WorldWideScience

Sample records for ebola impacts genetics

  1. How Ebola impacts genetics of Western lowland gorilla populations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pascaline J Le Gouar

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Emerging infectious diseases in wildlife are major threats for both human health and biodiversity conservation. Infectious diseases can have serious consequences for the genetic diversity of populations, which could enhance the species' extinction probability. The Ebola epizootic in western and central Africa induced more than 90% mortality in Western lowland gorilla population. Although mortality rates are very high, the impacts of Ebola on genetic diversity of Western lowland gorilla have never been assessed. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We carried out long term studies of three populations of Western lowland gorilla in the Republic of the Congo (Odzala-Kokoua National Park, Lossi gorilla sanctuary both affected by Ebola and Lossi's periphery not affected. Using 17 microsatellite loci, we compared genetic diversity and structure of the populations and estimate their effective size before and after Ebola outbreaks. Despite the effective size decline in both populations, we did not detect loss in genetic diversity after the epizootic. We revealed temporal changes in allele frequencies in the smallest population. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Immigration and short time elapsed since outbreaks could explain the conservation of genetic diversity after the demographic crash. Temporal changes in allele frequencies could not be explained by genetic drift or random sampling. Immigration from genetically differentiated populations and a non random mortality induced by Ebola, i.e., selective pressure and cost of sociality, are alternative hypotheses. Understanding the influence of Ebola on gorilla genetic dynamics is of paramount importance for human health, primate evolution and conservation biology.

  2. Host genetic diversity enables Ebola hemorrhagic fever pathogenesis and resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, Angela L; Okumura, Atsushi; Ferris, Martin T; Green, Richard; Feldmann, Friederike; Kelly, Sara M; Scott, Dana P; Safronetz, David; Haddock, Elaine; LaCasse, Rachel; Thomas, Matthew J; Sova, Pavel; Carter, Victoria S; Weiss, Jeffrey M; Miller, Darla R; Shaw, Ginger D; Korth, Marcus J; Heise, Mark T; Baric, Ralph S; de Villena, Fernando Pardo-Manuel; Feldmann, Heinz; Katze, Michael G

    2014-11-21

    Existing mouse models of lethal Ebola virus infection do not reproduce hallmark symptoms of Ebola hemorrhagic fever, neither delayed blood coagulation and disseminated intravascular coagulation nor death from shock, thus restricting pathogenesis studies to nonhuman primates. Here we show that mice from the Collaborative Cross panel of recombinant inbred mice exhibit distinct disease phenotypes after mouse-adapted Ebola virus infection. Phenotypes range from complete resistance to lethal disease to severe hemorrhagic fever characterized by prolonged coagulation times and 100% mortality. Inflammatory signaling was associated with vascular permeability and endothelial activation, and resistance to lethal infection arose by induction of lymphocyte differentiation and cellular adhesion, probably mediated by the susceptibility allele Tek. These data indicate that genetic background determines susceptibility to Ebola hemorrhagic fever.

  3. Ebola

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... believed to carry the virus include gorillas, chimpanzees, monkeys, fruit bats, porcupines, and forest antelope. Ebola spreads ... doctor. © 1995- The Nemours Foundation. All rights reserved. Images provided by The Nemours Foundation, iStock, Getty Images, ...

  4. Ebola virus disease. Short history, long impact

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mª Teófila Vicente-Herrero

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Ebola Virus infection is at present times a growing worldwide concern, although its history goes back to 1967, with subsequent outbreaks in 1979, 1980 and 1987, all of them by contact in workers in affected areas. The concern of the scientific community about this issue is partially reflected in publications included in MEDLINE (PUBMED database and in which, taking as a keyword in the search box “Ebola virus”, 2.151 publications are found, belonging 984 of them to the last 5 years (45.7% and 527 of these publications (53.5% to the years 2014-2015. The earliest publication dates back to 1977, attaching no listed authors either reference abstract, and the most recent to January of current year 2015. This means Ebola infection is a global problem and that concern the international scientific community. A review of some of the studies published in this matter, considered of interest and discussed by the authors, is performed in this work.

  5. Ebola (Ebola Virus Disease)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Search Form Controls Cancel Submit Search the CDC Ebola (Ebola Virus Disease) Note: Javascript is disabled or is ... Tweet Share Compartir CDC's Ongoing Work to Contain Ebola in West Africa The Road to Zero: CDC’s ...

  6. Ebola (Ebola Virus Disease): Diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Search Form Controls Cancel Submit Search the CDC Ebola (Ebola Virus Disease) Note: Javascript is disabled or is ... message, please visit this page: About CDC.gov . Ebola (Ebola Virus Disease) About Ebola Questions & Answers 2014- ...

  7. Ebola (Ebola Virus Disease): Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Search Form Controls Cancel Submit Search the CDC Ebola (Ebola Virus Disease) Note: Javascript is disabled or is ... message, please visit this page: About CDC.gov . Ebola (Ebola Virus Disease) About Ebola Questions & Answers 2014- ...

  8. Ebola (Ebola Virus Disease): Transmission

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Search Form Controls Cancel Submit Search the CDC Ebola (Ebola Virus Disease) Note: Javascript is disabled or is ... message, please visit this page: About CDC.gov . Ebola (Ebola Virus Disease) About Ebola Questions & Answers 2014- ...

  9. Ebola (Ebola Virus Disease): Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Search Form Controls Cancel Submit Search the CDC Ebola (Ebola Virus Disease) Note: Javascript is disabled or is ... message, please visit this page: About CDC.gov . Ebola (Ebola Virus Disease) About Ebola Questions & Answers 2014- ...

  10. The Macroeconomic Impact of Ebola Virus Disease (Evd: A Contribution to the Empirics of Growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Obukohwo Oba Efayena

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper addressed the formulation of a macro model to capture the macroeconomic impact of the Ebola Virus Disease (EVD. Previous studies has adopted various models such as the dynamic computable general equilibrium (CGE model, endogenous model and the LINKAGE model, but there is dire need to generate a step-by-step model which will comprehensively capture how the Ebola Virus Disease (EVD impacts on macroeconomic variables. Adopting the traditional neoclassical growth model, the model aggregated the various macroeconomic variables as well as captured the epidemic’s strain on each of these variables. The paper also empirically shows that the Ebola Virus Disease (EVD has direct, indirect and deferred indirect cost implications for the economy. Using case studies of countries in Africa, the study evaluated how the Ebola Virus Disease (EVD has affected the macroeconomic status of selected economies. The findings imply that there is dire need to control the spread of the deadly plague. The paper contribute immensely to empirical studies in the field of macroeconomics.

  11. Neutralizing antibody fails to impact the course of Ebola virus infection in monkeys.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wendelien B Oswald

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Prophylaxis with high doses of neutralizing antibody typically offers protection against challenge with viruses producing acute infections. In this study, we have investigated the ability of the neutralizing human monoclonal antibody, KZ52, to protect against Ebola virus in rhesus macaques. This antibody was previously shown to fully protect guinea pigs from infection. Four rhesus macaques were given 50 mg/kg of neutralizing human monoclonal antibody KZ52 intravenously 1 d before challenge with 1,000 plaque-forming units of Ebola virus, followed by a second dose of 50 mg/kg antibody 4 d after challenge. A control animal was exposed to virus in the absence of antibody treatment. Passive transfer of the neutralizing human monoclonal antibody not only failed to protect macaques against challenge with Ebola virus but also had a minimal effect on the explosive viral replication following infection. We show that the inability of antibody to impact infection was not due to neutralization escape. It appears that Ebola virus has a mechanism of infection propagation in vivo in macaques that is uniquely insensitive even to high concentrations of neutralizing antibody.

  12. [Ebola contacts' surveillance: social impact and ethical issues in Senegal].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desclaux, A; Ndione, A G; Badji, D; Sow, K

    2016-10-01

    Quarantine has been widely used during the Ebola outbreak in West Africa mainly to control transmission chains. This measure raises ethical issues that require documentation of the modalities of quarantine at the field level and its social effects for contact persons. In Senegal, 74 people were in contact with the Ebola case coming from Guinea in September 2014. Of these, 34 members of the case's household were contained together at home and monitored by officers. The remaining 40 health care workers from two facilities were dispersed in their family households and monitored by telephone or during doctors' visits. The study is based on in-depth interviews with 43 adult contacts about their experiences and perceptions, with additional observation for interpretation and contextualization.Containment at home was applied differently to contacts who lived with patient zero than to professional health care contacts. No coercion was used at first since all contacts adhered to surveillance, but some of them did not fully comply with movement restrictions. Contacts found biosafety precautions stigmatizing, especially during the first days when health workers and contacts were feeling an acute fear of contagion. The material support that was provided-food and money-was necessary since contacts could not work nor get resources, but it was too limited and delayed. The relational support they received was appreciated, as well as the protection from stigmatization by the police and follow-up workers. But the information delivered to contacts was insufficient, and some of them, including health workers, had little knowledge about EVD and Ebola transmission, which caused anxiety and emotional suffering. Some contacts experienced the loss of their jobs and loss of income; several could not easily or fully return to their previous living routines.Beyond its recommendations to enhance support measures, the study identifies the ethical stakes of quarantine in Senegal regarding

  13. Ebola (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Teaching Kids to Be Smart About Social Media Ebola KidsHealth > For Parents > Ebola Print A A A ... take precautions to avoid becoming infected. What Is Ebola? Ebola, or Ebola hemorrhagic fever ( Ebola HF) , is ...

  14. Development of a reverse genetics system to generate a recombinant Ebola virus Makona expressing a green fluorescent protein

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albariño, César G., E-mail: calbarino@cdc.gov; Wiggleton Guerrero, Lisa; Lo, Michael K.; Nichol, Stuart T.; Towner, Jonathan S.

    2015-10-15

    Previous studies have demonstrated the potential application of reverse genetics technology in studying a broad range of aspects of viral biology, including gene regulation, protein function, cell entry, and pathogenesis. Here, we describe a highly efficient reverse genetics system used to generate recombinant Ebola virus (EBOV) based on a recent isolate from a human patient infected during the 2014–2015 outbreak in Western Africa. We also rescued a recombinant EBOV expressing a fluorescent reporter protein from a cleaved VP40 protein fusion. Using this virus and an inexpensive method to quantitate the expression of the foreign gene, we demonstrate its potential usefulness as a tool for screening antiviral compounds and measuring neutralizing antibodies. - Highlights: • Recombinant Ebola virus (EBOV) derived from Makona variant was rescued. • New protocol for viral rescue allows 100% efficiency. • Modified EBOV expresses a green fluorescent protein from a VP40-fused protein. • Modified EBOV was tested as tool to screen antiviral compounds and measure neutralizing antibodies.

  15. Development, Use, and Impact of a Global Laboratory Database During the 2014 Ebola Outbreak in West Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durski, Kara N; Singaravelu, Shalini; Teo, Junxiong; Naidoo, Dhamari; Bawo, Luke; Jambai, Amara; Keita, Sakoba; Yahaya, Ali Ahmed; Muraguri, Beatrice; Ahounou, Brice; Katawera, Victoria; Kuti-George, Fredson; Nebie, Yacouba; Kohar, T Henry; Hardy, Patrick Jowlehpah; Djingarey, Mamoudou Harouna; Kargbo, David; Mahmoud, Nuha; Assefa, Yewondwossen; Condell, Orla; N'Faly, Magassouba; Van Gurp, Leon; Lamanu, Margaret; Ryan, Julia; Diallo, Boubacar; Daffae, Foday; Jackson, Dikena; Malik, Fayyaz Ahmed; Raftery, Philomena; Formenty, Pierre

    2017-06-15

    The international impact, rapid widespread transmission, and reporting delays during the 2014 Ebola outbreak in West Africa highlighted the need for a global, centralized database to inform outbreak response. The World Health Organization and Emerging and Dangerous Pathogens Laboratory Network addressed this need by supporting the development of a global laboratory database. Specimens were collected in the affected countries from patients and dead bodies meeting the case definitions for Ebola virus disease. Test results were entered in nationally standardized spreadsheets and consolidated onto a central server. From March 2014 through August 2016, 256343 specimens tested for Ebola virus disease were captured in the database. Thirty-one specimen types were collected, and a variety of diagnostic tests were performed. Regular analysis of data described the functionality of laboratory and response systems, positivity rates, and the geographic distribution of specimens. With data standardization and end user buy-in, the collection and analysis of large amounts of data with multiple stakeholders and collaborators across various user-access levels was made possible and contributed to outbreak response needs. The usefulness and value of a multifunctional global laboratory database is far reaching, with uses including virtual biobanking, disease forecasting, and adaption to other disease outbreaks.

  16. The Impact of the West Africa Ebola Outbreak on Obstetric Health Care in Sierra Leone.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim J Brolin Ribacke

    Full Text Available As Sierra Leone celebrates the end of the Ebola Virus Disease (EVD outbreak, we can begin to fully grasp its impact on already weak health systems. The EVD outbreak in West Africa forced many hospitals to close down or reduce their activity, either to prevent nosocomial transmission or because of staff shortages. The aim of this study is to assess the potential impact of EVD on nationwide access to obstetric care in Sierra Leone.Community health officers collected weekly data between January 2014-May 2015 on in-hospital deliveries and caesarean sections (C-sections from all open facilities (public, private for-profit and private non-profit sectors offering emergency obstetrics in Sierra Leone. This was compared to official data of EVD cases per district. Logistic and Poisson regression analyses were used to compute risk and rate estimates. Nationwide, the number of in-hospital deliveries and C-sections decreased by over 20% during the EVD outbreak. The decline occurred early on in the EVD outbreak and was mainly attributable to the closing of private not-for-profit hospitals rather than government facilities. Due to difficulties in collecting data in the midst of an epidemic, limitations of this study include some missing data points.Both the number of in-hospital deliveries and C-sections substantially declined shortly after the onset of the EVD outbreak. Since access to emergency obstetric care, like C-sections, is associated with decreased maternal mortality, many women are likely to have died due to the reduced access to appropriate care during childbirth. Future research on indirect health effects of health system breakdown should ideally be nationwide and continue also into the recovery phase. It is also important to understand the mechanisms behind the deterioration so that important health services can be reestablished.

  17. Beyond Ebola

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Currie, J; Grenfell, B; Farrar, J

    2016-01-01

      On 14 January 2016, Liberia was declared Ebola-free. A new case was identified shortly after the announcement, but it is nevertheless clear that the West African epidemic has moved on to a more hopeful phase...

  18. Ebola Virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anusha Rangare Lakshman

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The disease Ebola takes its name from the Ebola River situated near a village in the Democratic Republic of Congo, where the disease first appeared in 1976. It is caused by a virus from the Filoviridae family (filovirus. The present outbreak of Ebola Virus Disease (EVD concerns four countries in West Africa, namely Guinea, Liberia, Sierra Leone and Nigeria till date. Further to widespread transmission of the disease, it has been declared as a Public Health Emergency of International Concern by the World Health Organisation on 8 August 2014. As of 4 August 2014, countries have reported 1,711 cases (1,070 confirmed, 436 probable, 205 suspect, including 932 deaths. This review paper enlightens about the awareness of Ebola virus and its preventive measures. [Archives Medical Review Journal 2015; 24(3.000: 296-305

  19. High-throughput, luciferase-based reverse genetics systems for identifying inhibitors of Marburg and Ebola viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uebelhoer, Luke S; Albariño, César G; McMullan, Laura K; Chakrabarti, Ayan K; Vincent, Joel P; Nichol, Stuart T; Towner, Jonathan S

    2014-06-01

    Marburg virus (MARV) and Ebola virus (EBOV), members of the family Filoviridae, represent a significant challenge to global public health. Currently, no licensed therapies exist to treat filovirus infections, which cause up to 90% mortality in human cases. To facilitate development of antivirals against these viruses, we established two distinct screening platforms based on MARV and EBOV reverse genetics systems that express secreted Gaussia luciferase (gLuc). The first platform is a mini-genome replicon to screen viral replication inhibitors using gLuc quantification in a BSL-2 setting. The second platform is complementary to the first and expresses gLuc as a reporter gene product encoded in recombinant infectious MARV and EBOV, thereby allowing for rapid quantification of viral growth during treatment with antiviral compounds. We characterized these viruses by comparing luciferase activity to virus production, and validated luciferase activity as an authentic real-time measure of viral growth. As proof of concept, we adapt both mini-genome and infectious virus platforms to high-throughput formats, and demonstrate efficacy of several antiviral compounds. We anticipate that both approaches will prove highly useful in the development of anti-filovirus therapies, as well as in basic research on the filovirus life cycle.

  20. Potential Impact of Sexual Transmission on Ebola Virus Epidemiology: Sierra Leone as a Case Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica L Abbate

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Sexual transmission of Ebola virus disease (EVD 6 months after onset of symptoms has been recently documented, and Ebola virus RNA has been detected in semen of survivors up to 9 months after onset of symptoms. As countries affected by the 2013-2015 epidemic in West Africa, by far the largest to date, are declared free of Ebola virus disease (EVD, it remains unclear what threat is posed by rare sexual transmission events that could arise from survivors.We devised a compartmental mathematical model that includes sexual transmission from convalescent survivors: a SEICR (susceptible-exposed-infectious-convalescent-recovered transmission model. We fitted the model to weekly incidence of EVD cases from the 2014-2015 epidemic in Sierra Leone. Sensitivity analyses and Monte Carlo simulations showed that a 0.1% per sex act transmission probability and a 3-month convalescent period (the two key unknown parameters of sexual transmission create very few additional cases, but would extend the epidemic by 83 days [95% CI: 68-98 days] (p < 0.0001 on average. Strikingly, a 6-month convalescent period extended the average epidemic by 540 days (95% CI: 508-572 days, doubling the current length, despite an insignificant rise in the number of new cases generated.Our results show that reductions in the per sex act transmission probability via abstinence and condom use should reduce the number of sporadic sexual transmission events, but will not significantly reduce the epidemic size and may only minimally shorten the length of time the public health community must maintain response preparedness. While the number of infectious survivors is expected to greatly decline over the coming months, our results show that transmission events may still be expected for quite some time as each event results in a new potential cluster of non-sexual transmission. Precise measurement of the convalescent period is thus important for planning ongoing surveillance efforts.

  1. Ebola (Ebola Virus Disease): Signs and Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... U.S. Q&A: 2014 Ebola Outbreak 2014 West Africa Ebola Outbreak Communication Resources Guinea Guinea-Bissau Liberia Sierra Leone ... EVD) Questions and Answers on the 2014 West Africa Ebola Outbreak File Formats Help: How do I view different ...

  2. Understanding ebola virus transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Judson, Seth; Prescott, Joseph; Munster, Vincent

    2015-02-03

    An unprecedented number of Ebola virus infections among healthcare workers and patients have raised questions about our understanding of Ebola virus transmission. Here, we explore different routes of Ebola virus transmission between people, summarizing the known epidemiological and experimental data. From this data, we expose important gaps in Ebola virus research pertinent to outbreak situations. We further propose experiments and methods of data collection that will enable scientists to fill these voids in our knowledge about the transmission of Ebola virus.

  3. Characteristics of Filoviridae: Marburg and Ebola Viruses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beer, Brigitte; Kurth, Reinhard; Bukreyev, Alexander

    Filoviruses are enveloped, nonsegmented negative-stranded RNA viruses. The two species, Marburg and Ebola virus, are serologically, biochemically, and genetically distinct. Marburg virus was first isolated during an outbreak in Europe in 1967, and Ebola virus emerged in 1976 as the causative agent of two simultaneous outbreaks in southern Sudan and northern Zaire. Although the main route of infection is known to be person-to-person transmission by intimate contact, the natural reservoir for filoviruses still remains a mystery.

  4. Evaluation of Signature Erosion in Ebola Virus Due to Genomic Drift and Its Impact on the Performance of Diagnostic Assays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shanmuga Sozhamannan

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Genome sequence analyses of the 2014 Ebola Virus (EBOV isolates revealed a potential problem with the diagnostic assays currently in use; i.e., drifting genomic profiles of the virus may affect the sensitivity or even produce false-negative results. We evaluated signature erosion in ebolavirus molecular assays using an in silico approach and found frequent potential false-negative and false-positive results. We further empirically evaluated many EBOV assays, under real time PCR conditions using EBOV Kikwit (1995 and Makona (2014 RNA templates. These results revealed differences in performance between assays but were comparable between the old and new EBOV templates. Using a whole genome approach and a novel algorithm, termed BioVelocity, we identified new signatures that are unique to each of EBOV, Sudan virus (SUDV, and Reston virus (RESTV. Interestingly, many of the current assay signatures do not fall within these regions, indicating a potential drawback in the past assay design strategies. The new signatures identified in this study may be evaluated with real-time reverse transcription PCR (rRT-PCR assay development and validation. In addition, we discuss regulatory implications and timely availability to impact a rapidly evolving outbreak using existing but perhaps less than optimal assays versus redesign these assays for addressing genomic changes.

  5. Ebola virus disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... reported in: Nigeria Senegal Spain United States Mali United Kingdom Italy There are no current cases of Ebola ... Ebola can also spread by contact with ANY surfaces, objects, and materials that have been in contact ...

  6. Impact of infectious disease epidemics on tuberculosis diagnostic, management, and prevention services: experiences and lessons from the 2014–2015 Ebola virus disease outbreak in West Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rashid Ansumana

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The World Health Organization (WHO Global Tuberculosis Report 2015 states that 28% of the world's 9.6 million new tuberculosis (TB cases are in the WHO Africa Region. The Mano River Union (MRU countries of West Africa–Guinea, Sierra Leone, and Liberia–have made incremental sustained investments into TB control programmes over the past two decades. The devastating Ebola virus disease (EVD outbreak of 2014–2015 in West Africa impacted significantly on all sectors of the healthcare systems in the MRU countries, including the TB prevention and control programmes. The EVD outbreak also had an adverse impact on the healthcare workforce and healthcare service delivery. At the height of the EVD outbreak, numerous staff members in all MRU countries contracted EBV at the Ebola treatment units and died. Many healthcare workers were also infected in healthcare facilities that were not Ebola treatment units but were national hospitals and peripheral health units that were unprepared for receiving patients with EVD. In all three MRU countries, the disruption to TB services due to the EVD epidemic will no doubt have increased Mycobacterium tuberculosis transmission, TB morbidity and mortality, and decreased patient adherence to TB treatment, and the likely impact will not be known for several years to come. In this viewpoint, the impact that the EVD outbreak had on TB diagnostic, management, and prevention services is described. Vaccination against TB with BCG in children under 5 years of age was affected adversely by the EVD epidemic. The EVD outbreak was a result of global failure and represents yet another ‘wake-up call’ to the international community, and particularly to African governments, to reach a consensus on new ways of thinking at the national, regional, and global levels for building healthcare systems that can sustain their function during outbreaks. This is necessary so that other disease control programmes (like those for TB, malaria

  7. Ebola virus disease: past, present and future

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Harish; Rajak; Deepak; Kumar; Jain; Avineesh; Singh; Ajay; Kumar; Sharma; Anshuman; Dixit

    2015-01-01

    Ebola virus disease is one of the most deadly ailments known to mankind due to its high mortality rate(up to 90%) accompanying with the disease. Ebola haemorrhagic fever(EHF) is an infectious disease of animal that can be transmitted to both human and non-human primates. The first epidemic of EHF occurred in 1976 in the Democratic Republic of the Congo. The incubation period of ebola is less than 21 days. Ebola virus infections are depicted by immune suppression and a systemic inflammatory response that leads to damage of the vascular, coagulation and immune systems, causing multi-organ failure and shock. Five genetically distinct members of the Filoviridae family responsible for EHF are as follows: Zaire ebolavirus, Sudan ebolavirus, C?te d’Ivoire ebolavirus, Bundibugyo ebolavirus and Reston ebolavirus. The ongoing 2014 West Africa ebola epidemic has been considered as the most serious panic in the medical field with respect to both the number of human cases and death toll. The natural host for ebola virus is unknown, thus it is not possible to carry out programs to regulate or abolish virus from transmission to people. The ebola virus infection provides little chance to develop acquired immunity causing rapid progression of the disease. It is pertinent to mention that at present, there is no antiviral therapy or vaccine that is helpful against ebola virus infection in humans. The impediment of EHF necessitates much better understanding of the epidemiology of the disease, particularly the role of wildlife, as well as bats, in the spread of ebola virus to humans.

  8. Ebola virus disease: past, present and future

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harish Rajak

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Ebola virus disease is one of the most deadly ailments known to mankind due to its high mortality rate (up to 90% accompanying with the disease. Ebola haemorrhagic fever (EHF is an infectious disease of animal that can be transmitted to both human and non-human primates. The first epidemic of EHF occurred in 1976 in the Democratic Republic of the Congo. The incubation period of ebola is less than 21 days. Ebola virus infections are depicted by immune suppression and a systemic inflammatory response that leads to damage of the vascular, coagulation and immune systems, causing multi-organ failure and shock. Five genetically distinct members of the Filoviridae family responsible for EHF are as follows: Zaire ebolavirus, Sudan ebolavirus, Côte d’Ivoire ebolavirus, Bundibugyo ebolavirus and Reston ebolavirus. The ongoing 2014 West Africa ebola epidemic has been considered as the most serious panic in the medical field with respect to both the number of human cases and death toll. The natural host for ebola virus is unknown, thus it is not possible to carry out programs to regulate or abolish virus from transmission to people. The ebola virus infection provides little chance to develop acquired immunity causing rapid progression of the disease. It is pertinent to mention that at present, there is no antiviral therapy or vaccine that is helpful against ebola virus infection in humans. The impediment of EHF necessitates much better understanding of the epidemiology of the disease, particularly the role of wildlife, as well as bats, in the spread of ebola virus to humans.

  9. Ebola vaccine and treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takada, Ayato

    2015-01-01

    Filoviruses (Ebola and Marburg viruses) cause severe hemorrhagic fever in humans and nonhuman primates. No effective prophylaxis or treatment for filovirus diseases is yet commercially available. The recent outbreak of Ebola virus disease in West Africa has accelerated efforts to develop anti-Ebola virus prophylaxis and treatment, and unapproved drugs were indeed used for the treatment of patients during the outbreak. This article reviews previous researches and the latest topics on vaccine and therapy for Ebola virus disease.

  10. Frequently Asked Questions on Ebola Virus Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... disease Updated January 2016 1. What is Ebola virus disease? Ebola virus disease (formerly known as Ebola haemorrhagic fever) ... are the typical signs and symptoms of Ebola virus infection? Ebola symptoms vary but sudden onset of fever, intense ...

  11. Wave-like spread of Ebola Zaire.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available In the past decade the Zaire strain of Ebola virus (ZEBOV has emerged repeatedly into human populations in central Africa and caused massive die-offs of gorillas and chimpanzees. We tested the view that emergence events are independent and caused by ZEBOV variants that have been long resident at each locality. Phylogenetic analyses place the earliest known outbreak at Yambuku, Democratic Republic of Congo, very near to the root of the ZEBOV tree, suggesting that viruses causing all other known outbreaks evolved from a Yambuku-like virus after 1976. The tendency for earlier outbreaks to be directly ancestral to later outbreaks suggests that outbreaks are epidemiologically linked and may have occurred at the front of an advancing wave. While the ladder-like phylogenetic structure could also bear the signature of positive selection, our statistical power is too weak to reach a conclusion in this regard. Distances among outbreaks indicate a spread rate of about 50 km per year that remains consistent across spatial scales. Viral evolution is clocklike, and sequences show a high level of small-scale spatial structure. Genetic similarity decays with distance at roughly the same rate at all spatial scales. Our analyses suggest that ZEBOV has recently spread across the region rather than being long persistent at each outbreak locality. Controlling the impact of Ebola on wild apes and human populations may be more feasible than previously recognized.

  12. Understanding Ebola Virus Transmission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seth Judson

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available An unprecedented number of Ebola virus infections among healthcare workers and patients have raised questions about our understanding of Ebola virus transmission. Here, we explore different routes of Ebola virus transmission between people, summarizing the known epidemiological and experimental data. From this data, we expose important gaps in Ebola virus research pertinent to outbreak situations. We further propose experiments and methods of data collection that will enable scientists to fill these voids in our knowledge about the transmission of Ebola virus.

  13. Ebola Virus and Marburg Virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diseases and Conditions Ebola virus and Marburg virus By Mayo Clinic Staff Ebola virus and Marburg virus are related viruses that cause hemorrhagic ... Africa, where sporadic outbreaks have occurred for decades. Ebola virus and Marburg virus live in animal hosts, ...

  14. Ebola Virus and Marburg Virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebola virus and Marburg virus Overview By Mayo Clinic Staff Ebola virus and Marburg virus are related viruses that ... Africa, where sporadic outbreaks have occurred for decades. Ebola virus and Marburg virus live in animal hosts, ...

  15. Ebola haemorrhagic fever

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldmann, Heinz; Geisbert, Thomas W

    2012-01-01

    Ebola viruses are the causative agents of a severe form of viral haemorrhagic fever in man, designated Ebola haemorrhagic fever, and are endemic in regions of central Africa. The exception is the species Reston Ebola virus, which has not been associated with human disease and is found in the Philippines. Ebola virus constitutes an important local public health threat in Africa, with a worldwide effect through imported infections and through the fear of misuse for biological terrorism. Ebola virus is thought to also have a detrimental effect on the great ape population in Africa. Case-fatality rates of the African species in man are as high as 90%, with no prophylaxis or treatment available. Ebola virus infections are characterised by immune suppression and a systemic inflammatory response that causes impairment of the vascular, coagulation, and immune systems, leading to multiorgan failure and shock, and thus, in some ways, resembling septic shock. PMID:21084112

  16. Ebola--haemoragisk feber

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fabiansen, Christian; Kronborg, Gitte; Thybo, Søren

    2008-01-01

    This review presents the latest findings on ebola. Ebola presents one of the highest case-fatality rates of all infectious diseases, and in 2007 outbreaks were observed first in the Democratic Republic of Congo and later in Uganda with a new subtype. Accumulating evidence suggests that fruit bats...... are a likely reservoir for the ebola virus. The frequency of filovirus outbreaks in Central Africa is increasing and the potential for introduction and patient care in Denmark is evaluated. Udgivelsesdato: 2008-Nov-24...

  17. Impact of infectious disease epidemics on tuberculosis diagnostic, management, and prevention services: experiences and lessons from the 2014-2015 Ebola virus disease outbreak in West Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansumana, Rashid; Keitell, Samuel; Roberts, Gregory M T; Ntoumi, Francine; Petersen, Eskild; Ippolito, Giuseppe; Zumla, Alimuddin

    2017-03-01

    The World Health Organization (WHO) Global Tuberculosis Report 2015 states that 28% of the world's 9.6 million new tuberculosis (TB) cases are in the WHO Africa Region. The Mano River Union (MRU) countries of West Africa-Guinea, Sierra Leone, and Liberia-have made incremental sustained investments into TB control programmes over the past two decades. The devastating Ebola virus disease (EVD) outbreak of 2014-2015 in West Africa impacted significantly on all sectors of the healthcare systems in the MRU countries, including the TB prevention and control programmes. The EVD outbreak also had an adverse impact on the healthcare workforce and healthcare service delivery. At the height of the EVD outbreak, numerous staff members in all MRU countries contracted EBV at the Ebola treatment units and died. Many healthcare workers were also infected in healthcare facilities that were not Ebola treatment units but were national hospitals and peripheral health units that were unprepared for receiving patients with EVD. In all three MRU countries, the disruption to TB services due to the EVD epidemic will no doubt have increased Mycobacterium tuberculosis transmission, TB morbidity and mortality, and decreased patient adherence to TB treatment, and the likely impact will not be known for several years to come. In this viewpoint, the impact that the EVD outbreak had on TB diagnostic, management, and prevention services is described. Vaccination against TB with BCG in children under 5 years of age was affected adversely by the EVD epidemic. The EVD outbreak was a result of global failure and represents yet another 'wake-up call' to the international community, and particularly to African governments, to reach a consensus on new ways of thinking at the national, regional, and global levels for building healthcare systems that can sustain their function during outbreaks. This is necessary so that other disease control programmes (like those for TB, malaria, and HIV) are not

  18. Lessons from Ebola: Sources of Outbreak Information and the Associated Impact on UC Irvine and Ohio University College Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koralek, Thrissia; Runnerstrom, Miryha G; Brown, Brandon J; Uchegbu, Chukwuemeka; Basta, Tania B

    2016-08-25

    Objectives. We examined the role of outbreak information sources through four domains: knowledge, attitudes, beliefs, and stigma related to the 2014 Ebola virus disease (EVD) outbreak. Methods. We conducted an online survey of 797 undergraduates at the University of California, Irvine (UCI) and Ohio University (OU) during the peak of the outbreak. We calculated individual scores for domains and analyzed associations to demographic variables and news sources. Results. Knowledge of EVD was low and misinformation was prevalent. News media (34%) and social media (19%) were the most used sources of EVD information while official government websites (OGW) were among the least used (11%). Students who acquired information through OGW had higher knowledge, more positive attitudes towards those infected, a higher belief in the government, and were less likely to stigmatize Ebola victims. Conclusions. Information sources are likely to influence students' knowledge, attitudes, beliefs, and stigma relating to EVD. This study contains crucial insight for those tasked with risk communication to college students. Emphasis should be given to developing effective strategies to achieve a comprehensive knowledge of EVD and future public health threats.

  19. Ebola: Implications and Perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Rio, Carlos; Guarner, Jeannette

    2015-01-01

    The 2014 Ebola virus disease outbreak in West Africa has been the largest in recorded history. During this Ebola epidemic, the media has focused much attention to the magnitude of the problem in West Africa but has also overplayed the potential for an Ebola virus pandemic as patients have been transported for treatment to the United States and Europe causing panic and paranoia in the population. Knowledge of the epidemiology, pathogenesis, clinical presentation, treatment, and prevention of this infection will allow a better understanding of the disease and decrease irrational fear of spread.

  20. [Ebola virus disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazimek, Katarzyna; Bociaga-Jasik, Monika; Bryniarski, Krzysztof; Gałas, Aleksander; Garlicki, Aleksander; Gawda, Anna; Gawlik, Grzegorz; Gil, Krzysztof; Kosz-Vnenchak, Magdalena; Mrozek-Budzyn, Dorota; Olszanecki, Rafał; Piatek, Anna; Zawilińska, Barbara; Marcinkiewicz, Janusz

    2014-01-01

    Ebola is one of the most virulent zoonotic RNA viruses causing in humans haemorrhagic fever with fatality ratio reaching 90%. During the outbreak of 2014 the number of deaths exceeded 8.000. The "imported" cases reported in Western Europe and USA highlighted the extreme risk of Ebola virus spreading outside the African countries. Thus, haemorrhagic fever outbreak is an international epidemiological problem, also due to the lack of approved prevention and therapeutic strategies. The editorial review article briefly summarizes current knowledge on Ebola virus disease epidemiology, etiology, pathogenesis, clinical presentation, diagnosis as well as possible prevention and treatment.

  1. Ebola--haemorrhagic fever

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fabiansen, C.; Kronborg, G.; Thybo, S.

    2008-01-01

    This review presents the latest findings on ebola. Ebola presents one of the highest case-fatality rates of all infectious diseases, and in 2007 outbreaks were observed first in the Democratic Republic of Congo and later in Uganda with a new subtype. Accumulating evidence suggests that fruit bats...... are a likely reservoir for the ebola virus. The frequency of filovirus outbreaks in Central Africa is increasing and the potential for introduction and patient care in Denmark is evaluated Udgivelsesdato: 2008/11/24...

  2. [Ebola haemorrhagic fever.

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fabiansen, C.; Kronborg, G.; Thybo, S.

    2008-01-01

    This review presents the latest findings on ebola. Ebola presents one of the highest case-fatality rates of all infectious diseases, and in 2007 outbreaks were observed first in the Democratic Republic of Congo and later in Uganda with a new subtype. Accumulating evidence suggests that fruit bats...... are a likely reservoir for the ebola virus. The frequency of filovirus outbreaks in Central Africa is increasing and the potential for introduction and patient care in Denmark is evaluated Udgivelsesdato: 2008/11/24...

  3. Ebola: Implications and Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Rio, Carlos; Guarner, Jeannette

    2015-01-01

    The 2014 Ebola virus disease outbreak in West Africa has been the largest in recorded history. During this Ebola epidemic, the media has focused much attention to the magnitude of the problem in West Africa but has also overplayed the potential for an Ebola virus pandemic as patients have been transported for treatment to the United States and Europe causing panic and paranoia in the population. Knowledge of the epidemiology, pathogenesis, clinical presentation, treatment, and prevention of this infection will allow a better understanding of the disease and decrease irrational fear of spread. PMID:26330663

  4. Genomic surveillance elucidates Ebola virus origin and transmission during the 2014 outbreak

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gire, Stephen K.; Goba, Augustine; Andersen, Kristian G.; Sealfon, Rachel S. G.; Park, Daniel J.; Kanneh, Lansana; Jalloh, Simbirie; Momoh, Mambu; Fullah, Mohamed; Dudas, Gytis; Wohl, Shirlee; Moses, Lina M.; Yozwiak, Nathan L.; Winnicki, Sarah; Matranga, Christian B.; Malboeuf, Christine M.; Qu, James; Gladden, Adrianne D.; Schaffner, Stephen F.; Yang, Xiao; Jiang, Pan-Pan; Nekoui, Mahan; Colubri, Andres; Coomber, Moinya Ruth; Fonnie, Mbalu; Moigboi, Alex; Gbakie, Michael; Kamara, Fatima K.; Tucker, Veronica; Konuwa, Edwin; Saffa, Sidiki; Sellu, Josephine; Jalloh, Abdul Azziz; Kovoma, Alice; Koninga, James; Mustapha, Ibrahim; Kargbo, Kandeh; Foday, Momoh; Yillah, Mohamed; Kanneh, Franklyn; Robert, Willie; Massally, James L. B.; Chapman, Sinéad B.; Bochicchio, James; Murphy, Cheryl; Nusbaum, Chad; Young, Sarah; Birren, Bruce W.; Grant, Donald S.; Scheiffelin, John S.; Lander, Eric S.; Happi, Christian; Gevao, Sahr M.; Gnirke, Andreas; Rambaut, Andrew; Garry, Robert F.; Khan, S. Humarr; Sabeti, Pardis C.

    2015-01-01

    In its largest outbreak, Ebola virus disease is spreading through Guinea, Liberia, Sierra Leone, and Nigeria. We sequenced 99 Ebola virus genomes from 78 patients in Sierra Leone to ∼2000× coverage. We observed a rapid accumulation of interhost and intrahost genetic variation, allowing us to characterize patterns of viral transmission over the initial weeks of the epidemic. This West African variant likely diverged from central African lineages around 2004, crossed from Guinea to Sierra Leone in May 2014, and has exhibited sustained human-to-human transmission subsequently, with no evidence of additional zoonotic sources. Because many of the mutations alter protein sequences and other biologically meaningful targets, they should be monitored for impact on diagnostics, vaccines, and therapies critical to outbreak response. PMID:25214632

  5. Virus Ebola Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suharyono Wuryadi

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Virus Marburg dan Ebola diklasifikasikan sebagai virus yang sangat menular dan dimasukkan dalam klasifikasi sebagai virus/pathogen dengan derajat biosafety 4, sehingga untuk menanganinya diperlukan laboratorium khusus tingkat 4.

  6. Ebola virus (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebola is a deadly disease caused by a virus. The 2014 outbreak has occurred mainly in West Africa. Symptoms often start with fever, severe headache, muscle pain, abdominal pain, diarrhea, and vomiting. Late symptoms ...

  7. NGA Ebola Support Data Services

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Geospatial Intelligence Agency — In support of the ongoing Ebola crisis in Africa, NGA is providing to the public and humanitarian disaster response community these Ebola support data services. They...

  8. Postmortem stability of Ebola virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prescott, Joseph; Bushmaker, Trenton; Fischer, Robert; Miazgowicz, Kerri; Judson, Seth; Munster, Vincent J

    2015-05-01

    The ongoing Ebola virus outbreak in West Africa has highlighted questions regarding stability of the virus and detection of RNA from corpses. We used Ebola virus-infected macaques to model humans who died of Ebola virus disease. Viable virus was isolated <7 days posteuthanasia; viral RNA was detectable for 10 weeks.

  9. A long-lasting, single-dose nasal vaccine for Ebola: a practical armament for an outbreak with significant global impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonsson-Schmunk, Kristina; Croyle, Maria A

    2015-05-01

    In response to the severity and scale of the 2014 Ebola outbreak, several experimental vaccines were granted fast-track status for clinical testing. Although they may provide long-lasting protection from Ebola, they are, in their current states, far from optimal for populations that need them the most. In this context, nasal immunization addresses the: immune response required at the mucosa where Ebola initiates infection; needs of a population in terms of cost and compliance; and potency of each platform as they contain viruses that naturally infect the respiratory tract. Understanding the attributes of nasal immunization and its application will lead to potent vaccines that can effectively end Ebola and other emerging infectious diseases in developing and industrialized countries.

  10. Impact and Lessons Learned from Mass Drug Administrations of Malaria Chemoprevention during the Ebola Outbreak in Monrovia, Liberia, 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuehne, Anna; Tiffany, Amanda; Lasry, Estrella; Janssens, Michel; Besse, Clement; Okonta, Chibuzo; Larbi, Kwabena; Pah, Alfred C.; Danis, Kostas; Porten, Klaudia

    2016-01-01

    Background In October 2014, during the Ebola outbreak in Liberia healthcare services were limited while malaria transmission continued. Médecins Sans Frontières (MSF) implemented a mass drug administration (MDA) of malaria chemoprevention (CP) in Monrovia to reduce malaria-associated morbidity. In order to inform future interventions, we described the scale of the MDA, evaluated its acceptance and estimated the effectiveness. Methods MSF carried out two rounds of MDA with artesunate/amodiaquine (ASAQ) targeting four neighbourhoods of Monrovia (October to December 2014). We systematically selected households in the distribution area and administered standardized questionnaires. We calculated incidence ratios (IR) of side effects using poisson regression and compared self-reported fever risk differences (RD) pre- and post-MDA using a z-test. Findings In total, 1,259,699 courses of ASAQ-CP were distributed. All households surveyed (n = 222; 1233 household members) attended the MDA in round 1 (r1) and 96% in round 2 (r2) (212/222 households; 1,154 household members). 52% (643/1233) initiated ASAQ-CP in r1 and 22% (256/1154) in r2. Of those not initiating ASAQ-CP, 29% (172/590) saved it for later in r1, 47% (423/898) in r2. Experiencing side effects in r1 was not associated with ASAQ-CP initiation in r2 (IR 1.0, 95%CI 0.49–2.1). The incidence of self-reported fever decreased from 4.2% (52/1229) in the month prior to r1 to 1.5% (18/1229) after r1 (p<0.001) and decrease was larger among household members completing ASAQ-CP (RD = 4.9%) compared to those not initiating ASAQ-CP (RD = 0.6%) in r1 (p<0.001). Conclusions The reduction in self-reported fever cases following the intervention suggests that MDAs may be effective in reducing cases of fever during Ebola outbreaks. Despite high coverage, initiation of ASAQ-CP was low. Combining MDAs with longer term interventions to prevent malaria and to improve access to healthcare may reduce both the incidence of malaria and

  11. Recent advances on Ebola virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasir Waheed

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The 2014–2015 Ebola epidemic in West Africa was the largest of its kind, with more than 11 000 deaths and 28 637 cases. The epidemic mobilized a coalition of countries from US to China, European Union, and African countries. The international community was not prepared to face this unprecedented epidemic. Numbers of research groups are working to find a potent vaccine against Ebola. Ebola virus has the ability to dodge the immune system either by blocking interferon production or by glycoprotein-based immune diversion. Individuals who survived from the Ebola virus are facing different health issues after the infection. The rate of miscarriage is also high in Ebola survivors while there are variable reports of the presence of Ebola virus in semen of Ebola survivors. There are many asymptomatic Ebola patients under consideration. West African countries lack the basic healthcare system, for which the actual number of deaths by the Ebola outbreak are much more than the deaths caused by the direct viral infection. The hospitals were empty due to fear and death of nurses and doctors. Millions of children missed the vaccine against measles. Hundreds of thousands of people could not get food. The Ebola epidemic also affected the mental health of people living in endemic countries. The families affected by Ebola are facing discrimination in the society. There is a dire need to adopt United Nations Sustainable Development Goal 3, which stresses to prepare ourselves to face any national or global health risk.

  12. What is Ebola?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, R A

    2015-01-01

    On 23 March 2014, the World Health Organization first announced a new Ebola virus outbreak that started in December 2013 in the eastern part of the Republic of Guinea. Human infections shortly emerged in Liberia, Sierra Leone, and Nigeria. On 30 September 2014, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention confirmed through laboratory testing the first Ebola virus infection diagnosed in the USA, in a patient who travelled from West Africa to Texas. On 6 October 2014, the first human infection occurring outside of Africa was reported, in a Spanish nurse who treated two priests, both of whom died, and on 23 October 2014, the first human infection was reported in New York City. To date, the 2014 Ebola virus outbreak is the longest, largest, and most persistent one since 1976, when the virus was first identified in humans, and the number of human cases exceeded, as of mid-September 2014, the cumulative number of infections from all the previous outbreaks. The early clinical presentation overlaps with other infectious diseases, opening differential diagnosis difficulties. Understanding the transmission routes and identifying the natural reservoir of the virus are additional challenges in studying Ebola hemorrhagic fever outbreaks. Ebola virus is as much a public health challenge for developing countries as it is for the developed world, and previous outbreaks underscored that the relative contribution of the risk factors may differ among outbreaks. The implementation of effective preparedness plans is contingent on integrating teachings from previous Ebola virus outbreaks with those from the current outbreak and with lessons provided by other infectious diseases, along with developing a multifaceted inter-disciplinary and cross-disciplinary framework that should be established and shaped by biomedical as well as sociopolitical sciences. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Virus Genomes Reveal the Factors that Spread and Sustained the West African Ebola Epidemic

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-08-09

    unprecedented magnitude, duration and impact. Extensive collaborative sequencing projects have produced a comprehensive collection of Ebola virus...Bausch, D. G. & Schwarz, L. Outbreak of Ebola Virus Disease in Guinea: Where Ecology Meets Economy . PLoS Negl. Trop. Dis. 8, e3056 (2014). 26

  14. Ebola outbreak preparedness planning: a qualitative study of clinicians' experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broom, J; Broom, A; Bowden, V

    2017-02-01

    The 2014-15 Ebola outbreak in West Africa highlighted the challenges many hospitals face when preparing for the potential emergence of highly contagious diseases. This study examined the experiences of frontline health care professionals in an Australian hospital during the outbreak, with a focus on participant views on information, training and preparedness, to inform future outbreak preparedness planning. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 21 healthcare professionals involved in Ebola preparedness planning, at a hospital in Australia. The data were systematically coded to discover key themes in participants' accounts of Ebola preparedness. Three key themes identified were: 1) the impact of high volumes of-often inconsistent-information, which shaped participants' trust in authority; 2) barriers to engagement in training, including the perceived relative risk Ebola presented; and finally, 3) practical and environmental impediments to preparedness. These clinicians' accounts of Ebola preparedness reveal a range of important factors which may influence the relative success of outbreak preparedness and provide guidance for future responses. In particular, they illustrate the critical importance of clear communication and guidelines for staff engagement with, and implementation of training. An important outcome of this study was how individual assessments of risk and trust are produced via, and overlap with, the dynamics of communication, training and environmental logistics. Consideration of the dynamic ways in which these issues intersect is crucial for fostering an environment that is suitable for managing an infectious threat such as Ebola. Copyright © 2016 The Royal Society for Public Health. All rights reserved.

  15. Ebola in Antiquity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazanjian, Powel

    2015-09-15

    This article addresses whether Ebola may have been present in an urban setting in Athens in 430 bce and explores the historical importance of the ancient outbreak. New knowledge from today's West African epidemic allows a more accurate assessment of whether Ebola may have caused the Athenian outbreak than was once possible. The Athenian disease, whose etiology remains unknown, developed abruptly with fevers, abdominal pain, vomiting, diarrhea, dehydration, and hemorrhage. It originated in sub-Saharan Africa and was especially contagious to doctors and caregivers. No remedies were effective. But the few survivors who were reexposed to diseased patients were not attacked a second time, suggesting protective immunity. What lessons can we learn from the ancient outbreak that bears a clinical and epidemiologic resemblance to Ebola? The historian Thucydides, an eyewitness and disease sufferer, described how the unsuspecting city panicked as it struggled to handle the rapidly spreading, devastating disease. Moreover, he stressed a theme that has relevance today-namely, that fear and panic intensified the disruption of society and damage to the individual that was directly caused by the disease. Moreover, fear amplified the spread of disease. The destructive nature of fear has remained a signature feature of pestilences that have subsequently caught ill-prepared societies off-guard-Bubonic plague in medieval times, AIDS in the 1980s, and Ebola today. The ancient Athenian epidemic is relevant for today's West African Ebola outbreak because it shows how fear and panic can endanger the individual, our society, and our efforts to handle the disease.

  16. Ebola Virus Disease

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2014-08-08

    This podcast provides general information about Ebola virus disease and the outbreak in West Africa. The program contains remarks from CDC Director Dr. Tom Frieden, as well as a brief description of CDC’s response efforts.  Created: 8/8/2014 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 8/8/2014.

  17. Another Step Toward Ebola Protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... On the heels of concerns about a new Ebola outbreak in Africa, scientists say they've discovered the first human ... blood of a survivor of the 2013-2016 Ebola outbreak in Western Africa led to the discovery. That epidemic caused more ...

  18. [Ebola virus disease: Update].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Calle-Prieto, Fernando; Arsuaga-Vicente, Marta; Mora-Rillo, Marta; Arnalich-Fernandez, Francisco; Arribas, Jose Ramon

    2016-01-01

    The first known Ebola outbreak occurred in 1976. Since then, 24 limited outbreaks had been reported in Central Africa, but never affecting more than 425 persons. The current outbreak in Western Africa is the largest in history with 28,220 reported cases and 11,291 deaths. The magnitude of the epidemic has caused worldwide alarm. For the first time, evacuated patients were treated outside Africa, and secondary cases have occurred in Spain and the United States. Since the start of the current epidemic, our knowledge about the epidemiology, clinical picture, laboratory findings, and virology of Ebola virus disease has considerably expanded. For the first time, experimental treatment has been tried, and there have been spectacular advances in vaccine development. A review is presented of these advances in the knowledge of Ebola virus disease. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and Sociedad Española de Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica. All rights reserved.

  19. Genetic Testing for Breast Cancer: Psychological and Social Impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genetic testing for breast cancer: Psychological and social impact Genetic testing to estimate breast and ovarian cancer risk may prompt many emotional and psychological reactions. How will getting the news that you' ...

  20. THE STRENGTHS, WEAKNESSES, OPPORTUNITIES, AND THREATS (SWOTs) ANALYSES OF THE EBOLA VIRUS – PAPER RETRACTED

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babalola, Michael Oluyemi

    2016-01-01

    Background: Owing to the extreme virulence and case fatality rate of ebola virus disease (EVD), there had been so much furore, panic and public health emergency about the possible pandemic from the recent West African outbreak of the disease, with attendant handful research, both in the past and most recently. The magnitude of the epidemic of ebola virus disease has prompted global interest and urgency in the discovery of measures to mitigate the impact of the disease. Researchers in the academia and the industry were pressured to only focus on the development of effective and safe ebola virus vaccines, without consideration of the other aspects to this virus, which may influence the success or otherwise of a potential vaccine. The objective of this review was to adopt the SWOT concept to elucidate the biological Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, and Threats to Ebola virus as a pathogen, with a view to understanding and devising holistic strategies at combating and overcoming the scourge of EVD. Method: This systematic review and narrative synthesis utilized Medline, PubMed, Google and other databases to select about 150 publications on ebola and ebola virus disease using text word searches to generate the specific terms. Relevant publications were reviewed and compared, findings were synthesized using a narrative method and summarized qualitatively. Results: Some of the identified strengths of ebola virus include: Ebola virus is an RNA virus with inherent capability to mutate, reassort and recombine to generate mutant or reassortant virulent strains; Ebola virus has a broad cellular tropism; Natural Reservoir of ebola virus is unconfirmed but fruit bats, arthropods, and plants are hypothesized; Ebola virus primarily targets and selectively destroys the immune system; Ebola viruses possess accessory proteins that inhibits the host’ immune responses; Secreted glycoprotein (sGP), a truncated soluble protein that triggers immune activation and increased vascular

  1. THE STRENGTHS, WEAKNESSES, OPPORTUNITIES, AND THREATS (SWOTs) ANALYSES OF THE EBOLA VIRUS - PAPER RETRACTED.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babalola, Michael Oluyemi

    2016-01-01

    Owing to the extreme virulence and case fatality rate of ebola virus disease (EVD), there had been so much furore, panic and public health emergency about the possible pandemic from the recent West African outbreak of the disease, with attendant handful research, both in the past and most recently. The magnitude of the epidemic of ebola virus disease has prompted global interest and urgency in the discovery of measures to mitigate the impact of the disease. Researchers in the academia and the industry were pressured to only focus on the development of effective and safe ebola virus vaccines, without consideration of the other aspects to this virus, which may influence the success or otherwise of a potential vaccine. The objective of this review was to adopt the SWOT concept to elucidate the biological Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, and Threats to Ebola virus as a pathogen, with a view to understanding and devising holistic strategies at combating and overcoming the scourge of EVD. This systematic review and narrative synthesis utilized Medline, PubMed, Google and other databases to select about 150 publications on ebola and ebola virus disease using text word searches to generate the specific terms. Relevant publications were reviewed and compared, findings were synthesized using a narrative method and summarized qualitatively. Some of the identified strengths of ebola virus include: Ebola virus is an RNA virus with inherent capability to mutate, reassort and recombine to generate mutant or reassortant virulent strains; Ebola virus has a broad cellular tropism; Natural Reservoir of ebola virus is unconfirmed but fruit bats, arthropods, and plants are hypothesized; Ebola virus primarily targets and selectively destroys the immune system; Ebola viruses possess accessory proteins that inhibits the host' immune responses; Secreted glycoprotein (sGP), a truncated soluble protein that triggers immune activation and increased vascular permeability is uniquely

  2. Role of contact tracing in containing the 2014 Ebola outbreak: a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Keywords used in the search included Ebola virus disease, West-Africa, contact tracing, World Health Organization. Overall 60 articles ..... Health Organization. Communication for behavioural impact .... tic services.54. A major credit for the ...

  3. Ebola hemorrhagic Fever.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnett, Mark W

    2014-01-01

    Ebola hemorrhagic fever is an often-fatal disease caused by a virus of the Filoviridae family, genus Ebolavirus. Initial signs and symptoms of the disease are nonspecific, often progressing on to a severe hemorrhagic illness. Special Operations Forces Medical Providers should be aware of this disease, which occurs in sporadic outbreaks throughout Africa. Treatment at the present time is mainly supportive. Special care should be taken to prevent contact with bodily fluids of those infected, which can transmit the virus to caregivers. 2014.

  4. Ebola research funding: a systematic analysis, 1997-2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitchett, Joseph Ra; Lichtman, Amos; Soyode, Damilola T; Low, Ariel; Villar de Onis, Jimena; Head, Michael G; Atun, Rifat

    2016-12-01

    The latest outbreak of Ebola in West Africa overwhelmed the affected countries, with the impact on health extending far beyond Ebola-related deaths that have exceeded 11 000. The need to promptly mobilise resources to control emerging infections is widely recognized. Yet, data on research funding for emerging infections remains inadequately documented. We defined research investment as all funding flows for Ebola and/or Marburg virus from 1997 to April 2015 whose primary purpose was to advance knowledge and new technologies to prevent or cure disease. We sourced data directly from funding organizations and estimated the investment in 2015 US dollars (US$). Funding for Ebola and Marburg virus research in 1997 to 2015 amounted to US$ 1.035 billion, including US$ 435.4 million (42.0%) awarded in 2014 and 2015. Public sources of funding invested US$ 758.8 million (73.1%), philanthropic sources US$ 65.1 million (6.3%), and joint public/private/philanthropic ventures accounted for US$ 213.8 million (20.6%). Prior to the Ebola outbreak in 2014, pre-clinical research dominated research with US$ 443.6 million (73.9%) investment. After the outbreak, however, investment for new product development increased 942.7-fold and that for clinical trials rose 23.5-fold. Investment in new tools to control Ebola and Marburg virus amounted to US$ 399.1 million, with 61.3% awarded for vaccine research, 29.2% for novel therapeutics research such as antivirals and convalescent blood products, and 9.5% for diagnostics research. Research funding and bibliometric output were moderately associated (Spearman's ρ = 0.5232, P = 0.0259), however number of Ebola cases in previous outbreaks and research funding (ρ = 0.1706, P = 0.4985) and Ebola cases in previous outbreaks and research output (ρ = 0.3020, P = 0.0616) were poorly correlated. Significant public and philanthropic funds have been invested in Ebola and Marburg virus research in 2014 and 2015, following the

  5. Ebola virus: recommendations

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Medical Service

    2014-01-01

    The CERN Medical Service has been closely following, in particular via the WHO, the development of the Ebola virus outbreak currently affecting some African countries. This infectious disease may be passed on through direct contact with the bodily fluids of a sick person.   Based on the recommendations of the WHO and the two Host States, Switzerland and France, as updated on their respective websites, so far there has been no ban on travel to the countries concerned. However, unless it is absolutely essential, you are advised not to visit any of the countries affected by Ebola (Guinea, Republic of Sierra Leone, Liberia, Nigeria). The two Host States have established an alert system, and a check is carried out on departure from the airports of those countries. It is strongly recommended that you contact the Medical Service if you are travelling to those countries. We remind you to observe the basic rules of hygiene such as frequent hand washing, whatever your destination. The Medical Service is...

