparza Martin

    2015-07-01

    The Ebro river passing through the town of Asco in the province of Tarragona, provides the necessary water for the operation of the nuclear plant. water of circulation flows and service components are returned completely to the river, or if operation of cooling towers, decreased in a small part. Evaporative losses account for approximately 1% of the total flow used for two nuclear groups. (Author)

  16. Macrophytes control on a stretch of the Ebro River flowing through the Asco Nuclear Power Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munte Clua, L.; Fernandez Alentorn, E.; Beltran Grau, A.

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to evaluate the time evolution of the different macrophytes populations in the stretch of the Ebro River between the town of Flix and the Asco Nuclear Power Plant, and the effects observed by the programmed flood for their control.

  17. Delta Dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendixen, Mette

    . The warming air temperature affects the soil temperature and permafrost thaws and destabilizes the material in the coastal zone. In Greenland, the warming temperature lowers the surface mass balance of the Greenland Ice Sheet and more material is transported to the coastal zone. The sea ice extent is thinning...... of a fjord and the second type is a wider fan-shaped open delta. Most deltas are directly coupled to the Greenland Ice Sheet or local icecaps and are highly influenced by the dynamics in the catchments. It is demonstrated how a modern changing climate directly affects delta dynamics, and that Greenlandic...... deltas are prograding, contrary to the global trend showing eroding Arctic coasts. Moreover, it is revealed that the increasing proglacial freshwater runoff, caused by a lowering of the surface mass balance of the Greenland Ice Sheet is the main determining agent in delta progradation. The final part...

  18. Daily temperature changes and variability in ENSEMBLES regional models predictions: Evaluation and intercomparison for the Ebro Valley (NE Iberia)

    KAUST Repository

    El Kenawy, Ahmed M.; Ló pez-Moreno, Juan Ignacio; McCabe, Matthew; Brunsell, Nathaniel A.; Vicente-Serrano, Sergio M.

    2014-01-01

    We employ a suite of regional climate models (RCMs) to assess future changes in summer (JJA) maximum temperature (Tmax) over the Ebro basin, the largest hydrological division in the Iberian Peninsula. Under the A1B emission scenario, future changes

  19. Exploitation of the nuclear plant Asco and the benthic community of the river Ebro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Esparza Martin

    2015-01-01

    The Ebro river passing through the town of Asco in the province of Tarragona, provides the necessary water for the operation of the nuclear plant. water of circulation flows and service components are returned completely to the river, or if operation of cooling towers, decreased in a small part. Evaporative losses account for approximately 1% of the total flow used for two nuclear groups. (Author)

  20. Evolution of the efficiency and agro-environmental impact of a traditional irrigation land in the middle Ebro Valley (2001-2007)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia-Garizabal, I.; Causape Valenzuela, J.; Abrahao, R.

    2009-07-01

    Alternatives in irrigation management can lead to the creation of irrigation lands that are more efficient and more respectful towards the environment. The objective of this work is to analyze the evolution of the agro-environmental impact in a traditional irrigation land of the middle Ebro Valley (Spain) which has experienced changes in its management. For such, water, salt and nitrate balances were accomplished in a hydrological basin (95 ha) in 2001, 2005, 2006 and 2007. The drought of 2005 caused more intensive water use (86%), increasing in 33% the irrigation efficiency when compared to 2001 (53%), even though a high hydric deficit (24%) was caused. Changes in the flood irrigation system management (from rotation to on demand), maximum allocations of irrigation water, billing for the volume of irrigation water consumed and the expansion of crops with lower water and fertilization needs made it possible to achieve irrigation efficiencies of approximately 73% (an increase of 20%) and to halve salt (1.3 Mg ha{sup -}1 year-1) and nitrate (25 kg NO{sub 3} --N ha{sup -}1 year{sup -}1) loads exported in the drainage. The evaluated management changes have been efficient, but nevertheless, crops still suffer certain hydric stress and since 2005 a slight but worrying negative agro-environmental tendency has been observed and should be reversed. (Author)

  1. Macrophytes control on a stretch of the Ebro River flowing through the Asco Nuclear Power Plant; Control de macrofitos en un tramo del rio Ebro a su paso por la Central Nuclear Asco

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Munte Clua, L.; Fernandez Alentorn, E.; Beltran Grau, A.

    2010-07-01

    The objective of this paper is to evaluate the time evolution of the different macrophytes populations in the stretch of the Ebro River between the town of Flix and the Asco Nuclear Power Plant, and the effects observed by the programmed flood for their control.

  2. Focus: Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferguson, M.P.

    1992-01-01

    Historically, Spain's nuclear program has had its share of successes and challenges. The country currently operates nine nuclear reactors totalling over 7,100 MWe of capacity and accounting for more than a third of Spain's electricity generation. Yet four reactors at advanced stages of construction remain mothballed due to a government-imposed moratorium, and a fire at one reactor in 1989 led to its premature closure and to a revival of anti-nuclear sentiment in the country. In the new national energy plan, Spain opted to continue the moratorium and rely upon conservation measures, additional natural gas imports, and electricity imports to meet expected demand. The current nuclear facilities will continue to operate, and the government will continue to pursue advanced reactor research, and expansion of the country's domestic uranium industry. Spain's integration into the European Community also is affecting the country's energy plans, prompting consolidation within the Spanish electricity sector in order to be more competitive in Europe

  3. Aristocracias y dependientes en el Alto Ebro (siglos V-VIII

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santiago CASTELLANOS

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN: El estudio de la documentación tardoantigua supone un avance en el conocimiento histórico y el debate historiográfico acerca de los múltiples problemas que presenta la Alta Edad Media en el Norte de la Península Ibérica. El autor profundiza en fuentes sobre la zona del Alto Ebro durante la Antigüedad tardía, al tiempo que proporciona un panorama social de tal ámbito, a fin de entender mejor el posterior mundo altomedieval, lejos de algunos modelos basados exclusivamente en fuentes altomedievales.ABSTRACT: The study of documents from late antiquity has led to progress in the historical knowledge and the historiographical debate surrounding the many problems presented by the Early Middle Ages in the north of the Iberian Peninsula. The author makes an in-depth study of sources from the Upper Ebro area during Late Antiquity, at the same time giving a social panorama of this same area, in order to better understand the subsequent early mediaeval world. This scene has turned out to be very different from models based exclusively on early mediaeval sources.

  4. Underground CO{sub 2} Storage: Approach for Favourable Formations in Ebro Basin; AGP de CO{sub 2}: Seleccion de Formaciones Favorables en la Cuenca del Ebro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campos, R.; Perucha, A.; Recreo, F.

    2008-04-10

    The study of the possibilities of conducting Deep Geological CO{sub 2} Storage inside Spanish territory is being performed through the Strategic Singular Project PS-120000-2005-2 of the National Program of Energy from the Education and Science Ministry, and called CO{sub 2} generation, sequestration and storage advanced technologies, sub project N3 CO{sub 2} Geological Storage This report studies the possibilities the Ebro basin offers for definitive CO{sub 2} storage as one of the Spanish selected areas from previous studies. The study and reinterpretation of the information obtained from the hydrocarbon exploration accomplished in the area has lead to the selection of a series of geological formations. These formations have been chosen attending certain characteristics such as their disposition, extension, depth and porosity. The study has also been conducted considering the characteristics of the geological formations above the CO{sub 2} storage formations so as to guarantee the sealing of the storage. The study includes the approximate estimation of the storage capacity for each of the formations in Megatons of CO{sub 2}, which can be useful in future decision making. Deep geological storage is one of the more relevant international initiatives in order to eliminate or reduce the anthropogenic CO{sub 2} emissions to the atmosphere. (Author) 68 refs.

  5. RiverFlow2D numerical simulation of flood mitigation solutions in the Ebro River

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Echeverribar

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A study of measures oriented to flood mitigation in the mid reach of the Ebro river is presented: elimination of vegetation in the riverbed, use of controlled flooding areas and construction or re-adaptation of levees. The software used is RiverFlow2D which solves the conservative free-surface flow equations with a finite volume method running on GPU. The results are compared with measurements at gauge stations and aerial views. The most effective measure has turned out to be the elimination of vegetation in the riverbed. It is demonstrated that not only the maximum flooded area is narrower but also it reduces the water depth up to 1 m. The other measures have local consequences when the peak discharge is relatively high although they could be useful in case the discharge is lower.

  6. Icnitas de artiodactilos (Mammalia del Paleogeno de Olcoz (Depresion del Ebro, Navarra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murelaga, X.

    1994-04-01

    Full Text Available A group of fossil mammal ichnites from the proximity of the town of Olcoz (Navarra, Ebro Basin is described herein. The tracks occur on sandstone beds of the Mués Formation of Suevian (Early Oligocene age. Owing to their morphology these ichnites have been assigned to artiodactyl mammals and can be compared to Entelodontipus forms. Moreover, this represents the second known finding of this ichnogenus. Among the tracks of this deposit there is a significant heterogeneity which is due to the variable penetration and displacement of the autopodes on the substrate. On Olcoz the presence of abundant ichnites that follow subparallel tracks allows the establishment of the gregarious behaviour of the producers of such tracks.Se describe un conjunto de icnitas fósiles de mamíferos ubicado en los alrededores de la localidad navarra de Olcoz (Depresión del Ebro. Las huellas se localizan en niveles areniscosos de la «Formación de Mués», de posible edad Sueviense (Oligoceno inferior. Por su morfología pueden asignarse a mamíferos artiodáctilos y resultan comparables a Entelodontipus, constituyendo este hallazgo una segunda cita para dicho icnogénero. En este yacimiento se constata una notable variabilidad morfológica de las huellas, resultado de la distinta penetración y desplazamiento de los autópodos en el sustrato. La presencia en Olcoz de numerosas icnitas formando rastros subparalelos permite inferir el comportamiento gregario de sus productores.

  7. Impact of climate evolution and land use changes on water yield in the ebro basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. I. López-Moreno

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study the climatic and hydrological trends across 88 sub-basins of the Ebro River basin were analyzed for the period 1950–2006. A new database of climate information and river flows for the entire basin facilitated a spatially distributed assessment of climate-runoff relationships. It constitutes the first assessment of water yield evolution across the whole Ebro basin, a very representative example of large Mediterranean rivers. The results revealed a marked decrease in river discharges in most of the sub-basins. Moreover, a number of changes in the seasonality of the river regime was found, resulting from dam regulation and a decrease in snowpack in the headwaters. Significant and positive trends in temperature were observed across most of the basin, whereas most of the precipitation series showed negative coefficients, although the decrease in magnitude was low. The time evolution of the residuals from empirical models that relate climate and runoff in each sub-basin provided evidence that climate alone does not explain the observed decrease in river discharge. Thus, changes in water yield are associated with an increase in evapotranspiration rates in natural vegetation, growth of which has expanded as a consequence of land abandonment in areas where agricultural activities and livestock pressure have decreased. In the lowlands of the basin the decrease in water yield has been exacerbated by increased water consumption for domestic, industrial and agricultural uses. Climate projections for the end of the 21st century suggest a reduced capacity for runoff generation because of increasing temperature and less precipitation. Thus, the maintenance of water supply under conditions of increasing demand presents a challenging issue requiring appropriate coordination amongst politicians and managers.

  8. The silence of the layers: Archaeological site visibility in the Pleistocene-Holocene transition at the Ebro Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alday, Alfonso; Domingo, Rafael; Sebastián, María; Soto, Adriana; Aranbarri, Josu; González-Sampériz, Penélope; Sampietro-Vattuone, María Marta; Utrilla, Pilar; Montes, Lourdes; Peña-Monné, José Luis

    2018-03-01

    The Ebro Basin constitutes one of the most representative territories in SW Europe for the study of prehistoric societies during the Pleistocene-Holocene transition. The correlation of palaeoenvironmental and geomorphological proxies obtained from sedimentary records with chronologically well-constrained reference archaeological sites has allowed defining this time frame precisely, such that three main pilot areas haven been broadly depicted: the Alavese region, the Pre-Pyrenees and the Bajo Aragón. Overall, the human imprint in the Ebro Basin was rare during the Upper Palaeolithic, but more visible from the Upper Magdalenian (14500-13500 cal BP) to Neolithic times (up to 5500 cal BP). Local environmental resources were continuously managed by the prehistoric communities in the different areas of study. In fact, the Ebro Basin acted during those millennia as a whole, developing the same cultural trends, industrial techniques and settlement patterns in parallel throughout the territory. However, some gaps exist in the 14C frequency curve (SCDPD curve). This is partially related to prehistoric sites in particular lithologies and geological structures that could have partly been lost by erosional processes, especially during the Early Holocene. In addition, this gap also parallels the reconstructed climate trend for the Pre-Pyrenean and the Bajo Aragón areas, which are defined by high frequencies of xerophilous flora until ca. 9500 cal BP, suggesting that continental climate features could have hampered the presence of well-established human communities in inland regions. The interdisciplinary research (archaeology, geomorphology and palaeoclimatology) discussed in this paper offers clues to understand the existence of fills and gaps in the archaeological record of the Ebro Basin, and can be applied in other territories with similar geographic and climate patterns.

  9. Delta Plaza kohvik = Delta Plaza cafe

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2010-01-01

    Tallinnas Pärnu mnt 141 asuva kohviku Delta Plaza sisekujundusest. Sisearhitektid Tiiu Truus ja Marja Viltrop (Stuudio Truus OÜ). Tiiu Truusi tähtsamate tööde loetelu. Büroohoone Delta Plaza arhitektid Marika Lõoke ja Jüri Okas (AB J. Okas & M. Lõoke)

  10. delta-vision

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — Delta Vision is intended to identify a strategy for managing the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta as a sustainable ecosystem that would continue to support environmental...

  11. Petrophysical characterization of three commercial varieties of miocene sandstones from the Ebro valley

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gisbert, J.

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Miocene sandstones studied were used extensively to build Aragon’s architectural heritage, are still used in modern construction. The quarries presently located on the edge of the Ebro Valley depression. The present paper describes an exhaustive petrophysical study of these materials, which while, of the same age and from the same deposition basin, exhibit different mineralogical and textural characteristics and as a result, different physical and mechanical properties and durability. The petrographic and petrophysical characteristics of these materials were evaluated with tests prescribed in UNE (Spanish, NORMAL and ASTM standards. All the results were subjected to statistical analysis to identify possible textural and compositional nonuniformities in the material that may underlie behavioural changes. The results of the present paper show that their petrophysical characteristics afford these sandstones substantial industrial value as construction materials. Durability was found to be longest in the Alcañiz stone, as a result of the geometry of its pore network.Las areniscas miocenas estudiadas han sido y son ampliamente utilizadas en patrimonio histórico y en obra civil moderna, localizándose las canteras actuales en el borde de la depresión del Ebro. Se ha realizado un exhaustivo estudio de las características petrofísicas de estos materiales, que pese a presentar la misma edad y pertenecer a la misma cuenca sedimentaria presentan características mineralógicas y texturales diferentes que les confieren diferentes propiedades físicas, mecánicas y una diferente durabilidad. Las características petrográficas y petrofísicas se han evaluado mediante la realización de ensayos según las normas UNE, NORMAL y ASTM. Para todos los ensayos se ha realizado un tratamiento estadístico de los resultados para evaluar las posibles inhomogeneidades texturales y composicionales presentes en el material y que pueden originar modificaciones en

  12. River delta shoreline reworking and erosion in the Mediterranean and Black Seas: the potential roles of fluvial sediment starvation and other factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manon Besset

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The Mediterranean basin (including the Black Sea is characterized by a plethora of deltas that have developed in a wave-influenced setting. Many of these deltas are sourced in sediments by river catchments that have been variably dammed. The vulnerability status of a selection of ten deltas subject to different levels of reduction in fluvial sediment supply following damming was analysed by quantifying changes in delta protrusion area and protrusion angle over the last 30 years. The rationale for choosing these two metrics, which do not require tricky calculations of longshore bedload transport volumes and river ‘influence’, is that as sediment supply wanes, increasing relative efficiency of waves leads to longshore redistribution of reworked sediments and progressive ‘flattening’ of the delta protrusion. The results show that eight of the ten deltas (Nile, Rhône, Ebro, Ceyhan, Arno, Ombrone, Moulouya, Medjerda are in erosion, whereas two (Danube, Po show stability, but the statistical relationship between change in delta protrusion area and sediment flux reduction is poor, thus suggesting that the role of dams in causing delta shoreline erosion may have been over-estimated. But this poor relationship could also be due to a long temporal lag between dam construction and bedload removal and transport to the coast downstream of dams, and, where the delta protrusion is being eroded, to bedload trapping by shoreline engineering structures and by elongating delta-flank spits. Other potential influential factors in shoreline change include subsidence, sea-level rise, storminess, exceptional river floods, and managed sediment releases downstream of dams. A longer observation period and high-resolution sediment-budget studies will be necessary to determine more definitively to which extent continued trapping of sediment behind dams will impact overall delta stability in the Mediterranean and Black Seas. Mitigation of delta erosion is likely to

  13. Transnational networks as a migration strategy. Algerians in the Ebro riverside / Redes transnacionales como estrategia migratoria. Argelinos en la ribera del Ebro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Mata Romeu

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Networks can serve to cushion the weight they have on migrants living costs and disruption involved in immigration; determine, to some extent, who are those who migrate from communities and families; influence the selection of the places of destination and origin; maintaining links with society migrant origin and condition of the integration of migrants into the host society. Our premise is that networks exist and become important within the migration project, both in the way as in the settlement; but its use and intensity is extremely disparate and different, as we refer to one or another immigrant community. We delve into the ways in which they use in the group of Algerian origin settled in Spain, following field work developed in the Autonomous Community of Navarre (Spain between 2002 and 2013.

  14. Delta antibody radioimmunoassay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kselikova, M; Urbankova, J

    1985-11-15

    The principle and procedure are described of the radioimmunoassay of delta antibody (delta-Ab) using the ABBOTT ANTI-DELTA kit by Abbott Co. A description is given of the kit, the working procedure and the method of evaluation. The results are reported of the incidence of delta-Ab in sera of patients with viral hepatitis B, in haemophiliacs, carriers of the hepatitis B virus surface antigen (HBsAg) and blood donors. The presence was detected of delta-Ab in one HBsAg carrier. The necessity is emphasized of delta-Ab determinations in the blood of donors in view of the antibody transfer with blood and blood preparations.

  15. Urbanismo romano republicano en la región de la cuenca del Ebro (Hispania Citerior), 179-44 a.e

    OpenAIRE

    Asensio Esteban, José Ángel

    2003-01-01

    This paper tries to face the study of the Roman republican urbanism in the Ebro's river region developed in the new Roman foundations, set up between the beginning of the IInd and the third quart of the Ist century BC, and in several Spaniard cities deeply modified during this times. This urbanism found in the Ebro's cities is closely related to Roman regular urbanism developed in Italy from the beginning of the IInd century and in Spanish cities of the Mediterranean coast.El presente trabajo...

  16. Estudio de soluciones para la estabilización de un área afectada por dolinas en Alcalá de Ebro (Zaragoza):Estudio estructural

    OpenAIRE

    ZORÍO RAMÍREZ, VÍCTOR

    2017-01-01

    [EN] This Final Degree Project involves the development of the search and application of a technical solution to stabilize a section of the Camino de la Estación street in Alcalá de Ebro (Zaragoza), where since the last 10 years, a series of subsidences and collapse sinkholes are taking place around the protection speck of the river Ebro from time to time. This study includes the geological and geotechnical analysis of the area as well as a series of possible solutions for facing this patholo...

  17. Efectos de las presas en la dinàmica fluvial del curso bajo del río Ebro

    OpenAIRE

    Vericat Querol, Damià; Batalla, Ramon J.

    2004-01-01

    La morfología fluvial del cauce del río Ebro aguas abajo de las presas de Mequinenza y Ribarroja ha experimentado una serie de cambios a lo largo de la segunda mitad del siglo XX, entre los que cabe destacar: a) erosión lateral, b) colonización de zonas activas por vegetación de ribera, y c) disminución de la anchura. Dichos cambios se han producido después de la construcción y cierre de las presas en la década de los setenta. Las presas alteran la magnitud y frecuencia de las cre...

  18. International Uranium Resources Evaluation Project (IUREP) national favourability studies: Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-10-01

    Spain, with an area of 504 748 km''2, occupies a large part of the Iberian Peninsula. At present the country appears to have about 6300 t of reasonably assured uranium reserves and 8500 t of additional estimated reserves (all at less than $30/lb of U 3 O 8 ). Spain has devoted some $33 million to prospecting for uranium since the beginning of such work. Most of the reasonably assured reserves are located in ores impregnating Cambrian schists intersected by Hercynian granites (of so-called 'Iberian type'); a small amount, however, is found in veins in Hercynian granites of the Spanish Meseta. The additional estimated reserves are situated in the peripheral post-Hercynian continental basins of the Meseta. Apart from these classical ores, sub-ores have been identified in Silurian quartzites with low concentrations of uranium associated with refractory minerals, totalling more than 200,000 t of U (at concentrations of a few hundred ppm); there are likewise uranium-bearing Oligocene lignites in the Ebro Basin with some 140,000 t of U. These facts, and also the very wide distribution of uranium in space and time (from the Cambrian to the Miocene!) and the country's favourable geological characteristics, suggest that Spain ought in fact to have large reserves of uranium, a conclusion unfortunately belied by the paucity of the economic reserves identified so far. Two things must be borne in mind, however; firstly, Spain's financial outlay for uranium prospecting up till now represents only a quarter of what has been invested in France, for example, and, secondly, the nature of the mineralised bodies in Spain makes exploration difficult. In conclusion it seems that prospecting both of the Iberian-type deposits in the Meseta region and of the deposits associated with detrital sediments in the peripheral continental basins - especially blind mineralized bodies - should hold out excellent prospects for Spain. Consequently we propose that Spain should be placed at least in

  19. Very large dune formation along the Ebro outer continental shelf (Western Mediterranean)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo Iacono, Claudio; Guillén, Jorge; Puig, Pere; Ribó, Marta; Ballesteros, Maria; Palanques, Albert; Farrán, Marcelli; Acosta, Juan

    2010-05-01

    Large and very large subaqueous dunes have been observed in a number of outer shelf regions around the world, tipically developing on fossil sand bodies and ridges. Dunes observed on outer shelves usually display large dimensions with maximum wavelength reaching up to 500 m and heights up to 20 m. Forcing mechanisms able to induce their formation have been described as strong bottom currents related to tidal variations and water masses flowing under geostrophic conditions, generally controlled and enhanced by local geomorphologic configurations. In this study, such bed features have been recognized, mapped and measured around the Columbretes Islands (Ebro continental shelf - Western Mediterranean) with the aim to reconstruct which are the potential forcing processes that could generate them in relation to the local settings of the area. Swath-bathymetry around the Columbretes Islands was collected using 30 kHz and 180 kHz Multi Beam echo-sounders for a 50-400 m water depth range. Bathymetric data revealed the presence of three main relict sand bodies along the outer shelf, for a 80-116 m depth range, above which asymmetrical, slightly asymmetrical and symmetrical large and very large 2D and 3D subaqueous dunes were observed. Dunes range from 150 to 760 m in wavelength and from tens of cm to 6 m in height. These bedforms are composed of sandy sediments, presumably coming from the degraded relict sand bodies on which they developed, mixed to the fine fractions coming from the recent draping holocenic sediments. The orientation of the dunes is SSW and progressively turns to W directions moving towards the southernmost sector of the area, following the trend of the shelf-edge. Observed dunes display a strong asymmetric profile for those occurring along the shelf-edge (Symmetry Index (SI): 2.6) and lose progressively their asymmetry towards the inner portion of the shelf (SI: 0.5), being 0.6 the minimum SI value to classify the dunes as asymmetric. The subaqueous dunes

  20. Delta hedging strategies comparison

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Giovanni, Domenico; Ortobelli, S.; Rachev, S.T.

    2008-01-01

    In this paper we implement dynamic delta hedging strategies based on several option pricing models. We analyze different subordinated option pricing models and we examine delta hedging costs using ex-post daily prices of S&P 500. Furthermore, we compare the performance of each subordinated model...

  1. Connectivity in river deltas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passalacqua, P.; Hiatt, M. R.; Sendrowski, A.

    2016-12-01

    Deltas host approximately half a billion people and are rich in ecosystem diversity and economic resources. However, human-induced activities and climatic shifts are significantly impacting deltas around the world; anthropogenic disturbance, natural subsidence, and eustatic sea-level rise are major causes of threat to deltas and in many cases have compromised their safety and sustainability, putting at risk the people that live on them. In this presentation, I will introduce a framework called Delta Connectome for studying connectivity in river deltas based on different representations of a delta as a network. Here connectivity indicates both physical connectivity (how different portions of the system interact with each other) as well as conceptual (pathways of process coupling). I will explore several network representations and show how quantifying connectivity can advance our understanding of system functioning and can be used to inform coastal management and restoration. From connectivity considerations, the delta emerges as a leaky network that evolves over time and is characterized by continuous exchanges of fluxes of matter, energy, and information. I will discuss the implications of connectivity on delta functioning, land growth, and potential for nutrient removal.

  2. Population and economy in the Bajo Ebro in Roman times. Basic concepts for a rural landscape model | Poblamiento y economía en el Bajo Ebro en época romana. Bases para un modelo de paisaje rural

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Víctor Revilla Calvo

    1994-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses the settlement patterns and the social-economic structures in Bajo Ebro in Roman times. It covers especifically relationships among settlements, rural landscape, structures of agricultural production and landowning. Likewise, the origin and historical evolution of these structures are studied, as well as their role within a broader political, social and economic framework in the Province of Tarraconensis. | El artículo analiza las formas del poblamiento y las estructuras socio-económicas del Bajo Ebro en época romana. Se plantean, en particular, las relaciones entre la distribución del habitat, el paisaje rural, las estructuras de la producción agrícola y de la propiedad. Se analiza igualmente el origen y evolución histórica de estas estructuras, así como su integración en un marco político, social y económico más amplio, constituido por la provincia Tarraconense.

  3. Development of a new tool for predicting water quality. Verification on a stretch of the river Ebro; Desarrollo de una nueva herramienta para la prediccion de la calidad del agua. Verificacion en un tramo del rio Ebro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salterain, A.; Sancho, L.; Rodriguez, E.

    2004-07-01

    The Water Frame work Directive (December 2000) proposes integrated water management in regard to both quality and quality. A mathematical model has therefore been produced at the CEIT and EPTISA research centre, in collaboration with the Ebro Hydrographic. Confederation (CHE), to predict water quality and thus begin integrated management of it in the river basins. A description is given of the characteristics of the simulation tool. The hydraulic model is based on the numerical (weighted, four-point implicit) resolution of the complete Saint Venant equations. The quality model is based on the IWA River Water Quality Model Number 1 which has clear advantages (consistency, mass balance and easy integration with the biological models of the waste water treatment plants and the collector networks compared to traditional models. The experimental validation, which includes calibration in wintertime of the hydraulic and quality models most representative coefficients was assessed on the basis of the experimental fieldwork carried out on a 75 kilometre stretch of the river Ebro near Saragossa. Some of the results of this experimental work are presented. (Author)

  4. Urbanismo romano republicano en la región de la cuenca del Ebro (Hispania Citerior, 179-44 a.e

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asensio Esteban, José Ángel

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper tries to face the study of the Roman republican urbanism in the Ebro's river region developed in the new Roman foundations, set up between the beginning of the IInd and the third quart of the Ist century BC, and in several Spaniard cities deeply modified during this times. This urbanism found in the Ebro's cities is closely related to Roman regular urbanism developed in Italy from the beginning of the IInd century and in Spanish cities of the Mediterranean coast.El presente trabajo pretende realizar un estudio de conjunto del urbanismo romano republicano en la región de la cuenca del Ebro, desarrollado en las nuevas fundaciones establecidas entre comienzos del siglo II y el tercer cuarto del I a.e. y en las ciudades prerromanas promocionadas urbanísticamente en estas fechas. Este urbanismo de las ciudades del Ebro se relaciona muy claramente con el aplicado en Italia desde comienzos del siglo II a.e. y mucho más con el de las urbes hispanas contemporáneas de la costa mediterránea, tanto de plano regular ortogonal como no ortogonal.

  5. Trends in rainfall erosivity in NE Spain at annual, seasonal and daily scales, 1955–2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Beguería

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Rainfall erosivity refers to the ability of precipitation to erode soil, and depends on characteristics such as its total volume, duration, and intensity and amount of energy released by raindrops. Despite the relevance of rainfall erosivity for soil degradation prevention, very few studies have addressed its spatial and temporal variability. In this study the time variation of rainfall erosivity in the Ebro Valley (NE Spain is assessed for the period 1955–2006. The results show a general decrease in annual and seasonal rainfall erosivity, which is explained by a decrease of very intense rainfall events whilst the frequency of moderate and low events increased. This trend is related to prevailing positive conditions of the main atmospheric teleconnection indices affecting the West Mediterranean, i.e. the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO, the Mediterranean Oscillation (MO and the Western Mediterranean Oscillation (WeMO.

  6. Atmospheric mercury pollution around a chlor-alkali plant in Flix (NE Spain): an integrated analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esbrí, José M; López-Berdonces, Miguel Angel; Fernández-Calderón, Sergio; Higueras, Pablo; Díez, Sergi

    2015-04-01

    An integrated analysis approach has been applied to a mercury (Hg) case study on a chlor-alkali plant located in the Ebro River basin, close to the town of Flix (NE Spain). The study focused on atmospheric Hg and its incorporation in soils and lichens close to a mercury cell chlor-alkali plant (CAP), which has been operating since the end of the 19th century. Atmospheric Hg present in the area was characterized by means of seven total gaseous mercury (TGM) surveys carried out from 2007 to 2012. Surveys were carried out by car, walking, and at fixed locations, and covered an area of some 12 km(2) (including the CAP area, the village in which workers live, Flix town, and the Sebes Wildlife Reserve). Finally, an atmospheric Hg dispersion model was developed with ISC-AERMOD software validated by a lichen survey of the area. The results for the atmospheric compartment seem to indicate that the Flix area currently has the highest levels of Hg pollution in Spain on the basis of the extremely high average concentrations in the vicinity of the CAP (229 ng m(-3)). Moreover, the Hg(0) plume affects Flix town center to some extent, with values well above the international thresholds for residential areas. Wet and dry Hg deposition reached its highest values on the banks of the Ebro River, and this contributes to increased soil contamination (range 44-12,900 ng g(-1), average 775 ng g(-1)). A good fit was obtained between anomalous areas indicated by lichens and the dispersion model for 1 year.

  7. Numerical simulation and sensitivity study of a severe hailstorm in northeast Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Ortega, E.; Fita, L.; Romero, R.; López, L.; Ramis, C.; Sánchez, J. L.

    2007-02-01

    During the afternoon of August 16th 2003 a severe hail event occurred in the town of Alcañiz in the Ebro Valley (Spain). This storm brought with it intense rain and hail precipitation that caused severe floods, damaged cars and street furniture. A diagnosis, using data from ECMWF, showed the presence of a mesolow at surface level centered over the Northeast of Spain, carrying winds from the Mediterranean Sea towards the Central Ebro Valley. At medium and high levels, a trough, whose axis extended over the Northwest of the Iberian Peninsula, moved eastwards preceded at 500 hPa by a thermal trough that caused increasing instability before the arrival of the geopotential trough. A numerical study of this event has been carried out using the MM5 model with a double aim. On the one hand, it attempts to check whether or not the simulation reproduces the storm in Alcañiz. On the other hand, it carries out a sensitivity experiment in order to evaluate the contribution of two specific factors: topography and solar radiation. Compared with radar data, the control simulation reproduces the region affected by the storm reasonably well. The suppression of topography and/or solar radiation substantially modifies the surface mesolow and the spatial distribution of the precipitation. Neither of these factors, considered independently, reproduces the precipitation caused by the storm in Alcañiz. However, the results illustrate the importance of the synergic effect of these two factors on the spatial localization of the storm and on the intensity of the precipitation registered.

  8. The Niger Delta Crisis

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    chifaou.amzat

    2013-09-28

    Sep 28, 2013 ... Department of History & International Studies, Delta State University, Abraka,. Nigeria. .... democracy implies popular power. That is ... Okonta (2006:5) draws attention to Anna Zalik's treatise called 'Petro-Vio- lence' and ...

  9. Delta agent (Hepatitis D)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000216.htm Hepatitis D (Delta agent) To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Hepatitis D is a viral infection caused by the ...

  10. Delta 2.0

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skott, Jeppe; Skott, Charlotte Krog; Jess, Kristine

    DELTA 2.0 er en ny og helt opdateret udgave af Delta, der i ti år været brugt i matematiklærernes grund-, efter- og videreuddannelse. DELTA 2.0 er seriens almene fagdidaktik. Der er også fagdidaktiske overvejelser i de øvrige bøger i serien, men de er knyttet til specifikt matematisk indhold. DELTA...... 2.0 behandler mere generelle matematikdidaktiske problemstillinger såsom læringsteoretiske overvejelser i forbindelse med matematik, centrale aspekter af det at undervise i matematik og digitale teknologier som værktøj til at støtte elevers faglige læring af matematik....

  11. Apuntes en torno a las Guerras Sertorianas: evolución e impacto sobre el poblamiento y la ordenación territorial del valle del Ebro = Notes around the Sertorian Wars: Evolution and Impact on Settlement and Spatial Planning in the Ebro Valley

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Salinas Romo

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available En este espacio detallamos los principales resultados de nuestra labor investigadora centrada en la evolución del conflicto sertoriano y la valoración de su incidencia sobre el poblamiento y la ordenación territorial de un espacio geográfico concreto:el valle medio y alto del Ebro.In this space, we present the main results of our research work focused on the evolution of Sertorian conflict and assessing its impact on the settlement and landuse planning in a particular geographical area: the middle and upper Ebro valley.

  12. [Geographical distribution of mortality by Parkinson's disease and its association with air lead levels in Spain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santurtún, Ana; Delgado-Alvarado, Manuel; Villar, Alejandro; Riancho, Javier

    2016-12-02

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is the second most common neurodegenerative disease, and the etiology of its sporadic form is unknown. The present study analyzes the temporal and spatial variations of mortality by PD in Spain over a period of 14 years and its relationship with lead concentration levels in the atmosphere. An ecological study was performed, in which deaths by PD and age group in 50 Spanish provinces between 2000 and 2013 were analyzed. The annual trend of PD mortality was assessed using the non-parametric Spearman's Rho test. Finally, the relationship between lead concentration levels in the air and mortality by PD was evaluated. Between 2000 and 2013, 36,180 patients with PD died in Spain. There is an increasing trend in mortality through PD over the study period (P<.0001). La Rioja, Asturias, Basque Country and the Lower Ebro valley were the regions with the highest values of PD mortality. Those regions with the highest lead concentrations also showed higher mortality by this disease in people over 64 (P=.02). Over our period of study, there has been an increase in mortality through PD in Spain, with the northernmost half of the country registering the highest values. Mortality in men was higher than mortality in women. Moreover, a direct correlation was found between lead levels in the air and mortality through PD. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  13. Potential siliceous sources during Prehistory: Results of prospecting in the East margin of the Ebro Basin (NE Iberian Peninsula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Soto

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available We present the results of prospecting in the NE of the Iberian Peninsula, with the aim of identifying the  siliceous sources potentially used by the populations that occupied the marginal basins of the Ebro depression during the Middle and Upper Palaeolithic.We intend to define the main characteristics of the cherts in the region studied, taking into account the palaeoenvironment in which silicifications are mainly formed, and the premise that siliceous rocks acquire the attributes of enclosing rocks.The cherts studied are the products of early diagenesis by replacement of carbonate and evaporite sediments. Petrological analyses show that they are made up of microquartz, with high proportion of fibrous forms silica, carbonates, ferric oxides and evaporite relicts. In the future, these characteristics will be useful for ascribing archaeological materials in both geological and geographical terms.

  14. Daily temperature changes and variability in ENSEMBLES regional models predictions: Evaluation and intercomparison for the Ebro Valley (NE Iberia)

    KAUST Repository

    El Kenawy, Ahmed M.

    2014-12-18

    We employ a suite of regional climate models (RCMs) to assess future changes in summer (JJA) maximum temperature (Tmax) over the Ebro basin, the largest hydrological division in the Iberian Peninsula. Under the A1B emission scenario, future changes in both mean values and their corresponding time varying percentiles were examined by comparing the control period (1971-2000) with two future time slices: 2021-2050 and 2071-2100. Here, the rationale is to assess how lower/upper tails of temperature distributions will change in the future and whether these changes will be consistent with those of the mean. The model validation results demonstrate significant differences among the models in terms of their capability to representing the statistical characteristics (e.g., mean, skewness and asymmetry) of the observed climate. The results also indicate that the current substantial warming observed in the Ebro basin is expected to continue during the 21st century, with more intense warming occurring at higher altitudes and in areas with greater distance from coastlines. All models suggest that the region will experience significant positive changes in both the cold and warm tails of temperature distributions. However, the results emphasize that future changes in the lower and upper tails of the summer Tmax distribution may not follow the same warming rate as the mean condition. In particular, the projected changes in the warm tail of the summer Tmax are shown to be significantly larger than changes in both mean values and the cold tail, especially at the end of the 21st century. The finding suggests that much of the changes in the summer Tmax percentiles will be driven by a shift in the entire distribution of temperature rather than only changes in the central tendency. Better understanding of the possible implications of future climate systems provides information useful for vulnerability assessments and the development of local adaptation strategies for multi

  15. Origin and evolution of Sariñena Lake (central Ebro Basin): A piping-based model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castañeda, Carmen; Javier Gracia, F.; Rodríguez-Ochoa, Rafael; Zarroca, Mario; Roqué, Carles; Linares, Rogelio; Desir, Gloria

    2017-08-01

    The origin and nature of the numerous lakes in the central Ebro Basin have been interpreted according to the prevailing arid or semiarid conditions, the easily-eroded materials and the solubility of the gypsum- and/or carbonate-rich Tertiary/Cenozoic substratum, involving important dissolution (karstic) and/or aeolian deflation. However, the origin of Sariñena Lake, the largest in the central Ebro Basin, remains unknown since the typical lake-generating processes in the region are not applicable. This work provides significant clues to the genesis and evolution of Sariñena Lake in a regional context. The combination of geomorphological mapping and high resolution LiDAR data together with sedimentological observations, the characterisation of soils and sediments around the lake, and the application of high-resolution geophysical techniques suggest that piping is the major genetic process driving the evolution of the Sariñena depression and lake. Field evidence demonstrates that piping is, at present, the most important erosive process in the region, generating significant collapse and surface lowering. Sariñena Lake is located within a deep endorheic depression excavated from Na-rich Tertiary materials. This work hypothesises that once an early, fluvially-originated palustrine area had developed, the progressive lowering of the regional water table linked to regional fluvial incision favoured the establishment of a hydrological gradient high enough to trigger piping processes within the claystones and siltstones underlying the original palustrine area. The Quaternary evolution of the Sariñena lacustrine basin was then controlled by successive water table fluctuations, linked to different phases of incision and alluvial deposition in the surrounding fluvial systems. All the evidence supporting a piping-related origin for this lake, together with examples of lakes generated by similar processes in different contexts, is used to propose a new genetic type of

  16. Bovidae (artiodactyla, mammalia del mioceno medio de Tarazona de Aragon (depresión del Ebro, provincia de Zaragoza

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pereda-Suberbiola, X.

    2001-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper cranial, dental and postcraneal fossil remains of the Bovidae family from Tarazona de Aragón are described. There are two forms in this Middle Miocene paleontological site of the Ebro Basin according to the metric and morphological characteristics of the dentition and hom cores. One form is referred to Eotragus and classified as E. aff. sansaniensis, showing more developed features than the other Iberian forms of the same genus. The other form is classified provisionally as aff. Tethytragus because it is quite similar to the Iberian Tethytragus langai and differs from Eotragus. The two bovids from Tarazona show differences in size, hypsodoncy and dental morphology, especially the differences of development and prominence of the styles/stylideds and ribs are obvious.Se describen restos fósiles dentarios, craneales y postcraneales pertenecientes a la familia Bovidae del yacimiento de Tarazona de Aragón. Según las características morfológicas y métricas de la dentición y los núcleos óseos, existen dos formas en este yacimiento del Mioceno medio de la Cuenca del Ebro. Una ha sido atribuida al género Eotragus y clasificada como E. aff. sansaniensis, mostrando características más derivadas que el resto de las formas ibéricas del mismo género. La otra se clasifica, provisionalmente, como aff. Tethytragus, ya que guarda similitudes con la especie ibérica Tethytragus langai y diferencias evidentes con respecto a Eotragus. Los dos taxones se diferencian netamente respecto a la talla, hipsodoncia y morfología de la dentición; sobre todo, las diferencias de desarrollo y prominencia de los estilos/estílidos y costillas mismos son evidentes.

  17. Sedimentación lacustre y ciclicidad: las sucesiones fluvio-lacustres del Oligoceno superior del sector SE de la cuenca del Ebro

    OpenAIRE

    Barberà, X.; Cabrera, L.; Marzo, M.; Ripepe, M.

    1996-01-01

    A cyclostratigraphic study of Late Oligocene fluvio-lacustrine and lacustrine sequences was carried out in the Ebro basin. Fourier spectral analysis was used to analyze four stratigraphic and sedimentological parameters (thickness, colour, lithology and an estimative depth index) and was proved the appearance of periodicities of 39 and 16 to 18 ky which approximately fit the 41 ky (obliquity cycle) and 19 ky (short precession cycle). In all spectra, the obliquity cycle is a strong signal in t...

  18. Women of Niger Delta

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Religion Dept

    The Indispensability of Women in Conflict Resolution in the Niger Delta ... The situation leads to a shift in gender roles with a dramatic increase in the number of women .... organization is to work in partnership with the Nigerian Government and the .... that “women are the impartial arbitrators in family or clan disputes or.

  19. Conservative Delta Hedging

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-09-01

    an exact method for converting such intervals into arbitrage based prices of financial derivatives or industrial or contractual options. We call this...procedure conservative delta hedging . As existing procedures are of an ad hoc nature, the proposed approach will permit an institution’s man agement a greater oversight of its exposure to risk.

  20. Mystery of the delta(980)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cahn, R.N.; Landshoff, P.V.

    1986-01-01

    The apparent conflict between the dominance of the decay delta->etaπ in D->deltaπ and its absence in iota->deltaπ is analyzed. Explicit models are presented in which the nearby Kanti K threshold plays an important role in resolving the conflict. (orig.)

  1. Spain: Europe's California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilvert, Calvin

    1994-01-01

    Contends that, as Spain integrates into the European Economic Community, it is considered to be Europe's California. Asserts that making regional comparisons between California and Spain can be an effective teaching method. Provides comparisons in such areas as agriculture and tourism. (CFR)

  2. Energy Made in Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruiz del Arbol, M.

    2011-01-01

    Spain is the first country in Europe and the second worldwide in installed thermoelectric solar power, the second place in Europe and fourth worldwide in wind energy. Moreover, Spain is the second country in photovoltaic energy so in Europe as in the World.

  3. Rice yield prediction from yield components and limiting factors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Casanova, D.; Goudriaan, J.; Catala Former, M.M.; Withagen, J.C.M.

    2002-01-01

    This article aims to quantify growth at field level in relation to crop status and soil properties in irrigated direct-seeded rice. Forty fields were selected in the Ebro Delta (Spain). Rice growth was monitored and soil properties measured. Yield was related to soil properties by a deductive

  4. DELTAS: A new Global Delta Sustainability Initiative (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foufoula-Georgiou, E.

    2013-12-01

    Deltas are economic and environmental hotspots, food baskets for many nations, home to a large part of the world population, and hosts of exceptional biodiversity and rich ecosystems. Deltas, being at the land-water interface, are international, regional, and local transport hubs, thus providing the basis for intense economic activities. Yet, deltas are deteriorating at an alarming rate as 'victims' of human actions (e.g. water and sediment reduction due to upstream basin development), climatic impacts (e.g. sea level rise and flooding from rivers and intense tropical storms), and local exploration (e.g. sand or aggregates, groundwater and hydrocarbon extraction). Although many efforts exist on individual deltas around the world, a comprehensive global delta sustainability initiative that promotes awareness, science integration, data and knowledge sharing, and development of decision support tools for an effective dialogue between scientists, managers and policy makers is lacking. Recently, the international scientific community proposed to establish the International Year of Deltas (IYD) to serve as the beginning of such a Global Delta Sustainability Initiative. The IYD was proposed as a year to: (1) increase awareness and attention to the value and vulnerability of deltas worldwide; (2) promote and enhance international and regional cooperation at the scientific, policy, and stakeholder level; and (3) serve as a launching pad for a 10-year committed effort to understand deltas as complex socio-ecological systems and ensure preparedness in protecting and restoring them in a rapidly changing environment. In this talk, the vision for such an international coordinated effort on delta sustainability will be presented as developed by a large number of international experts and recently funded through the Belmont Forum International Opportunities Fund. Participating countries include: U.S., France, Germany, U.K., India, Japan, Netherlands, Norway, Brazil, Bangladesh

  5. Extinction of endemic vertebrates on islands : The case of the giant rat Canariomys bravoi (Mammalia, Rodentia) on Tenerife (Canary Islands, Spain)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bocherens, Herve; Michaux, Jacques; Talavera, Francisco Garcia; Van der Plicht, Johannes

    2006-01-01

    Fossil bone collagen (14)C dating and delta(13)C and delta(15)N isotopic measurements of the rodent Canariomys bravoi from Tenerife (Canary Islands.. Spain) were used to test two different hypotheses about the causes of extinctions of endemic vertebrates on islands. climate versus humans. For the

  6. Estudio geológico y minero de los depósitos de alabastro en el entorno de Velilla de Ebro y Azaila (Aragon, NE de España

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Díaz Rodríguez, L. A.

