Sample records for ebro basin agp

  1. Underground CO{sub 2} Storage: Approach for Favourable Formations in Ebro Basin; AGP de CO{sub 2}: Seleccion de Formaciones Favorables en la Cuenca del Ebro

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    Campos, R.; Perucha, A.; Recreo, F.


    The study of the possibilities of conducting Deep Geological CO{sub 2} Storage inside Spanish territory is being performed through the Strategic Singular Project PS-120000-2005-2 of the National Program of Energy from the Education and Science Ministry, and called CO{sub 2} generation, sequestration and storage advanced technologies, sub project N3 CO{sub 2} Geological Storage This report studies the possibilities the Ebro basin offers for definitive CO{sub 2} storage as one of the Spanish selected areas from previous studies. The study and reinterpretation of the information obtained from the hydrocarbon exploration accomplished in the area has lead to the selection of a series of geological formations. These formations have been chosen attending certain characteristics such as their disposition, extension, depth and porosity. The study has also been conducted considering the characteristics of the geological formations above the CO{sub 2} storage formations so as to guarantee the sealing of the storage. The study includes the approximate estimation of the storage capacity for each of the formations in Megatons of CO{sub 2}, which can be useful in future decision making. Deep geological storage is one of the more relevant international initiatives in order to eliminate or reduce the anthropogenic CO{sub 2} emissions to the atmosphere. (Author) 68 refs.

  2. Pesticides in the Ebro River basin: Occurrence and risk assessment. (United States)

    Ccanccapa, Alexander; Masiá, Ana; Navarro-Ortega, Alícia; Picó, Yolanda; Barceló, Damià


    In this study, 50 pesticides were analyzed in the Ebro River basin in 2010 and 2011 to assess their impact in water, sediment and biota. A special emphasis was placed on the potential effects of both, individual pesticides and their mixtures, in three trophic levels (algae, daphnia and fish) using Risk Quotients (RQs) and Toxic Units (TUs) for water and sediments. Chlorpyrifos, diazinon and carbendazim were the most frequent in water (95, 95 and 70% of the samples, respectively). Imazalil (409.73 ng/L) and diuron (150 ng/L) were at the highest concentrations. Sediment and biota were less contaminated. Chlorpyrifos, diazinon and diclofenthion were the most frequent in sediments (82, 45 and 21% of the samples, respectively). The only pesticide detected in biota was chlorpyrifos (up to 840.2 ng g(-1)). Ecotoxicological risk assessment through RQs showed that organophosphorus and azol presented high risk for algae; organophosphorus, benzimidazoles, carbamates, juvenile hormone mimic and other pesticides for daphnia, and organophosphorus, azol and juvenile hormone mimics for fish. The sum TUsite for water and sediments showed values pesticide residues present.

  3. Meganodular anhydritization in the Tertiary Ebro basin (Spain) (United States)

    Orti, Federico; Rosell, Laura; Playà, Elisabet; Salvany, Josep Maria


    A number of gypsiferous units in the Tertiary Ebro Basin (Spain) are located along their southern margins. These units, aged Paleogene to Miocene, were accumulated in small shallow saline lakes of low ionic concentration, in which Ca-sulphates (gypsum/anhydrite) precipitated. The lakes were nourished by groundwater from deep regional aquifers, which had the recharge areas in the bounding chains and recycled sulphates/chlorides from the Mesozoic (Triassic, Liassic) evaporites. Some of these units graded laterally to the thick, highly-saline (halite, glauberite, polyhalite) evaporite units developed coevally in the basin centre. In the gypsiferous marginal units, meganodules and large irregular masses (from 0.5 m to >5 m in diameter/length) of secondary gypsum are present in outcrop. These particular features originated as anhydrite, which displaced/replaced the host-gypsum rocks. Although these features mainly display stratiform arrangements, also vertical disposals are found locally suggesting the circulation of ascending flows. The isotopic values (δ34S and δ18O; 87Sr/86Sr) of these features are the same than those of the gypsum host-rocks, suggesting that the precursor anhydrite derived from the in situ replacement of the depositional sulphates. Commonly, the host-rock of the meganodules has been preserved as primary gypsum in the Miocene units. The common characteristics of the meganodules/irregular masses suggest that the anhydrite growth happened in burial conditions from shallow to moderate depths. The anhydritization was caused mainly by the same hydraulic systems feeding the marginal saline lakes. With progressive burial of the gypsiferous units, the gypsum-to-anhydrite conversion initiated in few nucleation points and progressed slowly and to variable depths. At such depths (from some metres to few hundred metres?), the regional ascending flows probably had temperatures (>25°C) and solute contents higher than today. Additionally, compaction brines

  4. Distribution of extreme rainfall events over Ebro River basin (United States)

    Saa, Antonio; Tarquis, Ana Maria; Valencia, Jose Luis; Gascó, Jose Maria


    The purpose of this work is to provide a description of the heavy rainfall phenomenon on statistical tools from a Spanish region. We want to quantify the effect of the climate change to verify the rapidity of its evolution across the variation of the probability distributions. Our conclusions have special interest for the agrarian insurances, which may make estimates of costs more realistically. In this work, the analysis mainly focuses on: The distribution of consecutive days without rain for each gauge stations and season. We estimate density Kernel functions and Generalized Pareto Distribution (GPD) for a network of station from the Ebro River basin until a threshold value u. We can establish a relation between distributional parameters and regional characteristics. Moreover we analyze especially the tail of the probability distribution. These tails are governed by law of power means that the number of events n can be expressed as the power of another quantity x : n(x) = x? . ? can be estimated as the slope of log-log plot the number of events and the size. The most convenient way to analyze n(x) is using the empirical probability distribution. Pr(X > x) ∞ x-?. The distribution of rainfall over percentile of order 0.95 from wet days at the seasonal scale and in a yearly scale with the same treatment of tails than in the previous section. The evolution of the distribution in the second XXth century and the impact on the extreme values model. After realized the analyses it does not appreciate difference in the distribution throughout the time which suggests that this region does not appreciate increase of the extreme values both for the number of dry consecutive days and for the value of the rainfall References: Coles, Stuart (2001). An Introduction to Statistical Modeling of Extreme Values,. Springer-Verlag Krishnamoorthy K. (2006), Handbook of Statistical Distributions with Applications, Chapman & Hall/CRC. Bodini A., Cossu A. (2010). Vulnerability assessment

  5. Ca isotopes in the Ebro River Basin: mixing and lithological tracer (United States)

    Guerrot, C.; Negrel, P. J.; Millot, R.; Petelet-Giraud, E.; Brenot, A.


    A large investigation of the Ebro River catchment was done in the past years regarding hydrogen, oxygen, lithium, boron, sulphur and oxygen from SO4 and strontium isotope measurements together with major and trace elements in the dissolved load of 25 river samples collected within the Ebro River Basin in Spain (Millot et al., Geophysical Research Abstracts, Vol. 14, EGU2012-2062, 2012). The Ebro River (928 km long, 85,530 km2 drainage basin) located in North-Eastern Spain rises near the Atlantic coast in the Cantabrian Mountains and flows into the western Mediterranean Sea through several large cities and agricultural, mining and industrial areas. The river is one of the largest contributors of freshwater in the Mediterranean Sea and ends in the Ebro delta, one of the most important wetlands in Europe. Bedrocks of the Ebro River Basin are mainly dominated by carbonates and evaporites from the Paleozoic and Mesozoic terrains. The Ebro river mainstream was sampled at Amposta one time per month between June 2005 and May 2006 and secondly, the Ebro River along its main course and its main tributaries were sampled during one field campaign in April 2006. The behaviour of Ca and its isotopes during water/rock interactions at the scale of a large river basin having various lithologies will be investigated in addition with Sr, S (SO4) and O (SO4) isotopes. One objective is to characterize the processes controlling the isotope signatures of a large river draining predominantly sedimentary bedrocks. The δ44Ca ratio (δ44/40 normalised to Seawater) ranged between -0.87 and -1.09‰ along the Ebro main stream, increasing towards the delta as the Ca content increase. In Amposta, the δ44Ca ratio ranged between -0.66 and -1.04‰ and tends to decrease with the increasing discharge. These variations are very similar to those given by the 87Sr/86Sr ratios and Sr contents. For the tributaries, the δ44Ca ratio ranged between -0.43 and -1.04‰ whereas the anhydrite-gypsum bedrock

  6. Recent Trends in the Ebro River Basin: Is It All "Just" Climate Change? (United States)

    Lutz, Stefanie; Merz, Ralf


    Water resources are under pressure from a variety of stressors such as industry, agriculture, water abstraction or pollution. Changing climate can potentially enhance the impact of these stressors, especially under water scarcity conditions. The aim of the GLOBAQUA project ("Managing the effects of multiple stressors on aquatic ecosystems under water scarcity") is, therefore, to analyze the combined effect of multiple stressors in the context of increasing water scarcity. As part of the GLOBAQUA project, this study examines recent trends in climate, water quantity and quality parameters in the Ebro River Basin in Northern Spain to identify stressors and determine their joint impact on water resources. Mann-Kendall trend analyses of temperature, precipitation, streamflow, groundwater level, streamwater and groundwater quality data (spanning between 15 and 40 years) were performed. Moreover, anthropogenic pressures such as land use and alteration of natural flow by reservoirs were considered. Climate data indicate increasing temperatures in the Ebro River Basin especially in summer and autumn, and decreasing precipitation particularly in summer. In contrast, precipitation mostly shows upwards trends in autumn, but these are counterbalanced by greater evapotranspiration due to higher temperatures. Overall, this results in annual and seasonal streamflow decreases at the majority of gauging stations. Declining trends in streamflow are most pronounced during summer and are also observed in subbasins without reservoirs. Diminishing water resources become also apparent in generally decreasing groundwater levels in the Ebro River Basin. This decrease is most pronounced in areas where groundwater serves as main origin for irrigation water, which demonstrates how land use acts as a local rather than regional driver of change. Increasing air temperatures correlate with increasing water temperatures over the past 30 years, which indicates the effect of changing climate on water

  7. Natural and artificial radioactivity in surface waters of the Ebro river basin (Northeast Spain)

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    Pujol, Ll.; Sanchez-Cabeza, J.A


    A radiological characterisation of surface waters of the Ebro river basin was carried out during November 1994. For this purpose, 75 water samples were collected from points distributed throughout the Ebro river basin. Analysis included gross alpha and gross beta activities, relevant natural radionuclides ({sup 40}K, {sup 226}Ra, {sup 234,238}U -uranium total-) and several artificial radionuclides ({sup 3}H, {sup 90}Sr and radiocaesium). Mean gross alpha and gross beta activities in surface waters of the river's main course were 0.095{+-}0.004 and 0.213{+-}0.012 Bq l{sup -1}, respectively. Mean activities of {sup 40}K, {sup 226}Ra and uranium (total) were 0.132{+-}0.009, 0.0282{+-}0.0008 and 0.053{+-}0.006 Bq l{sup -1}, respectively. Regarding artificial radionuclides, the mean {sup 90}Sr activity was 6.6{+-}0.3 mBq l{sup -1}, {sup 3}H was detected in 8% of the samples, and radiocaesium was not detected in any sample. It is estimated that almost 100% of gross alpha and 97% of gross beta activities of surface waters in the Ebro river came from natural sources. Furthermore, results showed that the geological setting, large cities, agricultural areas and dams strongly influence the occurrence of natural radionuclides. Contamination from nuclear power plants located along the river was not detected. Finally, we estimated that the annual dose equivalent due to the hypothetical ingestion of Ebro river waters was 7.59 {mu}Sv y{sup -1}, which represented only 0.3% of the average annual effective dose attributable to natural background radiation in the area.

  8. Flow regime patterns and their controlling factors in the Ebro basin (Spain) (United States)

    Bejarano, M. Dolores; Marchamalo, Miguel; García de Jalón, Diego; González del Tánago, Marta


    SummaryNatural intra-annual flow fluctuations vary between rivers, being a determining factor for aquatic insects, fish and riparian communities which are adapted to the habitat conditions and different flows throughout the seasons. Moreover, restoration of seasonal flow patterns plays an important role in achieving good ecological status of rivers, through the preservation and/or recovery of components and processes of natural river ecosystems. In this work we: (a) classify fluvial segments in the Ebro basin (North-Eastern Spain) according to the intra-annual variability of flows under natural conditions using statistical cluster analysis of monthly mean flow data; (b) characterise the resulting flow typologies according to several ecologically important hydrological variables; (c) analyse the relationships between flow regimes of fluvial segments and physical variables from their catchments; and finally (d) predict the most probable natural flow regime using logistic models based on the most determinant physical characteristics. Fifteen natural flow typologies were described in the Ebro basin, which were characterised in terms of flow fluctuation through the year as well as timing, flow ratio and duration of the maximum and minimum flows. Precipitation, biogeography and geology of catchments showed the highest correlations with flow regimes. Basin size, mean elevation and slope were also correlated. The logistic model we developed had a prediction success of 72% in the Ebro basin. The definition of the natural hydrological conditions (to which the biological communities are tailored), even when flow data are not available, is an important support in the management of river ecosystems. It is especially suitable for setting goals in aquatic ecosystem conservation or restoration projects.

  9. Impact of climate evolution and land use changes on water yield in the Ebro basin

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    J. I. López-Moreno


    Full Text Available In this study the climatic and hydrological trends across 88 sub-basins of the Ebro River basin were analyzed for the period 1950–2006. A new database of climate information and river flows for the entire basin facilitated a spatially distributed assessment of climate-runoff relationships. It constitutes the first assessment of water yield evolution across the whole Ebro basin, a very representative example of large Mediterranean rivers. The results revealed a marked decrease in river discharges in most of the sub-basins. Moreover, a number of changes in the seasonality of the river regime was found, resulting from dam regulation and a decrease in snowpack in the headwaters. Significant and positive trends in temperature were observed across most of the basin, whereas most of the precipitation series showed negative coefficients, although the decrease in magnitude was low. The time evolution of the residuals from empirical models that relate climate and runoff in each sub-basin provided evidence that climate alone does not explain the observed decrease in river discharge. Thus, changes in water yield are associated with an increase in evapotranspiration rates in natural vegetation, growth of which has expanded as a consequence of land abandonment in areas where agricultural activities and livestock pressure have decreased. In the lowlands of the basin the decrease in water yield has been exacerbated by increased water consumption for domestic, industrial and agricultural uses. Climate projections for the end of the 21st century suggest a reduced capacity for runoff generation because of increasing temperature and less precipitation. Thus, the maintenance of water supply under conditions of increasing demand presents a challenging issue requiring appropriate coordination amongst politicians and managers.

  10. Impact of climate evolution and land use changes on water yield in the ebro basin

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    J. I. López-Moreno


    Full Text Available In this study the climatic and hydrological trends across 88 sub-basins of the Ebro River basin were analyzed for the period 1950–2006. A new database of climate information and river flows for the entire basin facilitated a spatially distributed assessment of climate-runoff relationships. It constitutes the first assessment of water yield evolution across the whole Ebro basin, a very representative example of large Mediterranean rivers. The results revealed a marked decrease in river discharges in most of the sub-basins. Moreover, a number of changes in the seasonality of the river regime was found, resulting from dam regulation and a decrease in snowpack in the headwaters. Significant and positive trends in temperature were observed across most of the basin, whereas most of the precipitation series showed negative coefficients, although the decrease in magnitude was low. The time evolution of the residuals from empirical models that relate climate and runoff in each sub-basin provided evidence that climate alone does not explain the observed decrease in river discharge. Thus, changes in water yield are associated with an increase in evapotranspiration rates in natural vegetation, growth of which has expanded as a consequence of land abandonment in areas where agricultural activities and livestock pressure have decreased. In the lowlands of the basin the decrease in water yield has been exacerbated by increased water consumption for domestic, industrial and agricultural uses. Climate projections for the end of the 21st century suggest a reduced capacity for runoff generation because of increasing temperature and less precipitation. Thus, the maintenance of water supply under conditions of increasing demand presents a challenging issue requiring appropriate coordination amongst politicians and managers.

  11. Triangular facets of slope in the region of Tudela (Ebro Basin, Navarra, Spain); Facetas triangulares de ladera en la region de Tudela (Depresion del Ebro, Navarra, Espana)

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    Marin, C.; Desir, G.; Gutierrez, M.


    Some triangular slope facets are localized to the south of Bardenas Reales (central-west of Ebro Basin), elaborated on Tudela Formation deposits, Aragonian in age. Three of them have been dated by OSL resulting on ages of 35,588{+-}2,488 yr. BP, 35,355{+-}2,446 yr. BP and 40.185{+-}2,411 yr. BP. The origin of these facets is ought to an alternation between accumulation and incision phases produced by vegetation cover variation percentage. Those vegetation cover changes are estimated to be due to climatic changes. (Author) 21 refs.

  12. Orbital forcing in the early Miocene alluvial sediments of the western Ebro Basin, Northeast Spain (United States)

    Garces, M.; Larrasoaña, J. C.; Muñoz, A.; Margalef, O.; Murelaga, X.


    Paleoclimatic reconstructions from terrestrial records are crucial to assess the regional variability of past climates. Despite the apparent direct connection between continental sedimentary environments and climate, interpreting the climatic signature in ancient non-marine sedimentary sequences is often overprinted by source-area related signals. In this regard, foreland basins appear as non-ideal targets as tectonically-driven subsidence and uplift play a major control on the distribution and evolution of sedimentary environments and facies. Foreland basins, however, often yield among the thickest and most continuous stratigraphic records available on continents. The Ebro Basin (north-eastern Spain) is of particular interest among the circum-mediterranean alpine foreland basins because it evolved into a land-locked closed basin since the late Eocene, leading to the accumulation of an exceptionally thick (>5500 m) and continuous sequence of alluvial-lacustrine sediments over a period of about 25 Myr. In this paper we present a detailed cyclostratigraphic study of a 115 m thick section in the Bardenas Reales de Navarra region (western Ebro Basin) in order to test orbital forcing in the Milankovitch frequency band. The study section corresponds to the distal alluvial-playa mud flats which developed in the central sector of the western Ebro Basin, with sediments sourced from both the Pyrenean and Iberian Ranges. Sediments consist of brown-red alluvial clay packages containing minor fine-grained laminated sandstones sheet-beds and channels, grey marls and thin bedded lacustrine limestones arranged in 10 to 20 m thick fining-upwards sequences. Red clayed intervals contain abundant nodular gypsum interpreted as representing a phase of arid and low lake level conditions, while grey marls and limestones indicate wetter intervals recording the expansion of the inner shallow lakes. A magnetostratigraphy-based chronology indicates that the Peñarroya section represents a

  13. Integrated flood damage modelling in the Ebro river basin under hydrodynamic, socio-economic and environmental factors (United States)

    Foudi, S.; Galarraga, I.; Osés, N.


    This paper presents a model of flood damage measurement. It studies the socio-economic and environmental potential damage of floods in the Ebro river basin. We estimate the damage to the urban, rural and environmental sectors. In these sectors, we make distinctions between residential, non residential, cultural, agricultural, public facilities and utilities, environmental and human subsectors. We focus on both the direct, indirect, tangible and intangible impacts. The residential damages refer to the damages on housing, costs of repair and cleaning as direct effects and the re-housing costs as an indirect effect. The non residential and agricultural impacts concern the losses to the economic sectors (industry, business, agricultural): production, capital losses, costs of cleaning and repairs for the direct costs and the consequences of the suspension of activities for the indirect costs. For the human sector, we refer to the physical impacts (injuries and death) in the direct tangible effects and to the posttraumatic stress as indirect intangible impact. The environmental impacts focus on a site of Community Interests (pSCIs) in the case study area. The case study is located the Ebro river basin, Spain. The Ebro river basin is the larger river basin in term of surface and water discharge. The Ebro river system is subject to Atlantic and Mediterranean climatic influences. It gathers most of its water from the north of Spain (in the Pyrenees Mountains) and is the most important river basin of Spain in term of water resources. Most of the flooding occurs during the winter period. Between 1900- 2010, the National Catalogue of Historical Floods identifies 372 events: meanly 33 events every 10 years and up to 58 during the 1990-2000. Natural floods have two origins: (i) persistent rainfalls in large sub basins raised up by high temperature giving rise to a rapid thaw in the Pyrenees, (ii) local rainfalls of short duration and high intensity that gives rise to rapid and

  14. Anticipation of drought impacts in the Ebro basin using remote sensing data (United States)

    Lines, Clara; Werner, Micha; Bastiaanssen, Wim


    For an effective mitigation of drought impacts, managers should be able to detect drought processes that will lead to impacts with enough anticipation to allow the necessary measures to be undertaken. Drought indicators and thresholds are commonly used to detect and classify drought conditions and trigger mitigation actions. However, the indicators and thresholds selected as triggers are only rarely connected to the specific impacts that need to be avoided. The aim of this research is to identify global earth observation data sets that can anticipate drought impacts at basin scale and therefore be used as indicators of early stages of drought. The performance of a broad range of parameters was assessed in the Ebro basin for the period 2000-2012. These were the Standard Precipitation Index (SPI), the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), Evapotranspiration (ET), Soil Moisture (SM), Land Surface Temperature (LST), Gross Primary Production (GPP) and the in situ hydrologic indicators currently used in the basin. Since impact data at a suitable temporal and spatial scale was not available to be used as benchmark for the tests, a data set of drought and impact occurrence was compiled by a comprehensive review of local news records. In addition annual crop yield data was used as alternative benchmark data. Early signs of drought impact were detected up to 6 months in advance with respect to the impacts reported in the newspaper, with SPI, NDVI and ET showing the best correlation-anticipation relationships. SM and LST offer also good anticipation, but with weaker correlations, while GPP presents moderate positive correlations only for some of the rainfed areas. Although water levels and flows from in situ stations provided better anticipation than remote sensing indicators in most of the areas, correlations were found to be weaker. The indicators show a consistent behaviour with respect to the different levels of crop yield in rainfed areas among the analysed

  15. Nitrogen and salt loads in the irrigation return flows of the Ebro River Basin (Spain) (United States)

    Isidoro, Daniel; Balcells, Maria; Clavería, Ignacio; Dechmi, Farida; Quílez, Dolores; Aragüés, Ramón


    The conservation of the quality of surface waters demanded by the European Water Framework Directive requires, among others, an assessment of the irrigation-induced pollution. The contribution of the irrigation return flows (IRF) to the pollution of the receiving water bodies is given by its pollutant load, since this load determines the quality status or pollutant concentration in these water bodies. The aim of this work was to quantify the annual nitrogen and salt loads in the IRF of four irrigated catchments within the Ebro River Basin: Violada (2006-10), Alcanadre (2008-10), Valcuerna (2010), and Clamor Amarga (2010). The daily flow (Q), salt (EC) and nitrate concentration (NO3) were measured in the drainage outlets of each basin. The net irrigation-induced salt and nitrogen loads were obtained from these measurements after discounting the salt and nitrogen inputs from outside the catchments and the non-irrigated areas. The N-fertilizer applications were obtained from farmer surveys and animal farming statistical sources. Irrigation water salinity was very low in all catchments (EC corn-dominated Valcuerna in 2010 to 63 kg/ha in 2008 in Violada, when farmers barely applied fertilizers due to the irrigation modernization works in progress that year. The highest N applications derived from pig slurry applications by farmers that used their lands as disposal sites for their farm residues. The highest NO3 concentrations (mean of 113 mg/L) and annual N loads (mean of 38 kg/ha) were found in Valcuerna, the most intense corn sprinkler-irrigated catchment. The lowest NO3 concentrations (21 mg/L; 5 times lower than Valcuerna) were measured in the Alcanadre flood-irrigated catchment. In contrast, Alcanadre N loads (21 kg/ha) were only about two times lower than in Valcuerna, due to the higher IRF volumes in Alcanadre (353 mm versus 132 mm in Valcuerna). Irrigation modernization in Violada decreased N loads from 20 to 5 kg N/ha (four times lower) due to the sharp

  16. Thermal shock and splash effects on burned gypseous soils from the Ebro Basin (NE Spain)

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    Leon, J.; Seeger, M.; Badia, D.; Peters, P.; Echeverria, M.T.


    Fire is a natural factor of landscape evolution in Mediterranean ecosystems. The middle Ebro Valley has extreme aridity, which results in a low plant cover and high soil erodibility, especially on gypseous substrates. The aim of this research is to analyze the effects of moderate heating on physical

  17. The economic value of drought information for water management under climate change: a case study in the Ebro basin

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    S. Quiroga


    Full Text Available Drought events in the Mediterranean are likely to increase in frequency, duration and intensity due to climate change, thereby affecting crop production. Information about drought is valuable for river basin authorities and the farmers affected by their decisions. The economic value of this information and the resulting decisions are of interest to these two stakeholder groups and to the information providers. Understanding the dynamics of extreme events, including droughts, in future climate scenarios for the Mediterranean is being improved continuously. This paper analyses the economic value of information on drought events taking into account the risk aversion of water managers. We consider the effects of drought management plans on rice production in the Ebro river basin. This enables us to compute the willingness to compensate the river basin authority for more accurate information allowing for better decision-making. If runoff is reduced, river basin planners can consider the reduction of water allocation for irrigation in order to eliminate the risk of water scarcity. Alternately, river basin planners may decide to maintain water allocation and accept a reduction of water supply reliability, leaving farmers exposed to drought events. These two alternatives offer different risk levels for crop production and farmers' incomes which determine the value of this information to the river basin authority. The information is relevant for the revision of River Basin Management Plans of the Water Framework Directive (WFD within the context of climate change.

  18. Origin and evolution of Sariñena Lake (central Ebro Basin): A piping-based model (United States)

    Castañeda, Carmen; Javier Gracia, F.; Rodríguez-Ochoa, Rafael; Zarroca, Mario; Roqué, Carles; Linares, Rogelio; Desir, Gloria


    The origin and nature of the numerous lakes in the central Ebro Basin have been interpreted according to the prevailing arid or semiarid conditions, the easily-eroded materials and the solubility of the gypsum- and/or carbonate-rich Tertiary/Cenozoic substratum, involving important dissolution (karstic) and/or aeolian deflation. However, the origin of Sariñena Lake, the largest in the central Ebro Basin, remains unknown since the typical lake-generating processes in the region are not applicable. This work provides significant clues to the genesis and evolution of Sariñena Lake in a regional context. The combination of geomorphological mapping and high resolution LiDAR data together with sedimentological observations, the characterisation of soils and sediments around the lake, and the application of high-resolution geophysical techniques suggest that piping is the major genetic process driving the evolution of the Sariñena depression and lake. Field evidence demonstrates that piping is, at present, the most important erosive process in the region, generating significant collapse and surface lowering. Sariñena Lake is located within a deep endorheic depression excavated from Na-rich Tertiary materials. This work hypothesises that once an early, fluvially-originated palustrine area had developed, the progressive lowering of the regional water table linked to regional fluvial incision favoured the establishment of a hydrological gradient high enough to trigger piping processes within the claystones and siltstones underlying the original palustrine area. The Quaternary evolution of the Sariñena lacustrine basin was then controlled by successive water table fluctuations, linked to different phases of incision and alluvial deposition in the surrounding fluvial systems. All the evidence supporting a piping-related origin for this lake, together with examples of lakes generated by similar processes in different contexts, is used to propose a new genetic type of

  19. Potential siliceous sources during Prehistory: Results of prospecting in the East margin of the Ebro Basin (NE Iberian Peninsula

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    María Soto


    Full Text Available We present the results of prospecting in the NE of the Iberian Peninsula, with the aim of identifying the  siliceous sources potentially used by the populations that occupied the marginal basins of the Ebro depression during the Middle and Upper Palaeolithic.We intend to define the main characteristics of the cherts in the region studied, taking into account the palaeoenvironment in which silicifications are mainly formed, and the premise that siliceous rocks acquire the attributes of enclosing rocks.The cherts studied are the products of early diagenesis by replacement of carbonate and evaporite sediments. Petrological analyses show that they are made up of microquartz, with high proportion of fibrous forms silica, carbonates, ferric oxides and evaporite relicts. In the future, these characteristics will be useful for ascribing archaeological materials in both geological and geographical terms.

  20. Reservoir impacts downstream in highly regulated river basins: the Ebro delta and the Guadalquivir estuary in Spain (United States)

    Polo, María J.; Rovira, Albert; García-Contreras, Darío; Contreras, Eva; Millares, Agustín; Aguilar, Cristina; Losada, Miguel A.


    Regulation by reservoirs affects both the freshwater regime and the sediment delivery at the area downstream, and may have a significant impact on water quality in the final transitional water bodies. Spain is one the countries with more water storage capacity by reservoirs in the world. Dense reservoir networks can be found in most of the hydrographic basins, especially in the central and southern regions. The spatial redistribution of the seasonal and annual water storage in reservoirs for irrigation and urban supply, mainly, has resulted in significant changes of water flow and sediment load regimes, together with a fostered development of soil and water uses, with environmental impacts downstream and higher vulnerability of these areas to the sea level rise and drought occurrence. This work shows these effects in the Guadalquivir and the Ebro River basins, two of the largest regulated areas in Spain. The results show a 71 % decrease of the annual freshwater input to the Guadalquivir River estuary during 1930-2014, an increase of 420 % of the irrigated area upstream the estuary, and suspended sediment loads up to 1000 % the initial levels. In the Ebro River delta, the annual water yield has decreased over a 30 % but, on the contrary, the big reservoirs are located in the main stream, and the sediment load has decreased a 99 %, resulting in a delta coastal regression up to 10 m per year and the massive presence of macrophytes in the lower river. Adaptive actions proposed to face these impacts in a sea level rise scenario are also analyzed.

  1. Erosion processes acting in semi-arid climate zone of the Ebro Basin (Bardenas Reales, NE of Spain); Procesos de erosion actuantes en una zona de clima semiarido de la Depresion del Ebro (Bardenas Reales, NE de Espana)

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    Marin, C.; Desir, G.


    Bardenas Reales is an erosive depression located in the central-western part of the Ebro Depression. May different erosion processes act on this zone: gullying, piping, mud slides and armoured mud balls among others that contribute to export great quantity of material outside the basin. Depending on lithology and physico-chemical properties erosion acting processes differ. The knowledge of that processes help us to understand the great amount of soil loss that take place on the studied zone, bigger than those recommended. (Author) 8 refs.

  2. Density and population structure of the natural regeneration of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) in the High Ebro Basin (Northern Spain)


    González-Martínez, Santiago; Bravo, Felipe


    International audience; This paper presents the analysis of 11 natural regenerated stands in native Scots pine forests located in the High Ebro Basin (Northern Spain). The natural regeneration showed a continuous age distribution, early height differentiation and a high stability in the height position of seedlings. Total density and main crop (trees selected for future commercial harvest) density models were developed to study the relationship between natural regeneration and site variables....

  3. Implementing Integrated Water Resources Management in the Ebro River Basin: From Theory to Facts

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    Jorge Bielsa


    Full Text Available In this article, we analyze how successful the implementation of Integrated Water Resource Management (IWRM in the Ebro river catchment (in Spain has been. Our main aim is to show some gaps between theory and practice. This implies analyzing the political dimensions of governance and their change and reflecting on the interface between governance and technical knowledge about water. We highlight problems, such as the lack of institutional coordination, blind spots in technical information and path dependences. Actual water management has led to plans for further irrigation even though water availability is, and is expected to continue, shrinking due to climate change and other local factors. To overcome these mismatches, we propose further synchronization, innovative ways of public participation and knowledge sharing between institutions and researchers. As a showcase, we portray a practical real example of a desirable institutional arrangement in one sub-catchment.

  4. The socioeconomic impacts of the 2004-2008 drought in the Ebro river basin (Spain): A comprehensive and critical assessment (United States)

    Hernández-Mora, N.; Garrido, A.; Gil, M.


    Water scarcity and drought are particularly relevant phenomena in Spain, a country with a Mediterranean climate and intense pressure on existing water resources. Spain's drought management policies have evolved significantly over time, and today Spain is at the forefront of drought management and mitigation planning in Europe. However, drought management policies are not informed by comprehensive or accurate estimations of the socioeconomic impacts of drought, nor by the efficiency or efficacy of drought management and mitigation measures. Previous studies attempting to estimate on the impacts of drought are based on direct economic users of water, primarily irrigated agriculture and hydropower. Existing analyses do not take into consideration the impacts on other economic sectors, such as recreational uses, which have a growing importance from a socioeconomic perspective. Additionally, the intangible or non-market impacts (on social welfare and wellbeing and on the environment) are not considered or measured, although they can be significant. This paper presents the mid-point results of the PREEMPT project (Policy relevant assessment of the socioeconomic effects of droughts and floods, ECHO - grant agreement # 070401/2010/579119/SUB/C4), an effort to provide a comprehensive assessment of the socioeconomic impacts of the 2004-2008 drought in the Ebro river basin. The study gathers existing information on direct and indirect economic impacts of drought on different sectors, completing existing gaps and comparing the results of studies that use different methodologies. It also estimates the welfare losses resulting from domestic water use restrictions and environmental degradation as a result of the drought using a value transfer approach from results derived from value choice experiments developed for other Spanish and international river basins. Results indicate that there is a clear need to improve our knowledge of the direct and indirect impacts of drought and to

  5. Spatial Modeling of Rainfall Patterns over the Ebro River Basin Using Multifractality and Non-Parametric Statistical Techniques

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    José L. Valencia


    Full Text Available Rainfall, one of the most important climate variables, is commonly studied due to its great heterogeneity, which occasionally causes negative economic, social, and environmental consequences. Modeling the spatial distributions of rainfall patterns over watersheds has become a major challenge for water resources management. Multifractal analysis can be used to reproduce the scale invariance and intermittency of rainfall processes. To identify which factors are the most influential on the variability of multifractal parameters and, consequently, on the spatial distribution of rainfall patterns for different time scales in this study, universal multifractal (UM analysis—C1, α, and γs UM parameters—was combined with non-parametric statistical techniques that allow spatial-temporal comparisons of distributions by gradients. The proposed combined approach was applied to a daily rainfall dataset of 132 time-series from 1931 to 2009, homogeneously spatially-distributed across a 25 km × 25 km grid covering the Ebro River Basin. A homogeneous increase in C1 over the watershed and a decrease in α mainly in the western regions, were detected, suggesting an increase in the frequency of dry periods at different scales and an increase in the occurrence of rainfall process variability over the last decades.

  6. Morphology and micro-fabrics of weathering features on gyprock exposures in a semiarid environment (Ebro Tertiary Basin, NE Spain) (United States)

    Artieda, O.


    Gyprock is a common rock in evaporitic formations, which have a wide distribution across all continents. However, outcrops of gyprock are rather limited, occurring mainly in low rainfall areas (i.e. southwest of USA, Italy, Spain). Gyprock is one of the most common lithology in the Ebro Tertiary Basin. Here, semiarid conditions propitiate the development of specific weathering processes and landforms with significant implications for understanding the genesis of soils and the geomorphological evolution of these areas. Gypsum crystallization within the pores and fissures of gyprock close to the surface leads to volume increase and pressures, with the consequent weathering of this rock. As a result, considerable porosity develops producing peculiar morphologies on gyprock outcrops (domes and decimetre-scale blisters), specific microscopic features (voids with plain walls, horse-shoe pores and serrated pores), as well as microscopic fabrics (grating fabric, skeletal fabric, fan fabric and botryoidal fabric). This paper presents a morphological characterization of the material forming the various types of weathering features, from microscopic to mesoscopic scale. The macromorphology and micromorphology of those features were used to interpret their genesis.

  7. Risk of water scarcity and water policy implications for crop production in the Ebro Basin in Spain

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    S. Quiroga


    Full Text Available The increasing pressure on water systems in the Mediterranean enhances existing water conflicts and threatens water supply for agriculture. In this context, one of the main priorities for agricultural research and public policy is the adaptation of crop yields to water pressures. This paper focuses on the evaluation of hydrological risk and water policy implications for food production. Our methodological approach includes four steps. For the first step, we estimate the impacts of rainfall and irrigation water on crop yields. However, this study is not limited to general crop production functions since it also considers the linkages between those economic and biophysical aspects which may have an important effect on crop productivity. We use statistical models of yield response to address how hydrological variables affect the yield of the main Mediterranean crops in the Ebro River Basin. In the second step, this study takes into consideration the effects of those interactions and analyzes gross value added sensitivity to crop production changes. We then use Montecarlo simulations to characterize crop yield risk to water variability. Finally we evaluate some policy scenarios with irrigated area adjustments that could cope in a context of increased water scarcity. A substantial decrease in irrigated land, of up to 30% of total, results in only moderate losses of crop productivity. The response is crop and region specific and may serve to prioritise adaptation strategies.

  8. Impact of halite dissolution subsidence on Quaternary fluvial terrace development: Case study of the Huerva River, Ebro Basin, NE Spain (United States)

    Guerrero, Jesús; Gutiérrez, Francisco; Lucha, Pedro


    This paper analyses the control of evaporite dissolution subsidence on the evolution of the lower 30 km-long reach of the Huerva River up to its confluence with the Ebro River. In the study area the Huerva River flows across different interfingered lithofacies of the subhorizontally lying Ebro Basin fill: (1) shales and sandstones upstream of Cadrete; (2) evaporites dominated by gypsum between Cadrete and Cuarte; (3) gypsum with glauberite and halite units in the subsurface downstream of Cuarte. The halite shows a marked downvalley increase in thickness. Twelve terrace levels and seven pediment levels correlative to some of the terraces have been mapped in the studied area. Upstream of Cadrete, the terrace deposits, with a relatively constant thickness less than 4 m and overlying unsoluble bedrock, remain undeformed. Between Cadrete and Cuarte the deposits of some terraces show local thickening ( 60 m-thick terrace alluvium that fills a 5 km-long trough generated by synsedimentary subsidence phenomena caused primarily by the interstratal dissolution of halite. The older terraces (T1 to T4) show slight thickening (> 18 m) and locally truncate paleocollapse structures ascribed to the interstratal karstification of halite beds. The intermediate terraces (T5 to T7) correspond to degradation surfaces that grade downstream of Cuarte into aggradation flights underlain by the abruptly thickened deposits that fill this 5 km-long dissolution trough. Subsidence migrated episodically downstream during the generation of these terraces and the subsidence/aggradation rate was probably large enough to induce a base-level drop and knickpoint migration upstream generating strath terraces with convergent longitudinal profiles. The sedimentological changes that show the thickened terrace deposits in the subsidence area (high proportion of overbank fines (> 60%) including palustrine facies, gravel channels with lower width/depth ratio, multiple fining-upward cycles, decrease in the

  9. The predictability of reported drought events and impacts in the Ebro Basin using six different remote sensing data sets (United States)

    Linés, Clara; Werner, Micha; Bastiaanssen, Wim


    The implementation of drought management plans contributes to reduce the wide range of adverse impacts caused by water shortage. A crucial element of the development of drought management plans is the selection of appropriate indicators and their associated thresholds to detect drought events and monitor the evolution. Drought indicators should be able to detect emerging drought processes that will lead to impacts with sufficient anticipation to allow measures to be undertaken effectively. However, in the selection of appropriate drought indicators, the connection to the final impacts is often disregarded. This paper explores the utility of remotely sensed data sets to detect early stages of drought at the river basin scale and determine how much time can be gained to inform operational land and water management practices. Six different remote sensing data sets with different spectral origins and measurement frequencies are considered, complemented by a group of classical in situ hydrologic indicators. Their predictive power to detect past drought events is tested in the Ebro Basin. Qualitative (binary information based on media records) and quantitative (crop yields) data of drought events and impacts spanning a period of 12 years are used as a benchmark in the analysis. Results show that early signs of drought impacts can be detected up to 6 months before impacts are reported in newspapers, with the best correlation-anticipation relationships for the standard precipitation index (SPI), the normalised difference vegetation index (NDVI) and evapotranspiration (ET). Soil moisture (SM) and land surface temperature (LST) offer also good anticipation but with weaker correlations, while gross primary production (GPP) presents moderate positive correlations only for some of the rain-fed areas. Although classical hydrological information from water levels and water flows provided better anticipation than remote sensing indicators in most of the areas, correlations were

  10. The chemistry of playa-lake-sediments as a tool for the reconstruction of Holocene environmental conditions - a case study from the central Ebro basin (United States)

    Schütt, Brigitta

    The focus of the presented study is the reconstruction of the Holocene limnic and drainage basin conditions of the Laguna de Jabonera, a today playa-lake-system in the Desierto de Calanda, central Ebro Basin, using the inorganic characters of the lacustrine sediments. Mineralogical fabric helped to reconstruct the overall geomorphic processes and gives clues to the synsedimentary limnic environment (paleosalinity). The chemical composition of the lacustrine sediments largely reflects the mineralogical composition, but the higher resolution of the geochemical data compared to the mineralogical data enables to stratigraphically split the extracted core profile into three stratigraphic units. Supplementally, it is demonstrated that Statistics between chemical compounds point to the synsedimentary intensity of weathering and soil forming processes. As for the lacustrine sediments investigated there are no data yet available a preliminary chronological framework is derived by comparison with results from neighbouring areas. Based on this the hypothesis is put forward that during the socalled Little Ice Age subhumid to dry-subhumid environmental conditions occurred. Also possibly during the late Subboreal distinct wetter environmental conditions than today prevailed. Additionally, it is demonstrated that in the most recent past human impact is causing increased erosion rates and, thus, increased deposition of detritals in the most recent lacustrine sediments.

  11. Notas sobre la presencia de siálidos (Insecta: Sialidae en la cuenca del río Ebro (España = Notes on the presence of Sialidae (Insecta: Sialidae in the Ebro River Basin (Spain

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    J. Oscoz, A. Agorreta, C. Durán


    Full Text Available Muestreos de macroinvertebrados en diferentes ríos de la cuenca del Ebro (España aportaron capturas de larvas de siálidos (Insecta: Megaloptera: Sialidae que fueron clasificadas como tres especies (Sialis fuliginosa, Sialis lutaria y Sialis nigripes de las cuales se muestra el mapa de presencia en la cuenca del Ebro. Las tres especies se encontraron en general en tramos de cabecera o ríos de montaña con aguas de calidad "Muy Buena" o "Buena" según el índice biótico IBMWP, si bien dicha distribución podría estar influida por otros factores limitantes diferentes a la necesidad de una alta calidad en las aguas.

  12. Analysis of micronucleated erythrocytes in heron nestlings from reference and impacted sites in the Ebro basin (N.E. Spain)

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    Quiros, Laia [Institute of Molecular Biology (IBMB-CSIC), Jordi Girona, 18, 08034 Barcelona (Spain); Ruiz, Xavier; Sanpera, Carolina [Departament de Biologia Animal, Universitat de Barcelona, Avgda. Diagonal 645, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Jover, Lluis [Departament de Salut Publica (Bioestadistica), Universitat de Barcelona, Casanova 143, 08036 Barcelona (Spain); Pina, Benjamin [Institute of Molecular Biology (IBMB-CSIC), Jordi Girona, 18, 08034 Barcelona (Spain)], E-mail:


    The frequency of micronuclei (MN) in peripheral erythrocytes was tested for 59 heron nestlings (Ardea purpurea, Egretta garzetta and Bubulcus ibis) sampled at two areas (polluted and reference) on the River Ebro (NE Spain) and at its Delta during Spring 2006. Flow-cytometry analysis revealed higher (three- to six-fold) MN counts in samples from the most polluted site relative to samples from the reference area. Samples from the Delta showed intermediate values. Age, morphometric parameters (weight, tarsus size and bill-head length) and maturation status showed no significant differences among the different populations for each species; nor were they correlated with MN levels. The data suggest that elevated levels of MN in chicks in impacted areas reflected the chemical pollution of their nesting sites. The use of nestlings for this assay appears to be a convenient, non-destructive method to assess the impact of pollution in natural bird populations. - Frequency of micronucleated erythrocytes in peripheral blood of waterbird nestlings correlates with chemical pollution loads in their nesting sites.

  13. First record of the mangrove palm Nypa from the northeastern Ebro Basin, Spain: with taphonomic criteria to evaluate the drifting duration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreno-Dominguez, R.; Cascales-Minana, B.; Ferrer, J.; Diez, J.B.


    Fossil fruits pertaining to the mangrove palm genus Nypa Steck, (Arecaceae, Arecales) were collected from a new plant-bearing assemblage in the Arguis Formation (Fm.), northeastern Ebro Basin (Arguis, Huesca Province, Spain). This formation is Bartonian to early Priabonian in age and comprises pro-delta and carbonate platform deposits. The new assemblage consists of nine specimens of fossil Nypa fruits and one monocotyledon leaf fragment. Over half of these fossil fruits are nearly-complete (i.e. with preserved mesocarps) while the other represent endocarps. From the point of view of morphology and size they resemble other European records of this genus. The type of remain preserved (fruits or endocarps), presence of abrasion, Teredo borings and sedimentary facies provide criteria to infer contrasting lengths of transport (drifting). However, they indicate in all cases that these fossil fruits were afloat in seawater for a considerable time. The discovery of Nypa fruits suggests a tropical-subtropical climate in the area, as well as the presence of a coastal environment and littoral forests during deposition. This interpretation corroborates previous findings from the nearby Eocene outcrops of the Catalan Central Depression (Eastern Pyrenees range). (Author)

  14. On the origin of crevasse-splay amalgamation in the Huesca fluvial fan (Ebro Basin, Spain): Implications for connectivity in low net-to-gross fluvial deposits (United States)

    van Toorenenburg, K. A.; Donselaar, M. E.; Noordijk, N. A.; Weltje, G. J.


    Floodplain deposits are abundant in low-gradient dryland river systems, but their contribution to connected reservoir volumes has not yet been fully acknowledged due to their poor detectability with typical wireline log suites and relatively-lower reservoir quality. This study presents an analysis of stacked crevasse splays in the distal part of the Miocene Huesca fluvial fan (Ebro Basin, Spain). Vertical stacking of crevasse splays implies local aggradation of the active channel belt. Lateral amalgamation of crevasse splays created an elevated rim around their feeder channel, raising its bankfull height. Subsequent crevasse splays were deposited on top of their predecessors, creating sand-on-sand contact through incision and further raising the active channel belt. This process of channel-belt super-elevation repeated until an upstream avulsion occurred. Amalgamated crevasse splays constitute connected reservoir volumes up to 107 m3. Despite their lower reservoir quality, they effectively connect channel deposits in low net-to-gross fluvial stratigraphy, and hence, their contribution to producible volumes should be considered. Unswept intervals of amalgamated crevasse splays may constitute a secondary source of natural gas. Their interval thickness can serve as a proxy for feeder-channel dimensions, which can in turn be used to estimate the degree of stratigraphic connectivity.

  15. The use of partial thickness method and zero wet bulb temperature for discriminating precipitation type during winter months at the Ebro basin in Spain (United States)

    Buisan, S.; Revuelto, J.


    The forecast office of the State Meteorological Agency of Spain (AEMET) which is located in the city of Zaragoza provides weather forecast, warnings and aviation forecast products for Aragón, Navarra and La Rioja regions. This area of Spain lies mainly on the Ebro river basin. Although the likelihood of snowfall in this territory is low, a forecasting of snow-depth higher than 5cm for low elevations activates the orange warning which must be issued to local emergency management and civil protection authorities. Zero wet bulb temperature has been historically the main tool for forecasting the altitude of snow-rain boundary at the forecast office; it shows the freezing level limit due to evaporational cooling when lower troposphere is saturated from aloft. This work adds two new parameters, the 1000-850 mb and the 850-700 mb thickness in order to characterize the thermal structure of surface based cold air and atmospheric mid-levels. The three main airports in this area Zaragoza-Aragón, Logroño-La Rioja and Pamplona-Navarra are located at altitudes below 500 m. They are thus suitable for this study. In addition, more than 16 years of meteorological observations every hour, known as METAR (Meteorological Aerodrome Report), are available at these locations. These observations were analysed and the predominant precipitation type during a six-hour period was characterized. The 00h, 06h, 12h and 18h analysis time of the ECMWF Forecast model were employed in order to get the parameters at the day and time when the precipitation took place. The most representative grid point of the model for each airport was chosen in order to illustrate the atmospheric conditions. A correlation between precipitation type and zero wet bulb temperature, 1000-850 mb and the 850-700 mb thickness was done for more than 230 different situations during a 16 year period. As a result, we plotted a series of site specific charts for each airport based on these parameters, in order to describe the

  16. Soil catena along gypseous woodland in the middle Ebro Basin: soil properties and micromorphology relationships Propiedades del suelo y relaciones micromorfológicas de suelos yesosos forestales en el Valle medio del Ebro Propriedades do solo e relações micromorfológicas dos solos florestais gessosos no Vale do Ebro

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    Javier M Aznar


    Full Text Available Gypsisols, mainly distributed in arid lands, support a key economic activity and have attracted a lot of scientific interest due to their particular physical and chemical properties. For example, Gypsisols show a high erodibility, low fertility and a variable water holding capacity that can be attributed to different gypsum particle sizes. This study aims to describe some representative Gypsisols from the middle Ebro Basin. Five representative soil profiles (mainly Gypsisols by WRB were selected and sampled at different positions along a hillside where soils where developed on gyprock. Furthemore, it links micromorphological properties with soil water retention. Soils have a dominant loamy texture, more rarely stoney. Gypsum is abundant in all soil profiles, ranging from 6 to 84% with minimum values in Ah horizons and maximum in By and Cy. The soils have a low level of salinity and a very low cation exchange capacity (CEC. The soil organic matter (SOM is medium or abundant in the Ah horizons, otherwise it is low. Soil aggregate stability (SAS is related significantly and positively with SOM and porosity, which is also positively related with moisture retention at field capacity and saturation humidity. However, there is no significant correlation between porosity and permanent wilting point (PWP. Soil water retention is dependant on the gypsum percentage and textural class. Low levels of gypsum have no influence on water retention, but high gypsum levels (> 60% enhance the field capacity (FC and decrease PWP, especially when the gypsum is microcrystalline. Gypsum levels between 40 and 60% also increase available water contents (AWC due to a decrease in PWP. There is a positive and significant correlation between PWP and FC in Gypsisols, except for those which are loamy and have gypsum values over 40%. The higher available water capacity (AWC than expected is related to microcrystalline gypsum, predominant in the studied soils. These high AWC

  17. Assembly of synthetic locked chromophores with Agrobacterium phytochromes Agp1 and Agp2


    Inomata, Katsuhiko; Noack, Steffi; Hammam, Mostafa A. S.; Khawn, Htoi; Kinoshita, Hideki


    Phytochromes are photoreceptors with a bilin chromophore in which light triggers the conversion between the red-absorbing form Pr and the far-red-absorbing form Pfr. Agrobacterium tumefaciens has two phytochromes, Agp1 and Agp2, with antagonistic properties: in darkness, Agp1 converts slowly from Pfr to Pr, whereas Agp2 converts slowly from Pr to Pfr. In a previous study, we have assembled Agp1 with synthetic locked chromophores 15Za, 15Zs, 15Ea, and 15Es in which the C15=C16 double bond is f...

  18. Serving wine. Some comments on the adoption of the oinochoe in the lower Ebro basin (7th and 6th centuries BC

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    Sardà Seuma, Samuel


    Full Text Available Traditionally, in the northeastern peninsula, the introduction of the first indicators of Mediterranean influence in relation to the consumption of wine, is dated to the second half of the sixth century BC (ionian cups, Attic kylix, Attic black-figure. Nevertheless, in the lower Ebro valley, the exceptional frequency of Phoenician trade shows clear evolution of the ceramic repertoire during the sixth and seventh centuries BC, a fact that makes it possible to evaluate the occurrence of certain ceramic products that show the existence of significant changes in the portfolio of objects associated with the ritual practices of community consumption. In this article we evaluate the adoption of oinochoe in relation to the first signs of renewal being experienced by the indigenous materials associated with drinking. The goal is to represent a stage of fundamental social changes during which ideology shows a significant increase in importance.

    Tradicionalmente, en el noreste peninsular, la introducción de los primeros parámetros de influencia mediterránea en relación al consumo del vino, se han situado en la segunda mitad del siglo VI aC (copas jonias, kylix áticas, cerámica ática de figuras negras. No obstante, en el curso inferior del Ebro, la incidencia destacada del comercio fenicio conlleva una clara evolución del repertorio cerámico a lo largo de los siglos VII y VI aC, un hecho que permite evaluar la aparición de ciertas producciones de vajilla que evidencian la existencia de modificaciones importantes en el repertorio de instrumentos vinculados a las prácticas rituales de consumo comunitario. En el presente artículo se valora la adopción del oinochoe en relación a los primeros síntomas de renovación que experimenta el instrumental indígena asociado a la bebida. El objetivo es aproximarnos a una etapa de cambios sociales fundamentales durante la cual los aspectos ideológicos evidencian un aumento

  19. Salinity trends in the Ebro River (Spain) (United States)

    Lorenzo-Gonzalez, M.° Angeles; Isidoro, Daniel; Quilez, Dolores


    In the Ebro River Basin (Spain), the increase in water diversion for irrigation (following the increase in irrigated area) and the recovery of natural vegetation in the upper reaches, along with climate change have induced changes in the river flow and its associated salt loads. This study was supported by the Ebro River Basin Administration (CHE) and aimed to establish the trends in the salt concentrations and loads of the Ebro River at Tortosa (no 027, the extreme downstream gauging station). The CHE databases from 1972-73 to 2011-12, including mean monthly flows (Q) and concentration readings (electrical conductivity converted to total dissolved solids -TDS- by regression) from monthly grab samples, have been used. The trends were established by (i) harmonic regression analysis; (ii) linear regression by month; and (iii) the non-parametric Mann-Kendall method. Additionally, (iv) the regressions of TDS on Q in the current and previous months were established, allowing for analyzing separately the trends in TDS linked to- (TDSq) and independent of- (TDSaj) the observed changes in flow. In all cases, the trends were analyzed for different periods within the full span 1973-2012 (1973 to 2012, 1981 to 2012, 1990-2012 and 2001-2012), trying to account for periods with sensibly similar patterns of land use change. An increase in TDS was found for all the periods analyzed that was lower as shorter periods were used, suggesting that lower salinity changes might be taking place in the last years, possibly due to the reduction in the rate of irrigation development and to the on-going irrigation modernization process. The higher seasonal TDS increases were found in autumn and winter months and the increase in TDS was linked both to intrinsic changes in salinity (TDSaj) and to the observed decrease in flow (TDSq). On the other hand, the salt loads decreased, especially in autumn, as a result of the observed flow decrease. These results are based on the observed evolution of

  20. Temperature effects on Agrobacterium phytochrome Agp1.

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    Ibrahim Njimona

    Full Text Available Phytochromes are widely distributed biliprotein photoreceptors with a conserved N-terminal chromophore-binding domain. Most phytochromes bear a light-regulated C-terminal His kinase or His kinase-like region. We investigated the effects of light and temperature on the His kinase activity of the phytochrome Agp1 from Agrobacterium tumefaciens. As in earlier studies, the phosphorylation activity of the holoprotein after far-red irradiation (where the red-light absorbing Pr form dominates was stronger than that of the holoprotein after red irradiation (where the far red-absorbing Pfr form dominates. Phosphorylation activities of the apoprotein, far red-irradiated holoprotein, and red-irradiated holoprotein decreased when the temperature increased from 25 °C to 35 °C; at 40 °C, almost no kinase activity was detected. The activity of a holoprotein sample incubated at 40 °C was nearly completely restored when the temperature returned to 25 °C. UV/visible spectroscopy indicated that the protein was not denatured up to 45 °C. At 50 °C, however, Pfr denatured faster than the dark-adapted sample containing the Pr form of Agp1. The Pr visible spectrum was unaffected by temperatures of 20-45 °C, whereas irradiated samples exhibited a clear temperature effect in the 30-40 °C range in which prolonged irradiation resulted in the photoconversion of Pfr into a new spectral species termed Prx. Pfr to Prx photoconversion was dependent on the His-kinase module of Agp1; normal photoconversion occurred at 40 °C in the mutant Agp1-M15, which lacks the C-terminal His-kinase module, and in a domain-swap mutant in which the His-kinase module of Agp1 is replaced by the His-kinase/response regulator module of the other A. tumefaciens phytochrome, Agp2. The temperature-dependent kinase activity and spectral properties in the physiological temperature range suggest that Agp1 serves as an integrated light and temperature sensor in A. tumefaciens.

  1. Temperature effects on Agrobacterium phytochrome Agp1. (United States)

    Njimona, Ibrahim; Lamparter, Tilman


    Phytochromes are widely distributed biliprotein photoreceptors with a conserved N-terminal chromophore-binding domain. Most phytochromes bear a light-regulated C-terminal His kinase or His kinase-like region. We investigated the effects of light and temperature on the His kinase activity of the phytochrome Agp1 from Agrobacterium tumefaciens. As in earlier studies, the phosphorylation activity of the holoprotein after far-red irradiation (where the red-light absorbing Pr form dominates) was stronger than that of the holoprotein after red irradiation (where the far red-absorbing Pfr form dominates). Phosphorylation activities of the apoprotein, far red-irradiated holoprotein, and red-irradiated holoprotein decreased when the temperature increased from 25 °C to 35 °C; at 40 °C, almost no kinase activity was detected. The activity of a holoprotein sample incubated at 40 °C was nearly completely restored when the temperature returned to 25 °C. UV/visible spectroscopy indicated that the protein was not denatured up to 45 °C. At 50 °C, however, Pfr denatured faster than the dark-adapted sample containing the Pr form of Agp1. The Pr visible spectrum was unaffected by temperatures of 20-45 °C, whereas irradiated samples exhibited a clear temperature effect in the 30-40 °C range in which prolonged irradiation resulted in the photoconversion of Pfr into a new spectral species termed Prx. Pfr to Prx photoconversion was dependent on the His-kinase module of Agp1; normal photoconversion occurred at 40 °C in the mutant Agp1-M15, which lacks the C-terminal His-kinase module, and in a domain-swap mutant in which the His-kinase module of Agp1 is replaced by the His-kinase/response regulator module of the other A. tumefaciens phytochrome, Agp2. The temperature-dependent kinase activity and spectral properties in the physiological temperature range suggest that Agp1 serves as an integrated light and temperature sensor in A. tumefaciens.

  2. Assembly of Agrobacterium phytochromes Agp1 and Agp2 with doubly locked bilin chromophores. (United States)

    Inomata, Katsuhiko; Khawn, Htoi; Chen, Li-Yi; Kinoshita, Hideki; Zienicke, Benjamin; Molina, Isabel; Lamparter, Tilman


    The natural chromophore of most bacterial and fungal phytochromes is biliverdin (BV), which is incorporated in a covalent manner into the protein. Upon photoconversion between the red light-absorbing form Pr and the far-red light-absorbing form Pfr, the stereochemistry of the chromophore around the C15 methine bridge changes from Z anti to E anti. Recombinant phytochromes Agp1 and Agp2 from Agrobacterium tumefaciens were assembled with a set of synthetic chromophores, including 2,18-Et-BV, 3,18-Et-BV, and the doubly locked 5Ea15Ea-BV, 5Es15Ea-BV, 5Za15Ea-BV, and 5Zs15Ea-BV. In all chromophores, covalent bond formation is restricted. As shown by spectral changes and desalting column separation, all chromophores are bound to Agp1 and Agp2. Adducts with 2,18-Et-BV and 3,18-Et-BV undergo normal photoconversion between Pr and Pfr. As opposed to typical phytochromes, the BV-Agp2 adduct converts from Pr to Pfr in darkness. However, the 2,18-Et-BV-Agp2 and 3,18-Et-BV-Agp2 adducts can undergo dark conversion from Pr to Pfr and Pfr to Pr, showing that ring A of the chromophore has a direct impact on the direction of dark conversion. The doubly locked chromophores were designed to probe for the stereochemistry of the C5 methine bridge in the Pfr form. The adducts with 5Es15Ea-BV and 5Zs15Ea-BV absorbed in the blue spectral range only. Therefore, the C5 E syn and Z syn stereochemistries are unlikely for the Pfr chromophore of Agp1 and Agp2. According to our spectra, the Agp2 chromophore most likely adopts an E anti stereochemistry at its C5 methine bridge. Thus, during Pr to Pfr conversion, the C5 methine bridge of the chromophore might undergo a Hula-twist isomerization. In Agp1, the Pfr chromophore is most likely in the C5 Z anti stereochemistry. We propose that the stereochemistry of the C5 methine bridge might differ between different phytochromes, most particularly in the Pfr form.

  3. Organochlorine compounds in European catfish (Silurus glanis) living in river areas under the influence of a chlor-alkali plant (Ebro River basin). (United States)

    Huertas, David; Grimalt, Joan O; Benito, Josep; Benejam, Lluís; García-Berthou, Emili


    European catfish, Silurus glanis, were used as sentinel organisms of the influence of recent and past discharges of organochlorine compounds (OCs) from a chlor-alkali plant located in the Ebro River. The fish concentrations of hexachlorobenzene (HCB), polychlorobiphenyls (PCBs) and DDTs were very high along the last 100 km of the river, including the irrigation channels, e.g. 1.2-27 ng/g wet weight of HCB, 6.3-100 ng/g ww of PCBs and 1-270 ng/g ww of total DDT compounds. These concentrations were much higher than those found upstream from the chlor-alkali discharge site, 0.2 ng/g ww for HCB, 5.6 ng/g ww for PCBs and 7.5 ng/g for DDT compounds. These concentrations were also standing out among those previously described in this fish species. The European catfish collected in sites under lower water flows, Ribarroja reservoir and irrigation channels, showed higher muscle lipid content, 1.09-7.2%, than those from sites of higher current intensities, river bed, 0.27%-0.67%. In these lower water current areas catfish exhibited OC ww concentrations that were correlated to % lipids. These differences suggest that normalization to lipid content is necessary for comparison of the OC accumulation in specimens from riverine systems living under different flow intensities. Accordingly, OC concentrations referred to lipid content showed more uniform downriver distribution which was consistent with a single focal point as main source of these compounds for the European catfish collected in the last 100 km of river stretch. This geographic distribution was also consistent with the uniform composition of PCB congeners in the studied European catfish. The distribution of DDT compounds was predominated by 4,4'-DDE which is common in most currently examined fish from aquatic environments. However, it included a high proportion of 4,4'-DDD and 2,4'-DDD which was consistent with the high contribution of benthic organisms from anoxic environments in the diet of these fish.

  4. Assembly of synthetic locked chromophores with agrobacterium phytochromes Agp1 and Agp2. (United States)

    Inomata, Katsuhiko; Noack, Steffi; Hammam, Mostafa A S; Khawn, Htoi; Kinoshita, Hideki; Murata, Yasue; Michael, Norbert; Scheerer, Patrick; Krauss, Norbert; Lamparter, Tilman


    Phytochromes are photoreceptors with a bilin chromophore in which light triggers the conversion between the red-absorbing form Pr and the far-red-absorbing form Pfr. Agrobacterium tumefaciens has two phytochromes, Agp1 and Agp2, with antagonistic properties: in darkness, Agp1 converts slowly from Pfr to Pr, whereas Agp2 converts slowly from Pr to Pfr. In a previous study, we have assembled Agp1 with synthetic locked chromophores 15Za, 15Zs, 15Ea, and 15Es in which the C15=C16 double bond is fixed in either the E or Z configuration and the C14-C15 single bond is fixed in either the syn (s) or anti (a) conformation. In the present study, the locked chromophores 5Za and 5Zs were used for assembly with Agp1; in these chromophores, the C4=C5 double bond is fixed in the Z configuration, and the C5-C6 single bond is fixed in either the syn or anti conformation. All locked chromophores were also assembled with Agp2. The data showed that in both phytochromes the Pr chromophore adopts a C4=C5 Z C5-C6 syn C15=C16 Z C14-C15 anti stereochemistry and that in the Pfr chromophore the C15=C16 double bond has isomerized to the E configuration, whereas the C14-C15 single bond remains in the anti conformation. Photoconversion shifted the absorption maxima of the 5Zs adducts to shorter wavelengths, whereas the 5Za adducts were shifted to longer wavelengths. Thus, the C5-C6 single bond of the Pfr chromophore is rather in an anti conformation, supporting the previous suggestion that during photoconversion of phytochromes, a rotation around the ring A-B connecting single bond occurs.

  5. Temperature Effects on Agrobacterium Phytochrome Agp1


    Ibrahim Njimona; Tilman Lamparter


    Phytochromes are widely distributed biliprotein photoreceptors with a conserved N-terminal chromophore-binding domain. Most phytochromes bear a light-regulated C-terminal His kinase or His kinase-like region. We investigated the effects of light and temperature on the His kinase activity of the phytochrome Agp1 from Agrobacterium tumefaciens. As in earlier studies, the phosphorylation activity of the holoprotein after far-red irradiation (where the red-light absorbing Pr form dominates) was s...

  6. Reservoir impacts downstream in highly regulated river basins: the Ebro delta and the Guadalquivir estuary in Spain



    Regulation by reservoirs affects both the freshwater regime and the sediment delivery at the area downstream, and may have a significant impact on water quality in the final transitional water bodies. Spain is one the countries with more water storage capacity by reservoirs in the world. Dense reservoir networks can be found in most of the hydrographic basins, especially in the central and southern regions. The spatial redistribution of the seasonal and annual water storage ...

  7. Yeast Agp2p and Agp3p function as amino acid permeases in poor nutrient conditions. (United States)

    Schreve, James L; Garrett, Jinnie M


    The gene AGP2 and the ORF YFL055w (here named AGP3) are classified as members of the yeast amino acid permease gene family. Analysis of the growth of multiply-mutant strains in which these genes are disrupted shows that both encode permeases capable of supplying branched chain, and other, amino acids as nitrogen source. Both Agp2p and Agp3p are low affinity permeases for leucine (Kmapp 0.2-0.5 mM) and are expressed at lower levels than other permeases on all media tested. Thus, it appears that these two permeases can function as low affinity, relatively non-specific, permeases with redundant functions in the cell. Transcription of AGP2 and AGP3 is very low but is increased in cells lacking other functional general amino acid permeases (Gap1p or Agp1p). These results suggest Agp2p and Agp3p function in amino acid transport when nitrogen sources are limiting and/or other permeases are inactive.

  8. Historical Heliophysical Series of the Ebro Observatory (United States)

    Curto, J. J.; Solé, J. G.; Genescà, M.; Blanca, M. J.; Vaquero, J. M.


    We present the contents of the historical heliophysical series collected at the Ebro Observatory, as well as the actions carried out to restore and save these data and to conserve the physical media containing the data and the telescopes that helped to obtain them. We also discuss the results obtained with these measurements, describe how we disseminated them, and report on the investigations that we have carried out with this information. We show the evolution of the local solar indices such as the Ebro Sunspot Number (ESN), the Ebro Group Sunspot Number (EGSN), or the Ebro Sunspot Area (ESA), which are derived directly from our data. For verification purposes, these local solar indices have been compared to the international sunspot numbers published by SILSO. Our data are reliable and correlate well with the respective international series. Finally, as an example of the possibilities that the Ebro series offer, we explain the use of these data to elucidate one of the recent problems in solar physics: the discontinuity in international data known as the Waldmeier discontinuity and, in general, the ratio between sunspots and sunspot groups. In the Ebro Observatory series, no discontinuity such as this is detected. We instead observe a rather stable ratio in the spot or group rates. This result is in agreement with the hypothesis of Svalgaard (2010, ASP CS-428, 297) that the Waldmeier discontinuity is produced only on a procedural level, perhaps by a change in the criteria used in Zürich by Waldmeier or by changing external conditions.

  9. Some previous ABL measurements in the Duero and Ebro valleys (United States)

    Cuxart, Joan


    Evapotranspiration in semi-arid regimes needs improved understanding and representation in numerical models. Most of the Iberian Peninsula (IP) upper soil in summer becomes dry which makes of it a good area for field campaigning and numerical modeling. The two large basins at the northern IP, Duero (essentially non-irrigated cereals) and Ebro (large irrigated areas surrounded by typical mediterranean vegetation), have already seen some ABL research efforts in the last decades. The CIBA site is located over a plateau in the centre of the Duero basin. The plateau has shallow soil over karstic rock, contrarily to the lower areas that are essentially sedimentary. There radiation and fluxes of biogenic gases have been measured during decades by the University of Valladolid. Since 1998 the renovated 100m tower has been used to study the ABL, focusing essentially in the nocturnal stably stratified regime, the mesoscale low-level jets, the effet of surface heterogeneities and fog events. Studies have been supplemented with use of satellital information and high-resolution mesoscale simulations. The center of the Ebro basin was the site of ABL measurements between 2008 and 2011, when a surface energy budget (SEB) station and a WindRASS were operating in the middle of a large vineyard, occasionally irrigated during the summer season, keeping the soil always with enough water content to sustain the needs of the vines. Similar topics as for the Duero basin were inspected, here supplemented by the effect of the surrounding topography and the wet-dry terrain heterogeneities, both contributing to intensify the strength of low-level circulations. The SEB imbalance was quantified and the terms compared to the ones from the ECMWF model, finding very significant differences. The SEB and WindRASS were installed in 2015 in the large Pyrenean valley of La Cerdanya, through which the Segre river (a main tributary of the Ebro) flows. The soil in this area usually retains enough water

  10. Global change impacts on river ecosystems: A high-resolution watershed study of Ebro river metabolism. (United States)

    Val, Jonatan; Chinarro, David; Pino, María Rosa; Navarro, Enrique


    Global change is transforming freshwater ecosystems, mainly through changes in basin flow dynamics. This study assessed how the combination of climate change and human management of river flow impacts metabolism of the Ebro River (the largest river basin in Spain, 86,100km(2)), assessed as gross primary production-GPP-and ecosystem respiration-ER. In order to investigate the influence of global change on freshwater ecosystems, an analysis of trends and frequencies from 25 sampling sites of the Ebro river basin was conducted. For this purpose, we examined the effect of anthropogenic flow control on river metabolism with a Granger causality study; simultaneously, took into account the effects of climate change, a period of extraordinary drought (largest in past 140years). We identified periods of sudden flow changes resulting from both human management and global climate effects. From 1998 to 2012, the Ebro River basin was trending toward a more autotrophic condition indicated by P/R ratio. Particularly, the results show that floods that occurred after long periods of low flows had a dramatic impact on the respiration (i.e., mineralization) capacity of the river. This approach allowed for a detailed characterization of the relationships between river metabolism and drought impacts at the watershed level. These findings may allow for a better understanding of the ecological impacts provoked by flow management, thus contributing to maintain the health of freshwater communities and ecosystem services that rely on their integrity.

