WorldWideScience

Sample records for ebony phitecellobium flexicaule

  1. Physical properties of ebony seed (Pithecellobium flexicaule) and functional properties of whole and defatted ebony seed meal

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    A partial characterization was done of ebony (Pithecellobium flexicaule) seed physical properties, and how defatting affected some functional properties of ebony seed meal. Average seed dimensions were 13.02 mm length, 8.78 mm width and 9.65 mm thickness. Geometric diameter was 10.76 mm, volume was 530 mm3, surface area was 364.33 mm2, sphericity was 83.26 % and aspect ratio was 68.24 %. Thousand-seed weight was 0.70 Kg, of which 0.42 Kg (60 %) represented the kernel. Defatted ebony seed meal...

  2. Simulating Evolution of Drosophila melanogaster Ebony Mutants Using a Genetic Algorithm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helles, Glennie

    2009-01-01

    Genetic algorithms are generally quite easy to understand and work with, and they are a popular choice in many cases. One area in which genetic algorithms are widely and successfully used is artificial life where they are used to simulate evolution of artificial creatures. However, despite...... their suggestive name, simplicity and popularity in artificial life, they do not seem to have gained a footing within the field of population genetics to simulate evolution of real organisms --- possibly because genetic algorithms are based on a rather crude simplification of the evolutionary mechanisms known...... today. However, in this paper we report how a standard genetic algorithm is used to successfully simulate evolution of ebony mutants in a population of Drosophila melanogaster (D.melanogaster). The results show a remarkable resemblance to the evolution observed in real biological experiments with ebony...

  3. The effect of various media on growth of ebony (Diospyros celebica Bakh seedlings through seeds multiplication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NURUL SUMIASRI

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Study of the effects of various media on growth of ebony (Diospyros celebica Bakh seedlings through seeds multiplication was carried out. The experiment used various media i.e. sands, soil (latosol, compost and EM Bokashi. The study was arranged by Factorial Randomized Block Design with 4 replications, growth parameters were observed i.e. growth percentage, plant height, total leaves, total roots and roots length. The results showed that the best medium of all parameter observed was EM Bokashi and the low results showed by latosol soil medium. Statistically all of parameter observed showed significant level at 5% Duncans’ tested to various media. The best media at the study was EM Bokashi, and could be recommended for media of ebony seed multiplication especially.

  4. PHYSICAL AND MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF BLACK WOOD (EBONY AS A CONSTRUCTION MATERIAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fengky Satria Yoresta

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This research is aimed to determine physical and mechanical properties of Ebony wood as a construction material. The physical and mechanical properties test is conducted based on ASTM D 143-94 code. The mean value of moisture content and specific gravity of Ebony wood is obtained 12,90% and 0,92 gr.cm-3 respectively. Meanwhile MOE, bending strength, compressive strength parallel to grain, shear strength, and tensile strength parallel to grain are 180.425,87 kg.cm-2; 1656,22 kg.cm-2; 861,55 kg.cm-2; 119,61 kg.cm-2; dan 2.319,03 kg.cm-2 respectively. Based on the test results, it can be concluded that Ebony wood is classified to Strength Class I due to PKKI 1961, so it can be recommended for use in heavy construction such as bridge and building structures   Penelitian ini bertujuan menentukan sifat fisis dan mekanis kayu  Ebony sebagai material konstruksi. Pengujian sifat fisis dan mekanis dilakukan berdasarkan standar ASTM D 143-94. -3Nilai kadar air rata-rata kayu Ebony diperoleh sebesar 12,90% dan berat jenis 0,92 gr.cm . Sementara nilai rata-rata MOE, kuat lentur, kuat tekan sejajar serat, kuat geser, dan kuat tarik -2 -2 -2sejajar serat berturut-turut adalah 180.425,87 kg.cm ; 1656,22 kg.cm ; 861,55 kg.cm ; -2 -2119,61 kg.cm ; dan 2.319,03 kg.cm . Berdasarkan hasil penelitian dapat disimpulkan bahwa kayu Ebony tergolong kelas kuat I menurut PKKI 1961, sehingga dapat direkomendasikan untuk digunakan pada konstruksi-konstruksi berat seperti jembatan dan struktur bangunan.   REFERENCES Aghayere A & Jason V. 2007. Structural Wood Design: A Practice-Oriented Approach Using the ASD Method. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New Jersey Boen T. 2009. Constructing Seismic Resistant Masonry Houses in Indonesia. United Nation. Chauf KA. 2005. Karakteristik Mekanik Kayu Kamper sebagai Bahan Konstruksi. Majalah Ilmiah MEKTEK . Vol 7 : 41-47. Dolan JD. 2004. Timber Structures. Pp 628-669 in Wai FC & Eric ML (Eds Handbook of Structural Engineering – 2nd

  5. Representation of ideal figure size in Ebony magazine: a content analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson-Brenner, Heather; Boisseau, Christina L; St Paul, Michelle S

    2011-09-01

    Studies examining trends over time in mainstream magazines observe decreases in women's figure size, and increases in figure exposure and amount of diet/exercise content. Little is known, however, regarding the content of African American magazines. Utilizing methods from classic studies, this investigation examined content in Ebony, a magazine with wide African American readership, from 1969 to 2008. We included the full content of N=462 issues, with a total of N=539 cover images of women, of which N=208 were full-body shots. Analyses indicated a curvilinear relationship between time and figure exposure, with a recent trend toward more full-body shots, similar to mainstream magazines. Contrary to previous studies, however, the majority of figures across time were average size, and a curvilinear relationship between time and diet/exercise content showed peak content in the early 1990s. Results are considered in context of research indicating African American women show less body dissatisfaction than other racial/ethnic groups.

  6. Introduction à l’œuvre de Noël X. Ebony à partir du tapuscrit de Quelque part

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Pierre Orban

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Le passage de l’Ivoirien Noël X. Ebony dans le paysage poétique fut fulgurant : aussi éblouissant que fugace. Mort en 1986 à Dakar, il n’aura publié de son vivant qu’un recueil de poésies, Déjà vu (Éditions Ouskokata, Paris, 1983. L’ouvrage, vite épuisé, devint comme une étoile dont la lumière, mais seule la lumière, nous parvient longtemps après son extinction. Célébré par un cercle d’aficionados (dont les romanciers Boubacar Boris Diop et Véronique Tadjo ou l’éditeur Bernard Magnier, le r...

  7. Surrounded by Ebony

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Wei

    2011-01-01

    THE Makonde are an ethnic group living along the Tanzania-Mozambique border.They are considered some of Africa's most talented woodcarvers and their craftsmanship has been passed down from generation to generation.Makonde woodcarving is often referred to as the grandfather of modern African wood sculpture.Its exaggerated human and animal patterns reflect the essence of traditional African culture,full of imagination and inspired by nature.

  8. Phototoxic effect of UVR on wild type, ebony and yellow mutants of Drosophila melanogaster: Life Span, fertility, courtship and biochemical aspects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG ZhePeng; LIU RuiFang; WANG AnRu; DU LiLi; DENG XueMei

    2008-01-01

    Melanin plays an important role in protecting organisms from ultraviolet radiation (UVR). Therefore, it is possible that differently colored strains can show different sensitivities to UVR. In the present work, life span, fertility and courtship behavior of wild type (w), ebony (e) and yellow (y) strains of Drosophila melanogaster were studied to evaluate their sensitivity to ultraviolet (UV). Because a range of photo-toxic effects of UVR are mediated through generation of free radicals, levels of free radicals, lipid per-oxide (malondialdehyde, MDA) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity of three strains were examined to indicate their antioxidant defending ability and oxidative status. It was shown that w always had the highest lifespan and fertility not only in the control but also in UV-exposed groups. Moreover, lifespan and fertility of e were significantly higher (P0.05). MDA levels were increased in the UV dose-dependent manner (P=0.0495). In con-clusion, our results suggested that UVB can decrease life span and fertility of flies and do harm to courtship, which may be due to oxidative damage to flies tissues (e.g. central nervous system) induced by free radicals, w had the highest tolerance to UVR, which may be ascribed to its advantage of survival under the natural condition and at high level of SOD activity. Then differences of pigment between e and y in absorbing UV, shielding against UV and scavenging free radicals produced by UVR should be responsible for their different sensitivity to UVR.

  9. Phototoxic effect of UVR on wild type, ebony and yellow mutants of Drosophila melanogaster: Life Span, fertility, courtship and biochemical aspects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Melanin plays an important role in protecting organisms from ultraviolet radiation (UVR). Therefore, it is possible that differently colored strains can show different sensitivities to UVR. In the present work, life span, fertility and courtship behavior of wild type (w), ebony (e) and yellow (y) strains of Drosophila melanogaster were studied to evaluate their sensitivity to ultraviolet (UV). Because a range of photo- toxic effects of UVR are mediated through generation of free radicals, levels of free radicals, lipid per- oxide (malondialdehyde, MDA) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity of three strains were examined to indicate their antioxidant defending ability and oxidative status. It was shown that w always had the highest lifespan and fertility not only in the control but also in UV-exposed groups. Moreover, lifespan and fertility of e were significantly higher (P<0.0001) than those of y in the UV-exposed groups, but not for the control. On the other hand, UV exposure had an adverse effect on courtship of flies. Stronger electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) signals could be detected in w, e and y exposed to 5 min UV. And there were more significant changes of EPR signals in y than in w and e. UVR had no significant (P=0.1782) effect on the SOD activities. After pooling data from the control and UV-exposed groups, we found that w had a significantly (P<0.05) higher level of SOD activity, but e and y were nearly at the same levels (P>0.05). MDA levels were increased in the UV dose-dependent manner (P=0.0495). In con- clusion, our results suggested that UVR can decrease life span and fertility of flies and do harm to courtship, which may be due to oxidative damage to flies tissues (e.g. central nervous system) induced by free radicals. w had the highest tolerance to UVR, which may be ascribed to its advantage of survival under the natural condition and at high level of SOD activity. Then differences of pigment between e and y in absorbing UV, shielding

  10. ebony] state university teaching hospital abakaliki, nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abakakliki were studied to determine the antimicrobial susceptibility pattern. Between ... the organnisn is very necessary in the formulation of a sound antibiotic policy in the hospital ... Lactamase (ESBL) producing K£4l)Si€llll pneumoniae.