    1994-04-01

    Full Text Available This work studies the main alabaster «transparent» variety deposits commercialized in Spain. These deposits are located in the province of Zaragoza. at its border with Teme!. Stratigraphically. the quarried area is located at the SE border of the Tertiary Ebro basin (UTS: T4 • Upper Oligocene. ando within it, at the Calanda-Valderrobres-Escatrón sector. Mining appraisals carried out sanctioned the presence of three productive levels of alabaster. A mineralization guide sequence was found for the upper level (height 250 m. The mineral body texture is nodular. arranged in layers of wide horizontal continuity (kilometers and average thickness 0,4 to 1 m. Petrographic studies of the alabaster mineral bodies have shown three types of microstmctures. Considering the stratigraphic column of the area we found from top to bottom of each ¡ayer the following microstmctures: a microcrystalline aggregates; b porphyroblastic microtexture with non uniform extinction of crystaline components; and c granoblastic microtextures. The sedimentary environment of the deposits was shallow continental type (playa-Iake, characterized by mud-flats and distal fluvial-flats.Se estudian en este trabajo los principales yacimientos de alabastro (variedad «Transparente» que se comercializan en España y cuya localización se sitúa en el SE de la provincia de Zaragoza en la frontera con la de Teme!. Estratigráficamente, los depósitos estudiados pertenecen, en el SE de la Cuenca Terciaria del Ebro. a la Unidad Tectosedimentaria (UTS T4(Oligoceno Superior parte alta y se sitúan dentro de la zona noroccidental del Sector Calanda-Valderrobres-Escatrón. El reconocimiento minero realizado en el área confirma la presencia de tres niveles productivos de alabastro. descubriéndose una secuencia guía de la mineralización para el nivel superior (cota 250 m. La morfología de los cuerpos minerales es de tipo nodular, disponiéndose en capas de gran continuidad

  7. Sensitivity study of surface wind flow of a limited area model simulating the extratropical storm Delta affecting the Canary Islands

    OpenAIRE

    Marrero, C.; Jorba, O.; Cuevas, E.; Baldasano, J. M.

    2009-01-01

    In November 2005 an extratropical storm named Delta affected the Canary Islands (Spain). The high sustained wind and intense gusts experienced caused significant damage. A numerical sensitivity study of Delta was conducted using the Weather Research & Forecasting Model (WRF-ARW). A total of 27 simulations were performed. Non-hydrostatic and hydrostatic experiments were designed taking into account physical parameterizations and geometrical factors (size and position of the outer domain, d...

  8. Spain: NATO or Neutrality,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-04-01

    having Spain as a member. Spain is a traditional country in many ways. Religion is still a strongly-felt part of national life and atheism is looked at... Siglo XXI, 30 April 1979. Pedro J. Ramirez, "Diez Razones a favor de la OTAN," ABC, 17 September 1978, p. 7. 8 Ibid. Il 167 - SPAIN - WHAT’S IN IT...Cordoba and Granada. All three of the country’s major religions lived in relative harmony primarily in Moorish kingdoms, where the arts, commerce, and the

  9. Uncertainty of the peak flow reconstruction of the 1907 flood in the Ebro River in Xerta (NE Iberian Peninsula)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Bellet, Josep Lluís; Castelltort, Xavier; Balasch, J. Carles; Tuset, Jordi

    2017-02-01

    There is no clear, unified and accepted method to estimate the uncertainty of hydraulic modelling results. In historical floods reconstruction, due to the lower precision of input data, the magnitude of this uncertainty could reach a high value. With the objectives of giving an estimate of the peak flow error of a typical historical flood reconstruction with the model HEC-RAS and of providing a quick, simple uncertainty assessment that an end user could easily apply, the uncertainty of the reconstructed peak flow of a major flood in the Ebro River (NE Iberian Peninsula) was calculated with a set of local sensitivity analyses on six input variables. The peak flow total error was estimated at ±31% and water height was found to be the most influential variable on peak flow, followed by Manning's n. However, the latter, due to its large uncertainty, was the greatest contributor to peak flow total error. Besides, the HEC-RAS resulting peak flow was compared to the ones obtained with the 2D model Iber and with Manning's equation; all three methods gave similar peak flows. Manning's equation gave almost the same result than HEC-RAS. The main conclusion is that, to ensure the lowest peak flow error, the reliability and precision of the flood mark should be thoroughly assessed.

  10. The economic value of drought information for water management under climate change: a case study in the Ebro basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Quiroga

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Drought events in the Mediterranean are likely to increase in frequency, duration and intensity due to climate change, thereby affecting crop production. Information about drought is valuable for river basin authorities and the farmers affected by their decisions. The economic value of this information and the resulting decisions are of interest to these two stakeholder groups and to the information providers. Understanding the dynamics of extreme events, including droughts, in future climate scenarios for the Mediterranean is being improved continuously. This paper analyses the economic value of information on drought events taking into account the risk aversion of water managers. We consider the effects of drought management plans on rice production in the Ebro river basin. This enables us to compute the willingness to compensate the river basin authority for more accurate information allowing for better decision-making. If runoff is reduced, river basin planners can consider the reduction of water allocation for irrigation in order to eliminate the risk of water scarcity. Alternately, river basin planners may decide to maintain water allocation and accept a reduction of water supply reliability, leaving farmers exposed to drought events. These two alternatives offer different risk levels for crop production and farmers' incomes which determine the value of this information to the river basin authority. The information is relevant for the revision of River Basin Management Plans of the Water Framework Directive (WFD within the context of climate change.

  11. INES in Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zarzuela, J.

    1997-01-01

    The presentation discusses the INES activities in Spain addressing the following issues: applicability; rating procedure; public information; activities in 1997; events above level 0 (October 1996 - September 1997); difficulties

  12. Molecular Gastronomy in Spain

    OpenAIRE

    García-Segovia, Purificación; Garrido, María Dolores; Vercet Tormo, Antonio; Arboleya, Juan Carlos; FISZMAN DAL SANTO, SUSANA; Martínez Monzó, Javier; Laguarda, Sergio; Palacios, Victor; Ruiz Carrascal, Jorge

    2014-01-01

    [EN] Beyond the overwhelming international success of Ferrán Adria, Spain has been one of the countries with a more active implication in molecular gastronomy as a scientific discipline but also in the use of ingredients, technologies, and equipment from the scientificand technological universe in the culinary area. Nowadays, this is a well-established discipline in Spain, with a number of research groups covering related topics, several companies commercializing appliances and additives worl...

  13. 4D Monitoring of Active Sinkholes with a Terrestrial Laser Scanner (TLS: A Case Study in the Evaporite Karst of the Ebro Valley, NE Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfonso Benito-Calvo

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available This work explores, for the first time, the application of a Terrestrial Laser Scanner (TLS and a comparison of point clouds in the 4D monitoring of active sinkholes. The approach is tested in three highly-active sinkholes related to the dissolution of salt-bearing evaporites overlain by unconsolidated alluvium. The sinkholes are located in urbanized areas and have caused severe damage to critical infrastructure (flood-control dike, a major highway. The 3D displacement models derived from the comparison of point clouds with exceptionally high spatial resolution allow complex spatial and temporal subsidence patterns within one of the sinkholes to be resolved. Detected changes in the subsidence activity (e.g., sinkhole expansion, translation of the maximum subsidence zone, development of incipient secondary collapses are related to potential controlling factors such as floods, water table changes or remedial measures. In contrast, with detailed mapping and high-precision leveling, the displacement models, covering a relatively short time span of around 6 months, do not capture the subtle subsidence (<0.6–1 cm that affects the marginal zones of the sinkholes, precluding precise mapping of the edges of the subsidence areas. However, the performance of TLS can be adversely affected by some methodological limitations and local conditions: (1 limited accuracy in large investigation areas that require the acquisition of a high number of scans, increasing the registration error; (2 surface changes unrelated to sinkhole activity (e.g., vegetation, loose material; (3 traffic-related vibrations and wind blast that affect the stability of the scanner.

  14. Thermostatted delta f

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krommes, J.A.

    2000-01-01

    The delta f simulation method is revisited. Statistical coarse-graining is used to rigorously derive the equation for the fluctuation delta f in the particle distribution. It is argued that completely collisionless simulation is incompatible with the achievement of true statistically steady states with nonzero turbulent fluxes because the variance of the particle weights w grows with time. To ensure such steady states, it is shown that for dynamically collisionless situations a generalized thermostat or W-stat may be used in lieu of a full collision operator to absorb the flow of entropy to unresolved fine scales in velocity space. The simplest W-stat can be implemented as a self-consistently determined, time-dependent damping applied to w. A precise kinematic analogy to thermostatted nonequilibrium molecular dynamics (NEMD) is pointed out, and the justification of W-stats for simulations of turbulence is discussed. An extrapolation procedure is proposed such that the long-time, steady-state, collisionless flux can be deduced from several short W-statted runs with large effective collisionality, and a numerical demonstration is given

  15. People of the Delta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gregoire, L.

    2007-09-15

    The potential impacts of both global warming and the $16 billion Mackenzie pipeline project on communities in the Mackenzie Delta were discussed. A consortium of oil and gas developers is now planning to exploit the natural gas reserves located near the mouth of the Delta, whose largest town is Inuvik. The project is expected to place a significant burden on the resources and infrastructure of the town, which currently has a population of 6000. The community, comprised of a diverse international population and an Inuit majority, is largely in favour of the pipeline project. The Inuvialuit people have invested a significant amount of time to ensure that the project, which was stalled due to land claims in 1977, benefits their communities. Public hearings are now being held to consider the potential environmental and socio-economic impacts of the project. Separate hearings are also being held to consider the project's design. The pipeline project includes 3 natural gas production facilities, a gas-processing facility, a pipeline gathering system, a 480 km natural gas liquids pipeline to the Northwest Territories, and a 1220 km natural gas pipeline to northern Alberta. The pipeline will be buried to minimize environmental impacts. The project is expected to create 8200 jobs at the height of its construction. However, communities located near the site of the natural gas reserves, such as the town of Tuktoyaktuk are now threatened by soil erosion that has been attributed to global warming. 21 figs.

  16. Phenotypic expressions of CCR5-Delta 32/Delta 32 homozygosity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nguyen, GT; Carrington, M; Beeler, JA; Dean, M; Aledort, LM; Blatt, PM; Cohen, AR; DiMichele, D; Eyster, ME; Kessler, CM; Konkle, B; Leissinger, C; Luban, N; O'Brien, SJ; Goedert, JJ; O'Brien, TR

    1999-01-01

    Objective: As blockade of CC-chemokine receptor 5 (CCR5) has been proposed as therapy for HIV-1, we examined whether the CCR5-Delta 32/Delta 32 homozygous genotype has phenotypic expressions other than those related to HIV-1. Design: Study subjects were white homosexual men or men with hemophilia

  17. Peat compaction in deltas : implications for Holocene delta evolution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Asselen, S.

    2010-01-01

    Many deltas contain substantial amounts of peat, which is the most compressible soil type. Therefore, peat compaction potentially leads to high amounts of subsidence in deltas. The main objective of this research was to quantify subsidence due to peat compaction in Holocene fluvial-deltaic settings

  18. Estratigrafía y sedimentología de las formaciones lacustres del tránsito Eoceno-Oligoceno del NE de la Cuenca del Ebro

    OpenAIRE

    Sáez Ruiz, Alberto

    1987-01-01

    Durante el tránsito Eoceno-Oligoceno en el sector NE de la Cuenca del Ebro y por encima de los depósitos marinos eocénicos, se diferencian tres complejos o sistemas deposicionales: el Sistema Aluvial Pirenaico, el Sistema Aluvial Catalánide y el Sistema Lacustre Catalán o Central.El estudio de mamíferos y carófitas fósiles hallados en los materiales del Sistema Lacustre Catalán ha permitido distinguir tres biozonas de carófitas y cuatro de mamíferos de valor estrictamente local. Estas biozona...

  19. Challenges, Approaches and Experiences from Asian Deltas and the Rhine-Meuse Delta : Regional Training Workshop on Delta Planning and Management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wosten, J.H.M.; Douven, W.; Long Phi, H.; Fida Abdullah Khan, M.

    2013-01-01

    River delta's, like the Mekong Delta (Vietnam), Ganges-Brahmaputra Delta (Bangladesh), Ayeyarwady Delta (Myanmar), Nile (Egypt) and Ciliwung Delta (Indonesia) are developing rapidly and are characterised by large-scale urbanisation and industrialization processes. They are facing serious planning

  20. Mida pakub Delta? / Teele Kurm

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kurm, Teele

    2011-01-01

    Politsei- ja Piirivalveamet võtab kasutusele ühise Siseministeeriumi infotehnoloogia- ja arenduskeskuse ning Webmedia AS koostööna loodud dokumendihaldussüsteemi Delta. Kust sai Delta oma nime? Projekti "Dokumendihaldussüsteemi juurutamine Siseministeeriumi haldusalas" eesmärgid

  1. Spain's uranium industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferguson, M.P.

    1992-01-01

    Spain currently operates nine nuclear reactors totalling over 7,100 MWe of capacity, contributing about one-third of all electricity generated in Spain. Four reactors at advanced stages of construction remain mothballed as the result of a government-imposed moratorium, and a fire at Vandellos 1 in 1989 led to its premature closure and to a revival of anti-nuclear sentiment in the country. In the new national energy plan, which was sent to the Spanish Parliament on July 25, 1991, Spain opted to continue the nuclear moratorium that began in 1984 and rely upon conservation measures, additional natural gas imports, and electricity imports to meet expected demand. Under the new plan, nuclear power's share of Spain's total installed electrical generating capacity will fall from about 17 percent in 1990, to approximately 14 percent by the end of the century, as only the current nuclear facilities will continue to operate and no new nuclear plants will be built. Spain's integration into the European Community also is affecting the country's energy plans, prompting consolidation within the Spanish electricity sector in order to be more competitive in Europe. To supply the existing reactors, the government is supporting a major expansion of the country's domestic uranium industry

  2. Delta isobars in neutron stars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pagliara Giuseppe

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The appearance of delta isobars in beta-stable matter is regulated by the behavior of the symmetry energy at densities larger than saturation density. We show that by taking into account recent constraints on the density derivative of the symmetry energy and the theoretical and experimental results on the excitations of delta isobars in nuclei, delta isobars are necessary ingredients for the equations of state used for studying neutron stars. We analyze the effect of the appearance of deltas on the structure of neutron stars: as in the case of hyperons, matter containing delta is too soft for allowing the existence of 2M⊙ neutron stars. Quark stars on the other hand, could reach very massive configurations and they could form from a process of conversion of hadronic stars in which an initial seed of strangeness appears through hyperons.

  3. Breakup and reestablishment of the armour layer in a large gravel-bed river below dams: The lower Ebro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vericat, Damia; Batalla, Ramon J.; Garcia, Celso

    2006-06-01

    Changes in armour layer during floods under supply limited conditions are little known. This paper describes the breakup and the reestablishment of the bed armour layer in the regulated gravel-bed Ebro River during a flooding period. The study was conducted over a 28-km study reach from 2002 to 2004. The surface, subsurface and bed load grain size distribution constitute the bases for the analysis of bed-armouring dynamics. The results indicate that the magnitude of floods controlled the degree of armouring of the river bed. The initial mean armouring ratio was 2.3, with maximum values reaching 4.4. Floods in the winter of 2002-2003 ( Q8) caused the breakup of the armour layer in several sections. This resulted in the erratic bed load pattern observed during the December 2002 flushing flow and in the increase in bed load transport during successive events. Most grain size classes were entrained and transported, causing river bed incision. The mean armouring ratio decreased to 1.9. In contrast, during low magnitude floods in 2003-2004 ( Q2), the coarsest fractions (64 mm) did not take part in the bed load while finer particles were winnowed, thus surface deposits coarsened. As a result, the armour layer was reestablished (i.e., the mean armouring ratio increased to 2.3), and the supply of subsurface sediment decreased. The supply and transport of bed material appear to be in balance in the river reach immediately below the dam. In contrast, the transport of medium and finer size classes in the downstream reaches was higher than their supply from upstream, a phenomenon that progressively reduced their availability in the river bed surface, hence the armour layer reworking.

  4. DELTA 3D PRINTER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ȘOVĂILĂ Florin

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available 3D printing is a very used process in industry, the generic name being “rapid prototyping”. The essential advantage of a 3D printer is that it allows the designers to produce a prototype in a very short time, which is tested and quickly remodeled, considerably reducing the required time to get from the prototype phase to the final product. At the same time, through this technique we can achieve components with very precise forms, complex pieces that, through classical methods, could have been accomplished only in a large amount of time. In this paper, there are presented the stages of a 3D model execution, also the physical achievement after of a Delta 3D printer after the model.

  5. COLORED DISSOLVED ORGANIC MATTER (CDOM) CHARACTERIZATION BY ABSORPTION AND FLUORESCENCE SPECTRA

    OpenAIRE

    Goncalves Araujo, Rafael; Ramirez-Perez, Marta; Kraberg, Alexandra; Piera, Jaume; Bracher, Astrid

    2014-01-01

    Colored dissolved organic matter (CDOM) absorption and fluorescence spectra were analyzed from samples collected in the Lena River Delta region (Siberia, Russia; summer-2013) and in the Alfacs Bay (Ebro River Delta, Spain; summer-2013/winter-2014) in order to use optical measurements to infer loading and origin of CDOM. Absorbance spectra and Excitation-Emission matrices (EEMs) were obtained with a HORIBA Aqualog® spectrofluorometer. CDOM absorption at 443nm (a443) and terrestrial absorption ...

  6. Precise dating of the Middle-to-Upper Paleolithic transition in Murcia (Spain supports late Neandertal persistence in Iberia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Zilhão

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The late persistence in Southern Iberia of a Neandertal-associated Middle Paleolithic is supported by the archeological stratigraphy and the radiocarbon and luminescence dating of three newly excavated localities in the Mula basin of Murcia (Spain. At Cueva Antón, Mousterian layer I-k can be no more than 37,100 years-old. At La Boja, the basal Aurignacian can be no less than 36,500 years-old. The regional Middle-to-Upper Paleolithic transition process is thereby bounded to the first half of the 37th millennium Before Present, in agreement with evidence from Andalusia, Gibraltar and Portugal. This chronology represents a lag of minimally 3000 years with the rest of Europe, where that transition and the associated process of Neandertal/modern human admixture took place between 40,000 and 42,000 years ago. The lag implies the presence of an effective barrier to migration and diffusion across the Ebro river depression, which, based on available paleoenvironmental indicators, would at that time have represented a major biogeographical divide. In addition, (a the Phlegraean Fields caldera explosion, which occurred 39,850 years ago, would have stalled the Neandertal/modern human admixture front because of the population sink it generated in Central and Eastern Europe, and (b the long period of ameliorated climate that came soon after (Greenland Interstadial 8, during which forests underwent a marked expansion in Iberian regions south of 40°N would have enhanced the “Ebro Frontier” effect. These findings have two broader paleoanthropological implications: firstly, that, below the Ebro, the archeological record made prior to 37,000 years ago must be attributed, in all its aspects and components, to the Neandertals (or their ancestors; secondly, that modern human emergence is best seen as an uneven, punctuated process during which long-lasting barriers to gene flow and cultural diffusion could have existed across rather short distances, with

  7. Quality assurance in Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Villate, J.

    1980-01-01

    The first part of this lecture is devoted to present the energy program in Spain and the three generations of nuclear plants. The evolution of QA is outlined pointing out how IAEA Codes of Practice on QA is now a requirement and also how USA regulations, codes and standards have constituted, up to now, the main framework to develop QA activities in Spain. A general idea is given of the Spanish program of courses to qualify the personnel to be involved in QA tasks in nuclear power plants. Finally a general scheme is given, emphasizing the three main aspects: design, procurement and fabrication; construction (QA on site). (orig./RW)

  8. Spain investigates PLEX options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hevia, F.

    1990-01-01

    Spain's nuclear generation capacity will be reduced by some 6000MWe by the year 2015 if decommissioning of the units currently in operation takes place at the end of their 40-year design life. Bearing this in mind, in 1988 the Santa Maria de Garona BWR and the Jose Cabrera PWR were chosen by their respective owners as reference units for plant life extension (PLEX) activities. These plants are the oldest of their types operating in Spain and PLEX programmes were already under way. (author)

  9. La romanización temprana en el valle medio del Ebro (siglos II-I a.E.: una perspectiva epigráfica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beltrán, Francisco

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Early romanization in the Mid-Ebro valley (lst-2nd cent. BC implied deep changes in local societies, but it did not produce a homogeneous culture like the new imperial one brought by the Principate. Transformations tended to the integration and re-elaboration of the new features introduced by Rome in a prevailingly native context: this process is fully illustrated through the different reactions of Iberian, Celtiberian and West-Pyrenees communities in front of the epigraphical habit.El proceso de romanización temprana (siglos II-I a. E. en el valle medio del Ebro se caracteriza por profundas transformaciones en todos los terrenos que, a diferencia de lo que ocurre con la instauración de la nueva cultura imperial del Principado, no dieron como resultado una homogeneización cultural, sino que se desarrollaron en un ambiente de marcado perfil indígena en cuyo seno los nuevos estímulos traídos por Roma experimentan diversos grados de reelaboración: las diferentes reacciones de las comunidades iberas, celtas y pirenaico-occidentales ante el hábito epigráfico introducido por Roma ilustran perfectamente este proceso.

  10. Restos de quelonios del Mioceno medio del área de Tarazona de Aragón (Cuenca del Ebro, Aragón, España

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Astibia, H.

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available In this work, turtle remains are described from the Middle-Upper Aragonian sites of Monteagudo, Tarazona de Aragón, El Buste and La Ciesma. The chelonian assemblage is compared with that found in older sites from the same area of the Ebro basin. The differences with the Lower Miocene (biozones Z-A of Bardenas Reales (Navarra could be attributed to either or both the diverse sedimentary environment and to the changes in relative humidity and temperature occurred during the Early-Middle Miocene.En este trabajo se realiza la descripción de los fósiles de tortuga encontrados en los yacimientos del Aragoniense medio-superior de Monteagudo, Tarazona de Aragón, El Buste y La Ciesma. Además, se ha comparado la asociación paleoquelionológica descrita en estas localidades con la descrita en localidades más antiguas del mismo sector de la Cuenca del Ebro. La diferencia entre la asociación de la Biozona Z-A de las Bardenas Reales de Navarra y la descrita en el resto de las localidades puede deberse al medio sedimentario y/o a los cambios de humedad y temperatura relativas acaecidos a lo largo del Mioceno inferior-medio.

  11. Las temperaturas del territorio que se extiende desde el Cantábrico Oriental al Valle del Ebro durante el periodo internacional 1961-90

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier M. Pejenaute Goñi

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available El presente articulo tiene por objeto el estudio de las temperaturas en el territorio comprendido entre el Cantábrico oriental y el Valle del Ebro, durante el periodo internacional 1961-90. Este territorio está ocupado por las comunidades del País Vasco, Navarra, La Rioja y Aragón. Se estudian las temperaturas medias, las máximas, las mínimas, el coeficiente de variación y las heladas. También se incluye en el análisis anual, el estudio de la amplitud térmica, los quintiles y la tendencia futura.The present article aims at studying the temperatures in an área that goes from the cantábrico oriental and Valle del Ebro, for the international period of time going from 1961- 90. Four autonomous cornmunities. País Vasco, Navarra, La Rioja and Aragón, are included in this territory. The object of study will be the average, máximum and mínimum temperatures, as well as the coefficient of variation and freezes. It will also be included in the annual analysis. the study of thermal amplitude, quintiles, and future trend.

  12. El abrigo de Martinarri (Obécuri, Treviño: una ocupación del Tardiglaciar en la Cuenca Alta del Ebro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alday, Alfonso

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available We present recently discovered Martinarri’s site, in Treviño. The initial excavations have shown that it was occupied during the transition from Pleistocene to Holocene, providing information of a largely unknown episode in the Upper Ebro and in the interior of the Iberian peninsula. The text provides an initial assessment of the stratigraphic sequence and the materials recovered. Along with carbon-14 data (unpublished, we propose an initial interpretation of the dynamics of occupation of the site. Also, the nature of the period to which it refers, requires a review of currently available knowledge and reflection on its characterization.

    Presentamos el yacimiento de Martinarri, recientemente descubierto en Treviño. Los iniciales trabajos de excavación han evidenciado ocupaciones en el tránsito del Pleistoceno al Holoceno que llenan de contenido un episodio cultural muy desconocido en el Alto Ebro, en particular, y en el interior de la Península Ibérica, en general. En el texto se ofrece una primera evaluación tanto de la secuencia estratigráfica como de los materiales recuperados, esbozando junto con los datos radiocronológicos (inéditos, una primera interpretación de la dinámica ocupacional del lugar. Dada la propia naturaleza del período se revisa el conocimiento disponible en la actualidad sobre el mismo y se reflexiona sobre su caracterización.

  13. Molecular gastronomy in Spain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    García-Segovia, P.; Garrido, M. D.; Vercet, A.

    2014-01-01

    Beyond the overwhelming international success of Ferrán Adria, Spain has been one of the countries with a more active implication in molecular gastronomy as a scientific discipline but also in the use of ingredients, technologies, and equipment from the scientific and technological universe...... with scientists for facing the future of Spanish gastronomy....

  14. Fast delta Hadamard transform

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fenimore, E.E.; Weston, G.S.

    1981-01-01

    In many fields (e.g., spectroscopy, imaging spectroscopy, photoacoustic imaging, coded aperture imaging) binary bit patterns known as m sequences are used to encode (by multiplexing) a series of measurements in order to obtain a larger throughput. The observed measurements must be decoded to obtain the desired spectrum (or image in the case of coded aperture imaging). Decoding in the past has used a technique called the fast Hadamard transform (FHT) whose chief advantage is that it can reduce the computational effort from N 2 multiplies of N log 2 N additions or subtractions. However, the FHT has the disadvantage that it does not readily allow one to sample more finely than the number of bits used in the m sequence. This can limit the obtainable resolution and cause confusion near the sample boundaries (phasing errors). Both 1-D and 2-D methods (called fast delta Hadamard transforms, FDHT) have been developed which overcome both of the above limitations. Applications of the FDHT are discussed in the context of Hadamard spectroscopy and coded aperture imaging with uniformly redundant arrays. Special emphasis has been placed on how the FDHT can unite techniques used by both of these fields into the same mathematical basis

  15. Energy deposition by delta rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weigand, F.C.; Braby, L.A.

    1983-01-01

    Monte Carlo calculations for proton tracks were extended to projectile with more complex electronic structures which add additional delta ray production processes. An experimental apparatus was used to detect gas gain and resolution for H 2+ and 3 He ++

  16. [Alcoholism prevention and alcohol advertising investment in Spain: David versus Goliath].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montes-Santiago, Julio; Lado Castro-Rial, Marta

    2009-01-01

    Alcohol advertising correlates with consumption, particularly in young people. We studied the evolution of the amounts spent on alcoholic beverages advertising and on advertising as a whole in conventional media in Spain during the period 1995-2005. We analyzed the amounts spent on advertising in total and on alcoholic beverages advertising by studying the annual INFOADEX Survey on Advertising Investment in Spain in conventional media (TV, radio, the press, billboards and Internet). The results were subdivided into the periods 1995-2000 and 2001-2005. In the period 1995-2000 there was an increase (Delta) in alcoholic beverages advertising expenditure, from 268 to 347 million euro (Delta=29.5%), but a decrease in its percentage of advertising as a whole (from 7.6% to 6.1%). In the period 2001-2005 there was a rise in alcohol advertising expenditure from 145 to 186 million euro(Delta=28.0%), and also in its percentage of total advertising (from 2.7% to 2.8%). In 2001-2005, spending by Regional governments on preventive advertising increased from 22 to 52 million euro (Delta=136%). Alcohol advertising expenditure remains high in Spain, with young people as a primary target. In contrast, there is only modest investment in preventive advertising. Regulatory measures are necessary with a view to protecting populations especially susceptible to uncontrolled consumption.

  17. Niger Delta Development Commission and Sustainable ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Niger Delta Development Commission and Sustainable Development of Niger Delta Region of Nigeria: The Case of Rivers State. Goddey Wilson. Abstract. The study is on Niger Delta Development Commission and sustainable development of Niger Delta region of Nigeria, the case of Rivers State. The main objective of the ...

  18. Occurrence of sulfonamide residues along the Ebro River basin: removal in wastewater treatment plants and environmental impact assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Galán, M Jesús; Díaz-Cruz, M Silvia; Barceló, Damià

    2011-02-01

    Sulfonamides (SAs) have become one of the antibiotic families most frequently found in all kind of environmental waters. In the present work, the presence of 16 SAs and one of their acetylated metabolites in different water matrices of the Ebro River basin has been evaluated during two different sampling campaigns carried out in 2007 and 2008. Influent and effluent samples from seven wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs), together with a total of 28 river water samples were analyzed by on-line solid phase extraction-liquid chromathography-tandem mass spectrometry (on-line SPE-LC-MS/MS). Sulfamethoxazole and sulfapyridine were the SAs most frequently detected in WWTPs (96-100%), showing also the highest concentrations, ranging from 27.2 ng L(-1) to 596 ng L(-1) for sulfamethoxazole and from 3.7 ng L(-1) to 227 ng L(-1) for sulfapyridine. Sulfamethoxazole was also the SA most frequently detected in surface waters (85% of the samples) at concentrations between 11 ng L(-1) and 112 ng L(-1). In order to assess the effectiveness of the wastewater treatment in degrading SAs, removal efficiencies in the seven WWTPs were calculated for each individual SA (ranging from 4% to 100%) and correlated to the corresponding hydraulic retention times or residence times of the SAs in the plants. SAs half-lives were also estimated, ranging from to 2.5 hours (sulfadimethoxine) to 128 h (sulfamethazine). The contribution of the WWTPs to the presence of SAs depends on both the load of SAs discharging on the surface water from the WWTP effluent but also on the flow of the receiving waters in the discharge sites and the dilution exerted; WWTP4 exerts the highest pressure on the receiving water course. Finally, the potential environmental risk posed by SAs was evaluated calculating the hazard quotients (HQ) to different non-target organisms in effluent and river water. The degree of susceptibility resulted in algae>daphnia>fish. Sulfamethoxazole was the only SA posing a risk to algae in

  19. The predictability of reported drought events and impacts in the Ebro Basin using six different remote sensing data sets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linés, Clara; Werner, Micha; Bastiaanssen, Wim

    2017-09-01

    The implementation of drought management plans contributes to reduce the wide range of adverse impacts caused by water shortage. A crucial element of the development of drought management plans is the selection of appropriate indicators and their associated thresholds to detect drought events and monitor the evolution. Drought indicators should be able to detect emerging drought processes that will lead to impacts with sufficient anticipation to allow measures to be undertaken effectively. However, in the selection of appropriate drought indicators, the connection to the final impacts is often disregarded. This paper explores the utility of remotely sensed data sets to detect early stages of drought at the river basin scale and determine how much time can be gained to inform operational land and water management practices. Six different remote sensing data sets with different spectral origins and measurement frequencies are considered, complemented by a group of classical in situ hydrologic indicators. Their predictive power to detect past drought events is tested in the Ebro Basin. Qualitative (binary information based on media records) and quantitative (crop yields) data of drought events and impacts spanning a period of 12 years are used as a benchmark in the analysis. Results show that early signs of drought impacts can be detected up to 6 months before impacts are reported in newspapers, with the best correlation-anticipation relationships for the standard precipitation index (SPI), the normalised difference vegetation index (NDVI) and evapotranspiration (ET). Soil moisture (SM) and land surface temperature (LST) offer also good anticipation but with weaker correlations, while gross primary production (GPP) presents moderate positive correlations only for some of the rain-fed areas. Although classical hydrological information from water levels and water flows provided better anticipation than remote sensing indicators in most of the areas, correlations were

  20. $\\delta$-Expansion at Finite Temperature

    OpenAIRE

    Ramos, Rudnei O.

    1996-01-01

    We apply the $\\delta$-expansion perturbation scheme to the $\\lambda \\phi^{4}$ self-interacting scalar field theory in 3+1 D at finite temperature. In the $\\delta$-expansion the interaction term is written as $\\lambda (\\phi^{2})^{ 1 + \\delta}$ and $\\delta$ is considered as the perturbation parameter. We compute within this perturbative approach the renormalized mass at finite temperature at a finite order in $\\delta$. The results are compared with the usual loop-expansion at finite temperature.

  1. Anaerobic Transformation of Furfural by Methanococcus deltae (Delta)LH

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belay, N.; Boopathy, R.; Voskuilen, G.

    1997-01-01

    Methanococcus deltae (Delta)LH was grown on H(inf2)-CO(inf2) in the presence of various concentrations of furfural. Furfural at higher concentrations, namely, 20 and 25 mM, inhibited growth of this organism. At concentration of 5 and 10 mM, no inhibition of growth was observed. The other methanogens in this study were not inhibited by 10 mM furfural. Among the methanogens tested, M. deltae was capable of transforming furfural, whereas Methanobacterium thermoautotrophicum Marburg, Methanosarcina barkeri 227, Methanococcus thermolithotrophicus, and Methanobrevibacter ruminantium lacked this capability. One hundred percent removal of furfural was observed within 48 h of incubation in M. deltae cultures. The end product observed during furfural metabolism was furfuryl alcohol. An almost stoichiometric amount of furfuryl alcohol was produced by M. deltae. This transformation is likely to be of value in the detoxification of furfural and in its ultimate conversion to methane and CO(inf2) by anaerobic digestion. PMID:16535618

  2. Nuclear energy in Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isla, M.

    1984-01-01

    The 'Plan Energetico Nacional de 1983' (1983 National Energy Program)(PEN-83) was approved recently by the Spanish Government and presented to the 'Cortes Espanolas' (Spanish Parliament) in May 1984. The PEN-83 is being discussed at present in the Parliament and it is possible that some modifications be introduced, but expectedly will be rather limited and minor. PEN-83 covers the period 1983-1992. It includes a comparative analysis of the evolution and situation in OECD countries and in Spain. In Spain the offer, supply and consumption of primary energy and of the interrelation with other economic indicators, such as the gross domestic product, inflation rate and unemployment compared with that of the industrialized OECD countries, has shown a much lower capability to adapt its structure to the energy price increases

  3. Nuclear power in Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-01-01

    the plans of the Spanish Government to reduce their dependence on oil over the next ten years by a considerable increase in nuclear generating capacity are outlined. Data on the type, generating power, location and commissioning data of a number of nuclear power stations in Spain are tabulated. The use of foreign companies for the design and construction of the nuclear stations and the national organisations responsible for different aspects of the programme are considered. (UK)

  4. Snakebite poisoning in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín-Sierra, Cristina; Nogué-Xarau, Santiago; Pinillos Echeverría, Miguel Ángel; Rey Pecharromán, José Miguel

    2018-01-01

    Emergencies due to snakebites, although unusual in Spain, are potentially serious. Of the 13 species native to the Iberian peninsula, only 5 are poisonous: 2 belong to the Colubridae family and 3 to the Viperidae family. Bites from these venemous snakes can be life-threatening, but the venomous species can be easily identified by attending to certain physical traits. Signs denoting poisoning from vipers, and the appropriate treatment to follow, have changed in recent years.

  5. Mamíferos el Mioceno inferior de las Bardenas Reales de Navarra (Cuenca del Ebro, Península Ibérica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X. Murelaga, H. Astibia, C. Sese, D. Soria, X. Pereda-Suberbiola

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Las Bardenas Reales de Navarra se encuentran en el borde NW de la cuenca terciaria del Ebro. Los sedimentos que podemos encontrar en la mayor parte del área de estudio pertenecen a facies fluvio-palustres de la Formación Tudela. Las localidades fosilíferas estarían incluidas dentro de la Biozona MN2b-MN· (Biozonas Z-A del Rambliense o Aquitaniense superior-Burdigaliense inforior. En esta área se han encontrado restos fósiles de peces, anfibios, lagartos, anfisbénidos, serpientes, tortugas, cocodrilos, flamencos y los mamíferos que se describen en este trabajo como insectívoros, quirópteros, eomídos, gliridos, esciúridos, cricétidos, lagomorfos, perisodáctilos y artiodáctilos.

  6. Error of the modelled peak flow of the hydraulically reconstructed 1907 flood of the Ebro River in Xerta (NE Iberian Peninsula)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lluís Ruiz-Bellet, Josep; Castelltort, Xavier; Carles Balasch, J.; Tuset, Jordi

    2016-04-01

    The estimation of the uncertainty of the results of the hydraulic modelling has been deeply analysed, but no clear methodological procedures as to its determination have been formulated when applied to historical hydrology. The main objective of this study was to calculate the uncertainty of the resulting peak flow of a typical historical flood reconstruction. The secondary objective was to identify the input variables that influenced the result the most and their contribution to peak flow total error. The uncertainty of 21-23 October 1907 flood of the Ebro River (NE Iberian Peninsula) in the town of Xerta (83,000 km2) was calculated with a series of local sensitivity analyses of the main variables affecting the resulting peak flow. Besides, in order to see to what degree the result depended on the chosen model, the HEC-RAS resulting peak flow was compared to the ones obtained with the 2D model Iber and with Manning's equation. The peak flow of 1907 flood in the Ebro River in Xerta, reconstructed with HEC-RAS, was 11500 m3·s-1 and its total error was ±31%. The most influential input variable over HEC-RAS peak flow results was water height; however, the one that contributed the most to peak flow error was Manning's n, because its uncertainty was far greater than water height's. The main conclusion is that, to ensure the lowest peak flow error, the reliability and precision of the flood mark should be thoroughly assessed. The peak flow was 12000 m3·s-1 when calculated with the 2D model Iber and 11500 m3·s-1 when calculated with the Manning equation.

  7. Four new Delta Scuti stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schutt, R. L.

    1991-01-01

    Four new Delta Scuti stars are reported. Power, modified into amplitude, spectra, and light curves are used to determine periodicities. A complete frequency analysis is not performed due to the lack of a sufficient time base in the data. These new variables help verify the many predictions that Delta Scuti stars probably exist in prolific numbers as small amplitude variables. Two of these stars, HR 4344 and HD 107513, are possibly Am stars. If so, they are among the minority of variable stars which are also Am stars.

  8. [Suicide in Spain today].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Pérez, Isabel; Olry de Labry-Lima, Antonio

    2006-03-01

    Spain presents one of the lowest suicide rates (8.7 per 100,000) but, as well as Ireland, it has also experienced one of the highest rate increases both within Europe and within the world. In our country, it can be observed an increase in the suicide rates from 1975 to 1994, being this increase greater in men than in women. It can also be noted that there was a stabilisation in the following years. Social factors, specially those which have to deal with gender roles and changes in these roles, are the most common explanations. Another possible explanation for the observed increase in mortality due to suicide among young men could be the AIDS epidemic and intravenous drug addiction, that was observed in Spain during the eighties and nineties. Furthermore, we are witnessing an epidemic related to violence against children and women. Literature strongly suggests that child abuse (psychological and sexual) is associated with increased suicide risk in adolescent or adult life. Women experience violence from their intimate partners and have a greater risk of suffering from chronic pain, diverse somatisations, greater substance use like drugs and alcohol, depression and suicide attempt. The association between work precariousness and suicide seems to be due to economic and social and family support factors, which can lead to greater vulnerability to mental health problems. These factors are of great relevance, since Spain presents one of the highest unemployment and temporary employment rates in the European Union. It seems reasonable that, due to the individualism that characterises the contemporary society, its demands and the new role of women in the work market that cause, among others, a greater difficulty in combining work and family life, are factors that could explain the lack of decrease in suicide rates.

  9. Soil catena along gypseous woodland in the middle Ebro Basin: soil properties and micromorphology relationships Propiedades del suelo y relaciones micromorfológicas de suelos yesosos forestales en el Valle medio del Ebro Propriedades do solo e relações micromorfológicas dos solos florestais gessosos no Vale do Ebro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier M Aznar

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Gypsisols, mainly distributed in arid lands, support a key economic activity and have attracted a lot of scientific interest due to their particular physical and chemical properties. For example, Gypsisols show a high erodibility, low fertility and a variable water holding capacity that can be attributed to different gypsum particle sizes. This study aims to describe some representative Gypsisols from the middle Ebro Basin. Five representative soil profiles (mainly Gypsisols by WRB were selected and sampled at different positions along a hillside where soils where developed on gyprock. Furthemore, it links micromorphological properties with soil water retention. Soils have a dominant loamy texture, more rarely stoney. Gypsum is abundant in all soil profiles, ranging from 6 to 84% with minimum values in Ah horizons and maximum in By and Cy. The soils have a low level of salinity and a very low cation exchange capacity (CEC. The soil organic matter (SOM is medium or abundant in the Ah horizons, otherwise it is low. Soil aggregate stability (SAS is related significantly and positively with SOM and porosity, which is also positively related with moisture retention at field capacity and saturation humidity. However, there is no significant correlation between porosity and permanent wilting point (PWP. Soil water retention is dependant on the gypsum percentage and textural class. Low levels of gypsum have no influence on water retention, but high gypsum levels (> 60% enhance the field capacity (FC and decrease PWP, especially when the gypsum is microcrystalline. Gypsum levels between 40 and 60% also increase available water contents (AWC due to a decrease in PWP. There is a positive and significant correlation between PWP and FC in Gypsisols, except for those which are loamy and have gypsum values over 40%. The higher available water capacity (AWC than expected is related to microcrystalline gypsum, predominant in the studied soils. These high AWC

  10. Energy planning in Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cortina Garcia, J.

    1995-01-01

    This report aims to describe energy planning in Spain. It briefly analyses the three completed national energy plans (Plan Energetico Nacional, PEN). The fourth PEN 1991-2000 is analysed in detail, by reference to its objectives and characteristics and to developments during its first five years in operation. The Ministry of Industry and Energy has updated PEN en 1995, almost halfway through its period, and this is also summarised. Finally, there are some reflections on the future of energy planning. (Author) 46 refs

  11. Nuclear material control in Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Velilla, A.

    1988-01-01

    A general view about the safeguards activities in Spain is presented. The national system of accounting for and control of nuclear materials is described. The safeguards agreements signed by Spain are presented and the facilities and nuclear materials under these agreements are listed. (E.G.) [pt

  12. Early Childhood Inclusion in Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giné, Climent; Balcells-Balcells, Anna; Cañadas, Margarita; Paniagua, Gema

    2016-01-01

    This article describes early childhood inclusion in educational settings in Spain. First, we address the legislative framework of preschool education in Spain and offer a brief analysis of some relevant issues, including the current situation of early childhood education and inclusion at this stage. Second, current policies and practices relating…

  13. Hydrological and Climatic Significance of Martian Deltas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Achille, G.; Vaz, D. A.

    2017-10-01

    We a) review the geomorphology, sedimentology, and mineralogy of the martian deltas record and b) present the results of a quantitative study of the hydrology and sedimentology of martian deltas using modified version of terrestrial model Sedflux.

  14. Adaptive delta management : Roots and branches

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Timmermans, J.S.; Haasnoot, M.; Hermans, L.M.; Kwakkel, J.H.; Rutten, M.M.; Thissen, W.A.H.

    2015-01-01

    Deltas are generally recognized as vulnerable to climate change and therefore a salient topic in adaptation science. Deltas are also highly dynamic systems viewed from physical (erosion, sedimentation, subsidence), social (demographic), economic (trade), infrastructures (transport, energy,

  15. Adaptive Delta Management : Roots and Branches

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Timmermans, Jos; Haasnoot, Marjolijn; Hermans, Leon; Kwakkel, Jan H.; Rutten, Maarten; Thissen, Wil A.H.; Mynett, Arthur

    2015-01-01

    Deltas are generally recognized as vulnerable to climate change and therefore a salient topic in adaptation science. Deltas are also highly dynamic systems viewed from physical (erosion, sedimentation, subsidence), social (demographic), economic (trade), infrastructures (transport, energy,

  16. Delta Vegetation and Land Use [ds292

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — Vegetation and land use are mapped for the approximately 725,000 acres constituting the Legal Delta portion of the Sacramento and San Joaquin River Delta area....

  17. Delta Scuti variables. Lecture 6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cox, A.N.

    1983-01-01

    The class of variables near or on the upper main sequence, the delta Scuti variables, are not only the usual ones about the masses, radii, and luminosities, but also the age, rotation, element diffusion to change the surface layer composition, the occurance of convection and the presence of radial and nonradial pulsation modes

  18. about the Dirac Delta Function(?)