  11. Large-scale coastal and fluvial models constrain the late Holocene evolution of the Ebro Delta (United States)

    Nienhuis, Jaap H.; Ashton, Andrew D.; Kettner, Albert J.; Giosan, Liviu


    The distinctive plan-view shape of the Ebro Delta coast reveals a rich morphologic history. The degree to which the form and depositional history of the Ebro and other deltas represent autogenic (internal) dynamics or allogenic (external) forcing remains a prominent challenge for paleo-environmental reconstructions. Here we use simple coastal and fluvial morphodynamic models to quantify paleo-environmental changes affecting the Ebro Delta over the late Holocene. Our findings show that these models are able to broadly reproduce the Ebro Delta morphology, with simple fluvial and wave climate histories. Based on numerical model experiments and the preserved and modern shape of the Ebro Delta plain, we estimate that a phase of rapid shoreline progradation began approximately 2100 years BP, requiring approximately a doubling in coarse-grained fluvial sediment supply to the delta. River profile simulations suggest that an instantaneous and sustained increase in coarse-grained sediment supply to the delta requires a combined increase in both flood discharge and sediment supply from the drainage basin. The persistence of rapid delta progradation throughout the last 2100 years suggests an anthropogenic control on sediment supply and flood intensity. Using proxy records of the North Atlantic Oscillation, we do not find evidence that changes in wave climate aided this delta expansion. Our findings highlight how scenario-based investigations of deltaic systems using simple models can assist first-order quantitative paleo-environmental reconstructions, elucidating the effects of past human influence and climate change, and allowing a better understanding of the future of deltaic landforms.

  12. The rearrangement of the human alpha(1)-acid glycoprotein/orosomucoid gene: evidence for tandemly triplicated genes consisting of two AGP1 and one AGP2. (United States)

    Nakamura, H; Yuasa, I; Umetsu, K; Nakagawa, M; Nanba, E; Kimura, K


    The human alpha(1)-acid glycoprotein (AGP) or orosomucoid (ORM) is controlled by the two tandemly arranged genes, AGP1 and AGP2. The further duplication of the AGP1 gene has been suggested by a few duplicated ORM1 locus haplotypes including ORM1*F1. S and ORM1*B9. S, detected by isoelectric focusing. To clarify the triplication of the AGP gene, 39 DNA samples from Japanese subjects were studied by the long-range PCR of intergenic regions. The analysis of PCR products showed that the tandemly triplicated genes, AGP1A-AGP1B-AGP2, occurred on about 20% of chromosomes. These composites were divided into ORM1A*F1-ORM1B*S-ORM2*M and ORM1A*B9-ORM1B*S-ORM2*M by allelic variations. Furthermore, the former was classified into a few haplotypes by three synonymous sequence variations, which might have arisen through gene conversion-like events. The recombination breakpoints existed between the 5' flanking region and intron 2 of the AGP1B gene. Thus, it is likely that the rearrangement of the AGP gene has often occurred.

  13. Biochemische Untersuchungen mit dem prokaryotischen Phytochrom Agp1 aus Agrobacterium tumefaciens


    Noack, Steffi


    Phytochromes are photoreceptors with a bilin chromophore in which light triggers the conversion between the red-absorbing form Pr and the far-red-absorbing form Pfr. The soil bacterium Agrobacterium tumefaciens has two phytochromes, Agp1 and Agp2, with antagonistic properties. In darkness, Agp1 converts slowly from Pfr to Pr, whereas Agp2 converts slowly from Pr to Pfr. Photoconversion is initiated by a change of the stereochemistry of the chromophore which induces structural changes of the p...

  14. Sediment transport during flushing flows in the lower River Ebro (United States)

    Batalla, R. J.; Vericat, D.; Palau, A.


    This study describes the sediment transport which occurred during several flushing flows between 2002 and 2008 in the impounded lower River Ebro (Northeast Spain). The experimental releases were designed and undertaken to control the excess of aquatic vegetation and enhance sediment-related processes in the river channel downstream the lowermost dams in the basin. Macrophytes cause problems to water users, especially to the hydroelectric and the nuclear power plants located in the vicinity of the river. Sediment transport results from flushing flows are compared with those observed during natural floods. Observations show distinct patterns of sediment transport owing to the particular channel conditions (i.e. exhaustion of fine sediment and removal of the surface layer). Flushing flows depict notably higher suspended sediment concentrations in relation to natural floods. Bed load rates during flushing flows are typically low and, because the flood duration is short, no incision is observed in the river bed. In spite of that, large quantities of macrophytes were removed. The combination of hydraulic and sedimentary parameters during the designed floods maximizes the ecological and management benefits of the experimental releases without significant adverse geomorphological impacts on the river channel.

  15. Alterations of River Flow Caused By Dams. The Ebro River (ne Spain) (United States)

    Batalla, R. J.; Kondolf, G. M.

    The Ebro River drains 85,530 km2 of the Cantabrian Range, Pyrenees, and Iberian Massif in northeastern Spain, with a mean annual runoff of 13,400 106 m3 at Tortosa, where it debouches into the Mediterranean Sea, about 180 km south of Barcelona. One hundred eighty-seven reservoirs (two-thirds built between 1950 and 1975) built for hydroelectric production, irrigation, cooling water, and industrial and domestic uses, have a total capacity equivalent to 57% of the Ebro River's mean annual runoff. Gauging records are available from the Confederación Hidrográfica del Ebro (CHE), a government agency established in 1926 to manage the water resources in the Ebro River basin. We analyzed 38 gauging records from 22 rivers that, by virtue of their location within the drainage network and period of record, would reflect hydrological changes from reservoir construction and operation. From pre- and post-dam records, we analyzed changes in flood peaks, mean annual runoff, mean daily flows, and mean monthly flows for four distinct climatic zones. Most rivers showed reduction in flood magnitude, with average reduction of over 30% for Q2 and Q10. Greater reductions were associated with higher values of the Impounded Runoff index (IR, calculated as reservoir capacity divided by mean annual runoff). Despite similar values of IR, floods in the low-rainfall Mediterranean tributaries in the southeast part of the basin were more affected by reservoirs than those in the high-rainfall humid Atlantic tributaries in the western part of the basin, with a given percentage of regulation producing twice the flood reduction as in the humid Atlantic zone. Annual runoff did not show strong trends, but the variability of mean daily flows was reduced in most cases due to storing of winter floods and increased baseflows in summer for irrigation. Monthly flows ranged from virtually no change post-dam to complete inversion in seasonal pattern, the latter due to releases for irrigation in the summer

  16. Control of pesticides in the Ebro basin; Control de plaguicidas en la cuenca del Ebro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mosteo Abad, R.; Gracia Plana, M. M.; Ormad Melero, M. P.; Rodriguez Navarro, L.; Ovelleiro Narvion, J. L.


    This research is based on the starting of an analytical methodology for pesticides determination in surface water. A total number of 42 pesticides has been studied. For pesticides identification and quantification the analytical procedure used is a solid/liquid extraction followed by clean up, and extracts concentration with N{sub 2} flow. The analysis is carried out by Gas chromatography coupled with Mass Spectrometry. Recovery results for synthetic samples of the total pesticides considered are in a range of 30-120%. These results confirm the efficiency of this analytical methodology, allowing to determinate very low concentrations of pesticides in superficial water. Finally, the analytical method is applied to real samples. (Author) 8 refs.

  17. Spectral properties of phytochrome Agp2 from Agrobacterium tumefaciens are specifically modified by a compound of the cell extract. (United States)

    Krieger, Alexander; Molina, Isabel; Oberpichler, Inga; Michael, Norbert; Lamparter, Tilman


    Phytochromes are widely distributed photoreceptors that are converted by light between the red absorbing Pr and the far-red absorbing Pfr form. The soil bacterium Agrobacterium tumefaciens contains two phytochromes, Agp1 and Agp2, which act as light-regulated histidine kinases. Whereas most phytochromes are stable in the Pr form, Agp2 and few other phytochromes convert into Pfr in darkness. We have shown in a previous publication that the spectral properties of recombinant Agp2 are modified by compounds of the cell extract from an Agrobacterium agp1(-)/agp2(-) double knockout mutant. In the present work we performed concentration series which show that the interaction is specific and that the modifying factor has a concentration of ca. 0.2 microM. We have also performed a series of mixing experiments with the truncated protein Agp2-M2, which consists of the N-terminal chromophore module (501 amino acids). The cell extract inhibited the photoconversion of Agp2-M2 in an unspecific way. In concentration series, this negative effect was less pronounced when lower concentrations of Agp2-M2 were used. In the presence of excess Agp2-M2 apoprotein, the cell extract did no longer modify the spectral properties of Agp2. The data suggest that the factor of the cell extract interacts specifically with the N-terminal moiety of Agp2.

  18. Discovery of Inhibitors for the Ether Lipid-Generating Enzyme AGPS as Anti-Cancer Agents. (United States)

    Piano, Valentina; Benjamin, Daniel I; Valente, Sergio; Nenci, Simone; Marrocco, Biagina; Mai, Antonello; Aliverti, Alessandro; Nomura, Daniel K; Mattevi, Andrea


    Dysregulated ether lipid metabolism is an important hallmark of cancer cells. Previous studies have reported that lowering ether lipid levels by genetic ablation of the ether lipid-generating enzyme alkyl-glycerone phosphate synthase (AGPS) lowers key structural and oncogenic ether lipid levels and alters fatty acid, glycerophospholipid, and eicosanoid metabolism to impair cancer pathogenicity, indicating that AGPS may be a potential therapeutic target for cancer. In this study, we have performed a small-molecule screen to identify candidate AGPS inhibitors. We have identified several lead AGPS inhibitors and have structurally characterized their interactions with the enzyme and show that these inhibitors bind to distinct portions of the active site. We further show that the lead AGPS inhibitor 1a selectively lowers ether lipid levels in several types of human cancer cells and impairs their cellular survival and migration. We provide here the first report of in situ-active pharmacological tools for inhibiting AGPS, which may provide chemical scaffolds for future AGPS inhibitor development for cancer therapy.

  19. AGP2 encodes the major permease for high affinity polyamine import in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. (United States)

    Aouida, Mustapha; Leduc, Anick; Poulin, Richard; Ramotar, Dindial


    Polyamines play essential functions in many aspects of cell biology. Plasma membrane transport systems for the specific uptake of polyamines exist in most eukaryotic cells but have been very recently identified at the molecular level only in the parasite Leishmania. We now report that the high affinity polyamine permease in Saccharomyces cerevisiae is identical to Agp2p, a member of the yeast amino acid transporter family that was previously identified as a carnitine transporter. Deletion of AGP2 dramatically reduces the initial velocity of spermidine and putrescine uptake and confers strong resistance to the toxicity of exogenous polyamines, and transformation with an AGP2 expression vector restored polyamine transport in agp2delta mutants. Yeast mutants deficient in polyamine biosynthesis required >10-fold higher concentrations of exogenous putrescine to restore cell proliferation upon deletion of the AGP2 gene. Disruption of END3, a gene required for an early step of endocytosis, increased the abundance of Agp2p, an effect that was paralleled by a marked up-regulation of spermidine transport velocity. Thus, AGP2 encodes the first eukaryotic permease that preferentially uses spermidine over putrescine as a high affinity substrate and plays a central role in the uptake of polyamines in yeast.

  20. The Glycosylation of AGP and Its Associations with the Binding to Methadone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer L. Behan


    Full Text Available Methadone remains the most common form of pharmacological therapy for opioid dependence; however, there is a lack of explanation for the reports of its relatively low success rate in achieving complete abstinence. One hypothesis is that in vivo binding of methadone to the plasma glycoprotein alpha-1-acid glycoprotein (AGP, to a degree dependent on the molecular structure, may render the drug inactive. This study sought to determine whether alterations present in the glycosylation pattern of AGP in patients undergoing various stages of methadone therapy (titration one and a half years could affect the affinity of the glycoprotein to bind methadone. The composition of AGP glycosylation was determined using high pH anion exchange chromatography (HPAEC and intrinsic fluorescence analysed to determine the extent of binding to methadone. The monosaccharides galactose and N-acetyl-glucosamine were elevated in all methadone treatment groups indicating alterations in AGP glycosylation. AGP from all patients receiving methadone therapy exhibited a greater degree of binding than the normal population. This suggests that analysing the glycosylation of AGP in patients receiving methadone may aid in determining whether the therapy is likely to be effective.

  1. Geoelectrical prospecting of glauberite deposits in the Ebro basin (Spain)


    Guinea, Ander; Playà, Elisabet; Rivero, Lluís; Salvany Duran, Josep Maria


    Glauberite (Na2Ca[SO4]2) is an evaporitic mineral which is used in the industries of detergents, paper, glass, pharmacy, etc. Glauberite rocks are seldom found cropping out because they are very sensitive to weathering processes; for this reason their prospection is conducted by means of boreholes. Nowadays, geophysical techniques are not used to support the characterization of glauberite deposits due to the lack of knowledge of their physical properties. In this study geoelectrical method...

  2. CsAGP1, a gibberellin-responsive gene from cucumber hypocotyls, encodes a classical arabinogalactan protein and is involved in stem elongation. (United States)

    Park, Me Hea; Suzuki, Yoshihito; Chono, Makiko; Knox, J Paul; Yamaguchi, Isomaro


    Fluorescence differential display was used to isolate the gibberellin (GA)-responsive gene, CsAGP1, from cucumber (Cucumis sativus) hypocotyls. A sequence analysis of CsAGP1 indicated that the gene putatively encodes a "classical" arabinogalactan protein (AGP) in cucumber. Transgenic tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) plants overexpressing CsAGP1 under the control of the cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter produced a Y(betaGlc)(3)-reactive proteoglycan in addition to AGPs present in wild-type tobacco plants. Immuno-dot blotting of the product, using anti-AGP antibodies, showed that the CsAGP1 protein had the AGP epitopes common to AGP families. The transcription level of CsAGP1 in cucumber hypocotyls increased in response not only to GA but also to indole-3-acetic acid. Although CsAGP1 is expressed in most vegetative tissues of cucumber, including the shoot apices and roots, the GA treatment resulted in an increase in the mRNA level of CsAGP1 only in the upper part of the hypocotyls. Y(betaGlc)(3), which selectively binds AGPs, inhibited the hormone-promoted elongation of cucumber seedling hypocotyls. Transgenic plants ectopically expressing CsAGP1 showed a taller stature and earlier flowering than the wild-type plants. These observations suggest that CsAGP1 is involved in stem elongation.

  3. The Classical Arabinogalactan Protein AGP18 Mediates Megaspore Selection in Arabidopsis[W][OA (United States)

    Demesa-Arévalo, Edgar; Vielle-Calzada, Jean-Philippe


    Female gametogenesis in most flowering plants depends on the predetermined selection of a single meiotically derived cell, as the three other megaspores die without further division or differentiation. Although in Arabidopsis thaliana the formation of the functional megaspore (FM) is crucial for the establishment of the gametophytic generation, the mechanisms that determine the specification and fate of haploid cells remain unknown. Here, we show that the classical arabinogalactan protein 18 (AGP18) exerts an active regulation over the selection and survival of megaspores in Arabidopsis. During meiosis, AGP18 is expressed in integumentary cells located in the abaxial region of the ovule. Overexpression of AGP18 results in the abnormal maintenance of surviving megaspores that can acquire a FM identity but is not sufficient to induce FM differentiation before meiosis, indicating that AGP18 positively promotes the selection of viable megaspores. We also show that all four meiotically derived cells in the ovule of Arabidopsis are competent to differentiate into a gametic precursor and that the function of AGP18 is important for their selection and viability. Our results suggest an evolutionary role for arabinogalactan proteins in the acquisition of monospory and the developmental plasticity that is intrinsic to sexual reproduction in flowering plants. PMID:23572547

  4. Changes in photosynthesis and pigmentation in an agp deletion mutant of the cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. (United States)

    Miao, Xiaoling; Wu, Qingyu; Wu, Guifang; Zhao, Nanming


    The agp gene encoding ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase is involved in cyanobacterial glycogen synthesis. By in vitro DNA recombination technology, agp deletion mutant (agp-) of cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 was constructed. This mutation led to a complete absence of glycogen biosynthesis. As compared with WT (wild type), a 60% decrease in ratio of the c-phycocyanine/chlorophyll a and no significant change in the carotenoid/chlorophyll a were observed in agp- cells. The agp- mutant had 38% less photosynthetic capacity when grown in light over 600 micromol m(-2) s(-1). Under lower light intensity, the final biomass of the mutant strain was only 1.1 times of that of the WT strain under mixotrophic condition after 6 d culture. Under higher light intensity, however, the final biomass of the WT strain under mixotrophic conditions was 3 times that of the mutant strain after 6 d culture and 1.5 times under photoautotrophic conditions. The results indicate that there is a minimum requirement for glycogen synthesis for normal growth and development in cyanobacteria.

  5. Ensayo de zonación sismotectónica en la Cordillera Ibérica. Depresión del Ebro y borde sur Pirenáico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon, J. L.


    Full Text Available Spatial relations between recent (Pliocene and Quaternary structures and seismic activity in the Iberian Chain, Ebro Basin and Outer Pyrenean Sierras are analysed. Starting from these relations, a seismotectonic zonation defining four main regions (Eastern Iberian Chain, Middle Iberian Chain, Outer Pyrenean Sierras-Carneros-Demanda Massif and Central sector of the Ebro Basin is stablished. Several zones and subzones with homogeneous characteristics from the seismotectonic point of view are differenciated within each of these four main regions. This zonation is the basis of an attempt to calculate seismic risk with a deterministic criterion.Se analizan las relaciones espaciales entre estructuras recientes (pliocenas y cuaternarias y actividad sísmica en el área de la Cordillera Ibérica, Depresión del Ebro y Sierras Exteriores Pirenaicas. A partir de ellas se realiza una zonación sismotectónica, definiendo cuatro regiones principales (Ibérica Oriental, Ibérica central, Sierras Exteriores-Macizo de Cameros-Demanda y sector central de la Depresión del Ebro y, en cada una de ellas, diferentes zonas y subzonas con características homogéneas desde el punto de vista sismotectónico. Esta zonación constituye la base de un ensayo de cálculo de riesgo sísmico con criterio determinista.

  6. Metalurgia en la Edad del Bronce: el Sur de la Cuenca Media del Ebro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodríguez de la Esperanza, María Jesús


    Full Text Available This paper deals with the role of metallurgy in the Middle Ebro Basin during Bronze Age with regard to the analytical results on copper mineral and copper/bronze artefact samples in connection with the real possibilitites of mining work. Other's aspects were also studied, such as artefact and site distribution, métallurgie abilities and social function. The evidences of metallurgical activities are scarce due to the lack of systematic research. The conclusion is that the first metallurgy seems to be more a prestigious activity than an economic one.

    El objetivo de la investigación ha sido conocer el papel que desempeñó la metalurgia en las sociedades de la Edad del Bronce en el Sur de la Cuenca Media del Ebro. Los resultados de los análisis espectrográficos sobre una muestra de minerales metálicos y de artefactos metálicos de la misma zona se han puesto en relación con las posibilidades extractivas reales de las menas por parte de las gentes de la Edad Bronce. Además se estudiaron otros aspectos como la distribución de los artefactos y de los yacimientos de la época, las capacidades de los metalurgistas, y su función y representación social. El resultado deja a la metalurgia prehistórica de la zona en un justo término, apareciendo en el inicio de la Edad del Bronce como una actividad que conferiría prestigio y con escaso peso económico, que iría modificando su importancia al final del período.

  7. Icnitas de artiodactilos (Mammalia del Paleogeno de Olcoz (Depresion del Ebro, Navarra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murelaga, X.


    Full Text Available A group of fossil mammal ichnites from the proximity of the town of Olcoz (Navarra, Ebro Basin is described herein. The tracks occur on sandstone beds of the Mués Formation of Suevian (Early Oligocene age. Owing to their morphology these ichnites have been assigned to artiodactyl mammals and can be compared to Entelodontipus forms. Moreover, this represents the second known finding of this ichnogenus. Among the tracks of this deposit there is a significant heterogeneity which is due to the variable penetration and displacement of the autopodes on the substrate. On Olcoz the presence of abundant ichnites that follow subparallel tracks allows the establishment of the gregarious behaviour of the producers of such tracks.Se describe un conjunto de icnitas fósiles de mamíferos ubicado en los alrededores de la localidad navarra de Olcoz (Depresión del Ebro. Las huellas se localizan en niveles areniscosos de la «Formación de Mués», de posible edad Sueviense (Oligoceno inferior. Por su morfología pueden asignarse a mamíferos artiodáctilos y resultan comparables a Entelodontipus, constituyendo este hallazgo una segunda cita para dicho icnogénero. En este yacimiento se constata una notable variabilidad morfológica de las huellas, resultado de la distinta penetración y desplazamiento de los autópodos en el sustrato. La presencia en Olcoz de numerosas icnitas formando rastros subparalelos permite inferir el comportamiento gregario de sus productores.

  8. Expression and distribution of extensins and AGPs in susceptible and resistant banana cultivars in response to wounding and Fusarium oxysporum (United States)

    Wu, Yunli; Fan, Wei; Li, Xiaoquan; Chen, Houbin; Takáč, Tomáš; Šamajová, Olga; Fabrice, Musana Rwalinda; Xie, Ling; Ma, Juan; Šamaj, Jozef; Xu, Chunxiang


    Banana Fusarium wilt caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense (Foc) is soil-borne disease of banana (Musa spp.) causing significant economic losses. Extensins and arabinogalactan proteins (AGPs) are cell wall components important for pathogen defence. Their significance for Foc resistance in banana was not reported so far. In this study, two banana cultivars differing in Foc sensitivity were used to monitor the changes in transcript levels, abundance and distribution of extensins and AGPs after wounding and Foc inoculation. Extensins mainly appeared in the root cap and meristematic cells. AGPs recognized by JIM13, JIM8, PN16.4B4 and CCRC-M134 antibodies located in root hairs, xylem and root cap. Individual AGPs and extensins showed specific radial distribution in banana roots. At the transcript level, seven extensins and 23 AGPs were differentially expressed between two banana cultivars before and after treatments. Two extensins and five AGPs responded to the treatments at the protein level. Most extensins and AGPs were up-regulated by wounding and pathogen inoculation of intact plants but down-regulated by pathogen attack of wounded plants. Main components responsible for the resistance of banana were MaELP-2 and MaPELP-2. Our data revealed that AGPs and extensins represent dynamic cell wall components involved in wounding and Foc resistance. PMID:28218299

  9. Agp2, a Member of the Yeast Amino Acid Permease Family, Positively Regulates Polyamine Transport at the Transcriptional Level

    KAUST Repository

    Aouida, Mustapha


    Agp2 is a plasma membrane protein of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae amino acid transporter family, involved in high-affinity uptake of various substrates including L-carnitine and polyamines. The discovery of two high affinity polyamine permeases, Dur3 and Sam3, prompted us to investigate whether Agp2 directly transports polyamines or acts instead as a regulator. Herein, we show that neither dur3? nor sam3? single mutant is defective in polyamine transport, while the dur3? sam3? double mutant exhibits a sharp decrease in polyamine uptake and an increased resistance to polyamine toxicity similar to the agp2? mutant. Studies of Agp2 localization indicate that in the double mutant dur3? sam3?, Agp2-GFP remains plasma membrane-localized, even though transport of polyamines is strongly reduced. We further demonstrate that Agp2 controls the expression of several transporter genes including DUR3 and SAM3, the carnitine transporter HNM1 and several hexose, nucleoside and vitamin permease genes, in addition to SKY1 encoding a SR kinase that positively regulates low-affinity polyamine uptake. Furthermore, gene expression analysis clearly suggests that Agp2 is a strong positive regulator of additional biological processes. Collectively, our data suggest that Agp2 might respond to environmental cues and thus regulate the expression of several genes including those involved in polyamine transport. © 2013 Aouida et al.

  10. Agp2, a member of the yeast amino acid permease family, positively regulates polyamine transport at the transcriptional level.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustapha Aouida

    Full Text Available Agp2 is a plasma membrane protein of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae amino acid transporter family, involved in high-affinity uptake of various substrates including L-carnitine and polyamines. The discovery of two high affinity polyamine permeases, Dur3 and Sam3, prompted us to investigate whether Agp2 directly transports polyamines or acts instead as a regulator. Herein, we show that neither dur3Δ nor sam3Δ single mutant is defective in polyamine transport, while the dur3Δ sam3Δ double mutant exhibits a sharp decrease in polyamine uptake and an increased resistance to polyamine toxicity similar to the agp2Δ mutant. Studies of Agp2 localization indicate that in the double mutant dur3Δ sam3Δ, Agp2-GFP remains plasma membrane-localized, even though transport of polyamines is strongly reduced. We further demonstrate that Agp2 controls the expression of several transporter genes including DUR3 and SAM3, the carnitine transporter HNM1 and several hexose, nucleoside and vitamin permease genes, in addition to SKY1 encoding a SR kinase that positively regulates low-affinity polyamine uptake. Furthermore, gene expression analysis clearly suggests that Agp2 is a strong positive regulator of additional biological processes. Collectively, our data suggest that Agp2 might respond to environmental cues and thus regulate the expression of several genes including those involved in polyamine transport.

  11. Agp2, a member of the yeast amino acid permease family, positively regulates polyamine transport at the transcriptional level. (United States)

    Aouida, Mustapha; Rubio-Texeira, Marta; Rubio Texeira, Marta; Thevelein, Johan M; Poulin, Richard; Ramotar, Dindial


    Agp2 is a plasma membrane protein of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae amino acid transporter family, involved in high-affinity uptake of various substrates including L-carnitine and polyamines. The discovery of two high affinity polyamine permeases, Dur3 and Sam3, prompted us to investigate whether Agp2 directly transports polyamines or acts instead as a regulator. Herein, we show that neither dur3Δ nor sam3Δ single mutant is defective in polyamine transport, while the dur3Δ sam3Δ double mutant exhibits a sharp decrease in polyamine uptake and an increased resistance to polyamine toxicity similar to the agp2Δ mutant. Studies of Agp2 localization indicate that in the double mutant dur3Δ sam3Δ, Agp2-GFP remains plasma membrane-localized, even though transport of polyamines is strongly reduced. We further demonstrate that Agp2 controls the expression of several transporter genes including DUR3 and SAM3, the carnitine transporter HNM1 and several hexose, nucleoside and vitamin permease genes, in addition to SKY1 encoding a SR kinase that positively regulates low-affinity polyamine uptake. Furthermore, gene expression analysis clearly suggests that Agp2 is a strong positive regulator of additional biological processes. Collectively, our data suggest that Agp2 might respond to environmental cues and thus regulate the expression of several genes including those involved in polyamine transport.

  12. Carnitine uptake by AGP2 in yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is dependent on Hog1 MAP kinase pathway. (United States)

    Lee, Jiyoung; Lee, Boyoung; Shin, Dongjin; Kwak, Sang-Soo; Bahk, Jeong Dong; Lim, Chae Oh; Yun, Dae-Jin


    The AGP2 gene encodes a plasma membrane carnitine transporter in S. cerevisiae. Here, we report the identification of AGP2 as an osmotic stress response gene. AGP2 was isolated from mTn3 tagged mutants that contained in-frame fusions with lacZ. The expression of AGP2 was down-regulated by osmotic stresses, including NaCl, sorbitol, and KCI. We also found that carnitine uptake was inhibited by NaCl. In the ssk1delta stelldelta double-mutant strain, the expression of AGP2 and the uptake of carnitine were greatly reduced compared to the wild-type strain. Furthermore, carnitine uptake was inhibited by the constitutive expression of PBS2, which encodes a MAPKK that activates Hog1. We concluded, therefore, that the HOG pathway plays an important role in the regulation of carnitine uptake in S. cerevisiae.

  13. One-Dimensional [P15](-) Tubes in Layered Semiconducting AgP15. (United States)

    Grotz, Carolin; Schäfer, Konrad; Baumgartner, Maximilian; Weihrich, Richard; Nilges, Tom


    AgP15 was synthesized from the elements via a short-way transport reaction following the mineralizer concept. The needle-shaped crystals were characterized by single-crystal and powder X-ray diffraction. It crystallizes triclinically in space group P1̅ with cell parameters of a = 6.937(1) Å, b = 9.000(1) Å, c = 11.103(2) Å, α = 99.95(1)°, β = 99.61(1)°, and γ = 105.980(9)°. AgP15 exhibits a tubular phosphorus substructure related but neither isotypic nor isostructural to the alkaline phosphides MP15 (M = Li-Rb). The thermal properties, electronic structure, and experimental band gap of this new semiconductor have been determined. Finally, Raman spectra of AgP15 and selected alkaline-metal polyphosphides MP15 have been measured and interpreted. AgP15 represents the first transition-metal representative of this class of materials.

  14. Towards the assessment of climate change and human activities impacts on the water resources of the Ebro catchment (Spain) (United States)

    Milano, M.; Ruelland, D.; Dezetter, A.; Ardoin-Bardin, S.; Thivet, G.; Servat, E.


    Worldwide studies modelling the hydrological response to global changes have proven the Mediterranean area as one of the most vulnerable region to water crisis. It is characterised by limited and unequally distributed water resources, as well as by important development of its human activities. Since the late 1950s, water demand in the Mediterranean basin has doubled due to a significant expansion of irrigated land and urban areas, and has maintained on a constant upward curve. The Ebro catchment, third largest Mediterranean basin, is very representative of this context. Since the late 1970s, a negative trend in mean rainfall has been observed as well as an increase in mean temperature. Meanwhile, the Ebro River discharge has decreased by about 40%. However, climate alone cannot explain this downward trend. Another factor is the increase in water consumption for agricultural and domestic uses. Indeed, the Ebro catchment is a key element in the Spanish agricultural production with respectively 30% and 60% of the meat and fruit production of the country. Moreover, population has increased by 20% over the catchment since 1970 and the number of inhabitant doubles each summer due to tourism attraction. Finally, more than 250 storage dams have been built over the Ebro River for hydropower production and irrigation water supply purposes, hence regulating river discharge. In order to better understand the respective influence of climatic and anthropogenic pressures on the Ebro hydrological regime, an integrated water resources modelling framework was developed. This model is driven by water supplies, generated by a conceptual rainfall-runoff model and by a storage dam module that accounts for water demands and environmental flow requirements. Water demands were evaluated for the most water-demanding sector, i.e. irrigated agriculture (5 670 Hm3/year), and the domestic sector (252 Hm3/year), often defined as being of prior importance for water supply. A water allocation

  15. Distribution of naturally occurring radioactive materials in sediments from the Ebro river reservoir in Flix (Southern Catalonia, Spain)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mola, M.; Palomo, M.; Penalver, A.; Aguilar, C. [Departament de Quimica Analitica i Quimica Organica, Universitat Rovira i Virgili, Marcelli Domingo s/n, 43007 Tarragona (Spain); Unitat de Radioquimica Ambiental i Sanitaria (URAIS), Consorci d' Aiguees de Tarragona (CAT), Ctra Nacional 340, km 1094, 43895 L' Ampolla (Spain); Borrull, F., E-mail: [Departament de Quimica Analitica i Quimica Organica, Universitat Rovira i Virgili, Marcelli Domingo s/n, 43007 Tarragona (Spain); Unitat de Radioquimica Ambiental i Sanitaria (URAIS), Consorci d' Aiguees de Tarragona (CAT), Ctra Nacional 340, km 1094, 43895 L' Ampolla (Spain)


    Industrial waste containing radioactive isotopes (from U-decay series) was released into Ebro river basin due to the activity of a dicalcium phosphate (DCP) plant for a period of more than two decades. Gross alpha, gross beta, {sup 40}K, {sup 226}Ra and {sup 210}Pb activities were determined in several sludge samples taken at different depths from different points in the area of influence of the DCP plant located in Flix. Samples were collected from two different zones: one in front of the DCP plant and the second in front of a wastewater treatment plant installed several years after the DCP plant. The data obtained verify the influence of industrial DCP production on radioactivity levels present in the area.

  16. Distribution of naturally occurring radioactive materials in sediments from the Ebro river reservoir in Flix (Southern Catalonia, Spain). (United States)

    Mola, M; Palomo, M; Peñalver, A; Aguilar, C; Borrull, F


    Industrial waste containing radioactive isotopes (from U-decay series) was released into Ebro river basin due to the activity of a dicalcium phosphate (DCP) plant for a period of more than two decades. Gross alpha, gross beta, (40)K, (226)Ra and (210)Pb activities were determined in several sludge samples taken at different depths from different points in the area of influence of the DCP plant located in Flix. Samples were collected from two different zones: one in front of the DCP plant and the second in front of a wastewater treatment plant installed several years after the DCP plant. The data obtained verify the influence of industrial DCP production on radioactivity levels present in the area.

  17. Daily temperature changes and variability in ENSEMBLES regional models predictions: Evaluation and intercomparison for the Ebro Valley (NE Iberia)

    KAUST Repository

    El Kenawy, Ahmed M.


    We employ a suite of regional climate models (RCMs) to assess future changes in summer (JJA) maximum temperature (Tmax) over the Ebro basin, the largest hydrological division in the Iberian Peninsula. Under the A1B emission scenario, future changes in both mean values and their corresponding time varying percentiles were examined by comparing the control period (1971-2000) with two future time slices: 2021-2050 and 2071-2100. Here, the rationale is to assess how lower/upper tails of temperature distributions will change in the future and whether these changes will be consistent with those of the mean. The model validation results demonstrate significant differences among the models in terms of their capability to representing the statistical characteristics (e.g., mean, skewness and asymmetry) of the observed climate. The results also indicate that the current substantial warming observed in the Ebro basin is expected to continue during the 21st century, with more intense warming occurring at higher altitudes and in areas with greater distance from coastlines. All models suggest that the region will experience significant positive changes in both the cold and warm tails of temperature distributions. However, the results emphasize that future changes in the lower and upper tails of the summer Tmax distribution may not follow the same warming rate as the mean condition. In particular, the projected changes in the warm tail of the summer Tmax are shown to be significantly larger than changes in both mean values and the cold tail, especially at the end of the 21st century. The finding suggests that much of the changes in the summer Tmax percentiles will be driven by a shift in the entire distribution of temperature rather than only changes in the central tendency. Better understanding of the possible implications of future climate systems provides information useful for vulnerability assessments and the development of local adaptation strategies for multi

  18. Hydrologic and land-use change influence landscape diversity in the Ebro River (NE Spain) (United States)

    Cabezas, A.; Comin, F. A.; Begueria, S.; Trabucchi, M.


    The landscape dynamics (1927 2003) of one reach at the Middle Ebro River (NE Spain) was examined using aerial pictures and GIS techniques. Moreover, changes in the natural flow regime and anthropic activities within the river-floodplain system were investigated. Our results indicate that hydrological and landscape patterns have been dramatically changed during the last century as a consequence of human alteration of the fluvial dynamics within the studied reach, as well as the overall basin. The magnitude and variability of river discharge events have decreased, especially since 1981, and flood protection structures have disrupted the river floodplain connectivity. As a result, the succesional pathways of riparian ecotopes have been heavily modified because natural rejuvenation no longer takes place, resulting in decreased landscape diversity. It is apparent from these data that floodplain restoration must be incorporated as a significant factor into river management plans if a more natural functioning wants to be retrieved. The ecotope structure and dynamics of the 1927 1957 should be adopted as the guiding image, whereas hydrologic and landscape (dykes, raised surfaces) patters should be considered. Under the current socio-economic context, the more realistic option seems to create a dynamic river corridor reallocating dykes and lowering floodplain heights. The extent of this river corridor should adapt to the restored flow regime, although periodic economic investments could be an option if the desired self-sustained dynamism is not reached.

  19. Petrophysical characterization of three commercial varieties of miocene sandstones from the Ebro valley

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gisbert, J.


    Full Text Available Miocene sandstones studied were used extensively to build Aragon’s architectural heritage, are still used in modern construction. The quarries presently located on the edge of the Ebro Valley depression. The present paper describes an exhaustive petrophysical study of these materials, which while, of the same age and from the same deposition basin, exhibit different mineralogical and textural characteristics and as a result, different physical and mechanical properties and durability. The petrographic and petrophysical characteristics of these materials were evaluated with tests prescribed in UNE (Spanish, NORMAL and ASTM standards. All the results were subjected to statistical analysis to identify possible textural and compositional nonuniformities in the material that may underlie behavioural changes. The results of the present paper show that their petrophysical characteristics afford these sandstones substantial industrial value as construction materials. Durability was found to be longest in the Alcañiz stone, as a result of the geometry of its pore network.Las areniscas miocenas estudiadas han sido y son ampliamente utilizadas en patrimonio histórico y en obra civil moderna, localizándose las canteras actuales en el borde de la depresión del Ebro. Se ha realizado un exhaustivo estudio de las características petrofísicas de estos materiales, que pese a presentar la misma edad y pertenecer a la misma cuenca sedimentaria presentan características mineralógicas y texturales diferentes que les confieren diferentes propiedades físicas, mecánicas y una diferente durabilidad. Las características petrográficas y petrofísicas se han evaluado mediante la realización de ensayos según las normas UNE, NORMAL y ASTM. Para todos los ensayos se ha realizado un tratamiento estadístico de los resultados para evaluar las posibles inhomogeneidades texturales y composicionales presentes en el material y que pueden originar modificaciones en

  20. Nuevos datos estratigráficos y paleontológicos sobre el Terciario del borde meridional de la Depresión del Ebro (provincia de Zaragoza

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pérez, A.


    Full Text Available Three new vertebrate localities have been studied in the southem part of the Ebro Basin: Las Torcas (Upper Oligocene, Villanueva de Huerva (Upper Aragonien, Middle Miocene and El Artigazo.
    Three Tertiary TectosedimentaIy Units (T.S.U. are stablished in this part of Huerva river, between the dam of Las Torcas and Villanueva de Huerva. Some further remarks concerning the chronostratigraphic meaning of these T.S.U. are made in base of the stratigraphic distribution of vertebrates. Finally, a stratigraphic correlation is also outlined with the T.S.U. previously characterized at Montalbán and Alloza basins.

    Se dan a conocer tres nuevos yacimientos de vertebrados en el borde meridional de la depresión del Ebro: Las Torcas (Oligoceno superior, Villanueva de Huerva (Aragoniense superior y El Artigazo, al tiempo que se caracterizan tres unidades tectosedimentarias en el Terciario del sector del río Huerva comprendido entre el pantano de las Torcas y Villanueva.
    La situación de los yacimientos dentro de las unidades definidas, permite establecer precisiones sobre el significado cronoestratigráfico de las mismas , así como su correlación con las U.T.S. caracterizadas anteriormente en las cubetas Ibéricas de Montalbán y Alloza.

  1. Association of elevated α₁-acid glycoprotein (AGP) and the prevalence of anemia in Nicaraguan preschool children. (United States)

    Sullivan, Kevin M; Venugopalan, Balalakshmi; Jefferds, Maria E; Boy, Eric; Bonilla, Josefina; Sandino, Ivette; Halleslevens, Patricia


    Anemia status is frequently assessed in cross-sectional surveys. Recently, the assessment of acute phase proteins (APPs) has become more common, primarily for iron and vitamin A biomarkers. Although the so-called "anemia of infection" has been known for years, the relationship between APPs and anemia has been infrequently presented. To assess the relationship between elevated α₁-acidglycoprotein (AGP) and the prevalence of anemia among preschool children. A nationally representative household-based cross-sectional survey was conducted in 2003-05 in Nicaragua. Blood samples were collected from preschool children 6 to 59.9 months of age and tested for hemoglobin and AGP. Data were also obtained on sex, weight, height, use of iron supplements, maternal education, and urban or rural status. Among the 1420 children assessed, the overall prevalence of anemia was 20.2% and the prevalence of elevated AGP was 24.0%. Children with elevated AGP had an anemia prevalence of 27.9%, compared with 17.8% among those with a normal AGP, for a crude prevalence odds ratio (POR) of 1.8 (p = .010). Accounting for age, maternal educational level, and year of survey using logistic regression, the adjusted POR for the association between elevated AGP and anemia was 1.5 (p = .053). Children in this survey with an elevated AGP had a higher prevalence of anemia, although after controlling for covariates the p-value did not indicate a statistically significant difference (p = .053). It may be helpful to account for APPs, when this information is available, for purposes of comparing anemia prevalence across populations or within a population over time.

  2. Bovidae (artiodactyla, mammalia del mioceno medio de Tarazona de Aragon (depresión del Ebro, provincia de Zaragoza

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pereda-Suberbiola, X.


    Full Text Available In this paper cranial, dental and postcraneal fossil remains of the Bovidae family from Tarazona de Aragón are described. There are two forms in this Middle Miocene paleontological site of the Ebro Basin according to the metric and morphological characteristics of the dentition and hom cores. One form is referred to Eotragus and classified as E. aff. sansaniensis, showing more developed features than the other Iberian forms of the same genus. The other form is classified provisionally as aff. Tethytragus because it is quite similar to the Iberian Tethytragus langai and differs from Eotragus. The two bovids from Tarazona show differences in size, hypsodoncy and dental morphology, especially the differences of development and prominence of the styles/stylideds and ribs are obvious.Se describen restos fósiles dentarios, craneales y postcraneales pertenecientes a la familia Bovidae del yacimiento de Tarazona de Aragón. Según las características morfológicas y métricas de la dentición y los núcleos óseos, existen dos formas en este yacimiento del Mioceno medio de la Cuenca del Ebro. Una ha sido atribuida al género Eotragus y clasificada como E. aff. sansaniensis, mostrando características más derivadas que el resto de las formas ibéricas del mismo género. La otra se clasifica, provisionalmente, como aff. Tethytragus, ya que guarda similitudes con la especie ibérica Tethytragus langai y diferencias evidentes con respecto a Eotragus. Los dos taxones se diferencian netamente respecto a la talla, hipsodoncia y morfología de la dentición; sobre todo, las diferencias de desarrollo y prominencia de los estilos/estílidos y costillas mismos son evidentes.

  3. A sandwich ELISA for porcine alpha-1 acid glycoprotein (pAGP, ORM-1) and further demonstration of its use to evaluate growth potential in newborn pigs. (United States)

    Caperna, T J; Shannon, A E; Stoll, M; Kahl, S; Blomberg, L A; Vallet, J L; Ramsay, T G


    A simple, reproducible sandwich, ELISA was developed to measure porcine alpha-1 acid glycoprotein (pAGP, ORM-1) in pig plasma. Porcine AGP isolated from serum was purchased and a polyclonal antisera was prepared in rabbits using the whole pAGP molecule as immunogen. The antiserum was affinity purified, and a portion of the purified antibody fraction was labeled with horseradish peroxidase. Porcine AGP protein was used as a standard, whereas commercially available buffers and reagents were utilized throughout the assay. The assay was specific for pAGP, had a lower limit of detection of 3.2 ng/mL, and could be used to quantify pAGP in plasma or serum. Using this ELISA, we corroborated our previous findings obtained by RID assay, which demonstrated that the AGP concentration in newborn piglets is negatively associated with preweaning growth rate. The current data were obtained using piglets from a different geographical location and genetic background and showed that elevated AGP at birth was associated with reduced preweaning growth rate (P < 0.001, r = 0.433, n = 19 litters). In addition, litters with a greater average AGP at birth were at a growth disadvantage compared with litters with reduced average AGP plasma concentrations (P < 0.001, r = 0.708, n = 19 litters). Litter average plasma AGP was a better predictor of litter preweaning growth rate than average litter birth weight. The data represent further support for using perinatal AGP concentrations as a tool to identify potential slower growing pigs and as a plasma biomarker for predicting litter growth rate. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  4. Subpicosecond midinfrared spectroscopy of the Pfr reaction of phytochrome Agp1 from Agrobacterium tumefaciens. (United States)

    Schumann, Christian; Gross, Ruth; Wolf, Matthias M N; Diller, Rolf; Michael, Norbert; Lamparter, Tilman


    Phytochromes are light-sensing pigments found in plants and bacteria. For the first time, the P(fr) photoreaction of a phytochrome has been subject to ultrafast infrared vibrational spectroscopy. Three time constants of 0.3 ps, 1.3 ps, and 4.0 ps were derived from the kinetics of structurally specific marker bands of the biliverdin chromophore of Agp1-BV from Agrobacterium tumefaciens after excitation at 765 nm. VIS-pump-VIS-probe experiments yield time constants of 0.44 ps and 3.3 ps for the underlying electronic-state dynamics. A reaction scheme is proposed including two kinetic steps on the S(1) excited-state surface and the cooling of a vibrationally hot P(fr) ground state. It is concluded that the upper limit of the E-Z isomerization of the C(15) = C(16) methine bridge is given by the intermediate time constant of 1.3 ps. The reaction scheme is reminiscent of that of the corresponding P(r) reaction of Agp1-BV as published earlier.

  5. Ether lipid generating enzyme AGPS alters the balance of structural and signaling lipids to fuel cancer pathogenicity. (United States)

    Benjamin, Daniel I; Cozzo, Alyssa; Ji, Xiaodan; Roberts, Lindsay S; Louie, Sharon M; Mulvihill, Melinda M; Luo, Kunxin; Nomura, Daniel K


    Aberrant lipid metabolism is an established hallmark of cancer cells. In particular, ether lipid levels have been shown to be elevated in tumors, but their specific function in cancer remains elusive. We show here that the metabolic enzyme alkylglyceronephosphate synthase (AGPS), a critical step in the synthesis of ether lipids, is up-regulated across multiple types of aggressive human cancer cells and primary tumors. We demonstrate that ablation of AGPS in cancer cells results in reduced cell survival, cancer aggressiveness, and tumor growth through altering the balance of ether lipid, fatty acid, eicosanoid, and fatty acid-derived glycerophospholipid metabolism, resulting in an overall reduction in the levels of several oncogenic signaling lipids. Taken together, our results reveal that AGPS, in addition to maintaining ether lipids, also controls cellular utilization of fatty acids, favoring the generation of signaling lipids necessary for promoting the aggressive features of cancer.

  6. Drought and detritivores determine leaf litter decomposition in calcareous streams of the Ebro catchment (Spain). (United States)

    Monroy, Silvia; Menéndez, Margarita; Basaguren, Ana; Pérez, Javier; Elosegi, Arturo; Pozo, Jesús


    Drought, an important environmental factor affecting the functioning of stream ecosystems, is likely to become more prevalent in the Mediterranean region as a consequence of climate change and enhanced water demand. Drought can have profound impacts on leaf litter decomposition, a key ecosystem process in headwater streams, but there is still limited information on its effects at the regional scale. We measured leaf litter decomposition across a gradient of aridity in the Ebro River basin. We deployed coarse- and fine-mesh bags with alder and oak leaves in 11 Mediterranean calcareous streams spanning a range of over 400km, and determined changes in discharge, water quality, leaf-associated macroinvertebrates, leaf quality and decomposition rates. The study streams were subject to different degrees of drought, specific discharge (Ls(-1)km(-2)) ranging from 0.62 to 9.99. One of the streams dried out during the experiment, another one reached residual flow, whereas the rest registered uninterrupted flow but with different degrees of flow variability. Decomposition rates differed among sites, being lowest in the 2 most water-stressed sites, but showed no general correlation with specific discharge. Microbial decomposition rates were not correlated with final nutrient content of litter nor to fungal biomass. Total decomposition rate of alder was positively correlated to the density and biomass of shredders; that of oak was not. Shredder density in alder bags showed a positive relationship with specific discharge during the decomposition experiment. Overall, the results point to a complex pattern of litter decomposition at the regional scale, as drought affects decomposition directly by emersion of bags and indirectly by affecting the functional composition and density of detritivores.

  7. Agp2, a Member of the Yeast Amino Acid Permease Family, Positively Regulates Polyamine Transport at the Transcriptional Level


    Mustapha Aouida; Marta Rubio-Texeira; Thevelein, Johan M.; Richard Poulin; Dindial Ramotar


    Agp2 is a plasma membrane protein of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae amino acid transporter family, involved in high-affinity uptake of various substrates including L-carnitine and polyamines. The discovery of two high affinity polyamine permeases, Dur3 and Sam3, prompted us to investigate whether Agp2 directly transports polyamines or acts instead as a regulator. Herein, we show that neither dur3Δ nor sam3Δ single mutant is defective in polyamine transport, while the dur3Δ sam3Δ double mutant e...

  8. Restos de quelonios del Mioceno medio del área de Tarazona de Aragón (Cuenca del Ebro, Aragón, España

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Astibia, H.


    Full Text Available In this work, turtle remains are described from the Middle-Upper Aragonian sites of Monteagudo, Tarazona de Aragón, El Buste and La Ciesma. The chelonian assemblage is compared with that found in older sites from the same area of the Ebro basin. The differences with the Lower Miocene (biozones Z-A of Bardenas Reales (Navarra could be attributed to either or both the diverse sedimentary environment and to the changes in relative humidity and temperature occurred during the Early-Middle Miocene.En este trabajo se realiza la descripción de los fósiles de tortuga encontrados en los yacimientos del Aragoniense medio-superior de Monteagudo, Tarazona de Aragón, El Buste y La Ciesma. Además, se ha comparado la asociación paleoquelionológica descrita en estas localidades con la descrita en localidades más antiguas del mismo sector de la Cuenca del Ebro. La diferencia entre la asociación de la Biozona Z-A de las Bardenas Reales de Navarra y la descrita en el resto de las localidades puede deberse al medio sedimentario y/o a los cambios de humedad y temperatura relativas acaecidos a lo largo del Mioceno inferior-medio.

  9. Evolución geomorfológica, cambios ambientales e intervención humana durante el holoceno en la cuenca alta del Ebro: las tobas de los valles del Purón y Molinar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    González Amuchastegui, María José


    Full Text Available Geomorphologic evolution, environmental changes and human activity during Holocene in Upper Ebro Basin: tufa complexes in Purón and Molinar rivers.

    Pleistocene to Holocene transition was accompanied by a very intense environmental change, from cold conditions to warmer. During this time, the karst processes made a very intense work on calcareous places of Upper Ebro Basin and tufa sedimentation rates in the valleys were also high. During the Holocene, coinciding with first human settlement occupation, tufa sedimentation stopped and the down cutting processes on in filled valley deposits started on. The erosion process on tufa building may be caused both human activity and complex responses of the natural system. In this paper Holocene geomorphic evolution of Purón and Molinar rivers is studied, the chronology of tufaceous deposits is established and the incidence of human activity on the geomorphic evolution is considered.

    Evolución geomorfológica, cambios ambientales e intervención humana durante el Holoceno en la cuenca alta del Ebro: las tobas de los valles del Purón y Molinar.

    El paso del Pleistoceno al Holoceno supuso un cambio ambiental muy marcado de unas condiciones muy frías a otras cálidas, que en las zonas calizas de la cuenca alta del Ebro fueron acompañadas de una intensa karstificación y el relleno tobáceo de los principales afluentes del río Ebro. Posteriormente y coincidiendo con el inicio de la ocupación antrópica del territorio, cesó la precipitación tobácea y los ríos comenzaron a incidir sus cauces hasta generar importantes terrazas. En este trabajo se analiza la evolución de los valles de los ríos Purón y Molinar, se establece su cronología y se plantea la incidencia que la ocupación antrópica del territorio ha tenido en su evolución.

  10. Purification, characterization and functional expression of a new peptide with an analgesic effect from Chinese scorpion Buthus martensii Karsch (BmK AGP-SYPU1). (United States)

    Wang, Yu; Wang, Li; Cui, Yong; Song, Yong-Bo; Liu, Yan-Feng; Zhang, Rong; Wu, Chun-Fu; Zhang, Jing-Hai


    In this study, a new peptide named BmK AGP-SYPU1 with an analgesic effect was purified from the venom of Chinese scorpion Buthus martensi Karsch (BmK) through a four-step chromatographic process. The mouse twisting test was used to identify the target peptides in every separation step. The purified BmK AGP-SYPU1 was further qualified by RP-HPLC and HPCE. The molecular mass determined by the MALDI-4800-TOF/TOF MS for BmK AGP-SYPU1 was 7544 Da. Its primary structure of the N-terminal was obtained using Edman degradation. The gene sequence of BmK AGP-SYPU1 was cloned from the cDNA pool and genomic of scorpion glands, respectively, and then expressed in Escherichia coli. The sequence determination showed that BmK AGP-SYPU1 was composed of 66 amino acid residues with a new primary structure. The metal chelating affinity column and cation exchange chromatography were used to purify the recombinant BmK AGP-SYPU1. Consequently, the native and recombinant BmK AGP-SYPU1 showed similar analgesic effects on mice as assayed using a mouse twisting model. These results suggested that BmK AGP-SYPU1 is a new analgesic component found in the Chinese scorpion Buthus martensi Karsch.

  11. New chiral reverse phase HPLC method for enantioselective analysis of ketorolac using chiral AGP column

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sunil K. Dubey; Jangala Hemanth; Chiranjeevi Venkatesh K.; R.N. Saha; S. Pasha


    A simple, specific, precise, sensitive and rapid reverse phase-HPLC method was developed for determination of ketorolac enantiomers, a potent nonnarcotic analgesic in pharmaceutical formulations. The method was developed on a chiral AGP column. Mobile phase was 0.1 M sodium phosphate buffer (pH 4.5): lsopropanol (98:2, v/v), at a flow rate of 1 mL/min with run time of 15 min. Ultraviolet detection was made at 322 nm. The linearity range was 0.02 10 μg/mL for each of the enantiomers. The mobile phase composition was systematically studied to find the optimum chromatographic conditions. Validation of the method under the conditions selected showed that it was selective and precise and that the detector response was linear function of ketorolac.

  12. Efficient photoinduced charge transfer in chemically-linked organic-metal Ag-P3HT nanocomposites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Feng, Lin; Chen, Ming; Zheng, Fei; Niu, Meng-Si; Zhang, Xuehua; Hao, Xiao-Tao


    A novel nanocomposite of P3HT and Ag nanoparticles (Ag-P3HT) has been synthesized by laser ablation. The fluorescence wavelength of the nanocomposite can be tuned by varying the ablation duration. The steady-state emission maximum at 580 nm for pristine P3HT shows significant blueshift to wavelength

  13. Exploitation of the nuclear plant Asco and the benthic community of the river Ebro; Explotacion de la central nuclear Asco y la comunidad bentonica del rio Ebro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Esparza Martin


    The Ebro river passing through the town of Asco in the province of Tarragona, provides the necessary water for the operation of the nuclear plant. water of circulation flows and service components are returned completely to the river, or if operation of cooling towers, decreased in a small part. Evaporative losses account for approximately 1% of the total flow used for two nuclear groups. (Author)

  14. Impact of sea-level rise in a Mediteranean delta: The Ebro delta cast

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sánchez-Arcilla, A.; Stive, M.D.F.; Jiménez, J.A.; García, M.A.


    In anticipation of a comprehensive, multidisciplinary study on the impact of climatic change on the Ebro Delta preliminary results are here presented of the response of the outer delta coast to present and future relative sea-level rise. Due to the absence of observations and predictions of regional

  15. Impact of sea-level rise in a Mediteranean delta: The Ebro delta cast

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sánchez-Arcilla, A.; Stive, M.D.F.; Jiménez, J.A.; García, M.A.


    In anticipation of a comprehensive, multidisciplinary study on the impact of climatic change on the Ebro Delta preliminary results are here presented of the response of the outer delta coast to present and future relative sea-level rise. Due to the absence of observations and predictions of regional

  16. Sorption of alkylphenols on Ebro River sediments: Comparing isotherms with field observations in river water and sediments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Navarro, Alicia [Center of Applied Geoscience, University of Tuebingen, Sigwartstrasse 10, 72076 Tuebingen (Germany); Institute of Environmental Assessment and Water Research (IDAEA-CSIC), Jordi Girona 18-26, 08034 Barcelona (Spain)], E-mail:; Endo, Satoshi; Gocht, Tilman [Center of Applied Geoscience, University of Tuebingen, Sigwartstrasse 10, 72076 Tuebingen (Germany); Barth, Johannes A.C. [Center of Applied Geoscience, University of Tuebingen, Sigwartstrasse 10, 72076 Tuebingen (Germany); Lehrstuhl fuer Angewandte Geologie, GeoZentrum Nordbayern, Universitaet Erlangen-Nuernberg, Schlossgarten 5, 91054 Erlangen (Germany); Lacorte, Silvia [Institute of Environmental Assessment and Water Research (IDAEA-CSIC), Jordi Girona 18-26, 08034 Barcelona (Spain); Barcelo, Damia [Institute of Environmental Assessment and Water Research (IDAEA-CSIC), Jordi Girona 18-26, 08034 Barcelona (Spain); Institut Catala de Recerca de l' Aigua (ICRA), Parc Cientific i Tecnologic de la Universitat de Girona, Pic de Peguera, 15, 17003 Girona (Spain); Grathwohl, Peter [Center of Applied Geoscience, University of Tuebingen, Sigwartstrasse 10, 72076 Tuebingen (Germany)


    This study reports sorption isotherms of the endocrine disruptors nonylphenol (NP) and octylphenol (OP) in three sediment samples from the Ebro River basin (NE Spain), with organic carbon fractions (f{sub OC}) ranging from 0.0035 to 0.082 g{sub OC} g{sup -1}. All isotherms were fitted to the Freundlich model with slightly nonlinear exponents ranging from 0.80 to 0.94. The solubility of the compounds as well as the organic carbon (OC) content had the strongest influences on the sorption behavior of these compounds. Comparison of the laboratory-spiked samples with the native contamination of NP of 45 water and concurrent sediment samples resulted in reasonable matches between both data sets, even though the lowest concentrations in the field were not completely reached in laboratory tests. This good agreement indicates that sorption laboratory data can be extrapolated to environmental levels and therefore the distribution of nonylphenol between sediments and water can be predicted with a precision of one order of magnitude. Furthermore, laboratory experiments with simultaneous loading of NP and OP revealed negligible competition for sorption sites at low concentrations. - Laboratory sorption of nonylphenol compared to field concentrations showed good agreements.

  17. Uranium levels in Ebro Delta topsoils (NE Spain) (United States)

    Bech, J.; Roca, N.; López-Pancorbo, A.; Fernández-Sáncheza, R.; Tume, P.


    The sources of uranium in agricultural soils can be divided into two main groups: those inherent to the parent material and those produced by anthropic inputs. The use of phosphate fertilizers, the presence of old brown coal mines and a nuclear power plant located upstream from the studied area could contribute to the increase of this radionuclide. Monitoring the uranium levels in these soils is necessary due to the importance of the delta as a rice producing area. The main objective of this work was to analyze the uranium content in the considered soils and in the rice grains harvested in those soils. Soil and rice grain samples were taken in Ebro Delta, at a rice producing area in Tarragona Province, Spain. Top soils (0-5 and 5-20 cm) were analyzed for physical and chemical properties by standard methods. Soil samples were digested by the aqua regia methods for the determination of pseudototal uranium concentration. The available fraction was extracted with EDTA 0.05M at pH 7 and rice grains were measured by digestion with a mixture of HNO3:H2O (3:2) in hermetically closed Teflon containers and then heated in the microwave for two hours. All the extracts were determined by ICP-MS. The soils had basic pH (8.0 ± 0.2), a low salinity (ranged from 5.4 to 0.1 dS•m-1), a relatively high content of organic carbon (3.2 ± 1.8) and a loamy texture: silt (31.9% ± 14.8) and clay (25.7% ± 13.5). The average content for uranium pseudototal fraction was 0.51 mg•kg-1 (ranging from 0.25 to 0.95 mg•kg-1) and the average content for available uranium was 0.19 mg•kg-1 (ranging from 0.02 to 0.65 mg•kg-1). All values for U in rice grains were below 0.0007 mg•kg-1. The uranium content in these soils and rice were in agreement with safety levels cited in the literature. The pH, the salt content and organic matter content become the soil properties that acquire greater importance in the uranium availability.

  18. Relationships between thrusting and joint systems in the Jaca thrust-top basin, Spanish Pyrenees (United States)

    Turner, J. P.; Hancock, P. L.

    The Oligo-Miocene rocks of the West Jaca thrust-top basin and adjacent parts of the Ebro basin are cut by up to eight sets of joints and allied mesofractures. The fractures belong to three groups that can be distinguished on the basis of their relative ages and geometry. An older group of joints strikes normal or subnormal to the Pyrenean mountain front and is restricted to subareas (here called front-normal joint domains) coincident with the immediate footwalls of thrusts. Joints striking parallel to a buried lateral ramp characterize a lateral ramp joint domain. Younger joints striking parallel or subparallel to the mountain front occur throughout most of the West Jaca and Ebro basins, and define front-parallel joint domains. The joint domains appear to reflect the geometry and evolution of thrust sheets. Joints in front-normal domains were formed during stretching of footwalls as a result of their loading by overriding thrust sheets. Stretching above a lateral ramp is thought to be responsible for the development of joints in the lateral ramp domain. Joints in the front-parallel domains of the West Jaca basin are related to stretching in growth folds that were amplifying during salt doming. Front-parallel joints in the Ebro basin are attributed to stretching of a foreland basin sequence above a basement flexure related to thrust loading.

  19. The SAGA histone acetyltransferase complex regulates leucine uptake through the Agp3 permease in fission yeast. (United States)

    Takahashi, Hidekazu; Sun, Xiaoying; Hamamoto, Makiko; Yashiroda, Yoko; Yoshida, Minoru


    Metabolic responses of unicellular organisms are mostly acute, transient, and cell-autonomous. Regulation of nutrient uptake in yeast is one such rapid response. High quality nitrogen sources such as NH(4)(+) inhibit uptake of poor nitrogen sources, such as amino acids. Both transcriptional and posttranscriptional mechanisms operate in nutrient uptake regulation; however, many components of this system remain uncharacterized in the fission yeast, Schizosaccharomyces pombe. Here, we demonstrate that the Spt-Ada-Gcn acetyltransferase (SAGA) complex modulates leucine uptake. Initially, we noticed that a branched-chain amino acid auxotroph exhibits a peculiar adaptive growth phenotype on solid minimal media containing certain nitrogen sources. In fact, the growth of many auxotrophic strains is inhibited by excess NH(4)Cl, possibly through nitrogen-mediated uptake inhibition of the corresponding nutrients. Surprisingly, DNA microarray analysis revealed that the transcriptional reprogramming during the adaptation of the branched-chain amino acid auxotroph was highly correlated with reprogramming observed in deletions of the SAGA histone acetyltransferase module genes. Deletion of gcn5(+) increased leucine uptake in the prototrophic background and rendered the leucine auxotroph resistant to NH(4)Cl. Deletion of tra1(+) caused the opposite phenotypes. The increase in leucine uptake in the gcn5Δ mutant was dependent on an amino acid permease gene, SPCC965.11c(+). The closest budding yeast homolog of this permease is a relatively nonspecific amino acid permease AGP3, which functions in poor nutrient conditions. Our analysis identified the regulation of nutrient uptake as a physiological function for the SAGA complex, providing a potential link between cellular metabolism and chromatin regulation.

  20. Human-induced erosion and sedimentation during the Holocene in the central Ebro depression, Spain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Constante, A.; Pena-Monne, J. L.


    Small secondary valleys in the Central Ebro Depression in northeast Spain have tended to be infield with sediment, and record a complex sequence of accumulations and incisions of Holocebe age. Level N3, the main accumulation level based on extent and depth, is characterized by a long period of sedimentation (from the Late Epipaleolithic to the end of the Late Roman period), the dominance of gypsiferous silt resulting from hill slope erosion, and a thickness up to 15 m. This deposit does not connect directly to the fluvial terraces of the Ebro River, and it accumulated over a long period of climate fluctuations. Thus, its evolution appears to have been largely independent of climate variability, but is closely related to human activities (deforestation, forest fires, farming development), particularly those associated with the main human settlements. (Author) 8 refs.

  1. Morpho-structure and sedimentology of the Holocene Ebro prodelta mud belt (northwestern Mediterranean Sea) (United States)

    Diaz, J.I.; Palanques, A.; Nelson, C.H.; Guillen, J.


    The Ebro "mud belt" is a Holocene prodeltaic deposit which has developed around, and southwestward from, the present Ebro Delta plain, covering most of the inner and middle Ebro continental shelf. Seismic-reflection profiles of this mud belt exhibit a complex sigmoid-oblique configuration. Top-set strata dip gently seaward to the 20 m isobath, and overly the fore-set beds which are exposed in up to 40-60 m water depth. Top-set and fore-set beds have mostly parallel and high continuity reflectors. Thin, acoustically transparent bottom-set beds are present at the base of the fore-set beds and extend to the distal edge of the prodelta (60-80 m water depth), where they overly relict transgressive sand deposits. There is no evidence of mass movement. The suspended load discharged by the river is mainly transported alongshelf by advective processes. This dynamics produces thin clinoform deposits that extend alongshelf for tens of kilometres. Mud belt deposition began about 10,000-11,000 years BP. Accumulation rate ranges from less than 0.5 mm y-1 on the seaward and southern edges of the deposit to about 2.5 mm y-1 near the present river mouth. Copyright ?? 1995 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Agp2p, the plasma membrane transregulator of polyamine uptake, regulates the antifungal activities of the plant defensin NaD1 and other cationic peptides. (United States)

    Bleackley, Mark R; Wiltshire, Jennifer L; Perrine-Walker, Francine; Vasa, Shaily; Burns, Rhiannon L; van der Weerden, Nicole L; Anderson, Marilyn A


    Cationic antifungal peptides (AFPs) act through a variety of mechanisms but share the common feature of interacting with the fungal cell surface. NaD1, a defensin from Nicotiana alata, has potent antifungal activity against a variety of fungi of both hyphal and yeast morphologies. The mechanism of action of NaD1 occurs via three steps: binding to the fungal cell surface, permeabilization of the plasma membrane, and internalization and interaction with intracellular targets to induce fungal cell death. The targets at each of these three stages have yet to be defined. In this study, the screening of a Saccharomyces cerevisiae deletion collection led to the identification of Agp2p as a regulator of the potency of NaD1. Agp2p is a plasma membrane protein that regulates the transport of polyamines and other molecules, many of which carry a positive charge. Cells lacking the agp2 gene were more resistant to NaD1, and this resistance was accompanied by a decreased uptake of defensin. Agp2p senses and regulates the uptake of the polyamine spermidine, and competitive inhibition of the antifungal activity of NaD1 by spermidine was observed in both S. cerevisiae and the plant pathogen Fusarium oxysporum. The resistance of agp2Δ cells to other cationic antifungal peptides and decreased binding of the cationic protein cytochrome c to agp2Δ cells compared to that of wild-type cells have led to a proposed mechanism of resistance whereby the deletion of agp2 leads to an increase in positively charged molecules at the cell surface that repels cationic antifungal peptides.

  3. Sterically locked synthetic bilin derivatives and phytochrome Agp1 from Agrobacterium tumefaciens form photoinsensitive Pr- and Pfr-like adducts. (United States)

    Inomata, Katsuhiko; Hammam, Mostafa A S; Kinoshita, Hideki; Murata, Yasue; Khawn, Htoi; Noack, Steffi; Michael, Norbert; Lamparter, Tilman


    Phytochrome photoreceptors undergo reversible photoconversion between the red-absorbing form, Pr, and the far-red-absorbing form, Pfr. The first step in the conversion from Pr to Pfr is a Z to E isomerization around the C15=C16 double bond of the bilin chromophore. We prepared four synthetic biliverdin (BV) derivatives in which rings C and D are sterically locked by cyclizing with an additional carbon chain. In these chromophores, which are termed 15Za, 15Zs, 15Ea, and 15Es, the C15=C16 double bond is in either the Z or E configuration and the C14-C15 single bond in either the syn or anti conformation. The chromophores were assembled with Agrobacterium phytochrome Agp1, which incorporates BV as natural chromophore. All locked BV derivatives bound covalently to the protein and formed adducts with characteristic spectral properties. The 15Za adduct was spectrally similar to the Pr form and the 15Ea adduct similar to the Pfr form of the BV adduct. Thus, the chromophore of Agp1 adopts a C15=C16 Z configuration and a C14-C15 anti conformation in the Pr form and a C15=C16 E configuration and a C14-C15 anti conformation in the Pfr form. Both the 15Zs and the 15Es adducts absorbed only in the blue region of the visible spectra. All chromophore adducts were analyzed by size exclusion chromatography and histidine kinase activity to probe for protein conformation. In either case, the 15Za adduct behaved like the Pr and the 15Ea adduct like the Pfr form of Agp1. Replacing the natural chromophore by a locked 15Ea derivative can thus bring phytochrome holoprotein in the Pfr form in darkness. In this way, physiological action of Pfr can be studied in vivo and separated from Pr/Pfr cycling and other light effects.

  4. Facile fabrication of high-quality Ag/PS coaxial nanocables based on the mixed mode of soft/hard templates. (United States)

    Wan, Mimi; Zhao, Wenbo; Peng, Fang; Wang, Qi; Xu, Ping; Mao, Chun; Shen, Jian


    A new kind of high-quality Ag/PS coaxial nanocables can be facilely synthesized by using soft/hard templates method. In order to effectively introduce Ag sources into porous polystyrene (PS) nanotubes which were trapped in porous anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) hard template, Pluronic F127 (F127) was used as guiding agent, soft template and reductant. Meanwhile, ethylene glycol solution was also used as solvent and co-reducing agent to assist in the formation of silver nanowires. The influences of concentration of F127 and reducing reaction time on the formation of Ag/PS coaxial nanocables were discussed. Results indicated that the high-quality Ag/PS coaxial nanocables can be obtained by the mixed mode of soft/hard templates under optimized conditions. This strategy is expected to be extended to design more metal/polymer coaxial nanocables for the benefit of creation of complex and functional nanoarchitectures and components.

  5. Inhibitory effect of isothiocyanate derivant targeting AGPS by computer-aid drug design on proliferation of glioma and hepatic carcinoma cells. (United States)

    Zhu, Yu; Li, Wen-Ming; Zhang, Ling; Xue, Jing; Zhao, Meng; Yang, Ping


    Lipids metabolism was involved in the process of many types of tumor and alkylglycerone phosphate synthase (AGPS) was considered implicated in tumor process. Benzyl isothiocyanate (BITC) showed the inhibitory effect of tumor and AGPS activity, therefore, we screened a group of small molecular compound based on BITC by computer-aid design targeting AGPS and the results showed that the derivants could suppress the proliferation, the expression of tumor related genes such as survivin and Bcl-2, and the level of ether lipids such as lysophosphatidic acid ether (LPAe) and platelet activating factor ether (PAFe); however, the activity of caspase-3/8 was improved in glioma U87MG and hepatic carcinoma HepG2 cells in vitro.