  11. Ebony and Ivory? Interracial dating intentions and behaviors of disadvantaged African American women in Kentucky.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luke, David J; Oser, Carrie B

    2015-09-01

    Using data from 595 predominantly disadvantaged African American women in Kentucky, this study examines perceptions about racial/ethnic partner availability, cultural mistrust, and racism as correlates of interracial dating intentions and behaviors with both white and Hispanic men. Participants reported levels of dating intentions and behaviors were significantly higher with whites than Hispanics. The multivariate models indicate less cultural mistrust and believing it is easier to find a man of that racial/ethnic category were associated with higher interracial dating intentions. Women were more likely to have dated a white man if they believed it was easier to find a white man and had interracial dating intentions; however, interracial dating intentions was the only significant correlate of having dated a Hispanic man. Findings suggest a shrinking social distance between racial groups, broadening the MMPI for African American women; yet, the low levels of interracial relationships are likely driven by preferences of men.

  12. Ebony and Ivory?:Interracial Dating Intentions and Behaviors of Disadvantaged African American Women in Kentucky

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luke, David J.; Oser, Carrie B.

    2015-01-01

    Using data from 595 predominantly disadvantaged African American women in Kentucky, this study examines perceptions about racial/ethnic partner availability, cultural mistrust, and racism as correlates of interracial dating intentions and behaviors with both white and Hispanic men. Participants reported levels of dating intentions and behaviors were significantly higher with whites than Hispanics. The multivariate models indicate less cultural mistrust and believing it is easier to find a man of that racial/ethnic category were associated with higher interracial dating intentions. Women were more likely to have dated a white man if they believed it was easier to find a white man and had interracial dating intentions; however, interracial dating intentions was the only significant correlate of having dated a Hispanic man. Findings suggest a shrinking social distance between racial groups, broadening the MMPI for African American women; yet, the low levels of interracial relationships are likely driven by preferences of men. PMID:26188458

  13. Ebony and Ivory?:Interracial Dating Intentions and Behaviors of Disadvantaged African American Women in Kentucky

    OpenAIRE

    Luke, David J.; Oser, Carrie B.

    2015-01-01

    Using data from 595 predominantly disadvantaged African American women in Kentucky, this study examines perceptions about racial/ethnic partner availability, cultural mistrust, and racism as correlates of interracial dating intentions and behaviors with both white and Hispanic men. Participants reported levels of dating intentions and behaviors were significantly higher with whites than Hispanics. The multivariate models indicate less cultural mistrust and believing it is easier to find a man...

  14. Breeding and application of a new line of drosophila fruit fly (Drosophila melanogaster) with white-eye, winglet and ebony-body%果蝇白眼小翅黑檀体新品系的选育

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李素芳; 张晓燕; 徐伟; 孙骏威; 董荣莹; 王俊

    2007-01-01

    以白眼小翅果蝇为母本、黑檀体果蝇为父本,通过杂交的方法,选育出了集白眼、小翅、黑檀体三隐性性状于一身的果蝇新品系.在选育过程中,以白眼作为第一目标选择性状,第二步选择黑檀体性状,淘汰长翅性状,最后提纯白眼黑檀体和小翅个体.以得到的白眼、小翅、黑檀体三隐性新品系为材料,可同时满足三大遗传规律(分离规律、自由组合规律、连锁遗传规律)和性连锁遗传等实验教学的需要.

  15. the case for an analytical construction and enforcement of demand ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    RAYAN_

    Here, a commercial surety assumes unconditional financial payment ..... In Eboni Finance & Securities Ltd v. Wole-Ojo .... That, in my view, is the fundamental distinction. .... the Respondent to a company owned and operated by the Appellants.

  16. Ocular complications of malaria treatment

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2011-10-08

    Oct 8, 2011 ... parenteral quinine are employed with consequent untoward effects. This article reports two cases of severe ocular toxicity, including mimicry of ... 2003 at the Ebony Eye Specialist Clinic Onitsha with a week history of double ...

  17. Final Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact: Deployment of Up to Four F-16C Aircraft to the 133rd Airlift Wing for Air Sovereignty Alert Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-01

    round-stemmed false foxglove Asclepias stenophylla . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . narrow-leaved milkweed Astragalus alpinus... milkweed Asclepias sullivantii . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Sullivant’s milkweed Asplenium trichomanes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . maidenhair...clasping milkweed Asplenium platyneuron . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ebony spleenwort Astragalus flexuosus

  18. Epania gressitti Huang, Chen & Cai, a new species intercepted in imported ebony timber from Papua New Guinea at Hainan port%海南口岸从巴新进境柿属木材中截获天牛新种——嘉氏萎鞘天牛

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡波; 敖苏; 韩玉春; 徐卫; 刘福秀; 林明光; 李伟东; 韩晓晖; 李治道

    2015-01-01

    海南口岸从巴布亚新几内亚进境柿属(Diospyros sp.)木材中截获一种天牛,经鉴定为天牛新种——嘉氏萎鞘天牛(Epania gressitti Huang,Chen&Cai,2014).本文对该种的形态特征进行了重描述,增加雄性生殖器的形态描述,并编制近似种检索表,供检疫鉴定时参考.

  19. Resurrecting extinct interactions with extant substitutes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffiths, Christine J; Hansen, Dennis M; Jones, Carl G; Zuël, Nicolas; Harris, Stephen

    2011-05-10

    There is increasing evidence that restoration ecologists should be most concerned with restoring species interactions rather than species diversity per se [1]. Rewilding with taxon substitutes, the intentional introduction of exotic species to replace the ecosystem functions of recently extinct species, is one way to reverse ecosystem dysfunction following the loss of species interactions [2]. This is highly controversial [3], in part because of a lack of rigorous scientific studies [4]. Here we present the first empirical evidence of an in situ rewilding project undertaken as a hypothesis-driven ecosystem management option. On Ile aux Aigrettes, a 25-hectare island off Mauritius, the critically endangered large-fruited endemic ebony, Diospyros egrettarum (Ebenaceae), was seed-dispersal limited after the extinction of all native large-bodied frugivores, including giant tortoises. We introduced exotic Aldabra giant tortoises, Aldabrachelys gigantea, to disperse the ebony seeds. Not only did the tortoises ingest the large fruits and disperse substantial numbers of ebony seeds, but tortoise gut passage also improved seed germination, leading to the widespread, successful establishment of new ebony seedlings. Our results demonstrate that the introduction of these exotic frugivores is aiding the recovery of ebonies. We argue for more reversible rewilding experiments to investigate whether extinct species interactions can be restored.

  20. Efficient Screening of CRISPR/Cas9-Induced Events in Drosophila Using a Co-CRISPR Strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nanci S. Kane

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Genome editing using the Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats (CRISPR and associated nuclease (Cas9 enables specific genetic modifications, including deletions, insertions, and substitutions in numerous organisms, such as the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster. One challenge of the CRISPR/Cas9 system can be the laborious and time-consuming screening required to find CRISPR-induced modifications due to a lack of an obvious phenotype and low frequency after editing. Here we apply the successful co-CRISPR technique in Drosophila to simultaneously target a gene of interest and a marker gene, ebony, which is a recessive gene that produces dark body color and has the further advantage of not being a commonly used transgenic marker. We found that Drosophila broods containing higher numbers of CRISPR-induced ebony mutations (“jackpot” lines are significantly enriched for indel events in a separate gene of interest, while broods with few or no ebony offspring showed few mutations in the gene of interest. Using two different PAM sites in our gene of interest, we report that ∼61% (52–70% of flies from the ebony-enriched broods had an indel in DNA near either PAM site. Furthermore, this marker mutation system may be useful in detecting the less frequent homology-directed repair events, all of which occurred in the ebony-enriched broods. By focusing on the broods with a significant number of ebony flies, successful identification of CRISPR-induced events is much faster and more efficient. The co-CRISPR technique we present significantly improves the screening efficiency in identification of genome-editing events in Drosophila.

  1. Walking the Talk: Examining Privilege and Race in a Ninth-Grade Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sassi, Kelly; Thomas, Ebony Elizabeth

    2008-01-01

    Kelly Sassi and Ebony Elizabeth Thomas describe their struggles and eventual success with students in constructing a "counternarrative to colormuteness and colorblindness"--the self-imposed student segregation and silencing of voice. Because of discussions during a Native American unit and student participation in a classroom intervention…

  2. Restorying the Self: Bending toward Textual Justice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Ebony Elizabeth; Stornaiuolo, Amy

    2016-01-01

    In this essay, Ebony Elizabeth Thomas and Amy Stornaiuolo explore new trends in reader response for a digital age, particularly the phenomenon of bending texts using social media. They argue that bending is one form of "restorying," a process by which people reshape narratives to represent a diversity of perspectives and experiences that…

  3. Looking for Guidelines for the Production of Electronic Textbooks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landoni, M.; Wilson, R.; Gibb, F.

    2001-01-01

    Reports the results of two studies of electronic book production, including production on the World Wide Web, and explains EBONI (Electronic Books On-screen Interface) that focuses on the evaluation of electronic resources and compiling guidelines for publishing electronic materials on the Internet for the United Kingdom higher education…

  4. Reimagining Critical Race Theory in Education: Mental Health, Healing, and the Pathway to Liberatory Praxis

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGee, Ebony O.; Stovall, David

    2015-01-01

    Long-standing theoretical education frameworks and methodologies have failed to provide space for the role mental health can play in mediating educational consequences. To illustrate the need for such space, Ebony McGee and David Stovall highlight the voices of black undergraduates they have served in the capacities of teacher, researcher, and…

  5. A User-Centred Approach to E-Book Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Ruth; Landoni, Monica; Gibb, Forbes

    2002-01-01

    Considers the Electronic Books On-Screen Interface (EBONI) Project's research into the importance of the user when designing electronic textbooks. Describes methodology and evaluations involving students, lecturers and researchers in United Kingdom higher education and includes electronic textbook design guidelines. (Author/LRW)

  6. Drug: D07154 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available D07154 Persimmon calyx (non-JP) Traditional Chinese Medicine in Japan [BR:br08304] Crude Drugs Drugs... for Qi Drugs for regulating Qi D07154 Kaki calyx Crude drugs [BR:br08305] Dicot plants: asterids Ebenaceae (ebony family) D07154 Kaki calyx PubChem: 51091493 ...

  7. Looking for Guidelines for the Production of Electronic Textbooks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landoni, M.; Wilson, R.; Gibb, F.