  6. Clinical development of Ebola vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sridhar, Saranya

    2015-09-01

    The ongoing outbreak of Ebola virus disease in West Africa highlighted the lack of a licensed drug or vaccine to combat the disease and has renewed the urgency to develop a pipeline of Ebola vaccines. A number of different vaccine platforms are being developed by assessing preclinical efficacy in animal models and expediting clinical development. Over 15 different vaccines are in preclinical development and 8 vaccines are now in different stages of clinical evaluation. These vaccines include DNA vaccines, virus-like particles and viral vectors such as live replicating vesicular stomatitis virus (rVSV), human and chimpanzee adenovirus, and vaccinia virus. Recently, in preliminary results reported from the first phase III trial of an Ebola vaccine, the rVSV-vectored vaccine showed promising efficacy. This review charts this rapidly advancing area of research focusing on vaccines in clinical development and discusses the future opportunities and challenges faced in the licensure and deployment of Ebola vaccines.

  7. April 28, 2015 CDC Ebola Response Update

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2015-04-28

    In any disease outbreak, misinformation, a lack of understanding, and fear can lead to unfortunate side effects, like stigma. Stigma presents a challenge for communities during a time when they need to be strong to fight the disease. In this podcast, Molly Gaines-McCollom, CDC Health Communication Specialist, discusses the impact of stigma in the current Ebola outbreak and why it’s so important to fight it.  Created: 4/28/2015 by Office of the Associate Director for Communication (OADC).   Date Released: 4/28/2015.

  8. Ebola Can Linger in Lungs, Study Finds

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_162904.html Ebola Can Linger in Lungs, Study Finds Discovery in ... Researchers say they've discovered signs that the Ebola virus could lurk in the lungs and reproduce ...

  9. Ebola Vaccine Appears Very Effective in Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_162715.html Ebola Vaccine Appears Very Effective in Trial Drug manufacturer says ... Dec. 23, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- An experimental Ebola vaccine was highly effective against the deadly virus in ...

  10. Ebola haemorrhagic fever among hospitalised children and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ebola haemorrhagic fever among hospitalised children and adolescents in nothern Uganda ... African Health Sciences ... Conclusion : Similar to previous Ebola outbreaks, a relative sparing of children in this outbreak was observed. The under ...

  11. Seeking Clearer Recommendations for Hand Hygiene in Communities Facing Ebola: A Randomized Trial Investigating the Impact of Six Handwashing Methods on Skin Irritation and Dermatitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, Emma; Mitro, Brittany; Desmarais, Anne Marie; Scheinman, Pamela; Lantagne, Daniele

    2016-01-01

    To prevent disease transmission, 0.05% chlorine solution is commonly recommended for handwashing in Ebola Treatment Units. In the 2014 West Africa outbreak this recommendation was widely extended to community settings, although many organizations recommend soap and hand sanitizer over chlorine. To evaluate skin irritation caused by frequent handwashing that may increase transmission risk in Ebola-affected communities, we conducted a randomized trial with 91 subjects who washed their hands 10 times a day for 28 days. Subjects used soap and water, sanitizer, or one of four chlorine solutions used by Ebola responders (calcium hypochlorite (HTH), sodium dichloroisocyanurate (NaDCC), and generated or pH-stabilized sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl)). Outcomes were self-reported hand feel, irritation as measured by the Hand Eczema Score Index (HECSI) (range 0–360), signs of transmission risk (e.g., cracking), and dermatitis diagnosis. All groups experienced statistically significant increases in HECSI score. Subjects using sanitizer had the smallest increases, followed by higher pH chlorine solutions (HTH and stabilized NaOCl), and soap and water. The greatest increases were among neutral pH chlorine solutions (NaDCC and generated NaOCl). Signs of irritation related to higher transmission risk were observed most frequently in subjects using soap and least frequently by those using sanitizer or HTH. Despite these irritation increases, all methods represented minor changes in HECSI score. Average HECSI score was only 9.10 at endline (range 1–33) and 4% (4/91) of subjects were diagnosed with dermatitis, one each in four groups. Each handwashing method has benefits and drawbacks: soap is widely available and inexpensive, but requires water and does not inactivate the virus; sanitizer is easy-to use and effective but expensive and unacceptable to many communities, and chlorine is easy-to-use but difficult to produce properly and distribute. Overall, we recommend Ebola responders

  12. Application of unweighted pair group methods with arithmetic average (UPGMA) for identification of kinship types and spreading of ebola virus through establishment of phylogenetic tree

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andriani, Tri; Irawan, Mohammad Isa

    2017-08-01

    Ebola Virus Disease (EVD) is a disease caused by a virus of the genus Ebolavirus (EBOV), family Filoviridae. Ebola virus is classifed into five types, namely Zaire ebolavirus (ZEBOV), Sudan ebolavirus (SEBOV), Bundibugyo ebolavirus (BEBOV), Tai Forest ebolavirus also known as Cote d'Ivoire ebolavirus (CIEBOV), and Reston ebolavirus (REBOV). Identification of kinship types of Ebola virus can be performed using phylogenetic trees. In this study, the phylogenetic tree constructed by UPGMA method in which there are Multiple Alignment using Progressive Method. The results concluded that the phylogenetic tree formation kinship ebola virus types that kind of Tai Forest ebolavirus close to Bundibugyo ebolavirus but the layout state ebola epidemic spread far apart. The genetic distance for this type of Bundibugyo ebolavirus with Tai Forest ebolavirus is 0.3725. Type Tai Forest ebolavirus similar to Bundibugyo ebolavirus not inuenced by the proximity of the area ebola epidemic spread.

  13. Ebola Virus Persistence in Semen Ex Vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Robert J; Judson, Seth; Miazgowicz, Kerri; Bushmaker, Trent; Munster, Vincent J

    2016-02-01

    On March 20, 2015, a case of Ebola virus disease was identified in Liberia that most likely was transmitted through sexual contact. We assessed the efficiency of detecting Ebola virus in semen samples by molecular diagnostics and the stability of Ebola virus in ex vivo semen under simulated tropical conditions.

  14. Ebola or Not? Evaluating the Ill Traveler From Ebola-Affected Countries in West Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fairley, Jessica K; Kozarsky, Phyllis E; Kraft, Colleen S; Guarner, Jeannette; Steinberg, James P; Anderson, Evan; Jacob, Jesse T; Meloy, Patrick; Gillespie, Darria; Espinoza, Tamara R; Isakov, Alexander; Vanairsdale, Sharon; Baker, Esther; Wu, Henry M

    2016-01-01

    Background.  The 2014-2015 Ebola epidemic in West Africa had global impact beyond the primarily affected countries of Guinea, Liberia, and Sierra Leone. Other countries, including the United States, encountered numerous patients who arrived from highly affected countries with fever or other signs or symptoms consistent with Ebola virus disease (EVD). Methods.  We describe our experience evaluating 25 travelers who met the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention case definition for a person under investigation (PUI) for EVD from July 20, 2014 to January 28, 2015. All patients were triaged and evaluated under the guidance of institutional protocols to the emergency department, outpatient tropical medicine clinic, or Emory's Ebola treatment unit. Strict attention to infection control and early involvement of public health authorities guided the safe evaluation of these patients. Results.  None were diagnosed with EVD. Respiratory illnesses were common, and 8 (32%) PUI were confirmed to have influenza. Four patients (16%) were diagnosed with potentially life-threatening infections or conditions, including 3 with Plasmodium falciparum malaria and 1 with diabetic ketoacidosis. Conclusions.  In addition to preparing for potential patients with EVD, Ebola assessment centers should consider other life-threatening conditions requiring urgent treatment, and travelers to affected countries should be strongly advised to seek pretravel counseling. Furthermore, attention to infection control in all aspects of PUI evaluation is paramount and has presented unique challenges. Lessons learned from our evaluation of potential patients with EVD can help inform preparations for future outbreaks of highly pathogenic communicable diseases.

  15. Genetics and cardiovascular disease: the impact of molecular diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vengoechea, Jaime; McKelvey, Kent D

    2013-04-01

    Information technology is exponentially reducing the cost of genetic testing while multiple clinical applications emerge. Genetic diagnosis increasingly impacts prevention, diagnosis and treatment of disease. In cardiovascular medicine, the establishment of a specific genetic diagnosis may affect management of cardiomyopathy, arrhythmia, connective tissue and metabolic disease. Econometric studies have determined that genetic testing is cost-effective in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy and disease-specific interventions are now available for specific conditions. Identification of a specific genetic disorder now allows for more precise medicine in the affected individual and more accurate preventive care for asymptomatic family members.

  16. Treatment of ebola virus disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilgore, Paul E; Grabenstein, John D; Salim, Abdulbaset M; Rybak, Michael

    2015-01-01

    In March 2014, the largest Ebola outbreak in history exploded across West Africa. As of November 14, 2014, the World Health Organization has reported a total of 21,296 Ebola virus disease (EVD) cases, including 13,427 laboratory-confirmed EVD cases reported from the three most affected countries (Guinea, Liberia, and Sierra Leone). As the outbreak of EVD has spread, clinical disease severity and national EVD case-fatality rates have remained high (21.2-60.8%). Prior to 2013, several EVD outbreaks were controlled by using routine public health interventions; however, the widespread nature of the current EVD outbreak as well as cultural practices in the affected countries have challenged even the most active case identification efforts. In addition, although treatment centers provide supportive care, no effective therapeutic agents are available for EVD-endemic countries. The ongoing EVD outbreak has stimulated investigation of several different therapeutic strategies that target specific viral structures and mechanisms of Ebola viruses. Six to eight putative pharmacotherapies or immunologically based treatments have demonstrated promising results in animal studies. In addition, agents composed of small interfering RNAs targeting specific proteins of Ebola viruses, traditional hyperimmune globulin isolated from Ebola animal models, monoclonal antibodies, and morpholino oligomers (small molecules used to block viral gene expression). A number of EVD therapeutic agents are now entering accelerated human trials in EVD-endemic countries. The goal of therapeutic agent development includes postexposure prevention and EVD cure. As knowledge of Ebola virus virology and pathogenesis grows, it is likely that new therapeutic tools will be developed. Deployment of novel Ebola therapies will require unprecedented cooperation as well as investment to ensure that therapeutic tools become available to populations at greatest risk for EVD and its complications. In this article, we

  17. Ebola viral selenoproteins: a metallomics analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Somsri Wiwanitkit

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Ebola virus infection is the present public health problem. The trend of worldwide epidemic becomes the serious consideration for this infection. The Ebola virus infection has main clinical manifestation as acute febrile illness with hemorrhagic episode. The problem of hemostatic disturbance can be seen. Focusing on the pathophysiology, selenium plays an important role in the blood clotting regulation. The study on the selenoprotein of the Ebola virus can be useful for further understanding on the pathology of the infection. Here, the authors use metallomics analysis for assessment of Ebola virus genome. According to this study, the selenoprotein portion within Ebola virus genome can be detected at position 1046-1115.

  18. International employees' concerns during serious disease outbreaks and the potential impact on business continuity: Lessons identified from the 2014-15 West African Ebola outbreak.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Jennifer; Watkins, Chris

    This paper presents the findings of research carried out into the information-seeking behaviour, and information requirements of a small sample of international workers stationed in West Africa during the Zaire Ebola virus outbreak of 2014-15. The research study under which these results were obtained was part of exploratory research for a PhD focused on the use, and potential uses, of social media platforms during serious disease outbreaks that might be used to inform policy planning for public health and emergency response interventions. Thus, the findings from this study may provide valuable insights to business continuity managers and emergency planners in making future decisions about information exchange and crisis decision-making during future serious disease outbreaks.

  19. Combating Ebola with Repurposed Therapeutics Using the CANDO Platform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaurav Chopra

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Ebola virus disease (EVD is extremely virulent with an estimated mortality rate of up to 90%. However, the state-of-the-art treatment for EVD is limited to quarantine and supportive care. The 2014 Ebola epidemic in West Africa, the largest in history, is believed to have caused more than 11,000 fatalities. The countries worst affected are also among the poorest in the world. Given the complexities, time, and resources required for a novel drug development, finding efficient drug discovery pathways is going to be crucial in the fight against future outbreaks. We have developed a Computational Analysis of Novel Drug Opportunities (CANDO platform based on the hypothesis that drugs function by interacting with multiple protein targets to create a molecular interaction signature that can be exploited for rapid therapeutic repurposing and discovery. We used the CANDO platform to identify and rank FDA-approved drug candidates that bind and inhibit all proteins encoded by the genomes of five different Ebola virus strains. Top ranking drug candidates for EVD treatment generated by CANDO were compared to in vitro screening studies against Ebola virus-like particles (VLPs by Kouznetsova et al. and genetically engineered Ebola virus and cell viability studies by Johansen et al. to identify drug overlaps between the in virtuale and in vitro studies as putative treatments for future EVD outbreaks. Our results indicate that integrating computational docking predictions on a proteomic scale with results from in vitro screening studies may be used to select and prioritize compounds for further in vivo and clinical testing. This approach will significantly reduce the lead time, risk, cost, and resources required to determine efficacious therapies against future EVD outbreaks.

  20. Questions and Answers about Ebola, Pets, and Other Animals

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Posters Virus Ecology Graphic Questions and Answers about Ebola, Pets, and Other Animals Language: English Español ... Tweet Share Compartir How are animals involved in Ebola outbreaks? Because the natural reservoir host of Ebola ...

  1. Impact of genetics on the clinical management of channelopathies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Peter J; Ackerman, Michael J; George, Alfred L; Wilde, Arthur A M

    2013-07-16

    There are few areas in cardiology in which the impact of genetics and genetic testing on clinical management has been as great as in cardiac channelopathies, arrhythmic disorders of genetic origin related to the ionic control of the cardiac action potential. Among the growing number of diseases identified as channelopathies, 3 are sufficiently prevalent to represent significant clinical and societal problems and to warrant adequate understanding by practicing cardiologists: long QT syndrome, catecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular tachycardia, and Brugada syndrome. This review will focus selectively on the impact of genetic discoveries on clinical management of these 3 diseases. For each disorder, we will discuss to what extent genetic knowledge and clinical genetic test results modify the way cardiologists should approach and manage affected patients. We will also address the optimal use of genetic testing, including its potential limitations and the potential medico-legal implications when such testing is not performed. We will highlight how important it is to understand the ways that genotype can affect clinical manifestations, risk stratification, and responses to the therapy. We will also illustrate the close bridge between molecular biology and clinical medicine, and will emphasize that consideration of the genetic basis for these heritable arrhythmia syndromes and the proper use and interpretation of clinical genetic testing should remain the standard of care. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  2. Ebola virus: bioterrorism for humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pramodkumar Pyarelal Gupta

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Ebola virus disease is a severe, often fatal, zoonotic infection caused by a virus of the Filoviridae family (genus Ebolavirus. Ebola virus (EBOV spreads by human to human transmission through contacts with body fluids from infected patients. Initial stages of EBOV are non-specific which makes the differential diagnosis broad. Here in this review article we focused on to show the details of EBOV, from its first case right up to the possible targets to cure this lethal disease. In this study we have shown the statistical survey, epidemiology, disease ontology, different genes coding for different proteins in EBOV and future aspects of it.

  3. Ebola Virus Infection Modelling and Identifiability Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Van-Kinh eNguyen

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The recent outbreaks of Ebola virus (EBOV infections have underlined the impact of the virus as a major threat for human health. Due to the high biosafety classification of EBOV (level 4, basic research is very limited. Therefore, the development of new avenues of thinking to advance quantitative comprehension of the virus and its interaction with the host cells is urgently neededto tackle this lethal disease. Mathematical modelling of the EBOV dynamics can be instrumental to interpret Ebola infection kinetics on quantitative grounds. To the best of our knowledge, a mathematical modelling approach to unravel the interaction between EBOV and the host cells isstill missing. In this paper, a mathematical model based on differential equations is used to represent the basic interactions between EBOV and wild-type Vero cells in vitro. Parameter sets that represent infectivity of pathogens are estimated for EBOV infection and compared with influenza virus infection kinetics. The average infecting time of wild-type Vero cells in EBOV is slower than in influenza infection. Simulation results suggest that the slow infecting time of EBOV could be compensated by its efficient replication. This study reveals several identifiability problems and what kind of experiments are necessary to advance the quantification of EBOV infection. A first mathematical approach of EBOV dynamics and the estimation of standard parametersin viral infections kinetics is the key contribution of this work, paving the way for future modelling work on EBOV infection.

  4. [Ebola virus disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karwowska, Kornelia

    2015-01-01

    Ebola virus disease is a zoonosis causing high mortality epidemics in both human and animal populations. The virus belongs to the Filoviride family. It is composed of a single-strand of RNA. Morbidity foci appear in sub-Saharan Africa. The most probable reservoir are fruit bats, which are local delicacy. The most common route of infection is via mucosa or damaged skin. The spread of disease is rapid due to dietary habits, funeral rites and the insufficient supply of disposable equipment in hospitals. The incubation period of the disease ranges from 2 to 21 days. The beginning is abrupt, dominated by influenza-like symptoms. The disease is staggering with the predominant multi-organ failure and shock. Present-day epidemic symptoms from digestive system in the form of vomiting and diarrhoea are dominant. Currently, the research on vaccine and experimental drug is in progress. The virus is damaged by standard disinfectants used in health care units. Epidemic, which broke out in February 2014, caused by the most dangerous type Zaire, is the greatest of the existing. Morbidity and mortality is underestimated due to numerous unreported cases.

  5. Current Ebola vaccines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoenen, Thomas; Groseth, Allison; Feldmann, Heinz

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Ebolaviruses cause severe viral hemorrhagic fever in humans and non-human primates, with case fatality rates of up to 90%. Currently, neither a specific treatment nor a vaccine licensed for use in humans is available. However, a number of vaccine candidates have been developed in the last decade that are highly protective in non-human primates, the gold standard animal model for Ebola hemorrhagic fever. Areas covered This review analyzes a number of scenarios for the use of ebolavirus vaccines, discusses the requirements for ebolavirus vaccines in these scenarios, and describes current ebolavirus vaccines. Among these vaccines are recombinant Adenoviruses, recombinant Vesicular Stomatitis viruses, recombinant Human Parainfluenza viruses and virus-like particles. Interestingly, one of these vaccine platforms, based on recombinant Vesicular Stomatitis viruses, has also demonstrated post-exposure protection in non-human primates. Expert opinion The most pressing remaining challenge is now to move these vaccine candidates forward into human trials and towards licensure. In order to achieve this, it will be necessary to establish the mechanisms and correlates of protection for these vaccines, and to continue to demonstrate their safety, particularly in potentially immunocompromised populations. However, already now there is sufficient evidence that, from a scientific perspective, a vaccine protective against ebolaviruses is possible. PMID:22559078

  6. Ebola (Ebola Virus Disease): Q&As on Transmission

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for Cleaning, Disinfection, and Waste Disposal in Commercial Passenger Aircraft Diagnosis Treatment Sierra Leone Vaccine Trial Q& ... column fluid) not easily reached by the immune system. CDC and other ... and will share information as it becomes available. Can Ebola stay in ...

  7. Ebola Virus Epidemiology and Evolution in Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Folarin, Onikepe A.; Ehichioya, Deborah; Schaffner, Stephen F.; Winnicki, Sarah M.; Wohl, Shirlee; Eromon, Philomena; West, Kendra L.; Gladden-Young, Adrianne; Oyejide, Nicholas E.; Matranga, Christian B.; Deme, Awa Bineta; James, Ayorinde; Tomkins-Tinch, Christopher; Onyewurunwa, Kenneth; Ladner, Jason T.; Palacios, Gustavo; Nosamiefan, Iguosadolo; Andersen, Kristian G.; Omilabu, Sunday; Park, Daniel J.; Yozwiak, Nathan L.; Nasidi, Abdusallam; Garry, Robert F.; Tomori, Oyewale; Sabeti, Pardis C.; Happi, Christian T.

    2016-01-01

    Containment limited the 2014 Nigerian Ebola virus (EBOV) disease outbreak to 20 reported cases and 8 fatalities. We present here clinical data and contact information for at least 19 case patients, and full-length EBOV genome sequences for 12 of the 20. The detailed contact data permits nearly complete reconstruction of the transmission tree for the outbreak. The EBOV genomic data are consistent with that tree. It confirms that there was a single source for the Nigerian infections, shows that the Nigerian EBOV lineage nests within a lineage previously seen in Liberia but is genetically distinct from it, and supports the conclusion that transmission from Nigeria to elsewhere did not occur. PMID:27377746

  8. Genetic and environmental impacts on DNA methylation levels in twins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yet, Idil; Tsai, Pei-Chien; Castillo-Fernandez, Juan E; Carnero-Montoro, Elena; Bell, Jordana T

    2016-01-01

    Epigenetics describes the study of cellular modifications that can modify the expression of genes without changing the DNA sequence. DNA methylation is one of the most stable and prevalent epigenetic mechanisms. Twin studies have been a valuable model for unraveling the genetic and epigenetic epidemiology of complex traits, and now offer a potential to dissect the factors that impact DNA methylation variability and its biomedical significance. The twin design specifically allows for the study of genetic, environmental and lifestyle factors, and their potential interactions, on epigenetic profiles. Furthermore, genetically identical twins offer a unique opportunity to assess nongenetic impacts on epigenetic profiles. Here, we summarize recent findings from twin studies of DNA methylation profiles across tissues, to define current knowledge regarding the genetic and nongenetic factors that influence epigenetic variation.

  9. A Case of Ebola Virus

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2012-10-01

    Dr. Adam MacNeil, an epidemiologist at CDC, discusses Ebola virus.  Created: 10/1/2012 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID); National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases (NCIRD).   Date Released: 10/1/2012.

  10. Reduced evolutionary rate in reemerged Ebola virus transmission chains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackley, David J; Wiley, Michael R; Ladner, Jason T; Fallah, Mosoka; Lo, Terrence; Gilbert, Merle L; Gregory, Christopher; D'ambrozio, Jonathan; Coulter, Stewart; Mate, Suzanne; Balogun, Zephaniah; Kugelman, Jeffrey; Nwachukwu, William; Prieto, Karla; Yeiah, Adolphus; Amegashie, Fred; Kearney, Brian; Wisniewski, Meagan; Saindon, John; Schroth, Gary; Fakoli, Lawrence; Diclaro, Joseph W; Kuhn, Jens H; Hensley, Lisa E; Jahrling, Peter B; Ströher, Ute; Nichol, Stuart T; Massaquoi, Moses; Kateh, Francis; Clement, Peter; Gasasira, Alex; Bolay, Fatorma; Monroe, Stephan S; Rambaut, Andrew; Sanchez-Lockhart, Mariano; Scott Laney, A; Nyenswah, Tolbert; Christie, Athalia; Palacios, Gustavo

    2016-04-01

    On 29 June 2015, Liberia's respite from Ebola virus disease (EVD) was interrupted for the second time by a renewed outbreak ("flare-up") of seven confirmed cases. We demonstrate that, similar to the March 2015 flare-up associated with sexual transmission, this new flare-up was a reemergence of a Liberian transmission chain originating from a persistently infected source rather than a reintroduction from a reservoir or a neighboring country with active transmission. Although distinct, Ebola virus (EBOV) genomes from both flare-ups exhibit significantly low genetic divergence, indicating a reduced rate of EBOV evolution during persistent infection. Using this rate of change as a signature, we identified two additional EVD clusters that possibly arose from persistently infected sources. These findings highlight the risk of EVD flare-ups even after an outbreak is declared over.

  11. Ebola Virus RNA in Semen from an HIV-Positive Survivor of Ebola

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Emerson; Baller, April; White, Stephen; Soka, Moses; Choi, Mary J.; Mahmoud, Nuha; Wasunna, Christine; Massaquoi, Moses; Kollie, Jomah; Dweh, Straker; Bemah, Philip; Ladele, Victor; Kpaka, Jonathan; Jawara, Mary; Mugisha, Margaret; Subah, Onyekachi; Faikai, Mylene; Bailey, Jeff A.; Rollin, Pierre; Marston, Barbara; Nyenswah, Tolbert; Gasasira, Alex; Knust, Barbara; Nichol, Stuart; Williams, Desmond

    2017-01-01

    Ebola virus is known to persist in semen of male survivors of Ebola virus disease (EVD). However, maximum duration of, or risk factors for, virus persistence are unknown. We report an EVD survivor with preexisting HIV infection, whose semen was positive for Ebola virus RNA 565 days after recovery from EVD. PMID:28287374

  12. Genetics and genomics: impact on perinatal nursing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Judith A

    2011-01-01

    In 1953, Watson and Crick first described the structure of the DNA molecule, an event that led to a new understanding of the nature of heredity. Just 50 years later, a conference was held in Bethesda, Maryland to announce the completion of the sequencing of the human genome. The era of genomic healthcare has begun, and it has profound implications for nursing education, nursing practice, and nursing research. This article will highlight some important areas in perinatal and neonatal nursing that have been affected by genetics and genomics, as well as some emerging areas of research that will be relevant to perinatal and neonatal nursing.

  13. Post-Ebola Syndrome, Sierra Leone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Janet T; Sesay, Foday R; Massaquoi, Thomas A; Idriss, Baimba R; Sahr, Foday; Semple, Malcolm G

    2016-04-01

    Thousands of persons have survived Ebola virus disease. Almost all survivors describe symptoms that persist or develop after hospital discharge. A cross-sectional survey of the symptoms of all survivors from the Ebola treatment unit (ETU) at 34th Regimental Military Hospital, Freetown, Sierra Leone (MH34), was conducted after discharge at their initial follow-up appointment within 3 weeks after their second negative PCR result. From its opening on December 1, 2014, through March 31, 2015, the MH34 ETU treated 84 persons (8-70 years of age) with PCR-confirmed Ebola virus disease, of whom 44 survived. Survivors reported musculoskeletal pain (70%), headache (48%), and ocular problems (14%). Those who reported headache had had lower admission cycle threshold Ebola PCR than did those who did not (pEbola syndrome. The Ebola epidemic is waning, but the effects of the disease will remain.

  14. March 19, 2015 CDC Ebola Response Update

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2015-03-19

    The Ebola outbreak has caused many people to ask whether animals, or specifically pets, are at risk of getting and spreading Ebola in the United States. In this podcast, Drs. Casey Barton Behravesh and Heather Bair-Brake, veterinarians at CDC, discuss how Ebola can affect animals, whether pets in the U.S. are at risk, and what people being monitored for Ebola should do if they have pets at home.  Created: 3/19/2015 by Office of the Associate Director for Communication (OADC).   Date Released: 3/19/2015.

  15. Ebola virus: current and future perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jadav, Surender Singh; Kumar, Anoop; Ahsan, Mohamed Jawed; Jayaprakash, Venkatesan

    2015-01-01

    The present outbreak associated with Ebola disease in Western countries of the African continent which is believed to be one of the massive eruptions caused by the Ebola viral infections. In the present scenario ebola has been transmitted to the European and American regions through the travelers from wide spread countries like Guinea, Liberia, Sierra Leone and Nigeria. The viral disease is spreading through the contact in any form by the infected persons or patients and creating huge risks to the mortals. The symptoms related to ebola virus are often highly pathogenic; about 70-80% of death cases are reported due to critical hemorrhagic fever. Early in infection, ebola virus infects macrophages and endothelial cells. It mainly produces a Viral Protein 24 (eVP24) which prevents interferon-based signals which are important for destruction of viruses. How ebola virus manipulates the function of the immune system is still unclear. Due to lack of this knowledge, no approved treatment is available. In this review, we have tried to compile the epidemiology, pathogenesis and treatment of ebola virus infection. The promising ligands against ebola virus have been also discussed which will be helpful for researchers to design drugs for the treatment of ebola virus disease.

  16. [Recent Advances in Vaccines and Drugs Against the Ebola Virus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xiang; Yao, Chenguang; Wei, Yanhong; Kou, Zheng; Hu, Kanghong

    2015-05-01

    The Ebola virus belongs to the Filovirus family, which causes Ebola hemorrhagic fever (mortality, 25%-90%). An outbreak of infection by the Ebola virus is sweeping across West Africa, leading to high mortality and worldwide panic. The Ebola virus has caused a serious threat to public health, so intensive scientific studies have been carried out. Several vaccines (e.g., rVSV-ZEBOV, ChAd3-ZEBOV) have been put into clinical trials and antiviral drugs (e.g., TKM-Ebola, ZMAPP) have been administered in the emergency setting to patients infected by the Ebola virus. Here, recent advances in vaccines and drugs against the Ebola virus are reviewed.

  17. Protective Monotherapy Against Lethal Ebola Virus Infection by a Potently Neutralizing Antibody

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-07-11

    These mAbs bind and neutralize recent and 53   previous outbreak strains of Ebola virus, and mediate antibody-dependent cell-54   mediated...dilution. 61   62   Antibody purification , labeling, genetic analysis, and reversion to germline. The 63   usage of VH and VL gene segments was

  18. Ebola virus acceptors

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-05-18

    May 18, 2009 ... 2Division of Human Genetics, Department of Pathology, Makerere University, Uganda. 3Department ... the evolutionary trends of successful viral cross over. Although ... 1989). The determinants of integration efficiency in vivo.

  19. Optimal control strategies for the spread of Ebola in West Africa

    CERN Document Server

    Rachah, Amira

    2016-01-01

    The spread of Ebola virus in 2014 is unprecedented. The epidemic is still affecting West Africa, exacerbated by extraordinary socioeconomic disadvantages and health system inadequacies. With the aim of understanding, predicting, and control the propagation of the virus in the populations of affected countries, it is crucial to model the dynamics of the virus and study several strategies to control it. In this paper, we present a very simple mathematical model that describes quite well the spread of Ebola. Then, we discuss several strategies for the control of the propagation of this lethal virus into populations, in order to predict the impact of vaccine programmes, treatment, and the impact of educational campaigns.

  20. Ebola: Where Are the Facts? | Poster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Since the first outbreak of Ebola in western Africa and the subsequent cases in the United States, a lot of information has been circulating about the virus. To keep NCI at Frederick employees informed, the Poster staff has compiled the following list of reputable websites that provide accurate and up-to-date information about Ebola: Global

  1. Phosphorylation sites within Ebola virus nucleoprotein

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sora; Yasri; Viroj; Wiwanitkit

    2015-01-01

    To understand the infection process, the viral multiplication and entry to the cell is widely studied. The Ebola virus nucleoprotein is the important problem for the pathological process. Focusing on the specific biological process, the post translational modification is needed. Here, the authors used the bioinformatics study to find the phosphorylation sites within the Ebola virus nucleoprotein and could identify many new sites.

  2. November 26, 2014 CDC Ebola Response Update

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2014-11-26

    This podcast provides an update on the Ebola response, as of November 26, 2014. In this podcast, learn how CDC’s communications teams acknowledge the widespread fear of Ebola in messaging.  Created: 11/26/2014 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 11/26/2014.

  3. December 12, 2014 CDC Ebola Response Update

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2014-12-12

    This podcast provides an update on the Ebola response, as of December 12, 2014. In this podcast, learn how some West African communities are celebrating their Ebola survivors.  Created: 12/12/2014 by CDC’s Office of the Associate Director for Communication.   Date Released: 12/12/2014.

  4. Awareness of Ebola: An Exotic Zoonotic Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NLPI Dharmayanti

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Filovirus including Ebola and Marburg hemorrhagic fever is a zoonotic disease that characterised by immune suppression and systemic inflammatory response causing impairment of the vascular and immune systems. It is leading to multiorgan failures with mortality varies from 50-90% in human and primate. The Ebola virus is currently divided into five species, namely Zaire ebolavirus (ZEBOV, Sudan ebolavirus (SEBOV, Tai Forest ebolavirus, Reston ebolavirus (REBOV and Bundibugyo ebolavirus. Geographical distribution of Ebola virus in the Afrotropics region is mainly in the rainforests of Central and West Africa, while REBOV was detected in the Philippines. Bats are suspected as reservoir host of the virus. Recently, Ebola cases had been reported in endemic areas in Africa and then distributed to other countries which was not endemic through human travellers. Ebola virus is also potentially used as a biological weapon, so Ebola virus becomes public health concern. This paper describes the characters of Ebola virus, its clinical signs, transmission and threat as an exotic disease in Indonesia. By understanding the disease, the emergence of Ebola virus in Indonesia can be anticipated quickly.

  5. A historial perpective af Ebola Virus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Linda Løhde; Permin, Henrik; Fischer, Thea Kølsen

    2015-01-01

    The 2014 Ebola fever outbreak was the first of its kind in West Africa. This epidemic, affecting multiple countries, by far exceeded any previous outbreak in case counts and geographical spread. But Ebola viruses are not new to Africa, as they have occurred in epidemic proportion in the central...

  6. Ebola: Where Are the Facts? | Poster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Since the first outbreak of Ebola in western Africa and the subsequent cases in the United States, a lot of information has been circulating about the virus. To keep NCI at Frederick employees informed, the Poster staff has compiled the following list of reputable websites that provide accurate and up-to-date information about Ebola: Global

  7. Molecular mechanisms of Ebola pathogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera, Andrea; Messaoudi, Ilhem

    2016-11-01

    Ebola viruses (EBOVs) and Marburg viruses (MARVs) are among the deadliest human viruses, as highlighted by the recent and widespread Ebola virus outbreak in West Africa, which was the largest and longest epidemic of Ebola virus disease (EVD) in history, resulting in significant loss of life and disruptions across multiple continents. Although the number of cases has nearly reached its nadir, a recent cluster of 5 cases in Guinea on March 17, 2016, has extended the enhanced surveillance period to June 15, 2016. New, enhanced 90-d surveillance windows replaced the 42-d surveillance window to ensure the rapid detection of new cases that may arise from a missed transmission chain, reintroduction from an animal reservoir, or more important, reemergence of the virus that has persisted in an EVD survivor. In this review, we summarize our current understanding of EBOV pathogenesis, describe vaccine and therapeutic candidates in clinical trials, and discuss mechanisms of viral persistence and long-term health sequelae for EVD survivors. © Society for Leukocyte Biology.

  8. A Short Overview of Ebola Outbreak

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masumeh Saeidi

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available   Ebola virus disease (formerly known as Ebola haemorrhagic fever is a severe, often fatal illness, with a death rate of up to 90%. The illness affects humans and nonhuman primates (monkeys, gorillas, and chimpanzees. Ebola first appeared in 1976 in two simultaneous outbreaks, one in a village near the Ebola River in the Democratic Republic of Congo, and the other in a remote area of Sudan. The origin of the virus is unknown but fruit bats (Pteropodidae are considered the likely host of the Ebola virus, based on available evidence. In the current outbreak in West Africa, the majority of cases in humans have occurred as a result of human-to-human transmission. Infection occurs from direct contact through broken skin or mucous membranes with the blood, or other bodily fluids or secretions (stool, urine, saliva, semen of infected people.

  9. Ebola viral selenoproteins:a metallomics analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Somsri; Wiwanitkit; Viroj; Wiwanitkit

    2015-01-01

    Ebola virus infection is the present public health problem.The trend of worldwide epidemic becomes the serious consideration for this infection.The Ebola virus infection has main clinical manifestation as acute febrile illness with hemorrhagic episode.The problem of hemostatic disturbance can be seen.Focusing on the palhophysiology.selenium plays an important role in the blood clotting regulation.The study on the selenoprotein of the Ebola virus can be useful for further understanding on the pathology of the infection.Here,the authors use metallomics analysis for assessment of Ebola virus genome.According to this study,the selenoprotein portion within Ebola virus genome can be detected at position 1046-1115.

  10. A Short Overview of Ebola Outbreak

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masumeh Saeidi

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available   Ebola virus disease (formerly known as Ebola haemorrhagic fever is a severe, often fatal illness, with a death rate of up to 90%. The illness affects humans and nonhuman primates (monkeys, gorillas, and chimpanzees. Ebola first appeared in 1976 in two simultaneous outbreaks, one in a village near the Ebola River in the Democratic Republic of Congo, and the other in a remote area of Sudan. The origin of the virus is unknown but fruit bats (Pteropodidae are considered the likely host of the Ebola virus, based on available evidence. In the current outbreak in West Africa, the majority of cases in humans have occurred as a result of human-to-human transmission. Infection occurs from direct contact through broken skin or mucous membranes with the blood, or other bodily fluids or secretions (stool, urine, saliva, semen of infected people.

  11. Ebola outbreak in Western Africa 2014: what is going on with Ebola virus?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Na, Woonsung; Park, Nanuri; Yeom, Minju; Song, Daesub

    2015-01-01

    The 2014 outbreak of Ebola virus disease (EVD) in West Africa, caused by Ebola virus (Zaire Ebola virus species), is the largest outbreak of EVD in history. It cause hemorrhagic fever in human and nonhuman primates with high mortality rate up to 90% and can be transmitted by direct contact with blood, body fluids, skin of EVD patients or persons who have died of EVD. As of December 17, 2014, 450 healthcare personnel are known to have been infected with Ebola, of whom 244 died. For development of Ebola vaccine and treatment are highly difficult due to its dangerous and accessibility that requires biosafety level 4 (BSL-4) to conduct experiment. Also there is no specific vaccine and treatment for Ebola virus; however, many candidate vaccines and antiviral-drugs such as ZMapp and TKM-Ebola are being developed for Ebola virus disease. In this review, we focus on the epidemiology of 2014 outbreak of Ebola virus and candidate agent for preventing and curing from Ebola virus.

  12. ISCB Ebola Award for Important Future Research on the Computational Biology of Ebola Virus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter D. Karp

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Speed is of the essence in combating Ebola; thus, computational approaches should form a significant component of Ebola research. As for the development of any modern drug, computational biology is uniquely positioned to contribute through comparative analysis of the genome sequences of Ebola strains as well as 3-D protein modeling. Other computational approaches to Ebola may include large-scale docking studies of Ebola proteins with human proteins and with small-molecule libraries, computational modeling of the spread of the virus, computational mining of the Ebola literature, and creation of a curated Ebola database. Taken together, such computational efforts could significantly accelerate traditional scientific approaches. In recognition of the need for important and immediate solutions from the field of computational biology against Ebola, the International Society for Computational Biology (ISCB announces a prize for an important computational advance in fighting the Ebola virus. ISCB will confer the ISCB Fight against Ebola Award, along with a prize of US$2,000, at its July 2016 annual meeting (ISCB Intelligent Systems for Molecular Biology [ISMB] 2016, Orlando, Florida.

  13. Ebola outbreak in Western Africa 2014: what is going on with Ebola virus?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    The 2014 outbreak of Ebola virus disease (EVD) in West Africa, caused by Ebola virus (Zaire Ebola virus species), is the largest outbreak of EVD in history. It cause hemorrhagic fever in human and nonhuman primates with high mortality rate up to 90% and can be transmitted by direct contact with blood, body fluids, skin of EVD patients or persons who have died of EVD. As of December 17, 2014, 450 healthcare personnel are known to have been infected with Ebola, of whom 244 died. For development of Ebola vaccine and treatment are highly difficult due to its dangerous and accessibility that requires biosafety level 4 (BSL-4) to conduct experiment. Also there is no specific vaccine and treatment for Ebola virus; however, many candidate vaccines and antiviral-drugs such as ZMapp and TKM-Ebola are being developed for Ebola virus disease. In this review, we focus on the epidemiology of 2014 outbreak of Ebola virus and candidate agent for preventing and curing from Ebola virus. PMID:25648530

  14. Key data for outbreak evaluation: building on the Ebola experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cori, Anne; Donnelly, Christl A; Dorigatti, Ilaria; Ferguson, Neil M; Fraser, Christophe; Garske, Tini; Jombart, Thibaut; Nedjati-Gilani, Gemma; Nouvellet, Pierre; Riley, Steven; Van Kerkhove, Maria D; Mills, Harriet L; Blake, Isobel M

    2017-05-26

    Following the detection of an infectious disease outbreak, rapid epidemiological assessment is critical for guiding an effective public health response. To understand the transmission dynamics and potential impact of an outbreak, several types of data are necessary. Here we build on experience gained in the West African Ebola epidemic and prior emerging infectious disease outbreaks to set out a checklist of data needed to: (1) quantify severity and transmissibility; (2) characterize heterogeneities in transmission and their determinants; and (3) assess the effectiveness of different interventions. We differentiate data needs into individual-level data (e.g. a detailed list of reported cases), exposure data (e.g. identifying where/how cases may have been infected) and population-level data (e.g. size/demographics of the population(s) affected and when/where interventions were implemented). A remarkable amount of individual-level and exposure data was collected during the West African Ebola epidemic, which allowed the assessment of (1) and (2). However, gaps in population-level data (particularly around which interventions were applied when and where) posed challenges to the assessment of (3). Here we highlight recurrent data issues, give practical suggestions for addressing these issues and discuss priorities for improvements in data collection in future outbreaks.This article is part of the themed issue 'The 2013-2016 West African Ebola epidemic: data, decision-making and disease control'. © 2017 The Authors.

  15. Functional Characterization of Adaptive Mutations during the West African Ebola Virus Outbreak.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietzel, Erik; Schudt, Gordian; Krähling, Verena; Matrosovich, Mikhail; Becker, Stephan

    2017-01-15

    The Ebola virus (EBOV) outbreak in West Africa started in December 2013, claimed more than 11,000 lives, threatened to destabilize a whole region, and showed how easily health crises can turn into humanitarian disasters. EBOV genomic sequences of the West African outbreak revealed nonsynonymous mutations, which induced considerable public attention, but their role in virus spread and disease remains obscure. In this study, we investigated the functional significance of three nonsynonymous mutations that emerged early during the West African EBOV outbreak. Almost 90% of more than 1,000 EBOV genomes sequenced during the outbreak carried the signature of three mutations: a D759G substitution in the active center of the L polymerase, an A82V substitution in the receptor binding domain of surface glycoprotein GP, and an R111C substitution in the self-assembly domain of RNA-encapsidating nucleoprotein NP. Using a newly developed virus-like particle system and reverse genetics, we found that the mutations have an impact on the functions of the respective viral proteins and on the growth of recombinant EBOVs. The mutation in L increased viral transcription and replication, whereas the mutation in NP decreased viral transcription and replication. The mutation in the receptor binding domain of the glycoprotein GP improved the efficiency of GP-mediated viral entry into target cells. Recombinant EBOVs with combinations of the three mutations showed a growth advantage over the prototype isolate Makona C7 lacking the mutations. This study showed that virus variants with improved fitness emerged early during the West African EBOV outbreak. The dimension of the Ebola virus outbreak in West Africa was unprecedented. Amino acid substitutions in the viral L polymerase, surface glycoprotein GP, and nucleocapsid protein NP emerged, were fixed early in the outbreak, and were found in almost 90% of the sequences. Here we showed that these mutations affected the functional activity of

  16. Ebola outbreak in Western Africa 2014: what is going on with Ebola virus?

    OpenAIRE

    Na, Woonsung; Park, Nanuri; Yeom, Minjoo; Song, Daesub

    2015-01-01

    The 2014 outbreak of Ebola virus disease (EVD) in West Africa, caused by Ebola virus (Zaire Ebola virus species), is the largest outbreak of EVD in history. It cause hemorrhagic fever in human and nonhuman primates with high mortality rate up to 90% and can be transmitted by direct contact with blood, body fluids, skin of EVD patients or persons who have died of EVD. As of December 17, 2014, 450 healthcare personnel are known to have been infected with Ebola, of whom 244 died. For development...

  17. Long shadow of fear in an epidemic: fearonomic effects of Ebola on the private sector in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bali, Sulzhan; Stewart, Kearsley A; Pate, Muhammad Ali

    2016-01-01

    The already significant impact of the Ebola epidemic on Guinea, Liberia and Sierra Leone, was worsened by a fear of contagion that aggravated the health crisis. However, in contrast to other Ebola-affected countries, Nigeria fared significantly better due to its swift containment of the disease. The objective of our study was to describe the impact of Ebola on the Nigerian private sector. This paper introduces and defines the term fearonomic effect as the direct and indirect economic effects of both misinformation as well as fear-induced aversion behaviour, exhibited by individuals, organisations or countries during an outbreak or an epidemic. This study was designed as a cross-sectional mixed-methods study that used semistructured in-depth interviews and a supporting survey to capture the impact of Ebola on the Nigerian private sector after the outbreak. Themes were generated from the interviews on the direct and indirect impact of Ebola on the private sector; the impact of misinformation and fear-based aversion behaviour in the private sector. Our findings reveal that the fearonomic effects of Ebola included health service outages and reduced healthcare usage as a result of misinformation and aversion behaviour by both patients and providers. Although certain sectors (eg, health sector, aviation sector, hospitality sector) in Nigeria were affected more than others, no business was immune to Ebola's fearonomic effects. We describe how sectors expected to prosper during the outbreak (eg, pharmaceuticals), actually suffered due to the changes in consumption patterns and demand shocks. In a high-stressor epidemic-like setting, altered consumption behaviour due to distorted disease perception, misinformation and fear can trigger short-term economic cascades that can disproportionately affect businesses and lead to financial insecurity of the poorest and the most vulnerable in a society.

  18. Virus genomes reveal factors that spread and sustained the Ebola epidemic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dudas, Gytis; Carvalho, Luiz Max; Bedford, Trevor

    2017-01-01

    The 2013-2016 West African epidemic caused by the Ebola virus was of unprecedented magnitude, duration and impact. Here we reconstruct the dispersal, proliferation and decline of Ebola virus throughout the region by analysing 1,610 Ebola virus genomes, which represent over 5% of the known cases. We...... test the association of geography, climate and demography with viral movement among administrative regions, inferring a classic 'gravity' model, with intense dispersal between larger and closer populations. Despite attenuation of international dispersal after border closures, cross-border transmission...... had already sown the seeds for an international epidemic, rendering these measures ineffective at curbing the epidemic. We address why the epidemic did not spread into neighbouring countries, showing that these countries were susceptible to substantial outbreaks but at lower risk of introductions...

  19. January 8, 2015 CDC Ebola Response Update

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2015-01-08

    CDC scientists, recently returned from Guinea, recount their infection control training course for Guinean healthcare workers who work in health facilities other than Ebola Treatment Units. These workers treat anyone from pregnant women to suspected Ebola cases. It’s critical they be able to recognize and properly treat Ebola patients, not only to protect their own health, but that of their patients.  Created: 1/8/2015 by CDC’s Office of the Associate Director for Communication.   Date Released: 1/8/2015.

  20. Ebola virus disease: radiology preparedness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bluemke, David A; Meltzer, Carolyn C

    2015-02-01

    At present, there is a major emphasis on Ebola virus disease (EVD) preparedness training at medical facilities throughout the United States. Failure to have proper EVD procedures in place was cited as a major reason for infection of medical personnel in the United States. Medical imaging does not provide diagnosis of EVD, but patient assessment in the emergency department and treatment isolation care unit is likely to require imaging services. The purpose of this article is to present an overview of relevant aspects of EVD disease and preparedness relevant to the radiologic community. © RSNA, 2014.

  1. Impact of genetic polymorphisms on clinical response to antithrombotics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kena J Lanham

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Kena J Lanham1,2, Julie H Oestreich3, Steven P Dunn1,2, Steven R Steinhubl41Pharmacy Services, UK HealthCare, University of Kentucky, Lexington, Kentucky, USA; 2Department of Pharmacy Practice and Science, College of Pharmacy, University of Kentucky, Lexington, Kentucky, USA; 3Department of Pharmacy Practice, College of Pharmacy, University of Nebraska, Omaha, Nebraska, USA; 4The Medicines Company, Zurich, Switzerland and The Geisinger Clinic, Danville, Pennsylvania, USAAbstract: Antithrombotic therapy, including anticoagulants as well as antiplatelet drugs, is an important component in the treatment of cardiovascular disease. Variability in response to such medications, of which pharmacogenetic response is a major source, can decrease or enhance the benefits expected. This review is a comprehensive assessment of the literature published to date on the effects of genetic polymorphisms on the actions of a variety of antithrombotic medications, including warfarin, clopidogrel, prasugrel, and aspirin. Literature evaluating surrogate markers in addition to the impact of pharmacogenetics on clinical outcomes has been reviewed. The results of the studies are conflicting as to what degree pharmacogenetics will affect medication management in cardiovascular disease. Additional research is necessary to discover, characterize, and prospectively evaluate genetic and non-genetic factors that impact antithrombotic treatment in order to maximize the effectiveness and limit the harmful effects of these valuable agents.Keywords: aspirin, warfarin, clopidogrel, prasugrel, pharmacogenetic, antithrombotic, antiplatelet

  2. Portal Vein Embolization: Impact of Chemotherapy and Genetic Mutations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deipolyi, Amy R.; Zhang, Yu Shrike; Khademhosseini, Ali; Naidu, Sailendra; Borad, Mitesh; Sahin, Burcu; Mathur, Amit K.; Oklu, Rahmi

    2017-01-01

    We characterized the effect of systemic therapy given after portal vein embolization (PVE) and before hepatectomy on hepatic tumor and functional liver remnant (FLR) volumes. All 76 patients who underwent right PVE from 2002–2016 were retrospectively studied. Etiologies included colorectal cancer (n = 44), hepatocellular carcinoma (n = 17), cholangiocarcinoma (n = 10), and other metastases (n = 5). Imaging before and after PVE was assessed. Chart review revealed systemic therapy administration, SNaPshot genetic profiling, and comorbidities. Nine patients received systemic therapy; 67 did not. Tumor volume increased 28% in patients who did not receive and decreased −24% in patients who did receive systemic therapy (p = 0.026), with no difference in FLR growth (28% vs. 34%; p = 0.645). Among 30 patients with genetic profiling, 15 were wild type and 15 had mutations. Mutations were an independent predictor of tumor growth (p = 0.049), but did not impact FLR growth (32% vs. 28%; p = 0.93). Neither cirrhosis, hepatic steatosis, nor diabetes impacted changes in tumor or FLR volume (p > 0.20). Systemic therapy administered after PVE before hepatic lobectomy had no effect on FLR growth; however, it was associated with decreasing tumor volumes. Continuing systemic therapy until hepatectomy may be warranted, particularly in patients with genetic mutations. PMID:28257031

  3. The impact of genetics on future drug discovery in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Mitsuyuki; Walton, Noah M; Yamada, Hiroshi; Kondo, Yuji; Marek, Gerard J; Tajinda, Katsunori

    2017-07-01

    Failures of investigational new drugs (INDs) for schizophrenia have left huge unmet medical needs for patients. Given the recent lackluster results, it is imperative that new drug discovery approaches (and resultant drug candidates) target pathophysiological alterations that are shared in specific, stratified patient populations that are selected based on pre-identified biological signatures. One path to implementing this paradigm is achievable by leveraging recent advances in genetic information and technologies. Genome-wide exome sequencing and meta-analysis of single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP)-based association studies have already revealed rare deleterious variants and SNPs in patient populations. Areas covered: Herein, the authors review the impact that genetics have on the future of schizophrenia drug discovery. The high polygenicity of schizophrenia strongly indicates that this disease is biologically heterogeneous so the identification of unique subgroups (by patient stratification) is becoming increasingly necessary for future investigational new drugs. Expert opinion: The authors propose a pathophysiology-based stratification of genetically-defined subgroups that share deficits in particular biological pathways. Existing tools, including lower-cost genomic sequencing and advanced gene-editing technology render this strategy ever more feasible. Genetically complex psychiatric disorders such as schizophrenia may also benefit from synergistic research with simpler monogenic disorders that share perturbations in similar biological pathways.

  4. Perspectives on model forecasts of the 2014-2015 Ebola epidemic in West Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chowell, Gerardo; Viboud, Cécile; Simonsen, Lone

    2017-01-01

    The unprecedented impact and modeling efforts associated with the 2014–2015 Ebola epidemic in West Africa provides a unique opportunity to document the performances and caveats of forecasting approaches used in near-real time for generating evidence and to guide policy. A number of international...

  5. The impact of recent events on human genetic diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jobling, Mark A

    2012-03-19

    The historical record tells us stories of migrations, population expansions and colonization events in the last few thousand years, but what was their demographic impact? Genetics can throw light on this issue, and has mostly done so through the maternally inherited mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) and the male-specific Y chromosome. However, there are a number of problems, including marker ascertainment bias, possible influences of natural selection, and the obscuring layers of the palimpsest of historical and prehistorical events. Y-chromosomal lineages are particularly affected by genetic drift, which can be accentuated by recent social selection. A diversity of approaches to expansions in Europe is yielding insights into the histories of Phoenicians, Roma, Anglo-Saxons and Vikings, and new methods for producing and analysing genome-wide data hold much promise. The field would benefit from more consensus on appropriate methods, and better communication between geneticists and experts in other disciplines, such as history, archaeology and linguistics.

  6. UNOSAT joins the fight against Ebola

    CERN Multimedia

    Katarina Anthony

    2014-01-01

    Hosted at CERN, UNITAR’s UNOSAT programme examines global satellite imagery for humanitarian use. Whether they're providing maps for disaster response teams or assessing conflict damage to help reconstruction, their detailed reports are vital tools for aid workers. But how can satellite imagery help during a health crisis like the Ebola outbreak?   UNOSAT maps Liberia for potential Ebola Treatment Centre locations. Image copyright: Airbus Defence and Space 2014. Source: Space Charter. Image analysis: UNITAR-UNOSAT. UNOSAT unites satellite data from space agencies and commercial operators worldwide in order to provide unbiased, objective maps and reports. Be it a natural disaster in Pakistan or a refugee crisis in Sudan, UNOSAT is - quite literally - an impartial observer of world events. The Ebola outbreak, however, was a special case: "The World Health Organization is mounting a substantial campaign in West Africa, building Ebola Treatment Centres and distributing...

  7. Operational Research during the Ebola Emergency.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Fitzpatrick, Gabriel

    2017-07-01

    Operational research aims to identify interventions, strategies, or tools that can enhance the quality, effectiveness, or coverage of programs where the research is taking place. Médecins Sans Frontières admitted ≈5,200 patients with confirmed Ebola virus disease during the Ebola outbreak in West Africa and from the beginning nested operational research within its emergency response. This research covered critical areas, such as understanding how the virus spreads, clinical trials, community perceptions, challenges within Ebola treatment centers, and negative effects on non-Ebola healthcare. Importantly, operational research questions were decided to a large extent by returning volunteers who had first-hand knowledge of the immediate issues facing teams in the field. Such a method is appropriate for an emergency medical organization. Many challenges were also identified while carrying out operational research across 3 different countries, including the basic need for collecting data in standardized format to enable comparison of findings among treatment centers.

  8. Phosphorylation sites within Ebola virus nucleoprotein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sora Yasri

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available To understand the infection process, the viral multiplication and entry to the cell is widely studied. The Ebola virus nucleoprotein is the important problem for the pathological process. Focusing on the specific biological process, the post translational modification is needed. Here, the authors used the bioinformatics study to find the phosphorylation sites within the Ebola virus nucleoprotein and could identify many new sites.

  9. Eradication of Ebola Based on Dynamic Programming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Jia-Ming; Wang, Lu; Liu, Jia-Bao

    2016-01-01

    This paper mainly studies the eradication of the Ebola virus, proposing a scientific system, including three modules for the eradication of Ebola virus. Firstly, we build a basic model combined with nonlinear incidence rate and maximum treatment capacity. Secondly, we use the dynamic programming method and the Dijkstra Algorithm to set up M-S (storage) and several delivery locations in West Africa. Finally, we apply the previous results to calculate the total cost, production cost, storage cost, and shortage cost. PMID:27313655

  10. March 24, 2015 CDC Ebola Response Update

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2015-03-24

    Being an Ebola responder in West Africa is both rewarding and difficult, even for those who are left at home. If you have a loved one traveling to West Africa to help fight Ebola, this podcast can give you a few tips on how to prepare and what to expect.  Created: 3/24/2015 by Office of the Associate Director for Communication (OADC).   Date Released: 3/24/2015.