  6. Automatic control of pollutant on a shallow river using surface water systems: application to the Ebro River. (United States)

    Puig, V; Romera, J; Quevedo, J; Sarrate, R; Morales-Hernandez, M; Gonzalez-Sanchis, M; Garcia-Navarro, P


    In this paper, the problem of automatic control of pollutant on a shallow river using surface water systems is addressed using a benchmark test case based in the Ebro River. The Ebro River presents flooding episodes in the city of Zaragoza in Spring when snow melts in the Pyrenees. To avoid flooding and high pollutant levels in living areas, some lands outside the city are prepared to be flooded. Going one step further, this paper is focused on the pollutant level control at a certain point downstream of the river under flooding episodes, and several control strategies for that purpose are presented and tested.

  7. Trends in rainfall erosivity (1955-2006) over the Ebro basin; Tendencias en la erosividad de la lluvia (1955-2006) en la cuenca del Ebro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Angulo Martinez, M.; Vicente Serrano, S. M.; Begueria, S.


    Rainfall is one of the main factors affecting soil erosion. This effect is summarized in the concept or rainfall erosivity which involves the drop size distribution and kinetic energy of an event, its duration and intensity, and the runoff that generates. To calculate rainfall erosivity several indices can be applied. The most extensively used is the R factor of the Revised Universal soil Loss Equation (RUSLE). To compute this index continuous rainfall data are needed. This kind of data is difficult to obtain with a good spatial and temporal coverage. In this work, daily rainfall records have been converted into daily rainfall erosivity data. For this objective, we used the Richardson et al. (1983) exponential relationship between rainfall volume and rainfall erosivity to create the Daily Rainfall Erosivity Model (DREM). (Author) 4 refs.

  8. Characterizing the surface circulation in Ebro Delta (NW Mediterranean) with HF radar and modeled current data (United States)

    Lorente, P.; Piedracoba, S.; Sotillo, M. G.; Aznar, R.; Amo-Balandron, A.; Pascual, A.; Soto-Navarro, J.; Alvarez-Fanjul, E.


    Quality-controlled current observations from a High Frequency radar (HFR) network deployed in the Ebro River Delta (NW Mediterranean) were combined with outputs from IBI operational ocean forecasting system in order to comprehensively portray the ocean state and its variability during 2014. Accurate HFR data were used as benchmark for a rigorous validation of the Iberia-Biscay-Ireland (IBI) regional system, routinely operated in the frame of the Copernicus Marine Environment Monitoring Service (CMEMS). The analysis of skill metrics and monthly averaged current maps showed that IBI reasonably captured the prevailing dynamic features of the coastal circulation previously observed by the HFR, according to the moderate resemblance found in circulation patterns and the spatial distribution of eddy kinetic energy. The model skill assessment was completed with an exploration of dominant modes of spatiotemporal variability. The EOF analysis confirmed that the modeled surface current field evolved both in space and time according to three significantly dominant modes of variability which accounted for the 49.2% of the total variance, in close agreement with the results obtained for HFR (46.1%). The response of the subtidal surface current field to prevailing wind regime in the study area was examined in terms of induced circulation structures and immediacy of reaction by performing a conditional averaging approach and a time-lagged vector correlation analysis, respectively. This observations-model synergistic strategy has proved to be valid to operationally monitor the complex coastal circulation in Ebro Delta despite the observed model drawbacks in terms of reduced energy content in surface currents and some inaccuracies in the wind-driven low frequency response. This integrated methodology aids to improve the prognostic capabilities of IBI ocean forecasting system and also to facilitate high-stakes decision-making for coastal management in the Ebro River Delta marine

  9. Characterizing the surface circulation in the Ebro Delta using a HF radar data-model approach (United States)

    Lorente Jimenez, Pablo; Piedracoba Varela, Silvia; Soto-Navarro, Javier; Garcia-Sotillo, Marcos; Alvarez Fanjul, Enrique


    One year-long (2014) quality-controlled current observations from a CODAR SeaSonde High Frequency (HF) radar network deployed in the Ebro Delta (northwestern Mediterranean) were combined with operational products provided by a regional ocean forecasting system named IBI (Iberia-Biscay-Ireland) in order to comprehensively portray the ocean state and its variability. First, accurate HF radar data were used as benchmark for the rigorous validation of IBI performance by means of the computation of skill metrics and quality indicators. The analysis of the monthly averaged current maps for 2014 showed that IBI properly captured the prevailing dynamic features of the coastal circulation observed by the HF radar, according to the resemblance of circulation patterns and the eddy kinetic energy spatial distribution. The model skill assessment was completed with an exploration of dominant modes of variability both in time and space. The EOF analysis confirmed that the modeled surface current field evolved in space and time according to three significantly dominant modes of variability which accounted for the 49.2% of the total variance, in close agreement with the results obtained for the HF radar (46.1%). The response of the subtidal surface current field to prevalent wind regimes in the study area was examined in terms of induced circulation structures by performing a conditional averaging approach. This data-model synergistic approach has proved to be valid to operationally monitor and describe the complex coastal circulation in Ebro Delta despite the observed model drawbacks in terms of reduced energy content in surface currents and some inaccuracies in the wind-driven low frequency response. This integrated methodology constitutes a powerful tool for improving operational ocean forecasting systems at European level within the frame of the Copernicus Marine Environment Monitoring Service (CMEMS). It also facilitates high-stakes decision-making for coastal management and

  10. Comportamiento de Nutrientes en la Pluma del Río Ebro



    El agua dulce/salobre de los ríos, cuando desemboca en el mar, fluye sobre la salina formando un frente denominado pluma. Su extensión y morfología depende fundamentalmente de las condiciones hidrodinámicas (caudal del río, marea, oleaje y corrientes determinadas en gran medida por los vientos locales). Este estudio se ha llevado a cabo en la pluma del río Ebro. Se ha estudiado la distribución espacial de salinidad, nutrientes y clorofila a en la columna de agua. Para ello, en cada día de ...

  11. Estudio batimétrico río Ebro: tramo Puente del Milenio


    Carriquí Porras, Manuel


    Al finalizar las obras de la Expo Zaragoza en 2008, se especulaba con la posibilidad de que un gran volumen de deshechos se hubieran vertido al río Ebro. Concretamente los restos originados en los procesos de construcción de un puente de arco atirantado por el tablero, uno de los más largos del mundo de este tipo. Por ello, y puesto que se trata de un río importante a nivel nacional, se decidió analizar la situación realizando una batimetría que permitiera obtener un modelo det...

  12. The 'Ethereal' nature of TLR4 agonism and antagonism in the AGP class of lipid A mimetics. (United States)

    Bazin, Hélène G; Murray, Tim J; Bowen, William S; Mozaffarian, Afsaneh; Fling, Steven P; Bess, Laura S; Livesay, Mark T; Arnold, Jeffrey S; Johnson, Craig L; Ryter, Kendal T; Cluff, Christopher W; Evans, Jay T; Johnson, David A


    To overcome the chemical and metabolic instability of the secondary fatty acyl residues in the AGP class of lipid A mimetics, the secondary ether lipid analogs of the potent TLR4 agonist CRX-527 (2) and TLR4 antagonist CRX-526 (3) were synthesized and evaluated along with their ester counterparts for agonist/antagonist activity in both in vitro and in vivo models. Like CRX-527, the secondary ether lipid 4 showed potent agonist activity in both murine and human models. Ether lipid 5, on the other hand, showed potent TLR4 antagonist activity similar to CRX-526 in human cell assays, but did not display any antagonist activity in murine models and, in fact, was weakly agonistic. Glycolipids 2, 4, and 5 were synthesized via a new highly convergent method utilizing a common advanced intermediate strategy. A new method for preparing (R)-3-alkyloxytetradecanoic acids, a key component of ether lipids 4 and 5, is also described.

  13. Recommendations for standardizing glucose reporting and analysis to optimize clinical decision making in diabetes: the Ambulatory Glucose Profile (AGP). (United States)

    Bergenstal, Richard M; Ahmann, Andrew J; Bailey, Timothy; Beck, Roy W; Bissen, Joan; Buckingham, Bruce; Deeb, Larry; Dolin, Robert H; Garg, Satish K; Goland, Robin; Hirsch, Irl B; Klonoff, David C; Kruger, Davida F; Matfin, Glenn; Mazze, Roger S; Olson, Beth A; Parkin, Christopher; Peters, Anne; Powers, Margaret A; Rodriguez, Henry; Southerland, Phil; Strock, Ellie S; Tamborlane, William; Wesley, David M


    Abstract Underutilization of glucose data and lack of easy and standardized glucose data collection, analysis, visualization, and guided clinical decision making are key contributors to poor glycemic control among individuals with type 1 diabetes. An expert panel of diabetes specialists, facilitated by the International Diabetes Center and sponsored by the Helmsley Charitable Trust, met in 2012 to discuss recommendations for standardization of analysis and presentation of glucose monitoring data, with the initial focus on data derived from CGM systems. The panel members were introduced to a universal software report, the Ambulatory Glucose Profile (AGP), and asked to provide feedback on its content and functionality, both as a research tool and in clinical settings. This paper provides a summary of the topics and issues discussed during the meeting and presents recommendations from the expert panel regarding the need to standardize glucose profile summary metrics and the value of a uniform glucose report to aid clinicians, researchers, and patients.

  14. Purification, characterization and cDNA cloning of an analgesic peptide from the Chinese scorpion Buthus martensii Karsch (BmK AGP-SYPU2). (United States)

    Zhang, R; Yang, Z; Liu, Y F; Cui, Y; Zhang, J H


    In this study an analgesic peptide was purified through five continuous chromatographic steps. The mouse twisting model test was used to identify the target peptides in every separation step. The purified BmK AGP-SYPU2 was further qualified by Reverse Phase-High Performance Liquid Chromatography and High Performance Capillary Electrophoresis. The molecular weight, isoelectric point, and N-terminal sequence of the purified peptide were determined. Based on the N-terminal sequence, the cDNA was cloned by rapid amplification of the cDNA ends from the cDNA pool of scorpion glands. Sequence determination showed that the mature BmK AGP-SYPU2 peptide is composed of 66 amino acid residues, and BmK AGP-SYPU2 is identical to BmK alpha2 (GenBank Acc. No. AF288608) and BmK alphaTX11 (GenBank Acc. No. AF155364). We report herein a purification procedure that yields substantial amounts of natural BmK AGP-SYPU2 with high analgesic activity.

  15. Are pesticide residues associated to rice production affecting oyster production in Delta del Ebro, NE Spain? (United States)

    Ochoa, Victoria; Riva, Carmen; Faria, Melissa; Köck-Schulmeyer, Marianne; de Alda, Miren López; Barceló, Damià; Fernandez Tejedor, Margarita; Roque, Ana; Ginebreda, Antoni; Barata, Carlos


    Pesticide usage in Delta del Ebro (NE Spain) during the rice growing season has been associated with oyster episodes of mortality that occur early in summer. However, there are no studies that have directly evaluated pesticide levels and effects in oysters (Crassotrea gigas) cultured in Ebro's Bays. In this study pesticide levels in water, metal body burdens and up to 12 different biochemical markers were monitored in gills and digestive glands of oysters transplanted from May to June in 2008 and 2009. Biochemical responses evidenced clear differences in oysters from 2008 and 2009. Oysters transplanted in 2009 showed their antioxidant defenses unaffected from May to June and consequently increased levels of tissue damage measured as lipid peroxidation and DNA strand breaks and of mortality rates. Conversely oysters transplanted in 2008 increase their antioxidant defenses from May to June, had low levels of lipid peroxidation and DNA damage and low mortality rates. Some pesticides in water such as bentazone and propanil together with high temperatures and salinity levels were related with tissue damage in oyster transplanted in 2008 but the observed large differences between years indicate that abiotic factors alone could not explain the high mortalities observed in 2009. An analysis of recent reported studies pointed out in the direction that in addition to abiotic factors the use of oysters sensitive to diseases may explain the observed responses. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Driver detection of water quality trends across Mediterranean river basins (United States)

    Diamantini, Elena; Lutz, Stefanie; Mallucci, Stefano; Majone, Bruno; Merz, Ralf; Bellin, Alberto


    In this study, thirteen physicochemical surficial water variables and four drivers (i.e. monthly aggregated air temperature and streamflow, population density and percentage of agricultural land use) were analysed in three large Mediterranean river basins (i.e. Adige, Ebro, Sava). In particular, the purpose of the analysis is to identify how indicators of water quality and drivers of change coevolve in three large river basins representing the diversity of climatic, soil and water uses conditions observed in southern Europe. Spearman rank correlation, principal component analysis, Mann-Kendall trend test and Sen's Slope estimator were performed in order to (i) analyse long-term time series of water quality data during the period 1990-2015, (ii) detect links between variables patterns and drivers and (iii) compare the river basins under investigation with respect to their vulnerability and resilience to the identified drivers of change. Results show that air temperature, considered as a proxy of climate change, has a significant impact in all basins but in particular in the Adige and Ebro: positive trends of water temperature and negative for dissolved oxygen are found to be correlated with upward trends of air temperatures. The aquatic ecosystems of these rivers are therefore experiencing a reduction in oxygen, which may further worsen in the future given the projected increase of temperature for this century. At the same time, monthly streamflow has been shown to reduce in the Ebro River, thereby decreasing the beneficial effect of dilution, as appears evident from the observed upward patterns of chloride concentration and electrical conductivity. Upward trends of chloride and biological oxygen demand in the Adige and Sava and positive trends of phosphate in the Adige are related to the increase of population and finally phosphates in the Sava and biological oxygen demand in the Ebro are highly correlated with agricultural land use. The study showed the complex

  17. Mineralogía de los materiales terciarios del área de Tarazona Borja-Ablitas (depresión del Ebro

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    González, I.


    Full Text Available Several lithostratigraphic units of local interest, ranging in age from the Middle Vindobonian to the Pontian, occur in this area of the Ebro basin. The mineralogical study, and particularly the clay mineral interpretation, has led to characterize the different units and locate the source area (Paleozoic muscovite-rich materials of the Sierra del Moncayo. Muscovite was degraded to illite and Al-smectites, and a fluvial and lacustrine sedimentation ocurred under a semi-arid climate. Chemical sedimentation (carbonate, gypsum was prevalent, and saponite, sepiolite and chert were also formed in this environment.

    En este área coinciden varias formaciones de interés regional, que abarcan desde el Aquitaniense al Pontiense. El estudio mineralógico y, en especial, la mineralogía de arcillas, ha permitido caracterizar las distintas facies, estableciendo la naturaleza y situación del área fuente –materiales pelíticos ricos en moscovita del paleozoico de la Sierra del Moncayo–, la .degradación y transformación a illita y esmectitas dioctaédricas de estos filosilicatos, y la sedimentación fluvio-lacustre de minerales heredados y autigénicos bajo clima semiárido. La sedimentación química, carbonatada y yesífera, fue predominante, formándose, además, saponita, sepiolita y sílex en condiciones alcalinas.

  18. Mineralogía del perfil de «La Muela», terciario del sector central de la Depresion del Ebro (provincia Zaragoza

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    López-Aguayo, F.


    Full Text Available The stratigraphic sequenre of «La Muela>., at the South (Central Sector of the Ebro basin, is studied. This profile presents two difIerentiated uoits. The first one gypsum-bearing and the second one carbonatic, which correspond to the gypsum of Zaragoza and Alcubierre Cormations respectively. 80th units present a different mineralogical assofiation. The first one is characterized by gypsum, carbonates (calcite/dolomite, clay minerals and quartz, whereas in the second one the association is carbonates (calcite and/or dolomite, clay minerals and quartz. The clay minerals systematically present are: illite, smectites, chlorite and kaolinite. However, it is possible to observe an important quantitative change between both units, with a variation in the average of smectites from 23% to 46%. The variation in the molar content of MgCO3 in the carbonates has loo to propase a model of the chemical evolution on the vertical, in agreement with the sedimentologic analysis of the materials, which correspond to playa and lacustrine deposits.El perfil estratigráfico de La Muela, sector Sur de la Depresión del Ebro. Consta de dos tramos diferenciados, el primero rico en yeso y el segundo carbonatado, que corresponden respectivamente a las Formaciones Yesos de Zaragoza y Alcubierre. Ambos tramos presentan una asociación mineralógica distinta: el primero está caracterizado por yeso, carbonatos (calcita/dolomita, minerales de la arcilla y cuarzo, mientras que el segundo la asociación consta de carbonatos (calcita y/o dolomita, minerales de la arcilla y cuarzo. Los minerales de la arcilla presentes sistemáticamente son: ilita, esmectitas, clorita y caolinita. No obstante, se observa un importante cambio cuantitativo entre ambos tramos con una variación notable en el contenido en esmectitas, que en términos medios, es del 23 al 46%. La variación del contenido molar en CO3 Mg de los carbonatos ha permitido proponer un modelo de evolución química en la

  19. Carbon Sequestration in Mediterranean Tidal Wetlands: San Francisco Bay and the Ebro River Delta (Invited) (United States)

    Callaway, J.; Fennessy, S.; Ibanez, C.


    Tidal wetlands accumulate soil carbon at relatively rapid rates, in large part because they build soil to counteract increases in sea-level rise. Because of the rapid rates of carbon sequestration, there is growing interest in evaluating carbon dynamics in tidal wetlands around the world; however, few measurements have been completed for mediterranean-type tidal wetlands, which tend to have relatively high levels of soil salinity, likely affecting both plant productivity and decomposition rates. We measured sediment accretion and carbon sequestration rates at tidal wetlands in two mediterranean regions: the San Francisco Bay Estuary (California, USA) and the Ebro River Delta (Catalonia, Spain). Sampling sites within each region represented a range of conditions in terms of soil salinity and plant communities, and these sites serve as potential analogs for long-term carbon sequestration in restored wetlands, which could receive credits under emerging policies for carbon management. Within San Francisco Bay, we collected six sediment cores per site at four salt marshes and two brackish tidal wetlands (two transects with three stations per transect at each site) in order to identify spatial variation both within and among wetlands in the Estuary. At the Ebro Delta, individual sediment cores were collected across 14 tidal wetland sites, including salt and brackish marshes from impounded areas, river mouths, coastal lagoon, and open bay settings. Cores were collected to 50 cm, and cores were dated using 137Cs and 210Pb. Most sites within San Francisco accreted 0.3-0.5 cm/yr, with slightly higher rates of accretion at low marsh stations; accretions rates based on 137Cs were slightly higher than those based on 210Pb, likely because of the shorter time frame covered by 137Cs dating. Accretion rates from the Ebro Delta sites were similar although more variable, with rates based on 137Cs ranging from 0.1 to 0.9 cm/yr and reflecting the wide range of conditions and management

  20. RiverFlow2D numerical simulation of flood mitigation solutions in the Ebro River

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    I. Echeverribar


    Full Text Available A study of measures oriented to flood mitigation in the mid reach of the Ebro river is presented: elimination of vegetation in the riverbed, use of controlled flooding areas and construction or re-adaptation of levees. The software used is RiverFlow2D which solves the conservative free-surface flow equations with a finite volume method running on GPU. The results are compared with measurements at gauge stations and aerial views. The most effective measure has turned out to be the elimination of vegetation in the riverbed. It is demonstrated that not only the maximum flooded area is narrower but also it reduces the water depth up to 1 m. The other measures have local consequences when the peak discharge is relatively high although they could be useful in case the discharge is lower.

  1. Large depressions, thickened terraces, and gravitational deformation in the Ebro River valley (Zaragoza area, NE Spain): Evidence of glauberite and halite interstratal karstification (United States)

    Guerrero, Jesús; Gutiérrez, Francisco; Galve, Jorge P.


    In the studied reach of the Ebro Valley, the terrace and pediment sediments deposited over glauberite- and halite-bearing evaporites show local thickenings (> 50 m) recording dissolution-induced synsedimentary subsidence. Recent data on the lithostratigraphy of the evaporite sequence allow relating the alluvium thickenings with either halite or glauberite dissolution. The alluvium-filled dissolution basin underlying the youngest terraces (T8-T11) is ascribed to halite karstification; the top of a halite unit approximately 75 m thick is situated 40-15 m below the valley bottom. The thickenings of terrace (T1-T7) and pediment sediments are attributed to interstratal glauberite karstification: (1) Coincidence between the elevation range of the terraces and that of the glauberite-rich unit. Glauberite beds reach 30 and 100 m in single-bed and cumulative thickness, respectively. (2) The exposed bedrock underlying thickened alluvium shows abundant subsidence features indicative of interstratal karstification. The most common structure corresponds to hectometer-scale sag basins with superimposed collapses in the central sector of each basin. The subsided bedrock is frequently transformed into dissolution-collapse breccias showing a complete textural gradation, from crackle packbreccias to chaotic floatbreccias and karstic residues. (3) Paleokarst exposures show evidence of karstification confined to specific beds made up of secondary gypsum after precursory glauberite, partly dissolved and partly replaced. Despite the magnitude of the subsidence recorded by the thickened alluvium and unlike nearby tributaries, the terraces show a continuous and parallel arrangement indicating that the fluvial system was able to counterbalance subsidence by aggradation. A number of kilometer-size flat-bottom depressions have been developed in the valley margin, typically next to and inset into thickened terrace and pediment deposits. The subsidence structures exposed in artificial


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amit Ghati


    Full Text Available A thermophilic bacteria, Geobacillus sp. AGP-04, isolated from Surya Kund hot spring, Bakreshwar, West Bengal, India was studied in terms of capability of tributyrin hydrolysis and characterization of its thermostable esterase activity using p-nitrophenyl butyrate (PNPB as substrate. The extracellular crude preparation was characterized in terms of pH and temperature optima and stability, organic solvent tolerance capacity and stability, substrate specificity, surfactant tolerance capacity, kinetic parameters and activation/inhibition behavior towards some metal ions and chemicals. Tributyrin agar assay exhibited that Geobacillus sp. AGP-04 secretes an extracellular esterase. The Vmax and Km values of the esterase were found to be 5099 U/Land 103.5µM, respectively in the presence of PNPB as substrate. The optimum temperature and pH, for Geobacillus sp. AGP-04 esterase was 60oC and 8.0, respectively. Although the enzyme activity was not significantly altered by incubating crude extract solution at 20-70oC for 1 hour, the enzyme activity was fully lost at 90oC for same incubation period. The pH stability profile showed that original crude esterase activity is stable at a broad range (pH 5.0-10.0. Moreover, the enzyme was highly organic solvent and surfactant tolerant. The effect of some chemical on crude esterase activity indicated that Geobacillus sp. AGP-04 produce an esterase which contains a serine residue in active site and for its activity -SH groups are essential. Besides, enzyme production was highly induced if fermentation medium contain polysaccharides and oil as carbon source.

  3. [Phage count in the waters of the Canal Imperial de Aragón and the Ebro River in Saragossa]. (United States)

    Lafarga, M A; Ezquerra, J; Ferrández, A; Grasa, B; Alejandre, M C; Marcen, J J


    Saragossa city supply channel and the river Ebro (up and downstream urban sewage) were studied for the presence of coliphages and B. fragilis phages and their relationship with the bacterian faecal indicators. In the supply channel the coliphages geometric mean was of 130 ufp/100 ml, and showed no correlation with faecal and total coliforms, but it showed indirect correlation with ambient temperature. In the river Ebro the coliphages geometric mean ranged from 290 to 8,000 ufp/100 ml; the relationship with total and faecal coliforms and faecal streptococci was high, but they were temperature independent. With the methodology utilized B. fragilis phages only were recovered in samples with faecal coliforms levels > 1 x 10(4) ufc/100 ml.

  4. Sediment routing modelling: The use of FLUVIAL-12 to evaluate and re-design flushing flows in the lower Ebro. (United States)

    Tena, A.; Singer, M. B.; Batalla, R. J.


    The lower Ebro experiences long-term hydrological and sedimentary alterations due to upstream reservoirs. One of the most important consequences is the disruption of sediment transfer, a fact that reduces the sediment load and affects river morphology. Among other factors, the low rates of sediment transport in the fluvial system favour the development of macrophytes. Macrophytes affect flow resistance, raising the water level locally, altering sediment transport, and clogging riverine infrastructures. Since 2002, flushing flows have been implemented and monitored in the Ebro, attempting to control macrophyte populations. These dam releases have demonstrated significant potential to scour the riverbed and transport sediment (peak flows in these events are higher than those attained during natural floods). They generally eliminate most macrophytes in areas close to the dams (90%), but their capacity to remove aquatic plants diminishes downstream (

  5. Benthic foraminifera as indicators of habitat change in anthropogenically impacted coastal wetlands of the Ebro Delta (NE Iberian Peninsula). (United States)

    Benito, Xavier; Trobajo, Rosa; Ibáñez, Carles; Cearreta, Alejandro; Brunet, Manola


    Present-day habitats of the Ebro Delta, NE Iberian Peninsula, have been ecologically altered as a consequence of intensive human impacts in the last two centuries (especially rice farming). Benthic foraminiferal palaeoassemblages and sediment characteristics of five short cores were used to reconstruct past wetland habitats, through application of multivariate DCA and CONISS techniques, and dissimilarity coefficients (SCD). The timing of environmental changes was compared to known natural and anthropogenic events in order to identify their possible relationships. In deltaic wetlands under altered hydrological conditions, we found a decrease in species diversity and calcareous-dominated assemblages, and a significant positive correlation between microfaunal changes and organic matter content. Modern analogues supported palaeoenvironmental interpretation of the recent evolution of the Delta wetlands. This research provides the first recent reconstruction of change in the Ebro Delta wetlands, and also illustrates the importance of benthic foraminifera for biomonitoring present and future conditions in Mediterranean deltas.

  6. Succession of earthquakes in the Ebro Delta. A sequence to research pupils’ ideas and the prac tice of using evidence

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    Blanca Puig Mauriz


    Full Text Available A “socially live” issue related to Geology is dealt with: the controversy surrounding the succession of earthquakes in the Ebro Delta (Spain. This article examines both students’ ideas about earthquakes and the practice of using evidence in the context of choosing a causal explanation of Delta’s earthquakes. The study is part of the researches on reasoning about socioscientific issues in Geology. Three groups are involved: one belonging to CSE 4th grade (students aged from 16 to 17 and two to baccalaureate 1st grade (aged from 17 to 18. The results indicate that most of students understand an earthquake as a common phenomenon, and relate it exclusively to the tectonics plates. Regarding the controversy of Ebro Delta most choose as the cause of earthquakes the combination of natural causes and human activity, and focus on building an explanation, rather than justify their choice based on evidence.

  7. Two Decades of Multi-Sensor Subsidence Monitoring over Ebro Delta Using Coherence-Based DInSAR Techniques (United States)

    Pipia, Luca; Perez, Fernando; Marturia, Jordi; Corbera, Jordi; Jornet, Lluis; Rovira, Albert


    This work presents the historical study of the subsidence phenomenon over the Ebro Delta plain carried out as WPB6 in the frame of Ebro-ADMICLIM LIFE project, using coherence-based differential interferometric SAR techniques (DInSAR). To this end, the whole SAR archive available at ESA over the area of interest (AOI) at C-Band and L-Band has been analyzed. The results provided by each stack term of absolute deformation and deformation-rate maps are first shown. Then, a space-time filtering method to take advantage of the redundant information provided by ERS and ENVISAT data is put forward. C-band and L-band retrievals are then compared, and future monitoring activity based on Sentinel-1 imaging is discussed.

  8. Unusual Spectral Properties of Bacteriophytochrome Agp2 Result from a Deprotonation of the Chromophore in the Red-absorbing Form Pr* (United States)

    Zienicke, Benjamin; Molina, Isabel; Glenz, René; Singer, Patrick; Ehmer, Dorothee; Escobar, Francisco Velazquez; Hildebrandt, Peter; Diller, Rolf; Lamparter, Tilman


    Phytochromes are widely distributed photoreceptors with a bilin chromophore that undergo a typical reversible photoconversion between the two spectrally different forms, Pr and Pfr. The phytochrome Agp2 from Agrobacterium tumefaciens belongs to the group of bathy phytochromes that have a Pfr ground state as a result of the Pr to Pfr dark conversion. Agp2 has untypical spectral properties in the Pr form reminiscent of a deprotonated chromophore as confirmed by resonance Raman spectroscopy. UV/visible absorption spectroscopy showed that the pKa is >11 in the Pfr form and ∼7.6 in the Pr form. Unlike other phytochromes, photoconversion thus results in a pKa shift of more than 3 units. The Pr/Pfr ratio after saturating irradiation with monochromatic light is strongly pH-dependent. This is partially due to a back-reaction of the deprotonated Pr chromophore at pH 9 after photoexcitation as found by flash photolysis. The chromophore protonation and dark conversion were affected by domain swapping and site-directed mutagenesis. A replacement of the PAS or GAF domain by the respective domain of the prototypical phytochrome Agp1 resulted in a protonated Pr chromophore; the GAF domain replacement afforded an inversion of the dark conversion. A reversion was also obtained with the triple mutant N12S/Q190L/H248Q, whereas each single point mutant is characterized by decelerated Pr to Pfr dark conversion. PMID:24036118

  9. Unusual spectral properties of bacteriophytochrome Agp2 result from a deprotonation of the chromophore in the red-absorbing form Pr. (United States)

    Zienicke, Benjamin; Molina, Isabel; Glenz, René; Singer, Patrick; Ehmer, Dorothee; Escobar, Francisco Velazquez; Hildebrandt, Peter; Diller, Rolf; Lamparter, Tilman


    Phytochromes are widely distributed photoreceptors with a bilin chromophore that undergo a typical reversible photoconversion between the two spectrally different forms, Pr and Pfr. The phytochrome Agp2 from Agrobacterium tumefaciens belongs to the group of bathy phytochromes that have a Pfr ground state as a result of the Pr to Pfr dark conversion. Agp2 has untypical spectral properties in the Pr form reminiscent of a deprotonated chromophore as confirmed by resonance Raman spectroscopy. UV/visible absorption spectroscopy showed that the pKa is >11 in the Pfr form and ∼7.6 in the Pr form. Unlike other phytochromes, photoconversion thus results in a pKa shift of more than 3 units. The Pr/Pfr ratio after saturating irradiation with monochromatic light is strongly pH-dependent. This is partially due to a back-reaction of the deprotonated Pr chromophore at pH 9 after photoexcitation as found by flash photolysis. The chromophore protonation and dark conversion were affected by domain swapping and site-directed mutagenesis. A replacement of the PAS or GAF domain by the respective domain of the prototypical phytochrome Agp1 resulted in a protonated Pr chromophore; the GAF domain replacement afforded an inversion of the dark conversion. A reversion was also obtained with the triple mutant N12S/Q190L/H248Q, whereas each single point mutant is characterized by decelerated Pr to Pfr dark conversion.

  10. Flow in the Ebro Delta shelf, Numerical models and laboratory simulations (United States)

    Carrillo, A.; Fraunie, P.; Durand, N.


    This work presents the results of two laboratory and numerical experiments. The characteristic induced structures by stationer typical conditions from spring, summer, fall and winter. Laboratory experiences were developed on a five meters turntable (SINTEF facilities) obeys the Froude-Rossby similarities. While, the meso-escale numerical model was developed in the LSEET laboratory. This work evidences complementary results from the vortex sort characteristic by radius from both experimental and model methods. Additionally numerical model has a better representation from the conditions in the first 15km and the laboratory model represent the resolution between the large and the meso scale boundary. Physical variables that describe mixing are compared with experimental laboratory results from a large number of studies of mixing dynamics in environmental fluids to find habitat regimes for primary production. The work relates physical and biological variables, and emphasises the utility of laboratory studies. Several laboratory experiments that focused on turbulent mixing dynamics in stratified shear flows are used to describe (a) mixing in the estuary and (b) induced circulation in the river plume. Mixing descriptors as entrainment, Richardson number and Reynolds number and field data were employed, and advanced techniques of laboratory simulations, image processing and numerical modelling were used to match (a) to (b). Four kinds of experiments were used to describe the dynamics in the whole estuary. Mixing turbulence across a density interface generated by an oscillating grid inside a mixing-box. The horizontal advance of a turbulent front in a stratified system with a lateral current, inside a 1 m x 1 m square box. Induced circulation in the delta del Ebro slope and shelf that were performed with an experimental model in a 2 m x 4 m rectangular tank on a 5-m diameter turntable. Dispersion simulations in the river plume with the OCK3D code. Experiments were

  11. Primeras observaciones de gaviotas patiamarillas Larus michahellis Naumann, 1840 deorigen cantábrico en la cuenca del río Ebro

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    Arizaga, J., Herrero, A., Aldalur, A., Cuadrado, J.F.


    Full Text Available La dispersión de gaviotas patiamarillas Larus michahellis Naumann, 1840 de origen cantábrico al Mediterráneo es un fenómeno ya descrito. Se desconoce, no obstante, cuál es la ruta empleada en este desplazamiento. En este artículo se describe por primera vez la presencia de gaviotas patiamarillas de origen cantábrico en la cuenca del río Ebro y se especula, en consecuencia, sobre si el flujo de aves entre el Cantábrico y el Mediterráneo se da a través del Valle del Ebro. De un total de 13.132 avistamientos, relativos a 1.559 individuos diferentes marcados en colonias de Gipuzkoa, 2 aves (0,12% fueron observadas en diferentes puntos del Valle del Ebro, concretamente un ejemplar en el Vertedero de Culebrete (Tudela y otro en el de Huesca, ambos en enero de 2015. Aunque el avistamiento de gaviotas cantábricas en la cuenca del río Ebro es escaso, la ausencia de observaciones tanto al norte de los Pirineos como a lo largo de la costa del sur de España podría apoyar la hipótesis de que el movimiento de gaviotas entre la costa cantábrica y el Mediterráneo sucede a través del Valle del Ebro.

  12. Simulating long-term past changes in the balance between water demand and availability and assessing their main drivers at the river basin management scale

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    J. Fabre


    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to assess the balance between water demand and availability and its spatial and temporal variability from 1971 to 2009 in the Herault (2500 km2, France and the Ebro (85 000 km2, Spain catchments. Natural streamflow was evaluated using a conceptual hydrological model. The regulation of river flow was accounted for through a widely applicable demand-driven reservoir management model applied to the largest dam in the Herault basin and to 11 major dams in the Ebro basin. Urban water demand was estimated from population and monthly unit water consumption data. Water demand for irrigation was computed from irrigated area, crop and soil data, and climatic forcing. Finally, a series of indicators comparing water supply and water demand at strategic resource and demand nodes were computed at a 10 day time step. Variations in water stress in each catchment over the past 40 years were successfully modeled, taking into account climatic and anthropogenic pressures and changes in water management strategies over time. Observed changes in discharge were explained by separating human and hydro-climatic pressures on water resources: respectively 20 and 3% of the decrease in the Ebro and the Herault discharges were linked to human-induced changes. Although key areas of the Herault basin were shown to be highly sensitive to hydro-climatic variability, the balance between water uses and availability in the Ebro basin appears to be more critical, owing to high agricultural pressure on water resources. The proposed modeling framework is currently being used to assess water stress under climatic and socio-economic prospective scenarios. Further research will investigate the effectiveness of adaptation policies aimed at maintaining the balance between water use and availability.

  13. Simulating long-term past changes in the balance between water demand and availability and assessing their main drivers at the river basin management scale (United States)

    Fabre, J.; Ruelland, D.; Dezetter, A.; Grouillet, B.


    The aim of this study was to assess the balance between water demand and availability and its spatial and temporal variability from 1971 to 2009 in the Herault (2500 km2, France) and the Ebro (85 000 km2, Spain) catchments. Natural streamflow was evaluated using a conceptual hydrological model. The regulation of river flow was accounted for through a widely applicable demand-driven reservoir management model applied to the largest dam in the Herault basin and to 11 major dams in the Ebro basin. Urban water demand was estimated from population and monthly unit water consumption data. Water demand for irrigation was computed from irrigated area, crop and soil data, and climatic forcing. Finally, a series of indicators comparing water supply and water demand at strategic resource and demand nodes were computed at a 10 day time step. Variations in water stress in each catchment over the past 40 years were successfully modeled, taking into account climatic and anthropogenic pressures and changes in water management strategies over time. Observed changes in discharge were explained by separating human and hydro-climatic pressures on water resources: respectively 20 and 3% of the decrease in the Ebro and the Herault discharges were linked to human-induced changes. Although key areas of the Herault basin were shown to be highly sensitive to hydro-climatic variability, the balance between water uses and availability in the Ebro basin appears to be more critical, owing to high agricultural pressure on water resources. The proposed modeling framework is currently being used to assess water stress under climatic and socio-economic prospective scenarios. Further research will investigate the effectiveness of adaptation policies aimed at maintaining the balance between water use and availability.

  14. Analysis of energetic radiation associated with thunderstorms in the Ebro delta region in Spain (United States)

    Fabró, Ferran; Montanyà, Joan; Pineda, Nicolau; Argemí, Oriol; Velde, Oscar A.; Romero, David; Soula, Serge


    The analysis of high-energy background radiation (0.1-2 MeV) enhancements during eight winter thunderstorms and five summer storms in the Ebro delta region in the northeast of Spain is presented. For the first time, high-energy radiation counts, precipitation, radar reflectivity, and very high frequency lightning detections to infer charge regions altitude have been analyzed in order to find out what produces the measured background radiation increments associated with storms. The good agreement between radar reflectivity and precipitation with increases in background radiation counts coupled with the spectrum analysis comparing rain/no rain periods suggests that radon-ion daughters play a major role in the radiation increments reported. No evidence has been found supporting that measured background radiation enhancements can be produced by storm electric fields. Finally, a single case of a high-energy radiation increase was prior to a cloud-to-ground lightning stroke, which reinforces the theory that a lower positive charge layer's existence is important for the production of Terrestrial Ground Enhancements.

  15. A new methodology for flooding risk assessment in coastal areas. Application to Ebro Delta (Spain) (United States)

    Sayol, Juan Manuel; Marcos, Marta


    Global sea level rise projections for the XXI century may be translated in that, by 2100, it will be approximately 50% more deltaic areas in risk of flooding. Contingency, protection and adaptation measures will depend strongly on the regional wealth, but an accurate estimation of future flooding levels is the first thing stakeholders need before taking any decision. In light of this, a new workflow to better evaluate flood hazards in coastal areas has been developed. We have accounted for the combined effect of mean sea level rise, storm surge and waves extremes under RCP 4.5 and RCP 8.5 climate change scenarios. The methodology consists of three basic steps: a) mean sea level rise and variability is obtained from a combination of observations and regional/global ocean models; b) joint probability of storm surge and waves is retrieved from regional ocean models and observations; c) previous a) and b) estimated sea levels are projected onshore by computing the wave run-up. Ultimately, flooding risk maps with the associated uncertainty are given for return periods and scenarios of interest. The proposed methodology is applied to the Ebro Delta, a muddy dominated delta located in the northwestern Mediterranean Sea with a subaerial area of 320 km squares. It is considered an ideal laboratory because of its growing vulnerability, with common threats and an intensive anthropic influence directly translatable to other world's deltas.

  16. Roman wall paintings from «Caesaraugusta» (Zaragoza: a workshop in the middle Ebro valley

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    Full Text Available The paper presents a set of fragments of Roman paintings. The fragments of Roman paintings that we present come from the excavation carried out in the street Dr. Palomar n.º 4. They appeared out of original context, in a secondary deposit, and its relation with a specific space of housing can not be established. However, two walls with the characteristic compositional systems of the 2nd century can be reconstituted. First of them is composed by white wall panels articulated by bands and fillets red and yellow bands and fillets, arranged on a speckled white base. The second set also has a speckled base, with a pink background, and in the middle there are panels decorated with marble imitations alternating with columns. A third group, composed of few fragments that don’t allow a restitution, decorated a starry ceiling on a white background, characteristic of the roofs of thermal and religious buildings, especially lararios. They are made by a provincial workshop whose footprint is found in other cities in the middle valley of the Ebro.

  17. Yield and quality of sugar snap pea in the Ebro Valley: sowing date and seed density

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    Miren Azpilicueta


    Full Text Available Sugar snap pea (Pisum sativum L. var. macrocarpon Ser. is an edible-podded sweet pea that is being considered as a new totally mechanized crop to supply raw material to the agri-food industry of the Ebro Valley (Northern Spain. It is of great interest from an agronomic and commercial standpoint but neither its agronomic behaviour nor its adaptation to the area are known. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of sowing date and seed density on the growth and yield of the sugar snap pea at industrial scale. Six randomized blocks experiments with four replicates were conducted on irrigated land in Villafranca (Navarra, Spain in 1998, 1999, and 2000. Three experiments for testing sowing dates (Mar., Apr., and May and another three for seed densities (from 75 to 150 plants m-2 were performed. Phenological development, thermal integral and qualitative and quantitative yield controls were performed. Sugar snap pea required 960 ºC d-1 (Tb = 3 ºC from sowing to harvest. The early sowings gave more biomass, but yield was similar. However, Harvest Index and crop morphology varied. The sowing densities had similar yields sowing that sugar snap pea has a bigger adaptation availability. Sugar snap peas can be satisfactorily cultivated at industrial scale in the zone with sowings between Mar. and May and with seeding densities between 75 and 150 plants m-2.

  18. Los inicios de la conquista romana de Iberia: los campamentos de campaña del curso inferior del río Ebro

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    Noguera Guillén, Jaume


    Full Text Available Archaeological research of the Roman-Republican military camps identified along the lower course of the Ebro river brings a new perspective of study of the beginnings of the Roman conquest in the Iberian Peninsula.La investigación arqueológica de los campamentos de campaña romano-republicanos localizados en el curso inferior del río Ebro permite una nueva perspectiva de estudio sobre los inicios de la conquista romana en la península ibérica.

  19. Demografía y viabilidad de poblaciones periféricas del tomillo sanjuanero (Thymus loscosii Willk.), endemismo del Valle del Ebro


    García, M. B.


    Demografía y viabilidad de poblaciones periféricas del tomillo sanjuanero (Thymus loscosii Willk.), endemismo del Valle del Ebro. Thymus loscosii (Lamiaceae) es un endemismo del Valle del Ebro. Con la doble finalidad de explorar la dinámica de una especie catalogada como amenazada para la que la ley exige un "plan de manejo", y la situación de algunas poblaciones marginales, se investigó la demografía, reproducción, y dinámica poblacional de las localidades navarras, muy próximas al ...

  20. Análisis de las formaciones dunares activas de la flecha del Fangar (Delta del Ebro)



    Este artículo muestra los trabajos realizados sobre los campos de dunas activas de la Flecha del Fangar al amparo del Proyecto de Investigación “Cuantificación y Contribución del Transporte Eólico en los Procesos Dinámicos y Ambientales en el Delta del Ebro. Aplicación a su Gestión Integrada y a la Conservación de los Ambientes Marginales” (AGITE), concedido por el Ministerio de Educación y Ciencia 473 dentro del Plan Nacional de I+D+i (2005-2008). En dicho proyecto se ha po...

  1. Respuesta del rye-grass al fósforo añadido en suelos del Valle del Ebro



    Under greenhouse conditions, the relation soil-P added and rye-grass yields grown in soils of Ebro valley Different about origin, ckay and lime contents is studied. With the purpose to detect if the maximun plant production is attained at the lexel x predected by laboratory procedures. In the most of soils used it was found the maximum plant response at this laboratory index. Although there were only three soils, in which this rye-grass production was reached at level of P added higher th...

  2. Spectroscopic Investigation on the Primary Photoreaction of Bathy Phytochrome Agp2-Pr of Agrobacterium fabrum: Isomerization in a pH-dependent H-bond Network. (United States)

    Singer, Patrick; Wörner, Sybille; Lamparter, Tilman; Diller, Rolf


    Bathy phytochrome Agp2 from Agrobacterium fabrum exhibits an unusually low pKa =7.6 in the Pr state in contrast to a pKa >11 in the Pfr state, indicating a pH-dependent charge distribution and H-bond network in the Pr chromophore binding pocket around neutral pH. Here, we report on ultrafast UV/Vis absorption spectroscopy of the primary Pr photoisomerization of Agp2 at pH 6 and pH 9 and upon H2 O/D2 O buffer exchange. The triexponential Pr kinetics slows down at increased pH and pronounced pH-dependent kinetic isotope effects are observed. The results on the Pr photoreaction suggest: 1) component-wise hindered dynamics on the chromophore excited-state potential energy surface at high pH and 2) proton translocation processes either via single-proton transfer or via significant reorganization of H-bond networks. Both effects reflect the interplay between the pH-dependent charge distribution in the Pr chromophore binding pocket on the one hand and chromophore excitation and its Z→E isomerization on the other hand.

  3. Hydrologic and landscape changes in the Middle Ebro River (NE Spain): implications for restoration and management (United States)

    Cabezas, A.; Comín, F. A.; Beguería, S.; Trabucchi, M.


    The changes of landscape (1927-2003), discharge regime and anthropic activities with the river-floodplain of one reach at the Middle Ebro River (NE Spain) were investigated with the objective to identify the factors that best explain the natural ecotope succession and propose a realistic restoration option with consideration of the landscape dynamics during the last century and the socio-economic context. Our results indicate that hydrological and landscape patterns have been dramatically changed during the last century as a consequence of human alteration of the fluvial dynamics within the studied reach. The magnitude and variability of river discharge events have decreased at the end of the last century, and flood protection structures have disrupted the river floodplain connectivity. As a result, the succesional pathways of riparian ecotopes have been heavily modified because natural rejuvenation no longer takes place, resulting in decreased landscape diversity. It is apparent from these data that floodplain restoration must be incorporated as a significant factor into river management plans if a more natural functioning wants to be retrieved. The ecotope structure and dynamics of the 1927-1957 period should be adopted as the guiding image, whereas current hydrologic and landscape (dykes, raised surfaces) patterns should be considered. Under the current socio-economic context, the more realistic option seems to create a dynamic river corridor reallocating dykes and lowering floodplain heights. The extent of this river corridor should adapt to the restored flow regime, although periodic economic investments could be an option if the desired self-sustained dynamism is not reached.

  4. Hydrologic and landscape changes in the Middle Ebro River (NE Spain: implications for restoration and management

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    A. Cabezas


    Full Text Available The changes of landscape (1927–2003, discharge regime and anthropic activities with the river-floodplain of one reach at the Middle Ebro River (NE Spain were investigated with the objective to identify the factors that best explain the natural ecotope succession and propose a realistic restoration option with consideration of the landscape dynamics during the last century and the socio-economic context. Our results indicate that hydrological and landscape patterns have been dramatically changed during the last century as a consequence of human alteration of the fluvial dynamics within the studied reach. The magnitude and variability of river discharge events have decreased at the end of the last century, and flood protection structures have disrupted the river floodplain connectivity. As a result, the succesional pathways of riparian ecotopes have been heavily modified because natural rejuvenation no longer takes place, resulting in decreased landscape diversity. It is apparent from these data that floodplain restoration must be incorporated as a significant factor into river management plans if a more natural functioning wants to be retrieved. The ecotope structure and dynamics of the 1927–1957 period should be adopted as the guiding image, whereas current hydrologic and landscape (dykes, raised surfaces patterns should be considered. Under the current socio-economic context, the more realistic option seems to create a dynamic river corridor reallocating dykes and lowering floodplain heights. The extent of this river corridor should adapt to the restored flow regime, although periodic economic investments could be an option if the desired self-sustained dynamism is not reached.

  5. Titanospirillum velox: a huge, speedy, sulfur-storing spirillum from Ebro Delta microbial mats (United States)

    Guerrero, R.; Haselton, A.; Sole, M.; Wier, A.; Margulis, L.


    A long (20-30 micrometer), wide (3-5 micrometer) microbial-mat bacterium from the Ebro Delta (Tarragona, Spain) was grown in mixed culture and videographed live. Intracellular elemental sulfur globules and unique cell termini were observed in scanning-electron-microprobe and transmission-electron micrographs. A polar organelle underlies bundles of greater than 60 flagella at each indented terminus. These Gram-negative bacteria bend, flex, and swim in a spiral fashion; they translate at speeds greater than 10 body lengths per second. The large size of the spirillum permits direct observation of cell motility in single individual bacteria. After desiccation (i.e., absence of standing water for at least 24 h), large populations developed in mat samples remoistened with sea water. Ultrastructural observations reveal abundant large sulfur globules irregularly distributed in the cytoplasm. A multilayered cell wall, pliable and elastic yet rigid, distends around the sulfur globules. Details of the wall, multiflagellated termini, and large cytoplasmic sulfur globules indicate that these fast-moving spirilla are distinctive enough to warrant a genus and species designation: Titanospirillum velox genus nov., sp. nov. The same collection techniques at a similar habitat in the United States (Plum Island, northeast Essex County, Massachusetts) also yielded large populations of the bacterium among purple phototrophic and other inhabitants of sulfurous microbial-mat muds. The months-long survival of T. velox from Spain and from the United States in closed jars filled with mud taken from both localities leads us to infer that this large spirillum has a cosmopolitan distribution.

  6. Direct and indirect economic impacts of drought in the agri-food sector in the Ebro River basin (Spain) (United States)

    Gil, M.; Garrido, A.; Hernández-Mora, N.


    The economic evaluation of drought impacts is essential in order to define efficient and sustainable management and mitigation strategies. The aim of this study is to evaluate the economic impacts of a drought event on the agricultural sector and measure how they are transmitted from primary production to industrial output and related employment. We fit econometric models to determine the magnitude of the economic loss attributable to water storage. The direct impacts of drought on agricultural productivity are measured through a direct attribution model. Indirect impacts on agricultural employment and the agri-food industry are evaluated through a nested indirect attribution model. The transmission of water scarcity effects from agricultural production to macroeconomic variables is measured through chained elasticities. The models allow for differentiating the impacts deriving from water scarcity from other sources of economic losses. Results show that the importance of drought impacts are less relevant at the macroeconomic level, but are more significant for those activities directly dependent on water abstractions and precipitation. From a management perspective, implications of these findings are important to develop effective mitigation strategies to reduce drought risk exposure.

  7. Single-grain OSL dating of Early Middle Palaeolithic deposits at Cuesta de la Bajada, Ebro Basin, Spain (United States)

    Arnold, Lee; Demuro, Martina; Santonja, Manuel; Perez-Gonzalez, Alfredo; Pares, Josep


    The open-air site of Cuesta de la Bajada comprises a 2-2.5 m-thick sequence of fluvial-lacustrine sediments inset into the +50-60 m terrace deposits preserved along the south-eastern margins of the Alfambra river valley, Teruel, Spain. The main archaeological horizons lie ~20 m above the present-day river level and consists of an upward-fining sequence of massive fluvial silts and fine sands with dispersed gravels, detritic marls and shales that collectively overlie a series of planar bedded fluvial gravels. These units have yielded ~3000 lithic artefacts displaying reduction techniques characteristic of an early Middle Palaeolithic techno-complex, as well as a multitude of faunal remains indicative of a late Middle Pleistocene origin. The paucity of open-air Palaeolithic sites in the interior eastern sector of the Iberian Peninsula, and the relatively low number of documented early Middle Palaeolithic archives in this region, means that Cuesta de la Bajada is of key importance for understanding the coexistence/transition of Iberian Acheulean and Mousterian techno-complexes during the Middle Pleistocene period. Establishing reliable absolute chronologies at Cuesta de la Bajada remains essential for understanding the regional significance of this site. In an attempt to redress the existing chronological uncertainty we are undertaking an interdisciplinary dating study of the Middle Palaeolithic deposits using OSL dating, ESR/U-series dating of teeth and ESR dating of sedimentary quartz. Here we present results obtained using quartz single-grain OSL dating of 4 samples collected from a 7 m vertical profile bracketing the archaeological horizons. 2 samples were collected from the archaeology-bearing silt and fine sand horizons, while the remaining samples were obtained from well-bedded fine-sands and silts 3.5 m above and 3 m below the main excavation. The measured quartz grains are characterised by relatively bright OSL signals and typically display dose-response curves with very high saturation limits. The latter offers the advantage of extending the age range over which single-grain techniques can be applied in this Middle Pleistocene context. Dose-recovery tests performed at high doses of 470 Gy yielded accurate equivalent dose (De) results with low overdispersion, providing reasonable confidence in the chosen measurement conditions. Three of the samples display single-grain De distributions with low levels of dispersion indicating that the sediments were adequately bleached prior to burial and remained undisturbed thereafter. The fourth sample displays higher De dispersion and a younger subpopulation of grains, which could be explained by beta-dose heterogeneity associated with interspersed gravels within the basal archaeological horizon. We apply various statistical age models to derive final chronologies and compare the resultant single-grain ages with those obtained using different absolute dating methods. We also report on experiments performed using 'synthetic multi-grain aliquots' created from the single-grain De datasets, and discuss their implications for the reliability of multi-grain OSL dating techniques in this context.

  8. Do Water Rights Affect Technical Efficiency and Social Disparities of Crop Production in the Mediterranean? The Spanish Ebro Basin Evidence

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    Sonia Quiroga


    Full Text Available The coming agenda for the European Common Agricultural Policy includes more incentives for the environmental compliance of farmer’s activities. This will be particularly important in the case of water risk management in Mediterranean countries. Among the new challenges is the need to evaluate some of the instruments necessary to comply with the Water Framework Directive requirements that emphasize the management of water demand to achieve the environmental targets. Here we analyze the implications of changing water rights as a policy response to these challenges. We analyze two important aspects of the decision: (i the effects on the crop productivity and efficiency and (ii the effects on the rural income distribution. We provide the empirical estimations for the marginal effects on the two considered aspects. First, we calculate a stochastic frontier production function for five representative crops using historical data to estimate technical efficiency. Second, we use a decomposition of the Gini coefficient to estimate the impact of irrigation rights changes on yield disparity. In our estimates, we consider both bio-physical and socio-economic aspects to conclude that there are long term implications on both efficiency and social disparities. We find disparities in the adaptation strategies depending on the crop and the region analyzed.

  9. Arginine residues in the C-terminal and their relationship with the analgesic activity of the toxin from the Chinese scorpion Buthus martensii Karsch (BmK AGP-SYPU1). (United States)

    Wang, Yu; Song, Yong-Bo; Yang, Guang-Zhao; Cui, Yong; Zhao, Yong-Shan; Liu, Yan-Feng; Ma, Yan; Wu, Chun-Fu; Zhang, Jing-Hai


    In this study, we investigated the functional role of arginines in the C-terminal (65-67) of BmK AGP-SYPU1, an analgesic peptide from the Chinese scorpion Buthus martensii Karsch. Using site-directed mutagenesis, arginines at the C-terminal (65-66) were deleted or added to the C-terminal (67). The genes for three mutants of BmK AGP-SYPU1 were obtained by PCR. An analgesic activity assay was used to evaluate the role of arginine residues in the analgesic activity. The three-dimensional structure of BmK AGP-SYPU1 was established by homology modeling. As a result, we showed that the arginines in the C-terminal are crucial for the analgesic activity and may be located at analgesic functional sites. Our work has implications for further modification of scorpion toxins to obtain new analgesic peptides with enhanced activity.

  10. Characterization of a gene from chromosome 1B encoding the large subunit of ADPglucose pyrophosphorylase from wheat: evolutionary divergence and differential expression of Agp2 genes between leaves and developing endosperm. (United States)

    Thorneycroft, David; Hosein, Felicia; Thangavelu, Madan; Clark, Joanna; Vizir, Igor; Burrell, Michael M; Ainsworth, Charles


    A full-length genomic clone containing the gene encoding the large subunit of the ADPglucose pyrophosphorylase (Agp2), was isolated from a genomic library prepared from etiolated shoots of hexaploid wheat (Triticum aestivum L., cv, Chinese Spring). The coding region of this gene is identical to one of the cDNA clones previously isolated from a developing wheat grain cDNA library and is therefore an actively transcribed gene. The sequence represented by the cDNA spans 4.8 kb of the genomic clone and contains 15 introns. 2852 bp of DNA flanking the transcription start site of the gene was cloned upstream of the GUS (beta-glucuronidase) reporter gene. This Agp2::GUS construct and promoter deletions were used to study the pattern of reporter gene expression in both transgenic tobacco and wheat plants. Histochemical analysis of GUS expression in transgenic tobacco demonstrated that the reporter gene was expressed in guard cells of leaves and throughout the seed. In transgenic wheat, reporter gene expression was confined to the endosperm and aleurone with no expression in leaves. The cloned Agp2 gene was located to chromosome 1B by gene-specific PCR with nullisomic-tetrasomic lines. Northern analysis demonstrated that the Agp2 genes are differentially expressed in leaves and developing endosperm; while all three classes of Agp2 genes are transcribed in developing wheat grain endosperm, only one is transcribed in leaves. The differences between the Agp2 genes are discussed in relation to the evolution of hexaploid wheat.

  11. The issue of socioeconomic complexity in the mesolithic hunter-gatherer communities of the middle and upper Ebro valley

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    García-Martínez de Lagrán, Íñigo


    Full Text Available In recent decades several hunter-gatherer groups have been defined, from ethnography and archaeology, as complex socioeconomic communities. This article reviews the main definitions of complexity and its principal feature contrasting them with the archaeological record of the Mesolithic in the Ebro valley. The main goal of this paper is to find out if these hunter-gatherer communities show indications of a certain socioeconomic complexity.

    En las últimas décadas se han definido en el ámbito etnográfico y arqueológico diferentes comunidades de cazadores-recolectores que presentan una organización socioeconómica compleja. En el presente trabajo se hace un repaso a las principales definiciones de esta complejidad y a sus rasgos fundamentales aplicándolos al registro actual del Mesolítico en la Alta y Media Cuenca del Ebro. El objetivo principal es determinar si estas comunidades de cazadores-recolectores presentan rasgos definitorios de una cierta complejidad socioeconómica.

  12. Nutrient sources and dynamics in a mediterranean fluvial regime (Ebro river, NE Spain) and their implications for water management (United States)

    Torrecilla, Néstor J.; Galve, Jorge P.; Zaera, Lidia G.; Retamar, Javier F.; Álvarez, Alejandro N. A.


    Nonpoint source and point source nutrient loads (N, PO 4-P, COD) to the Ebro River in its central sector were estimated using hydrogeological and socioeconomical data. Their impacts on eutrophication and nutrient dynamics in the river were analyzed through a review of the public administration's historical data and the interpretation of two sampling profiles in September 02 (low flows season) and April 03 (high flows season). A marked seasonality was found in nutrient concentrations, nutrient loads and eutrophication indicators (O 2, Turbidity), appearing symptoms of eutrophication during the summer related to both NPS and PS Nutrient loads within the study area. Agricultural NPS account for 64% of NO 3 loads generated within the study area while urban and industrial PS are responsible of 88% PO 4-P and 71% COD loads. Biological reactions within the river ecosystem (including denitrification in the most eutrophic branches) were found to be a key factor in nutrient content and dynamics. Improvements in urban and industrial wastewater treatment facilities, land use planning and restoration of river-side wetlands, seem to be adequate policies for the improvement of the nutrient water quality in the studied sector of the Ebro River. Flow and temperature seasonality related to Mediterranean fluvial regime imposes significant limitations to nutrient PS in order to accomplish the combined approach proposed in European Water Framework Directive (WFD), based upon Emission Limit Values (ELV) and Environmental Quality Standards (EQS).

  13. Genetic relationships between parishes in the Ebro delta region (Spain) as estimated by migration matrix and surnames. (United States)

    Esparza, Mireia; García-Moro, Clara; Hernández, Miquel


    To determine whether there are preferential relationships among individuals from the different parishes of the Ebro River delta region, we analyzed the population relationships, taking into account both the birthplaces of the spouses and their surname frequencies. We used data from the 9,085 marriages recorded in the Ebro delta area between 1939 and 1995. Using each spouse's birthplace, we calculated the distances between the subject populations by means of the squared Euclidean distance. Also, from the surname frequencies in the marriages we obtained certain kinship measurements. In both analyses the results show a clear differentiation between the parish of Amposta and the rest of the parishes. This difference is mainly due to a greater number of marriages in which delta outsiders participated and can be related to the greater surname diversity and lesser endogamy observed in this population. On the other hand, if only endogamous marriages are taken into account, there is clearly a differentiation between the parishes from both banks of the river, with a strong homogeneity among the northside parishes. We compared the distances obtained from the birthplaces, the kinship parameters obtained from the surnames, and two geographic distance matrixes by means of a Mantel test, and the results show a strong and significant correlation between them when all marriages are considered. If, on the other hand, only endogamous marriages are taken into account, the barrier effect of the river on the interparish relationships can be appreciated.

  14. Activity patterns and foraging behaviour of Audouin' s gulls in the Ebro Delta, NW Mediterranean

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    Santi Mañosa


    Full Text Available Twenty Audouin´s gulls, Larus audouinii, breeding in the Ebro Delta (NW Mediterranean were radio-tracked in 1998 to study their foraging behaviour and activity patterns. Some detrimental effects of tagging on the breeding success of the birds were detected, especially when both members of the pair were tagged. The results were actually constrained by the low number of locations due to natural breeding failure and failure in tag emission, as well as the adverse effect of tagging. However, through a combination of aircraft surveys at sea and a fixed station for automatic tracking of the presence of the birds at the colony, novel individual-based information of home ranges and activity patterns was obtained. Trawler fishing activity seemed to influence both the foraging range and habitat use: while trawlers operated, gulls overlapped their fishing grounds with vessels, probably to scavenge on discards. Very few locations were obtained during a trawling moratorium period, although they were all recorded in coastal bays and terrestrial habitats. During the trawling activity period, gulls ranged over a minimum convex polygon area of 2900 km2. Gulls were tracked up to 40 km from the colony, but some individuals were observed beyond 150 km while still breeding. Arrivals and departures from the colony were in accordance with the trawling timetable. However, most birds also showed some nocturnal foraging activity, probably linked to active fishing of clupeoids (following diel migrations or to the exploitation of purse-seine fishing activity. Foraging trips lasted on average 15 hours: males performed significantly shorter trips than females, which spent more time outside the colony. The proportion of nocturnal time involved in the foraging trips was the same for males and females, but whilst all males initiated their trips both during the day and at night, some females only initiated their trips during the day. Hatching success was found to be related to

  15. Wind-induced mesoscale circulation off the Ebro delta, NW Mediterranean: a numerical study (United States)

    Espino, M.; Arcilla, A.-S.; García, M. A.


    It is well known that the general circulation on the Catalan continental slope is dominated by a quasi-permanent southwestward geostrophic jet associated to the so-called Catalan front [Millot, C., 1987. Circulation in the western Mediterranean sea. Oceanol Acta 10, 143-149; Font, J., Salat, J., Tintoré, J., 1988. Permanent features of the circulation in the Catalan Sea. Oceanol. Acta 9, 51-57]. On the continental shelf, however, the flow is modified by the action of friction which enhances also other nonlinear interactions. Several authors have hypothesized that the shelf circulation is anticyclonic north of the Ebro delta [Salat, J., Manriquez, M., Cruzado, A., 1978. Hidrografia del golfo de Sant Jordi. Campaña Delta (Abril 1970). Investigación Pesquera 42 (2), 255-272; Ballester, A., Castellvı´, J., 1980. Estudio hidrográfico y biológico de las plataformas continentales españolas: I. Efecto de los efluentes de una planta de energı´a nuclear en el Golfo de San Jorge (Febrero 1975-Octubre 1976). Informes Técnicos del Instituto de Investigaciones Pesqueras 76, 70 pp.]. A quasi-3D finite element code based on the shallow-water equations has been used to explore the effect of several mechanisms which might be responsible for such a local circulation pattern, and in particular of wind. The obtained numerical results suggest that the basic anticyclonic structure of the mean flow is controlled by the bathymetry and that the clockwise-rotating mean flow pattern is not a permanent circulation feature. It is seen that the characteristic local wind stress fields—computed through interpolation of the records of a local network of meteo stations—may `enhance' or `delete' the anticyclonic gyre depending on the sign of their relative vorticity. According to the analysis of a 2-yr record of local wind data, the net contribution of wind events with a duration longer than 24 h is to reinforce the anticyclonic circulation (over 70% of these wind fields supply

  16. Apuntes en torno a las Guerras Sertorianas: evolución e impacto sobre el poblamiento y la ordenación territorial del valle del Ebro = Notes around the Sertorian Wars: Evolution and Impact on Settlement and Spatial Planning in the Ebro Valley

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    Miguel Salinas Romo


    Full Text Available En este espacio detallamos los principales resultados de nuestra labor investigadora centrada en la evolución del conflicto sertoriano y la valoración de su incidencia sobre el poblamiento y la ordenación territorial de un espacio geográfico concreto:el valle medio y alto del Ebro.In this space, we present the main results of our research work focused on the evolution of Sertorian conflict and assessing its impact on the settlement and landuse planning in a particular geographical area: the middle and upper Ebro valley.

  17. The Crystal Structures of the N-terminal Photosensory Core Module of Agrobacterium Phytochrome Agp1 as Parallel and Anti-parallel Dimers. (United States)

    Nagano, Soshichiro; Scheerer, Patrick; Zubow, Kristina; Michael, Norbert; Inomata, Katsuhiko; Lamparter, Tilman; Krauß, Norbert


    Agp1 is a canonical biliverdin-binding bacteriophytochrome from the soil bacterium Agrobacterium fabrum that acts as a light-regulated histidine kinase. Crystal structures of the photosensory core modules (PCMs) of homologous phytochromes have provided a consistent picture of the structural changes that these proteins undergo during photoconversion between the parent red light-absorbing state (Pr) and the far-red light-absorbing state (Pfr). These changes include secondary structure rearrangements in the so-called tongue of the phytochrome-specific (PHY) domain and structural rearrangements within the long α-helix that connects the cGMP-specific phosphodiesterase, adenylyl cyclase, and FhlA (GAF) and the PHY domains. We present the crystal structures of the PCM of Agp1 at 2.70 Å resolution and of a surface-engineered mutant of this PCM at 1.85 Å resolution in the dark-adapted Pr states. Whereas in the mutant structure the dimer subunits are in anti-parallel orientation, the wild-type structure contains parallel subunits. The relative orientations between the PAS-GAF bidomain and the PHY domain are different in the two structures, due to movement involving two hinge regions in the GAF-PHY connecting α-helix and the tongue, indicating pronounced structural flexibility that may give rise to a dynamic Pr state. The resolution of the mutant structure enabled us to detect a sterically strained conformation of the chromophore at ring A that we attribute to the tight interaction with Pro-461 of the conserved PRXSF motif in the tongue. Based on this observation and on data from mutants where residues in the tongue region were replaced by alanine, we discuss the crucial roles of those residues in Pr-to-Pfr photoconversion.

  18. INGV Oblique Ionograms Automatic Scaling Algorithm applied to the ionograms recorded by Ebro Observatory ionosonde in disturbed conditions (United States)

    Ippolito, Alessandro; Scotto, Carlo; Altadill, David; Blanch, Estefania


    The OIASA algorithm (Oblique Ionograms Automatic Scaling Algorithm) for the identification of trace of oblique ionograms has been applied to the oblique ionograms produced at Ebro Observatory (Spain) and related to the radiolink between the ionospheric stations of Dourbes (50.1 N, 4.6 E) and Roquetes (40.8 N, 0.5 E). Four different periods of 2015 have been analysed, each of them characterised by the occurrence of geomagnetic storms. The algorithm allows the determination of the Maximum Usable Frequency (MUF) for communication between the transmitter and receiver, and shows a very good capacity in automatically rejecting poor quality ionograms. The behaviour and performance of the autoscaling programs under geomagnetic disturbed condition have been evaluated. The results show a good agreement between MUF values provided by the automatic scaling algorithm and the MUF values manually scaled by an expert operator. Furthermore, the results show the good capabilities of OIASA in discarding ionograms that lack of sufficient information.

  19. Prevalence and sequence comparison of Phyllodistomum folium from zebra mussel and from freshwater fish in the Ebro River. (United States)

    Peribáñez, Miguel A; Ordovás, Laura; Benito, Josep; Benejam, Lluís; Gracia, María J; Rodellar, Clementina


    We utilised DNA analysis to detect the presence of the digenean Phyllodistomum folium in three cyprinid species, Scardinius erythrophthalmus, Cyprinus carpio and Rutilus rutilus. DNA sequencing of the region containing the genes ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 revealed 100% sequence identity between DNA from the sporocysts found in zebra mussels and DNA from adults located in the urinary system of 29 cyprinid fish. A second genetically different (variation=1.6%) sequence was observed in two samples from R. rutilus. In our opinion, the existence of a complex of species reported as P. folium is supported by recent genetic studies, including our own results. The overall prevalence of P. folium in mussels from the Ebro River was 4.67% in 2006, although during the summer months the rates frequently exceeded 10%.

  20. 伊比利亚河共生的当年生鳟和埃布罗河鳟的夏季摄食关系%Summer feeding relationships of the co-occurring hatchling brown trout Salmo trutta and Ebro minnows Phoxinus bigrri in an Iberian river

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Javier OSCOZ; Pedro M.LEUNDA; María C.ESCALA; Rafael MIRANDA


    The stomach content composition of 306 Ebro minnows and 185 hatchling brown trout captured in August (1996-1998) in the Larraun River (Ebro River Basin, Northern Spain) is described and compared in order to determine interspecific dietary overlap. Both species fed mainly on aquatic invertebrates. Feeding strategy plots showed that both species are generalist feeders with a heterogeneous diet. Additionally, the comparison between the stomach content and the benthic macroinvertebrate community revealed that both hatchling brown trout and Ebro minnows avoided Elmidae, Gammaridae, Caenidae, Baetidae and Leuctridae, instead showing a preference for Chironomidae, Heptageniidae and Trichoptera. Even though a two species was significant in the Larraun River, differential habitat use and diet plasticity could be minimizing the interspecific competition in river reaches where both species were co-dominant, allowing co-occurrence of these species in relatively high numbers. However, this adaptability and plasticity in Ebro minnows could be a threat to allopatric brown trout populations in rivers with limited trophic resources and limited habitat availability%1996-1998年8月在Larraun河(埃布罗河流域,西班牙北部)共捕获306尾埃布罗河(鱼岁)和185尾0龄的鳟,分析比较了胃含物组成,并测定了种间的食物重叠.食物的个数百分比组成表明两种都主要摄食水生无脊椎动物.摄食策略图显示两种都是摄食不同食物 种类的广食性种类.另外,比较胃含物和底栖大型无脊椎动物群落表明,0龄的鳟和埃布罗河(鱼岁)不摄食光螺科、钩虾科、细蜉科、 四节蜉科和卷襀科的物种,而喜食摇蚊科、五节蜉科和毛翅目物种.尽管简化的Morisitas指数表明Larraun河中这两种鱼之间的食物重叠是显著的,但由于栖息地不同和摄食的可塑性可以降低种间的竞争,使得该水域的这两种鱼能以相对较大的数量共存.然而,在食物资源和

  1. Simulating past changes in the balance between water demand and availability and assessing their main drivers at the river basin scale (United States)

    Fabre, J.; Ruelland, D.; Dezetter, A.; Grouillet, B.