    2001-01-01

    Reports the results of two studies of electronic book production, including production on the World Wide Web, and explains EBONI (Electronic Books On-screen Interface) that focuses on the evaluation of electronic resources and compiling guidelines for publishing electronic materials on the Internet for the United Kingdom higher education…

  8. Contributions to the moss flora of Gümüşhane Province (Torul and Kürtün districts, Turkey).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozdemir, Turan; Batan, Nevzat

    2009-02-15

    Some moss specimens were collected from Gümüşhane Province between September and October 2008. As a result of field and laboratory studies, 92 taxa belonging to 22 families were identified. These taxa are presented in a list. All taxa are new to the study area (Gümüşhane Province). Eight taxa are (Ditrichum flexicaule (Schwaegr.) Hampe, Ditrichum pusillum (Hedw.) Hampe, Grimmia lisae De Not., Grimmia montana Bruch and Schimp., Herzogiella seligeri (Brid.) Z. Iwats., Leskea polycarpa Hedw., Pohlia melanodon (Brid.) J. Shaw, Trichostomum tenuirostre (Hook and Taylor) Lindb. var. tenuirostre) new records for A4 Square (40-42 degrees N, 38-42 degrees E) were determined. The aim of the study was to determine the moss taxa growing in Gümüşhane Province (Torul and Kürtün districts) and to make a contribution to the moss flora of Turkey.

  9. New Lepidium (Brassicaceae from New Zealand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter de Lange

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available A revision of the New Zealand endemic Lepidium oleraceum and allied species is presented. Sixteen species are recognised, 10 of these are new. The new species are segregated on the basis of morphological characters supported by molecular data obtained from three DNA markers (two rDNA and one cpDNA. One species, L. castellanum sp. nov., is endemic to the Kermadec Islands where it is sympatric with L. oleraceum. The North Island of New Zealand supports four species, with two of them, L. amissum sp. nov. and L. obtusatum, now extinct. The South Island supports six species, that, aside from L. banksii, L. flexicaule and L. oleraceum, are all confined to the south-eastern half of the island (L. aegrum sp. nov., L. crassum sp. nov. and L. juvencum sp. nov.. One of these, L. juvencum sp. nov., extends to Stewart Island. The Chatham Islands support six species (L. flexicaule, L. oblitum sp. nov., L. oleraceum, L. oligodontum sp. nov., L. panniforme sp. nov., and L. rekohuense sp. nov., one of which, L. oligodontum sp. nov., extends to the Antipodes Islands group. The remote, subantarctic Bounty Islands group supports one endemic, L. seditiosum sp. nov., which is the only vascular plant to be recorded from there. Lepidium limenophylax sp. nov. is known from islands off the south-western side of Stewart Island/Rakiura, The Snares and Auckland islands. Lepidium naufragorum, although not related to L. oleraceum and its allies, is also treated because populations with entire leaves are now known. Typification is undertaken for L. banksii, L. oleraceum, L. oleraceum var. acutidentatum, var. frondosum and var. serrulatum.

  10. New Lepidium (Brassicaceae) from New Zealand

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Lange, P. J.; Heenan, P. B.; Houliston, G. J.; Rolfe, J. R.; Mitchell, A. D.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract A revision of the New Zealand endemic Lepidium oleraceum and allied species is presented. Sixteen species are recognised, 10 of these are new. The new species are segregated on the basis of morphological characters supported by molecular data obtained from three DNA markers (two rDNA and one cpDNA). One species, Lepidium castellanum sp. nov., is endemic to the Kermadec Islands where it is sympatric with Lepidium oleraceum. The North Island of New Zealand supports four species, with two of them, Lepidium amissum sp. nov. and Lepidium obtusatum, now extinct. The South Island supports six species, that, aside from Lepidium banksii, Lepidium flexicaule and Lepidium oleraceum, are all confined to the south-eastern half of the island (Lepidium aegrum sp. nov., Lepidium crassum sp. nov. and Lepidium juvencum sp. nov.). One of these, Lepidium juvencum sp. nov., extends to Stewart Island. The Chatham Islands support six species (Lepidium flexicaule, Lepidium oblitum sp. nov., Lepidium oleraceum, Lepidium oligodontum sp. nov., Lepidium panniforme sp. nov., and Lepidium rekohuense sp. nov.), one of which, Lepidium oligodontum sp. nov., extends to the Antipodes Islands group. The remote, subantarctic Bounty Islands group supports one endemic, Lepidium seditiosum sp. nov., which is the only vascular plant to be recorded from there. Lepidium limenophylax sp. nov. is known from islands off the south-western side of Stewart Island/Rakiura, The Snares and Auckland islands. Lepidium naufragorum, although not related to Lepidium oleraceum and its allies, is also treated because populations with entire leaves are now known. Typification is undertaken for Lepidium banksii, Lepidium oleraceum, Lepidium oleraceum var. acutidentatum, var. frondosum and var. serrulatum. PMID:23794938

  11. UNCLE DRAKPA AND HIS CHOPSTICK BUSINESS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Beihang; University; Mountaineering; Expedition; Team

    2015-01-01

    On the afternoon of July31st,2014,the second day after the expedition team arrived in Metok Village,we began household surveys.Led by the village work team of China Huaneng Group,we came to the home of Uncle Drakpa,a maker of ebony chopsticks.Drakpa’s home,a two-story house,is the leftmost in the third

  12. In vitro activity of Pithecellobium dulce and Lysiloma acapulcensis on exogenous development stages of sheep gastrointestinal strongyles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agustín Olmedo-Juárez

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of two lyophilised aqueous extracts of Lysiloma acapulcensis (LAE and Phitecellobium dulce (PDE tree leaves on in vitro assessment of hatching of eggs, larval development and migration of gastrointestinal nematodes of sheep using a general linear model. Treatments contained extracts from both species at concentrations of 0, 125, 250 and 500 μg/mL. Both albendazole and levamisole were used at a level of 1% as positive control. The extract of LAE, compared to PDE, showed better inhibition (P<0.05 of egg hatching. Different doses of both the LAE and PDE extracts showed a larvicidal effect (P<0.05 on all larvae exposed to different doses of the extracts. In the larval migration assay, a similar effect with levamisole at doses of 250 and 500 μg/mL occurred with the LAE extract. The extract of P. dulce had a lower larvicidal effect (P<0.05 than levamisole and L. acapulcensis extracts. Using aqueous extracts of both species of L. acapulcensis and P. dulce could be a promising alternative to synthetic anthelmintics as treatments of gastrointestinal nematodes of sheep in organic and conventional production systems under subtropical conditions.

  13. Quantification of Histamine and Carcinine in Drosophila melanogaster Tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denno, Madelaine E; Privman, Eve; Borman, Ryan P; Wolin, Danielle C; Venton, B Jill

    2016-03-16

    Histamine is a neurotransmitter crucial to the visual processing of Drosophila melanogaster. It is inactivated by metabolism to carcinine, a β-alanyl derivative, and the same enzyme that controls that process also converts dopamine to N-β-alanyl-dopamine. Direct detection of histamine and carcinine has not been reported in single Drosophila brains. Here, we quantify histamine, carcinine, dopamine, and N-β-alanyl-dopamine in Drosophila tissues by capillary electrophoresis coupled to fast-scan cyclic voltammetry (CE-FSCV). Limits of detection were low, 4 ± 1 pg for histamine, 10 ± 4 pg for carcinine, 2.8 ± 0.3 pg for dopamine, and 9 ± 3 pg for N-β-alanyl-dopamine. Tissue content was compared in the brain, eyes, and cuticle from wild-type (Canton S) and mutant (tan(3) and ebony(1)) strains. In tan(3) mutants, the enzyme that produces histamine from carcinine is nonfunctional, whereas in ebony(1) mutants, the enzyme that produces carcinine from histamine is nonfunctional. In all fly strains, the neurotransmitter content was highest in the eyes and there were no strain differences for tissue content in the cuticle. The main finding was that carcinine levels changed significantly in the mutant flies, whereas histamine levels did not. In particular, tan(3) flies had significantly higher carcinine levels in the eyes and brain than Canton S or ebony(1) flies. N-β-Alanyl-dopamine was detected in tan(3) mutants but not in other strains. These results show the utility of CE-FSCV for sensitive detection of histamine and carcinine, which allows a better understanding of their content and metabolism in different types of tissues to be obtained.

  14. The ontogeny of color: developmental origins of divergent pigmentation in Drosophila americana and D. novamexicana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooley, Arielle M; Shefner, Laura; McLaughlin, Wesley N; Stewart, Emma E; Wittkopp, Patricia J

    2012-07-01

    Pigmentation is a model trait for evolutionary and developmental analysis that is particularly amenable to molecular investigation in the genus Drosophila. To better understand how this phenotype evolves, we examined divergent pigmentation and gene expression over developmental time in the dark-bodied D. americana and its light-bodied sister species D. novamexicana. Prior genetic analysis implicated two enzyme-encoding genes, tan and ebony, in pigmentation divergence between these species, but questions remain about the underlying molecular mechanisms. Here, we describe stages of pupal development in both species and use this staging to determine when pigmentation develops and diverges between D. americana and D. novamexicana. For the developmental stages encompassing pigment divergence, we compare mRNA expression of tan and ebony over time and between species. Finally, we use allele-specific expression assays to determine whether interspecific differences in mRNA abundance have a cis-regulatory basis and find evidence of cis-regulatory divergence for both tan and ebony. cis-regulatory divergence affecting tan had a small effect on mRNA abundance and was limited to a few developmental stages, yet previous data suggests that this divergence is likely to be biologically meaningful. Our study suggests that small and developmentally transient expression changes may contribute to phenotypic diversification more often than commonly appreciated. Recognizing the potential phenotypic impact of such changes is important for a scientific community increasingly focused on dissecting quantitative variation, but detecting these types of changes will be a major challenge to elucidating the molecular basis of complex traits. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. First gathering of Native Chiefs aboard H.M.S. 'Nelson', Port Moresby, November 5th

    OpenAIRE

    ? Angerer, C, fl 1884, photographer

    2004-01-01

    285 x 230 mm. The Reverend James Chalmers was sent out to persuade local chiefs to come on board H.M.S. 'Nelson', and here Commodore Erskine explains the meaning of the protectorate to them. He is here seen shaking hands with Boe Vagi, as he presents him with his ebony stick of authority ('rather a nice idea' Romilly remarks). The other chiefs sit on the deck, while the ship's company is gathered behind. Various national flags have been draped above the deck as awnings. Behind Erskine, i...