  11. February 12, 2015 CDC Ebola Response Update

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2015-02-12

    450 healthcare workers have taken CDC’s training course for responders heading to Ebola Treatment Units in West Africa. This podcast explores what they learned in the course, and how it was put to use as they treated infectious Ebola patients.  Created: 2/12/2015 by Office of the Associate Director for Communication (OADC).   Date Released: 2/12/2015.

  12. January 29, 2015 CDC Ebola Response Update

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2015-01-29

    CDC’s lab work in countries affected by the Ebola epidemic has played a critical role in diagnosing cases early and quickly getting patients into Ebola treatment units. Learn how the lab team, deployed to Bo, Sierra Leone in November, helped response efforts as the country experienced a peak in cases.  Created: 1/29/2015 by Office of the Associate Director for Communication (OADC).   Date Released: 1/29/2015.

  13. February 20, 2015 CDC Ebola Response Update

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2015-02-20

    A strategy to rapidly identify and respond to cases of Ebola in remote areas in Liberia led to a drastic reduction in Ebola cases and cut the duration of these cluster outbreaks in half. Learn how CDC responders and their partners trekked through the jungle in their efforts to quickly stop the spread of the virus.  Created: 2/20/2015 by Office of the Associate Director for Communication (OADC).   Date Released: 2/20/2015.

  14. Interferon-γ Inhibits Ebola Virus Infection

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Ebola virus outbreaks, such as the 2014 Makona epidemic in West Africa, are episodic and deadly. Filovirus antivirals are currently not clinically available. Our findings suggest interferon gamma, an FDA-approved drug, may serve as a novel and effective prophylactic or treatment option. Using mouse-adapted Ebola virus, we found that murine interferon gamma administered 24 hours before or after infection robustly protects lethally-challenged mice and reduces morbidity and serum viral titers. F...

  15. An Ebola virus-centered knowledge base.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamdar, Maulik R; Dumontier, Michel

    2015-01-01

    Ebola virus (EBOV), of the family Filoviridae viruses, is a NIAID category A, lethal human pathogen. It is responsible for causing Ebola virus disease (EVD) that is a severe hemorrhagic fever and has a cumulative death rate of 41% in the ongoing epidemic in West Africa. There is an ever-increasing need to consolidate and make available all the knowledge that we possess on EBOV, even if it is conflicting or incomplete. This would enable biomedical researchers to understand the molecular mechanisms underlying this disease and help develop tools for efficient diagnosis and effective treatment. In this article, we present our approach for the development of an Ebola virus-centered Knowledge Base (Ebola-KB) using Linked Data and Semantic Web Technologies. We retrieve and aggregate knowledge from several open data sources, web services and biomedical ontologies. This knowledge is transformed to RDF, linked to the Bio2RDF datasets and made available through a SPARQL 1.1 Endpoint. Ebola-KB can also be explored using an interactive Dashboard visualizing the different perspectives of this integrated knowledge. We showcase how different competency questions, asked by domain users researching the druggability of EBOV, can be formulated as SPARQL Queries or answered using the Ebola-KB Dashboard. © The Author(s) 2015. Published by Oxford University Press.

  16. Ebola Virus Mutated to Become More Infectious, Scientists Say

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_161849.html Ebola Virus Mutated to Become More Infectious, Scientists Say Virologists ... 3, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Mutations in the Ebola virus boosted its ability to infect people during the ...

  17. Ebola Blood Test May Help Predict Survival Chances

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_163165.html Ebola Blood Test May Help Predict Survival Chances Findings ... help determine a person's chance of surviving an Ebola infection, researchers say. "It is not just defining ...

  18. Ebola May Be Present in Semen for Year or More

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_160697.html Ebola May Be Present in Semen for Year or ... 31, 2016 TUESDAY, Aug. 30, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Ebola virus stays present in semen longer than previously ...

  19. Detection and classification of ebola on microfluidic chips

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Xue; Jin, Xiangyu; Fan, Yunqian; Huang, Qin; Kou, Yue; Zu, Guo; Huang, Shiguang; Liu, Xiaosheng; Huang, Guoliang

    2016-10-01

    Point-of-care testing (POCT) for an infectious diseases is the prerequisite to control of the disease and limitation of its spread. A microfluidic chip for detection and classification of four strains of Ebola virus was developed and evaluated. This assay was based on reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification (RT-LAMP) and specific primers for Ebola Zaire virus, Ebola Sudan virus, Ebola Tai Forest virus and Ebola Bundibugyo virus were designed. The sensitivity of the microfluidic chip was under 103 copies per milliliter, as determined by ten repeated tests. This assay is unique in its ability to enable diagnosis of the Ebola infections and simultaneous typing of Ebola virus on a single chip. It offers short reaction time, ease of use and high specificity. These features should enable POCT in remote area during outbreaks of Ebola virus.

  20. The impact of genetically modified crops on soil microbial communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giovannetti, Manuela; Sbrana, Cristiana; Turrini, Alessandra

    2005-01-01

    Genetically modified (GM) plants represent a potential benefit for environmentally friendly agriculture and human health. Though, poor knowledge is available on potential hazards posed by unintended modifications occurring during genetic manipulation. The increasing amount of reports on ecological risks and benefits of GM plants stresses the need for experimental works aimed at evaluating the impact of GM crops on natural and agro-ecosystems. Major environmental risks associated with GM crops include their potential impact on non-target soil microorganisms playing a fundamental role in crop residues degradation and in biogeochemical cycles. Recent works assessed the effects of GM crops on soil microbial communities on the basis of case-by-case studies, using multimodal experimental approaches involving different target and non-target organisms. Experimental evidences discussed in this review confirm that a precautionary approach should be adopted, by taking into account the risks associated with the unpredictability of transformation events, of their pleiotropic effects and of the fate of transgenes in natural and agro-ecosystems, weighing benefits against costs.

  1. Cluster of Ebola Virus Disease, Bong and Montserrado Counties, Liberia

    OpenAIRE

    Nyenswah, Tolbert G.; Fallah, Mosaka; Calvert, Geoffrey M; Duwor, Stanley; Hamilton, E. Dutch; Mokashi, Vishwesh; Arzoaquoi, Sampson; Dweh, Emmanuel; Burbach, Ryan; Dlouhy, Diane; Oeltmann, John E.; Moonan, Patrick K.

    2015-01-01

    Lack of trust in government-supported services after the death of a health care worker with symptoms of Ebola resulted in ongoing Ebola transmission in 2 Liberia counties. Ebola transmission was facilitated by attempts to avoid cremation of the deceased patient and delays in identifying and monitoring contacts.

  2. Interferon-γ Inhibits Ebola Virus Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhein, Bethany A; Powers, Linda S; Rogers, Kai; Anantpadma, Manu; Singh, Brajesh K; Sakurai, Yasuteru; Bair, Thomas; Miller-Hunt, Catherine; Sinn, Patrick; Davey, Robert A; Monick, Martha M; Maury, Wendy

    2015-01-01

    Ebola virus outbreaks, such as the 2014 Makona epidemic in West Africa, are episodic and deadly. Filovirus antivirals are currently not clinically available. Our findings suggest interferon gamma, an FDA-approved drug, may serve as a novel and effective prophylactic or treatment option. Using mouse-adapted Ebola virus, we found that murine interferon gamma administered 24 hours before or after infection robustly protects lethally-challenged mice and reduces morbidity and serum viral titers. Furthermore, we demonstrated that interferon gamma profoundly inhibits Ebola virus infection of macrophages, an early cellular target of infection. As early as six hours following in vitro infection, Ebola virus RNA levels in interferon gamma-treated macrophages were lower than in infected, untreated cells. Addition of the protein synthesis inhibitor, cycloheximide, to interferon gamma-treated macrophages did not further reduce viral RNA levels, suggesting that interferon gamma blocks life cycle events that require protein synthesis such as virus replication. Microarray studies with interferon gamma-treated human macrophages identified more than 160 interferon-stimulated genes. Ectopic expression of a select group of these genes inhibited Ebola virus infection. These studies provide new potential avenues for antiviral targeting as these genes that have not previously appreciated to inhibit negative strand RNA viruses and specifically Ebola virus infection. As treatment of interferon gamma robustly protects mice from lethal Ebola virus infection, we propose that interferon gamma should be further evaluated for its efficacy as a prophylactic and/or therapeutic strategy against filoviruses. Use of this FDA-approved drug could rapidly be deployed during future outbreaks.

  3. Interferon-γ Inhibits Ebola Virus Infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bethany A Rhein

    Full Text Available Ebola virus outbreaks, such as the 2014 Makona epidemic in West Africa, are episodic and deadly. Filovirus antivirals are currently not clinically available. Our findings suggest interferon gamma, an FDA-approved drug, may serve as a novel and effective prophylactic or treatment option. Using mouse-adapted Ebola virus, we found that murine interferon gamma administered 24 hours before or after infection robustly protects lethally-challenged mice and reduces morbidity and serum viral titers. Furthermore, we demonstrated that interferon gamma profoundly inhibits Ebola virus infection of macrophages, an early cellular target of infection. As early as six hours following in vitro infection, Ebola virus RNA levels in interferon gamma-treated macrophages were lower than in infected, untreated cells. Addition of the protein synthesis inhibitor, cycloheximide, to interferon gamma-treated macrophages did not further reduce viral RNA levels, suggesting that interferon gamma blocks life cycle events that require protein synthesis such as virus replication. Microarray studies with interferon gamma-treated human macrophages identified more than 160 interferon-stimulated genes. Ectopic expression of a select group of these genes inhibited Ebola virus infection. These studies provide new potential avenues for antiviral targeting as these genes that have not previously appreciated to inhibit negative strand RNA viruses and specifically Ebola virus infection. As treatment of interferon gamma robustly protects mice from lethal Ebola virus infection, we propose that interferon gamma should be further evaluated for its efficacy as a prophylactic and/or therapeutic strategy against filoviruses. Use of this FDA-approved drug could rapidly be deployed during future outbreaks.

  4. Particle-to-PFU Ratio of Ebola Virus Influences Disease Course and Survival in Cynomolgus Macaques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfson, Kendra J.; Avena, Laura E.; Beadles, Michael W.; Staples, Hilary; Nunneley, Jerritt W.; Ticer, Anysha; Dick, Edward J.; Owston, Michael A.; Reed, Christopher; Patterson, Jean L.; Carrion, Ricardo

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT This study addresses the role of Ebola virus (EBOV) specific infectivity in virulence. Filoviruses are highly lethal, enveloped, single-stranded negative-sense RNA viruses that can cause hemorrhagic fever. No approved vaccines or therapies exist for filovirus infections, and infectious virus must be handled in maximum containment. Efficacy testing of countermeasures, in addition to investigations of pathogenicity and immune response, often requires a well-characterized animal model. For EBOV, an obstacle in performing accurate disease modeling is a poor understanding of what constitutes an infectious dose in animal models. One well-recognized consequence of viral passage in cell culture is a change in specific infectivity, often measured as a particle-to-PFU ratio. Here, we report that serial passages of EBOV in cell culture resulted in a decrease in particle-to-PFU ratio. Notably, this correlated with decreased potency in a lethal cynomolgus macaque (Macaca fascicularis) model of infection; animals were infected with the same viral dose as determined by plaque assay, but animals that received more virus particles exhibited increased disease. This suggests that some particles are unable to form a plaque in a cell culture assay but are able to result in lethal disease in vivo. These results have a significant impact on how future studies are designed to model EBOV disease and test countermeasures. IMPORTANCE Ebola virus (EBOV) can cause severe hemorrhagic disease with a high case-fatality rate, and there are no approved vaccines or therapies. Specific infectivity can be considered the total number of viral particles per PFU, and its impact on disease is poorly understood. In stocks of most mammalian viruses, there are particles that are unable to complete an infectious cycle or unable to cause cell pathology in cultured cells. We asked if these particles cause disease in nonhuman primates by infecting monkeys with equal infectious doses of genetically

  5. Ebola Virus Disease: A Review of Its Past and Present.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Michael J

    2015-09-01

    Ebola virus, the virus responsible for Ebola virus disease, has spawned several epidemics during the past 38 years. In 2014, an Ebola epidemic spread from Africa to other continents, becoming a pandemic. The virus's relatively unique structure, its infectivity and lethality, the difficulty in stopping its spread, and the lack of an effective treatment captured the world's attention. This article provides a brief review of the known history of Ebola virus disease, its etiology, epidemiology, and pathophysiology and a review of the limited information on managing patients with Ebola virus disease.

  6. Genetic counseling content: How does it impact health behavior?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Kimberly M.; Ellington, Lee; Schoenberg, Nancy; Jackson, Thomas; Dickinson, Stephanie; Porter, Kyle; Leventhal, Howard; Andrykowski, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Women with hereditary breast-ovarian cancer face decisions about screening (transvaginal ultrasound, CA125, mammography, breast exams) and proactive (before cancer) or reactive (after cancer) surgery (oophorectomy, mastectomy). The content of genetic counseling and its relation to these key health behaviors is largely unexamined. Ashkenazi Jewish women (n = 78) were surveyed through the process of genetic testing and had audiorecorded counseling sessions available for Linguistic Inquiry and Word Count analysis. Proportions for participant and counselor cognitive and affective content during sessions were used as primary predictor variables in linear mixed models for change in intentions for screening and treatment and in self-reported screening. Cognitive and affective content were important predictors of behavior. Counselor cognitive content was associated with ovarian screening. An interaction effect also emerged for CA-125, such that counselor cognitive content plus participant cognitive content or counselor affective content were associated with more screening. Teasing out the factors in risk communication that impact decision-making are critical, and affect from a risk communicator can spur action, such as cancer screening. PMID:25533642

  7. Packaging of actin into Ebola virus VLPs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harty Ronald N

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The actin cytoskeleton has been implicated in playing an important role assembly and budding of several RNA virus families including retroviruses and paramyxoviruses. In this report, we sought to determine whether actin is incorporated into Ebola VLPs, and thus may play a role in assembly and/or budding of Ebola virus. Our results indicated that actin and Ebola virus VP40 strongly co-localized in transfected cells as determined by confocal microscopy. In addition, actin was packaged into budding VP40 VLPs as determined by a functional budding assay and protease protection assay. Co-expression of a membrane-anchored form of Ebola virus GP enhanced the release of both VP40 and actin in VLPs. Lastly, disruption of the actin cytoskeleton with latrunculin-A suggests that actin may play a functional role in budding of VP40/GP VLPs. These data suggest that VP40 may interact with cellular actin, and that actin may play a role in assembly and/or budding of Ebola VLPs.

  8. Optimal control application to an Ebola model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ebenezer Bonyah; Kingsley Badu; Samuel Kwesi Asiedu-Addo

    2016-01-01

    Ebola virus is a severe,frequently fatal illness,with a case fatality rate up to 90%.The outbreak of the disease has been acknowledged by World Health Organization as Public Health Emergency of International Concern.The threat of Ebola in West Africa is still a major setback to the socioeconomic development.Optimal control theory is applied to a system of ordinary differential equations which is modeling Ebola infection through three different routes including contact between humans and a dead body.In an attempt to reduce infection in susceptible population,a preventive control is put in the form of education and campaign and two treatment controls are applied to infected and late-stage infected(super) human population.The Pontryagins maximum principle is employed to characterize optimality control,which is then solved numerically.It is observed that time optimal control is existed in the model.The activation of each control showed a positive reduction of infection.The overall effect of activation of all the controls simultaneously reduced the effort required for the reduction of the infection quickly.The obtained results present a good framework for planning and designing cost-effective strategies for good interventions in dealing with Ebola disease.It is established that in order to reduce Ebola threat all the three controls must be taken into consideration concurrently.

  9. The Pathogenesis of Ebola Virus Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baseler, Laura; Chertow, Daniel S; Johnson, Karl M; Feldmann, Heinz; Morens, David M

    2017-01-24

    For almost 50 years, ebolaviruses and related filoviruses have been repeatedly reemerging across the vast equatorial belt of the African continent to cause epidemics of highly fatal hemorrhagic fever. The 2013-2015 West African epidemic, by far the most geographically extensive, most fatal, and longest lasting epidemic in Ebola's history, presented an enormous international public health challenge, but it also provided insights into Ebola's pathogenesis and natural history, clinical expression, treatment, prevention, and control. Growing understanding of ebolavirus pathogenetic mechanisms and important new clinical observations of the disease course provide fresh clues about prevention and treatment approaches. Although viral cytopathology and immune-mediated cell damage in ebolavirus disease often result in severe compromise of multiple organs, tissue repair and organ function recovery can be expected if patients receive supportive care with fluids and electrolytes; maintenance of oxygenation and tissue perfusion; and respiratory, renal, and cardiovascular support. Major challenges for managing future Ebola epidemics include establishment of early and aggressive epidemic control and earlier and better patient care and treatment in remote, resource-poor areas where Ebola typically reemerges. In addition, it will be important to further develop Ebola vaccines and to adopt policies for their use in epidemic and pre-epidemic situations.

  10. Ebola in West Africa:an international medical emergency

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yasir; Waheed

    2014-01-01

    West Africa is facing the worst Ebola outbreak with 3685 cases and 1841 deaths reported from Liberia,Cuinea,Senegal,Sierra Leona and Nigeria.There is no vaccine or direct treatment available to treat the patients with Ebola.World Health Organization(WHO) has approved the use of experimental drugs for Ebola patients.Health workers are at high risk.The governments and WHO are responsible to provide necessary protective equipment to health workers dealing with Ebola.There is a strong need to identify the invisible chains of virus transmission.World Bank pledges $200 million to fight against Ebola,while WHO said $430 million are needed to control the Ebola outbreak.Ebola can be contained by early detection and isolation of case,contact tracing,monitoring of contacts and adaptation of rigorous procedures for virus control.

  11. Ebola in West Africa:an international medical emergency

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yasir Waheed

    2014-01-01

    West Africa is facing the worst Ebola outbreak with 3 685 cases and 1 841 deaths reported from Liberia, Guinea, Senegal, Sierra Leona and Nigeria. There is no vaccine or direct treatment available to treat the patients with Ebola. World Health Organization (WHO) has approved the use of experimental drugs for Ebola patients. Health workers are at high risk. The governments and WHO are responsible to provide necessary protective equipment to health workers dealing with Ebola. There is a strong need to identify the invisible chains of virus transmission. World Bank pledges$200 million to fight against Ebola, while WHO said$430 million are needed to control the Ebola outbreak. Ebola can be contained by early detection and isolation of case, contact tracing, monitoring of contacts and adaptation of rigorous procedures for virus control.

  12. Ebola in West Africa: an international medical emergency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasir Waheed

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available West Africa is facing the worst Ebola outbreak with 3 685 cases and 1 841 deaths reported from Liberia, Guinea, Senegal, Sierra Leona and Nigeria. There is no vaccine or direct treatment available to treat the patients with Ebola. World Health Organization (WHO has approved the use of experimental drugs for Ebola patients. Health workers are at high risk. The governments and WHO are responsible to provide necessary protective equipment to health workers dealing with Ebola. There is a strong need to identify the invisible chains of virus transmission. World Bank pledges $200 million to fight against Ebola, while WHO said $430 million are needed to control the Ebola outbreak. Ebola can be contained by early detection and isolation of case, contact tracing, monitoring of contacts and adaptation of rigorous procedures for virus control.

  13. NCI at Frederick Ebola Response Team | Poster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Editor’s note: This article was adapted from the Employee Diversity Team’s display case exhibit “Recognizing the NCI at Frederick Ebola Response Team,” in the lobby of Building 549. The Poster staff recognizes that this article does not include everyone who was involved in the response to the Ebola crisis, both at NCI at Frederick and in Africa. When the Ebola crisis broke out in 2014 in West Africa, staff members from the Frederick National Laboratory for Cancer Research responded quickly. Members of the Clinical Monitoring Research Program (CMRP) were instrumental not only in setting up the clinical trials of the vaccine in Liberia, but also in providing training, community outreach, and recruitment strategies for the trials.

  14. Prognostic Indicators for Ebola Patient Survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowe, Samuel J; Maenner, Matthew J; Kuah, Solomon; Erickson, Bobbie Rae; Coffee, Megan; Knust, Barbara; Klena, John; Foday, Joyce; Hertz, Darren; Hermans, Veerle; Achar, Jay; Caleo, Grazia M; Van Herp, Michel; Albariño, César G; Amman, Brian; Basile, Alison Jane; Bearden, Scott; Belser, Jessica A; Bergeron, Eric; Blau, Dianna; Brault, Aaron C; Campbell, Shelley; Flint, Mike; Gibbons, Aridth; Goodman, Christin; McMullan, Laura; Paddock, Christopher; Russell, Brandy; Salzer, Johanna S; Sanchez, Angela; Sealy, Tara; Wang, David; Saffa, Gbessay; Turay, Alhajie; Nichol, Stuart T; Towner, Jonathan S

    2016-02-01

    To determine whether 2 readily available indicators predicted survival among patients with Ebola virus disease in Sierra Leone, we evaluated information for 216 of the 227 patients in Bo District during a 4-month period. The indicators were time from symptom onset to healthcare facility admission and quantitative real-time reverse transcription PCR cycle threshold (Ct), a surrogate for viral load, in first Ebola virus-positive blood sample tested. Of these patients, 151 were alive when detected and had reported healthcare facility admission dates and Ct values available. Time from symptom onset to healthcare facility admission was not associated with survival, but viral load in the first Ebola virus-positive blood sample was inversely associated with survival: 52 (87%) of 60 patients with a Ct of >24 survived and 20 (22%) of 91 with a Ct of <24 survived. Ct values may be useful for clinicians making treatment decisions or managing patient or family expectations.

  15. Ebola virus and other Filoviruses: an overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasna Amdiouni

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Filoviruses, including Ebola and Marburg viruses, are recognized as a significant warning to public health. They are zoonotic agents with bats as primary reservoir. Those viruses can cause severe human infection with hemorrhagic syndrome leading to death. The mortality rate can be higher than 90%. In West Africa, recent Ebola virus outbreak occurred in March 2014, has caused more than 8300 infections with more than 4000 deaths. That shows the critical state of this country, and the critical context in worldwide. In order to fight this deadly scourge, it is necessary to understand the epidemiology of disease and to establish a good diagnosis protocols and protective measures. In recent decades, traditional techniques of virus isolation are replaced by molecular biology techniques which are faster, more sensitive and specific. Until now, no specific Ebola virus treatment or vaccine but many studies are in progress with promising results.

  16. Feasibility of Xpert Ebola Assay in Médecins Sans Frontières Ebola Program, Guinea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van den Bergh, Rafael; Chaillet, Pascale; Sow, Mamadou Saliou; Amand, Mathieu; van Vyve, Charlotte; Jonckheere, Sylvie; Crestani, Rosa; Sprecher, Armand; Van Herp, Michel; Chua, Arlene; Piriou, Erwan; Koivogui, Lamine; Antierens, Annick

    2016-02-01

    Rapid diagnostic methods are essential in control of Ebola outbreaks and lead to timely isolation of cases and improved epidemiologic surveillance. Diagnosis during Ebola outbreaks in West Africa has relied on PCR performed in laboratories outside this region. Because time between sampling and PCR results can be considerable, we assessed the feasibility and added value of using the Xpert Ebola Assay in an Ebola control program in Guinea. A total of 218 samples were collected during diagnosis, treatment, and convalescence of patients. Median time for obtaining results was reduced from 334 min to 165 min. Twenty-six samples were positive for Ebola virus. Xpert cycle thresholds were consistently lower, and 8 (31%) samples were negative by routine PCR. Several logistic and safety issues were identified. We suggest that implementation of the Xpert Ebola Assay under programmatic conditions is feasible and represents a major advance in diagnosis of Ebola virus disease without apparent loss of assay sensitivity.

  17. April 6, 2015 CDC Ebola Response Update

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2015-04-06

    We know there has been some concern during the Ebola outbreak about the safety of the U.S. food supply. The most important thing to know is that you cannot get Ebola from food grown or legally purchased in the U.S. Also, food and drinks imported into the United States from West Africa are safe to eat and drink.  Created: 4/6/2015 by Office of the Associate Director for Communication (OADC).   Date Released: 4/6/2015.

  18. Ebola Virus: The Role of Macrophages and Dendritic Cells in the Pathogenesis of Ebola Hemorrhagic Fever

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    Impairment of den- dritic cells and adaptive immunity by Ebola and Lassa viruses . J. Immunol., 170(6), 2797–2801. Reed, D. S., Hensley, L. E., Geisbert, J...The International Journal of Biochemistry & Cell Biology 37 (2005) 1560–1566 Medicine in focus Ebola virus : The role of macrophages and dendritic...In consequence, virus disseminates to these and other cell types throughout the body, causing multifocal necrosis and a syndrome resembling septic

  19. Ebola Virus Disease – Global Scenario & Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md Rezwanur Rahman

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Ebola virus disease (EVD, caused by one of the Ebola virus strains is an acute, serious illness which is often fatal when untreated. EVD, previously known as Ebola hemorrhagic fever, is a rare and deadly disease. It first appeared in 1976 in two simultaneous outbreaks, one in Nzara, Sudan, and the other in Yambuku, Democratic Republic of Congo. The latter occurred in a village near the Ebola River, from which the disease takes its name.1,2 On March 23, 2014, the World Health Organization (WHO was notified of an outbreak of EVD in Guinea. On August 8, WHO declared the epidemic to be a ‘Public health emergency of international concern’.3 The current 2014 outbreak in West Africa is the largest and most complex Ebola outbreak.1 It is to be noticed that the most severely affected countries, Guinea, Sierra Leone and Liberia have very weak health systems, lacking human and infrastructural resources and these countries recently emerged from long periods of conflict and instability.1 The virus family Filoviridae includes three genera: Cuevavirus, Marburgvirus, and Ebolavirus. Till date five species have been identified: Zaire, Bundibugyo, Sudan, Reston and Taï Forest. The recent outbreak belongs to the Zaire species which is the most lethal one, with an average case fatality rate of 78%.1,4 Till 6 December 2014, total 17,834 suspected cases and 6,678 deaths had been reported; however, WHO has said that these numbers may be vastly underestimated.5 The natural reservoir for Ebola has yet to be confirmed; however, fruit bats of the Pteropodidae family are considered to be the most likely candidate species.1,2,6 Ebola can be transmitted to human through close contact with the blood, secretions, organs or other bodily fluids of infected animals such as fruit bats, chimpanzees, gorillas, monkeys, etc. Ebola then spreads through human-to-human transmission via direct contact (through broken skin or mucous membranes with the blood, secretions, organs or

  20. Ebola and Marburg haemorrhagic fever.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rougeron, V; Feldmann, H; Grard, G; Becker, S; Leroy, E M

    2015-03-01

    Ebolaviruses and Marburgviruses (family Filoviridae) are among the most virulent pathogens for humans and great apes causing severe haemorrhagic fever and death within a matter of days. This group of viruses is characterized by a linear, non-segmented, single-stranded RNA genome of negative polarity. The overall burden of filovirus infections is minimal and negligible compared to the devastation caused by malnutrition and other infectious diseases prevalent in Africa such as malaria, dengue or tuberculosis. In this paper, we review the knowledge gained on the eco/epidemiology, the pathogenesis and the disease control measures for Marburg and Ebola viruses developed over the last 15 years. The overall progress is promising given the little attention that these pathogen have achieved in the past; however, more is to come over the next decade given the more recent interest in these pathogens as potential public and animal health concerns. Licensing of therapeutic and prophylactic options may be achievable over the next 5-10 years.

  1. The Role of Exosomal VP40 in Ebola Virus Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pleet, Michelle L; DeMarino, Catherine; Lepene, Benjamin; Aman, M Javad; Kashanchi, Fatah

    2017-04-01

    Ebola virus (EBOV) can cause a devastating hemorrhagic disease, leading to death in a short period of time. After infection, the resulting EBOV disease results in high levels of circulating cytokines, endothelial dysfunction, coagulopathy, and bystander lymphocyte apoptosis in humans and nonhuman primates. The VP40 matrix protein of EBOV is essential for viral assembly and budding from the host cell. Recent data have shown that VP40 exists in the extracellular environment, including in exosomes, and exosomal VP40 can impact the viability of recipient immune cells, including myeloid and T cells, through the regulation of the RNAi and endosomal sorting complexes required for transport pathways. In this study, we discuss the latest findings of the impact of exosomal VP40 on immune cells in vitro and its potential implications for pathogenesis in vivo.

  2. The impact of genomics on population genetics of parasitic diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hupalo, Daniel N; Bradic, Martina; Carlton, Jane M

    2015-02-01

    Parasites, defined as eukaryotic microbes and parasitic worms that cause global diseases of human and veterinary importance, span many lineages in the eukaryotic Tree of Life. Historically challenging to study due to their complicated life-cycles and association with impoverished settings, their inherent complexities are now being elucidated by genome sequencing. Over the course of the last decade, projects in large sequencing centers, and increasingly frequently in individual research labs, have sequenced dozens of parasite reference genomes and field isolates from patient populations. This 'tsunami' of genomic data is answering questions about parasite genetic diversity, signatures of evolution orchestrated through anti-parasitic drug and host immune pressure, and the characteristics of populations. This brief review focuses on the state of the art of parasitic protist genomics, how the peculiar genomes of parasites are driving creative methods for their sequencing, and the impact that next-generation sequencing is having on our understanding of parasite population genomics and control of the diseases they cause.

  3. Provision of Genetic Services for Autism and its Impact on Spanish Families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Codina-Solà, Marta; Pérez-Jurado, Luis A; Cuscó, Ivon; Serra-Juhé, Clara

    2017-07-05

    Although a genetic evaluation can identify the etiology in 15-30% of individuals with autism spectrum disorder, several studies show an underuse of genetic services by affected families. We have explored the access to genetic services and perception of genetics and recurrence risk in parents of autistic children in Spain. Despite the high interest in genetics, our results show a remarkable underutilization of genetic services, with only 30% of families having visited a genetic service and 13% of patients having undergone the recommended genetic test. This poor service provision influenced recurrence risk perception and had a great impact on family planning. The National Health System should ensure their access to genetic services allowing them to take informed decisions with precise information.

  4. Beyond Ebola treatment units: severe infection temporary treatment units as an essential element of Ebola case management during an outbreak.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janke, Christian; Heim, Katrin Moira; Steiner, Florian; Massaquoi, Moses; Gbanya, Miatta Zenabu; Frey, Claudia; Froeschl, Guenter

    2017-02-06

    In the course of the Ebola outbreak in West Africa that was witnessed since early 2014, the response mechanisms showed deficits in terms of timeliness, volume and adequacy. The authors were deployed in the Ebola campaign in the West African country Liberia, where by September 2014 the changing epidemiological pattern made reconsiderations of guidelines and adopted procedures necessary. A temporary facility set up as a conventional Ebola Treatment Unit in the Liberian capital Monrovia was re-dedicated into a Severe Infections Temporary Treatment Unit. This facility allowed for stratification based on the nosocomial risk of exposure to Ebola virus for a growing subgroup of admitted patients that in the end would turn out as Ebola negative cases. At the same time, adequate diagnostic measures and treatment for the non-Ebola conditions of these patients could be provided without compromising work safety of the employed staff. The key elements of the new unit comprised a Suspect Cases Area similar to that of conventional Ebola treatment units for newly arriving patients, an Unlikely Cases Area for patients with a first negative Ebola PCR result, and a Confirmed Negative Cases Area for patients in whom Ebola could be ruled out. The authors, comprising representatives of the Liberian Ministry of Health and Social Welfare, as well as infectious disease specialists from the German Ebola Task Force are presenting key features of the adapted concept, and are highlighting its relevance in raising acceptance for outbreak counter-measures within the population at stake.

  5. Spermatogenic transmission of Marbug and ebola virus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sora Yasri; Viroj Wiwanitkit

    2015-01-01

    The spermatogenic transmission of infectious disease is an interesting consideration in reproductive medicine. The problem can be serious and classified as sexually transmitted infection. The concern is on the new emerging viral infections because there is usually little information on those new viruses. In this short article, the authors specially review and discuss on Spermatogenic transmission of Marbug and ebola virus.

  6. Ebola Virus ─ A Global Threat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mejbah Uddin Ahmed

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Ebola virus is a filamentous, enveloped, non-segmented, single-stranded, negative-sense RNA virus. It belongs to the Filoviridae and was first recognized near the Ebola River valley in Zaire in 1976. Since then most of the outbreaks have occurred to both human and nonhuman primates in sub-Saharan Africa. Ebola virus causes highly fatal hemorrhagic fever in human and nonhuman primates. In addition to hemorrhagic fever, it could be used as a bioterrorism agent. Although its natural reservoir is yet to be proven, current data suggest that fruit bats are the possibility. Infection has also been documented through the handling of infected chimpanzees, gorillas, monkeys, forest antelope and porcupines. Human infection is caused through close contact with the blood, secretion, organ or other body fluids of infected animal. Human-to-human transmission is also possible. Ebola virus infections are characterized by immune suppression and a systemic inflammatory response that causes impairment of the vascular, coagulation, and immune systems, leading to multiorgan failure and shock. The virus constitutes an important public health threat in Africa and also worldwide as no effective treatment or vaccine is available till now

  7. July 27, 2015 CDC Ebola Response Update

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2015-07-27

    In this podcast, Drs. Jennifer McQuiston, Inger Damon, and Tom Frieden share their insights on the Road to Zero as we commemorate the past year's response to the Ebola outbreak.  Created: 7/27/2015 by Office of the Associate Director for Communication (OADC).   Date Released: 7/27/2015.

  8. June 2, 2015 CDC Ebola Response Update

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2015-06-02

    In this podcast, CDC's Dr. Jane Seward discusses the Ebola vaccine trial known as STRIVE, which began in April 2015.  Created: 6/2/2015 by Office of the Associate Director for Communication (OADC).   Date Released: 6/2/2015.

  9. November 6, 2014 CDC Ebola Response Update

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2014-11-06

    This podcast provides an update on the Ebola response, as of November 6, 2014.  Created: 11/6/2014 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 11/6/2014.

  10. December 17, 2014 CDC Ebola Response Update

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2014-12-17

    This podcast provides an update on the Ebola response, as of December 17, 2014. It briefly describes CDC's "Operation Care Package.".  Created: 12/17/2014 by CDC’s Office of the Associate Director for Communication.   Date Released: 12/17/2014.

  11. November 19, 2014 CDC Ebola Response Update

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2014-11-19

    This podcast provides an update on the Ebola response, as of November 19, 2014.  Created: 11/19/2014 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 11/19/2014.

  12. October 31, 2014 CDC Ebola Response Update

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2014-10-31

    This podcast provides an update on the Ebola response, as of October 31, 2014.  Created: 10/31/2014 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 10/31/2014.

  13. November 14, 2014 CDC Ebola Response Update

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2014-11-14

    This podcast provides an update on the Ebola response, as of November 14, 2014.  Created: 11/14/2014 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 11/14/2014.

  14. Ebola Survivor and Her Pregnancy Outcome

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2016-12-14

    Dr. Moon Kim, a medical epidemiologist at the Los Angeles County Department of Public Health, discusses an Ebola virus disease survivor and the delivery of her baby.  Created: 12/14/2016 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 12/14/2016.

  15. Spermatogenic transmission of Marbug and ebola virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sora Yasri

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The spermatogenic transmission of infectious disease is an interesting consideration in reproductive medicine. The problem can be serious and classified as sexually transmitted infection. The concern is on the new emerging viral infections because there is usually little information on those new viruses. In this short article, the authors specially review and discuss on Spermatogenic transmission of Marbug and ebola virus.

  16. Chicago Ebola Response Network (CERN): A Citywide Cross-hospital Collaborative for Infectious Disease Preparedness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lateef, Omar; Hota, Bala; Landon, Emily; Kociolek, Larry K; Morita, Julie; Black, Stephanie; Noskin, Gary; Kelleher, Michael; Curell, Krista; Galat, Amy; Ansell, David; Segreti, John; Weber, Stephen G

    2015-11-15

    The 2014-2015 Ebola virus disease (EVD) epidemic and international public health emergency has been referred to as a "black swan" event, or an event that is unlikely, hard to predict, and highly impactful once it occurs. The Chicago Ebola Response Network (CERN) was formed in response to EVD and is capable of receiving and managing new cases of EVD, while also laying the foundation for a public health network that can anticipate, manage, and prevent the next black swan public health event. By sharing expertise, risk, and resources among 4 major academic centers, Chicago created a sustainable network to respond to the latest in a series of public health emergencies. In this respect, CERN is a roadmap for how a region can prepare to respond to public health emergencies, thereby preventing negative impacts through planning and implementation.

  17. Ebola Virus Disease in Children, Sierra Leone, 2014–2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naveed, Asad; Wing, Kevin; Gbessay, Musa; Ross, J.C.G.; Checchi, Francesco; Youkee, Daniel; Jalloh, Mohammed Boie; Baion, David; Mustapha, Ayeshatu; Jah, Hawanatu; Lako, Sandra; Oza, Shefali; Boufkhed, Sabah; Feury, Reynold; Bielicki, Julia A.; Gibb, Diana M.; Klein, Nigel; Sahr, Foday; Yeung, Shunmay

    2016-01-01

    Little is known about potentially modifiable factors in Ebola virus disease in children. We undertook a retrospective cohort study of children Ebola holding units in the Western Area, Sierra Leone, during 2014–2015 to identify factors affecting outcome. Primary outcome was death or discharge after transfer to Ebola treatment centers. All 309 Ebola virus–positive children 2 days–12 years old were included; outcomes were available for 282 (91%). Case-fatality was 57%, and 55% of deaths occurred in Ebola holding units. Blood test results showed hypoglycemia and hepatic/renal dysfunction. Death occurred swiftly (median 3 days after admission) and was associated with younger age and diarrhea. Despite triangulation of information from multiple sources, data availability was limited, and we identified no modifiable factors substantially affecting death. In future Ebola virus disease epidemics, robust, rapid data collection is vital to determine effectiveness of interventions for children. PMID:27649367

  18. Teicoplanin inhibits Ebola pseudovirus infection in cell culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yizhuo; Cui, Rui; Li, Guiming; Gao, Qianqian; Yuan, Shilin; Altmeyer, Ralf; Zou, Gang

    2016-01-01

    There is currently no approved antiviral therapy for treatment of Ebola virus disease. To discover readily available approved drugs that can be rapidly repurposed for treatment of Ebola virus infections, we screened 1280 FDA-approved drugs and identified glycopeptide antibiotic teicoplanin inhibiting Ebola pseudovirus infection by blocking virus entry in the low micromolar range. Teicoplanin could be evaluated further and incorporated into ongoing clinical studies.

  19. Predictive genetic testing for cardiovascular diseases: impact on carrier children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meulenkamp, Tineke M; Tibben, Aad; Mollema, Eline D; van Langen, Irene M; Wiegman, Albert; de Wert, Guido M; de Beaufort, Inez D; Wilde, Arthur A M; Smets, Ellen M A

    2008-12-15

    We studied the experiences of children identified by family screening who were found to be a mutation carrier for a genetic cardiovascular disease (Long QT Syndrome (LQTS), Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy (HCM), Familial Hypercholesterolemia (FH)). We addressed the (a) manner in which they perceive their carrier status, (b) impact on their daily lives, and (c) strategy used to cope with these consequences. Children (aged 8-18) who tested positive for LQTS (n=11), HCM (n=6) or FH (n=16), and their parents participated in semi-structured audiotaped interviews. Interview topics included illness perception, use of medication, lifestyle modifications, worries, and coping. Each interview was coded by two researchers. The qualitative analysis was guided by Leventhal's model of self-regulation. The children were overall quite articulate about the disease they were tested for, including its mode of inheritance. They expressed positive future health perceptions, but feelings of controllability varied. Adherence and side-effects were significant themes with regard to medication-use. Refraining from activities and maintaining a non-fat diet were themes concerning lifestyle modifications. Some children spontaneously reported worries about the possibility of dying and frustration about being different from peers. Children coped with these worries by expressing faith in the effectiveness of medication, trying to be similar to peers or, in contrast, emphasizing their "being different." Children generally appeared effective in the way they coped with their carrier status and its implications. Nevertheless, dealing with the daily implications of their condition remains difficult in some situations, warranting continued availability of psychosocial support.

  20. Global Outbreaks Of Ebola And Its Strategic Management

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Humna Sajid Qureshi; Inshal Ashraf; Muhammad Jamshaid; Irfan Bashir; Tehseen Riaz

    2015-01-01

    .... To predict standard treatment guidelines control prevention or the strategic management of ebola disease Health regulatory authorities on national amp international level like WHO and PAHO Pan...

  1. Psychological impact of genetic testing for cancer susceptibility: an update of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meiser, Bettina

    2005-12-01

    This article presents an overview of the rapidly evolving body of literature on the psychological impact of genetic testing for hereditary breast/ovarian cancer susceptibility, hereditary non-polyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC) and familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP). Uptake of genetic testing for BRCA1/2 and HNPCC-related mutations is more consistently related to psychological factors, rather than sociodemographic variables. Most studies on the psychological impact of genetic testing amongst individuals who have never been affected by cancer demonstrate that non-carriers derive significant psychological benefits from genetic testing, while no adverse effects have been observed amongst carriers. These benefits are more clear-cut for HNPCC, compared to hereditary breast/ovarian cancer, reflecting differences in risk management options. The few studies available on individuals affected with cancer indicate that the impact of genetic testing is mediated and amplified by their former experience of cancer. Future directions and challenges of research in this area are reviewed. In particular, more empirical data are needed on the broader impact of genetic testing on those with inconclusive results or results of uncertain significance. As genetic testing is becoming available for other types of familial cancer, additional investigations will be needed as there is evidence to suggest that the impact of genetic testing may be unique to each type of familial cancer.

  2. Progression of Ebola Therapeutics During the 2014-2015 Outbreak.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendoza, Emelissa J; Qiu, Xiangguo; Kobinger, Gary P

    2016-02-01

    The recent Ebola virus (EBOV) outbreak in West Africa was the deadliest EBOV epidemic in history, highlighting the need for a safe and efficacious treatment against EBOV disease (EVD). In the absence of an approved treatment, experimental drugs were utilized under compassionate grounds hoping to diminish EVD-associated morbidity and mortality. As more data were collected from safety studies, Phase II/III clinical trials were introduced in Guinea, Sierra Leone, and Liberia to test promising candidates, including small-molecule drugs, RNA-based treatments, and antibody-based therapies. In this review, we summarize the use of, and preliminary observations from, current clinical trials with EVD therapeutics, shedding light on experimental drug selection, emergency clinical evaluation, and the impact these factors may have on future infectious disease outbreaks.

  3. Impact of informing overweight individuals about the role of genetics in obesity: an online experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lippa, Natalie C; Sanderson, Saskia C

    2013-01-01

    Increasing public awareness of obesity genetics could have beneficial or harmful effects on overweight individuals. This study examined the impact of genetic information on weight-related cognitions as well as interest in personalized genetic information about obesity among overweight individuals. Online survey respondents (n = 655) were randomly assigned to read either genetic, gene-environment, or nongenetic obesity causal information. Fifty-two percent of the participants were female, 82.4% were White, 45% had an annual income of USD genetic and gene-environment conditions were more likely to believe genetics increase obesity risk than participants in the nongenetic condition (both p genetic information about their obesity risk. Dissemination of information about obesity genetics may have neither a beneficial nor a harmful impact on how overweight individuals perceive themselves. Some overweight individuals may be interested in receiving personalized genetic information. The actual effects of obesity genetic information being incorporated into public health messages and of personalized genetic information on obesity prevention and treatment interventions remain to be seen. © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  4. Genetic Barriers to Resistance and Impact on Clinical Response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luber Andrew D

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The development of drug resistance and cross-resistance continues to pose a challenge to successful long-term antiretroviral therapy despite the availability of new antiretroviral agents. The genetic barrier to resistance of a regimen does not directly correlate with its effectiveness. For some regimens with a low genetic barrier to resistance, however, the emergence of only 1 or 2 key resistance mutations may confer drug resistance not only to that regimen but also to other agents, thereby limiting subsequent treatment options. In addition to the genetic barrier to resistance, factors such as efficacy, safety, tolerability, convenience, and adherence must be considered when choosing a regimen.

  5. Control of Ebola virus disease - firestone district, liberia, 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reaves, Erik J; Mabande, Lyndon G; Thoroughman, Douglas A; Arwady, M Allison; Montgomery, Joel M

    2014-10-24

    On March 30, 2014, the Ministry of Health and Social Welfare (MOHSW) of Liberia alerted health officials at Firestone Liberia, Inc. (Firestone) of the first known case of Ebola virus disease (Ebola) inside the Firestone rubber tree plantation of Liberia. The patient, who was the wife of a Firestone employee, had cared for a family member with confirmed Ebola in Lofa County, the epicenter of the Ebola outbreak in Liberia during March-April 2014. To prevent a large outbreak among Firestone's 8,500 employees, their dependents, and the surrounding population, the company responded by 1) establishing an incident management system, 2) instituting procedures for the early recognition and isolation of Ebola patients, 3) enforcing adherence to standard Ebola infection control guidelines, and 4) providing differing levels of management for contacts depending on their exposure, including options for voluntary quarantine in the home or in dedicated facilities. In addition, Firestone created multidisciplinary teams to oversee the outbreak response, address case detection, manage cases in a dedicated unit, and reintegrate convalescent patients into the community. The company also created a robust risk communication, prevention, and social mobilization campaign to boost community awareness of Ebola and how to prevent transmission. During August 1-September 23, a period of intense Ebola transmission in the surrounding areas, 71 cases of Ebola were diagnosed among the approximately 80,000 Liberians for whom Firestone provides health care (cumulative incidence = 0.09%). Fifty-seven (80%) of the cases were laboratory confirmed; 39 (68%) of these cases were fatal. Aspects of Firestone's response appear to have minimized the spread of Ebola in the local population and might be successfully implemented elsewhere to limit the spread of Ebola and prevent transmission to health care workers (HCWs).

  6. Genetic epidemiology of tuberculosis susceptibility: impact of study design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, Catherine M

    2011-01-20

    Several candidate gene studies have provided evidence for a role of host genetics in susceptibility to tuberculosis (TB). However, the results of these studies have been very inconsistent, even within a study population. Here, we review the design of these studies from a genetic epidemiological perspective, illustrating important differences in phenotype definition in both cases and controls, consideration of latent M. tuberculosis infection versus active TB disease, population genetic factors such as population substructure and linkage disequilibrium, polymorphism selection, and potential global differences in M. tuberculosis strain. These considerable differences between studies should be accounted for when examining the current literature. Recommendations are made for future studies to further clarify the host genetics of TB.

  7. [Ebola and the global governance of health].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dentico, Nicoletta

    2014-11-01

    The high state of anxiety about Ebola virus and its possible spread in the Western world has seemingly changed the route of the disease, for which effective vaccines and medicines do not exist. The rapid spread of the virus provides a paradigmatic narrative about the failure of today's governance for health, grounded on a series of global initiatives focussed on pathologies prioritized by the donors' community, at the detriment of health promotion and the strengthening of health systems in countries. The Ebola crisis also delivers a powerful account about the consequences of the de-potentiation of the World Health Organization (WHO), once the leading organization in public health policy-making. Today, the WHO is increasingly weak technically, politically and financially. While the virus remains out of control, the WHO's capacity to play a role in accompanying the development of the new essential vaccines and in brokering the conditions for accessibility and availability of the new medical tools remains to be questioned.

  8. Immune Response to Ebola Virus Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alain Alonso Remedios

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Ebola virus belongs to the family Filoviridae and causes a highly lethal hemorrhagic fever. Affected patients show an impaired immune response as a result of the evasion mechanisms employed by the virus. Cathepsin is an enzyme present in the granules of phagocytes which cleaves viral surface glycoproteins, allowing virus entry into the host cell. In addition, this virus is resistant to the antiviral effects of type I interferon, promotes the synthesis of proinflammatory cytokines and induces apoptosis of monocytes and lymphocytes. It also induces an incomplete activation of dendritic cells, thus avoiding the presentation of viral antigens. Although specific antibodies are produced after the first week, their neutralizing capacity is doubtful. The virus evades the immune response and replicates uncontrollably in the host. This paper aims to summarize the main characteristics of the immune response to Ebola virus infection.

  9. September 24, 2015 CDC Ebola Response Update

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2015-09-24

    In this podcast, CDC medical officer Alyson Goodman describes how CDC’s Children’s Health Team worked with partners to help U.S. hospitals prepare for a potential case of Ebola in a child.  Created: 9/24/2015 by Office of the Associate Director for Communication (OADC).   Date Released: 9/24/2015.

  10. Ebola Crisis in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avinash Raghunath Patwardhan M.D.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This article is about readiness of the U.S. health care system to deal with crises. Using the Ebola crisis as a reference, first it examines the response to the current challenge. However, that is the smaller objective of the article. Lately, we are also being challenged to deal with other kinds of epidemics like obesity, mental health diseases, and violence. These crises are not dramatic like the Ebola crisis. However, these are no less insidious than Ebola. If we are not ready for them, then these crises have the potential to undermine the long-term health and prosperity of our society. In this context, and therefore mainly, this article is about two major long-standing systemic problems in the U.S. health care system that the unfolding of the Ebola crisis has bared. One is about how the inherent problem in the design of American federalist system regarding state autonomy on health matters is creating a dysfunctional health care system. The other is about the inertia of the research industry in the health care system in clinging to an archaic outdated inefficient mind-set and methodology that fails to generate the right information required for an appropriate decision making in matters of health care delivery, including crises. These problems are not small, nor their solutions easy. However, no matter how uncomfortable and tedious, facing them is necessary and inevitable. The discussions and arguments in this article are to outline their nature broadly and to make a call to further a dialogue.

  11. Ebola Virus: Sensationalism, Science, and Human Rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bausch, Daniel G; Clougherty, Marguerite M

    2015-10-01

    Outbreaks of the filoviruses, Ebola and Marburg, usually garner immense public attention, often with a sensationalist bent in the lay press, focused on the apparently mysterious origins of the outbreak and the high mortality rates. The scientific community may present a more objective viewpoint, but usually with a rather technical focus on identifying epidemiological risk factors and experimental therapies and vaccines. Often lost in the discussion are the human rights elements that consistently underlie large outbreaks of these dangerous viruses.

  12. An Acute Hemorrhagic Infectious Disease:Ebola Virus Disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIAO Lei; XU An-hua; FENG Chao; QIU Qian-qian; TANG Qi-ling; LIU Xiao-huan

    2014-01-01

    Ebola virus disease (EVD) is an acute hemorrhagic infectious disease caused by ebola virus, with high infectivity and fatality rate. At present, it mainly occurs in areas of Central Africa and West Africa and no effective vaccine and antiviral drugs are available for the clinical treatment.

  13. Reemerging Sudan Ebola Virus Disease in Uganda, 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoemaker, Trevor; Balinandi, Stephen; Campbell, Shelley; Wamala, Joseph Francis; McMullan, Laura K.; Downing, Robert; Lutwama, Julius; Mbidde, Edward; Ströher, Ute; Rollin, Pierre E.; Nichol, Stuart T.

    2012-01-01

    Two large outbreaks of Ebola hemorrhagic fever occurred in Uganda in 2000 and 2007. In May 2011, we identified a single case of Sudan Ebola virus disease in Luwero District. The establishment of a permanent in-country laboratory and cooperation between international public health entities facilitated rapid outbreak response and control activities. PMID:22931687

  14. Impact of Molecular Genetic Research on Peanut Cultivar Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baozhu Guo

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Peanut (Arachis hypogaea L. has lagged other crops on use of molecular genetic technology for cultivar development in part due to lack of investment, but also because of low levels of molecular polymorphism among cultivated varieties. Recent advances in molecular genetic technology have allowed researchers to more precisely measure genetic polymorphism and enabled the development of low density genetic maps for A. hypogaea and the identification of molecular marker or QTL’s for several economically significant traits. Genomic research has also been used to enhance the amount of genetic diversity available for use in conventional breeding through the development of transgenic peanut, and the creation of TILLING populations and synthetic allotetraploids. Marker assisted selection (MAS is becoming more common in peanut cultivar development programs, and several cultivar releases are anticipated in the near future. There are also plans to sequence the peanut genome in the near future which should result in the development of additional molecular tools that will greatly advance peanut cultivar development.

  15. Impact of genetic manipulation on society and medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motulsky, A G

    1983-01-14

    Human beings have been manipulating the genetic characteristics plants and animals since the introduction of agriculture indirect manipulation of human genes occurred with widespread use of public health and medical measures that preserve genes causing disease. The production of biologicals by DNA technology raises few ethical problems. Predictive medicine in which genetic markers (including DNA variants) are used for antenatal and preclinical diagnosis of genetic diseases and susceptibilities poses new questions of confidentiality, private versus societal goals, and self-determination. When normal DNA is used to treat the somatic cells of patients with hemoglobinopathies and other genetic diseases, no new ethical problems arise beyond those presented by an novel theory. In contrast, manipulation of DNA in human fertilized eggs would constitute a qualitative departure from previous therapies since this would affect future generations. In order to be able to make wise decisions on these matters the public must be well informed. Thus, formal and informal education in human biology and genetics must be improved at all levels.

  16. Law & psychiatry: Genetic discrimination in mental disorders: the impact of the genetic information nondiscrimination act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appelbaum, Paul S

    2010-04-01

    Genetics is one of the most active areas of research on mental disorders. As genetic tests related to psychiatric disorders and their treatments proliferate in research and clinical settings, the possibility becomes more troubling that such information will be used for purposes other than those for which it was collected. Because of this, the federal Genetic Information Nondiscrimination Act of 2008 is of substantial importance to persons with mental disorders, persons at risk for the conditions, and family members of both groups. This column discusses the process of passing the legislation, along with the implications of the act.

  17. The psychological impact of predictive genetic testing for Huntington's disease: a systematic review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crozier, S; Robertson, N; Dale, M

    2015-02-01

    Huntington's disease (HD) is a neurodegenerative genetic condition for which a predictive genetic test by mutation analysis has been available since 1993. However, whilst revealing the future presence of the disease, testing may have an adverse psychological impact given that the disease is progressive, incurable and ultimately fatal. This review seeks to systematically explore the psychological impact of genetic testing for individuals undergoing pre-symptomatic mutation analysis. Three databases (Medline, PsycInfo and Scopus) were interrogated for studies utilising standardised measures to assess psychological impact following predictive genetic testing for HD. From 100 papers initially identified, eight articles were eligible for inclusion. Psychological impact of predictive genetic testing was not found to be associated with test result. No detrimental effect of predictive genetic testing on non-carriers was found, although the process was not found to be psychologically neutral. Fluctuation in levels of distress was found over time for carriers and non-carriers alike. Methodological weaknesses of published literature were identified, notably the needs of individuals not requesting genetic testing, as well as inadequate support for individuals registering elevated distress and declining post-test follow-up. Further assessment of these vulnerable individuals is warranted to establish the extent and type of future psychological support.

  18. Fighting Ebola through Novel Spore Decontamination Technologies for the Military

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher J. Doona

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available AbstractRecently, global public health organizations such as Doctors without Borders (MSF, the World Health Organization (WHO, Public Health Canada, National Institutes of Health (NIH, and the U.S. government developed and deployed Field Decontamination Kits (FDKs, a novel, lightweight, compact, reusable decontamination technology to sterilize Ebola-contaminated medical devices at remote clinical sites lacking infra-structure in crisis-stricken regions of West Africa (medical waste materials are placed in bags and burned. The basis for effectuating sterilization with FDKs is chlorine dioxide (ClO2 produced from a patented invention developed by researchers at the US Army – Natick Soldier RD&E Center (NSRDEC and commercialized as a dry mixed-chemical for bacterial spore decontamination. In fact, the NSRDEC research scientists developed an ensemble of ClO2 technologies designed for different applications in decontaminating fresh produce; food contact and handling surfaces; personal protective equipment; textiles used in clothing, uniforms, tents, and shelters; graywater recycling; airplanes; surgical instruments; and hard surfaces in latrines, laundries, and deployable medical facilities. These examples demonstrate the far-reaching impact, adaptability, and versatility of these innovative technologies. We present herein the unique attributes of NSRDEC’s novel decontamination technologies and a Case Study of the development of FDKs that were deployed in West Africa by international public health organizations to sterilize Ebola-contaminated medical equipment. FDKs use bacterial spores as indicators of sterility. We review the properties and structures of spores and the mechanisms of bacterial spore inactivation by ClO2. We also review mechanisms of bacterial spore inactivation by novel, emerging, and established nonthermal technologies for food preservation, such as high pressure processing, irradiation, cold plasma, and chemical sanitizers

  19. Medical genetics in Cuba and its social impact.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edith María Beltrán Molina

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The Genetics it is the science that studies the genes of the individuals, their operation, their transmission, their alterations, their relationships with other genes and their interaction with the environment. The present article approaches aspects of great interest corresponding to this science, in the same one he/she appears reflected a summary of examples that you/they evidence the advances of the medical genetics in Cuba as well as achievements in favor of the health and the well-being of the children and the Cuban family in general that they register among the noblest ideals and it reflects the humanist and solidary character of the Cuban Revolution.