    In this study we present an integrative modeling framework aimed at assessing the balance between water demand and availability and its spatial and temporal variability over long time periods. The model was developed and tested over the period 1971-2009 in the Hérault (2500 km2, France) and the Ebro (85 000 km2, Spain) catchments. Natural streamflow was simulated using a conceptual hydrological model. The regulation of river flow was accounted for through a widely applicable demand-driven reservoir management model applied to the largest dam in the Hérault Basin and to 11 major dams in the Ebro Basin. Urban water demand was estimated from population and monthly unit water demand data. Water demand for irrigation was computed from irrigated area, crop and soil data, and climatic forcing. Water shortage was assessed at a 10-day time step by comparing water demand and availability through indicators calculated at strategic resource and demand nodes. The outcome of this study is twofold. First, we were able to correctly simulate variations in influenced streamflow, reservoir levels and water shortage between 1971 and 2009 in both basins, taking into account climatic and anthropogenic pressures and changes in water management strategies over time. Second, we provided information not available through simple data analysis on the influence of withdrawals and consumptive use on streamflow and on the drivers of imbalance between demand and availability. Observed past variations in discharge were explained by separating anthropogenic and climatic pressures in our simulations: 3% (20%) of the decrease in the Hérault (Ebro) discharge were linked to anthropogenic changes. Although key areas of the Hérault Basin were shown to be highly sensitive to hydro-climatic variability, the balance between water demand and availability in the Ebro Basin appears to be more critical, owing to high agricultural pressure on water resources. The modeling framework developed and tested in

  2. The Problem of Old Debts: Jewish Moneylenders in Northern Castile (Belorado and Miranda de Ebro, ca. 1300

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soifer Irish, Maya


    Full Text Available Focusing especially on Jewish moneylending, the article explores economic relations between Jews and Christians in Northern Castile at the turn of the fourteenth century. During interfaith economic transactions, Jews and Christians followed the procedures established by customary law, and engaged in negotiations to resolve conflicts and generate inter-communal consensus. As more and more Christians defaulted on their loans, however, such negotiations often collapsed due to a combination of internal and external pressures. In Belorado and Miranda de Ebro, royal assistance with debt collections elicited strong protests from town officials, who accused Jewish moneylenders of violating local privileges and impoverishing Christian debtors. Tensions developed between Jewish and Christian residents of these towns when the traditional mechanisms of conflict resolution were upended, and the enforcement of loan repayment was taken away from local control.Estudio de las relaciones económicas entre judíos y cristianos a comienzos del siglo xiv en el Norte de Castilla, especialmente en relación al préstamo de dinero efectuado por judíos. Tratándose de transacciones económicas entre individuos de distinta confesión religiosa, los interesados recurrían a los procedimientos establecidos en el derecho consuetudinario, y hacían uso de la negociación con el objetivo de resolver conflictos y generar el mayor consenso posible entre las distintas comunidades. A medida que los prestatarios cristianos iban incumpliendo la devolución de préstamos, tales negociaciones fracasaron debido a una combinación de factores internos y externos. En Belorado y en Miranda de Ebro, la colaboración de los oficiales reales en la colección de las deudas suscitó protestas de los concejos, que acusaban a los prestadores judíos de violar los privilegios locales y de empobrecer a los deudores. Las tensiones entre los cristianos y los judíos de estas villas fueron en

  3. The Upper Triassic alkaline magmatism of the western Neo-Tethys (Bajo Ebro, NE Spain): age and geodynamic implications (United States)

    Sanz, T.; Lago, M.; Gil, A.; Pocoví, A.; Galé, C.; Ubide, T.; Larrea, P.; Ramajo, J.; Tierz, P.


    A set of mafic rocks crop out in the north-western margin of the Neo-Tethys (eastern Spain and France). These rocks show three common features: 1) they were emplaced into Upper Triassic sediments (Keuper facies), 2) they are mainly basalts and dolerites and show an alkaline geochemical affinity and 3) these magmas rose to their emplacement level through deep fractures; some of the fractures were newly opened as a result of the Triassic extension (Triassic-Liassic rifting), whereas others had been generated during the Permian extension (Lower Permian rifting) and were reopened. Magmatic activity has also been recognized in these areas during the Jurassic, the Cretaceous and the Quaternary. The Bajo Ebro sector (NE Spain) comprises two types of Upper Triassic mafic rocks: 1) massive rocks emplaced as dikes, sills and basaltic lavas (10-12 meters in thickness and up to kilometric in extension) and 2) a wide range of pyroclasts (from ash grains to bombs) forming layers more than 100 meters thick, which are usually interbedded with argillites and carbonates. Protrusions of the sills into the overlying sediments, together with spilitization of the igneous rocks, suggest that the magmas emplaced into unconsolidated sediments. Furthermore, a level of epiclastic-basaltic breccias is recognized overlying the magmatic levels and below the dolostones of the Imón Formation (Rhaetian in age); these breccias are interpreted to represent an erosive episode which affected the magmatic rocks in emerged areas. According to these criteria, these rocks can be considered Upper Triassic (pre-Rhaetian) in age. The basaltic lavas show alkaline mineral assemblages composed of: olivine (Fo79-65), Ti-rich clinopyroxene (Fs3-15, En52-35, Wo50-42), plagioclase (An80-50), Ti-rich magnetite and apatite. Their major and trace element whole rock compositions show contents in SiO2 (41,3-49,3 w.%), Nb/Y (1,5-4,1), Zr/TiO2 (0,0057-0,013), V (157,8-292,1 ppm) and Ti/1000 (11,3-18,53) which indicate

  4. The Solar Rotation in the 1930s from the Sunspot and Flocculi Catalogs of the Ebro Observatory (United States)

    de Paula, V.; Curto, J. J.; Casas, R.


    The tables of sunspot and flocculi heliographic positions included in the catalogs published by the Ebro Observatory in the 1930s have recently been recovered and converted into digital format by using optical character recognition (OCR) technology. We here analyzed these data by computing the angular velocity of several sunspot and flocculi groups. A difference was found in the rotational velocity for sunspots and flocculi groups at high latitudes, and we also detected an asymmetry between the northern and southern hemispheres, which is especially marked for the flocculi groups. The results were then fitted with a differential-rotation law [ω=a+b sin2 B] to compare the data obtained with the results published by other authors. A dependence on the latitude that is consistent with former studies was found. Finally, we studied the possible relationship between the sunspot/flocculi group areas and their corresponding angular velocity. There are strong indications that the rotational velocity of a sunspot/flocculi group is reduced (in relation to the differential rotation law) when its maximum area is larger.

  5. Radar-based dynamic testing of the cable-suspended bridge crossing the Ebro River at Amposta, Spain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gentile, Carmelo [Politecnico di Milano, Dept. of Architecture, Built environment and Construction engineering (ABC), Piazza Leonardo da Vinci 32, 20133 Milan (Italy); Luzi, Guido [Centre Tecnòlogic de Telecomunicacions de Catalunya (CTTC), Division of Geomatics, Av. Gauss, 7 E-08860 Castelldefels (Barcelona) (Spain)


    Microwave remote sensing is the most recent experimental methodology suitable to the non-contact measurement of deflections on large structures, in static or dynamic conditions. After a brief description of the radar measurement system, the paper addresses the application of microwave remote sensing to ambient vibration testing of a cable-suspended bridge. The investigated bridge crosses the Ebro River at Amposta, Spain and consists of two steel stiffening trusses and a series of equally spaced steel floor beams; the main span is supported by inclined stay cables and two series of 8 suspension cables. The dynamic tests were performed in operational conditions, with the sensor being placed in two different positions so that the response of both the steel deck and the arrays of suspension elements was measured. The experimental investigation confirms the simplicity of use of the radar and the accuracy of the results provided by the microwave remote sensing as well as the issues often met in the clear localization of measurement points.

  6. {sup 210}Pb atmospheric flux and growth rates of a microbial mat from the northwestern Mediterranean Sea (Ebro River Delta)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez-Cabeza, J.A.; Masque, P.; Martinez-Alonso, M.; Mir, J.; Esteve, I.


    Environmental archives are needed to study the variability of natural systems and the impact of man on them. Microbial mats, modern homologues of stromatolites, can be found in extreme environments such as the Ebro River Delta and were studied as potential environmental archives of atmospheric deposition. {sup 210}Pb, a radiotracer widely used in geochronology studies, was used both to determine the growth rates of a microbial mat from this environment and to estimate the {sup 210}Pb atmospheric flux in the northwestern Mediterranean Sea. The {sup 210}Pb profile showed the presence of three distinct peaks related to low growth-rate periods. This variability indicted the sensitivity of the system to external forcing. The annual atmospheric flux of {sup 210}Pb was 81.2 {+-} 1.4 B1 m{sup {minus}2}yr{sup {minus}1}, which is similar to other values found in the literature. The age profile showed two layers of differing growth rates, being 0.99 {+-} 0.10 mm yr{sup {minus}1} from the surface down to 10 mm depth. The accumulated mass profile showed a change at about 9 mm depth, corresponding to year 1983 {+-} 1. It is noteworthy that this is coincident with a strong El Nino Southern Oscillation event during 1982--1983, which has been shown to affect other ecosystems, including some in the Mediterranean area.

  7. Uncertainty of the peak flow reconstruction of the 1907 flood in the Ebro River in Xerta (NE Iberian Peninsula) (United States)

    Ruiz-Bellet, Josep Lluís; Castelltort, Xavier; Balasch, J. Carles; Tuset, Jordi


    There is no clear, unified and accepted method to estimate the uncertainty of hydraulic modelling results. In historical floods reconstruction, due to the lower precision of input data, the magnitude of this uncertainty could reach a high value. With the objectives of giving an estimate of the peak flow error of a typical historical flood reconstruction with the model HEC-RAS and of providing a quick, simple uncertainty assessment that an end user could easily apply, the uncertainty of the reconstructed peak flow of a major flood in the Ebro River (NE Iberian Peninsula) was calculated with a set of local sensitivity analyses on six input variables. The peak flow total error was estimated at ±31% and water height was found to be the most influential variable on peak flow, followed by Manning's n. However, the latter, due to its large uncertainty, was the greatest contributor to peak flow total error. Besides, the HEC-RAS resulting peak flow was compared to the ones obtained with the 2D model Iber and with Manning's equation; all three methods gave similar peak flows. Manning's equation gave almost the same result than HEC-RAS. The main conclusion is that, to ensure the lowest peak flow error, the reliability and precision of the flood mark should be thoroughly assessed.

  8. Highly conserved residues Asp-197 and His-250 in Agp1 phytochrome control the proton affinity of the chromophore and Pfr formation. (United States)

    von Stetten, David; Seibeck, Sven; Michael, Norbert; Scheerer, Patrick; Mroginski, Maria Andrea; Murgida, Daniel H; Krauss, Norbert; Heyn, Maarten P; Hildebrandt, Peter; Borucki, Berthold; Lamparter, Tilman


    The mutants H250A and D197A of Agp1 phytochrome from Agrobacterium tumefaciens were prepared and investigated by different spectroscopic and biochemical methods. Asp-197 and His-250 are highly conserved amino acids and are part of the hydrogen-bonding network that involves the chromophore. Both substitutions cause a destabilization of the protonated chromophore in the Pr state as revealed by resonance Raman and UV-visible absorption spectroscopy. Titration experiments demonstrate a lowering of the pK(a) from 11.1 (wild type) to 8.8 in H250A and 7.2 in D197A. Photoconversion of the mutants does not lead to the Pfr state. H250A is arrested in a meta-Rc-like state in which the chromophore is deprotonated. For H250A and the wild-type protein, deprotonation of the chromophore in meta-Rc is coupled to the release of a proton to the external medium, whereas the subsequent proton re-uptake, linked to the formation of the Pfr state in the wild-type protein, is not observed for H250A. No transient proton exchange with the external medium occurs in D197A, suggesting that Asp-197 may be the proton release group. Both mutants do not undergo the photo-induced protein structural changes that in the wild-type protein are detectable by size exclusion chromatography. These conformational changes are, therefore, attributed to the meta-Rc --> Pfr transition and most likely coupled to the transient proton re-uptake. The present results demonstrate that Asp-197 and His-250 are essential for stabilizing the protonated chromophore structure in the parent Pr state, which is required for the primary photochemical process, and for the complete photo-induced conversion to the Pfr state.

  9. Estudio geológico y minero de los depósitos de alabastro en el entorno de Velilla de Ebro y Azaila (Aragon, NE de España

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Díaz Rodríguez, L. A.


    Full Text Available This work studies the main alabaster «transparent» variety deposits commercialized in Spain. These deposits are located in the province of Zaragoza. at its border with Teme!. Stratigraphically. the quarried area is located at the SE border of the Tertiary Ebro basin (UTS: T4 • Upper Oligocene. ando within it, at the Calanda-Valderrobres-Escatrón sector. Mining appraisals carried out sanctioned the presence of three productive levels of alabaster. A mineralization guide sequence was found for the upper level (height 250 m. The mineral body texture is nodular. arranged in layers of wide horizontal continuity (kilometers and average thickness 0,4 to 1 m. Petrographic studies of the alabaster mineral bodies have shown three types of microstmctures. Considering the stratigraphic column of the area we found from top to bottom of each ¡ayer the following microstmctures: a microcrystalline aggregates; b porphyroblastic microtexture with non uniform extinction of crystaline components; and c granoblastic microtextures. The sedimentary environment of the deposits was shallow continental type (playa-Iake, characterized by mud-flats and distal fluvial-flats.Se estudian en este trabajo los principales yacimientos de alabastro (variedad «Transparente» que se comercializan en España y cuya localización se sitúa en el SE de la provincia de Zaragoza en la frontera con la de Teme!. Estratigráficamente, los depósitos estudiados pertenecen, en el SE de la Cuenca Terciaria del Ebro. a la Unidad Tectosedimentaria (UTS T4(Oligoceno Superior parte alta y se sitúan dentro de la zona noroccidental del Sector Calanda-Valderrobres-Escatrón. El reconocimiento minero realizado en el área confirma la presencia de tres niveles productivos de alabastro. descubriéndose una secuencia guía de la mineralización para el nivel superior (cota 250 m. La morfología de los cuerpos minerales es de tipo nodular, disponiéndose en capas de gran continuidad

  10. Las asociaciones de ostrácodos en secuencias aluviales como indicadores de cambios ambientales holocenos (Bardenas Reales de Navarra, Cuenca del Ebro, NE Península Ibérica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martínez-García, B.


    Full Text Available In this paper, the ostracod assemblages identified in three alluvial units preserved in Bardenas Reales de Navarra (Ebro Basin, NE Iberian Peninsula have been studied, with the aim of reconstructing the palaeoenvironmental evolution of this area during the late Holocene. The most common ostracod species in the studied samples are Ilyocypris bradyi Sars and Paralimnocythere aff. psammophila (Flössner, accompanied by Pseudocandona albicans (Brady. Variations in their relative abundance along these alluvial units allow us to characterize internal changes in the depositional environment. Thus, the unit deposited between 4763±87 and 2848±55 years cal. BP is dominated by I. bradyi, indicating the presence of small streams with running water developed probably in fluvial flood plains. Nevertheless, from 2848±55 to 836±65 years cal. BP Paralimnocythere aff. psammophila is the dominant species, representing the establishment of an ephemeral and stagnant aquatic environment, mainly related with more arid climatic conditions (Medieval Warm Period. Finally, the ostracod assemblage identified in Recent times (191±97 to 127±82 years cal. BP is mainly dominated by I. bradyi, which indicates the presence of running waters. This later assemblage probably defines the influence of cold and wet climatic phase (Little Ice Age during Recent times in this area. The palaeoenvironmental evolution identified from the late Holocene according to ostracod assemblages in Bardenas Reales de Navarra shows good correlation with rapid climatic changes deduced from other continental records of the NE Iberian Peninsula.En este trabajo se estudian las asociaciones de ostrácodos identificadas en tres unidades aluviales preservadas en Bardenas Reales de Navarra (Cuenca del Ebro, NE Península Ibérica, para reconstruir la evolución paleoambiental de esta área durante el Holoceno final. Las especies de ostrácodos más comunes en las muestras estudiadas son Ilyocypris bradyi

  11. Design of adaptation actions to compensate the hydrological impact of the river regulation by dams on the Ebro Delta (Spain): combining modeling and field work. (United States)

    Contreras, Darío; Jurado, Alicia; Carpintero, Miriam; Rovira, Albert; Polo, María J.


    River regulation by dams for both flood control and water storage has allowed to decrease both uncertainty and risks associated to extreme hydrological events. However, the alteration of the natural river flow regime and the detraction of high water volumes usually lead to significant effects downstream on the morphology, water quality, ecological status of water… and this is particularly relevant in the transitional waters since the sea level rise poses an additional threat on such conditions. The Ebro River, in northeastern Spain, is one of the highly regulated rivers in Spain with the dams located in the mainstream. Besides an estimated decrease of a 30% of the freshwater inputs, the sediment delivery to the final delta in the Mediterranean has dramatically been decreased up to a 99%, with environmental risks associated to the reduction of the emerged areas from the loss of sediment supply, the impact on the subsidence dynamics, and the sea level rise. The Ebro Delta suffers a mean regression of 10 m per year, and the persistence of macrophyte development in the final reach of the river due to the low water mean flow regime. The project LIFE EBRO-ADMICLIM (ENV/ES/001182), coordinated by the IRTA in Catalonia (Spain), puts forwards pilot actions for adaptation to and mitigation of climate change in the Ebro Delta. An integrated approach is proposed for managing water, sediment and habitats (rice fields and wetlands), with the multiple aim of optimizing ground elevation, reducing coastal erosion, increasing the accumulation (sequestration) of carbon in the soil, reducing emissions of greenhouse gases (GHG), and improving water quality. This work presents the pilot actions included in the project to mitigate the loss of water flow and sediment supply to the delta. Sediment injections at different points upstream have been designed to calibrate and validate a sediment transport model coupled to a 2D-hydrodinamic model of the river. The combination of an a

  12. La sequía de mediados del siglo XVII en el valle del Ebro. Características climáticas e impacto social del evento


    Cuadrat, José M.; Alfaro, Francisco J.; Tejedor, Ernesto; Serrano-Notivoli, Roberto; Barriendos, Mariano; Saz, Miguel A.


    En este trabajo se analizan las sequías de mediados del siglo XVII en las tierras centrales del valle del Ebro y su impacto en la demografía. Mediante la recopilación de ceremonias de rogativas «ad petendam pluviam» y reconstrucciones dendroclimáticas, se ha elaborado un índice de sequía y precipitación de todo el siglo y se ha relacionado con los datos demográficos de varias localidades del interior del valle. Los resultados muestran la existencia de un acusado y largo periodo seco a mitad d...

  13. Efectos de las presas en la dinámica geomorfológica del tramo bajo del Ebro. Crecidas controladas.


    Batalla, Ramon J.; Vericat, Damià; Palau, Antoni


    En este estudio se analizan los efectos de las presas de Mequinenza, Riba-roja y Flix sobre la dinámica geomorfológica del tramo bajo del río Ebro y se presentan las crecidas controladas como medidas correctoras. La carga sedimentaria total aguas arriba de la presa de Mequinenza para el periodo entre octubre de 2002 y septiembre de 2004 es de 3,28x106 toneladas, el 99% transportado en suspensión. Aguas abajo de la presa de Flix el río transporta 0,91x106 toneladas (el 60% en suspensión y 40% ...

  14. Selection of bioindicators to detect lead pollution in Ebro delta microbial mats, using high-resolution microscopic techniques. (United States)

    Maldonado, J; Solé, A; Puyen, Z M; Esteve, I


    Lead (Pb) is a metal that is non-essential to any metabolic process and, moreover, highly deleterious to life. In microbial mats - benthic stratified ecosystems - located in coastal areas, phototrophic microorganisms (algae and oxygenic phototrophic bacteria) are the primary producers and they are exposed to pollution by metals. In this paper we describe the search for bioindicators among phototrophic populations of Ebro delta microbial mats, using high-resolution microscopic techniques that we have optimized in previous studies. Confocal laser scanning microscopy coupled to a spectrofluorometric detector (CLSM-λscan) to determine in vivo sensitivity of different cyanobacteria to lead, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM), both coupled to energy dispersive X-ray microanalysis (EDX), to determine the extra- and intracellular sequestration of this metal in cells, were the techniques used for this purpose. Oscillatoria sp. PCC 7515, Chroococcus sp. PCC 9106 and Spirulina sp. PCC 6313 tested in this paper could be considered bioindicators for lead pollution, because all of these microorganisms are indigenous, have high tolerance to high concentrations of lead and are able to accumulate this metal externally in extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) and intracellularly in polyphosphate (PP) inclusions. Experiments made with microcosms demonstrated that Phormidium-like and Lyngbya-like organisms selected themselves at the highest concentrations of lead assayed. In the present study it is shown that all cyanobacteria studied (both in culture and in microcosms) present PP inclusions in their cytoplasm and that these increase in number in lead polluted cultures and microcosms. We believe that the application of these microscopic techniques open up broad prospects for future studies of metal ecotoxicity. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Selection of bioindicators to detect lead pollution in Ebro delta microbial mats, using high-resolution microscopic techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maldonado, J.; Sole, A.; Puyen, Z.M. [Departament de Genetica i Microbiologia, Facultat de Biociencies, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, Edifici C, Campus de la UAB, Cerdanyola del Valles, Bellaterra (Spain); Esteve, I., E-mail: [Departament de Genetica i Microbiologia, Facultat de Biociencies, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, Edifici C, Campus de la UAB, Cerdanyola del Valles, Bellaterra (Spain)


    Lead (Pb) is a metal that is non-essential to any metabolic process and, moreover, highly deleterious to life. In microbial mats - benthic stratified ecosystems - located in coastal areas, phototrophic microorganisms (algae and oxygenic phototrophic bacteria) are the primary producers and they are exposed to pollution by metals. In this paper we describe the search for bioindicators among phototrophic populations of Ebro delta microbial mats, using high-resolution microscopic techniques that we have optimized in previous studies. Confocal laser scanning microscopy coupled to a spectrofluorometric detector (CLSM-{lambda}scan) to determine in vivo sensitivity of different cyanobacteria to lead, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM), both coupled to energy dispersive X-ray microanalysis (EDX), to determine the extra- and intracellular sequestration of this metal in cells, were the techniques used for this purpose. Oscillatoria sp. PCC 7515, Chroococcus sp. PCC 9106 and Spirulina sp. PCC 6313 tested in this paper could be considered bioindicators for lead pollution, because all of these microorganisms are indigenous, have high tolerance to high concentrations of lead and are able to accumulate this metal externally in extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) and intracellularly in polyphosphate (PP) inclusions. Experiments made with microcosms demonstrated that Phormidium-like and Lyngbya-like organisms selected themselves at the highest concentrations of lead assayed. In the present study it is shown that all cyanobacteria studied (both in culture and in microcosms) present PP inclusions in their cytoplasm and that these increase in number in lead polluted cultures and microcosms. We believe that the application of these microscopic techniques open up broad prospects for future studies of metal ecotoxicity.

  16. Breakup and reestablishment of the armour layer in a large gravel-bed river below dams: The lower Ebro (United States)

    Vericat, Damia; Batalla, Ramon J.; Garcia, Celso


    Changes in armour layer during floods under supply limited conditions are little known. This paper describes the breakup and the reestablishment of the bed armour layer in the regulated gravel-bed Ebro River during a flooding period. The study was conducted over a 28-km study reach from 2002 to 2004. The surface, subsurface and bed load grain size distribution constitute the bases for the analysis of bed-armouring dynamics. The results indicate that the magnitude of floods controlled the degree of armouring of the river bed. The initial mean armouring ratio was 2.3, with maximum values reaching 4.4. Floods in the winter of 2002-2003 ( Q8) caused the breakup of the armour layer in several sections. This resulted in the erratic bed load pattern observed during the December 2002 flushing flow and in the increase in bed load transport during successive events. Most grain size classes were entrained and transported, causing river bed incision. The mean armouring ratio decreased to 1.9. In contrast, during low magnitude floods in 2003-2004 ( Q2), the coarsest fractions (64 mm) did not take part in the bed load while finer particles were winnowed, thus surface deposits coarsened. As a result, the armour layer was reestablished (i.e., the mean armouring ratio increased to 2.3), and the supply of subsurface sediment decreased. The supply and transport of bed material appear to be in balance in the river reach immediately below the dam. In contrast, the transport of medium and finer size classes in the downstream reaches was higher than their supply from upstream, a phenomenon that progressively reduced their availability in the river bed surface, hence the armour layer reworking.

  17. Bioaccumulation of lead, mercury, and cadmium in the greater white-toothed shrew, Crocidura russula, from the Ebro Delta (NE Spain); Sex- and age-dependent variation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez-Chardi, Alejandro [Departament de Biologia Animal (Vertebrats), Facultat de Biologia, Universitat de Barcelona, Avinguda Diagonal 645, 08028 Barcelona (Spain)]. E-mail:; Lopez-Fuster, Maria Jose [Departament de Biologia Animal (Vertebrats), Facultat de Biologia, Universitat de Barcelona, Avinguda Diagonal 645, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Nadal, Jacint [Departament de Biologia Animal (Vertebrats), Facultat de Biologia, Universitat de Barcelona, Avinguda Diagonal 645, 08028 Barcelona (Spain)


    We quantified bioaccumulation of lead, mercury, and cadmium in bones from 105 greater white-toothed shrews (Crocidura russula) collected at the Ebro Delta, a polluted area, and the Medas Islands, a control site. Lead and mercury levels varied with site, age, and sex, although statistical significances depended on each factor. Globally, shrews from the polluted area exhibited significantly higher concentrations of Pb and Hg. Increment of Pb with age was particularly remarkable in wetland animals and was interpreted in relation to human activities, namely hunting. Unlike males, females from the Ebro Delta maintained low Hg levels, which were associated with gestation and lactation. Cadmium levels did not differ between sites, sexes, or ages. This study provides the first data on heavy metals in mammals from this wetland and suggests that C. russula is a good bioindicator of metal pollution. We concluded that sex and age may represent an important source of variation in the bioaccumulation of these metals in wild populations. - Bioaccumulation patterns of Pb and Hg reveal sex and age-related differences in the large bones of the greater white-toothed shrew from a polluted Mediterranean wetland.

  18. Las temperaturas del territorio que se extiende desde el Cantábrico Oriental al Valle del Ebro durante el periodo internacional 1961-90

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    Javier M. Pejenaute Goñi


    Full Text Available El presente articulo tiene por objeto el estudio de las temperaturas en el territorio comprendido entre el Cantábrico oriental y el Valle del Ebro, durante el periodo internacional 1961-90. Este territorio está ocupado por las comunidades del País Vasco, Navarra, La Rioja y Aragón. Se estudian las temperaturas medias, las máximas, las mínimas, el coeficiente de variación y las heladas. También se incluye en el análisis anual, el estudio de la amplitud térmica, los quintiles y la tendencia futura.The present article aims at studying the temperatures in an área that goes from the cantábrico oriental and Valle del Ebro, for the international period of time going from 1961- 90. Four autonomous cornmunities. País Vasco, Navarra, La Rioja and Aragón, are included in this territory. The object of study will be the average, máximum and mínimum temperatures, as well as the coefficient of variation and freezes. It will also be included in the annual analysis. the study of thermal amplitude, quintiles, and future trend.

  19. Foraging movements of Audouin’s gull (Larus audouinii) in the Ebro Delta, NW Mediterranean: A preliminary satellite-tracking study (United States)

    Christel, Isadora; Navarro, Joan; del Castillo, Marcos; Cama, Albert; Ferrer, Xavier


    A knowledge of the foraging strategies of marine predators is essential to understand the intrinsic factors controlling their distribution, abundance and their ecological function within the marine ecosystem. Here, we investigated for the first time the foraging movements and activity patterns of Audouin's gull Larus audouinii by using satellite-tracking data from eight breeding adults in the main colony of the species worldwide (Ebro Delta, NW Mediterranean). Tagged gulls foraged in the marine area close to the breeding colony (62% of foraging locations) and in the terrestrial area of the Ebro Delta (mainly rice fields; 38% of foraging locations). The foraging activity patterns changed significantly throughout the day; lower from dusk through the first half of the night (19-1 h; 32% of active locations) and higher during the rest of the day (1-19 h; 75.5 ± 4.3% of active locations). These results confirm the foraging plasticity of this seabird and, based on previous information about the dietary habits of this species, we hypothesize how its time-dependent activity patterns and habitat use could be associated with variations in the availability of marine food resources (e.g. diel vertical migrations of pelagic fish) and the exploitation of terrestrial resources (e.g. American crayfish Procambarus clarkii).

  20. El abrigo de Martinarri (Obécuri, Treviño: una ocupación del Tardiglaciar en la Cuenca Alta del Ebro

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    Alday, Alfonso


    Full Text Available We present recently discovered Martinarri’s site, in Treviño. The initial excavations have shown that it was occupied during the transition from Pleistocene to Holocene, providing information of a largely unknown episode in the Upper Ebro and in the interior of the Iberian peninsula. The text provides an initial assessment of the stratigraphic sequence and the materials recovered. Along with carbon-14 data (unpublished, we propose an initial interpretation of the dynamics of occupation of the site. Also, the nature of the period to which it refers, requires a review of currently available knowledge and reflection on its characterization.

    Presentamos el yacimiento de Martinarri, recientemente descubierto en Treviño. Los iniciales trabajos de excavación han evidenciado ocupaciones en el tránsito del Pleistoceno al Holoceno que llenan de contenido un episodio cultural muy desconocido en el Alto Ebro, en particular, y en el interior de la Península Ibérica, en general. En el texto se ofrece una primera evaluación tanto de la secuencia estratigráfica como de los materiales recuperados, esbozando junto con los datos radiocronológicos (inéditos, una primera interpretación de la dinámica ocupacional del lugar. Dada la propia naturaleza del período se revisa el conocimiento disponible en la actualidad sobre el mismo y se reflexiona sobre su caracterización.

  1. La romanización temprana en el valle medio del Ebro (siglos II-I a.E.: una perspectiva epigráfica

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    Beltrán, Francisco


    Full Text Available Early romanization in the Mid-Ebro valley (lst-2nd cent. BC implied deep changes in local societies, but it did not produce a homogeneous culture like the new imperial one brought by the Principate. Transformations tended to the integration and re-elaboration of the new features introduced by Rome in a prevailingly native context: this process is fully illustrated through the different reactions of Iberian, Celtiberian and West-Pyrenees communities in front of the epigraphical habit.El proceso de romanización temprana (siglos II-I a. E. en el valle medio del Ebro se caracteriza por profundas transformaciones en todos los terrenos que, a diferencia de lo que ocurre con la instauración de la nueva cultura imperial del Principado, no dieron como resultado una homogeneización cultural, sino que se desarrollaron en un ambiente de marcado perfil indígena en cuyo seno los nuevos estímulos traídos por Roma experimentan diversos grados de reelaboración: las diferentes reacciones de las comunidades iberas, celtas y pirenaico-occidentales ante el hábito epigráfico introducido por Roma ilustran perfectamente este proceso.

  2. Dynamics of suspended sediment borne persistent organic pollutants in a large regulated Mediterranean river (Ebro, NE Spain). (United States)

    Quesada, S; Tena, A; Guillén, D; Ginebreda, A; Vericat, D; Martínez, E; Navarro-Ortega, A; Batalla, R J; Barceló, D


    Mediterranean rivers are characterized by highly variable hydrological regimes that are strongly dependent on the seasonal rainfall. Sediment transport is closely related to the occurrence of flash-floods capable to deliver enough kinetic energy to mobilize the bed and channel sediments. Contaminants accumulated in the sediments are likely to be mobilized as well during such events. However, whereas there are many studies characterizing contaminants in steady sediments, those devoted to the transport dynamics of suspended-sediment borne pollution are lacking. Here we examined the occurrence and transport of persistent organic microcontaminants present in the circulating suspended sediments during a controlled flushing flow in the low part of the River Ebro (NE Spain) 12 km downstream of a well-known contaminated hot-spot associated to a nearby chloro-alkali industry. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and semi-volatile organochlorine pollutants (DDT and related compounds, DDX; polychlorinated byphenils, PCBs; and other organochlorine compound, OCs) were measured in the particulate material by GC-MS and GC-MS/MS, using previously developed analytical methods. The concentration levels observed were compared to previously reported values in steady sediments in the same river and discussed on a regulatory perspective. Hydrographs and sedigraphs recorded showed a peak-flow of 1,300 m(3)s(-1) and a corresponding peak of suspended sediments of 315 mg L(-1). Combination of flow discharge, suspended sediments and pollutants' concentrations data allowed for quantifying the mass flows (mass per unit of time) and setting the load budgets (weight amount) of the different pollutants transported by the river during the monitored event. Mean mass-flows and total load values found were 20.2 mg s(-1) (400 g) for PAHs, 38 mg s(-1) (940 g) for DDX, 44 mg s(-1) (1,038 g) for PCBs and 8 mg s(-1) (200 g) for OCs. The dynamic pattern behavior of PAHs differs substantially to that of

  3. Quantification of denudation of Iberian basins, the erosional signal of continental scale capture processes (United States)

    Antón, Loreto; Muñoz Martín, Alfonso; De Vicente, Gerardo


    In central and northern Iberia, the development of the present-day drainage network was related to the opening of formerly closed fluvial systems developed within the ancient Cenozoic basins. The lowering of base level, induced by tectonic activity, fluvial capture or eustatic or climate variability, was transmitted upstream along fluvial channels in the form of erosional waves. For the main foreland basins in Iberia (Duero, Tajo and Ebro Basins) the opening of an outward drainage system leads to high incision and denudation rates, within intrabasinal areas. These processes had main influence in the evolution of the Iberian topography, since the late Cenozoic. Although, key questions on the timing and processes involved in the basin opening, as well as the influence of tectonics on it, remain open. Signals of this change in drainage conditions are still preserved in some areas, and can be analyzed by the study of longitudinal profile shapes, and by the analysis of the present topography and the spatial distribution of surface erosion associated to the exorheic history of the basins. The analysis of the denudation processes for these main basins, through the reconstruction of the former (Late Miocene) sedimentary infill, provides a quantification of the sediment fluxes in response to the drainage opening. Maps of denudation are performed for the different basins, and an integrated analysis of erosional volumes and spatial distribution of dissection are approach in terms of timing, tectonic influences and the fluvial response to the captures. The analyses of the longitudinal river profiles and the erosional patterns and volumes within the main Iberian Basins, seems to highlight important questions about the different response of the studied catchments, which may help to understand the processes and timing involved in the post Neogene drainage, and the topographic evolution of the former internally drained central Iberia.

  4. Using an ensemble of regional climate models to assess climate change impacts on water scarcity in European river basins. (United States)

    Gampe, David; Nikulin, Grigory; Ludwig, Ralf


    Climate change will likely increase pressure on the water balances of Mediterranean basins due to decreasing precipitation and rising temperatures. To overcome the issue of data scarcity the hydrological relevant variables total runoff, surface evaporation, precipitation and air temperature are taken from climate model simulations. The ensemble applied in this study consists of 22 simulations, derived from different combinations of four General Circulation Models (GCMs) forcing different Regional Climate Models (RCMs) and two Representative Concentration Pathways (RCPs) at ~12km horizontal resolution provided through the EURO-CORDEX initiative. Four river basins (Adige, Ebro, Evrotas and Sava) are selected and climate change signals for the future period 2035-2065 as compared to the reference period 1981-2010 are investigated. Decreased runoff and evaporation indicate increased water scarcity over the Ebro and the Evrotas, as well as the southern parts of the Adige and the Sava, resulting from a temperature increase of 1-3° and precipitation decrease of up to 30%. Most severe changes are projected for the summer months indicating further pressure on the river basins already at least partly characterized by flow intermittency. The widely used Falkenmark indicator is presented and confirms this tendency and shows the necessity for spatially distributed analysis and high resolution projections. Related uncertainties are addressed by the means of a variance decomposition and model agreement to determine the robustness of the projections. The study highlights the importance of high resolution climate projections and represents a feasible approach to assess climate impacts on water scarcity also in regions that suffer from data scarcity.

  5. The responses of photosynthesis and oxygen consumption to short-term changes in temperature and irradiance in a cyanobacterial mat (Ebro Delta, Spain)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Epping, E.H.G.; Kühl, Michael


    We have evaluated the effects of short-term changes in incident irradiance and temperature on oxygenic photosynthesis and oxygen consumption in a hypersaline cyanobacterial mat from the Ebro Delta, Spain, in which Microcoleus chthonoplastes was the dominant phototrophic organism. The mat...... production, and oxygen consumption in the aphotic layer of the mat. The lowest surface irradiance that resulted in detectable rates of gross photosynthesis increased with increasing temperature from 50 mmol photons m22 s21 at 158C to 500 mmol photons m22 s21 at 308C. These threshold irradiances were also...... apparent from the areal rates of net oxygen production and point to the shift of M. chthonoplastes from anoxygenic to oxygenic photosynthesis and stimulation of sulphide production and oxidation rates at elevated temperatures. The rate of net oxygen production per unit area of mat at maximum irradiance, J0...

  6. Mamíferos el Mioceno inferior de las Bardenas Reales de Navarra (Cuenca del Ebro, Península Ibérica

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    X. Murelaga, H. Astibia, C. Sese, D. Soria, X. Pereda-Suberbiola


    Full Text Available Las Bardenas Reales de Navarra se encuentran en el borde NW de la cuenca terciaria del Ebro. Los sedimentos que podemos encontrar en la mayor parte del área de estudio pertenecen a facies fluvio-palustres de la Formación Tudela. Las localidades fosilíferas estarían incluidas dentro de la Biozona MN2b-MN· (Biozonas Z-A del Rambliense o Aquitaniense superior-Burdigaliense inforior. En esta área se han encontrado restos fósiles de peces, anfibios, lagartos, anfisbénidos, serpientes, tortugas, cocodrilos, flamencos y los mamíferos que se describen en este trabajo como insectívoros, quirópteros, eomídos, gliridos, esciúridos, cricétidos, lagomorfos, perisodáctilos y artiodáctilos.

  7. Cellular automata to understand the behaviour of beach-dune systems: Application to El Fangar Spit active dune system (Ebro delta, Spain) (United States)

    Barrio-Parra, Fernando; Rodríguez-Santalla, Inmaculada


    Coastal dunes are sedimentary environments characterized by their high dynamism. Their evolution is determined by sedimentary exchanges between the beach-dune subsystems and the dune dynamics itself. Knowledge about these exchanges is important to prioritize management and conservation strategies of these environments. The aim of this work is the inclusion of the aeolian transport rates obtained using a calibrated cellular automaton to estimate the beach-dune sediment exchange rates in a real active dune field at El Fangar Spit (Ebro Delta, Spain). The dune dynamics model is able to estimate average aeolian sediment fluxes. These are used in combination with the observed net sediment budget to obtain a quantitative characterization of the sediment exchange interactions. The methods produce a substantial improvement in the understanding of coastal sedimentary systems that could have major implications in areas where the management and conservation of dune fields are of concern.

  8. Actual extension of sinkholes: Considerations about geophysical, geomorphological, and field inspection techniques in urban planning projects in the Ebro basin (NE Spain) (United States)

    Pueyo Anchuela, Ó.; Pocoví Juan, A.; Casas-Sainz, A. M.; Ansón-López, D.; Gil-Garbi, H.


    Aerial photographs, historical cartographies, and field inspection are useful tools in urban planning design on mantled karst because they permit a wide time interval to be analyzed. In the case of Zaragoza city, several works have confirmed the interest of these approaches in configuring the urban planning code and therefore represent a promising technique. Nevertheless, some caveats should be taken into account when using this kind of information. A detailed analysis is presented comparing (in a case study from the surroundings of Zaragoza) geomorphological, historical analysis, and field inspection with geophysical data. Field inspection in a noncultivated area permits the constraint of the presence of karst indicators below the geomorphological resolution of aerial photographs and shows results consistent with geophysical surveys. The studied case shows an inner zone coinciding with the sinkhole mapped from aerial photographs that correlates with changes in the position of the substratum and changes in thickness of alluvial sediments. The integrated analysis permits us to define an external subsidence ring around the geomorphological sinkhole whose surface is twice the size of the inner zone. This outer ring is indicated by geometrical changes in GPR profiles, increases of thickness of the conductive shallower unit toward the collapse, and small collapses on marginal cracks. These results support the higher extension of karst hazards linked to sinkholes with respect to their geomorphological expression and the needed detailed analysis to constrain the real sinkhole size or the use of security radii surrounding this surficial evidence when geomorphological data is used for the hazard analyses or the urban planning at karstic zones.

  9. Development of submarine canyons after the Mid-Pleistocene Transition on the Ebro margin, NW Mediterranean: The role of fluvial connections (United States)

    Mauffrey, Marie-Aline; Urgeles, Roger; Berné, Serge; Canning, Jason


    After the Messinian Salinity Crisis (MSC), the Ebro Margin, like other Mediterranean deltaic margins, rebuilt through progradation and increasingly significant aggradation. The Plio-Quaternary transition from a ramp-like system to a ;new; margin with large clinoforms is an opportunity to understand the processes that govern canyon initiation and evolution. We used a 3D seismic data set located at the outer shelf - upper slope of the Ebro margin. We tied major bounding surfaces to chrono-stratigraphic constraints from borehole data or, for the most recent interval, from averaged accumulation rates derived from borehole stratigraphy. The major shelfal erosion surfaces are interpreted as sequence boundaries, tied to major glacial maxima. Along these surfaces, seismic attributes characterize the fluvial/canyon connection, viewed as one of the key factors in canyon development. The first appearance of ;proto-canyons; (dense networks of channels and gullies 50-100 m deep and 1-2 km wide) occurs in the late Zanclean. Their size increased progressively throughout the Pliocene and early Quaternary, in relation to the increase in clinoform heights. ;True canyons; (with distinct interfluves, more than 200 m deep and 3-4 km wide) appeared during the Mid-Pleistocene Transition (MPT, 1250-700 ka BP). The first evidence of direct connection between canyon heads and fluvial systems is observed during Marine Isotope Stage 22, one of the most pronounced glacial stages of the Quaternary. Similar connections also existed, at least, during MIS 16 and MIS 12, which are also stages of pronounced low sea level. The topography of fluvial channels in the outer shelf is not imaged in detail in the picked horizons at the resolution of our seismic data, but sinuous fluvial systems are very well imaged through amplitude and coherency attributes. Direct connection of fluvial systems during and after MIS 22 also favored headward erosion and the formation of shelf-indenting canyons, probably

  10. Anticuerpos frente a virus West nile y otros virus transmitidos por artropodos en la poblacion del Delta del Ebro

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    Lozano Alvaro


    Full Text Available FUNDAMENTOS: El virus West Nile (VWN es un Flavivirus que se transmite al hombre a través de distintas especies de mosquitos y produce brotes y casos esporádicos de enfermedad en distintas regiones del Viejo Mundo, incluída la Cuenca Mediterránea. Las zonas húmedas europeas que acogen aves migratorias procedentes de África constituyen áreas de alto riesgo para esta infección, así como para otras infecciones víricas transmitidas por artrópodos. MÉTODOS: Con objeto de investigar la prevalencia de la infección por el VWN y otros virus de transmisión similar en la población humana del Delta del Ebro, se estudiaron 1037 muestras de suero, obtenidas en 10 localidades de la zona, para presencia de anticuerpos frente a VWN y otros 12 virus transmitidos por artrópodos (3 Alfavirus, 8 Flaviviridae y 1 Bunyaviridae mediante titulación por inhibición de la hemaglutinación (IHA. En algunos casos se estudió la presencia de IgM específica por IHA tras fraccionar el suero por centrifugación en gradientes de sacarosa. RESULTADOS: En total, se encontró reactividad significativa frente a alguno de los virus probados en 130 casos (12.5%; 4.1% frente a Alfavirus, 8.0% frente a Flaviviridae y 0.4% frente a Bunyaviridae. El análisis de los títulos de anticuerpos reveló porcentajes significativos de muestras con títulos elevados frente a antígenos de VWN y otros. La distribución de la seroprevalencia fue muy desigual, concentrándose fundamentalmente en 3 localidades del interior del Delta (Ampolla, San Jaime y Montells, donde la prevalencia de anticuerpos frente a Flaviviridae llegó a alcanzar el 30% y se observaron niveles residuales de IgM frente a VWN en algunos sueros. CONCLUSIONES: Estos resultados y los obtenidos previamente en otras regiones de la Península Ibérica sugieren que el VWN circula en la población humana de las zonas de riesgo y produce brotes epidémicos periódicos. Habida cuenta del alto porcentaje de

  11. High spatial patchiness of methane concentrations over the flat landscape of the Ebro River Delta (NW Mediterranean) (United States)

    Morguí, J.-A.; Rodó, X.; Curcoll, R.; Agueda, A.; Sánchez, L.; Occhipinti, P.; Nofuentes, M.; Arias, R.; Batet, O.


    With the aim of evaluate the role of a different water management on greenhouse gases (GHGs) at each side of the Ebro River Delta, five points were chosen to be sampled for GHGs for studying their spatial variability along diurnal cycles. The daily schedule for sampling was starting one day at the evening/sunset, followed by the next day dawn sampling, and eventually closing the cycle at the evening/sunset. Samples are been taken along the seasonal cycle to cope with the main rice works: seeding, growing, flourishing, maturation, harvesting, fields flooding and soil aeration before new seeding. The Ebre River Delta terrain is covered in its 200 km2 with the same agroecosystem (paddy fields) at the two riversides, and natural lagoons and marshes are found along the shoreline. The five spots to be sampled were selected to represent all these habitats at each side of the Delta; one is close to paddy fields, another one to the lagoons, and the fifth one to the river embankments up the river, with a pentagonal shape. Continuous measurements (CO2, CH4, H2O) following radial paths transects of the pentagon were performed with a Cavity Ring-Down Spectroscopy (CRDS) analyser mounted on a car. The air inlet was held in front of the car, at forty cm above ground, with a little buffer to filter particles. Due to the constraints imposed by this buffer, every measurement was copying for a track of 30 m, for a 60 km/hour car speed. Flasks for GHGs (CO2, CH4, CO, N20) analyses by Gas Chromatography were taken at every spot with the car engine stopped while the CRDS analyzer was measuring yet, in order to compare results. Ebre River Delta rice cultures management is usually characterized for maintaining the paddies flooded after the harvesting of rice to giving enough aquatic life for feeding the migratory birds. Only during the previous time to seed the rice, the fields are dried. Nevertheless, two years ago, the left side of the riversides is being dried during winter to prevent

  12. HPLC-MS/MS analyses show that the near-Starchless aps1 and pgm leaves accumulate wild type levels of ADPglucose: further evidence for the occurrence of important ADPglucose biosynthetic pathway(s alternative to the pPGI-pPGM-AGP pathway.

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    Abdellatif Bahaji

    Full Text Available In leaves, it is widely assumed that starch is the end-product of a metabolic pathway exclusively taking place in the chloroplast that (a involves plastidic phosphoglucomutase (pPGM, ADPglucose (ADPG pyrophosphorylase (AGP and starch synthase (SS, and (b is linked to the Calvin-Benson cycle by means of the plastidic phosphoglucose isomerase (pPGI. This view also implies that AGP is the sole enzyme producing the starch precursor molecule, ADPG. However, mounting evidence has been compiled pointing to the occurrence of important sources, other than the pPGI-pPGM-AGP pathway, of ADPG. To further explore this possibility, in this work two independent laboratories have carried out HPLC-MS/MS analyses of ADPG content in leaves of the near-starchless pgm and aps1 mutants impaired in pPGM and AGP, respectively, and in leaves of double aps1/pgm mutants grown under two different culture conditions. We also measured the ADPG content in wild type (WT and aps1 leaves expressing in the plastid two different ADPG cleaving enzymes, and in aps1 leaves expressing in the plastid GlgC, a bacterial AGP. Furthermore, we measured the ADPG content in ss3/ss4/aps1 mutants impaired in starch granule initiation and chloroplastic ADPG synthesis. We found that, irrespective of their starch contents, pgm and aps1 leaves, WT and aps1 leaves expressing in the plastid ADPG cleaving enzymes, and aps1 leaves expressing in the plastid GlgC accumulate WT ADPG content. In clear contrast, ss3/ss4/aps1 leaves accumulated ca. 300 fold-more ADPG than WT leaves. The overall data showed that, in Arabidopsis leaves, (a there are important ADPG biosynthetic pathways, other than the pPGI-pPGM-AGP pathway, (b pPGM and AGP are not major determinants of intracellular ADPG content, and (c the contribution of the chloroplastic ADPG pool to the total ADPG pool is low.

  13. Field comparison of sardine post-flexion larval growth and biochemical composition from three sites in the W Mediterranean (Ebro river coast, bays of Almería and Málaga

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    Alberto Garcia


    Full Text Available Late larval stages of sardine (16-23 mm were sampled during the 2003 spawning season in their nursery grounds located off the Ebro river mouth, on the Catalan coast, and in two bays of the Alborán Sea coasts, the Bay of Almería and the Bay of Málaga. The daily growth analysis of each sampled population revealed faster growth in the Ebro sardine larvae than in both of the Alboran Sea larval populations. This fact is supported by their greater content with age of DNA, RNA and protein. However, the significantly higher carbohydrate content of the Bay of Almería sardine larvae and a higher Fulton’s index, indicative of energy storage of individuals, in both of the sardine populations sampled in the Bays of Almería and Málaga show evident differences in the daily growth of the Alborán Sea larvae from those originating in the Ebro region. Late larval growth in the Alborán Sea sardine tends to favour an increase in body mass rather than in body length. This study hypothesises that the productivity pulses off the Alboran Sea coasts induced by the north and northwestern wind regimes may be responsible for the growth pulses observed in the otolith microstructure.

  14. Completando el mapa de la Cuenca del Ebro: el Mesolítico del IX milenio cal BP de Espantalobos (Huesca, España

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Montes, L., Domingo, R., Cuchí, J.A., Alcolea, M., Sola, C.


    Full Text Available Se presentan los resultados de la primera campaña de excavación de un nuevo yacimiento mesolítico, Espantalobos, en la Cuenca del Ebro. Localizado en las proximidades de la ciudad de Huesca, se trata de un abrigo de arenisca que conserva restos de dos ocupaciones humanas de las que la más reciente se relaciona con el Mesolítico Geométrico. Los escasos materiales del nivel más antiguo, sin embargo, no permiten de momento decidir su adscripción a esta fase o a su predecesora de Muescas y Denticulados, y tampoco su datación, bisagra entre ambas etapas. Pese al pobre estado de conservación del sitio fuertemente afectado por tareas de cantería y por la erosión, se han recuperado, además de los habituales materiales líticos, algunos restos de fauna y un interesante lote de carbones cuyo análisis antracológico permite paliar en parte la ausencia de datos de polen, que no se ha conservado.

  15. Transporte de Fondo y Dinámica Sedimentaria en un Río Altamente Regulado: el bajo Ebro (NE Península Ibérica.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damià Vericat


    Full Text Available Este trabajo analiza el transporte de fondo (tasas y granulometría en relación con las variaciones  temporales en la granulometría del lecho del río Ebro, en su tramo bajo y durante el periodo hidrológico 2002-2004. La alta magnitud de las crecidas (Q8 sucedidas en el 2002-2003 provocó una elevada actividad sedimentaria, especialmente en relación con la rotura de la coraza superficial del lecho. Dicho processo produjo un incremento progresivo en las tasas de transporte a causa de la incorporación  del material subsuperficial  a la carga de fondo. El flujo conjunto de materiales superficiales y subsuperficiales se considera como la causa principal que explica la elevada dispersión granulométrica de la carga de fondo durante las crecidas. Los caudales alcanzados durante las crecidas de 2003-2004 fueron de menor magnitud y con menor competencia para movilizar todas las fracciones granulométricas de la superfície del lecho. El movimiento de las partículas de mayor tamaño fue hidráulicamente limitado, lo que generó un transporte de fondo selectivo. Dicha dinánica fue la responsable del desarrollo de una nueva coraza superficial que redujo la disponibilidad de sedimentos y, consecuentemente, las tasas de transporte de fondo.

  16. Radioactivity evaluation of Ebro river water and sludge treated in a potable water treatment plant located in the South of Catalonia (Spain)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palomo, M.; Penalver, A.; Aguilar, C. [Unitat de Radioquimica Ambiental i Sanitaria, Universitat Rovira i Virgili, Consorci d' Aigues de Tarragona (CAT), Ctra. Nacional 340 Km. 1094, Ap. correus n.7, 43895 L' Ampolla Tarragona (Spain); Borrull, F. [Unitat de Radioquimica Ambiental i Sanitaria, Universitat Rovira i Virgili, Consorci d' Aigues de Tarragona (CAT), Ctra. Nacional 340 Km. 1094, Ap. correus n.7, 43895 L' Ampolla Tarragona (Spain)], E-mail:


    A potable water treatment plant with an average production rate of 4.3 m{sup 3}/s, providing several cities in the south of Catalonia (Spain) with drinking water, has been studied for a period of six years (2002-2007) regarding its capacity to remove several natural and anthropogenic radionuclides. First, gross alpha, gross beta and tritium activities were determined in ingoing and outgoing water samples. The values for all these parameters were below the Spanish normative limits established for waters for human consumption. For the sludge samples generated in the plant, we quantified some gamma emitting radioisotopes: natural ({sup 40}K, {sup 214}Pb, etc.) and artificial ({sup 60}Co, {sup 110m}Ag, etc.) which may be related to the geological or/and industrial activities (such as a nuclear power plant) located upstream of the PWTP on the Ebro River. Finally, when the sludge samples were compared with those from other water treatment plants, the influence of the industrial activities on the radioisotopes found in the analysed samples was confirmed since the activity levels for some of the isotopes quantified were 10 times higher.

  17. El empleo del ronzal caballar en el norte del Ebro durante la Edad del Hierro y la época ibérica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garcés Estallo, Ignasi


    Full Text Available Not available.

    La atenta observación de una antigua fotografía de un caballo sacrificado en la necrópolis de la Edad del Hierro de La Pedrera (Térmens, Lleida evidencia el uso del aro para ronzal en el valle del Segre durante ese momento. A su vez, es el punto de partida de una breve investigación sobre el empleo de ronzales para équidos en los entornos catalán y aragonés. Se reconocen otros dos posibles casos en bronce y se detecta un paralelo iconográfico que, aunque conocido, había pasado desapercibido, y que confirma la pervivencia de tal práctica hasta comienzos de la dominación romana. En los ejemplares metálicos conservados el sistema de cierre se distancia de las soluciones adoptadas en el área levantina, para acercarse a las tradiciones centroeuropeas, en sintonía con otros aspectos culturales propios del norte del Ebro, como son los elementos de monta del caballo y, en general, del armamento.

  18. Molecular characterization of carnitine-dependent transport of acetyl-CoA from peroxisomes to mitochondria in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and identification of a plasma membrane carnitine transporter, Agp2p. (United States)

    van Roermund, C W; Hettema, E H; van den Berg, M; Tabak, H F; Wanders, R J


    In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, beta-oxidation of fatty acids is confined to peroxisomes. The acetyl-CoA produced has to be transported from the peroxisomes via the cytoplasm to the mitochondrial matrix in order to be degraded to CO(2) and H(2)O. Two pathways for the transport of acetyl-CoA to the mitochondria have been proposed. The first involves peroxisomal conversion of acetyl-CoA into glyoxylate cycle intermediates followed by transport of these intermediates to the mitochondria. The second pathway involves peroxisomal conversion of acetyl-CoA into acetylcarnitine, which is subsequently transported to the mitochondria. Using a selective screen, we have isolated several mutants that are specifically affected in the second pathway, the carnitine-dependent acetyl-CoA transport from the peroxisomes to the mitochondria, and assigned these CDAT mutants to three different complementation groups. The corresponding genes were identified using functional complementation of the mutants with a genomic DNA library. In addition to the previously reported carnitine acetyl-CoA transferase (CAT2), we identified the genes for the yeast orthologue of the human mitochondrial carnitine acylcarnitine translocase (YOR100C or CAC) and for a transport protein (AGP2) required for carnitine transport across the plasma membrane.

  19. Daily carbon surface fluxes in the West Ebre (Ebro) watershed from aircraft profiling on late June 2007 (United States)

    Font, A.; Morguí, J.-A.; Curcoll, R.; Pouchet, I.; Casals, I.; Rodó, X.


    ABSTRACT An intensive aircraft campaign measuring atmospheric CO2 mixing ratios was carried out in the central part of the Ebre watershed on late June 2007 to characterize the CO2 dynamics in the Ebre basin and to calculate the regional cumulative carbon surface flux. CO2 concentrations were obtained from vertical profiles over La Muela (LMU; 41.60°N, 1.1°W) from 900 to 4000 m above the sea level (masl), horizontal transects at ~2000 m 100 km west from LMU, and continuous measurements at ~650 masl. Different estimates of surface flux from changes in the convective boundary layer (CBL) CO2 concentration were obtained following the Integral CBL budgeting equation (ICBL) and the carbon content integration (CCI) method. Values of the mean surface flux calculated from the different approaches range from -2.4 to -7.9 μmolCO2/m2s. Regional surface flux calculated from vertical profiling appears to be consistent in a distance of 70 km away from the measurement site. The ICBL method is very sensitive to the accurate determination of the concentration in the entrainment zone. The overall uncertainty from fluxes calculated from the ICBL method rises to a value of 70%, whereas the uncertainty linked to the CCI method is 55%.

  20. Strategies to reduce water stress in Euro-Mediterranean river basins. (United States)

    Garrote, Luis; Granados, Alfredo; Iglesias, Ana


    A portfolio of water management strategies now exists to contribute to reach water demand and supply targets. Among them, integrated water resource management has a large potential for reducing water disagreement in water scarcity regions. Many of the strategies are based on well tested choices and technical know-how, with proven benefits for users and environment. This paper considers water management practices that may contribute to reduce disagreement in water scarcity areas, evaluating the management alternatives in the Mediterranean basins of Europe, a region that exemplifies other water scarcity regions in the world. First, we use a model to compute water availability taking into account water management, temporal heterogeneity, spatial heterogeneity and policy options, and then apply this model across 396 river basins. Second, we use a wedge approach to illustrate policy choices for selected river basins: Thrace (Greece), Guadalquivir, Ebro, Tagus and Duero (Spain), Po (Italy) and Rhone (France). At the wide geographical level, the results show the multi-determinant complexities of climate change impacts and adaptation measures and the geographic nature of water resources and vulnerability metrics. At the local level, the results show that optimisation of water management is the dominating strategy for defining adaptation pathways. Results also show great sensitivity to ecological flow provision, suggesting that better attention should be paid to defining methods to estimate minimum ecological flows in water scarcity regions. For all scales, average water resource vulnerability computed by traditional vulnerability indicators may not be the most appropriate measure to inform climate change adaptation policy. This has large implications to applied water resource studies aiming to derive policy choices, and it is especially interesting in basins facing water scarcity. Our research aims to contribute to shape realistic water management options at the regional

  1. Mitochondrial DNA from the eradicated European Plasmodium vivax and P. falciparum from 70-year-old slides from the Ebro Delta in Spain (United States)

    Gelabert, Pere; Sandoval-Velasco, Marcela; Olalde, Iñigo; Fregel, Rosa; Rieux, Adrien; Escosa, Raül; Aranda, Carles; Paaijmans, Krijn; Mueller, Ivo; Gilbert, M. Thomas P.; Lalueza-Fox, Carles


    Phylogenetic analysis of Plasmodium parasites has indicated that their modern-day distribution is a result of a series of human-mediated dispersals involving transport between Africa, Europe, America, and Asia. A major outstanding question is the phylogenetic affinity of the malaria causing parasites Plasmodium vivax and falciparum in historic southern Europe—where it was endemic until the mid-20th century, after which it was eradicated across the region. Resolving the identity of these parasites will be critical for answering several hypotheses on the malaria dispersal. Recently, a set of slides with blood stains of malaria-affected people from the Ebro Delta (Spain), dated between 1942 and 1944, have been found in a local medical collection. We extracted DNA from three slides, two of them stained with Giemsa (on which Plasmodium parasites could still be seen under the microscope) and another one consisting of dried blood spots. We generated the data using Illumina sequencing after using several strategies aimed at increasing the Plasmodium DNA yield: depletion of the human genomic (g)DNA content through hybridization with human gDNA baits, and capture-enrichment using gDNA derived from P. falciparum. Plasmodium mitochondrial genome sequences were subsequently reconstructed from the resulting data. Phylogenetic analysis of the eradicated European P. vivax mtDNA genome indicates that the European isolate is closely related to the most common present-day American haplotype and likely entered the American continent post-Columbian contact. Furthermore, the European P. falciparum mtDNA indicates a link with current Indian strains that is in agreement with historical accounts. PMID:27671660

  2. Patterns of mercury and methylmercury bioaccumulation in fish species downstream of a long-term mercury-contaminated site in the lower Ebro River (NE Spain). (United States)

    Carrasco, Luis; Barata, Carlos; García-Berthou, Emili; Tobias, Aurelio; Bayona, Josep M; Díez, Sergi


    Since the 19th century, large amounts of industrial waste were dumped in a reservoir adjacent to a chlor-alkali plant in the lower Ebro River (NE Spain). Previous toxicological analysis of carp populations inhabiting the surveyed area have shown that the highest biological impact attributable to mercury pollution occurred downstream of the discharge site. However, mercury speciation in fish from this polluted area has not been addressed yet. Thus, in the present study, piscivorous European catfish (Silurus glanis) and non-piscivorous common carp (Cyprinus carpio) were selected, to investigate the bioavailability and bioaccumulation capacities of both total mercury (THg) and methylmercury (MeHg) at the discharge site and downstream points. Multiple Correspondence Analysis (MCA) was applied to reduce the dimensionality of the data set, and Multiple Linear Regression (MLR) models were fitted in order to assess the relationship between both Hg species in fish and different variables of interest. Mercury levels in fish inhabiting the dam at the discharge site were found to be approximately 2-fold higher than those from an upstream site; while mercury pollution progressively increased downstream of the hot spot. In fact, both THg and MeHg levels at the farthest downstream point were 3 times greater than those close to the waste dump. This result clearly indicates downstream transport and increased mercury bioavailability as a function of distance downstream from the contamination source. A number of factors may affect both the downstream transport and increased Hg bioavailability associated with suspended particulate matter (SPM) and dissolved organic carbon (DOC).

  3. Grafitos sobre cerámica —ibéricos, latinos, griegos y signos— procedentes del yacimiento romanorrepublicano de La Cabañeta (El Burgo de Ebro, Zaragoza

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mínguez Morales, José Antonio


    Full Text Available This paper presents an interesting group of inscriptions made on pottery, unearthed during the archaeological excavations carried out in the site called La Cabañeta (El Burgo de Ebro, Zaragoza, from 1997 to 2009. Included are fourteen Iberian documents written in Paleohispanic script, twenty-two in Latin, two in Greek, eight signs and four difficult to identify marks, all of them dated between the second half of the II century B.C. and the destruction of the settlement in the decade of the 70s of the I century B.C.En este trabajo se presenta un interesante conjunto de inscripciones realizadas sobre cerámica, recuperadas durante las diferentes intervenciones arqueológicas practicadas en el yacimiento de La Cabañeta (El Burgo de Ebro, Zaragoza, desde el año 1997 hasta el 2009. En él se incluyen catorce documentos ibéricos escritos en signario paleohispánico, veintidós latinos, dos griegos, ocho signos y cuatro marcas de difícil adscripción, todos ellos fechables entre la segunda mitad del s. II a. C. y la destrucción del asentamiento en la década de los 70 del s. I a. C.

  4. Impact of industries in the accumulation of radionuclides in the lower part of Ebro river (Catalonia, Spain); Impact des industries dans l'accumulation de radionucleides dans le cours inferieur de l'Ebre (Catalogne, Espagne)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palomo, M.; Penalver, A.; Aguilar, C.; Borrull, F. [Unitat de Radioquimica Ambiental i Sanitaria, Universitat Rovira i Virgili, Consorci d' Aigues de Tarragona (CAT), L' Ampolla Tarragona (Spain)


    Ebro River extends over almost 930 km and is the main Spanish river entering the Mediterranean Sea. There are several industries located along this river course including a di-calcium phosphate factory (DCP) and two nuclear power reactors. These installations, together with other factors such as the geology, can contribute to the radiological content of the river. Therefore, this study was performed to determine some natural and also some anthropogenic radionuclide concentrations in the Ebro River ecosystem. We analysed water samples, solid samples (rice field sludge and surface marine sediment samples), and also biota samples (Cladophora glomerata and Cynodon dactylon). For water samples, gross alpha, gross beta, tritium, uranium, thorium and also a group of gamma-emitting isotopes' activities were determined. The main contribution to radioactivity for these samples was due to some isotopes from the uranium and thorium chain. For the solid samples, we quantified some natural and artificial gamma radioisotopes, which may be related to the geological and/or industrial activities located in this zone. In the case of biota, the results indicate that the presence of the DCP has a significant influence, since the highest activity was observed in the surroundings of this industry (Flix), where isotopes such as {sup 214}Bi and {sup 214}Pb presented activity values of 105 {+-} 43 Bq/kg and 100 {+-} 58 Bq/kg, respectively. (authors)

  5. Terrasses de la Riera dels Canyars (Gavà, Barcelona): the landscape of Heinrich Stadial 4 north of the "Ebro frontier" and implications for modern human dispersal into Iberia (United States)

    Daura, J.; Sanz, M.; García, N.; Allué, E.; Vaquero, M.; Fierro, E.; Carrión, J. S.; López-García, J. M.; Blain, H. A.; Sánchez-Marco, A.; Valls, C.; Albert, R. M.; Fornós, J. J.; Julià, R.; Fullola, J. M.; Zilhão, J.


    Terrasses de la Riera dels Canyars is an Upper Pleistocene fluvial deposit containing the remains of large mammals, principally accumulated in the framework of hyena denning in the area, as well as a few artifacts. Radiocarbon-dated to ˜39.6 ka cal BP, the time of Heinrich Stadial (HS) 4, this site enables us to reconstruct the environmental conditions then prevalent in the NE of the Iberian Peninsula. The concentration in a single locus of finds generated by different agents relates to a flash-flood event, the rapidity of which, combined with the absence of archaeological, ecological or paleontological incongruities in the composition of the assemblage, warrants an assumption of broad contemporaneity for its contents. The ecofactual evidence (fauna, pollen, charcoal, phytoliths) indicates a steppe-dominated environment for the coastal areas between the Pyrenees and the Ebro delta; the dominant elements are cold- and dry-adapted species but a Mediterranean component is present, implying a less rigorous climate than farther north in Europe. The artifacts are clearly Upper Paleolithic, and assignment to the modern human-associated Aurignacian technocomplex is supported by the radiocarbon dates and the typology of a bilaterally retouched blade. This evidence is consistent with the notion that anatomical modernity spread across Europe over open landscape niches. Available pollen data from deep sea cores indicate that, during some of the interstadials of Marine Isotope Stage (MIS) 3, a significant vegetation gradient existed at 40°N, broadly coincident with the "Ebro frontier:" temperate and warm temperate trees expanded significantly to the south, while steppe-tundra landscapes remained dominant to the north, a contrast best seen during Greenland Interstadial (GI) 8. Such an environmental boundary must have implied a durable barrier to diffusion and migration during interstadials. Under the cold and arid conditions of HS4, the site of Canyars shows that the Eurasian

  6. A Production Calendar Based on Water Temperature, Spat Size, and Husbandry Practices Reduce OsHV-1 μvar Impact on Cultured Pacific Oyster Crassostrea gigas in the Ebro Delta (Catalonia), Mediterranean Coast of Spain (United States)

    Carrasco, Noèlia; Gairin, Ignasi; Pérez, Josu; Andree, Karl B.; Roque, Ana; Fernández-Tejedor, Margarita; Rodgers, Chris J.; Aguilera, Cristobal; Furones, M. Dolors


    Since 2006, the production of Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas in the Ebro Delta area has dramatically declined from around 800 metric tons (MT) per year to 138 MT in 2011. This decline in production has had a significant socio-economic impact in a region where the shellfish sector is a traditional economic activity for many families. The identified agent responsible for this reduction in C. gigas production was Ostreid Herpesvirus microvar (OsHV-1 μvar), which has been associated with C. gigas spat mortalities in France, and in many other countries. In Spain the episodes of mortality became critical for the regional shellfish production between 2008 until 2014, with mortality percentage up to 100%. In this study, local hatchery C. gigas spat was used as sentinel animals for epidemiological studies and management tests carried out with the aim of reducing oyster mortality in the Ebro Delta area. A production calendar mainly based on water temperature dynamics was designed around an optimal schedule for spat immersion. The immersion calendar included two optimal periods for spat immersion, in summer when temperatures are ≥25°C and at the end of autumn and beginning of winter when they are ≤13°C. Such production planning has reduced mortalities from 80% (in 2014 and previous years) to 2–7.5% in 2015 in cemented oysters. Furthermore, other recommendations related to spat immersion size, culture density and methodology, and cementing calendar, which helped to achieve the results presented, were also recorded and transferred to local producers. This work presents a successfully tested management strategy reducing OsHV-1 μvar impact by designing new field management practices mainly focused on the handling and timing of spat immersion. This approach could be used as a management model in areas presenting similar production practices and environmental characteristics.

  7. Reserves in western basins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caldwell, R.H.; Cotton, B.W. [Scotia Group, Dallas, TX (United States)


    The objective of this project is to investigate the reserves potential of tight gas reservoirs in three Rocky Mountain basins: the Greater Green River (GGRB), Uinta and Piceance basins. The basins contain vast gas resources that have been estimated in the thousands of Tcf hosted in low permeability clastic reservoirs. This study documents the productive characteristics of these tight reservoirs, requantifies gas in place resources, and characterizes the reserves potential of each basin. The purpose of this work is to promote understanding of the resource and to encourage its exploitation by private industry. At this point in time, the GGRB work has been completed and a final report published. Work is well underway in the Uinta and Piceance basins which are being handled concurrently, with reports on these basins being scheduled for the middle of this year. Since the GGRB portion of the project has been completed, this presentation win focus upon that basin. A key conclusion of this study was the subdivision of the resource, based upon economic and technological considerations, into groupings that have distinct properties with regard to potential for future producibility, economics and risk profile.