  16. The Geology of Yemen: An Annotated Bibliography of Yemen’s Geology, Geography and Earth Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    its ebony and ivory pulpit or its crosses of silver and gold. In the narrow lanes of the market you are pressed to buy a bag of dull golden...principles of the SAS, laid down by David Stirling. “ Buy this book and you are getting more that SAS history and lore, but geo-political facts. Long and...Tiercelin, JeanJ, Robert, C., et al. 2007. “Centennial to Millennial -Scale Variability of the Indian Monsoon during the Early Holocene from a Sediment

  17. Xavier Preparatory Academy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    Students of Xavier University Preparatory School in New Orleans watch clouds shift across the globe in near-real time on 'Science on a Sphere' during a recent visit to StenniSphere, the visitor center at NASA's John C. Stennis Space Center. Four projectors work in sync with the suspended sphere to create a revolving display of a planet's atmosphere, oceans and land; to show documentary movies; or to project models of climate change using satellite data. Pictured are students (l to r) Ashante Snowton, Robriane Larry, Zhane Farbe and Ebony Johnson.

  18. "Am I not a woman?" The rhetoric of breast cancer stories in African American women's popular periodicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Cynthia

    2004-01-01

    Representations of breast cancer are examined in three popular women's periodicals targeting African American readers: Ebony, Essence, and Black Elegance. The researcher focuses specifically on representations that reflect certain ideas/ideals about the sharing and creating of information about the disease and related issues, such as health care and body image. Magazine selections are analyzed and critiqued according to the epistemological principles outlined by Patricia Hill Collins in Black Feminist Thought. The author calls for further research into how and why particular social and cultural groups consume information about health and illness in particular ways.

  19. Xavier Preparatory Academy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    Students of Xavier University Preparatory School in New Orleans watch clouds shift across the globe in near-real time on 'Science on a Sphere' during a recent visit to StenniSphere, the visitor center at NASA's John C. Stennis Space Center. Four projectors work in sync with the suspended sphere to create a revolving display of a planet's atmosphere, oceans and land; to show documentary movies; or to project models of climate change using satellite data. Pictured are students (l to r) Ashante Snowton, Robriane Larry, Zhane Farbe and Ebony Johnson.

  20. Iteration expansion and regional evolution: phylogeography of Dendrobium officinale and four related taxa in southern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Beiwei; Luo, Jing; Zhang, Yusi; Niu, Zhitao; Xue, Qingyun; Ding, Xiaoyu

    2017-03-06

    The genus Dendrobium was used as a case study to elucidate the evolutionary history of Orchidaceae in the Sino-Japanese Floristic Region (SJFR) and Southeast Asia region. These evolutionary histories remain largely unknown, including the temporal and spatial distribution of the evolutionary events. The present study used nuclear and plastid DNA to determine the phylogeography of Dendrobium officinale and four closely related taxa. Plastid DNA haplotype and nuclear data were shown to be discordant, suggesting reticulate evolution drove the species' diversification. Rapid radiation and genetic drift appeared to drive the evolution of D. tosaense and D. flexicaule, whereas introgression or hybridization might have been involved in the evolution of D. scoriarum and D. shixingense. The phylogeographical structure of D. officinale revealed that core natural distribution regions might have served as its glacial refuges. In recent years, human disturbances caused its artificial migration and population extinction. The five taxa may have originated from the Nanling Mountains and the Yungui Plateau and then migrated northward or eastward. After the initial iteration expansion, D. officinale populations appeared to experience the regional evolutionary patterns in different regions and follow the sequential or rapid decline in gene exchange.

  1. An introgression approach to mapping differences in mating success and sperm competitive ability in Drosophila simulans and D. sechellia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Civetta, Alberto; Waldrip-Dail, Heidi M; Clark, Andrew G

    2002-02-01

    The progeny of Drosophila females doubly-mated to males from the same and a closely related species are mostly sired by conspecific males. We examined the genetic basis for conspecific mating preference and sperm precedence by using 186 Drosophila lines in which random chromosomal fragments of D. sechellia were introgressed into D. simulans. Sperm competition was measured for each of these lines by crossing ebony D. simulans female with ebony D. simulans males followed by wild-type males from the introgressed lines. Variation in sperm competition (proportion of progeny sired by the second male), mating discrimination (proportion of introgressed males that failed to remate), and male fecundity (proportion of progeny sired by introgressed males) were scored. The introgressed lines exhibited highly significant heterogeneity in the three phenotypes scored, motivating an analysis to locate quantitative trait loci (QTLs) responsible for the differences. Applying composite interval mapping, we found eight QTLs that explain a significant level of variation among introgressed lines in the phenotypes scored. Cytological position overlapped among some QTLs suggesting possible pleiotropic effects. Analysis of the joint effects of simulans/sechellia genetic composition at different QTLs and markers suggests that complex interactions among alleles are partially responsible for interspecific differences in sexual traits.

  2. Galileo's Lens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manos, Harry

    2003-05-01

    Most visitors to Florence, Italy, know about the Galleria dell'Accademia, housing Michelangelo's famous statue of David, or the Galleria degli Uffizi with the famous Medici collection. Few visitors know that only two blocks from the Uffizi on the Arno River is one of the world's finest museums featuring historic scientific instruments, the Museo di Storia della Scienza. In the February issue of TPT, Nickell states that the Museo di Storia della Scienza ``is perhaps the best museum on the history of science in the world.''1 This fact is likely true, and the museum is a must for physics teachers visiting Florence. It features a vast collection of authentic ``cutting-edge'' scientific instruments, including one of Galileo's lenses in a magnificent ebony and ivory frame. One of the tragedies is that this museum goes unmarked on many tourist maps and unmentioned in many guidebooks.

  3. The dentist's armamentarium: a collection of 19th century instruments in the Louisiana State University School of Dentistry Library.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheramie, Toby J; Strother, Elizabeth A

    2008-01-01

    A small collection of antique dental instruments located in the LSU School of Dentistry Library (LSUSD) provides a glimpse into the world of the 19th century dentist. The instruments in this collection, with handles carved from common and rare early materials such as bone, wood, ivory, ebony, cameo, shell and pearl, provide a striking contrast to all-steel instruments of the 20th century. An understanding of their development and function substantially increases appreciation of these instruments, which can be categorized as instruments for oral surgery, prophylaxis, restoration, and general use. In this article, the authors summarize the historical development of each type of instrument and describe the specific items in the LSUSD Library collection.

  4. El tribunal de la Santa Inquisición y los negros esclavos en América

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosas Navarro, Ruth Magali

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Black slaves in America related with the Inquisitorial tribune in multiple ways: as processed defendants, confiscated material goods, service within and outside the Holy Office's prisons, witnesses and plaintiffs of their masters. Regarding this last matter, one could say that the Holy Office became the Justice Tribune which dedfended these «ebony pieces» from their master's abuse.

    Los negros esclavos en América se relacionaron de múltiples maneras con el tribunal inquisitorial: como reos procesados, bienes materiales confiscados, servicio dentro y fuera de las cárceles del Santo Oficio, testigos y denunciantes de sus amos. En este último sentido, el Santo Oficio se convirtió en Tribunal de Justicia que defendió a estas «piezas de ébano» del maltrato de sus amos.

  5. Lung function status of workers exposed to wood dust in timber markets in Calabar, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okwari, O O; Antai, A B; Owu, D U; Peters, E J; Osim, E E

    2005-06-01

    The effect of chronic exposure to dust from local woods such as ebony, achi, and iroko on lung function of timber market workers in Calabar - Nigeria, was studied. Forced vital capacity (FVC), Forced Expiratory Volume in one second, (FEV1), Forced Expiratory Volume as a percentage of forced vital capacity (FEV1 %), and Peak Expiratory Flow Rate (PEFR) were measured in 221 workers (aged 20-25 years) exposed to wood dust to assess their lung function and compared with 200 age- and sex- matched control subjects who were not exposed to any known air pollutant. The concentration of respirable dust was significantly higher in the test (Pwood dust had restrictive pattern of ventilatory function impairment. The lung function indices of the timber workers decreased with their length of service. Chronic exposure to wood dust impairs lung function.

  6. Effects of altered catecholamine metabolism on pigmentation and physical properties of sclerotized regions in the silkworm melanism mutant.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang Qiao

    Full Text Available Catecholamine metabolism plays an important role in the determination of insect body color and cuticle sclerotization. To date, limited research has focused on these processes in silkworm. In the current study, we analyzed the interactions between catecholamines and melanin genes and their effects on the pigmentation patterns and physical properties of sclerotized regions in silkworm, using the melanic mutant melanism (mln silkworm strain as a model. Injection of β-alanine into mln mutant silkworm induced a change in catecholamine metabolism and turned its body color yellow. Further investigation of the catecholamine content and expression levels of the corresponding melanin genes from different developmental stages of Dazao-mln (mutant and Dazao (wild-type silkworm revealed that at the larval and adult stages, the expression patterns of melanin genes precipitated dopamine accumulation corresponding to functional loss of Bm-iAANAT, a repressive effect of excess NBAD on ebony, and upregulation of tan in the Dazao-mln strain. During the early pupal stage, dopamine did not accumulate in Dazao-mln, since upregulation of ebony and black genes led to conversion of high amounts of dopamine into NBAD, resulting in deep yellow cuticles. Scanning electron microscope analysis of a cross-section of adult dorsal plates from both wild-type and mutant silkworm disclosed the formation of different layers in Dazao-mln owing to lack of NADA, compared to even and dense layers in Dazao. Analysis of the mechanical properties of the anterior wings revealed higher storage modulus and lower loss tangent in Dazao-mln, which was closely associated with the altered catecholamine metabolism in the mutant strain. Based on these findings, we conclude that catecholamine metabolism is crucial for the color pattern and physical properties of cuticles in silkworm. Our results should provide a significant contribution to Lepidoptera cuticle tanning research.

  7. Rosewood of Madagascar: Between democracy and conservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hery Randriamalala

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available In 2009 an estimated 52,000 tonnes of precious wood from ca. 100,000 rosewood and ebony trees was logged in north - east Madagascar, one third originating from Marojejy National Park and its environs, the remainder from in and around Masoala National Park. At least 500,000 additional trees and many miles of vines were cut to make rafts to transport the heavy ebony and rosewood logs. Approximately 36,700 tonnes were shipped in 1,187 containers, almost all to China, for a total export sale price estimated at $ US 220 million. In the SAVA region, members of the timber syndicate pocketed 76 % of this whereas the State collected just $ US 15.3 million. Of the three main companies that transported rosewood from Vohemar, Delmas benefitedmost; three banks also facilitated the illegal timber trade. Fraud is perpetrated by the syndicate and government administrators along every step in Madagascar’s precious timber trade in a coordinated effort to maximize profit and minimize taxes and fines. Poor governance and a lack of clarity in forest regulation have facilitated timber trafficking and undermined judicial control; during at least three periods (1992, 2006 and 2009 - 2010 escalation of rosewood exportation has been facilitated by government decrees issued prior to elections or during difficult political times, in each instance accompanied by ‘exceptional’ government orders allowing a few powerful operators to export massive quantities of wood – all part of a carefully orchestrated cycle. The near-silence of donors and NGOs is linked to their loss of influence following suspension of all but humanitarian aid since 17 March 2009.