  20. [Ebola and Marburg viruses: the humans strike back].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alazard-Dany, Nathalie; Ottmann Terrangle, Michèle; Volchkov, Viktor

    2006-04-01

    Ebola and Marburg viruses are the causative agents of rapidly progressive hemorrhagic fevers with high mortality rates. Pre- or post-exposure treatments against the diseases are currently not available for human use. In the field, establishment of strict quarantine measures preventing further virus transmission are still the only way to fight the infections. However, our knowledge of Ebola and Marburg viruses has markedly increased as a result of two recent discoveries discussed in this review. Chandran et al. have elucidated the mechanism by which Ebola GP is converted to a fusion-active form. Infectivity of Ebola virus was shown to be dependent on the cleavage of GP by cellular endosomal proteases, cathepsin B and L, thus opening new therapeutic approaches options. As for Jones SM et al., they have successfully vaccinated monkeys with recombinant vesicular stomatitis virus expressing Ebola or Marburg virus surface glycoprotein GP, a promising vaccine approach.

  1. Reidentification of Ebola Virus E718 and ME as Ebola Virus/H.sapiens-tc/COD/1976/Yambuku-Ecran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhn, Jens H; Lofts, Loreen L; Kugelman, Jeffrey R; Smither, Sophie J; Lever, Mark S; van der Groen, Guido; Johnson, Karl M; Radoshitzky, Sheli R; Bavari, Sina; Jahrling, Peter B; Towner, Jonathan S; Nichol, Stuart T; Palacios, Gustavo

    2014-11-20

    Ebola virus (EBOV) was discovered in 1976 around Yambuku, Zaire. A lack of nomenclature standards resulted in a variety of designations for each isolate, leading to confusion in the literature and databases. We sequenced the genome of isolate E718/ME/Ecran and unified the various designations under Ebola virus/H.sapiens-tc/COD/1976/Yambuku-Ecran.

  2. Impact of genetic polymorphisms of four cytokine genes on treatment ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Manar Obada

    2016-04-25

    Apr 25, 2016 ... genes on treatment induced viral clearance in HCV infected Egyptian .... shown to influence TNF-a expression [11]. Interferon gamma ... has been carried out in accordance with The Code of Ethics of the World ... Molecular testing. Genomic DNA ..... Our findings could be explained on the basis that genetic.

  3. The impact of clonality on parasite population genetic structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prugnolle F.

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we briefly review the consequences of clonal reproduction on the apportionment of genetic diversity in parasite populations. We distinguish three kinds of parasite life-cycle where clonal reproduction occurs. The consequences of this mode of reproduction for the different kinds of parasite life-cycles are described. We here particularly focus on clonal diploids.

  4. Ebola virus. Two-pore channels control Ebola virus host cell entry and are drug targets for disease treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakurai, Yasuteru; Kolokoltsov, Andrey A; Chen, Cheng-Chang; Tidwell, Michael W; Bauta, William E; Klugbauer, Norbert; Grimm, Christian; Wahl-Schott, Christian; Biel, Martin; Davey, Robert A

    2015-02-27

    Ebola virus causes sporadic outbreaks of lethal hemorrhagic fever in humans, but there is no currently approved therapy. Cells take up Ebola virus by macropinocytosis, followed by trafficking through endosomal vesicles. However, few factors controlling endosomal virus movement are known. Here we find that Ebola virus entry into host cells requires the endosomal calcium channels called two-pore channels (TPCs). Disrupting TPC function by gene knockout, small interfering RNAs, or small-molecule inhibitors halted virus trafficking and prevented infection. Tetrandrine, the most potent small molecule that we tested, inhibited infection of human macrophages, the primary target of Ebola virus in vivo, and also showed therapeutic efficacy in mice. Therefore, TPC proteins play a key role in Ebola virus infection and may be effective targets for antiviral therapy.

  5. Providing nursing care to Ebola virus disease patients: China Ebola Treatment Unit experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cao Jie

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Principle of “Extreme Caution” is never to be underestimated in order to reach the “Zero Infection” goal among medical and nursing staff. Ebola virus disease is not a “horrible monsters” if medical and nursing staff strictly follow personal protection principles.

  6. Impact of behavioral genetic evidence on the adjudication of criminal behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appelbaum, Paul S; Scurich, Nicholas

    2014-01-01

    Recent advances in behavioral genetics suggest a modest relationship among certain gene variants, early childhood experiences, and criminal behavior. Although scientific research examining this link is still at an early stage, genetic data are already being introduced in criminal trials. However, the extent to which such evidence is likely to affect jurors' decisions has not been explored. In the present study, a representative sample of the U.S. population (n = 250) received a vignette describing an apparently impulsive homicide, accompanied by one of four explanations of the defendant's impulsivity: childhood abuse, genetic predisposition, childhood abuse and genetic predisposition, or simple impulsive behavior. The participants were asked to identify the crime that the defendant had committed and to select an appropriate sentence range. Evidence of genetic predisposition did not affect the crime of which the defendant was convicted or the sentence. However, participants who received the abuse or genetic + abuse explanation imposed longer prison sentences. Paradoxically, the genetic and genetic + abuse conditions engendered the greatest fear of the defendant. These findings should allay concerns that genetic evidence in criminal adjudications will be overly persuasive to jurors, but should raise questions about the impact of genetic attributions on perceptions of dangerousness.

  7. 埃博拉出血热%Ebola hemorrhagic fever

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张敬敬; 韩莎莎; 杨志寅

    2014-01-01

    埃博拉出血热(EBHF)又称埃博拉病毒病,是一种由埃博拉病毒(EBOV)引起的严重的、高病死率的急性出血性传染病。自1976年首次发现 EBOV 以来,EBHF 疫情在非洲多次流行。由于疫情发生地之一是在西非扎伊尔地区北部的埃博拉河附近的一个村庄,EBOV 由此而命名。2014年2月 EBHF 肆虐西非,随之以惊人的速度迅速蔓延,世界卫生组织声明,到2014年11月9日为止,全球 EBOV 感染人数为14098人,其中死亡5160人,此次暴发流行的规模和严重程度已经远超过在非洲发生过的任何一次流行,之所以引起全世界的高度关注,应该说源于人类对 EBOV 的未知,以及其传染性之强、致死率之高和目前仍没有发现对抗 EBOV 的特效药物等。%Ebola hemorrhagic fever (EBHF),or Ebola virus disease,is an acute hemorrhagic infectious disease with severe symptoms and high mortality caused by Ebola virus (EBOV).Several Ebola outbreaks have been reported in Africa since the initial discovery of Ebola.One of outbreak origins is a village nearby the river of Ebola to the north of Zaire region in West Africa,hence comes the name of Ebola. In April 201 4,there was an Ebola outbreak again,and epidemic situation spread at an alarming rate.According to the announcement of WHO,the global number of Ebola virus infection was 1 4098,in which 51 60 people died.Latest Ebola outbreak is more severe and more wide-spread than any previous Ebola events.EBHF is highly contagious and fatal,moreover,little is known of Ebola virus and there have not been effective drugs against Ebola virus.

  8. Impact of the mitochondrial genetic background in complex III deficiency.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mari Carmen Gil Borlado

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In recent years clinical evidence has emphasized the importance of the mtDNA genetic background that hosts a primary pathogenic mutation in the clinical expression of mitochondrial disorders, but little experimental confirmation has been provided. We have analyzed the pathogenic role of a novel homoplasmic mutation (m.15533 A>G in the cytochrome b (MT-CYB gene in a patient presenting with lactic acidosis, seizures, mild mental delay, and behaviour abnormalities. METHODOLOGY: Spectrophotometric analyses of the respiratory chain enzyme activities were performed in different tissues, the whole muscle mitochondrial DNA of the patient was sequenced, and the novel mutation was confirmed by PCR-RFLP. Transmitochondrial cybrids were constructed to confirm the pathogenicity of the mutation, and assembly/stability studies were carried out in fibroblasts and cybrids by means of mitochondrial translation inhibition in combination with blue native gel electrophoresis. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Biochemical analyses revealed a decrease in respiratory chain complex III activity in patient's skeletal muscle, and a combined enzyme defect of complexes III and IV in fibroblasts. Mutant transmitochondrial cybrids restored normal enzyme activities and steady-state protein levels, the mutation was mildly conserved along evolution, and the proband's mother and maternal aunt, both clinically unaffected, also harboured the homoplasmic mutation. These data suggested a nuclear genetic origin of the disease. However, by forcing the de novo functioning of the OXPHOS system, a severe delay in the biogenesis of the respiratory chain complexes was observed in the mutants, which demonstrated a direct functional effect of the mitochondrial genetic background. CONCLUSIONS: Our results point to possible pitfalls in the detection of pathogenic mitochondrial mutations, and highlight the role of the genetic mtDNA background in the development of mitochondrial disorders.

  9. Psychosocial impact of specialized cardiac genetic clinics for hypertrophic cardiomyopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingles, Jodie; Lind, Joanne M; Phongsavan, Philayrath; Semsarian, Christopher

    2008-02-01

    The diagnosis of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, an autosomal dominant chronic heart disease, can have significant implications, including increased risk of sudden death, exercise limitations, and risk of transmission to offspring. This study sought to describe the psychosocial factors associated with attending a specialty cardiac genetic clinic, and to determine whether these may be predictors of comorbid anxiety and depression in this population. Questionnaires were sent to 184 individuals attending the Royal Prince Alfred Hospital Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy Clinic. Questionnaires were anonymous and comprised demographics, the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, Patient Experience Scales, and Patient Satisfaction Scales. Completed questionnaires were returned by 109 participants (59.2% response rate), of which 76.9% had a diagnosis of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, while 23.1% were at-risk relatives attending for clinical screening. Patient satisfaction scores were generally high to very high across all groups, though only 24% of HCM patients showed good adjustment to hypertrophic cardiomyopathy and 10% had low worry about hypertrophic cardiomyopathy scores. Within the disease group, logistic regression analysis adjusting for age, gender, and education revealed adjustment to hypertrophic cardiomyopathy and worry about hypertrophic cardiomyopathy scores to be significantly associated with anxiety, while adjustment scores and location of patient follow-up (i.e., Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy clinic or another cardiologist) to be significantly associated with depression scores. HCM patients who attend specialized cardiac genetic clinics are better adjusted and worry less, than those who do not attend. An integrated approach, including a genetic counselor, is important in the management of HCM families.

  10. Impact of genomics approaches on plant genetics and physiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabata, Satoshi

    2002-08-01

    Comprehensive analysis of genetic information in higher plants is under way for several plants of biological and agronomical importance. Among them, Arabidopsis thaliana, a member of Brassica family, and Oryza sativa(rice) have been chosen as model plants most suitable for genome analysis. Sequencing of the genome of A. thaliana was completed in December 2000, and rice genome sequencing is in progress. The accumulated genome sequences, together with the hundreds of thousands of ESTs from several tens of plant species, have drastically changed the strategy of plant genetics. By utilizing the information on the genome and gene structures, comprehensive approaches for genome-wide functional analysis of the genes, including transcriptome analysis using microarray systems and a comprehensive analysis of a large number of insertion mutant lines, have been widely adopted. As a consequence, a large quantity of information on both the structure and function of genes in these model plants has been accumulated. However, other plant species may have their own characteristics and advantages to study individual phenomena. Application of knowledge from the model plants to other plant species and vice versa through the common language, namely the genome information, should facilitate understanding of the genetic systems underlying a variety of biological phenomena. Introduction of this common language may not be very simple, especially in the case of complex pathways such as a process of cell-covering formation. Nevertheless, it should be emphasized that genomics approaches are the most promising way to understand these processes.

  11. A systematic review of perceived risks, psychological and behavioral impacts of genetic testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heshka, Jodi T; Palleschi, Crystal; Howley, Heather; Wilson, Brenda; Wells, Philip S

    2008-01-01

    Genetic testing may enable early disease detection, targeted surveillance, and result in effective prevention strategies. Knowledge of genetic risk may also enable behavioral change. However, the impact of carrier status from the psychological, behavior, and perceived risk perspectives is not well understood. We conducted a systematic review to summarize the available literature on these elements. An extensive literature review was performed to identify studies that measured the perceived risk, psychological, and/or behavioral impacts of genetic testing on individuals. The search was not limited to specific diseases but excluded the impacts of testing for single gene disorders. A total of 35 articles and 30 studies were included. The studies evaluated hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal carcinoma, hereditary breast and ovarian cancer, and Alzheimer disease. For affective outcomes, the majority of the studies reported negative effects on carriers but these were short-lived. For behavioral outcomes, an increase in screening behavior of varying rates was demonstrated in carriers but the change in behaviors was less than expected. With respect to perceived risk, there were generally no differences between carriers and noncarriers by 12 months after genetic testing and over time risk perception decreased. Overall, predispositional genetic testing has no significant impact on psychological outcomes, little effect on behavior, and did not change perceived risk. It seems as though better patient education strategies are required. Our data would suggest better knowledge among carriers would not have significant psychological impacts and therefore, it is worth pursuing improved educational strategies.

  12. Impact of genetic selection on management of boar replacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, J A B; Buhr, M M

    2005-01-15

    Boars in an artificial insemination centre have been selected for their superior genetic potential, with 'superior' being defined as having traits the customer wants transmitted to his herd. The ability to meet the customers' needs depends on the heritability of the trait, the geneticist's success in devising a selection scheme for the trait in balance with other economically important traits, and the boar's ability to produce sperm that can fertilise oocytes. Genetic evaluation research over the past 20 years has greatly increased the number of traits for which a boar can be selected: currently in the Canadian national program, these include age at 100 kg, backfat at 100 kg, feed efficiency, lean yield and litter size. In the near future, traits that are very likely to be added to this selection list include piglet survival, marbling, loin eye area and structure traits. In Canada, sires are ranked on two estimated breeding value (EBV) indices; one, focused on development of terminal sire lines, is based on the growth and yield traits and another, primarily focused on maternal line development, de-emphasises these traits and incorporates litter size. Boars that are in Canadian AI centres because of their excellent growth traits are typically in the top 5-10% of the national population for terminal sire line index, but they may be only average or substandard for litter size. Conversely, boars selected to be in the top 5-10% for conveying such reproductive traits as litter size may only be in the top 33% for growth traits. The more offspring from a superior boar in either of these indices, the faster the population average for the trait improves. The original sire gets knocked out of the elite group, is culled and replaced by a higher ranked young boar from the now improved general population. Although genetic superiority should govern an AI centre's selection and culling of boars, decision-making in real life is seldom that simple. Selection criteria may be

  13. Determination and Therapeutic Exploitation of Ebola Virus Spontaneous Mutation Frequency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfson, Kendra J.; Worwa, Gabriella; Carrion, Ricardo

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Ebola virus (EBOV) is an RNA virus that can cause hemorrhagic fever with high fatality rates, and there are no approved vaccines or therapies. Typically, RNA viruses have high spontaneous mutation rates, which permit rapid adaptation to selection pressures and have other important biological consequences. However, it is unknown if filoviruses exhibit high mutation frequencies. Ultradeep sequencing and a recombinant EBOV that carries the gene encoding green fluorescent protein were used to determine the spontaneous mutation frequency of EBOV. The effects of the guanosine analogue ribavirin during EBOV infections were also assessed. Ultradeep sequencing revealed that the mutation frequency for EBOV was high and similar to those of other RNA viruses. Interestingly, significant genetic diversity was not observed in viable viruses, implying that changes were not well tolerated. We hypothesized that this could be exploited therapeutically. In vitro, the presence of ribavirin increased the error rate, and the 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) was 27 μM. In a mouse model of ribavirin therapy given pre-EBOV exposure, ribavirin treatment corresponded with a significant delay in time to death and up to 75% survival. In mouse and monkey models of therapy given post-EBOV exposure, ribavirin treatment also delayed the time to death and increased survival. These results demonstrate that EBOV has a spontaneous mutation frequency similar to those of other RNA viruses. These data also suggest a potential for therapeutic use of ribavirin for human EBOV infections. IMPORTANCE Ebola virus (EBOV) causes a severe hemorrhagic disease with high case fatality rates; there are no approved vaccines or therapies. We determined the spontaneous mutation frequency of EBOV, which is relevant to understanding the potential for the virus to adapt. The frequency was similar to those of other RNA viruses. Significant genetic diversity was not observed in viable viruses, implying that

  14. Ebola hemorrhagic Fever and the current state of vaccine development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Joo Eun; Hong, Kee-Jong; Choi, Woo Young; Lee, Won-Ja; Choi, Yeon Hwa; Jeong, Chung-Hyeon; Cho, Kwang-Il

    2014-12-01

    Current Ebola virus outbreak in West Africa already reached the total number of 1,323 including 729 deaths by July 31st. the fatality is around 55% in the southeastern area of Guinea, Sierra Leone, Liberia, and Nigeria. The number of patients with Ebola Hemorrhagic Fever (EHF) was continuously increasing even though the any effective therapeutics or vaccines has not been developed yet. The Ebola virus in Guinea showed 98% homology with Zaire Ebola Virus. Study of the pathogenesis of Ebola virus infection and assess of the various candidates of vaccine have been tried for a long time, especially in United States and some European countries. Even though the attenuated live vaccine and DNA vaccine containing Ebola viral genes were tested and showed efficacy in chimpanzees, those candidates still need clinical tests requiring much longer time than the preclinical development to be approved for the practical treatment. It can be expected to eradicate Ebola virus by a safe and efficient vaccine development similar to the case of smallpox virus which was extinguished from the world by the variola vaccine.

  15. Ebola haemorrhagic fever virus: pathogenesis, immune responses, potential prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcinkiewicz, Janusz; Bryniarski, Krzysztof; Nazimek, Katarzyna

    2014-01-01

    Ebola zoonotic RNA filovirus represents human most virulent and lethal pathogens, which induces acute hemorrhagic fever and death within few days in a range of 60-90% of symptomatic individuals. Last outbreak in 2014 in West Africa caused panic that Ebola epidemic can be spread to other continents. Number of deaths in late December reached almost 8,000 individuals out of more than 20,000 symptomatic patients. It seems that only a coordinated international response could counteract the further spread of Ebola. Major innate immunity mechanisms against Ebola are associated with the production of interferons, that are inhibited by viral proteins. Activation of host NK cells was recognized as a leading immune function responsible for recovery of infected people. Uncontrolled cell infection by Ebola leads to an impairment of immunity with cytokine storm, coagulopathy, systemic bleeding, multi-organ failure and death. Tested prevention strategies to induce antiviral immunity include: i. recombinant virus formulations (vaccines); ii. cocktail of monoclonal antibodies (serotherapy); iii. alternative RNA-interference-based antiviral methods. Maintaining the highest standards of aseptic and antiseptic precautions is equally important. Present brief review summarizes a current knowledge concerning pathogenesis of Ebola hemorrhagic disease and the virus interaction with the immune system and discusses recent advances in prevention of Ebola infection by vaccination and serotherapy.

  16. Genetics of mammalian meiosis: regulation, dynamics and impact on fertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handel, Mary Ann; Schimenti, John C

    2010-02-01

    Meiosis is an essential stage in gamete formation in all sexually reproducing organisms. Studies of mutations in model organisms and of human haplotype patterns are leading to a clearer understanding of how meiosis has adapted from yeast to humans, the genes that control the dynamics of chromosomes during meiosis, and how meiosis is tied to gametic success. Genetic disruptions and meiotic errors have important roles in infertility and the aetiology of developmental defects, especially aneuploidy. An understanding of the regulation of meiosis, coupled with advances in genomics, may ultimately allow us to diagnose the causes of meiosis-based infertilities, more wisely apply assisted reproductive technologies, and derive functional germ cells.

  17. The impact of preimplantation genetic diagnosis on human embryos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    García-Ferreyra J.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Chromosome abnormalities are extremely common in human oocytes and embryos and are associated with a variety of negative outcomes for both natural cycles and those using assisted reproduction techniques. Aneuploidies embryos may fail to implant in the uterus, miscarry, or lead to children with serious medical problems (e.g., Down syndrome. Preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD is a technique that allows the detection of aneuploidy in embryos and seeks to improve the clinical outcomes od assisted reproduction treatments, by ensuring that the embryos chosen for the transfer are chromosomally normal.

  18. Stacking sequence optimisation of composite panels subjected to slamming impact loads using a genetic algorithm

    OpenAIRE

    Khedmati,Mohammad Reza; Sangtabi,Mohammad Rezai; Fakoori,Mehdi

    2013-01-01

    Optimisation of stacking sequence for composite panels under slamming impact loads using a genetic algorithm method is studied in this paper. For this purpose, slamming load is assumed to have a uniform distribution with a triangular-pulse type of intensity function. In order to perform optimisation based on a genetic algorithm, a special code is written in MATLAB software environment. The optimiser is coupled with the commercial software ANSYS in order to analyse the composite panel under st...

  19. Quantifying Poverty as a Driver of Ebola Transmission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gertler, Shai; Yamin, Dan; Galvani, Alison P.

    2015-01-01

    Background Poverty has been implicated as a challenge in the control of the current Ebola outbreak in West Africa. Although disparities between affected countries have been appreciated, disparities within West African countries have not been investigated as drivers of Ebola transmission. To quantify the role that poverty plays in the transmission of Ebola, we analyzed heterogeneity of Ebola incidence and transmission factors among over 300 communities, categorized by socioeconomic status (SES), within Montserrado County, Liberia. Methodology/Principal Findings We evaluated 4,437 Ebola cases reported between February 28, 2014 and December 1, 2014 for Montserrado County to determine SES-stratified temporal trends and drivers of Ebola transmission. A dataset including dates of symptom onset, hospitalization, and death, and specified community of residence was used to stratify cases into high, middle and low SES. Additionally, information about 9,129 contacts was provided for a subset of 1,585 traced individuals. To evaluate transmission within and across socioeconomic subpopulations, as well as over the trajectory of the outbreak, we analyzed these data with a time-dependent stochastic model. Cases in the most impoverished communities reported three more contacts on average than cases in high SES communities (p<0.001). Our transmission model shows that infected individuals from middle and low SES communities were associated with 1.5 (95% CI: 1.4–1.6) and 3.5 (95% CI: 3.1–3.9) times as many secondary cases as those from high SES communities, respectively. Furthermore, most of the spread of Ebola across Montserrado County originated from areas of lower SES. Conclusions/Significance Individuals from areas of poverty were associated with high rates of transmission and spread of Ebola to other regions. Thus, Ebola could most effectively be prevented or contained if disease interventions were targeted to areas of extreme poverty and funding was dedicated to development

  20. Quantifying Poverty as a Driver of Ebola Transmission.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mosoka P Fallah

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Poverty has been implicated as a challenge in the control of the current Ebola outbreak in West Africa. Although disparities between affected countries have been appreciated, disparities within West African countries have not been investigated as drivers of Ebola transmission. To quantify the role that poverty plays in the transmission of Ebola, we analyzed heterogeneity of Ebola incidence and transmission factors among over 300 communities, categorized by socioeconomic status (SES, within Montserrado County, Liberia.We evaluated 4,437 Ebola cases reported between February 28, 2014 and December 1, 2014 for Montserrado County to determine SES-stratified temporal trends and drivers of Ebola transmission. A dataset including dates of symptom onset, hospitalization, and death, and specified community of residence was used to stratify cases into high, middle and low SES. Additionally, information about 9,129 contacts was provided for a subset of 1,585 traced individuals. To evaluate transmission within and across socioeconomic subpopulations, as well as over the trajectory of the outbreak, we analyzed these data with a time-dependent stochastic model. Cases in the most impoverished communities reported three more contacts on average than cases in high SES communities (p<0.001. Our transmission model shows that infected individuals from middle and low SES communities were associated with 1.5 (95% CI: 1.4-1.6 and 3.5 (95% CI: 3.1-3.9 times as many secondary cases as those from high SES communities, respectively. Furthermore, most of the spread of Ebola across Montserrado County originated from areas of lower SES.Individuals from areas of poverty were associated with high rates of transmission and spread of Ebola to other regions. Thus, Ebola could most effectively be prevented or contained if disease interventions were targeted to areas of extreme poverty and funding was dedicated to development projects that meet basic needs.

  1. Impact of recent genetic findings in Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Christine; Lohmann-Hedrich, Katja

    2007-08-01

    Parkinson's disease is the second most common age-related neurodegenerative disorder and is characterized clinically by classical parkinsonism and pathologically by selective loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra and Lewy bodies. Although for most classical parkinsonism the etiology is unknown, a clear genetic component has been determined in a minority. Mutations in five causative genes combined [alpha-Synuclein (SNCA), Parkin, PTEN-induced kinase 1 (PINK1), DJ-1, Leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 (LRRK2)] account for 2-3% of all cases with classical parkinsonism, often clinically indistinguishable from idiopathic Parkinson's disease. The functional role of PINK1 and LRRK2 as kinases has been clearly established. Further, mutations in the ATP13A2 gene have been linked to Kufor-Rakeb syndrome (PARK9), a form of atypical parkinsonism. ATP13A2 encodes a lysosomal ATPase and shows elevated expression levels in the brains of sporadic patients, suggesting a potential role in the more common idiopathic Parkinson's disease. Finally, first promising pilot studies have been performed to identify differentially expressed genes and proteins as biomarkers for parkinsonism. The identification of single genes and their functional characterization has enhanced our understanding of the pathogenesis of parkinsonism, has led to improvement of diagnostic tools for genetic parkinsonism, and allows for the purposeful consideration of novel therapeutic targets.

  2. Environmental Impact of Genetically Modified Fish – A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satimehin, F.P.D.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This is an overview of current research into the use of modern biotechnology in aquaculture. It is directed to policy and decision makers to give an indication of issues relevant to research into and the potential for commercialisation of genetically modified (GM organisms in the seafood industry. Application of gene technology in fish to improve production efficiency has many potential benefits. Research on GM fish has primarily focused on producing fish with increased growth rates, increased temperature tolerance, and improved disease resistance. Fish have been modified to grow six times faster than normal, survive in colder climates, and possess natural disease resistance so important to high-density aquaculture. Whilst the potential benefits of GM fish are plenty, there are some associated risks to consider prior to their use in commercial production. Ecological risks would arise if GM fish escaped from aquaculture facilities and into the wild. These genetically enhanced fish could potentially interact with the local wild population and produce reduced fitness, decline in other species in the community, transfer of disease and parasites, and a decrease in prey species. Preventative measures include sterilisation of all transgenic fish, and better aquaculture infrastructure to ensure secure containment of fish, neither of which yet is fully effective.

  3. Impact of molecular genetics on congenital adrenal hyperplasia management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balsamo, A; Baldazzi, L; Menabò, S; Cicognani, A

    2010-09-01

    Congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) is a family of autosomal recessive disorders caused by mutations in genes encoding the enzymes involved in one of the 5 steps of adrenal steroid synthesis or the electron donor P450 oxidoreductase (POR) enzyme. Steroid 21-hydroxylase deficiency (21-OHD), the principal focus of this review, accounts for about 90-95% of all CAH cases, and its biochemical and clinical severity depends on the underlying CYP21A2 gene disruption. Molecular genetic advancements have been achieved in recent years, and the aim of this review is to attempt to highlight its contribution to the comprehension and management of the disease. When possible, we will try to achieve this goal also by providing some results from our personal experience regarding: some aspects of CYP21A2 gene analysis, with basic genotype/phenotype relationships; its crucial role in both genetic counselling and in prenatal diagnosis and treatment in families at risk for 21-OHD; its help in the comprehension of the severity of the disease in patients diagnosed by neonatal screening and possibly treated before an evident salt-loss crisis or before performing adequate blood sampling; its usefulness in the definition of post ACTH 17-hydroxyprogesterone values, discriminating between non-classic, heterozygote and normal subjects; and finally the contribution of genes other than CYP21A2 whose function or dysfunction could influence 21-hydroxylase activity and modify the presentation or management of the disease.

  4. Genetic susceptibility to radiation: which impact on medical practice?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alapetite, C.; Cosset, J.M. [Institut Curie, Dept. de Radiotherapie, 75 - Paris (France); Bourguignon, M.H.; Masse, R. [Office de Protection contre les Rayonnements Ionisants, 78 - le Vesinet (France)

    2001-07-01

    Recent progress especially in the field of gene identification and expression have raised more attention on genetic susceptibility to cancer possibly enhanced by radiations. Radiation therapists are mostly concerned by this question since hypersensitive patients may suffer from adverse effects in normal tissues following a standard radiation therapy and normally sensitive patients could benefit from higher doses of radiations for a better cure of their malignant tumors. Although only a small percentage of individuals are 'hypersensitive' to radiation effects, all medical specialists using ionising radiations should be aware of these new progress in medical knowledge. The present paper reviews the main pathologies (diseases, syndromes...) known or strongly suspected to be associated with a hypersensitivity to ionizing radiations. Then the main tests capable to detect in advance such pathologies are analyzed and compared. Finally guidelines are provided, especially to the radiation therapists to limit the risk of severe complications (or even deaths) for these specific subset of patients suffering from a genetic disorder with a susceptibility to radiations. (author)

  5. Genetic polymorphisms in milk protein genes and their impact on milk composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dovc, P

    2000-01-01

    About 40 different genetic variants are present at bovine milk protein loci and considerable differences in allele frequencies were observed among breeds. Advanced electrophoretic methods and recently, the DNA technology have been applied for identification and characterisation of milk protein genetic variants. Mutations with impact on gene expression have been identified. The influence of lactoprotein genetic variants on milk composition and cheese making ability has been studied extensively. The most prominent effects have been found for beta-LG A/B and kappa-CN A/B in cattle and alpha s1-CN E in goat.

  6. Contextual and psychosocial factors predicting Ebola prevention behaviours using the RANAS approach to behaviour change in Guinea-Bissau.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamma, Anna E; Slekiene, Jurgita; von Medeazza, Gregor; Asplund, Fredrik; Cardoso, Placido; Mosler, Hans-Joachim

    2017-05-15

    The outbreak of the Ebola virus disease (EVD) in West Africa in December 2013 was the largest Ebola outbreak in history. This study aimed to measure the underlying contextual and psychosocial factors of intentions to perform Ebola prevention behaviours (not touching people who might be suffering from Ebola, reporting suspected cases to the National Ebola Hotline, NEH) in Guinea-Bissau. Geographical location, cross-border market activities, poor water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) conditions, and burial practices in some communities pose a serious risk in terms of potential EVD outbreak and seriously hamper its prevention in Guinea-Bissau. In July and August 2015, quantitative data from 1369 respondents were gathered by structured face-to-face interviews. The questionnaire was based on the psychosocial factors of the RANAS (risks, attitudes, norms, abilities, and self-regulation) model. Data were analyzed by multiple linear regression analyses. The most important predictors for the intention to call the NEH were believing that calling the Hotline would help the infected person, perceiving that important members from the household approve of calling the Hotline, thinking that calling the Hotline is something they should do, and believing that it is important to call the Hotline to report a suspected case. For the intention not to touch someone who might be suffering from Ebola, the most important predictors were health knowledge, the perception of risk with regard to touching a person who might be suffering from Ebola, and the belief that they were able not to touch a possibly infected person. Age in years was the only significant contextual predictor for one of the two behavioural intentions, the intention to call the Hotline. It seems that younger people are more likely to use a service like the NEH than older people. Strengths and gaps were identified in the study population in relation to the intention to perform prevention behaviours. These call for innovative

  7. Ebola virus – new threat to global health

    OpenAIRE

    Rina K. Kusumaratna

    2015-01-01

    Ebola hemorrhagic fever is a fatal infectious disease of humans and primates. The disease is caused by single-stranded RNA viruses belonging to the family Filoviridae. The Ebola virus started to emerge in 1976, in an outbreak that almost simultaneously attacked two countries, namely Zaire and Sudan. (1) Around 500 cases were reported, with a case fatality rate of  88% in Zaire and 53% in Sudan. Although occurring at the same time, the Ebola viruses in the two countries were of different speci...

  8. Ebola vaccine 2014:remained problems to be answered

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Somsri; Wiwanitkit; Viroj; Wiwanitkit

    2015-01-01

    Ebola virus outbreak in Africa in 2014 is a big global issue.The vaccine is the hope for management of the present outbreak of Ebola virus infection.There are several ongoing researches on new Ebola vaccine.In this short manuscript,we discuss and put forward specific remained problems to be answered on this specific issue.Lack for complete knowledge on the new emerging virus,concern from pharmaceutical company and good trial of new vaccine candidates are the remained problem to be further discussed in vaccinology.

  9. New emerging West Africa Ebola 2014:the present global threaten

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Viroj Wiwanitkit

    2014-01-01

    New emerging West Africa Ebola 2014 is the present global threaten. It is a new emerging viral infection that primarily occurred in West Africa and poses the possible trend of worldwide pandemic. The 2014 West Africa Ebola outbreak is the most severe in recorded history in regards to both the number of human cases and fatalities. World Health Organization calls for global concern and attempts to stop the spread of this emerging viral infection. In this brief review, the author presents and discusses on the clinical feature of the new emerging West Africa Ebola 2014.

  10. Preparedness for ongoing Ebola virus infection: how to welcome it?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sora Yasri

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The problem of Ebola virus infection is the big global concern. Preparedness for ongoing Ebola virus infection is the topic that should be discussed. In fact, it is necessary to set up a biosecurity system to protect against the present Ebola outbreak. The medical personnel have to prepare for fighting the problem. The management of the present outbreak requires international collaboration and control of cross-border disease transmission is also the big challenge. The good case study is the Hajj scenario.

  11. New emerging West Africa Ebola 2014: the present global threaten

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viroj Wiwanitkit

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available New emerging West Africa Ebola 2014 is the present global threaten. It is a new emerging viral infection that primarily occurred in West Africa and poses the possible trend of worldwide pandemic. The 2014 West Africa Ebola outbreak is the most severe in recorded history in regards to both the number of human cases and fatalities. World Health Organization calls for global concern and attempts to stop the spread of this emerging viral infection. In this brief review, the author presents and discusses on the clinical feature of the new emerging West Africa Ebola 2014.

  12. Update: Ebola virus disease outbreak--West Africa, October 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-10-31

    CDC is assisting ministries of health and working with other organizations to control and end the ongoing outbreak of Ebola virus disease (Ebola) in West Africa. The updated data in this report were compiled from situation reports from the Guinea Interministerial Committee for Response Against the Ebola Virus and the World Health Organization, the Liberia Ministry of Health and Social Welfare, and the Sierra Leone Ministry of Health and Sanitation. Total case counts include all suspected, probable, and confirmed cases as defined by each country. These data reflect reported cases, which make up an unknown proportion of all actual cases and reporting delays that vary from country to country.

  13. A Recombinant Vesicular Stomatitis Virus Ebola Vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regules, Jason A; Beigel, John H; Paolino, Kristopher M; Voell, Jocelyn; Castellano, Amy R; Hu, Zonghui; Muñoz, Paula; Moon, James E; Ruck, Richard C; Bennett, Jason W; Twomey, Patrick S; Gutiérrez, Ramiro L; Remich, Shon A; Hack, Holly R; Wisniewski, Meagan L; Josleyn, Matthew D; Kwilas, Steven A; Van Deusen, Nicole; Mbaya, Olivier Tshiani; Zhou, Yan; Stanley, Daphne A; Jing, Wang; Smith, Kirsten S; Shi, Meng; Ledgerwood, Julie E; Graham, Barney S; Sullivan, Nancy J; Jagodzinski, Linda L; Peel, Sheila A; Alimonti, Judie B; Hooper, Jay W; Silvera, Peter M; Martin, Brian K; Monath, Thomas P; Ramsey, W Jay; Link, Charles J; Lane, H Clifford; Michael, Nelson L; Davey, Richard T; Thomas, Stephen J

    2017-01-26

    Background The worst Ebola virus disease (EVD) outbreak in history has resulted in more than 28,000 cases and 11,000 deaths. We present the final results of two phase 1 trials of an attenuated, replication-competent, recombinant vesicular stomatitis virus (rVSV)-based vaccine candidate designed to prevent EVD. Methods We conducted two phase 1, placebo-controlled, double-blind, dose-escalation trials of an rVSV-based vaccine candidate expressing the glycoprotein of a Zaire strain of Ebola virus (ZEBOV). A total of 39 adults at each site (78 participants in all) were consecutively enrolled into groups of 13. At each site, volunteers received one of three doses of the rVSV-ZEBOV vaccine (3 million plaque-forming units [PFU], 20 million PFU, or 100 million PFU) or placebo. Volunteers at one of the sites received a second dose at day 28. Safety and immunogenicity were assessed. Results The most common adverse events were injection-site pain, fatigue, myalgia, and headache. Transient rVSV viremia was noted in all the vaccine recipients after dose 1. The rates of adverse events and viremia were lower after the second dose than after the first dose. By day 28, all the vaccine recipients had seroconversion as assessed by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) against the glycoprotein of the ZEBOV-Kikwit strain. At day 28, geometric mean titers of antibodies against ZEBOV glycoprotein were higher in the groups that received 20 million PFU or 100 million PFU than in the group that received 3 million PFU, as assessed by ELISA and by pseudovirion neutralization assay. A second dose at 28 days after dose 1 significantly increased antibody titers at day 56, but the effect was diminished at 6 months. Conclusions This Ebola vaccine candidate elicited anti-Ebola antibody responses. After vaccination, rVSV viremia occurred frequently but was transient. These results support further evaluation of the vaccine dose of 20 million PFU for preexposure prophylaxis and suggest that a

  14. January 21, 2015 CDC Ebola Response Update

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2015-01-21

    The latest numbers from CDC show more than 20,000 people in West Africa have been sick with Ebola, and more than 8,000 have died. As Dr. Tom Frieden explains, some areas may be starting to see a decrease in cases, but that does not mean the fight is over. CDC will continue its work in West Africa until we get to zero new cases.  Created: 1/21/2015 by CDC’s Office of the Associate Director for Communication.   Date Released: 1/21/2015.

  15. May 20, 2015 CDC Ebola Response Update

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2015-05-20

    The spread of diseases can be alarming; staying well informed can help calm fears. In this podcast, we answer some common questions about Ebola including, “Am I at risk?”, “How do I know if I have it?”, and “Can I get it from others?”.  Created: 5/20/2015 by Office of the Associate Director for Communication (OADC).   Date Released: 5/20/2015.

  16. Recovery potential of a western lowland gorilla population following a major Ebola outbreak: results from a ten year study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Céline Genton

    Full Text Available Investigating the recovery capacity of wildlife populations following demographic crashes is of great interest to ecologists and conservationists. Opportunities to study these aspects are rare due to the difficulty of monitoring populations both before and after a demographic crash. Ebola outbreaks in central Africa have killed up to 95% of the individuals in affected western lowland gorilla (Gorilla gorilla gorilla populations. Assessing whether and how fast affected populations recover is essential for the conservation of this critically endangered taxon. The gorilla population visiting Lokoué forest clearing, Odzala-Kokoua National Park, Republic of the Congo, has been monitored before, two years after and six years after Ebola affected it in 2004. This allowed us to describe Ebola's short-term and long-term impacts on the structure of the population. The size of the population, which included around 380 gorillas before the Ebola outbreak, dropped to less than 40 individuals after the outbreak. It then remained stable for six years after the outbreak. However, the demographic structure of this small population has significantly changed. Although several solitary males have disappeared, the immigration of adult females, the formation of new breeding groups, and several birth events suggest that the population is showing potential to recover. During the outbreak, surviving adult and subadult females joined old solitary silverbacks. Those females were subsequently observed joining young silverbacks, forming new breeding groups where they later gave birth. Interestingly, some females were observed joining silverbacks that were unlikely to have sired their infant, but no infanticide was observed. The consequences of the Ebola outbreak on the population structure were different two years and six years after the outbreak. Therefore, our results could be used as demographic indicators to detect and date outbreaks that have happened in other, non

  17. Genetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Inheritance; Heterozygous; Inheritance patterns; Heredity and disease; Heritable; Genetic markers ... The chromosomes are made up of strands of genetic information called DNA. Each chromosome contains sections of ...

  18. Impact of genetic notification on smoking cessation: systematic review and pooled-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Viron, Sylviane; Van der Heyden, Johan; Ambrosino, Elena; Arbyn, Marc; Brand, Angela; Van Oyen, Herman

    2012-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the impact of genetic notification of smoking-related disease risk on smoking cessation in the general population. Secondary objectives were to assess the impact of genetic notification on intention-to-quit smoking and on emotional outcomes as well as the understanding and the recall of this notification. A systematic review of articles from inception to August 2011 without language restriction was realized using PubMed, Embase, Scopus, Web of Science, PsycINFO and Toxnet. Other publications were identified using hand search. The pooled-analysis included only randomized trials. Comparison groups were (i) high and low genetic risk versus control, and (ii) high versus low genetic risk. For the pooled-analysis random effect models were applied and sensitivity analyses were conducted. Eight papers from seven different studies met the inclusion criteria of the review. High genetic risk notification was associated with short-term increased depression and anxiety. Four randomized studies were included in the pooled-analysis, which revealed a significant impact of genetic notification on smoking cessation in comparison to controls (clinical risk notification or no intervention) in short term follow-up less than 6 months (RR = 1.55, 95% CI 1.09-2.21). In short term follow-up, genetic notification increased smoking cessation in comparison to control interventions. However, there is no evidence of long term effect (up to 12 month) on smoking cessation. Further research is needed to assess more in depth how genetic notification of smoking-related disease could contribute to smoking cessation.

  19. Impact of genetic variation in SORCS1 on memory retention.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christiane Reitz

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: We previously reported that genetic variants in SORCS1 increase the risk of AD, that over-expression of SorCS1 reduces γ-secretase activity and Aβ levels, and that SorCS1 suppression increases γ-secretase processing of APP and Aβ levels. We now explored the effect of variation in SORCS1 on memory. METHODS: We explored associations between SORCS1-SNPs and memory retention in the NIA-LOAD case control dataset (162 cases,670 controls and a cohort of Caribbean Hispanics (549 cases,544 controls using single marker and haplotype analyses. RESULTS: Three SNPs in intron 1, were associated with memory retention in the NIA-LOAD dataset or the Caribbean Hispanic dataset (rs10884402(A allele:β = -0.15,p = 0.008, rs7078098(C allele:β = 0.18,p = 0.007 and rs950809(C allele:β = 0.17,p = 0.008 and all three SNPs were significant in a meta-analysis of both datasets (0.002

  20. Mitigating measles outbreaks in West Africa post-Ebola.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truelove, Shaun A; Moss, William J; Lessler, Justin

    2015-01-01

    The Ebola outbreak in 2014-2015 devastated the populations, economies and healthcare systems of Guinea, Liberia and Sierra Leone. With this devastation comes the impending threat of outbreaks of other infectious diseases like measles. Strategies for mitigating these risks must include both prevention, through vaccination, and case detection and management, focused on surveillance, diagnosis and appropriate clinical care and case management. With the high transmissibility of measles virus, small-scale reactive vaccinations will be essential to extinguish focal outbreaks, while national vaccination campaigns are needed to guarantee vaccination coverage targets are reached in the long term. Rapid and multifaceted strategies should carefully navigate challenges present in the wake of Ebola, while also taking advantage of current Ebola-related activities and international attention. Above all, resources and focus currently aimed at these countries must be utilized to build up the deficit in infrastructure and healthcare systems that contributed to the extent of the Ebola outbreak.

  1. Ebola virus vaccines: an overview of current approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marzi, Andrea; Feldmann, Heinz

    2014-04-01

    Ebola hemorrhagic fever is one of the most fatal viral diseases worldwide affecting humans and nonhuman primates. Although infections only occur frequently in Central Africa, the virus has the potential to spread globally and is classified as a category A pathogen that could be misused as a bioterrorism agent. As of today there is no vaccine or treatment licensed to counteract Ebola virus infections. DNA, subunit and several viral vector approaches, replicating and non-replicating, have been tested as potential vaccine platforms and their protective efficacy has been evaluated in nonhuman primate models for Ebola virus infections, which closely resemble disease progression in humans. Though these vaccine platforms seem to confer protection through different mechanisms, several of them are efficacious against lethal disease in nonhuman primates attesting that vaccination against Ebola virus infections is feasible.

  2. Investigating the zoonotic origin of the West African Ebola epidemic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marí Saéz, Almudena; Weiss, Sabrina; Nowak, Kathrin; Lapeyre, Vincent; Zimmermann, Fee; Düx, Ariane; Kühl, Hjalmar S; Kaba, Moussa; Regnaut, Sebastien; Merkel, Kevin; Sachse, Andreas; Thiesen, Ulla; Villányi, Lili; Boesch, Christophe; Dabrowski, Piotr W; Radonić, Aleksandar; Nitsche, Andreas; Leendertz, Siv Aina J; Petterson, Stefan; Becker, Stephan; Krähling, Verena; Couacy-Hymann, Emmanuel; Akoua-Koffi, Chantal; Weber, Natalie; Schaade, Lars; Fahr, Jakob; Borchert, Matthias; Gogarten, Jan F; Calvignac-Spencer, Sébastien; Leendertz, Fabian H

    2015-01-01

    The severe Ebola virus disease epidemic occurring in West Africa stems from a single zoonotic transmission event to a 2-year-old boy in Meliandou, Guinea. We investigated the zoonotic origins of the epidemic using wildlife surveys, interviews, and molecular analyses of bat and environmental samples. We found no evidence for a concurrent outbreak in larger wildlife. Exposure to fruit bats is common in the region, but the index case may have been infected by playing in a hollow tree housing a colony of insectivorous free-tailed bats (Mops condylurus). Bats in this family have previously been discussed as potential sources for Ebola virus outbreaks, and experimental data have shown that this species can survive experimental infection. These analyses expand the range of possible Ebola virus sources to include insectivorous bats and reiterate the importance of broader sampling efforts for understanding Ebola virus ecology. PMID:25550396

  3. hand hygiene practices post ebola virus disease outbreak in a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2014-10-20

    Oct 20, 2014 ... The declaration of Nigeria as an Ebola-free country by the World Health ... and multivariate logistic regression were used to determine associations between predictors of ..... Lashley FR, Jerry D. Emerging infectious diseases: ...

  4. Investigating the zoonotic origin of the West African Ebola epidemic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marí Saéz, Almudena; Weiss, Sabrina; Nowak, Kathrin; Lapeyre, Vincent; Zimmermann, Fee; Düx, Ariane; Kühl, Hjalmar S; Kaba, Moussa; Regnaut, Sebastien; Merkel, Kevin; Sachse, Andreas; Thiesen, Ulla; Villányi, Lili; Boesch, Christophe; Dabrowski, Piotr W; Radonić, Aleksandar; Nitsche, Andreas; Leendertz, Siv Aina J; Petterson, Stefan; Becker, Stephan; Krähling, Verena; Couacy-Hymann, Emmanuel; Akoua-Koffi, Chantal; Weber, Natalie; Schaade, Lars; Fahr, Jakob; Borchert, Matthias; Gogarten, Jan F; Calvignac-Spencer, Sébastien; Leendertz, Fabian H

    2014-12-30

    The severe Ebola virus disease epidemic occurring in West Africa stems from a single zoonotic transmission event to a 2-year-old boy in Meliandou, Guinea. We investigated the zoonotic origins of the epidemic using wildlife surveys, interviews, and molecular analyses of bat and environmental samples. We found no evidence for a concurrent outbreak in larger wildlife. Exposure to fruit bats is common in the region, but the index case may have been infected by playing in a hollow tree housing a colony of insectivorous free-tailed bats (Mops condylurus). Bats in this family have previously been discussed as potential sources for Ebola virus outbreaks, and experimental data have shown that this species can survive experimental infection. These analyses expand the range of possible Ebola virus sources to include insectivorous bats and reiterate the importance of broader sampling efforts for understanding Ebola virus ecology.

  5. Evaluating Subcriticality during the Ebola Epidemic in West Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wayne T A Enanoria

    Full Text Available The 2014-2015 Ebola outbreak is the largest and most widespread to date. In order to estimate ongoing transmission in the affected countries, we estimated the weekly average number of secondary cases caused by one individual infected with Ebola throughout the infectious period for each affected West African country using a stochastic hidden Markov model fitted to case data from the World Health Organization. If the average number of infections caused by one Ebola infection is less than 1.0, the epidemic is subcritical and cannot sustain itself. The epidemics in Liberia and Sierra Leone have approached subcriticality at some point during the epidemic; the epidemic in Guinea is ongoing with no evidence that it is subcritical. Response efforts to control the epidemic should continue in order to eliminate Ebola cases in West Africa.

  6. Lessons learned during active epidemiological surveillance of Ebola ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Lessons learned during active epidemiological surveillance of Ebola And Marburg Viral Hemorrhagic Fever Epidemics in Africa. ... During epidemics in rural settings, outbreak investigations have shown multiple introductions of the virus into ...

  7. Education and Ebola: initiating the cascade of emergency healthcare training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eardley, Will; Bowley, D; Hunt, P; Round, J; Tarmey, N; Williams, A

    2016-06-01

    In response to the 2014 Ebola virus outbreak in West Africa, the UK deployed a Joint Inter-Agency Task Force to Sierra Leone. As well as constructing Ebola treatment units, the force supported a rapidly upscaled mass programme of training for host nation healthcare workers in basic knowledge of Ebola and personal protective equipment. A bespoke training course was developed in collaboration with the WHO and other partners over a period of 2 weeks, taught to 119 trainers the following week, and then cascaded to over 4000 Ebola workers over the following month. This article describes curriculum design, content delivery and assessment of this unique Training The Trainers course delivered in austere circumstances. Key learning points are highlighted and supplementary material is provided to inform future deployed clinical education initiatives.

  8. Late Ebola virus relapse causing meningoencephalitis: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Michael; Rodger, Alison; Bell, David J; Bhagani, Sanjay; Cropley, Ian; Filipe, Ana; Gifford, Robert J; Hopkins, Susan; Hughes, Joseph; Jabeen, Farrah; Johannessen, Ingolfur; Karageorgopoulos, Drosos; Lackenby, Angie; Lester, Rebecca; Liu, Rebecca S N; MacConnachie, Alisdair; Mahungu, Tabitha; Martin, Daniel; Marshall, Neal; Mepham, Stephen; Orton, Richard; Palmarini, Massimo; Patel, Monika; Perry, Colin; Peters, S Erica; Porter, Duncan; Ritchie, David; Ritchie, Neil D; Seaton, R Andrew; Sreenu, Vattipally B; Templeton, Kate; Warren, Simon; Wilkie, Gavin S; Zambon, Maria; Gopal, Robin; Thomson, Emma C

    2016-07-30

    There are thousands of survivors of the 2014 Ebola outbreak in west Africa. Ebola virus can persist in survivors for months in immune-privileged sites; however, viral relapse causing life-threatening and potentially transmissible disease has not been described. We report a case of late relapse in a patient who had been treated for severe Ebola virus disease with high viral load (peak cycle threshold value 13.2). A 39-year-old female nurse from Scotland, who had assisted the humanitarian effort in Sierra Leone, had received intensive supportive treatment and experimental antiviral therapies, and had been discharged with undetectable Ebola virus RNA in peripheral blood. The patient was readmitted to hospital 9 months after discharge with symptoms of acute meningitis, and was found to have Ebola virus in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). She was treated with supportive therapy and experimental antiviral drug GS-5734 (Gilead Sciences, San Francisco, Foster City, CA, USA). We monitored Ebola virus RNA in CSF and plasma, and sequenced the viral genome using an unbiased metagenomic approach. On admission, reverse transcriptase PCR identified Ebola virus RNA at a higher level in CSF (cycle threshold value 23.7) than plasma (31.3); infectious virus was only recovered from CSF. The patient developed progressive meningoencephalitis with cranial neuropathies and radiculopathy. Clinical recovery was associated with addition of high-dose corticosteroids during GS-5734 treatment. CSF Ebola virus RNA slowly declined and was undetectable following 14 days of treatment with GS-5734. Sequencing of plasma and CSF viral genome revealed only two non-coding changes compared with the original infecting virus. Our report shows that previously unanticipated, late, severe relapses of Ebola virus can occur, in this case in the CNS. This finding fundamentally redefines what is known about the natural history of Ebola virus infection. Vigilance should be maintained in the thousands of Ebola survivors

  9. Genetic and Environmental Impact on Iron, Zinc, and Phytate in Food Sorghum Grown in Benin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kayodé, A.P.P.; Linnemann, A.R.; Hounhouigan, J.D.; Nout, M.J.R.; Boekel, van M.A.J.S.

    2006-01-01

    Seventy-six farmers' varieties of sorghum from Benin were distinguished by amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) and clustered into 45 distinct genotypes. The genotype clusters were evaluated for their Fe, Zn, and phytate concentrations to assess the impact of genetic and environmental effec

  10. What are the socio-economic impacts of genetically modified crops worldwide? A systematic map protocol

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Garcia-Yi, J.; Lapikanonth, T.; Vionita, H.; Vu, H.; Yang, S.; Zhong, Y.; Li, Y.; Nagelschneider, V.; Schlindwein, B.; Wesseler, J.H.H.

    2014-01-01

    Genetically modified (GM) crops have generated a great deal of controversy. Since commercially introduced to farmers in 1996, the global area cultivated with GM crops has increased 94-fold. The rapid adoption of GM technology has had substantial socio-economic impacts which a vast amount of

  11. Antibody Derived Peptides for Detection of Ebola Virus Glycoprotein

    OpenAIRE

    Luis Mario Rodríguez-Martínez; Alan Roberto Marquez-Ipiña; Felipe López-Pacheco; Roberto Pérez-Chavarría; Juan Carlos González-Vázquez; Everardo González-González; Grissel Trujillo-de Santiago; César Alejandro Ponce-Ponce de León; Yu Shrike Zhang; Mehmet Remzi Dokmeci; Ali Khademhosseini; Mario Moisés Alvarez

    2015-01-01

    Background: Current Ebola virus (EBOV) detection methods are costly and impractical for epidemic scenarios. Different immune-based assays have been reported for the detection and quantification of Ebola virus (EBOV) proteins. In particular, several monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) have been described that bind the capsid glycoprotein (GP) of EBOV GP. However, the currently available platforms for the design and production of full-length mAbs are cumbersome and costly. The use of antibody fragment...

  12. [EBOLA HEMORRHAGIC FEVER: DIAGNOSTICS, ETIOTROPIC AND PATHOGENETIC THERAPY, PREVENTION].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhdanov, K V; Zakharenko, S M; Kovalenko, A N; Semenov, A V; Fisun, A Ya

    2015-01-01

    The data on diagnostics, etiotropic and pathogenetic therapy, prevention of Ebola hemorrhagic fever are presented including diagnostic algorithms for different clinical situations. Fundamentals of pathogenetic therapy are described. Various groups of medications used for antiviral therapy of conditions caused by Ebola virus are characterized. Experimental drugs at different stages of clinical studies are considered along with candidate vaccines being developed for the prevention of the disease.

  13. The United States confronts Ebola: suasion, executive action and fragmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greer, Scott L; Singer, Phillip M

    2017-01-01

    The United States' experience with the Ebola virus in 2014 provides a window into US public health politics. First, the United States provided a case study in the role of suasion and executive action in the management of public health in a fragmented multi-level system. The variable capacity of different parts of the United States to respond to Ebola on the level of hospitals or state governments, and their different approaches, show the limitations of federal influence, the importance of knowledge and executive energy, and the diversity of both powerful actors and sources of power. Second, the politics of Ebola in the United States is a case study in the politics of partisan blame attribution. The outbreak struck in the run-up to an election that was likely to be good for the Republican party, and the election dominated interest in and opinions of Ebola in both the media and public opinion. Democratic voters and media downplayed Ebola while Republican voters and media focused on the outbreak. The media was a key conduit for this strategic politicization, as shown in the quantity, timing and framing of news about Ebola. Neither fragmentation nor partisanship appears to be going away, so understanding the politics of public health crises will remain important.