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    V Balakrishnan is in the. Department of ... and sweet as befits this impatient age. It said (in its en- ... to get down to real work by shutting down the system and reverting to ... the Dirac delta function" - but do note the all-important question mark in ...

  19. Environmental performance reviews: Spain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-10-01

    The second OECD Review of Spain's environmental performance reviews Spain's progress in the context of OECD environmental strategy for the first decade of the 21st century in relation to its own policy objectives. It praises a number of achievements such as in commitments to climate change policies and developments of cogeneration and renewable energy sources. Although emissions of sulphur dioxide from the energy sector have fallen since 1990 they are still high when measured per capita and per unit of GDP. The OECD recommends further control of emissions of SOx, NOx, VOCs and NH{sub 3}. Subsidies such as compulsory purchase of domestic coal by electricity producers are set to increase. The report recommends the phasing out of environmental subsidies (which has begun) and making use of economic instruments to encourage efficient resource management and reduction of pollutants. Greenhouse gas emissions increased by 38% between 1990 and 2002 and the outlook for the next few years is pessimistic. 39 figs., 31 tabs.

  20. Nuclear energy in Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Villota, C. de

    2007-01-01

    Carlos Villota. Director of Nuclear Energy of UNESA gave an overview of the Spanish nuclear industry, the utility companies and the relevant institutions. Companies of the nuclear industry include firms that produce heavy components or equipment (ENSA), manufacturers of nuclear fuel (ENUSA), engineering companies, the National Company for Radioactive Waste Management (ENRESA), and nuclear power plants (nine units at seven sites). Nuclear energy is a significant component of the energy mix in Spain: 11% of all energy produced in Spain is of nuclear origin, whilst the share of nuclear energy in the total electricity generation is approximately 23%. The five main players of the energy sector that provide for the vast majority of electricity production, distribution, and supply have formed the Spanish Electricity Industry Association (UNESA). The latter carries out co-ordination, representation, management and promotion tasks for its members, as well as the protection of their business and professional interests. In the nuclear field, UNESA through its Nuclear Energy Committee co-ordinates aspects related to nuclear safety and radiological protection, regulation, NPP operation and R and D. Regarding the institutional framework of the nuclear industry, ENSA, ENUSA and ENRESA are controlled by the national government through the Ministry of Economy and Finance and the Ministry of Science and Technology. All companies of the nuclear industry are licensed by the Ministry of Industry, Tourism and Trade (MITYC), while the regulatory body is the Nuclear Safety Council (CSN). It is noteworthy that CSN is independent of the government, as it reports directly to Parliament. (author)

  1. Variation in leaf water delta D and delta 18O values during the evapotranspiration process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leopoldo, P.R.; Foloni, L.L.

    1984-01-01

    A theoretical model was developed to evaluate leaf water delta D and delta 18 O variation in relation to: leaf temperature, relative humidity converted to leaf temperature and delta D and delta 18 O values of atmospheric water vapour and soil water. (M.A.C.) [pt

  2. An analytical framework for strategic delta planning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Seijger, C.; Douven, W.; Halsema, van G.; Hermans, L.; Evers, J.; Phi, H.L.; Khan, M.F.; Brunner, J.; Pols, L.; Ligtvoet, W.; Koole, S.; Slager, K.; Vermoolen, M.S.; Hasan, S.; Thi Minh Hoang, Vo

    2017-01-01

    Sectoral planning on water, agriculture and urban development has not been able to prevent increased flood risks and environmental degradation in many deltas. Governments conceive strategic delta planning as a promising planning approach and develop strategic delta plans. Such plans are linked to

  3. Delta Semantics Defined By Petri Nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kurt; Kyng, Morten; Madsen, Ole Lehrmann

    and the possibility of using predicates to specify state changes. In this paper a formal semantics for Delta is defined and analysed using Petri nets. Petri nets was chosen because the ideas behind Petri nets and Delta concide on several points. A number of proposals for changes in Delta, which resulted from...

  4. Hydraulic barrier against seawater intrusion in the main aquifer of Delta del Llobregat; Barrera hidraulica contra la intrusion marina en el acuifero principal del Delta del Llobregat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ortuno Gobern, F.; Ninerola Pla, J. M.; Fraile, J.; Juarez, I.; Molinero Huguet, J.; Arcos, D.; Pitarch, J. L.

    2009-07-01

    The main aquifer of Delta del Llobregat (Barcelona, Spain) is affected by seawater intrusion from 1970. For stopping its advance, the Catalan Water Agency is carrying out the construction of a positive hydraulic barrier through the injection of water in 14 wells. This is the first project of these characteristic that it is carried out in Spain and pioneer in Europe. The barrier elevates the groundwater level of the aquifer near the coast and avoids that the seawater penetrates inland, using reclaimed water of Baix Llobregat WWTP with several treatments. The first phase brings already more than 2 years of functioning, with highly positive results since a substantial improvement of the quality of the groundwater has been observed. The second phase is at present under construction. (Author)

  5. Field comparison of sardine post-flexion larval growth and biochemical composition from three sites in the W Mediterranean (Ebro river coast, bays of Almería and Málaga

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Garcia

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Late larval stages of sardine (16-23 mm were sampled during the 2003 spawning season in their nursery grounds located off the Ebro river mouth, on the Catalan coast, and in two bays of the Alborán Sea coasts, the Bay of Almería and the Bay of Málaga. The daily growth analysis of each sampled population revealed faster growth in the Ebro sardine larvae than in both of the Alboran Sea larval populations. This fact is supported by their greater content with age of DNA, RNA and protein. However, the significantly higher carbohydrate content of the Bay of Almería sardine larvae and a higher Fulton’s index, indicative of energy storage of individuals, in both of the sardine populations sampled in the Bays of Almería and Málaga show evident differences in the daily growth of the Alborán Sea larvae from those originating in the Ebro region. Late larval growth in the Alborán Sea sardine tends to favour an increase in body mass rather than in body length. This study hypothesises that the productivity pulses off the Alboran Sea coasts induced by the north and northwestern wind regimes may be responsible for the growth pulses observed in the otolith microstructure.

  6. Burnup credit in Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conde, J.M.; Recio, M.

    2001-01-01

    The status of development of burnup credit for criticality safety analyses in Spain is described in this paper. Ongoing activities in the country in this field, both national and international, are resumed. Burnup credit is currently being applied to wet storage of PWR fuel, and credit to integral burnable absorbers is given for BWR fuel storage. It is envisaged to apply burnup credit techniques to the new generation of transport casks now in the design phase. The analysis methodologies submitted for the analyses of PWR and BWR fuel wet storage are outlined. Analytical activities in the country are described, as well as international collaborations in this field. Perspectives for future research and development of new applications are finally resumed. (author)

  7. Future Change to Tide-Influenced Deltas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nienhuis, Jaap H.; Hoitink, A. J. F. (Ton); Törnqvist, Torbjörn E.

    2018-04-01

    Tides tend to widen deltaic channels and shape delta morphology. Here we present a predictive approach to assess a priori the effect of fluvial discharge and tides on deltaic channels. We show that downstream channel widening can be quantified by the ratio of the tide-driven discharge and the fluvial discharge, along with a second metric representing flow velocities. A test of our new theory on a selection of 72 deltas globally shows good correspondence to a wide range of environments, including wave-dominated deltas, river-dominated deltas, and alluvial estuaries. By quantitatively relating tides and fluvial discharge to delta morphology, we offer a first-order prediction of deltaic change that may be expected from altered delta hydrology. For example, we expect that reduced fluvial discharge in response to dam construction will lead to increased tidal intrusion followed by enhanced tide-driven sediment import into deltas, with implications for navigation and other human needs.

  8. Evolución geomorfológica, cambios ambientales e intervención humana durante el holoceno en la cuenca alta del Ebro: las tobas de los valles del Purón y Molinar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    González Amuchastegui, María José

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Geomorphologic evolution, environmental changes and human activity during Holocene in Upper Ebro Basin: tufa complexes in Purón and Molinar rivers.

    Pleistocene to Holocene transition was accompanied by a very intense environmental change, from cold conditions to warmer. During this time, the karst processes made a very intense work on calcareous places of Upper Ebro Basin and tufa sedimentation rates in the valleys were also high. During the Holocene, coinciding with first human settlement occupation, tufa sedimentation stopped and the down cutting processes on in filled valley deposits started on. The erosion process on tufa building may be caused both human activity and complex responses of the natural system. In this paper Holocene geomorphic evolution of Purón and Molinar rivers is studied, the chronology of tufaceous deposits is established and the incidence of human activity on the geomorphic evolution is considered.

    Evolución geomorfológica, cambios ambientales e intervención humana durante el Holoceno en la cuenca alta del Ebro: las tobas de los valles del Purón y Molinar.

    El paso del Pleistoceno al Holoceno supuso un cambio ambiental muy marcado de unas condiciones muy frías a otras cálidas, que en las zonas calizas de la cuenca alta del Ebro fueron acompañadas de una intensa karstificación y el relleno tobáceo de los principales afluentes del río Ebro. Posteriormente y coincidiendo con el inicio de la ocupación antrópica del territorio, cesó la precipitación tobácea y los ríos comenzaron a incidir sus cauces hasta generar importantes terrazas. En este trabajo se analiza la evolución de los valles de los ríos Purón y Molinar, se establece su cronología y se plantea la incidencia que la ocupación antrópica del territorio ha tenido en su evolución.

  9. Astrometric Observation of Delta Cepheus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, Naomi; Wilson, Betsie; Estrada, Chris; Crisafi, Kim; King, Jackie; Jones, Stephany; Salam, Akash; Warren, Glenn; Collins, S. Jananne; Genet, Russell

    2012-04-01

    Members of a Cuesta College astronomy research seminar used a manually-controlled 10-inch Newtonian Reflector telescope to determine the separation and position angle of the binary star Delta Cepheus. It was observed on the night of Saturday, October 29, 2011, at Star Hill in Santa Margarita, California. Their values of 40.2 arc seconds and 192.4 degrees were similar to those reported in the WDS (1910).

  10. Deformation characteristics of {delta} phase in the delta-processed Inconel 718 alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, H.Y., E-mail: haiyanzhang@imr.ac.cn [Institute of Metal Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenyang 110016 (China); Zhang, S.H., E-mail: shzhang@imr.ac.cn [Institute of Metal Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenyang 110016 (China); Cheng, M. [Institute of Metal Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenyang 110016 (China); Li, Z.X. [Beijing Institute of Aeronautica1 Materials, Beijing 100095 (China)

    2010-01-15

    The hot working characteristics of {delta} phase in the delta-processed Inconel 718 alloy during isothermal compression deformation at temperature of 950 deg. C and strain rate of 0.005 s{sup -1}, were studied by using optical microscope, scanning electron microscope and quantitative X-ray diffraction technique. The results showed that the dissolution of plate-like {delta} phase and the precipitation of spherical {delta} phase particles coexisted during the deformation, and the content of {delta} phase decreased from 7.05 wt.% to 5.14 wt.%. As a result of deformation breakage and dissolution breakage, the plate-like {delta} phase was spheroidized and transferred to spherical {delta} phase particles. In the center with largest strain, the plate-like {delta} phase disappeared and spherical {delta} phase appeared in the interior of grains and grain boundaries.

  11. Mineralogía del perfil de «La Muela», terciario del sector central de la Depresion del Ebro (provincia Zaragoza

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    López-Aguayo, F.

    1988-08-01

    Full Text Available The stratigraphic sequenre of «La Muela>., at the South (Central Sector of the Ebro basin, is studied. This profile presents two difIerentiated uoits. The first one gypsum-bearing and the second one carbonatic, which correspond to the gypsum of Zaragoza and Alcubierre Cormations respectively. 80th units present a different mineralogical assofiation. The first one is characterized by gypsum, carbonates (calcite/dolomite, clay minerals and quartz, whereas in the second one the association is carbonates (calcite and/or dolomite, clay minerals and quartz. The clay minerals systematically present are: illite, smectites, chlorite and kaolinite. However, it is possible to observe an important quantitative change between both units, with a variation in the average of smectites from 23% to 46%. The variation in the molar content of MgCO3 in the carbonates has loo to propase a model of the chemical evolution on the vertical, in agreement with the sedimentologic analysis of the materials, which correspond to playa and lacustrine deposits.El perfil estratigráfico de La Muela, sector Sur de la Depresión del Ebro. Consta de dos tramos diferenciados, el primero rico en yeso y el segundo carbonatado, que corresponden respectivamente a las Formaciones Yesos de Zaragoza y Alcubierre. Ambos tramos presentan una asociación mineralógica distinta: el primero está caracterizado por yeso, carbonatos (calcita/dolomita, minerales de la arcilla y cuarzo, mientras que el segundo la asociación consta de carbonatos (calcita y/o dolomita, minerales de la arcilla y cuarzo. Los minerales de la arcilla presentes sistemáticamente son: ilita, esmectitas, clorita y caolinita. No obstante, se observa un importante cambio cuantitativo entre ambos tramos con una variación notable en el contenido en esmectitas, que en términos medios, es del 23 al 46%. La variación del contenido molar en CO3 Mg de los carbonatos ha permitido proponer un modelo de evolución química en la

  12. Spent fuel management in Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez, J.L.

    2002-01-01

    The spent fuel management strategy in Spain is presented. The strategy includes temporary solutions and plans for final disposal. The need for R and D including partitioning and transmutation, as well as the financial constraints are also addressed. (author)

  13. Migration in Deltas: An Integrated Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholls, Robert J.; Hutton, Craig W.; Lazar, Attila; Adger, W. Neil; Allan, Andrew; Arto, Inaki; Vincent, Katharine; Rahman, Munsur; Salehin, Mashfiqus; Sugata, Hazra; Ghosh, Tuhin; Codjoe, Sam; Appeaning-Addo, Kwasi

    2017-04-01

    Deltas and low-lying coastal regions have long been perceived as vulnerable to global sea-level rise, with the potential for mass displacement of exposed populations. The assumption of mass displacement of populations in deltas requires a comprehensive reassessment in the light of present and future migration in deltas, including the potential role of adaptation to influence these decisions. At present, deltas are subject to multiple drivers of environmental change and often have high population densities as they are accessible and productive ecosystems. Climate change, catchment management, subsidence and land cover change drive environmental change across all deltas. Populations in deltas are also highly mobile, with significant urbanization trends and the growth of large cities and mega-cities within or adjacent to deltas across Asia and Africa. Such migration is driven primarily by economic opportunity, yet environmental change in general, and climate change in particular, are likely to play an increasing direct and indirect role in future migration trends. The policy challenges centre on the role of migration within regional adaptation strategies to climate change; the protection of vulnerable populations; and the future of urban settlements within deltas. This paper reviews current knowledge on migration and adaptation to environmental change to discern specific issues pertinent to delta regions. It develops a new integrated methodology to assess present and future migration in deltas using the Volta delta in Ghana, Mahanadi delta in India and Ganges-Brahmaputra-Meghna delta across India and Bangladesh. The integrated method focuses on: biophysical changes and spatial distribution of vulnerability; demographic changes and migration decision-making using multiple methods and data; macro-economic trends and scenarios in the deltas; and the policies and governance structures that constrain and enable adaptation. The analysis is facilitated by a range of

  14. Tides Stabilize Deltas until Humans Interfere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoitink, T.; Zheng Bing, W.; Vermeulen, B.; Huismans, Y.; Kastner, K.

    2017-12-01

    Despite global concerns about river delta degradation caused by extraction of natural resources, sediment retention by reservoirs and sea-level rise, human activity in the world's largest deltas intensifies. In this review, we argue that tides tend to stabilize deltas until humans interfere. Under natural circumstances, delta channels subject to tides are more stable than their fluvial-dominated counterparts. The oscillatory tidal flow counteracts the processes responsible for bank erosion, which explains why unprotected tidal channels migrate only slowly. Peak river discharges attenuate the tides, which creates storage space to accommodate the extra river discharge during extreme events and as a consequence, reduce flood risk. With stronger tides, the river discharge is being distributed more evenly over the various branches in a delta, preventing silting up of smaller channels. Human interference in deltas is massive. Storm surge barriers are constructed, new land is being reclaimed and large-scale sand excavation takes place, to collect building material. Evidence from deltas around the globe shows that in human-controlled deltas the tidal motion often plays a destabilizing role. In channels of the Rhine-Meuse Delta, some 100 scour holes are identified, which relates to the altered tidal motion after completion of a storm surge barrier. Sand mining has led to widespread river bank failures in the tidally-influenced Mekong Delta. The catastrophic flood event in the Gauges-Brahmaputra Delta by Cyclone Aila, which caused the inundation of an embanked polder area for over two years, was preceded by river bank erosion at the mouths of formal tidal channels that were blocked by the embankment. Efforts to predict the developments of degrading deltas are few. Existing delta models are capable of reproducing expanding deltas, which is essentially a matter of simulating the transport of sediment from source in a catchment to the sink in a delta. Processes of soil

  15. Radar Interferometry for Monitoring the Vibration Characteristics of Buildings and Civil Structures: Recent Case Studies in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luzi, Guido; Crosetto, Michele; Fernández, Enric

    2017-03-24

    The potential of a coherent microwave sensor to monitor the vibration characteristics of civil structures has been investigated in the past decade, and successful case studies have been published by different research teams. This remote sensing technique is based on the interferometric processing of real aperture radar acquisitions. Its capability to estimate, simultaneously and remotely, the displacement of different parts of the investigated structures, with high accuracy and repeatability, is its main advantage with respect to conventional sensors. A considerable amount of literature on this technique is available, including various case studies aimed at testing the ambient vibration of bridges, buildings, and towers. In the last years, this technique has been used in Spain for civil structures monitoring. In this paper, three examples of such case studies are described: the monitoring of the suspended bridge crossing the Ebro River at Amposta, the communications tower of Collserola in Barcelona, and an urban building located in Vilafranca del Penedès, a small town close to Barcelona. This paper summarizes the main outcomes of these case studies, underlining the advantages and limitations of the sensors currently available, and concluding with the possible improvements expected from the next generation of sensors.

  16. Modelling environmental variables for geohazards and georesources assessment to support sustainable land-use decisions in Zaragoza (Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamelas, M. T.; Hoppe, A.; de la Riva, J.; Marinoni, O.

    2009-10-01

    Land-use decisions are usually made on the basis of a variety of criteria. While it is common practice to integrate economic, ecological and social (triple bottom line) criteria, explicit geoscientific factors are relatively rarely considered. If a planned land use involves an interaction with the geosphere, geoscientific aspects should be playing a more important role in the process. With the objective to facilitate a sustainable land-use decision-making a research project was initiated. The area around the city of Zaragoza, in the Ebro Basin of northern Spain, was chosen due to its high degree of industrialisation and urbanization. The area is exposed to several geohazards (e.g., sinkholes and erosion) that may have significant negative effects on current and future land uses. Geographical Information System (GIS) technologies are used to process the complex geoscientific information. Further GIS analysis comprised the creation of an erosion susceptibility map that follows the ITC (International Institute for Geo-Information Science and Earth Observation) system of terrain analysis. The agricultural capability of the soil was determined using the Microleis System. We identify geomorphologic units that show high susceptibility to erosion and high agricultural potential and suggest a method to implement this information in a land-use planning process. Degraded slopes developed upon Tertiary rocks show the highest susceptibility to erosion and low values of agricultural capability, whereas the flat valley bottoms and irrigated flood plains have the highest values of agricultural capability.

  17. Future Deltas Utrecht University research focus area: towards sustainable management of sinking deltas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stouthamer, E.; van Asselen, S.

    2015-11-01

    Deltas are increasingly under pressure from human impact and climate change. To deal with these pressures that threat future delta functioning, we need to understand interactions between physical, biological, chemical and social processes in deltas. This requires an integrated approach, in which knowledge on natural system functioning is combined with knowledge on spatial planning, land and water governance and legislative frameworks. In the research focus area Future Deltas of Utrecht University an interdisciplinary team from different research groups therefore works together. This allows developing integrated sustainable and resilient delta management strategies, which is urgently needed to prevent loss of vital delta services.

  18. COMMD1 regulates the delta epithelial sodium channel ({delta}ENaC) through trafficking and ubiquitination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Tina; Ke, Ying; Ly, Kevin [Department of Physiology, University of Otago, P.O. Box 913, Dunedin 9054 (New Zealand); McDonald, Fiona J., E-mail: fiona.mcdonald@otago.ac.nz [Department of Physiology, University of Otago, P.O. Box 913, Dunedin 9054 (New Zealand)

    2011-08-05

    Highlights: {yields} The COMM domain of COMMD1 mediates binding to {delta}ENaC. {yields} COMMD1 reduces the cell surface population of {delta}ENaC. {yields} COMMD1 increases the population of {delta}ENaC-ubiquitin. {yields} Both endogenous and transfected {delta}ENaC localize with COMMD1 and transferrin suggesting they are located in early/recycling endosomes. -- Abstract: The delta subunit of the epithelial sodium channel ({delta}ENaC) is a member of the ENaC/degenerin family of ion channels. {delta}ENaC is distinct from the related {alpha}-, {beta}- and {gamma}ENaC subunits, known for their role in sodium homeostasis and blood pressure control, as {delta}ENaC is expressed in brain neurons and activated by external protons. COMMD1 (copper metabolism Murr1 domain 1) was previously found to associate with and downregulate {delta}ENaC activity. Here, we show that COMMD1 interacts with {delta}ENaC through its COMM domain. Co-expression of {delta}ENaC with COMMD1 significantly reduced {delta}ENaC surface expression, and led to an increase in {delta}ENaC ubiquitination. Immunocytochemical and confocal microscopy studies show that COMMD1 promoted localization of {delta}ENaC to the early/recycling endosomal pool where the two proteins were localized together. These results suggest that COMMD1 downregulates {delta}ENaC activity by reducing {delta}ENaC surface expression through promoting internalization of surface {delta}ENaC to an intracellular recycling pool, possibly via enhanced ubiquitination.

  19. Nuclear power in Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koryakin, Yu.I.

    1977-01-01

    The present states of nuclear power in Spain is shortly surveyed. Data are provided on NPPs currently in operation, under construction, designed and planned. In line with the 10-year ''National programme of electricity supply'' a major and all increasing part of the electricity generation growth is to be ensured by NPPs and to account for more than 50% by the end of the period (1987). Out of the 7 units of NPPs now under construction, 6 units utilize PWR reactors and only 1 unit- a BWR reactor. The roles of private and public sectors are noted. Main characteristics of the ''ENSA'' plant now under construction are provided where components of NPPs with PWR and BWR reactors will be fabricated. Major developments in the fields of mining, milling and extraction of U from lignites, U enrichment, fuel fabrication and spent fuel reprocessing are considered. Measures now taken to improve the licensing procedure, surveillance of NPPs and personnel training are to advance the nuclear power development programme in the country

  20. Hydraulic barrier against seawater intrusion in the main aquifer of Delta del Llobregat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ortuno Gobern, F.; Ninerola Pla, J. M.; Fraile, J.; Juarez, I.; Molinero Huguet, J.; Arcos, D.; Pitarch, J. L.

    2009-01-01

    The main aquifer of Delta del Llobregat (Barcelona, Spain) is affected by seawater intrusion from 1970. For stopping its advance, the Catalan Water Agency is carrying out the construction of a positive hydraulic barrier through the injection of water in 14 wells. This is the first project of these characteristic that it is carried out in Spain and pioneer in Europe. The barrier elevates the groundwater level of the aquifer near the coast and avoids that the seawater penetrates inland, using reclaimed water of Baix Llobregat WWTP with several treatments. The first phase brings already more than 2 years of functioning, with highly positive results since a substantial improvement of the quality of the groundwater has been observed. The second phase is at present under construction. (Author)

  1. Transporte de Fondo y Dinámica Sedimentaria en un Río Altamente Regulado: el bajo Ebro (NE Península Ibérica.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damià Vericat

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo analiza el transporte de fondo (tasas y granulometría en relación con las variaciones  temporales en la granulometría del lecho del río Ebro, en su tramo bajo y durante el periodo hidrológico 2002-2004. La alta magnitud de las crecidas (Q8 sucedidas en el 2002-2003 provocó una elevada actividad sedimentaria, especialmente en relación con la rotura de la coraza superficial del lecho. Dicho processo produjo un incremento progresivo en las tasas de transporte a causa de la incorporación  del material subsuperficial  a la carga de fondo. El flujo conjunto de materiales superficiales y subsuperficiales se considera como la causa principal que explica la elevada dispersión granulométrica de la carga de fondo durante las crecidas. Los caudales alcanzados durante las crecidas de 2003-2004 fueron de menor magnitud y con menor competencia para movilizar todas las fracciones granulométricas de la superfície del lecho. El movimiento de las partículas de mayor tamaño fue hidráulicamente limitado, lo que generó un transporte de fondo selectivo. Dicha dinánica fue la responsable del desarrollo de una nueva coraza superficial que redujo la disponibilidad de sedimentos y, consecuentemente, las tasas de transporte de fondo.

  2. The Niger Delta Amnesty Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin A. Okonofua

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The armed conflict between militias and government forces in Nigeria’s Niger Delta region has spanned for more than two decades, defying all solutions. A disarmament, demobilization, and reintegration (DDR program was established in August 2015 in effort to end the violence and has remained in place. It is a radically different approach from past approaches that displayed zero tolerance to all political challenges to oil production or the allocation of oil profits. The approach appeared to be immediately successful in that it forced a ceasefire, engaged militants in planned programs to rehabilitate and reintegrate them into civilian society, and opened up the oil wells (many of which had been shut due to the crisis with the effect of increasing government revenue, which depends 85% on oil exports. Yet, few studies have attempted to understand the dynamics within the country that are responsible for the design and implementation of this broad policy shift or to understand whether and how the current initiative is able to end the conflict and institute peace beyond the short term. This study, therefore, is important because it provides a critical perspective that anticipates and explains emerging issues with the Niger Delta Amnesty Program, which have implications for DDR adaptation and implementation all over the world. Ultimately, the research demonstrates how the DDR program both transforms the Niger Delta conflict and becomes embroiled in intense contestations not only about the mechanism for transforming the targeted population but also whether and how the program incorporates women who are being deprioritized by the program.

  3. Penelope Delta, recently discovered writer

    OpenAIRE

    MALAPANI A.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this article is to present a Greek writer, Penelope Delta. This writer has recently come up in the field of the studies of the Greek literature and, although thereare neither many translations of her works in foreign languages nor many theses or dissertations, she was chosen for the great interest for her works. Her books have been read by many generations, so she is considered a classical writer of Modern Greek Literature. The way she uses the Greek language, the unique characters...

  4. Climate change and the Delta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dettinger, Michael; Anderson, Jamie; Anderson, Michael L.; Brown, Larry R.; Cayan, Daniel; Maurer, Edwin P.

    2016-01-01

    Anthropogenic climate change amounts to a rapidly approaching, “new” stressor in the Sacramento–San Joaquin Delta system. In response to California’s extreme natural hydroclimatic variability, complex water-management systems have been developed, even as the Delta’s natural ecosystems have been largely devastated. Climate change is projected to challenge these management and ecological systems in different ways that are characterized by different levels of uncertainty. For example, there is high certainty that climate will warm by about 2°C more (than late-20th-century averages) by mid-century and about 4°C by end of century, if greenhouse-gas emissions continue their current rates of acceleration. Future precipitation changes are much less certain, with as many climate models projecting wetter conditions as drier. However, the same projections agree that precipitation will be more intense when storms do arrive, even as more dry days will separate storms. Warmer temperatures will likely enhance evaporative demands and raise water temperatures. Consequently, climate change is projected to yield both more extreme flood risks and greater drought risks. Sea level rise (SLR) during the 20th century was about 22cm, and is projected to increase by at least 3-fold this century. SLR together with land subsidence threatens the Delta with greater vulnerabilities to inundation and salinity intrusion. Effects on the Delta ecosystem that are traceable to warming include SLR, reduced snowpack, earlier snowmelt and larger storm-driven streamflows, warmer and longer summers, warmer summer water temperatures, and water-quality changes. These changes and their uncertainties will challenge the operations of water projects and uses throughout the Delta’s watershed and delivery areas. Although the effects of climate change on Delta ecosystems may be profound, the end results are difficult to predict, except that native species will fare worse than invaders. Successful

  5. From Natural to Design River Deltas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giosan, Liviu

    2016-04-01

    Productive and biologically diverse, deltaic lowlands attracted humans since prehistory and may have spurred the emergence of the first urban civilizations. Deltas continued to be an important nexus for economic development across the world and are currently home for over half a billion people. But recently, under the double whammy of sea level rise and inland sediment capture behind dams, they have become the most threatened coastal landscape. Here I will address several deceptively simple questions to sketch some unexpected answers using example deltas from across the world from the Arctic to the Tropics, from the Danube to the Indus, Mississippi to Godavari and Krishna, Mackenzie to Yukon. What is a river delta? What is natural and what is not in a river delta? Are the geological and human histories of a delta important for its current management? Is maintaining a delta the same to building a new one? Can we design better deltas than Nature? These answers help us see clearly that survival of deltas in the next century depends on human intervention and is neither assured nor simple to address or universally applicable. Empirical observations on the hydrology, geology, biology and biochemistry of deltas are significantly lagging behind modeling capabilities endangering the applicability of numerical-based reconstruction solutions and need to be ramped up significantly and rapidly across the world.

  6. Climatic implications of correlated upper Pleistocene glacial and fluvial deposits on the Cinca and Gallego rivers, NE Spain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewis, Claudia J [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Mcdonald, Eric [NON LANL; Sancho, Carlos [NON LANL; Pena, Jose- Luis [NON LANL

    2008-01-01

    We correlate Upper Pleistocene glacial and fluvial deposits of the Cinca and Gallego River valleys (south central Pyrenees and Ebro basin, Spain) using geomorphic position, luminescence dates, and time-related trends in soil development. The ages obtained from glacial deposits indicate glacial periods at 85 {+-} 5 ka, 64 {+-} 11 ka, and 36 {+-} 3 ka (from glacial till) and 20 {+-} 3 ka (from loess). The fluvial drainage system, fed by glaciers in the headwaters, developed extensive terrace systems in the Cinca River valley at 178 {+-} 21 ka, 97 {+-} 16 ka, 61 {+-} 4 ka, 47 {+-} 4 ka, and 11 {+-} 1 ka, and in the Gallego River valley at 151 {+-} 11 ka, 68 {+-} 7 ka, and 45 {+-} 3 ka. The times of maximum geomorphic activity related to cold phases coincide with Late Pleistocene marine isotope stages and heinrich events. The maximum extent of glaciers during the last glacial occurred at 64 {+-} 11 ka, and the terraces correlated with this glacial phase are the most extensive in both the Cinca (61 {+-} 4 ka) and Gallego (68 {+-} 7 ka) valleys, indicating a strong increase in fluvial discharge and availability of sediments related to the transition to deglaciation. The global Last Glacial Maximum is scarcely represented in the south central Pyrenees owing to dominantly dry conditions at that time. Precipitation must be controlled by the position of the Iberian Peninsula with respect to the North Atlantic atmospheric circulation system. The glacial systems and the associated fluvial dynamic seem sensitive to (1) global climate changes controlled by insolation, (2) North Atlantic thermohaline circulation influenced by freshwater pulses into the North Atlantic, and (3) anomalies in atmospheric circulation in the North Atlantic controlling precipitation on the Iberian peninsula. The model of glacial and fluvial evolution during the Late Pleistocene in northern Spain could be extrapolated to other glaciated mountainous areas in southern Europe.

  7. Demand for radiotherapy in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, A; Borrás, J M; López-Torrecilla, J; Algara, M; Palacios-Eito, A; Gómez-Caamaño, A; Olay, L; Lara, P C

    2017-02-01

    Assessing the demand for radiotherapy in Spain based on existing evidence to estimate the human resources and equipment needed so that every person in Spain has access to high-quality radiotherapy when they need it. We used data from the European Cancer Observatory on the estimated incidence of cancer in Spain in 2012, along with the evidence-based indications for radiotherapy developed by the Australian CCORE project, to obtain an optimal radiotherapy utilisation proportion (OUP) for each tumour. About 50.5 % of new cancers in Spain require radiotherapy at least once over the course of the disease. Additional demand for these services comes from reradiation therapy and non-melanoma skin cancer. Approximately, 25-30 % of cancer patients with an indication for radiotherapy do not receive it due to factors that include access, patient preference, familiarity with the treatment among physicians, and especially resource shortages, all of which contribute to its underutilisation. Radiotherapy is underused in Spain. The increasing incidence of cancer expected over the next decade and the greater frequency of reradiations necessitate the incorporation of radiotherapy demand into need-based calculations for cancer services planning.

  8. Forum on stakeholder confidence: Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vari, A.; Pescatore, C.

    2006-01-01

    The FSC workshop in Spain provided an important opportunity to carry out an in-depth examination of decision-making processes undertaken in an NEA member country, and to reflect on the evolution that has taken place over time. It offered a well-rounded perspective on the inclusion of stakeholders in decision making, and the atmosphere of the meetings was conducive to an honest and open exchange of ideas. The workshop started with the introduction of two case studies: the earlier attempt in Spain to locate a potential site for a high-level waste (HLW) disposal facility, and the dismantling of the Vandellos-I nuclear power plant. This was followed by two days of presentations and round-table discussions based on the recent COWAM Spain initiative (stemming from the EU-wide project on Community Waste Management), which aims at developing recommendations for institutional arrangements and decision-making processes concerning the siting of waste management facilities in Spain. This article provides a brief summary of the case studies and the COWAM Spain initiative, followed by some of the lessons learnt from an international perspective. (authors)

  9. An analytical framework for strategic delta planning : negotiating consent for long-term sustainable delta development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Seijger, C.; Douven, W; Hermans, L.M.; Evers, J.; Phi, H. L.; Brunner, J.; Pols, L.; Ligtvoet, W.; Koole, S.; Slager, K.; Vermoolen, M.S.; Hasan, S.; Hoang, V. T M; van Halsema, G

    2016-01-01

    Sectoral planning on water, agriculture and urban development has not been able to prevent increased flood risks and environmental degradation in many deltas. Governments conceive strategic delta planning as a promising planning approach and develop strategic delta plans. Such plans are linked to

  10. Variations in growth, survival and carbon isotope composition (delta(13)C) among Pinus pinaster populations of different geographic origins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correia, Isabel; Almeida, Maria Helena; Aguiar, Alexandre; Alía, Ricardo; David, Teresa Soares; Pereira, João Santos

    2008-10-01

    To evaluate differences in growth and adaptability of maritime pine (Pinus pinaster Ait.), we studied growth, polycyclism, needle tissue carbon isotope composition (delta(13)C) as an estimate of water-use efficiency (WUE) and survival of seven populations at 10 years of age growing in a performance trial at a provenance test site in Escaroupim, Portugal. Six populations were from relatively high rainfall sites in Portugal and southwestern France (Atlantic group), and one population was from a more arid Mediterranean site in Spain. There were significant differences between some populations in total height, diameter at breast height, delta(13)C of bulk needle tissue, polycyclism and survival. A population from central Portugal (Leiria, on the Atlantic coast) was the tallest and had the lowest delta(13)C. Overall, the variation in delta(13)C was better explained by the mean minimum temperatures of the coldest month than by annual precipitation at the place of origin. Analyses of the relationships between delta(13)C and growth or survival revealed a distinct pattern for the Mediterranean population, with low delta(13)C (and WUE) associated with the lowest growth potential and reduced survival. There were significant negative correlations between delta(13)C and height or survival in the Atlantic group. Variation in polycyclism was correlated with annual precipitation at the place of origin. Some Atlantic populations maintained a high growth potential while experiencing moderate water stress. A detailed knowledge of the relationships between growth, survival and delta(13)C in contrasting environments will enhance our ability to select populations for forestry or conservation.

  11. Analysis of Variscan dynamics; early bending of the Cantabria-Asturias Arc, northern Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kollmeier, J. M.; van der Pluijm, B. A.; Van der Voo, R.

    2000-08-01

    Calcite twinning analysis in the Cantabria-Asturias Arc (CAA) of northern Spain provides a basis for evaluating conditions of Variscan stress and constrains the arc's structural evolution. Twinning typically occurs during earliest layer-parallel shortening, offering the ability to define early conditions of regional stress. Results from the Somiedo-Correcilla region are of two kinds: early maximum compressive stress oriented layer-parallel and at high angles to bedding strike (D1 σ1) and later twin producing compression oriented sub-parallel to strike (D2 σ1). When all D1 compressions are rotated into a uniform east-west reference orientation, a quite linear, north-south trending fold-thrust belt results showing a slight deflection of the southern zone to the south-southeast. North-south-directed D2 σ1 compression was recorded prior to bending of the belt. Calcite twinning data elucidate earliest structural conditions that could not be obtained by other means, whereas the kinematics of arc tightening during D2 is constrained by paleomagnetism. A large and perhaps protracted D2 σ1 is suggested by our results, as manifested by approximately 50% arc tightening prior to acquisition of paleomagnetic remagnetizations throughout the CAA. Early east-west compression (D1 σ1) likely resulted from the Ebro-Aquitaine massif docking to Laurussia whereas the north-directed collision of Africa (D2 σ1) produced clockwise bending in the northern zone, radial folding in the hinge, and rotation of thrusts in the southern zone.

  12. Spain: Success story in space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longdon, Norman

    From the early 1960's, European governments were aware that they had to take part in the exploration, and potential exploitation, of space, or be left behind in a field of high-technology that had far-reaching possibilities. It was also realized that financial and manpower constraints would limit the extent to which individual nations could carry out their own national programs. They, therefor, joined forces in two organizations: the European Space Research Organization (ESRO) and the European Launcher Development Organization (ELDO). By 1975, when the potential of space development had been more fully appreciated, the two organizations were merged into the Europeans Space Agency (ESA) of which Spain was a founding member. ESA looks after the interest of 13 member states, one associated member state (Finland), and one cooperating state (Canada) in the peaceful uses of space. Its programs center around a mandatory core of technological research and space science to which member states contribute on the basis of their Gross National Product. Spain in 1992 contributes 6.46% to this mandatory program budget. The member states then have the chance to join optional programs that include telecommunications, observation of the earth and its environment, space transportation systems, microgravity research, and participation in the European contribution to the International Space Station Freedom. Each government decides whether it is in its interest to join a particular optional program, and the percentage that it wishes to contribute to the budget. Although in the early days of ESA, Spain participated in only a few optional programs, today Spain makes a significant contribution to nearly all of ESA's optional programs. This document presents Spain's contributions to particular ESA Programs and discusses Spain's future involvement in ESA.

  13. Light pollution in Spain 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez de Miguel, A.; Zamorano, J.; Pila-Díez, B.; Rubio, J.; Ruiz, R.; Rodríguez-Herranz, I.; González-Pérez, A.

    2011-11-01

    The most recent data on electricity consumption for public lighting inSpain is presented and compared with light pollution measurements asderived from night satellite imagery. NOAA-MSP images (low-resolution)and higher resolution images obtained with conventional DSLR cameras on board the International Space Station (ISS) have been used.We show that the data can be related to night sky brightness maps with a study conducted within the Comunidad Autónoma de Madrid. Weintend to extend our work to the rest of Spain through tight collaborationwith amateur astronomers.

  14. Entropy and optimality in river deltas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tejedor, Alejandro; Longjas, Anthony; Edmonds, Douglas A.; Zaliapin, Ilya; Georgiou, Tryphon T.; Rinaldo, Andrea; Foufoula-Georgiou, Efi

    2017-10-01

    The form and function of river deltas is intricately linked to the evolving structure of their channel networks, which controls how effectively deltas are nourished with sediments and nutrients. Understanding the coevolution of deltaic channels and their flux organization is crucial for guiding maintenance strategies of these highly stressed systems from a range of anthropogenic activities. To date, however, a unified theory explaining how deltas self-organize to distribute water and sediment up to the shoreline remains elusive. Here, we provide evidence for an optimality principle underlying the self-organized partition of fluxes in delta channel networks. By introducing a suitable nonlocal entropy rate (nER) and by analyzing field and simulated deltas, we suggest that delta networks achieve configurations that maximize the diversity of water and sediment flux delivery to the shoreline. We thus suggest that prograding deltas attain dynamically accessible optima of flux distributions on their channel network topologies, thus effectively decoupling evolutionary time scales of geomorphology and hydrology. When interpreted in terms of delta resilience, high nER configurations reflect an increased ability to withstand perturbations. However, the distributive mechanism responsible for both diversifying flux delivery to the shoreline and dampening possible perturbations might lead to catastrophic events when those perturbations exceed certain intensity thresholds.

  15. A Modal Logic for Abstract Delta Modeling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F.S. de Boer (Frank); M. Helvensteijn (Michiel); J. Winter (Joost)

    2012-01-01

    htmlabstractAbstract Delta Modeling is a technique for implementing (software) product lines. Deltas are put in a partial order which restricts their application and are then sequentially applied to a core product in order to form specific products in the product line. In this paper we explore the

  16. Tidal controls on river delta morphology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoitink, A.J.F.; Wang, Z.B.; Vermeulen, B.; Huismans, Y.; Kästner, K.

    2017-01-01

    River delta degradation has been caused by extraction of natural resources, sediment retention by reservoirs, and sea-level rise. Despite global concerns about these issues, human activity in the world's largest deltas intensifies. Harbour development, construction of flood defences, sand mining and

  17. Tidal controls on river delta morphology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoitink, A.J.F.; Wang, Zhengbing; Vermeulen, B.; Huismans, Y; Kästner, K

    River delta degradation has been caused by extraction of natural resources, sediment retention by reservoirs, and sea-level rise. Despite global concerns about these issues, human activity in the world’s largest deltas intensifies. Harbour development, construction of flood defences, sand mining and

  18. Floating City IJmeer : Accelerator for Delta Technology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Graaf, R.; Fremouw, M.; Van Bueren, B.; Czapiewska, K.; Kuijper, M.

    2006-01-01

    Climate change, sea level rise, population growth and ongoing urbanization result in higher vulnerability of the Rhine delta because it will result in increased flooding frequency, increasing investments and increased use of water, energy and other resources. The Rhine Delta also faces strong

  19. [Intensive medicine in Spain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-01

    the future of intensive care medicine in Spain and in Europe, recommendations are made towards specialization in intensive care medicine incorporating in the training program those competences (knowledge, skills and attitudes) that should be present an intensivist in Europe and that are extensively fulfilled by the current Spanish training program. The trajectory followed by intensive care medicine in Europe and recently in China, shows the increasing need of intensive care and the progressive recognition of the specialty in economically growing countries, and emphasizes the need of homogenization in the training of future specialists in intensive care medicine globally. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier España, S.L. y SEMICYUC. All rights reserved.

  20. PSA results and trends for Spain's NPPs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carretero, J.A.

    1993-01-01

    The Spain regulatory authority CSN demanded performance of PSA for all Spain nuclear power plants. The specific data analysis carried out as a part of the PSA has contributed to the realistic view on the results which could be achieved by the PSA. The main characteristics of the PSA in Spain and PSA trends in the development are presented in the paper

  1. Entendiendo Delta desde las Humanidades

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Calvo Tello

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Stylometry is one of the research areas in greater development within Digital Humanities. However, few studies have worked until recently with texts in Spanish and even less so from Spanish-speaking countries. The aim of this paper is to present in Spanish, and without prior statistical knowledge from the reader, one of the main methods used in stylometry, the measure of textual distance Burrows’ Delta. This paper explains this measure using a very small corpus of proverbs and then checks the results in a corpus of Spanish novels. Both data and Python scripts are available to the community through GitHub, commented step by step so that you can play and visualize each step.

  2. EEHG at FLASH and DELTA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Molo, Robert; Hoener, Markus; Huck, Holger; Hacker, Kirsten; Khan, Shaukat; Schick, Andreas; Ungelenk, Peter; Zeinalzadeh, Maryam [Center for Synchrotron Radiation (DELTA), TU Dortmund University (Germany); Meulen, Peter van der; Salen, Peter [Stockholm University (Sweden); Angelova Hamberg, Gergana; Ziemann, Volker [Uppsala University (Sweden)

    2013-07-01

    The echo-enabled harmonic generation (EEHG) scheme utilizes two modulators with two magnetic chicanes in order to generate an electron density modulation with high harmonic content. In contrast to free-electron lasers (FEL) based on self-amplified spontaneous emission (SASE), the radiation of an EEHG FEL has better longitudinal coherence and is naturally synchronized with an external laser, which is advantageous for pump-probe applications. At the free-electron laser in Hamburg (FLASH), an EEHG experiment is currently under preparation. The short-pulse facility at DELTA (a 1.5-GeV synchrotron light source operated by the TU Dortmund University) based on coherent harmonic generation (CHG) will be upgraded using the EEHG technique in order to reach shorter wavelengths.

  3. Growth laws for delta crevasses in the Mississippi River Delta: observations and modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yocum, T. A.; Georgiou, I. Y.