  8. Research on A-GPS rapid positioning algorithm using combined Doppler and code-phase measurements%多普勒与伪码相位值结合的 A-G PS 快速定位算法研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄志勇; 赵冬青; 田翌君; 吴昊; 张爽娜


    Assisted Global Positioning System provides an acquisition assistance ,ephemeris ,approx time and approx position for a A-GPS receiver through the cellular network base station to solve the weak signal positioning problem . The initial acquisition of tracking and decoding navigation message needs to go through its correlation lock ,phase lock , and the bit synchronization and frame synchronization process ,When the signal is very weak that cannot achieve frame synchronization and demodulation satellite TOW ,the conventional algorithm cannot achieve positioning solution .The A-GPS fast positioning algorithm combined with Doppler positioning and reconstructing full pseudoranges method is presented ,to reconstruct full pseudorange method to eliminate the common bias implied in integer millisecond pseudoranges .Doppler positioning solution guarantees to provide an initial position and time error less than 0.5 light-ms ,so the A-GPS rapid positioning is completed in the coarse time and rough location condition .%辅助全球定位系统通过蜂窝网基站提供给A-G PS接收机捕获辅助信息、辅助星历、时间与概略坐标,解决了微弱信号下的定位问题。从信号捕获到完成跟踪,解码导航电文需要经历相关锁定、相位锁定、比特同步、帧同步等过程,在信号很弱以至于无法实现帧同步、不能解调卫星TOW的情况下,常规定位算法无法实现定位。文中提出多普勒与伪码相位结合的A-G PS快速定位算法,利用伪码相位值进行伪距重构法消去整数毫秒伪距中隐含的公共误差,利用多普勒定位提供的初值保证初始位置和时间误差在0.5光毫秒以内,实现了粗时间、粗位置辅助下利用多普勒与伪码相位值的A-G PS快速定位。

  9. Integrating geomorphological mapping, InSAR, GPR and trenching for the identification and investigation of buried sinkholes in the mantled evaporite karst of the Ebro Valley (NE Spain) (United States)

    Gutiérrez, Francisco; Galve, Jorge Pedro; Lucha, Pedro; Bonachea, Jaime; Castañeda, Carmen


    The first and most important step in sinkhole hazard analysis is the construction of a cartographic sinkhole inventory. The effectiveness of the mitigation measures and the reliability of the susceptibility and hazard maps will depend on the completeness and accuracy of the sinkhole inventories on which they are based. Sinkhole data bases preferably should include information on the following aspects: (1) Precise location of the sinkholes edges. (2) Morphometric parameters. (3) Geomorphological and hydrological context. (4) Genetic type; that is subsidence mechanisms and material affected by subsidence. (5) Chronology; this information is essential to calculate probability of occurrence values. (6) Active or inactive character. (7) Kinematical regime (gradual, episodic or mixed). (8) Current and/or long-term subsidence rates. (9) Evolution of the subsidence and its relationship with causal factors. Sinkholes are generally mapped using conventional geomorphological methods like aerial photographs, topographic maps and field surveys. However, the usefulness of these methods may be limited in areas where the geomorphic expression of sinkholes has been obliterated by natural processes or anthropogenic fill. Additionally, gaining data on some of the practical aspects indicated above requires the application of other techniques. In this contribution we present the main findings learnt through the construction of a sinkhole inventory in a terrace of the Ebro River valley (NE Spain). The study area covers around 27.5 ha and is located west of Zaragoza city. The bedrock consists of subhorizontal evaporites including gypsum, halite and glauberite. The terrace is situated at 7-10 m above the channel and the alluvium, 10-30 m thick, is composed of unconsolidated gravels and subordinate fines. Previous studies carried out in this sector of the valley reveal that: (1) Three main types of sinkholes may be differentiated: cover collapse, cover and bedrock collapse, and cover and

  10. Mitigation : Closed Basin Project (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The upcoming meeting on waterfowl mitigation for the Closed Basin Project will have several people talk about possible changes to the waterfowl mitigation program. A...

  11. Tulare Basin protection plan (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Tulare Basin Protection Plan has been initiated by The Nature Conservancy to elucidate the problems and opportunities of natural diversity protection....

  12. BASINS Framework and Features (United States)

    BASINS enables users to efficiently access nationwide environmental databases and local user-specified datasets, apply assessment and planning tools, and run a variety of proven nonpoint loading and water quality models within a single GIS format.

  13. California Air Basins (United States)

    California Department of Resources — Air ResourcesCalifornia Air Resources BoardThe following datasets are from the California Air Resources Board: * arb_california_airbasins - California Air BasinsThe...

  14. Watershed Planning Basins (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — The Watershed Planning Basin layer is part of a larger dataset contains administrative boundaries for Vermont's Agency of Natural Resources. The dataset includes...

  15. K Basin Hazard Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    PECH, S.H.


    This report describes the methodology used in conducting the K Basins Hazard Analysis, which provides the foundation for the K Basins Final Safety Analysis Report. This hazard analysis was performed in accordance with guidance provided by DOE-STD-3009-94, Preparation Guide for U. S. Department of Energy Nonreactor Nuclear Facility Safety Analysis Reports and implements the requirements of DOE Order 5480.23, Nuclear Safety Analysis Report.

  16. K Basins Hazard Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    WEBB, R.H.


    This report describes the methodology used in conducting the K Basins Hazard Analysis, which provides the foundation for the K Basins Safety Analysis Report (HNF-SD-WM-SAR-062, Rev.4). This hazard analysis was performed in accordance with guidance provided by DOE-STD-3009-94, Preparation Guide for U. S. Department of Energy Nonreactor Nuclear Facility Safety Analysis Reports and implements the requirements of DOE Order 5480.23, Nuclear Safety Analysis Report.

  17. The Aquitaine basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biteau, J.-J.; Le Marrec, A.; Le Vot, M.; Masset, J.-M.


    The Aquitaine Basin is located in the southwest of France, between the Gironde Arch in the north and the Pyrenean Mountain Chain in the south. It is a triangular-shaped domain, extending over 35000km{sup 2}. From north to south, six main geological provinces can be identified: (1) the Medoc Platform located south of the Gironde Arch; (2) the Parentis sub-basin; (3) the Landes Saddle; (4) the North Aquitaine Platform; (5) the foreland of the Pyrenees (also known as the Adour, Arzacq and Comminges sub-basins); and (6) the Pyrenean fold-and-thrust belt. Only the Parentis sub-basin, the foreland of the Pyrenean Chain and a minor part of the fold-and-thrust belt itself are proven hydrocarbon provinces. The Aquitaine Basin, in turn, is subdivided into four sub-basins - the Parentis, Adour-Arzacq, Tarbes and Comminges areas. The lozenge shape of these depocentres is related to the Hercynian tectonic framework of the Palaeozoic basement, reactivated during Early Cretaceous rifting. This rift phase aborted at the end of the Albian (prior to the development of an oceanic crust) in response to the beginning of the subduction of the Iberian plate under the European plate. During the Upper Cretaceous, continued subduction led to the creation of northwards-migrating flexural basins. In the Eocene, a paroxysmal phase of compression was responsible for the uplift of the Pyrenean Mountain Chain and for the thin-skinned deformation of the foreland basin. The resulting structuration is limited to the south by the internal core of the chain and to the north by the leading edge of the fold-and-thrust belt, where the Lacq and Meillon gas fields are located. Four main petroleum provinces have been exploited since the Second World War: (1) the oil-prone Parentis sub-basin and (2) salt ridges surrounding the Arzacq and Tarbes sub-basins; and (3) the gas-prone southern Arzacq sub-basin (including the external Pyrenean fold-and-thrust belt and the proximal foreland sub-basin) and (4

  18. Sinkholes in the salt-bearing evaporite karst of the Ebro River valley upstream of Zaragoza city (NE Spain): Geomorphological mapping and analysis as a basis for risk management (United States)

    Galve, J. P.; Gutiérrez, F.; Lucha, P.; Bonachea, J.; Remondo, J.; Cendrero, A.; Gutiérrez, M.; Gimeno, M. J.; Pardo, G.; Sánchez, J. A.


    A detailed sinkhole map has been produced in a stretch of the Ebro Valley (40.8 km 2) including the western sector of Zaragoza city (NE Spain). During the last few decades, around 70% of the original sinkhole area has been filled with anthropogenic sediments causing the disappearance of 137 ha of wetlands. The interstratal karstification of salts (halite and glauberite) and a WNW-ESE-trending joint set have played a major control in the development of sinkholes. Three morphometric types of sinkholes have been differentiated, each attributed to a specific subsidence mechanism inferred from the paleosinkholes exposed in the surrounding of Zaragoza city; sagging of bedrock and cover, collapse of bedrock and cover, and collapse of cover material related to the downward migration of particles through dissolutional conduits. Each type of sinkhole is characterised by a distinctive behaviour in terms of controlling factors, spatio-temporal distribution and kinematics, and consequently the proposed differentiation may have a practical utility. The vast majority of the subsidence damage identified in the area occurs within the boundaries of pre-existing sinkholes identifiable in old aerial photographs and topographical maps. This fact demonstrates that the application of preventive planning strategies based on detailed geomorphological maps would have allowed avoidance of most of the large financial losses caused by subsidence in the area, of the order of hundreds of thousands of euros per year.

  19. Los sistemas de producción lítica en el Epimagdaleniense y el Sauveterroide del Alto Ebro: El caso del abrigo de Atxoste (Vírgala, Álava, País Vasco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soto Sebastián, Adriana


    Full Text Available En el presente artículo se exponen los resultados principales del análisis tecnológico y de materias primas de la de los niveles VIb2 y VIb del abrigo de Atxoste (Vírgala, Álava, adscritos respectivamente al Epimagdaleniense y Sauveterroide. Los resultados del estudio evidencian cambios en las sistemáticas de talla y en la gestión de los materiales silíceos entre ambos conjuntos, que denotan una mayor intensidad en el aprovechamiento de los recursos. Esto supone una novedad con respecto a lo conocido hasta el momento. Ciertamente, la definición de un conjunto microlaminar como Sauveterroide se debe principalmente a la presencia de geométricos, generalmente triángulos y segmentos de pequeñas dimensiones, entre los proyectiles. El estudio efectuado en Atxoste evidencia, que junto a los cambios que se operan en los proyectiles, se desarrollaron otros relacionados con el proceso productivo y la gestión de los recursos líticos. Ello plantea la existencia de una realidad compleja en la evolución de las industrias microlaminares de finales del Pleistoceno e inicios del Holoceno en la cuenca del Ebro.

  20. Modifed Great Basin Extent (Buffered) (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Two different great basin perimeter files were intersected and dissolved using ArcGIS 10.2.2 to create the outer perimeter of the great basin for use modeling...

  1. Basin Hopping Graph

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kucharik, Marcel; Hofacker, Ivo; Stadler, Peter


    Motivation RNA folding is a complicated kinetic process. The minimum free energy structure provides only a static view of the most stable conformational state of the system. It is insufficient to give detailed insights into the dynamic behavior of RNAs. A sufficiently sophisticated analysis...... of the folding free energy landscape, however, can provide the relevant information. Results We introduce the basin hopping graph (BHG) as a novel coarse-grained model of folding landscapes. Each vertex of the BHG is a local minimum, which represents the corresponding basin in the landscape. Its edges connect...

  2. Ecotoxicological risk assessment of chemical pollution in four Iberian river basins and its relationship with the aquatic macroinvertebrate community status. (United States)

    Kuzmanović, Maja; López-Doval, Julio C; De Castro-Català, Núria; Guasch, Helena; Petrović, Mira; Muñoz, Isabel; Ginebreda, Antoni; Barceló, Damià


    Ecotoxicological risk assessment of chemical pollution in four Iberian river basins (Llobregat, Ebro, Júcar and Guadalquivir) was performed. The data set included more than 200 emerging and priority compounds measured at 77 sampling sites along four river basins studied. The toxic units (TU) approach was used to assess the risk of individual compounds and the concentration addition model (CA) to assess the site specific risk. Link between chemical pollution and aquatic macroinvertebrate communities in situ was examined by using four biological indexes; SPEAR ("Species at Risk Index") as the indicator of decline of sensitive species in relation to general organic (SPEARorganic) and pesticides (SPEARpesticides) pollution; and Shannon and Margalef biodiversity indexes. The results of the study suggested that organic chemicals posed the risk of acute effects at 42% of the sampling sites and the risk of chronic effects at all the sites. Metals posed the acute risk at 44% of the sites. The main drivers of the risk were mainly pesticides and metals. However, several emerging contaminants (e.g. the antidepressant drug sertraline and the disinfectant triclosan) were contributing to the chronic effects risk. When risk associated with metals and organic chemicals was compared, the latter dominated in 2010, mainly due to the presence of highly toxic pesticides, while metals did in 2011. Compounds that are not regulated on the European level were posing the risk of chronic effects at 23% of the sites. The decline of sensitive macroinvertebrate taxa expressed in terms of SPEAR index was correlated with the increase of toxic stress related to organic compounds Biodiversity indexes were negatively correlated with the metals and the urban land use type in the catchment. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  3. The freshwater fish fauna history between Rhine and Ebro: general considerations and comments from on-going developments in fish taxonomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henri Persat


    Full Text Available Because of its position between Central Europe and the Iberian Peninsula, French territory is an obligatory expansion route for their respective continental faunas, freshwater ones included. The twin Rhine-Rhone river drainage basins make an obvious link between both Central and Northern Europe and the South-Western Europe. But how fish might have dispersed along the series of rivers of the Western side of France (Seine, Loire, Charente, Garonne and Adour is less evident, as the ice ages have had a large impact on the pre-existing faunas, before human intervention blurred phylogeographic patterns, either indirectly with trans-watershed canals, or directly with purposeful translocations. What might have survived during the last glacial times is a key question in terms of management and conservation of the local fish biodiversity. Unfortunately, this diversity had been neglected or underappreciated in France until modern phylogeographic and population genetic research provided new and enlightening insights into interspecific and intraspecific variation. Thus, after one century of scientific starvation, French territory recently "gained" a series of novel species in various genera, such as Gobio, Cottus, Squalius, Leuciscus, Phoxinus, and Esox, waiting for more on going "acquisitions" in a near future. These novelties trace a quite different biogeographic landscape of what was formerly supposed to be uniform. Each major river basin retains traces of a more or less recent evolutionary history to put back into the succession of hydrographic and climatic events since the first major invasion, the entrance of cyprinids in Europe during the Oligocene era initiated by the coalescence of what was formerly only an archipelago. The timing of dispersion and on-site speciation will be discussed from the examples provided by the presently investigated genera according to evidence or hypotheses on river connections, sea-level fluctuations and climatic events.


    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    selected satellite lakes and Mara River in Lake Victoria basin, during wet and dry seasons in. 2002. Samples ... The wet season recorded higher biomass in all satellite lakes than during the dry season (t = 2.476, DF ..... communication. Urbana ...

  5. Single-basined choice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bossert, W.; Peters, H.J.M.


    Single-basined preferences generalize single-dipped preferences by allowing for multiple worst elements. These preferences have played an important role in areas such as voting, strategy-proofness and matching problems. We examine the notion of single-basinedness in a choice-theoretic setting. In co

  6. Accounting for hydro-climatic and water use variability in the assessment of past and future water balance at the basin scale (United States)

    Fabre, J.; Ruelland, D.; Dezetter, A.; Grouillet, B.


    This study assesses water stress by 2050 in river basins facing increasing human and climatic pressures, by comparing the impacts of various combinations of possible future socio-economic and climate trends. A modelling framework integrating human and hydro-climatic dynamics and accounting for interactions between resource and demand at a 10-day time step was developed and applied in two basins of different sizes and with contrasted water uses: the Herault (2500 km2, France) and the Ebro (85 000 km2, Spain) basins. Natural streamflow was evaluated using a conceptual hydrological model (GR4j). A demand-driven reservoir management model was designed to account for streamflow regulations from the main dams. Urban water demand was estimated from time series of population and monthly unit water consumption data. Agricultural water demand was computed from time series of irrigated area, crop and soil data, and climate forcing. Indicators comparing water supply to demand at strategic resource and demand nodes were computed. This framework was successfully calibrated and validated under non-stationary human and hydro-climatic conditions over the last 40 years before being applied under four combinations of climatic and water use scenarios to differentiate the impacts of climate- and human-induced changes on streamflow and water balance. Climate simulations from the CMIP5 exercise were used to generate 18 climate scenarios at the 2050 horizon. A baseline water use scenario for 2050 was designed based on demographic and local socio-economic trends. Results showed that projected water uses are not sustainable under climate change scenarios.

  7. Bransfield Basin and Cordilleran Orogenesis (United States)

    Dalziel, I. W.; Austin, J. A.; Barker, D. H.; Christensen, G. L.


    Tectonic uplift of the Andean Cordillera was initiated in the mid-Cretaceous with inversion of a composite marginal basin along 7500 km of the continental margin of South America, from Peru to Tierra del Fuego and the North Scotia Ridge. In the southernmost Andes, from 50-56 degrees S, the quasi-oceanic floor of this basin is preserved in the obducted ophiolitic rocks of the Rocas Verdes (Green Rocks) basin. We suggest that the basin beneath Bransfield Strait, 61-64 degrees S, separating the South Shetland Islands from the Antarctic Peninsula, constitutes a modern analog for the Rocas Verdes basin. Marine geophysical studies of Bransfield basin have been undertaken over the past 12 years by the Institute for Geophysics, University of Texas at Austin, under the auspices of the Ocean Sciences Division and United States Antarctic Program, National Science Foundation. These studies have elucidated the structure and evolution of Bransfield basin for comparison with the Rocas Verdes basin, with a view to eventual forward modeling of the evolution of a hypothetical cordilleran orogen by compression and inversion of the basin. These are the processes that can be observed in the tectonic transformation of the Rocas Verdes basin into the southernmost Andean cordillera, as South America moved rapidly westward in an Atlantic-Indian ocean hot-spot reference frame during the mid-Cretaceous. Multi-channel reflection seismic data from the Bransfield basin reveal an asymmetric structural architecture characterized by steeply-dipping normal faults flanking the South Shetlands island arc and gently dipping listric normal faults along the Antarctic Peninsula margin. Normal fault polarity reversals appear to be related to distributed loci of magmatic activity within the basin. This architecture is remarkably similar to that deduced from field structural studies of the Rocas Verdes basin. Notably, the oceanward-dipping, low angle normal faults along the Antarctic Peninsula margin

  8. Frontier petroleum basins of Colombia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keith, J.F. Jr.; Perez, V.E.


    The frontier basins of Colombia with hydrocarbon potential are numerous, have varying geological histories, and are in different stages of exploration development. In this paper, sedimentary or structural basins are classified as frontier petroleum basins if commercial discoveries of hydrocarbons are lacking, if the basin has not attained a high degree of exploration development, or if a new play concept has been perceived or developed for a portion of a mature exploration basin. Using these criteria for classification, the authors discuss the Cauca-Patia Choco-Pacifico, and Lower Magdalena basin complexes; the Cordillera Oriental foreland basin; and the Cesar-Rancheria, Sabana, and Amazonas basins. A comprehensive geological and structural setting of each of these frontier basins will be presented. The depositional and tectonic evolution of the basins will be highlighted, and the play concepts for each will be inventoried, catalogued, and categorized as to whether they are theoretical or established. The discussion of the available plays in each of these basins will include the main play concept elements of reservoirs traps, seals, source rocks, maturation, and timing. When detailed data permit, the reservoir and trap geometry will be presented.

  9. Natural frequency of regular basins (United States)

    Tjandra, Sugih S.; Pudjaprasetya, S. R.


    Similar to the vibration of a guitar string or an elastic membrane, water waves in an enclosed basin undergo standing oscillatory waves, also known as seiches. The resonant (eigen) periods of seiches are determined by water depth and geometry of the basin. For regular basins, explicit formulas are available. Resonance occurs when the dominant frequency of external force matches the eigen frequency of the basin. In this paper, we implement the conservative finite volume scheme to 2D shallow water equation to simulate resonance in closed basins. Further, we would like to use this scheme and utilizing energy spectra of the recorded signal to extract resonant periods of arbitrary basins. But here we first test the procedure for getting resonant periods of a square closed basin. The numerical resonant periods that we obtain are comparable with those from analytical formulas.

  10. Identification of compounds bound to suspended solids causing sub-lethal toxic effects in Daphnia magna. A field study on re-suspended particles during river floods in Ebro River. (United States)

    Rivetti, Claudia; Gómez-Canela, Cristian; Lacorte, Silvia; Díez, Sergi; Lázaro, Wilkinson L; Barata, Carlos


    Identifying chemicals causing adverse effects in organisms present in water remains a challenge in environmental risk assessment. This study aimed to assess and identify toxic compounds bound to suspended solids re-suspended during a prolonged period of flushing flows in the lower part of Ebro River (NE, Spain). This area is contaminated with high amounts of organochlorine and mercury sediment wastes. Chemical characterization of suspended material was performed by solid phase extraction using a battery of non-polar and polar solvents and analyzed by GC-MS/MS and LC-MS/MS. Mercury content was also determined for all sites. Post-exposure feeding rates of Daphnia magna were used to assess toxic effects of whole and filtered water samples and of re-constituted laboratory water with re-suspended solid fractions. Organochlorine and mercury residues in the water samples increased from upstream to downstream locations. Conversely, toxic effects were greater at the upstream site than downstream of the superfund Flix reservoir. A further analysis of the suspended solid fraction identified a toxic component eluted within the 80:20 methanol:water fraction. Characterization of that toxic component fraction by LC-MS/MS identified the phytotoxin anatoxin-a, whose residue levels were correlated with observed feeding inhibition responses. Further feeding inhibition assays conducted in the lab using anatoxin-a produced from Planktothrix agardhii, a filamentous cyanobacteria, confirmed field results. This study provides evidence that in real field situation measured contaminant residues do not always agree with toxic effects. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Basin Hopping Graph

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kucharik, Marcel; Hofacker, Ivo; Stadler, Peter


    basins when the direct transitions between them are “energetically favorable”. Edge weights endcode the corresponding saddle heights and thus measure the difficulties of these favorable transitions. BHGs can be approximated accurately and efficiently for RNA molecules well beyond the length range...... accessible to enumerative algorithms. Availability The algorithms described here are implemented in C++ as standalone programs. Its source code and supplemental material can be freely downloaded from

  12. Intracontinental basins and strong earthquakes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓起东; 高孟潭; 赵新平; 吴建春


    The September 17, 1303 Hongtong M=8 earthquake occurred in Linfen basin of Shanxi down-faulted basin zone. It is the first recorded M=8 earthquake since the Chinese historical seismic records had started and is a great earthquake occurring in the active intracontinental basin. We had held a Meeting of the 700th Anniversary of the 1303 Hongtong M=8 Earthquake in Shanxi and a Symposium on Intracontinental Basins and Strong Earthquakes in Taiyuan City of Shanxi Province on September 17~18, 2003. The articles presented on the symposium discussed the relationships between active intracontinental basins of different properties, developed in different regions, including tensional graben and semi-graben basins in tensile tectonic regions, compression-depression basins and foreland basins in compressive tectonic regions and pull-apart basins in strike-slip tectonic zones, and strong earthquakes in China. In this article we make a brief summary of some problems. The articles published in this special issue are a part of the articles presented on the symposium.

  13. El Castellet de Banyoles (Tivissa: Una ciudad ibérica en el curso inferior del río Ebro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanmartí, Joan


    Full Text Available While recurrently cited in the specialized bibliography, until recent years Castellet de Banyoles was only really known by the findings of monetary hoards and some luxury ritual vases, in addition to the Hellenistic-type pentagonal towers flanking the site entrance. Excavation work since 1998 has enabled precise dating of the first settlement between the last third of the 3rd century BC and early 2nd century BC, and has revealed the existence at that time of a Punic-type compartments wall, as well as an extensive dwelling area, which probably corresponds to a specific gens. Houses of different types and sizes are attested, as well as a possible sanctuary. With an area of 4.5 ha, Castellet de Banyoles is a small city that brought together the entire population of the Mora basin, following a mononuclear model unprecedented in the northern Iberian world. This is likely explained by strategic reasons in a turbulent historical context due to the Barcid expansion in the Iberian Peninsula and the Second Punic War.Aunque es un yacimiento recurrentemente mencionado en la bibliografía especializada, hasta hace pocos años el Castellet de Banyoles sólo era realmente conocido por los hallazgos monetarios y de elementos suntuarios de carácter ritual, a parte de las torres pentagonales de tipo helenístico que flanquean su puerta. Los trabajos realizados desde 1998 han permitido precisar la datación del primer asentamiento entre el último tercio del siglo III a.C. y principios del II a.C., y han mostrado la existencia en ese momento de una muralla de compartimentos de tipo púnico. También han traído a luz un extenso sector de hábitat —que probablemente corresponde a un grupo gentilicio—, con casas de distintos tipos y tamaños, y un posible santuario. Con una superficie de 4,5 ha, se trata de una pequeña ciudad que agrupaba toda la población de la hoya de Móra, siguiendo un modelo mononuclear inédito en el mundo ibérico septentrional, y que

  14. Estancia Basin dynamic water budget.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, Richard P.


    The Estancia Basin lies about 30 miles to the east of Albuquerque, NM. It is a closed basin in terms of surface water and is somewhat isolated in terms of groundwater. Historically, the primary natural outlet for both surface water and groundwater has been evaporation from the salt lakes in the southeastern portion of the basin. There are no significant watercourses that flow into this basin and groundwater recharge is minimal. During the 20th Century, agriculture grew to become the major user of groundwater in the basin. Significant declines in groundwater levels have accompanied this agricultural use. Domestic and municipal use of the basin groundwater is increasing as Albuquerque population continues to spill eastward into the basin, but this use is projected to be less than 1% of agricultural use well into the 21st Century. This Water Budget model keeps track of the water balance within the basin. The model considers the amount of water entering the basin and leaving the basin. Since there is no significant surface water component within this basin, the balance of water in the groundwater aquifer constitutes the primary component of this balance. Inflow is based on assumptions for recharge made by earlier researchers. Outflow from the basin is the summation of the depletion from all basin water uses. The model user can control future water use within the basin via slider bars that set values for population growth, water system per-capita use, agricultural acreage, and the types of agricultural diversion. The user can also adjust recharge and natural discharge within the limits of uncertainty for those parameters. The model runs for 100 years beginning in 1940 and ending in 2040. During the first 55 years model results can be compared to historical data and estimates of groundwater use. The last 45 years are predictive. The model was calibrated to match to New Mexico Office of State Engineer (NMOSE) estimates of aquifer storage during the historical period by

  15. Synthesis and Characterization of the Rubidium Thiophosphate Rb 6 (PS 5 )(P 2 S 10 ) and the Rubidium Silver Thiophosphates Rb 2 AgPS 4 , RbAg 5 (PS 4 ) 2 and Rb 3 Ag 9 (PS 4 ) 4

    KAUST Repository

    Alahmary, Fatimah S.


    The metal thiophosphates Rb2AgPS4 (2), RbAg5(PS4)2 (3), and Rb3Ag9(PS4)4 (4) were synthesized by stoichiometric reactions, whereas Rb6(PS5)(P2S10) (1) was prepared with excess amount of sulfur. The compounds crystallize as follows: 1 monoclinic, P21/c (no. 14), a = 17.0123(7) Å, b = 6.9102(2) Å, c = 23.179(1) Å, β = 94.399(4)°; 2 triclinic, P ¯ (no. 2), a = 6.600(1) Å, b = 6.856(1) Å, c = 10.943(3) Å, α = 95.150(2)°, β = 107.338(2)°, γ = 111.383(2)°; 3 orthorhombic, Pbca (no. 61), a = 12.607(1) Å, b = 12.612(1) Å, c = 17.759(2) Å; 4 orthorhombic, Pbcm (no. 57), a = 6.3481(2) Å, b = 12.5782(4) Å, c = 35.975(1) Å. The crystal structures contain discrete units, chains, and 3D polyanionic frameworks composed of PS4 tetrahedral units arranged and connected in different manner. Compounds 1-3 melt congruently, whereas incongruent melting behavior was observed for compound 4. 1-4 are semiconductors with bandgaps between 2.3 and 2.6 eV and thermally stable up to 450 °C in an inert atmosphere. Copyright © 2016 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. K-Basins design guidelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roe, N.R.; Mills, W.C.


    The purpose of the design guidelines is to enable SNF and K Basin personnel to complete fuel and sludge removal, and basin water mitigation by providing engineering guidance for equipment design for the fuel basin, facility modifications (upgrades), remote tools, and new processes. It is not intended to be a purchase order reference for vendors. The document identifies materials, methods, and components that work at K Basins; it also Provides design input and a technical review process to facilitate project interfaces with operations in K Basins. This document is intended to compliment other engineering documentation used at K Basins and throughout the Spent Nuclear Fuel Project. Significant provisions, which are incorporated, include portions of the following: General Design Criteria (DOE 1989), Standard Engineering Practices (WHC-CM-6-1), Engineering Practices Guidelines (WHC 1994b), Hanford Plant Standards (DOE-RL 1989), Safety Analysis Manual (WHC-CM-4-46), and Radiological Design Guide (WHC 1994f). Documents (requirements) essential to the engineering design projects at K Basins are referenced in the guidelines.

  17. Drainage and reclamation of salt-affected soils in the bardenas area, Spain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martinez Beltran, J.


    Chapter 1The Ebro basin is situated in north-eastern Spain and forms a geographic unit bounded by high mountains. The Bardenas area lies in the Ebro basin and forms part of the Bardenas Alto - Aragón irrigation scheme, which was designed to make use of the surface water resources from the Pyrenees.C

  18. Geologic Basin Boundaries (Basins_GHGRP) GIS Layer (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This is a coverage shapefile of geologic basin boundaries which are used by EPA's Greenhouse Gas Reporting Program. For onshore production, the "facility" includes...

  19. The Amazon basin in transition. (United States)

    Davidson, Eric A; de Araújo, Alessandro C; Artaxo, Paulo; Balch, Jennifer K; Brown, I Foster; C Bustamante, Mercedes M; Coe, Michael T; DeFries, Ruth S; Keller, Michael; Longo, Marcos; Munger, J William; Schroeder, Wilfrid; Soares-Filho, Britaldo S; Souza, Carlos M; Wofsy, Steven C


    Agricultural expansion and climate variability have become important agents of disturbance in the Amazon basin. Recent studies have demonstrated considerable resilience of Amazonian forests to moderate annual drought, but they also show that interactions between deforestation, fire and drought potentially lead to losses of carbon storage and changes in regional precipitation patterns and river discharge. Although the basin-wide impacts of land use and drought may not yet surpass the magnitude of natural variability of hydrologic and biogeochemical cycles, there are some signs of a transition to a disturbance-dominated regime. These signs include changing energy and water cycles in the southern and eastern portions of the Amazon basin.

  20. Genetic and phenoptypic differentiation of zebra mussel populations colonizing Spanish river basins. (United States)

    Navarro, Anna; Sánchez-Fontenla, Javier; Cordero, David; Faria, Melisa; Peña, Juan B; Saavedra, Carlos; Blázquez, Mercedes; Ruíz, Olga; Ureña, Rocío; Torreblanca, Amparo; Barata, Carlos; Piña, Benjamin


    Zebra mussel populations in Ebro and Mijares Rivers (northern Spain) were analyzed to study the mechanisms by which this aquatic species deals with pollution. Variability analyses of mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase I gene and of one nuclear microsatellite were performed for ten populations from the Ebro River and one from the Mijares River. Comparison of these results with those from five additional European populations indicated that the Spanish populations constitute a homogeneous gene pool. Transcriptome analyses of gill samples from a subset of the Spanish populations showed changes on expression levels that correlated with variations in general fitness and loads of heavy metals. The less polluted upstream Ebro populations showed overexpression of mitochondrial and cell proliferation-related genes compared to the more polluted, downstream Ebro populations. Our data indicate that heavy metals were the main factors explaining these transcriptomic patterns, and that zebra mussel is resilient to pollutants (like mercury and organochlorine compounds) proved to be extremely toxic to vertebrates. We propose that zebra mussel populations sharing a common gene pool may acclimate to different levels and forms of pollution through modulations in their transcriptomic profile, although direct selection on genes showing differential expression patterns cannot be ruled out.

  1. Trip report Rainwater Basin Nebraska (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report is a summary a trip to Rainwater Basin Wetland Management District in 1991, and focuses on the hydrology and soil habitat types. It is part of the...

  2. Allegheny County Basin Outlines Map (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — This basins dataset was created to initiate regional watershed approaches with respect to sewer rehabilitation. If viewing this description on the Western...

  3. 77 FR 45653 - Yakima River Basin Conservation Advisory Group; Yakima River Basin Water Enhancement Project... (United States)


    ... Bureau of Reclamation Yakima River Basin Conservation Advisory Group; Yakima River Basin Water... on the structure, implementation, and oversight of the Yakima River Basin Water Conservation Program... of the Water Conservation Program, including the applicable water conservation guidelines of...

  4. A novel assistance data processing method for AGPS location system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LEI Jian-jun; XIA Ying; Haeyoung Bae


    A method for efficiently transmitting location assistance information to an MS (mobile station) over a control channel with minimal impact on the capacity of the control channel. A location server provides a difference between satellite positions that have been computed using Almanac data and Ephemeris data. Sending only the difference between the positions and satellite clock corrections computed using the two different data types. The total amount of information to be transmitted to a MS is significantly reduced. Furthermore, by providing rate of change information, the method allows the location assistance information to remain valid for a relatively long time after it has been received by the MS.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert Caldwell


    Vast quantities of natural gas are entrapped within various tight formations in the Rocky Mountain area. This report seeks to quantify what proportion of that resource can be considered recoverable under today's technological and economic conditions and discusses factors controlling recovery. The ultimate goal of this project is to encourage development of tight gas reserves by industry through reducing the technical and economic risks of locating, drilling and completing commercial tight gas wells. This report is the fourth in a series and focuses on the Wind River Basin located in west central Wyoming. The first three reports presented analyses of the tight gas reserves and resources in the Greater Green River Basin (Scotia, 1993), Piceance Basin (Scotia, 1995) and the Uinta Basin (Scotia, 1995). Since each report is a stand-alone document, duplication of language will exist where common aspects are discussed. This study, and the previous three, describe basin-centered gas deposits (Masters, 1979) which contain vast quantities of natural gas entrapped in low permeability (tight), overpressured sandstones occupying a central basin location. Such deposits are generally continuous and are not conventionally trapped by a structural or stratigraphic seal. Rather, the tight character of the reservoirs prevents rapid migration of the gas, and where rates of gas generation exceed rates of escape, an overpressured basin-centered gas deposit results (Spencer, 1987). Since the temperature is a primary controlling factor for the onset and rate of gas generation, these deposits exist in the deeper, central parts of a basin where temperatures generally exceed 200 F and drill depths exceed 8,000 feet. The abbreviation OPT (overpressured tight) is used when referring to sandstone reservoirs that comprise the basin-centered gas deposit. Because the gas resources trapped in this setting are so large, they represent an important source of future gas supply, prompting studies

  6. Water Accounting from Ungauged Basins (United States)

    Bastiaanssen, W. G.; Savenije, H.


    Water scarcity is increasing globally. This requires a more accurate management of the water resources at river basin scale and understanding of withdrawals and return flows; both naturally and man-induced. Many basins and their tributaries are, however, ungauged or poorly gauged. This hampers sound planning and monitoring processes. While certain countries have developed clear guidelines and policies on data observatories and data sharing, other countries and their basin organization still have to start on developing data democracies. Water accounting quantifies flows, fluxes, stocks and consumptive use pertaining to every land use class in a river basin. The objective is to derive a knowledge base with certain minimum information that facilitates decision making. Water Accounting Plus (WA+) is a new method for water resources assessment reporting ( While the PUB framework has yielded several deterministic models for flow prediction, WA+ utilizes remote sensing data of rainfall, evaporation (including soil, water, vegetation and interception evaporation), soil moisture, water levels, land use and biomass production. Examples will be demonstrated that show how remote sensing and hydrological models can be smartly integrated for generating all the required input data into WA+. A standard water accounting system for all basins in the world - with a special emphasis on data scarce regions - is under development. First results of using remote sensing measurements and hydrological modeling as an alternative to expensive field data sets, will be presented and discussed.

  7. Exploration potential of offshore northern California basins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bachman, S.B.; Crouch, J.K.


    A series of exploratory wells was drilled in the northern California offshore basins in the 1960s following leasing of federal tracts off northern California, Oregon, and Washington. The drilling, although encountering numerous oil shows, was considered at the time to indicate low prospectivity in an area that extended as far south as the offshore Santa Maria basin. However, subsequent major discoveries in this decade in the offshore Santa Maria basin, such as the Point Arguello field, indicate that these offshore basins may be highly prospective exploration targets. Many of the key features of Monterey production in central and southern California are also present in the offshore basins of northern California. A new 5-year leasing plan has scheduled leasing in the northern California OCS starting in early 1989. The first basins on the schedule, the Point Arena and Eel River basins, differ in some respects. The Point Arena basin is more typical of a Monterey basin, with the potential for fractured chert reservoirs and organic-rich sections, deep burial of basinal sections to enhance the generation of higher gravity oils, and complex folding and faulting. The Eel River basin is more clastic-rich in its gas-producing, onshore extension. Key questions in the Eel River basin include whether the offshore, more distal stratigraphy will include Monterey-like biogenic sediments, and whether the basin has oil potential in addition to its proven gas potential. The Outer Santa Cruz basin shares a similar stratigraphy, structure, and hydrocarbon potential with the Point Arena basin. The Santa Cruz-Bodega basin, also with a similar stratigraphy, may have less exploration potential because erosion has thinned the Monterey section in parts of the basin.

  8. Geology, exploration status of Uruguay's sedimentary basins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goso, C.; Santa Ana, H. de (Administracion Nacional de Combustibles, Alcohol y Portland (Uruguay))


    This article attempts to present the geological characteristics and tectonic and sedimentary evolution of Uruguayan basins and the extent to which they have been explored. Uruguay is on the Atlantic coast of South America. The country covers about 318,000 sq km, including offshore and onshore territories corresponding to more than 65% of the various sedimentary basins. Four basins underlie the country: the Norte basin, the Santa Lucia basin, the offshore Punta del Este basin, and the offshore-onshore Pelotas-Merin basin. The Norte basin is a Paleozoic basin while the others are Mesozoic basins. Each basin has been explored to a different extent, as this paper explains.

  9. Testing for Basins of Wada. (United States)

    Daza, Alvar; Wagemakers, Alexandre; Sanjuán, Miguel A F; Yorke, James A


    Nonlinear systems often give rise to fractal boundaries in phase space, hindering predictability. When a single boundary separates three or more different basins of attraction, we say that the set of basins has the Wada property and initial conditions near that boundary are even more unpredictable. Many physical systems of interest with this topological property appear in the literature. However, so far the only approach to study Wada basins has been restricted to two-dimensional phase spaces. Here we report a simple algorithm whose purpose is to look for the Wada property in a given dynamical system. Another benefit of this procedure is the possibility to classify and study intermediate situations known as partially Wada boundaries.

  10. The Central European Permian Basins; Rheological and structural controls on basin history and on inter-basin connectivity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, Jeroen; van Wees, Jan-Diederik; Cloetingh, Sierd


    We analyse the relative importance of the major crustal-scale fault zones and crustal architecture in controlling basin formation, deformation and the structural connections between basins. The North and South Permian Basins of Central Europe are usually defined by the extend of Rotliegend sedimenta

  11. WATSTORE Stream Flow Basin Characteristics File (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Stream Flow Basin Characteristics file contains information about the drainage basins of selected USGS gaging stations. Data elements of this file were converted...

  12. Origin of the earth's ocean basins (United States)

    Frey, H.


    The earth's original ocean basins are proposed to be mare-type basins produced 4 billion y.a. by the flux of asteroid-sized objects responsible for the lunar mare basins. Scaling upward from the observed number of lunar basins for the greater capture cross-section and impact velocity of the earth indicates that at least 50% of an original global crust would have been converted to basin topography. These basins were flooded by basaltic liquids in times short compared to the isostatic adjustment time for the basin. The modern crustal dichotomy (60% oceanic, 40% continental crust) was established early in the history of the earth, making possible the later onset of plate tectonic processes. These later processes have subsequently reworked, in several cycles, principally the oceanic parts of the earth's crust, changing the configuration of the continents in the process. Ocean basins (and oceans themselves) may be rare occurrences on planets in other star systems.

  13. Vertical Analysis of Martian Drainage Basins (United States)

    Stepinski, T. F.; OHara, W. J.


    We have performed a vertical analysis of drainage basins on Mars that were computationally extracted from DEMs based on the MOLA data. Longitudinal profiles of main streams are calculated and the slope-area relation is established for 20 basins coming from assorted martian locations. An identical analysis is done for 19 terrestrial river basins. Our results show that, in comparison to terrestrial basins, martian basins have more linear longitudinal profiles, more frequent existence of knickpoints, predominance of asymmetric location of the main stream in the basin, and smaller values of concavity exponent. This suggests a limited role for surface runoff on the global scale. However, two basins extracted from the slopes of martian volcanoes show a strong similarity to terrestrial basins, indicating a possible local role for the process of surface runoff.

  14. H-Area Seepage Basins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stejskal, G.


    During the third quarter of 1990 the wells which make up the H-Area Seepage Basins (H-HWMF) monitoring network were sampled. Laboratory analyses were performed to measure levels of hazardous constituents, indicator parameters, tritium, nonvolatile beta, and gross alpha. A Gas Chromatograph Mass Spectrometer (GCMS) scan was performed on all wells sampled to determine any hazardous organic constituents present in the groundwater. The primary contaminants observed at wells monitoring the H-Area Seepage Basins are tritium, nitrate, mercury, gross alpha, nonvolatile beta, trichloroethylene (TCE), tetrachloroethylene, lead, cadmium, arsenic, and total radium.

  15. Modeling and Inversion of three-dimensional crustal structures beneath the Pyrenees and their foreland basins based upon geological, gravimetric and seismological data (United States)

    Spangenberg, Hannah; Chevrot, Sébastien; Courrioux, Gabriel; Guillen, Antonio


    Our goal is to obtain a three-dimensional (3D) model of mass density and seismic velocities beneath the Pyrenees and their foreland basins (Aquitaine and Ebro basins), which accounts for all the geological and geophysical information available for that region. This model covers the whole mountain range going from the Atlantic Ocean to the Mediterranean Sea, and from the Iberian range to the Massif Central. The model is described by different units: the lower, middle, and upper crusts, the accretionary prism, and the consolidated and unconsolidated sediment layers. Furthermore, a sub-continental, serpentinized European mantle is introduced to describe the exhumed mantle bodies which are responsible for the positive Bouguer gravity anomalies in the western Pyrenees. We build a first 3D model using all the geological information: drill-hole surveys, seismic sections, and the geological map. We use the potential field method implemented in Geomodeler to interpolate these geological data. However, these data are too sparse to build a model that explains seismic travel times or gravimetric data, especially the Labourd and the St. Gaudens Bouguer gravity anomalies. In addition, inconsistencies between the different data sets exist. We thus add by trial and error additional data points, comparing modeled and observed Bouguer gravimetric anomalies. The result of this procedure is a 3D geological model that respects the geological data and explains the measured Bouguer gravimetric anomalies. In a second step, we use this model to determine the average density and seismic velocities inside each geological unit assuming uniform layers. To constrain the seismic velocities we use travel time picks extracted from the bulletin of the Pyrenean seismicity released by the Observatoire Midi Pyrenées. In a third step, we use this 3D a priori model in a Monte Carlo inversion to invert jointly gravimetric data and seismic travel times from the bulletin. This probabilistic approach

  16. Supplementary information on K-Basin sludges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    Three previous documents in this series have been published covering the analysis of: K East Basin Floor and Pit Sludge, K East Basin Canister Sludge, and K West Basin Canister Sludge. Since their publication, additional data have been acquired and analyses performed. It is the purpose of this volume to summarize the additional insights gained in the interim time period.

  17. BASIN: Beowulf Analysis Symbolic INterface (United States)

    Vesperini, Enrico; Goldberg, David M.; McMillan, Stephen L. W.; Dura, James; Jones, Douglas


    BASIN (Beowulf Analysis Symbolic INterface) is a flexible, integrated suite of tools for multiuser parallel data analysis and visualization that allows researchers to harness the power of Beowulf PC clusters and multi-processor machines without necessarily being experts in parallel programming. It also includes general tools for data distribution and parallel operations on distributed data for developing libraries for specific tasks.

  18. Genetic classification of petroleum basins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Demaison, G.; Huizinga, B.J.


    Rather than relying on a descriptive geologic approach, this genetic classification is based on the universal laws that control processes of petroleum formation, migration, and entrapment. Petroleum basins or systems are defined as dynamic petroleum-generating and concentrating physico-chemical systems functioning on a geologic space and time scale. A petroleum system results from the combination of a generative subsystem (or hydrocarbon kitchen), essentially controlled by chemical processes, and a migration-entrapment subsystem, controlled by physical processes. The generative subsystem provides a certain supply of petroleum to the basin during a given geologic time span. The migration-entrapment subsystem receives petroleum and distributes it in a manner that can lead either to dispersion and loss or to concentration of the regional charge into economic accumulations. The authors classification scheme for petroleum basins rests on a simple working nomenclature consisting of the following qualifiers: (1) charge factor: undercharged, normally charged, or supercharged, (2) migration drainage factor: vertically drained or laterally drained, and (3) entrapment factor: low impedance or high impedance. Examples chosen from an extensive roster of documented petroleum basins are reviewed to explain the proposed classification.

  19. Basin bifurcation in quasiperiodically forced systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feudel, U.; Witt, A.; Grebogi, C. [Institut fuer Physik, Universitaet Potsdam, Am Neuen Palais, PF 601553, D-14415, Potsdam (Germany); Lai, Y. [Departments of Physics and Astronomy and of Mathematics, The University of Kansas, Lawrence, Kansas 66045 (United States); Grebogi, C. [Institute for Plasma Research, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20742 (United States)


    In this paper we study quasiperiodically forced systems exhibiting fractal and Wada basin boundaries. Specifically, by utilizing a class of representative systems, we analyze the dynamical origin of such basin boundaries and we characterize them. Furthermore, we find that basin boundaries in a quasiperiodically driven system can undergo a unique type of bifurcation in which isolated {open_quotes}islands{close_quotes} of basins of attraction are created as a system parameter changes. The mechanism for this type of basin boundary bifurcation is elucidated. {copyright} {ital 1998} {ital The American Physical Society}

  20. Successor Characteristics of the Mesozoic and Cenozoic Songliao Basins

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Zhongquan; Timothy KUSKY; YING Danlin; GUO Xiaoyu; LI Hongkui


    The Songliao basin is a complex successor basin that was initiated in the Mesozoic and experienced multiple periods of reactivation. Based on seismic and drilling data, as well as regional geologic research, we suggest that the Songliao basin contains several different successor basins resting on top of Carboniferous-Permian folded strata forming the basement to the Songliao basin. These basins include the Triassic-Mid Jurassic Paleo-foreland basin, the Late Jurassic-Early Cretaceous downfaulted basin, and an early Cretaceous depressed basin (since the Denglouku Group). This paper presents a systematic study of the basin-mountain interactions, and reveals that there are different types of prototype basin at different geologic times. These prototype basins sequentially superimposed and formed the large Songliao basin. Discovery of the Triassic-early Middle Jurassic paleo-foreland basin fills a Triassic-early Middle Jurassic gap in the geologic history of the Songliao basin. The paleoforeland basin, downfaulted basin, and depressed thermal subsidence basin all together represent the whole Mesozoic-Cenozoic geologic history and deformation of the Songliao basin. Discovery of the Triassic-early Middle Jurassic paleo-foreland basin plays an important role both for deep natural gas exploration and the study of basin-mountain coupling in north China and eastern China in general. This example gives dramatic evidence that we should give much more attention to the polyphase tectonic evolution of related basins for the next phase of exploration and study.

  1. Geodynamics of the Sivas Basin (Turkey): from a forearc basin to a retroarc foreland basin (United States)

    Legeay, Etienne; Ringenbach, Jean-Claude; Kergaravat, Charlie; Callot, Jean-Paul; Mohn, Geoffroy; Kavak, Kaan


    Anatolia records the consumption of several oceanic basins, from the Northern Neotethys domain, by north-dipping subduction until the end of Mesozoic. The associated obduction event occurred during Campanian, from North to South and from Greece to Oman, leading to the emplacement of ophiolite thrust sheets and associated ophiolitic mélange. In particular, the Sivas Basin in Eastern Anatolia is located at the boundary between the Kırsehir block to the East, Pontide arc to the North and Tauride Platform to the South, sutured by ophiolitic belts. The Sivas Basin formed a Tertiary fold-and-thrust belt, which exhibits mainly north verging thrust in Paleogene deposits, and South verging thrust in oligo-miocene sequence. To understand the northern verging thrust above south verging obduction, it is necessary to zoom out of the basin, and include a set of processes that affect the eastern Anatolia. This study aims to characterize the structural and sedimentary evolution of the Sivas Basin, based on a fieldwork approach, coupled to the interpretation of subsurface data, thermochronology and biostratigraphy. The Sivas Basin was initiated in a forearc setting relatively to the subduction of the Inner-Tauride Ocean while the associated ophiolites are obducted onto the northern passive margin of the Tauride margin. Early Maastrichtian to Paleocene deposits are represented by carbonate platforms located on ophiolitic highs, passing to turbidites and olistostomes toward the North. The early Eocene sediments, mainly composed of ophiolitic clasts, are deposited on a regional unconformity marked along the southern margin of the basin by incisions in response to the emergence of north-verging thrust. The middle Eocene sediments, intensively folded by northward thrusting, are mostly represented by flysch type deposits (olistostromes, mass-flows and turbidites). The onset of the compression is related to the initiation of the Taurus shortening in a retroarc situation, in response to


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    William Goddard; Peter Meulbroek; Yongchun Tang; Lawrence Cathles III


    In the next decades, oil exploration by majors and independents will increasingly be in remote, inaccessible areas, or in areas where there has been extensive shallow exploration but deeper exploration potential may remain; areas where the collection of data is expensive, difficult, or even impossible, and where the most efficient use of existing data can drive the economics of the target. The ability to read hydrocarbon chemistry in terms of subsurface migration processes by relating it to the evolution of the basin and fluid migration is perhaps the single technological capability that could most improve our ability to explore effectively because it would allow us to use a vast store of existing or easily collected chemical data to determine the major migration pathways in a basin and to determine if there is deep exploration potential. To this end a the DOE funded a joint effort between California Institute of Technology, Cornell University, and GeoGroup Inc. to assemble a representative set of maturity and maturation kinetic models and develop an advanced basin model able to predict the chemistry of hydrocarbons in a basin from this input data. The four year project is now completed and has produced set of public domain maturity indicator and maturation kinetic data set, an oil chemistry and flash calculation tool operable under Excel, and a user friendly, graphically intuitive basin model that uses this data and flash tool, operates on a PC, and simulates hydrocarbon generation and migration and the chemical changes that can occur during migration (such as phase separation and gas washing). The DOE Advanced Chemistry Basin Model includes a number of new methods that represent advances over current technology. The model is built around the concept of handling arbitrarily detailed chemical composition of fluids in a robust finite-element 2-D grid. There are three themes on which the model focuses: chemical kinetic and equilibrium reaction parameters, chemical

  3. Recent advances on the knowledge of the Eocene primates from the Pyrenean Basins (NE Spain) (United States)

    Minwer-Barakat, Raef; Marigó, Judit; Femenias-Gual, Joan; Moyà-Solà, Salvador


    The Eocene was one of the warmest epochs of the Cenozoic and documented the first occurrence of several orders of modern mammals. Among them, Euprimates underwent a very important radiation favored by the development of dense forests throughout the Northern Hemisphere. Two main groups reached a great abundance and diversity during the Eocene, Adapiformes and Omomyiformes, which are related to the main clades of living primates (strepsirrhines and haplorhines, respectively). In the Iberian Peninsula, Eocene primates have been known since the 1960s, when several fossil sites containing prosimian remains were discovered. Nevertheless, it was not until 2010 that the research on Eocene primates from Spain has increased strikingly, and the results achieved in this last stage have surpassed those of the whole past century in terms of number of publications. Besides some interesting findings in the Ebro, Almazán and Miranda-Trebiño basins, the Pyrenees have yielded the most abundant record of Eocene primates from the Iberian Peninsula, constituting therefore an excellent region for evaluating the evolution of primates through this epoch. In the early Eocene continental deposits of the Àger area, adapiforms are well represented, with three species of the genus Agerinia. Besides, the only record of Plesiadapiformes (archaic primates) from Spain has been documented in this zone. The middle Eocene is particularly well represented in the Eastern Pyrenees. In the section of Sant Jaume de Frontanyà, three primate species have been described in the last years. The adapiform Anchomomys frontanyensis and the omomyiform Pseudoloris pyrenaicus, found in the oldest levels of the section, and the omomyiform Necrolemur anadoni, identified in the youngest levels, have allowed reconstructing the relationships of these taxa with their correlatives found in other parts of Europe. Late Eocene deposits with mammal remains crop out in the area of La Pobla de Segur. The most relevant fossil

  4. Salt Lake in Chaidamu Basin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    Chaidamu Basin(柴达木盆地) is in the west of China. It covers an area(地区) of 220,000 square kilometres(平方公里). The number of salt lakes(盐湖) is more than twenty in it. Chaerhan(察尔汗) Salt Lake is the largest in this area. If you get here, you will find that in the lake there is no water but a thick layer(层) of salt. You can walk in it without difficulty, and cars can come and go across it. The thickest layer of salt in this basin is about fifty metres thick. People tried their best to use the salt to build house...

  5. Inverse modeling of groundwater flow in the semiarid evaporitic closed basin of Los Monegros, Spain (United States)

    Samper-Calvete, F. J.; García-Vera, M. A.

    Only minor attention has been given in the past to the study of closed-basin hydrogeology in evaporitic environments, because these basins usually contain poor-quality groundwater. The motivation for hydrogeological research in the Los Monegros area in northeastern Spain was the approval in 1986 of a large irrigation project in the Ebre River basin. The irrigation of 60,000 ha is planned, partly in an evaporitic closed basin containing playa lakes. The project has given rise to environmental concerns. The evaluation of the hydrologic impacts of irrigation requires quantifying properly the hydrogeology of the area. With the available information, a conceptual hydrogeological model was formulated that identifies two main aquifers connected through a leaky aquitard. On the basis of the conceptual model, a numerical model was calibrated under steady-state conditions using the method of maximum-likelihood automatic parameter estimation (Carrera and Neuman, 1986a). The calibrated model reproduces the measured hydraulic heads fairly well and is consistent with independent information on groundwater discharge. By the solution of the inverse problem, reliable parameter estimates were obtained. It is concluded that anisotropy plays a major role in some parts of the lower aquifer. The geometric average of model conductivity is almost two orders of magnitude larger than the average conductivity derived from small-scale field tests. This scale effect in hydraulic conductivity is consistent with the findings of Neuman (1994) and Sánchez-Vila et al. (1996). Résumé Dans le passé, on s'est peu intéresséà l'hydrogéologie des bassins fermés en milieu évaporitique, parce que ces bassins possèdent en général de l'eau souterraine de qualité médiocre. L'intérêt porté aux recherches hydrogéologiques dans la région de Los Monegros, dans le nord-est de l'Espagne est dûà l'approbation en 1986 d'un vaste projet d'irrigation dans le bassin de l'Ebre. L'irrigation de 60000

  6. Basin stability in delayed dynamics (United States)

    Leng, Siyang; Lin, Wei; Kurths, Jürgen


    Basin stability (BS) is a universal concept for complex systems studies, which focuses on the volume of the basin of attraction instead of the traditional linearization-based approach. It has a lot of applications in real-world systems especially in dynamical systems with a phenomenon of multi-stability, which is even more ubiquitous in delayed dynamics such as the firing neurons, the climatological processes, and the power grids. Due to the infinite dimensional property of the space for the initial values, how to properly define the basin’s volume for delayed dynamics remains a fundamental problem. We propose here a technique which projects the infinite dimensional initial state space to a finite-dimensional Euclidean space by expanding the initial function along with different orthogonal or nonorthogonal basis. A generalized concept of basin’s volume in delayed dynamics and a highly practicable calculating algorithm with a cross-validation procedure are provided to numerically estimate the basin of attraction in delayed dynamics. We show potential applicabilities of this approach by applying it to study several representative systems of biological or/and physical significance, including the delayed Hopfield neuronal model with multistability and delayed complex networks with synchronization dynamics.

  7. Great Basin geoscience data base (United States)

    Raines, Gary L.; Sawatzky, Don L.; Connors, Katherine A.


    This CD-ROM serves as the archive for 73 digital GIS data set for the Great Basin. The data sets cover Nevada, eastern California, southeastern Oregon, southern Idaho, and western Utah. Some of the data sets are incomplete for the total area. On the CD-ROM, the data are provided in three formats, a prototype Federal Data Exchange standard format, the ESRI PC ARCVIEW1 format for viewing the data, and the ESRI ARC/INFO export format. Extensive documentation is provided to describe the data, the sources, and data enhancements. The following data are provided. One group of coverages comes primarily from 1:2,000,000-scale National Atlas data and can be assembled for use as base maps. These various forms of topographic information. In addition, public land system data sets are provided from the 1:2,500,000-scale Geologic Map of the United States and 1:500,000-scale geologic maps of Nevada, Oregon, and Utah. Geochemical data from the National Uranium Resource Evaluation (NURE) program are provided for most of the Great Basin. Geophysical data are provided for most of the Great Basin, typically gridded data with a spacing of 1 km. The geophysical data sets include aeromagnetics, gravity, radiometric data, and several derivative products. The thematic data sets include geochronology, calderas, pluvial lakes, tectonic extension domains, distribution of pre-Cenozoic terranes, limonite anomalies, Landsat linear features, mineral sites, and Bureau of Land Management exploration and mining permits.

  8. The geologic history of Margaritifer basin, Mars (United States)

    Salvatore, M. R.; Kraft, M. D.; Edwards, Christopher; Christensen, P.R.


    In this study, we investigate the fluvial, sedimentary, and volcanic history of Margaritifer basin and the Uzboi-Ladon-Morava (ULM) outflow channel system. This network of valleys and basins spans more than 8000 km in length, linking the fluvially dissected southern highlands and Argyre Basin with the northern lowlands via Ares Vallis. Compositionally, thermophysically, and morphologically distinct geologic units are identified and are used to place critical relative stratigraphic constraints on the timing of geologic processes in Margaritifer basin. Our analyses show that fluvial activity was separated in time by significant episodes of geologic activity, including the widespread volcanic resurfacing of Margaritifer basin and the formation of chaos terrain. The most recent fluvial activity within Margaritifer basin appears to terminate at a region of chaos terrain, suggesting possible communication between surface and subsurface water reservoirs. We conclude with a discussion of the implications of these observations on our current knowledge of Martian hydrologic evolution in this important region.

  9. Drainage basin delineations for selected USGS streamflow-gaging stations in Virginia (Drainage_Basin) (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Drainage_Basin polygon feature class was created as a digital representation of drainage basins for more than 1,650 continuous-record streamflow-gaging stations,...

  10. Reserves in western basins: Part 1, Greater Green River basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    This study characterizes an extremely large gas resource located in low permeability, overpressured sandstone reservoirs located below 8,000 feet drill depth in the Greater Green River basin, Wyoming. Total in place resource is estimated at 1,968 Tcf. Via application of geologic, engineering and economic criteria, the portion of this resource potentially recoverable as reserves is estimated. Those volumes estimated include probable, possible and potential categories and total 33 Tcf as a mean estimate of recoverable gas for all plays considered in the basin. Five plays (formations) were included in this study and each was separately analyzed in terms of its overpressured, tight gas resource, established productive characteristics and future reserves potential based on a constant $2/Mcf wellhead gas price scenario. A scheme has been developed to break the overall resource estimate down into components that can be considered as differing technical and economic challenges that must be overcome in order to exploit such resources: in other words, to convert those resources to economically recoverable reserves. Total recoverable reserves estimates of 33 Tcf do not include the existing production from overpressured tight reservoirs in the basin. These have estimated ultimate recovery of approximately 1.6 Tcf, or a per well average recovery of 2.3 Bcf. Due to the fact that considerable pay thicknesses can be present, wells can be economic despite limited drainage areas. It is typical for significant bypassed gas to be present at inter-well locations because drainage areas are commonly less than regulatory well spacing requirements.

  11. Reserve estimates in western basins. Part 2: Piceance Basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    This study characterizes an extremely large gas resource located in low permeability, sandstone reservoirs of the Mesaverde group in the Piceance Basin, Colorado. Total in place resource is estimated at 307.3 Tcf. Via application of geologic, engineering and economic criteria, the portion of this resource potentially recoverable as reserves is estimated. Those volumes estimated include probable, possible and potential categories and total 5.8 Tcf as a mean estimate of recoverable gas for all plays considered in the basin. About 82.6% of the total evaluated resource is contained within sandstones that have extremely poor reservoir properties with permeabilities considered too low for commerciality using current frac technology. Cost reductions and technology improvements will be required to unlock portions of this enormous resource. Approximately 2.7% of the total resource is contained within sandstone reservoirs which do not respond to massive hydraulic fracture treatments, probably due to their natural lenticular nature. Approximately 6.8% of the total resource is located in deeply buried settings below deepest established production. Approximately 7.9% of the total resource is considered to represent tight reservoirs that may be commercially exploited using today`s hydraulic fracturing technology. Recent technology advances in hydraulic fracturing practices in the Piceance Basin Mesaverde has resulted in a marked improvement in per well gas recovery which, where demonstrated, has been incorporated into the estimates provided in this report. This improvement is so significant in changing the risk-reward relationship that has historically characterized this play, that previously uneconomic areas and resources will graduate to the economically exploitable category. 48 refs., 96 figs., 18 tabs.

  12. Hack's law of debris-flow basins

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Yong; YUE Z.Q.; LEE C.F.; BEIGHLEY R.E.; CHEN Xiao-Qing; HU Kai-Heng; CUI Peng


    Hack's law was originally derived from basin statistics for varied spatial scales and regions.The exponent value of the law has been shown to vary between 0.47 and 0.70,causing uncertainty in its application.This paper focuses on the emergence of Hack's law from debris-flow basins in China.Over 5,000 debris-flow basins in different regions of China with drainage areas less than 100km2 are included in this study.Basins in the different regions are found to present similar distributions.Hack's law is derived fi'om maximum probability and conditional distributions,suggesting that the law should describe some critical state of basin evolution.Results suggest the exponent value is approximately 0.5.Further analysis indicates that Hack's law is related to other scaling laws underlying the evolution of a basin and that the exponent is not dependent on basin shape but rather on the evolutionary stage.A case study of a well known debris-flow basin further confirms Hack's law and its implications in basin evolution.

  13. Basin Management under the Global Climate Change (Take North-East Asia Heilongjiang -Amur Basin and Taihu Basin For Example) (United States)

    Liu, S.; Zhou, Z.; Zhong, G.; Zhang, X.


    The impact of global climate change on environment and society causes increasingly concern in different countries around the world. The main climate characteristic values, such as precipitation and temperature, have been changed, which leads to the variation of water resources, especially in large basins. Heilongjiang-Amur Basin and Taihu Basin are two large and important basins in China with large area and population. As global climate change and human activities have siganificant impacts on hydrology and water resources in two basins, the analysis of climate change are of great value. In this study, in Heilongjiang-Amur Basin, precipitation and temperature are investigated and their variation are predicted. And in Taihu Basin, precipitation including plum rain and typhoon, are studied and the variation trend of precipitation is predicted. Hence, the impacts of global climate change are assessed. From the result, it shows that the average temperature will continue to increase, and the precipitation will reduce first and then turn to increase in these two basins. It demonstrates that the water resources have been affected a lot by climate change as well as human activities. And these conclusions are provided as reference for policy makers and basin authorities in water resources management and natural hazards mitigation. Meanwhile, according to basins' particualr characters, the suggestions to future water resources management in two basins are given, and more scientific, comprehensive and sustained managements are required. Especially, in Heilongjiang-Amur River, which is a boundary river between China and Russia, it is very essential to enhance the cooperation between two countries.

  14. Relating petroleum system and play development to basin evolution: West African South Atlantic basins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beglinger, S.E.; Doust, H.; Cloetingh, S.A.P.L.


    Sedimentary basins can be classified according to their structural genesis and evolutionary history and the latter can be linked to petroleumsystem and playdevelopment. We propose an approach in which we use the established concepts in a new way: breaking basins down into their natural basin cycle d

  15. Evolution of the West Siberian Basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vyssotski, A.V. [Chevron, 1500 Louisiana Street, Houston (United States); Vyssotski, V.N. [TNK-BP, 1 Arbat St, Moscow 119019 (Russian Federation); Nezhdanov, A.A. [OOO TyumenNIIgiprogas, 2 Vorovskogo Str., Tyumen 625019 (Russian Federation)


    The West Siberian Basin is one of the largest intra-cratonic basins of the world and an important hydrocarbon province of Russia. Perhaps the most important geologic event in Siberia was the emplacement of basalts around {approx} 250Ma (i.e. Permo-Triassic boundary) covering an area of about 5x10{sup 6} km{sup 2}. This volcanism may be responsible for a mass extinction that occurred around Permian-Triassic time. The pre-basaltic rifting event was limited to the north-northeastern sector of the basin. Initial basin wide subsidence took place in the Jurassic as a result of which the western part of Siberia became the West Siberian Basin bounded by uplifts to the east and to the west. One of the surprising aspects of the West Siberian Basin is the abundance of sub-vertical faults believed to be result of strike-slip movement. While intra-plate inversions and fault reactivation structures have been observed in many cratons, sub-vertical faults observed in the West Siberian Basin are unique because of their geometries and abundance. The differentiation between the effects of tectonics and eustasy in cratonic basins is simple-the global eustatic signal is basin-wide with regional and local tectonics playing an overprinting role. Thus, the Middle Jurassic-Turonian 1st, 2nd, and 3rd order cycles in the West Siberian Basin were primarily driven by eustasy. The Middle Jurassic-Turonian series can be subdivided into two second-order and 16 third-order transgressive-regressive cycles (within dataset extent). Fourth-order cycles appear to be controlled by delta shifting. Although extensively studied, a number of fundamental questions regarding the origin and evolution of the West Siberian Basin remain unresolved or poorly documented in the literature. [Author].

  16. Basin wildrye: the forgotten grass revisited (United States)

    Basin wildrye was once a very abundant and widely occurring species throughout the landscapes of northern Nevada. When Captain Simpson, of the topographical Engineers, explored the route for a wagon road across the central Great Basin he marveled at the grass in the valley bottoms that reached to h...

  17. Deep controls on intraplate basin inversion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, S.B.; Stephenson, Randell Alexander; Schiffer, Christian


    Basin inversion is an intermediate-scale manifestation of continental intraplate deformation, which produces earthquake activity in the interior of continents. The sedimentary basins of central Europe, inverted in the Late Cretaceous– Paleocene, represent a classic example of this phenomenon. It ...

  18. 33 CFR 401.48 - Turning basins. (United States)


    ... shall be turned about in any canal, except: (a) With permission from the traffic controller; and (b) At the locations set out in the table to this section. Table 1. South Shore Canal: (a) Turning Basin No. 1—Opposite Brossard. (b) Turning Basin No. 2—Between Lock 7 and the Guard Gate Cut for vessels up...

  19. Fractal basins in an ecological model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Djellit


    Full Text Available Complex dynamics is detected in an ecological model of host-parasitoid interaction. It illustrates fractalization of basins with self-similarity and chaotic attractors. This paper describes these dynamic behaviors, bifurcations, and chaos. Fractals basins are displayed by numerical simulations.

  20. Basin Assessment Spatial Planning Platform

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    The tool is intended to facilitate hydropower development and water resource planning by improving synthesis and interpretation of disparate spatial datasets that are considered in development actions (e.g., hydrological characteristics, environmentally and culturally sensitive areas, existing or proposed water power resources, climate-informed forecasts). The tool enables this capability by providing a unique framework for assimilating, relating, summarizing, and visualizing disparate spatial data through the use of spatial aggregation techniques, relational geodatabase platforms, and an interactive web-based Geographic Information Systems (GIS). Data are aggregated and related based on shared intersections with a common spatial unit; in this case, industry-standard hydrologic drainage areas for the U.S. (National Hydrography Dataset) are used as the spatial unit to associate planning data. This process is performed using all available scalar delineations of drainage areas (i.e., region, sub-region, basin, sub-basin, watershed, sub-watershed, catchment) to create spatially hierarchical relationships among planning data and drainages. These entity-relationships are stored in a relational geodatabase that provides back-end structure to the web GIS and its widgets. The full technology stack was built using all open-source software in modern programming languages. Interactive widgets that function within the viewport are also compatible with all modern browsers.

  1. Neotectonic of subsiding basins : case of studies from Marañon and Beni basins, Peru and Bolivia


    Dumont, Jean-Francois


    Climatic conditions make the fluvial processes very sensitive in the extended flood plain of subandean basins, giving typical morphostructures. Because of high subsidence rate, these basins are case for the understanding of neotectonics in subsiding basins. Recent anciente fluvial traces are used in combination with sub surface structures, neotectonic and seismotectonic data to study the neotectonic evolution of the Peruvian and Bolivian active foreland basins. These basins, the Marañon Basin...