  8. ANATOMICAL AND PHYSICAL PROPERTIESOF BISBUL WOOD (Diospyros blancoi A.DC.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krisdianto Krisdianto

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Ebony (Diospyros sp.  is a heavy hardwood that is  popularly known as blackwood. Diospyros consists of over 300 species spread throughout tropics area and about 100 species occur in Indonesia. Bisbul wood (Diospyros btancoi A.DC. is one species of  streaked ebony that is locally known as 'buah mentega'.  The anatomical and physical properties of  bisbul  were studied to collect information  for wood identification  and to support appropriate use of the timber. Anatomical properties were studied from microtome sectioned samples, which have been coloured by safranin and mounted by entellan, while fiber dimensions  were studied from macerated samples.  Physical properties  of  bisbul wood studied include moisture content, density and percentage of volumetric shrinkage. Moisture content and density were studied from 20 x 20 x 20 mm samples based on wet and oven dry condition. Volumetric shrinkage was measured from dimension changes in radial, tangential and longitudinal shrinkage of 20 x 20 x 40 mm samples. The samples were measured in wet and oven dry conditions. The main anatomical characteristics to identify bisbul wood were black wood with pinkish streaked, heavy and very hard,  very fine texture, even, lustrous surface and glossy, distinct growth ring, small size of vessels, apotracheal parenchyma forming reticulate pattern. The average moisture content was 59.86 ± 2.84%,  the density average was 0.74 ± 0.04 gr/cm3  and volumetric shrinkage was 10.41±0.70%.   The higher the stem, the more moisture  content and the lower the density will be. Sapwood density was lower and had more moisture  content than heartwood. The black pinkish heavy wood, bisbul was recommended to be used for carvings, sculpture, souvenir and luxuryinterior products.

  9. Contenido de alimento y metabolismo ceco-cólico en el tracto digestivo de poblaciones silvestres de iguana negra (Ctenosaura pectinata en Morelos, México Cecum-colic content of food and metabolism in the digestive tract of wild population black lizard (Ctenosaura pectinata in Morelos, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L Vélez-Hernández

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Se colectaron cinco tractos digestivos de iguana negra (Ctenosaura pectinata en estado silvestre en el estado de Morelos, México, para conocer la composición botánica de la dieta y el metabolismo ceco-cólico. Se observaron frotis realizados del contenido ceco-cólico para registrar la presencia de protozoarios, bacterias y parásitos intestinales existentes. Se obtuvo la media y desviación estándar de las características evaluadas. En el contenido ceco-cólico se identificaron las especies vegetales guamúchil (Phitecellobium dulce y huizache (Acacia farnesiana. Se estimó en base a materia seca la porción vegetal que conforma la dieta, la cual se distribuyó en frutos (62,9%, hojas (30,6%, rebrotes (2,9% y flores (3,5%. La región ceco-cólica se caracterizó por la concentración (mmol de los ácidos grasos acético (68,9 ± 10,6, butírico (11,98 ± 5,7, propiónico (9,04 ± 1,5 y total (89,9 ± 15, con pH de 7,45 y concentración de nitrógeno amoniacal (7,4 ± 2,8 mg/dl. La microbiota que se observó fue el protozoario Nyctotherus spp. Las bacterias totales oscilaron en concentraciones 7 x 10 a 9 x 10/g, siendo las celulolíticas de 9,2 x 10 hasta 3,5 x 10/g de contenido cecal. Los parásitos encontrados son nematodos identificados como miembros de la superfamilia Oxyuroidea con 655 ± 265/g huevos y 6,300 ± 329 adultos/iguana. Se concluye que la fermentación de la región ceco-cólica de la iguana negra en estado adulto se comporta de manera similar como en las especies herbívoras, en las cuales la fermentación se manifiesta de acuerdo con el alimento consumido. La concentración dietaria de proteína cruda fue de 14,5% y energía de 2,193 Mcal/kg y son animales parasitados con oxiuros.Five digestive tracts of black lizards (Ctenosaura pectinata from a wild population were collected in Morelos State, México, in order to identify the plant composition in the diet and the cecum-colic metabolism. Smears obtained from cecum

  10. Genetic Architecture of Abdominal Pigmentation in Drosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dembeck, Lauren M; Huang, Wen; Magwire, Michael M; Lawrence, Faye; Lyman, Richard F; Mackay, Trudy F C

    2015-05-01

    Pigmentation varies within and between species and is often adaptive. The amount of pigmentation on the abdomen of Drosophila melanogaster is a relatively simple morphological trait, which serves as a model for mapping the genetic basis of variation in complex phenotypes. Here, we assessed natural variation in female abdominal pigmentation in 175 sequenced inbred lines of the Drosophila melanogaster Genetic Reference Panel, derived from the Raleigh, NC population. We quantified the proportion of melanization on the two most posterior abdominal segments, tergites 5 and 6 (T5, T6). We found significant genetic variation in the proportion of melanization and high broad-sense heritabilities for each tergite. Genome-wide association studies identified over 150 DNA variants associated with the proportion of melanization on T5 (84), T6 (34), and the difference between T5 and T6 (35). Several of the top variants associated with variation in pigmentation are in tan, ebony, and bric-a-brac1, genes known to affect D. melanogaster abdominal pigmentation. Mutational analyses and targeted RNAi-knockdown showed that 17 out of 28 (61%) novel candidate genes implicated by the genome-wide association study affected abdominal pigmentation. Several of these genes are involved in developmental and regulatory pathways, chitin production, cuticle structure, and vesicle formation and transport. These findings show that genetic variation may affect multiple steps in pathways involved in tergite development and melanization. Variation in these novel candidates may serve as targets for adaptive evolution and sexual selection in D. melanogaster.

  11. Lexically Allusive Content of Semantic Frames (Based on the Works of John Fowles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandra Aleksandrovna Akatova

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The semantic frame is a cognitive model, some mental structure that unites the world map and the thesaurus of a person, the hierarchy of meanings and values of the linguistic model of the world. Conceptual-cognitive content of a semantic frame includes three constituents: the reader, the author, and culture. The postmodernistic metatext, a vivid example of which is the metatext of John Fowles, is made of lexical-semantic frames, filled with allusions, general cultural precedent phenomena, cross-references, leitmotif lexemes. The frames of "freedom" and "game" exemplify integrated leitmotif of enclosed space, sea, theater, meta-theatre, god, god's imitations, magician (wizard, and fool. The application of a semantic frames method for the analysis of lexical-allusive elements in the works of John Fowles (The Aristos, The Magus, The Ebony Tower, Daniel Martin, French Lieutenant's Woman, A Maggot, Wormholes allowed to identify the net of allusive inclusions and arrange them into lexical-semantic frames, which helped to decode linguocultural metatext of the society and the individual (author. The interpretation of linguistic and cultural items in the text has lead to distinguishing the dominant frame of the metatext, that is "freedom". It is stated that creativity is freedom in action, responsibility is the condition for complete freedom, the path from the Fool to the Magician is the way from blindness of the stereotypes in the society to the intrinsic vision of internal freedom and unifying meaning of existence.

  12. [Contact allergies in musicians].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasenzer, E R; Neugebauer, E A M

    2012-12-01

    During the last years, the problem of allergic diseases has increased. Allergies are errant immune responses to a normally harmless substance. In musicians the allergic contact dermatitis to exotic woods is a special problem. Exotic rosewood contains new flavonoids, which trigger an allergic reaction after permanent contact with the instrument. High quality woodwind instruments such as baroque flute or clarinets are made in ebony or palisander because of its great sound. Today instruments for non-professional players are also made in these exotic materials and non-professionals may have the risk to develop contact dermatitis, too. Brass-player has the risk of an allergic reaction to the different metals contained in the metal sheets of modern flutes and brass instruments. Specially nickel and brass alloys are used to product flute tubes or brass instruments. Special problem arises in children: patients who are allergic to plants or foods have a high risk to develop contact dermatitis. Parents don't know the materials of low-priced instruments for beginners. Often unknown cheap woods from exotic areas are used. Low-priced brass instruments contain high amount of brass and other cheap metals. Physicians should advice musician-patients or parents about the risks of the different materials and look for the reason of eczema on mouth, face, or hands.

  13. Optimization of DNA extraction from fresh leaf tissues of Melanoxylon brauna (Fabaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borges, D B; Amorim, M B; Waldschmidt, A M; Mariano-Neto, E; Vivas, C V; Pereira, D G

    2012-05-22

    Melanoxylon brauna (Fabaceae - Caesalpinioideae) is an endemic and valuable hardwood tree species in the Brazilian Atlantic rainforest; it is comparable to African ebony wood. We tested three protocols of DNA extraction based on the citrimonium bromide (CTAB) method and evaluated the quantity, purity and integrity of the DNA. We also determined whether these procedures interfere with PCR amplification in order to develop a protocol for M. brauna. We found that the quality and integrity of DNA were improved with the use of proteinase K in the extraction buffer and by modifications in the centrifugation speed. The lowest concentration of DNA was obtained with Doyle and Doyle's protocol (5.42 ng/μL). Ferreira and Grattapaglia's protocol modified for M. brauna provided the most DNA (36.89 ng/μL) and the highest quality DNA (purity ratio of 1.80 nm). The original Ferreira and Grattapaglia protocol provided 13.42 ng/μL DNA; however, the purity ratio (1.44 nm) indicates protein contamination. PCR results showed that Ferreira and Grattapaglia's protocol modified for M. brauna gave satisfactory quantity and purity of DNA for molecular studies.