    2016-02-01

    River deltas are accumulations of sedimentary deposits delivered by rivers via a network of distributary channels. Worldwide they are threatened by environmental changes, including subsidence, global sea level rise and a suite of other local factors. In the Mississippi River Delta (MRD) these impacts are exemplified, and have led to proposed solutions to build land that include sediment diversions, thereby reinitiating the delta cycle. While economically efficient, there are too few analogs of small deltas aside from laboratory studies, numerical modeling studies, theoretical approaches, and limited field driven observations. Anthropogenic crevasses in the modern delta are large enough to overcome limitations of laboratory deltas, and small enough to allow for "rapid" channel and wetland development, providing an ideal setting to investigate delta development mechanics. Crevasse metrics were obtained using a combination of geospatial tools, extracting key parameters (bifurcation length and width, channel order and depth) that were non-dimensionalized and compared to river-dominated delta networks previously studied. Analysis showed that most crevasses in the MRD appear to obey delta growth laws and delta allometry relationships, suggesting that crevasses do exhibit similar planform metrics to larger Deltas; the distance to mouth bar versus bifurcation order demonstrated to be a very reasonable first order estimate of delta-top footprint. However, some crevasses exhibited different growth metrics. To better understand the hydrodynamic and geomorphic controls governing crevasse evolution in the MRD, we assess delta dynamics via a suite of field observations and numerical modeling in both well-established and newly constructed crevasses. Our analysis suggests that delta development is affected by the relative influence of external (upstream and downstream) and internal controls on the hydrodynamic and sediment transport patterns in these systems.

  4. Novel lyssavirus in bat, Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aréchiga Ceballos, Nidia; Vázquez Morón, Sonia; Berciano, José M; Nicolás, Olga; Aznar López, Carolina; Juste, Javier; Rodríguez Nevado, Cristina; Aguilar Setién, Alvaro; Echevarría, Juan E

    2013-05-01

    A new tentative lyssavirus, Lleida bat lyssavirus, was found in a bent-winged bat (Miniopterus schreibersii) in Spain. It does not belong to phylogroups I or II, and it seems to be more closely related to the West Causasian bat virus, and especially to the Ikoma lyssavirus.

  5. Novel Lyssavirus in Bat, Spain

    OpenAIRE

    Ceballos, Nidia Ar?chiga; Mor?n, Sonia V?zquez; Berciano, Jos? M.; Nicol?s, Olga; L?pez, Carolina Aznar; Juste, Javier; Nevado, Cristina Rodr?guez; Seti?n, ?lvaro Aguilar; Echevarr?a, Juan E.

    2013-01-01

    A new tentative lyssavirus, Lleida bat lyssavirus, was found in a bent-winged bat (Miniopterus schreibersii) in Spain. It does not belong to phylogroups I or II, and it seems to be more closely related to the West Causasian bat virus, and especially to the Ikoma lyssavirus.

  6. The gas industry in Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jego, H.

    1999-01-01

    This short presentation of the Spanish gas industry looks at the industry's different players including Gas Natural, which controls almost all of the gas distribution in Spain. Natural gas, almost all of which is imported, accounts for an ever-growing share in the country's energy balance and has undergone great developments, particularly in industry and in thermal generating plants. (author)

  7. Influence of different organic fertilizers on quality parameters and the delta(15)N, delta(13)C, delta(2)H, delta(34)S, and delta(18)O values of orange fruit (Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapisarda, Paolo; Camin, Federica; Fabroni, Simona; Perini, Matteo; Torrisi, Biagio; Intrigliolo, Francesco

    2010-03-24

    To investigate the influence of different types of fertilizers on quality parameters, N-containing compounds, and the delta(15)N, delta(13)C, delta(2)H, delta (34)S, and delta(18)O values of citrus fruit, a study was performed on the orange fruit cv. 'Valencia late' (Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck), which was harvested in four plots (three organic and one conventional) located on the same farm. The results demonstrated that different types of organic fertilizers containing the same amount of nitrogen did not effect important changes in orange fruit quality parameters. The levels of total N and N-containing compounds such as synephrine in fruit juice were not statistically different among the different treatments. The delta(15)N values of orange fruit grown under fertilizer derived from animal origin as well as from vegetable compost were statistically higher than those grown with mineral fertilizer. Therefore, delta(15)N values can be used as an indicator of citrus fertilization management (organic or conventional), because even when applied organic fertilizers are of different origins, the natural abundance of (15)N in organic citrus fruit remains higher than in conventional ones. These treatments also did not effect differences in the delta(13)C, delta(2)H, delta(34)S, and delta(18)O values of fruit.

  8. Cancer incidence in Spain, 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galceran, J; Ameijide, A; Carulla, M; Mateos, A; Quirós, J R; Rojas, D; Alemán, A; Torrella, A; Chico, M; Vicente, M; Díaz, J M; Larrañaga, N; Marcos-Gragera, R; Sánchez, M J; Perucha, J; Franch, P; Navarro, C; Ardanaz, E; Bigorra, J; Rodrigo, P; Bonet, R Peris

    2017-07-01

    Periodic cancer incidence estimates of Spain from all existing population-based cancer registries at any given time are required. The objective of this study was to present the current situation of cancer incidence in Spain. The Spanish Network of Cancer Registries (REDECAN) estimated the numbers of new cancer cases occurred in Spain in 2015 by applying the incidence-mortality ratios method. In the calculus, incidence data from population-based cancer registries and mortality data of all Spain were used. In 2015, nearly a quarter of a million new invasive cancer cases were diagnosed in Spain, almost 149,000 in men (60.0%) and 99,000 in women. Globally, the five most common cancers were those of colon-rectum, prostate, lung, breast and urinary bladder. By gender, the four most common cancers in men were those of prostate (22.4%), colon-rectum (16.6%), lung (15.1%) and urinary bladder (11.7%). In women, the most common ones were those of breast (28.0%), colon-rectum (16.9%), corpus uteri (6.2%) and lung (6.0%). In recent years, cancer incidence in men seems to have stabilized due to the fact that the decrease in tobacco-related cancers compensates for the increase in other types of cancer like those of colon and prostate. In women, despite the stabilization of breast cancer incidence, increased incidence is due, above all, to the rise of colorectal and tobacco-related cancers. To reduce these incident cancer cases, improvement of smoking control policies and extension of colorectal cancer screening should be the two priorities in cancer prevention for the next years.

  9. Environmental isotopes (N, S, C, O, D) to determine natural attenuation processes in nitrate contaminated waters: Example of Osona (NE Spain)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vitoria, Laura [Grup de Mineralogia Aplicada i Medi Ambient, Departament de Cristal.lografia, Mineralogia i Diposits Minerals, Facultat de Geologia, Universitat de Barcelona, Marti i Franques, s/n, 08028, Barcelona (Spain)], E-mail: lvitoria@ub.edu; Soler, Albert; Canals, Angels [Grup de Mineralogia Aplicada i Medi Ambient, Departament de Cristal.lografia, Mineralogia i Diposits Minerals, Facultat de Geologia, Universitat de Barcelona, Marti i Franques, s/n, 08028, Barcelona (Spain); Otero, Neus [Grup de Mineralogia Aplicada i Medi Ambient, Departament de Cristal.lografia, Mineralogia i Diposits Minerals, Facultat de Geologia, Universitat de Barcelona, Marti i Franques, s/n, 08028, Barcelona (Spain); Departament de Geologia Ambiental, Institut de Ciencies de la Terra ' Jaume Almera' , CSIC C/Lluis Sole i Sabaris s/n, Barcelona 08028 (Spain)

    2008-12-15

    Nitrate-contaminated groundwater from an aquifer in the Osona region (NE Spain) was chemically and isotopically ({delta}{sup 15}N{sub NO{sub 3}},{delta}{sup 18}O{sub NO{sub 3}},{delta}{sup 34}S{sub SO{sub 4}},{delta}{sup 18}O{sub SO{sub 4}}, {delta}D, {delta}{sup 18}O{sub H{sub 2}}{sub O} and {delta}{sup 13}C{sub DIC}) characterized. Diffuse- NO{sub 3}{sup -} contamination reached values of 366 mg/L. Nearly 75% of the 37 sampled sites had higher concentrations than the 50 mg/L in NO{sub 3}{sup -} limit for drinking water. To identify the source of pollution {delta}{sup 15}N{sub NO{sub 3}} and {delta}{sup 18}O{sub NO{sub 3}} were used with results, for most samples, in the range of pig manure NO{sub 3}{sup -}. Nitrification processes were evaluated by means of the {delta}{sup 18}O of NO{sub 3}{sup -} and water. Isotopic data suggested that natural attenuation of NO{sub 3}{sup -} was taking place. This process was confirmed using the {delta}{sup 18}O{sub NO{sub 3}} coupled with the NO{sub 3}{sup -}/Cl{sup -} ratio, avoiding the influence of continuous NO{sub 3}{sup -} inputs. A further insight on denitrification processes was obtained by analyzing the ions involved in denitrification reactions. Although the role of organic matter oxidation could neither be confirmed nor discarded, this approach showed a link between denitrification and pyrite oxidation. Therefore, in areas with no adequate infrastructure (e.g. multipiezometers), such as the one studied, this approach could be useful for implementing better water management.

  10. Tidal controls on river delta morphology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoitink, A. J. F.; Wang, Z. B.; Vermeulen, B.; Huismans, Y.; Kästner, K.

    2017-09-01

    River delta degradation has been caused by extraction of natural resources, sediment retention by reservoirs, and sea-level rise. Despite global concerns about these issues, human activity in the world’s largest deltas intensifies. Harbour development, construction of flood defences, sand mining and land reclamation emerge as key contemporary factors that exert an impact on delta morphology. Tides interacting with river discharge can play a crucial role in the morphodynamic development of deltas under pressure. Emerging insights into tidal controls on river delta morphology suggest that--despite the active morphodynamics in tidal channels and mouth bar regions--tidal motion acts to stabilize delta morphology at the landscape scale under the condition that sediment import during low flows largely balances sediment export during high flows. Distributary channels subject to tides show lower migration rates and are less easily flooded by the river because of opposing non-linear interactions between river discharge and the tide. These interactions lead to flow changes within channels, and a more uniform distribution of discharge across channels. Sediment depletion and rigorous human interventions in deltas, including storm surge defence works, disrupt the dynamic morphological equilibrium and can lead to erosion and severe scour at the channel bed, even decades after an intervention.

  11. Rise and Fall of one of World's largest deltas; the Mekong delta in Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minderhoud, P. S. J.; Eslami Arab, S.; Pham, H. V.; Erkens, G.; van der Vegt, M.; Oude Essink, G.; Stouthamer, E.; Hoekstra, P.

    2017-12-01

    The Mekong delta is the third's largest delta in the world. It is home to almost 20 million people and an important region for the food security in South East Asia. As most deltas, the Mekong delta is the dynamic result of a balance of sediment supply, sea level rise and subsidence, hosting a system of fresh and salt water dynamics. Ongoing urbanization, industrialization and intensification of agricultural practices in the delta, during the past decades, resulted in growing domestic, agricultural and industrial demands, and have led to a dramatic increase of fresh water use. Since the year 2000, the amount of fresh groundwater extracted from the subsurface increased by 500%. This accelerated delta subsidence as the groundwater system compacts, with current sinking rates exceeding global sea level rise up to an order of magnitude. These high sinking rates have greatly altered the sediment budget of the delta and, with over 50% of the Mekong delta surface elevated less than 1 meter above sea level, greatly increase vulnerability to flooding and storm surges and ultimately, permanent inundation. Furthermore, as the increasingly larger extractions rapidly reduce the fresh groundwater reserves, groundwater salinization subsequently increases. On top of that, dry season low-flows by the Mekong river cause record salt water intrusion in the delta's estuarine system, creating major problems for rice irrigation. We present the work of three years research by the Dutch-Vietnamese `Rise and Fall' project on land subsidence and salinization in both groundwater and surface water in the Vietnamese Mekong delta.

  12. Grafitos sobre cerámica —ibéricos, latinos, griegos y signos— procedentes del yacimiento romanorrepublicano de La Cabañeta (El Burgo de Ebro, Zaragoza

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mínguez Morales, José Antonio

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an interesting group of inscriptions made on pottery, unearthed during the archaeological excavations carried out in the site called La Cabañeta (El Burgo de Ebro, Zaragoza, from 1997 to 2009. Included are fourteen Iberian documents written in Paleohispanic script, twenty-two in Latin, two in Greek, eight signs and four difficult to identify marks, all of them dated between the second half of the II century B.C. and the destruction of the settlement in the decade of the 70s of the I century B.C.En este trabajo se presenta un interesante conjunto de inscripciones realizadas sobre cerámica, recuperadas durante las diferentes intervenciones arqueológicas practicadas en el yacimiento de La Cabañeta (El Burgo de Ebro, Zaragoza, desde el año 1997 hasta el 2009. En él se incluyen catorce documentos ibéricos escritos en signario paleohispánico, veintidós latinos, dos griegos, ocho signos y cuatro marcas de difícil adscripción, todos ellos fechables entre la segunda mitad del s. II a. C. y la destrucción del asentamiento en la década de los 70 del s. I a. C.

  13. Facetas del Bronce Final "regional" en el Alto Ebro y la zona oriental de la Submeseta Norte: manifesraciones arqueológicas y objetos sociales de La Solana (Modúbar de la Emparedada, Burgos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan MONTERO GUTIÉRREZ

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN: Partiendo de unas evidencias arqueológicas procedentes del yacimiento burgalés de La Solana de origen superficial, se efectúa una valoración de las entidades culturales pertenecientes al Bronce Final regional, en particular, del Valle Alto del Ebro y de la parte oriental de la Submeseta Norte. Dentro de este ámbito se examina la trama temporal de las entidades citadas a la luz de las nuevas aportaciones efectuadas por las dataciones calibradas; y se discute un planteamiento para explicar los elementos cerámicos y metálicos de raigambre continental y meridionales, en el marco de una trama social.ABSTRACT: Starting off with some archaeological findings on the surface of the site called "La Solana" in Burgos, an assessment can be carried out on the cultural entities belonging to the regional Final Bronze Age, in particular, of the highland valley of the Ebro river and the Eastern part of the North Plateau. Within this field, in the light of new data which had been contributed, the date of the objects is analysed. Moreover, the reason for the existence of the ceramic and metal utensils of continental and southern origins, in this area, as well as to how it came to be there, is discussed.

  14. Delta Electroproduction in 12-C

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McLauchlan, Steven [Univ. of Glasgow, Scotland (United Kingdom)

    2003-01-01

    The Δ-nucleus potential is a crucial element in the understanding of the nuclear system. Previous electroexcitation measurements in the delta region reported a Q2 dependence of the Δ mass indicating that this potential is dependent on the momentum of the Δ. Such a dependence is not observed for protons and neutrons in the nuclear medium. This thesis presents the experimental study of the electroexcitation of the Δ resonance in 12C, performed using the high energy electron beam at the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, and the near 4π acceptance detector CLAS that enables the detection of the full reaction final state. Inclusive, semi inclusive, and exclusive cross sections were measured with an incident electron beam energy of 1.162GeV over the Q2 range 0.175-0.475 (GeV/c)2. A Q2 dependence of the Δ mass was only observed in the exclusive measurements indicating that the Δ-nucleus potential is affected by the momentum of the Δ.

  15. Legal Delta Boundary, 2001, DWR [ds586

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — The original topographic maps containing the drawn delta border were scanned from the Department of Water Resources. Images were registered to 1:24,000 USGS DRG's in...

  16. sheltered creeks in Niger Delta, Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2015-03-18

    Mar 18, 2015 ... 273 and 115,000 barrels, respectively, making the delta. *Corresponding author. .... content was transferred to savillex digestion bombs and concen- trated hydrochloric ... metals (Zn, Pb and Cu) by flame atomic absorption.

  17. South Local Government Area, Delta S

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADOWIE PERE

    environs, Aniocha- South Local Government Area of Delta State, Nigeria was carried out with a view to determining the ... supply for physical industrial development to achieve maximum human .... the Schlumberger O' Neil software package.

  18. Delta-nucleus dynamics: proceedings of symposium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, T.S.H.; Geesaman, D.F.; Schiffer, J.P. (eds.)

    1983-10-01

    The appreciation of the role in nuclear physics of the first excited state of the nucleon, the delta ..delta..(1232), has grown rapidly in the past decade. The delta resonance dominates nuclear reactions induced by intermediate energy pions, nucleons, and electromagnetic probes. It is also the most important non-nucleonic degree of freedom needed to resolve many fundamental problems encountered in the study of low-energy nuclear phenomena. Clearly, a new phase of nuclear physics has emerged and conventional thinking must be extended to account for this new dimension of nuclear dynamics. The most challenging problem we are facing is how a unified theory can be developed to describe ..delta..-nucleus dynamics at all energies. In exploring this new direction, it is important to have direct discussions among researchers with different viewpoints. Separate entries were prepared for the 49 papers presented. (WHK)

  19. Damped Oscillator with Delta-Kicked Frequency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manko, O. V.

    1996-01-01

    Exact solutions of the Schrodinger equation for quantum damped oscillator subject to frequency delta-kick describing squeezed states are obtained. The cases of strong, intermediate, and weak damping are investigated.

  20. On the origin of delta spots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang, F.

    1983-01-01

    Mount Wilson sunspot drawings from 1966 through 1980 were used in conjunction with Hα filtergrams from Big Bear Solar Observatory to examine the origin of delta spots, spots with bipolar umbrae within one penumbra. Of the six cases we studied, five were formed by the union of non-paired spots. They are either shoved into one another by two neighboring growing bipoles or by a new spot born piggy-back style on an existing spot of opposite polarity. Proper motions of the growing spots take on curvilinear paths around one another to avoid a collision. This is the shear motion observed in delta spots (Tanaka, 1979). In the remaining case, the delta spot was formed by spots that emerged as a pair. Our findings indicate no intrinsic differences in the formation or the behavior between delta spots of normal magnetic configuration. (orig.)

  1. 2016 Rose Ojowhoh Delta State Polytechnic, Ozoro

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    OJOHWOH ROSE

    The study examined staff development and library services in academic libraries in Bayelsa and Delta States. ... academic libraries, whose responsibility will be to cater for the development of staff in all ramifications. ..... Human resource.

  2. AMNESTY IN THE NIGER DELTA: VERTICAL MOVEMENT ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    OLAWUYI

    federal government, the Niger Delta communities claim that they are entitled to ... instability, macroeconomic challenges, inconsistent policy regimes to ..... continues they cannot threaten the stability of the country nor affect its continued.

  3. Astrobee Periodic Technical Review (PTR) Delta 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Provencher, Christopher; Smith, Marion F.; Smith, Ernest Everett; Bualat, Maria Gabriele; Barlow, Jonathan Spencer

    2017-01-01

    Astrobee is a free flying robot for the inside of the International Space Station (ISS). The Periodic Technical Review (PTR) delta 3 is the final design review of the system presented to stakeholders.

  4. Migration in Vulnerable Deltas: A Research Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutton, C.; Nicholls, R. J.; Allan, A.

    2015-12-01

    C. Hutton1, & R. J. Nicholls1, , 1 University of Southampton, University Road, Southampton, Hampshire, United Kingdom, SO17 1BJ. cwh@geodata. soton.ac.ukAbstractGlobally, deltas contain 500 million people and with rising sea levels often linked to large number of forced migrants are expected in the coming century. However, migration is already a major process in deltas, such as the growth of major cities such as Dhaka and Kolkata. Climate and environmental change interacts with a range of catchment and delta level drivers, which encompass a nexus of sea-level rise, storms, freshwater and sediment supply from the catchment, land degradation, subsidence, agricultural loss and socio-economic stresses. DECCMA (Deltas, Vulnerability and Climate Change: Migration and Adaptation/CARRIA) is investigating migration in the Ganges-Brahmaputra-Meghna (GBM), Mahanadi and Volta Deltas, including the influence of climate change. The research will explore migration from a range of perspectives including governance and stakeholder analysis, demographic analysis, household surveys of sending and receiving areas, macro-economic analysis, and hazards and hotspot analysis both historically and into the future. Migration under climate change will depend on other adaptation in the deltas and this will be examined. Collectively, integrated analysis will be developed to examine migration, other adaptation and development pathways with a particular focus on the implications for the poorest. This will require the development of input scenarios, including expert-derived exogenous scenarios (e.g., climate change) and endogenous scenarios of the delta developed in a participatory manner. This applied research will facilitate decision support methods for the development of deltas under climate change, with a focus on migration and other adaptation strategies.

  5. Spain; Financial System Stability Assessment

    OpenAIRE

    International Monetary Fund

    2012-01-01

    This report summarizes the findings of the Financial Sector Assessment Program (FSAP) Update for Spain. Although there is a core of strong banks that are well managed and appear resilient to further shocks, vulnerabilities remain. Substantial progress has been made in reforming the former savings banks, and the most vulnerable institutions have either been resolved or are being restructured. Recent measures address the most problematic part of banks’ portfolios. Moving ahead, a further restru...

  6. Update on Spain's oil market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whitaker, D.; Gutierrez, I.

    1994-01-01

    Since Spain's entry into the European Community a liberalisation of the oil industry has occurred culminating in two oil sector reform laws passed in 1992. While competition has increased, a return to the free-market policies which held sway before 1927 has not happened. Rather, three large companies dominate the Spanish oil market, with continuing input from government towards liberalization, if somewhat slowly. This paper describes recent changes and examines factors which limit liberalization policies. (UK)

  7. 7 CFR 319.56-34 - Clementines from Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Clementines from Spain. 319.56-34 Section 319.56-34... Clementines from Spain. Clementines (Citrus reticulata) from Spain may only be imported into the United States... agreement. Clementines from Spain may be imported only if the Government of Spain or its designated...

  8. Construction industry accidents in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camino López, Miguel A; Ritzel, Dale O; Fontaneda, Ignacio; González Alcantara, Oscar J

    2008-01-01

    This paper analyzed industrial accidents that take place on construction sites and their severity. Eighteen variables were studied. We analyzed the influence of each of these with respect to the severity and fatality of the accident. This descriptive analysis was grounded in 1,630,452 accidents, representing the total number of accidents suffered by workers in the construction sector in Spain over the period 1990-2000. It was shown that age, type of contract, time of accident, length of service in the company, company size, day of the week, and the remainder of the variables under analysis influenced the seriousness of the accident. IMPACT ON INJURY PREVENTION: The results obtained show that different training was needed, depending on the severity of accidents, for different age, length of service in the company, organization of work, and time when workers work. The research provides an insight to the likely causes of construction injuries in Spain. As a result of the analysis, industries and governmental agencies in Spain can start to provide appropriate strategies and training to the construction workers.

  9. A novel mouse PKC{delta} splice variant, PKC{delta}IX, inhibits etoposide-induced apoptosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jung D. [School of Biological Sciences, University of Ulsan, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of); Seo, Kwang W. [Department of Internal Medicines, Ulsan University Hospital and School of Medicine, University of Ulsan, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Eun A.; Quang, Nguyen N. [School of Biological Sciences, University of Ulsan, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Hong R. [Department of Surgery, Ulsan University Hospital and School of Medicine, University of Ulsan, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of); Biomedical Research Center, Ulsan University Hospital and School of Medicine, University of Ulsan, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of); Kwon, Byungsuk, E-mail: bskwon@mail.ulsan.as.kr [School of Biological Sciences, University of Ulsan, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of); Biomedical Research Center, Ulsan University Hospital and School of Medicine, University of Ulsan, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-07-01

    Highlights: {yields} A novel PKC{delta} isoform, named PKC{delta}IX, that lacks the C1 domain and the ATP-binding site is ubiquitously expressed. {yields} PKC{delta}IX inhibits etoposide-induced apoptosis. {yields} PKC{delta}IX may function as an endogenous dominant negative isoform for PKC{delta}. -- Abstract: Protein kinase C (PKC) {delta} plays an important role in cellular proliferation and apoptosis. The catalytic fragment of PKC{delta} generated by caspase-dependent cleavage is essential for the initiation of etoposide-induced apoptosis. In this study, we identified a novel mouse PKC{delta} isoform named PKC{delta}IX (Genebank Accession No. (HQ840432)). PKC{delta}IX is generated by alternative splicing and is ubiquitously expressed, as seen in its full-length PKC{delta}. PKC{delta}IX lacks the C1 domain, the caspase 3 cleavage site, and the ATP binding site but preserves an almost intact c-terminal catalytic domain and a nuclear localization signal (NLS). The structural characteristics of PKC{delta}IX provided a possibility that this PKC{delta} isozyme functions as a novel dominant-negative form for PKC{delta} due to its lack of the ATP-binding domain that is required for the kinase activity of PKC{delta}. Indeed, overexpression of PKC{delta}IX significantly inhibited etoposide-induced apoptosis in NIH3T3 cells. In addition, an in vitro kinase assay showed that recombinant PKC{delta}IX protein could competitively inhibit the kinase activity of PKC{delta}. We conclude that PKC{delta}IX can function as a natural dominant-negative inhibitor of PKC{delta}in vivo.

  10. Delta infection evidenced by radioimmunoanalysis in selected collectives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kselikova, M; Horejsi, J; Urbankova, J

    1987-01-01

    The presence of the Delta agent within the population was tested by means of the Delta-antibody radioimmunoassay using competitive kits of the firms ABBOTT (ABBOTT-ANTI-DELTA) and SORIN (AB-DELTAK). The Delta-antibody was found in 3.2% HBV patients, 5% HBsAg carriers, and in 20.8% of specific anti-Hbs-immunoglobulin. In hemophiliacs and blood donors no Delta-antibody was seen.

  11. Delta infection evidenced by radioimmunoanalysis in selected collectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kselikova, M.; Horejsi, J.; Urbankova, J.

    1987-01-01

    The presence of the Delta agent within the population was tested by means of the Delta-antibody radioimmunoassay using competitive kits of the firms ABBOTT (ABBOTT-ANTI-DELTA) and SORIN (AB-DELTAK). The Delta-antibody was found in 3.2% HBV patients, 5% HBsAg carriers, and in 20.8% of specific anti-Hbs-immunoglobulin. In hemophiliacs and blood donors no Delta-antibody was seen. (author)

  12. Growth laws for sub-delta crevasses in the Mississippi River Delta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yocum, T. A.; Georgiou, I. Y.; Straub, K. M.

    2017-12-01

    River deltas are threatened by environmental change, including subsidence, global sea level rise, reduced sediment inputs and other local factors. In the Mississippi River Delta (MRD) these impacts are exemplified, and have led to proposed solutions to build land that include sediment diversions to reinitiate the delta cycle. Deltas were studied extensively using numerical models, theoretical and conceptual frameworks, empirical scaling relationships, laboratory models and field observations. But predicting the future of deltas relies on field observations where for most deltas data are still lacking. Moreover, empirical and theoretical scaling laws may be influenced by the data used to develop them, while laboratory deltas may be influenced by scaling issues. Anthropogenic crevasses in the MRD are large enough to overcome limitations of laboratory deltas, and small enough to allow for rapid channel and wetland development, providing an ideal setting to investigate delta development mechanics. Here we assessed growth laws of sub-delta crevasses (SDC) in the MRD, in two experimental laboratory deltas (LD - weakly and strongly cohesive) and compared them to river dominated deltas worldwide. Channel and delta geometry metrics for each system were obtained using geospatial tools, bathymetric datasets, sediment size, and hydrodynamic observations. Results show that SDC follow growth laws similar to large river dominated deltas, with the exception of some that exhibit anomalous behavior with respect to the frequency and distance to a bifurcation and the fraction of wetted delta shoreline (allometry metrics). Most SDC exhibit a systematic decrease of non-dimensional channel geometries with increased bifurcation order, indicating that channels are adjusting to decreased flow after bifurcations occur, and exhibit linear trends for land allometry and width-depth ratio, although geometries decrease more rapidly per bifurcation order. Measured distance to bifurcations in SDC

  13. Houtman Abrolhos Isotope (delta 18O, delta 13C) Data for 1795 to 1994

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — DESCRIPTION: VARIABLES AND UNITS: Column #1: core depth in mm Column #2: delta C-13 vs V-PDB Column #3: delta O-18 vs V-PDB Column #4: assigned date in years A.D....

  14. The Enabling Delta Life Initiative - Global Programme of Action on Deltas - Programme description

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Driel, van W.F.; Skyllerstedt, S.; Wosten, J.H.M.

    2014-01-01

    Being ‘hotspots’ of human activity with generally high population densities, deltas are vulnerable to changes induced by a range of driving forces, both natural and anthropogenic. In addition to already existing challenges, uncertainty of the possible impacts of climate change, low lying deltas

  15. Sensitivity study of surface wind flow of a limited area model simulating the extratropical storm Delta affecting the Canary Islands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Marrero

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available In November 2005 an extratropical storm named Delta affected the Canary Islands (Spain. The high sustained wind and intense gusts experienced caused significant damage. A numerical sensitivity study of Delta was conducted using the Weather Research & Forecasting Model (WRF-ARW. A total of 27 simulations were performed. Non-hydrostatic and hydrostatic experiments were designed taking into account physical parameterizations and geometrical factors (size and position of the outer domain, definition or not of nested grids, horizontal resolution and number of vertical levels. The Factor Separation Method was applied in order to identify the major model sensitivity parameters under this unusual meteorological situation. Results associated to percentage changes relatives to a control run simulation demonstrated that boundary layer and surface layer schemes, horizontal resolutions, hydrostaticity option and nesting grid activation were the model configuration parameters with the greatest impact on the 48 h maximum 10 m horizontal wind speed solution.

  16. Holocene evolution of a wave-dominated fan-delta: Godavari delta, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Y.; Nageswara Rao, K.; Nagakumar, K.; Demudu, G.; Rajawat, A.; Kubo, S.; Li, Z.

    2013-12-01

    The Godavari delta is one of the world's largest wave-dominated deltas. The Godavari River arises in the Western Ghats near the west coast of India and drains an area of about 3.1x10^5 km^2, flowing about 1465 km southeast across the Indian peninsula to the Bay of Bengal. The Godavari delta consists of a gentle seaward slope from its apex (12 m elevation) at Rajahmundry and a coastal beach-ridge plain over a distance of about 75 km and covers ~5200 km^2 as a delta plain. The river splits into two major distributary channels, the Gautami and the Vasishta, at a barrage constructed in the mid-1800s. The coastal environment of the deltaic coast is microtidal (~1 m mean tidal range) and wave-dominated (~1.5 m mean wave height in the June-September SW monsoon season, ~0.8 m in the NE monsoon season). Models of the Holocene evolution of the Godavari delta have changed from a zonal progradation model (e.g. Nageswara Rao & Sadakata, 1993) to a truncated cuspate delta model (Nageswara Rao et al., 2005, 2012). Twelve borehole cores (340 m total length), taken in the coastal delta plain during 2010-2013, yielded more than 100 C-14 dates. Sediment facies and C-14 dates from these and previous cores and remote-sensing data support a new delta evolution model. The Holocene coastal delta plain is divided into two parts by a set of linear beach ridges 12-14 km landward from the present shoreline in the central part of the delta. The location of the main depocenter (lobe) has shifted during the Holocene from 1) the center to 2) the west, 3) east, 4) center, 5) west, and 6) east. The linear beach ridges separate the first three from the last three stages. These lobe shifts are controlled by river channel shifts near the apex. Just as the current linear shoreline of the central part of the delta and the concave-up nearshore topography are the result of coastal erosion of a cuspate delta, the linear beach ridges indicate a former eroded shoreline. An unconformity within the deltaic

  17. Open source integrated modeling environment Delta Shell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donchyts, G.; Baart, F.; Jagers, B.; van Putten, H.

    2012-04-01

    In the last decade, integrated modelling has become a very popular topic in environmental modelling since it helps solving problems, which is difficult to model using a single model. However, managing complexity of integrated models and minimizing time required for their setup remains a challenging task. The integrated modelling environment Delta Shell simplifies this task. The software components of Delta Shell are easy to reuse separately from each other as well as a part of integrated environment that can run in a command-line or a graphical user interface mode. The most components of the Delta Shell are developed using C# programming language and include libraries used to define, save and visualize various scientific data structures as well as coupled model configurations. Here we present two examples showing how Delta Shell simplifies process of setting up integrated models from the end user and developer perspectives. The first example shows coupling of a rainfall-runoff, a river flow and a run-time control models. The second example shows how coastal morphological database integrates with the coastal morphological model (XBeach) and a custom nourishment designer. Delta Shell is also available as open-source software released under LGPL license and accessible via http://oss.deltares.nl.

  18. QCD in the {delta}-regime

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bietenholz, W. [Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Mexico City (Mexico). Inst. de Ciencias Nucleares; Cundy, N. [Seoul National Univ. (Korea, Republic of). Lattice Gauge Theory Research Center; Goeckeler, M. [Regensburg Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik; Horsley, R.; Zanotti, J.M. [Edinburgh Univ. (United Kingdom). School of Physics; Nakamura, Y. [Tsukuba Univ., Ibaraki (Japan). Center for Computational Sciences; Pleiter, D. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany); Rakow, P.E.L. [Liverpool Univ. (United Kingdom). Theoretical Physics Div.; Schierholz, G. [Regensburg Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik; Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany)

    2011-03-15

    The {delta}-regime of QCD is characterised by light quarks in a small spatial box, but a large extent in (Euclidean) time. In this setting a specific variant of chiral perturbation theory - the {delta}-expansion - applies, based on a quantum mechanical treatment of the quasi onedimensional system. In particular, for vanishing quark masses one obtains a residual pion mass M{sup R}{sub {pi}}, which has been computed to the third order in the {delta}-expansion. A comparison with numerical measurements of this residual mass allows for a new determination of some Low Energy Constants, which appear in the chiral Lagrangian. We first review the attempts to simulate 2-flavour QCD directly in the {delta}-regime. This is very tedious, but results compatible with the predictions for M{sup R}{sub {pi}} have been obtained. Then we show that an extrapolation of pion masses measured in a larger volume towards the {delta}-regime leads to good agreement with the theoretical predictions. From those results, we also extract a value for the (controversial) sub-leading Low Energy Constant anti l{sub 3}. (orig.)

  19. EELA Training Activities in Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cherubino, C.; Ciuffo, L. N.; Fuentes, A.; Mayo, R.

    2007-01-01

    EELA (E-Infrastructure shared between Europe and Latin America) is a collaboration project between Latin American and European institutions whose aim is to consolidate a shared e-Infrastructure for e-Science applications. Training activities play a crucial role in this scope, providing the necessary skills to the users and allowing them to properly utilize the available grid infrastructure at all levels. This paper highlights the results achieved by the knowledge dissemination task of the project, in particular those obtained in Spain, one of the most active EELA partners. The EELA project is funded by the European Commission under the contract number IST- 2006-026409. (Author)

  20. Acid Deposition Maps in Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Artinano, B.; Cabal, H.; Garcia, C.

    1998-01-01

    Animal and monthly deposition velocity and total sulfur deposition maps have been performed for the peninsular Spain for 1992 by using the inferential method. To do this, updated databases with high space and time resolution, for land uses (CORINE) and meteorological information from analysis modelling for the same year, have been utilized. The final result are deposition maps in a 5x5 Km 2 grid which allow to assess the methodology used in Europe to obtain the maps of excedances over the critical loads of pollutants. (Author) 32 refs

  1. El plan del delta - Holanda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Editorial, Equipo

    1963-09-01

    Full Text Available Holland is very poor in land resources. Hence its development has been directed towards intensive industrialization and maximum agricultural exploitation. The western part of the country is below sea level and is occupied by 65 percent of the population. Originally the coast consisted of a number of islands, estuaries and slight elevations. Man has transformed this coastline, first making a number of artificial lakes, or polders, and then converting these into fertile districts. These projects protect the soil by means of dykes, which require careful conservation, but even so violent floods are not infrequent. One of the difficult problems involved in this vast enterprise is the complex system of water supply, lines of communication and flow of the rivers into the sea along the estuary zone. This zone is on the south west, and to protect it a National Commission has been set up. After careful study, it was decided that the best defense against the violence of the sea would consist in closing off the inroads of the sea into the continental coastline. The set of hydraulic projects which constitutes this plan for the improvement of the sea defences will take 25 years to fulfil. The general project is highly ambitious and includes both maritime, road and structural works, in which there is a variety of stonework constructions. This paper describes, in brief outline, the main contents of the 11 headings into which the general construction project has been subdivided. In addition, this is supplemented with information on the projects which are already initiated and on the constructional procedure that is being adopted. Of these latter projects, the Nabla bridge is of particular interest. It is situated on the delta. It is made in prestressed concrete, and consists of 17 spans, of 60 length each. This enormous structure, in addition to its great length, and supporting a 22.8 ms wide roadway, is subjected to the tremendous forces 11» of the sea on one

  2. [Nuclear medicine in Spain: high technology 2013].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soriano Castrejón, A M; Prats Rivera, E; Alonso Farto, J C; Vallejo Casas, J A; Rodriguez Gasen, A; Setoain Perego, J; Arbizu Lostao, J

    2014-01-01

    This article details the high technology equipment in Spain obtained through a survey sent to the three main provider companies of equipment installed in Spain. The geographical distribution of high technology by Autonomous Communities and its antiquity have been analyzed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y SEMNIM. All rights reserved.

  3. Spain succeeds on the PWR learning curve

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varley, J.

    1982-01-01

    The development of nuclear power in Spain is described. Although the programme has been delayed and cut back, success has been achieved in carrying out technology transfer. Spain now has an industry capable of exporting nuclear components, equipment and expertise. An architect-engineering capability has also developed. (U.K.)

  4. Inspection of nuclear fuel transport in Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lobo Mendez, J.

    1977-01-01

    The experience acquired in inspecting nuclear fuel shipments carried out in Spain will serve as a basis for establishing the regulations wich must be adhered to for future transports, as the transport of nuclear fuels in Spain will increase considerably within the next years as a result of the Spanish nuclear program. The experience acquired in nuclear fuel transport inspection is described. (author) [es

  5. Teaching Gender and Geography in Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Ramon, Maria-Dolors

    2011-01-01

    Since the introduction of gender themes into university teaching in geography in Spain in 1989, significant gains have been made but challenges remain in relation to placing gender into undergraduate curricula and developing teaching resources in local languages. Geographers in Spain have to meet those challenges in the near future in order to…

  6. Marriage strategies among immigrants in Spain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sánchez-Domínguez, M.; de Valk, H.A.G.; Reher, D.S.

    2011-01-01

    This paper studies patterns of endogamous marriages of immigrants in Spain by using data from the National Immigrant Survey of Spain (2007). First of all, we examine patterns of endogamous marriage and links between migration and marriage. Second, we assess the factors influencing the likelihood of

  7. Spain's marketing sector seeing more changes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that Spain's petroleum marketing sector continues to restructure. Partly state owned Repsol SA and Royal Dutch/Shell Group are discussing supplying each other's retail outlets in the UK and Spain. And Portugal's state owned Petroleos de Portugal (Petrogal), seeking to sharply expand retail operations in Spain, complains of government interference with foreign investment in Spanish marketing. Meantime, Conoco Inc. Has agreed with Saras SpA Raffinerie Sarde, Milan, to set up a network of service stations in northern Spain and Portugal at a cost of 100 billion pesetas (%972 million). The two are considering building an oil terminal at the port city of Gijon in Asturias, Spain, and the Exxon Corp., Total, and Shell are interested in participating in the project

  8. Spain. Women in the world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galindo, E; Serrano, N

    1994-08-01

    Spanish women live almost 2 times longer today than did their great grandmothers (60-65 years vs. 35). Contraception is more accessible, resulting in fewer pregnancies and their complications. The National Health Service of Spain provides women and their families medical care. Yet, women's health risks continue. Class, race, and geography result in women having uneven access to medical care. Primary health care services are not a priority as are high- technology hospitals. Women, who already lead a busy life, still care for older people or people with disabilities. Many households have a very limited or no income and depend on welfare benefits or family. There are more women than men who are poor because women, many of whom are single, are raising large families and many live alone. Women are often the victims of violence and of domestic abuse (1993, 86 violent deaths and 200,000 cases of abuse by a partner). Spain has laws that protect women facing divorce and that allow abortion, but men have created the world order. Women suffer daily in a world which does not recognize rape and sexual harassment as war crimes (e.g., former Yugoslavia). In Seville, the Solidarity Network of Women in Black is a pacifist group working to stop violence. They plan on setting up links to publicly denounce and act against all aggression and to institutionalize women's right to full freedom. War is destroying women's lives.

  9. Large old trees influence patterns of delta13C and delta15N in forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Pascale; Bol, Roland; Dixon, Liz; Bardgett, Richard D

    2008-06-01

    Large old trees are the dominant primary producers of native pine forest, but their influence on spatial patterns of soil properties and potential feedback to tree regeneration in their neighbourhood is poorly understood. We measured stable isotopes of carbon (delta(13)C) and nitrogen (delta(15)N) in soil and litter taken from three zones of influence (inner, middle and outer zone) around the trunk of freestanding old Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) trees, to determine the trees' influence on below-ground properties. We also measured delta(15)N and delta(13)C in wood cores extracted from the old trees and from regenerating trees growing within their three zones of influence. We found a significant and positive gradient in soil delta(15)N from the inner zone, nearest to the tree centre, to the outer zone beyond the tree crown. This was probably caused by the higher input of (15)N-depleted litter below the tree crown. In contrast, the soil delta(13)C did not change along the gradient of tree influence. Distance-related trends, although weak, were visible in the wood delta(15)N and delta(13)C of regenerating trees. Moreover, the wood delta(15)N of small trees showed a weak negative relationship with soil N content in the relevant zone of influence. Our results indicate that large old trees control below-ground conditions in their immediate surroundings, and that stable isotopes might act as markers for the spatial and temporal extent of these below-ground effects. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd

  10. Abraham Reef Stable Isotope Data (delta 13C, delta 18O, delta 14C) for 1635-1957

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Site: Abraham Reef, 22ó 06'S, 153ó 00'E, Porites australiensus, Radiocarbon (delta 14C) and Stable Isotope (del 18O and del 13C) results from bi-annual samples from...

  11. Deltas on the move. Making deltas cope with the effects of climate change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reker, J.; Van Winden, A.; Braakhekke, W.; Vermaat, J.; Eleveld, M.; Janssen, R.; De Reus, N.; Omzigt, N.

    2006-01-01

    This scoping study is the first phase of a study aimed at: (a) providing knowledge on the potential of a system-based approach to deal with the effects of climate change as an alternative for the more traditional technical measures such as dams, dikes and surge barriers. This should be shown for both rich and poor countries and should address hydrological, ecological as well as socio-economic aspects; and (b) identifying the potential to market these results worldwide. To reach these objectives four research steps are defined: (1) to make an inventory of deltas: their vulnerability to the effects of climate change; (2) development of indicators for successful use of a system-based approach; (3) to provide an overview of the potential of soft measures for these deltas; (4) to select a number of deltas with potential for marketing system-based measures and the development of strategies to link economic and ecological objectives. This scoping study addresses step 1 only. The results from step 1 will be used as a starting point for steps 2 and 3. The outputs of this scoping study are threefold: a background report (this report); a flyer with a brief description of the findings; a website with information on delta's and how these may be affected by climate change. The scoping study will roughly outline which deltas are still functioning in a more or less natural manner - or could be (re)developed in that direction - and thus would be good candidates for a system-based approach. Chapter 2 gives a description of the geomorphological and ecological processes in a delta. In addition, those aspects of climate change that can have an effect on deltas are described. The third chapter deals with human interventions in deltas and whether or not they fit within a system-based approach. In a system-based approach, as presented in Chapter 4, natural processes are given free reign where possible. Chapter 5 shows how available data on deltas could be used in such a system

  12. The Economic Dimensions of the Niger Delta Ethnic Conflicts (Pp ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    1970, the price of international oil stepped upwards following the Middle. Eastern Yom Kippur .... Over the years, the pleas of the Niger Delta people for accommodation are ignored or .... In a labour surplus region like the Niger Delta, budget.

  13. Conceptualizing delta forms and processes in Arctic coastal environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendixen, Mette; Kroon, Aart

    2017-01-01

    Climate warming in the Arctic directly causes two opposite changes in Arctic coastal systems: increased melt-water discharge through rivers induces extra influx of sediments and extended open water season increases wave impact which reworks and erodes the shores. A shoreline change analysis along...... and popped up as hotspots. The Tuapaat delta and Skansen delta showed large progradation rates (1.5 and 7m/yr) and migration of the adjacent barriers and spits. The dynamic behavior at the delta mouths was mainly caused by classic delta channel lobe switching at one delta (Tuapaat), and by a breach...... of the fringing spit at the other delta (Skansen). The longshore and cross-shore transports are responsible for reworking the sediment with a result of migrating delta mouths and adjacent subaqueous mouth bars. Seaward progradation of the deltas is limited due to the steep nature of the bathymetry in Disko Bay...

  14. Binding energies of two deltas bound states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Hiroshi; Saito, Koichi.

    1982-06-01

    Bound states of the two-deltas system are investigated by employing the realistic one boson exchange potential. It is found that there exist many bound states in each isospin channel and also found that the tensor interaction plays important role in producing these bound states. Relationship between these bound states and dibaryon resonances is discussed. (J.P.N.)

  15. Solubility of hydrogen in delta iron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shapovalov, V.I.; Trofimenko, V.V.