  14. Ebola Virus Shedding and Transmission: Review of Current Evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vetter, Pauline; Fischer, William A; Schibler, Manuel; Jacobs, Michael; Bausch, Daniel G; Kaiser, Laurent

    2016-10-15

     The magnitude of the 2013-2016 Ebola virus disease outbreak in West Africa was unprecedented, with >28 500 reported cases and >11 000 deaths. Understanding the key elements of Ebola virus transmission is necessary to implement adequate infection prevention and control measures to protect healthcare workers and halt transmission in the community.  We performed an extensive PubMed literature review encompassing the period from discovery of Ebola virus, in 1976, until 1 June 2016 to evaluate the evidence on modes of Ebola virus shedding and transmission.  Ebola virus has been isolated by cell culture from blood, saliva, urine, aqueous humor, semen, and breast milk from infected or convalescent patients. Ebola virus RNA has been noted in the following body fluids days or months after onset of illness: saliva (22 days), conjunctiva/tears (28 days), stool (29 days), vaginal fluid (33 days), sweat (44 days), urine (64 days), amniotic fluid (38 days), aqueous humor (101 days), cerebrospinal fluid (9 months), breast milk (16 months [preliminary data]), and semen (18 months). Nevertheless, the only documented cases of secondary transmission from recovered patients have been through sexual transmission. We did not find strong evidence supporting respiratory or fomite-associated transmission. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, e-mail journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. Ebola virus outbreak 2014: clinical review for emergency physicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyers, Linda; Frawley, Thomas; Goss, Sarah; Kang, Christopher

    2015-01-01

    The 2014 Ebola outbreak in West Africa is the largest in history. Ebola viral disease is a severe and fatal illness characterized by a nonspecific viral syndrome followed by fulminant septic shock and coagulopathy. Despite ongoing efforts directed at experimental treatments and vaccine development, current medical management of Ebola viral disease is largely limited to supportive therapy, thus making early case identification and immediate implementation of appropriate control measures critical. Because a case of Ebola viral disease was confirmed in the United States on September 30, 2014, emergency medicine providers should be knowledgeable about it for a number of reasons: we are being called on to answer questions about Ebola and allay public fears, we are likely to be first to encounter an infected patient, and there are increasing numbers of US emergency physicians working in Africa who risk coming in direct contact with the disease. This article seeks to provide emergency physicians with the essential and up-to-date information required to identify, evaluate, and manage Ebola viral disease and to join global efforts to contain the current outbreak. Copyright © 2014 American College of Emergency Physicians. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Macromolecular Antiviral Agents against Zika, Ebola, SARS, and Other Pathogenic Viruses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schandock, Franziska; Riber, Camilla Frich; Röcker, Annika

    2017-01-01

    . This work performs selection of synthetic polymers as novel broadly active agents and demonstrates activity of these polymers against Zika, Ebola, Lassa, Lyssa, Rabies, Marburg, Ebola, influenza, herpes simplex, and human immunodeficiency viruses. Results presented herein offer structure...

  17. Study Finds Ebola Treatment ZMapp Holds Promise, Although Results Not Definitive

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... News Release Thursday, October 13, 2016 Study finds Ebola treatment ZMapp holds promise, although results not definitive ... emergency. A clinical trial to evaluate the experimental Ebola treatment ZMapp found it to be safe and ...

  18. Impact of predicted protein-truncating genetic variants on the human transcriptome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivas, Manuel A.; Pirinen, Matti; Conrad, Donald F.; Lek, Monkol; Tsang, Emily K.; Karczewski, Konrad J.; Maller, Julian B.; Kukurba, Kimberly R.; DeLuca, David; Fromer, Menachem; Ferreira, Pedro G.; Smith, Kevin S.; Zhang, Rui; Zhao, Fengmei; Banks, Eric; Poplin, Ryan; Ruderfer, Douglas; Purcell, Shaun M.; Tukiainen, Taru; Minikel, Eric V.; Stenson, Peter D.; Cooper, David N.; Huang, Katharine H.; Sullivan, Timothy J.; Nedzel, Jared; Bustamante, Carlos D.; Li, Jin Billy; Daly, Mark J.; Guigo, Roderic; Donnelly, Peter; Ardlie, Kristin; Sammeth, Michael; Dermitzakis, Emmanouil; McCarthy, Mark I.; Montgomery, Stephen B.; Lappalainen, Tuuli; MacArthur, Daniel G.

    2015-01-01

    Accurate prediction of the functional impact of genetic variation is critical for clinical genome interpretation. We systematically characterized the transcriptome effects of protein-truncating variants (PTVs), a class of variants expected to have profound impacts on gene function, using data from the Genotype-Tissue Expression (GTEx) and Geuvadis projects. We quantitate tissue-specific and positional effects on nonsense-mediated transcript decay, and present an improved predictive model for this decay. We directly measure the impact of variants both proximal and distal to splice junctions. Furthermore, we find that robustness to heterozygous gene inactivation is not due to dosage compensation. Our results illustrate the value of transcriptome data in the functional interpretation of genetic variants. PMID:25954003

  19. Protection from Ebola Virus Mediated by Cytotoxic T Lymphocytes Specific for the Viral Nucleoprotein

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-03-01

    be required for optimal protection from Ebola virus. Ebola viruses are associated with outbreaks of highly lethal hemorrhagic fever in humans and...nonhuman primates. The Ebola Zaire viruses responsible for outbreaks of human dis- ease in 1976 and 1995 had case-fatality rates of greater than 80...encoding the Ebola virus NP protein (12, 13) or with a control replicon encoding Lassa virus N (14). For booster vaccinations, animals 2660 VOL

  20. Functional CD8+ T Cell Responses in Lethal Ebola Virus Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-03-15

    2003. Cutting edge: impairment of dendritic cells and adaptive immunity by Ebola and Lassa viruses . J. Immunol. 170: 2797–2801. 20. Bosio, C. M., B...Functional CD8 T Cell Responses in Lethal Ebola Virus Infection1 Steven B. Bradfute, Kelly L. Warfield, and Sina Bavari2 Ebola virus (EBOV) causes...the development of an effective adap- tive immune response, leading to overwhelming infection and death. Ebola virus (EBOV)3 is a single-stranded

  1. Effective Binding of a Phosphatidylserine-Targeting Antibody to Ebola Virus Infected Cells and Purified Virions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowall, S. D.; Graham, V. A.; Corbin-Lickfett, K.; Empig, C.; Schlunegger, K.; Bruce, C. B.; Easterbrook, L.; Hewson, R.

    2015-01-01

    Ebola virus is responsible for causing severe hemorrhagic fevers, with case fatality rates of up to 90%. Currently, no antiviral or vaccine is licensed against Ebola virus. A phosphatidylserine-targeting antibody (PGN401, bavituximab) has previously been shown to have broad-spectrum antiviral activity. Here, we demonstrate that PGN401 specifically binds to Ebola virus and recognizes infected cells. Our study provides the first evidence of phosphatidylserine-targeting antibody reactivity against Ebola virus. PMID:25815346

  2. Effective Binding of a Phosphatidylserine-Targeting Antibody to Ebola Virus Infected Cells and Purified Virions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. D. Dowall

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Ebola virus is responsible for causing severe hemorrhagic fevers, with case fatality rates of up to 90%. Currently, no antiviral or vaccine is licensed against Ebola virus. A phosphatidylserine-targeting antibody (PGN401, bavituximab has previously been shown to have broad-spectrum antiviral activity. Here, we demonstrate that PGN401 specifically binds to Ebola virus and recognizes infected cells. Our study provides the first evidence of phosphatidylserine-targeting antibody reactivity against Ebola virus.

  3. Chemical Modifications of Antisense Morpholino Oligomers Enhance Their Efficacy against Ebola Virus Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-05-01

    specific PMOs in infected cells and mice during lethal Ebola virus challenge. Members of the Filoviridae family of viruses , Ebola virus (EBOV) and Marburg ...American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved. Chemical Modifications of Antisense Morpholino Oligomers Enhance Their Efficacy against Ebola Virus ...sequence is complementary to a region spanning the start codon of VP24 mRNA were protected against lethal Ebola virus challenge. In the present study, we

  4. Fighting Ebola with novel spore decontamination technologies for the military.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doona, Christopher J; Feeherry, Florence E; Kustin, Kenneth; Olinger, Gene G; Setlow, Peter; Malkin, Alexander J; Leighton, Terrance

    2015-01-01

    Recently, global public health organizations such as Doctors without Borders (MSF), the World Health Organization (WHO), Public Health Canada, National Institutes of Health (NIH), and the U.S. government developed and deployed Field Decontamination Kits (FDKs), a novel, lightweight, compact, reusable decontamination technology to sterilize Ebola-contaminated medical devices at remote clinical sites lacking infra-structure in crisis-stricken regions of West Africa (medical waste materials are placed in bags and burned). The basis for effectuating sterilization with FDKs is chlorine dioxide (ClO2) produced from a patented invention developed by researchers at the US Army Natick Soldier RD&E Center (NSRDEC) and commercialized as a dry mixed-chemical for bacterial spore decontamination. In fact, the NSRDEC research scientists developed an ensemble of ClO2 technologies designed for different applications in decontaminating fresh produce; food contact and handling surfaces; personal protective equipment; textiles used in clothing, uniforms, tents, and shelters; graywater recycling; airplanes; surgical instruments; and hard surfaces in latrines, laundries, and deployable medical facilities. These examples demonstrate the far-reaching impact, adaptability, and versatility of these innovative technologies. We present herein the unique attributes of NSRDEC's novel decontamination technologies and a Case Study of the development of FDKs that were deployed in West Africa by international public health organizations to sterilize Ebola-contaminated medical equipment. FDKs use bacterial spores as indicators of sterility. We review the properties and structures of spores and the mechanisms of bacterial spore inactivation by ClO2. We also review mechanisms of bacterial spore inactivation by novel, emerging, and established non-thermal technologies for food preservation, such as high pressure processing, irradiation, cold plasma, and chemical sanitizers, using an array of Bacillus

  5. Fighting Ebola with novel spore decontamination technologies for the military

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doona, Christopher J.; Feeherry, Florence E.; Kustin, Kenneth; Olinger, Gene G.; Setlow, Peter; Malkin, Alexander J.; Leighton, Terrance

    2015-01-01

    Recently, global public health organizations such as Doctors without Borders (MSF), the World Health Organization (WHO), Public Health Canada, National Institutes of Health (NIH), and the U.S. government developed and deployed Field Decontamination Kits (FDKs), a novel, lightweight, compact, reusable decontamination technology to sterilize Ebola-contaminated medical devices at remote clinical sites lacking infra-structure in crisis-stricken regions of West Africa (medical waste materials are placed in bags and burned). The basis for effectuating sterilization with FDKs is chlorine dioxide (ClO2) produced from a patented invention developed by researchers at the US Army Natick Soldier RD&E Center (NSRDEC) and commercialized as a dry mixed-chemical for bacterial spore decontamination. In fact, the NSRDEC research scientists developed an ensemble of ClO2 technologies designed for different applications in decontaminating fresh produce; food contact and handling surfaces; personal protective equipment; textiles used in clothing, uniforms, tents, and shelters; graywater recycling; airplanes; surgical instruments; and hard surfaces in latrines, laundries, and deployable medical facilities. These examples demonstrate the far-reaching impact, adaptability, and versatility of these innovative technologies. We present herein the unique attributes of NSRDEC’s novel decontamination technologies and a Case Study of the development of FDKs that were deployed in West Africa by international public health organizations to sterilize Ebola-contaminated medical equipment. FDKs use bacterial spores as indicators of sterility. We review the properties and structures of spores and the mechanisms of bacterial spore inactivation by ClO2. We also review mechanisms of bacterial spore inactivation by novel, emerging, and established non-thermal technologies for food preservation, such as high pressure processing, irradiation, cold plasma, and chemical sanitizers, using an array of Bacillus

  6. The Ebola Outbreak: Catalyzing a "Shift" in Global Health Governance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackey, Tim K

    2016-11-24

    As the 2014 Ebola virus disease outbreak (EVD) transitions to its post-endemic phase, its impact on the future of global public health, particularly the World Health Organization (WHO), is the subject of continued debate. Criticism of WHO's performance grew louder in the outbreak's wake, placing this international health UN-specialized agency in the difficult position of navigating a complex series of reform recommendations put forth by different stakeholders. Decisions on WHO governance reform and the broader role of the United Nations could very well shape the future landscape of 21st century global health and how the international community responds to health emergencies. In order to better understand the implications of the EVD outbreak on global health and infectious disease governance, this debate article critically examines a series of reports issued by four high-level commissions/panels convened to specifically assess WHO's performance post-Ebola. Collectively, these recommendations add increasing complexity to the urgent need for WHO reform, a process that the agency must carry out in order to maintain its legitimacy. Proposals that garnered strong support included the formation of an independent WHO Centre for Emergency Preparedness and Response, the urgent need to increase WHO infectious disease funding and capacity, and establishing better operational and policy coordination between WHO, UN agencies, and other global health partners. The recommendations also raise more fundamental questions about restructuring the global health architecture, and whether the UN should play a more active role in global health governance. Despite the need for a fully modernized WHO, reform proposals recently announced by WHO fail to achieve the "evolution" in global health governance needed in order to ensure that global society is adequately protected against the multifaceted and increasingly complex nature of modern public health emergencies. Instead, the lasting

  7. MANAGEMENT OF THE PATIENTS WITH EBOLA VIRUS DESEASE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bondarenko A.V.

    2015-05-01

    , bleeding and shock is a basic and is carried out by common methods. Management of the pain syndrome and anxiety is especially important too. Ribavirin is recommended for the treatment of the patients with Lassa fever and CCHF and it does not apply to the Ebola and Marburg viruses. In most cases, it is impossible to make the diagnosis based only on epidemiological anamnesis and clinical symptoms due to the absence in Ukraine of laboratory express diagnostics kits. Ribavirin should be given empirically to all patients with suspected EVD and other viral haemorrhagic fevers considering difficulties of the differential diagnosis at early stage of infection, especially in pregnant women, due to extremely high maternal and fetal mortality associated with Lassa fever despite on drug adverse effects. All patients should be screened for malaria considering common signs of the EVD clinical manifestations and tropical malaria, antiparasitic therapy should be given to those with a positive result of the research. The intensive supportive care for EVD is the same time for the septic shock due to bacterial infections and malaria. Intensive supportive care is the only clinical management that can be provided to these patients and may have a positive impact on disease outcome. The treatment of the shock should be comprehensive and aimed to maintain vital functions. Broad-spectrum antibiotics should be given empirically during the first hour of the shock therapy. Choice of antibiotics depends on presence of signs of local infection, local disease patterns, and availability of antibiotics. Thus, management of EVD should be based on a set of measures such as clinical management, surveillance and contact tracing, high-quality laboratory services, safe burial and social mobilization.

  8. Animal models for Ebola and Marburg virus infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eri eNakayama

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Ebola and Marburg hemorrhagic fevers (EHF and MHF are caused by the Filoviridae family, Ebolavirus and Marburgvirus (ebolavirus and marburgvirus, respectively. These severe diseases have high mortality rates in humans. Although EHF and MHF are endemic to sub-Saharan Africa. A novel filovirus, Lloviu virus, which is genetically distinct from ebolavirus and marburgvirus, was recently discovered in Spain where filoviral hemorrhagic fever had never been reported. The virulence of this virus has not been determined. Ebolavirus and marburgvirus are classified as biosafety level-4 (BSL-4 pathogens and Category A agents, for which the US government requires preparedness in case of bioterrorism. Therefore, preventive measures against these viral hemorrhagic fevers should be prepared, not only in disease-endemic regions, but also in disease-free countries. Diagnostics, vaccines, and therapeutics need to be developed, and therefore the establishment of animal models for EHF and MHF is invaluable. Several animal models have been developed for EHF and MHF using nonhuman primates (NHPs and rodents, which are crucial to understand pathophysiology and to develop diagnostics, vaccines, and therapeutics. Rhesus and cynomolgus macaques are representative models of filovirus infection as they exhibit remarkably similar symptoms to those observed in humans. However, the NHP models have practical and ethical problems that limit their experimental use. Furthermore, there are no inbred and genetically manipulated strains of NHP. Rodent models such as mouse, guinea pig, and hamster, have also been developed. However, these rodent models require adaptation of the virus to produce lethal disease and do not mirror all symptoms of human filovirus infection. This review article provides an outline of the clinical features of EHF and MHF in animals, including humans, and discusses how the animal models have been developed to study pathophysiology, vaccines, and therapeutics.

  9. Animal models for Ebola and Marburg virus infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakayama, Eri; Saijo, Masayuki

    2013-09-05

    Ebola and Marburg hemorrhagic fevers (EHF and MHF) are caused by the Filoviridae family, Ebolavirus and Marburgvirus (ebolavirus and marburgvirus), respectively. These severe diseases have high mortality rates in humans. Although EHF and MHF are endemic to sub-Saharan Africa. A novel filovirus, Lloviu virus, which is genetically distinct from ebolavirus and marburgvirus, was recently discovered in Spain where filoviral hemorrhagic fever had never been reported. The virulence of this virus has not been determined. Ebolavirus and marburgvirus are classified as biosafety level-4 (BSL-4) pathogens and Category A agents, for which the US government requires preparedness in case of bioterrorism. Therefore, preventive measures against these viral hemorrhagic fevers should be prepared, not only in disease-endemic regions, but also in disease-free countries. Diagnostics, vaccines, and therapeutics need to be developed, and therefore the establishment of animal models for EHF and MHF is invaluable. Several animal models have been developed for EHF and MHF using non-human primates (NHPs) and rodents, which are crucial to understand pathophysiology and to develop diagnostics, vaccines, and therapeutics. Rhesus and cynomolgus macaques are representative models of filovirus infection as they exhibit remarkably similar symptoms to those observed in humans. However, the NHP models have practical and ethical problems that limit their experimental use. Furthermore, there are no inbred and genetically manipulated strains of NHP. Rodent models such as mouse, guinea pig, and hamster, have also been developed. However, these rodent models require adaptation of the virus to produce lethal disease and do not mirror all symptoms of human filovirus infection. This review article provides an outline of the clinical features of EHF and MHF in animals, including humans, and discusses how the animal models have been developed to study pathophysiology, vaccines, and therapeutics.

  10. Ebola Viral Disease in West Africa: A Threat to Global Health, Economy and Political Stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omoleke, Semeeh Akinwale; Mohammed, Ibrahim; Saidu, Yauba

    2016-08-17

    The West African sub-continent is currently experiencing its first, and ironically, the largest and longest Ebola viral diseases (EVD) outbreak ever documented in modern medical history. The current outbreak is significant in several ways, including longevity, magnitude of morbidity and mortality, occurrence outside the traditional niches, rapid spread and potential of becoming a global health tragedy. The authors provided explicit insights into the current and historical background, drivers of the epidemic, societal impacts, status of vaccines and drugs development and proffered recommendations to halt and prevent future occurrences. The authors reviewed mainly five databases and a hand search of key relevant literature. We reviewed 51 articles that were relevant up until the 18(th) of August 2014. The authors supplemented the search with reference list of relevant articles and grey literature as well as relevant Internet websites. Article searches were limited to those published either in English or French. There are strong indications that the EVD may have been triggered by increased human activities and encroachment into the forest ecosystem spurred by increasing population and poverty-driven forest-dependent local economy. Containment efforts are being hampered by weak and fragile health systems, including public health surveillance and weak governance, certain socio-anthropological factors, fast travels (improved transport systems) and globalization. The societal impacts of the EBV outbreak are grave, including economic shutdown, weakening of socio-political systems, psychological distress, and unprecedented consumption of scarce health resources. The research and development (R&D) pipeline for product against EBV seems grossly insufficient. The outbreak of Ebola and the seeming difficulty to contain the epidemic is simply a reflection of the weak health system, poor surveillance and emergency preparedness/response, poverty and disconnect between the

  11. Ebola viral disease in West Africa: a threat to global health, economy and political stability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Semeeh Akinwale Omoleke

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The West African sub-continent is currently experiencing its first, and ironically, the largest and longest Ebola viral diseases (EVD outbreak ever documented in modern medical history. The current outbreak is significant in several ways, including longevity, magnitude of morbidity and mortality, occurrence outside the traditional niches, rapid spread and potential of becoming a global health tragedy. The authors provided explicit insights into the current and historical background, drivers of the epidemic, societal impacts, status of vaccines and drugs development and proffered recommendations to halt and prevent future occurrences. The authors reviewed mainly five databases and a hand search of key relevant literature. We reviewed 51 articles that were relevant up until the 18th of August 2014. The authors supplemented the search with reference list of relevant articles and grey literature as well as relevant Internet websites. Article searches were limited to those published either in English or French. There are strong indications that the EVD may have been triggered by increased human activities and encroachment into the forest ecosystem spurred by increasing population and povertydriven forest-dependent local economy. Containment efforts are being hampered by weak and fragile health systems, including public health surveillance and weak governance, certain socio-anthropological factors, fast travels (improved transport systems and globalization. The societal impacts of the EBV outbreak are grave, including economic shutdown, weakening of socio-political systems, psychological distress, and unprecedented consumption of scarce health resources. The research and development (R&D pipeline for product against EBV seems grossly insufficient. The outbreak of Ebola and the seeming difficulty to contain the epidemic is simply a reflection of the weak health system, poor surveillance and emergency preparedness/ response, poverty and disconnect

  12. Introgression of transgenic crop alleles: Its evolutionary impacts on conserving genetic diversity of crop wild relatives

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bao-Rong LU

    2013-01-01

    Effective conservation of crop wild relative (CWR) species is essential for the sustainable use and genetic improvement of crop varieties,which offers greater opportunities for world food security,particularly in modem agroecosystems where CWR diversity is under severe threat.Factors such as habitat fragmentation,human disturbances,global climate change,and invasion of harmful alien species have been identified to be responsible for losses and threats to CWR diversity.However,a neglected factor,gene introgression from domesticated species through repeated outcrossing,may have a significant impact on CWR diversity.Introgression can influence genetic diversity and evolutionary processes of CWR populations through effects such as demographic swarming,genetic assimilation,and selective sweep.When largely enhancing or reducing fitness of wild plants,the introgression of crop genes will impose more significant genetic and evolutionary impacts on CWR populations,leading to undesired consequences for conserved CWR populations and species.This situation is particularly true when genetically engineered (GE) crops are deployed for commercial cultivation.It is argued that a GE crop usually contains transgenes with strong natural selection advantages,and such transgenes introgressed into CWR populations may have strong impacts on their genetic diversity and evolutionary processes,threatening their conservation.This article reviews the challenge of crop-wild gene flow,and particularly transgene introgression from GE crops,for the in situ conservation of wild relative species.The design of effective management strategies for conserving CWR species under the scenario of extensive cultivation of GE crops is also discussed.

  13. Simulating the potential role of media coverage and infected bats in the 2014 Ebola outbreak.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qiang; Lu, Furong; Dai, Chenxi; Fan, Minjun; Wang, Weiming; Wang, Kaifa

    2017-01-07

    Multiple epidemiological models have been developed to model the transmission dynamics of Ebola virus (EBOV) disease in West Africa in 2014 because the severity of the epidemic is commonly overestimated. A compartmental model that incorporates the media impact and the effect of infected bats was constructed and calibrated using data reported until the end of 2014. The final cumulative number of deaths and confirmed cases were estimated to be 1.0921×10(4) (95% CI 9.7706×10(3)-1.2072×10(4)) and 1.5193×10(4) (95% CI 1.3593×10(4)-1.6795×10(4)), respectively. The epidemic was estimated to end on June 2015, which was similar to the data reported by the World Health Organization. A sensitivity analysis indicated that an increase of either the media impact or the number of infectious bats that are captured daily can increase the cumulative number of confirmed cases/deaths. Of the considered epidemiological parameters, only the media coverage can significantly reduce both the peak time and the value of the cumulative confirmed cases/deaths. Thus, we propose 'the cumulative confirmed cases and deaths' as another media mechanism. In conclusion, the media impact contributed to the control of the 2014 Ebola outbreak, and infectious bats may be a potential source of the epidemic.

  14. The Merits of Malaria Diagnostics during an Ebola Virus Disease Outbreak.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Wit, Emmie; Falzarano, Darryl; Onyango, Clayton; Rosenke, Kyle; Marzi, Andrea; Ochieng, Melvin; Juma, Bonventure; Fischer, Robert J; Prescott, Joseph B; Safronetz, David; Omballa, Victor; Owuor, Collins; Hoenen, Thomas; Groseth, Allison; van Doremalen, Neeltje; Zemtsova, Galina; Self, Joshua; Bushmaker, Trenton; McNally, Kristin; Rowe, Thomas; Emery, Shannon L; Feldmann, Friederike; Williamson, Brandi; Nyenswah, Tolbert G; Grolla, Allen; Strong, James E; Kobinger, Gary; Stroeher, Ute; Rayfield, Mark; Bolay, Fatorma K; Zoon, Kathryn C; Stassijns, Jorgen; Tampellini, Livia; de Smet, Martin; Nichol, Stuart T; Fields, Barry; Sprecher, Armand; Feldmann, Heinz; Massaquoi, Moses; Munster, Vincent J

    2016-02-01

    Malaria is a major public health concern in the countries affected by the Ebola virus disease epidemic in West Africa. We determined the feasibility of using molecular malaria diagnostics during an Ebola virus disease outbreak and report the incidence of Plasmodium spp. parasitemia in persons with suspected Ebola virus infection.

  15. Production of Potent Fully Human Polyclonal Antibodies Against Zaire Ebola Virus in Transchromosomal Cattle

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-07-01

    1 Production of potent fully human polyclonal antibodies against Zaire Ebola virus in transchromosomal cattle John M. Dye1, Hua Wu2, Jay...mail: jjiao@sabbiotherapeutics.com Keywords: Ebola virus, virus neutralization assay, human polyclonal antibodies, transchromosomal bovine...recombinant glycoprotein (GP) vaccine consisting of the 2014 Ebola virus (EBOV)-Makona isolate. Serum collected from these hyperimmunized Tc

  16. Uveitis and Systemic Inflammatory Markers in Convalescent Phase of Ebola Virus Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chancellor, John R; Padmanabhan, Sriranjani P; Greenough, Thomas C; Sacra, Richard; Ellison, Richard T; Madoff, Lawrence C; Droms, Rebecca J; Hinkle, David M; Asdourian, George K; Finberg, Robert W; Stroher, Ute; Uyeki, Timothy M; Cerón, Olga M

    2016-02-01

    We report a case of probable Zaire Ebola virus-related ophthalmologic complications in a physician from the United States who contracted Ebola virus disease in Liberia. Uveitis, immune activation, and nonspecific increase in antibody titers developed during convalescence. This case highlights immune phenomena that could complicate management of Ebola virus disease-related uveitis during convalescence.

  17. Clinical Features and Outcome of Ebola Virus Disease in Pediatric Patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damkjær, Mads; Rudolf, Frauke; Mishra, Sharmistha

    2017-01-01

    Clinical and outcome data on pediatric Ebola virus disease are limited. We report a case-series of 33 pediatric patients with Ebola virus disease in a single Ebola Treatment Center in 2014-2015. The case-fatality rate was 42%, with the majority of deaths occurring within 10 days of admission....

  18. Impact of presymptomatic genetic testing on young adults: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godino, Lea; Turchetti, Daniela; Jackson, Leigh; Hennessy, Catherine; Skirton, Heather

    2016-04-01

    Presymptomatic and predictive genetic testing should involve a considered choice, which is particularly true when testing is undertaken in early adulthood. Young adults are at a key life stage as they may be developing a career, forming partnerships and potentially becoming parents: presymptomatic testing may affect many facets of their future lives. The aim of this integrative systematic review was to assess factors that influence young adults' or adolescents' choices to have a presymptomatic genetic test and the emotional impact of those choices. Peer-reviewed papers published between January 1993 and December 2014 were searched using eight databases. Of 3373 studies identified, 29 were reviewed in full text: 11 met the inclusion criteria. Thematic analysis was used to identify five major themes: period before testing, experience of genetic counselling, parental involvement in decision-making, impact of test result communication, and living with genetic risk. Many participants grew up with little or no information concerning their genetic risk. The experience of genetic counselling was either reported as an opportunity for discussing problems or associated with feelings of disempowerment. Emotional outcomes of disclosure did not directly correlate with test results: some mutation carriers were relieved to know their status, however, the knowledge they may have passed on the mutation to their children was a common concern. Parents appeared to have exerted pressure on their children during the decision-making process about testing and risk reduction surgery. Health professionals should take into account all these issues to effectively assist young adults in making decisions about presymptomatic genetic testing.

  19. Ebola virus disease:a literature review

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hirokazu Kimura; Hiroyuki Tsukagoshi; Akihide Ryo; Yoshiroh Oda; Toshinobu Kawabata; Takashi Majima; Kunihisa Kozawa; Masayuki Shimojima

    2015-01-01

    Ebola virus disease (EVD) is a life-threatening viral disease with a fatality rate ranging from around 30%to 90%. The first EVD outbreak was reported in the 1970s in Zaire (now the Democratic Republic of the Congo). Until 2013, most outbreaks occurred in the Central Africa region, including Zaire, Sudan and Uganda. However, between March and October 2014, over 10 000 cases of EVD have been recorded in West Africa, such as in Guinea, Liberia, Sierra Leone, and Nigeria, and a few hospital or secondary infections of EVD have occurred in Spain and the United States of America. EVD is presently one of the world's most feared diseases. In this literature review, we describe the epidemiology, clinical features, diagnosis, and treatment of EVD.

  20. Immunobiology of Ebola and Lassa virus infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prescott, Joseph B; Marzi, Andrea; Safronetz, David; Robertson, Shelly J; Feldmann, Heinz; Best, Sonja M

    2017-03-01

    Two of the most important contemporary emerging viruses that affect human health in Africa are Ebola virus (EBOV) and Lassa virus (LASV). The 2013-2016 West African outbreak of EBOV was responsible for more than 11,000 deaths, primarily in Guinea, Sierra Leone and Liberia. LASV is constantly emerging in these and surrounding West African countries, with an estimate of more than 500,000 cases of Lassa fever, and approximately 5,000 deaths, annually. Both EBOV and LASV are zoonotic, and human infection often results in a severe haemorrhagic fever in both cases. However, the contribution of specific immune responses to disease differs between EBOV and LASV. This Review examines innate and adaptive immune responses to these viruses with the goal of delineating responses that are associated with protective versus pathogenic outcomes.

  1. Ebola virus disease: a literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hirokazu Kimura

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Ebola virus disease (EVD is a life-threatening viral disease with a fatality rate ranging from around 30% to 90%. The first EVD outbreak was reported in the 1970s in Zaire (now the Democratic Republic of the Congo. Until 2013, most outbreaks occurred in the Central Africa region, including Zaire, Sudan and Uganda. However, between March and October 2014, over 10 000 cases of EVD have been recorded in West Africa, such as in Guinea, Liberia, Sierra Leone, and Nigeria, and a few hospital or secondary infections of EVD have occurred in Spain and the United States of America. EVD is presently one of the world's most feared diseases. In this literature review, we describe the epidemiology, clinical features, diagnosis, and treatment of EVD.

  2. March 11, 2015 CDC Ebola Response Update

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2015-03-11

    CDC’s Eric Dziuban explains key messages CDC developed with UNICEF and the World Health Organization (WHO) on safe school operations in Guinea, Liberia, and Sierra Leone. After being closed for months due to the Ebola outbreak, schools in these countries are reopening – an important step in helping children and their communities return to normal. The key messages offer a tool that each country’s government can use to develop their own approach on safely reopening schools.  Created: 3/11/2015 by Office of the Associate Director for Communication (OADC).   Date Released: 3/11/2015.

  3. EBOLA THREAT: WHEN NIGHTMARE BECOMES REALITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maja Jovanović

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The Ebola virus is a cause of the serious disease that causes hemorrhagic fevers — illnesses marked by severe bleeding (hemorrhage, organ failure and, in many cases, death. The virus is native to Africa, where sporadic outbreaks have occurred for decades. The current outbreak is the largest and there have been more cases of deaths in this outbreak than all others combined. Various degrees of hepatocellular necrosis have been reported in infected people and non-human primates; however, the hepatocellular lesions are generally not serious enough to explain the cause of death. Importantly, hemorrhagic tendencies could be related to decreased synthesis of coagulation and other plasma proteins because of severe hepatocellular necrosis. Supportive carerehydration with oral or intravenous fluids - and treatment of specific the symptoms improves the survival. There is as yet no proven treatment available for EVD.

  4. Impacts of genetic correlation on the independent evolution of body mass and skeletal size in mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchini, Marta; Sparrow, Leah M; Cosman, Miranda N; Dowhanik, Alexandra; Krueger, Carsten B; Hallgrimsson, Benedikt; Rolian, Campbell

    2014-12-14

    Mammals show a predictable scaling relationship between limb bone size and body mass. This relationship has a genetic basis which likely evolved via natural selection, but it is unclear how much the genetic correlation between these traits in turn impacts their capacity to evolve independently. We selectively bred laboratory mice for increases in tibia length independent of body mass, to test the hypothesis that a genetic correlation with body mass constrains evolutionary change in tibia length. Over 14 generations, we produced mean tibia length increases of 9-13%, while mean body mass was unchanged, in selectively bred mice and random-bred controls. Using evolutionary scenarios with different selection and quantitative genetic parameters, we also found that this genetic correlation impedes the rate of evolutionary change in both traits, slowing increases in tibia length while preventing decreases in body mass, despite the latter's negative effect on fitness. Overall, results from this ongoing selection experiment suggest that parallel evolution of relatively longer hind limbs among rodents, for example in the context of strong competition for resources and niche partitioning in heterogeneous environments, may have occurred very rapidly on geological timescales, in spite of a moderately strong genetic correlation between tibia length and body mass.

  5. Glacial Refugia of Ginkgo biloba and Human Impact on Its Genetic Diversity: Evidence from Chloroplast DNA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei Gong; Zhen Zeng; Ye-Ye Chen; Chuan Chen; Ying-Xiong Qiu; Cheng-Xin Fu

    2008-01-01

    Variations in the trnK region of chloroplast DNA were investigated in the present study using polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism to detect the genetic structure and to infer the possible glacial refugia of Ginkgo biloba L. in China. In total, 220 individuals from 12 populations in China and three populations outside China were analyzed, representing the largest number of populations studied by molecular markers to date. Nineteen haplotypes were produced and haplotype A was found in all populations. Populations in south-western China, including WC, JF, PX, and SP, contained 14 of the 19 haplotypes and their genetic diversity ranged from 0.771 4 to 0.867 6. The TM population from China also showed a high genetic diversity (H=0.848 5). Most of the genetic variation existed within populations and the differentiation among populations was low (GST>=0.2). According to haplotype distribution and the historical record, we suggest that populations of G. biloba have been subjected to extensive human impact, which has compounded our attempt to infer glacial refugia for Ginkgo. Nevertheless, the present results suggest that the center of genetic diversity of Ginkgo is mainly in south-western China and in situ conservation is needed to protect and preserve the genetic resources.

  6. The impact of supervision training on genetic counselor supervisory identity development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atzinger, Carrie L; Lewis, Kimberly; Martin, Lisa J; Yager, Geoffrey; Ramstetter, Catherine; Wusik, Katie

    2014-12-01

    Supervision is critical to the training of genetic counselors. Limited research exists on the influence of supervision training and experience on the development of genetic counseling supervisors. The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of supervision training in addition to supervisory and clinical experience on supervisory identity development, and the perceived confidence and competence supervisors have in their own supervisory skills. In addition, we explored genetic counselors' (N = 291) interest in and barriers to training as well as perspectives on requirements for supervisors. Results indicated clinical experience, supervision experience, and formal supervision training are positively associated with genetic counselors' supervisory identity development as measured by the Psychotherapy Supervisory Development Scale (PSDS) (p supervision experience and formal training (ρ = 0.42, p supervision training but noted lack of available training as a barrier. The majority of participants indicated that supervisors should be certified as genetic counselors, but there was no consensus on training requirements. Development of additional supervision training opportunities for genetic counselors should be considered.

  7. Ecological and genetic impact of the 2011 Tohoku Earthquake Tsunami on intertidal mud snails

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miura, Osamu; Kanaya, Gen; Nakai, Shizuko; Itoh, Hajime; Chiba, Satoshi; Makino, Wataru; Nishimura, Tomohiro; Kojima, Shigeaki; Urabe, Jotaro

    2017-01-01

    Natural disturbances often destroy local populations and can considerably affect the genetic properties of these populations. The 2011 Tohoku Earthquake Tsunami greatly damaged local populations of various coastal organisms, including the mud snail Batillaria attramentaria, which was an abundant macroinvertebrate on the tidal flats in the Tohoku region. To evaluate the impact of the tsunami on the ecology and population genetic properties of these snails, we monitored the density, shell size, and microsatellite DNA variation of B. attramentaria for more than ten years (2005–2015) throughout the disturbance event. We found that the density of snails declined immediately after the tsunami. Bayesian inference of the genetically effective population size (Ne) demonstrated that the Ne declined by 60–99% at the study sites exposed to the tsunami. However, we found that their genetic diversity was not significantly reduced after the tsunami. The maintenance of genetic diversity is essential for long-term survival of local populations, and thus, the observed genetic robustness could play a key role in the persistence of snail populations in this region which has been devastated by similar tsunamis every 500–800 years. Our findings have significant implications for understanding the sustainability of populations damaged by natural disturbances. PMID:28281698

  8. Ebola viral disease: a review literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeed Reza Jamali Moghadam

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Ebola virus is transmitted to people as a result of direct contact with body fluids containing virus of an infected patient. The incubation period usually lasts 5 to 7 d and approximately 95% of the patients appear signs within 21 d after exposure. Typical features include fever, profound weakness, diarrhea, abdominal pain, cramping, nausea and vomiting for 3-5 days and maybe persisting for up to a week. Laboratory complications including elevated aminotransferase levels, marked lymphocytopenia, and thrombocytopenia may have occurred. Hemorrhagic fever occurs in less than half of patients and it takes place most commonly in the gastrointestinal tract. The symptoms progress over the time and patients suffer from dehydration, stupor, confusion, hypotension, multi-organ failure, leading to fulminant shock and eventually death. The most general assays used for antibody detection are direct IgG and IgM ELISAs and IgM capture ELISA. An IgM or rising IgG titer (four-fold contributes to strong presumptive diagnosis. Currently neither a licensed vaccine nor an approved treatment is available for human use. Passive transfer of serum collected from survivors of Junin virus or Lassa virus, equine IgG product from horses hypervaccinated with Ebola virus, a “cocktail” of humanized-mouse antibodies (ZMapp, recombinant inhibitor of factor VIIa/tissue factor, activated protein C, RNA-polymerase inhibitors and small interfering RNA nano particles are among the therapies in development. Preclinical evaluation is also underway for various vaccine candidates. One is a chimpanzee adenovirus vector vaccine; other vaccines involve replication-defective adenovirus serotype 5 and recombinant vesicular stomatitis virus.

  9. Ebola viral disease: a review literature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Saeed; Reza; Jamali; Moghadam; Negar; Omidi; Samaneh; Bayrami; Sepideh; Jamali; Moghadam; SeyedAhmad; SeyedAlinaghi

    2015-01-01

    Ebola virus is transmitted to people as a result of direct contact with body fluids containing virus of an infected patient. The incubation period usually lasts 5 to 7 d and approximately95% of the patients appear signs within 21 d after exposure. Typical features include fever,profound weakness, diarrhea, abdominal pain, cramping, nausea and vomiting for 3-5days and maybe persisting for up to a week. Laboratory complications including elevated aminotransferase levels, marked lymphocytopenia, and thrombocytopenia may have occurred.Hemorrhagic fever occurs in less than half of patients and it takes place most commonly in the gastrointestinal tract. The symptoms progress over the time and patients suffer from dehydration, stupor, confusion, hypotension, multi-organ failure, leading to fulminant shock and eventually death. The most general assays used for antibody detection are direct IgG and IgM ELISAs and IgM capture ELISA. An IgM or rising IgG titer(four-fold) contributes to strong presumptive diagnosis. Currently neither a licensed vaccine nor an approved treatment is available for human use. Passive transfer of serum collected from survivors of Junin virus or Lassa virus, equine IgG product from horses hypervaccinated with Ebola virus, a "cocktail"of humanized-mouse antibodies(ZMapp), recombinant inhibitor of factor VIIa/tissue factor,activated protein C, RNA-polymerase inhibitors and small interfering RNA nano particles are among the therapies in development. Preclinical evaluation is also underway for various vaccine candidates. One is a chimpanzee adenovirus vector vaccine; other vaccines involve replication-defective adenovirus serotype 5 and recombinant vesicular stomatitis virus.

  10. Os Desafios da Epidemia do Ebola

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manoel Dias da Fonsêca Neto

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Desde que se criaram as condições para a existência de aglomerados populacionais, os grandes flagelos sanitários da humanidade sempre estiveram presentes. As condições de vida, os desastres naturais ou provocados, podem agravar consideravelmente o risco de epidemias. Ao largo da história da humanidade, se viu populações de todo o mundo afetadas esporadicamente por surtos devastadores de doenças infecciosas, com destaque para cólera, peste e varíola. Hipocrates (460-377 AC e Galeno (129-216 DC já descreveram em suas épocas um doença que provavelmente era a cólera(1.A relação entre doença e civilização tem raízes mais antigas que a historia escrita. Os males sofridos durante os primeiros estágios da evolução humana foram identificados através de estudos arqueológicos(2.A atualidade é marcada por erupções recorrentes de doenças recém- descobertas, como o hantavirus, a AIDS, o ebola e gripes provocadas por vírus de diversas estruturas, entre outras epidemias de doenças que migraram para novas áreas, moléstias que adquiriram importância através de tecnologias humanas, como as síndromes de choques tóxicos, a doença dos legionários e zoonoses, em decorrência da destruição dos habitats naturais dos animais pelo homem. Algumas dessas doenças são potencialmente epidêmicas, e poderão gerar epidemias em grande escala, até mundial, a exemplo da epidemia global do vírus da imunodeficiência humana, a AIDS, considerada a primeira doença infecciosa epidêmica moderna(2,3.O grande aumento da movimentação de pessoas e mercadorias pelo mundo é força motriz por trás da globalização das doenças, tornando o mundo mais rapidamente vulnerável às mesmas e à sua propagação, tanto de antigas como de novas enfermidades. As pessoas e as mercadorias passaram a viajar e circular mais, muito mais rápido e a mais lugares e com elas, transportam-se micro-organismos a locais onde antes inexistiam. A nova epidemia

  11. Mortality, Morbidity and Health-Seeking Behaviour during the Ebola Epidemic 2014–2015 in Monrovia Results from a Mobile Phone Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuehne, Anna; Lynch, Emily; Marshall, Esaie; Tiffany, Amanda; Alley, Ian; Bawo, Luke; Massaquoi, Moses; Lodesani, Claudia; Le Vaillant, Philippe; Porten, Klaudia; Gignoux, Etienne

    2016-01-01

    Between March 2014 and July 2015 at least 10,500 Ebola cases including more than 4,800 deaths occurred in Liberia, the majority in Monrovia. However, official numbers may have underestimated the size of the outbreak. Closure of health facilities and mistrust in existing structures may have additionally impacted on all-cause morbidity and mortality. To quantify mortality and morbidity and describe health-seeking behaviour in Monrovia, Médecins sans Frontières (MSF) conducted a mobile phone survey from December 2014 to March 2015. We drew a random sample of households in Monrovia and conducted structured mobile phone interviews, covering morbidity, mortality and health-seeking behaviour from 14 May 2014 until the day of the survey. We defined an Ebola-related death as any death meeting the Liberian Ebola case definition. We calculated all-cause and Ebola-specific mortality rates. The sample consisted of 6,813 household members in 905 households. We estimated a crude mortality rate (CMR) of 0.33/10,000 persons/day (95%CI:0.25–0.43) and an Ebola-specific mortality rate of 0.06/10,000 persons/day (95%-CI:0.03–0.11). During the recall period, 17 Ebola cases were reported including those who died. In the 30 days prior to the survey 277 household members were reported sick; malaria accounted for 54% (150/277). Of the sick household members, 43% (122/276) did not visit any health care facility. The mobile phone-based survey was found to be a feasible and acceptable alternative method when data collection in the community is impossible. CMR was estimated well below the emergency threshold of 1/10,000 persons/day. Non-Ebola-related mortality in Monrovia was not higher than previous national estimates of mortality for Liberia. However, excess mortality directly resulting from Ebola did occur in the population. Importantly, the small proportion of sick household members presenting to official health facilities when sick might pose a challenge for future outbreak detection

  12. Mortality, Morbidity and Health-Seeking Behaviour during the Ebola Epidemic 2014-2015 in Monrovia Results from a Mobile Phone Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuehne, Anna; Lynch, Emily; Marshall, Esaie; Tiffany, Amanda; Alley, Ian; Bawo, Luke; Massaquoi, Moses; Lodesani, Claudia; Le Vaillant, Philippe; Porten, Klaudia; Gignoux, Etienne

    2016-08-01

    Between March 2014 and July 2015 at least 10,500 Ebola cases including more than 4,800 deaths occurred in Liberia, the majority in Monrovia. However, official numbers may have underestimated the size of the outbreak. Closure of health facilities and mistrust in existing structures may have additionally impacted on all-cause morbidity and mortality. To quantify mortality and morbidity and describe health-seeking behaviour in Monrovia, Médecins sans Frontières (MSF) conducted a mobile phone survey from December 2014 to March 2015. We drew a random sample of households in Monrovia and conducted structured mobile phone interviews, covering morbidity, mortality and health-seeking behaviour from 14 May 2014 until the day of the survey. We defined an Ebola-related death as any death meeting the Liberian Ebola case definition. We calculated all-cause and Ebola-specific mortality rates. The sample consisted of 6,813 household members in 905 households. We estimated a crude mortality rate (CMR) of 0.33/10,000 persons/day (95%CI:0.25-0.43) and an Ebola-specific mortality rate of 0.06/10,000 persons/day (95%-CI:0.03-0.11). During the recall period, 17 Ebola cases were reported including those who died. In the 30 days prior to the survey 277 household members were reported sick; malaria accounted for 54% (150/277). Of the sick household members, 43% (122/276) did not visit any health care facility. The mobile phone-based survey was found to be a feasible and acceptable alternative method when data collection in the community is impossible. CMR was estimated well below the emergency threshold of 1/10,000 persons/day. Non-Ebola-related mortality in Monrovia was not higher than previous national estimates of mortality for Liberia. However, excess mortality directly resulting from Ebola did occur in the population. Importantly, the small proportion of sick household members presenting to official health facilities when sick might pose a challenge for future outbreak detection and

  13. Living Under the Constant Threat of Ebola: A Phenomenological Study of Survivors and Family Caregivers During an Ebola Outbreak.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matua, Gerald Amandu; Wal, Dirk Mostert Van der

    2015-09-01

    Ebola is a highly infectious disease that is caused by viruses of the family Filoviridae and transmitted to humans by direct contact with animals infected from unknown natural reservoirs. Ebola virus infection induces acute fever and death within a few days in up to 90% of symptomatic individuals, causing widespread fear, panic, and antisocial behavior. Uganda is vulnerable to future Ebola outbreaks. Therefore, the survivors of Ebola and their family caregivers are likely to continue experiencing related antisocial overtones, leading to negative health outcomes. This study articulated the lived experiences of survivors and their family caregivers after an Ebola outbreak in Kibale District, Western Uganda. Eliciting a deeper understanding of these devastating lifetime experiences provides opportunities for developing and implementing more compassionate and competent nursing care for affected persons. Ebola survivors and their family caregivers were recruited using a purposive sampling method. Twelve (12) adult survivors and their family caregivers were recruited and were interviewed individually between May and July 2013 in Kibale, a rural district in Western Uganda close to the border of the Democratic Republic of the Congo, where Ebola virus was first discovered in 1976. Oral and written informed consent was obtained before all in-depth interviews, and the researchers adhered to principles of anonymity and confidentiality. The interviews were recorded digitally, and data analysis employed Wertz's Empirical Psychological Reflection method, which is grounded in descriptive phenomenology. Living under the constant threat of Ebola is experienced through two main categories: (a) defining features of the experience and (b) responding to the traumatizing experience. Five themes emerged in the first category: (a) fear, ostracism, and stigmatization; (b) annihilation of sufferer's actualities and possibilities; (c) the lingering nature of the traumatic experience; (d

  14. Ebola outbreak in West Africa: a neglected tropical disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Alcides; Troncoso

    2015-01-01

    Neglected tropical diseases(NTDs) are remediable injustices of our times. Poverty is the starting point, and the ultimate outcome, of NTD. Ebola is just one of many NTDs that badly need attention. Ebola exacerbates West Africa’s poverty crisis. The virus spreading in Guinea,Liberia and Sierra Leone has led to food shortages and neglect of other devastating tropical illnesses. A health crisis that was ignored for months until it was out of control is now beginning to get the attention required, if not the resources. So far, the world′s nations have contributed far less than the $ 1 billion. The U.N. estimates would need to control the epidemic before it becomes endemic. Past outbreaks of Ebola have flared up in remote, forested communities, disconnected from much of the outside world. But the outbreak in West Africa has not slowed yet, and it worsens there the chances of it spreading to other countries. Ebola draws attention to NTD. Ebola is not only a health emergency, but also it′s a poverty crisis.The current Global Ebola crisis presents a multitude of challenges in terms of our capacity to respond; the future is even less predictable. Ebola outbreak represents inequity in health as the occurrence of health differences considered unnecessary, avoidable, unfair, and unjust, thus adding a moral and ethical dimension to health inequalities. Health equity does not refer only to the fairness in the distribution of health or the provision of health care; rather, it is linked with the larger issues of fairness and justice in social arrangements.

  15. Human Ebola virus infection results in substantial immune activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McElroy, Anita K; Akondy, Rama S; Davis, Carl W; Ellebedy, Ali H; Mehta, Aneesh K; Kraft, Colleen S; Lyon, G Marshall; Ribner, Bruce S; Varkey, Jay; Sidney, John; Sette, Alessandro; Campbell, Shelley; Ströher, Ute; Damon, Inger; Nichol, Stuart T; Spiropoulou, Christina F; Ahmed, Rafi

    2015-04-14

    Four Ebola patients received care at Emory University Hospital, presenting a unique opportunity to examine the cellular immune responses during acute Ebola virus infection. We found striking activation of both B and T cells in all four patients. Plasmablast frequencies were 10-50% of B cells, compared with less than 1% in healthy individuals. Many of these proliferating plasmablasts were IgG-positive, and this finding coincided with the presence of Ebola virus-specific IgG in the serum. Activated CD4 T cells ranged from 5 to 30%, compared with 1-2% in healthy controls. The most pronounced responses were seen in CD8 T cells, with over 50% of the CD8 T cells expressing markers of activation and proliferation. Taken together, these results suggest that all four patients developed robust immune responses during the acute phase of Ebola virus infection, a finding that would not have been predicted based on our current assumptions about the highly immunosuppressive nature of Ebola virus. Also, quite surprisingly, we found sustained immune activation after the virus was cleared from the plasma, observed most strikingly in the persistence of activated CD8 T cells, even 1 mo after the patients' discharge from the hospital. These results suggest continued antigen stimulation after resolution of the disease. From these convalescent time points, we identified CD4 and CD8 T-cell responses to several Ebola virus proteins, most notably the viral nucleoprotein. Knowledge of the viral proteins targeted by T cells during natural infection should be useful in designing vaccines against Ebola virus.

  16. Ebola outbreak in West Africa: a neglected tropical disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alcides Troncoso

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Neglected tropical diseases (NTDs are remediable injustices of our times. Poverty is the starting point, and the ultimate outcome, of NTD. Ebola is just one of many NTDs that badly need attention. Ebola exacerbates West Africa's poverty crisis. The virus spreading in Guinea, Liberia and Sierra Leone has led to food shortages and neglect of other devastating tropical illnesses. A health crisis that was ignored for months until it was out of control is now beginning to get the attention required, if not the resources. So far, the world´s nations have contributed far less than the $ 1 billion. The U.N. estimates would need to control the epidemic before it becomes endemic. Past outbreaks of Ebola have flared up in remote, forested communities, disconnected from much of the outside world. But the outbreak in West Africa has not slowed yet, and it worsens there the chances of it spreading to other countries. Ebola draws attention to NTD. Ebola is not only a health emergency, but also it´s a poverty crisis. The current Global Ebola crisis presents a multitude of challenges in terms of our capacity to respond; the future is even less predictable. Ebola outbreak represents inequity in health as the occurrence of health differences considered unnecessary, avoidable, unfair, and unjust, thus adding a moral and ethical dimension to health inequalities. Health equity does not refer only to the fairness in the distribution of health or the provision of health care; rather, it is linked with the larger issues of fairness and justice in social arrangements.

  17. [Marburg and Ebola hemorrhagic fevers--pathogens, epidemiology and therapy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stock, Ingo

    2014-09-01

    Marburg and Ebola hemorrhagic fevers are severe, systemic viral diseases affecting humans and non-human primates. They are characterized by multiple symptoms such as hemorrhages, fever, headache, muscle and abdominal pain, chills, sore throat, nausea, vomiting and diarrhea. Elevated liver-associated enzyme levels and coagulopathy are also associated with these diseases. Marburg and Ebola hemorrhagic fevers are caused by (Lake victoria) Marburg virus and different species of Ebola viruses, respectively. They are enveloped, single-stranded RNA viruses and belong to the family of filoviridae. Case fatality rates of filovirus disease outbreaks are among the highest reported for any human pathogen, ranging from 25 to 90% or more. Outbreaks of Marburg and Ebola hemorrhagic fever occur in certain regions of equatorial Africa at irregular intervals. Since 2000, the number of outbreaks has increased. In 2014, the biggest outbreak of a filovirus-induced hemorrhagic fever that has been documented so far occurred from March to July 2014 in Guinea, Sierra Leone, Liberia and Nigeria. The outbreak was caused by a new variant of Zaire Ebola-Virus, affected more than 2600 people (stated 20 August) and was associated with case-fatality rates of up to 67% (Guinea). Treatment of Marburg and Ebola hemorrhagic fevers is symptomatic and supportive, licensed antiviral agents are currently not available. Recently, BCX4430, a promising synthetic adenosine analogue with high in vitro and in vivo activity against filoviruses and other RNA viruses, has been described. BCX4430 inhibits viral RNA polymerase activity and protects cynomolgus macaques from Marburg virus infection when administered as late as 48 hours after infection. Nucleic acid-based products, recombinant vaccines and antibodies appear to be less suitable for the treatment of Marburg and Ebola hemorrhagic fevers.

  18. Genetic Variability Overrides the Impact of Parental Cell Type and Determines iPSC Differentiation Potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aija Kyttälä

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Reports on the retention of somatic cell memory in induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs have complicated the selection of the optimal cell type for the generation of iPSC biobanks. To address this issue we compared transcriptomic, epigenetic, and differentiation propensities of genetically matched human iPSCs derived from fibroblasts and blood, two tissues of the most practical relevance for biobanking. Our results show that iPSC lines derived from the same donor are highly similar to each other. However, genetic variation imparts a donor-specific expression and methylation profile in reprogrammed cells that leads to variable functional capacities of iPSC lines. Our results suggest that integration-free, bona fide iPSC lines from fibroblasts and blood can be combined in repositories to form biobanks. Due to the impact of genetic variation on iPSC differentiation, biobanks should contain cells from large numbers of donors.

  19. Impact of Ice Ages on the genetic structure of trees and shrubs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lascoux, Martin; Palmé, Anna E; Cheddadi, Rachid; Latta, Robert G

    2004-02-29

    Data on the genetic structure of tree and shrub populations on the continental scale have accumulated dramatically over the past decade. However, our ability to make inferences on the impact of the last ice age still depends crucially on the availability of informative palaeoecological data. This is well illustrated by the results from a recent project, during which new pollen fossil maps were established and the variation in chloroplast DNA was studied in 22 European species of trees and shrubs. Species exhibit very different levels of genetic variation between and within populations, and obviously went through very different histories after Ice Ages. However, when palaeoecological data are non-informative, inferences on past history are difficult to draw from entirely genetic data. On the other hand, as illustrated by a study in ponderosa pine, when we can infer the species' history with some certainty, coalescent simulations can be used and new hypotheses can be tested.