  14. Outbred genome sequencing and CRISPR/Cas9 gene editing in butterflies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xueyan; Fan, Dingding; Zhang, Wei; Liu, Guichun; Zhang, Lu; Zhao, Li; Fang, Xiaodong; Chen, Lei; Dong, Yang; Chen, Yuan; Ding, Yun; Zhao, Ruoping; Feng, Mingji; Zhu, Yabing; Feng, Yue; Jiang, Xuanting; Zhu, Deying; Xiang, Hui; Feng, Xikan; Li, Shuaicheng; Wang, Jun; Zhang, Guojie; Kronforst, Marcus R.; Wang, Wen

    2015-01-01

    Butterflies are exceptionally diverse but their potential as an experimental system has been limited by the difficulty of deciphering heterozygous genomes and a lack of genetic manipulation technology. Here we use a hybrid assembly approach to construct high-quality reference genomes for Papilio xuthus (contig and scaffold N50: 492 kb, 3.4 Mb) and Papilio machaon (contig and scaffold N50: 81 kb, 1.15 Mb), highly heterozygous species that differ in host plant affiliations, and adult and larval colour patterns. Integrating comparative genomics and analyses of gene expression yields multiple insights into butterfly evolution, including potential roles of specific genes in recent diversification. To functionally test gene function, we develop an efficient (up to 92.5%) CRISPR/Cas9 gene editing method that yields obvious phenotypes with three genes, Abdominal-B, ebony and frizzled. Our results provide valuable genomic and technological resources for butterflies and unlock their potential as a genetic model system. PMID:26354079

  15. Industrial melanism in the peppered moth is not associated with genetic variation in canonical melanisation gene candidates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arjen E van't Hof

    Full Text Available Industrial melanism in the peppered moth (Biston betularia is an iconic case study of ecological genetics but the molecular identity of the gene determining the difference between the typical and melanic (carbonaria morphs is entirely unknown. We applied the candidate gene approach to look for associations between genetic polymorphisms within sixteen a priori melanisation gene candidates and the carbonaria morph. The genes were isolated and sequence characterised in B. betularia using degenerate PCR and from whole-transcriptome sequence. The list of candidates contains all the genes previously implicated in melanisation pattern differences in other insects, including aaNAT, DOPA-decarboxylase, ebony, tan, tyrosine hydroxylase, yellow and yellow2 (yellow-fa. Co-segregation of candidate gene alleles and carbonaria morph was tested in 73 offspring of a carbonaria male-typical female backcross. Surprisingly, none of the sixteen candidate genes was in close linkage with the locus controlling the carbonaria-typical polymorphism. Our study demonstrates that the 'carbonaria gene' is not a structural variant of a canonical melanisation pathway gene, neither is it a cis-regulatory element of these enzyme-coding genes. The implication is either that we have failed to characterize an unknown enzyme-coding gene in the melanisation pathway, or more likely, that the 'carbonaria gene' is a higher level trans-acting factor which regulates the spatial expression of one or more of the melanisation candidates in this study to alter the pattern of melanin production.

  16. [On the situation of African swine fever and the biological characterization of recent virus isolates].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tauscher, Kerstin; Pietschmann, Jana; Wernike, Kerstin; Teifke, Jens P; Beer, Martin; Blome, Sandra

    2015-01-01

    African swine fever (ASF), a disease notifiable to the World Organization of Animal Health (OIE), is characterized by severe, unspecific clinical signs and high mortality rates. Hosts for ASF virus (ASFV) are only members of the family Suidae and soft ticks of the genus Ornithodoros. Currently, no vaccine is available and therefore, the control is primarily based on strict sanitary measures. The most important part is the early detection of the disease within affected animal holdings and the fast and reliable confirmation by laboratory diagnosis. Infections of domestic pigs and European wild boar with recent Armenian, Sardinian, Lithuanian or Kenyan ASFV isolates lead to severe, acute disease courses with the predominant symptom of high fever (> 41 degrees C) accompanied by further unspecific clinical signs such as lethargy, loss of appetite, diarrhoea, respiratory symptoms, and an increased bleeding tendency. In experimental infection studies the mortality rate reached 100%. The most prominent pathomorphological findings included ebony-colored gastrohepatic lymph nodes, lung oedema, petechiae in the renal cortex, and oedema of the gallbladder wall. In the light of the current epidemiological situation with endemic ASFV infections on Sardinia, outbreaks in Russia and several Eastern EU Member States there is a risk for an introduction in further, previously unaffected EU countries including Germany. Hence, appropriate sample materials (serum, blood, spleen) of domestic pigs with unspecific clinical symptoms or pathomorphological findings should be examined for both ASFV and classical swine fever virus.

  17. The Soil Geochemistry in the Beardmore Glacier Region, Antarctica: Implications for Terrestrial Ecosystem History

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, W. B.; Deuerling, K.; Welch, K. A.; Welch, S. A.; Michalski, G.; Walters, W. W.; Nielsen, U.; Wall, D. H.; Hogg, I.; Adams, B. J.

    2016-05-01

    Although most models suggest continental Antarctica was covered by ice during the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) it has been speculated that endemic species of soil invertebrates could have survived the Pleistocene at high elevation habitats protruding above the ice sheets. We analyzed a series of soil samples from different elevations at three locations along the Beardmore Glacier in the Transantarctic Mountains (in order of increasing elevation): Ebony Ridge (ER), Cloudmaker (CM), and Meyer Desert (MD). Geochemical analyses show the MD soils, which were exposed during the LGM, were the least weathered compared to lower elevations, and also had the highest total dissolved solids (TDS). MD soils are dominated by nitrate salts (NO3/Cl ratios >10) that can be observed in SEM images. High δ17O and δ18O values of the nitrate indicate that its source is solely of atmospheric origin. It is suggested that nitrate concentrations in the soil may be utilized to determine a relative “wetting age” to better assess invertebrate habitat suitability. The highest elevation sites at MD have been exposed and accumulating salts for the longest times, and because of the salt accumulations, they were not suitable as invertebrate refugia during the LGM.

  18. Genetic Architecture of Abdominal Pigmentation in Drosophila melanogaster.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauren M Dembeck

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Pigmentation varies within and between species and is often adaptive. The amount of pigmentation on the abdomen of Drosophila melanogaster is a relatively simple morphological trait, which serves as a model for mapping the genetic basis of variation in complex phenotypes. Here, we assessed natural variation in female abdominal pigmentation in 175 sequenced inbred lines of the Drosophila melanogaster Genetic Reference Panel, derived from the Raleigh, NC population. We quantified the proportion of melanization on the two most posterior abdominal segments, tergites 5 and 6 (T5, T6. We found significant genetic variation in the proportion of melanization and high broad-sense heritabilities for each tergite. Genome-wide association studies identified over 150 DNA variants associated with the proportion of melanization on T5 (84, T6 (34, and the difference between T5 and T6 (35. Several of the top variants associated with variation in pigmentation are in tan, ebony, and bric-a-brac1, genes known to affect D. melanogaster abdominal pigmentation. Mutational analyses and targeted RNAi-knockdown showed that 17 out of 28 (61% novel candidate genes implicated by the genome-wide association study affected abdominal pigmentation. Several of these genes are involved in developmental and regulatory pathways, chitin production, cuticle structure, and vesicle formation and transport. These findings show that genetic variation may affect multiple steps in pathways involved in tergite development and melanization. Variation in these novel candidates may serve as targets for adaptive evolution and sexual selection in D. melanogaster.

  19. Genetic Architecture of Abdominal Pigmentation in Drosophila melanogaster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dembeck, Lauren M.; Huang, Wen; Magwire, Michael M.; Lawrence, Faye; Lyman, Richard F.; Mackay, Trudy F. C.

    2015-01-01

    Pigmentation varies within and between species and is often adaptive. The amount of pigmentation on the abdomen of Drosophila melanogaster is a relatively simple morphological trait, which serves as a model for mapping the genetic basis of variation in complex phenotypes. Here, we assessed natural variation in female abdominal pigmentation in 175 sequenced inbred lines of the Drosophila melanogaster Genetic Reference Panel, derived from the Raleigh, NC population. We quantified the proportion of melanization on the two most posterior abdominal segments, tergites 5 and 6 (T5, T6). We found significant genetic variation in the proportion of melanization and high broad-sense heritabilities for each tergite. Genome-wide association studies identified over 150 DNA variants associated with the proportion of melanization on T5 (84), T6 (34), and the difference between T5 and T6 (35). Several of the top variants associated with variation in pigmentation are in tan, ebony, and bric-a-brac1, genes known to affect D. melanogaster abdominal pigmentation. Mutational analyses and targeted RNAi-knockdown showed that 17 out of 28 (61%) novel candidate genes implicated by the genome-wide association study affected abdominal pigmentation. Several of these genes are involved in developmental and regulatory pathways, chitin production, cuticle structure, and vesicle formation and transport. These findings show that genetic variation may affect multiple steps in pathways involved in tergite development and melanization. Variation in these novel candidates may serve as targets for adaptive evolution and sexual selection in D. melanogaster. PMID:25933381

  20. Genetic Basis of Melanin Pigmentation in Butterfly Wings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Linlin; Martin, Arnaud; Perry, Michael W; van der Burg, Karin R L; Matsuoka, Yuji; Monteiro, Antónia; Reed, Robert D

    2017-04-01

    Despite the variety, prominence, and adaptive significance of butterfly wing patterns, surprisingly little is known about the genetic basis of wing color diversity. Even though there is intense interest in wing pattern evolution and development, the technical challenge of genetically manipulating butterflies has slowed efforts to functionally characterize color pattern development genes. To identify candidate wing pigmentation genes, we used RNA sequencing to characterize transcription across multiple stages of butterfly wing development, and between different color pattern elements, in the painted lady butterfly Vanessa cardui This allowed us to pinpoint genes specifically associated with red and black pigment patterns. To test the functions of a subset of genes associated with presumptive melanin pigmentation, we used clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)/Cas9 genome editing in four different butterfly genera. pale, Ddc, and yellow knockouts displayed reduction of melanin pigmentation, consistent with previous findings in other insects. Interestingly, however, yellow-d, ebony, and black knockouts revealed that these genes have localized effects on tuning the color of red, brown, and ochre pattern elements. These results point to previously undescribed mechanisms for modulating the color of specific wing pattern elements in butterflies, and provide an expanded portrait of the insect melanin pathway. Copyright © 2017 by the Genetics Society of America.

  1. Outbred genome sequencing and CRISPR/Cas9 gene editing in butterflies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xueyan; Fan, Dingding; Zhang, Wei; Liu, Guichun; Zhang, Lu; Zhao, Li; Fang, Xiaodong; Chen, Lei; Dong, Yang; Chen, Yuan; Ding, Yun; Zhao, Ruoping; Feng, Mingji; Zhu, Yabing; Feng, Yue; Jiang, Xuanting; Zhu, Deying; Xiang, Hui; Feng, Xikan; Li, Shuaicheng; Wang, Jun; Zhang, Guojie; Kronforst, Marcus R; Wang, Wen

    2015-09-10

    Butterflies are exceptionally diverse but their potential as an experimental system has been limited by the difficulty of deciphering heterozygous genomes and a lack of genetic manipulation technology. Here we use a hybrid assembly approach to construct high-quality reference genomes for Papilio xuthus (contig and scaffold N50: 492 kb, 3.4 Mb) and Papilio machaon (contig and scaffold N50: 81 kb, 1.15 Mb), highly heterozygous species that differ in host plant affiliations, and adult and larval colour patterns. Integrating comparative genomics and analyses of gene expression yields multiple insights into butterfly evolution, including potential roles of specific genes in recent diversification. To functionally test gene function, we develop an efficient (up to 92.5%) CRISPR/Cas9 gene editing method that yields obvious phenotypes with three genes, Abdominal-B, ebony and frizzled. Our results provide valuable genomic and technological resources for butterflies and unlock their potential as a genetic model system.