    1979-01-01

    The solubility of hydrogen in iron (less than 0.002 % impurities) at temperatures of 800-1510 deg C and a pressure of 100 atm was measured. The heat of solution of hydrogen in delta-Fe, equal to 73 kJ/g-atom, is by far greater than the corresponding values for α- and γ-Fe

  16. Applications of Dirac's Delta Function in Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khuri, Andre

    2004-01-01

    The Dirac delta function has been used successfully in mathematical physics for many years. The purpose of this article is to bring attention to several useful applications of this function in mathematical statistics. Some of these applications include a unified representation of the distribution of a function (or functions) of one or several…

  17. Managing flood risks in the Mekong Delta

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoang, Long Phi; Biesbroek, Robbert; Tri, Van Pham Dang; Kummu, Matti; Vliet, van Michelle T.H.; Leemans, Rik; Kabat, Pavel; Ludwig, Fulco

    2018-01-01

    Climate change and accelerating socioeconomic developments increasingly challenge flood-risk management in the Vietnamese Mekong River Delta—a typical large, economically dynamic and highly vulnerable delta. This study identifies and addresses the emerging challenges for flood-risk management.

  18. Bioluminescent hydrocarbonclastic bacteria of the Niger Delta ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Utilization of three petroleum hydrocarbons (Mobil SAE 40 Engine Oil, Diesel and Bonny light Crude Oil) by four bioluminescent bacteria (Vibrio harveyi, V. fisheri, Photobacterium leiognathi and P. Phosphoreum isolated from the Bonny estuary in the Niger Delta, Nigeria was investigated. Microbial utilization was monitored ...

  19. The Delta Team: Empowering Adolescent Girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hood, Marian White

    1994-01-01

    In response to adolescent girls' concerns about teen violence, rumors, grooming, careers, and equity, four women teachers and a woman administrator at a Maryland middle school developed the Delta Program. The program provides positive learning experiences, teaches social skills and conflict management techniques, empowers girls through mentoring…

  20. delta. -isobars and photodisintegration at intermediate energies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suzumura, Jun-ichi; Futami, Yasuhiko [Science Univ. of Tokyo, Noda, Chiba (Japan). Faculty of Science and Technology

    1982-12-01

    The dynamics of the peak considered to be due to the two-nucleon process in the reaction /sup 9/Be(gamma, p) anything is investigated with the quasi-deuteron model. We show that the process is dominated by a two-nucleon mechanism with pion and rho-meson exchange through virtual delta-isobar formation (author).

  1. 7 CFR 319.56-31 - Peppers from Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Peppers from Spain. 319.56-31 Section 319.56-31... from Spain. Peppers (fruit) (Capsicum spp.) may be imported into the United States from Spain only... subpart: (a) The peppers must be grown in the Alicante or Almeria Province of Spain in pest-proof...

  2. 78 FR 6227 - Importation of Fresh Apricots From Continental Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-30

    .... APHIS-2011-0132] RIN 0579-AD62 Importation of Fresh Apricots From Continental Spain AGENCY: Animal and... continental Spain. As a condition of entry, fresh apricots from continental Spain would have to be produced in... organization of Spain certifying that the fruit is free from all quarantine pests and has been produced in...

  3. Morphodynamics of a cyclic prograding delta: the Red River, Vietnam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maren, D.S. van

    2004-01-01

    River deltas are inhabited by over 60% of the world population, and are, consequently, of paramount agricultural and economical importance. They constitute unique wetland envi ronments which gives river deltas ecological importance as well. Additionally, many deltas contain large accumulations of

  4. Environmental challenges in Nigeria's Delta Region and Agriculture ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The paper discussed the environmental challenges in the Niger-Delta region of Nigeria with emphasis on the impacts on agricultural production. It thus discussed the concepts of Niger-Delta, Environmental pollution, Niger-Delta crises and Agriculture. The paper posits that there are positive relationships between these ...

  5. Superconductivity in Spain. Midas program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yndurain, F.

    1996-01-01

    The different activities in the field of applied superconductivity carried out in Spain under the auspices of the MIDAS program are reported. Applications using both low- and high-temperature superconductors are considered. In the low temperature superconductors case, the design and construction of a 1 mega joule SMES (Superconducting Magnetic Energy Storage) unit, as well as the fabrication of voltage and resistance standards, are reviewed. Developments involving the design and fabrication of an inductive current fault limited and mono- and multi-filamentary wires and tapes using high-temperature superconductors are discussed. Finally, the prospects for the application of superconductivity technology to electric power systems for the electric utilities is considered. (author)

  6. Clinical biochemistry education in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Queraltó, J M

    1994-12-31

    Clinical biochemistry in Spain was first established in 1978 as an independent specialty. It is one of several clinical laboratory sciences specialties, together with haematology, microbiology, immunology and general laboratory (Clinical analysis, análisis clinicos). Graduates in Medicine, Pharmacy, Chemistry and Biological Sciences can enter post-graduate training in Clinical Chemistry after a nation-wide examination. Training in an accredited Clinical Chemistry department is 4 years. A national committee for medical and pharmacist specialties advises the government on the number of trainees, program and educational units accreditation criteria. Technical staff includes nurses and specifically trained technologists. Accreditation of laboratories is developed at different regional levels. The Spanish Society for Clinical Biochemistry and Molecular Pathology (SECQ), the national representative in the IFCC, has 1600 members, currently publishes a scientific journal (Química Clinica) and a newsletter. It organizes a continuous education program, a quality control program and an annual Congress.

  7. Nuclear insurance problems in Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomez del Campo, Julian.

    1977-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to study the problems raised in Spain by third party liability insurance for nuclear damage. National law in this field is based on the Paris Convention on nuclear third party liability and defines the conditions of liability of operators of nuclear installations. The insurance contract requirements must comply with the regulations on cover for nuclear risks, under the control of the Finance Ministry's competent services. Certain exceptional nuclear risks which cannot be covered entirely by ordinary insurance policies, are taken over by the Consorcio de Compensacion de Seguros which belongs to this Ministry. From the insurance viewpoint, the regulations make a distinction between nuclear and radioactive installations and nuclear transport. (NEA) [fr

  8. Uranium ore processing in Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Josa, J.M.

    1976-01-01

    The paper presents a review of the Spanish needs of uranium concentrates and uranium ore processing technology and trends in Spain. Spain produces approximately 200t U 3 O 8 /a at two facilities. One plant in the south (Andujar, Jaen) can obtain 70t U 3 O 8 /a and uses a conventional acid leaching process with countercurrent solvent extraction. A second plant, situated in the west (Ciudad Rodrigo, Salamanca) has started in 1975 and has a capacity of 120-130t U 3 O 8 /a, using acid heap leaching and solvent extraction. There is another experimental facility (Don Benito, Badajoz) scheduled to start in 1976 and expected to produce about 25-35t U 3 O 8 /a as a by-product of the research work. For the near future (1978) it is hoped to increase the production with: (a) A new conventional acid leaching/solvent extraction plant in Ciudad Rodrigo; its tentative capacity is fixed at 550t U 3 O 8 /a. (b) A facility in the south, to recover about 130t U 3 O 8 /a from phosphoric acid. (c) Several small mobile plants (30t U 3 O 8 /a per plant); these will be placed near small and isolated mines. The next production increase (1979-1980) will come with the treatment of sandstones (Guadalajara and Cataluna) and lignites(Cataluna); this is being studied. There are also research programmes to study the recovery of uranium from low-grade ores (heap, in-situ and bacterial leaching) and from other industries. (author)

  9. Current status of verification practices in clinical biochemistry in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Rioja, Rubén; Alvarez, Virtudes; Ventura, Montserrat; Alsina, M Jesús; Barba, Núria; Cortés, Mariano; Llopis, María Antonia; Martínez, Cecilia; Ibarz, Mercè

    2013-09-01

    Verification uses logical algorithms to detect potential errors before laboratory results are released to the clinician. Even though verification is one of the main processes in all laboratories, there is a lack of standardization mainly in the algorithms used and the criteria and verification limits applied. A survey in clinical laboratories in Spain was conducted in order to assess the verification process, particularly the use of autoverification. Questionnaires were sent to the laboratories involved in the External Quality Assurance Program organized by the Spanish Society of Clinical Biochemistry and Molecular Pathology. Seven common biochemical parameters were included (glucose, cholesterol, triglycerides, creatinine, potassium, calcium, and alanine aminotransferase). Completed questionnaires were received from 85 laboratories. Nearly all the laboratories reported using the following seven verification criteria: internal quality control, instrument warnings, sample deterioration, reference limits, clinical data, concordance between parameters, and verification of results. The use of all verification criteria varied according to the type of verification (automatic, technical, or medical). Verification limits for these parameters are similar to biological reference ranges. Delta Check was used in 24% of laboratories. Most laboratories (64%) reported using autoverification systems. Autoverification use was related to laboratory size, ownership, and type of laboratory information system, but amount of use (percentage of test autoverified) was not related to laboratory size. A total of 36% of Spanish laboratories do not use autoverification, despite the general implementation of laboratory information systems, most of them, with autoverification ability. Criteria and rules for seven routine biochemical tests were obtained.

  10. deltaPlotR: An R Package for Di?erential Item Functioning Analysis with Ango? s Delta Plot

    OpenAIRE

    David Magis; Bruno Facon

    2014-01-01

    Angoff's delta plot is a straightforward and not computationally intensive method to identify differential item functioning (DIF) among dichotomously scored items. This approach was recently improved by proposing an optimal threshold selection and by considering several item purification processes. Moreover, to support practical DIF analyses with the delta plot and these improvements, the R package deltaPlotR was also developed. The purpose of this paper is twofold: to outline the delta plot ...

  11. Oil sector in Spain: Final adaptation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marin-Quemada, J.M.

    1992-01-01

    This paper analyzes organizational and marketing changes occurring in Spain's oil industry as a result of its conversion from a state run monopoly system to a free market system. The analysis uses statistical data to indicate national oil production, import and consumption trends and compares these with overall trends in the European Communities. An explanation of the way in which oil is marketed in Spain makes reference to data on Spain's refining capacity and pipeline network, deemed to be amongst the most complete and modern in Europe. Comments are also made on the efficacy of Spain's national energy policies which stress energy source diversification to lessen this country's heavy dependence on foreign supplied oil

  12. Transfer of nuclear technology from Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madrid, G.

    1985-01-01

    Technology transfer from Spain is possible in several fields of nuclear technology ranging from the head end of the fuel cycle (ENUSA) to the back end (ENRESA). The advantages of such a transfer are emphasized

  13. Description of the Energy System of Spain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caldes, N; Lechon, Y; Labriet, M; Cabal, H; Rua, C de la; Saez, R; Varela, M

    2008-07-01

    The objective of this report is to describe the complete Spain energy system, in order to make possible its modelling with the TIMES model within the NEEDS project (http://www.needs-project.org). (Author) 56 refs.

  14. Spain: From massive immigration to vast emigration?

    OpenAIRE

    Izquierdo, Mario; Jimeno, Juan F.; Lacuesta, Aitor

    2016-01-01

    Large immigration flows during the 1995-2007 period increased the weight of foreigners living in Spain to 12 % of the total population. The rapid increase in unemployment associated with the Great Recession and the subsequent European debt crisis, substantially changed migration flows, so that, from the beginning of the 2010s, Spain experienced positive net outflows. In this paper, we take on three tasks. First, we show that sensitivity of migration flows to unemployment is similar between Sp...

  15. Delta-nucleus dynamics: proceedings of symposium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, T.S.H.; Geesaman, D.F.; Schiffer, J.P.

    1983-10-01

    The appreciation of the role in nuclear physics of the first excited state of the nucleon, the delta Δ(1232), has grown rapidly in the past decade. The delta resonance dominates nuclear reactions induced by intermediate energy pions, nucleons, and electromagnetic probes. It is also the most important non-nucleonic degree of freedom needed to resolve many fundamental problems encountered in the study of low-energy nuclear phenomena. Clearly, a new phase of nuclear physics has emerged and conventional thinking must be extended to account for this new dimension of nuclear dynamics. The most challenging problem we are facing is how a unified theory can be developed to describe Δ-nucleus dynamics at all energies. In exploring this new direction, it is important to have direct discussions among researchers with different viewpoints. Separate entries were prepared for the 49 papers presented

  16. The Actual Problems of Modern Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalya E. Anikeeva

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The important aim of national and Spanish historiography and political science is to study history and foreign policy of modern Spain. The author studied articles and monographies of spanish politicians and researchers ( M. Rahoy, I. Aries, A. Rubalcaba, I. Molina for the preparation of this article during the scientific trip to Madrid (Complutense University, Faculty of Political Science and Sociology, which was held in the framework of cooperation between the Bank Santander and MGIMO (University. The paper analyzes the political and economic aspects of life in Spain, and its foreign policy of the period of government of Mariano Rajoy (from 2011 to the present time. The article is dedicated to actual problems of modern Spain: the economy and the priorities of the government of M.Rajoy, the problem of separatism and political system of the country. Modern Spain is still recovering economically from the euro debt crisis and continues to struggle with near-record unemployment. Domestic economic recovery of Spain and the country's foreign position are closely linked. The European integration process still remains the main strategic task of the spanish foreign policy. Spain increases its role in world politics and obtains a non-permanent UN's Security Council seat for the 2015-2016 term.

  17. Inhibition of cortiocosteroidogenesis by delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warner, W; Harris, L S; Carchman, R A

    1977-12-01

    ACTH, cholera toxin, cyclic AMP but not pregnenolone-induced steroidogenesis in Y-1 functional mouse adrenal tumor cells was significantly inhibited by delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol, cannabidiol, and cannabinol. The inhibition of steroidogenesis could not be correlated with a general depression in cell function or viability. The data suggest that cannabinoids inhibit corticosteroidogenesis at a site between the synthesis of cAMP and of pregnenolone.

  18. Determination of the positions and residues of the. delta. /sup + +/ and. delta. /sup 0/ poles. [Phase shifts,coulomb corrections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vasan, S S [Carnegie-Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, Pa. (USA). Dept. of Physics

    1976-04-19

    The poles and the associated residues in the ..pi..N P/sub 33/ amplitude corresponding to the resonances ..delta../sup + +/ and ..delta../sup 0/ are determined by fitting the ..pi../sup +/p and ..pi../sup -/p hadronic phase shifts from the Carter 73 analysis. The ..delta../sup + +/ and ..delta../sup 0/ pole positions are determined also from the nuclear phase shifts, these being the phase shifts made up of the hadronic phase shifts plus the Coulomb corrections. The pole positions obtained from the two sets of phase shifts are different, the differences being larger in the case of the ..delta../sup + +/.

  19. Adaptive Delta Management: cultural aspects of dealing with uncertainty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timmermans, Jos; Haasnoot, Marjolijn; Hermans, Leon; Kwakkel, Jan

    2016-04-01

    Deltas are generally recognized as vulnerable to climate change and therefore a salient topic in adaptation science. Deltas are also highly dynamic systems viewed from physical (erosion, sedimentation, subsidence), social (demographic), economic (trade), infrastructures (transport, energy, metropolization) and cultural (multi-ethnic) perspectives. This multi-faceted dynamic character of delta areas warrants the emergence of a branch of applied adaptation science, Adaptive Delta Management, which explicitly focuses on climate adaptation of such highly dynamic and deeply uncertain systems. The application of Adaptive Delta Management in the Dutch Delta Program and its active international dissemination by Dutch professionals results in the rapid dissemination of Adaptive Delta Management to deltas worldwide. This global dissemination raises concerns among professionals in delta management on its applicability in deltas with cultural conditions and historical developments quite different from those found in the Netherlands and the United Kingdom where the practices now labelled as Adaptive Delta Management first emerged. This research develops an approach and gives a first analysis of the interaction between the characteristics of different approaches in Adaptive Delta Management and their alignment with the cultural conditions encountered in various delta's globally. In this analysis, first different management theories underlying approaches to Adaptive Delta Management as encountered in both scientific and professional publications are identified and characterized on three dimensions: The characteristics dimensions used are: orientation on today, orientation on the future, and decision making (Timmermans, 2015). The different underlying management theories encountered are policy analysis, strategic management, transition management, and adaptive management. These four management theories underlying different approaches in Adaptive Delta Management are connected to

  20. Delta count-rate monitoring system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Etten, D.; Olsen, W.A.

    1985-01-01

    A need for a more effective way to rapidly search for gamma-ray contamination over large areas led to the design and construction of a very sensitive gamma detection system. The delta count-rate monitoring system was installed in a four-wheel-drive van instrumented for environmental surveillance and accident response. The system consists of four main sections: (1) two scintillation detectors, (2) high-voltage power supply amplifier and single-channel analyzer, (3) delta count-rate monitor, and (4) count-rate meter and recorder. The van's 6.5-kW generator powers the standard nuclear instrument modular design system. The two detectors are mounted in the rear corners of the van and can be run singly or jointly. A solid-state bar-graph count-rate meter mounted on the dashboard can be read easily by both the driver and passenger. A solid-state strip chart recorder shows trends and provides a permanent record of the data. An audible alarm is sounded at the delta monitor and at the dashboard count-rate meter if a detected radiation level exceeds the set background level by a predetermined amount

  1. The sensitivity of the ESA DELTA model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, C.; Walker, R.; Klinkrad, H.

    Long-term debris environment models play a vital role in furthering our understanding of the future debris environment, and in aiding the determination of a strategy to preserve the Earth orbital environment for future use. By their very nature these models have to make certain assumptions to enable informative future projections to be made. Examples of these assumptions include the projection of future traffic, including launch and explosion rates, and the methodology used to simulate break-up events. To ensure a sound basis for future projections, and consequently for assessing the effectiveness of various mitigation measures, it is essential that the sensitivity of these models to variations in key assumptions is examined. The DELTA (Debris Environment Long Term Analysis) model, developed by QinetiQ for the European Space Agency, allows the future projection of the debris environment throughout Earth orbit. Extensive analyses with this model have been performed under the auspices of the ESA Space Debris Mitigation Handbook and following the recent upgrade of the model to DELTA 3.0. This paper draws on these analyses to present the sensitivity of the DELTA model to changes in key model parameters and assumptions. Specifically the paper will address the variation in future traffic rates, including the deployment of satellite constellations, and the variation in the break-up model and criteria used to simulate future explosion and collision events.

  2. Understanding delta-sigma data converters

    CERN Document Server

    Pavan, Shanti; Temes, Gabor C

    2017-01-01

    This new edition introduces novel analysis and design techniques for delta-sigma (ΔΣ) converters in physical and conceptual terms, and includes new chapters that explore developments in the field over the last decade. This book explains the principles and operation of delta-sigma analog-to-digital converters (ADCs) in physical and conceptual terms in accordance with the most recent developments in the field. The interest of ΔΣ converter designers has shifted significantly over the past decade, due to many new applications for data converters at the far ends of the frequency spectrum. Continuous-time delta-sigma A/D converters with GHz clocks, of both lowpass and bandpass types, are required for wireless applications. At the other extreme, multiplexed ADCs with very narrow (sometimes 10 Hz wide) signal bandwidths, but very high accuracy are needed in the interfaces of biomedical and environmental sensors. To reflect the changing eeds of designers, the second edition includes significant new material on bo...

  3. Spain and the Hamas government

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignacio Álvarez-Ossorio Alvariño

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Since the restoration of democracy, Spain’s successive governments have been noted for their favourable stance toward the issue of Palestine and their support for the creation of a sovereign independent state in the territories that Israel occupied during the Six-Day War. Yasser Arafat’s visit to Spain in the time of the UCD, the holding of the Madrid Conference during the term of government of the PSOE and the designation of Miguel Ángel Moratinos as the EU’s special envoy for the Peace Process during the Partido Popular’s term of government are some of the landmarks that have expressed this exemplary relationship between the Spanish State and the Palestine question. However, the victory of Hamas in the legislative elections of 25 January 2006 radically changed the situation, as it led to Rodríguez Zapatero’s government joining the international boycott of the new Islamist executive; even so, the Spanish government clearly maintained its support for restarting the Peace Process, in the form of its backing for Mahmud Abbas, the President of the Palestine Authority. The armed conflict in Gaza in June 2007 which led to the Islamists retaking the Gaza Strip and the formation of a new government in the West Bank led by the technocrat Salam Fayad served to normalise the situation, given that it encouraged the raising of international sanctions and a return to normality in Spanish-Palestine relations.

  4. NDT performance demonstration in Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bollini, G.J.

    1994-01-01

    The experience obtained from the in-service inspection of reactor pressure vessels (RPV) of Spanish nuclear power plants and the participation in several international programs, such as PISC, has shown the need for a performance demonstration, not only for the ultrasonic inspection techniques of RPV, but also for other ISI non-destructive techniques as in the case of eddy current inspection of steam generator tubing. Section XI of the ASME Code, which is applied in Spain for ISI, has incorporated recently the Appendix VIII for performance demonstration of ultrasonic inspection techniques. As a direct consequence of this, a Spanish project for performance demonstration of ultrasonic inspection techniques has been launched recently, which includes the manufacturing of full-scale mock-ups of nozzle to vessel welds, reactor vessel welds, wrought austenitic piping welds and ferritic piping welds of PWR and BWR nuclear power plants from different suppliers. This considerable technical effort will let the different Spanish organizations which are part of the project to participate and colaborate with similar international projects and in particular with a European initiative for performance demonstration. (Author)

  5. Quality and safety in Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prieto Barrio, J. M.; Martinez Martin, D. J.

    2015-01-01

    For three decades, and after the entry of Spain into the EU, it has been developed a regulatory, stable but evolving, framework that has allowed to create the conditions and structures to have stringent safety conditions of products and manufacturing facilities, as well as all the activities necessary for their certification and control. This development has been possible, among others, by the work of impulse and coordination of the Ministry of industry, Energy and Tourism, and particularly of the quality and Industrial safety sub directorate. On the other hand it has been developed a quality infrastructure that has, at the State level, with a standardisation (AENOR) entity and an accreditation body (ENAC) with recognized prestige around the world. In this article, in the first part, a list the regulations which apply to products and manufacturing facilities is shown, as well as explain the role played by standards and accreditation system in industrial safety and the factor of competitiveness that this entails for our industrial sector, and, in the second part, the institutional role of the Ministry and, the aforementioned Sub directorate, is described. The aim of the article is to be a descriptive reference of the current regulatory framework as well as the role of the State in this process. (Author)

  6. Climate index for Spain - Methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    According to the U.S. Department of Energy, an estimated 25% of the GNP is affected by weather-related events. The variations in temperature - even small ones - can also have long-lasting effects on the operational results of a company. Among other, the Energy supply sector is sensitive to weather risks: a milder or harsher than usual winter leads to a decrease or increase of energy consumption. The price of electricity on power trading facilities like Powernext is especially sensitive to odd changes in temperatures. Powernext and Meteo-France (the French meteorological agency) have joined expertise in order to promote the use of weather indices in term of decision making or underlying of hedging tools to energy actors, end users from any other sector of activity and specialists of the weather risk hedging. The Powernext Weather indices are made from information collected by Meteo-France's main observation network according to the norms of international meteorology, in areas carefully selected. The gross data are submitted to a thorough review allowing the correction of abnormalities and the reconstitution of missing data. Each index is fashioned to take into account the economic activity in the various regions of the country as represented by each region's population. This demographic information represents a fair approximation of the weight of the regional economic activity. This document presents the calculation methodology of average, minimum and maximum weather indexes with the winter and summer regression equations for the different economical regions of Spain. (J.S.)

  7. Uranium mining operations in Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rios, J.-M.; Arnaiz, J.; Criado, M.; Lopez, A.

    1995-01-01

    The Empresa Nacional del Uranio, SA (ENUSA) was founded in 1972 to undertake and develop the industrial and procurement activities of the nuclear fuel cycle in Spain. Within the organisation of ENUSA, the Uranium Division is directly responsible for the uranium mining and production operations that have been carried out since 1973 in the area of Ciudad Rodrigo in the province of Salamanca. These activities are based on open pit mining, heap leaching and a hydrometallurgical plant (Elefante) for extracting uranium concentrates from the ore. This plant was shut down in 1993 and a new plant was started up on the same site (Quercus) with a dynamic leaching process. The nominal capacity of the new plant is 950 t U 3 O 8 per year. Because of the historically low uranium prices which have recently prevailed, the plant is currently running at a strategic production rate of 300 t U 3 O 8 per year. From 1981 to 1990, in the area of La Haba (Badajoz province), ENUSA also operated a uranium production site, based on open pit mining, and an experimental extraction plant (Lobo-G). ENUSA is currently decommissioning these installations. This paper describes innovations and improvements that ENUSA has recently introduced in the field of uranium concentrates production with a view to cutting production costs, and to improving the decommissioning and site restoration processes in those sites where production is being shut down or resources have been worked out. (author)

  8. Formation of conjugated delta8,delta10-double bonds by delta12-oleic-acid desaturase-related enzymes: biosynthetic origin of calendic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cahoon, E B; Ripp, K G; Hall, S E; Kinney, A J

    2001-01-26

    Divergent forms of the plant Delta(12)-oleic-acid desaturase (FAD2) have previously been shown to catalyze the formation of acetylenic bonds, epoxy groups, and conjugated Delta(11),Delta(13)-double bonds by modification of an existing Delta(12)-double bond in C(18) fatty acids. Here, we report a class of FAD2-related enzymes that modifies a Delta(9)-double bond to produce the conjugated trans-Delta(8),trans-Delta(10)-double bonds found in calendic acid (18:3Delta(8trans,10trans,12cis)), the major component of the seed oil of Calendula officinalis. Using an expressed sequence tag approach, cDNAs for two closely related FAD2-like enzymes, designated CoFADX-1 and CoFADX-2, were identified from a C. officinalis developing seed cDNA library. The deduced amino acid sequences of these polypeptides share 40-50% identity with those of other FAD2 and FAD2-related enzymes. Expression of either CoFADX-1 or CoFADX-2 in somatic soybean embryos resulted in the production of calendic acid. In embryos expressing CoFADX-2, calendic acid accumulated to as high as 22% (w/w) of the total fatty acids. In addition, expression of CoFADX-1 and CoFADX-2 in Saccharomyces cerevisiae was accompanied by calendic acid accumulation when induced cells were supplied exogenous linoleic acid (18:2Delta(9cis,12cis)). These results are thus consistent with a route of calendic acid synthesis involving modification of the Delta(9)-double bond of linoleic acid. Regiospecificity for Delta(9)-double bonds is unprecedented among FAD2-related enzymes and further expands the functional diversity found in this family of enzymes.

  9. Biomass co-firing for Delta Electricity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon

    2014-01-01

    Electricity generator Delta Electricity has implemented a biomass co-firing program at its Vales Point power station on the Central Coast to reduce its reliance on coal and emissions of CO 2 . The program comprises two parts: direct co-firing with coal of up to 5% biomass; and development of Continuous Biomass Converter (CBC) technology with the Crucible Group to remove technology constraints and enable much higher rates of biomass co-firing. It is talking industrial scale tests. Delta increased biomass co-firing in 2013/14 to 32,000 tonnes, up from just 3,000 tonnes the previous year, and conducted biochar co-firing trials at a rate equivalent to 400,000 tonnes per annum to demonstrate the potential of CBC technology. It reduced CO 2 emissions in 2013/14 by more than 32,000 tonnes. 'Legislation and regulations define biomass as renewable,' said Delta Electricity sustainability manager Justin Flood. 'By preferring biomass over coal, the carbon in the coal is not burnt and remains locked up.' One biomass source is wood waste that would normally go to landfill, but the primary driver of Delta's recent increase in co-firing is sawmill residues. 'Previously there was a higher value market for the residues for paper pulp. However, when that market evaporated the timber industry was left with a sizable problem in terms of what to do with its residues and the loss of revenue,' said Flood. The way greenhouse gas accounting is conducted in Australia, with carbon emissions based on site activities, makes it difficult to undertake a life cycle assessment of the program. 'However, some of the international studies looking at this issue have concluded that the net carbon emissions of the biomass system are significantly lower than the coal system because of the uptake of carbon during biomass growth,' said Flood. Delta identified two challenges, sourcing the feedstock and that biomass conversion to electricity is slightly less

  10. Mapping Soil hydrologic features in a semi-arid irrigated area in Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez-Aguirre, M.° Teresa; Isidoro, Daniel; Usón, Asunción

    2016-04-01

    The lack of soil information is a managerial problem in irrigated areas in Spain. The Violada Irrigation District (VID; 5234 ha) is a gypsic, semi-arid region in the Middle Ebro River Basin, northeast Spain. VID is under irrigation since the 1940's. The implementation of the flood irrigation system gave rise to waterlogging problems, solved along the years with the installation of an artificial drainage network. Aggregated water balances have been performed in VID since the early 1980's considering average soil properties and aggregated irrigation data for the calculations (crop evapotranspiration, canal seepage, and soil drainage). In 2008-2009, 91% of the VID was modernized to sprinkler irrigation. This new system provides detailed irrigation management information that together with detailed soil information would allow for disaggregated water balances for a better understanding of the system. Our goal was to draw a semi-detailed soil map of VID presenting the main soil characteristics related to irrigation management. A second step of the work was to set up pedotransfer functions (PTF) to estimate the water content and saturated hydraulic conductivity (Ks) from easily measurable parameters. Thirty four pits were opened, described and sampled for chemical and physical properties. Thirty three additional auger holes were sampled for water holding capacity (WHC; down to 60 cm), helping to draw the soil units boundaries. And 15 Ks tests (inverse auger hole method) were made. The WHC was determined as the difference between the field capacity (FC) and wilting point (WP) measured in samples dried at 40°C during 5 days. The comparison with old values dried at 105°C for 2 days highlighted the importance of the method when gypsum is present in order to avoid water removal from gypsum molecules. The soil map was drawn down to family level. Thirteen soil units were defined by the combination of five subgroups [Typic Calcixerept (A), Petrocalcic Calcixerept (B), Gypsic

  11. Improved γ-linolenic acid production in Mucor circinelloides by homologous overexpressing of delta-12 and delta-6 desaturases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yao; Luan, Xiao; Zhang, Huaiyuan; Garre, Victoriano; Song, Yuanda; Ratledge, Colin

    2017-06-21

    γ-Linolenic acid (GLA) is important because of its nutritional value and medicinal applications. Although the biosynthetic pathways of some plant and microbial GLA have been deciphered, current understanding of the correlation between desaturases and GLA synthesis in oleaginous fungi is incomplete. In previous work, we found that a large amount of oleic acid (OA) had not been converted to linoleic acid (LA) or GLA in Mucor circinelloides CBS 277.49, which may be due to inadequate activities of the delta-12 or delta-6 desaturases, and thus leading to the accumulation of OA and LA. Thus, it is necessary to explore the main contributing factor during the process of GLA biosynthesis in M. circinelloides. To enhance GLA production in M. circinelloides, homologous overexpression of delta-12 and two delta-6 desaturases (named delta-6-1 and delta-6-2, respectively) were analyzed. When delta-6 desaturase were overexpressed in M. circinelloides, up to 43% GLA was produced in the total fatty acids, and the yield of GLA reached 180 mg/l, which were, respectively, 38 and 33% higher than the control strain. These findings revealed that delta-6 desaturase (especially for delta-6-1 desaturase) plays an important role in GLA synthesis by M. circinelloides. The strain overexpressing delta-6-1 desaturase may have potential application in microbial GLA production.

  12. Criteria for efficient prevention of dissemination and successful eradication of Erwinia amylovora (the cause of fire blight in Aragón, Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana PALACIO-BIELSA

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Erwinia amylovora was detected on pome fruits in the Aragón region (North-Eastern Spain, in a ca. 5 km radius area located in the mid Jalón river (mid Ebro Valley in the province of Zaragoza, during 2000‒2003. Eight years have now passed since this pathogen was last detected, without new infections being reported in the same area. The bases for surveys and rapid eradication performed have been analyzed in detail to understand the reasons for the success in removing fireblight. The results demonstrate that intensive surveillance, risk assessment, plant analyses using accurate identification methods, and, especially, rapid total or selective eradication of infected trees in the plots have been very effective in preventing the generalized spread of fireblight and in delaying economic losses associated with this disease. Eradication and compensation to growers, estimated to cost approx. € 467,000, were clearly counterbalanced by the economic value of apple and pear production in the 2000‒2003 period (approx. € 368 million. Fire blight risk-assessment, using the MARYBLYT system, showed that climatic conditions in the studied area were favourable to infections during the analyzed period (1997‒2006. Molecular characterization of E. amylovora strains had revealed their homogeneity, suggesting that these fire blight episodes could have been caused by just one inoculum source, supporting the hypothesis that there was a unique introduction of E. amylovora in the studied area. Spatial spread of E. amylovora to trees was analyzed within six orchards, indicating an aggregated distribution model. This Spanish experience demonstrates the success of scientifically-based prevention methods that lead to the deployment of a fast and strict containment strategy, useful for other Mediterranean areas.

  13. The net effect of abiotic conditions and biotic interactions in a semi-arid ecosystem NE Spain: implications for the management and restoration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pueyo, Yolanda; Arroyo, Antonio I.; Saiz, Hugo; Alados, Concepción L.

    2014-05-01

    Degradation in arid and semiarid lands can be irreversible without human intervention, due to a positive plant-soil feedback where the loss of vegetation cover leads to soil degradation, which in turn hampers plant establishment. Human intervention in restoration actions usually involves the amendment of the degraded abiotic conditions, revegetation of bare areas, or both. However, abiotic amelioration is often expensive and too intrusive, and revegetation is not successful in many cases. Biotic interactions between plants, and more specifically facilitation by a "nurse" plant, have been proposed as a new via to take profit of improved abiotic conditions without intervention, and to increase the success rate of revegetation actions. But "nurse" plants can also interfere with others (i.e. by competition for resources or the release of allelopathic compounds), and the net balance between facilitation and interference could depend on plant types involved. We present recent observational and experimental studies performed in the semiarid ecosystems of the Middle Ebro Valley (NE Spain) about the role of abiotic conditions and biotic interactions in the productivity, dynamics and diversity of plant communities under different stress conditions (aridity and grazing). We found that all plant types studied (shrubs and perennial grasses) improved abiotic conditions (soil temperature and water availability for plants) with respect to open areas. However, only some shrubs (mainly Salsola vermiculata) had a positive net balance in the biotic interactions between plants, while other shrubs (Artemisia herba-alba) and perennial grasses (Lygeum spartum) showed interference with other plants. Moreover, the net balance between facilitation and interference among plants in the community shifted from competitive to neutral or from neutral to facilitative with increasing aridity. Grazing status did not strongly change the net biotic interactions between plants. Our results suggest that

  14. Synoptic Lithostratigraphy of The Niger Delta

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nwajide, C.S.

    2002-01-01

    The Tertiary Niger Delta is stratigraphically framed by the Dahomey, Anambra, Abakaliki, Afikpo and Calabar Flank basins. From the apex at Onitsha a fluvial plain splays southwards and translates progressively into a freshwater swamp, succeeded by a mangrove swamp belt. Along the coast is a strip of wave-washed barrier bars indented by large estuaries, fronted by submerged moth bars. Habitation in the delta is on levees, point bars, and barrier bars. These landforms provided the firm salients for buildings the ports that facilitated international trade from the pre-colonial times.There are four lithofacies-clean, pebbly, and muddy sandstones, and mudstones. Their subdivision, based on sedimentary structures, textures and fossil content yields twenty reservoir and seven nonreservoir classes. Their environments of deposition, identified using facies associations, fall into fluvial, wave-and tide-dominated, marginal, and shallow marine, with localised canyons incised into the delta front and filled with deeper marine facies.The reservoirs are composed of 70 90% quartz, 4 15% feldspar, and 3 13% clay matrix, with minor mica, bioclasts, carbonaceous debris, glauconite, and heavy minerals. Grain size varies from very fine to coarse and pebbly, implying the presence of sands of varying textural and compositional maturities. Silica, K-feldspar, and carbonates constitute the cements.Porosity in the reservoirs has remained about the same as at deposition due to low mechanical compaction occasioned by shallow burial. Meteoric water-flushed progradational sequence are characterised by cementation with quartz and kaolinite. In contrast, marine water-flushed transgressive sands show grain coating illite-smectite, chlorite and K-feldspar overgrowths

  15. THE RURAL TOURISM IN DANUBE DELTA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ionica SOARE

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose - the purpose of this paper is to evaluate the rural areas has market size and forecast its development as an economic activity. The present paper aims at analyzing the rural areas has in Danube Delta. In an enviable BAs which have responsibility for their particular isolated, such as the Danube Delta and the Danube that used, fishing and rural areas has the main activities that provide jobs and income sources for local populations. Design/methodology/approach - A survey was administered to customers’ rural hostel accommodation in Danube Delta. Descriptive statistics method was mainly adopted to calculate the mean with standard deviation of entry assumes variable, and to examine the different levels of consumers' awareness. The index values of product familiarity, the ratio between entries assumes product's familiarity value and the average value. Findings - the research results show hash has rural consumers have different perception and accomplished through behaviour. The information channels of brand hash mainly from friends, relatives and neighbours, so word of mouth spreading is very important for a brand. Women show a higher sensitivity in health and are currently operating the propensity than referred to follow the recommendations for nutrition. Research limitations/implications - This item is intended to synthesize developments and challenges," on June 13th rural market growth has. The results of this paper should be considered tentatively until has also features replicated by larger has rural consumers. Originality/value - members of rural areas has consumer's behavior would improve marketing and the development of rural areas has products, in order to reduce consumer confusion.

  16. Stratigraphy and Evolution of Delta Channel Deposits, Jezero Crater, Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goudge, T. A.; Mohrig, D.; Cardenas, B. T.; Hughes, C. M.; Fassett, C. I.

    2017-01-01

    The Jezero impact crater hosted an open-basin lake that was active during the valley network forming era on early Mars. This basin contains a well exposed delta deposit at the mouth of the western inlet valley. The fluvial stratigraphy of this deposit provides a record of the channels that built the delta over time. Here we describe observations of the stratigraphy of the channel deposits of the Jezero western delta to help reconstruct its evolution.

  17. Tracks, spurs, blobs and delta-rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magee, J.L.; Chatterjee, A.

    1983-01-01

    The track of a high-energy particle is the collection of all transient species created by the particle in the total degradation of its energy. Visible electron tracks are called delta rays. A microscopic description of the track with all its knocked-out electrons leads to spurs, blobs, and short tracks. Energy deposition criteria for these three track entities are 6 to 100 eV, 100 to 500 eV, and 500 eV to 5 keV, respectively

  18. The situation in the Niger Delta

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vitalis, E.

    2007-01-01

    An energy issue for the United States and a political challenge for Europe, Nigeria is experiencing growing instability and is on the verge of civil war; the ecosystem and the population of the Niger Delta are the main victims. The State, corrupt, is powerless to contain the rising violence and redistribute the proceeds of oil sales. It is high time for oil-consuming countries, starting with the United States, to concern themselves with stabilizing the region. Europe must contribute to the lasting development of this country. (author)

  19. Adaptive delta management: a comparison between the Netherlands and Bangladesh Delta Program

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zevenbergen, Chris; Khan, Shah Alam; Alphen, van Jos; Terwisscha van Scheltinga, Catharien; Veerbeek, William

    2018-01-01

    In the Netherlands, the central government, water authorities, provinces and municipalities are working together on a new Delta Program on Flood Risk Management and Fresh Water Supply (DP). Its primary goal is to protect the Netherlands against floods and ensure the availability of fresh water, now

  20. Tidal modulated flow and sediment flux through Wax Lake Delta distributary channels: Implications for delta development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Hanegan

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study, a Delft3D model of the Wax Lake Delta was developed to simulate flow and sediment flux through delta distributary channels. The model was calibrated for tidal constituents as well as velocity and sediment concentration across channel transects. The calibrated model was then used to simulate full spring–neap tidal cycles under constant low flow upstream boundary conditions, with grain size variation in suspended load represented using two sediment fractions. Flow and sediment flux results through distributary channel cross-sections were examined for spatial and temporal variability with the goal of characterizing the role of tides in sediment reworking and delta development. The Wax Lake Delta has prograded through channel extension, river mouth bar deposition, and channel bifurcation. Here we show that tidal modulation of currents influences suspended sand transport, and spatial acceleration through distributary channels at low tides is sufficient to suspend sand in distal reaches during lower flows. The basinward-increasing transport capacity in distributary channels indicates that erosive channel extension could be an important process, even during non-flood events.

  1. Delta Plaza kohvik = The Delta Plaza Café / Margit Mutso

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Mutso, Margit, 1966-

    2010-01-01

    Tallinnas Pärnu mnt. 141 asuva kohviku Delta Plaza sisekujundusest. Sisearhitektid Tiiu Truus ja Marja Viltrop (Stuudio Truus OÜ). Hoone arhitektid Jüri Okas ja Marika Lõoke (AB J. Okas & M. Lõoke). Žürii liikme Mait Summataveti arvamus kohvikust

  2. University Teacher’s Evaluation in Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Javier Tejedor Tejedor

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available This article intends to make a brief overview about the performance evaluation for university teachers in democratic Spain. It contents: a considerations about teaching evaluation, in order to delimit the authors’ position in this matter, due to the fact that this position obviously conditions any revision; b a brief summary of the history of university teachers evaluation in Spain during the last years, since the Spanish Constitution of 1978 approval; c a typology of the evaluation plans, in order to define a map of the planning lines for evaluations applied in Spain; d the technical guidelines for teachers´ evaluation and presentation of the current model, exampled by its application in the university of Salamanca; and e as a conclusion, some considerations about the consequences of evaluation and its entailment with the professionalization of university teachers.

  3. Transparency and Good Governance in Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catalina Larach

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, transparency and Governance are relevant for Spain. Especially, for the dissatisfied citizenship and the weakness in national and local institutions over the last few years, with results like not trusting, less guarantee on healthcare and education system, the corruption in public administration, politics-economic issues, and so on. Although, in the European Union, Spain has been one of the last countries to regulate this issue, whit Act 19/2013 there are new objectives relating to open government, citizenship, technology, accountability. Moreover in relation with the structure of administration because the “commission for transparency and good governance” was initiated on last 19th January. In general, its effectiveness in moderating this issue and applying measures in order to get administration systems cleaner in countries like Spain.

  4. Studying medium effects with the optimized {delta} expansion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krein, G [Instituto de Fisica Teorica (IFT), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Menezes, D P [Santa Catarina Univ., Florianopolis, SC (Brazil). Dept. de Fisica; Nielsen, M [Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica; Pinto, M B [Montpellier-2 Univ., 34 (France). Lab. de Physique Mathematique

    1995-04-01

    The possibility of using the optimized {delta} expansion for studying medium effects on hadronic properties in quark or nuclear matter is investigated. The {delta} expansion is employed to study density effects with two commonly used models in hadron and nuclear physics, the Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model for the dynamical chiral symmetry breaking and the Walecka model for the equation of state of nuclear matter. The results obtained with the {delta} expansion are compared to those obtained with the traditional Hartree-Fock approximation. Perspectives for using the {delta} expansion in other field theoretic models in hadron and nuclear physics are discussed. (author). 17 refs, 9 figs.

  5. Optimality and self-organization in river deltas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tejedor, A.; Longjas, A.; Edmonds, D. A.; Zaliapin, I. V.; Georgiou, T. T.; Rinaldo, A.; Foufoula-Georgiou, E.

    2017-12-01

    Deltas are nourished by channel networks, whose connectivity constrains, if not drives, the evolution, functionality and resilience of these systems. Understanding the coevolution of deltaic channels and their flux organization is crucial for guiding maintenance strategies of these highly stressed systems from a range of anthropogenic activities. However, in contrast to tributary channel networks, to date, no theory has been proposed to explain how deltas self-organize to distribute water and sediment to the delta top and the shoreline. Here, we hypothesize the existence of an optimality principle underlying the self-organized partition of fluxes in delta channel networks. Specifically, we hypothesize that deltas distribute water and sediment fluxes on a given delta topology such as to maximize the diversity of flux delivery to the shoreline. By introducing the concept of nonlocal Entropy Rate (nER) and analyzing ten field deltas in diverse environments, we present evidence that supports our hypothesis, suggesting that delta networks achieve dynamically accessible maxima of their nER. Furthermore, by analyzing six simulated deltas using the Delf3D model and following their topologic and flux re-organization before and after major avulsions, we further study the evolution of nER and confirm our hypothesis. We discuss how optimal flux distributions in terms of nER, when interpreted in terms of resilience, are configurations that reflect an increased ability to withstand perturbations.

  6. Upper-division student difficulties with the Dirac delta function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bethany R. Wilcox

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The Dirac delta function is a standard mathematical tool that appears repeatedly in the undergraduate physics curriculum in multiple topical areas including electrostatics, and quantum mechanics. While Dirac delta functions are often introduced in order to simplify a problem mathematically, students still struggle to manipulate and interpret them. To characterize student difficulties with the delta function at the upper-division level, we examined students’ responses to traditional exam questions and a standardized conceptual assessment, and conducted think-aloud interviews. Our analysis was guided by an analytical framework that focuses on how students activate, construct, execute, and reflect on the Dirac delta function in the context of problem solving in physics. Here, we focus on student difficulties using the delta function to express charge distributions in the context of junior-level electrostatics. Common challenges included invoking the delta function spontaneously, translating a description of a charge distribution into a mathematical expression using delta functions, integrating 3D or non-Cartesian delta function expressions, and recognizing that the delta function can have units. We also briefly discuss implications of these difficulties for instruction.