  2. Basins in ARC-continental collisions (United States)

    Draut, Amy E.; Clift, Peter D.; Busby, Cathy; Azor, Antonio


    Arc-continent collisions occur commonly in the plate-tectonic cycle and result in rapidly formed and rapidly collapsing orogens, often spanning just 5-15 My. Growth of continental masses through arc-continent collision is widely thought to be a major process governing the structural and geochemical evolution of the continental crust over geologic time. Collisions of intra-oceanic arcs with passive continental margins (a situation in which the arc, on the upper plate, faces the continent) involve a substantially different geometry than collisions of intra-oceanic arcs with active continental margins (a situation requiring more than one convergence zone and in which the arc, on the lower plate, backs into the continent), with variable preservation potential for basins in each case. Substantial differences also occur between trench and forearc evolution in tectonically erosive versus tectonically accreting margins, both before and after collision. We examine the evolution of trenches, trench-slope basins, forearc basins, intra-arc basins, and backarc basins during arc-continent collision. The preservation potential of trench-slope basins is low; in collision they are rapidly uplifted and eroded, and at erosive margins they are progressively destroyed by subduction erosion. Post-collisional preservation of trench sediment and trench-slope basins is biased toward margins that were tectonically accreting for a substantial length of time before collision. Forearc basins in erosive margins are usually floored by strong lithosphere and may survive collision with a passive margin, sometimes continuing sedimentation throughout collision and orogeny. The low flexural rigidity of intra-arc basins makes them deep and, if preserved, potentially long records of arc and collisional tectonism. Backarc basins, in contrast, are typically subducted and their sediment either lost or preserved only as fragments in melange sequences. A substantial proportion of the sediment derived from

  3. Determination of the Relationship between Hydrologic Processes and Basin Morphometry - The Lamos Basin (Mersin, Turkey) (United States)

    Yıldırım, Ümit; Güler, Cüneyt


    This study has been carried out to determine the relationship between hydrologic processes and basin morphometry in the Lamos Basin, which is located at the northern part of the Mersin (SE Turkey). The morphometric parameters of the basin was derived from the 1:25K scale topographic map sheets that were digitized using ArcGIS 9.3.1 geographic information system (GIS) software. Morphometric parameters considered in this study include basin area, basin length, basin perimeter length, stream order, stream number, stream length, mean stream length, basin relief, drainage density, stream frequency, drainage texture, bifurcation ratio, form factor, elongation ratio, overland flow length, relief ratio, and hypsometric integral. The results have shown that there are 1252 individual stream reaches with a total length of 1414.1 km in the Lamos basin, which covers an area of 1358 km2 and has a length of 103 km in the N-S direction. Furthermore, the basin has a medium drainage density of 1.04 1/km with a stream frequency and drainage texture values of 0.92 and 4.33, respectively. The basin can be classified as elongated because of the low values of elongation ratio (0.48) and form factor (0.12). The hypsometric integral of the basin (0.58) indicates that it is in the youth period and thus reasonably sensitive to erosion. The values of drainage texture, drainage density, and stream frequency indicate that the Lamos basin is moderately well drained, therefore overland flow in the basin is not expected to be so quick. Thus, in case of occurrence of sudden peak flows, sensitivity to the land sliding and erosion may increase further. As a result, it is suggested that human activities in the basin should be limited in areas in fairly close proximity to the present day stream network to prevent or reduce the risk to life and property.

  4. Delaware basin/Central basin platform margin: The development of a subthrust deep-gas province in the Permian Basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Purves, W.J. (Mobil Oil Corp., Midland, TX (USA)); Ting, S.C. (Mobil, Farmers Branch, TX (USA))


    A deep-gas-prone province was identified along the Delaware basin/Central Basin platform margin, a margin conventionally interpreted to be bounded by high-angle normal or high-angle reverse structures. Redefinition of the tectonic style between the Delaware basin and the adjacent platform resulted in the identification of this Delaware basin/Central Basin platform subthrust province and a giant prospect within it. Definition of a giant-sized gas prospect in northern Pecos County, Texas, revealed that portions of this margin may be characterized by shingled, low-angle, eastward-dipping, basement involved thrust faults. Interpretations suggest that hidden, subthrust footwall structures may trend discontinuously for greater than 100 mi along this structural margin. Subthrust footwall structures formed as basinal buttress points for the Central Basin platform to climb over the Delaware basin. In this area, structural relief of over 19,000 ft over a 10-mi width is believed due to stacking of low-angle thrust sheets. Seismic resolution of this subthrust margin has been complexed by allochtonous hanging-wall gravity-glide blocks and folds and by velocity changes in overlying syn- and posttectonic sediments associated with basin-to-shelf lithofacies changes. Statistical studies indicate that this deep-gas province has a play potential of greater than 10 tcf of gas, with individual prospect sizes exceeding 1 tcfg. The prospects defined along this trend are deep (approximately 20,000 ft) subthrust structural traps that are indigenously sourced and reservoired by dual-matrix porosity. Vitrinite supported maturation modeling suggests that these subthrust structures formed prior to catagenic conversion of the oldest source rocks to oil and later to gas. Tectonically fractured Ordovician Ellenburger and Devonian sediments are considered the principal reservoirs. Shales overlying reservoir intervals form vertical seals.

  5. Submarine Landslides in Arctic Sedimentation: Canada Basin (United States)

    Mosher, David C.; Shimeld, John; Hutchinson, Deborah R.; Lebedova-Ivanova, N; Chapman, C.


    Canada Basin of the Arctic Ocean is the least studied ocean basin in the World. Marine seismic field programs were conducted over the past 6 years using Canadian and American icebreakers. These expeditions acquired more than 14,000 line-km of multibeam bathymetric and multi-channel seismic reflection data over abyssal plain, continental rise and slope regions of Canada Basin; areas where little or no seismic reflection data existed previously. Canada Basin is a turbidite-filled basin with flat-lying reflections correlateable over 100s of km. For the upper half of the sedimentary succession, evidence of sedimentary processes other than turbidity current deposition is rare. The Canadian Archipelago and Beaufort Sea margins host stacked mass transport deposits from which many of these turbidites appear to derive. The stratigraphic succession of the MacKenzie River fan is dominated by mass transport deposits; one such complex is in excess of 132,000 km2 in area and underlies much of the southern abyssal plain. The modern seafloor is also scarred with escarpments and mass failure deposits; evidence that submarine landsliding is an ongoing process. In its latest phase of development, Canada Basin is geomorphologically confined with stable oceanographic structure, resulting in restricted depositional/reworking processes. The sedimentary record, therefore, underscores the significance of mass-transport processes in providing sediments to oceanic abyssal plains as few other basins are able to do.

  6. Genesis of Tuzla salt basin (United States)

    Sušić, Amir; Baraković, Amir; Komatina, Snezana


    Salt is condition for the survival of the human race, and holds a special place in the exploitation of mineral resources. It is the only mineral raw material used in direct feeding, and therefore has its own specialty. Salt is a crystalline mineral that is found in seawater, as well as in underground areas where it is formed by deposition of salt sediments. Occurrences of salt water near Tuzla and Gornja Tuzla have been known since the time of the Romans as "ad salinas". The name itself connects Bosnia with its richness in salt, because the word barefoot, which is preserved in a north-Albanian dialect, means a place where boiling salted water are obtained. At the time of the Bosnian kings, these regions are named Soli, which is in connection with occurences of saline sources. Geological studies of rock salt in the area of Tuzla basin are practically began after the annexation of Bosnia and Herzegovina by the Austro-Hungarian Empire, in the period from 1878 to 1918. Geological field work was conducted K. Paul, H. Hefer, E. Tietze and F. Katzer. Monomineral deposit of rock salt Tetima is made of halite and anhydrite mixed with marl belt, while the bay of salt in Tuzla is polymineral and contains a considerable amount of thenardite (Na2SO4) and rare minerals: nortupit, nahkolit, bradleit, probertit, glauberite and others. Both salt deposits were created as a product of chemical sedimentation in the lower Miocene Badenian sediments. The main objective of this paper is to show the genesis of the deposits and the spatial and genetic connection. In addition, genesis of geological research in the areas of Tuzla basin will be presented.

  7. How integrated is river basin management? (United States)

    Downs, Peter W.; Gregory, Kenneth J.; Brookes, Andrew


    Land and water management is increasingly focused upon the drainage basin. Thirty-six terms recently used for schemes of “integrated basin management” include reference to the subject or area and to the aims of integrated river basin management, often without allusion to the multiobjective nature. Diversity in usage of terms has occurred because of the involvement of different disciplines, of the increasing coherence of the drainage basin approach, and the problems posed in particular parts of the world. The components included in 21 different approaches are analyzed, and, in addition to showing that components related broadly to water supply, river channel, land, and leisure aspects, it is concluded that there are essentially five interrelated facets of integrated basin management that involved water, channel, land, ecology, and human activity. Two aspects not fully included in many previous schemes concern river channel changes and the dynamic integrity of the fluvial system. To clarify the terminology used, it is suggested that the term comprehensive river basin management should be used where a wide range of components is involved, whereas integrated basin management can signify the interactions of components and the dominance of certain components in the particular area. Holistic river basin management is advocated as a term representing an approach that is both fully comprehensive and integrated but also embraces the energetics of the river system and consideration of changes of river channels and of human impacts throughout the river system. The paradigm of working with the river can be extended to one of working with the river in the holistic basin context.

  8. Tectono-stratigraphic evolution of an inverted extensional basin: the Cameros Basin (north of Spain) (United States)

    Omodeo Salè, Silvia; Guimerà, Joan; Mas, Ramón; Arribas, José


    The Cameros Basin is a part of the Mesozoic Iberian Rift. It is an extensional basin formed during the late Jurassic and early Cretaceous, in the Mesozoic Iberian Rift context, and it was inverted in the Cenozoic as a result of the Alpine contraction. This work aims to reconstruct the tectono-stratigraphic evolution of the basin during the Mesozoic, using new and revised field, geophysical and subsurface data. The construction of a basin-wide balanced section with partial restorations herein offers new insights into the geometry of the syn-rift deposits. Field data, seismic lines and oil well data were used to identify the main structures of the basin and the basin-forming mechanisms. Mapping and cross-sectional data indicate the marked thickness variation of the depositional sequences across the basin, suggesting that the extension of the depositional area varied during the syn-rift stage and that the depocentres migrated towards the north. From field observation and seismic line interpretation, an onlap of the depositional sequences to the north, over the marine Jurassic substratum, can be deduced. In the last few decades, the structure and geometry of the basin have been strongly debated. The structure and geometry of the basin infill reconstructed herein strongly support the interpretation of the Cameros Basin as an extensional-ramp synclinal basin formed on a blind south-dipping extensional ramp. The gradual hanging-wall displacement to the south shifted the depocentres to the north over time, thus increasing the basin in size northwards, with onlap geometry on the pre-rift substratum. The basin was inverted by means of a main thrust located in a detachment located in the Upper Triassic beds (Keuper), which branched in depth with the Mesozoic extensional fault flat. The reconstruction of the tectono-stratigraphic evolution of the Cameros Basin proposed herein represents a synthesis and an integration of previous studies of the structure and geometry of the

  9. Inner Harbor Navigation Canal Basin Velocity Analysis (United States)


    ER D C/ CH L TR -1 4- 12 Inner Harbor Navigation Canal Basin Velocity Analysis Co as ta l a nd H yd ra ul ic s La bo ra to ry...library at ERDC/CHL TR-14-12 October 2014 Inner Harbor Navigation Canal Basin Velocity Analysis...system of levees, gates, and drainage structures in the Inner Harbor Navigation Canal (IHNC) basin and the greater New Orleans, Louisiana, area. Two

  10. Tarim Basin: China's Potential Oil Giant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qiu Baolin


    @@ Tarim Basin has an area of 560,000 square kilometers.Taklamakan Desert, the world's second largest shifting desert, is located in the hinterland of the basin. The desert is equal to Germany in area. The desert is called "Desert of No Return" for its harsh and adverse environments. A 522-kilometer highway crossing the desert from north to south was opened to the traffic in 1995 because an oilfield with the reserves of more than 100 million tons was discovered in the central part of the basin. The local traffic and ecological conditions have been much improved in the recent years.

  11. Basins of Attraction for Chimera States

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martens, Erik Andreas; Panaggio, Mark; Abrams, Daniel


    Chimera states---curious symmetry-broken states in systems of identical coupled oscillators---typically occur only for certain initial conditions. Here we analyze their basins of attraction in a simple system comprised of two populations. Using perturbative analysis and numerical simulation we...... evaluate asymptotic states and associated destination maps, and demonstrate that basins form a complex twisting structure in phase space. Understanding the basins' precise nature may help in the development of control methods to switch between chimera patterns, with possible technological and neural system...

  12. K Basins isolation barriers summary report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strickland, G.C., Westinghouse Hanford


    The 105-K East and 105-K West fuel storage basins (105-K Basins) were designed and constructed in the early 1950`s for interim storage of irradiated fuel following its discharge from the reactors. The 105-K- East and 105-K West reactor buildings were constructed first, and the associated storage basins were added about a year later. The construction joint between each reactor building structure and the basin structure included a flexible membrane waterstop to prevent leakage. Water in the storage basins provided both radiation shielding and cooling to remove decay heat from stored fuel until its transfer to the Plutonium Uranium Extraction (PUREX) Facility for chemical processing. The 105-K West Reactor was permanently shut down in February 1970; the 105-K East Reactor was permanently shut down in February 1971. Except for a few loose pieces, fuel stored in the basins at that time was shipped to the PUREX Facility for processing. The basins were then left idle but were kept filled with water. The PUREX Facility was shut down and placed on wet standby in 1972 while N Reactor continued to operate. When the N Reactor fuel storage basin began to approach storage capacity, the decision was made to modify the fuel storage basins at 105-K East and 105-K West to provide additional storage capacity. Both basins were subsequently modified (105-K East in 1975 and 105-K West in 1981) to provide for the interim handling and storage of irradiated N Reactor fuel. The PUREX Facility was restarted in November 1983 to provide 1698 additional weapons-grade plutonium for the United States defense mission. The facility was shut down and deactivated in December 1992 when the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) determined that the plant was no longer needed to support weapons-grade plutonium production. When the PUREX Facility was shut down, approximately 2.1 x 1 06 kg (2,100 metric tons) of irradiated fuel aged 7 to 23 years was left in storage in the 105-K Basins pending a decision on

  13. Rifting Thick Lithosphere - Canning Basin, Western Australia (United States)

    Czarnota, Karol; White, Nicky


    The subsidence histories and architecture of most, but not all, rift basins are elegantly explained by extension of ~120 km thick lithosphere followed by thermal re-thickening of the lithospheric mantle to its pre-rift thickness. Although this well-established model underpins most basin analysis, it is unclear whether the model explains the subsidence of rift basins developed over substantially thick lithosphere (as imaged by seismic tomography beneath substantial portions of the continents). The Canning Basin of Western Australia is an example where a rift basin putatively overlies lithosphere ≥180 km thick, imaged using shear wave tomography. Subsidence modelling in this study shows that the entire subsidence history of the Canning Basin is adequately explained by mild Ordovician extension (β≈1.2) of ~120 km thick lithosphere followed by post-rift thermal subsidence. This is consistent with the established model, described above, albeit with perturbations due to transient dynamic topography support which are expressed as basin-wide unconformities. In contrast the Canning Basin reveals an almost continuous period of normal faulting between the Ordovician and Carboniferous (βCanning Basin to rifting of thick lithosphere beneath the eastern part, verified by the presence of ~20 Ma diamond-bearing lamproites intruded into the basin depocentre. In order to account for the observed subsidence, at standard crustal densities, the lithospheric mantle is required to be depleted in density by 50-70 kg m-3, which is in line with estimates derived from modelling rare-earth element concentrations of the ~20 Ma lamproites and global isostatic considerations. Together, these results suggest that thick lithosphere thinned to > 120 km is thermally stable and is not accompanied by post-rift thermal subsidence driven by thermal re-thickening of the lithospheric mantle. Our results show that variations in lithospheric thickness place a fundamental control on basin architecture

  14. Gravity Analysis of the Jeffera Basin, Tunisia (United States)

    Mickus, K.; Gabtni, H.; Jallouli, C.


    Southern Tunisia consists of two main tectonic provinces: 1) the Saharan Platform and 2) the folded Atlasic domain, separated by the North Saharan Flexure. The Saharan Platform, which contains the Ghadames Basin and the Telemzane Arch, consists of gently dipping Paleozoic strata overlain by Triassic to Cretaceous sediments. The Atlasic domain consists of a thicker sequence of mainly Mesozoic and younger rock with less complete sequences of Paleozoic strata. Within the Atlasic domain are the still actively subsiding Chotts and Jeffera basins. The Jeffera basin, which occurs to the east of the Telemzane Arch contains at least eight kilometers of Paleozoic and younger sediment that were formed during numerous subsidence episodes since Carboniferous time. The Jeffera basin is dominated by tilted fault blocks that were formed during numerous tectonic episodes. Several unpublished seismic reflection profiles and well data exist for the Jeffera basin, however a deep structural analysis of the basin has not been published. We examined the existing gravity data in conjunction with available well and geologic data to determine structural features within the basin. The Bouguer gravity anomaly map shows that the Jeffera basin is dominated by a narrow northwest-trending gravity minimum. However, a more detailed analysis consisting of wavelength filtering and edge enhancements indicate that the structure of the basin is more complicated than indicated by the Bouguer gravity anomaly map. A residual gravity anomaly map indicates that the Jeffera basin consists of at least three and maybe four subbasins. Additionally, the Jeffera Fault marks the boundary between northwest-trending gravity anomalies to its northeast and east-trending anomalies over the Saharan Platform. The above observation is amplified by the construction of the enhanced horizontal derivatives (EHG) of both the complete Bouguer gravity and the residual gravity anomaly maps. The EHG maps highlight the lateral

  15. Waste storage potential of Triassic basins in southeast United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weaver, C.E.


    Triassic basins, elongated deep basins filled with sediments, extend from Nova Scotia to Florida. The geology of the basins is discussed for each state. Their potential for liquid waste storage is assessed. Seismic risk is among the factors evaluated. It is recommended that the shallow Triassic Florence basin in northeast South Carolina be studied. 10 fig. (DLC)

  16. Western Gas Sands Project Quarterly Basin Activities Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Atkinson, C H


    This quarterly basin activities report is a summation of three months drilling and testing activities in the Greater Green River Basin, Northern Great Plains Province, Piceance Basin, and Uinta Basin. Detailed information is given for each study area for the first quarter of 1979.

  17. Western Gas Sands Project. Quarterly Basin Activities Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Atkinson, C H


    This report is a summation of 3 months' drilling and testing activities in the four primary WGSP study areas: Greater Green River Basin, Northern Great Plains Province, Piceance Basin, and Uinta Basin. The monitoring of basin activities is part of resource assessment. (DLC)

  18. Structural Architecture and Evolution of Kumkuli Basin, North Tibet

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    He Bizhu; Xu Zhiqin; Jiao Cunli; Cui Junwen; Wang Shenglang; Wang Gonghuai; Li Zhaoyang; Qiu Zhuli


    Utilizing the new data of gravity, magnetic, and magnetotelluric survey, we analyzed the characteristics of the three geophysical attribute (gravity, magnetic, and resistivity) interfaces and the deep architecture and structure of Kumkuli basin. The research results can provide basic data for early basin structural study. From coupled basin and mountain system, analysis of the structure, and evolution of Knmknli basin, we found that there was zoning from north to south and from west to east. Kumkuli basin has three structural architecture layers including metamorphic crystallization basement, fold basement and sedimentary cover. Knmkuli basin can be divided into three structural units, two depressions, and one uplift. Structural evolution of the Kumkuli basin can be divided into five evolution stages, including Kumkuli microcontinent formed in Sinian-Ordovician, suture around Kumkuli basin formed in Eopaleozoic, retroarc foreland basin formed in Neopaleozoic, rejuvenated foreland hasin developed in Mesozoic, and strike slip and compression basin developed in Cenozoic.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David J. Taylor


    Some 140 miles of multichannel seismic reflection data, acquired commercially in the 1970's, were reprocessed by the U.S. Geological Survey in late 2000 and early 2001 to interpret the subsurface geology of the Crazy Mountains Basin, an asymmetric Laramide foreland basin located in south-central Montana. The seismic data indicate that the northwestern basin margin is controlled by a thrust fault that places basement rocks over a thick (22,000 feet) sequence of Paleozoic and Mesozoic sedimentary rocks to the south. From the deep basin trough, Paleozoic through Tertiary rocks slope gently upward to the south and southeast. The northern boundary of the basin, which is not imaged well by the seismic data, appears to be folded over a basement ridge rather than being truncated against a fault plane. Seismic data along the basin margin to the south indicate that several fault controlled basement highs may have been created by thin-skinned tectonics where a series of shallow thrust faults cut Precambrian, Paleozoic, and early Mesozoic rocks, whereas, in contrast, Cretaceous and Tertiary strata are folded. The data are further interpreted to indicate that this fault-bounded asymmetric basin contains several structures that possibly could trap hydrocarbons, provided source rocks, reservoirs, and seals are present. In addition, faults in the deep basin trough may have created enough fracturing to enhance porosity, thus developing ''sweet spots'' for hydrocarbons in basin-centered continuous gas accumulations.

  20. Optimization and application of an extraction procedure to determine drugs of abuse in solid environmental matrices of Turia River Basin (United States)

    Andres, Maria Jesus; Alvarez, Rodrigo; Andreu, Vicente; Pico, Yolanda


    show that extraction recoveries of phenylethylamine group were from 39.3 to 92.4%. For codeine and ketamine, the recoveries ranged from 44.4 to 90.6% and from 61.3 to 79.5%, respectively. Benzoylecgonine presented recoveries ranged from 72 to 77.5%. The precision of the method was below 20% for all the compounds. The method was applied to determine these drugs of abuse in sediments of the Turia River Basin. Ecstasy, codeine, ketamine and benzoylecgonine were found at concentrations ranging from 0.22 ng/g to 25 ng/g in 6 sampling points. Very limited information exists on the presence of drugs of abuse in environmental matrices. Nothing can be concluded about the differences between the recoveries obtained in unfiltered and filtered samples because they do not follow any trend. These results confirm the reliability of the method as well as its suitability to be applied in environmental studies. Acknowledgements This work has been supported by the Spanish Ministry of Economy and Competitiveness trough the project SCARCE-CDS 2009-0065, CGL 2011-29703-C02-01 and CGL 2011-29703-C02-02. MJ Andrés Costa also acknowledges to this Ministry the FPI grant to perform her PhD. References [1] T.H. Boles, M.J.M. Wells, Analysis of amphetamine and methamphetamine as emerging pollutants in wastewater and wastewater-impacted streams, Journal of Chromatography A 1217 (2010) 2561. [2] C. Postigo, M.J. López de Alda, D. Barceló, Drugs of abuse and their metabolites in the Ebro River basin: Occurrence in sewage and surface water, sewage treatment plants removal efficiency, and collective drug usage estimation Environment International 36 (2010) 75.

  1. Oil production in the Orinoco basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borregales, C.J.


    With an extension of 42,000 sq km, the Orinoco basin is one of the largest petroliferous zones in the world which contains high viscosity and low API gravity crude. Results from production tests performed in the central and southern parts of the basin indicate that its productive potential is similar to that in Morichal, Pilon and Jobo fields, and reveals that the heaviest oil existing in the Orinoco basin could be economically exploited by conventional methods of primary oil recovery. It is estimated that the oil recovery could be 5% of the total oil-in-place by using primary recovery methods, 8% by using alternate steam injection, and 20% by secondary recovery methods (continuous steam injection). However, if the compaction phenomenon takes place, an estimate of 5% to 15% additional oil recovery could be possible. Geology, fluid properties, results from production tests, and recovery methods in the Orinoco basin are presented.

  2. USGS Streamgage NHDPlus Version 1 Basins 2011 (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This dataset represents 19,031 basin boundaries and their streamgage locations for the U.S. Geological Survey's (USGS) active and historical streamgages from the...

  3. Cretaceous Onlap, Gulf of Mexico Basin [cretonlapg (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The maximum extent of Cretaceous onlap is generalized from Plate 3, Structure at the base and subcrop below Mesozoic marine section, Gulf of Mexico Basin (compiled...

  4. K-Basins S/RIDS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watson, D.J.


    The Standards/Requirements Identification Document(S/RID) is a list of the Environmental, Safety, and Health (ES&H) and Safeguards and Security (SAS) standards/requirements applicable to the K Basins facility

  5. Ferris coalfield boundary, Hanna Basin, Wyoming (ferbndg) (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This ArcView shapefile contains a representation of the boundary of the Ferris coalfield in the Hanna Basin, Wyoming. This theme was created specifically for the...

  6. Protection of the remaining Rainwater Basins Wetlands (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The report begins with a review of the significant waterfowl values of the Basins wetlands, and it points out how those values have been degraded significantly by...

  7. Climate change and the Great Basin (United States)

    Jeanne C. Chambers


    Climate change is expected to have significant impacts on the Great Basin by the mid-21st century. The following provides an overview of past and projected climate change for the globe and for the region.

  8. K-Basins S/RIDS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watson, D.J.


    The Standards/Requirements Identification Document (S/RID) is a list of the Environmental, Safety, and Health (ES{ampersand}H) and Safeguards and Security (SAS) standards/requirements applicable to the K Basins facility.


    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    - ... Variables that are considered include the absolute population, population den- ... Concept and theories of the population—natural resource nexus are ... White Volta sub~basin is located in the north of Ghana, extending southwards to.

  10. Gulf Coast Basins and Uplifts [gcstructsg (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — These data provide generalized outlines of major basins and uplifts in the Gulf Coast region modified after Plate 2, Principal structural features, Gulf of Mexico...

  11. River Basin Standards Interoperability Pilot (United States)

    Pesquer, Lluís; Masó, Joan; Stasch, Christoph


    There is a lot of water information and tools in Europe to be applied in the river basin management but fragmentation and a lack of coordination between countries still exists. The European Commission and the member states have financed several research and innovation projects in support of the Water Framework Directive. Only a few of them are using the recently emerging hydrological standards, such as the OGC WaterML 2.0. WaterInnEU is a Horizon 2020 project focused on creating a marketplace to enhance the exploitation of EU funded ICT models, tools, protocols and policy briefs related to water and to establish suitable conditions for new market opportunities based on these offerings. One of WaterInnEU's main goals is to assess the level of standardization and interoperability of these outcomes as a mechanism to integrate ICT-based tools, incorporate open data platforms and generate a palette of interchangeable components that are able to use the water data emerging from the recently proposed open data sharing processes and data models stimulated by initiatives such as the INSPIRE directive. As part of the standardization and interoperability activities in the project, the authors are designing an experiment (RIBASE, the present work) to demonstrate how current ICT-based tools and water data can work in combination with geospatial web services in the Scheldt river basin. The main structure of this experiment, that is the core of the present work, is composed by the following steps: - Extraction of information from river gauges data in OGC WaterML 2.0 format using SOS services (preferably compliant to the OGC SOS 2.0 Hydrology Profile Best Practice). - Model floods using a WPS 2.0, WaterML 2.0 data and weather forecast models as input. - Evaluation of the applicability of Sensor Notification Services in water emergencies. - Open distribution of the input and output data as OGC web services WaterML, / WCS / WFS and with visualization utilities: WMS. The architecture

  12. Microbiology of spent nuclear fuel storage basins. (United States)

    Santo Domingo, J W; Berry, C J; Summer, M; Fliermans, C B


    Microbiological studies of spent nuclear fuel storage basins at Savannah River Site (SRS) were performed as a preliminary step to elucidate the potential for microbial-influenced corrosion (MIC) in these facilities. Total direct counts and culturable counts performed during a 2-year period indicated microbial densities of 10(4) to 10(7) cells/ml in water samples and on submerged metal coupons collected from these basins. Bacterial communities present in the basin transformed between 15% and 89% of the compounds present in Biologtrade mark plates. Additionally, the presence of several biocorrosion-relevant microbial groups (i.e., sulfate-reducing bacteria and acid-producing bacteria) was detected with commercially available test kits. Scanning electron microscopy and X-ray spectra analysis of osmium tetroxide-stained coupons demonstrated the development of microbial biofilm communities on some metal coupons submerged for 3 weeks in storage basins. After 12 months, coupons were fully covered by biofilms, with some deterioration of the coupon surface evident at the microscopical level. These results suggest that, despite the oligotrophic and radiological environment of the SRS storage basins and the active water deionization treatments commonly applied to prevent electrochemical corrosion in these facilities, these conditions do not prevent microbial colonization and survival. Such microbial densities and wide diversity of carbon source utilization reflect the ability of the microbial populations to adapt to these environments. The presumptive presence of sulfate-reducing bacteria and acid-producing bacteria and the development of biofilms on submerged coupons indicated that an environment for MIC of metal components in the storage basins may occur. However, to date, there has been no indication or evidence of MIC in the basins. Basin chemistry control and corrosion surveillance programs instituted several years ago have substantially abated all corrosion mechanisms.

  13. Fractal Basins in the Lorenz Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    I.Djellit; J.C.Sprott; M. R. Ferchichi


    @@ The Lorenz mapping is a discretization of a pair of differential equations.It illustrates the pertinence of compu- tational chaos.We describe complex dynamics, bifurcations, and chaos in the map.Fractal basins are displayed by numerical simulation.%The Lorenz mapping is a discretization of a pair of differential equations. It illustrates the pertinence of computational chaos. We describe complex dynamics, bifurcations, and chaos in the map. Fractal basins are displayed by numerical simulation.

  14. Water scarcity in the Jordan River basin. (United States)

    Civic, M A


    This article reports the problem on water scarcity in the Jordan River basin. In the Jordan River basin, freshwater scarcity results from multiple factors and most severely affects Israel, Jordan, the West Bank, and the Gaza Strip. One of these multiple factors is the duration of rainfall in the region that only occurs in a small area of highlands in the northwest section. The varying method of water use parallels that of Israel that utilizes an estimated 2000 million cu. m. The national patterns of water usage and politically charged territorial assertions compound the competition over freshwater resources in the region. The combination of political strife, resource overuse, and contaminated sources means that freshwater scarcity in the Jordan River basin will reach a critical level in the near future. History revealed that the misallocation/mismanagement of freshwater from the Jordan River basin was the result of centuries of distinct local cultural and religious practices combined with historical influences. Each state occupying near the river basin form their respective national water development schemes. It was not until the mid-1990s that a shared-use approach was considered. Therefore, the critical nature of water resource, the ever-dwindling supply of freshwater in the Jordan River basin, and the irrevocability of inappropriate policy measures requires unified, definitive, and ecologically sound changes to the existing policies and practices to insure an adequate water supply for all people in the region.

  15. Geothermal resources of California sedimentary basins (United States)

    Williams, C.F.; Grubb, F.V.; Galanis, S.P.


    The 2004 Department of Energy (DOE) Strategic Plan for geothermal energy calls for expanding the geothermal resource base of the United States to 40,000 MW of electric power generating potential. This will require advances in technologies for exploiting unconventional geothermal resources, including Enhanced Geothermal Systems (EGS) and geopressured geothermal. An investigation of thermal conditions in California sedimentary basins through new temperature and heat flow measurements reveals significant geothermal potential in some areas. In many of the basins, the combined cooling effects of recent tectonic and sedimentary processes result in relatively low (geothermal gradients. For example, temperatures in the upper 3 km of San Joaquin, Sacramento and Ventura basins are typically less than 125??C and do not reach 200??c by 5 km. By contrast, in the Cuyama, Santa Maria and western Los Angeles basins, heat flow exceeds 80 mW/m2 and temperatures near or above 200??C occur at 4 to 5 km depth, which represents thermal conditions equivalent to or hotter than those encountered at the Soultz EGS geothermal site in Europe. Although the extractable geothermal energy contained in these basins is not large relative to the major California producing geothermal fields at The Geysers or Salton Sea, the collocation in the Los Angeles basin of a substantial petroleum extraction infrastructure and a major metropolitan area may make it attractive for eventual geothermal development as EGS technology matures.

  16. Short description of the Peruvian coal basins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carrascal-Miranda, Eitel R. [UNI, Lima (Peru); Suarez-Ruiz, Isabel [Instituto Nacional del Carbon (CSIC), Ap. Co., 73, 33080 Oviedo (Spain)


    This work synthesizes the main general characteristics of the Peruvian Coal Basins in relation to age, coal facies and coal rank. Peruvian coals are located in a series of coal basins from the Paleozoic to the Cenozoic age. Paleozoic coal seams are mainly of Mississippian age (Carboniferous). They are of continental origin and their reduced thickness and ash content are their main characteristics. Mesozoic coal seams (Upper Jurassic-Lower Cretaceous) are located in the so-called Peruvian Western Basin and in the depressions close to the 'Maranon Geoanticline'. They were originated in deltaic facies under the influence of brackish and fresh waters. Some of these coal basins (those distributed in the central and northern parts of Peru) are relatively well known because they are of economic importance. Finally, Cenozoic coal seams (Tertiary) are found in both paralic and limnic basins and their reserves are limited. All the Peruvian coals are of humic character and are vitrinite-rich. Their rank is highly variable and normally related with the different orogenic events which strongly affected this region. Thus, Paleozoic and Mesozoic coals are of bituminous to anthracite/meta-anthracite coal rank while peats, lignite and subbituminous coals are found in Cenozoic basins.

  17. Estimating tectonic history through basin simulation-enhanced seismic inversion: geoinfomatics for sedimentary basins (United States)

    Tandon, Kush; Tuncay, Kagan; Hubbard, Kyle; Comer, John; Ortoleva, Peter


    A data assimilation approach is demonstrated whereby seismic inversion is both automated and enhanced using a comprehensive numerical sedimentary basin simulator to study the physics and chemistry of sedimentary basin processes in response to geothermal gradient in much greater detail than previously attempted. The approach not only reduces costs by integrating the basin analysis and seismic inversion activities to understand the sedimentary basin evolution with respect to geodynamic parameters-but the technique also has the potential for serving as a geoinfomatics platform for understanding various physical and chemical processes operating at different scales within a sedimentary basin. Tectonic history has a first-order effect on the physical and chemical processes that govern the evolution of sedimentary basins. We demonstrate how such tectonic parameters may be estimated by minimizing the difference between observed seismic reflection data and synthetic ones constructed from the output of a reaction, transport, mechanical (RTM) basin model. We demonstrate the method by reconstructing the geothermal gradient. As thermal history strongly affects the rate of RTM processes operating in a sedimentary basin, variations in geothermal gradient history alter the present-day fluid pressure, effective stress, porosity, fracture statistics and hydrocarbon distribution. All these properties, in turn, affect the mechanical wave velocity and sediment density profiles for a sedimentary basin. The present-day state of the sedimentary basin is imaged by reflection seismology data to a high degree of resolution, but it does not give any indication of the processes that contributed to the evolution of the basin or causes for heterogeneities within the basin that are being imaged. Using texture and fluid properties predicted by our Basin RTM simulator, we generate synthetic seismograms. Linear correlation using power spectra as an error measure and an efficient quadratic

  18. On Restoring Sedimentary Basins for Post-Depositional Deformation - Paleozoic Basins of the Central Andes (United States)

    Bahlburg, H.


    The reconstruction and interpretation of sedimentary basins incorporated into folded and thrusted mountain belts is strongly limited by the style and intensity of shortening. This problem is exacerbated if deformation is polyphasic as is the case for the Paleozoic basins in the central Andes. Some of these have been deformed by folding and thrusting during at least 3 events in the Late Ordovician, the Late Paleozoic and Cenozoic. A realistic reconstruction of the original basin dimensions and geometries from outcrops and maps appears to be almost impossible. We present results of a stepwise reconstruction of the Paleozoic basins of the central Andes by restoring basin areas and fills accounting for crustal shortening. The structurally most prominent feature of the central Andes is the Bolivian Orocline which accomodated shortening in the last 45 Ma on the order of between 300 and 500 km. In a first step basins were restored by accounting for Cenozoic rotation and shortening by deconvolving the basins using an enhanced version of the oroclinal bending model of Ariagada et al. (2008). Results were then restored stepwise for older deformation. Constraints on these subsequent steps are significantly poorer as values of shortening can be derived only from folds and thusts apparent in outcrops. The amount of shortening accomodated on unexposed and therefore unknown thrusts can not be quantified and is a significant source of error very likely leading to an underestimation of the amount of shortening. Accepting these limitations, basin restoration results in an increase in basin area by ≥100%. The volumes of stratigraphically controlled basin fills can now be redistributed over the wider, restored area, translating into smaller rates of accumulation and hence required subsidence. The restored rates conform to those of equivalent modern basin settings and permit a more realistic and actualistic analysis of subsidence drivers and the respective tectonic framework.

  19. Wyoming Basin Rapid Ecoregional Assessment (United States)

    Carr, Natasha B.; Melcher, Cynthia P.


    The Wyoming Basin Rapid Ecoregional Assessment was conducted in partnership with the Bureau of Land Management (BLM). The overall goals of the BLM Rapid Ecoregional Assessments (REAs) are to identify important ecosystems and wildlife habitats at broad spatial scales; identify where these resources are at risk from Change Agents, including development, wildfire, invasive species, disease and climate change; quantify cumulative effects of anthropogenic stressors; and assess current levels of risk to ecological resources across a range of spatial scales and jurisdictional boundaries by assessing all lands within an ecoregion. There are several components of the REAs. Management Questions, developed by the BLM and stakeholders for the ecoregion, identify the regionally significant information needed for addressing land-management responsibilities. Conservation Elements represent regionally significant species and ecological communities that are of management concern. Change Agents that currently affect or are likely to affect the condition of species and communities in the future are identified and assessed. REAs also identify areas that have high conservation potential that are referred to as “large intact areas.” At the ecoregion level, the ecological value of large intact areas is based on the assumption that because these areas have not been greatly altered by human activities (such as development), they are more likely to contain a variety of plant and animal communities and to be resilient and resistant to changes resulting from natural disturbances such as fire, insect outbreaks, and disease.

  20. Implication of drainage basin parameters of a tropical river basin of South India (United States)

    Babu, K. J.; Sreekumar, S.; Aslam, Arish


    Drainage morphometry provides quantitative description of the drainage system which is an important aspect of the characterisation of watersheds. Chalakudi River is one of the important rivers of the South India which has attracted attention of many environmental scientists recently because of the proposed Athirapally Hydel Project across the river. SRTM (Shuttle Radar Topographic Mission) data were used for preparing DEM (Digital Elevation Model), Aspect Map and Slope Map. Geographical Information System (GIS) was used for the evaluation of linear, areal and relief aspects of morphometric parameters. The study reveals that the terrain exhibits dentritic and trellis pattern of drainage. The Chalakudi River Basin has a total area of 1,448.73 km2 and is designated as seventh-order basin. The drainage density of the basin is estimated as 2.54 and the lower-order streams mostly dominate the basin. The high basin relief indicates high runoff and sediment transport. The elongation ratio of the Chalakudi Basin is estimated as 0.48 and indicates that the shape of the basin is elongated. The development of stream segments in the basin area is more or less effected by rainfall. Relief ratio indicates that the discharge capability of watershed is very high and the groundwater potential is meagre. The low value of drainage density in spite of mountainous relief indicates that the area is covered by dense vegetation and resistant rocks permeated by fractures and joints. These studies are helpful in watershed development planning and wise utilization of natural resources.

  1. Wave tectono-sedimentary processes in Tarim basin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIN; Zhijun; ZHANG; Yiwei; CHEN; Shuping


    Based on the unconformities, the formation times of structures, and geological wave filtering applied to basin fills of typical wells around the Manjiaer area in the Tarim basin, the wave tectono-sedimentary processes in the Tarim Basin are discussed. The results of geological wave filtering of basin fills of typical wells show that, in time domain, the evolution of the Tarim basin was controlled by various wave processes with the periods of 740±Ma, 200±Ma, 100±Ma and 30±Ma. The analyses of basin fills, basin subsidence and unconformities show that the trends of the sedimentary facies belts, depocenters, and centers of subsidence migrated and interchanged periodically with periods of 200±Ma. These show the propagation of wave movements in space domain. The wave evolution of the Tarim basin is of significance to understanding the formation of the oil and gas reservoirs in the basin.

  2. The long wavelength topography of Beethoven and Tolstoj basins, Mercury (United States)

    André, Sarah L.; Watters, Thomas R.; Robinson, Mark S.


    Topography derived from Mariner 10 stereo images is used to characterize the interior structure of two mercurian basins, Beethoven and Tolstoj. Beethoven and Tolstoj basins are shallow (~2.5 km and ~2 km deep, respectively) and relatively flat-floored. Beethoven basin has an interior topographic rise near the northwest margin. The topography of Beethoven and Tolstoj basins is similar to that of lunar mare-filled basins. Well-developed basin-concentric wrinkle ridges and arcuate graben associated with lunar mascons are absent in both Beethoven and Tolstoj basins. The lack of mascon tectonic features suggests that either 1) the mercurian basins have a relatively thin veneer of fill material, 2) Mercury's elastic lithosphere was too strong for significant lithospheric flexure and subsidence to occur, or 3) the basin fill material has little or no density contrast with the surrounding crust and thus exerts little net load on the mercurian lithosphere.

  3. Lunar Pyroclastic Eruptions: Basin Volcanism's Dying Gasps (United States)

    Kramer, G. Y.; Nahm, A.; McGovern, P. J.; Kring, D. A.


    The relationship between mare volcanism and impact basins has long been recognized, although the degree of influence basin formation has on volcanism remains a point of contention. For example, did melting of magma sources result from thermal energy imparted by a basin-forming event? Did basin impacts initiate mantle overturn of the unstable LMO cumulate pile, causing dense ilmenite to sink and drag radioactive KREEPy material to provide the thermal energy to initiate melting of the mare sources? Did the dramatically altered stress states provide pathways ideally suited for magma ascent? The chemistry of sampled lunar volcanic glasses indicates that they experienced very little fractional crystallization during their ascent to the surface - they have pristine melt compositions. Volatile abundances, including recent measurements of OH [1,2] suggest that the mantle source of at least the OH-analyzed glasses have a water abundance of ~700 ppm - comparable to that of Earth's upper mantle. More recently, [3] showed that the abundance of OH and other volatiles measured in these glasses is positively correlated with trace element abundances, which is expected since water is incompatible in a magma. Volatile enrichment in a deep mantle source would lower the melting temperature and provide the thrust for magma ascent through 500 km of mantle and crust [4]. We are exploring the idea that such basin-related lunar pyroclastic volcanism may represent the last phase of basaltic volcanism in a given region. Remote sensing studies have shown volcanic glasses are fairly common, and often found along the perimeter of mare-filled basins [5]. Recent modeling of the stresses related to the basin-forming process [6,7] show that basin margins provide the ideal conduit for low-volume lunar pyroclastic volcanism (compared with the high output of mare volcanism). Schrödinger's basin floor is largely composed of a compositionally uniform impact breccia. The exceptions are two distinct and

  4. From stretching to mantle exhumation in a triangular backarc basin (Vavilov basin, Tyrrhenian Sea, Western Mediterranean) (United States)

    Milia, A.; Torrente, M. M.; Tesauro, M.


    In this study, we describe the mode of extension of the Vavilov, a fossil backarc basin, triangle-shaped (approximately 240 km-wide and 200 km-long), located between Sardinia margin to the west and Campania margin to the east. We combine the analysis of recent geophysical and geological data, in order to investigate the relationship between the crustal/sedimentary structure and the tectonic evolution of both apex and bathyal parts of the basin. With this aim, we interpret a large data set of multichannel seismic reflection profiles and several well logs. We observe that the apex basin corresponds to a sediment-balanced basin, with a sedimentary infill recording the episodes of basin evolution. In contrast, the distal basin corresponds to an underfilled basin, characterized by localized volcanic activity and a thin sedimentary succession that covers the exhumed mantle. The basin architecture reveals the occurrence of rift and supradetachment basins in the Vavilov rift zone. We find that the rifting of the Vavilov triangular basin was synchronous from the apex to distal regions around a single Euler pole located in Latium, between 5.1 and 1.8 Ma. The kinematic evolution of the Vavilov basin occurred in two stages: initial pure shear mode (5.1-4.0 Ma) that produced high-angle normal faults and syn-sedimentary wedges, followed by simple shear mode (4.0-1.8 Ma) that caused supradetachment basins filled by a Transgressive-Regressive succession that documents high subsidence rates (1.22 mm/y) in the apex region. The final stage of extension in the distal region led to: (i) complete embrittlement of the crust; (ii) direct continuation of crustal faults to upper mantle depth; (iii) serpentinization and mantle exhumation. Based on constraints on the present-day crustal structure of the Vavilov basin, we obtain a stretching value (β = 3.5) and extension rates (3 cm/y) in the bathyal zone analogous to those reported for magma-poor rifted margins. We propose a synchronous

  5. Evapotranspiration seasonality across the Amazon Basin (United States)

    Eiji Maeda, Eduardo; Ma, Xuanlong; Wagner, Fabien Hubert; Kim, Hyungjun; Oki, Taikan; Eamus, Derek; Huete, Alfredo


    Evapotranspiration (ET) of Amazon forests is a main driver of regional climate patterns and an important indicator of ecosystem functioning. Despite its importance, the seasonal variability of ET over Amazon forests, and its relationship with environmental drivers, is still poorly understood. In this study, we carry out a water balance approach to analyse seasonal patterns in ET and their relationships with water and energy drivers over five sub-basins across the Amazon Basin. We used in situ measurements of river discharge, and remotely sensed estimates of terrestrial water storage, rainfall, and solar radiation. We show that the characteristics of ET seasonality in all sub-basins differ in timing and magnitude. The highest mean annual ET was found in the northern Rio Negro basin (˜ 1497 mm year-1) and the lowest values in the Solimões River basin (˜ 986 mm year-1). For the first time in a basin-scale study, using observational data, we show that factors limiting ET vary across climatic gradients in the Amazon, confirming local-scale eddy covariance studies. Both annual mean and seasonality in ET are driven by a combination of energy and water availability, as neither rainfall nor radiation alone could explain patterns in ET. In southern basins, despite seasonal rainfall deficits, deep root water uptake allows increasing rates of ET during the dry season, when radiation is usually higher than in the wet season. We demonstrate contrasting ET seasonality with satellite greenness across Amazon forests, with strong asynchronous relationships in ever-wet watersheds, and positive correlations observed in seasonally dry watersheds. Finally, we compared our results with estimates obtained by two ET models, and we conclude that neither of the two tested models could provide a consistent representation of ET seasonal patterns across the Amazon.

  6. Quantifying mesoscale eddies in the Lofoten Basin (United States)

    Raj, R. P.; Johannessen, J. A.; Eldevik, T.; Nilsen, J. E. Ø.; Halo, I.


    The Lofoten Basin is the most eddy rich region in the Norwegian Sea. In this paper, the characteristics of these eddies are investigated from a comprehensive database of nearly two decades of satellite altimeter data (1995-2013) together with Argo profiling floats and surface drifter data. An automated method identified 1695/1666 individual anticyclonic/cyclonic eddies in the Lofoten Basin from more than 10,000 altimeter-based eddy observations. The eddies are found to be predominantly generated and residing locally. The spatial distributions of lifetime, occurrence, generation sites, size, intensity, and drift of the eddies are studied in detail. The anticyclonic eddies in the Lofoten Basin are the most long-lived eddies (>60 days), especially in the western part of the basin. We reveal two hotspots of eddy occurrence on either side of the Lofoten Basin. Furthermore, we infer a cyclonic drift of eddies in the western Lofoten Basin. Barotropic energy conversion rates reveals energy transfer from the slope current to the eddies during winter. An automated colocation of surface drifters trapped inside the altimeter-based eddies are used to corroborate the orbital speed of the anticyclonic and cyclonic eddies. Moreover, the vertical structure of the altimeter-based eddies is examined using colocated Argo profiling float profiles. Combination of altimetry, Argo floats, and surface drifter data is therefore considered to be a promising observation-based approach for further studies of the role of eddies in transport of heat and biomass from the slope current to the Lofoten Basin.

  7. Petroleum in the Junggar basin, northwestern China (United States)

    Taner, Irfan; Kamen-Kaye, Maurice; Meyerhoff, Arthur A.

    The Junggar basin occupies a large triangular area of some 130 000 km 2 in northwestern China. Situated between the Altay Shan (Altay Range) on the northeast and the Tian Shan (Tian Range) on the southwest, and between lesser ranges around the remainder of its periphery, the Junggar basin is completely intermontane. Its history as a basin began in the Permian, and continued as various uplifts and downwarps evolved. Through the Paleozoic the characteristics of the Junggar basin area were largely geosynclinal and marine. Its post-Permian development took place exclusively in continental regimes. Inhabitants of the Junggar basin have known and utilized its numerous oil and asphalt seeps and its spectacular spreads of asphalt for more than 2000 years, especially in the Karamay-Urho thrust belt near the northwestern rim. The first discovery of oil in the modern sense came at Dushanzi, one of the steeply folded anticlines of theÜrümqi foredeep near the southern rim. The first shallow oil in the Karamay-Urho thrust belt came in 1937, followed by commercial production in the Karamay field in 1955. Output continued to be modest until wells were drilled through local thrusts and reverse faults in the early 1980s. By 1985, cumulative production of the Karamay group of fields had reached 42,000,000 t (metric tonnes) (306,000,000 bbl), with a calculated minimum ultimate recovery of 280,000,000 t (2 billion bbl). Principal production comes from Permian and Triassic strata in continental facies. Apart from marine Mid and Upper Carboniferous strata, source rocks occur mainly in fine-grained lacustrine detrital beds of the Permian, the Triassic, the Jurassic and the Tertiary. Several uplifts and downwarps elsewhere in the Junggar basin remain to be drilled comprehensively. Results from such drilling may enhance the very important position that the Junggar already has attained in the hierarchy of China's onshore basins.

  8. Chicxulub impact basin: Gravity characteristics and implications for basin morphology and deep structure (United States)

    Sharpton, Virgil L.; Burke, Kevin; Hall, Stuart A.; Lee, Scott; Marin, Luis E.; Suarez, Gerardo; Quezada-Muneton, Juan Manuel; Urrutia-Fucugauchi, Jaime


    The K-T-aged Chicxulub Impact Structure is buried beneath the Tertiary carbonate rocks of the Northern Yucatan Platform. Consequently its morphology and structure are poorly understood. Reprocessed Bouguer (onshore) and Free Air (offshore) gravity data over Northern Yucatan reveal that Chicxulub may be a 200-km-diameter multi-ring impact basin with at least three concentric basin rings. The positions of these rings follow the square root of 2 spacing rule derived empirically from analysis of multi-ring basins on other planets indicating that these rings probably correspond to now-buried topographic basin rings. A forward model of the gravity data along a radial transect from the southwest margin of the structure indicates that the Chicxulub gravity signature is compatible with this interpretation. We estimate the basin rim diameter to be 204 +/- 16 km and the central peak ring diameter (D) is 104 +/- 6 km.

  9. Basin-centered gas evaluated in Dnieper-Donets basin, Donbas foldbelt, Ukraine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Law, B.E. [Law (B.E.), Lakewood, CO (United States); Ulmishek, G.F.; Clayton, J.L. [Geological Survey, Denver, CO (United States); Kabyshev, B.P. [Ukrainian State Geological Inst., Chernigov (Ukraine); Pashova, N.T.; Krivosheya, V.A. [Ukrainian State Geological Inst., Poltava (Ukraine)


    An evaluation of thermal maturity, pore pressures, source rocks, reservoir quality, present-day temperatures, and fluid recovery data indicates the presence of a large basin-centered gas accumulation in the Dnieper-Donets basin (DDB) and Donbas foldbelt (DF) of eastern Ukraine. This unconventional accumulation covers an area of at least 35,000 sq km and extends vertically through as much as 7,000 m of Carboniferous rocks. The gas accumulation is similar, in many respects, to some North American accumulations such as Elmworth in the Alberta basin of western Canada, the Greater Green River basin of southwestern Wyoming, and the Anadarko basin of Oklahoma. Even though rigorous assessments of the recoverable gas have not been conducted in the region, a comparison of the dimensions of the accumulation to similar accumulations in the US indicates gas resources in excess of 100 tcf in place. The paper describes the geology, the reservoirs, source rocks, seals, and recommendations for further study.

  10. Desert basins of the Southwest (United States)

    Leake, Stanley A.; Konieczki, Alice D.; Rees, Julie A.H.


    Ground water is among the Nation’s most important natural resources. It provides drinking water to urban and rural communities, supports irrigation and industry, sustains the flow of streams and rivers, and maintains riparian and wetland ecosystems. In many areas of the Nation, the future sustainability of ground-water resources is at risk from overuse and contamination. Because ground-water systems typically respond slowly to human actions, a long-term perspective is needed to manage this valuable resource. This publication is one in a series of fact sheets that describe ground-water-resource issues across the United States, as well as some of the activities of the U.S. Geological Survey that provide information to help others develop, manage, and protect ground-water resources in a sustainable manner. Ground-water resources in the Southwest are among the most overused in the United States. Natural recharge to aquifers is low and pumping in many areas has resulted in lowering of water tables. The consequences of large-scale removal of water from storage are becoming increasingly evident. These consequences include land subsidence; loss of springs, streams, wetlands and associated habitat; and degradation of water quality. Water managers are now seeking better ways of managing ground-water resources while looking for supplemental sources of water. This fact sheet reviews basic information on ground water in the desert basins of the Southwest. Also described are some activities of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) that are providing scientific information for sustainable management of ground-water resources in the Southwest. Ground-water sustainability is defined as developing and using ground water in a way that can be maintained for an indefinite time without causing unacceptable environmental, economic, or social consequences.

  11. Multiple nested basin boundaries in nonlinear driven oscillators☆ (United States)

    Zhang, Yongxiang; Xie, Xiangpeng; Luo, Guanwei


    A special type of basins of attraction for high-period coexisting attractors is investigated, which basin boundaries possess multiple nested structures in a driven oscillator. We analyze the global organization of basins and discuss the mechanism for the appearance of layered structures. The unstable periodic orbits and unstable limit cycle are also detected in the oscillator. The basin organization is governed by the ordering of regular saddles and the regular saddle connections are the interrupted by the unstable limit cycle. Wada basin boundary with different Wada number is discovered. Wada basin boundaries for the hidden and rare attractors are also verified.

  12. Groundwater quality in the Northern Coast Ranges Basins, California (United States)

    Mathany, Timothy M.; Belitz, Kenneth


    The Northern Coast Ranges (NOCO) study unit is 633 square miles and consists of 35 groundwater basins and subbasins (California Department of Water Resources, 2003; Mathany and Belitz, 2015). These basins and subbasins were grouped into two study areas based primarily on locality. The groundwater basins and subbasins located inland, not adjacent to the Pacific Ocean, were aggregated into the Interior Basins (NOCO-IN) study area. The groundwater basins and subbasins adjacent to the Pacific Ocean were aggregated into the Coastal Basins (NOCO-CO) study area (Mathany and others, 2011).

  13. Impact melt of the lunar Crisium multiring basin (United States)

    Spudis, P. D.; Sliz, M. U.


    New geological mapping of the Crisium basin on the Moon has revealed exposures of the basin impact melt sheet. The melt sheet has a feldspathic highland composition, somewhat more mafic than the melt sheet of the Orientale basin, but less mafic than comparable deposits around the Imbrium basin. These newly recognized deposits would be ideal locations to directly sample Crisium basin impact melt, material whose study would yield insight into the composition of the lunar crust, the time of formation of the basin, and the large impact process.

  14. Turbulent Flow Measurement in Vortex Settling Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jafar Chapokpour


    Full Text Available This paper presents the findings of an experimental study on the three-dimensional turbulent flow field in vortex settling basin. An ADV (Acoustic Doppler Velocity Meter were used to catch 3D velocitycomponents inside the basin. Detailed measurements of time-averaged velocity components, turbulent intensity components and turbulent kinetic energy were determined at different radial sections of chamber. Also the normalized time averaged absolute velocity of 3D components in contour type exhibition were conducted and it was found that the absolute velocity generally is influenced by u component of flow. It trends from high magnitude in basin center to the constant magnitude in basin side wall. The normalized turbulent intensity ofthree components was investigated individually. It was found that intensity of 3D components in vicinity of central air core is higher than other regions, decreasing by moving towards basin sidewall except for the sections that influenced directly by entrance flow jet and sidewall exiting overflow. The results of turbulence kinetic energy also had the same interpretation like turbulence intensity and affected by the same boundary conditions which cover turbulence intensity of 3 velocity components overly.

  15. A geological history of the Turkana Basin. (United States)

    Feibel, Craig S


    The Turkana Basin preserves a long and detailed record of biotic evolution, cultural development, and rift valley geology in its sedimentary strata. Before the formation of the modern basin, Cretaceous fluvial systems, Paleogene lakes, and Oligo-Miocene volcano-sedimentary sequences left fossil-bearing strata in the region. These deposits were in part related to an early system of rift basins that stretched from Sudan to the Indian Ocean. The present-day basin has its origins in Pliocene tectonic developments of the modern rift, with subsidence making room for more than one kilometer of Plio-Pleistocene strata. Much of this sequence belongs to the Omo Group, richly fossiliferous sediments associated with the ancestral Omo River and its tributaries. Modern Lake Turkana has a record stretching back more than 200 thousand years, with earlier lake phases throughout the Plio-Pleistocene. The geologic history of the basin is one of dynamic landscapes responding to environmental influences, including tectonics, volcanic activity and climate.

  16. Patrones de colonización y ecología de poblaciones de dos bivalvos invasores (mejillón cebra Dreissena polymorpha Pallas, 1771 y almeja asiática Corbicula fluminea Müller, 1774 en un tramo lótico del Ebro medio (Castejón, Navarra.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Los bivalvos dulceacuícolas son un componente importante de la ecología fluvial, fundamentalmente por el papel que desempeñan como organismos filtradores y de remoción del sedimento. Además son un grupo zoológico diverso y amenazado a escala global, en el que se incluyen algunas de las especies invasoras más dañinas. El estudio de sus poblaciones es imprescindible para conocer el estado de conservación de las comunidades bentónicas. Para esto se prospectaron 17 parcelas vadeables y 7 escolleras a lo largo de 7,38 km de meandros del río Ebro en Castejón (Navarra, tanto el cauce principal como en brazos secundarios de corriente permanente y/o temporal. El mejillón cebra Dreissena polymorpha Pallas, 1771 se encontró en 7 escolleras y 6 parcelas. El sustrato preferente fueron rocas (85%, donde la densidad resultó 0,31-5,45 mejillones/m2; el 2,6% se hallaron sobre plásticos agrícolas abandonados. En las escolleras sólo el 3,6% de los ejemplares eran juveniles y un 33% tenían una edad > 4 años. La almeja asiática Corbicula fluminea Müller, 1774 se encontró en todas las parcelas. La densidad resultó muy diferente en los tres tipos de ambientes fluviales con valores máximos de 15.100 almejas/m2, lo que constituye un nuevo máximo fluvial en Europa. Se encontraron subpoblaciones de almeja asiática con diferentes estructuras de edad según los ambientes fluviales, además de poblaciones menos numerosas en el brazo principal del río que en los otros tipos. Los resultados muestran que junto a estas especies alóctonas en expansión, con altas tasas de reclutamiento, se encuentra una estructura poblacional muy precaria para las autóctonas, de las cuales únicamente se localizaron 12 náyades vivas y ningún esférido.

  17. Tectonics in the Northwestern West Philippine Basin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ni Xianglong; Wu Shiguo; Shinjo Ryuichi


    The West Philippine basin (WPB) is a currently inactive marginal basin belonging to Philippine Sea plate, which has a complex formation history and various crust structures. Based on gravity, magnetic and seismic data, the tectonics in West Philippine basin is characterized by amagnma spreading stage and strike slip fractures. NNE trending Okinawa-Luzon fracture zone is a large fracture zone with apparent geomorphology and shows a right-handed movement. The results of joint gravity-magnetic-seismic inversion suggest that the Okinawa-Luzon fracture zone has intensive deformation and is a transform fault. Western existence of the NW trending fractures under Ryukyu Islands Arc is the main cause of the differences between south and north Okinawa Trough. The Urdaneta plateau is not a remained arc, but remnant of mantle plume although its lava chemistry is similar to oceanic island basalt (OIB).

  18. Independent focuses Philippines exploration on Visayan basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rillera, F.G. [Cophil Exploration Corp., Manila (Philippines)


    Cophil Exploration Corp., a Filipino public company, spearheaded 1995 Philippine oil and gas exploration activity with the start of its gas delineation drilling operations in Libertad, northern Cebu. Cophil and its Australian partners, Coplex Resources NL and PacRim Energy NL, have set out to complete a seven well onshore drilling program within this block this year. The companies are testing two modest shallow gas plays, Libertad and Dalingding, and a small oil play, Maya, all in northern Cebu about 500 km southeast of Manila. Following a short discussion on the geology and exploration history of the Visayan basin, this article briefly summarizes Cophil`s ongoing Cebu onshore drilling program. Afterwards, discussion focuses on identified exploration opportunities in the basin`s offshore sector.

  19. Spatial Preference Heterogeneity for Integrated River Basin Management: The Case of the Shiyang River Basin, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fanus Asefaw Aregay


    Full Text Available Integrated river basin management (IRBM programs have been launched in most parts of China to ease escalating environmental degradation. Meanwhile, little is known about the benefits from and the support for these programs. This paper presents a case study of the preference heterogeneity for IRBM in the Shiyang River Basin, China, as measured by the Willingness to Pay (WTP, for a set of major restoration attributes. A discrete choice analysis of relevant restoration attributes was conducted. The results based on a sample of 1012 households in the whole basin show that, on average, there is significant support for integrated ecological restoration as indicated by significant WTP for all ecological attributes. However, residential location induced preference heterogeneities are prevalent. Generally, compared to upper-basin residents, middle sub-basin residents have lower mean WTP while lower sub-basin residents express higher mean WTP. The disparity in utility is partially explained by the difference in ecological and socio-economic status of the residents. In conclusion, estimating welfare benefit of IRBM projects based on sample responses from a specific sub-section of the basin only may either understate or overstate the welfare estimate.

  20. Hydrogeological Studies At Jalakandapuram Sub – Basin Of Sarabanga Minor Basin, Salem District,Tamil Nadu.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Subramani


    Full Text Available The main objective of the present study is to investigate the hydrogeology of the Jalakandapuram sub – basin, groundwater potential and quality of groundwater for domestic, industrial and agricultural purposes. Jalakandapuram ( Latitudes 11° 35‟30‟‟N to 11°46‟25‟‟N and Longitudes 77°48‟30‟‟ E to 78°2‟E Sub- basin is one among the four sub- basins of the Sarabanga minor basins which comes under the Cauvery basin. It has an areal extent of about 325 Sq.Kms. The study area has been studied with aerial Photographs (Block and white prepared under UNDP Project (1971 and satellite Imageries (IRS IA – LISS II . The base map of the Jalakandapuram sub – basin has been prepared from the topo sheets (1: 50,000 scale 58 E/14, 58 E/13, 58 I/2 Published by the Geological Survey of India in the year 1972. The location of the study area, its accessibility, Physiography, climate, rainfall and vegetation are presented. to classify the groundwater of Jalakandapuram sub-basin. This was done using the 25 water samples that were collected by the author and analysed in the Soil Testing Laboratory, Salem – 1. Plots of water samples in the hydrogeochemical classification diagrams (Piper‟s, Handa‟s and USSL throw light on the quality of groundwater within the study area.

  1. Avian cholera in Nebraska's Rainwater Basin (United States)

    Windingstad, R.M.; Hurt, J.J.; Trout, A.K.; Cary, J.


    The first report of avian cholera in North America occurred in northwestern Texas in winter 1944 (Quortrup et al. 1946). In 1975, mortality from avian cholera occurred for the first time in waterfowl in the Rainwater Basin of Nebraska when an estimated 25,000 birds died (Zinkl et al. 1977). Avian cholera has continued to cause mortality in wild birds in specific areas of the Basin each spring since. Losses of waterfowl from avian cholera continue to be much greater in some of the wetlands in the western part of the Basin than in the east. Several wetlands in the west have consistently higher mortality and are most often the wetlands where initial mortality is noticed each spring (Figure 1). The establishment of this disease in Nebraska is of considerable concern because of the importance of the Rainwater Basin as a spring staging area for waterfowl migrating to their breeding grounds. The wetlands in this area are on a major migration route used by an estimated 5 to 9 million ducks and several hundred thousand geese. A large portion of the western mid-continental greater white-fronted goose (Anser albifrons) population stage in the Basin each spring. Occasionally, whooping cranes (Grus americana) use these wetlands during migration, and lesser sandhill cranes (Grus canadensis) staging on the nearby Platte River sometimes use wetlands where avian cholera occurs (Anonymous 1981). Our objectives were to determine whether certain water quality variables in the Rainwater Basin differed between areas of high and low avian cholera incidence. These results would then be used for laboratory studies involving the survivability of Pasteurella multocida, the causative bacterium of avian cholera. Those studies will be reported elsewhere.

  2. Geothermal structure of Australia's east coast basins (United States)

    Danis, C. R.; O'Neill, C.


    The east coast sedimentary basins of Australia formed on an active margin of eastern Gondwana, and constitute an important hydrocarbon resource. The 1600km long Sydney-Gunnedah-Bowen Basin (SGBB) is largest east coast basin system, with thick Permian to Jurassic sedimentary successions overlying Palaeozoic basement rocks. The SGBB has been the focus of renewed geothermal exploration interest, however, the thermal state and geothermal potential of the system is largely unconstrained. Geothermal exploration programs require an accurate estimate of subsurface temperature information, in addition to favourable geology, to make informed decisions on potential targe developments. Primarily temperature information comes from downhole measurements, generally non-equilibrated, which are traditionally extrapolated to depth, however such extrapolation does not take into account variations in geological structure or thermal conductivity. Here we import deep 3D geological models into finite element conduction simulations, using the code Underworld, to calculate the deep thermal structure of the basin system. Underworld allows us to incorporate complex, detailed geological architecture models, incorporating different material properties for different layers, with variable temperature and depth-dependent properties. We adopt a fixed top boundary temperature on a variable topographic surface, and vary the bottom surface boundary condition, to converge of models which satisfy equilibrated downhole temperature measurement constraints. We find coal plays an important role in insulating sedimentary basins. Heat refracts around the coal interval and produces elevated temperatures beneath thick sediments, especially where thick coal intervals are present. This workflow has been formalized into an Underworld geothermal model library, enabling model centric computational workflows. Using the imported model architecture from the geology, data can be continuously updated and added to the

  3. The "normal" elongation of river basins (United States)

    Castelltort, Sebastien


    The spacing between major transverse rivers at the front of Earth's linear mountain belts consistently scales with about half of the mountain half-width [1], despite strong differences in climate and rock uplift rates. Like other empirical measures describing drainage network geometry this result seems to indicate that the form of river basins, among other properties of landscapes, is invariant. Paradoxically, in many current landscape evolution models, the patterns of drainage network organization, as seen for example in drainage density and channel spacing, seem to depend on both climate [2-4] and tectonics [5]. Hovius' observation [1] is one of several unexplained "laws" in geomorphology that still sheds mystery on how water, and rivers in particular, shape the Earth's landscapes. This narrow range of drainage network shapes found in the Earth's orogens is classicaly regarded as an optimal catchment geometry that embodies a "most probable state" in the uplift-erosion system of a linear mountain belt. River basins currently having an aspect away from this geometry are usually considered unstable and expected to re-equilibrate over geological time-scales. Here I show that the Length/Width~2 aspect ratio of drainage basins in linear mountain belts is the natural expectation of sampling a uniform or normal distribution of basin shapes, and bears no information on the geomorphic processes responsible for landscape development. This finding also applies to Hack's [6] law of river basins areas and lengths, a close parent of Hovius' law. [1]Hovius, N. Basin Res. 8, 29-44 (1996) [2]Simpson, G. & Schlunegger, F. J. Geophys. Res. 108, 2300 (2003) [3]Tucker, G. & Bras, R. Water Resour. Res. 34, 2751-2764 (1998) [4]Tucker, G. & Slingerland, R. Water Resour. Res. 33, 2031-2047 (1997) [5]Tucker, G. E. & Whipple, K. X. J. Geophys. Res. 107, 1-1 (2002) [6]Hack, J. US Geol. Surv. Prof. Pap. 294-B (1957)

  4. Paleohydrogeology of the San Joaquin basin, California (United States)

    Wilson, A.M.; Garven, G.; Boles, J.R.


    Mass transport can have a significant effect on chemical diagenetic processes in sedimentary basins. This paper presents results from the first part of a study that was designed to explore the role of an evolving hydrodynamic system in driving mass transport and chemical diagenesis, using the San Joaquin basin of California as a field area. We use coupled hydrogeologic models to establish the paleohydrogeology, thermal history, and behavior of nonreactive solutes in the basin. These models rely on extensive geological information and account for variable-density fluid flow, heat transport, solute transport, tectonic uplift, sediment compaction, and clay dehydration. In our numerical simulations, tectonic uplift and ocean regression led to large-scale changes in fluid flow and composition by strengthening topography-driven fluid flow and allowing deep influx of fresh ground water in the San Joaquin basin. Sediment compaction due to rapid deposition created moderate overpressures, leading to upward flow from depth. The unusual distribution of salinity in the basin reflects influx of fresh ground water to depths of as much as 2 km and dilution of saline fluids by dehydration reactions at depths greater than ???2.5 km. Simulations projecting the future salinity of the basin show marine salinities persisting for more than 10 m.y. after ocean regression. Results also show a change from topography-to compaction-driven flow in the Stevens Sandstone at ca. 5 Ma that coincides with an observed change in the diagenetic sequence. Results of this investigation provide a framework for future hydrologic research exploring the link between fluid flow and diagenesis.

  5. Exploration Experience and Problem concerning Deep Basin Gas in the Ordos Basin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    Deep basin gas (DBG) reservoirs, in view of the characteristics of their main parts containing gas, are a type of subtle stratigraphic lithologic traps. But they have different reservoir-forming principles, especially in the distribution of oil, gas and water. DBG is characterized by gas-water invertion, namely the water located above the gas; however, normal non-anticline subtle reservoirs have normal distribution of gas and water, namely the water located under the gas. The theory of DBG broke the conventional exploration idea that gas is usually found in the high part of reservoir and water is under the gas. So, it provided a wide field and a new idea for the exploration of natural gas. Recently Ben E. Law (2002), in his article entitled "Basin-centered Gas Systems", discussed global DBG systemically. He listed 72 basins or areas containing known or suspected DBG, covering North America, South America, Europe, Asia-Pacific, South Asia, Middle East and Africa. Ordos basin, the Sichuan basin and the Jungar basin in China are presented and assumed to be of very high possibility. In China more attention has been paid to the research and exploration of DBG in the past years. The symposiums on DBG were held twice, in Guangzhou in 1998 and in Xi'an in 2000 respectively. In 2002 in particular, the publication of the book named Deep Basin Gas in China by Professor Wangtao indicated that China has entered a new stage in the research on DBG. Meanwhile, it is more cheering that the exploration of DBG in the Ordos Basin has achieved remarkable success. Therefore, analyzing the exploration experiences and problems regarding the Ordos basin will promote the exploration and research of DBG in China.

  6. Palaeoclimatological perspective on river basin hydrometeorology: case of the Mekong Basin (United States)

    Räsänen, T. A.; Lehr, C.; Mellin, I.; Ward, P. J.; Kummu, M.