  20. Psychological impact of genetic testing for Huntington's disease: an update of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meiser, B; Dunn, S

    2000-11-01

    Genetic testing has been available for Huntington's disease for longer than any other adult onset genetic disorder. The discovery of the genetic mutation causing Huntington's disease made possible the use of predictive testing to identify currently unaffected carriers. Concerns have been raised that predictive testing may lead to an increase in deaths by suicide among identified carriers, and these concerns set in motion research to assess the psychological impact of predictive testing for Huntington's disease. This review article provides an overview of the literature and draws implications for clinical practice. About 10%-20% of people at risk request testing when approached by registries or testing centres. Most of the evidence suggests that non-carriers and carriers differ significantly in terms of short term, but not long term, general psychological distress. Adjustment to results was found to depend more on psychological adjustment before testing than the testing result itself. Although risk factors for psychological sequelae have been identified, few adverse events have been described and no obvious contraindications for testing people at risk have been identified. The psychological impact of testing may depend on whether testing was based on linkage analysis or mutation detection. Cohorts enrolled in mutation detection programmes have higher levels of depression before and after testing, compared with people who sought genetic testing when linkage analysis was available. There is evidence that people who choose to be tested are psychologically selected for a favourable response to testing. The impact of testing on people in settings where less intensive counselling protocols and eligibility criteria are used is unknown, and genetic testing is therefore best offered as part of comprehensive specialist counselling.

  1. The genetic basis of intradural spinal tumors and its impact on clinical treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karsy, Michael; Guan, Jian; Sivakumar, Walavan; Neil, Jayson A; Schmidt, Meic H; Mahan, Mark A

    2015-08-01

    Genetic alterations in the cells of intradural spinal tumors can have a significant impact on the treatment options, counseling, and prognosis for patients. Although surgery is the primary therapy for most intradural tumors, radiochemothera-peutic modalities and targeted interventions play an ever-evolving role in treating aggressive cancers and in addressing cancer recurrence in long-term survivors. Recent studies have helped delineate specific genetic and molecular differences between intradural spinal tumors and their intracranial counterparts and have also identified significant variation in therapeutic effects on these tumors. This review discusses the genetic and molecular alterations in the most common intradural spinal tumors in both adult and pediatrie patients, including nerve sheath tumors (that is, neurofibroma and schwannoma), meningioma, ependymoma, astrocytoma (that is, low-grade glioma, anaplastic astrocytoma, and glioblastoma), hemangioblastoma, and medulloblastoma. It also examines the genetics of metastatic tumors to the spinal cord, arising either from the CNS or from systemic sources. Importantly, the impact of this knowledge on therapeutic options and its application to clinical practice are discussed.

  2. The Discussions around Precision Genetic Engineering: Role of and Impact on Disabled People

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregor Wolbring

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Genetic researchers are advancing in their abilities to extract precise genetic information from biological and human entities bringing genetic research steps closer to accurately modifying genes of biological entities, including that of humans. In this analytical essay, we focus on the discussions about precision genetic intervention that have taken place since March 2015 as they pertain to disabled people. We focus on two areas; one being the role of disabled people in the recent gene editing discussions and the second being the utility of existing legal instruments. Within our first focus we address the following questions: (a What is the visibility of disabled people in the gene-editing discussions that have taken place since March 2015? (b What has been the impact of those discussions on disabled people? (c Were social problems which disabled people face taken into account in those discussions; (d How does the reality of engagement with disabled people in these discussions fit with science, technology and innovation governance discourses that ask for more stakeholder, bottom up and anticipatory involvement? Within our second focus we address the following questions: (a What is the utility of the United Nations Convention on the Right of Persons with Disabilities (UNCRPD; and (b What is the utility of existing legal instruments covering genetic interventions: for preventing negative social consequences of genetic engineering developments for disabled people. We argue that (a the genetic engineering debates since March 2015 have portrayed disabled people dominantly through a medical lens; (b that the governance of science, technology and innovation of genetic engineering including anticipatory governance and responsible innovation discourses has not yet engaged with the social impact of gene editing on disabled people; (c that few scholars that focus on the social situation of disabled people are visible in the governance discussions of gene

  3. Transmission dynamics of Ebola virus disease and intervention effectiveness in Sierra Leone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Li-Qun; Yang, Yang; Jiang, Jia-Fu; Yao, Hong-Wu; Kargbo, David; Li, Xin-Lou; Jiang, Bao-Gui; Kargbo, Brima; Tong, Yi-Gang; Wang, Ya-Wei; Liu, Kun; Kamara, Abdul; Dafae, Foday; Kanu, Alex; Jiang, Rui-Ruo; Sun, Ye; Sun, Ruo-Xi; Chen, Wan-Jun; Ma, Mai-Juan; Dean, Natalie E; Thomas, Harold; Longini, Ira M; Halloran, M Elizabeth; Cao, Wu-Chun

    2016-04-19

    Sierra Leone is the most severely affected country by an unprecedented outbreak of Ebola virus disease (EVD) in West Africa. Although successfully contained, the transmission dynamics of EVD and the impact of interventions in the country remain unclear. We established a database of confirmed and suspected EVD cases from May 2014 to September 2015 in Sierra Leone and mapped the spatiotemporal distribution of cases at the chiefdom level. A Poisson transmission model revealed that the transmissibility at the chiefdom level, estimated as the average number of secondary infections caused by a patient per week, was reduced by 43% [95% confidence interval (CI): 30%, 52%] after October 2014, when the strategic plan of the United Nations Mission for Emergency Ebola Response was initiated, and by 65% (95% CI: 57%, 71%) after the end of December 2014, when 100% case isolation and safe burials were essentially achieved, both compared with before October 2014. Population density, proximity to Ebola treatment centers, cropland coverage, and atmospheric temperature were associated with EVD transmission. The household secondary attack rate (SAR) was estimated to be 0.059 (95% CI: 0.050, 0.070) for the overall outbreak. The household SAR was reduced by 82%, from 0.093 to 0.017, after the nationwide campaign to achieve 100% case isolation and safe burials had been conducted. This study provides a complete overview of the transmission dynamics of the 2014-2015 EVD outbreak in Sierra Leone at both chiefdom and household levels. The interventions implemented in Sierra Leone seem effective in containing the epidemic, particularly in interrupting household transmission.

  4. Assessing and monitoring impacts of genetically modified plants on agro-ecosystems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arpaia, S.; Messéan, A.; Birch, N.A.;

    2014-01-01

    -funded research project AMIGA − Assessing and monitoring Impacts of Genetically modified plants on Agro-ecosystems − aims to address this issue, by providing a framework that establishes protection goals and baselines for European agro-ecosystems, improves knowledge on the potential long term environmental...... focuses on ecological studies in different EU regions, the sustainability of GM crops is estimated by analysing the functional components of the agro-ecosystems and specific experimental protocols are being developed for this scope....

  5. Ebola Virus Disease (EVD and Women's Health Care in Pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arash Khaki

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Ebola virus (family Filoviridae, genus Ebolavirus, type species Zaire ebolavirus, Ebola hemorrhagic fever (EHF or Ebola is a disease of human and other primates, caused by an Ebola virüs(1-5. These agents cause a severe, unrelenting viral hemorrhagic fever with high mortality(1. EVD was first recognized in 1976, when two unrelated epidemics occurred in northern Zaire and southern Sudan(1-5. The largest outbreaks to date are the ongoing 2014 west African. Ebola outbreaks, which is affecting Guinea, Sierra Leone, Liberia and Nigeria(2-5. Transmission Ebola virus may be acquired upon contact with blood or bodily fluids of an infected animal. Spreading the air has not been documented in the natural environment. Fruit bats are believed to be a carrier and may spread the virus without being affected(1-2. Once human infection occurs, the disease may spread between people as well(2. Symptoms Clinical appearance is starts in 2 days to 3 weeks after contacting the virus, with fever, sore throat, muscle pain and headaches(1-5. Treatment A number of experimental treatment are being studied. The FDA has allowed two drugs, Zmapp and TKM-Ebola(2. Treatment is primarily supportive in natüre(1-5. The disease has a high risk of death, killing between 50% and 90% of those infected with the virüs(1-5, in conclusion No specific treatment for the disease is yet available. Prevention Includes decreasing the spread of disease from infected animals to humans(2. Prevention of epidemics rates on early recognition and initial cases and promp institution of barrier nursing. At the community level, properly sterilized injection equipment, protection from body fluid and skin during preparation of the dead, and routine barrier nursing precaution are probably adequate in most care(1-2. During the EHF epidemic in Kikwit, Democratic Republic of Congo the number of infected women was slightly higher than the man(6-7. Sex protection Saliva, breast milk, and semen, austerity from

  6. Clinical Chemistry of Patients With Ebola in Monrovia, Liberia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Wit, Emmie; Kramer, Shelby; Prescott, Joseph; Rosenke, Kyle; Falzarano, Darryl; Marzi, Andrea; Fischer, Robert J; Safronetz, David; Hoenen, Thomas; Groseth, Allison; van Doremalen, Neeltje; Bushmaker, Trenton; McNally, Kristin L; Feldmann, Friederike; Williamson, Brandi N; Best, Sonja M; Ebihara, Hideki; Damiani, Igor A C; Adamson, Brett; Zoon, Kathryn C; Nyenswah, Tolbert G; Bolay, Fatorma K; Massaquoi, Moses; Sprecher, Armand; Feldmann, Heinz; Munster, Vincent J

    2016-10-15

    The development of point-of-care clinical chemistry analyzers has enabled the implementation of these ancillary tests in field laboratories in resource-limited outbreak areas. The Eternal Love Winning Africa (ELWA) outbreak diagnostic laboratory, established in Monrovia, Liberia, to provide Ebola virus and Plasmodium spp. diagnostics during the Ebola epidemic, implemented clinical chemistry analyzers in December 2014. Clinical chemistry testing was performed for 68 patients in triage, including 12 patients infected with Ebola virus and 18 infected with Plasmodium spp. The main distinguishing feature in clinical chemistry of Ebola virus-infected patients was the elevation in alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, and γ-glutamyltransferase levels and the decrease in calcium. The implementation of clinical chemistry is probably most helpful when the medical supportive care implemented at the Ebola treatment unit allows for correction of biochemistry derangements and on-site clinical chemistry analyzers can be used to monitor electrolyte balance. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America 2016. This work is written by (a) US Government employee(s) and is in the public domain in the US.

  7. Ebola: lessons learned and future challenges for Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quaglio, GianLuca; Goerens, Charles; Putoto, Giovanni; Rübig, Paul; Lafaye, Pierre; Karapiperis, Theodoros; Dario, Claudio; Delaunois, Paul; Zachariah, Rony

    2016-02-01

    The Ebola virus epidemic has topped media and political agendas for months; several countries in west Africa have faced the worst Ebola epidemic in history. At the beginning of the disease outbreak, European Union (EU) policies were notably absent regarding how to respond to the crisis. Although the epidemic is now receding from public view, this crisis has undoubtedly changed the European public perception of Ebola virus disease, which is no longer regarded as a bizarre entity confined in some unknown corner in Africa. Policy makers and researchers in Europe now have an opportunity to consider the lessons learned. In this Personal View, we discuss the EU's response to the Ebola crisis in west Africa. Unfortunately, although ample resources and opportunities for humanitarian and medical action existed, the EU did not use them to promote a rapid and well coordinated response to the Ebola crisis. Lessons learned from this crisis should be used to improve the role of the EU in similar situations in the future, ensuring that European aid can be effectively deployed to set up an improved emergency response system, and supporting the establishment of sustainable health-care services in west Africa.

  8. Cannabidiol: a potential treatment for post Ebola syndrome?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reznik, Sandra E; Gardner, Eliot L; Ashby, Charles R

    2016-11-01

    Patients recovered from Ebola virus infection may experience short- and long-term physical, neuropsychological and social sequelae, including arthralgia, musculoskeletal pain, ophthalmic inflammation, auditory problems, fatigue, confusion, insomnia, short-term memory impairment, anxiety, depression and anorexia, all lasting from two weeks to more than two years. Currently there are no treatments for post Ebola sequelae. We hypothesize that cannabidiol (CBD) may attenuate some of these post Ebola sequelae, several of which have been postulated to result from inflammation and/or an autoimmune response. CBD has anti-inflammatory actions in various animal models. Clinical studies have shown that oral administration of CBD, compared to placebo, significantly reduces anxiety, has antinociceptive and anticonvulsant actions, and may be therapeutic for insomnia. Overall, CBD has a number of pharmacological effects that may significantly improve the mental and somatic health of patients suffering from post Ebola sequelae. In humans, CBD, at therapeutic doses, does not: 1) elicit dependence or tolerance; 2) significantly alter heart rate or blood pressure; 3) affect gastrointestinal transit; 4) produce significant cognitive or psychomotor impairments. Mild sedation and nausea are the most commonly reported adverse effects associated with CBD.CBD, based on its pharmacological effects and favorable safety profile, should be considered as a treatment for individuals with post Ebola sequelae.

  9. Laboratory Response to 2014 Ebola Virus Outbreak in Mali.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diarra, Bassirou; Safronetz, David; Sarro, Yeya Dit Sadio; Kone, Amadou; Sanogo, Moumine; Tounkara, Sady; Togo, Antieme C G; Daou, Fatoumata; Maiga, Almoustapha I; Dao, Sounkalo; Rosenke, Kyle; Falzarano, Darryl; Doumbia, Seydou; Zoon, Kathryn C; Polis, Michael; Siddiqui, Sophia; Sow, Samba; Schwan, Tom G; Feldmann, Heinz; Diallo, Souleyman; Koita, Ousmane A

    2016-10-15

    Aware of the rapid spread of Ebola virus (EBOV) during the current West African epidemic, Mali took several proactive steps to rapidly identify cases within its borders. Under the Mali International Center for Excellence in Research program, a collaboration between the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases and the Malian Ministry of Higher Education and Scientific Research established a national EBOV diagnostic site at the University of Sciences, Techniques and Technologies of Bamako in the SEREFO Laboratory. Two separate introductions of EBOV occurred in Mali from neighboring Guinea, but both chains of transmission were quickly halted, and Mali was declared "Ebola free" on 18 January 2015 and has remained so since. The SEREFO Laboratory was instrumental in the success of Mali's Ebola response by providing timely and accurate diagnostics. As of today, the SEREFO Laboratory has tested 103 samples from 88 suspected cases, 10 of which were EBOV positive, since the Ebola diagnostics unit started in April 2014. The establishment of Ebola diagnostics in the SEREFO Laboratory, safety precautions, and diagnostics are described. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, e-mail journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. Potential for large outbreaks of Ebola virus disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Camacho

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Outbreaks of Ebola virus can cause substantial morbidity and mortality in affected regions. The largest outbreak of Ebola to date is currently underway in West Africa, with 3944 cases reported as of 5th September 2014. To develop a better understanding of Ebola transmission dynamics, we revisited data from the first known Ebola outbreak, which occurred in 1976 in Zaire (now Democratic Republic of Congo. By fitting a mathematical model to time series stratified by disease onset, outcome and source of infection, we were able to estimate several epidemiological quantities that have previously proved challenging to measure, including the contribution of hospital and community infection to transmission. We found evidence that transmission decreased considerably before the closure of the hospital, suggesting that the decline of the outbreak was most likely the result of changes in host behaviour. Our analysis suggests that the person-to-person reproduction number was 1.34 (95% CI: 0.92–2.11 in the early part of the outbreak. Using stochastic simulations we demonstrate that the same epidemiological conditions that were present in 1976 could have generated a large outbreak purely by chance. At the same time, the relatively high person-to-person basic reproduction number suggests that Ebola would have been difficult to control through hospital-based infection control measures alone.

  11. Harnessing case isolation and ring vaccination to control Ebola.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chad Wells

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available As a devastating Ebola outbreak in West Africa continues, non-pharmaceutical control measures including contact tracing, quarantine, and case isolation are being implemented. In addition, public health agencies are scaling up efforts to test and deploy candidate vaccines. Given the experimental nature and limited initial supplies of vaccines, a mass vaccination campaign might not be feasible. However, ring vaccination of likely case contacts could provide an effective alternative in distributing the vaccine. To evaluate ring vaccination as a strategy for eliminating Ebola, we developed a pair approximation model of Ebola transmission, parameterized by confirmed incidence data from June 2014 to January 2015 in Liberia and Sierra Leone. Our results suggest that if a combined intervention of case isolation and ring vaccination had been initiated in the early fall of 2014, up to an additional 126 cases in Liberia and 560 cases in Sierra Leone could have been averted beyond case isolation alone. The marginal benefit of ring vaccination is predicted to be greatest in settings where there are more contacts per individual, greater clustering among individuals, when contact tracing has low efficacy or vaccination confers post-exposure protection. In such settings, ring vaccination can avert up to an additional 8% of Ebola cases. Accordingly, ring vaccination is predicted to offer a moderately beneficial supplement to ongoing non-pharmaceutical Ebola control efforts.

  12. Predicting Ebola Severity: A Clinical Prioritization Score for Ebola Virus Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okoni-Williams, Harry Henry; Suma, Mohamed; Mancuso, Brooke; Al-Dikhari, Ahmed; Faouzi, Mohamed

    2017-01-01

    Background Despite the notoriety of Ebola virus disease (EVD) as one of the world’s most deadly infections, EVD has a wide range of outcomes, where asymptomatic infection may be almost as common as fatality. With increasingly sensitive EVD diagnosis, there is a need for more accurate prognostic tools that objectively stratify clinical severity to better allocate limited resources and identify those most in need of intensive treatment. Methods/Principal Findings This retrospective cohort study analyses the clinical characteristics of 158 EVD(+) patients at the GOAL-Mathaska Ebola Treatment Centre, Sierra Leone. The prognostic potential of each characteristic was assessed and incorporated into a statistically weighted disease score. The mortality rate among EVD(+) patients was 60.8% and highest in those aged 25 years (pEbola viral load (p = 0.1), potentially indicating a pathologic synergy between the infections. Similarly, referral-time interacted with viral load, and adjustment revealed referral-time as a significant determinant of mortality, thus quantifying the benefits of early reporting as a 12% mortality risk reduction per day (p = 0.012). Disorientation was the strongest unadjusted predictor of death (OR = 13.1, p = 0.014) followed by hiccups, diarrhoea, conjunctivitis, dyspnoea and myalgia. Including these characteristics in multivariate prognostic scores, we obtained a 91% and 97% ability to discriminate death at or after triage respectively (area under ROC curve). Conclusions/Significance This study proposes highly predictive and easy-to-use prognostic tools, which stratify the risk of EVD mortality at or after EVD triage. PMID:28151955

  13. In the midst of a 'perfect storm': Unpacking the causes and consequences of Ebola-related stigma for children orphaned by Ebola in Sierra Leone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Denis-Ramirez, Elise; Holmegaard Sørensen, Katrine; Skovdal, Morten

    2017-01-01

    The West African Ebola virus epidemic resulted in the deaths of more than 11,000 people and caused significant social disruption. Little is known about how the world's worst Ebola outbreak has affected the thousands of children left orphaned as their parents or caregivers succumbed to the virus....... Given the infectious nature of Ebola, and numerous anecdotal accounts of stigmatisation, we set out to examine children's social representations of peers orphaned by Ebola, unpacking the causes and consequences of Ebola-related stigma. The study was conducted in 2015 in Freetown, Sierra Leone. Data...... was generated through drawings and captions from 24 children living in four different communities in Freetown and interviews with four key informants. The children were first invited to draw a child whose family has been affected by Ebola and subsequently asked to write 3–10 phrases explaining the drawing...

  14. Fractional dynamics of globally slow transcription and its impact on deterministic genetic oscillation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Kun; Gao, Shilong; Zhong, Suchuan; Ma, Hong

    2012-01-01

    In dynamical systems theory, a system which can be described by differential equations is called a continuous dynamical system. In studies on genetic oscillation, most deterministic models at early stage are usually built on ordinary differential equations (ODE). Therefore, gene transcription which is a vital part in genetic oscillation is presupposed to be a continuous dynamical system by default. However, recent studies argued that discontinuous transcription might be more common than continuous transcription. In this paper, by appending the inserted silent interval lying between two neighboring transcriptional events to the end of the preceding event, we established that the running time for an intact transcriptional event increases and gene transcription thus shows slow dynamics. By globally replacing the original time increment for each state increment by a larger one, we introduced fractional differential equations (FDE) to describe such globally slow transcription. The impact of fractionization on genetic oscillation was then studied in two early stage models--the Goodwin oscillator and the Rössler oscillator. By constructing a "dual memory" oscillator--the fractional delay Goodwin oscillator, we suggested that four general requirements for generating genetic oscillation should be revised to be negative feedback, sufficient nonlinearity, sufficient memory and proper balancing of timescale. The numerical study of the fractional Rössler oscillator implied that the globally slow transcription tends to lower the chance of a coupled or more complex nonlinear genetic oscillatory system behaving chaotically.

  15. Genetically-Improved Tilapia Strains in Africa: Potential Benefits and Negative Impacts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaw B. Ansah

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Two genetically improved tilapia strains (GIFT and Akosombo have been created with Oreochromis niloticus (Nile tilapia, which is native to Africa. In particular, GIFT has been shown to be significantly superior to local African tilapia strains in terms of growth rate. While development economists see the potential for food security and poverty reduction in Africa from culture of these new strains of tilapia, conservationists are wary of potential ecological and genetic impacts on receiving ecosystems and native stocks of tilapia. This study reviews the history of the GIFT technology, and identifies potential environmental and genetic risks of improved and farmed strains and tilapia in general. We also estimate the potential economic gains from the introduction of genetically improved strains in Africa, using Ghana as a case country. Employing a combination of the Economic-Surplus model and Monte Carlo simulation, we found the mean net present value (NPV of the introduction of the GIFT strain in Ghana to be approximately 1% of the country’s gross domestic product. Sensitivity analysis indicated that the difference in growth or yield between the GIFT and locally-available strains has the largest effect on mean NPV. We conclude that improvements in management practices and infrastructure could increase the yield and profitability of the local strains even if genetically-improved strains are not introduced. These improvements also will ensure the realization of the full potential of introduced strains.

  16. Implementation of broad screening with Ebola rapid diagnostic tests in Forécariah, Guinea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frantz Jean Louis

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Laboratory-enhanced surveillance is critical for rapidly detecting the potential re-emergence of Ebola virus disease. Rapid diagnostic tests (RDT for Ebola antigens could expand diagnostic capacity for Ebola virus disease.Objectives: The Guinean National Coordination for Ebola Response conducted a pilot implementation to determine the feasibility of broad screening of patients and corpses with the OraQuick® Ebola RDT.Methods: The implementation team developed protocols and trained healthcare workers to screen patients and corpses in Forécariah prefecture, Guinea, from 15 October to 30 November 2015. Data collected included number of consultations, number of fevers reported or measured, number of tests performed for patients or corpses and results of confirmatory RT-PCR testing. Data on malaria RDT results were collected for comparison. Feedback from Ebola RDT users was collected informally during supervision visits and forums.Results: There were 3738 consultations at the 15 selected healthcare facilities; 74.6% of consultations were for febrile illness. Among 2787 eligible febrile patients, 2633 were tested for malaria and 1628 OraQuick® Ebola RDTs were performed. A total of 322 OraQuick® Ebola RDTs were conducted on corpses. All Ebola tests on eligible patients were negative.Conclusions: Access to Ebola testing was expanded by the implementation of RDTs in an emergency situation. Feedback from Ebola RDT users and lessons learned will contribute to improving quality for RDT expansion.

  17. Selective inhibition of Ebola entry with selective estrogen receptor modulators by disrupting the endolysosomal calcium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Hanlu; Du, Xiaohong; Zhang, Jingyuan; Zheng, Han; Lu, Xiaohui; Wu, Qihui; Li, Haifeng; Wang, Han; Shi, Yi; Gao, George; Zhou, Zhuan; Tan, Dun-Xian; Li, Xiangdong

    2017-01-01

    The Ebola crisis occurred in West-Africa highlights the urgency for its clinical treatments. Currently, no Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved therapeutics are available. Several FDA-approved drugs, including selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMs), possess selective anti-Ebola activities. However, the inhibitory mechanisms of these drugs remain elusive. By analyzing the structures of SERMs and their incidental biological activity (cholesterol accumulation), we hypothesized that this incidental biological activity induced by SERMs could be a plausible mechanism as to their inhibitory effects on Ebola infection. Herein, we demonstrated that the same dosages of SERMs which induced cholesterol accumulation also inhibited Ebola infection. SERMs reduced the cellular sphingosine and subsequently caused endolysosomal calcium accumulation, which in turn led to blocking the Ebola entry. Our study clarified the specific anti-Ebola mechanism of SERMs, even the cationic amphiphilic drugs (CADs), this mechanism led to the endolysosomal calcium as a critical target for development of anti-Ebola drugs. PMID:28117364

  18. Notes from The Field: Ebola Virus Disease Cluster - Northern Sierra Leone, January 2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alpren, Charles; Sloan, Michelle; Boegler, Karen A; Martin, Daniel W; Ervin, Elizabeth; Washburn, Faith; Rickert, Regan; Singh, Tushar; Redd, John T

    2016-07-08

    On January 14, 2016, the Sierra Leone Ministry of Health and Sanitation was notified that a buccal swab collected on January 12 from a deceased female aged 22 years (patient A) in Tonkolili District had tested positive for Ebola virus by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). The most recent case of Ebola virus disease (Ebola) in Sierra Leone had been reported 4 months earlier on September 13, 2015 (1), and the World Health Organization had declared the end of Ebola virus transmission in Sierra Leone on November 7, 2015 (2). The Government of Sierra Leone launched a response to prevent further transmission of Ebola virus by identifying contacts of the decedent and monitoring them for Ebola signs and symptoms, ensuring timely treatment for anyone with Ebola, and conducting an epidemiologic investigation to identify the source of infection.

  19. Public health challenges and legacies of Japan's response to the Ebola virus disease outbreak in West Africa 2014 to 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Tomoya

    2015-01-01

    The largest outbreak of Ebola virus disease occurred in West Africa in 2014 and resulted in unprecedented transmission even in distant countries. In Japan, only nine individuals were screened for Ebola and there was no confirmed case. However, the government promoted the reinforcement of response measures and interagency collaboration, with training and simulation exercises conducted country-wide. The legacies included: publication of a communication policy on case disclosure, a protocol for collaboration between public health and other agencies, and establishing an expert committee to assemble the limited available expertise. There were challenges in taking proportionate and flexible measures in the management of people identified to be at high risk at entry points to Japan, in the decentralised medical response strategy, and in the medical countermeasures preparedness. The Ebola outbreak in West Africa provided a crucial opportunity to reveal the challenges and improve the preparedness for rare but high impact emerging diseases that are prone to be neglected. Efforts to uphold the lessons learnt and maintain public health preparedness should help prepare for future emerging diseases, including bioterrorist acts and pandemics.

  20. An outbreak of Ebola in Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okware, S I; Omaswa, F G; Zaramba, S; Opio, A; Lutwama, J J; Kamugisha, J; Rwaguma, E B; Kagwa, P; Lamunu, M

    2002-12-01

    An outbreak of Ebola disease was reported from Gulu district, Uganda, on 8 October 2000. The outbreak was characterized by fever and haemorrhagic manifestations, and affected health workers and the general population of Rwot-Obillo, a village 14 km north of Gulu town. Later, the outbreak spread to other parts of the country including Mbarara and Masindi districts. Response measures included surveillance, community mobilization, case and logistics management. Three coordination committees were formed: National Task Force (NTF), a District Task Force (DTF) and an Interministerial Task Force (IMTF). The NTF and DTF were responsible for coordination and follow-up of implementation of activities at the national and district levels, respectively, while the IMTF provided political direction and handled sensitive issues related to stigma, trade, tourism and international relations. The international response was coordinated by the World Health Organization (WHO) under the umbrella organization of the Global Outbreak and Alert Response Network. A WHO/CDC case definition for Ebola was adapted and used to capture four categories of cases, namely, the 'alert', 'suspected', 'probable' and 'confirmed cases'. Guidelines for identification and management of cases were developed and disseminated to all persons responsible for surveillance, case management, contact tracing and Information Education Communication (IEC). For the duration of the epidemic that lasted up to 16 January 2001, a total of 425 cases with 224 deaths were reported countrywide. The case fatality rate was 53%. The attack rate (AR) was highest in women. The average AR for Gulu district was 12.6 cases/10 000 inhabitants when the contacts of all cases were considered and was 4.5 cases/10 000 if limited only to contacts of laboratory confirmed cases. The secondary AR was 2.5% when nearly 5000 contacts were followed up for 21 days. Uganda was finally declared Ebola free on 27 February 2001, 42 days after the last case

  1. Cluster of Ebola cases among Liberian and U.S. health care workers in an Ebola treatment unit and adjacent hospital -- Liberia, 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forrester, Joseph D; Hunter, Jennifer C; Pillai, Satish K; Arwady, M Allison; Ayscue, Patrick; Matanock, Almea; Monroe, Ben; Schafer, Ilana J; Nyenswah, Tolbert G; De Cock, Kevin M

    2014-10-17

    The ongoing Ebola virus disease (Ebola) epidemic in West Africa, like previous Ebola outbreaks, has been characterized by amplification in health care settings and increased risk for health care workers (HCWs), who often do not have access to appropriate personal protective equipment. In many locations, Ebola treatment units (ETUs) have been established to optimize care of patients with Ebola while maintaining infection control procedures to prevent transmission of Ebola virus. These ETUs are considered essential to containment of the epidemic. In July 2014, CDC assisted the Ministry of Health and Social Welfare of Liberia in investigating a cluster of five Ebola cases among HCWs who became ill while working in an ETU, an adjacent general hospital, or both. No common source of exposure or chain of transmission was identified. However, multiple opportunities existed for transmission of Ebola virus to HCWs, including exposure to patients with undetected Ebola in the hospital, inadequate use of personal protective equipment during cleaning and disinfection of environmental surfaces in the hospital, and potential transmission from an ill HCW to another HCW. No evidence was found of a previously unrecognized mode of transmission. Prevention recommendations included reinforcement of existing infection control guidance for both ETUs and general medical care settings, including measures to prevent cross-transmission in co-located facilities.

  2. Ebola virus and other Filoviruses:an overview

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hasna Amdiouni; Hicham El Rhaffouli

    2015-01-01

    Filoviruses, including Ebola and Marburg viruses, are recognized as a significant warning to public health. They are zoonotic agents with bats as primary reservoir. Those viruses can cause severe human infection with hemorrhagic syndrome leading to death. The mortality rate can be higher than 90%. In West Africa, recent Ebola virus outbreak occurred in March 2014, has caused more than 8 300 infections with more than 4 000 deaths. That shows the critical state of this country, and the critical context in worldwide. In order to fight this deadly scourge, it is necessary to understand the epidemiology of disease and to establish a good diagnosis protocols and protective measures. In recent decades, traditional techniques of virus isolation are replaced by molecular biology techniques which are faster, more sensitive and specific. Until now, no specific Ebola virus treatment or vaccine but many studies are in progress with promising results.

  3. Ebola Virus Disease, Democratic Republic of the Congo, 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanclares, Carolina; Kapetshi, Jimmy; Lionetto, Fanshen; de la Rosa, Olimpia; Tamfun, Jean-Jacques Muyembe; Alia, Miriam; Kobinger, Gary

    2016-01-01

    During July–November 2014, the Democratic Republic of the Congo underwent its seventh Ebola virus disease (EVD) outbreak. The etiologic agent was Zaire Ebola virus; 66 cases were reported (overall case-fatality rate 74.2%). Through a retrospective observational study of confirmed EVD in 25 patients admitted to either of 2 Ebola treatment centers, we described clinical features and investigated correlates associated with death. Clinical features were mainly generic. At admission, 76% of patients had >1 gastrointestinal symptom and 28% >1 hemorrhagic symptom. The case-fatality rate in this group was 48% and was higher for female patients (67%). Cox regression analysis correlated death with initial low cycle threshold, indicating high viral load. Cycle threshold was a robust predictor of death, as were fever, hiccups, diarrhea, dyspnea, dehydration, disorientation, hematemesis, bloody feces during hospitalization, and anorexia in recent medical history. Differences from other outbreaks could suggest guidance for optimizing clinical management and disease control. PMID:27533284

  4. Sequencing of Ebola Virus Genomes Using Nanopore Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoenen, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    Sequencing of virus genomes during disease outbreaks can provide valuable information for diagnostics, epidemiology, and evaluation of potential countermeasures. However, particularly in remote areas logistical and technical challenges can be significant. Nanopore sequencing provides an alternative to classical Sanger and next-generation sequencing methods, and was successfully used under outbreak conditions (Hoenen et al., 2016; Quick et al., 2016). Here we describe a protocol used for sequencing of Ebola virus under outbreak conditions using Nanopore technology, which we successfully implemented at the CDC/NIH diagnostic laboratory (de Wit et al., 2016) located at the ELWA-3 Ebola virus Treatment Unit in Monrovia, Liberia, during the recent Ebola virus outbreak in West Africa.

  5. Genetic testing for Lynch syndrome in the first year of colorectal cancer: a review of the psychological impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landsbergen, Karin M; Prins, Judith B; Brunner, Han G; Kraaimaat, Floris W; Hoogerbrugge, Nicoline

    2009-01-01

    An increasing number of patients with colorectal cancer (CRC) receive genetic counselling within 1 year after diagnosis. Little is known whether specific subgroups are more vulnerable for genetic testing related distress. A literature review was conducted to identify the psychological impact of CRC in the first year, and the additional impact of genetic testing. The electronic databases of PubMed, PsychInfo, Embase and the Cochrane Library were searched to identify all reports published between January 1997 and October 2007 on the psychological impact of (1) CRC-diagnosis up to 1 year after treatment and of (2) genetic testing for Lynch syndrome in patients with CRC. Studies on the psychological impact of genetic testing in newly diagnosed patient with CRC were not available. Either CRC patients diagnosed several years ago were studied and the focus was also often on the psychological impact of genetic testing prior to DNA-test disclosure. They show that limitations in emotional and social functioning can persist up to 1 year after CRC treatment, especially in those with a stoma or diagnosed before age 60. Female patients and male patients diagnosed before age 50 appear to be more vulnerable to genetic test-related distress. It is well known that being treated for CRC has great impact on psychological functioning. Little is known about the psychological impact during the first year after diagnosis and very little is known about the additional psychological effect of genetic testing for hereditary cancer in this period. We found presumptive evidence that specific subgroups of patients with CRC are more vulnerable for genetic-testing-related distress.

  6. Effective post-exposure treatment of Ebola infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heinz Feldmann

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Ebola viruses are highly lethal human pathogens that have received considerable attention in recent years due to an increasing re-emergence in Central Africa and a potential for use as a biological weapon. There is no vaccine or treatment licensed for human use. In the past, however, important advances have been made in developing preventive vaccines that are protective in animal models. In this regard, we showed that a single injection of a live-attenuated recombinant vesicular stomatitis virus vector expressing the Ebola virus glycoprotein completely protected rodents and nonhuman primates from lethal Ebola challenge. In contrast, progress in developing therapeutic interventions against Ebola virus infections has been much slower and there is clearly an urgent need to develop effective post-exposure strategies to respond to future outbreaks and acts of bioterrorism, as well as to treat laboratory exposures. Here we tested the efficacy of the vesicular stomatitis virus-based Ebola vaccine vector in post-exposure treatment in three relevant animal models. In the guinea pig and mouse models it was possible to protect 50% and 100% of the animals, respectively, following treatment as late as 24 h after lethal challenge. More important, four out of eight rhesus macaques were protected if treated 20 to 30 min following an otherwise uniformly lethal infection. Currently, this approach provides the most effective post-exposure treatment strategy for Ebola infections and is particularly suited for use in accidentally exposed individuals and in the control of secondary transmission during naturally occurring outbreaks or deliberate release.

  7. Environmental triggers of Past Ebola Outbreaks in Africa, 1981 - 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dartevelle, S.; NguyRobertson, A. L.

    2016-12-01

    Ebola virus, especially its most common and lethal form, Zaire Ebolavirus, has eluded scientists nearly 50 years. What is its primary host? Why does it go dormant to suddenly to reappear full force years later? What are the driving forces behind its intriguing dynamic? It has been surmised that local environmental factors (such as droughts, seasons) might be at play behind the on-and-off Ebola outbreak outbursts. However, so far, no clear lead has been demonstrated making Ebola a constant hidden lethal menace lurking in the environment for many African communities. We have analyzed long-term time-series of three environmental variables that influence the controlling factor behind the cycle of Ebola virus outbreaks: (i) vegetation health, as determined from the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) collected by AVHRR and MODIS satellite sensors, and the weather variables (ii) temperature and (iii) precipitation from the Climate Forecast System ver. 2. Time series data were averaged monthly and spatially over a 100 km grid around past known outbreak locations. Seasonal effects were removed from these time series before applying statistical analyses identifying causal linkages between NDVI, temperature, precipitation and Ebola outbreaks. Likewise, possible tipping-points prior to outbreaks (i.e., early warning signals of an upcoming outbreak) were identified. Our results indicate that there is a causal dynamic link between outbreaks and the three environmental variables examined months prior to an outbreak. This was likely due to an abnormal change in the local precipitation pattern which influence NDVI values and to a lesser extent temperature. Furthermore, our results provide evidence that these factors demonstrate early warning signals of a dynamical system at a tipping-point, prior to a future outbreak. These tipping-point or early warning models may open new ways to furthermore develop forecast models of future Ebola outbreaks. [US Government — Approved

  8. Ocular Complications in Survivors of the Ebola Outbreak in Guinea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hereth-Hebert, Esther; Bah, Mamadou Oury; Etard, Jean François; Sow, Mamadou Saliou; Resnikoff, Serge; Fardeau, Christine; Toure, Abdoulaye; Ouendeno, Alexis Niouma; Sagno, Isaac Ceougna; March, Laura; Izard, Suzanne; Lama, Pierre Louis; Barry, Moumié; Delaporte, Eric

    2017-03-01

    The Ebola outbreak of 2013-2016 severely affected West Africa and resulted in 2544 deaths and 1270 survivors in Guinea, the country where it began. This Ebola virus was the Zaire strain of the virus family Filoviridae. In this outbreak the case fatality rate was about 67%. The survivors, declared cured after 2 negative blood polymerase chain reaction (PCR) results, face psychosocial disorders and rheumatic, ear-nose-throat, neurocognitive, and ophthalmologic complications. The goal of this study was to detect and describe ocular complications afflicting these survivors and to observe their occurrence and recurrences. Prospective observational cohort study. This prospective observational multicenter cohort study was initiated in March 2015. The cohort study included 341 survivors followed up in the infectious disease ward of Conakry, Forecariah, and Nzérékoré as of May 2016. The patients received multidisciplinary medical follow-up expected to last at least 1 year that included an eye examination as part of complete, free treatment. Systematic examination of 341 patients revealed 46 cases of uveitis (13.5%), 6 cases of episcleritis (1.8%), and 3 cases of interstitial keratitis (0.9%). Uveitis was most frequently unilateral (78.3%) and anterior (47.8%) and occurred within the 2 months after discharge from the Ebola treatment center. Moreover, uveitis relapses were found up to 13 months after the negative PCR result for Ebola in the blood. Nearly 1 out of 6 survivors presented ocular disorders after discharge from the Ebola treatment center. An ophthalmologic follow-up for Ebola-infected patients should start, if possible, during the acute phase of the disease and last more than 1 year. Treatment guidelines need to be urgently developed and implemented. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. The role and impact of personal faith and religion among genetic service providers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geller, Gail; Micco, Ellyn; Silver, Rachel J; Kolodner, Ken; Bernhardt, Barbara A

    2009-02-15

    This paper describes the impact of genetic service providers' personal faith and religious values on their experiences interacting with colleagues and patients. We surveyed 480 clinical geneticists (MDs), genetic counselors (GCs), and genetic nurses randomly selected from their professional associations, and then interviewed a sample of survey respondents. Outcomes included religiosity, coping with distress through spiritual beliefs, and personal value conflicts (PVCs). Two hundred fourteen providers completed the survey out of an estimated 348 eligible (61% response rate). Importance attributed to regular attendance at religious services ranged from 39% (not at all important) to 27% (very important). Reliance on religion and spiritual beliefs as a source of comfort ranged from 48% (never) to 33% (sometimes or often). Religiosity varied by discipline with 58% of nurses thinking regular attendance at religious services was moderately or very important as compared to 47% of GCs and 30% of MDs (P = 0.006). Ten percent of respondents had difficulty reconciling their own faith with being a genetics professional, 14% felt the need to hide their own faith from their colleagues or patients, 7% thought their professional stance was not consistent with their personal values, and 4% felt ostracized by the genetics community because of their personal beliefs. The experience of such PVCs was positively correlated with religiosity (r = 0.35; P values to cope with distress. These individuals often experience difficulty reconciling their religious beliefs with the expectations of their profession, and sharing their beliefs with their colleagues and patients. Efforts should be made to prevent or reduce the secrecy surrounding personal faith and religion among genetics professionals.

  10. A prospective study of the impact of genetic susceptibility testing for BRCA1/2 or HNPCC on family relationships

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Oostrom, Iris; Meijers-Heijboer, Hanne; Duivenvoorden, Hugo J.; Brocker-Vriends, Annette H. J. T.; van Asperen, Chhstl J.; Sijmons, Rolf H.; Seynaeve, Caroline; Van Gool, Arthur R.; Klijn, Jan G. M.; Riedijk, Samantha R.; van Dooren, Silvia; Tibben, Aad

    2007-01-01

    This study assessed the impact of genetic testing for cancer susceptibility on family relationships and determinants of adverse consequences for family relationships. Applicants for genetic testing of a known familial pathogenic mutation in BRCA1/2 or a HNPCC related gene (N = 271) rated the prevale

  11. The etiology of Ebola virus disease-like illnesses in Ebola virusnegative patients from Sierra Leone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lei; Ji, Dong; Ji, Ying-Jie; Li, Chen; Gao, Xu-Dong; Wang, Li-Fu; Zhao, Min; Duan, Xue-Zhang; Duan, Hui-Juan

    2016-01-01

    During the 2014 Ebola virus disease (EVD) outbreak, less than half of EVD-suspected cases were laboratory tested as Ebola virus (EBOV)-negative, but disease identity remained unknown. In this study we investigated the etiology of EVD-like illnesses in EBOV-negative cases. From November 13, 2014 to March 16, 2015, EVD-suspected patients were admitted to Jui Government Hospital and assessed for EBOV infection by real-time PCR. Of 278 EBOV negative patients, 223 (80.21%), 142 (51.08%), 123 (44.24%), 114 (41.01%), 59 (21.22%), 35 (12.59%), and 12 (4.32%) reported fever, headache, joint pain, fatigue, nausea/vomiting, diarrhea, hemorrhage, respectively. Furthermore, 121 (43.52%), 44 (15.83%), 36 (12.95%), 33 (11.87%), 23 (8.27%), 10 (3.60%) patients were diagnosed as infection with malaria, HIV, Lassa fever, tuberculosis, yellow fever, and pneumonia, respectively. No significant differences in clinical features and symptoms were found between non-EVD and EVD patients. To the best of our knowledge, the present study is the first to explore the etiology of EVD-like illnesses in uninfected patients in Sierra Leone, highlighting the importance of accurate diagnosis to EVD confirmation. PMID:27058894

  12. Molecular road ecology: exploring the potential of genetics for investigating transportation impacts on wildlife.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balkenhol, Niko; Waits, Lisette P

    2009-10-01

    Transportation infrastructures such as roads, railroads and canals can have major environmental impacts. Ecological road effects include the destruction and fragmentation of habitat, the interruption of ecological processes and increased erosion and pollution. Growing concern about these ecological road effects has led to the emergence of a new scientific discipline called road ecology. The goal of road ecology is to provide planners with scientific advice on how to avoid, minimize or mitigate negative environmental impacts of transportation. In this review, we explore the potential of molecular genetics to contribute to road ecology. First, we summarize general findings from road ecology and review studies that investigate road effects using genetic data. These studies generally focus only on barrier effects of roads on local genetic diversity and structure and only use a fraction of available molecular approaches. Thus, we propose additional molecular applications that can be used to evaluate road effects across multiple scales and dimensions of the biodiversity hierarchy. Finally, we make recommendations for future research questions and study designs that would advance molecular road ecology. Our review demonstrates that molecular approaches can substantially contribute to road ecology research and that interdisciplinary, long-term collaborations will be particularly important for realizing the full potential of molecular road ecology.

  13. Thermal genetic adaptation in the water flea Daphnia and its impact: an evolving metacommunity approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Meester, Luc; Van Doorslaer, Wendy; Geerts, Aurora; Orsini, Luisa; Stoks, Robby

    2011-11-01

    Genetic adaptation to temperature change can impact responses of populations and communities to global warming. Here we integrate previously published results on experimental evolution trials with follow-up experiments involving the water flea Daphnia as a model system. Our research shows (1) the capacity of natural populations of this species to genetically adapt to changes in temperature in a time span of months to years, (2) the context-dependence of these genetic changes, emphasizing the role of ecology and community composition on evolutionary responses to climatic change, and (3) the impact of micro-evolutionary changes on immigration success of preadapted genotypes. Our study involves (1) experimental evolution trials in the absence and presence of the community of competitors, predators, and parasites, (2) life-table and competition experiments to assess the fitness consequences of micro-evolution, and (3) competition experiments with putative immigrant genotypes. We use these observations as building blocks of an evolving metacommunity to understand biological responses to climatic change. This approach integrates both local and regional responses at both the population and community levels. Finally, we provide an outline of current gaps in knowledge and suggest fruitful avenues for future research. © The Author 2011. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Integrative and Comparative Biology. All rights reserved.

  14. Genetic Evidence Highlights Potential Impacts of By-Catch to Cetaceans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendez, Martin; Rosenbaum, Howard C.; Wells, Randall S.; Stamper, Andrew; Bordino, Pablo

    2010-01-01

    Incidental entanglement in fishing gear is arguably the most serious threat to many populations of small cetaceans, judging by the alarming number of captured animals. However, other aspects of this threat, such as the potential capture of mother-offspring pairs or reproductive pairs, could be equally or even more significant but have rarely been evaluated. Using a combination of demographic and genetic data we provide evidence that i) Franciscana dolphin pairs that are potentially reproductive and mother-offspring pairs form temporal bonds, and ii) are entangled simultaneously. Our results highlight potential demographic and genetic impacts of by-catch to cetacean populations: the joint entanglement of mother-offspring or reproductive pairs, compared to random individuals, might exacerbate the demographic consequences of by-catch, and the loss of groups of relatives means that significant components of genetic diversity could be lost together. Given the social nature of many odontocetes (toothed cetaceans), we suggest that these potential impacts could be rather general to the group and therefore by-catch could be more detrimental than previously considered. PMID:21179542

  15. 埃博拉出血热%Ebola haemorrhagic fever

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙超

    2001-01-01

    埃博拉出血热(Ebola hemorrhagic fever,EbHF)亦称埃博拉病毒病(Ebola virus disease,EVD),是病死率很高的一种病毒性出血热。“埃博拉”原是刚果一条河流,1976年首宗埃博拉病例在那里出现,从此它成为这致命传染病的代号。

  16. Trigger events: enviroclimatic coupling of Ebola hemorrhagic fever outbreaks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinzon, Jorge E.; Wilson, James M.; Tucker, Compton J.; Arthur, Ray; Jahrling, Peter B.; Formenty, Pierre

    2004-01-01

    We use spatially continuous satellite data as a correlate of precipitation within tropical Africa and show that the majority of documented Ebola hemorrhagic fever outbreaks were closely associated with sharply drier conditions at the end of the rainy season. We propose that these trigger events may enhance transmission of Ebola virus from its cryptic reservoir to humans. These findings suggest specific directions to help understand the sylvatic cycle of the virus and may provide early warning tools to detect possible future outbreaks of this enigmatic disease.

  17. Ebola virus disease outbreak - West Africa, September 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-10-03

    CDC is assisting ministries of health and working with other organizations to control and end the ongoing outbreak of Ebola virus disease (Ebola) in West Africa. The updated data in this report were compiled from ministry of health situation reports and World Health Organization (WHO) sources. Total case counts include all suspected, probable, and confirmed cases as defined by each country. These data reflect reported cases, which make up an unknown proportion of all actual cases. The data also reflect reporting delays that might vary from country to country.

  18. Genetic diversity of the hepatitis C virus: Impact and issues in the antiviral therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Guillou-Guillemette, H; Vallet, S; Gaudy-Graffin, C; Payan, C; Pivert, A; Goudeau, A; Lunel-Fabiani, F

    2007-01-01

    The hepatitis C Virus (HCV) presents a high degree of genetic variability which is explained by the combination of a lack of proof reading by the RNA dependant RNA polymerase and a high level of viral replication. The resulting genetic polymorphism defines a classification in clades, genotypes, subtypes, isolates and quasispecies. This diversity is known to reflect the range of responses to Interferon therapy. The genotype is one of the predictive parameters currently used to define the antiviral treatment strategy and the chance of therapeutic success. Studies have also reported the potential impact of the viral genetic polymorphism in the outcome of antiviral therapy in patients infected by the same HCV genotype. Both structural and non structural genomic regions of HCV have been suggested to be involved in the Interferon pathway and the resistance to antiviral therapy. In this review, we first detail the viral basis of HCV diversity. Then, the HCV genetic regions that may be implicated in resistance to therapy are described, with a focus on the structural region encoded by the E2 gene and the non-structural genes NS3, NS5A and NS5B. Both mechanisms of the Interferon resistance and of the new antiviral drugs are described in this review. PMID:17552024

  19. Beyond the patient: the broader impact of genetic discrimination among individuals at risk of Huntington disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bombard, Yvonne; Palin, JoAnne; Friedman, Jan M; Veenstra, Gerry; Creighton, Susan; Bottorff, Joan L; Hayden, Michael R

    2012-03-01

    We aimed to address gaps in current understanding of the scope and impact of discrimination, by examining a cohort of individuals at-risk for Huntington disease (HD), to describe the prevalence of concern for oneself and one's family in multiple domains; strategies used to mitigate discrimination; and the extent to which concerns relate to experiences. We conducted a cross-sectional survey of 293 individuals at-risk for HD (80% response rate); 167 respondents were genetically tested and 66 were not. Fear of discrimination was widespread (86%), particularly in the insurance, family and social settings. Approximately half of concerned individuals experienced discrimination (40-62%, depending on genetic status). Concern was associated with "keeping quiet" about one's risk of HD or "taking action to avoid" discrimination. Importantly, concern was highly distressing for some respondents (21% for oneself; 32% for relatives). Overall, concerned respondents with high education levels, who discovered their family history at a younger age, and those who were mutation-positive were more likely to report experiences of discrimination than others who were concerned. Concerns were rarely attributed to genetic test results alone. Concern about genetic discrimination is frequent among individuals at-risk of HD and spans many settings. It influences behavioral patterns and can result in high levels of self-rated distress, highlighting the need for practice and policy interventions. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Genetic diversity of the hepatitis C virus: Impact and issues in the antiviral therapy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    H Le Guillou-Guillemette; S Vallet; C Gaudy-Graffin; C Payan; A Pivert; A Goudeau; F Lunel-Fabiani

    2007-01-01

    The hepatitis C Virus (HCV) presents a high degree of genetic variability which is explained by the combination of a lack of proof reading by the RNA dependant RNA polymerase and a high level of viral replication. The resuiting genetic polymorphism defines a classification in clades, genotypes, subtypes, isolates and quasispecies.This diversity is known to reflect the range of responses to Interferon therapy. The genotype is one of the predictive parameters currently used to define the antiviral treatment strategy and the chance of therapeutic success. Studies have also reported the potential impact of the viral genetic polymorphism in the outcome of antiviral therapy in patients infected by the same HCV genotype. Both structural and non structural genomic regions of HCV have been suggested to be involved in the Interferon pathway and the resistance to antiviral therapy. In this review, we first detail the viral basis of HCV diversity.Then, the HCV genetic regions that may be implicated in resistance to therapy are described, with a focus on the structural region encoded by the E2 gene and the non-structural genes NS3, NS5A and NS5B. Both mechanisms of the Interferon resistance and of the new antiviral drugs are described in this review.

  1. Global health security: the wider lessons from the west African Ebola virus disease epidemic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heymann, David L; Chen, Lincoln; Takemi, Keizo; Fidler, David P; Tappero, Jordan W; Thomas, Mathew J; Kenyon, Thomas A; Frieden, Thomas R; Yach, Derek; Nishtar, Sania; Kalache, Alex; Olliaro, Piero L; Horby, Peter; Torreele, Els; Gostin, Lawrence O; Ndomondo-Sigonda, Margareth; Carpenter, Daniel; Rushton, Simon; Lillywhite, Louis; Devkota, Bhimsen; Koser, Khalid; Yates, Rob; Dhillon, Ranu S; Rannan-Eliya, Ravi P

    2015-05-09

    The Ebola virus disease outbreak in West Africa was unprecedented in both its scale and impact. Out of this human calamity has come renewed attention to global health security--its definition, meaning, and the practical implications for programmes and policy. For example, how does a government begin to strengthen its core public health capacities, as demanded by the International Health Regulations? What counts as a global health security concern? In the context of the governance of global health, including WHO reform, it will be important to distil lessons learned from the Ebola outbreak. The Lancet invited a group of respected global health practitioners to reflect on these lessons, to explore the idea of global health security, and to offer suggestions for next steps. Their contributions describe some of the major threats to individual and collective human health, as well as the values and recommendations that should be considered to counteract such threats in the future. Many different perspectives are proposed. Their common goal is a more sustainable and resilient society for human health and wellbeing.

  2. Chasing Ebola through the Endosomal Labyrinth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Javad Aman

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available During virus entry, the surface glycoprotein of Ebola virus (EBOV undergoes a complex set of transformations within the endosomal network. Tools to study EBOV entry have been limited to static immunofluorescence or biochemical and functional analysis. In a recent article in mBio, Spence et al. reported a novel, live-cell-imaging method that tracks this transformational journey of EBOV in real time [J. S. Spence, T. B. Krause, E. Mittler, R. K. Jangra, and K. Chandran, mBio 7(1:e01857-15, 2016, http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/mBio.01857-15]. The assay validates known mechanisms of EBOV entry and sheds light on some novel intricacies. Direct evidence supports the hypothesis that fusion is a rare event that starts in maturing early endosomes, is completed in late endosomes, and occurs entirely in Niemann-Pick C1 (NPC1-positive (NPC1+ compartments. The study demonstrated that lipid mixing and productive fusion are temporally decoupled, with different energetic barriers and a protease-dependent step between the two events. Analysis of the mechanism of action of an important class of EBOV neutralizing antibodies, such as KZ52 and ZMapp, provides direct evidence that these antibodies act by inhibiting the membrane fusion.

  3. DENGUE, CHIKUNGUNYA E EBOLA: VIROSES AMBIENTAIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thereza Cristina Ferreira Camello

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available DOI: 10.12957/sustinere.2014.14122Várias viroses emergentes ou reemergentes podem ser veiculadas por mosquitos. Aedes aegypti e Aedes albopictus, os mesmos que transmitem o vírus da dengue e da febre amarela, podem disseminar o vírus Chikungunya que este ano no Brasil já fez cerca de 1000 casos confirmados. A doença tem parâmetros semelhantes aos da Dengue, e embora a taxa de letalidade seja muito baixa, sequelas podem permanecer no individuo por um ano. Em 2014 a partir de setembro o mundo observou perplexo a ressurgência de um vírus hemorrágico letal, em uma das piores epidemias já ocorridas no continente africano. O vírus Ebola atingiu mais de 6000 pessoas. Estudos no sentido de melhorar as estratégias de contenção da disseminação de vetores e dos vírus devem ser estabelecidas, enquanto aguardamos a produção de vacinas eficazes. O mundo não é imune a uma infecção endêmica, localizada no interior de um continente e não estamos preparados para atender uma demanda deste porte.

  4. Ebola viral hemorrhagic disease outbreak in West Africa- lessons from Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mbonye, Anthony K; Wamala, Joseph F; Nanyunja, Miriam; Opio, Alex; Makumbi, Issa; Aceng, Jane Ruth

    2014-09-01

    There has been a rapid spread of Ebola Viral Hemorrhagic disease in Guinea, Liberia and Sierra Leone since March 2014. Since this is the first time of a major Ebola outbreak in West Africa; it is possible there is lack of understanding of the epidemic in the communities, lack of experience among the health workers to manage the cases and limited capacities for rapid response. The main objective of this article is to share Uganda's experience in controlling similar Ebola outbreaks and to suggest some lessons that could inform the control of the Ebola outbreak in West Africa. The article is based on published papers, reports of previous Ebola outbreaks, response plans and experiences of individuals who have participated in the control of Ebola epidemics in Uganda. Lessons learnt: The success in the control of Ebola epidemics in Uganda has been due to high political support, effective coordination through national and district task forces. In addition there has been active surveillance, strong community mobilization using village health teams and other community resources persons, an efficient laboratory system that has capacity to provide timely results. These have coupled with effective case management and infection control and the involvement of development partners who commit resources with shared responsibility. Several factors have contributed to the successful quick containment of Ebola outbreaks in Uganda. West African countries experiencing Ebola outbreaks could draw some lessons from the Uganda experience and adapt them to contain the Ebola epidemic.