  7. Effect of temperature, gas phase composition, pH and microbial activity on As, Zn, Pb and Cd mobility in selected soils in the Ebro and Meuse Basins in the context of global change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joubert, A.V.P. [Laboratoire des Interactions Micro-organismes, Mineraux et Matieres organiques dans les Sols (LIMOS) UMR 7137, Nancy University, CNRS, BP 239, 54506 Vandoeuvre-les-Nancy cedex (France)]. E-mail: antoine.joubert@limos.uhp-nancy.fr; Lucas, L. [Bureau de Recherches Geologiques et Minieres (BRGM), Service Environnement et Procedes Innovants-Unite Ecotechnologie (EPI/ECO), 3 Avenue Claude Guillemin, BP 6009, 45060 Orleans cedex 2 (France); Garrido, F. [Bureau de Recherches Geologiques et Minieres (BRGM), Service Environnement et Procedes Innovants-Unite Ecotechnologie (EPI/ECO), 3 Avenue Claude Guillemin, BP 6009, 45060 Orleans cedex 2 (France)]. E-mail: f.garrido@brgm.fr; Joulian, C. [Bureau de Recherches Geologiques et Minieres (BRGM), Service Environnement et Procedes Innovants-Unite Ecotechnologie (EPI/ECO), 3 Avenue Claude Guillemin, BP 6009, 45060 Orleans cedex 2 (France); Jauzein, M. [Laboratoire des Interactions Micro-organismes, Mineraux et Matieres organiques dans les Sols (LIMOS) UMR 7137, Nancy University, CNRS, BP 239, 54506 Vandoeuvre-les-Nancy cedex (France)

    2007-08-15

    This study estimates the effect of environmental parameters on the mobility of four inorganic contaminants (As, Zn, Pb and Cd) in soils from three areas in the Ebro and Meuse River basins, within the context of global change. An experimental method, applicable to various soil systems, is used to measure the effect of four global-change-sensitive parameters (temperature, gas phase composition, pH and microbial activity). The aqueous phase of batch incubations was sampled regularly to monitor toxic element concentrations in water. Statistical processing enabled discrimination of the most relevant variations in dissolved concentrations measured at different incubation times and under different experimental conditions. Gas phase composition was identified as the most sensitive parameter for toxic element solubilization. This study confirms that total soil concentrations of inorganic pollutants are irrelevant when assessing the hazard for ecosystems or water resource quality. - An experimental method applicable for different soil systems enables the determination of the effect of environmental parameters, potentially affected by global change, on the mobilization of inorganic pollutants.

  8. La neolitización de la Meseta Norte y de la alta y media cuenca del Ebro (España: premisas teóricas, análisis del registro y planteamiento de hipótesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Íñigo GARCÍA-MARTÍNEZ DE LAGRÁN

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available El principal objetivo de este trabajo es el planteamiento de una hipótesis sobre la neolitización de la alta y media cuenca del Ebro y de la Submeseta norte. Para ello, se han precisado una serie de premisas teóricas sobre este proceso histórico, se ha realizado una clasificación particular de los yacimientos implicados sobre la base de estos presupuestos teóricos y la comparación de sus registros –estratigrafía, cronología, materiales, etc.– y finalmente se ha propuesto una definición (prehistórica de las comunidades que los formaron. A partir de estos datos se explica la neolitización de este territorio en un marco cronológico concreto –entre el 5700-5600 y el 5400-5300 cal AC– en el que se asumen, como puntos principales, la existencia de comunidades neolíticas colonas ‘pioneras’, la participación fundamental en este proceso de los grupos mesolíticos locales y el papel esencial de fenómenos de colonización de pídola o infiltración en la extensión del Neolítico por esta área geográfica.

  9. Catalyzing action towards the sustainability of deltas: deltas as integrated socio-ecological systems and sentinels of regional and global change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foufoula-Georgiou, E.; Tessler, Z. D.; Brondizio, E.; Overeem, I.; Renaud, F.; Sebesvari, Z.; Nicholls, R. J.; Anthony, E.

    2016-12-01

    Deltas are highly dynamic and productive environments: they are food baskets of the world, home to biodiverse and rich ecosystems, and they play a central role in food and water security. However, they are becoming increasingly vulnerable to risks arising from human activities, land subsidence, regional water management, global sea-level rise, and climate extremes. Our Belmont Forum DELTAS project (BF-DELTAS: Catalyzing actions towards delta sustainability) encompasses an international network of interdisciplinary research collaborators with focal areas in the Mekong, Ganges Brahmaputra, and the Amazon deltas. The project is organized around five main modules: (1) developing an analytical framework for assessing delta vulnerability and scenarios of change (Delta-SRES), (2) developing an open-acess, science-based integrative modeling framework for risk assessment and decision support (Delta-RADS), (3) developing tools to support quantitative mapping of the bio-physical and socio-economic environments of deltas and consolidate bio-physical and social data within shared data repositories (Delta-DAT), (4) developing Global Delta Vulnerability Indices (Delta-GDVI) that capture current and projected scenarios for major deltas around the world , and (5) collaborating with regional stakeholders to put the science, modeling, and data into action (Delta-ACT). In this talk, a research summary will be presented on three research domains around which significant collaborative work was developed: advancing biophysical classification of deltas, understanding deltas as coupled socio-ecological systems, and analyzing and informing social and environmental vulnerabilities in delta regions.

  10. Taxation of nuclear waste in Spain

    OpenAIRE

    Rozas Valdés, José Andrés

    2014-01-01

    Law 15/2012 established in Spain four new environmental taxes and extended the scope objective excise duties on mineral oils to tax the use of natural gas and coal as sources of electricity. One of the newly created taxes falls on all electric power producers, and has as tax base the turnover. The second one tax hydropower production, and the other two fall on the nuclear industry. So, there are two new taxes in Spain on the production of electricity from nuclear sources. The first one is a t...

  11. Superconducting bandpass delta-sigma modulator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bulzacchelli, J.F.; Lee, H.-S.; Misewich, J.A.; Ketchen, M.B.

    1999-01-01

    Bandpass delta-sigma modulators digitize narrowband signals with high dynamic range and linearity. The required sampling rate is only a few times higher than the centre frequency of the input. This paper presents a superconducting bandpass delta-sigma modulator for direct analogue-to-digital conversion of RF signals in the GHz range. The input signal is capacitively coupled to one end of a microstrip transmission line, and a single flux quantum balanced comparator quantizes the current flowing out of the other end. Quantization noise is suppressed at the quarter-wave resonance of the transmission line (about 2 GHz in our design). Circuit performance at a 20 GHz sampling rate has been studied with several long JSIM simulations. Full-scale (FS) input sensitivity is 20 mV (rms), and in-band noise is -53 dBFS and -57 dBFS over bandwidths of 39 MHz and 19.5 MHz, respectively. In-band intermodulation distortion is better than -69 dBFS. (author)

  12. 75 FR 51113 - Chlorinated Isocyanurates From China and Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-18

    ... Isocyanurates From China and Spain AGENCY: United States International Trade Commission. ACTION: Scheduling of... and Spain. SUMMARY: The Commission hereby gives notice of the scheduling of expedited reviews pursuant... revocation of the antidumping duty orders on chlorinated isocyanurates from China and Spain would be likely...

  13. 78 FR 32184 - Importation of Fresh Apricots From Continental Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-29

    .... APHIS-2011-0132] RIN 0579-AD62 Importation of Fresh Apricots From Continental Spain AGENCY: Animal and... United States of fresh apricots from continental Spain. This action will allow interested persons... importation of fruits and vegetables to allow the importation of fresh apricots from continental Spain into...

  14. 48 CFR 252.229-7005 - Tax exemptions (Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Tax exemptions (Spain... of Provisions And Clauses 252.229-7005 Tax exemptions (Spain). As prescribed in 229.402-70(e), use the following clause: Tax Exemptions (Spain) (JUN 1997) (a) The Contractor represents that the...

  15. 78 FR 32183 - Importation of Avocados From Continental Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-29

    .... APHIS-2012-0002] RIN 0579-AD63 Importation of Avocados From Continental Spain AGENCY: Animal and Plant... continental Spain (excluding the Balearic Islands and Canary Islands) into the United States. This action will... avocados from continental Spain (excluding the Balearic Islands and Canary Islands) into the United States...

  16. In vivo metabolism of the methyl homologues of delta-8-tetrahydrocannabinol, delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol and abn-delta-8-tetrahydrocannabinol in the mouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, N K; Harvey, D J

    1988-04-01

    Methyl-delta-8-tetrahydrocannabinol (methyl-delta-8-THC), methyl-delta-9-THC and abn-methyl-delta-8-THC were synthesized by condensation of orcinol and (1S)-cis-verbenol and were administered to male Charles River CD-1 mice. Extracted hepatic metabolites were isolated by chromatography on Sephadex LH-20 and examined by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry as trimethylsilyl (TMS), (2H9)TMS and methyl ester/TMS derivatives. In addition, metabolic fractions were reduced with lithium aluminium deuteride to convert carboxylic acids to alcohols for structural correlation. Metabolites from methyl-delta-8-THC were similar with respect to the positions substituted to those produced by higher homologues; the major metabolite was methyl-delta-8-THC-11-oic acid. abn-Methyl-delta-8-THC was metabolized in a different manner. The location of the aromatic methyl group at the position adjacent to ring fusion appeared to inhibit metabolism at C(11) to a considerable extent and also to reduce the amount of the resulting alcohol from being oxidized to a carboxylic acid. This caused other metabolic pathways to become dominant, with the result that a compound containing a hydroxy group at the gem-methyl position was the major metabolite. Hydroxylation at this position has not been confirmed with any other cannabinoid, although it is thought to result in trace concentrations of hydroxy metabolites from some compounds. Metabolism of methyl-delta-9-THC was also similar to that of the higher homologues, with the exception that less metabolism occurred at C(8) and a higher percentage of the total metabolic fraction was accounted for by the 11-oic acid metabolite. Minor metabolites were mainly dihydroxy compounds and hydroxylated derivatives of delta-9-THC-11-oic acid.

  17. Sediment and Vegetation Controls on Delta Channel Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauzon, R.; Murray, A. B.; Piliouras, A.; Kim, W.

    2016-12-01

    Numerous factors control the patterns of distributary channels formed on a delta, including water and sediment discharge, grain size, sea level rise rates, and vegetation type. In turn, these channel networks influence the shape and evolution of a delta, including what types of plant and animal life - such as humans - it can support. Previous fluvial modeling and flume experiments, outside of the delta context, have addressed how interactions between sediment and vegetation, through their influence on lateral transport of sediment, determine what type of channel networks develops. Similar interactions likely also shape delta flow patterns. Vegetation introduces cohesion, tending to reduce channel migration rates and strengthen existing channel banks, reinforcing existing channels and resulting in localized, relatively stable flow patterns. On the other hand, sediment transport processes can result in lateral migration and frequent switching of active channels, resulting in flow resembling that of a braided stream. While previous studies of deltas have indirectly explored the effects of vegetation through the introduction of cohesive sediment, we directly incorporate key effects of vegetation on flow and sediment transport into the delta-building model DeltaRCM to explore how these effects influence delta channel network formation. Model development is informed by laboratory flume experiments at UT Austin. Here we present initial results of experiments exploring the effects of sea level rise rate, sediment grain size, vegetation type, and vegetation growth rate on delta channel network morphology. These results support the hypothesis that the ability for lateral transport of sediment to occur plays a key role in determining the evolution of delta channel networks and delta morphology.

  18. Predicting the energy consumption of heated plastic greenhouses in south-eastern Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez, J. C.; Baile, A.; Bonachela, S.; Gonzalez-Real, M. M.; Perez-Parra, J.

    2006-01-01

    Measurements of heat consumption in a parral type greenhouse, equipped with an air-heating system, were carried out in south-eastern Spain (Almeria) during the 1998/99 winter. From the daily values of heat consumption (Qd, MJ m-2 d-1) recorded in five identical greenhouses heated to different night temperature set-points (Tc), and data of minimum outside air temperature (Te,min), relationships between Qd and the temperature difference ( Tmin = Tc . Te,min) were established. Linear regressions between Qd and delta Tmin gave satisfactory fits (R2 ranging from 0.75 to 0.83), considering that Te,min was the only input data for the model. When all data were pooled, the correlation was curvilinear, the best fit to a 2nd order polynomial being Qd = 0.049 deltaTmin 2 . 0.001 Tmin + 1.107 (R2 = 0.89). Validation of this model was performed using data obtained during other years, giving a fair agreement at the daily (R2 0.86), 10-day (R2 = 0.95) and yearly (R2 = 0.99) time scales. This simple model could be of interest to growers for decision-making related to the choice of set-point temperature and crop planning in heated greenhouses. (Author)

  19. Tarasca: ritual monster of Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilmore, David D

    2008-09-01

    Let us now revisit our original assumptions. First, we note that for the participants in Hacinas Carnival the Tarasca is a figure of fun and joy, but it also exudes a strain of aggressive misogyny that many female residents, not to mention tourists, find somewhat unsettling. In the spirit of feminist currents in Spain, a group of young women protested in 1992 to town officials and, when rebuffed, sought to build their own female monster, which they intended to use to attack boys and men. While their plan was never carried out, and indeed met with stiff opposition from officialdom and, especially, from older women, some of the younger, more modern girls find the Tarasca appalling, and they told me so without compunction. Accordingly, today the festival tends to polarize the sexes as well as the generations. Also, many children are frightened by the gigantic mock-up with its snapping teeth and foul breath, and many of them burst into tears at the roaring of the demons. But despite these negatives--or perhaps because of them--the Tarasca breaks down boundaries between things normally kept separate in the mind: humor and terror, man and beast, order and disorder, old and young, life and death, and so on. In so collapsing opposites, the Tarasca causes people to pause and to think about and question everyday reality in the non-Carnival universe. All these observations of course support the structural arguments of our four theorists above and in particular seem to corroborate Bloch's concept (1992) of the regenerative power of "rebounding violence." However, there are three specific features here that need psychological amplification beyond simply confirming the work of previous theorists. We must first note that like most grotesque fantasies, the Hacinas monster combines disparate organic "realities" into a bizarre and monstrous image that by its very oddness and the resulting "cognitive mismatch" captures people's attention and sparks the imagination, especially that of

  20. The Concentration Dependence of the (Delta)s Term in the Gibbs Free Energy Function: Application to Reversible Reactions in Biochemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gary, Ronald K.

    2004-01-01

    The concentration dependence of (delta)S term in the Gibbs free energy function is described in relation to its application to reversible reactions in biochemistry. An intuitive and non-mathematical argument for the concentration dependence of the (delta)S term in the Gibbs free energy equation is derived and the applicability of the equation to…

  1. Complex rearrangements within the human J delta-C delta/J alpha-C alpha locus and aberrant recombination between J alpha segments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baer, R.; Boehm, T.; Yssel, H.; Spits, H.; Rabbitts, T. H.

    1988-01-01

    We have examined DNA rearrangements within a 120 kb cloned region of the human T cell receptor J delta-C delta/J alpha-C alpha locus. Three types of pattern emerge from an analysis of T cell lines and clones. Firstly, cells with two rearrangements within J delta-C delta; secondly, cells with one

  2. Spatio-temporal distributions of delta18O, delta D and salinity in the Arabian Sea: Identifying processes and controls

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Deshpande, R.D; Muraleedharan, P.M.; Singh, R.L.; Kumar, B.; Rao, M.S.; Dave, M.; Sivakumar, K.U.; Gupta, S.K.

    the geographic distributions of the delta18O and S; (2) in spite of a large scatter, a statistically significant delta18O–S relationship can be identified in much of the investigated part of the AS; (3) the delta18Odelta...

  3. 78 FR 21491 - DeltaPoint Capital IV, L.P., DeltaPoint Capital IV (New York), L.P.; Notice Seeking Exemption...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-10

    ... SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION [License No. 02/02-0662, 02/02-0661] DeltaPoint Capital IV, L.P., DeltaPoint Capital IV (New York), L.P.; Notice Seeking Exemption Under Section 312 of the Small Business Investment Act, Conflicts of Interest Notice is hereby given that DeltaPoint Capital IV, L.P. and DeltaPoint...

  4. Changes to subaqueous delta bathymetry following a high river flow event, Wax Lake Delta, LA, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whaling, A. R.; Shaw, J.

    2017-12-01

    Sediment transport capacity is increased during high river flow (flood) events which are characterized by discharges that exceed the 15 year median daily statistic. The Wax Lake Delta (WLD) in coastal Louisiana has experienced 19 of these high flow events in the past 20 years, yet the depositional patterns of single floods are rarely measured in a field-scale deltaic setting. We characterize flood deposition and erosion patterns on the subaqueous portion of the WLD by differencing two Digital Elevation Models (DEMs) constructed from bathymetric surveys before and after the third largest flood in the WLD's recorded history. The total suspended sediment discharge for the 496 day inter-survey period was 2.14x107 cubic meters measured 21 km upstream of the delta apex. The difference map showed 1.06x107 cubic meters of sediment was deposited and 8.2x106 cubic meters was eroded, yielding 2.40x106 cubic meters of net deposition in the survey area ( 79.7 km2 ). Therefore the average deposition rate was 0.061 mm/day. Channel planform remained relatively unchanged for five out of six distributary passes however Gadwall Pass experienced a maximum channel displacement of 166 m ( 1 channel width) measured from the thalweg centerline. Channel tip extension was negligible. In addition, channel displacement was not concentrated at any portion along the channel centerline. Maximum erosion occurred within channel margins and increased upstream whereas maximum deposition occurred immediately outside the channel margins. Sediment eroded from the survey area was either subsequently re-deposited or transported out of the system. Our results show that up to 77.4% of deposition in the survey area originated from sediment eroded during the flood. Surprisingly, only 11.2% of the total suspended sediment discharge was retained in the subaqueous portion of the delta after the flood. We conclude that a high flow event does not produce channel progradation. Rather, high flow causes delta

  5. Food-related life style in Spain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bredahl, Lone; Brunsø, Karen; Grunert, Klaus G.

    1996-01-01

    Executive summary 1. This report contains the main results of a survey of food-related lifestyle in Spain, based on a representative sample of 1000 Spanish households. 2. Generally speaking, Spanish food consumers are very interested in shopping for food and cooking. Compared with other European ...

  6. Wind turbines in Spain: la vuelta

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeanson, E.; Trancart, M.

    2000-01-01

    Ten years ago it was just the beginning of the wind industry in Spain. Today it takes the third place in Europe and the fourth in the world. The pilot regions are the Galicia and the Navarre. (A.L.B.)

  7. Border Disease Virus among Chamois, Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosell, Rosa; Cabezón, Oscar; Mentaberre, Gregorio; Casas, Encarna; Velarde, Roser; Lavín, Santiago

    2009-01-01

    Approximately 3,000 Pyrenean chamois (Rupicapra pyrenaica pyrenaica) died in northeastern Spain during 2005–2007. Border disease virus infection was identified by reverse transcription–PCR and sequencing analysis. These results implicate this virus as the primary cause of death, similar to findings in the previous epizootic in 2001. PMID:19239761

  8. Prospects of spent management in Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melches, C.; Ramirez, E.; Selgas, F.; Cabanilles, P.A.; Lopez Perez, B.; Uriarte, A.

    1978-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to outline the forecast on spent fuel management in Spain, taking into account the international developments produced during the last years and specially on LWR fuels. This forecast is based on the following actions: increase of the storage capacity in the reactors: construction of an independent spent fuel storage installation (ISFSI) and a fuel reprocessing pilot plant. (author)

  9. The water footprint of tourism in Spain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cazcarro, I.; Hoekstra, Arjen Ysbert; Sánchez Chóliz, J.

    2014-01-01

    This study complements the water footprint (WF) estimations for Spain, incorporating insights of the process analysis and input–output (IO) analysis. We evaluate the virtual (both blue and green consumed) water trade of agricultural and industrial products, but also of services, especially through

  10. Chinese migration in Spain. General characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amelia Sáiz López

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the Chinese presence in Spain is analyzed from a chronological perspective along with the ongoing changes in geographic location and economic activity. The growth in numbers of this community has obliged its members to look for new locations, distancing themselves from their ethnic strongholds, with the aim of bringingtheir migratory plans to fruition.

  11. Road accidents and business cycles in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-López, Jesús; Marrero, Gustavo A; González, Rosa Marina; Leal-Linares, Teresa

    2016-11-01

    This paper explores the causes behind the downturn in road accidents in Spain across the last decade. Possible causes are grouped into three categories: Institutional factors (a Penalty Point System, PPS, dating from 2006), technological factors (active safety and passive safety of vehicles), and macroeconomic factors (the Great recession starting in 2008, and an increase in fuel prices during the spring of 2008). The PPS has been blessed by incumbent authorities as responsible for the decline of road fatalities in Spain. Using cointegration techniques, the GDP growth rate, the fuel price, the PPS, and technological items embedded in motor vehicles appear to be statistically significantly related with accidents. Importantly, PPS is found to be significant in reducing fatal accidents. However, PPS is not significant for non-fatal accidents. In view of these results, we conclude that road accidents in Spain are very sensitive to the business cycle, and that the PPS influenced the severity (fatality) rather than the quantity of accidents in Spain. Importantly, technological items help explain a sizable fraction in accidents downturn, their effects dating back from the end of the nineties. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. [Tuberculosis and immigration in Spain: scoping review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casals, Martí; Rodrigo, Teresa; Camprubí, Esteve; Orcau, Angels; Caylà, Joan A

    2014-01-01

    Immigration is a fairly recent phenomenon in Spain and there are still few scientific publications on tuberculosis (TB) and immigration. Therefore, the aim of this study is to describe the differential characteristics of TB in the immigrant population with respect to natives in Spain. Literature review of original articles written in Spanish or English and published 1998-2012 about TB among immigrant population. The articles with the key words "Tuberculosis", "immigrants" and "Spain" were included. Literature search was performed in Medline and MEDES. A total of 72,087 articles on TB were detected worldwide, 6% of them dealt with the immigration issue. Regarding Spain we found 2,917 articles representing 4% of the papers published worldwide, and in 219 (7.5%) immigration was considered. Of the 219 articles, 48% were published in Spanish journals and the 52% remaining in Anglo-Saxon journals. 93.5% of immigrants with TB were younger than 51, whereas this percentage was 64.9% in natives. Drug resistance can be seen in 7.8% of the immigrant population but in only 3.8% of natives. It was also detected that the unavailability of a health card could be a problem. Immigrants with TB were characterized by being younger and having more drug resistance and coming mostly from Latin America, Eastern Europe, Africa and Asia. It was also detected that the unavailability of a health card could be a problem.

  13. Does Education Affect Happiness? Evidence for Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunado, Juncal; de Gracia, Fernando Perez

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we study the impact of education on happiness in Spain using individual-level data from the European Social Survey, by means of estimating Ordinal Logit Models. We find both direct and indirect effects of education on happiness. First, we find an indirect effect of education on happiness through income and labour status. That is, we…

  14. ITER site selection studies in Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Medrano, M.; Alejaldre, C.; Doncel, J.; Garcia, A.; Ibarra, A.; Jimenez, J.A.; Sanchez de Mora, M.A.; Alcala, F.; Diez, J.E.; Dominguez, M.; Albisu, F.

    2003-01-01

    The studies carried out to evaluate and select a candidate site for International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) construction in Spain are presented in this paper. The ITER design, completed in July 2001, considered a number of technical requirements that must be fulfilled by the selected site. Several assumptions concerning the ITER site were made in order to carry on the design before final site selection. In the studies undertaken for ITER site selection in Spain, the referred technical requirements and assumptions were applied across the whole of Spain and two areas were identified as being preferential. These areas are on the Mediterranean coast and are situated in the Catalan and Valencian regions. A comparative evaluation based on technical characteristics for the concrete plots, proposed within the preferential areas, has been done. The result of these studies was the selection of a site that was deemed to be the most competitive--Vandellos (Tarragona)--and it was proposed to the European Commission for detailed studies in order to be considered as a possible European site for ITER construction. Another key factor for hosting ITER in Spain, is the licensing process. The present status is summarised in this paper

  15. Economic crisis and nursing in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zabalegui, Adelaida; Cabrera, Esther

    2010-07-01

    The purpose of the present study is to describe the economic context in Spain and its impact on the health care sector and in nursing schools. The global economic crisis is affecting nursing in Spain. This study analyses and compares indicators related to health care and nursing schools among European countries. Some new strategies to cope with the challenges arising from the health care crisis are suggested. Health care costs are increasing as a result of the ageing of the Spanish population, immigration, chronicity of health problems and new medical technology. Nursing education has changed in 2010 from a 3-year diploma programme to a 4-year University degree in Nursing. This change requires new resources involving staff, facilities and equipment, all of which are lacking because of the economic crisis in Spain. The worldwide economic crisis has affected Spain more than it has other European Union (EU) countries. This global crisis has an impact on the health care sector as well on nursing schools. It is essential for nursing management to develop creative approaches to maintain cost effective patient care. New programmes and technology must be carefully evaluated in terms of cost effectiveness before being implemented. All health care professionals should be well informed and have a solid understanding of this situation.

  16. Reviews of National Policies for Education: Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development, Paris (France).

    Recent reforms affecting every aspect of Spain's educational system are reviewed in this report. The first part presents the observations of three educators from other European countries ("The Examiners' Report"). Part 2 is a "Record of the Review Meeting" held in Paris in December of 1985 10 months after the examiners' visit…

  17. Aversive racism in Spain: testing the theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wojcieszak, M.

    2015-01-01

    This study applies the aversive racism framework to Spain and tests whether aversive racism depends on intergroup contact. Relying on a 3 (qualifications) by 3 (ethnicity) experiment, this study finds that aversive racism is especially pronounced against the Mexican job applicant, and emerges among

  18. Niger Delta Crisis and Security Implications for the Nation State ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Niger Delta is the nation's treasure base, the Niger Delta provides over 80 percent of government revenue, 95 percent of export receipts, and 90 percent of ... The government should tackle the fundamental issue of basic necessities – provision of good motorable roads, pipe borne water, electricity, good hospitals, good ...

  19. Morphodynamics of the Manyema tidal delta 1 LIST OF TABLES ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Kheira Kortenbout

    Morphodynamics of the Manyema tidal delta. 1. LIST OF ... Location of Manyema Creek and its associated tidal delta platform at Kunduchi. Fig. 2. ... platform. Beachcomber. Hotel. Whitesands. Hotel. Kunduchi. Beach Hotel. Giraffe. Hotel. INDIAN. OCEAN. Mombasa. Dar es. Salaam. KUNDUCHI. KENYA. TANZANIA.

  20. Towards a Comprehensive Framework for Adaptive Delta Management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marchand, M.; Ludwig, F.

    2014-01-01

    Deltas are dynamic landforms at the boundary of land and sea, involving intricate mazes of rivers and small waterways, wetlands, estuaries and coastal barrier islands. They are home to over half a billion people. Deltas are also home to rich ecosystems, such as mangroves and marshes. They are

  1. Conflict resolution among Niger delta communities: A historical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conflict related issues have assumed endemic proportion in the Niger Delta. A proper assessment of the critical factors in motion must take cognizance of their historical underpinnings. Peaceful co-existence, the hallmark of conflict resolution, can be feasible in the Niger Delta, through sustainable dialogue. These, among

  2. Upper-Division Student Difficulties with the Dirac Delta Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilcox, Bethany R.; Pollock, Steven J.

    2015-01-01

    The Dirac delta function is a standard mathematical tool that appears repeatedly in the undergraduate physics curriculum in multiple topical areas including electrostatics, and quantum mechanics. While Dirac delta functions are often introduced in order to simplify a problem mathematically, students still struggle to manipulate and interpret them.…

  3. Caribbean piracy and youth restiveness in Niger delta: A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Our aim in this paper is to make a comparative analysis of Caribbean piracy and youth restiveness in Niger Delta of Nigeria. It will not be out of place to carry out such an analysis having seen, heard or read of the ongoing chaos, insecurity in the. Niger Delta Zone in Nigeria. We have to look at the past to find out such similar

  4. 78 FR 45592 - DeltaPoint Capital IV, LP;

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-29

    ..., Suite 160, Pittsford, NY 14534. The financing was contemplated for working capital. The financing is... SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION [License No. 02/02-0662] DeltaPoint Capital IV, LP; Notice Seeking... given that DeltaPoint Capital IV, L.P., 45 East Avenue, 6th Floor, Rochester, NY 14604, Federal...

  5. Central Delta languages: An overview | Kari | Stellenbosch Papers ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper presents an overview of the phonology, morphology and syntax of Central Delta languages. It also provides information on the geo-linguistic, demographic and sociolinguistic situation of these languages. It notes that Central Delta languages have a 20-vowel system, which divides into two sets of 10 vowels ...

  6. Downstream hydraulic geometry of a tidally influenced river delta

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sassi, M.G.; Hoitink, A.J.F.; Brye, de B.; Deleersnijder, E.

    2012-01-01

    Channel geometry in tidally influenced river deltas can show a mixed scaling behavior between that of river and tidal channel networks, as the channel forming discharge is both of river and tidal origin. We present a method of analysis to quantify the tidal signature on delta morphology, by

  7. Delta: the first pion nucleon resonance - its discovery and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagle, D.E.

    1984-07-01

    It is attempted to recapture some of the fun and excitement of the pion-scattering work that led to the discovery of what is now called the delta particle. How significant this discovery was became apparent only gradually. That the delta is alive today and thriving at Los Alamos (as well as other places) is described

  8. Wastewater disposal at safari lodges in the Okavango Delta, Botswana

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Wastewater disposal at safari lodges in the Okavango Delta, Botswana. TS McCarthy, T Gumbricht, RG Stewart, D Brandt, PJ Hancox, J McCarthy, AG Duse. Abstract. Many safari lodges in the Okavango Delta obtain their water supply from boreholes in near-surface aquifers while disposing of their wastewater via ...

  9. Remote stereocontrol by sulfinyl groups: reduction of delta-ketosulfoxides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García Ruano, José L; Fernández-Ibáñez, M Angeles; Maestro, M Carmen; Rodríguez-Fernández, M Mercedes

    2005-03-04

    The reduction of delta-ketosulfoxides constitutes the first evidence of the efficiency of the sulfinyl group to control the stereoselectivity of 1,5-asymmetric induction processes. The use of DIBAL/Yb(OTf)3 or L-Selectride as the reducing agents provides delta-hydroxysulfoxides with the opposite configuration at the hydroxylic carbon in a highly stereoselective way.

  10. Quark sea and the. delta. I=1/2 rule

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donoghue, J F [Carnegie-Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, Pa. (USA). Dept. of Physics; Golowich, E [Massachusetts Univ., Amherst (USA)

    1977-08-29

    The effect on nonleptonic processes of quark-antiquark pairs due to quantum chromodynamics is studied. Their presence improves agreement between theory and experiment for hyperon decays. In kaon decays a new ..delta..I=1/2 contribution is found, but ..delta..I=3/2 effects are still too large to be in agreement.

  11. Antinociceptive activity of Delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol non-ionic microemulsions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazzari, P; Fadda, P; Marchese, G; Casu, G L; Pani, L

    2010-06-30

    Delta(9)-Tetrahydrocannabinol (Delta(9)-THC), the major psychoactive constituent of Cannabis sativa L., has been widely studied for its potential pharmaceutical application in the treatment of various diseases and disturbs. This sparingly soluble terpeno-phenolic compound is not easy to handle and to be formulated in pharmaceutical preparations. The aim of this work was to develop a stable aqueous Delta(9)-THC formulation acceptable for different ways of administration, and to evaluate the therapeutic properties of the new Delta(9)-THC based preparation for pain treatment. Due to the thermodynamic stability and advantages of microemulsion based systems, the study was focused on the identification of aqueous microemulsion based systems containing Delta(9)-THC. Oil in water Delta(9)-THC microemulsions were individuated through phase diagrams construction, using the non-ionic surfactant Solutol HS15, being this surfactant acceptable for parenteral administration in human. A selected microemulsion samples containing 0.2 wt% of Delta(9)-THC, stable up to 52 degrees C, was successfully assayed on animal models of pain. Significant antinociceptive activity has been detected by both intraperitoneal and intragastric administration of the new Delta(9)-THC pharmaceutical preparation. The effect has been highlighted in shorter time if compared to a preparation of the same active principle based on previously reported conventional preparation. 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. An annotated list of Fishes from the Niger Delta

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boeseman, M.

    1963-01-01

    At the end of November 1960, the Leiden Museum received an interesting collection of animals, mostly fishes, from the Niger delta. All specimens were collected by Mr. H. J. G. Beets, at the time employed by Shell B.P. — Delta Investigations, during the period May to August 1960, and in the region

  13. Topological Mappings via B&delta;g-Closed Sets

    OpenAIRE

    Maruthamuthu, Raja; Narayanasamy, Seenivasagan; Otchanathevar, Ravi

    2018-01-01

    In this paper we introduce a new class of functions called  B&delta;g-continuous functions. We obtain several characterizations and some their properties. Also we investigate its relationship with other types of functions. Further we introduce and study a new class of functions namely B&delta;g-irresolute.

  14. Estimation of Thermal Conductivity in the North- Western Niger Delta ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Thermal conductivity estimates are computed from nineteen petroleum wells in the north-western Niger Delta, Nigeria, using a geometric mean model. Sonic and gamma-ray logs were digitised and used in the estimation of in situ conductivity. The Niger Delta is composed of three major diachronous lithostratigraphic units of ...

  15. How to deal with subsidence in the Dutch delta?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stouthamer, E.; Erkens, G.

    2017-01-01

    In many deltas worldwide subsidence still is an underestimated problem, while the threat posed by land subsidence low-lying urbanizing and urbanized deltas exceeds the threat of sea-level rise induced by climate change. Human-induced subsidence is driven by the extraction of hydrocarbons and

  16. Dousing the tension in the Niger delta through administrative agency

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dousing the tension in the Niger delta through administrative agency: A programme evaluation of Niger delta development commission as an intervention regime. ... the study concludes that because of systemic constraints arising from the hegemonic interests of the dominant coalitions in the Nigerian Social formation, ...

  17. Drones on the delta | CRDI - Centre de recherches pour le ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    25 nov. 2016 ... Waves wash ashore at Fuvemeh, a town in Ghana's Volta River delta that's threatened by coastal erosion and flooding. Brian Owens, Canadian Geographic. Ghana's Volta River delta is an area vulnerable to climate change, with rising seas and increasingly powerful storms driving flooding and erosion, ...

  18. Homosexuality amongst migrant oil workers in the Niger Delta ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aims: To determine the prevalence of homosexuality among migrant oil workers in Niger Delta. Methods: A prospective questionnaire – based study was conducted among migrant oil workers in the Niger Delta region of Nigeria. The design was to determine the prevalence of homosexuality in the workers in oil workers.

  19. T gamma/delta lymphocytes in renal transplant recipients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Raasveld, M. H.; Bloemena, E.; Surachno, S.; ten Berge, R. J.

    1992-01-01

    T gamma/delta lymphocytes are able to perform allospecific cytotoxicity and natural killer cytotoxicity in vitro. However, very little is known about their function in vivo. To investigate the possible involvement of T gamma/delta lymphocytes in the immune response to renal allografts, fine-needle

  20. The evolution of a subaqueous delta in the Anthropocene: A stratigraphic investigation of the Brazos River delta, TX USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlin, Joseph A.; Dellapenna, Timothy M.

    2015-12-01

    Globally, deltas are increasingly threatened by anthropogenic activities. As a result, deltas now evolve through the combined effects of natural and human-induced processes occurring throughout the fluvial-deltaic system. The Brazos River delta, located along the Texas coast in the northwestern Gulf of Mexico, and its watershed have been impacted by direct and indirect human activities since the late 19th century. This provides an opportunity to investigate how such alterations have shaped the evolution of a delta in the Anthropocene, a time when humans are drivers of geological change. Historic alteration to the delta and watershed include extensive agricultural activity, jetty construction at the mouth in the late 1890s, mouth diversion ~10 km to the southwest in 1929, and reservoir construction throughout the early and mid 20th Century. Three subaerial deltaic geometries provided the framework to connect subaerial deltaic responses, to the anthropogenic alterations, to the resulting stratigraphic characteristics observed in the subaqueous delta. This study utilized high-resolution geophysical data (swath bathymetry, side scan sonar, CHIRP subbottom profiling) on the subaqueous delta to investigate the subaqueous delta stratigraphy and infer the processes that shaped the deltaic record over time. The results showed distinct areas across the subaqueous delta that were dominated by erosion and deposition. Erosional areas corresponded to earlier growth phase depocenters being exposed at the surface, while the depositional areas corresponded to areas with the most recent growth phase depocenter overlying the earlier depocenters. These results highlight that the subaqueous depocenter has migrated westward over time, consistent with the observed changes to the subaerial delta. Additionally, the data showed that evidence for these past growth phases and depocenters may be preserved within the subaqueous delta, even after subaerial portions of the delta returned to pre

  1. Losing ground in mega-deltas: basin-scale response to existential threats to the Mekong Delta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arias, M. E.; Kondolf, G. M.; Schmitt, R. J. P.; Carling, P. A.; Darby, S. E.; Bizzi, S.; Castelletti, A.; Cochrane, T. A.; Gibson, S.; Kummu, M.; Oeurng, C.; Rubin, Z.; Wild, T. B.

    2017-12-01

    The Mekong Delta is, in terms of the number of livelihoods it supports, its economic importance, and in its vulnerability to climate change and sinking lands, one of the world's critically threatened mega-deltas. Livelihoods depend on the mere existence of the delta, but also on ecosystem services provided by the delta's drainage basin spanning 795,000 km2 in six abutting countries. These ecosystem services include delivery of sand required to build delta land in the face of rising sea-levels and sediment bound nutrients, provision of spawning habitat for fish that are ultimately harvested in the delta, and hydrologic regulation driving the delta's unique flood-pulse regime. However, while the delta is mainly located in Vietnam, the basin of the Mekong River is shared among China, Myanmar, Laos, Thailand, Cambodia, and Vietnam. In the context of the region's dynamic growth, individual countries are pushing their own development agendas, which include extensive dam building, in-channel sand mining, construction of dykes and canals, and groundwater pumping, all of which contribute to subsidence and erosion of the Delta. Our synthesis of recent research indicates that most of the Mekong's delta land will likely fall below sea-level by 2100 as result of these drivers, exacerbating the impacts of global climatic changes. In this context, local infrastructural projects and changes in land- and water-management may temporarily mitigate some negative effects, but do not address the existential threat to the delta as a whole. To prevent, or at least substantially postpone, the drowning of the Mekong Delta requires identification of the key drivers and immediate concerted management actions on the basin-scale to change the trajectory of subsidence and sediment deficit. A specific challenge is to find the institutional arrangements in this transnational context that could support the needed management changes and equitably distribute costs and impacts. The Mekong Delta is

  2. Geological-geophysical techniques applied to urban planning in karst hazardous areas. Case study of Zaragoza, NE Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pueyo Anchuela, O.; Soriano, A.; Casas Sainz, A.; Pocoví Juan, A.

    2009-12-01

    Industrial and urban growth must deal in some settings with geological hazards. In the last 50 years, the city of Zaragoza (NE Spain) has developed an increase of its urbanized area in a progression several orders higher than expected from its population increase. This fast growth has affected several areas around the city that were not usually used for construction. Maps of the Zaragoza city area at the end of the XIXth century and beginning of the XXth reveal the presence of karst hazards in several zones that can be observed in more modern data, as aerial photographs taken during a period ranging from 1927 to present. The urban and industrial development has covered many of these hazardous zones, even though potential risks were known. The origins of the karst problems are related to the solution of evaporites (mainly gypsum, glauberite and halite) that represent the Miocene substratum of the Zaragoza area underlying the Quaternary terraces and pediments related to the Ebro River and its tributaries. Historical data show the persistence of subsidence foci during long periods of time while in recent urbanized areas this stability is not shared, observing the increase of activity and/or radius affection in short periods of time after building over. These problems can be related to two factors: i) urban development over hazardous areas can increase the karst activity and ii) the affection radius is not properly established with the commonly applied methods. One way to develop these detailed maps can be related to the geophysical approach. The applied geophysical routine, dependent on the characteristics of the surveyed area, is based on potential geophysical techniques (magnetometry and gravimetry) and others related to the application of induced fields (EM and GPR). The obtained results can be related to more straightforward criteria as the detection of cavities in the subsoil and indirect indicators related to the long-term activity of the subsidence areas

  3. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor delta activation leads to increased transintestinal cholesterol efflux

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vrins, Carlos L. J.; van der Velde, Astrid E.; van den Oever, Karin; Levels, Johannes H. M.; Huet, Stephane; Elferink, Ronald P. J. Oude; Kuipers, Folkert; Groen, Albert K.

    2009-01-01

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor delta (PPAR delta) is involved in regulation of energy homeostasis. Activation of PPAR delta markedly increases fecal neutral sterol secretion, the last step in reverse cholesterol transport. This phenomenon can neither be explained by increased

  4. Measurement of delta-rays in ATLAS silicon sensors

    CERN Document Server

    The ATLAS collaboration

    2013-01-01

    In the inner detector of the ATLAS experiment at the LHC, $\\delta$-rays originating from particle interactions in the silicon sensors may cause additional hit channels. A method for identifying silicon hit clusters that are enlarged due to the emission of a $\\delta$-ray is presented. Using pp collision data the expectation is confirmed that the $\\delta$-ray production rate depends linearly on the path length of the particle in silicon, independently of layer radius and detector technology. The range of the $\\delta$-rays, which is a property of the material and should not depend on anything else, is indeed found to be constant as a function of detector layer, path length in silicon and momentum of the particle traversing the silicon. As a by-product of this analysis a method is proposed that could correct for the effect of these $\\delta$-rays, and this could be used to improve track reconstruction.

  5. (p,. pi. /sup -/) reaction and. delta. /sup + +/ components of nuclei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kisslinger, L S; Miller, G A [Carnegie-Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, Pa. (USA). Dept. of Physics

    1975-12-08

    The use of the (p,..pi../sup -/) reaction as a probe to determine ..delta../sup + +/(1232) components of nuclear wave functions is examined within the framework of a model which treats baryon resonances on the same footing as nucleons. Nuclear structure properties which affect the ..delta..-probability are discussed. Estimates of cross sections, at several energies, are made for the ..delta../sup + +/ transfer contribution as well as for the competing processes: proton charge exchange (p,n) followed by an (n,..gamma../sup -/) reaction; emission of a ..pi../sup 0/ followed by pion charge exchange (..pi../sup -/,..pi../sup 0/). Even with ..delta..-probabilities as small as 0.0001 the ..delta..-transfer process can compete with ordinary background charge-exchange reactions.

  6. Spectral factorization using the delta operator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rostgaard, Morten; Poulsen, Niels Kjølstad; Ravn, Ole

    1994-01-01

    In recent years many papers have been published abouth the gamma-operator, mostly caused by the better numerical properties and the rapprochement between continuous and discrete time. A major problem within the LQG-design of a delta-based input-output relation has been how to spectral-factorize...... solution to the spectral factorization problem. The key idea is to use the gamma-operator resembled by its behavior to the differential operator....... in an efficient way. The discrete-time method of Kuccera will not be applied since numerical word-length characteristics will be poor for fast sampling rates. In this paper a new approach is considered. A new gamma-operator (Tustin operator) is introduced, in order to make an iterative and numerical stable...

  7. $\\delta N$ formalism from superpotential and holography

    CERN Document Server

    Garriga, Jaume; Vernizzi, Filippo

    2016-02-16

    We consider the superpotential formalism to describe the evolution of scalar fields during inflation, generalizing it to include the case with non-canonical kinetic terms. We provide a characterization of the attractor behaviour of the background evolution in terms of first and second slow-roll parameters (which need not be small). We find that the superpotential is useful in justifying the separate universe approximation from the gradient expansion, and also in computing the spectra of primordial perturbations around attractor solutions in the $\\delta N$ formalism. As an application, we consider a class of models where the background trajectories for the inflaton fields are derived from a product separable superpotential. In the perspective of the holographic inflation scenario, such models are dual to a deformed CFT boundary theory, with $D$ mutually uncorrelated deformation operators. We compute the bulk power spectra of primordial adiabatic and entropy cosmological perturbations, and show that the results...

  8. Head orientation prediction: delta quaternions versus quaternions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Himberg, Henry; Motai, Yuichi

    2009-12-01

    Display lag in simulation environments with helmet-mounted displays causes a loss of immersion that degrades the value of virtual/augmented reality training simulators. Simulators use predictive tracking to compensate for display lag, preparing display updates based on the anticipated head motion. This paper proposes a new method for predicting head orientation using a delta quaternion (DQ)-based extended Kalman filter (EKF) and compares the performance to a quaternion EKF. The proposed framework operates on the change in quaternion between consecutive data frames (the DQ), which avoids the heavy computational burden of the quaternion motion equation. Head velocity is estimated from the DQ by an EKF and then used to predict future head orientation. We have tested the new framework with captured head motion data and compared it with the computationally expensive quaternion filter. Experimental results indicate that the proposed DQ method provides the accuracy of the quaternion method without the heavy computational burden.