  2. The role of carcinine in signaling at the Drosophila photoreceptor synapse.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brendan A Gavin

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The Drosophila melanogaster photoreceptor cell has long served as a model system for researchers focusing on how animal sensory neurons receive information from their surroundings and translate this information into chemical and electrical messages. Electroretinograph (ERG analysis of Drosophila mutants has helped to elucidate some of the genes involved in the visual transduction pathway downstream of the photoreceptor cell, and it is now clear that photoreceptor cell signaling is dependent upon the proper release and recycling of the neurotransmitter histamine. While the neurotransmitter transporters responsible for clearing histamine, and its metabolite carcinine, from the synaptic cleft have remained unknown, a strong candidate for a transporter of either substrate is the uncharacterized inebriated protein. The inebriated gene (ine encodes a putative neurotransmitter transporter that has been localized to photoreceptor cells in Drosophila and mutations in ine result in an abnormal ERG phenotype in Drosophila. Loss-of-function mutations in ebony, a gene required for the synthesis of carcinine in Drosophila, suppress components of the mutant ine ERG phenotype, while loss-of-function mutations in tan, a gene necessary for the hydrolysis of carcinine in Drosophila, have no effect on the ERG phenotype in ine mutants. We also show that by feeding wild-type flies carcinine, we can duplicate components of mutant ine ERGs. Finally, we demonstrate that treatment with H(3 receptor agonists or inverse agonists rescue several components of the mutant ine ERG phenotype. Here, we provide pharmacological and genetic epistatic evidence that ine encodes a carcinine neurotransmitter transporter. We also speculate that the oscillations observed in mutant ine ERG traces are the result of the aberrant activity of a putative H(3 receptor.

  3. The role of carcinine in signaling at the Drosophila photoreceptor synapse.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brendan A Gavin

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The Drosophila melanogaster photoreceptor cell has long served as a model system for researchers focusing on how animal sensory neurons receive information from their surroundings and translate this information into chemical and electrical messages. Electroretinograph (ERG analysis of Drosophila mutants has helped to elucidate some of the genes involved in the visual transduction pathway downstream of the photoreceptor cell, and it is now clear that photoreceptor cell signaling is dependent upon the proper release and recycling of the neurotransmitter histamine. While the neurotransmitter transporters responsible for clearing histamine, and its metabolite carcinine, from the synaptic cleft have remained unknown, a strong candidate for a transporter of either substrate is the uncharacterized inebriated protein. The inebriated gene (ine encodes a putative neurotransmitter transporter that has been localized to photoreceptor cells in Drosophila and mutations in ine result in an abnormal ERG phenotype in Drosophila. Loss-of-function mutations in ebony, a gene required for the synthesis of carcinine in Drosophila, suppress components of the mutant ine ERG phenotype, while loss-of-function mutations in tan, a gene necessary for the hydrolysis of carcinine in Drosophila, have no effect on the ERG phenotype in ine mutants. We also show that by feeding wild-type flies carcinine, we can duplicate components of mutant ine ERGs. Finally, we demonstrate that treatment with H(3 receptor agonists or inverse agonists rescue several components of the mutant ine ERG phenotype. Here, we provide pharmacological and genetic epistatic evidence that ine encodes a carcinine neurotransmitter transporter. We also speculate that the oscillations observed in mutant ine ERG traces are the result of the aberrant activity of a putative H(3 receptor.

  4. Identification and temporal expression of putative circadian clock transcripts in the amphipod crustacean Talitrus saltator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Grady, Joseph F; Hoelters, Laura S; Swain, Martin T; Wilcockson, David C

    2016-01-01

    Talitrus saltator is an amphipod crustacean that inhabits the supralittoral zone on sandy beaches in the Northeast Atlantic and Mediterranean. T. saltator exhibits endogenous locomotor activity rhythms and time-compensated sun and moon orientation, both of which necessitate at least one chronometric mechanism. Whilst their behaviour is well studied, currently there are no descriptions of the underlying molecular components of a biological clock in this animal, and very few in other crustacean species. We harvested brain tissue from animals expressing robust circadian activity rhythms and used homology cloning and Illumina RNAseq approaches to sequence and identify the core circadian clock and clock-related genes in these samples. We assessed the temporal expression of these genes in time-course samples from rhythmic animals using RNAseq. We identified a comprehensive suite of circadian clock gene homologues in T. saltator including the 'core' clock genes period (Talper), cryptochrome 2 (Talcry2), timeless (Taltim), clock (Talclk), and bmal1 (Talbmal1). In addition we describe the sequence and putative structures of 23 clock-associated genes including two unusual, extended isoforms of pigment dispersing hormone (Talpdh). We examined time-course RNAseq expression data, derived from tissues harvested from behaviourally rhythmic animals, to reveal rhythmic expression of these genes with approximately circadian period in Talper and Talbmal1. Of the clock-related genes, casein kinase IIβ (TalckIIβ), ebony (Talebony), jetlag (Taljetlag), pigment dispensing hormone (Talpdh), protein phosphatase 1 (Talpp1), shaggy (Talshaggy), sirt1 (Talsirt1), sirt7 (Talsirt7) and supernumerary limbs (Talslimb) show temporal changes in expression. We report the sequences of principle genes that comprise the circadian clock of T. saltator and highlight the conserved structural and functional domains of their deduced cognate proteins. Our sequencing data contribute to the growing inventory

  5. Do candidate genes mediating conspecific sperm precedence affect sperm competitive ability within species? A test case in Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Civetta, Alberto; Finn, Scott

    2014-07-16

    When females mate to multiple males, the last male to mate fathers the majority of progeny. When males of different species inseminate a female, the sperm of the male conspecific to the female is favored in fertilization in a process known as conspecific sperm precedence (CSP). A large number of studies in Drosophila have assayed the genetic basis of sperm competition, with a main focus on D. melanogaster and accessory gland protein genes. Only a few studies have attempted to disentangle the genetic basis of CSP between related species of Drosophila. Although there is no a priori reason to believe that genes influencing intraspecific sperm competitive ability might also mediate conspecific sperm precedence, no study has addressed the question. Here, we test a group of candidate CSP genes between D. simulans and D. mauritiana for their effect on sperm competition in D. melanogaster. The use of P-element insertion lines identified CG14891 gene disruption as the only one causing a significant decrease in second male paternity success relative to wild-type and ebony tester males. The gene disruption affected both sperm displacement and the sperm fertilizing ability. Out of five genes tested using RNA interference, only gene knockdown of CG6864(Mst89B) [corrected] significantly reduced the male's ability to father progeny when second to mate. Our results suggest that CG14891 and CG6468 might have been co-opted from an intraspecies gene function (i.e., sperm competition) into an interspecies avoidance phenotype (i.e., CSP). Alternatively, the dual role of these genes could be a consequence of their pleiotropic roles. Copyright © 2014 Civetta and Finn.

  6. Laboratory test of the Galilean universality of the free fall experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Rasmus S.; Teiwes, Ricky; Petersen, Steffen V.; Uggerhøj, Ulrik I.; Jacoby, Bo

    2014-03-01

    There is a popular myth that Galileo dropped two objects of the same shape but different mass, noted their equal fall time, and concluded that gravitational motion is independent of the mass of the object. This paper demonstrates that this experiment—if actually performed—most likely would have yielded a different result and thus with modern eyes led to a different conclusion. The paper consists of two parts: (1) a theoretical description with a numerical and an analytical solution of the problem, and (2) an experiment of the Galilean type that provides experimental evidence within 1% accuracy that the theory applies. Previous papers on this subject have been almost exclusively theoretical and/or calculational, and we emphasize the suitability of the performed experiment as an affordable instructional exercise, e.g. for undergraduates. We find a difference in impact time of 0.109 s for otherwise nearly identical objects of masses differing by about a factor of 3, mlight = 57.52 g and mheavy = 173.62 g, dropped from a height of 23.192 m, about half of the height of the Leaning Tower of Pisa. Very convincing agreement between experiment and theory, including an account of the fluid dynamics in air, is achieved. By use of the theory thus corroborated, the calculated difference in height at first impact corresponding to the Galilean case is about 5.8 m (assuming a lead ball and an ebony ball, each the size of a tennis ball), easily detectable both visually and, with a difference in impact time of about 0.22 s, aurally. The time difference is also sufficiently large to be unlikely to be caused by inaccuracy in release time. This gives an indication that if Galileo did actually perform the experiment, he may have chosen to neglect small differences (≃10%) in impact times observed using large differences (factor ≃ 10) in mass.

  7. Hardware-in-the-Loop Modeling and Simulation Methods for Daylight Systems in Buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mead, Alex Robert

    -models of real CFSs are excited using either natural or artificial light. The exiting luminance distribution from these CFSs is measured and used as inputs to a Radiance mathematical-model of the interior of the space, which is proposed to be lit by the CFS containing daylighting system. Hence, the components of the total daylighting and building system which are not mathematically-modeled well, the CFS, are physically excited and measured, while the components which are modeled properly, namely the interior building space, are mathematically-modeled. In order to excite and measure CFSs behavior, a novel parallel goniophotometer, referred to as the CUBE 2.0, is developed in this dissertation. The CUBE 2.0 measures the input illuminance distribution and the output luminance distribution with respect to a CFS under test. Further, the process is fully automated allowing for deployable experiments on proposed building sites, as well as in laboratory based experiments. In this dissertation, three CFSs, two commercially available and one novel--Twitchell's Textilene 80 Black, Twitchell's Shade View Ebony, and Translucent Concrete Panels (TCP)--are simulated on the CUBE 2.0 system for daylong deployments at one minute time steps. These CFSs are assumed to be placed in the glazing space within the Reference Office Radiance model, for which horizontal illuminance on a work plane of 0.8 m height is calculated for each time step. While Shade View Ebony and TCPs are unmeasured CFSs with respect to BSDF, Textilene 80 Black has been previously measured. As such a validation of the CUBE 2.0 using the goniophotometer measured BSDF is presented, with measurement errors of the horizontal illuminance between +3% and -10%. These error levels are considered to be valid within experimental daylighting investigations. Non-validated results are also presented in full for both Shade View Ebony as well as TCP. Concluding remarks and future directions for HWiL simulation close the dissertation.