  5. Bias, Accuracy, and Impact of Indirect Genetic Effects in Infectious Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipschutz-Powell, Debby; Woolliams, J. A.; Bijma, P.; Pong-Wong, R.; Bermingham, M. L.; Doeschl-Wilson, A. B.

    2012-01-01

    Selection for improved host response to infectious disease offers a desirable alternative to chemical treatment but has proven difficult in practice, due to low heritability estimates of disease traits. Disease data from field studies is often binary, indicating whether an individual has become infected or not following exposure to an infectious disease. Numerous studies have shown that from this data one can infer genetic variation in individuals’ underlying susceptibility. In a previous study, we showed that with an indirect genetic effect (IGE) model it is possible to capture some genetic variation in infectivity, if present, as well as in susceptibility. Infectivity is the propensity of transmitting infection upon contact with a susceptible individual. It is an important factor determining the severity of an epidemic. However, there are severe shortcomings with the Standard IGE models as they do not accommodate the dynamic nature of disease data. Here we adjust the Standard IGE model to (1) make expression of infectivity dependent on the individuals’ disease status (Case Model) and (2) to include timing of infection (Case-ordered Model). The models are evaluated by comparing impact of selection, bias, and accuracy of each model using simulated binary disease data. These were generated for populations with known variation in susceptibility and infectivity thus allowing comparisons between estimated and true breeding values. Overall the Case Model provided better estimates for host genetic susceptibility and infectivity compared to the Standard Model in terms of bias, impact, and accuracy. Furthermore, these estimates were strongly influenced by epidemiological characteristics. However, surprisingly, the Case-Ordered model performed considerably worse than the Standard and the Case Models, pointing toward limitations in incorporating disease dynamics into conventional variance component estimation methodology and software used in animal breeding. PMID

  6. Early Identification and Prevention of the Spread of Ebola in High-Risk African Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breakwell, Lucy; Gerber, A Russell; Greiner, Ashley L; Hastings, Deborah L; Mirkovic, Kelsey; Paczkowski, Magdalena M; Sidibe, Sekou; Banaski, James; Walker, Chastity L; Brooks, Jennifer C; Caceres, Victor M; Arthur, Ray R; Angulo, Frederick J

    2016-07-08

    In the late summer of 2014, it became apparent that improved preparedness was needed for Ebola virus disease (Ebola) in at-risk countries surrounding the three highly affected West African countries (Guinea, Sierra Leone, and Liberia). The World Health Organization (WHO) identified 14 nearby African countries as high priority to receive technical assistance for Ebola preparedness; two additional African countries were identified at high risk for Ebola introduction because of travel and trade connections. To enhance the capacity of these countries to rapidly detect and contain Ebola, CDC established the High-Risk Countries Team (HRCT) to work with ministries of health, CDC country offices, WHO, and other international organizations. From August 2014 until the team was deactivated in May 2015, a total of 128 team members supported 15 countries in Ebola response and preparedness. In four instances during 2014, Ebola was introduced from a heavily affected country to a previously unaffected country, and CDC rapidly deployed personnel to help contain Ebola. The first introduction, in Nigeria, resulted in 20 cases and was contained within three generations of transmission; the second and third introductions, in Senegal and Mali, respectively, resulted in no further transmission; the fourth, also in Mali, resulted in seven cases and was contained within two generations of transmission. Preparedness activities included training, developing guidelines, assessing Ebola preparedness, facilitating Emergency Operations Center establishment in seven countries, and developing a standardized protocol for contact tracing. CDC's Field Epidemiology Training Program Branch also partnered with the HRCT to provide surveillance training to 188 field epidemiologists in Côte d'Ivoire, Guinea-Bissau, Mali, and Senegal to support Ebola preparedness. Imported cases of Ebola were successfully contained, and all 15 priority countries now have a stronger capacity to rapidly detect and contain

  7. O impacto da genética na asma infantil Impact of genetics in childhood asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo A. Pinto

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Apresentar os resultados dos estudos mais importantes e recentes sobre a genética da asma. Estes dados devem auxiliar os clínicos gerais a compreender o impacto da genética sobre este distúrbio complexo e como os genes e polimorfismos influenciam a asma e a atopia. FONTES DOS DADOS: Os dados foram coletados do banco de dados MEDLINE. Os estudos de associação genética foram selecionados do Genetic Association Database, um repositório de estudos de associação genética de doenças e distúrbios complexos organizado pelo National Institutes of Health. SÍNTESE DOS DADOS: Considerando os dados de diversos importantes estudos de gêmeos sobre a genética da asma, a heritabilidade, que mensura a contribuição dos fatores genéticos para a variância da asma, pode ser estimada entre 0,48 e 0,79. Uma grande quantidade de estudos de associação genética tentou identificar genes de susceptibilidade à asma. Os resultados mais replicados nos estudos de associação genética envolvem as cinco regiões do genoma humano a seguir: 5q31-32, 6p21, 11q12-13, 16p11-12, e 20p13. Recentemente, outro gene de susceptibilidade à asma (ORMDL3, considerado determinante crítico para a asma infantil, foi identificado por um estudo genômico de associação. CONCLUSÕES: É possível estimar que a contribuição genética à asma varia entre 48 e 79%. Diversos loci parecem influenciar a susceptibilidade à asma. Os genes localizados no cromossomo 5q (ADRB2, IL13 e IL4 e o gene ORMDL3, no cromossomo 17, identificado recentemente, parecem ser determinantes para a asma infantil. O diagnóstico e a farmacogenética podem ser as primeiras implicações clínicas de estudos extensivos sobre a genética da asma.OBJECTIVE: To present the most important and recent results of studies on asthma genetics. These data may help general physicians understand the impact of genetics on this complex disorder and how genes and polymorphisms influence asthma and atopy

  8. The Baboon (Papio spp. as a Model of Human Ebola Virus Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gary L.White

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Baboons are susceptible to natural Ebola virus (EBOV infection and share 96% genetic homology with humans. Despite these characteristics, baboons have rarely been utilized as experimental models of human EBOV infection to evaluate the efficacy of prophylactics and therapeutics in the United States. This review will summarize what is known about the pathogenesis of EBOV infection in baboons compared to EBOV infection in humans and other Old World nonhuman primates. In addition, we will discuss how closely the baboon model recapitulates human EBOV infection. We will also review some of the housing requirements and behavioral attributes of baboons compared to other Old World nonhuman primates. Due to the lack of data available on the pathogenesis of Marburg virus (MARV infection in baboons, discussion of the pathogenesis of MARV infection in baboons will be limited.

  9. Genetic impact of a severe El Nino event on Galapagos marine iguanas (Amblyrhynchus cristatus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian Steinfartz

    Full Text Available The El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO is a major source of climatic disturbance, impacting the dynamics of ecosystems worldwide. Recent models predict that human-generated rises in green-house gas levels will cause an increase in the strength and frequency of El Niño warming events in the next several decades, highlighting the need to understand the potential biological consequences of increased ENSO activity. Studies have focused on the ecological and demographic implications of El Niño in a range of organisms, but there have been few systematic attempts to measure the impact of these processes on genetic diversity in populations. Here, we evaluate whether the 1997-1998 El Niño altered the genetic composition of Galápagos marine iguana populations from eleven islands, some of which experienced mortality rates of up to 90% as a result of El Niño warming. Specifically, we measured the temporal variation in microsatellite allele frequencies and mitochondrial DNA diversity (mtDNA in samples collected before (1991/1993 and after (2004 the El Niño event. Based on microsatellite data, only one island (Marchena showed signatures of a genetic bottleneck, where the harmonic mean of the effective population size (N(e was estimated to be less than 50 individuals during the period between samplings. Substantial decreases in mtDNA variation between time points were observed in populations from just two islands (Marchena and Genovesa. Our results suggests that, for the majority of islands, a single, intense El Niño event did not reduce marine iguana populations to the point where substantial neutral genetic diversity was lost. In the case of Marchena, simultaneous changes to both nuclear and mitochondrial DNA variation may also be the result of a volcanic eruption on the island in 1991. Therefore, studies that seek to evaluate the genetic impact of El Niño must also consider the confounding or potentially synergistic effect of other environmental

  10. The impact of population heterogeneity on risk estimation in genetic counseling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaffer Michele L

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Genetic counseling has been an important tool for evaluating and communicating disease susceptibility for decades, and it has been applied to predict risks for a wide class of hereditary disorders. Most diseases are complex in nature and are affected by multiple genes and environmental conditions; it is highly likely that DNA tests alone do not define all the genetic factors responsible for a disease, so that persons classified into the same risk group by DNA testing actually could have different disease susceptibilities. Ignorance of population heterogeneity may lead to biased risk estimates, whereas additional information on population heterogeneity may improve the precision of such estimates. Methods Although DNA tests are widely used, few studies have investigated the accuracy of the predicted risks. We examined the impact of population heterogeneity on predicted disease risks by simulation of three different heterogeneity scenarios and studied the precision and accuracy of the risks estimated from a logistic regression model that ignored population heterogeneity. Moreover, we also incorporated information about population heterogeneity into our original model and investigated the resulting improvement in the accuracy of risk estimation. Results We found that heterogeneity in one or more categories could lead to biased estimates not only in the "contaminated" categories but also in other homogeneous categories. Incorporating information about population heterogeneity into the original model greatly improved the accuracy of risk estimation. Conclusions Our findings imply that without thorough knowledge about genetic basis of the disease, risks estimated from DNA tests may be misleading. Caution should be taken when evaluating the predicted risks obtained from genetic counseling. On the other hand, the improved accuracy of risk estimates after incorporating population heterogeneity information into the model did point out a

  11. Use of Existing Diagnostic Reverse-Transcription Polymerase Chain Reaction Assays for Detection of Ebola Virus RNA in Semen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pettitt, James; Higgs, Elizabeth S; Adams, Rick D; Jahrling, Peter B; Hensley, Lisa E

    2016-04-15

    Sexual transmission of Ebola virus in Liberia has now been documented and associated with new clusters in regions previously declared Ebola free. Assays that have Emergency Use Authorization (EUA) and are routinely used to detect Ebola virus RNA in whole blood and plasma specimens at the Liberian Institute for Biomedical Research were tested for their suitability in detecting the presence of Ebola virus RNA in semen. Qiagen AVL extraction protocols, as well as the Ebola Zaire Target 1 and major groove binder quantitative reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction assays, were demonstrably suitable for this purpose and should facilitate epidemiologic investigations, including those involving long-term survivors of Ebola.

  12. Impact of founder population, drift and selection on the genetic diversity of a recently translocated tree population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lefèvre, F; Fady, B; Fallour-Rubio, D; Ghosn, D; Bariteau, M

    2004-12-01

    Recently established, temperate tree populations combine a high level of differentiation for adaptive traits, suggesting rapid genetic evolution, with a high level of genetic diversity within population, suggesting a limited impact of genetic drift and purifying selection. To study experimentally the evolutionary forces in a recently established population, we assessed the spatial and temporal patterns of genetic diversity within a disjunct population of Cedrus atlantica established 140 years ago in south-eastern France from a North African source. The population is expanding through natural regeneration. Three generations were sampled, including founder trees. We analysed 12 isozyme loci, three of which were previously found in tight association with selected genes, and quantitative traits. No bottleneck effect was detected in the founder generation, but a simple test of allelic association revealed an initial disequilibrium which disappeared in the following generations. The impact of genetic drift during secondary evolution was limited, as suggested by the weak temporal differentiation. The genetic load was not reduced after 3 generations, and the quantitative variation for adaptive traits did not change either. Thus, initial genetic changes first proceed from a rapid re-organisation of the diversity through mating and recombination, whereas genetic erosion through drift and selection is delayed due to temporal and spatial stochasticity. Two life-history traits of trees contribute to slowing down the processes of genetic erosion: perenniality and large spatial scale. Thus, one would expect recently established tree populations to have a higher diversity than older ones, which seems in accordance with experimental surveys.

  13. Representations of Ebola and its victims in liberal American newspapers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trčková Dita

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Combining critical discourse analysis and the cognitive theory of metaphor, the study analyses hard news on Ebola from two American newspapers of a liberal political orientation, The New York Times and The New York Daily News, to investigate metaphoric representations of the disease and portrayals of its victims. It is revealed that both newspapers heavily rely on a single conceptual metaphor of EBOLA AS WAR, with only two alternative metaphors of EBOLA AS AN ANIMATE/HUMAN BEING and EBOLA AS A NATURAL CATASTROPHE employed. All three metaphoric themes assign the role of a culprit solely to the virus, which stands in contrast to non-metaphoric discursive allocations of blame for the situation in Africa, assigning responsibility mainly to man-made factors. African victims tend to be impersonalized and portrayed as voiceless and agentless, rarely occupying the role of a “fighter” in the military metaphoric representation of the disease, which runs counter to the findings of recent studies detecting a change towards a more positive image of Africa in the media. Both newspapers fail to represent infected ordinary Africans as sovereign agents, hindering readers from reflexively identifying with them.

  14. Nanozyme-strip for rapid local diagnosis of Ebola.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Demin; Fan, Kelong; Zhang, Dexi; Tan, Shuguang; Liang, Mifang; Liu, Yang; Zhang, Jianlin; Zhang, Panhe; Liu, Wei; Qiu, Xiangguo; Kobinger, Gary P; Gao, George Fu; Yan, Xiyun

    2015-12-15

    Ebola continues to rage in West Africa. In the absence of an approved vaccine or treatment, the priority in controlling this epidemic is to promptly identify and isolate infected individuals. To this end, a rapid, highly sensitive, and easy-to-use test for Ebola diagnosis is urgently needed. Here, by using Fe3O4 magnetic nanoparticle (MNP) as a nanozyme probe, we developed a MNP-based immunochromatographic strip (Nanozyme-strip), which detects the glycoprotein of Ebola virus (EBOV) as low as 1 ng/mL, which is 100-fold more sensitive than the standard strip method. The sensitivity of the Nanozyme-strip for EBOV detection and diagnostic accuracy for New Bunyavirus clinical samples is comparable with ELISA, but is much faster (within 30 min) and simpler (without need of specialist facilities). The results demonstrate that the Nanozyme-strip test can rapidly and sensitively detect EBOV, providing a valuable simple screening tool for diagnosis of infection in Ebola-stricken areas.

  15. Ebola virus – new threat to global health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rina K. Kusumaratna

    2015-12-01

        The Ebola virus outbreak constitutes a serious warning that epidemics may occur anywhere and places every afflicted nation at risk. Therefore it is essential to institute measures to stop its spread and its future threat, which is a moral obligation of members of the health profession, whether academicians, researchers, or health ministry officials.

  16. The ebola crisis : challenges for global health law

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Toebes, Brigit

    2015-01-01

    he recent Ebola crisis has caused approximately 20.000 deaths so far. Compared to other global health crises, including the deaths caused by armed conflicts and chronic diseases, this is still a small amount. Yet, from a global and domestic health law and governance perspective, this crisis raises a

  17. The Ebola fog is lifting - Next epidemic: global mismanagement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sodemann, Morten

    2015-01-01

    and the earthquake in Haiti). While we wait for the little Ebola virus to give in under the pressure from the international community let us see if this disaster has unearthed hidden disparities in health, ugly faces of the international community or new lessons for global health that we need to address...

  18. Ebola Viral Hemorrhagic Disease Outbreak in West Africa- Lessons ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Associate Professor, School of Public Health- Makerere University &, Commissioner Health ... Methods: The article is based on published papers, reports of previous Ebola outbreaks, response plans and ex- ... These have coupled with effective case management ... prevailing health systems before the disaster strikes. It.

  19. Biosocial Approaches to the 2013-2016 Ebola Pandemic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailor Barrie, Mohamed; Daniel Kelly, J.; Dibba, Yusupha; Koedoyoma, Songor; Farmer, Paul E.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Despite more than 25 documented outbreaks of Ebola since 1976, our understanding of the disease is limited, in particular the social, political, ecological, and economic forces that promote (or limit) its spread. In the following study, we seek to provide new ways of understanding the 2013-2016 Ebola pandemic. We use the term, ‘pandemic,’ instead of ‘epidemic,’ so as not to elide the global forces that shape every localized outbreak of infectious disease. By situating life histories via a biosocial approach, the forces promoting or retarding Ebola transmission come into sharper focus. We conclude that biomedical and culturalist claims of causality have helped obscure the role of human rights failings (colonial legacies, structural adjustment, exploitative mining companies, enabled civil war, rural poverty, and the near absence of quality health care, to name but a few) in the genesis of the 2013-16 pandemic. From early 20th century smallpox and influenza outbreaks to 21st century Ebola, transnational relations of inequality continue to be embodied as viral disease in West Africa, resulting in the preventable deaths of hundreds of thousands of people.

  20. Nanopore Sequencing as a Rapidly Deployable Ebola Outbreak Tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoenen, Thomas; Groseth, Allison; Rosenke, Kyle; Fischer, Robert J; Hoenen, Andreas; Judson, Seth D; Martellaro, Cynthia; Falzarano, Darryl; Marzi, Andrea; Squires, R Burke; Wollenberg, Kurt R; de Wit, Emmie; Prescott, Joseph; Safronetz, David; van Doremalen, Neeltje; Bushmaker, Trenton; Feldmann, Friederike; McNally, Kristin; Bolay, Fatorma K; Fields, Barry; Sealy, Tara; Rayfield, Mark; Nichol, Stuart T; Zoon, Kathryn C; Massaquoi, Moses; Munster, Vincent J; Feldmann, Heinz

    2016-02-01

    Rapid sequencing of RNA/DNA from pathogen samples obtained during disease outbreaks provides critical scientific and public health information. However, challenges exist for exporting samples to laboratories or establishing conventional sequencers in remote outbreak regions. We successfully used a novel, pocket-sized nanopore sequencer at a field diagnostic laboratory in Liberia during the current Ebola virus outbreak.

  1. Disinfection of Ebola Virus in Sterilized Municipal Wastewater.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyle Bibby

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Concerns have been raised regarding handling of Ebola virus contaminated wastewater, as well as the adequacy of proposed disinfection approaches. In the current study, we investigate the inactivation of Ebola virus in sterilized domestic wastewater utilizing sodium hypochlorite addition and pH adjustment. No viral inactivation was observed in the one-hour tests without sodium hypochlorite addition or pH adjustment. No virus was recovered after 20 seconds (i.e. 4.2 log10 unit inactivation to detection limit following the addition of 5 and 10 mg L-1 sodium hypochlorite, which resulted in immediate free chlorine residuals of 0.52 and 1.11 mg L-1, respectively. The addition of 1 mg L-1 sodium hypochlorite resulted in an immediate free chlorine residual of 0.16 mg L-1, which inactivated 3.5 log10 units of Ebola virus in 20 seconds. Further inactivation was not evident due to the rapid consumption of the chlorine residual. Elevating the pH to 11.2 was found to significantly increase viral decay over ambient conditions. These results indicate the high susceptibility of the enveloped Ebola virus to disinfection in the presence of free chlorine in municipal wastewater; however, we caution that extension to more complex matrices (e.g. bodily fluids will require additional verification.

  2. CE: Inside an Ebola Treatment Unit: A Nurse's Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Deborah

    2015-12-01

    In December 2013, the first cases of the most recent outbreak of Ebola virus disease (formerly known as Ebola hemorrhagic fever) emerged in the West African nation of Guinea. Within months the disease had spread to the neighboring countries of Liberia and Sierra Leone. The international humanitarian aid organization Médecins Sans Frontières (MSF; known in English as Doctors Without Borders) soon responded by sending staff to set up treatment centers and outreach triage teams in all three countries. In August 2014, the World Health Organization declared the outbreak an international public health emergency.In September 2014, the author was sent by MSF to work as a nurse in an Ebola treatment unit in Liberia for five weeks. This article describes her experiences there. It provides some background, outlines the practices and teams involved, and aims to convey a sense of what it's like to work during an Ebola outbreak and to put a human face on this devastating epidemic.

  3. Disinfection of Ebola Virus in Sterilized Municipal Wastewater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Robert J.; Casson, Leonard W.; de Carvalho, Nathalia Aquino; Haas, Charles N.; Munster, Vincent J.

    2017-01-01

    Concerns have been raised regarding handling of Ebola virus contaminated wastewater, as well as the adequacy of proposed disinfection approaches. In the current study, we investigate the inactivation of Ebola virus in sterilized domestic wastewater utilizing sodium hypochlorite addition and pH adjustment. No viral inactivation was observed in the one-hour tests without sodium hypochlorite addition or pH adjustment. No virus was recovered after 20 seconds (i.e. 4.2 log10 unit inactivation to detection limit) following the addition of 5 and 10 mg L-1 sodium hypochlorite, which resulted in immediate free chlorine residuals of 0.52 and 1.11 mg L-1, respectively. The addition of 1 mg L-1 sodium hypochlorite resulted in an immediate free chlorine residual of 0.16 mg L-1, which inactivated 3.5 log10 units of Ebola virus in 20 seconds. Further inactivation was not evident due to the rapid consumption of the chlorine residual. Elevating the pH to 11.2 was found to significantly increase viral decay over ambient conditions. These results indicate the high susceptibility of the enveloped Ebola virus to disinfection in the presence of free chlorine in municipal wastewater; however, we caution that extension to more complex matrices (e.g. bodily fluids) will require additional verification. PMID:28146555

  4. Small molecules with antiviral activity against the Ebola virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litterman, Nadia; Lipinski, Christopher; Ekins, Sean

    2015-01-01

    The recent outbreak of the Ebola virus in West Africa has highlighted the clear shortage of broad-spectrum antiviral drugs for emerging viruses. There are numerous FDA approved drugs and other small molecules described in the literature that could be further evaluated for their potential as antiviral compounds. These molecules are in addition to the few new antivirals that have been tested in Ebola patients but were not originally developed against the Ebola virus, and may play an important role as we await an effective vaccine. The balance between using FDA approved drugs versus novel antivirals with minimal safety and no efficacy data in humans should be considered. We have evaluated 55 molecules from the perspective of an experienced medicinal chemist as well as using simple molecular properties and have highlighted 16 compounds that have desirable qualities as well as those that may be less desirable. In addition we propose that a collaborative database for sharing such published and novel information on small molecules is needed for the research community studying the Ebola virus.

  5. Unique human immune signature of Ebola virus disease in Guinea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruibal, Paula; Oestereich, Lisa; Lüdtke, Anja; Becker-Ziaja, Beate; Wozniak, David M; Kerber, Romy; Korva, Miša; Cabeza-Cabrerizo, Mar; Bore, Joseph A; Koundouno, Fara Raymond; Duraffour, Sophie; Weller, Romy; Thorenz, Anja; Cimini, Eleonora; Viola, Domenico; Agrati, Chiara; Repits, Johanna; Afrough, Babak; Cowley, Lauren A; Ngabo, Didier; Hinzmann, Julia; Mertens, Marc; Vitoriano, Inês; Logue, Christopher H; Boettcher, Jan Peter; Pallasch, Elisa; Sachse, Andreas; Bah, Amadou; Nitzsche, Katja; Kuisma, Eeva; Michel, Janine; Holm, Tobias; Zekeng, Elsa-Gayle; García-Dorival, Isabel; Wölfel, Roman; Stoecker, Kilian; Fleischmann, Erna; Strecker, Thomas; Di Caro, Antonino; Avšič-Županc, Tatjana; Kurth, Andreas; Meschi, Silvia; Mély, Stephane; Newman, Edmund; Bocquin, Anne; Kis, Zoltan; Kelterbaum, Anne; Molkenthin, Peter; Carletti, Fabrizio; Portmann, Jasmine; Wolff, Svenja; Castilletti, Concetta; Schudt, Gordian; Fizet, Alexandra; Ottowell, Lisa J; Herker, Eva; Jacobs, Thomas; Kretschmer, Birte; Severi, Ettore; Ouedraogo, Nobila; Lago, Mar; Negredo, Anabel; Franco, Leticia; Anda, Pedro; Schmiedel, Stefan; Kreuels, Benno; Wichmann, Dominic; Addo, Marylyn M; Lohse, Ansgar W; De Clerck, Hilde; Nanclares, Carolina; Jonckheere, Sylvie; Van Herp, Michel; Sprecher, Armand; Xiaojiang, Gao; Carrington, Mary; Miranda, Osvaldo; Castro, Carlos M; Gabriel, Martin; Drury, Patrick; Formenty, Pierre; Diallo, Boubacar; Koivogui, Lamine; Magassouba, N'Faly; Carroll, Miles W; Günther, Stephan; Muñoz-Fontela, César

    2016-05-01

    Despite the magnitude of the Ebola virus disease (EVD) outbreak in West Africa, there is still a fundamental lack of knowledge about the pathophysiology of EVD. In particular, very little is known about human immune responses to Ebola virus. Here we evaluate the physiology of the human T cell immune response in EVD patients at the time of admission to the Ebola Treatment Center in Guinea, and longitudinally until discharge or death. Through the use of multiparametric flow cytometry established by the European Mobile Laboratory in the field, we identify an immune signature that is unique in EVD fatalities. Fatal EVD was characterized by a high percentage of CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells expressing the inhibitory molecules CTLA-4 and PD-1, which correlated with elevated inflammatory markers and high virus load. Conversely, surviving individuals showed significantly lower expression of CTLA-4 and PD-1 as well as lower inflammation, despite comparable overall T cell activation. Concomitant with virus clearance, survivors mounted a robust Ebola-virus-specific T cell response. Our findings suggest that dysregulation of the T cell response is a key component of EVD pathophysiology.

  6. Containing Ebola at the Source with Ring Vaccination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merler, Stefano; Ajelli, Marco; Fumanelli, Laura; Parlamento, Stefano; Pastore y Piontti, Ana; Dean, Natalie E.; Putoto, Giovanni; Carraro, Dante; Longini, Ira M.; Halloran, M. Elizabeth; Vespignani, Alessandro

    2016-01-01

    Interim results from the Guinea Ebola ring vaccination trial suggest high efficacy of the rVSV-ZEBOV vaccine. These findings open the door to the use of ring vaccination strategies in which the contacts and contacts of contacts of each index case are promptly vaccinated to contain future Ebola virus disease outbreaks. To provide a numerical estimate of the effectiveness of ring vaccination strategies we introduce a spatially explicit agent-based model to simulate Ebola outbreaks in the Pujehun district, Sierra Leone, structurally similar to previous modelling approaches. We find that ring vaccination can successfully contain an outbreak for values of the effective reproduction number up to 1.6. Through an extensive sensitivity analysis of parameters characterising the readiness and capacity of the health care system, we identify interventions that, alongside ring vaccination, could increase the likelihood of containment. In particular, shortening the time from symptoms onset to hospitalisation to 2–3 days on average through improved contact tracing procedures, adding a 2km spatial component to the vaccination ring, and decreasing human mobility by quarantining affected areas might contribute increase our ability to contain outbreaks with effective reproduction number up to 2.6. These results have implications for future control of Ebola and other emerging infectious disease threats. PMID:27806049

  7. Biosocial Approaches to the 2013-2016 Ebola Pandemic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Eugene T; Barrie, Mohamed Bailor; Kelly, J Daniel; Dibba, Yusupha; Koedoyoma, Songor; Farmer, Paul E

    2016-06-01

    Despite more than 25 documented outbreaks of Ebola since 1976, our understanding of the disease is limited, in particular the social, political, ecological, and economic forces that promote (or limit) its spread. In the following study, we seek to provide new ways of understanding the 2013-2016 Ebola pandemic. We use the term, 'pandemic,' instead of 'epidemic,' so as not to elide the global forces that shape every localized outbreak of infectious disease. By situating life histories via a biosocial approach, the forces promoting or retarding Ebola transmission come into sharper focus. We conclude that biomedical and culturalist claims of causality have helped obscure the role of human rights failings (colonial legacies, structural adjustment, exploitative mining companies, enabled civil war, rural poverty, and the near absence of quality health care, to name but a few) in the genesis of the 2013-16 pandemic. From early 20th century smallpox and influenza outbreaks to 21st century Ebola, transnational relations of inequality continue to be embodied as viral disease in West Africa, resulting in the preventable deaths of hundreds of thousands of people.

  8. The ebola crisis : challenges for global health law

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Toebes, Brigit

    2015-01-01

    he recent Ebola crisis has caused approximately 20.000 deaths so far. Compared to other global health crises, including the deaths caused by armed conflicts and chronic diseases, this is still a small amount. Yet, from a global and domestic health law and governance perspective, this crisis raises a

  9. Characterizing Ebola Transmission Patterns Based on Internet News Reports

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cleaton, Julie M.; Viboud, Cecile; Simonsen, Lone

    2016-01-01

    to characterize epidemiological patterns of Ebola virus disease (EVD) infections during the West African 2014-2015 outbreak. METHODS: Based on 58 news reports, we analyzed 79 EVD clusters (286 cases) ranging in size from 1 to 33 cases between January 2014 and February 2015 in Guinea, Sierra Leone, and Liberia...

  10. Nye lovende behandlinger mod ebola er på vej

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jespersen, Sanne; Thomsen, Cecilie Norup; Wejse, Christian

    2016-01-01

    The largest Ebola epidemic ever is about to end. No major breakthrough in terms of specific treatment has been seen, but a number of valuable lessons have been learned, including the potential of intensive supportive care. New products are under development, but clinical trials were initiated late...

  11. Approximated analytical solution to an Ebola optimal control problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hincapié-Palacio, Doracelly; Ospina, Juan; Torres, Delfim F. M.

    2016-11-01

    An analytical expression for the optimal control of an Ebola problem is obtained. The analytical solution is found as a first-order approximation to the Pontryagin Maximum Principle via the Euler-Lagrange equation. An implementation of the method is given using the computer algebra system Maple. Our analytical solutions confirm the results recently reported in the literature using numerical methods.

  12. Ebola viral disease outbreak--West Africa, 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixon, Meredith G; Schafer, Ilana J

    2014-06-27

    On March 21, 2014, the Guinea Ministry of Health reported the outbreak of an illness characterized by fever, severe diarrhea, vomiting, and a high case-fatality rate (59%) among 49 persons. Specimens from 15 of 20 persons tested at Institut Pasteur in Lyon, France, were positive for an Ebola virus by polymerase chain reaction. Viral sequencing identified Ebola virus (species Zaïre ebolavirus), one of five viruses in the genus Ebolavirus, as the cause. Cases of Ebola viral disease (EVD) were initially reported in three southeastern districts (Gueckedou, Macenta, and Kissidougou) of Guinea and in the capital city of Conakry. By March 30, cases had been reported in Foya district in neighboring Liberia (1), and in May, the first cases identified in Sierra Leone were reported. As of June 18, the outbreak was the largest EVD outbreak ever documented, with a combined total of 528 cases (including laboratory-confirmed, probable, and suspected cases) and 337 deaths (case-fatality rate = 64%) reported in the three countries. The largest previous outbreak occurred in Uganda during 2000-2001, when 425 cases were reported with 224 deaths (case-fatality rate = 53%). The current outbreak also represents the first outbreak of EVD in West Africa (a single case caused by Taï Forest virus was reported in Côte d'Ivoire in 1994 [3]) and marks the first time that Ebola virus transmission has been reported in a capital city.

  13. Simulation as a tool for managing Ebola infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Somsri Wiwanitkit

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Ebola virus disease is the present deadly infection. The outbreak in Africa becomes the great concern globally. Several attempts have been launched to manage the problem since its first appearance in Africa. The use of simulations as a tool to manage the problem is very interesting. In this short article, the author briefly summarizes and discusses on this topic.

  14. Genetics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Kaare; McGue, Matt

    2016-01-01

    The sequenced genomes of individuals aged ≥80 years, who were highly educated, self-referred volunteers and with no self-reported chronic diseases were compared to young controls. In these data, healthy ageing is a distinct phenotype from exceptional longevity and genetic factors that protect...

  15. Ebola and blood transfusion: existing challenges and emerging opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdullah, S; Karunamoorthi, K

    2015-08-01

    The deadly Ebola virus has been first known to mankind since 1976. In the past decades, Ebola outbreaks has often been ignored/neglected as erupted in the rural remote/isolated areas of Africa. The recent 2013-2014 epidemic is the most wide-spread with high incidence rates, morbidity and, mortality in the Ebola history. Eventually, the World Health Organization (WHO) has declared it as a 'Public Health Concern of the International Community'. This scrutiny was conducted to initiate a serious debate on various aspects of Ebola, particularly blood transfusion as an empirical therapeutic modality. A search has been performed using the premier scientific databases, WHO documents, and English language search engines. Of 278 potential articles that were identified using a fixed set of criteria, a convenience sample of eighty-two appropriate articles was chosen for this review. The current EBO outbreak is predominantly driven by various confounding risk-factors like: (1) frail health care system, (2) unique cultural and religious customs, (3) huge-shortage of skilled professionals, (4) no licensed therapeutic agents, (5) ill-prepared monitoring and early warning systems, and (6) strained budgets; all these have bolstered this epidemic. As lack of neither specific treatments nor reliable interventions to quickly quell this epidemic, WHO has indorsed 'blood transfusion as an empirical therapeutic modality'. Currently, several clinical trials are underway, particularly the two Ebola candidate vaccines and several antiviral drugs and it has been observed that the initial results are quite promising. However, there are several daunting ethical and practical challenges ahead to stem off this outbreak. The Ebola-hit poverty stricken West-African countries struggle to contain the outbreak, due to lack of potent therapeutics. Consequently, blood-transfusion could serve as an ideal therapeutic modality to save millions of lives. Therefore, industrialized nations and international

  16. A network model for Ebola spreading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizzo, Alessandro; Pedalino, Biagio; Porfiri, Maurizio

    2016-04-01

    The availability of accurate models for the spreading of infectious diseases has opened a new era in management and containment of epidemics. Models are extensively used to plan for and execute vaccination campaigns, to evaluate the risk of international spreadings and the feasibility of travel bans, and to inform prophylaxis campaigns. Even when no specific therapeutical protocol is available, as for the Ebola Virus Disease (EVD), models of epidemic spreading can provide useful insight to steer interventions in the field and to forecast the trend of the epidemic. Here, we propose a novel mathematical model to describe EVD spreading based on activity driven networks (ADNs). Our approach overcomes the simplifying assumption of homogeneous mixing, which is central to most of the mathematically tractable models of EVD spreading. In our ADN-based model, each individual is not bound to contact every other, and its network of contacts varies in time as a function of an activity potential. Our model contemplates the possibility of non-ideal and time-varying intervention policies, which are critical to accurately describe EVD spreading in afflicted countries. The model is calibrated from field data of the 2014 April-to-December spreading in Liberia. We use the model as a predictive tool, to emulate the dynamics of EVD in Liberia and offer a one-year projection, until December 2015. Our predictions agree with the current vision expressed by professionals in the field, who consider EVD in Liberia at its final stage. The model is also used to perform a what-if analysis to assess the efficacy of timely intervention policies. In particular, we show that an earlier application of the same intervention policy would have greatly reduced the number of EVD cases, the duration of the outbreak, and the infrastructures needed for the implementation of the intervention.

  17. Impact of Crop Rotation on Pathotype and Genetic Structure of Phythophthora sojae in Fields

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhao Li-ming; Li Shuang; Sui Zhe; Huang Jing; Chen Qiu-ming; Suo Bing; Ding Jun-jie; Liu Wei-ting; Wen Jing-zhi

    2016-01-01

    To estimate the impact of crop rotation on the pathotype and genetic structure ofPhythophthora sojae in fields, 372 isolates ofP. sojae were obtained from long-term localisation experimental fields in Heilongjiang Province of China. The hypocotyl inoculation method was used to characterize the virulence ofP. sojaeon 13 differential cultivars, and the amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) technique was used to analyze difference in the genetic structure ofP. sojae. The results indicated that an abundant diversity of genetic structures and pathotypes ofP. sojae, a more uniform distribution of pathotypes and less dominance of pathotypes occurred in corn-soybean and wheat-soybean rotation fields than in a continuous soybean mono-cropping field. These findings suggested thatP. sojae did not easily become the dominant race in rotation fields, which maintain disease resistance in soybean varieties. Therefore, the results of this study suggested that Phytophthora stem and root rot of soybeans could be effectively controlled by rotating soybeans with non-host crops of corn and wheat.

  18. Cytomegalovirus-based vaccine expressing Ebola virus glycoprotein protects nonhuman primates from Ebola virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marzi, Andrea; Murphy, Aisling A; Feldmann, Friederike; Parkins, Christopher J; Haddock, Elaine; Hanley, Patrick W; Emery, Matthew J; Engelmann, Flora; Messaoudi, Ilhem; Feldmann, Heinz; Jarvis, Michael A

    2016-02-15

    Ebolaviruses pose significant public health problems due to their high lethality, unpredictable emergence, and localization to the poorest areas of the world. In addition to implementation of standard public health control procedures, a number of experimental human vaccines are being explored as a further means for outbreak control. Recombinant cytomegalovirus (CMV)-based vectors are a novel vaccine platform that have been shown to induce substantial levels of durable, but primarily T-cell-biased responses against the encoded heterologous target antigen. Herein, we demonstrate the ability of rhesus CMV (RhCMV) expressing Ebola virus (EBOV) glycoprotein (GP) to provide protective immunity to rhesus macaques against lethal EBOV challenge. Surprisingly, vaccination was associated with high levels of GP-specific antibodies, but with no detectable GP-directed cellular immunity.

  19. Ebola Hemorrhagic Fever as a Public Health Emergency of International Concern; a Review Article.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safari, Saeed; Baratloo, Alireza; Rouhipour, Alaleh; Ghelichkhani, Parisa; Yousefifard, Mahmood

    2015-01-01

    Ebola hemorrhagic fever (EHF) was first reported in 1976 with two concurrent outbreaks of acute viral hemorrhagic fever centered in Yambuku (near the Ebola river), Democratic Republic of Congo, and in Nzara, Sudan. The current outbreak of the Ebola virus was started by reporting the first case in March 2014 in the forest regions of southeastern Guinea. Due to infection rates raising over 13,000% within a 6-month period, Ebola is now considered as a global public health emergency and on August 8(th), 2014 the World Health Organization (WHO) declared the epidemic to be a Public Health Emergency of International Concern. With more than 5000 involved cases and nearly 3000 deaths, this event has turned into the largest and most dangerous Ebola virus outbreak in the world. Based on the above-mentioned, the present article aimed to review the virologic characteristics, transmission, clinical manifestation, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of Ebola virus disease.

  20. The Impact of Biopsy on Human Embryo Developmental Potential during Preimplantation Genetic Diagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danilo Cimadomo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Preimplantation Genetic Diagnosis and Screening (PGD/PGS for monogenic diseases and/or numerical/structural chromosomal abnormalities is a tool for embryo testing aimed at identifying nonaffected and/or euploid embryos in a cohort produced during an IVF cycle. A critical aspect of this technology is the potential detrimental effect that the biopsy itself can have upon the embryo. Different embryo biopsy strategies have been proposed. Cleavage stage blastomere biopsy still represents the most commonly used method in Europe nowadays, although this approach has been shown to have a negative impact on embryo viability and implantation potential. Polar body biopsy has been proposed as an alternative to embryo biopsy especially for aneuploidy testing. However, to date no sufficiently powered study has clarified the impact of this procedure on embryo reproductive competence. Blastocyst stage biopsy represents nowadays the safest approach not to impact embryo implantation potential. For this reason, as well as for the evidences of a higher consistency of the molecular analysis when performed on trophectoderm cells, blastocyst biopsy implementation is gradually increasing worldwide. The aim of this review is to present the evidences published to date on the impact of the biopsy at different stages of preimplantation development upon human embryos reproductive potential.

  1. The Impact of Biopsy on Human Embryo Developmental Potential during Preimplantation Genetic Diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cimadomo, Danilo; Capalbo, Antonio; Ubaldi, Filippo Maria; Scarica, Catello; Palagiano, Antonio; Canipari, Rita; Rienzi, Laura

    2016-01-01

    Preimplantation Genetic Diagnosis and Screening (PGD/PGS) for monogenic diseases and/or numerical/structural chromosomal abnormalities is a tool for embryo testing aimed at identifying nonaffected and/or euploid embryos in a cohort produced during an IVF cycle. A critical aspect of this technology is the potential detrimental effect that the biopsy itself can have upon the embryo. Different embryo biopsy strategies have been proposed. Cleavage stage blastomere biopsy still represents the most commonly used method in Europe nowadays, although this approach has been shown to have a negative impact on embryo viability and implantation potential. Polar body biopsy has been proposed as an alternative to embryo biopsy especially for aneuploidy testing. However, to date no sufficiently powered study has clarified the impact of this procedure on embryo reproductive competence. Blastocyst stage biopsy represents nowadays the safest approach not to impact embryo implantation potential. For this reason, as well as for the evidences of a higher consistency of the molecular analysis when performed on trophectoderm cells, blastocyst biopsy implementation is gradually increasing worldwide. The aim of this review is to present the evidences published to date on the impact of the biopsy at different stages of preimplantation development upon human embryos reproductive potential. PMID:26942198

  2. A meta-analysis of the impacts of genetically modified crops.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilhelm Klümper

    Full Text Available Despite the rapid adoption of genetically modified (GM crops by farmers in many countries, controversies about this technology continue. Uncertainty about GM crop impacts is one reason for widespread public suspicion.We carry out a meta-analysis of the agronomic and economic impacts of GM crops to consolidate the evidence.Original studies for inclusion were identified through keyword searches in ISI Web of Knowledge, Google Scholar, EconLit, and AgEcon Search.Studies were included when they build on primary data from farm surveys or field trials anywhere in the world, and when they report impacts of GM soybean, maize, or cotton on crop yields, pesticide use, and/or farmer profits. In total, 147 original studies were included.Analysis of mean impacts and meta-regressions to examine factors that influence outcomes.On average, GM technology adoption has reduced chemical pesticide use by 37%, increased crop yields by 22%, and increased farmer profits by 68%. Yield gains and pesticide reductions are larger for insect-resistant crops than for herbicide-tolerant crops. Yield and profit gains are higher in developing countries than in developed countries.Several of the original studies did not report sample sizes and measures of variance.The meta-analysis reveals robust evidence of GM crop benefits for farmers in developed and developing countries. Such evidence may help to gradually increase public trust in this technology.

  3. [Useage of genetic markers to determine the impact of radiation on the human body].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zedgenidze, A G; Namchevadze, E N; Nikuradze, T D; Zalinian, G G; Parsadanian, G G

    2015-02-01

    The timely determination of the fact of radiation impact on the organism is extremely important for preventive and curative interventions. Despite the fact that so far cytogenetic violations are considered to be the best biomarkers to determine the impact of ionizing radiation on the organism, actual problem is to find the optimal combination of different biomarkers. The aim of the work was investigation of the extended set of biomarkers in distant periods of exposure in people previously assigned to the radiation risk group, as well as the identification of genetic disorders in the process of radiotherapy. The object of the study were 37 residents of districts, where at the beginning of this century radioactive sources were discovered, and 6 oncology patients in the course of radiotherapy. Chromosome disorders, the overall level of DNA cells single-stranded damage by comet-assay method and a method of level detection of buccal micronuclei in were investigated. The results showed heterogeneity of different organism response to irradiation. Determination of absorbed dose, identification of various genetic disorders in individuals exposed to identical doses of radiation, offers the opportunity to judge the individual biological effect and is very important for individual preventive activities.

  4. Full-length Ebola glycoprotein accumulates in the endoplasmic reticulum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhattacharyya Suchita

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The Filoviridae family comprises of Ebola and Marburg viruses, which are known to cause lethal hemorrhagic fever. However, there is no effective anti-viral therapy or licensed vaccines currently available for these human pathogens. The envelope glycoprotein (GP of Ebola virus, which mediates entry into target cells, is cytotoxic and this effect maps to a highly glycosylated mucin-like region in the surface subunit of GP (GP1. However, the mechanism underlying this cytotoxic property of GP is unknown. To gain insight into the basis of this GP-induced cytotoxicity, HEK293T cells were transiently transfected with full-length and mucin-deleted (Δmucin Ebola GP plasmids and GP localization was examined relative to the nucleus, endoplasmic reticulum (ER, Golgi, early and late endosomes using deconvolution fluorescent microscopy. Full-length Ebola GP was observed to accumulate in the ER. In contrast, GPΔmucin was uniformly expressed throughout the cell and did not localize in the ER. The Ebola major matrix protein VP40 was also co-expressed with GP to investigate its influence on GP localization. GP and VP40 co-expression did not alter GP localization to the ER. Also, when VP40 was co-expressed with the nucleoprotein (NP, it localized to the plasma membrane while NP accumulated in distinct cytoplasmic structures lined with vimentin. These latter structures are consistent with aggresomes and may serve as assembly sites for filoviral nucleocapsids. Collectively, these data suggest that full-length GP, but not GPΔmucin, accumulates in the ER in close proximity to the nuclear membrane, which may underscore its cytotoxic property.

  5. Temporal estimates of genetic diversity in some Mytilus galloprovincialis populations impacted by the Prestige oil-spill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lado-Insua, Tanya; Pérez, Montse; Diz, Angel P.; Presa, Pablo

    2011-04-01

    The sinking of the tanker Prestige in November 2002 off the coast of Galicia resulted in the release of about 60,000 tons of heavy oil. The oil-spill provoked a serious environmental impact in Spanish and French coasts, which biological consequences are still being assessed. In this study we address the temporal dynamics of genetic diversity in some mussel populations impacted by the oil-spill. Changes in genetic diversity can be measured in natural populations provided that serial samples are available from before (year 2000) and after (years 2003, 2005) the oil-spill. Analyses of seven microsatellites indicate a weak but significant increase of genetic variation after the spill. This phenomenon is interpreted herein in terms of a balance between a enhanced genome mutability on microsatellite variation and a low genetic drift due to toxicants and asphyxia although other stochastic phenomena cannot be ruled out. Per locus annotation showed that in spite of the allelic changes observed in the period 2000-2005, the final size of most allelic series remained quite alike to those of year 2000. Present genetic data suggest that the genotoxic impact of the Prestige spill did not compromise the genetic diversity of studied mussel populations, at least regarding the genetic markers analysed.

  6. Media coverage of the Ebola virus disease in four widely circulated Nigerian newspapers: lessons from Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Sam Smith; Stella Smith

    2016-01-01

    Background: The importance of the media in the coverage of Ebola virus disease (EVD) in Nigeria and its implications (negative or positive) amongst the populace cannot be overemphasized.This study was conducted to assess the role of media in the Ebola reportage and its implication in creating awareness and stopping the spread amongst the populace. Methods: The nature and extent of media coverage about Ebola in four major national newspapers were examined. The four major national newspapers we...

  7. The Ebola virus: a review of progress and development in research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yitades Gebre

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The Ebola virus was identified in the year 1976 and has caused periodic outbreaks in West African countries. The disease has a case fatality rate up to 90%. Ebola has been classified as a biosafety level four pathogen and there is no currently approved vaccine or treatment for the virus. However, remarkable progress has been demonstrated by researchers in understanding the pathogenicity of the Ebola virus. Several animal models have been cultivated to develop diagnostics, vaccines and therapeutic drugs.

  8. The Ebola virus:a review of progress and development in research

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yitades; Gebre; Teshome; Gebre; Abena; Peters

    2014-01-01

    The Ebola virus was identified in the year 1976 and has caused periodic outbreaks in West African countries.The disease has a case fatality rate up to 90%.Ebola has been classified as a biosafety level four pathogen and there is no currently approved vaccine or treatment for the virus.However,remarkable progress has been demonstrated by researchers in understanding the pathogenicity of the Ebola virus.Several animal models have been cultivated to develop diagnostics,vaccines and therapeutic drugs.

  9. The Ebola virus:a review of progress and development in research

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yitades Gebre; Teshome Gebre; Abena Peters

    2014-01-01

    The Ebola virus was identified in the year 1976 and has caused periodic outbreaks in West African countries. The disease has a case fatality rate up to 90%. Ebola has been classified as a biosafety level four pathogen and there is no currently approved vaccine or treatment for the virus. However, remarkable progress has been demonstrated by researchers in understanding the pathogenicity of the Ebola virus. Several animal models have been cultivated to develop diagnostics, vaccines and therapeutic drugs.

  10. Ebola Virus Uses Clathrin-Mediated Endocytosis as an Entry Pathway

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Schmaljohn, A., Aman, M.J., 2002. Lipid raft microdomains: a gateway for compartmentalized trafficking of Ebola and Marburg viruses . J. Exp. Med. 195 (5...Ebola viruses . Cell 106 (1), 117–126. Chazal, N., Singer, G., Aiken, C., Hammarskjold, M.L., Rekosh, D., 2001. Human immunodeficiency virus type 1...taxonomic home for Marburg and Ebola viruses ? Intervirology 18 (1–2), 24–32. Kristiansen, J.E., Mortensen, I., 1987. Antibacterial effect of four

  11. Impact of measurement error on testing genetic association with quantitative traits.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiemin Liao

    Full Text Available Measurement error of a phenotypic trait reduces the power to detect genetic associations. We examined the impact of sample size, allele frequency and effect size in presence of measurement error for quantitative traits. The statistical power to detect genetic association with phenotype mean and variability was investigated analytically. The non-centrality parameter for a non-central F distribution was derived and verified using computer simulations. We obtained equivalent formulas for the cost of phenotype measurement error. Effects of differences in measurements were examined in a genome-wide association study (GWAS of two grading scales for cataract and a replication study of genetic variants influencing blood pressure. The mean absolute difference between the analytic power and simulation power for comparison of phenotypic means and variances was less than 0.005, and the absolute difference did not exceed 0.02. To maintain the same power, a one standard deviation (SD in measurement error of a standard normal distributed trait required a one-fold increase in sample size for comparison of means, and a three-fold increase in sample size for comparison of variances. GWAS results revealed almost no overlap in the significant SNPs (p<10(-5 for the two cataract grading scales while replication results in genetic variants of blood pressure displayed no significant differences between averaged blood pressure measurements and single blood pressure measurements. We have developed a framework for researchers to quantify power in the presence of measurement error, which will be applicable to studies of phenotypes in which the measurement is highly variable.

  12. Assessment of cognitive factors that impact on student knowledge of genetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerow, Tracy Nelson

    1999-12-01

    old ones. Science teachers need to apply meaningful assessment methods as students progress through learning new concepts so that errors in thinking can be diagnosed and remedied with appropriate teaching strategies. It is anticipated that assessment methods that engage students in explaining their understanding of concepts will bring about significant changes in how students learn subjects like genetics and also impact instruction in this crucial area of biological science.

  13. Optimization of Assays to Assess Dendritic Cell Activation and/or Anergy in Ebola Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-01

    studied entry of EBOV virus -like particles (EVLPs) as a surrogate for live virus , into murine peritoneal cells, because mouse-adapted Ebola viruses are...infection by Ebola and Marburg viruses . Lab Invest 80 (2), 171-186 (2000). 2 Geisbert, T.W. & Hensley, L.E., Ebola virus : new insights into disease...Mahanty, S. et al., Cutting edge: impairment of dendritic cells and adaptive immunity by Ebola and Lassa viruses . J Immunol 170 (6), 2797-2801 (2003). APPENDICES: None

  14. Addressing Therapeutic Options for Ebola Virus Infection in Current and Future Outbreaks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haque, Azizul; Hober, Didier; Blondiaux, Joel

    2015-10-01

    Ebola virus can cause severe hemorrhagic disease with high fatality rates. Currently, no specific therapeutic agent or vaccine has been approved for treatment and prevention of Ebola virus infection of humans. Although the number of Ebola cases has fallen in the last few weeks, multiple outbreaks of Ebola virus infection and the likelihood of future exposure highlight the need for development and rapid evaluation of pre- and postexposure treatments. Here, we briefly review the existing and future options for anti-Ebola therapy, based on the data coming from rare clinical reports, studies on animals, and results from in vitro models. We also project the mechanistic hypotheses of several potential drugs against Ebola virus, including small-molecule-based drugs, which are under development and being tested in animal models or in vitro using various cell types. Our paper discusses strategies toward identifying and testing anti-Ebola virus properties of known and medically approved drugs, especially those that can limit the pathological inflammatory response in Ebola patients and thereby provide protection from mortality. We underline the importance of developing combinational therapy for better treatment outcomes for Ebola patients.

  15. Is there a way out for the 2014 Ebola outbreak in Western Africa?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreas, Angelo; Binoun A Egom, Christian; Kruzliak, Peter; Egom, Emmanuel E

    2015-10-01

    The 2014 Ebola outbreak in West Africa, primarily affecting Guinea, Sierra Leone, and Liberia, has exceeded all previous Ebola outbreaks in the number of cases and in international response. Although infections only occur frequently in Western Africa, the virus has the potential to spread globally and is classified as a category A pathogen that could be misused as a bioterrorism agent. This review aims (i) to discuss the latest data to aid our current recommendations for the prevention and control of the Ebola virus infection, (ii) to review its pathophysiology as well as offering insights on the most current data available about Ebola vaccine progress and potential use.

  16. Bioengineering of Tobacco Mosaic Virus to Create a Non-Infectious Positive Control for Ebola Diagnostic Assays

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lam, Patricia; Gulati, Neetu M; Stewart, Phoebe L; Keri, Ruth A; Steinmetz, Nicole F

    2016-01-01

    ...: we encapsulated scrambled Ebola RNA sequences inside of tobacco mosaic virus to create a biomimicry that is non-infectious, but stable, and could therefore serve as a positive control in Ebola diagnostic assays...

  17. Monitoring of Ebola Virus Makona Evolution through Establishment of Advanced Genomic Capability in Liberia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kugelman, Jeffrey R; Wiley, Michael R; Mate, Suzanne; Ladner, Jason T; Beitzel, Brett; Fakoli, Lawrence; Taweh, Fahn; Prieto, Karla; Diclaro, Joseph W; Minogue, Timothy; Schoepp, Randal J; Schaecher, Kurt E; Pettitt, James; Bateman, Stacey; Fair, Joseph; Kuhn, Jens H; Hensley, Lisa; Park, Daniel J; Sabeti, Pardis C; Sanchez-Lockhart, Mariano; Bolay, Fatorma K; Palacios, Gustavo

    2015-07-01

    To support Liberia's response to the ongoing Ebola virus (EBOV) disease epidemic in Western Africa, we established in-country advanced genomic capabilities to monitor EBOV evolution. Twenty-five EBOV genomes were sequenced at the Liberian Institute for Biomedical Research, which provided an in-depth view of EBOV diversity in Liberia during September 2014-February 2015. These sequences were consistent with a single virus introduction to Liberia; however, shared ancestry with isolates from Mali indicated at least 1 additional instance of movement into or out of Liberia. The pace of change is generally consistent with previous estimates of mutation rate. We observed 23 nonsynonymous mutations and 1 nonsense mutation. Six of these changes are within known binding sites for sequence-based EBOV medical countermeasures; however, the diagnostic and therapeutic impact of EBOV evolution within Liberia appears to be low.

  18. Diagnostics in Ebola Virus Disease in Resource-Rich and Resource-Limited Settings.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert J Shorten

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The Ebola virus disease (EVD outbreak in West Africa was unprecedented in scale and location. Limited access to both diagnostic and supportive pathology assays in both resource-rich and resource-limited settings had a detrimental effect on the identification and isolation of cases as well as individual patient management. Limited access to such assays in resource-rich settings resulted in delays in differentiating EVD from other illnesses in returning travellers, in turn utilising valuable resources until a diagnosis could be made. This had a much greater impact in West Africa, where it contributed to the initial failure to contain the outbreak. This review explores diagnostic assays of use in EVD in both resource-rich and resource-limited settings, including their respective limitations, and some novel assays and approaches that may be of use in future outbreaks.

  19. Genetically Modified Herbicide-Tolerant Crops, Weeds, and Herbicides: Overview and Impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonny, Sylvie

    2016-01-01

    Genetically modified (GM) crops have been and continue to be a subject of controversy despite their rapid adoption by farmers where approved. For the last two decades, an important matter of debate has been their impact on pesticide use, particularly for herbicide-tolerant (HT) crops. Some claim that these crops bring about a decrease in herbicide use, while others claim the opposite. In fact, since 1996, most cultivated GMOs have been GMHT crops, which involve the use of an associated herbicide, generally glyphosate. In their very first years of adoption, HT crops often led to some decrease in herbicide use. However, the repetition of glyphosate-tolerant crops and of glyphosate only applications in the same fields without sufficient alternation and herbicide diversity has contributed to the appearance of glyphosate-resistant weeds. These weeds have resulted in a rise in the use of glyphosate and other herbicides. This article explores this situation and the impacts of herbicide-resistant weeds, using an interdisciplinary approach and drawing on recent data. The paper analyzes the spread of GMHT crops worldwide and their consequences on herbicide use in the USA in particular. It then addresses the global development of glyphosate-resistant weeds and their impact, particularly focusing on the USA. Finally, the last section explores how industry, farmers, and weed scientists are coping with the spread of resistant weeds. The concluding comments deal more widely with trends in GM crops.