    Globally, there have been many extreme weather events in recent decades. A challenge has been to determine whether these extreme weather events have increased in number and intensity compared to the past. This challenge is made more difficult due to the lack of long-term instrumental data, particularly in terms of river discharge, in many regions including Southeast Asia. Thus our main aim in this paper is to develop a river basin scale approach for assessing interannual hydrometeorological and discharge variability on long, palaeological, time scales. For the development of the basin-wide approach, we used the Mekong River basin as a case study area, although the approach is also intended to be applicable to other basins. Firstly, we derived a basin-wide Palmer Drought Severity Index (PDSI) from the Monsoon Asia Drought Atlas (MADA). Secondly, we compared the basin-wide PDSI with measured discharge to validate our approach. Thirdly, we used basin-wide PDSI to analyse the hydrometeorology and discharge of the case study area over the study period of 1300-2005. For the discharge-MADA comparison and hydrometeorological analyses, we used methods such as linear correlations, smoothing, moving window variances, Levene type tests for variances, and wavelet analyses. We found that the developed basin-wide approach based on MADA can be used for assessing long-term average conditions and interannual variability for river basin hydrometeorology and discharge. It provides a tool for studying interannual discharge variability on a palaeological time scale, and therefore the approach contributes to a better understanding of discharge variability during the most recent decades. Our case study revealed that the Mekong has experienced exceptional levels of interannual variability during the post-1950 period, which could not be observed in any other part of the study period. The increased variability was found to be at least partly associated with increased El Niño Southern

  7. Contrasting basin architecture and rifting style of the Vøring Basin, offshore mid-Norway and the Faroe-Shetland Basin, offshore United Kingdom (United States)

    Schöpfer, Kateřina; Hinsch, Ralph


    The Vøring and the Faroe-Shetland basins are offshore deep sedimentary basins which are situated on the outer continental margin of the northeast Atlantic Ocean. Both basins are underlain by thinned continental crust whose structure is still debated. In particular the nature of the lower continental crust and the origin of high velocity bodies located at the base of the lower crust are a subject of discussion in recent literature. Regional interpretation of 2D and 3D seismic reflection data, combined with well data, suggest that both basins share several common features: (i) Pre-Cretaceous faults that are distributed across the entire basin width. (ii) Geometries of pre-Jurassic strata reflecting at least two extensional phases. (iii) Three common rift phases, Late Jurassic, Campanian-Maastrichtian and Palaeocene. (iv) Large pre-Cretaceous fault blocks that are buried by several kilometres of Cretaceous and Cenozoic strata. (iii). (v) Latest Cretaceous/Palaeocene inversion. (vi) Occurrence of partial mantle serpentinization during Early Cretaceous times, as proposed by other studies, seems improbable. The detailed analysis of the data, however, revealed significant differences between the two basins: (i) The Faroe-Shetland Basin was a fault-controlled basin during the Late Jurassic but also the Late Cretaceous extensional phase. In contrast, the Vøring Basin is dominated by the late Jurassic rifting and subsequent thermal subsidence. It exhibits only minor Late Cretaceous faults that are localised above intra-basinal and marginal highs. In addition, the Cretaceous strata in the Vøring Basin are folded. (ii) In the Vøring Basin, the locus of Late Cretaceous rifting shifted westwards, affecting mainly the western basin margin, whereas in the Faroe-Shetland Basin Late Cretaceous rifting was localised in the same area as the Late Jurassic phase, hence masking the original Jurassic geometries. (iii) Devono-Carboniferous and Aptian/Albian to Cenomanian rift phases

  8. Alluvial basin statistics of the Southwest Principal Aquifers (SWPA) study. (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — SWPA_alvbsn is a vector dataset of alluvial-fill basin statistics for the Southwest United States. Statistics for each basin include physical details such as area,...

  9. Early sedentary economy in the basin of Mexico. (United States)

    Niederberger, C


    Artifactual and nonartifactual evidence from the lacustrine shores of the Chalco-Xochimilco Basin suggest the existence of fully sedentary human communities in the Basin of Mexico from at least the sixth millennium B.C.

  10. Basin and Range Province, Western US, USGS Grids, #1 (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These grid files were used to produce gravity and basin depth maps of the Basin and Range Province, western United States. The maps show gravity values and modeled...

  11. Basin and Range Province, Western US, USGS Grids #5 (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These grid files were used to produce gravity and basin depth maps of the Basin and Range Province, western United States. The maps show gravity values and modeled...

  12. interpretation of reflection seismic data from the usangu basin, east

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Basin parameters to those estimated from outcrop, gravity and ... the East African Rift System (EARS) in Tanzania. .... In the north, the Usangu Basin is flanked .... the isostatic response of the eastern bounding fault of the Malawi rift and the.

  13. Basin and Range Province, Western US, USGS Grids #3 (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These grid files were used to produce gravity and basin depth maps of the Basin and Range Province, western United States. The maps show gravity values and modeled...

  14. 13 Morphometric Analysis of Ogunpa and Ogbere Drainage Basins ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Morphometric Analysis of Ogunpa and Ogbere Drainage Basins, Ibadan, Nigeria. *Ajibade ... complex rock in Southwestern Nigeria. .... This work was based on map analysis ..... Bs = VI/HE where Bs = Basin slope, VI = Vertical Interval and.

  15. Damming the rivers of the Amazon basin (United States)

    Latrubesse, Edgardo M.; Arima, Eugenio Y.; Dunne, Thomas; Park, Edward; Baker, Victor R.; D'Horta, Fernando M.; Wight, Charles; Wittmann, Florian; Zuanon, Jansen; Baker, Paul A.; Ribas, Camila C.; Norgaard, Richard B.; Filizola, Naziano; Ansar, Atif; Flyvbjerg, Bent; Stevaux, Jose C.


    More than a hundred hydropower dams have already been built in the Amazon basin and numerous proposals for further dam constructions are under consideration. The accumulated negative environmental effects of existing dams and proposed dams, if constructed, will trigger massive hydrophysical and biotic disturbances that will affect the Amazon basin’s floodplains, estuary and sediment plume. We introduce a Dam Environmental Vulnerability Index to quantify the current and potential impacts of dams in the basin. The scale of foreseeable environmental degradation indicates the need for collective action among nations and states to avoid cumulative, far-reaching impacts. We suggest institutional innovations to assess and avoid the likely impoverishment of Amazon rivers.

  16. A global distributed basin morphometric dataset (United States)

    Shen, Xinyi; Anagnostou, Emmanouil N.; Mei, Yiwen; Hong, Yang


    Basin morphometry is vital information for relating storms to hydrologic hazards, such as landslides and floods. In this paper we present the first comprehensive global dataset of distributed basin morphometry at 30 arc seconds resolution. The dataset includes nine prime morphometric variables; in addition we present formulas for generating twenty-one additional morphometric variables based on combination of the prime variables. The dataset can aid different applications including studies of land-atmosphere interaction, and modelling of floods and droughts for sustainable water management. The validity of the dataset has been consolidated by successfully repeating the Hack's law.

  17. The classification of polynomial basins of infinity

    CERN Document Server

    DeMarco, Laura


    We consider the problem of classifying the dynamics of complex polynomials $f: \\mathbb{C} \\to \\mathbb{C}$ restricted to their basins of infinity. We synthesize existing combinatorial tools --- tableaux, trees, and laminations --- into a new invariant of basin dynamics we call the pictograph. For polynomials with all critical points escaping to infinity, we obtain a complete description of the set of topological conjugacy classes. We give an algorithm for constructing abstract pictographs, and we provide an inductive algorithm for counting topological conjugacy classes with a given pictograph.

  18. Crustal structure of the Khartoum Basin, Sudan

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    El Tahir, N


    Full Text Available Tectonophysics Vol. 593 (2013) 151–160 Crustal structure of the Khartoum Basin, Sudan Nada El Tahir a,b,*, Andrew Nyblade a,b, Jordi Julià c, Raymond Durrheim a,d a School of Geosciences, The University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South... Centre for Mining Innovation, Johannesburg, South Africa *Corresponding author: Abstract The crustal structure of the northern part of the Khartoum Basin has been investigated using data from 3 permanent seismic stations...

  19. Water resources of the Chad Basin Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franklyn R. Kaloko


    Full Text Available River basin development is seen as a very effective means of improving agricultural productivity. In the Chad Basin area of the Sahelian Zone of the West African Sub-Region, the water resources have been harnessed to ensure viable agricultural programmes for Nigeria. However,the resultant successes have met by many problems that range from physical to socio-economic and of which water losses have been the most threatening. The study has called for the use of Hexa.deconal (C1-OH film on the water surface of the Chad as a means of reducing evaporation.

  20. Tectonic differences between eastern and western sub-basins of the Qiongdongnan Basin and their dynamics (United States)

    Liu, Jianbao; Sun, Zhen; Wang, Zhenfeng; Sun, Zhipeng; Zhao, Zhongxian; Wang, Zhangwen; Zhang, Cuimei; Qiu, Ning; Zhang, Jiangyang


    The central depression of the Qiongdongnan Basin can be divided into the eastern and western sub-basins by the Lingshui-Songnan paleo-uplift. To the northwest, the orientation of the faults turns from NE, to EW, and later to NW; In the southwest, the orientation of the faults turns from NE, to NNE, and then to NW, making the central depression much wider towards the west. In the eastern sub-basin, the NE-striking faults and the EW-striking faults made up an echelon, making the central depression turn wider towards the east. Fault activity rates indicate that faulting spreads gradually from both the east and west sides to the middle of the basin. Hence, extensional stress in the eastern sub-basin may be related to the South China Sea spreading system, whereas the western sub-basin was more under the effect of the activity of the Red River Fault. The extreme crustal stretching in the eastern sub-basin was probably related to magmatic setting. It seems that there are three periods of magmatic events that occurred in the eastern sub-basin. In the eastern part of the southern depression, the deformed strata indicate that the magma may have intruded into the strata along faults around T60 (23.3 Ma). The second magmatic event occurred earlier than 10.5 Ma, which induced the accelerated subsidence. The final magmatic event commenced later than 10 Ma, which led to today's high heat flow. As for the western sub-basin, the crust thickened southward, and there seemed to be a southeastward lower crustal flow, which happened during continental breakup which was possibly superimposed by a later lower crustal flow induced by the isostatic compensation of massive sedimentation caused by the right lateral slipping of the Red River Fault. Under the huge thick sediment, super pressure developed in the western sub-basin. In summary, the eastern sub-basin was mainly affected by the South China Sea spreading system and a magma setting, whereas the western sub-basin had a closer

  1. SimBasin: serious gaming for integrated decision-making in the Magdalena-Cauca basin (United States)

    Craven, Joanne; Angarita, Hector; Corzo, Gerald


    The Magdalena-Cauca macrobasin covers 24% of the land area of Colombia, and provides more than half of the country's economic potential. The basin is also home a large proportion of Colombia's biodiversity. These conflicting demands have led to problems in the basin, including a dramatic fall in fish populations, additional flooding (such as the severe nationwide floods caused by the La Niña phenomenon in 2011), and habitat loss. It is generally believed that the solution to these conflicts is to manage the basin in a more integrated way, and bridge the gaps between decision-makers in different sectors and scientists. To this end, inter-ministerial agreements are being formulated and a decision support system is being developed by The Nature Conservancy Colombia. To engage stakeholders in this process SimBasin, a "serious game", has been developed. It is intended to act as a catalyst for bringing stakeholders together, an illustration of the uncertainties, relationships and feedbacks in the basin, and an accessible introduction to modelling and decision support for non-experts. During the game, groups of participants are led through a 30 year future development of the basin, during which they take decisions about the development of the basin and see the impacts on four different sectors: agriculture, hydropower, flood risk, and environment. These impacts are displayed through seven indicators, which players should try to maintain above critical thresholds. To communicate the effects of uncertainty and climate variability, players see the actual value of the indicator and also a band of possible values, so they can see if their decisions have actually reduced risk or if they just "got lucky". The game works as a layer on top of a WEAP water resources model of the basin, adapted from a basin-wide model already created, so the fictional game basin is conceptually similar to the Magdalena-Cauca basin. The game is freely available online, and new applications are being

  2. Morphometric analysis of Suketi river basin, Himachal Himalaya, India

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Anil M Pophare; Umesh S Balpande


    Suketi river basin is located in the Mandi district of Himachal Pradesh, India. It encompasses a central inter-montane valley and surrounding mountainous terrain in the Lower Himachal Himalaya. Morphometric analysis of the Suketi river basin was carried out to study its drainage characteristics and overall groundwater resource potential. The entire Suketi river basin has been divided into five sub-basins based on the catchment areas of Suketi trunk stream and its major tributaries. Quantitative assessment of each sub-basin was carried out for its linear, areal, and relief aspects. The analysis reveals that the drainage network of the entire Suketi river basin constitutes a 7th order basin. Out of five sub-basins, Kansa khad sub-basin (KKSB), Gangli khad sub-basin (GKSB) and Ratti khad sub-basin (RKSB) are 5th order subbasins. The Dadour khad sub-basin (DKSB) is 6th order sub-basin, while Suketi trunk stream sub-basin (STSSB) is a 7th order sub-basin. The entire drainage basin area reflects late youth to early mature stage of development of the fluvial geomorphic cycle, which is dominated by rain and snow fed lower order streams. It has low stream frequency (Fs) and moderate drainage density (Dd) of 2.69 km/km2. Bifurcation ratios (Rb) of various stream orders indicate that streams up to 3rd order are surging through highly dissected mountainous terrain, which facilitates high overland flow and less recharge into the subsurface resulting in low groundwater potential in the zones of 1st, 2nd, and 3rd order streams of the Suketi river basin. The circulatory ratio (Rc) of 0.65 and elongation ratio (Re) of 0.80 show elongated nature of the Suketi river basin, while infiltration number (If) of 10.66 indicates dominance of relief features and low groundwater potential in the high altitude mountainous terrain. The asymmetry factor (Af) of Suketi river basin indicates that the palaeo-tectonic tilting, at drainage basin scale, was towards the downstream right side of the

  3. Notice of release of 'Trailhead II' basin wildrye (United States)

    'Trailhead II' basin wildrye [Leymus cinereus (Scribn. & Merr.) A. Love] is a tetraploid basin wildrye release for use in re-vegetation efforts on rangelands of western North America. Trailhead II is the result of two cycles of recurrent selection within the basin wildrye cultivar 'Trailhead' for r...

  4. 75 FR 11000 - Security Zone; Freeport LNG Basin, Freeport, TX (United States)


    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA87 Security Zone; Freeport LNG Basin, Freeport, TX AGENCY... in the Freeport LNG Basin. This security zone is needed to protect vessels, waterfront facilities... notice of proposed rulemaking (NPRM) entitled Security Zone; Freeport LNG Basin, Freeport, TX in...

  5. Seismic evidence of tectonic stresses; Implications for basin reconstruction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tigrek, S.


    Stress and strain are two important rheological parameters that have impacts on basin development and dynamics. The dynamic evolution of a basin depends on the spatial and temporal changes in the stresses. How to determine the reference state of stress within a sedimentary basin and the magnitude of

  6. Morphometric analyses of the river basins in Goa

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Iyer, S.D.; Wagle, B.G.

    to satisfy Horton's Laws. The bifurcation ratios show the maturity of the dissected basins. Except for the basins of Mandovi and Zuvari rivers which are more elongated and less circular, the other five basins are more circular and less elongated. The high...

  7. 76 FR 61382 - Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council (United States)


    ... Bureau of Reclamation Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council AGENCY: Bureau of Reclamation, Interior. ACTION: Notice of public meeting. ] SUMMARY: The Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council (Council) was established by the Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Act of 1974 (Pub....

  8. 75 FR 25877 - Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council (United States)


    ... Bureau of Reclamation Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council AGENCY: Bureau of Reclamation, Interior. ACTION: Notice of public meeting. SUMMARY: The Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council (Council) was established by the Colorado River Basin Salinity Control ] Act of 1974...

  9. 78 FR 70574 - Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council (United States)


    ....20350010.REG0000, RR04084000] Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council AGENCY: Bureau of Reclamation, Interior. ACTION: Notice of public meeting. SUMMARY: The Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council (Council) was established by the Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Act of 1974 (Pub....

  10. 77 FR 23508 - Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council (United States)


    ... Bureau of Reclamation Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council AGENCY: Bureau of Reclamation, Interior. ACTION: Notice of public meeting. SUMMARY: The Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council (Council) was established by the Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Act of 1974 (Pub....

  11. 75 FR 27360 - Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council (United States)


    ... Bureau of Reclamation Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council AGENCY: Bureau of Reclamation, Interior. ACTION: Notice of public meeting. SUMMARY: The Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council (Council) was established by the Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Act of 1974 (Pub....

  12. 75 FR 66389 - Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council (United States)


    ... Bureau of Reclamation Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council AGENCY: Bureau of Reclamation, Interior. ACTION: Notice of public meeting. SUMMARY: The Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council (Council) was established by the Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Act of 1974 (Pub....

  13. 76 FR 24515 - Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council (United States)


    ... Bureau of Reclamation Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council AGENCY: Bureau of... Committee Act, the Bureau of Reclamation announces that the Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory...) 524-3826; e-mail at: . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The Colorado River Basin...

  14. 77 FR 61784 - Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council (United States)


    ... Bureau of Reclamation Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council AGENCY: Bureau of Reclamation, Interior. ACTION: Notice of public meeting. SUMMARY: The Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council (Council) was established by the Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Act of 1974 (Pub....

  15. 78 FR 23784 - Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council (United States)


    ... Bureau of Reclamation Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council AGENCY: Bureau of Reclamation, Interior. ACTION: Notice of public meeting. SUMMARY: The Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council (Council) was established by the Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Act of 1974...

  16. Riddled Basins of Attraction for Synchronized Type-I Intermittency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mancher, Martin; Nordahn, Morten; Mosekilde, Erik


    Chaotic mortion resticted to an invariant subspace of total phase space may be associated with basins of attraction that are riddled with holes belonging to the basin of another limiting state. We study the emergence of such basins of two coupled one-dimensional maps, each exhibiting type...

  17. The Interior Columbia Basin Ecosystem Management Project: scientific assessment. (United States)


    This CD-ROM contains digital versions (PDF) of the major scientific documents prepared for the Interior Columbia Basin Ecosystem Management Project (ICBEMP). "A Framework for Ecosystem Management in the Interior Columbia Basin and Portions of the Klamath and Great Basins" describes a general planning model for ecosystem management. The "Highlighted...

  18. Detailed bathymetric surveys in the central Indian Basin

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Kodagali, V.N.; KameshRaju, K.A.; Ramprasad, T.; George, P.; Jaisankar, S.

    Over 420,000 line kilometers of echo-sounding data was collected in the Central Indian Basin. This data was digitized, merged with navigation data and a detailed bathymetric map of the Basin was prepared. The Basin can be broadly classified...


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ernest A. Mancini; Donald A. Goddard


    The principal research effort for Year 3 of the project is basin modeling and petroleum system identification, comparative basin evaluation and resource assessment. In the first six (6) months of Year 3, the research focus is on basin modeling and petroleum system identification and the remainder of the year the emphasis is on the comparative basin evaluation and resource assessment. No major problems have been encountered to date, and the project is on schedule.

  20. Klamath Basin Restoration Agreement Off-Project Water Program Sub-basin Analysis Flow Statistics (United States)


  1. Strain localisation during basin inversion in the North German basin and the Donbas Fold Belt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maystrenko, Y.; Bayer, U. [GFZ Potsdam (Germany); Gajewski, D. [Hamburg Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Geophysik


    The DEKORP Basin'96 and the DOBREflection-200 lines provide two world wide exceptional examples of successfully performed deep seismic lines. This is especially true for the inversion of the two basins by representing probably two stages in the amount of shortening accompanied by strain localization causing decoupling of the sedimentary fill from the deeper crust within the North East German basin and the Donbas Fold Belt. High-velocity bodies are observed in the DEKORP Basin'96 and DOBREflection-2000 reflection seismic lines. These bodies may have been essential in localizing strain localisation by counteracting compressive forces and causing folding and finally failure and faulting of the deep crust. (orig.)

  2. New aerogeophysical study of the Eurasia Basin and Lomonosov Ridge: Implications for basin development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brozena, J.M.; Childers, V.A.; Lawver, L.A.


    In 1998 and 1999, new aerogeophysical surveys of the Arctic Ocean's Eurasia Basin produced the first collocated gravity and magnetic measurements over the western half of the basin. These data increase the density and extend the coverage of the U.S. Navy acromagnetic data from the 1970s. The new...... to the Norwegian-Greenland Sea. With the opening of the Labrador Sea, Greenland began similar to200 km of northward movement relative to North America and eventually collided with Svalbard, Ellesmere Island, and the nascent Eurasia ocean basin. Both gravity and magnetic data sets reconstructed to times prior...... to chron 13 show a prominent linear anomaly oriented orthogonal to the spreading center and immediately north of the Yermak Plateau and Morris Jesup Rise. This anomaly may mark the locus of shortening and possibly subduction as Greenland collided with the nascent Eurasia Basin and impinged upon...

  3. Basin Subsegments from LDEQ source data, Geographic NAD83, LOSCO (2004) [basin_subsegments_LDEQ_2004 (United States)

    Louisiana Geographic Information Center — This is a polygon data set of watershed basin subsegments for Louisiana. The dataset was developed for the LDEQ Office of Water Resources' watershed assessment and...

  4. Somali Basin, Chain Ridge, and origin of the Northern Somali Basin gravity and geoid low (United States)

    Cochran, James R.


    Geophysical data are used to investigate the origin of the Northern Somali Basin and its relationship to surrounding tectonic elements. The results show the Northern Somali Basin to be the third of a series of oceanic basins separated by long transform faults created during movement between East and West Gondwanaland. The flexure resulting from differential subsidence across Chain Ridge along with the difference in lithospheric thermal structure on either side of it can account for the amplitude and shape of the observed geoid step and gravity anomalies across Chain Rige. It is suggested that the geoid and gravity low over the Northern Somali Basin may result from the superposition of a continental edge effect anomaly and the fracture zone edge effect anomaly.

  5. Deep controls on intraplate basin inversion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, S.B.; Stephenson, Randell Alexander; Schiffer, Christian


    favourably orientated with respect to pre-existing structures in the lithosphere. Furthermore, stresses derived from lithospheric potential energy variations as well as those from plate boundary forces must be taken into account in order to explain intraplate seismicity and deformation such as basin...

  6. Klamath Basin Water Rights Place of Use (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Hydrological Information Products for the Off-Project Water Program of the Klamath Basin Restoration Agreement U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 2012-1199 U.S....

  7. Alboran Basin, southern Spain - Part I: Geomorphology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Munoz, A. [Secretaria General de Pesca Maritima, Corazon de Maria, 8, 28002 Madrid (Spain); Ballesteros, M.; Rivera, J.; Acosta, J. [Instituto Espanol de Oceanografia, Corazon de Maria, 8, 28002 Madrid (Spain); Montoya, I. [Universidad Juan Carlos I, Campus de Mostoles, Madrid (Spain); Uchupi, E. [Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, Woods Hole, MA 02543 (United States)


    Bathymetric, 3D relief and shaded relief maps created from multibeam echo-sounding data image the morphology of the Alboran Basin, a structural low along the east-west-trending Eurasian-African plates boundary. Topographic features in the basin are the consequence of volcanism associated with Miocene rifting, rift and post-rift sedimentation, and recent faulting resulting from the convergence of the African-Eurasian plates. Pleistiocene glacially induced regressions/transgressions when the sea level dropped to about 150 m below its present level gas seeps and bottom currents. Recent faulting and the Pleistocene transgressions/regressions led to mass-wasting, formation of turbidity currents and canyon erosion on the basin's slopes. Recent fault traces at the base of the northern basin slope have also served as passageways for thermogenic methane, the oxidation of which by bacteria led to the formation of carbonate mounds along the fault intercepts on the sea floor. Expulsion of thermogenic or biogenic gas has led to the formation of pockmarks; erosion by bottom currents has resulted in the formation of moats around seamounts and erosion of the seafloor of the Alboran Ridge and kept the southern edge of the 36 10'N high sediment free. (author)

  8. Tectonic subsidence of the Sirte Basin, Libya

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gumati, Y.D.; Nairn, A.E.M. (South Carolina Univ., Columbia, SC (US). Earth Sciences and Resources Inst.)


    The Sirte Basin of Libya has a history of faulting and differential subsidence brought about by lithospheric extension during a 25 MM (million) year period beginning in the Late Cretaceous. The first phase of extension and initial subsidence, with faulting and graben formation, occurred from Cenomanian to Campanian times. Following extension, there occurred widespread thermally-driven subsidence from Maastrichtian through Eocene and Oligocene times, accounting for about half of the total subsidence. Details of basin subsidence, sediment accumulation rates and facies variations have been reconstructed for the northern Sirte Basin from a suite of approximately 100 completion well logs and numerous seismic lines. These show that at various times in the late Cretaceous and Paleocene-Eocene, renewed differential subsidence followed fault reactivation. Tectonic subsidence maps show a systematic SE to NW shift in the loci of maximum and minimum subsidence, which parallels the structural trend of the basin. The greatest subsidence observed in the Sirte Trough is 2,085 meters, whereas subsidence of the horsts is generally less than 1,000 meters. The stretching factor ({beta}: in the range of 1.1 to 1.75), corresponds to an extension of 10-75%, with an average of less than 50%. The greatest stretching is associated with the central graben. (Author).

  9. Analytical framework for River Basin Management Planning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Helle Ørsted; Pedersen, Anders Branth; Frederiksen, Pia

    This paper proposes a framework for the analysis of the planning approach, and the processes and procedures, which have been followed in the preparation of the River Basin District Management Plans (RBMPs). Different countries have different policy and planning traditions and -styles. Developed o...

  10. Water and Security in the Jordan Basin (United States)


    political, and diplomatic strengths. For this reason alone, it serves as an excellent tool for working on the problems of the Jordan basin. 561...and Brdens:L R pr cm the West Bank and Gaza rip Ecnmi since 1967. New York: Carnegie Endowment, 1977. Weinbaum, Marvin G. F Devopment and Politing in

  11. Stochastic basins of attraction for metastable states. (United States)

    Serdukova, Larissa; Zheng, Yayun; Duan, Jinqiao; Kurths, Jürgen


    Basin of attraction of a stable equilibrium point is an effective concept for stability analysis in deterministic systems; however, it does not contain information on the external perturbations that may affect it. Here we introduce the concept of stochastic basin of attraction (SBA) by incorporating a suitable probabilistic notion of basin. We define criteria for the size of the SBA based on the escape probability, which is one of the deterministic quantities that carry dynamical information and can be used to quantify dynamical behavior of the corresponding stochastic basin of attraction. SBA is an efficient tool to describe the metastable phenomena complementing the known exit time, escape probability, or relaxation time. Moreover, the geometric structure of SBA gives additional insight into the system's dynamical behavior, which is important for theoretical and practical reasons. This concept can be used not only in models with small noise intensity but also with noise whose amplitude is proportional or in general is a function of an order parameter. As an application of our main results, we analyze a three potential well system perturbed by two types of noise: Brownian motion and non-Gaussian α-stable Lévy motion. Our main conclusions are that the thermal fluctuations stabilize the metastable system with an asymmetric three-well potential but have the opposite effect for a symmetric one. For Lévy noise with larger jumps and lower jump frequencies ( α=0.5) metastability is enhanced for both symmetric and asymmetric potentials.

  12. sedimentology, depositional environments and basin evolution of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Preferred Customer

    The Delbi-Moye Basin consists of two sedimentary units (upper and lower sedimentary ... alluvial fan, fluviatile, off shore lacustrine, shoreline lacustrine and paludal and/or swampy depositonal .... Lower mudstone, gravely sandstone and sandy con- glomerates ...... Alluvial sand- stone composition and palaeoclimate: I.

  13. SEA of river basin management plans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Sanne Vammen; Kørnøv, Lone


    In, 2000 the European Parliament and the European Council passed the Water Framework Directive (WFD) to be implemented in all Member States. The consequence of the directive is that river basin management plans (RBMPs) shall be prepared which are legally subject to a strategic environmental...

  14. KE Basin underwater visual fuel survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pitner, A.L.


    Results of an underwater video fuel survey in KE Basin using a high resolution camera system are presented. Quantitative and qualitative information on fuel degradation are given, and estimates of the total fraction of ruptured fuel elements are provided. Representative photographic illustrations showing the range of fuel conditions observed in the survey are included.

  15. Evidence for Himalayanremagnetization in TarimBasin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Himalayan remagnetization in the Tarim Basin was found to be widespread in Paleozoic, Mesozoic and Cenozoic rocks. Rock magnetism was performed to study the magnetic carriers. The authors believe that tectonic fluid in the Himalayan stage caused the rock remagnetization. The framboidal pyrites in bitumen and hydrocarbon-rich rocks may transform to framboidal magnetite in the later alkali environment, which leads to remagnetization.

  16. Evolution of Mesozoic Volcanic Basins and Red Basins in the Gan-Hang Tectonic-Volcanic Metallogenic Belt

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    This paper mainly proposes six major regional geological events in the active continental-margin mantle uplift zone and discusses the oscillation nature of the evolution of Mesozoic volcanic basins and red basins, origin of erosion in the late stage of red basins and mechanism of volcanism.

  17. Integrated high-resolution stratigraphy: Relative contributions of tectonics, eustasy and climate on basin evolution (Vienna Basin, Austria)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Paulissen, W.E.


    Sedimentary basins form in a range of large-scale tectonic settings involving extensional, compressional or lateral movements. The dynamics of the basin infill are controlled by driving mechanisms such as tectonics, climate and eustatic control. The created accommodation space in the basin is filled

  18. Modeling Nitrogen Losses under Rapid Infiltration Basins (United States)

    Akhavan, M.; Imhoff, P. T.; Andres, A. S.; Finsterle, S.


    Rapid Infiltration Basin System (RIBS) is one of the major land treatment techniques used for wastewater treatment and reuse of recovered treated wastewater. In this system, wastewater that is treated using primary, secondary, or advanced treatment techniques is applied at high rates to shallow basins constructed in permeable deposits of soil or sand, with further treatment occurring in soil and the vadose zone before the water recharges groundwater. Because the influent wastewater is usually enriched in nitrogen (N) compounds, there is particular concern that RIBS may contaminant groundwater or nearby surface waters if not designed and operated properly. In most of the new sequenced batch reactor (SBR) wastewater treatment plants, N is found in the form of nitrate in the discharged wastewater, so denitrification (DNF) is the main reaction in N removal. The absence of molecular oxygen is one of the required conditions for DNF. During RIBS operation, application of wastewater is cyclic and typically consists of a flooding period followed by days or weeks of drying. Key operational parameters include the ratio of wetting to drying time and the hydraulic loading rate, which affect water saturation and air content in the vadose zone and as a result have an impact on DNF. Wastewater is typically distributed at a limited number of discharge points in RIBS and basins are not usually completely flooded which result in non-homogeneous distribution of wastewater and unusual surface water flow patterns. For this reason, we couple overland flow within RIBS with subsurface flow to investigate the influence of non-uniform application of wastewater on DNF. No modeling effort has been done for understanding this aspect of RIBS performance previously. TOUGH2/ iTOUGH2, a general-purpose numerical simulation program for multi-phase fluid flow in porous media, is used for modeling fluid movement. Water saturation is used as a surrogate parameter to evaluate oxygen limitations in the


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available The Jurassic history of the Pieniny/Outer Carpathian basins reflects the evolution of the Circum-Tethyan area, especially its Alpine Tethys part. The Alpine Tethys that is Ligurian, Penninic Oceans and Pieniny/Magura Basin constitute the extension of the Central Atlantic system. The synrift stage lasted in the Pieniny/Magura Basin from late Early Jurassic to Tithonian (the Magura Unit constitutes the southernmost part of the Outer Flysch Carpathians. The Pieniny rift opened during Pliensbachian – Aalenian. The central Atlantic and Alpine Tethys went into a drifting stage during the Middle Jurassic. The Late Jurassic (Oxfordian-Kimmeridgian history of the Pieniny/Magura Basin reflects strongest facial differentiation within sedimentary basin where mixed siliceous-carbonate sedimentation took place. Greatest deepening effect is indicated by widespread Oxfordian radiolarites, which occur in the all basinal successions, whereas the shallowest zone is completely devoid of siliceous intercalations at that time (sedimentation from Ammonitico Rosso facies up to coral reef limestone. The southern part of the North European Platform, north from the Pieniny/Magura realm, started to be rifted during Late Jurassic time and Silesian Basin in the Outer Western Carpathians and Sinaia Basin in the Eastern Carpathians, with black, mainly redeposited marls have been created. The outer sub-basins were differentiated during the latest (Hauterivian-Barremian phase of basinal development. The connection of Silesian Basin with Sinaia and Southern Carpathian Severin areas suggests the NW-SE direction of the basinal axis while the orientation of the Pieniny Klippen Belt/Magura Basin was SW-NE so, two Outer Carpathian perpendicular directions are possible within the basins. Major reorganization happened during the Tithonian-Berriasian time. It was reflected by both paleoceanographical and paleoclimatical changes. The Neo-Cimmerian tectonic events as well as main phase

  20. Classification of Complex Reservoirs in Superimposed Basins of Western China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PANG Xiongqi; ZHOU Xinyuan; LIN Changsong; HUO Zhipeng; LUO Xiaorong; PANG Hong


    Many of the sedimentary basins in western China were formed through the superposition and compounding of at least two previously developed sedimentary basins and in general they can be termed as complex superimposed basins.The distinct differences between these basins and monotype basins are their discontinuous stratigraphic sedimentation,stratigraphic structure and stratigraphic stress-strain action over geological history.Based on the correlation of chronological age on structural sections,superimposed basins can be divided into five types in this study:(1)continuous sedimentation type superimposed basins,(2)middle and late stratigraphic superimposed basins,(3)early and late stratigraphic superimposed basins,(4)early and middle stratigraphic superimposed basins,and(5)long-term exposed superimposed basins.Multiple source-reservoir-caprock assemblages have developed in such basins.In addition,multi-stage hydrocarbon generation and expulsion,multiple sources,polycyclic hydrocarbon accumulation and multiple-type hydrocarbon reservoirs adjustment,reformation and destruction have occurred in these basins.The complex reservoirs that have been discovered widely in the superimposed basins to date have remarkably different geologic features from primary reservoirs,and the root causes of this are folding,denudation and the fracture effect caused by multiphase tectonic events in the superimposed basins as well as associated seepage,diffusion,spilling,oxidation,degradation and cracking.Based on their genesis characteristics,complex reservoirs are divided into five categories:(1)primary reservoirs,(2)trap adjustment type reservoirs,(3)component variant reservoirs,(4)phase conversion type reservoirs and(5)scale-reformed reservoirs.

  1. Fishes of the Taquari-Antas river basin (Patos Lagoon basin, southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FG. Becker

    Full Text Available The aquatic habitats of the Taquari-Antas river basin (in the Patos Lagoon basin, southern Brazil are under marked environmental transformation because of river damming for hydropower production. In order to provide an information baseline on the fish fauna of the Taquari-Antas basin, we provide a comprehensive survey of fish species based on primary and secondary data. We found 5,299 valid records of fish species in the basin, representing 119 species and 519 sampling sites. There are 13 non-native species, six of which are native to other Neotropical river basins. About 24% of the total native species are still lacking a taxonomic description at the species level. Three native long-distance migratory species were recorded (Leporinus obtusidens, Prochilodus lineatus, Salminus brasiliensis, as well as two potential mid-distance migrators (Parapimelodus nigribarbis and Pimelodus pintado. Although there is only one officially endangered species in the basin (S. brasiliensis, restricted range species (21.7% of total species should be considered in conservation efforts.

  2. Modeling Fluid Flow in Faulted Basins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faille I.


    Full Text Available This paper presents a basin simulator designed to better take faults into account, either as conduits or as barriers to fluid flow. It computes hydrocarbon generation, fluid flow and heat transfer on the 4D (space and time geometry obtained by 3D volume restoration. Contrary to classical basin simulators, this calculator does not require a structured mesh based on vertical pillars nor a multi-block structure associated to the fault network. The mesh follows the sediments during the evolution of the basin. It deforms continuously with respect to time to account for sedimentation, erosion, compaction and kinematic displacements. The simulation domain is structured in layers, in order to handle properly the corresponding heterogeneities and to follow the sedimentation processes (thickening of the layers. In each layer, the mesh is unstructured: it may include several types of cells such as tetrahedra, hexahedra, pyramid, prism, etc. However, a mesh composed mainly of hexahedra is preferred as they are well suited to the layered structure of the basin. Faults are handled as internal boundaries across which the mesh is non-matching. Different models are proposed for fault behavior such as impervious fault, flow across fault or conductive fault. The calculator is based on a cell centered Finite Volume discretisation, which ensures conservation of physical quantities (mass of fluid, heat at a discrete level and which accounts properly for heterogeneities. The numerical scheme handles the non matching meshes and guaranties appropriate connection of cells across faults. Results on a synthetic basin demonstrate the capabilities of this new simulator.

  3. Magmatism in rifting and basin formation (United States)

    Thybo, H.


    Whether heating and magmatism cause rifting or rifting processes cause magmatic activity is highly debated. The stretching factor in rift zones can be estimated as the relation between the initial and the final crustal thickness provided that the magmatic addition to the crust is insignificant. Recent research demonstrates substantial magmatic intrusion into the crust in the form of sill like structures in the lowest crust in the presently active Kenya and Baikal rift zones and the DonBas palaeo-rift zone in Ukraine. This result may be surprising as the Kenya Rift is associated with large amounts of volcanic products, whereas the Baikal Rift shows very little volcanism. Identification of large amounts of magmatic intrusion into the crust has strong implications for estimation of stretching factor, which in the case of Baikal Rift Zone is around 1.7 but direct estimation gives a value of 1.3-1.4 if the magmatic addition is not taken into account. This may indicate that much more stretching has taken place on rift systems than hitherto believed. Wide sedimentary basins may form around aborted rifts due to loading of the lithosphere by sedimentary and volcanic in-fill of the rift. This type of subsidence will create wide basins without faulting. The Norwegian- Danish basin in the North Sea area also has subsided gradually during the Triassic without faulting, but only few rift structures have been identified below the Triassic sequences. We have identified several mafic intrusions in the form of large batholiths, typically more than 100 km long, 20-40 km wide and 20 km thick. The associated heating would have lifted the surface by about 2 km, which may have been eroded before cooling. The subsequent contraction due to solidification and cooling would create subsidence in a geometry similar to basins that developed by loading. These new aspects of magmatism will be discussed with regard to rifting and basin formation.

  4. Analysis of K west basin canister gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trimble, D.J., Fluor Daniel Hanford


    Gas and Liquid samples have been collected from a selection of the approximately 3,820 spent fuel storage canisters in the K West Basin. The samples were taken to characterize the contents of the gas and water in the canisters providing source term information for two subprojects of the Spent Nuclear Fuel Project (SNFP) (Fulton 1994): the K Basins Integrated Water Treatment System Subproject (Ball 1996) and the K Basins Fuel Retrieval System Subproject (Waymire 1996). The barrels of ten canisters were sampled for gas and liquid in 1995, and 50 canisters were sampled in a second campaign in 1996. The analysis results from the first campaign have been reported (Trimble 1995a, 1995b, 1996a, 1996b). The analysis results from the second campaign liquid samples have been documented (Trimble and Welsh 1997; Trimble 1997). This report documents the results for the gas samples from the second campaign and evaluates all gas data in terms of expected releases when opening the canisters for SNFP activities. The fuel storage canisters consist of two closed and sealed barrels, each with a gas trap. The barrels are attached at a trunion to make a canister, but are otherwise independent (Figure 1). Each barrel contains up to seven N Reactor fuel element assemblies. A gas space of nitrogen was established in the top 2.2 to 2.5 inches (5.6 to 6.4 cm) of each barrel. Many of the fuel elements were damaged allowing the metallic uranium fuel to be corroded by the canister water. The corrosion releases fission products and generates hydrogen gas. The released gas mixes with the gas-space gas and excess gas passes through the gas trap into the basin water. The canister design does not allow canister water to be exchanged with basin water.

  5. Okanogan Basin Spring Spawner Report for 2007.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colville Tribes, Department of Fish & Wildlife


    The Okanogan Basin Monitoring and Evaluation Program collected data related to spring spawning anadromous salmonid stocks across the entire Okanogan River basin. Data were collected using redd surveys, traps, underwater video, and PIT-tag technology then summarized and analyzed using simple estimate models. From these efforts we estimated that 1,266 summer steelhead spawned in the Okanogan River basin and constructed 552 redds;152 of these fish where of natural origin. Of these, 121 summer steelhead, including 29 of natural origin, created an estimated 70 redds in the Canadian portion of the Okanagan basin. We estimated summer steelhead spawner escapement into each sub-watershed along with the number from natural origin and the number and density of redds. We documented redd desiccation in Loup Loup Creek, habitat utilization in Salmon Creek as a result of a new water lease program, and 10 spring Chinook returning to Omak Creek. High water through most of the redd survey period resulted in development of new modeling techniques and allowed us to survey additional tributaries including the observation of summer steelhead spawning in Wanacut Creek. These 2007 data provide additional support that redd surveys conducted within the United States are well founded and provide essential information for tracking the recovery of listed summer steelhead. Conversely, redd surveys do not appear to be the best approach for enumerating steelhead spawners or there distribution within Canada. We also identified that spawning distributions within the Okanogan River basin vary widely and stocking location may play an over riding roll in this variability.

  6. Petroleum systems of the Taoudeni Basin,West Africa

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Huang Zhilong; Zhao Baoshun; Jiang Qingchun; Wang Songpo; Liu Bo


    The Taoudeni Basin is a typical steady intracratonic basin. Based on the distribution of effective source rocks in the Taoudeni Basin, combined with the structure characteristics of the basin and the distribution characteristics of reservoir beds, two petroleum systems are recognized in the basin:the infra-Cambrian petroleum system and the Silurian petroleum system. Structural uplift and timing of petroleum generation controlled the timing of petroleum charging and preservation of hydrocarbon accumulations. Maturity, evolution history, and distribution of effective source rocks controlled hydrocarbon richness. The geological key factors and geological processes controlled the type of hydrocarbon accumulations.

  7. Faunal migration into the Late Permian Zechstein Basin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Anne Mehlin; Håkansson, Eckart; Stemmerik, Lars


    the northern margin of Pangea is used to test hypotheses concerning Late Palaeozoic evolution of the North Atlantic region. During the Permian, the Atlantic rift system formed a seaway between Norway and Greenland from the boreal Barents Shelf to the warm and arid Zechstein Basin. This seaway is considered...... to be the only marine connection to the Zechstein Basin and therefore the only possible migration route for bryozoans to enter the basin. The distribution of Permian bryozoans is largely in keeping with such a connection from the cool Barents Shelf past the East Greenland Basin to the warm Zechstein Basin...

  8. Gas transport in the bentonite barrier of AGP and their interfaces; Transporte de gas en la barrera de bentonita de un AGP y sus interfases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gutierrez Rodrigo, V.; Villar Gelicia, M. V.; Martin Martin, P. L.; Romero Alvarez, F. J.


    The research of gas transport processes through the barriers is of great relevance in the assessment of the behaviour of the repository. The main objective of this study is to determine the properties of gas transport in saturated bentonite samples and the interfaces between them. (Author)

  9. Distribution, Statistics, and Resurfacing of Large Impact Basins on Mercury (United States)

    Fassett, Caleb I.; Head, James W.; Baker, David M. H.; Chapman, Clark R.; Murchie, Scott L.; Neumann, Gregory A.; Oberst, Juergen; Prockter, Louise M.; Smith, David E.; Solomon, Sean C.; Strom, Robert G.; Xiao, Zhiyong; Zuber, Maria T.


    The distribution and geological history of large impact basins (diameter D greater than or equal to 300 km) on Mercury is important to understanding the planet's stratigraphy and surface evolution. It is also informative to compare the density of impact basins on Mercury with that of the Moon to understand similarities and differences in their impact crater and basin populations [1, 2]. A variety of impact basins were proposed on the basis of geological mapping with Mariner 10 data [e.g. 3]. This basin population can now be re-assessed and extended to the full planet, using data from the MErcury Surface, Space ENvironment, GEochemistry, and Ranging (MESSENGER) spacecraft. Note that small-to- medium-sized peak-ring basins on Mercury are being examined separately [4, 5]; only the three largest peak-ring basins on Mercury overlap with the size range we consider here. In this study, we (1) re-examine the large basins suggested on the basis of Mariner 10 data, (2) suggest additional basins from MESSENGER's global coverage of Mercury, (3) assess the size-frequency distribution of mercurian basins on the basis of these global observations and compare it to the Moon, and (4) analyze the implications of these observations for the modification history of basins on Mercury.

  10. Oil shale and nahcolite resources of the Piceance Basin, Colorado (United States)



    This report presents an in-place assessment of the oil shale and nahcolite resources of the Green River Formation in the Piceance Basin of western Colorado. The Piceance Basin is one of three large structural and sedimentary basins that contain vast amounts of oil shale resources in the Green River Formation of Eocene age. The other two basins, the Uinta Basin of eastern Utah and westernmost Colorado, and the Greater Green River Basin of southwest Wyoming, northwestern Colorado, and northeastern Utah also contain large resources of oil shale in the Green River Formation, and these two basins will be assessed separately. Estimated in-place oil is about 1.5 trillion barrels, based on Fischer a ssay results from boreholes drilled to evaluate oil shale, making it the largest oil shale deposit in the world. The estimated in-place nahcolite resource is about 43.3 billion short tons.

  11. Evolution of the Rembrandt impact basin on Mercury. (United States)

    Watters, Thomas R; Head, James W; Solomon, Sean C; Robinson, Mark S; Chapman, Clark R; Denevi, Brett W; Fassett, Caleb I; Murchie, Scott L; Strom, Robert G


    MESSENGER's second Mercury flyby revealed a ~715-kilometer-diameter impact basin, the second-largest well-preserved basin-scale impact structure known on the planet. The Rembrandt basin is comparable in age to the Caloris basin, is partially flooded by volcanic plains, and displays a unique wheel-and-spoke-like pattern of basin-radial and basin-concentric wrinkle ridges and graben. Stratigraphic relations indicate a multistaged infilling and deformational history involving successive or overlapping phases of contractional and extensional deformation. The youngest deformation of the basin involved the formation of a approximately 1000-kilometer-long lobate scarp, a product of the global cooling and contraction of Mercury.

  12. Tectonic setting of Cretaceous basins on the NE Tibetan Plateau: Insights from the Jungong basin (United States)

    Craddock, W.H.; Kirby, E.; Dewen, Z.; Jianhui, L.


    Quantifying the Cenozoic growth of high topography in the Indo-Asian collision zone remains challenging, due in part to significant shortening that occurred within Eurasia before collision. A growing body of evidence suggests that regions far removed from the suture zone experienced deformation before and during the early phases of Himalayan orogenesis. In the present-day north-eastern Tibetan Plateau, widespread deposits of Cretaceous sediment attest to significant basin formation; however, the tectonic setting of these basins remains enigmatic. We present a study of a regionally extensive network of sedimentary basins that are spatially associated with a system of SE-vergent thrust faults and are now exposed in the high ranges of the north-eastern corner of the Tibetan Plateau. We focus on a particularly well-exposed basin, located ~20km north of the Kunlun fault in the Anyemaqen Shan. The basin is filled by ~900m of alluvial sediments that become finer-grained away from the basin-bounding fault. Additionally, beds in the proximal footwall of the basin-bounding fault exhibit progressive, up-section shallowing and several intraformational unconformities which can be traced into correlative conformities in the distal part of the basin. The observations show sediment accumulated in the basin during fault motion. Regional constraints on the timing of sediment deposition are provided by both fossil assemblages from the Early Cretaceous, and by K-Ar dating of volcanic rocks that floor and cross-cut sedimentary fill. We argue that during the Cretaceous, the interior NE Tibetan Plateau experienced NW-SE contractional deformation similar to that documented throughout the Qinling-Dabie orogen to the east. The Songpan-Ganzi terrane apparently marked the southern limit of this deformation, such that it may have been a relatively rigid block in the Tibetan lithosphere, separating regions experiencing deformation north of the convergent Tethyan margin from regions deforming

  13. Basement faults and volcanic rock distributions in the Ordos Basin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Volcanic rocks in the Ordos Basin are of mainly two types: one in the basin and the other along the margin of the basin. Besides those along the margin, the marginal volcanic rocks also include the volcanic rocks in the Yinshanian orogenic belt north of the basin. Based on the latest collection of gravitational and aeromagnetic data, here we interpret basement faults in the Ordos Basin and its peripheral region, compare the faults derived from aeromagnetic data with those from seismic data, and identify the geological ages of the fault development. Two aeromagnetic anomaly zones exist in the NE-trending faults of the southern basin, and they are in the volcanic basement formed in pre-Paleozoic. These NE-trending faults are the channel of volcanic material upwelling in the early age (Archean-Neoproterozoic), where igneous rocks and sedimentary rocks stack successively on both sides of the continental nucleus. In the Cambrian, the basin interior is relatively stable, but in the Late Paleozoic and Mesozoic, the basin margin underwent a number of volcanic activities, accompanied by the formation of nearly north-south and east-west basement faults in the basin periphery and resulting in accumulation of great amount of volcanic materials. Volcanic tuff from the basin periphery is discovered in the central basin and volcanic materials are exposed in the margins of the basin. According to the source-reservoir-cap rock configuration, the basin peripheral igneous traps formed in the Indosinian-Early Yanshanian and Late Hercynian are favorable exploration objectives, and the volcanic rocks in the central basin are the future target of exploration.

  14. The link between tectonics and sedimentation in back-arc basins : New genetic constraints from the analysis of the Pannonian Basin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Balázs, A.; Matenco, L.; Magyar, I.; Horváth, F.; Cloetingh, S.


    The architecture of sedimentary basins reflects the relationship between accommodation space and sediment supply, their rates and localization being variable during basin evolution. The mechanisms driving the interplay between tectonics and sedimentation in extensional back-arc basins overlying rheo

  15. Radionuclides in the Great Lakes basin. (United States)

    Ahier, B A; Tracy, B L


    The Great Lakes basin is of radiologic interest due to the large population within its boundaries that may be exposed to various sources of ionizing radiation. Specific radionuclides of interest in the basin arising from natural and artificial sources include 3H, 14C, 90Sr, 129I, 131I, 137Cs, 222Rn, 226Ra, 235U, 238U, 239Pu, and 241Am. The greatest contribution to total radiation exposure is the natural background radiation that provides an average dose of about 2.6 mSv/year to all basin residents. Global fallout from atmospheric nuclear weapons tests conducted before 1963 has resulted in the largest input of anthropogenic radioactivity into the lakes. Of increasing importance is the radionuclide input from the various components of the nuclear fuel cycle. Although the dose from these activities is currently very low, it is expected to increase if there is continued growth of the nuclear industry. In spite of strict regulations on design and operation of nuclear power facilities, the potential exists for a serious accident as a result of the large inventories of radionuclides contained in the reactor cores; however, these risks are several orders of magnitude less than the risks from other natural and man-made hazards. An area of major priority over the next few decades will be the management of the substantial amounts of radioactive waste generated by nuclear fuel cycle activities. Based on derived risk coefficients, the theoretical incidence of fatal and weighted nonfatal cancers and hereditary defects in the basin's population, attributable to 50 years of exposure to natural background radiation, is conservatively estimated to be of the order of 3.4 x 10(5) cases. The total number of attributable health effects to the year 2050 from fallout radionuclides in the Great Lakes basin is of the order of 5.0 x 10(3). In contrast, estimates of attributable health effects from 50 years of exposure to current nuclear fuel cycle effluent in the basin are of the order of 2

  16. Hotspots within the Transboundary Selenga River Basin (United States)

    Kasimov, Nikolay; Lychagin, Mikhail; Chalov, Sergey


    Gathering the efficient information on water pollution of transboundary river systems remains the crucial task in international water management, environmental pollution control and prevention health problems. Countries, located in the low parts of the river basins, depend on the water strategy and water use in the adjacent countries, located upstream. Surface water pollution is considered to be the most serious problem, facing the above-mentioned countries. Large efforts in terms of field measurement campaigns and (numerical) transport modeling are then typically needed for relevant pollution prediction and prevention. Russian rivers take inflow from 8 neighboring countries. Among them there are 2 developing economies - People Republic of China and Mongolia, which are located in water-scarce areas and thus solve their water-related problems through the consumption of international water. Negative change of water runoff and water quality in the foreign part of transboundary river is appeared inside Russian territory with more or less delay. The transboundary river system of Selenga is particularly challenging, being the biggest tributary of Lake Baikal which is the largest freshwater reservoir in the world. Selenga River contributes about 50 % of the total inflow into Baikal. It originates in the mountainous part of Mongolia and then drains into Russia. There are numerous industries and agricultural activities within the Selenga drainage basin that affect the water quality of the river system. Absence of the single monitoring system and predictive tools for pollutants transport in river system requires large efforts in understanding sources of water pollution and implemented data on the relevant numerical systems for the pollution prediction and prevention. Special investigations in the Selenga river basin (Mongolia and Russia) were done to assess hot spots and understand state-of-the art in sediment load, water chemistry and hydrobiology of transboundary systems

  17. The evolution and performance of river basin management in the Murray-Darling Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Ross


    Full Text Available We explore bioregional management in the Murray-Darling Basin (MDB in Australia through the institutional design characteristics of the MDB River Basin Organization (RBO, the actors and organizations who supported and resisted the establishment of the RBO, and the effectiveness of the RBO. During the last 25 years, there has been a major structural reform in the MDB RBO, which has changed from an interstate coordinating body to an Australian government agency. Responsibility for basin management has been centralized under the leadership of the Australian government, and a comprehensive integrated Basin plan has been adopted. The driving forces for this centralization include national policy to restore river basins to sustainable levels of extraction, state government difficulties in reversing overallocation of water entitlements, the millennium drought and its effects, political expediency on the part of the Australian government and state governments, and a major injection of Australian government funding. The increasing hierarchy and centralization of the MDB RBO does not follow a general trend toward multilevel participative governance of RBOs, but decentralization should not be overstated because of the special circumstances at the time of the centralization and the continuing existence of some decentralized elements, such as catchment water plans, land use planning, and water quality. Further swings in the centralization-decentralization pendulum could occur. The MDB reform has succeeded in rebalancing Basin water allocations, including an allocation for the environment and reduced diversion limits. There are some longer term risks to the implementation of reform, including lack of cooperation by state governments, vertical coordination difficulties, and perceived reductions in the accountability and legitimacy of reform at the local level. If implementation of the Basin plan is diverted or delayed, a new institution, the Commonwealth

  18. Mesozoic-Cenozoic Basin Features and Evolution of Southeast China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    The Late Triassic to Paleogene (T3-E) basin occupies an area of 143100 km2, being the sixth area of the whole of SE China; the total area of synchronous granitoid is about 127300 km2; it provides a key for understanding the tectonic evolution of South China. From a new 1:1500000 geological map of the Mesozoic-Cenozoic basins of SE China, combined with analysis of geometrical and petrological features, some new insights of basin tectonics are obtained. Advances include petrotectonic assemblages,basin classification of geodynamics, geometric features, relations of basin and range. According to basin-forming geodynamical mechanisms, the Mesozoic-Cenozoic basin of SE China can be divided into three types, namely: 1) para-foreland basin formed from Late Triassic to Early Jurassic (T3-J1)under compressional conditions; 2) rift basins formed during the Middle Jurassic (J2) under a strongly extensional setting; and 3) a faulted depression formed during Early Cretaceous to Paleogene (K1-E)under back-arc extension action. From the rock assemblages of the basin, the faulted depression can be subdivided into a volcanic-sedimentary type formed mainly during the Early Cretaceous (K1) and a red-bed type formed from Late Cretaceous to Paleogene (K2-E). Statistical data suggest that the area of all para-foreland basins (T3-J1) is 15120 km2, one of rift basins (J2) occupies 4640 km2, and all faulted depressions equal to 124330 km2 including the K2-E red-bed basins of 37850 km2. The Early Mesozoic(T3-J1) basin and granite were mostly co-generated under a post-collision compression background,while the basins from Middle Jurassic to Paleogene (J2-E) were mainly constrained by regional extensional tectonics. Three geological and geographical zones were surveyed, namely: 1) the Wuyishan separating zone of paleogeography and climate from Middle Jurassic to Tertiary; 2) the Middle Jurassic rift zone; and 3) the Ganjiang separating zone of Late Mesozoic volcanism. Three types of basin

  19. Development of the Mozambique and Ruvuma sedimentary basins, offshore Mozambique (United States)

    Salman, G.; Abdula, I.


    Two major sedimentary basins have been identified on the continental margin of Mozambique—Mozambique Basin and Ruvuma Basin. The formation of the basins is related to the break-up of Gondwana and opening of the western part of the Indian Ocean. The basins are relatively young, having developed discordantly to the structural plan of Gondwana sedimentary basins. The history of the formation of the East African continental margin sedimentary basins within Mozambique has been studied on the basis of the present-day concept of Gondwana break-up and Madagascar's drift with respect to Africa. Two stages in the history of the East African basins can be recognized: late-Gondwana and post-Gondwana. The late-Gondwana stage (303-157 Ma) is typified by sedimentary and volcanogenic rocks of the Karoo Group. The post-Gondwana stage (157-0 Ma) corresponds to the period of active Gondwana break-up and the formation of Indian Ocean marginal basins. The Mozambique Basin occupies both central and southern parts of the coastal plain of Mozambique, extending onto the continental shelf and slope. The sedimentary fill is composed of Upper Jurassic, Cretaceous and Cenozoic rocks which discordantly overly the Karoo basalts. The Upper Jurassic occurs as continental red-beds, mostly distributed within buried grabens. Cretaceous rocks occur as terrigenous sediments of continental and marine genesis. Cenozoic deposits are of predominantly marine and deltaic origin. The Ruvuma Basin, situated in the north of Mozambique, is part of an extended East African marginal basin which includes parts of the coastal plains and continental margins of Tanzania and Kenya. The basement of the basin is composed of crystalline and metamorphic rocks of pre-Cambrian age. The sedimentary fill is represented by continental terrigenous Karoo sediments, marine and lagoonal Jurassic deposits, and marine and deltaic rocks of Cretaceous and Cenozoic age. The main difference between the sedimentary fill of the

  20. Strontium isotope stratigraphy of the Pelotas Basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zerfass, Geise de Santana dos Anjos, E-mail: [Petroleo Brasileiro S.A. (PETROBRAS/CENPES/PDGEO/BPA), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisas e Desenvolvimento Leopoldo Americo Miguez de Mello; Chemale Junior, Farid, E-mail: [Universidade de Brasilia (UnB), DF (Brazil). Instituto de Geociencias; Moura, Candido Augusto Veloso, E-mail: [Universidade Federal do Para (UFPA), Belem, PA (Brazil). Centro de Geociencias. Dept. de Geoquimica e Petrologia; Costa, Karen Badaraco, E-mail: [Instituto Oceanografico, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Kawashita, Koji, E-mail: [Unversidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisas Geocronologicas


    Strontium isotope data were obtained from foraminifera shells of the Pelotas Basin Tertiary deposits to facilitate the refinement of the chronostratigraphic framework of this section. This represents the first approach to the acquisition of numerical ages for these strata. Strontium isotope stratigraphy allowed the identification of eight depositional hiatuses in the Eocene-Pliocene section, here classified as disconformities and a condensed section. The reconnaissance of depositional gaps based on confident age assignments represents an important advance considering the remarkably low chronostratigraphic resolution in the Cenozoic section of the Pelotas Basin. The recognition of hiatuses that match hiatuses is based on biostratigraphic data, as well as on global events. Furthermore, a substantial increase in the sedimentation rate of the upper Miocene section was identified. Paleotemperature and productivity trends were identified based on oxygen and carbon isotope data from the Oligocene-Miocene section, which are coherent with worldwide events, indicating the environmental conditions during sedimentation. (author)

  1. Hydrothermal circulation in an anisotropic sedimentary basin: Application to the Okinawa back arc basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Genthon, P.; Rabinowicz, M. (Groupe de Recherches de Geodesie, Spatiale (France)); Foucher, J.P.; Sibuet, J.C. (Inst. Francais de Recherches pour l' Exploitation de la Mer, Plouzane (France))


    The authors explore the pattern of two-dimensional convection in an highly anisotropical porous medium. This physical situation is relevant to passive margin sedimentary basins consisting of interbedded coarse-grained pervious and shale matrix. They show that permeability anisotropies of the order of 10{sup 2}-10{sup 4} allow for long convective cells, of aspect ratio greater than 10, but that a combination of this parameter with a slight slope of the order of a few percent of the sedimentary layers is required to stabilize these long cells. As an example, they present the Okinawa basin, an active submarine back arc basin, with a sedimentary thickness of about 2 km and a heat flow profile across this basin, varying from 32 to 232 mWm{sup {minus}2} over a distance of 30 km. It is shown that this heat flow variation is difficult to explain with conductive mechanisms only but is well reproduced by different convective models relying on permeability anisotropy plus slope. Although the insufficient thermal and structural constraints did not allow them to build a unique model, the whole set of possible fits to the heat flow data may restrict the mean hydraulic parameters of the basin. A vertical permeability of a few tens of milidarcy and an anisotropy greater than 100 are required to produce the expected stable and active large-scale circulation. It is suggested in conclusion that this type of circulation might be active in oil- or oil-forming element migration.

  2. Estimation of Continental-Basin-Scale Sublimation in the Lena River Basin, Siberia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazuyoshi Suzuki


    Full Text Available The Lena River basin in Siberia produces one of the largest river inflows into the Arctic Ocean. One of the most important sources of runoff to the river is spring snowmelt and therefore snow ablation processes have great importance for this basin. In this study, we simulated these processes with fine resolution at basin scale using MicroMet/SnowModel and SnowAssim. To assimilate snow water equivalent (SWE data in SnowAssim, we used routine daily snow depth data and Sturm’s method. Following the verification of this method for SWE estimation in the basin, we evaluated the impact of snow data assimilation on basin-scale snow ablation. Through validation against MODIS snow coverage data and in situ snow survey observations, we found that SnowAssim could not improve on the original simulation by MicroMet/SnowModel because of estimation errors within the SWE data. Vegetation and accumulated snowfall control the spatial distribution of sublimation and we established that sublimation has an important effect on snow ablation. We found that the ratio of sublimation to snowfall in forests was around 26% and that interannual variation of sublimation modulated spring river runoff.

  3. Comparison of Kuqa foreland basin with Persian Gulf Basin in salt tectonics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guimei WAN; Liangjie TANG; Wenzheng JIN


    Compared Kuqa foreland basin with Persian Gulf Basin in development of salt layers, salt tectonics, and the relation between salt tectonics and hydrocarbon, it is concluded that the salt diapirs are relative to hydrocarbon. Searching salt diapirs and related traps in Kuqa foreland basin is important. The forming mechanism of salt tectonic in Kuqa foreland basin is different from that of Hormuz Series, but similar to that of Lower Fars Series/Gachsaran Formation. Inspired by the role of salt tectonics of Lower Fars Series/Gachsaran Formation in hydrocarbon accumulation, the authors considered that the exploration below salt layer should be enforced, and the traps below salt layer in the southern part of the Kuqa foreland basin would be found where salt layer is thicker. On the contrary, the traps should be found both above and below the salt layer in front of the northern mountain where salt layer is thin. The Triassic and Jurassic source rocks are rich in this area with great exploration prospective.

  4. Strengthening river basin institutions: The Global Environment Facility and the Danube River Basin (United States)

    Gerlak, Andrea K.


    Increased international attention to water resource management has resulted in the creation of new institutional arrangements and funding mechanisms as well as international initiatives designed to strengthen river basin institutions. The Global Environment Facility's (GEF) International Waters Program is at the heart of such novel collaborative regional approaches to the management of transboundary water resources. This paper assesses GEF-led efforts in the Danube River Basin, GEF's most mature and ambitious projects to date. It finds that GEF has been quite successful in building scientific knowledge and strengthening regional governance bodies. However, challenges of coordinating across expanding participants and demonstrating clear ecological improvements remain. GEF-led collaborative activities in the Danube River Basin reveal three critical lessons that can inform future river basin institution building and decision making, including the importance of appropriately creating and disseminating scientific data pertaining to the river system, the need for regional governance bodies for integrated river basin management, and the necessity to address coordination issues throughout project planning and implementation.

  5. Integrated Basin Scale Hydropower and Environmental Opportunity Assessment in the Deschutes River Basin, Oregon (United States)

    Voisin, N.; Geerlofs, S. H.; Vail, L. W.; Ham, K. D.; Tagestad, J. D.; Hanrahan, T. P.; Seiple, T. E.; Coleman, A. M.; Stewart, K.


    The Deschutes River Basin in Oregon, USA, is home to a number of diverse groups of stakeholders that rely upon the complex snowmelt and groundwater-dominated river system to support their needs, livelihoods, and interests. Basin system operations that vary across various temporal and spatial scales often must balance an array of competing demands including maintaining adequate municipal water supply, recreation, hydropower generation, regulations related to environmental flows, mitigation programs for salmon returns, and in-stream and storage rights for irrigation water supplied by surface water diversions and groundwater pumping. The U.S. Department of Energy's Integrated Basin-scale Opportunity Assessment initiative is taking a system-wide approach to identifying opportunities and actions to increase hydropower and enhance environmental conditions while sustaining reliable supply for other uses. Opportunity scenarios are analyzed in collaboration with stakeholders, through nested integrated modeling and visualization software to assess tradeoffs and system-scale effects. Opportunity assessments are not intended to produce decisional documents or substitute for basin planning processes; assessments are instead intended to provide tools, information, and a forum for catalyzing conversation about scenarios where both environmental and hydropower gains can be realized within a given basin. We present the results of the nested integrated modeling approach and the modeling scenarios in order to identify and explore opportunities for the system.

  6. Silurian to Devonian foreland basin in the south edge of Tarim Basin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Based on the theory of plate tectonics, combining with the isotopic dating of ophiolite, igneous and volcanics, geochemical test, rare earth element analyze and seismic interpretation, this paper studies the pre-Carboniferous tectonics and sedimentary formation of the south edge of the Tarim Basin and proves that there exists the Kunlun Ocean under tensional tectonics during the Sinian and Cambrian in the south edge of the Tarim Plate. After that, due to the collision orogenesis, there formed the peripheral foreland basin in the south edge of Tarim. The Upper Silurian and Devonian molasses sedimentary system superposed on the Sinian and Middle Silurian passive margin flysch sedimentary system and formed the bivariate structure of the foreland basin. And at the same time, based on the field geology and seismic interpretation, we have identified that the formation of the Silurian and Devonian have the character of half deposit which shows thick in the south area and thin in the north, and the pre-Carboniferous thrust compression tectonics remained in the foreland thrust belt, which further demonstrates that there existed the Silurian and Devonian peripheral foreland basin on the south edge of the Tarim Basin.

  7. K Basin sludge treatment process description

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Westra, A.G.


    The K East (KE) and K West (KW) fuel storage basins at the 100 K Area of the Hanford Site contain sludge on the floor, in pits, and inside fuel storage canisters. The major sources of the sludge are corrosion of the fuel elements and steel structures in the basin, sand intrusion from outside the buildings, and degradation of the structural concrete that forms the basins. The decision has been made to dispose of this sludge separate from the fuel elements stored in the basins. The sludge will be treated so that it meets Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) acceptance criteria and can be sent to one of the double-shell waste tanks. The US Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office accepted a recommendation by Fluor Daniel Hanford, Inc., to chemically treat the sludge. Sludge treatment will be done by dissolving the fuel constituents in nitric acid, separating the insoluble material, adding neutron absorbers for criticality safety, and reacting the solution with caustic to co-precipitate the uranium and plutonium. A truck will transport the resulting slurry to an underground storage tank (most likely tank 241-AW-105). The undissolved solids will be treated to reduce the transuranic (TRU) and content, stabilized in grout, and transferred to the Environmental Restoration Disposal Facility (ERDF) for disposal. This document describes a process for dissolving the sludge to produce waste streams that meet the TWRS acceptance criteria for disposal to an underground waste tank and the ERDF acceptance criteria for disposal of solid waste. The process described is based on a series of engineering studies and laboratory tests outlined in the testing strategy document (Flament 1998).

  8. Underworld and multi-basin heat flow (United States)

    Quenette, S. M.; O'Neill, C.; Moresi, L. N.; Danis, C. R.; Mansour, J.


    We present an over arching method for non-linear heat flow assessments of large, multi-basin systems. Our example is the Sydney-, Gunnedah-, Bowen basins (Danis et al 2011), which covers an area of 800kms by 1900kms and depth of 5kms, on the east coast of Australia. It is used as a baseline towards further fluid and structural geodynamics oriented analysis. In contrast to reservoir scale geothermal models - basin, multi-basin and towards lithosphere scale models exhibit their own challenges in terms of physical/rheological behaviour and computational tractability. For instance we model a non-linear heat flow by means of temperature dependent conductivity, as indicated by Clauser and Huenges (1995), which allows crystalline basement rocks, such as granites, to show for example a significant decrease in conductivity from ambient temperature up to around 400C, dropping from around 3 mK**(units) to around 2. For this modelling, a specialisation of the geodynamics code 'Underworld' (Moresi et al 2007) called Underworld-GT is used. A toolbox is added to the otherwise un-touched Underworld code adding geothermal workflow and context to Underworld. A particular novel feature is the ability to load stratigraphic layers, and/or GoCAD or GeoModeller voxel sets as the constraining geological geometry, whilst allowing the heat assessment models to scale from 1 process to 1000s. Another is the ability to prescribe synthetic drill holes, and its use in stochastic-oriented assessments of model parameters. Following the Underworld platform's approach and its simple PDE abstraction layer, these model configurations from a baseline for further additions to the governing equations such as fluid flow and structure, enabling a bridge between reservoir and continental scale dynamics, albeit with their own computational challenges.

  9. Effective Monitoring of Small River Basins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Symader


    Full Text Available As the transport of many pollutants occurs during high floods monitoring programs must focus on these intermittent events. In small rivers the pollutants start their travel as short pulses often associated with fine particles, but disperse on their way downstreams. Therefore the chemical data of a flood event are only representative of a small part of the basin adjacent to the monitoring station. This is usually not taken into account by evaluating water quality data.

  10. Effective Monitoring of Small River Basins



    As the transport of many pollutants occurs during high floods monitoring programs must focus on these intermittent events. In small rivers the pollutants start their travel as short pulses often associated with fine particles, but disperse on their way downstreams. Therefore the chemical data of a flood event are only representative of a small part of the basin adjacent to the monitoring station. This is usually not taken into account by evaluating water quality data.