  8. 潮州二弦的构造及其制作%On the Structure and Manufacture of Chaozhou Erxian

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢丽清

    2016-01-01

    潮州二弦由琴筒、琴杆、弦轴、琴弦、琴码、琴徽、琴弓、松香等部件组成.琴筒为圆筒形,一边是空心的圆形,另一边蒙皮.琴杆上端左边横置高低二弦轴.琴杆中部装有千斤.丝线作弦.琴弓用石竹和马尾制成,并张于两弦间擦奏.在琴筒、琴杆、琴轴上有镶螺工艺.潮州二弦的制作,依次为取材、盖皮(选皮、勒皮、蒙皮)、制弓、油漆、配件、装配共六个程序.它的主要制作材料是乌木(琴筒、琴杆、弦轴)和蛇皮.潮州二弦承传中国的弓弦乐器形制,大胆吸纳外来优秀材料,又融入潮州特点.%Chaozhou Erxian(two-stringed fiddles) is made up of the sound box,the pole, the axle, the strings, the code, the badge, the bow, rosin,etc. One side of the sound box is hollow while the other side stressed-skin structure. The high-and-low axles are placed on the upper left side of the pole. The Jacknub,is placed in the middle. The strings are made of silk thread. The process of making Erxian includes materials se-lecting,skinning covering,bow making,oil painting,accessory,and assembling. The major materials are eb-ony (for making the sound box,the pole and the axles) and snake skin. Chaozhou Erxian has not only inherited the traditional Chinese bowstring structure,but also absorbed foreign quality materials with local characteris-tics.

  9. Struggles of agency and structure as cultural worlds collide as urban African American youth learn physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elmesky, Rowhea

    This critical ethnography focused on five urban African American students, coming from economically disadvantaged homes in Philadelphia, who were considered at risk with regard to their position within society as well as within the small learning community of their low-academically performing school. As participants in the study, they were employed from June 11, 2001 from 9:00 AM until 1:00 PM and continuing until September 7, 2001 at $7.50 per hour under research grants from the Spencer Foundation and the National Science Foundation. Through this study, these five youth were provided with traditional and nontraditional opportunities to build understandings of some of the most essential concepts of physics as learners. Moreover, they also had the chance to work as research assistants, teacher educators and curriculum developers. The findings of the research conclusively reveal that African American, urban youth from some of the most challenging situations are capable of learning physics concepts. Moreover, the most success resulted when students' strategies of action were directed towards the objective of learning although, in the process of meaning-making, their personal goals unrelated to science were also met. In addition, the research results show that urban African American students come to school with strategies of action replete with cultural practices, symbols and their underlying meanings from fields outside of school including both the home and the neighborhood. These cultural resources, when triggered, then become apparent within learning environments and can powerfully assist learning when the desired outcomes of the student(s) are in tune with the objective of learning physics. Through the physics teaching and learning that occurred within this study, as well as their work as researchers, teacher educators and curriculum developers, April, Ebony, Markist, Pierre and Ya-Meer had opportunities to utilize their cultural capital to build new knowledge

  10. Changes in the primate trade in indonesian wildlife markets over a 25-year period: Fewer apes and langurs, more macaques, and slow lorises.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nijman, Vincent; Spaan, Denise; Rode-Margono, Eva Johanna; Wirdateti; Nekaris, K A I

    2015-12-29

    Indonesia has amongst the highest primate species richness, and many species are included on the country's protected species list, partially to prevent over-exploitation. Nevertheless traders continue to sell primates in open wildlife markets especially on the islands of Java and Bali. We surveyed 13 wildlife markets in 2012-2014 and combined our results with previous surveys from 1990-2009 into a 122-survey dataset with 2,424 records of 17 species. These data showed that the diversity of species in trade decreased over time, shifting from rare rainforest-dwelling primates traded alongside more widespread species that are not confined to forest to the latter type only. In the 1990s and early 2000s orangutans, gibbons and langurs were commonly traded alongside macaques and slow lorises but in the last decade macaques and slow lorises comprised the bulk of the trade. In 2012-2014 we monitored six wildlife markets in Jakarta, Bandung and Garut (all on Java), and Denpasar (Bali). During 51 surveys we recorded 1,272 primates of eight species. Traders offered long-tailed macaque (total 1,007 individuals) and three species of slow loris (228 individuals) in five of the six markets, whereas they traded ebony langurs (18 individuals), and pig-tailed macaques (14 individuals) mostly in Jakarta. Pramuka and Jatinegara markets, both in Jakarta, stood out as important hubs for the primate trade, with a clear shift in importance over time from the former to the latter. Slow lorises, orangutans, gibbons and some langurs are protected under Indonesian law, which prohibits all trade in them; of these protected species, only the slow lorises remained common in trade throughout the 25-year period. Trade in non-protected macaques and langurs is subject to strict regulations-which market traders did not follow-making all the market trade in primates that we observed illegal. Trade poses a substantial threat to Indonesian primates, and without enforcement, the sheer volume of trade may

  11. Facilitators and barriers to hypertension self-management in urban African Americans: perspectives of patients and family members

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flynn SJ

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Sarah J Flynn,1,2 Jessica M Ameling,1,2 Felicia Hill-Briggs,1–3 Jennifer L Wolff,4,5 Lee R Bone,1,3 David M Levine,1,4 Debra L Roter,3 LaPricia Lewis-Boyer,1,2 Annette R Fisher,6 Leon Purnell,6 Patti L Ephraim,2,7 Jeffrey Barbers,1,2 Stephanie L Fitzpatrick,1,2 Michael C Albert,1,8 Lisa A Cooper,1,2 Peter J Fagan,9,10 Destiny Martin,1 Hema C Ramamurthi,1,2 L Ebony Boulware1,2,7 1Department of Medicine, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, USA; 2Welch Center for Prevention, Epidemiology, and Clinical Research, Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions, Baltimore, MD, USA; 3Department of Health, Behavior, and Society, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD, USA; 4Department of Health Policy and Management, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD, USA; 5Division of Geriatric Medicine and Gerontology, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, USA; 6Community and Provider Advisory Board, Johns Hopkins Center to Eliminate Cardiovascular Health Disparities, Baltimore, MD, USA; 7Department of Epidemiology, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD, USA; 8Johns Hopkins Community Physicians, Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions, Baltimore, MD, USA; 9Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, USA; 10Johns Hopkins HealthCare LLC, Glen Burnie, MD, USA Introduction: We aimed to inform the design of behavioral interventions by identifying patients’ and their family members’ perceived facilitators and barriers to hypertension self-management. Materials and methods: We conducted focus groups of African American patients with hypertension and their family members to elicit their views about factors influencing patients’ hypertension self-management. We recruited African American patients with hypertension (n = 18 and their family members (n = 12 from an urban, community-based clinical

  12. Projet MAMIA (Manompana mikajy ny ala : étude, gestion et conservation des forêts de Manompana. Actions, bilan et perspectives MAMIA Project (Manompana mikajy ny ala: survey, management and conservation of Manompana forest. Actions, outcomes and futur prospects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ségolène Beaucent

    2011-10-01

    conservation des milieux naturels et du développement des communautés locales.The MAMIA Project was initiated back in 2007, and is designed to study then optimize conservation of the rainforest of Manompana, a coastal district located in the Analanjirofo area (north-east Madagascar. Two thirds of Manompana district still show a unique and rich natural heritage forest formations, made of lowland evergreen humid forest, littoral forest and mangrove. While human activities progressively damage and fragment those natural habitats, fauna inventories carried out in the forest of Manompana (lemurs, birds and herpetofauna keep on showing high species diversity and rich natural area, much of those being still well preserved due to their remoteness. Manompana’s forest is also a key resource for local communities, which keep quite close relationships with their land. A survey relating to the various uses of forest resources confirms that, apart from hunting and poaching, majority of forest harvestings performed by inhabitants are compatible with sustainability of this natural forest. Dislike traditional forest harvestings, business oriented forest harvestings, focusing on high value wood species such as ebony and rosewood, are more likely the main reason of deforestation issue. In order to get the inhabitants more concerned and involved in sustainable control of their forest resources, a “community advisory council” was put in place then operated. In the meantime an environmental awareness display was performed to Manompana’s young people. Alternative economic activities such as sustainable agriculture, ecotourism and forest products marketing were initiated so that irrational use of forest resources may decrease. These alternative activities are targeted to facilitate sustainable use of forest resources, as well as serving biodiversity conservation and on site development.

  13. Rodrigues Island: Hope thrives at the François Leguat Giant Tortoise and Cave Reserve

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David A. Burney

    2011-06-01

    here, and working wonderfully. Tortoises pull the weeds, apply the fertilizer, and germinate the seeds. Regarding the latter, recently published experiments2 show that passing through the slow digestive system of a giant tortoise is just what some of these hard - to - germinate seeds of rare native plants have been waiting for. The authors show conclusively that the highly endangered, large - seeded native ebony tree (Diospyros egrettarum is germinating and thriving on the remarkable 25-hectare Ile aux Aigrettes Reserve, a small island off Mahebourg, Mauritius, thanks to the Aldabra tortoises reintroduced there by the Mauritian Wildlife Foundation. At the Leguat Reserve on Rodrigues, guides lead thousands of visitors per year through huge spectacular limestone caves that have yielded the fossils of giant tortoises, Solitaires, and the other extinct biota of Rodrigues. Their tour, and the excellent museum on the Reserve, make that wonderful connection between the fossils of a remarkable extinct fauna, and the rare plants and surviving fauna of large handsome fruit bats, rare land snails, nesting White - tailed Tropicbirds, and the surviving cousins of the native giant tortoises now roaming the canyons and plateaus of the Reserve. What am I doing here? To begin with, my wife Lida Pigott Burney and I have in recent years started our own similar rewilding project on the island of Kaua`i, in the Hawaiian Islands. We likewise have a cave system, full of fossils of the extinct animals, as a centerpiece for restorations on worn - out farmland that feature thousands of native plants, some quite rare. Our big fossil herbivores, giant flightless ducks and geese, are all extinct, and alas, tortoises never reached Hawaii. So we laboriously pull the weeds, tons of them, with the help of the school children of Kaua`i and hundreds of volunteers. The current question I and my colleagues are asking is, could giant tortoises give us a hand, serving as ecological surrogates for the lost