Full Text Available The aim of the research was to study the influence of utilization of sulphur and reclaim rubber on the characteristics of ebonite rubber, and also to determine the optimum utilization of reclaim rubber and sulphur which yield good physical properties. Ebonite rubber was made by special natural rubber of RSS I (Ribbed Smoke Sheet I mixed with reclaimed rubber at ratio 80/20, 70/30 and 60/40 part hundred rubber/part hundred rubber (phr/phr and utilization of sulphur 30, 40, and 50 phr and also additives respectively. Mixing was done by using open mill, and vulcanization was conducted at early temperature 1200C for 2 hours, and it was continued by post curing at temperature 1500C for 2 hours. The physical properties such as tensile strength, elongation at break, D shore hardness, and izod impact of ebonite rubber vulcanized were determined. The result indicated that characteristics of ebonite rubber was significantly influenced by the amount of added sulphur and 40 phr reclaim rubber or at ratio of RSS I to reclaim rubber 60 to 40 phr/phr. However, the physical properties of ebonite rubber was able to meet the standard quality of group 2 regarding to Classification Hard Rubber issued by ASTM D 2135
than glass free from lead. Ebonite several ... The English Translation of his German speech was also published in Nature, 53, 274, 1896, ... From these values it is clear that in no case can we obtain the transparency of a body from the product ...
A Van de Graaf generator working at normal air pressure (one atmosphere) is discussed. The electrode is made of copper covered with antimony. The electrode supporting post is made of ebonite, and the load transmitting band is made of rubber. Voltage measurement is carried out by using various kinds of measuring devices, generating voltmeter, spark-gap voltmeter, and high ohmic resistor. The generator can produce voltage up to about 150.000 volt. (author)
Mohamed Hamza Al-Maamori
Full Text Available To improve the properties of hard rubber(Ebonite from natural rubber, added Nano-Carbon black, where measured the properties of tensile, density, hardness and the properties of the vulcanization of a group of samples with different amount of sulfur from 18-36 pphr and different of carbon black (18-26-30 pphr. The results showed that the best carbon black ratio is 30 pphr, where it gives a balance between tensile properties of hand and toughness and flexibility of on the other hand and reduce brittleness in hard rubber.
Babaeva, N. A.; Vas'kovskiĭ, Yu M.; Rovinskiĭ, R. E.; Ryabinkina, V. A.
Measurements were made of components of the energy balance in the interaction of pulsed CO2 laser radiation with Dural, glass, quartz, ebonite, and Plexiglas in air at atmospheric pressure. At laser energy densities between 1 and 20 J/cm2 and in the spectral range 0.2-7 μm, the re-emission of radiation by the laser plasma was found to be less than 1 %. At energy densities exceeding 10 J/cm2, up to 90% of the laser energy failed to reach the irradiated surface.
The uses of plastics in the manufacture of lead, nickel--cadmium, and silver--zinc batteries are reviewed. Nine basic plastics are compared regarding their abilities to withstand strong acids and strong bases. PVC, polyester, and polethylene appear as most suitable. Resins are compared in mechanical and thermal respects, which are tabulated for those favored industrially. ABS made from acrilonitrile--butadiene--styrene is particularly suitable. Fibers in conjunction with resins used for making plate-tubes are best represented by high-density PE (polyester), specific weight 0.94 to 0.96, nonhygroscopic, minimum contraction on cooling. Proprietary applications of the above-mentioned plastics have established themselves as successful alternatives to glass, ebonite, cellulose, and steel in Pb, Ni--Cd and Ag--Zn cells. Specific examples of successful developments in the USA, Germany, England, and Italy are cited.
In the past, automobile batteries were recycled principally for their lead content. The waste generated at battery wrecking facilities consisted of spent acid, crushed casings (ebonite and plastic), and where secondary smelting was involved, matte, slag, and carbon from the smelting process. These waste products were generally disposed in an on-site in a landfill or stored in piles. If the facility shut down because further commercial operations were not financially viable, the waste piles remained to be addressed at a later date through remedial action or reclamation programs. There are many of these facilities in the US. Nationally, about 28 sites have been discovered by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) under the Superfund program and are under investigation or administrative orders for remedial action. A major remediation effort is now underway at the Gould Superfund Site in Portland, Oregon, which was operated as a secondary smelting facility between 1949 and 1981. This paper describes the nature of the contamination at the Gould site and the work conducted by Canonie Environmental Services Corp. (Canonie) to develop a process which would treat the waste from battery wrecking operations and produce revenue generating recyclable products while removing the source contamination (lead) from the site. The full-scale commercial plant is now operating and is expected to achieve a throughput rate of between 200 and 250 tons per day in the coming weeks
Consecutive monitoring of lifelong production of conidia by individual conidiophores of Blumeria graminis f. sp. hordei on barley leaves by digital microscopic techniques with electrostatic micromanipulation.
Moriura, Nobuyuki; Matsuda, Yoshinori; Oichi, Wataru; Nakashima, Shinya; Hirai, Tatsuo; Sameshima, Takeshi; Nonomura, Teruo; Kakutani, Koji; Kusakari, Shin-Ichi; Higashi, Katsuhide; Toyoda, Hideyoshi
Conidial formation and secession by living conidiophores of Blumeria graminis f. sp. hordei on barley leaves were consecutively monitored using a high-fidelity digital microscopic technique combined with electrostatic micromanipulation to trap the released conidia. Conidial chains formed on conidiophores through a series of septum-mediated division and growth of generative cells. Apical conidial cells on the conidiophores were abstricted after the conidial chains developed ten conidial cells. The conidia were electrically conductive, and a positive charge was induced in the cells by a negatively polarized insulator probe (ebonite). The electrostatic force between the conidia and the insulator was used to attract the abstricted conidia from the conidiophores on leaves. This conidium movement from the targeted conidiophore to the rod was directly viewed under the digital microscope, and the length of the interval between conidial septation and secession, the total number of the conidia produced by a single conidiophore, and the modes of conidiogenesis were clarified. During the stage of conidial secession, the generative cells pushed new conidial cells upwards by repeated division and growth. The successive release of two apical conidia was synchronized with the successive septation and growth of a generative cell. The release ceased after 4-5 conidia were released without division and growth of the generative cell. Thus, the life of an individual conidiophore (from the erection of the conidiophore to the release of the final conidium) was shown to be 107 h and to produce an average of 33 conidia. To our knowledge, this is the first report on the direct estimation of life-long conidial production by a powdery mildew on host leaves.