  11. Water resources in the Great Basin (United States)

    Jeanne C. Chambers


    The Great Basin Watershed covers 362,600 km (140,110 mi2) and extends from the Sierra Nevada Range in California to the Wasatch Range in Utah, and from southeastern Oregon to southern Nevada (NBC Weather Plus Website). The region is among the driest in the nation and depends largely on winter snowfall and spring runoff for its water supply. Precipitation may be as much...

  12. Early, middle, and late Miocene basin development, California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bachman, S.B.


    Contrary to earlier models of progressive basin development related to northward migration of the Mendocino triple junction, it can now be documented that the major basins of coastal California developed at about the same time in the late Oligocene to early Miocene. This basin development is marked by rapid deepening of basin floors, subsequent changes in depositional facies from nonmarine and shallow marine to deep marine, and widespread volcanism dated at 23-20 Ma. The coastal basins likely formed by rifting and subsidence linked to the proximity of the Farallon-pacific spreading ridge and the subduction of hot young oceanic crust, but cannot be correlated to any existing models of triple junction migration. Indeed, strike-slip restored positions of the coastal basins at their inception indicate that the basins were spread out over about 800 km of the southern coast of California. The Miocene basins were likely larger than the present coastal basins, although their configurations are obscured by late Neogene faulting and erosion. It is likely, however, that paleohighs separated at least some of the margin into proximal and distal basins. With local exceptions, structuring in the Miocene basins was primarily extensional, with widespread strike-slip and thrust tectonics restricted mainly to latest Miocene and younger events. Plate reconstructions suggest several hundred kilometers of transform motion occurred along the California margin during the Miocene, but there is only limited evidence of this movement in the known history of either the basins or the major faults of California. Sedimentation during the Miocene was controlled by both oceanic conditions (biogenic component) and the relative abundance of clastic input. The clastic input was controlled by a combination of proximal vs distal basinal positions, eustatic sea level changes, and local tectonics.

  13. South Fork Holston River basin 1988 biomonitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saylor, C.F.; Ahlstedt, S.A.


    There is concern over the effects of shifts in land use use practices on the aquatic fauna of streams in the South Fork Holston River basin in northwestern North Carolina and southwestern Virginia. Trout reproduction has noticeably declined in the Watauga River subbasin. The Watauga River and Elk River subbasins have been subjected to commercial and resort development. The Middle fork Holston River and the upper South Fork Holston River subbasins have been affected by agricultural and mining activities, respectively (Cox, 1986). To aid reclamation and management of the South Fork Holston basin, Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) biologists conducted biomonitoring--including index of biotic integrity and macroinvertebrate sampling--on the Middle Fork Holston, South Fork Holston, Watauga, and Elk Rivers to assess cumulative impairment related to changes in habitat and pollutant loading in these subbasins. Biomonitoring can detect environmental degradation, help document problem areas, and assist in development of strategies for managing water quality. This report discusses the methods and materials and results of the biomonitoring of South Fork Holston River Basin. 13 refs., 5 figs., 12 tabs.

  14. Petroleum Exploration of Craton Basins in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Craton basins are a significant petroliferous provenance. Having undergone multiple openclose tectonic cycles and strong reworking of the late Cenozoic tectonic movement, the craton basins in China are highly broken. This has resulted in multi-source and multiphase hydrocarbon generation and later hydrocarbon accumulation so that a complicated spatial assemblage of primary, paraprimary and secondary oil-gas pools has been formed. The primary factors controlling hydrocarbon accumulation include hydrocarbon-generating depressions, paleouplifts, paleoslopes, unconformity surfaces, paleo-karst, faults and fissure systems as well as the later conservation conditions. In consequence, the strategy of exploration for China's craton basins is to identify the effective source rocks, pay attention to the different effects of paleohighs and late reworking, enhance studies of the secondary storage space, attach importance to the exploration of lithologic oil-gas reservoirs and natural gas pools, and approach consciously from the secondary oil pools to the targets near the source rocks. At the same time, a complete system of technologies and techniques must be built up.

  15. Geothermal fluid genesis in the Great Basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flynn, T.; Buchanan, P.K.


    Early theories concerning geothermal recharge in the Great Basin implied recharge was by recent precipitation. Physical, chemical, and isotopic differences between thermal and non-thermal fluids and global paleoclimatic indicators suggest that recharge occurred during the late Pleistocene. Polar region isotopic studies demonstrate that a depletion in stable light-isotopes of precipitation existed during the late Pleistocene due to the colder, wetter climate. Isotopic analysis of calcite veins and packrat midden megafossils confirm the depletion event occurred in the Great Basin. Isotopic analysis of non-thermal springs is utilized as a proxy for local recent precipitation. Contoured plots of deuterium concentrations from non-thermal and thermal water show a regional, systematic variation. Subtracting contoured plots of non-thermal water from plots of thermal water reveals that thermal waters on a regional scale are generally isotopically more depleted. Isolated areas where thermal water is more enriched than non-thermal water correspond to locations of pluvial Lakes Lahontan and Bonneville, suggesting isotopically enriched lake water contributed to fluid recharge. These anomalous waters also contain high concentrations of sodium chloride, boron, and other dissolved species suggestive of evaporative enrichment. Carbon-age date and isotopic data from Great Basin thermal waters correlate with the polar paleoclimate studies. Recharge occurred along range bounding faults. 151 refs., 62 figs., 15 tabs.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina IOSUB


    Full Text Available Ozana drainage basin is located at the contact between large landscape units (the Carpathian mountains, the Subcarpathian area, and the plateau region. This placement determines the existence of a complex climate in the region. Despite being small in size, and its extension on an W-E direction, differences can be observed, especially of the way extreme phenomena take place. In the case of droughts, it had different intensities in the mountains, compared to the plateau region. In order to emphasize the different distribution on the territory, several climatic indexes have been calculated, regarding dryness (De Martonne Index, Hellman criterion. The analysis of these indexes at the same monitoring stations (Pluton, Leghin and Dumbrava emphasizes the growth of the drought periods in the plateau region and the fact that they shorten in the mountain area. In the mountainous area, where the land is very well forested, the values of the De Martonne index can reach 45.4, and in the plateau regions, where the forest associations are sparse, the values dropped to 30.6. According to the Hellman criterion, several differences can be emphasized, at basin level. In the mountainous region, there is only one month that, at a multi-annual level, has stood up among the rest, as being excessively droughty, while in the median /central region of the basin, three months have been identified, that have such potential, as well as five months, at Dumbrava.

  17. Frost risks in the Mantaro river basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Trasmonte


    Full Text Available As part of the study on the Mantaro river basin's (central Andes of Perú current vulnerability to climate change, the temporal and spatial characteristics of frosts were analysed. These characteristics included intensity, frequency, duration, frost-free periods, area distribution and historical trends. Maps of frost risk were determined for the entire river basin, by means of mathematical algorithms and GIS (Geographic Information Systems tools, using minimum temperature – 1960 to 2002 period, geomorphology, slope, land-use, types of soils, vegetation and life zones, emphasizing the rainy season (September to April, when the impacts of frost on agriculture are most severe. We recognized four categories of frost risks: low, moderate, high and critical. The critical risks (with a very high probability of occurrence were related to high altitudes on the basin (altitudes higher than 3800 m a.s.l., while the low (or null probability of occurring risks were found in the lower zones (less than 2500 m a.s.l.. Because of the very intense agricultural activity and the high sensitivity of the main crops (Maize, potato, artichoke in the Mantaro valley (altitudes between 3100 and 3300 m a.s.l., moderate to high frost risks can be expected, with a low to moderate probability of occurrence. Another significant result was a positive trend of 8 days per decade in the number of frost days during the rainy season.

  18. Inversion tectonics in the Neogene basins of Tuscany (Northern Apennines, Italy): Insights from the Pisa-Viareggio basin. (United States)

    Argnani, A.; Rogledi, S.


    Several sedimentary basins are located in the internal portion of the Northern Apennines, bordering the eastern side of the Northern Tyrrhenian sea. These basins trend almost parallel to the Apennine range and are filled by Neogene sediments with thickness ranging between few 100's m to few km (Martini et al., 2001). Sediments belonging to these basins crop out extensively in western Tuscany, often appearing heavily deformed. Although classically interpreted as extensional basins (e.g., Martini and Sagri, 1993 and references therein), some papers call for an initial thrust-related origin (Finetti et al., 2001; Bonini and Sani, 2002), and the long-lasting debate about the origin of the Neogene basins of Tuscany is still ongoing (cfr. Brogi 2011 and Sani et al., 2004). This contribution aims at presenting the case of the Pisa-Viareggio basin, which is the northernmost one among the large basins of Tuscany (Pascucci et al., 2007). This basin straddles the coastline and has been investigated through the interpretation of a grid of industrial seismic profiles covering the Pisa plain and tied to exploration wells. In the Pisa-Viareggio basin seismic profiles show a west-dipping listric extensional fault that bounds the basin to the east, supporting an extensional origin. The basin is filled with up to 3 seconds of upper Messinian to Quaternary sediments, and extension mostly occurred during late Messinian-early Pliocene, although continuing with reduced intensity till the Quaternary. The southern part of this basin shows a superimposed contractional deformation (tectonic inversion), that progressively increases to the south, where the basin appears completely overturned and eroded in the Livorno Mountains. The basin-boundary fault trends roughly NNW-SSE and is buried in the Quaternary sediments of the Pisa plain, but it turns rather abruptly to N-S and NNE-SSW in the south, near Livorno. Inspection of detailed geological maps (Lazzarotto et al., 1990) suggests that the

  19. Assessment of undiscovered conventional oil and gas resources of Bonaparte Basin, Browse Basin, Northwest Shelf, and Gippsland Basin Provinces, Australia, 2011 (United States)

    Pollastro, Richard M.; Brownfield, Michael E.; Charpentier, Ronald R.; Cook, Troy A.; Klett, Timothy R.; Kirschbaum, Mark A.; Pitman, Janet K.; Schenk, Christopher J.


    Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated means of 4.7 billion barrels of undiscovered oil and 227 trillion cubic feet of undiscovered natural gas in three major offshore petroleum basins of northwest Australia and in the Gippsland Basin of southeast Australia.

  20. Plate tectonic setting and genetic types of gas (oil)-bearing basins in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张一伟; 陈发景; 陆克政; 漆家福


    The plate tectonic setting and genetic types of the gas (oil)-bearing basins in China are studied. Based on the history of break-up and amalgamation of Pangea, the three tectonic evolutionary megastages can be divided and the sedimentary basins in China are classified as Palaeozoic and Meso-Cenozoic basins. The Palaeozoic gas(oil)-bearing basins are mainly located in intracratonic basins, on which different types of Meso-Cenozoic basins are superimposed, and located in cratonic marginal basins and aulacogens destroyed with a slight degree, (n contrast, the Mesozoic and Cenozoic gas (oil)-bearing basins mainly formed in extensional foreland and intracontmental shortening flexural basins.

  1. Formation and evolution of the Chinese marine basins

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    There are plenty of petroleum resources in the Chinese marine basins, which will be the potential exploration regions of petroleum in the 21 st century. The formation and evolution of the Chinese marine basins have mainly undergone two major tectonic epochs and five tectonic evolution stages. The first major tectonic epoch is the early Paleozoic plate divergence and drifting epoch during which the marine basins were formed, and the second one is the late Paleozoic plate convergence and collision epoch during which the pre-existent marine basins were superimposed and modified. The five tectonic northward collage and convergence of continental plates and the development of the paralic sedimencollage and the superimposition of lacustrine basins controlled by the inland subsidence during Late erosion or breakage of marine basins influenced by the plate tectonic activities of Neo-Tethys Ocean sion and basin-range coupling in the margin of the marine basins caused by the collision between India and Eurasia Plates and its long-distance effect since Neocene. The process of the tectonic evolution has controlled the petroleum geologic characteristics of Chinese marine basins, and a material foundation for the formation of oil and gas reservoirs has been built up via the formation of Paleozoic marine basins, and the Mesozoic-Cenozoic tectonic superimposition and modification have controlled the key conditions of hydrocarbon accumulation and preservation. From the Late Proterozoic to the Early Paleozoic, the stratigraphic sequences of the deep-water shale and continental margin marine carbonate rocks in the ancient plate floating in the oceans have developed high-quality marine source rocks and reef-shoal reservoirs. In Late Paleozoic, the crustal plates converged and uplifted into continent and the paleouplifts in the intra-cratonic basins have become good reservoirs of hydrocarbon migration and accumulation, and paralic coal beds have formed regional cap rocks. The Mesozoic

  2. Sedimentary basin analysis using airborne gravity data: a case study from the Bohai Bay Basin, China (United States)

    Li, Wenyong; Liu, Yanxu; Zhou, Jianxin; Zhou, Xihua; Li, Bing


    In this paper, we discuss the application of an airborne gravity survey to sedimentary basin analysis. Using high-precision airborne gravity data constrained by drilling and seismic data from the Bohai Bay Basin in eastern China, we interpreted faults, structural elements, sedimentary thickness, structural styles and local structures (belts) in the central area of the Basin by the wavelet transform method. Subsequently, these data were subtracted from the Bouguer gravity to calculate the residual gravity anomalies. On this basis, the faults were interpreted mainly by linear zones of high gravity gradients and contour distortion, while the sedimentary thicknesses were computed by the Euler deconvolution. The structural styles were identified by the combination of gravity anomalies and the local structures interpreted by the first vertical derivative of the residual gravity. The results showed evidence for seven faults, one sag and ten new local structure belts.

  3. Incentive compatibility and conflict resolution in international river basins: A case study of the Nile Basin (United States)

    Wu, Xun; Whittington, Dale


    Nation-states rarely go to war over water, but it is equally rare that water conflicts in an international river basin are resolved through cooperation among the riparian countries that use the shared resources. Gains from cooperation will mean little to individual riparians unless the required cooperative behaviors are incentive compatible. Cooperative game theory offers useful insights for assessing cooperative solutions for water conflicts in international river basins. Applying cooperative game theory concepts such as core, nucleolus, and Shapley value to Nile water conflicts, we examine the incentive structure of both cooperative and noncooperative strategies for different riparian countries and establish some baseline conditions for incentive-compatible cooperation in the Nile basin.

  4. Digital spatial data as support for river basin management: The case of Sotla river basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prah Klemen


    Full Text Available Many real-world spatially related problems, including river-basin planning and management, give rise to geographical information system based decision making, since the performance of spatial policy alternatives were traditionally and are still often represented by thematic maps. Advanced technologies and approaches, such as geographical information systems (GIS, offer a unique opportunity to tackle spatial problems traditionally associated with more efficient and effective data collection, analysis, and alternative evaluation. This paper discusses the advantages and challenges of the use of digital spatial data and geographical information systems in river basis management. Spatial data on social, environmental and other spatial conditions for the study area of 451.77 km2, the Slovenian part of the Sotla river basin, are used to study the GIS capabilities of supporting spatial decisions in the framework of river basin management.

  5. Scaling issues in sustainable river basin management (United States)

    Timmerman, Jos; Froebich, Jochen


    Sustainable river basin management implies considering the whole river basin when managing the water resources. Management measures target at dividing the water over different uses (nature, agriculture, industry, households) thereby avoiding calamities like having too much, too little or bad quality water. Water management measures are taken at the local level, usually considering the sub-national and sometimes national effects of such measures. A large part of the world's freshwater resources, however, is contained in river basins and groundwater systems that are shared by two or more countries. Sustainable river basin management consequently has to encompass local, regional, national and international scales. This requires coordination over and cooperation between these levels that is currently compressed into the term 'water governance' . Governance takes into account that a large number of stakeholders in different regimes (the principles, rules and procedures that steer management) contribute to policy and management of a resource. Governance includes the increasing importance of basically non-hierarchical modes of governing, where non-state actors (formal organizations like NGOs, private companies, consumer associations, etc.) participate in the formulation and implementation of public policy. Land use determines the run-off generation and use of irrigation water. Land use is increasingly determined by private sector initiatives at local scale. This is a complicating factor in the governance issue, as in comparison to former developments of large scale irrigation systems, planning institutions at state level have then less insight on actual water consumption. The water management regime of a basin consequently has to account for the different scales of water management and within these different scales with both state and non-state actors. The central elements of regimes include the policy setting (the policies and water management strategies), legal setting

  6. Upper Paleozoic petroleum system, Ordos Basin, China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiao, X.M.; Zhao, B.Q.; Thu, Z.L.; Song, Z.G. [State Key Laboratory of Organic Geochemistry, Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Wilkins, R.W.T. [CSIRO Petroleum, P.O. Box 136, North Ryde, NSW 2113 (Australia)


    The Ordos Basin is a typical lapped basin, including three sequences of strata: early Paleozoic, late Paleozoic and Mesozoic, with a total thickness of 4000-6000m. Impermeable sealing beds are well developed at the top and base of the upper Paleozoic sequence, separating it from the Mesozoic and the lower Paleozoic strata to form an independent petroleum system. In this petroleum system, the source rocks are widely distributed coals and dark mudstones occurring in the Carboniferous-lower Permian coal measures, with a thickness of 10-15 and 40-60m, respectively. The reservoirs are mainly early Permian tight sandstones, mostly with a porosity of 4-8% and a permeability of 0.1-1.0x10{sup -3}{mu}m{sup 2}. The regional cap rock is a 100-150m thick mudstone in the upper Permian strata. The structural framework of the basin is a huge asymmetric syncline, dipping gently toward the east and north, and steeply toward the south and west. Well data show that gas-saturated, gas-water transition and water-saturated zones are developed from the depositional center to the basin edges. The gas-saturated zone mainly lies in the gently dipping slope area of the Shanbei Slope. Toward eastern and northern up-dip directions the water-gas transitional zone occurs, and finally the water-saturated zone, presenting a reverse relation of water on top of gas. An abnormal negative strata pressure is developed in the gas-bearing area, with a pressure coefficient (C{sub p}) ranging from 0.83 to 0.95. Fluid inclusion data indicate that the upper Paleozoic gas pool began to develop around the Wuqi area at about 150Ma, and it extended toward the north and was largely formed at about 120Ma, showing there was a regional migration of the gas-water interface from south to north during the gas pool formation. These characteristics appear to show that the northern and eastern margins of the petroleum system are defined by a regional hydrodynamic regime. The critical moment of the petroleum system

  7. Geologic Evolution of the Schiaparelli Impact Basin, Mars (United States)

    Jaret, S. J.; Albin, E. F.


    Situated in the eastern Terra Meridiani region of the Martian cratered uplands is an ancient 470-km diameter basin called Schiaparelli. In this investigation, Viking Orbiter image mosaics were used as a base to create a detailed geologic map of this impact structure. High resolution Global Surveyor MOC and MOLA data provided information for the interpretation of individual map units. The basin rim (Br) separates distinct sets of interior and exterior units. Within the basin, the following units are found: a) [Im] interior mountain (inner peak ring), b) [Ih] interior hilly material (fallback ejecta), c) [Irp] interior ridged plains (lava flows), and d) [Isp] interior smooth plains (lacustrine deposits). The exterior basin units include: a) [Cu] cratered upland material (target material), b) [Em] exterior mountain (basin ring) c) [Cd] cratered dissected material (continuous ejecta), d) [Erp] exterior ridged plains (lava flows), and e) [Esp] exterior smooth plains (lacustrine deposits). These findings provide clues about the geologic history of Schiaparelli basin.

  8. Performance characterisation of a stormwater treatment bioretention basin. (United States)

    Mangangka, Isri R; Liu, An; Egodawatta, Prasanna; Goonetilleke, Ashantha


    Treatment performance of bioretention basins closely depends on hydrologic and hydraulic factors such as rainfall characteristics and inflow and outflow discharges. An in-depth understanding of the influence of these factors on water quality treatment performance can provide important guidance for effective bioretention basin design. In this paper, hydraulic and hydrologic factors impacting pollutant removal by a bioretention basin were assessed under field conditions. Outcomes of the study confirmed that the antecedent dry period plays an important role in influencing treatment performance. A relatively long antecedent dry period reduces nitrite and ammonium concentrations while increasing the nitrate concentration, which confirms that nitrification occurs within the bioretention basin. Additionally, pollutant leaching influences bioretention basin treatment performance, reducing the nutrients removal efficiency, which was lower for high rainfall events. These outcomes will contribute to a greater understanding of the treatment performance of bioretention basins, assisting in the design, operation and maintenance of these systems.

  9. Structures of the Bohai Petroliferous Area, Bohai Bay Basin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    This paper, for the first time, deals with a more systematic study of the structures in the Bohai petroliferous area that covers nearly one third of the Bohai Bay basin. The study mainly involves the effects of pre-existing basement faults on the basin formation, the characteristics of basin geometry and kinetics, the modelling of the tectonic-thermal history, the polycyclicity and heterogeneity in the structural evolution and the natural seismic tomographic images of the crust and upper mantle. The authors analyze the features of the dynamic evolution of the basin in the paper and point out that the basin in the Bohai petroliferous area is an extensional pull-apart basin.

  10. Luminescence dating of ancient Darhad basin, Mongolia (United States)

    Cheul Kim, Jin; Yi, Sangheon; Lim, Jaesoo; Kim, Ju-Yong


    Darhad basin is located in the northern Mongolia, in the western end of the Baikal Rift Zone. In contrast to the neighboring Lake Hovsgol, Mongolia's largest and deepest lake, the Darhad is a drained lake basin. It is ~100 km long (north-south), 20-40 km wide and covered by sediments which locally exceed 500 m thickness (Zorin et al., 1989). Darhad basin is characterized by alternating episodes of expansion and desiccation that are closely related with the Pleistocene damming events. Previous studies of the Darhad Basin suggest that the last paleolake was dammed by a large glacier or the sediments (Selivanov, 1967, 1968; Krivonogov et al., 2005; Gillespie et al., 2008). Especially, recent expansion of the paleolake might be caused by the two glacial maxima during MIS 4 and 2. However, glacier-dammed lakes might be short-lived, dried up and permafrost occurred in the drained basin during the Holocene period. The uppermost paleolake sediments (13.2 m depth) are exposed following the curvature of the meandering river (called "Hodon outcrop"). It is considered the most likely site for the youngest paleolake sediments because it is distributed in the northern middle part of the paleolake. Krivonogov et al. 2012 described the Hodon outcrop with the sedimentological and chronological data. Age dating of 16 samples (11 mollusk shells, 5 wood fragments) indicated that Hodon outcrop sediments were deposited between 10.1±7 and 4.9±5 ka. However, the ages obtained on shells much older dates than the matched wood samples because of ingestion of old carbon by mollusks. The age difference between shells and wood fragments is a minimum of 1.73 ka and a maximum of 3.41 ka (average 2.5 ka). In this case, 14C ages from shells should be corrected with appropriate correction factor. However, the old carbon effects could vary temperally and spatially in the Darhad paleolake. The limited number of the 14C ages from wood fragments result in a simple linear trend in the depth-age curve


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thaddeus S. Dyman; Troy Cook; Robert A. Crovelli; Allison A. Henry; Timothy C. Hester; Ronald C. Johnson; Michael D. Lewan; Vito F. Nuccio; James W. Schmoker; Dennis B. Riggin; Christopher J. Schenk


    From a geological perspective, deep natural gas resources are generally defined as resources occurring in reservoirs at or below 15,000 feet, whereas ultra-deep gas occurs below 25,000 feet. From an operational point of view, ''deep'' is often thought of in a relative sense based on the geologic and engineering knowledge of gas (and oil) resources in a particular area. Deep gas can be found in either conventionally-trapped or unconventional basin-center accumulations that are essentially large single fields having spatial dimensions often exceeding those of conventional fields. Exploration for deep conventional and unconventional basin-center natural gas resources deserves special attention because these resources are widespread and occur in diverse geologic environments. In 1995, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated that 939 TCF of technically recoverable natural gas remained to be discovered or was part of reserve appreciation from known fields in the onshore areas and State waters of the United. Of this USGS resource, nearly 114 trillion cubic feet (Tcf) of technically-recoverable gas remains to be discovered from deep sedimentary basins. Worldwide estimates of deep gas are also high. The U.S. Geological Survey World Petroleum Assessment 2000 Project recently estimated a world mean undiscovered conventional gas resource outside the U.S. of 844 Tcf below 4.5 km (about 15,000 feet). Less is known about the origins of deep gas than about the origins of gas at shallower depths because fewer wells have been drilled into the deeper portions of many basins. Some of the many factors contributing to the origin of deep gas include the thermal stability of methane, the role of water and non-hydrocarbon gases in natural gas generation, porosity loss with increasing thermal maturity, the kinetics of deep gas generation, thermal cracking of oil to gas, and source rock potential based on thermal maturity and kerogen type. Recent experimental simulations

  12. Transient electromagnetic study of basin fill sediments in the Upper San Pedro Basin, Mexico (United States)

    Bultman, M.W.; Gray, F.


    The Upper San Pedro River Basin in Mexico and the United States is an important riparian corridor that is coming under increasing pressure from growing populations and the associated increase in groundwater withdrawal. Several studies have produced three-dimensional maps of the basin fill sediments in the US portion of the basin but little work has been done in the Mexican portion of the basin. Here, the results of a ground-based transient electromagnetic (TEM) survey in the Upper San Pedro Basin, Mexico are presented. These basin fill sediments are characterized by a 10-40 m deep unsaturated surficial zone which is composed primarily of sands and gravels. In the central portion of the basin this unsaturated zone is usually underlain by a shallow clay layer 20-50 m thick. Beneath this may be more clay, as is usually the case near the San Pedro River, or interbedded sand, silt, and clay to a depth of 200-250 m. As you move away from the river, the upper clay layer disappears and the amount of sand in the sediments increases. At 1-2 km away from the river, sands can occupy up to 50% of the upper 200-250 m of the sediment fill. Below this, clays are always present except where bedrock highs are observed. This lower clay layer begins at a depth of about 200 m in the central portion of the basin (250 m or more at distances greater than 1-2 km from the river) and extends to the bottom of most profiles to depths of 400 m. While the depth of the top of this lower clay layer is probably accurate, its thickness observed in the models may be overestimated due to the relatively low magnetic moment of the TEM system used in this study. The inversion routine used for interpretation is based on a one-dimensional geologic model. This is a layer based model that is isotropic in both the x and y directions. Several survey soundings did not meet this requirement which invalidates the inversion process and the resulting interpretation at these locations. The results from these

  13. K basins interim remedial action health and safety plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DAY, P.T.


    The K Basins Interim Remedial Action Health and Safety Plan addresses the requirements of the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA), as they apply to the CERCLA work that will take place at the K East and K West Basins. The provisions of this plan become effective on the date the US Environmental Protection Agency issues the Record of Decision for the K Basins Interim Remedial Action, currently planned in late August 1999.

  14. Evaluation of drought regimes and impacts in the Limpopo basin


    B. F. Alemaw; J.-M. Kileshye-Onema


    Drought is a common phenomenon in the Limpopo River basin. In essence, droughts are long–term hydro-meteorological events affecting vast regions and causing significant non-structural damages. In the interest of riparian states' joint integrated water resources development and management of the Limpopo basin, inter regional drought severity and its impacts should be understood. The study focussed on case studies in the basin which is subdivided into four homogeneous r...

  15. Environment for Development: An Ecosystems Assessment of Lake Victoria Basin.


    Karanja, D.M.S


    The extent to which the pressures on the Lake Victoria basin environment impact the health and nutrition of the communities within the region is often not adequately addressed. The burden of diseases and constraints on the health facilities in basin can be traced to the state of the environment, vulnerabilities of communities and livelihood strategies. Predominant health issues in the basin are linked to unsafe water contaminated by microbial and chemical pollutants, poor disposal of human wa...

  16. Water Clarity Simulant for K East Basin Filtration Testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmidt, Andrew J.


    This document provides a simulant formulation intended to mimic the behavior of the suspended solids in the K East (KE) Basin fuel storage pool. The simulant will be used to evaluate alternative filtration apparatus to improve Basin water clarity and to possibly replace the existing sandfilter. The simulant was formulated based on the simulant objectives, the key identified parameters important to filtration, the composition and character of the KE Basin suspended sludge particles, and consideration of properties of surrogate materials.

  17. Advanced Workflows for Fluid Transfer in Faulted Basins.


    Thibaut Muriel; Jardin Anne; Faille Isabelle; Willien Françoise; Guichet Xavier


    modélisation de bassin ; faille ; logiciel ;; International audience; The traditional 3D basin modeling workflow is made of the following steps: construction of present day basin architecture, reconstruction of the structural evolution through time, together with fluid flow simulation and heat transfers. In this case, the forward simulation is limited to basin architecture, mainly controlled by erosion, sedimentation and vertical compaction. The tectonic deformation is limited to vertical sli...

  18. Precambrian age of the Boston Basin: New evidence from microfossils (United States)

    Lenk, C.; Strother, P.K.; Kaye, C.A.; Barghoorn, E.S.


    A Vendian (Late Proterozoic Z) age has been determined for the Boston Basin by comparison of a microflora from the Cambridge Argillite with other late Precambrian assemblages. The microfossils, which include Bavlinella cf. faveolata, are preserved as petrifactions in pyrite. This age designation for the sedimentary rocks of the Boston Basin should allow for the reinterpretation of the structure of the basin and its regional correlations. Copyright ?? 1982 AAAS.

  19. Mud-dominated basin margin progradation: processes and implications


    Poyatos-Moré, M; Jones, GD; Brunt, RL; Hodgson, DM; Wild, RJ; Flint, SS


    The accretion of coarse-grained material at the shelf-edge rollover has been emphasized in studies of basin margin progradation, despite fine grained sediment (clay and silt) representing a volumetrically more significant component of subaqueous clinothems. The timing and processes of fine-grained sediment transport across the shelf and onto the slope remains an understudied facet of sedimentary basin stratigraphy. Three exhumed basin margin-scale clinothems of the Permian Waterford Formation...

  20. Preliminary catalog of the sedimentary basins of the United States (United States)

    Coleman, James L.; Cahan, Steven M.


    One hundred forty-four sedimentary basins (or groups of basins) in the United States (both onshore and offshore) are identified, located, and briefly described as part of a Geographic Information System (GIS) data base in support of the Geologic Carbon Dioxide Sequestration National Assessment Project (Brennan and others, 2010). This catalog of basins is designed to provide a check list and basic geologic framework for compiling more detailed geologic and reservoir engineering data for this project and other future investigations.

  1. Synchronization and basin bifurcations in mutually coupled oscillators

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    U E Vincent; A N Njah; O Akinlade


    Synchronization behaviour of two mutually coupled double-well Duffig oscillators exhibiting cross-well chaos is examined. Synchronization of the subsystems was observed for coupling strength > 0.4. It is found that when the oscillators are operated in the regime for which two attractors coexist in phase space, basin bifurcation sequences occur leading to + 1, ≥ 2 basins as the coupling is varied – a signature of Wada structure and final-state sensitivity. However, in the region of complete synchronization, the basins structure is identical with that of the single oscillators and retains its essential features including fractal basin boundaries.

  2. Oil shale resources of the Uinta Basin, Utah and Colorado (United States)



    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) recently completed a comprehensive assessment of in-place oil in oil shales of the Eocene Green River Formation of the Uinta Basin of eastern Utah and western Colorado. The oil shale interval was subdivided into eighteen roughly time-stratigraphic intervals, and each interval was assessed for variations in gallons per ton, barrels per acre, and total barrels in each township. The Radial Basis Function extrapolation method was used to generate isopach and isoresource maps, and to calculate resources. The total inplace resource for the Uinta Basin is estimated at 1.32 trillion barrels. This is only slightly lower than the estimated 1.53 trillion barrels for the adjacent Piceance Basin, Colorado, to the east, which is thought to be the richest oil shale deposit in the world. However, the area underlain by oil shale in the Uinta Basin is much larger than that of the Piceance Basin, and the average gallons per ton and barrels per acre values for each of the assessed oil shale zones are significantly lower in the depocenter in the Uinta Basin when compared to the Piceance Basin. These relations indicate that the oil shale resources in the Uinta Basin are of lower grade and are more dispersed than the oil shale resources of the Piceance Basin.

  3. Magnetic Lineations in Marginal Basins of the Western Pacific (United States)

    Weissel, J. K.


    This paper separates the small oceanic basins around the western perimeter of the Pacific Ocean into marginal basins that have formed through back-arc extension and those that apparently have not, and reviews our knowledge of magnetic lineation patterns observed in possible and probable back-arc basins. Magnetic lineations in these basins resemble lineations commonly associated with the world's mid-oceanic spreading systems, indicating that similar processes of crustal accretion occur in both tectonic environments. In some back-arc basins of the southwestern Pacific, magnetic lineation and other evidence suggest that back-arc basins can evolve through the interaction and growth of 'multi-plate' systems. Because of the small time and space characteristics of back-arc basins compared with the world's major oceanic spreading systems, tectonic conditions favourable for the generation of back-arc basins are either relaxed rapidly or easily interrupted. Models proposed to account for back-arc basin development include (a) 'local' models, where back-arc extension is mechanically driven by the downgoing slab, and (b) global plate kinematics models, where conditions favourable for back-arc extension are governed by the motion of the overriding plate relative to the trench axis.

  4. Riddled basins in a model for the Belousov Zhabotinsky reaction (United States)

    Woltering, Matthias; Markus, Mario


    Calculations show that the basin of attraction of periodicity can be riddled with respect to the basin of chaos for two diffusively coupled CSTRs. This hinders the predictability of the attractor, since arbitrarily close to a point in phase space leading to periodicity there exists a point leading to chaos. Evidence and quantification is given by the uncertainty exponent and by sign-singular scaling behaviour. A single CSTR can display basins of attraction that are indistinguishable from riddled basins owing to the unavoidable limitations in computational or experimental accuracy.

  5. Removal of Heavy Metals and PAH in Retention Basins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Torben; Neerup-Jensen, Ole


    Solid seperation in retention basins is strongly non-linear and depends significantly on the flow rate and the settling characteristics of the particles. Accordingly the calculation of the annual loads of pollutants from storm overflows including basins is rather complex and time consuming....... The paper describes how laboratory investigations and CFD-modelling of flow dependant particle separation in retention basins are combined with long-simulation of storm water overflows including basins based on historical time series of rainfalls also taking into account the flow dependant solid seperation...... in order to calculate annual loads of pollutants from urban catchments. The study cover Cd, Cu, Ni, Pb, Zn and PAH....

  6. Exploration Area and Potential of Natural Gas in Junggar Basin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang Haibo; Chen Lei; Qian Yongxin; Li Chen


    @@ Junggar Basin, located in Northern Xinjiang between Altai and Tianshan Mountains, is the second largest basin in China with its sedimentary area being about 130,000square kilometers. A group of caprocks are developed over Carboniferous of the basin, including the Permian,Triassic, Jurassic, Cretaceous, Paleogene, and Neogene,among which the biggest sedimentary caprock is 15,000meters thick. The formation and accumulation of oil and gas in the basin can be characterized by multistage and multisource after undergoing multiperiod structural movements such as Late Hercynian, Indosinian,Yanshanian, and Himalaya, etc.

  7. Tectonic Evolution and Petroleum Systems in the Junggar Basin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Weifeng; CHEN Yequan


    The Junggar basin is located in the northern part of Xinjiang of China. It is part of the Kazakstan plate,surrounded by the Paleozoic folded mountains: the Halaart, Zayier and Chepaizi Mountains in the northwest, the Qingelidi and Karamaili Mountains in the northeast, and the Tianshan Mountains in the south. In different evolution stages, the basin's types are different, and the stratigraphy and deposition are also different. From the Carboniferous to Tertiary the basin has in turn gone through rift basin, collision foreland basin, intraplate depression basin and regenerated foreland basin. Based on an analysis of thermal evolution history and buried history of the source rocks, three major periods of oil generation are found in the basin. According to the characteristics of source rock distribution, evolution, oil-source correlation, structure and multi-phase and mixed pools, the Junggar basin could be divided into 4 composite petroleum systems. Due to the variation in sedimentary facies, difference in structural patterns and development histories, the petroleum pool-forming conditions in different areas and horizons are greatly different, so are the petroleum pool types,the accumulation mechanisms in different areas and horizons.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Millings, M.; Denham, M.; Looney, B.


    From the 1950s through 1989, the F Area Seepage Basins at the Savannah River Site (SRS) received low level radioactive wastes resulting from processing nuclear materials. Discharges of process wastes to the F Area Seepage Basins followed by subsequent mixing processes within the basins and eventual infiltration into the subsurface resulted in contamination of the underlying vadose zone and downgradient groundwater. For simulating contaminant behavior and subsurface transport, a quantitative understanding of the interrelated discharge-mixing-infiltration system along with the resulting chemistry of fluids entering the subsurface is needed. An example of this need emerged as the F Area Seepage Basins was selected as a key case study demonstration site for the Advanced Simulation Capability for Environmental Management (ASCEM) Program. This modeling evaluation explored the importance of the wide variability in bulk wastewater chemistry as it propagated through the basins. The results are intended to generally improve and refine the conceptualization of infiltration of chemical wastes from seepage basins receiving variable waste streams and to specifically support the ASCEM case study model for the F Area Seepage Basins. Specific goals of this work included: (1) develop a technically-based 'charge-balanced' nominal source term chemistry for water infiltrating into the subsurface during basin operations, (2) estimate the nature of short term and long term variability in infiltrating water to support scenario development for uncertainty quantification (i.e., UQ analysis), (3) identify key geochemical factors that control overall basin water chemistry and the projected variability/stability, and (4) link wastewater chemistry to the subsurface based on monitoring well data. Results from this study provide data and understanding that can be used in further modeling efforts of the F Area groundwater plume. As identified in this study, key geochemical factors

  9. Intensity attenuation in the Pannonian Basin (United States)

    Győri, Erzsébet; Gráczer, Zoltán; Szanyi, Gyöngyvér


    Ground motion prediction equations play a key role in seismic hazard assessment. Earthquake hazard has to be expressed in macroseismic intensities in case of seismic risk estimations where a direct relation to the damage associated with ground shaking is needed. It can be also necessary for shake map generation where the map is used for prompt notification to the public, disaster management officers and insurance companies. Although only few instrumental strong motion data are recorded in the Pannonian Basin, there are numerous historical reports of past earthquakes since the 1763 Komárom earthquake. Knowing the intensity attenuation and comparing them with relations of other areas - where instrumental strong motion data also exist - can help us to choose from the existing instrumental ground motion prediction equations. The aim of this work is to determine an intensity attenuation formula for the inner part of the Pannonian Basin, which can be further used to find an adaptable ground motion prediction equation for the area. The crust below the Pannonian Basin is thin and warm and it is overlain by thick sediments. Thus the attenuation of seismic waves here is different from the attenuation in the Alp-Carpathian mountain belt. Therefore we have collected intensity data only from the inner part of the Pannonian Basin and defined the boundaries of the studied area by the crust thickness of 30 km (Windhoffer et al., 2005). 90 earthquakes from 1763 until 2014 have sufficient number of macroseismic data. Magnitude of the events varies from 3.0 to 6.6. We have used individual intensity points to eliminate the subjectivity of drawing isoseismals, the number of available intensity data is more than 3000. Careful quality control has been made on the dataset. The different types of magnitudes of the used earthquake catalogue have been converted to local and momentum magnitudes using relations determined for the Pannonian Basin. We applied the attenuation formula by Sorensen

  10. Woodlands Grazing Issues in Mediterranean Basin (United States)

    Campos, P.


    In Mediterranean basin, woodlands grazing still continue to be important commercial owners' benefits. These owners manage woodlands vegetations as if they were not at risk of degradation and declining. Frequently, no temporally grazing set-aside is taken into account to avoid overgrazing of annual and perennial vegetations. Although less common, in the northern shore of Mediterranean basin undergrazing might increase the frequency and the number of catastrophic forest fires. This under/over grazing regime occurs in the Mediterranean basin woodlands with contrasted differences on land property rights, local economies and government livestock policy incentives. Spain and Tunisia are examples of these Mediterranean livestock contrasts. Most of Spanish Mediterranean woodlands and livestock herds are large private ownerships and owners could maintain their lands and livestock herds properties on the basis of moderate cash-income compensation against land revaluation and exclusive amenity self-consumption. The later is less tangible benefit and it could include family land legacy, nature enjoyment, country stile of life development, social status and so on. In public woodlands, social and environmental goals -as they are cultural heritage, biodiversity loss mitigation, soil conservation and employment- could maintain market unprofitable woodlands operations. Last three decades Spanish Mediterranean woodlands owners have increased the livestock herds incentivized by government subsidies. As result, grazing rent is pending on the level of European Union and Spanish government livestock subsidies. In this context, Spanish Mediterranean woodlands maintain a high extensive livestock stoking population, which economy could be called fragile and environmentally unsustainable because forest degradation and over/under grazing practices. Tunisian Mediterranean woodlands are state properties and livestock grazing is practice as a free private regimen. Livestock herds are small herd

  11. Polyphase basin evolution of the Vienna Basin inferred from 3D visualization of sedimentation setting and quantitative subsidence (United States)

    Lee, Eun Young; Novotny, Johannes; Wagreich, Michael


    This study analyzed and visualized data from 210 wells using a MATLAB-based program (BasinVis 1.0) for 3D visualization of sediment distribution, thickness, and quantitative subsidence of the northern and central Vienna Basin. The sedimentation settings for selected horizons were visualized to 3D sediment distribution maps, isopach maps, and cross-sections. Subsidence of the study area resulted in 3D subsidence depth and rate maps of basement and tectonic subsidences. Due to the special position of the Vienna Basin, the basin evolution was influenced by the regional tectonics of surrounding units. The 2D/3D maps provided insights into the polyphase evolution of the Vienna Basin, which is closely related to changes in the changing regional stress field and the paleoenvironmental setting. In the Early Miocene, the sedimentation and subsidence were shallow and E-W/NE-SW trending, indicating the development of piggy-back basins. During the late Early Miocene, maps show wider sedimentation and abruptly increasing subsidence by sinistral strike-slip faults, which initiated the Vienna pull-apart basin system. The sediments of the Early Miocene were supplied through a small deltaic system entering from the south. After thin sedimentation and shallow subsidence of the early Middle Miocene, the development of the Vienna Basin was controlled and accelerated mainly by NE-SW trending synsedimentary normal faults, especially the Steinberg fault. From the Middle Miocene, the subsidence was decreasing overall, however the tectonic subsidence show regionally different patterns. This study suggests that a major tensional regime change, from transtension to E-W extension, caused laterally varying subsidence across the Vienna Basin. The Late Miocene was characterized by the slowing down of basement and tectonic subsidence. From the middle Middle to Late Miocene, enormous amount of sediments supplied by a broad paleo-Danube delta complex on the western flank of the basin. The latest

  12. Sedimentological study of the Meirama Tertiary basin - an example of a sedimentary basin over a strike-slip fault

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monge Ganuzas, C.


    The sedimentary basin of Meirama (Coruna, N.W. Spain), is developed over a strike slip fault of regional extent, whose movements controlled in the past the character and sedimentation processes there and determined the basin morphology and the deformation suffered by the sediments. The sedimentary register at Meirama is represented by one essentially lignitiferous unit and three other terrigenous-detrital. The nature and facies shown by the sediments are not constant within one unit and depend fundamentally on the source area for each unit, either the metasediments of Ordes (Ordenes) Serie (S-Se marginal basin) or the granodiorite of Xalo unit (N-NW marginal basin).

  13. Basin Analysis and Petroleum System Characterization and Modeling, Interior Salt Basins, Central and Eastern Gulf of Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ernest A. Mancini; Paul Aharon; Donald A. Goddard; Roger Barnaby


    The principal research effort for Year 3 of the project is basin modeling and petroleum system identification, comparative basin evaluation and resource assessment. In the first six (6) months of Year 3, the research focus is on basin modeling and petroleum system identification and the remainder of the year the emphasis is on the comparative basin evaluation and resource assessment. No major problems have been encountered to date, and the project is on schedule. The principal objectives of the project are to develop through basin analysis and modeling the concept that petroleum systems acting in a basin can be identified through basin modeling and to demonstrate that the information and analysis resulting from characterizing and modeling of these petroleum systems in the North Louisiana Salt Basin and the Mississippi Interior Salt Basin can be used in providing a more reliable and advanced approach for targeting stratigraphic traps and specific reservoir facies within a geologic system and in providing a refined assessment of undiscovered and underdeveloped reservoirs and associated oil and gas resources.

  14. 76 FR 18780 - Integrated Water Resource Management Plan, Yakima River Basin Water Enhancement Project, Benton... (United States)


    ... Bureau of Reclamation Integrated Water Resource Management Plan, Yakima River Basin Water Enhancement... Integrated Water Resource Management Plan, Yakima River Basin Water Enhancement Project. The Washington State...; and (4) identify a comprehensive approach for efficient management of basin water supplies....

  15. Western Gas Sands Project. Quarterly basin activities report, October 1-December 31, 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    This report is a summation of three months drilling and testing activitie in the four primary study areas of the WGSP: Greater Green River Basin, Northern Great Plains Province, Piceance Basin, and Uinta Basin.

  16. Mineralogical and geochemical characters of surface sediments from the central Indian Basin

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Banerjee, R.

    and siliceous sediments of the northern part of the basin indicate the influence of continental influx. This influence, however, decreases in the southern part of the basin where smectite is predominant, indicating volcanic input. The basinal sediments...

  17. Social Learning in European River-Basin Management: Barriers and Fostering Mechanisms from 10 River Basins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mostert, E.; Pahl-Wostl, C.; Rees, Y.; Searle, B.; Tabara, D.; Tippett, J.


    We present and analyze 10 case studies of participatory river-basin management that were conducted as part of the European HarmoniCOP project. The main theme was social learning, which emphasizes the importance of collaboration, organization, and learning. The case studies show that social learning

  18. Klamath Basin Restoration Agreement Off-Project Water Program Sub-basin Analysis Flow Statistics (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Hydrological Information Products for the Off-Project Water Program of the Klamath Basin Restoration Agreement U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 2012-1199 U.S....

  19. Diagenesis of Oligocene continental sandstones in salt-walled mini-basins-Sivas Basin, Turkey (United States)

    Pichat, Alexandre; Hoareau, Guilhem; Callot, Jean-Paul; Ringenbach, Jean-Claude


    The recent discovery of Oligo-Miocene salt-walled continental mini-basins in the Sivas Basin (central Anatolia, Turkey) provides the opportunity to unravel the influence of halokinesis on the diagenesis of continental mini-basin infilling. In this study, petrographic and geochemical analyses are used to define the diagenetic sequences recorded by two mini-basins filled mainly by fluvial clastic sediments of the upper Oligocene Karayün Formation. The initial diagenetic features are those commonly encountered in arid to semi-arid continental environments, i.e. clay infiltration, hematite precipitation and vadose calcite cement. Other early cements were strongly controlled by sandstone detrital composition in the presence of saline/alkaline pore water. In feldspathic litharenites and lithic arkoses, near-surface alterations were characterized by the precipitation of analcime (up to 10%), albite and quartz overgrowths (burial diagenesis which prevented further mesogenetic alteration phenomena such as compaction. In feldsarenites, early diagenesis differs by (i) the absence of analcime, (ii) better developed albite cements, (iii) thin smectite-illite coatings forming pore linings and (iv) patchy calcite cementation (burial, and result in a significant degradation of porosity.

  20. Relationships between basin architecture, basin closure, and occurrence of sulphide-bearing schists

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kalliomäki, Henrik; Torvela, Taija; Moreau, Julien


    We present field observations from the Palaeoproterozoic volcano-sedimentary Tampere palaeobasin, where the primary structures have been exceptionally well preserved. We use the observations to construct a new tectonic model for the southeastern margin of the Tampere basin during its inversion an...

  1. Assessment of basin-scale hydrologic impacts of CO2 sequestration, Illinois basin (United States)

    Person, M.; Banerjee, A.; Rupp, J.; Medina, C.; Lichtner, P.; Gable, C.; Pawar, R.; Celia, M.; McIntosh, J.; Bense, V.


    Idealized, basin-scale sharp-interface models of CO2 injection were constructed for the Illinois basin. Porosity and permeability were decreased with depth within the Mount Simon Formation. Eau Claire confining unit porosity and permeability were kept fixed. We used 726 injection wells located near 42 power plants to deliver 80 million metric tons of CO2/year. After 100 years of continuous injection, deviatoric fluid pressures varied between 5.6 and 18 MPa across central and southern part of the Illinois basin. Maximum deviatoric pressure reached about 50% of lithostatic levels to the south. The pressure disturbance (>0.03 MPa) propagated 10-25 km away from the injection wells resulting in significant well-well pressure interference. These findings are consistent with single-phase analytical solutions of injection. The radial footprint of the CO2 plume at each well was only 0.5-2 km after 100 years of injection. Net lateral brine displacement was insignificant due to increasing radial distance from injection well and leakage across the Eau Claire confining unit. On geologic time scales CO2 would migrate northward at a rate of about 6 m/1000 years. Because of paleo-seismic events in this region (M5.5-M7.5), care should be taken to avoid high pore pressures in the southern Illinois basin. ?? 2010 Elsevier Ltd.

  2. The Whisper of Deep Basins: Observation & Modelling (United States)

    Burjanek, J.; Ermert, L. A.; Poggi, V.; Michel, C.; Fäh, D.


    Free oscillations of Earth have been used for a long time to retrieve information about the deep Earth's interior. On a much smaller scale, standing waves develop in deep sedimentary basins and can possibly be used in a similar way. The sensitivity of these waves to subsurface properties makes them a potential source of information about the deep basin characteristics. We investigated the sequence of two-dimensional resonance modes occurring in Rhône Valley, a strongly over-deepened, glacially carved basin with a sediment fill reaching up to 900 m thickness. We obtained two synchronous linear-array recordings of ambient vibrations and analysed them with two different processing techniques. First, both 2D resonance frequencies and their corresponding modal shapes were identified by frequency-domain decomposition of the signal cross-spectral density matrix. Second, time-frequency polarization analysis was applied to support the addressing of the modes and to determine the relative contributions of the vertical and horizontal components of the fundamental in-plane mode. Simplified 2-D finite element models were then used to support the interpretation of the observations. We were able to identify several resonance modes including previously unmeasured higher modes at all investigated locations in the valley. Good agreement was found between results of our study and previous studies, between the two processing techniques and between observed and modelled results. Finally, a parametric study was performed to qualitatively assess the sensitivity of the mode's order, shape and frequency to subsurface properties like bedrock geometry, Poisson's ratio and shear wave velocity of the sediments. We concluded that the sequence of modes as they appear by frequency depends strongly on subsurface properties. Therefore addressing of the higher modes can be done reliably only with prior information on the sediment structure.

  3. Heterogeneous sources of marlstone in a piggy-back basin: the Neogene Lopare basin in Dinarides (United States)

    Grba, Nenad; Neubauer, Franz; Šajnović, Aleksandra; Jovančićević, Branimir


    The chemical composition of marlstones is commonly not used to investigate to provenance of the sedimentary basin fill because of variable dilution by authigenic carbonate and the assumed uniformity of the clay fraction. Here, we report geochemical compositions of marlstone from the Neogene Lopare basin in Internal Dinarides, which have an unusual chemical composition reflecting at least two different sources. The Lopare basin formed as a piggy-back basin on top of the growing Dinaric orogenic wedge. Much of its Miocene evolution, this basin represented a partly hypersaline lake in a warm climate likely formed during the Miocene Climatic Optimum during Early Miocene. Several lithofacies of marlstone reflect basin center deposits and the chemical composition could be considered as well mixed from external siliciclastic input (clay fraction) and internal carbonate precipitation. Sandstone layers are very thin and are not considered here. A total of 46 samples from two boreholes POT-3 (depth to 344 m) and POT-1 (depth to 193 m) were selected for geochemical investigation. The contents of major, minor and trace including rare earth elements were determined by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES). The qualitative composition of the mineral part was determined by means of X-ray diffractometry. The main chemical features of the Lopare basin marlstone are variable but high contents of most metals like Fe (5.36 ± 1.05 wt%), Cr (215 ± 34 ppm), Ni (183 ± 36 ppm), Pb (173 ± 43 ppm), but also of some alkalies like Li (340 ± 123 ppm). Particularly the heavy metal contents like Cr, Ni, Fe are much higher than for average continental mudstones (e.g., Taylor and McLennan, 1985). These contrasting compositions may result from two geochemically different sources: (1) Ophiolites (oceanic source) occurring in the neighborhood are responsible for high Cr, Ni, Fe contents, while (2) the increased alkali contents (e.g., Li; continental source) likely

  4. Water quality in the eastern Iowa basins (United States)

    Kalkhoff, Stephen J.; Barnes, Kymm K.; Becher, Kent D.; Savoca, Mark E.; Schnoebelen, Douglas J.; Sadorf, Eric M.; Porter, Stephen D.; Sullivan, Daniel J.; Creswell, John


    This article summarizes major findings about nutrients in surface and groundwater in the eastern Iowa basins (see map) between 1996 and 1998. The data were collected as part of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) National Water-Quality Assessment Program (NAWQA). Water quality is discussed in terms of local and regional issues and compared with conditions found in all 36 National NAWQA study areas assessed to date. Findings are explained in the context of selected national U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) benchmarks, such as those for drinking water quality and the protection of aquatic organisms.

  5. Sediment Yield Modeling in a Large Scale Drainage Basin (United States)

    Ali, K.; de Boer, D. H.


    This paper presents the findings of spatially distributed sediment yield modeling in the upper Indus River basin. Spatial erosion rates calculated by using the Thornes model at 1-kilometre spatial resolution and monthly time scale indicate that 87 % of the annual gross erosion takes place in the three summer months. The model predicts a total annual erosion rate of 868 million tons, which is approximately 4.5 times the long- term observed annual sediment yield of the basin. Sediment delivery ratios (SDR) are hypothesized to be a function of the travel time of surface runoff from catchment cells to the nearest downstream channel. Model results indicate that higher delivery ratios (SDR > 0.6) are found in 18 % of the basin area, mostly located in the high-relief sub-basins and in the areas around the Nanga Parbat Massif. The sediment delivery ratio is lower than 0.2 in 70 % of the basin area, predominantly in the low-relief sub-basins like the Shyok on the Tibetan Plateau. The predicted annual basin sediment yield is 244 million tons which compares reasonably to the measured value of 192.5 million tons. The average annual specific sediment yield in the basin is predicted as 1110 tons per square kilometre. Model evaluation based on accuracy statistics shows very good to satisfactory performance ratings for predicted monthly basin sediment yields and for mean annual sediment yields of 17 sub-basins. This modeling framework mainly requires global datasets, and hence can be used to predict erosion and sediment yield in other ungauged drainage basins.

  6. Advanced Workflows for Fluid Transfer in Faulted Basins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thibaut Muriel


    Full Text Available The traditional 3D basin modeling workflow is made of the following steps: construction of present day basin architecture, reconstruction of the structural evolution through time, together with fluid flow simulation and heat transfers. In this case, the forward simulation is limited to basin architecture, mainly controlled by erosion, sedimentation and vertical compaction. The tectonic deformation is limited to vertical slip along faults. Fault properties are modeled as vertical shear zones along which rock permeability is adjusted to enhance fluid flow or prevent flow to escape. For basins having experienced a more complex tectonic history, this approach is over-simplified. It fails in understanding and representing fluid flow paths due to structural evolution of the basin. This impacts overpressure build-up, and petroleum resources location. Over the past years, a new 3D basin forward code has been developed in IFP Energies nouvelles that is based on a cell centered finite volume discretization which preserves mass on an unstructured grid and describes the various changes in geometry and topology of a basin through time. At the same time, 3D restoration tools based on geomechanical principles of strain minimization were made available that offer a structural scenario at a discrete number of deformation stages of the basin. In this paper, we present workflows integrating these different innovative tools on complex faulted basin architectures where complex means moderate lateral as well as vertical deformation coupled with dynamic fault property modeling. Two synthetic case studies inspired by real basins have been used to illustrate how to apply the workflow, where the difficulties in the workflows are, and what the added value is compared with previous basin modeling approaches.

  7. Hot, deep origin of petroleum: deep basin evidence and application (United States)

    Price, Leigh C.


    Use of the model of a hot deep origin of oil places rigid constraints on the migration and entrapment of crude oil. Specifically, oil originating from depth migrates vertically up faults and is emplaced in traps at shallower depths. Review of petroleum-producing basins worldwide shows oil occurrence in these basins conforms to the restraints of and therefore supports the hypothesis. Most of the world's oil is found in the very deepest sedimentary basins, and production over or adjacent to the deep basin is cut by or directly updip from faults dipping into the basin deep. Generally the greater the fault throw the greater the reserves. Fault-block highs next to deep sedimentary troughs are the best target areas by the present concept. Traps along major basin-forming faults are quite prospective. The structural style of a basin governs the distribution, types, and amounts of hydrocarbons expected and hence the exploration strategy. Production in delta depocenters (Niger) is in structures cut by or updip from major growth faults, and structures not associated with such faults are barren. Production in block fault basins is on horsts next to deep sedimentary troughs (Sirte, North Sea). In basins whose sediment thickness, structure and geologic history are known to a moderate degree, the main oil occurrences can be specifically predicted by analysis of fault systems and possible hydrocarbon migration routes. Use of the concept permits the identification of significant targets which have either been downgraded or ignored in the past, such as production in or just updip from thrust belts, stratigraphic traps over the deep basin associated with major faulting, production over the basin deep, and regional stratigraphic trapping updip from established production along major fault zones.

  8. Structural characteristics and petroliferous features of Tarim Basin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Using the modern tectonic geology theories and methods such as the plate tectonic analysis, the paleo-struc- ture analysis, the structural-lithofacies analysis, and the fault related fold and petroleum system, and combining with the seismic data, well drilling data and the circumferential field geology, study on the structural characteristics and petroleum prospect in the Tarim Basin has been carried out. Results show that the Tarim Basin is a large superimposition and combination basin with continental crustal basement, composed of a Paleozoic craton and Meso-Cenozoic foreland basins. The characteristics of the basin are: the kernel part of the basin is the marine facies Paleozoic craton, superimposed 4 continental facies foreland basins. Though the scale of the paleozoic craton of the Tarim Basin is relatively small, the structure is steady. The petroleum prospect of the Paleozoic craton is: multiphase pool-generation and accumulation controlled by ancient uplift. The Meso-Cenozoic foreland basins in the Tarim Basin, which are distributed on the cratonic circumference and are a long-term subsidence, turned into rejuvenated foreland basins after the Meso-Cenozoic period. The petroleum prospects are: coal-bed generating hydrocarbon, abundant natural gas, pool-generation in later and recent periods, the oil and gas distribution controlled by the foreland thrust belt. The structural characteristics of Tarim provide it with a superimposition and combination petroleum system of multiple resources, multiple reservoirs and multiphase pool-generation. The oil and gas exploration prospect covers two large fields: the Paleozoic craton and the Meso-Cenozoic foreland thrust belt.

  9. Geochemical evolution of groundwater salinity at basin scale: a case study from Datong basin, Northern China. (United States)

    Wu, Ya; Wang, Yanxin


    A hydrogeochemical investigation using integrated methods of stable isotopes ((18)O, (2)H), (87)Sr/(86)Sr ratios, Cl/Br ratios, chloride-mass balance, mass balance and hydrogeochemical modeling was conducted to interpret the geochemical evolution of groundwater salinity in Datong basin, northern China. The δ(2)H, δ(18)O ratios in precipitation exhibited a local meteoric water line of δ(2)H = 6.4 δ(18)O -5 (R(2) = 0.94), while those in groundwater suggested their meteoric origin in a historically colder climatic regime with a speculated recharge rate of less than 20.5 mm overall per year, in addition to recharge from a component of deep residual ancient lake water enriched with Br. According to the Sr isotope binary mixing model, the mixing of recharges from the Shentou karst springs (24%), the western margins (11%) and the eastern margins (65%) accounts for the groundwater from the deep aquifers of the down-gradient parts in the central basin is a possible mixing mechanism. In Datong, hydrolysis of silicate minerals is the most important hydrogeochemical process responsible for groundwater chemistry, in addition to dissolution of carbonate and evaporites. In the recharge areas, silicate chemical weathering is typically at the bisiallitization stage, while that in the central basin is mostly at the monosiallitization stage with limited evidence of being in equilibrium with gibbsite. Na exchange with bound Ca, Mg prevails at basin scale, and intensifies with groundwater salinity, while Ca, Mg exchange with bound Na locally occurs in the east pluvial and alluvial plains. Although groundwater salinity increases with the progress of water-rock/sediment interactions along the flow path, as a result of carbonate solubility control and continuous evapotranspiration, Na-HCO3 and Na-Cl-SO4 types of water are usually characterized respectively in the deep and the shallow aquifers of an inland basin with a silicate terrain in an arid climatic regime.

  10. Thermal evolution of a hyperextended rift basin, Mauléon Basin, western Pyrenees (United States)

    Hart, Nicole R.; Stockli, Daniel F.; Lavier, Luc L.; Hayman, Nicholas W.


    Onshore and offshore geological and geophysical observations and numerical modeling have greatly improved the conceptual understanding of magma-poor rifted margins. However, critical questions remain concerning the thermal evolution of the prerift to synrift phases of thinning ending with the formation of hyperextended crust and mantle exhumation. In the western Pyrenees, the Mauléon Basin preserves the structural and stratigraphic record of Cretaceous extension, exhumation, and sedimentation of the proximal-to-distal margin development. Pyrenean shortening uplifted basement and overlying sedimentary basins without pervasive shortening or reheating, making the Mauléon Basin an ideal locality to study the temporal and thermal evolution of magma-poor hyperextended rift systems through coupling bedrock and detrital zircon (U-Th)/He thermochronometric data from transects characterizing different structural rifting domains. These new data indicate that the basin was heated during early rifting to >180°C with geothermal gradients of 80-100°C/km. The proximal margin recorded rift-related exhumation/cooling at circa 98 Ma, whereas the distal margin remained >180°C until the onset of Paleocene Pyrenean shortening. Lithospheric-scale numerical modeling shows that high geothermal gradients, >80°C/km, and synrift sediments >180°C, can be reached early in rift evolution via heat advection by lithospheric depth-dependent thinning and blanketing caused by the lower thermal conductivity of synrift sediments. Mauléon Basin thermochronometric data and numerical modeling illustrate that reheating of basement and synrift strata might play an important role and should be considered in the future development of conceptual and numerical models for hyperextended magma-poor continental rifted margins.

  11. Crustal structure across the Colorado Basin, offshore Argentina (United States)

    Franke, Dieter; Neben, Soenke; Schreckenberger, Bernd; Schulze, Albrecht; Stiller, Manfred; Krawczyk, Charlotte M.


    The geology of the wide shelves surrounding the South Atlantic is closely linked to the kinematics and history of the opening of the ocean. However, several wide sedimentary basins, which developed along the margins show peculiarities that are not yet understood in the context of the evolution of the South Atlantic. The Colorado Basin, a wide sedimentary basin on the broad shelf of Argentina, extends in EW direction. The basin's evolution oblique or orthogonal to the continent-ocean boundary indicates that it is not a product of simple progressive extension and crustal thinning. In addition a basement high, paralleling the continental margin and separating the Colorado Basin from the deep-sea basin is a common interpretation. These findings are hardly in accordance with the idea that the Colorado Basin is an extensional basin that developed in conjunction with the early E-W opening phase of the South Atlantic in the Late Jurassic/Early Cretaceous. The composition, type, and structure of the basement, key points for the evaluation of the basins evolution, are widely speculative. In this context multichannel seismic reflection data from the Argentine Shelf and a 665-km-long onshore-offshore refraction profile, running across the Colorado Basin onto the coast are discussed in combination with gravity data. The stratigraphy for the sedimentary successions was adopted from the literature and the reflection seismic marker horizons formed besides the interval velocities the input for the starting model for refraction seismic traveltime modelling. The modelling strategy was an iterative procedure between refraction seismic traveltime and gravity modelling. The preparation of the density models was coarsely orientated on published velocity-density relations. The modelling results are in favour of a continuation of the main onshore geological features beneath the sedimentary infill of the Colorado Basin. We interpret the basement along the line from west to east as offshore

  12. Large Sanjiang basin groups outside of the Songliao Basin Meso-Senozoic Tectonic-sediment evolution and hydrocarbon accumulation (United States)

    Zheng, M.; Wu, X.


    The basis geological problem is still the bottleneck of the exploration work of the lager Sanjiang basin groups. In general terms, the problems are including the prototype basins and basin forming mechanism of two aspects. In this paper, using the field geological survey and investigation, logging data analysis, seismic data interpretation technical means large Sanjiang basin groups and basin forming mechanism of the prototype are discussed. Main draw the following conclusions: 1. Sanjiang region group-level formation can be completely contrasted. 2. Tension faults, compressive faults, shear structure composition and structure combination of four kinds of compound fracture are mainly developed In the study area. The direction of their distribution can be divided into SN, EW, NNE, NEE, NNW, NWW to other groups of fracture. 3. Large Sanjiang basin has the SN and the EW two main directions of tectonic evolution. Cenozoic basins in Sanjiang region in group formation located the two tectonic domains of ancient Paleo-Asian Ocean and the Pacific Interchange. 4. Large Sanjiang basin has experienced in the late Mesozoic tectonic evolution of two-stage and nine times. The first stage, developmental stage basement, they are ① Since the Mesozoic era and before the Jurassic; ② Early Jurassic period; The second stage, cap stage of development, they are ③ Late Jurassic depression developmental stages of compression; ④ Early Cretaceous rifting stage; ⑤ depression in mid-Early Cretaceous period; ⑥ tensile Early Cretaceous rifting stage; ⑦ inversion of Late Cretaceous tectonic compression stage; ⑧ Paleogene - Neogene; ⑨ After recently Ji Baoquan Sedimentary Ridge. 5. Large Sanjiang basin group is actually a residual basin structure, and Can be divided into left - superimposed (Founder, Tangyuan depression, Hulin Basin), residual - inherited type (Sanjiang basin), residual - reformed (Jixi, Boli, Hegang basin). there are two developed depression and the mechanism

  13. Exploration Breakthrough in Southern Margin of Junggar Basin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kang Zhulin; Zheng Jiandong


    @@ The Hutubi structure, located in the southern margin of Junggar Basin, is 60 km norrthwest of Urumqi and 20 km northwest of Changji (Fig. l). The Hu-2 well drilled in the Hutubi structure has gained high-yield gas flow,significant exploration breakthrough in the southern margin of Junggar Basin since the 1950s.

  14. Petroleum Discoveries and Exploration Prospect in China's Major Petroliferous Basins

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhou Qingfan


    @@ Up to now, there are 29 oil-and gas-bearing basins with recoverable oil and gas reserves in China. However,most of the reserves were mainly discovered in parts of the 29 basins, which played an important role in China's petroleum exploration and development.

  15. Evolution of the Pannonian basin and its geothermal resources

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Horváth, F.; Musitz, B.; Balázs, A.; Végh, A.; Uhrin, A.; Nádor, A.; Koroknai, B.; Pap, N.; Tóth, T.; Wórum, G.


    The Pannonian basin is an integral part of the convergence zone between the Eurasian and Nubian plates characterized by active subductions of oceanic and continental plates, and formation of backarc basins. The first part of this paper presents an overview of the evolution of the Alpine-Mediterranea

  16. River basin management plans for the European Water Framework Directive

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kronvang, B.; Bechmann, M.; Behrendt, H.; Ruboek, G.H.; Schoumans, O.F.


    The newly adopted EU water framework directive aims at protecting different water bodies by performing impact analysis and developing river basin management plans before 2009. The adoption of management measures in river basins demands that catchment managers are able to quantify the importance of d

  17. The proper longshore current in a wave basin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, P.J.


    This report describes the investigation into a method how to obtain the proper longshore current in a wave basin. In this method the basin geometry is optimized and the proper recirculation flow through openings in the wave guides is determined by minimizing the circulation flow between the wave gui

  18. Analysis of drought determinants for the Colorado River Basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balling Jr, R.C. [Department of Geography, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ 85287 (United States); Goodrich, G.B. [Department of Geography and Geology, Western Kentucky University, Bowling Green, KY 42101 (United States)


    Ongoing drought in the Colorado River Basin, unprecedented urban growth in the watershed, and numerical model simulations showing higher temperatures and lower precipitation totals in the future have all combined to heighten interest in drought in this region. In this investigation, we use principal components analysis (PCA) to independently assess the influence of various teleconnections on Basin-wide and sub-regional winter season Palmer Hydrological Drought Index (PHDI) and precipitation variations in the Basin. We find that the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO) explains more variance in PHDI than El Nino-Southern Oscillation (ENSO), the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO), and the planetary temperature combined for the Basin as a whole. When rotated PCA is used to separate the Basin into two regions, the lower portion of the Basin is similar to the Basin as a whole while the upper portion, which contains the high-elevation locations important to hydrologic yield for the watershed, demonstrates poorly defined relationships with the teleconnections. The PHDI for the two portions of the Basin are shown to have been out of synch for much of the twentieth century. In general, teleconnection indices account for 19% of the variance in PHDI leaving large uncertainties in drought forecasting.

  19. Observing mass exchange with the Lofoten Basin using surface drifters (United States)

    Dugstad, Johannes S.; LaCasce, Joe; Koszalka, Inga M.; Fer, Ilker


    The Lofoten Basin in the Nordic Seas plays a central role in the global overturning circulation, acting as a reservoir for northward-flowing Atlantic water. Substantial heat loss occurs here, permitting the waters to become denser and eventually sink nearer the Arctic. Idealized modeling studies and theoretical arguments suggest the warm water enters the Lofoten Basin via eddy transport from the boundary current over the adjacent continental slope. But there is no observational evidence that this is the major contribution to mass exchange between the warm Atlantic Current and the Basin. How the basin waters exit also remains a mystery. Surface drifters offer an unique possibility to study the pathways of the boundary-basin exchange of mass and heat. We thereby examine trajectories of surface drifters released in the Nordic Seas in the POLEWARD and PROVOLO experiments, and supplemented by historical data from the Global Drifter Array. Contrary to the idea that the boundary current eddies are the main source, the results suggest that fluid is entering the Lofoten Basin from all sides. However, the drifters exit preferentially in the northeast corner of the basin. This asymmetry likely contributes to the extended residence times of the warm Atlantic waters in the Lofoten Basin. We consider various measures to quantify the effect, and test whether this is captured in a high resolution numerical model.

  20. Water Quality of Lake Tana Basin, Upper Blue Nile, Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goshu, G.; Koelmans, A.A.; Klein, de J.J.M.


    Water is at the forefront of the economic agenda of Ethiopian government and Tana basin has been identified as a major economic corridor because of the basin’s immense water resource potential for socioeconomic development. For effective and sustainable utilization of water resources in the basin, i