  9. Dependence of {delta}E effect on internal stresses in nickel: Experimental results by laser interferometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chicharro, J.M. [Dept. de Mecanica Aplicada e Ingenieria de Proyectos, E.T.S.I. Industriales, Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha, Avd. Camilo Jose Cela s/n, 13071 Ciudad Real (Spain)]. E-mail: josemanuel.chicharro@uclm.es; Bayon, A. [Dept. de Fisica Aplicada a los Recursos Naturales, E.T.S.I. Minas, Universidad Politecnica de Madrid, c/Rios Rosas, 21, 28003 Madrid (Spain); Salazar, F. [Dept. de Fisica Aplicada a los Recursos Naturales, E.T.S.I. Minas, Universidad Politecnica de Madrid, c/Rios Rosas, 21, 28003 Madrid (Spain)

    2006-02-15

    The speckle heterodyne interferometry is applied to the study of the dependence of Young's modulus on both the magnetic field and the internal stresses in a soft ferromagnetic material. Young's modulus is determined from the first natural longitudinal frequency of a slender magnetic rod positioned within a solenoid. Vibration of the sample is detected by an optical heterodyne system with a wide bandwidth. The samples are heated to above the Curie point and then cooled at several rates in order to induce different internal stresses. The study refers to nickel rods 10mm in diameter and 110mm in length. The grain sizes of the samples are also determined and related to changes in {delta}E.

  10. Multimode delta-E effect magnetic field sensors with adapted electrodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zabel, Sebastian; Fichtner, Simon; Kirchhof, Christine; Quandt, Eckhard; Faupel, Franz, E-mail: ff@tf.uni-kiel.de [Faculty of Engineering, Institute for Materials Science, Kiel University, Kaiserstraße 2, 24143 Kiel (Germany); Reermann, Jens; Schmidt, Gerhard [Faculty of Engineering, Institute for Electrical Engineering, Kiel University, Kaiserstraße 2, 24143 Kiel (Germany); Wagner, Bernhard [Fraunhofer Institute for Silicon Technology ISIT, Fraunhoferstraße 1, 25524 Itzehoe (Germany)

    2016-05-30

    We present an analytical and experimental study on low-noise piezoelectric thin film resonators that utilize the delta-E effect of a magnetostrictive layer to measure magnetic fields at low frequencies. Calculations from a physical model of the electromechanical resonator enable electrode designs to efficiently operate in the first and second transversal bending modes. As predicted by our calculations, the adapted electrode design improves the sensitivity by a factor of 6 and reduces the dynamic range of the sensor output by 16 dB, which significantly eases the requirements on readout electronics. Magnetic measurements show a bandwidth of 100 Hz at a noise level of about 100 pTHz{sup −0.5}.

  11. Perspectives on bay-delta science and policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healey, Michael; Dettinger, Michael; Norgaard, Richard

    2016-01-01

    The State of Bay–Delta Science 2008 highlighted seven emerging perspectives on science and management of the Delta. These perspectives had important effects on policy and legislation concerning management of the Delta ecosystem and water exports. From the collection of papers that make up the State of Bay–Delta Science 2016, we derive another seven perspectives that augment those published in 2008. The new perspectives address nutrient and contaminant concentrations in Delta waters, the failure of the Delta food web to support native species, the role of multiple stressors in driving species toward extinction, and the emerging importance of extreme events in driving change in the ecosystem and the water supply. The scientific advances that underpin these new perspectives were made possible by new measurement and analytic tools. We briefly discuss some of these, including miniaturized acoustic fish tags, sensors for monitoring of water quality, analytic techniques for disaggregating complex contaminant mixtures, remote sensing to assess levee vulnerability, and multidimensional hydrodynamic modeling. Despite these new tools and scientific insights, species conservation objectives for the Delta are not being met. We believe that this lack of progress stems in part from the fact that science and policy do not incorporate sufficiently long-term perspectives. Looking forward half a century was central to the Delta Visioning process, but science and policy have not embraced this conceptual breadth. We are also concerned that protection and enhancement of the unique cultural, recreational, natural resource, and agricultural values of the Delta as an evolving place, as required by the Delta Reform Act, has received no critical study and analysis. Adopting wider and longer science and policy perspectives immediately encourages recognition of the need for evaluation, analysis, and public discourse on novel conservation approaches. These longer and wider perspectives

  12. The Atchafalaya River Delta. Report 7. Analytical Analysis of the Development of the Atchafalaya River Delta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-09-01

    responsible for the abrupt increases in subaerial delta growth. 64. Through using satellite imagery, color infrared photog- raphy, and digital current...w RO CF = HO/A/BO/(2.-D) w (HH wo (2.-D) - 1.) + O.5/AA X2 = BO m 2.m AA a HHow(D-1.) o CF AREA = (2.wAAwB~ ww2 ) im (CKI*(1. + AmBO/HOwRO) ww2 &+ CK2 a

  13. Pharmaceutical costs of assisted reproduction in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorente, Maria-Reyes; Hernández, Juana; Antoñanzas, Fernando

    2013-11-01

    Assisted reproduction is one of the health services currently being considered for possible limitation or exclusion from the public health services portfolio in Spain. One of the main reasons claimed for this is the impact on the budget for pharmaceutical expenditure. The objective of this study was to assess the significance of the pharmaceutical costs of assisted reproduction in Spain. This study focused on medical practice in Spain, and is based on the opinions of experts in assisted reproduction and the results provided by professional societies' publications. The reference year is 2012 and the setting was secondary care. We have included all existing pharmaceutical modalities for assisted reproduction, as well as the most common drug for each modality. We have considered the pharmaceutical cost per cycle for artificial insemination, in vitro fertilisation with or without intracytoplasmic sperm injection (IVF_ICSI), and cryotransfer and donated fresh oocytes reception. In Spain, artificial insemination has a pharmaceutical cost per cycle of between €69.36 and €873.79. This amounts to an average cycle cost of €364.87 for partner's sperm and €327.10 for donor sperm. The pharmaceutical cost of IVF_ICSI ranges between €278.16 and €1,902.66, giving an average cost per cycle of €1,139.65. In the case of cryotransfer and donated fresh oocytes reception, the pharmaceutical cost per cycle is between €22.61 and €58.73, yielding an average cost of €40.67. The budgetary impact of pharmaceutical expenditure for assisted reproduction in Spain for the year 2012 was estimated at €98.7 million. In Spain, the total pharmaceutical cost of assisted reproduction is substantial. According to our results, we can say that about 29% of the total pharmaceutical expenditure for assisted reproduction techniques is funded by the National Health System and the rest represents 2.4% of the total annual out-of-pocket family expenditure on drugs.

  14. Primary production in the Delta: Then and now

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cloern, James E.; Robinson, April; Richey, Amy; Grenier, Letitia; Grossinger, Robin; Boyer, Katharyn E.; Burau, Jon; Canuel, Elizabeth A.; DeGeorge, John F.; Drexler, Judith Z.; Enright, Chris; Howe, Emily R.; Kneib, Ronald; Mueller-Solger, Anke; Naiman, Robert J.; Pinckney, James L.; Safran, Samuel M.; Schoellhamer, David H.; Simenstad, Charles A.

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate the role of restoration in the recovery of the Delta ecosystem, we need to have clear targets and performance measures that directly assess ecosystem function. Primary production is a crucial ecosystem process, which directly limits the quality and quantity of food available for secondary consumers such as invertebrates and fish. The Delta has a low rate of primary production, but it is unclear whether this was always the case. Recent analyses from the Historical Ecology Team and Delta Landscapes Project provide quantitative comparisons of the areal extent of 14 habitat types in the modern Delta versus the historical Delta (pre-1850). Here we describe an approach for using these metrics of land use change to: (1) produce the first quantitative estimates of how Delta primary production and the relative contributions from five different producer groups have been altered by large-scale drainage and conversion to agriculture; (2) convert these production estimates into a common currency so the contributions of each producer group reflect their food quality and efficiency of transfer to consumers; and (3) use simple models to discover how tidal exchange between marshes and open water influences primary production and its consumption. Application of this approach could inform Delta management in two ways. First, it would provide a quantitative estimate of how large-scale conversion to agriculture has altered the Delta's capacity to produce food for native biota. Second, it would provide restoration practitioners with a new approach—based on ecosystem function—to evaluate the success of restoration projects and gauge the trajectory of ecological recovery in the Delta region.

  15. How Rapid Change Affects Deltas in the Arctic Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overeem, I.; Bendixen, M.

    2017-12-01

    Deltas form where the river drains into the ocean. Consequently, delta depositional processes are impacted by either changes in the respective river drainage basin or by changes in the regional marine environment. In a warming Arctic region rapid change has occurred over the last few decades in both the terrestrial domain as well as in the marine domain. Important terrestrial controls include 1) change in permafrost possibly destabilizing river banks, 2) strong seasonality of river discharge due to a short melting season, 3) high sediment supply if basins are extensively glaciated, 4) lake outbursts and ice jams favoring river flooding. Whereas in the Arctic marine domain sea ice loss promotes wave and storm surge impact, and increased longshore transport. We here ask which of these factors dominate any morphological change in Arctic deltas. First, we analyze hydrological data to assess change in Arctic-wide river discharge characteristics and timing, and sea ice concentration data to map changes in sea ice regime. Based on this observational analysis we set up a number of scenarios of change. We then model hypothetical small-scale delta formation considering change in these primary controls by setting up a numerical delta model, and combining it dynamically with a permafrost model. We find that for typical Greenlandic deltas changes in river forcing due to ice sheet melt dominate the morphological change, which is corroborated by mapping of delta progradation from aerial photos and satellite imagery. Whereas in other areas, along the North Slope and the Canadian Arctic small deltas are more stable or experienced retreat. Our preliminary coupled model allows us to further disentangle the impact of major forcing factors on delta evolution in high-latitude systems.

  16. Hot deformation behavior of delta-processed superalloy 718

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Y., E-mail: wangyanhit@yahoo.cn [State Key Laboratory of Powder Metallurgy, Central South University, Changsha 410083 (China); School of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Central South University, Changsha 410083 (China); Shao, W.Z.; Zhen, L.; Zhang, B.Y. [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China)

    2011-03-25

    Research highlights: {yields} The peak stress for hot deformation can be described by the Z parameter. {yields} The grain size of DRX was inversely proportional to the Z parameter. {yields} The dissolution of {delta} phases was greatly accelerated under hot deformation. {yields}The {delta} phase stimulated nucleation can serve as the main DRX mechanism. - Abstract: Flow stress behavior and microstructures during hot compression of delta-processed superalloy 718 at temperatures from 950 to 1100 deg. C with strain rates of 10{sup -3} to 1 s{sup -1} were investigated by optical microscopy (OM), electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) technique and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The relationship between the peak stress and the deformation conditions can be expressed by a hyperbolic-sine type equation. The activation energy for the delta-processed superalloy 718 is determined to be 467 kJ/mol. The change of the dominant deformation mechanisms leads to the decrease of stress exponent and the increase of activation energy with increasing temperature. The dynamically recrystallized grain size is inversely proportional to the Zener-Hollomon (Z) parameter. It is found that the dissolution rate of {delta} phases under hot deformation conditions is much faster than that under static conditions. Dislocation, vacancy and curvature play important roles in the dissolution of {delta} phases. The main nucleation mechanisms of dynamic recrystallization (DRX) for the delta-processed superalloy 718 include the bulging of original grain boundaries and the {delta} phase stimulated DRX nucleation, which is closely related to the dissolution behavior of {delta} phases under certain deformation conditions.

  17. Primary Production in the Delta: Then and Now

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James E. Cloern

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.15447/sfews.2016v14iss3art1To evaluate the role of restoration in the recovery of the Delta ecosystem, we need to have clear targets and performance measures that directly assess ecosystem function. Primary production is a crucial ecosystem process, which directly limits the quality and quantity of food available for secondary consumers such as invertebrates and fish. The Delta has a low rate of primary production, but it is unclear whether this was always the case. Recent analyses from the Historical Ecology Team and Delta Landscapes Project provide quantitative comparisons of the areal extent of 14 habitat types in the modern Delta versus the historical Delta (pre-1850. Here we describe an approach for using these metrics of land use change to: (1 produce the first quantitative estimates of how Delta primary production and the relative contributions from five different producer groups have been altered by large-scale drainage and conversion to agriculture; (2 convert these production estimates into a common currency so the contributions of each producer group reflect their food quality and efficiency of transfer to consumers; and (3 use simple models to discover how tidal exchange between marshes and open water influences primary production and its consumption. Application of this approach could inform Delta management in two ways. First, it would provide a quantitative estimate of how large-scale conversion to agriculture has altered the Delta's capacity to produce food for native biota. Second, it would provide restoration practitioners with a new approach—based on ecosystem function—to evaluate the success of restoration projects and gauge the trajectory of ecological recovery in the Delta region.

  18. LIVER TRANSPLANTATION IN HEPATITIS DELTA: SOUTH AMERICA EXPERIENCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Souza LIMA

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: The Amazon region is one of the main endemic areas of hepatitis delta in the world and the only one related to the presence of genotype 3 of the delta virus. OBJECTIVE: To analyze the profile, mortality and survival of cirrhotic patients submitted to liver transplantation for chronic hepatitis delta virus and compare with those transplanted by hepatitis B virus monoinfection. METHODS: Retrospective, observational and descriptive study. From May 2002 to December 2011, 629 liver transplants were performed at the Walter Cantídio University Hospital, of which 29 patients were transplanted due to cirrhosis caused by chronic delta virus infection and 40 by hepatitis B chronic monoinfection. The variables analyzed were: age, sex, MELD score, Child-Pugh score, upper gastrointestinal bleeding and hepatocellular carcinoma occurrence before the transplantation, perioperative platelet count, mortality and survival. RESULTS: The Delta Group was younger and all came from the Brazilian Amazon Region. Group B presented a higher proportion of male patients (92.5% compared to Group D (58.6%. The occurrence of upper gastrointestinal bleeding before transplantation, MELD score, and Child-Pugh score did not show statistical differences between groups. The occurrence of hepatocellular carcinoma and mortality were higher in the hepatitis B Group. The survival in 4 years was 95% in the Delta Group and 75% in the B Group, with a statistically significant difference (P=0.034. Patients with hepatitis delta presented more evident thrombocytopenia in the pre-transplantation and in the immediate postoperative period. CONCLUSION: The hepatitis by delta virus patients who underwent liver transplantation were predominantly male, coming from the Brazilian Amazon region and with similar liver function to the hepatitis B virus patients. They had a lower incidence of hepatocellular carcinoma, more marked perioperative thrombocytopenia levels and frequent

  19. Delta Evolution at Røde Elv, Disko Island, Greenland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroon, A.; Arngrimson, J.; Bendixen, M.; Sigsgaard, C.

    2017-12-01

    Ice, snow and freezing temperatures have a large impact on coastal morphodynamics in Arctic polar environments. A recent warming of the Arctic climate induces many changes along the arctic shorelines. Sea-levels are rising due to thermal expansion and due to an increased fresh water flux from the glaciers and land ice masses. At the same time, the ice coverage of the coastal waters reduces and the open water periods in summer extend. There is a strong seasonal variation with open waters and active rivers in summer and ice-covered coastal waters and inactive rivers in winter. Coastal processes by waves and tides are thus limited to the summer and early fall. Besides, there is also a strong daily variation in fluvial discharges due to the daily variations in glacier melt with maximum melt in the afternoon and minimum values at night. At the same time, the actual flux of the river to the coastal bay is influenced by the tidal phase. Low tides will enhance the transport to the delta front, while high tides will create stagnant waters over the delta plain. The delta of the Røde Elv is located in southwestern Disko Island in west Greenland. It has a relatively small (ca. 101 km2) and partly glaciated drainage basin (ca. 20%) and its sediments consist of a mixture of basaltic sands and gravels. The Røde Elv delta is located at the end of a pro-glacial and fluvial valley at about 20 km from the glacier. The shores of the delta are reworked by waves, predominantly from southwestern, southern (largest fetch, over 50 km), and southeastern directions. The environment has a micro- to meso- tidal range with a spring tidal range of 2.7 m. The morphologic changes on the delta over the last decades clearly showed a seaward extension of the delta and a periodic shift in the location of the main delta channel. In this presentation, we focus on quantification of water discharges and suspended sediment fluxes to the Røde Elv delta in western Greenland, and on the morphological

  20. Late quaternary evolution of the Orinoco Delta, Venezuela

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warne, A.G.; Guevara, E.H.; Aslan, A.

    2002-01-01

    The modern Orinoco Delta is the latest of a series of stacked deltas that have infilled the Eastern Venezuelan Basin (EVB) since the Oligocene. During the late Pleistocene sea-level lowstand (20,000 to 16,000 yrs BP), bedrock control points at the position of the present delta apex prevented the river channel from incising as deeply as many other major river systems. Shallow seismic data indicate that the late Pleistocene Orinoco incised into the present continental shelf, where it formed a braided-river complex that transported sediment to a series of shelf-edge deltas. As sea level rose from 16,000 to 9,500 yrs BP, the Orinoco shoreline shifted rapidly landward, causing shallow-marine waves and currents to form a widespread transgressive sand unit. Decelerating sea-level rise and a warmer, wetter climate during the early Holocene (9,500 to 6,000 yrs BP) induced delta development within the relatively quiet-water environment of the EVB embayment. Sea level approached its present stand in the middle Holocene (6,000 to 3,000 yrs BP), and the Orinoco coast prograded, broadening the delta plain and infilling the EVB embayment. Significant quantities of Amazon sediment began to be transported to the Orinoco coast by littoral currents. Continued progradation in the late Holocene caused the constriction at Boca de Serpientes to alter nearshore and shelf hydrodynamics and subdivide the submarine delta into two distinct areas: the Atlantic shelf and the Gulf of Paria. The increased influence of littoral currents along the coast promoted mudcape development. Because most of the water and sediment were transported across the delta plain through the Rio Grande distributary in the southern delta, much of the central and northwestern delta plain became sediment starved, promoting widespread accumulation of peat deposits. Human impacts on the delta are mostly associated with the Volca??n Dam on Can??o Manamo. However, human activities have had relatively little effect on the

  1. Is there a self-organization principle of river deltas?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tejedor, Alejandro; Longjas, Anthony; Foufoula-Georgiou, Efi

    2017-04-01

    River deltas are known to possess a complex topological and flux-partitioning structure which has recently been quantified using spectral graph theory [Tejedor et al., 2015a,b]. By analysis of real and simulated deltas it has also been shown that there is promise in formalizing relationships between this topo-dynamic delta structure and the underlying delta forming processes [e.g., Tejedor et al., 2016]. The question we pose here is whether there exists a first order organizational principle behind the self-organization of river deltas and whether this principle can be unraveled from the co-evolving topo-dynamic structure encoded in the delta planform. To answer this question, we introduce a new metric, the nonlocal Entropy Rate (nER) that captures the information content of a delta network in terms of the degree of uncertainty in delivering fluxes from any point of the network to the shoreline. We hypothesize that if the "guiding principle" of undisturbed deltas is to efficiently and robustly build land by increasing the diversity of their flux pathways over the delta plane, then they would exhibit maximum nonlocal Entropy Rate at states at which geometry and flux dynamics are at equilibrium. At the same time, their nER would be non-optimal at transient states, such as before and after major avulsions during which topology and dynamics adjust to each other to reach a new equilibrium state. We will present our results for field and simulated deltas, which confirm this hypothesis and open up new ways of thinking about self-organization, complexity and robustness in river deltas. One particular connection of interest might have important implications since entropy rate and resilience are related by the fluctuation theorem [Demetrius and Manke, 2005], and therefore our results suggest that deltas might in fact self-organize to maximize their resilience to structural and dynamic perturbations. References: Tejedor, A., A. Longjas, I. Zaliapin, and E. Foufoula

  2. Holocene evolution of the western Orinoco Delta, Venezuela

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aslan, A.; White, W.A.; Warne, A.G.; Guevara, E.H.

    2003-01-01

    The pristine nature of the Orinoco Delta of eastern Venezuela provides unique opportunities to study the geologic processes and environments of a major tropical delta. Remote-sensing images, shallow cores, and radiocarbon-dating of organic remains form the basis for describing deltaic environments and interpreting the Holocene history of the delta. The Orinoco Delta can be subdivided into two major sectors. The southeast sector is dominated by the Rio Grande-the principal distributary-and complex networks of anastomosing fluvial and tidal channels. The abundance of siliciclastic deposits suggests that fluvial processes such as over-bank flooding strongly influence this part of the delta. In contrast, the northwest sector is represented by few major distributaries, and overbank sedimentation is less widespread relative to the southeast sector. Peat is abundant and occurs in herbaceous and forested swamps that are individually up to 200 km2 in area. Northwest-directed littoral currents transport large volumes of suspended sediment and produce prominent mudcapes along the northwest coast. Mapping of surface sediments, vegetation, and major landforms identified four principal geomorphic systems within the western delta plain: (1) distributary channels, (2) interdistributary flood basins, (3) fluvial-marine transitional environments, and (4) marine-influenced coastal environments. Coring and radiocarbon dating of deltaic deposits show that the northern delta shoreline has prograded 20-30 km during the late Holocene sea-level highstand. Progradation has been accomplished by a combination of distributary avulsion and mudcape progradation. This style of deltaic progradation differs markedly from other deltas such as the Mississippi where distributary avulsion leads to coastal land loss, rather than shoreline progradation. The key difference is that the Orinoco Delta coastal zone receives prodigious amounts of sediment from northwest-moving littoral currents that transport

  3. Sympatric and allopatric experimental infections of the planorbid snail Gyraulus chinensis with miracidia of Euparyphium albuferensis (Trematoda: Echinostomatidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz-Antoli, C; Marín, A; Trelis, M; Toledo, R; Esteban, J-G

    2010-12-01

    An experimental infection with echinostomatid miracidia in sympatric or 'local' vs. allopatric or 'away' snail combinations, as a model to examine parasite compatibility, was carried out. We employed Euparyphium albuferensis miracidia to infect Gyraulus chinensis snails, from three different natural parks: Albufera (Valencia, Spain); the Ebro Delta (Tarragona, Spain) and Coto de Doñana (Huelva, Spain). Insignificant differences between the three snail strains were noted for the infection rate and the rhythm of daily cercarial production. However, a significantly higher total cercarial production per snail, patent period and life span were observed in local snails. The different infection characteristics in the three G. chinensis strains considered reveal that E. albuferensis miracidia demonstrate local adaptation.

  4. Social risk perception: recent findings in Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prades-Lopez, A.; Martinez-Arias, R.; Diaz-Hidalgo, M.

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present our main results from a survey carried out in Spain in the context of social risk perception. This survey is included in a broad project (PRISP) sponsored by the UE and the national Civil Protection Service, and carried out simultaneously in three countries: Spain, Italy and UK. The project combined qualitative and quantitative assessment methods, although only survey results are presented here. A random sample of 600 subjects from two different Spanish communities close to a COMAH chemical site was selected for the research. Main findings regarding, differential perception between both community populations, sex differences, and 'bias perception' of risks among others have been achieved. Main dimensions were obtained by multidimensional scaling and Factor Analysis. Dimensions reported here are similar to the usual findings from the psychometric paradigm. (authors)

  5. Courses and syllabus: the situation in Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iranzo, E.

    1989-01-01

    The regulation covering radioactive and nuclear installations classifies workers operating such installations as operators or supervisors. Operators are persons who, working directly under a supervisor, handle the installation operational equipment and which have a bearing on nuclear safety or protection against radiation. Supervisors are persons directing the operations of a radioactive or nuclear installation and operator activities. The study deals with the courses given in Spain which qualify operators and supervisors in industrial radioactive installations as permit holders, as well as the courses currently being run for persons engaged in the transport of radioactive materials. Spain regulations covering transport of dangerous goods are based on separate Royal Decrees dealing with road and air transport respectively

  6. Training in breast surgery in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miguelena, José M; Domínguez Cunchillos, Fernando

    2016-01-01

    Breast surgery is a key part of training and competency in general surgery in Spain and is a "frontier area" that can be efficiently managed by general surgeons and gynecologists. The main objective of the training process consists of the surgical treatment of breast cancer, including conservative surgery, oncoplastic and reconstructive techniques. This article analyses the current status of breast surgery training in Spain and schematically proposes potential targets of the different training programs, to improve access and training for surgeons and residents in this area, taking into account the RD 639/2014 and European regulation. The priority is to specify the level of training that should be achieved, in relation to the group of professionals involved, considering their area of competency: surgery resident, educational programs, and surgeons with special dedication to this area. Copyright © 2016 AEC. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  7. Entrepreneurship research in Spain: developments and distinctiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, José C; Gutiérrez, Andrea

    2011-08-01

    This article presents a review of research on entrepreneurship in Spain, paying particular attention to its beginnings, nature and main focus of interest. We have developed a database based on the review of 471 works produced between 1977 and 2009, including articles published in national and international journals and dissertations (read in Spain) that allowed us to extract the following results. There is a preference for qualitative methods, conceptual contributions and the entrepreneurial process as the privileged research theme. There is also a strong focus of interest on micro and small enterprises. These characteristics of Spanish research in areas of entrepreneurship can make a distinctive contribution to international research. However, the dissemination of knowledge and inadequate strategies for international publication limit the diffusion of Spanish research in entrepreneurship. Lastly, we discuss the implications for future research.

  8. Patents, antibiotics, and autarky in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero De Pablos, Ana

    2014-01-01

    Patents on antibiotics were introduced in Spain in 1949. Preliminary research reveals diversification in the types of antibiotics: patents relating to penicillin were followed by those relating to streptomycin, erythromycin and tetracycline. There was also diversification in the firms that applied for patents: while Merck & Co. Incorporated and Schenley Industries Inc. were the main partners with Spanish antibiotics manufacturers in the late 1940s, this industrial space also included many others, such as Eli Lilly & Company, Abbott Laboratories, Chas. Pfizer & Co. Incorporated, and American Cyanamid Company in the mid-1970s. The introduction of these drugs in Spain adds new elements to a re-evaluation of the autarkic politics of the early years of the Franco dictatorship.

  9. Renewable Energy Policy Fact sheet - Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2017-07-01

    The EurObserv'ER policy profiles give a snapshot of the renewable energy policy in the EU Member States. On October 2015, a new support scheme (the 'Regimen Retributivo Especifico') was established in Spain. The aim was to grant a specific remuneration regime for new biomass plants located in the mainland electricity system and for wind energy plants. The allocation of the referred specific remuneration regime has been done through a competitive call for tenders. A tax regulation mechanism for investments related to RESE plants is in place. There is a tax credit for solar thermal and for bio-fuels in transport. Furthermore a quota system for bio-fuels is in place. RES-E operators are entitled to grid connection, priority dispatch against the grid operator. Currently no support schemes for RES-H and C are in place in Spain

  10. Regulatory Control of Radioactive Sources in Spain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez, M.; Martin, J.L., E-mail: mrm@csn.es [Nuclear Safety Council, Madrid (Spain)

    2011-07-15

    The arrangements for the regulatory control of the safety and security of sealed radioactive sources in Spain are described. Emphasis is given to the situations which are most likely to result in the loss of control of sources and on the procedures introduced to reduce the likelihood of losses in these cases. Finally, the strategy for locating sources which have been lost from control (orphan sources) is described. (author)

  11. Legislating tolerance: Spain's national public smoking law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muggli, Monique E; Lockhart, Nikki J; Ebbert, Jon O; Jiménez-Ruiz, Carlos A; Riesco Miranda, Juan Antonio; Hurt, Richard D

    2010-02-01

    While Spain's national tobacco control legislation prohibits smoking in many indoor public places, the law provides for an exception to the prohibition of smoking by allowing separate seating sections and ventilation options in certain public places such as bars and restaurants, hotels and airports. Accordingly, Spain's law is not aligned with Article 8 Guidelines of the World Health Organization's Framework Convention on Tobacco Control, which requires parties to ensure universal protection against secondhand smoke exposure in all enclosed public places, workplaces and on all means of public transport. Spain's law is currently being promoted by the tobacco companies in other countries as a model for smoke-free legislation. In order to prevent weakening of smoke-free laws in other countries through industry-supported exceptions, we investigated the tactics used by the tobacco companies before the implementation of the new law and assessed the consequences of these actions in the hospitality sector. Internal tobacco industry documents made public through US litigation settlements dating back to the 1980s were searched in 2008-9. Documents show that tobacco companies sought to protect hospitality venues from smoking restrictions by promoting separate seating for smokers and ineffective ventilation technologies, supporting an unenforceable voluntary agreement between the Madrid local government and the hospitality industry, influencing ventilation standards setting and manipulating Spanish media. The Spanish National Assembly should adopt comprehensive smoke-free legislation that does not accommodate the interests of the tobacco industry. In doing so, Spain's smoke-free public places law would be better aligned with the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control.

  12. The Actual Problems of Modern Spain

    OpenAIRE

    Natalya E. Anikeeva

    2014-01-01

    The important aim of national and Spanish historiography and political science is to study history and foreign policy of modern Spain. The author studied articles and monographies of spanish politicians and researchers ( M. Rahoy, I. Aries, A. Rubalcaba, I. Molina) for the preparation of this article during the scientific trip to Madrid (Complutense University, Faculty of Political Science and Sociology), which was held in the framework of cooperation between the Bank Santander and MGIMO (Uni...

  13. The dilemmas of nuclear energy in Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aranzadi, C.

    2008-01-01

    This article reviews the economic basis of some controversial political choices concerning the future of nuclear energy in Spain: authorisation or refusal of existing nuclear power plants life extension and investment in new ones. These decisions are to be taken in an environment characterised by a reluctant public opinion that feel uninformed and whose risk perception differs deeply from experts assessment, but prefers not to be consulted. (Author) 19 refs

  14. National registry of hemoglobinopathies in Spain (REPHem).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cela, Elena; Bellón, José M; de la Cruz, María; Beléndez, Cristina; Berrueco, Rubén; Ruiz, Anna; Elorza, Izaskun; Díaz de Heredia, Cristina; Cervera, Aurea; Vallés, Griselda; Salinas, J Antonio; Coll, M Teresa; Bermúdez, Mar; Prudencio, Marta; Argilés, Bienvenida; Vecilla, Cruz

    2017-07-01

    Although highly prevalent throughout the world, the accurate prevalence of hemoglobinopathies in Spain is unknown. This study presents data on the national registry of hemoglobinopathies of patients with thalassemia major (TM), thalassemia intermedia (TI), and sickle cell disease (SCD) in Spain created in 2014. Fifty centers reported cases retrospectively. Data were registered from neonatal screening or from the first contact at diagnosis until last follow-up or death. Data of the 715 eligible patients were collected: 615 SCD (497 SS, 64 SC, 54 SBeta phenotypes), 73 thalassemia, 9 CC phenotype, and 18 other variants. Most of the SCD patients were born in Spain (65%), and 51% of these were diagnosed at newborn screening. Median age at the first diagnosis was 0.4 years for thalassemia and 1.0 years for SCD. The estimated incidence was 0.002 thalassemia cases and 0.03 SCD cases/1,000 live births. Median age was 8.9 years (0.2-33.7) for thalassemia and 8.1 years (0.2-32.8) for SCD patients. Stroke was registered in 16 SCD cases. Transplantation was performed in 43 TM and 23 SCD patients at a median age of 5.2 and 7.8 years, respectively. Twenty-one patients died (3 TM, 17 SCD, 1 CC) and 200 were lost to follow-up. Causes of death were related to transplantation in three patients with TM and three patients with SCD. Death did not seem to be associated with SCD in six patients, but nine patients died secondary to disease complications. Overall survival was 95% at 15 years of age. The registry provides data about the prevalence of hemoglobinopathies in Spain and will permit future cohort studies and the possibility of comparison with other registries. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Lessons learned from Spain's nuclear program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia Rodriguez, A.

    1993-01-01

    The commercial nuclear program in Spain dates back to the beginning of the 1960s. There are currently nine units in operation, one more has been decommissioned and a further five are in different phases of construction but under nuclear moratorium since 1983. This article gives a general overview of the program, the criteria applied, what it has meant to and required of the industry and, finally, what lessons have been learned. (author) 2 figs

  16. Water Markets in Spain: Performance and Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Palomo-Hierro

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Law 46/1999 incorporated formal water markets into the Spanish legal and regulatory framework, allowing spot water markets and the creation of water banks. The implementation of water markets in Spain aimed at improving the efficiency of water use by reallocating water towards uses with higher added value. However, the performance of water markets in Spain has been rather disappointing, since they have been operative only during drought periods, and even under these extreme scarcity situations, trading activity counted for less than 5.0% of total water use. The narrowness of the market suggests that there are some barriers hampering their effective functioning. This paper examines the evolution and performance of water markets in Spain, relying on a transaction costs analysis framework. This analysis allows the identification of the main factors impeding water markets from operating effectively as a water reallocation tool. This analysis also provides some guidelines on how to overcome these obstacles and, thus, how to improve the efficiency of water use.

  17. Small hydro: Policy and potential in Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gutierrez, C.

    2001-01-01

    In Spain, the benefits of small-scale (less than 10 MW) hydro are apparently rarely appreciated and there is little support from European institutions. The article suggests that small hydro technology can make a significant contribution to the country's energy requirements and create employment, provided certain obstacles can be removed. Data on the number of small hydros in Spain, and of recent installations are given; the share of hydro in Spain's total energy production is 2.5%. The low environmental impact of hydro is extolled, and the conclusions of a recent study of 'environmental impacts of the production of electricity' are listed. There are said to be unreasonable administrative obstacles; for example, it is more difficult to obtain permission to refurbish a 100 kW hydro plant in Castilla y Leon than it is to install a 30,000 kW gas plant. Some details relating to the affect of hydro on aquatic ecosystems, noise levels, and water quality, are given

  18. The DELTA 181 lithium thionyl chloride battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Ralph M.; Brown, Lawrence E.; Leigh, A. P.

    In 1986, the Johns Hopkins University/Applied Physics Laboratory (JHU/APL) undertook the development of a sensor module for the DELTA 181 spacecraft, a low earth orbit (LEO) mission of less than two months duration. A large lithium thionyl chloride battery was developed as the spacecraft's primary power source, the first known such use for this technology. The exceptionally high energy density of the lithium thionyl chloride cell was the primary driver for its use, resulting in a completed battery with a specific energy density of 120 Wh/lb. Safety requirements became the primary driver shaping all aspects of the power system design and development due to concerns about the potential hazards of this relatively new, high-energy technology. However, the program was completed without incident. The spacecraft was launched on February 8, 1988, from Kennedy Space Center (KSC) with over 60,000 Wh of battery energy. It reentered on April 2, 1988, still operating after 55 days, providing a successful, practical, and visible demonstration of the use of this technology for spacecraft applications.

  19. Chiral model for nucleon and delta

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Birse, M.C.; Banerjee, M.K.

    1985-01-01

    We propose a model of the nucleon and delta based on the idea that strong QCD forces on length scales approx.0.2--1 fm result in hidden chiral SU(2) x SU(2) symmetry and that there is a separation of roles between these forces which are also responsible for binding quarks in hadrons and the forces which produce absolute confinement. This leads us to study a linear sigma model describing the interactions of quarks, sigma mesons, and pions. We have solved this model in the semiclassical (mean-field) approximation for the hedgehog baryon state. We refer to this solution as a chiral soliton. In the semiclassical approximation the hedgehog state is a linear combination of N and Δ. We project this state onto states of good spin and isospin to calculate matrix elements of various operators in these states. Our results are in reasonable agreement with the observed properties of the nucleon. The mesonic contributions to g/sub A/ and sigma(πN) are about two to three times too large, suggesting the need for quantum corrections

  20. Delta Morphodynamics Matters! Ecosystem Services, Poverty and Morphodynamic Change in the Ganges-Brahmaputra Mega-Delta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholls, R. J.; Adger, N.; Allan, A.; Darby, S. E.; Hutton, C.; Matthews, Z.; Rahman, M.; Whitehead, P. G.; Wolf, J.

    2013-12-01

    The world's deltas are probably the most vulnerable type of coastal environment, and they face multiple stresses in the coming decades. These stresses include, amongst others, local drivers due to land subsidence, population growth and urbanisation within the deltas, regional drivers due to changes in catchment management (e.g. upstream land use and dam construction), as well as global climate change impacts such as sea-level rise. At the same time, the ecosystem services of river deltas support high population densities, with around 14% of the global population inhabiting deltas. A large proportion of these people experience extremes of poverty and they are therefore severely exposed to vulnerability from environmental and ecological stress and degradation. In areas close to or below the poverty boundary, both subsistence and cash elements of the economy tend to rely disproportionately heavily on ecosystem services which underpin livelihoods. Therefore, to sustainably manage delta environments they must be viewed as complex social-environmental systems where change is only partially driven by physical drivers such as sea level rise and climate change, and human-induced development activities are also critical. Here we outline a new conceptual framework for the development of methods to understand and characterise the key drivers of change in ecosystem services that affect the environment and economic status of populous deltas, focusing specifically on the Ganges-Brahmaputra-Meghna (GBM) mega-delta. The GBM delta is characterised by densely populated coastal lowlands with significant poverty, with livelihoods supported to a large extent by natural ecosystems such as the Sunderbahns (the largest mangrove forest in the world). However, the GBM delta is under severe development pressure due to many growing cities. At present the importance of ecosystems services to poverty and livelihoods is poorly understood. This is due to due to the complexity of interactions

  1. The situation in the Niger Delta; La situation dans le delta du Niger

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vitalis, E

    2007-07-15

    An energy issue for the United States and a political challenge for Europe, Nigeria is experiencing growing instability and is on the verge of civil war; the ecosystem and the population of the Niger Delta are the main victims. The State, corrupt, is powerless to contain the rising violence and redistribute the proceeds of oil sales. It is high time for oil-consuming countries, starting with the United States, to concern themselves with stabilizing the region. Europe must contribute to the lasting development of this country. (author)

  2. The Niger Delta Avengers, Autonomous Ethnic Clans and Common ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nneka Umera-Okeke

    therefore investigated the sudden emergence of Niger Delta Avengers ... hardship, deprivations and environmental degradation occasioned by oil pipeline .... analysis of coded materials of the library such as books, magazines, journals,.

  3. Rarotonga Radiocarbon (delta 14C) for 1950 to 1997

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Rarotonga coral radiocarbon (14C) timeseries. Coral radiocarbon (Delta-14C) on untreated, low-speed drilled samples. Precision is +/- 4 per mil as documented by an...

  4. Novel urinary metabolite of d-delta-tocopherol in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiku, S.; Hamamura, K.; Nakamura, T.

    1984-01-01

    A novel metabolite of d-delta-tocopherol was isolated from the urine of rats given d-3,4-[ 3 H 2 ]-delta-tocopherol intravenously. The metabolite was collected from the urine of rats given d-delta-tocopherol in the same manner as that of the labeled compound. It was found that the metabolites consisted of sulfate conjugates. The portion of the major metabolite released with sulfatase was determined to be 2,8-dimethyl-2-(2'-carboxyethyl)-6-chromanol by infrared spectra, nuclear magnetic resonance spectra, and mass spectra. The proposed structure was confirmed by comparing the analytical results with those of a synthetically derived compound. As a result of the structural elucidation of this novel metabolite, a pathway for the biological transformation of delta-tocopherol is proposed which is different from that of alpha-tocopherol. A characteristic feature of the pathway is the absence of any opening of the chroman ring throughout the sequence

  5. Environmental Law and Underdevelopment in the Niger Delta ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Environmental Law and Underdevelopment in the Niger Delta Region of Nigeria. ... is composed of many ecosystems of great economic and social importance, ... producing companies contribute to the degradation of the environment which in ...

  6. Delta-ray spectroscopy of quasi-atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kozhuharov, C.

    1983-01-01

    The spectroscopy of high energy delta-rays, emitted in collisions of very heavy ions, is studied. The ''orange''-type beta-spectrometer and the achromatic electron channel are the experimental setups. Delta ray production probabilities are studied as a function of the distance of closest approach R /SUB min/ or the impact parameter b. Coulomb ionization, ion trajectory, scaling laws, double differential cross sections, and K-X-rays information is extracted from the experiment. The dependence of delta-ray emission on the united charge number Z /SUB u/ is discussed. Asymmetric collision systems with Z x alpha approx. = 1 (delta ray spectrum from Pb→Sn collisions) are studied. Finally, very heavy collisions, such as 208 Pb + 208 Pb collisions at bombarding energy fas below the Coulomb barrier are touched upon

  7. precise delta extraction scheme for reprogramming of wireless

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    eobe

    Keywords- reprogramming; operating system, wireless sensor network, Delta. 1. INTRODUCTION ... It entails the transmission of only modified modules that are then ... higher power consumption and slow system execution are drawbacks ...

  8. Pattern of Complicated Unsafe Abortions in Niger Delta University ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Alasia Datonye

    of cases of complicated unsafe abortion managed at the. Niger Delta University ... previous termination of pregnancy and 87.3% of the patients had ... and outcome were obtained. ... life-threatening complications, post- abortion family planning.

  9. DEltas, vulnerability and Climate Change: Migration and Adaptation ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Hutton C.W.

    Stakeholder Dialogue, London, June 19th, 2014. DEltas, vulnerability and Climate. Change: Migration and Adaptation. (DECCMA). Stakeholder Dialogue. Radisson Blu Edwardian Grafton Hotel, London, UK. June 19th, 2014 ...

  10. Ecohealth Approach to Flood Recession Farming in Okavango Delta ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    In the Okavango Delta, Botswana, flood-recession farming (molapu) is a lucrative but ... Moreover, some practices involved in molapu farming may pose a threat to the ... Linking research to urban planning at the ICLEI World Congress 2018.

  11. What are Pregnant Women in a Rural Niger Delta Community's ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erah

    Buchanan House, Glasgow Caledonian University Email: Caroline. ... exploratory qualitative study was carried out to identify pregnant women in a rural Niger Delta community's perceptions of ..... sometimes you stay for the whole day.

  12. Inventory Management in Delta Allied Wire Industries Limited Asaba ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A good inventory system reduces production cost and consequently increases profit. Optimum management of inventory in the Delta – Allied Wire Industries ... under review and customers' handling processes equally studied for improvement.

  13. Nucleon and delta masses in twisted mass chiral perturbation theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walker-Loud, Andre; Wu, Jackson M.S.

    2005-01-01

    We calculate the masses of the nucleons and deltas in twisted mass heavy baryon chiral perturbation theory. We work to quadratic order in a power counting scheme in which we treat the lattice spacing, a, and the quark masses, m q , to be of the same order. We give expressions for the mass and the mass splitting of the nucleons and deltas both in and away from the isospin limit. We give an argument using the chiral Lagrangian treatment that, in the strong isospin limit, the nucleons remain degenerate and the delta multiplet breaks into two degenerate pairs to all orders in chiral perturbation theory. We show that the mass splitting between the degenerate pairs of the deltas first appears at quadratic order in the lattice spacing. We discuss the subtleties in the effective chiral theory that arise from the inclusion of isospin breaking

  14. Restoration of Delta Streams: A Case History and Conceptual Model

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Killgore, K. J; Hoover, Jan J; Murphy, Catherine E; Parrish, Kent D; Johnson, David R; Myers, Karen F

    2008-01-01

    .... Low water, excessive sedimentation in smaller delta streams, and the accumulation of pesticides such as DDT are the consequences of these anthropogenic disturbances resulting in dominance of tolerant fish species...

  15. LiDAR data for the Delta Area of California

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — LiDAR data for the Delta Area of California from the California Department of Water Resources. Bare earth grids from LiDAR.This data is in ESRI Grid format with 2...

  16. Environmental Risk Profiling of the Volta Delta, Ghana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyarko, B. K.; Appeaning-Addo, K.; Amisigo, B.

    2017-12-01

    Volta Delta communities find it difficult to absorb or bear risk at different levels, because of the physical and economic impacts of environmental hazards. In this regards various agencies and organizations have in recent years launched initiatives to measure and identify risk areas with a set of indicators and indices. The theory underpinning this study is concepts of Modern Portfolio Theory (MPT). The Cox proportional hazards regression model will be used as the model for the risk profile. Finding the optimal level of environmental risk for activities in the Volta Delta considering the risk required, risk capacity and risk tolerance. Using data from different sources, an environmental risk profile was developed for the Volta Delta. The result indicates that risks are distributed across the Delta. However, areas that have government interventions, such as sea defense system and irrigation facilities have less threat. In addition wealthy areas do effectively reduce the threat of any form of disaster.

  17. Costs, outcomes and challenges for diabetes care in Spain

    OpenAIRE

    Lopez-Bastida, Julio; Boronat, Mauro; Moreno, Juan Oliva; Schurer, Willemien

    2013-01-01

    Background Diabetes is becoming of increasing concern in Spain due to rising incidence and prevalence, although little information is known with regards to costs and outcomes. The information on cost of diabetes in Spain is fragmented and outdated. Our objective is to update diabetes costs, and to identify outcomes and quality of care of diabetes in Spain. Methods We performed systematic searches from secondary sources, including scientific literature and government data and reports. Results ...

  18. Catalonia and Spain at the crossroads: financial and economic aspects

    OpenAIRE

    Castells, Antoni (Castells Oliveres)

    2014-01-01

    In some large European countries, in recent decades, economic globalization has gone hand in hand with a powerful trend to political decentralization (this has been the case in the United Kingdom, France, Italy, and Spain). In Spain, and after years of apparent stability, the relations between Catalonia and Spain are experiencing troubled times. This paper examines particularly the main economic effects of both the staying together and the secession scenarios. Following the introduction, the ...

  19. Sedimentation patterns in floodplains of the Mekong Delta - Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Manh, Nguyen; Merz, Bruno; Viet Dung, Nguyen; Apel, Heiko

    2013-04-01

    Quantification of floodplain sedimentation during the flood season in the Mekong Delta (MD) plays a very important role in the assessment of flood deposits for a sustainable agro-economic development. Recent studies on floodplain sedimentation in the region are restricted to small pilot sites because of the large extend of the Delta, and the complex channel. This research aims at a quantification of the sediment deposition in floodplains of the whole Mekong Delta, and to access the impacts of the upstream basin development on the sedimentation in the Delta quantitatively. To achieve this, a suspended sediment transport model is developed based on the quasi-2D hydrodynamic model of the whole Mekong Delta developed by Dung et al. (2011). The model is calibrated and validated using observed data derived from several sediment measurement campaigns in channel networks and floodplains. Measured sediment data and hydrodynamic model quantify the spatio-temporal variability of sediment depositions in different spatial units: individual dyke compartments, and the sub-regions Plain of Reeds, Long Xuyen Quadrangle and the area between Tien River and Hau River. It is shown that the distribution of sediment deposition over the delta is highly depended on the flood magnitude, that in turn drives the operation policy of flood control systems in floodplains of the Mekong Delta. Thus, the sedimentation distribution is influenced by the protection level of the dyke systems in place and the distance to the Tien River and Hau River, the main branches of the Mekong in the Delta. This corroborates the main findings derived from data analysis obtained from a small scale test site by Hung et al, (2011, 2012a). Moreover, the results obtained here underlines the importance of the main channels for the sediment transport into the floodplains, and the deposition rate in floodplains is strongly driven by the intake locations and the distance from these to the main channels as well.

  20. Studies of Louisiana's Deltas and Wetlands using SAR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, C. E.

    2017-12-01

    Sustainable coastal environments exist in delicate balance between subsidence, erosion, and sea level rise on one hand and accretion of sediment and retention of decomposing organic matter on the other. In this talk we present results from a series of studies using an airborne L-band SAR (UAVSAR) to measure changing conditions in the Mississippi River Delta and coastal wetlands of Louisiana. Change within the Mississippi River delta (MRD), which is a highly engineered environment, is contrasted to those in the Wax Lake Delta, a small, naturally evolving delta located to the west of the current-day lobe of the MRD. The UAVSAR studies provide evidence that in the MRD subsidence and erosion related to human activities are increasing risk of flooding, submergence, and land loss. These are not seen in the Wax Lake Delta, where new land is forming. We evaluate geomorphic and hydrologic changes In the Wax Lake Delta and wetlands hydrologically connected to the Wax Lake Outlet canal that are apparent on the timescales of the UAVSAR data set, which consists of both near-yearly acquisitions (2009-2016) and several series of repeat acquisitions in 2015 and 2016 capturing conditions across a tidal cycle. Using the yearly data, we observe the evolution of subaqueous channels and crevasses in the delta and changes in distributary channels within the wetlands. We use water level change derived from InSAR applied to the rapid repeat data acquired during different stages of a tidal cycle to study the natural pattern of water flux within the delta and the coastal wetlands. The studies, results, and plans for future work will be presented. This work was carried out in part at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, under contracts with the California Dept. of Water Resources and with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration.

  1. The Great Diversion: Danube Delta under Human Control (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giosan, L.

    2009-12-01

    Many deltas around the world are suffering from sediment deficits that render them unstable to current and predicted rates of sea level rise. One solution proposed to alleviate the complete or partial drowning of such deltas is the use of river diversions to increase the quantity of sediment supplied to the delta plain to support marsh accretion. We examine the results of a half century old program of diversion in the Danube delta that led to the creation of an extensive diversion channel network akin in scope and size to a natural deltaic network. Danube’s importance as a shipping route increased after the Crimean War in the 1850s; the European Danube Commission was charged with maintaining the Sulina distributary as a shipping channel until 1940s. In the same period, several canals were dug to aid fishing in lakes and bring freshwater to brackish lagoons. After World War II, Communist authorities dramatically increased the number of canals for fishing, fish-farming and reed harvesting. New data on sedimentation rates and estimates of sediment fluxes suggest that the intensive canalization in the second half of the 20th Century led to increased sediment deposition that compensated the decreasing sediment discharge linked to damming within the internal fluvial part of the delta; however, the external marine delta has become increasingly sediment starved during the same interval. We emphasize the similarities and contrasts between the “human-controlled” and natural deltaic channel networks of the Danube delta and discuss the sustainability of the delta as a sediment budget problem within a sea level rise context.

  2. Governance of ‘long term delta planning’ in Bangladesh, Vietnam and the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Staveren, van M.F.

    2014-01-01

    The Deltas in Times of Climate Change Conference II, taking place in September 2014, Rotterdam, presented a suitable occasion to discuss both delta challenges and interesting approaches to how ‘delta dynamics’ are being dealt with worldwide.1 Delta dynamics include here both environmental (including

  3. Challenges and Approaches in River Delta Planning - Annexes to report on training workshop

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wosten, J.H.M.; Douven, W.; Long Phi, H.; Fida Abdullah Khan, M.

    2012-01-01

    Programme, participants and all powerpoint presentations of the Delta Alliance Training Workshop: Challenges and approaches in river delta planning, sharing experiences from SE Asian Deltas and the Rhine-Meuse Delta. 22-26 October 2012, WACC, Vietnam National University, Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam

  4. Natural levee evolution in the Rhine-Meuse delta, the Netherlands, during the first millennium CE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pierik, H.J.; Stouthamer, E.; Cohen, K.M.

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents reconstructions on natural levee development in the Rhine-Meuse delta, the Netherlands, during the first millennium CE, covering the full delta plain. It is the first study that performs this on a delta scale, which allows seeing the delta-wide trends on levee-forming controls

  5. An integrated assessment framework for land subsidence in delta cities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. H. M. Bucx

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In many delta cities land subsidence exceeds absolute sea level rise up to a factor of ten by excessive groundwater extraction related to rapid urbanization and population growth. Without change, parts of Jakarta, Ho Chi Minh City, Bangkok and numerous other delta (and coastal cities will sink below sea level. Increased flooding and also other widespread impacts of land subsidence result already in damage of billions of dollars per year. In order to gain insight in the complex, multi-sectoral aspects of subsidence, to raise awareness and to support decision making on appropriate adaptation strategies and measures, an Integrated Assessment Framework (IAF for subsidence is introduced, illustrated by several (delta case studies. Based on that a list of 10 generic key issues and possible solutions is presented in order to further develop and support a (generic approach how to deal with subsidence in current and future subsidence-prone areas. For exchange of experiences and knowledge development.on subsidence in deltas the Delta Alliance, a knowledge network of deltas worldwide, can be supportive.

  6. Sand transport, shear stress, and the building of a delta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, W.; Miller, K. L.; Hiatt, M. R.; Mohrig, D. C.

    2017-12-01

    River deltas distribute sediment to the coastal sea through a complex branching network of channels; however, the routing and storage of this sediment in and through the delta is poorly understood. We present results from field studies of the sediment and water transport through the branching Wax Lake Delta on the coast of Louisiana. Two channels studied, Main Pass and East Pass, maintain a near-equal total partitioning of flow and sediment. However, East Pass is narrower and has higher river velocities, lower tidal velocity fluctuations, less alluvial bed cover, and more sediment flux per unit width than Main Pass. We connect these differences to small differences in the geometry of the two channels and feedbacks between these differences. We link trends in measured sediment deposits to both measured and modeled shear velocities in Wax Lake Delta's channels and open water `islands' to understand how hydrologic processes shaped the sedimentary architecture of the delta. These connections define the sediment transport and deposition regimes in the WLD. We extend the results herein to suggest that the relationships between the available sediment and shear stress determines the basic planform of the Wax Lake Delta and cross-sectional geometries of its channels.

  7. The State of Bay–Delta Science 2016: An Introduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Healey

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.15447/sfews.2016v14iss2art5The State of Bay–Delta Science 2016 (SBDS is a collection of papers that summarizes the scientific understanding of the Sacramento–San Joaquin Delta, emphasizing progress made during the past decade.It builds on the first SBDS edition (Healey et al. 2008. Paper topics for this edition address the most relevant scientific issues in the Delta identified by senior scientists and managers. The topical papers cover issues ranging from contaminants in the Delta to levee stability, and from Delta food webs to recent discoveries about salmon migration. These papers are written for a scientific audience. Two additional papers, one describing the challenges of managing water and ecosystems in the Delta and another that discusses policy implications of the recent scientific findings, are written for a general audience. The papers will be published in at least two issues of San Francisco Estuary and Watershed Science and will be available as a set electronically.

  8. Metallicism and pulsation: an analysis of the delta Delphini stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurtz, D.W.

    1976-01-01

    Fine abundance analyses of seven delta Delphini stars and one delta Scuti star relative to four comparison standards are presented. Five of the delta Del stars are shown to have abundances most similar to the evolved Am stars. It is argued that these abundances are different from the classical Am star and Ap star abundances and that similarities to the Ba II star abundances are coincidental. We suggest that the anomalous abundance delta Del stars are evolved metallic line stars on the basis of their abundances, position in the β, M/sub v/ plane, inferred rotational velocities, and perhaps their binary incidence. Some of the delta Del stars are delta Scuti pulsators. We argue that pulsation and metallicism are mutually exclusive among the classical Am stars but may coexist in other stars related to the classical Am stars. A preference for the diffusion hypothesis model for the metallic line stars is stated and supported and the implications of the coexistence of pulsation and diffusion are discussed

  9. How yield relates to ash content, Delta 13C and Delta 18O in maize grown under different water regimes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabrera-Bosquet, Llorenç; Sánchez, Ciro; Araus, José Luis

    2009-11-01

    Stable isotopes have proved a valuable phenotyping tool when breeding for yield potential and drought adaptation; however, the cost and technical skills involved in isotope analysis limit its large-scale application in breeding programmes. This is particularly so for Delta(18)O despite the potential relevance of this trait in C(4) crops. The accumulation of minerals (measured as ash content) has been proposed as an inexpensive way to evaluate drought adaptation and yield in C(3) cereals, but little is known of the usefulness of this measure in C(4) cereals such as maize (Zea mays). The present study investigates how yield relates to ash content, Delta(13)C and Delta(18)O, and evaluates the use of ash content as an alternative or complementary criterion to stable isotopes in assessing yield potential and drought resistance in maize. A set of tropical maize hybrids developed by CIMMYT were subjected to different water availabilities, in order to induce water stress during the reproductive stages under field conditions. Ash content and Delta(13)C were determined in leaves and kernels. In addition, Delta(18)O was measured in kernels. Water regime significantly affected yield, ash content and stable isotopes. The results revealed a close relationship between ash content in leaves and the traits informing about plant water status. Ash content in kernels appeared to reflect differences in sink-source balance. Genotypic variation in grain yield was mainly explained by the combination of ash content and Delta(18)O, whilst Delta(13)C did not explain a significant percentage of such variation. Ash content in leaves and kernels proved a useful alternative or complementary criterion to Delta(18)O in kernels for assessing yield performance in maize grown under drought conditions.

  10. Population dynamics, delta vulnerability and environmental change: comparison of the Mekong, Ganges–Brahmaputra and Amazon delta regions

    OpenAIRE

    Szabo, S.; Brondizio, E.; Renaud, F.G.; Hetrick, S.; Nicholls, R.; Matthews, Z.; Tessler, Z; Tejedor, A; Sebesvari, Z; Foufoula-Georgiou, E; da Costa, S; Dearing, J.A.

    2016-01-01

    Tropical delta regions are at risk of multiple threats including relative sea level rise and human alterations, making them more and more vulnerable to extreme floods, storms, surges, salinity intrusion, and other hazards which could also increase in magnitude and frequency with a changing climate. Given the environmental vulnerability of tropical deltas, understanding the interlinkages between population dynamics and environmental change in these regions is crucial for ensuring efficient pol...

  11. Mean proloculus size, delta super(13) C and delta super(18) O variations in recent benthic foraminifera from the west coast of India and their climatic implications

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Nigam, R.; Sarkar, A.

    The interrelationship between mean proloculus size (MPS), delta super(18) O and delta super(13) C vatiations in benthic foraminiferal species Rotalidium annectens and their relation with temperature (T) and salinity (S) have been studied in samples...

  12. Perspectives on Bay–Delta Science and Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Healey

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available doi: https://doi.org/10.15447/sfews.2016v14iss4art6The State of Bay–Delta Science 2008 highlighted seven emerging perspectives on science and management of the Delta. These perspectives had important effects on policy and legislation concerning management of the Delta ecosystem and water exports. From the collection of papers that make up the State of Bay–Delta Science 2016, we derive another seven perspectives that augment those published in 2008. The new perspectives address nutrient and contaminant concentrations in Delta waters, the failure of the Delta food web to support native species, the role of multiple stressors in driving species toward extinction, and the emerging importance of extreme events in driving change in the ecosystem and the water supply. The scientific advances that underpin these new perspectives were made possible by new measurement and analytic tools. We briefly discuss some of these, including miniaturized acoustic fish tags, sensors for monitoring of water quality, analytic techniques for disaggregating complex contaminant mixtures, remote sensing to assess levee vulnerability, and multidimensional hydrodynamic modeling. Despite these new tools and scientific insights, species conservation objectives for the Delta are not being met. We believe that this lack of progress stems in part from the fact that science and policy do not incorporate sufficiently long-term perspectives. Looking forward half a century was central to the Delta Visioning process, but science and policy have not embraced this conceptual breadth. We are also concerned that protection and enhancement of the unique cultural, recreational, natural resource, and agricultural values of the Delta as an evolving place, as required by the Delta Reform Act, has received no critical study and analysis. Adopting wider and longer science and policy perspectives immediately encourages recognition of the need for evaluation, analysis, and public discourse on

  13. Lava delta deformation as a proxy for submarine slope instability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Traglia, Federico; Nolesini, Teresa; Solari, Lorenzo; Ciampalini, Andrea; Frodella, William; Steri, Damiano; Allotta, Benedetto; Rindi, Andrea; Marini, Lorenzo; Monni, Niccolò; Galardi, Emanuele; Casagli, Nicola

    2018-04-01

    The instability of lava deltas is a recurrent phenomenon affecting volcanic islands, which can potentially cause secondary events such as littoral explosions (due to interactions between hot lava and seawater) and tsunamis. It has been shown that Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR) is a powerful technique to forecast the collapse of newly emplaced lava deltas. This work goes further, demonstrating that the monitoring of lava deltas is a successful strategy by which to observe the long-term deformation of subaerial-submarine landslide systems on unstable volcanic flanks. In this paper, displacement measurements derived from Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) imagery were used to detect lava delta instability at Stromboli volcano (Italy). Recent flank eruptions (2002-2003, 2007 and 2014) affected the Sciara del Fuoco (SdF) depression, created a "stacked" lava delta, which overlies a pre-existing scar produced by a submarine-subaerial tsunamigenic landslide that occurred on 30 December 2002. Space-borne X-band COSMO-SkyMED (CSK) and C-band SENTINEL-1A (SNT) SAR data collected between February 2010 and October 2016 were processed using the SqueeSAR algorithm. The obtained ground displacement maps revealed the differential ground motion of the lava delta in both CSK and SNT datasets, identifying a stable area (characterized by less than 2 mm/y in both datasets) within the northern sector of the SdF and an unstable area (characterized by velocity fields on the order of 30 mm/y and 160 mm/y in the CSK and SNT datasets, respectively) in the central sector of the SdF. The slope stability of the offshore part of the SdF, as reconstructed based on a recently performed multibeam bathymetric survey, was evaluated using a 3D Limit Equilibrium Method (LEM). In all the simulations, Factor of Safety (F) values between 0.9 and 1.1 always characterized the submarine slope between the coastline and -250 m a.s.l. The critical surfaces for all the search volumes corresponded to

  14. Initial isotopic geochemistry ({delta} 18 O, {delta} D) of fluids from wells of the Los Humeros, Pue., geothermal field; Geoquimica isotopica ({delta} 18 O, {delta} D) inicial de fluidos de pozos del campo geotermico de Los Humeros, Pue.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barragan Reyes, Rosa Maria; Arellano Gomez, Victor Manuel [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Gerencia de Geotermia, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico)]. E-mail: rmb@iie.org.mx; Ramirez Montes, Miguel; Tovar Aguado, Rigoberto [Comision Federal de Electricidad, Gerencia de Proyectos Geotermoelectricos, Morelia, Michoacan (Mexico)

    2010-01-15

    Isotopic data ({delta} 18 O, {delta} D) from fluids from production wells at the Los Humeros, Pue., geothermal field were analyzed to investigate the possible origin of these fluids and the dominant processes of the reservoir at its initial state. According to pre-exploitation data, it is suggested the Los Humeros reservoir fluids are made of a mixture of meteoric water of very light isotopic composition (paleo-fluids) and andesitic water. The relationship {delta} D vs {delta} 18 O from pre-exploitation data indicates the produced fluids are composed of a mixture of (at least) two fluids with distinct isotopic compositions. At the more enriched end of the mixing relationship are the isotopic compositions of the wells H-23 and H-18 (located in the southern area of the field), while the lighter fluids were found in well H-16 (originally) and then in well H-16 (repaired). It was found that the liquid phases of deep wells are more enriched in {delta} 18 O while the shallow wells present lower values, suggesting a convection process at the initial state. Based on this isotopic profile, it is considered that even the production depths of the wells H-1, H-12 and H-16 (repaired) are just about the same, but their respective isotopic compositions are quite different. The {delta} 18 O value for well H-16 (repaired) seems to be that of condensate steam, while the corresponding values for wells H-1 and H-12 fall within the value interval of the deep wells (H-23). This suggests wells H-1 and H-12 are collecting very deep fluids enriched in {delta} 18 O. These results could be useful in creating a conceptual model of the reservoir. [Spanish] Se analizaron datos isotopicos ({delta}18 O, {delta}D) de los fluidos de pozos productores del campo geotermico de Los Humeros, Pue., para investigar el posible origen de los fluidos asi como los procesos dominantes del yacimiento en su estado inicial. De acuerdo con datos previos a la explotacion, se plantea que los fluidos del yacimiento

  15. Mercury concentrations in cattle from NW Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López Alonso, M; Benedito, J L; Miranda, M; Castillo, C; Hernández, J; Shore, R F

    2003-01-20

    Mercury is a toxic metal that is released into the environment as a result of various industrial and agricultural processes. It can be accumulated by domestic animals and so contaminate human foodstuffs. To date, there is no information on mercury residues in livestock in Spain and the aim of the present study was to quantify the concentrations of mercury in cattle in two of the major regions in north-west Spain, Galicia (a largely rural region) and Asturias, which is characterised by heavy industry and mining. Total mercury concentrations were determined in tissue (liver, kidney and muscle) and blood from 284 calves (6-10 months old) and 56 cows (2-16 years old) from across the whole of the two regions. Mercury was usually detected in the kidney (62.4-87.5% of samples) but most (79.5-96%) liver, muscle and blood samples did not contain detectable residues. Renal mercury concentrations did not differ between male and female calves but were significantly greater in female calves than in cows. Unexpectedly, kidney mercury concentrations were significantly higher in calves from the predominantly rural region of Galicia (geometric mean: 12.2 microg/kg w.wt.) than in animals from the industrialised-mining region of Asturias (3.40 microg/kg w.wt.). Overall, mercury residues in cattle from NW Spain were similar to those reported in cattle from non-polluted areas in other countries and do not constitute a risk to animal or human health. Copyright 2002 Elsevier Science B.V.

  16. Uneven chances of breastfeeding in Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Río Isabel

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background No large scale studies on breastfeeding onset patterns have been carried out in Spain. This work aims to explore the prevalence and the risk factors for not initiating breastfeeding in hospitals from Catalonia (CAT and Valencia (V, two regions accounting approximately for 30% of the annual births in Spain. Methods The prevalence of not initiating breastfeeding was calculated by maternal/neonatal characteristics and type of hospital, and logistic regression models were used to estimate crude and adjusted risks of not breastfeeding in each region. Results Prevalence of breastfeeding initiation was 81.7% and 82.5% in Catalonia and Valencia, respectively. We identified conspicuous regional differences in the adjusted-risk of not breastfeeding, especially for multiple [CAT = 3.12 (95% CI: 2.93, 3.31, V = 2.44 (95% CI: 2.23, 2.67] and preterm and low birth weight deliveries [very preterm and very low birth weight: CAT = 7.61 (95% CI: 6.50, 8.92, V = 4.03 (95% CI: 3.13, 5.19; moderate preterm and moderate low birth weight: CAT = 4.28 (95% CI: 4.01, 4.57, V = 2.55 (95% CI:2.34, 2.79]. Conclusions Our results suggest the existence of regional variations in breastfeeding initiation in Spain. Taking into account the known short and long-term benefits of breastfeeding it is recommended that further research should explore these differences in order to prevent potential inequities in neonatal, child and adult health.

  17. Pediatric allergy and immunology in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieto, Antonio; Mazon, Angel; Martin-Mateos, Maria Anunciacion; Plaza, Ana-Maria; Garde, Jesus; Alonso, Elena; Martorell, Antonio; Boquete, Manuel; Lorente, Felix; Ibero, Marcel; Bone, Javier; Pamies, Rafael; Garcia, Juan Miguel; Echeverria, Luis; Nevot, Santiago; Martinez-Cañavate, Ana; Fernandez-Benitez, Margarita; Garcia-Marcos, Luis

    2011-11-01

    The data of the ISAAC project in Spain show a prevalence of childhood asthma ranging from 7.1% to 15.3%, with regional differences; a higher prevalence, 22.6% to 35.8%, is described for rhinitis, and atopic dermatitis is found in 4.1% to 7.6% of children. The prevalence of food allergy is 3%. All children in Spain have the right to be visited in the National Health System. The medical care at the primary level is provided by pediatricians, who have obtained their titles through a 4-yr medical residency training program. The education on pediatric allergy during that period is not compulsory and thus very variable. There are currently 112 certified European pediatric allergists in Spain, who have obtained the accreditation of the European Union of Medical Specialist for proven skills and experience in pediatric allergy. Future specialists in pediatric allergy should obtain their titles through a specific education program to be developed in one of the four accredited training units on pediatric allergy, after obtaining the title on pediatrics. The Spanish Society of Pediatric Allergy and Clinical Immunology (SEICAP) gathers over 350 pediatric allergists and pediatricians working in this field. SEICAP has a growing activity including yearly congresses, continued education courses, elaboration of technical clinical documents and protocols, education of patients, and collaboration with other scientific societies and associations of patients. The official journal of SEICAP is Allergologia et Immunophatologia, published every 2 months since 1972. The web site of SEICAP, http://www.seicap.es, open since 2004, offers information for professionals and extensive information on pediatric allergic and immunologic disorders for the lay public; the web site is receiving 750 daily visits during 2011. The pediatric allergy units are very active in clinical work, procedures as immunotherapy or induction of oral tolerance in food allergy, contribution to scientific literature, and

  18. The quality assurance practice in Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mugica, A.P.

    1980-01-01

    Even when the basic requirements for a Quality Assurance Program are delineated in documents such as the Code of Federal Regulations or Standards like ANSI N 45. 2, the way in which these requirements are put into practice is very dependent on the organization to which they are applied. So, in order to approach accurately the Quality Assurance practice and experience in Spain, the legal and industrial scenario must be considered. We are trying to present an outlook of the Spanish Energy Plan, Regulations and Nuclear Industry. (orig.)

  19. Country policy profile - Spain. December 2015

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-12-01

    According to the Directive 2009/28/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council on the promotion of the use of energy from renewable sources the target for the share of energy from renewable sources in gross final consumption of energy in the year 2020 for Spain is 20% (according to EurObserv'ER calculation the share was 14.2% in 2012). The Directive has a mandatory 10 % target for transport to be achieved by all Member States, which refers to renewable sources as a whole, not bio-fuels alone. In Spain, the main support scheme called 'Regimen Especial' (Royal Decree 661/2007) operated until the end of 2011 was suspended at the beginning of 2012. The price regulation system is currently phased out trough Real Decreto 9/2013. In the former system, operators could choose between two options: a guaranteed feed-in tariff and a guaranteed bonus (premium) paid on top of the electricity price derived on the free market. More recently, the 6 June, Spain approved a clean energy bill that introduces an entirely new subsidy system. The FiT and market price plus premium systems have effectively been abolished retroactively and replaced by a sum to be allocated based on the plant's installed capacity to compensate for investment-related financial outlay. Under the decree, generators will earn a rate of return of about 7.5 percent over their lifetimes. This rate, which may be revised every three years, is based on the average interest of a 10-year sovereign bond plus 3 percentage points. These measures will be implemented retroactively to apply from July 2013. Currently, there is no support scheme for RES-H and C in place in Spain but building must satisfy a minimal solar contribution of warm sanitary water. Approved in March 2006, through Royal Decree 314/2006 of 17 March 2006, the Building Technical Code (CTE - Codigo Tecnico de la Edificacion) requires all new or renovated buildings to cover 30%-70% of the Domestic Hot Water demand with solar thermal energy. Some

  20. Involuntary outpatient treatment (IOT) in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Viadel, M; Cañete-Nicolás, C; Bellido-Rodriguez, C; Asensio-Pascual, P; Lera-Calatayud, G; Calabuig-Crespo, R; Leal-Cercós, C

    2015-01-01

    In recent decades there have been significant legislative changes in Spain. Society develops faster than laws, however, and new challenges have emerged. In 2004, the Spanish Association of Relatives of the Mentally Ill (FEAFES) proposed amending the existing legislation to allow for the implementation of involuntary outpatient treatment (IOT) for patients with severe mental illness. Currently, and after having made several attempts at change, there is no specific legislation governing the application of this measure. Although IOT may be implemented in local programmes, we consider legal regulation to be needed in this matter. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. History of health technology assessment: Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampietro-Colom, Laura; Asua, Jose; Briones, Eduardo; Gol, Jordi

    2009-07-01

    The aim of this study was to describe the characteristics of the introduction and diffusion of health technology assessment (HTA) in Spain. A survey to summarize the evolution of HTA was sent to representatives of different HTA initiatives in Spain. HTA was introduced in the late 1980s. The main factors were the trend to an increase in healthcare expenditure, concerns regarding efficiency in providing health care, as well as in the level of rationality introducing high technology. Spain has direct (i.e., regulation) and indirect (i.e., payment systems, evidence-based programs, HTA) mechanisms to control health technologies. A recent high priority regulation has established the need of HTA to decide the introduction of a new health technology in the lists of public healthcare coverage, although similar regulations existed in the past and were scarcely implemented. HTA initiatives started at the regional government level. Its introduction followed a progressive pattern among regions. In the beginning, resources were scarce and expertise limited, with work done at intramural level. With time, expertise increase, and promotion of commissioned work was implemented. HTA knowledge transfer in the healthcare system has been carried out through courses, publications, and commissioned research. Currently, there are seven HTA units/agencies, which coordinate their work. HTA in Spain is in its maturity. Facing the unavoidable change of health care environment over time, HTA is also evolving and, currently, there is a trend to broaden the areas of influence of HTA by devolving capacity to hospitals and applying principles to very early phases of health technology development, under the umbrella of regional HTA units/agencies. However, there are two main challenges ahead. One is to have a real impact at the highest level of healthcare policy coordination among Spanish regions, which is done at the Central Ministry of Health. The other is to avoid the influence of political waves

  2. Household water saving: Evidence from Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aisa, Rosa; Larramona, Gemma

    2012-12-01

    This article focuses on household water use in Spain by analyzing the influence of a detailed set of factors. We find that, although the presence of both water-saving equipment and water-conservation habits leads to water savings, the factors that influence each are not the same. In particular, our results show that those individuals most committed to the adoption of water-saving equipment and, at the same time, less committed to water-conservation habits tend to have higher incomes.

  3. Stratigraphy and paleohydrology of delta channel deposits, Jezero crater, Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goudge, Timothy A.; Mohrig, David; Cardenas, Benjamin T.; Hughes, Cory M.; Fassett, Caleb I.

    2018-02-01

    The Jezero crater open-basin lake contains two well-exposed fluvial sedimentary deposits formed early in martian history. Here, we examine the geometry and architecture of the Jezero western delta fluvial stratigraphy using high-resolution orbital images and digital elevation models (DEMs). The goal of this analysis is to reconstruct the evolution of the delta and associated shoreline position. The delta outcrop contains three distinct classes of fluvial stratigraphy that we interpret, from oldest to youngest, as: (1) point bar strata deposited by repeated flood events in meandering channels; (2) inverted channel-filling deposits formed by avulsive distributary channels; and (3) a valley that incises the deposit. We use DEMs to quantify the geometry of the channel deposits and estimate flow depths of ∼7 m for the meandering channels and ∼2 m for the avulsive distributary channels. Using these estimates, we employ a novel approach for assessing paleohydrology of the formative channels in relative terms. This analysis indicates that the shift from meandering to avulsive distributary channels was associated with an approximately four-fold decrease in the water to sediment discharge ratio. We use observations of the fluvial stratigraphy and channel paleohydrology to propose a model for the evolution of the Jezero western delta. The delta stratigraphy records lake level rise and shoreline transgression associated with approximately continuous filling of the basin, followed by outlet breaching, and eventual erosion of the delta. Our results imply a martian surface environment during the period of delta formation that supplied sufficient surface runoff to fill the Jezero basin without major drops in lake level, but also with discrete flooding events at non-orbital (e.g., annual to decadal) timescales.

  4. Anadromous salmonids in the Delta: New science 2006–2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Russell W.; Buchanan, Rebecca A.; Brandes, Patricia L.; Burau, Jon R.; Israel, Joshua A

    2016-01-01

    As juvenile salmon enter the Sacramento–SanJoaquin River Delta (“the Delta”) they disperse among its complex channel network where they are subject to channel-specific processes that affect their rate of migration, vulnerability to predation, feeding success, growth rates, and ultimately, survival. In the decades before 2006, tools available to quantify growth, dispersal, and survival of juvenile salmon in this complex channel network were limited.Fortunately, thanks to technological advances such as acoustic telemetry and chemical and structural otolith analysis, much has been learned over the past decade about the role of the Delta in the life cycle of juvenile salmon. Here, we review new science between 2006and 2016 that sheds light on how different life stages and runs of juvenile salmon grow, move, and survive in the complex channel network of the Delta. One of the most important advances during the past decade has been the widespread adoption of acoustic telemetry techniques. Use of telemetry has shed light on how survival varies among alternative migration routes and the proportion of fish that use each migration route. Chemical and structural analysis of otoliths has provided insights about when juveniles left their natal river and provided evidence of extended rearing in the brackish or saltwater regions of the Delta. New advancements in genetics now allow individuals captured by trawls to be assigned to specific runs. Detailed information about movement and survival in the Delta has spurred development of agent-based models of juvenile salmon that are coupled to hydrodynamic models. Although much has been learned, knowledge gaps remain about how very small juvenile salmon (fry and parr) use the Delta. Understanding how all life stages of juvenile salmon grow, rear, and survive in the Delta is critical for devising management strategies that support a diversity of life history strategies.

  5. Clinical applications of gamma delta T cells with multivalent immunity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Drew C Deniger

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Gamma delta T cells hold promise for adoptive immunotherapy because of their reactivity to bacteria, viruses, and tumors. However, these cells represent a small fraction (1-5% of the peripheral T-cell pool and require activation and propagation to achieve clinical benefit. Aminobisphosphonates specifically expand the Vgamma9Vdelta2 subset of gamma delta T cells and have been used in clinical trials of cancer where objective responses were detected. The Vgamma9Vdelta2 TCR heterodimer binds multiple ligands and results in a multivalent attack by a monoclonal T cell population. Alternatively, populations of gamma delta T cells with oligoclonal or polyclonal TCR repertoire could be infused for broad-range specificity. However, this goal has been restricted by a lack of applicable expansion protocols for non-Vgamma9Vdelta2 cells. Recent advances using immobilized antigens, agonistic monoclonal antibodies (mAbs, tumor-derived artificial antigen presenting cells (aAPC, or combinations of activating mAbs and aAPC have been successful in expanding gamma delta T cells with oligoclonal or polyclonal TCR repertoires. Immobilized MHC Class-I chain-related A was a stimulus for gamma delta T cells expressing TCRdelta1 isotypes, and plate-bound activating antibodies have expanded Vdelta1 and Vdelta2 cells ex vivo. Clinically-sufficient quantities of TCRdelta1, TCRdelta2, and TCRdelta1negTCRdelta2neg have been produced following co-culture on aAPC, and these subsets displayed differences in memory phenotype and reactivity to tumors in vitro and in vivo. Gamma delta T cells are also amenable to genetic modification as evidenced by introduction of alpha beta TCRs, chimeric antigen receptors (CARs, and drug-resistance genes. This represents a promising future for the clinical application of oligoclonal or polyclonal gamma delta T cells in autologous and allogeneic settings that builds on current trials testing the safety and efficacy of Vgamma9Vdelta2 T cells.

  6. Challenges and Approaches in Delta Planning and Management - Sharing experiences from SE Asian Deltas and the Rhine-Meuse Delta -Report on Regional Training Workshop

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Long Phi, H.; Fida Abdullah Khan, M.; Wosten, J.H.M.; Douven, W.

    2014-01-01

    The training workshop consisted of a balanced mix of lectures on specific delta topics, work on group assignments, group and plenary discussions, and group presentations. Due to high professional level of the participants the discussions often reached the level of a policy dialogue among equals

  7. Teaching Digital Libraries in Spain: Context and Experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Marco, Francisco-Javier

    2009-01-01

    The situation of digital libraries teaching and learning in Spain up to 2008 is examined. A detailed analysis of the different curricula and subjects is provided both at undergraduate and postgraduate level. Digital libraries have been mostly a postgraduate topic in Spain, but they should become mainstream, with special subjects devoted to them,…

  8. Sex Education in Spain: Teachers' Views of Obstacles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Jose L.; Carcedo, Rodrigo J.; Fuertes, Antonio; Vicario-Molina, Isabel; Fernandez-Fuertes, Andres A.; Orgaz, Begona

    2012-01-01

    This paper offers an overview of the current state, difficulties, limitations and future possibilities for sex education in Spain. On the basis of a study involving 3760 teachers from all provinces in Spain, a detailed analysis of the obstacles at legislative, school and teacher levels was developed. Significant weaknesses were found at each of…

  9. Deregulation and restructuring of the electricity sector in Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Francia, L.

    2000-01-01

    This economic analysis of the Electric Power industry and market in Spain shows how the electricity deregulation and liberalization in Spain have given rise to an electricity industry which not only complies in spirit and letter with the E.U. Directive on the internal energy market, but which in fact goes much further. (A.L.B.)

  10. The Queen's Two Bodies: Sor Juana and New Spain's Vicereines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, George Anthony

    2009-01-01

    The work of Sor Juana Ines de la Cruz contains many examples of positive representations of the Queens of Spain and the Vicereines of New Spain. These poetic portraits serve to counter the primarily misogynistic portrayals of ruling women of the seventeenth century. Most importantly, Sor Juana increased the visibility of the vicereine in colonial…

  11. The History of the Democratic Adult Education Movement in Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, Esther; Tellado, Itxaso; Yuste, Montserrat; Larena-Fernández, Rosa

    2016-01-01

    Background/Context: Traditional adult education in Spain treated the learner as a mere object that could be shaped by the educator. Although current practices of the democratic adult education movement in Spain reveals a completely opposite standpoint on adult education, there has been little analysis of the several influences converging and…

  12. Implementation of the new maintenance rule in Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coello, A. L.; Gerez, L.

    2000-01-01

    The maintenance rule involving a change in philosophy both for the facilities and regulations has been implemented in Spain nuclear power plants as from April 1st this year. The authors describe this rule and detail its fulfillment in Spain. (Author)

  13. Doubly truncated FosB isoform (Delta2DeltaFosB) induces osteosclerosis in transgenic mice and modulates expression and phosphorylation of Smads in osteoblasts independent of intrinsic AP-1 activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sabatakos, George; Rowe, Glenn C; Kveiborg, Marie

    2008-01-01

    DeltaFosB and a further truncated isoform (Delta2DeltaFosB) that lacks known transactivation domains but, like DeltaFosB, induces increased expression of osteoblast marker genes. MATERIALS AND METHODS: To test Delta2DeltaFosB's ability to induce bone formation in vivo, we generated transgenic mice......6 expression. CONCLUSIONS: DeltaFosB's AP-1 transactivating function is not needed to induce increased bone formation, and Delta2DeltaFosB may act, at least in part, by increasing Smad1 expression, phosphorylation, and translocation to the nucleus....

  14. Preparing the Dutch delta for future droughts: model based support in the national Delta Programme

    Science.gov (United States)

    ter Maat, Judith; Haasnoot, Marjolijn; van der Vat, Marnix; Hunink, Joachim; Prinsen, Geert; Visser, Martijn

    2014-05-01

    Keywords: uncertainty, policymaking, adaptive policies, fresh water management, droughts, Netherlands, Dutch Deltaprogramme, physically-based complex model, theory-motivated meta-model To prepare the Dutch Delta for future droughts and water scarcity, a nation-wide 4-year project, called Delta Programme, is established to assess impacts of climate scenarios and socio-economic developments and to explore policy options. The results should contribute to a national adaptive plan that is able to adapt to future uncertain conditions, if necessary. For this purpose, we followed a model-based step-wise approach, wherein both physically-based complex models and theory-motivated meta-models were used. First step (2010-2011) was to make a quantitative problem description. This involved a sensitivity analysis of the water system for drought situations under current and future conditions. The comprehensive Dutch national hydrological instrument was used for this purpose and further developed. Secondly (2011-2012) our main focus was on making an inventory of potential actions together with stakeholders. We assessed efficacy, sell-by date of actions, and reassessed vulnerabilities and opportunities for the future water supply system if actions were (not) taken. A rapid assessment meta-model was made based on the complex model. The effects of all potential measures were included in the tool. Thirdly (2012-2013), with support of the rapid assessment model, we assessed the efficacy of policy actions over time for an ensemble of possible futures including sea level rise and climate and land use change. Last step (2013-2014) involves the selection of preferred actions from a set of promising actions that meet the defined objectives. These actions are all modeled and evaluated using the complex model. The outcome of the process will be an adaptive management plan. The adaptive plan describes a set of preferred policy pathways - sequences of policy actions - to achieve targets under

  15. Hydrology and morphology of two river mouth regions (temperate Vistula Delta and subtropical Red River Delta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zbigniew Pruszak

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a comparative analysis of two different river mouths from two different geographical zones (subtropical and temperate climatic regions. One is the multi-branch and multi-spit mouth of the Red River on the Gulf of Tonkin (Vietnam, the other is the smaller delta of the river Vistula on a bay of the Baltic Sea (Poland. The analysis focuses on the similarities and differences in the hydrodynamics between these estuaries and the adjacent coastal zones, the features of sediment transport, and the long-term morphodynamics of the river outlets. Salinity and water level are also discussed, the latter also in the context of the anticipated global effect of accelerated sea level rise. The analysis shows that the climatic and environmental conditions associated with geographical zones give rise to fundamental differences in the generation and dynamic evolution of the river mouths.

  16. Community structure of spiders in coastal habitats of a Mediterranean delta region (Nestos Delta, NE Greece

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    S. Buchholz

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available (pp 101-115Habitat zonation and ecology of spider assemblages have been poorly studied in Mediterranean ecosystems. A first analysis of spider assemblages in coastal habitats in the east Mediterranean area is presented. The study area is the 250 km² Nestos Delta, located in East Macedonia in the North-East of Greece. Spiders were caught in pitfall traps at 17 sites from the beginning of April to the end of June 2004. Nonparametric estimators were used to determine species richness and alpha diversity. Ordination analysis (redundancy analysis indicated four clearly separable spider species groups (salt meadows, dunes, mea-dows and floodplain forests, along a soil salinity and moisture gradient. Based on these results we discuss the habitat preferences of these spiders and include the first ecological data on several species.

  17. [Heart failure mortality in Spain: is there an andalusian paradox?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez-Navarro, M; Gómez-Doblas, J; Molero, E; Galván, E de Teresa

    2006-06-01

    Congestive heart failure has a high mortality, as reflected in different clinical trials and observational studies. Spain, as other countries around the Mediterranean basin, have a relatively low rate of coronary deaths, attributed to the so-called Mediterranean lifestyle. Andalusia, in the southern most part of Spain, constitutes the paradigm of Mediterranean lifestyle. However, different reports show that the prevalence of ischemic heart disease is higher in Andalusia than in other zones of Spain. Thus the mortality rate due to heart failure in Spain in the year 2000 per 100,000 inhabitants was 27.3 in men and 28.88 in women and each one of the eight Andalusia provinces had greater rates than the national mean in both men and woman. Even in countries with a relatively low prevalence of coronary heart disease as is the case in Spain, heart failure mortality seems to be parallel to local differences in IHD prevalence.

  18. Geochronology of priority pollutants in sedimentation zones of the Volga and Danube delta in comparison with the Rhine delta

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winkels, H.J.; Kroonenberg, S.B.; Lychagin, M.Y.; Marin, G.; Rusakov, G.V.; Kasimov, N.S.

    1998-01-01

    Six sediment cores were taken in sedimentation zones of the Volga river (located in the southern part of the Russian Federation) and, additionally, 6 sediment cores were taken in several lakes (sedimentation zones) in the central and western part of the Danube delta in Romania. Priority pollutants (8 metals, 7 polychlorinated biphenyls and 10 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons) were determined in all samples of all cores. Present-day and historical levels of pollutants since the late 1930s were established through the use of radionuclide time tracers ( 137 Cs, 134 Cs). For the persistent metals and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, trends in the concentration profiles during the last 5 decades are described. Low and hardly changing concentrations of As, Cu, Zn and all studied PAHs were observed during the last five decades in the sediments of the Volga river. Recently deposited sediments show slightly increasing levels for the heavy metals Zn and Cr and As in the Volga delta. For the studied metals and PAHs, maximum concentrations were found around 1987 in the sediments of the Danube delta. Sediments deposited around 1940 and recently deposited sediments in the Danube delta showed lower pollutant levels. If the contents of heavy metals, PAHs and PCBs in the aquatic sediments in the deltas of the rivers Rhine, Danube and Volga are compared, it is clear that the Volga delta is and was the cleanest delta during the last 5 decades. Nowadays the contents of heavy metals (except Cu and Ni), PAHs and PCBs in the aquatic sediments of the river Rhine are still highest compared to the other two rivers. The recent load of heavy metals (except Cd and Zn) in the sediments of the river Danube is the highest compared to the other two rivers. (Copyright (c) 1998 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)

  19. The case for selection at CCR5-Delta32.

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    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available The C-C chemokine receptor 5, 32 base-pair deletion (CCR5-Delta32 allele confers strong resistance to infection by the AIDS virus HIV. Previous studies have suggested that CCR5-Delta32 arose within the past 1,000 y and rose to its present high frequency (5%-14% in Europe as a result of strong positive selection, perhaps by such selective agents as the bubonic plague or smallpox during the Middle Ages. This hypothesis was based on several lines of evidence, including the absence of the allele outside of Europe and long-range linkage disequilibrium at the locus. We reevaluated this evidence with the benefit of much denser genetic maps and extensive control data. We find that the pattern of genetic variation at CCR5-Delta32 does not stand out as exceptional relative to other loci across the genome. Moreover using newer genetic maps, we estimated that the CCR5-Delta32 allele is likely to have arisen more than 5,000 y ago. While such results can not rule out the possibility that some selection may have occurred at C-C chemokine receptor 5 (CCR5, they imply that the pattern of genetic variation seen atCCR5-Delta32 is consistent with neutral evolution. More broadly, the results have general implications for the design of future studies to detect the signs of positive selection in the human genome.

  20. Delta Cafés (Portugal: Sustainable Business Development

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    Olgierd Swiatkiewicz

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In the case study of Delta Cafés we discuss the sustainable development of the Portuguese company and brand over the 55 years of their existence. Delta Cafés has already been analyzed in terms of marketing activity, social responsibility, management control systems, etc. In this paper, we refer to these studies, and we reach the sources, i.e. the information provided by the Delta Cafés itself. Due to the nature of the coffee market and the use of case study methodology, we start the presentation of this case from a broader context, describing the coffee market in the world and characterizing the coffee market in Portugal as well. Then we present the history of the development of the company and the brand Delta Cafés. The paper ends with concluding remarks in which we discuss the issues of social and environmental responsibility in the light of the development of Delta Cafés business and brand strategies.