  20. Protection of Nonhuman Primates Against Two Species of Ebola Virus Infection With a Single Complex Adenovirus Vector

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    Zaire Ebola virus . Virology 346:394–401. 21. Leffel, E. K., and D. S. Reed. 2004. Marburg and Ebola viruses as aerosol threats. Biosecur. Bioterror. 2...the event of a natural virus outbreak or biological threat. The filoviruses, Ebola virus (EBOV) and Marburg virus (MARV), cause outbreaks of severe...vaccine efficacy are justifiable. While the combination of the two CAdVax-based vectors for Ebola virus (EBO7) and Marburg virus (M8) GPs constitute the

  1. “AquaTrace” The development of tools for tracing and evaluating the genetic impact of fish from aquaculture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eg Nielsen, Einar; Bekkevold, Dorte; Svåsand, Terje

    2012-01-01

    and farming technologies which are economically viable, environmentally friendly, and perceived as socially acceptable. Here we present the objectives, implementation, and potential impact of a new EU FP7 project. The rationale behind AquaTrace is development of reliable and cost‐effective molecular tools...... to identify of the genetic origin of both wild and farmed fish (assignment and genetic traceability), as well as for the detection of interbreeding genetic introgression between farmed and wild stocks. This work will be carried out on three marine fish of economic significance: the European sea bass...

  2. Parameter estimation using the genetic algorithm and its impact on quantitative precipitation forecast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. H. Lee

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, optimal parameter estimations are performed for both physical and computational parameters in a mesoscale meteorological model, and their impacts on the quantitative precipitation forecasting (QPF are assessed for a heavy rainfall case occurred at the Korean Peninsula in June 2005. Experiments are carried out using the PSU/NCAR MM5 model and the genetic algorithm (GA for two parameters: the reduction rate of the convective available potential energy in the Kain-Fritsch (KF scheme for cumulus parameterization, and the Asselin filter parameter for numerical stability. The fitness function is defined based on a QPF skill score. It turns out that each optimized parameter significantly improves the QPF skill. Such improvement is maximized when the two optimized parameters are used simultaneously. Our results indicate that optimizations of computational parameters as well as physical parameters and their adequate applications are essential in improving model performance.

  3. Burden analysis of rare microdeletions suggests a strong impact of neurodevelopmental genes in genetic generalised epilepsies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dennis Lal

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Genetic generalised epilepsy (GGE is the most common form of genetic epilepsy, accounting for 20% of all epilepsies. Genomic copy number variations (CNVs constitute important genetic risk factors of common GGE syndromes. In our present genome-wide burden analysis, large (≥ 400 kb and rare (< 1% autosomal microdeletions with high calling confidence (≥ 200 markers were assessed by the Affymetrix SNP 6.0 array in European case-control cohorts of 1,366 GGE patients and 5,234 ancestry-matched controls. We aimed to: 1 assess the microdeletion burden in common GGE syndromes, 2 estimate the relative contribution of recurrent microdeletions at genomic rearrangement hotspots and non-recurrent microdeletions, and 3 identify potential candidate genes for GGE. We found a significant excess of microdeletions in 7.3% of GGE patients compared to 4.0% in controls (P = 1.8 x 10-7; OR = 1.9. Recurrent microdeletions at seven known genomic hotspots accounted for 36.9% of all microdeletions identified in the GGE cohort and showed a 7.5-fold increased burden (P = 2.6 x 10-17 relative to controls. Microdeletions affecting either a gene previously implicated in neurodevelopmental disorders (P = 8.0 x 10-18, OR = 4.6 or an evolutionarily conserved brain-expressed gene related to autism spectrum disorder (P = 1.3 x 10-12, OR = 4.1 were significantly enriched in the GGE patients. Microdeletions found only in GGE patients harboured a high proportion of genes previously associated with epilepsy and neuropsychiatric disorders (NRXN1, RBFOX1, PCDH7, KCNA2, EPM2A, RORB, PLCB1. Our results demonstrate that the significantly increased burden of large and rare microdeletions in GGE patients is largely confined to recurrent hotspot microdeletions and microdeletions affecting neurodevelopmental genes, suggesting a strong impact of fundamental neurodevelopmental processes in the pathogenesis of common GGE syndromes.

  4. Burden Analysis of Rare Microdeletions Suggests a Strong Impact of Neurodevelopmental Genes in Genetic Generalised Epilepsies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trucks, Holger; Schulz, Herbert; de Kovel, Carolien G.; Kasteleijn-Nolst Trenité, Dorothée; Sonsma, Anja C. M.; Koeleman, Bobby P.; Lindhout, Dick; Weber, Yvonne G.; Lerche, Holger; Kapser, Claudia; Schankin, Christoph J.; Kunz, Wolfram S.; Surges, Rainer; Elger, Christian E.; Gaus, Verena; Schmitz, Bettina; Helbig, Ingo; Muhle, Hiltrud; Stephani, Ulrich; Klein, Karl M.; Rosenow, Felix; Neubauer, Bernd A.; Reinthaler, Eva M.; Zimprich, Fritz; Feucht, Martha; Møller, Rikke S.; Hjalgrim, Helle; De Jonghe, Peter; Suls, Arvid; Lieb, Wolfgang; Franke, Andre; Strauch, Konstantin; Gieger, Christian; Schurmann, Claudia; Schminke, Ulf; Nürnberg, Peter; Sander, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Genetic generalised epilepsy (GGE) is the most common form of genetic epilepsy, accounting for 20% of all epilepsies. Genomic copy number variations (CNVs) constitute important genetic risk factors of common GGE syndromes. In our present genome-wide burden analysis, large (≥ 400 kb) and rare (< 1%) autosomal microdeletions with high calling confidence (≥ 200 markers) were assessed by the Affymetrix SNP 6.0 array in European case-control cohorts of 1,366 GGE patients and 5,234 ancestry-matched controls. We aimed to: 1) assess the microdeletion burden in common GGE syndromes, 2) estimate the relative contribution of recurrent microdeletions at genomic rearrangement hotspots and non-recurrent microdeletions, and 3) identify potential candidate genes for GGE. We found a significant excess of microdeletions in 7.3% of GGE patients compared to 4.0% in controls (P = 1.8 x 10-7; OR = 1.9). Recurrent microdeletions at seven known genomic hotspots accounted for 36.9% of all microdeletions identified in the GGE cohort and showed a 7.5-fold increased burden (P = 2.6 x 10-17) relative to controls. Microdeletions affecting either a gene previously implicated in neurodevelopmental disorders (P = 8.0 x 10-18, OR = 4.6) or an evolutionarily conserved brain-expressed gene related to autism spectrum disorder (P = 1.3 x 10-12, OR = 4.1) were significantly enriched in the GGE patients. Microdeletions found only in GGE patients harboured a high proportion of genes previously associated with epilepsy and neuropsychiatric disorders (NRXN1, RBFOX1, PCDH7, KCNA2, EPM2A, RORB, PLCB1). Our results demonstrate that the significantly increased burden of large and rare microdeletions in GGE patients is largely confined to recurrent hotspot microdeletions and microdeletions affecting neurodevelopmental genes, suggesting a strong impact of fundamental neurodevelopmental processes in the pathogenesis of common GGE syndromes. PMID:25950944

  5. A Reassessment of the Impact of European Contact on the Structure of Native American Genetic Diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunley, Keith; Gwin, Kiela; Liberman, Brendan

    2016-01-01

    Our current understanding of pre-Columbian history in the Americas rests in part on several trends identified in recent genetic studies. The goal of this study is to reexamine these trends in light of the impact of post-Columbian admixture and the methods used to study admixture. The previously-published data consist of 645 autosomal microsatellite genotypes from 1046 individuals in 63 populations. We used STRUCTURE to estimate ancestry proportions and tested the sensitivity of these estimates to the choice of the number of clusters, K. We used partial correlation analyses to examine the relationship between gene diversity and geographic distance from Beringia, controlling for non-Native American ancestry (from Africa, Europe and East Asia), and taking into account alternative paths of migration. Principal component analysis and multidimensional scaling were used to investigate the relationships between Andean and non-Andean populations and to explore gene-language correspondence. We found that 1) European and East Asian ancestry estimates decline as K increases, especially in Native Canadian populations, 2) a north-south decline in gene diversity is driven by low diversity in Amazonian and Paraguayan populations, not serial founder effects from Beringia, 3) controlling for non-Native American ancestry, populations in the Andes and Mesoamerica have higher gene diversity than populations in other regions, and 4) patterns of genetic and linguistic diversity are poorly correlated. We conclude that patterns of diversity previously attributed to pre-Columbian processes may in part reflect post-Columbian admixture and the choice of K in STRUCTURE analyses. Accounting for admixture, the pattern of diversity is inconsistent with a north-south founder effect process, though the genetic similarities between Mesoamerican and Andean populations are consistent with rapid dispersal along the western coast of the Americas. Further, even setting aside the disruptive effects of

  6. Early Identification and Prevention of the Spread of Ebola - United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Beneden, Chris A; Pietz, Harald; Kirkcaldy, Robert D; Koonin, Lisa M; Uyeki, Timothy M; Oster, Alexandra M; Levy, Deborah A; Glover, Maleeka; Arduino, Matthew J; Merlin, Toby L; Kuhar, David T; Kosmos, Christine; Bell, Beth P

    2016-07-08

    In response to the 2014-2016 Ebola virus disease (Ebola) epidemic in West Africa, CDC prepared for the potential introduction of Ebola into the United States. The immediate goals were to rapidly identify and isolate any cases of Ebola, prevent transmission, and promote timely treatment of affected patients. CDC's technical expertise and the collaboration of multiple partners in state, local, and municipal public health departments; health care facilities; emergency medical services; and U.S. government agencies were essential to the domestic preparedness and response to the Ebola epidemic and relied on longstanding partnerships. CDC established a comprehensive response that included two new strategies: 1) active monitoring of travelers arriving from countries affected by Ebola and other persons at risk for Ebola and 2) a tiered system of hospital facility preparedness that enabled prioritization of training. CDC rapidly deployed a diagnostic assay for Ebola virus (EBOV) to public health laboratories. Guidance was developed to assist in evaluation of patients possibly infected with EBOV, for appropriate infection control, to support emergency responders, and for handling of infectious waste. CDC rapid response teams were formed to provide assistance within 24 hours to a health care facility managing a patient with Ebola. As a result of the collaborations to rapidly identify, isolate, and manage Ebola patients and the extensive preparations to prevent spread of EBOV, the United States is now better prepared to address the next global infectious disease threat.The activities summarized in this report would not have been possible without collaboration with many U.S. and international partners (http://www.cdc.gov/vhf/ebola/outbreaks/2014-west-africa/partners.html).

  7. A Strong Impact of Genetic Background on Gut Microflora in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Steven Esworthy

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Genetic background affects susceptibility to ileocolitis in mice deficient in two intracellular glutathione peroxidases, GPx1 and GPx2. The C57BL/6 (B6 GPx1/2 double-knockout (DKO mice have mild ileocolitis, and 129S1/Sv (129 DKO mice have severe inflammation. We used diet to modulate ileocolitis; a casein-based defined diet with AIN76A micronutrients (AIN attenuates inflammation compared to conventional LabDiets. Because luminal microbiota induce DKO ileocolitis, we assessed bacterial composition with automated ribosomal intergenic-spacer analysis (ARISA on cecal DNA. We found that mouse strain had the strongest impact on the composition of microbiota than diet and GPx genotypes. In comparing AIN and LabDiet, DKO mice were more resistant to change than the non-DKO or WT mice. However, supplementing yeast and inulin to AIN diet greatly altered microflora profiles in the DKO mice. From 129 DKO strictly, we found overgrowth of Escherichia coli. We conclude that genetic background predisposes mice to colonization of potentially pathogenic E. coli.

  8. ROS1 rearrangements in lung adenocarcinoma: prognostic impact, therapeutic options and genetic variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixido, Cristina; Michels, Sebastian; Morales-Espinosa, Daniela; Viteri, Santiago; Hartmann, Wolfgang; Merkelbach-Bruse, Sabine; Fischer, Rieke; Schildhaus, Hans-Ulrich; Fassunke, Jana; Sebastian, Martin; Serke, Monika; Kaminsky, Britta; Randerath, Winfried; Gerigk, Ulrich; Ko, Yon-Dschun; Krüger, Stefan; Schnell, Roland; Rothe, Achim; Kropf-Sanchen, Cornelia; Heukamp, Lukas; Rosell, Rafael

    2015-01-01

    Background While recent data show that crizotinib is highly effective in patients with ROS1 rearrangement, few data is available about the prognostic impact, the predictive value for different treatments, and the genetic heterogeneity of ROS1-positive patients. Patients and Methods 1137 patients with adenocarcinoma of the lung were analyzed regarding their ROS1 status. In positive cases, next-generation sequencing (NGS) was performed. Clinical characteristics, treatments and outcome of these patients were assessed. Overall survival (OS) was compared with genetically defined subgroups of ROS1-negative patients. Results 19 patients of 1035 evaluable (1.8%) had ROS1-rearrangement. The median OS has not been reached. Stage IV patients with ROS1-rearrangement had the best OS of all subgroups (36.7 months, p < 0.001). 9 of 14 (64.2%) patients had at least one response to chemotherapy. Estimated mean OS for patients receiving chemotherapy and crizotinib was 5.3 years. Ten patients with ROS1-rearrangement (52.6%) harbored additional aberrations. Conclusion ROS1-rearangement is not only a predictive marker for response to crizotinib, but also seems to be the one of the best prognostic molecular markers in NSCLC reported so far. In stage IV patients, response to chemotherapy was remarkable high and overall survival was significantly better compared to other subgroups including EGFR-mutated and ALK-fusion-positive NSCLC. PMID:25868855

  9. Analytical Performance Characteristics of the Cepheid GeneXpert Ebola Assay for the Detection of Ebola Virus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin A Pinsky

    Full Text Available The recently developed Xpert® Ebola Assay is a novel nucleic acid amplification test for simplified detection of Ebola virus (EBOV in whole blood and buccal swab samples. The assay targets sequences in two EBOV genes, lowering the risk for new variants to escape detection in the test. The objective of this report is to present analytical characteristics of the Xpert® Ebola Assay on whole blood samples.This study evaluated the assay's analytical sensitivity, analytical specificity, inclusivity and exclusivity performance in whole blood specimens. EBOV RNA, inactivated EBOV, and infectious EBOV were used as targets. The dynamic range of the assay, the inactivation of virus, and specimen stability were also evaluated. The lower limit of detection (LoD for the assay using inactivated virus was estimated to be 73 copies/mL (95% CI: 51-97 copies/mL. The LoD for infectious virus was estimated to be 1 plaque-forming unit/mL, and for RNA to be 232 copies/mL (95% CI 163-302 copies/mL. The assay correctly identified five different Ebola viruses, Yambuku-Mayinga, Makona-C07, Yambuku-Ecran, Gabon-Ilembe, and Kikwit-956210, and correctly excluded all non-EBOV isolates tested. The conditions used by Xpert® Ebola for inactivation of infectious virus reduced EBOV titer by ≥6 logs.In summary, we found the Xpert® Ebola Assay to have high analytical sensitivity and specificity for the detection of EBOV in whole blood. It offers ease of use, fast turnaround time, and remote monitoring. The test has an efficient viral inactivation protocol, fulfills inclusivity and exclusivity criteria, and has specimen stability characteristics consistent with the need for decentralized testing. The simplicity of the assay should enable testing in a wide variety of laboratory settings, including remote laboratories that are not capable of performing highly complex nucleic acid amplification tests, and during outbreaks where time to detection is critical.

  10. Analytical Performance Characteristics of the Cepheid GeneXpert Ebola Assay for the Detection of Ebola Virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinsky, Benjamin A.; Sahoo, Malaya K.; Sandlund, Johanna; Kleman, Marika; Kulkarni, Medha; Grufman, Per; Nygren, Malin; Kwiatkowski, Robert; Baron, Ellen Jo; Tenover, Fred; Denison, Blake; Higuchi, Russell; Van Atta, Reuel; Beer, Neil Reginald; Carrillo, Alda Celena; Naraghi-Arani, Pejman; Mire, Chad E.; Ranadheera, Charlene; Grolla, Allen; Lagerqvist, Nina; Persing, David H.

    2015-01-01

    Background The recently developed Xpert® Ebola Assay is a novel nucleic acid amplification test for simplified detection of Ebola virus (EBOV) in whole blood and buccal swab samples. The assay targets sequences in two EBOV genes, lowering the risk for new variants to escape detection in the test. The objective of this report is to present analytical characteristics of the Xpert® Ebola Assay on whole blood samples. Methods and Findings This study evaluated the assay’s analytical sensitivity, analytical specificity, inclusivity and exclusivity performance in whole blood specimens. EBOV RNA, inactivated EBOV, and infectious EBOV were used as targets. The dynamic range of the assay, the inactivation of virus, and specimen stability were also evaluated. The lower limit of detection (LoD) for the assay using inactivated virus was estimated to be 73 copies/mL (95% CI: 51–97 copies/mL). The LoD for infectious virus was estimated to be 1 plaque-forming unit/mL, and for RNA to be 232 copies/mL (95% CI 163–302 copies/mL). The assay correctly identified five different Ebola viruses, Yambuku-Mayinga, Makona-C07, Yambuku-Ecran, Gabon-Ilembe, and Kikwit-956210, and correctly excluded all non-EBOV isolates tested. The conditions used by Xpert® Ebola for inactivation of infectious virus reduced EBOV titer by ≥6 logs. Conclusion In summary, we found the Xpert® Ebola Assay to have high analytical sensitivity and specificity for the detection of EBOV in whole blood. It offers ease of use, fast turnaround time, and remote monitoring. The test has an efficient viral inactivation protocol, fulfills inclusivity and exclusivity criteria, and has specimen stability characteristics consistent with the need for decentralized testing. The simplicity of the assay should enable testing in a wide variety of laboratory settings, including remote laboratories that are not capable of performing highly complex nucleic acid amplification tests, and during outbreaks where time to detection

  11. Development and validation of an instrument to measure the impact of genetic testing on self-concept in Lynch syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Esplen, M J; Stuckless, N; Gallinger, S

    2011-01-01

    with two dimensions identified through factor analysis: stigma/vulnerability and bowel symptom-related anxiety. The scale showed excellent reliability (Cronbach's α = 0.93), good convergent validity by a high correlation with impact of event scale (r(102) = 0.55, p self-esteem scale......Esplen MJ, Stuckless N, Gallinger S, Aronson M, Rothenmund H, Semotiuk K, Stokes J, Way C, Green J, Butler K, Petersen HV, Wong J. Development and validation of an instrument to measure the impact of genetic testing on self-concept in Lynch syndrome. A positive genetic test result may impact...... on a person's self-concept and affect quality of life. The purpose of the study was to develop a self-concept scale to measure such impact for individuals carrying mutations for a heritable colorectal cancer Lynch syndrome (LS). Two distinct phases were involved: Phase 1 generated specific colorectal self...

  12. A Syrian golden hamster model recapitulating ebola hemorrhagic fever.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebihara, Hideki; Zivcec, Marko; Gardner, Donald; Falzarano, Darryl; LaCasse, Rachel; Rosenke, Rebecca; Long, Dan; Haddock, Elaine; Fischer, Elizabeth; Kawaoka, Yoshihiro; Feldmann, Heinz

    2013-01-15

    Ebola hemorrhagic fever (EHF) is a severe viral infection for which no effective treatment or vaccine is currently available. While the nonhuman primate (NHP) model is used for final evaluation of experimental vaccines and therapeutic efficacy, rodent models have been widely used in ebolavirus research because of their convenience. However, the validity of rodent models has been questioned given their low predictive value for efficacy testing of vaccines and therapeutics, a result of the inconsistent manifestation of coagulopathy seen in EHF. Here, we describe a lethal Syrian hamster model of EHF using mouse-adapted Ebola virus. Infected hamsters displayed most clinical hallmarks of EHF, including severe coagulopathy and uncontrolled host immune responses. Thus, the hamster seems to be superior to the existing rodent models, offering a better tool for understanding the critical processes in pathogenesis and providing a new model for evaluating prophylactic and postexposure interventions prior to testing in NHPs.

  13. Testing Modeling Assumptions in the West Africa Ebola Outbreak

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burghardt, Keith; Verzijl, Christopher; Huang, Junming; Ingram, Matthew; Song, Binyang; Hasne, Marie-Pierre

    2016-01-01

    The Ebola virus in West Africa has infected almost 30,000 and killed over 11,000 people. Recent models of Ebola Virus Disease (EVD) have often made assumptions about how the disease spreads, such as uniform transmissibility and homogeneous mixing within a population. In this paper, we test whether these assumptions are necessarily correct, and offer simple solutions that may improve disease model accuracy. First, we use data and models of West African migration to show that EVD does not homogeneously mix, but spreads in a predictable manner. Next, we estimate the initial growth rate of EVD within country administrative divisions and find that it significantly decreases with population density. Finally, we test whether EVD strains have uniform transmissibility through a novel statistical test, and find that certain strains appear more often than expected by chance. PMID:27721505

  14. Ethical Rationale for the Ebola "Ring Vaccination" Trial Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rid, Annette; Miller, Franklin G

    2016-03-01

    The 2014 Ebola virus epidemic is the largest and most severe ever recorded. With no approved vaccines or specific treatments for Ebola, clinical trials were launched within months of the epidemic in an unprecedented show of global partnership. One of these trials used a highly innovative "ring vaccination" design. The design was chosen for operational, scientific, and ethical reasons--in particular, it was regarded as ethically superior to individually randomized placebo-controlled trials. We scrutinize the ethical rationale for the ring vaccination design. We argue that the ring vaccination design is ethical but fundamentally equivalent to placebo-controlled designs with respect to withholding a potentially effective intervention from the control group. We discuss the implications for the ongoing ring vaccination trial and future research.

  15. Use of convalescent plasma in Ebola virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garraud, Olivier

    2017-02-01

    The recent Ebola virus epidemics which threatened three West African countries (Dec.2014-Apr.2016) has urged global collaborative health organizations and countries to set up measures to stop the infection and to treat patients, near half of them being at risk of death. Convalescent plasma-recovered from rescued West Africans-was considered a feasible therapeutic option. Efficacy was difficult to evaluate because of numerous unknowns (especially evolution of neutralizing antibodies), prior to the cessation of active transmission. This raises a large body of questions spanning epidemiological, virological, immunological but also ethical, sociological and anthropological aspects, alongside with public health concerns, in order to be better prepared to the next outbreak. This essay summarizes efforts made by a large number of groups worldwide, and attempts to address still unanswered questions on the benefit of specific versus non-specific plasma on altered-leaking-vascular endothelia in Ebola infection. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Key features of Ebola hemorrhagic fever:a review

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    zulane; Lima; sousa

    2014-01-01

    The current outbreak of Ebola virus in West Africa has become a devastating problem.with a mortality rate around 51%;over 3132 deaths have been confirmed and even more arc expected in this case.The virus causes a characteristic disease known as hemorrhagic fever.Its symptoms range from nonspecific signs such as fever,lo more specific problems such as serious bleeding.Transmission occurs easily when a person comes in contact with contaminated fluids.Treatment is supportive because there are still no specific drugs for use.The present review focuses on the main features related to the Ebola virus,its transmission,pathogenesis,treatment and control forms.There is little in-depth knowledge about this disease,but its severily requires attention and information lo prevent a worse scenario than the current.

  17. Key features of Ebola hemorrhagic fever:a review

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zulane Lima Sousa

    2014-01-01

    The current outbreak of Ebola virus in West Africa has become a devastating problem, with a mortality rate around 51%; over 3132 deaths have been confirmed and even more are expected in this case. The virus causes a characteristic disease known as hemorrhagic fever. Its symptoms range from nonspecific signs such as fever, to more specific problems such as serious bleeding. Transmission occurs easily when a person comes in contact with contaminated fluids. Treatment is supportive because there are still no specific drugs for use. The present review focuses on the main features related to the Ebola virus, its transmission, pathogenesis, treatment and control forms. There is little in-depth knowledge about this disease, but its severity requires attention and information to prevent a worse scenario than the current.

  18. Public Health Intelligence: Learning From the Ebola Crisis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carney, Timothy Jay; Weber, David Jay

    2015-09-01

    Today's public health crises, as exemplified by the Ebola outbreak, lead to dramatic calls to action that typically include improved electronic monitoring systems to better prepare for, and respond to, similar occurrences in the future. Even a preliminary public health informatics evaluation of the current Ebola crisis exposes the need for enhanced coordination and sharing of trustworthy public health intelligence. We call for a consumer-centric model of public health intelligence and the formation of a national center to guide public health intelligence gathering and synthesis. Sharing accurate and actionable information with government agencies, health care practitioners, policymakers, and, critically, the general public, will mark a shift from doing public health surveillance on people to doing public health surveillance for people.

  19. Testing Modeling Assumptions in the West Africa Ebola Outbreak

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burghardt, Keith; Verzijl, Christopher; Huang, Junming; Ingram, Matthew; Song, Binyang; Hasne, Marie-Pierre

    2016-10-01

    The Ebola virus in West Africa has infected almost 30,000 and killed over 11,000 people. Recent models of Ebola Virus Disease (EVD) have often made assumptions about how the disease spreads, such as uniform transmissibility and homogeneous mixing within a population. In this paper, we test whether these assumptions are necessarily correct, and offer simple solutions that may improve disease model accuracy. First, we use data and models of West African migration to show that EVD does not homogeneously mix, but spreads in a predictable manner. Next, we estimate the initial growth rate of EVD within country administrative divisions and find that it significantly decreases with population density. Finally, we test whether EVD strains have uniform transmissibility through a novel statistical test, and find that certain strains appear more often than expected by chance.

  20. Mapping the zoonotic niche of Ebola virus disease in Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pigott, David M; Golding, Nick; Mylne, Adrian; Huang, Zhi; Henry, Andrew J; Weiss, Daniel J; Brady, Oliver J; Kraemer, Moritz U G; Smith, David L; Moyes, Catherine L; Bhatt, Samir; Gething, Peter W; Horby, Peter W; Bogoch, Isaac I; Brownstein, John S; Mekaru, Sumiko R; Tatem, Andrew J; Khan, Kamran; Hay, Simon I

    2014-09-08

    Ebola virus disease (EVD) is a complex zoonosis that is highly virulent in humans. The largest recorded outbreak of EVD is ongoing in West Africa, outside of its previously reported and predicted niche. We assembled location data on all recorded zoonotic transmission to humans and Ebola virus infection in bats and primates (1976-2014). Using species distribution models, these occurrence data were paired with environmental covariates to predict a zoonotic transmission niche covering 22 countries across Central and West Africa. Vegetation, elevation, temperature, evapotranspiration, and suspected reservoir bat distributions define this relationship. At-risk areas are inhabited by 22 million people; however, the rarity of human outbreaks emphasises the very low probability of transmission to humans. Increasing population sizes and international connectivity by air since the first detection of EVD in 1976 suggest that the dynamics of human-to-human secondary transmission in contemporary outbreaks will be very different to those of the past.

  1. Development of Treatment Strategies to Combat Ebola and Marburg Viruses

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-02-02

    HIV, acyclovir for herpes simplex virus and ribavirin for the arenviruses and bunyaviruses. Filoviruses replicate and transcribe their genomes using a...treatment of experimental Ebola virus infections. J. Infect. Dis. 179(Suppl. 1), S224–S234 (1999). • Demonstrates that hyperimmune equine ...Virusol. 40(6), 270–273 (1995). • Reports that hyperimmune equine IgG protected a small cohort of baboons against challenge with a low dose of

  2. Real-time, portable genome sequencing for Ebola surveillance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bore, Joseph Akoi; Koundouno, Raymond; Dudas, Gytis; Mikhail, Amy; Ouédraogo, Nobila; Afrough, Babak; Bah, Amadou; Baum, Jonathan HJ; Becker-Ziaja, Beate; Boettcher, Jan-Peter; Cabeza-Cabrerizo, Mar; Camino-Sanchez, Alvaro; Carter, Lisa L.; Doerrbecker, Juiliane; Enkirch, Theresa; Dorival, Isabel Graciela García; Hetzelt, Nicole; Hinzmann, Julia; Holm, Tobias; Kafetzopoulou, Liana Eleni; Koropogui, Michel; Kosgey, Abigail; Kuisma, Eeva; Logue, Christopher H; Mazzarelli, Antonio; Meisel, Sarah; Mertens, Marc; Michel, Janine; Ngabo, Didier; Nitzsche, Katja; Pallash, Elisa; Patrono, Livia Victoria; Portmann, Jasmine; Repits, Johanna Gabriella; Rickett, Natasha Yasmin; Sachse, Andrea; Singethan, Katrin; Vitoriano, Inês; Yemanaberhan, Rahel L; Zekeng, Elsa G; Trina, Racine; Bello, Alexander; Sall, Amadou Alpha; Faye, Ousmane; Faye, Oumar; Magassouba, N’Faly; Williams, Cecelia V.; Amburgey, Victoria; Winona, Linda; Davis, Emily; Gerlach, Jon; Washington, Franck; Monteil, Vanessa; Jourdain, Marine; Bererd, Marion; Camara, Alimou; Somlare, Hermann; Camara, Abdoulaye; Gerard, Marianne; Bado, Guillaume; Baillet, Bernard; Delaune, Déborah; Nebie, Koumpingnin Yacouba; Diarra, Abdoulaye; Savane, Yacouba; Pallawo, Raymond Bernard; Gutierrez, Giovanna Jaramillo; Milhano, Natacha; Roger, Isabelle; Williams, Christopher J; Yattara, Facinet; Lewandowski, Kuiama; Taylor, Jamie; Rachwal, Philip; Turner, Daniel; Pollakis, Georgios; Hiscox, Julian A.; Matthews, David A.; O’Shea, Matthew K.; Johnston, Andrew McD; Wilson, Duncan; Hutley, Emma; Smit, Erasmus; Di Caro, Antonino; Woelfel, Roman; Stoecker, Kilian; Fleischmann, Erna; Gabriel, Martin; Weller, Simon A.; Koivogui, Lamine; Diallo, Boubacar; Keita, Sakoba; Rambaut, Andrew; Formenty, Pierre; Gunther, Stephan; Carroll, Miles W.

    2016-01-01

    The Ebola virus disease (EVD) epidemic in West Africa is the largest on record, responsible for >28,599 cases and >11,299 deaths 1. Genome sequencing in viral outbreaks is desirable in order to characterize the infectious agent to determine its evolutionary rate, signatures of host adaptation, identification and monitoring of diagnostic targets and responses to vaccines and treatments. The Ebola virus genome (EBOV) substitution rate in the Makona strain has been estimated at between 0.87 × 10−3 to 1.42 × 10−3 mutations per site per year. This is equivalent to 16 to 27 mutations in each genome, meaning that sequences diverge rapidly enough to identify distinct sub-lineages during a prolonged epidemic 2-7. Genome sequencing provides a high-resolution view of pathogen evolution and is increasingly sought-after for outbreak surveillance. Sequence data may be used to guide control measures, but only if the results are generated quickly enough to inform interventions 8. Genomic surveillance during the epidemic has been sporadic due to a lack of local sequencing capacity coupled with practical difficulties transporting samples to remote sequencing facilities 9. In order to address this problem, we devised a genomic surveillance system that utilizes a novel nanopore DNA sequencing instrument. In April 2015 this system was transported in standard airline luggage to Guinea and used for real-time genomic surveillance of the ongoing epidemic. Here we present sequence data and analysis of 142 Ebola virus (EBOV) samples collected during the period March to October 2015. We were able to generate results in less than 24 hours after receiving an Ebola positive sample, with the sequencing process taking as little as 15-60 minutes. We show that real-time genomic surveillance is possible in resource-limited settings and can be established rapidly to monitor outbreaks. PMID:26840485

  3. Are developing countries prepared to face Ebola-like outbreaks?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Aftab; Ahmad; Sadia; Ashraf; Shoji; Komai

    2015-01-01

    <正>Ebola virus disease has caused havoc in West Africa,with 11,162deaths and more than 27,181 cases(as of May 31,2015)being reported since the virus emerged in early2014 in Guinea.The maximum number of cases has been reported in Sierra Leone(12,827),while most of the reported deaths have occurred in Liberia(4,806),according to the Center for Disease Control and

  4. Handling Europe's first Ebola case: internal hospital communication experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosquera, Margarita; Melendez, Victoria; Latasa, Pello

    2015-04-01

    Europe's first Ebola virus disease (EVD) case was diagnosed in our hospital. There was an unjustified panic in the population because of an imbalance of credibility assigned to the media as opposed to scientific information. A reinforcement of hospital internal communication was needed to keep health care workers informed with up-to-date scientific EVD information. The proactive management of information flow to both internal and external actors is required to reduce unjustified fear within the public.

  5. Ebola virus outbreaks in Africa: Past and present

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.J. Muyembe-Tamfum

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Ebola haemorrhagic fever (EHF is a zoonosis affecting both human and non-human primates (NHP. Outbreaks in Africa occur mainly in the Congo and Nile basins. The first outbreaks of EHF occurred nearly simultaneously in 1976 in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC, former Zaire and Sudan with very high case fatality rates of 88% and 53%, respectively. The two outbreaks were caused by two distinct species of Ebola virus named Zaire ebolavirus (ZEBOV and Sudan ebolavirus (SEBOV. The source of transmission remains unknown. After a long period of silence (1980–1993, EHF outbreaks in Africa caused by the two species erupted with increased frequency and new species were discovered, namely Côte d’Ivoire ebolavirus (CIEBOV in 1994 in the Ivory Coast and Bundibugyo ebolavirus (BEBOV in 2007 in Uganda. The re-emergence of EHF outbreaks in Gabon and Republic of the Congo were concomitant with an increase in mortality amongst gorillas and chimpanzees infected with ZEBOV. The human outbreaks were related to multiple, unrelated index cases who had contact with dead gorillas or chimpanzees. However, in areas where NHP were rare or absent, as in Kikwit (DRC in 1995, Mweka (DRC in 2007, Gulu (Uganda in 2000 and Yambio (Sudan in 2004, the hunting and eating of fruit bats may have resulted in the primary transmission of Ebola virus to humans. Human-to-human transmission is associated with direct contact with body fluids or tissues from an infected subject or contaminated objects. Despite several, often heroic field studies, the epidemiology and ecology of Ebola virus, including identification of its natural reservoir hosts, remains a formidable challenge for public health and scientific communities.

  6. Ethical considerations surrounding the response to Ebola: the Spanish experience

    OpenAIRE

    Royo-Bordonada, Miguel Ángel; García López, Fernando J.

    2016-01-01

    Background The recent Ebola virus disease (EVD) outbreak, with 28,646 reported cases and 11,323 deaths, was declared a public health emergency of international interest by the World Health Organisation. In Spain, a single reported case triggered a public health crisis of a markedly media-centred nature. The approach to the first EVD epidemic has given rise to various ethical considerations around the world. We address the most relevant ethical considerations emanating from the management of E...

  7. [EBOLA HEMORRHAGIC FEVER; ETIOLOGY, EPIDEMIOLOGY, PATHOGENESIS, AND CLINICAL SYMPTOMS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhdanov, K W; Zakharenko, S M; Kovalenko, A N; Semenov, A V; Fusin, A Ya

    2015-01-01

    The data on the prevalence of disease caused by Ebola virus, biological features of its pathogen, character of the epidemiological process, pathogenesis and clinical symptoms are presented. The disease is characterized by suppression of protective immunological mechanisms and systemic inflammatory reaction accounting for the lesions of vascular endothelium, hemostatic and immune systems. It eventually leads to polyorgan insufficiency and severe shock. Lethality amounts to 50%.

  8. Ebola virus outbreaks in Africa: past and present.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muyembe-Tamfum, J J; Mulangu, S; Masumu, Justin; Kayembe, J M; Kemp, A; Paweska, Janusz T

    2012-06-20

    Ebola haemorrhagic fever (EHF) is a zoonosis affecting both human and non-human primates (NHP). Outbreaks in Africa occur mainly in the Congo and Nile basins. The first outbreaks of EHF occurred nearly simultaneously in 1976 in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC, former Zaire) and Sudan with very high case fatality rates of 88% and 53%, respectively. The two outbreaks were caused by two distinct species of Ebola virus named Zaire ebolavirus (ZEBOV) and Sudan ebolavirus (SEBOV). The source of transmission remains unknown. After a long period of silence (1980-1993), EHF outbreaks in Africa caused by the two species erupted with increased frequency and new species were discovered, namely Côte d'Ivoire ebolavirus (CIEBOV) in 1994 in the Ivory Coast and Bundibugyo ebolavirus (BEBOV) in 2007 in Uganda. The re-emergence of EHF outbreaks in Gabon and Republic of the Congo were concomitant with an increase in mortality amongst gorillas and chimpanzees infected with ZEBOV. The human outbreaks were related to multiple, unrelated index cases who had contact with dead gorillas or chimpanzees. However, in areas where NHP were rare or absent, as in Kikwit (DRC) in 1995, Mweka (DRC) in 2007, Gulu (Uganda) in 2000 and Yambio (Sudan) in 2004, the hunting and eating of fruit bats may have resulted in the primary transmission of Ebola virus to humans. Human-to-human transmission is associated with direct contact with body fluids or tissues from an infected subject or contaminated objects. Despite several, often heroic field studies, the epidemiology and ecology of Ebola virus, including identification of its natural reservoir hosts, remains a formidable challenge for public health and scientific communities.

  9. Electronic medical records in humanitarian emergencies – the development of an Ebola clinical information and patient management system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jobanputra, Kiran; Greig, Jane; Shankar, Ganesh; Perakslis, Eric; Kremer, Ronald; Achar, Jay; Gayton, Ivan

    2017-01-01

    By November 2015, the West Africa Ebola epidemic had caused 28598 infections and 11299 deaths in the three countries most affected. The outbreak required rapid innovation and adaptation. Médecins sans Frontières (MSF) scaled up its usual 20-30 bed Ebola management centres (EMCs) to 100-300 beds with over 300 workers in some settings. This brought challenges in patient and clinical data management resulting from the difficulties of working safely with high numbers of Ebola patients. We describe a project MSF established with software developers and the Google Social Impact Team to develop context-adapted tools to address the challenges of recording Ebola clinical information. We share the outcomes and key lessons learned in innovating rapidly under pressure in difficult environmental conditions. Information on adoption, maintenance, and data quality was gathered through review of project documentation, discussions with field staff and key project stakeholders, and analysis of tablet data. In March 2015, a full prototype was deployed in Magburaka EMC, Sierra Leone. Inpatient data were captured on 204 clinical interactions with 34 patients from 5 March until 10 April 2015. Data continued to also be recorded on paper charts, creating theoretically identical record “pairs” on paper and tablet. 83 record pairs for 33 patients with 22 data items (temperature and symptoms) per pair were analysed. The overall Kappa coefficient for agreement between sources was 0.62, but reduced to 0.59 when rare bleeding symptoms were excluded, indicating moderate to good agreement. The time taken to deliver the product was more than that anticipated by MSF (7 months versus 6 weeks). Deployment of the tablet coincided with a dramatic drop in patient numbers and thus had little impact on patient care. We have identified lessons specific to humanitarian-technology collaborative projects and propose a framework for emergency humanitarian innovation. Time and effort is required to bridge

  10. Electronic medical records in humanitarian emergencies - the development of an Ebola clinical information and patient management system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jobanputra, Kiran; Greig, Jane; Shankar, Ganesh; Perakslis, Eric; Kremer, Ronald; Achar, Jay; Gayton, Ivan

    2016-01-01

    By November 2015, the West Africa Ebola epidemic had caused 28598 infections and 11299 deaths in the three countries most affected. The outbreak required rapid innovation and adaptation. Médecins sans Frontières (MSF) scaled up its usual 20-30 bed Ebola management centres (EMCs) to 100-300 beds with over 300 workers in some settings. This brought challenges in patient and clinical data management resulting from the difficulties of working safely with high numbers of Ebola patients. We describe a project MSF established with software developers and the Google Social Impact Team to develop context-adapted tools to address the challenges of recording Ebola clinical information. We share the outcomes and key lessons learned in innovating rapidly under pressure in difficult environmental conditions. Information on adoption, maintenance, and data quality was gathered through review of project documentation, discussions with field staff and key project stakeholders, and analysis of tablet data. In March 2015, a full prototype was deployed in Magburaka EMC, Sierra Leone. Inpatient data were captured on 204 clinical interactions with 34 patients from 5 March until 10 April 2015. Data continued to also be recorded on paper charts, creating theoretically identical record "pairs" on paper and tablet. 83 record pairs for 33 patients with 22 data items (temperature and symptoms) per pair were analysed. The overall Kappa coefficient for agreement between sources was 0.62, but reduced to 0.59 when rare bleeding symptoms were excluded, indicating moderate to good agreement. The time taken to deliver the product was more than that anticipated by MSF (7 months versus 6 weeks). Deployment of the tablet coincided with a dramatic drop in patient numbers and thus had little impact on patient care. We have identified lessons specific to humanitarian-technology collaborative projects and propose a framework for emergency humanitarian innovation. Time and effort is required to bridge

  11. Genetic approaches to understanding the population-level impact of wind energy development on migratory bats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vonhof, Maarten J. [Western Michigan Univ., Kalamazoo MI (United States); Russell, Amy L. [Grand Valley State Univ. Allendale, MI (United States)

    2013-09-30

    Documented fatalities of bats at wind turbines have raised serious concerns about the future impacts of increased wind power development on populations of migratory bat species. Yet there is little data on bat population sizes and trends to provide context for understanding the consequences of mortality due to wind power development. Using a large dataset of both nuclear and mitochondrial DNA variation for eastern red bats, we demonstrated that: 1) this species forms a single, panmictic population across their range with no evidence for the historical use of divergent migratory pathways by any portion of the population; 2) the effective size of this population is in the hundreds of thousands to millions; and 3) for large populations, genetic diversity measures and at least one coalescent method are insensitive to even very high rates of population decline over long time scales and until population size has become very small. Our data provide important context for understanding the population-level impacts of wind power development on affected bat species.

  12. Risky knowledges: the sociocultural impacts of personal genetics in a knowledge-driven economy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legge, Michael; Fitzgerald, Ruth

    2007-09-21

    The rapid developments in modern genetics are changing the way disease and wellness may be considered. New concepts are emerging such as predictive genetic testing and forecasting future disease, as well as internet genetic analysis available to the public. In this short communication we consider some of the implications relating to predictive genetic testing in the public domain.

  13. Assessment of Environmental Contamination and Environmental Decontamination Practices within an Ebola Holding Unit, Freetown, Sierra Leone.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Youkee

    Full Text Available Evidence to inform decontamination practices at Ebola holding units (EHUs and treatment centres is lacking. We conducted an audit of decontamination procedures inside Connaught Hospital EHU in Freetown, Sierra Leone, by assessing environmental swab specimens for evidence of contamination with Ebola virus by RT-PCR. Swabs were collected following discharge of Ebola Virus Disease (EVD patients before and after routine decontamination. Prior to decontamination, Ebola virus RNA was detected within a limited area at all bedside sites tested, but not at any sites distant to the bedside. Following decontamination, few areas contained detectable Ebola virus RNA. In areas beneath the bed there was evidence of transfer of Ebola virus material during cleaning. Retraining of cleaning staff reduced evidence of environmental contamination after decontamination. Current decontamination procedures appear to be effective in eradicating persistence of viral RNA. This study supports the use of viral swabs to assess Ebola viral contamination within the clinical setting. We recommend that regular refresher training of cleaning staff and audit of environmental contamination become standard practice at all Ebola care facilities during EVD outbreaks.

  14. Optimization of Assays to Assess Dendritic Cell Activation and/or Energy in Ebola Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-01

    cells, because mouse-adapted Ebola viruses are lethal by this route but not by several other routes of infection. By identifying targets of virus ...immunity by Ebola and Lassa viruses . J Immunol 170 (6), 2797-2801 (2003). APPENDICES: None ...for Public Release; Distribution Unlimited 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT The immune responses during lethal virus infection and

  15. In silico analysis suggests repurposing of ibuprofen for prevention and treatment of EBOLA virus disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    V. Veljkovic (Veljko); M. Goeijenbier (Marco); S. Glisic (Sanja); N. Veljkovic (Nevena); V.R. Perovic (Vladimir R.); M. Sencanski (Milan); D.R. Branch (Donald R.); S. Paessler (Slobodan)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractThe large 2014/2015 Ebola virus outbreak in West Africa points out the urgent need to develop new preventive and therapeutic approaches that are effective against Ebola viruses and can be rapidly utilized. Recently, a simple theoretical criterion for the virtual screening of molecular li

  16. Binding site prediction within Ebola virus VP40 protein:clue for further drug development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Viroj; Wiwanitkit

    2014-01-01

    To the editor.The emerging African Ebola virus infection in 2014 is the global concernl I].To manage this deadly infection,there arestill no effective drugs and vaccines.Searching for new drug is the urgent requirement for successful control of the disease.Based on the new finding,it is noted that Ebola virus VP40

  17. Workplace Safety Concerns among Co-workers of Responder Returning from Ebola-Affected Country.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Benjamin P; Daly, Elizabeth R; Talbot, Elizabeth A

    2015-11-01

    We surveyed public health co-workers regarding attitudes toward a physician who returned to New Hampshire after volunteering in the West African Ebola outbreak. An unexpectedly large (18.0%) proportion of staff expressed discomfort with the Ebola responder returning to work. Employers should take proactive steps to address employee fears and concerns.

  18. [Overview of the Ebola vaccines in pre-clinical and clinical development].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchy, P

    2016-10-01

    The Ebola epidemic that occurred in West Africa between 2013-2016 significantly accelerated the research and development of Ebola vaccines. Few dozens of clinical trials have been recently conducted leading to opportunities to test several new vaccine candidates. Other vaccines are still in early development phases (table 1). This paper provides an overview of the new developments in that area.

  19. [The Emergence of Ebola virus in humans: a long process not yet fully understood].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leroy, Éric Maurice

    2015-01-01

    Since 1976 Ebola virus regularly has caused small deadly outbreaks in Central Africa, usually controlled in a few months. For the first time, an Ebola epidemic of exceptional magnitude dramatically engulfed several countries in West Africa since December 2013. Major failures of implementing measures to prevent human-to-human transmissions are the main cause of this large-scale Ebola outbreak. After about one-week incubation period, the Ebola virus disease is characterized by a sudden onset of high fever leading to multiple hemorrhages and to widespread organ failure. Several bat species constitute the main reservoirs of Ebola viruses. Human contamination would occur either directly from bats, widely consumed by the local populations, or through animal species susceptible to Ebola infection, such as chimpanzees and gorillas. Alongside this "natural cycle", an "epidemic cycle" involving domestic animals living in villages such as dogs or pigs, is seriously suggested. Thus, according to the diversity of concerned animals and their clinical infectionform, modalities of human contamination can be multiple and are still largely unknown. In this context, all efforts that could be made to unravel the mystery of the Ebola virus emergence in humans and clarify modalities of the virus transmission, would allow for predicting or for anticipating the future occurrence of epidemics. This review aims to provide an exhaustive inventory of the Ebola ecology to highlight events governing the virus transmission to humans that still remain unsolved.

  20. Secondary Infections with Ebola Virus in Rural Communities, Liberia and Guinea, 2014–2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyenswah, Tolbert; Keita, Sakoba; Diallo, Boubakar; Kateh, Francis; Amoah, Aurora; Nagbe, Thomas K.; Raghunathan, Pratima; Neatherlin, John C.; Kinzer, Mike; Pillai, Satish K.; Attfield, Kathleen R.; Hajjeh, Rana; Dweh, Emmanuel; Painter, John; Barradas, Danielle T.; Williams, Seymour G.; Blackley, David J.; Kirking, Hannah L.; Patel, Monita R.; Dea, Monica; Massoudi, Mehran S.; Barskey, Albert E.; Zarecki, Shauna L. Mettee; Fomba, Moses; Grube, Steven; Belcher, Lisa; Broyles, Laura N.; Maxwell, T. Nikki; Hagan, Jose E.; Yeoman, Kristin; Westercamp, Matthew; Mott, Joshua; Mahoney, Frank; Slutsker, Laurence; DeCock, Kevin M.; Marston, Barbara; Dahl, Benjamin

    2016-01-01

    Persons who died of Ebola virus disease at home in rural communities in Liberia and Guinea resulted in more secondary infections than persons admitted to Ebola treatment units. Intensified monitoring of contacts of persons who died of this disease in the community is an evidence-based approach to reduce virus transmission in rural communities. PMID:27268508

  1. Media Messages and Perception of Risk for Ebola Virus Infection, United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boddie, Crystal; McGinty, Emma E.; Pollack, Keshia; Smith, Katherine Clegg; Burke, Thomas A.; Rutkow, Lainie

    2017-01-01

    News media have been blamed for sensationalizing Ebola in the United States, causing unnecessary alarm. To investigate this issue, we analyzed US-focused news stories about Ebola virus disease during July 1–November 30, 2014. We found frequent use of risk-elevating messages, which may have contributed to increased public concern. PMID:27983495

  2. In silico analysis suggests repurposing of ibuprofen for prevention and treatment of EBOLA virus disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    V. Veljkovic (Veljko); M. Goeijenbier (Marco); S. Glisic (Sanja); N. Veljkovic (Nevena); V.R. Perovic (Vladimir R.); M. Sencanski (Milan); D.R. Branch (Donald R.); S. Paessler (Slobodan)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractThe large 2014/2015 Ebola virus outbreak in West Africa points out the urgent need to develop new preventive and therapeutic approaches that are effective against Ebola viruses and can be rapidly utilized. Recently, a simple theoretical criterion for the virtual screening of molecular

  3. Epidemiological features and trends of Ebola virus disease in West Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ligui Wang

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available According to a World Health Organization report, the epidemiological features of Ebola virus disease (EVD have changed significantly in West Africa. In this study, the new epidemiological features and prevalence trends for EVD in Guinea, Liberia, and Sierra Leone are described. It was predicted that the Ebola outbreak would end in June 2015.

  4. Assessment of Environmental Contamination and Environmental Decontamination Practices within an Ebola Holding Unit, Freetown, Sierra Leone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youkee, Daniel; Brown, Colin S; Lilburn, Paul; Shetty, Nandini; Brooks, Tim; Simpson, Andrew; Bentley, Neil; Lado, Marta; Kamara, Thaim B; Walker, Naomi F; Johnson, Oliver

    2015-01-01

    Evidence to inform decontamination practices at Ebola holding units (EHUs) and treatment centres is lacking. We conducted an audit of decontamination procedures inside Connaught Hospital EHU in Freetown, Sierra Leone, by assessing environmental swab specimens for evidence of contamination with Ebola virus by RT-PCR. Swabs were collected following discharge of Ebola Virus Disease (EVD) patients before and after routine decontamination. Prior to decontamination, Ebola virus RNA was detected within a limited area at all bedside sites tested, but not at any sites distant to the bedside. Following decontamination, few areas contained detectable Ebola virus RNA. In areas beneath the bed there was evidence of transfer of Ebola virus material during cleaning. Retraining of cleaning staff reduced evidence of environmental contamination after decontamination. Current decontamination procedures appear to be effective in eradicating persistence of viral RNA. This study supports the use of viral swabs to assess Ebola viral contamination within the clinical setting. We recommend that regular refresher training of cleaning staff and audit of environmental contamination become standard practice at all Ebola care facilities during EVD outbreaks.

  5. Ethical challenges of containing Ebola: the Nigerian experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maduka, Omosivie; Odia, Osaretin

    2015-11-01

    Responding effectively to an outbreak of disease often requires routine processes to be set aside in favour of unconventional approaches. Consequently, an emergency response situation usually generates ethical dilemmas. The emergence of the Ebola virus in the densely populated cities of Lagos and Port Harcourt in Nigeria brought bleak warnings of a rapidly expanding epidemic. However, these fears never materialised largely due to the swift reaction of emergency response and incident management organisations, and the WHO has now declared Nigeria free of Ebola. However, numerous ethical issues arose in relation to the response to the outbreak. This paper discusses some of these ethical challenges and the vital lessons learned. Ethical challenges relating to confidentiality, the dignity of persons, non-maleficence, stigma and the ethical obligations of health workers are examined. Interventions implemented to ensure that confidentiality and the dignity of persons improved and stigma was reduced, included community meetings, knowledge communication and the training of media personnel in the ethical reporting of Ebola issues. In addition, training in infection prevention and control helped to allay the fears of health workers. A potential disaster was also averted when the use of an experimental medicine was reconsidered. Other countries currently battling the epidemic can learn a lot from the Nigerian experience.

  6. Ebolavirus Vaccines: Progress in the Fight Against Ebola Virus Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xiao-Xin; Yao, Hang-Ping; Wu, Nan-Ping; Gao, Hai-Nv; Wu, Hai-Bo; Jin, Chang-Zhong; Lu, Xiang-Yun; Xie, Tian-Shen; Li, Lan-Juan

    2015-01-01

    Ebolaviruses are highly infectious pathogens that cause lethal Ebola virus disease (EVD) in humans and non-human primates (NHPs). Due to their high pathogenicity and transmissibility, as well as the potential to be misused as a bioterrorism agent, ebolaviruses would threaten the health of global populations if not controlled. In this review, we describe the origin and structure of ebolaviruses and the development of vaccines from the beginning of the 1980s, including conventional ebolavirus vaccines, DNA vaccines, Ebola virus-like particles (VLPs), vaccinia virus-based vaccines, Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV)-like replicon particles, Kunjin virus-based vaccine, recombinant Zaire Ebolavirusx2206;VP30, recombinant cytomegalovirus (CMV)-based vaccines, recombinant rabies virus (RABV)-based vaccines, recombinant paramyxovirus-based vaccines, adenovirus-based vaccines and vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV)-based vaccines. No licensed vaccine or specific treatment is currently available to counteract ebolavirus infection, although DNA plasmids and several viral vector approaches have been evaluated as promising vaccine platforms. These vaccine candidates have been confirmed to be successful in protecting NHPs against lethal infection. Moreover, these vaccine candidates were successfully advanced to clinical trials. The present review provides an update of the current research on Ebola vaccines, with the aim of providing an overview on current prospects in the fight against EVD.

  7. Antibody Derived Peptides for Detection of Ebola Virus Glycoprotein.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Mario Rodríguez-Martínez

    Full Text Available Current Ebola virus (EBOV detection methods are costly and impractical for epidemic scenarios. Different immune-based assays have been reported for the detection and quantification of Ebola virus (EBOV proteins. In particular, several monoclonal antibodies (mAbs have been described that bind the capsid glycoprotein (GP of EBOV GP. However, the currently available platforms for the design and production of full-length mAbs are cumbersome and costly. The use of antibody fragments, rather than full-length antibodies, might represent a cost-effective alternative for the development of diagnostic and possibly even therapeutic alternatives for EBOV.We report the design and expression of three recombinant anti-GP mAb fragments in Escherichia coli cultures. These fragments contained the heavy and light variable portions of the three well-studied anti-GP full-length mAbs 13C6, 13F6, and KZ52, and are consequently named scFv-13C6, scFv-13F6, and Fab-KZ52, respectively. All three fragments exhibited specific anti-GP binding activity in ELISA experiments comparable to that of full-length anti-GP antibodies (i.e., the same order of magnitude and they are easily and economically produced in bacterial cultures.Antibody fragments might represent a useful, effective, and low cost alternative to full-length antibodies in Ebola related capture and diagnostics applications.

  8. Modeling the effect of comprehensive interventions on Ebola virus transmission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Mingwang; Xiao, Yanni; Rong, Libin

    2015-10-01

    Since the re-emergence of Ebola in West Africa in 2014, comprehensive and stringent interventions have been implemented to decelerate the spread of the disease. The effectiveness of interventions still remains unclear. In this paper, we develop an epidemiological model that includes various controlling measures to systematically evaluate their effects on the disease transmission dynamics. By fitting the model to reported cumulative cases and deaths in Guinea, Sierra Leone and Liberia until March 22, 2015, we estimate the basic reproduction number in these countries as 1.2552, 1.6093 and 1.7994, respectively. Model analysis shows that there exists a threshold of the effectiveness of isolation, below which increasing the fraction of latent individuals diagnosed prior to symptoms onset or shortening the duration between symptoms onset and isolation may lead to more Ebola infection. This challenges an existing view. Media coverage plays a substantial role in reducing the final epidemic size. The response to reported cumulative infected cases and deaths may have a different effect on the epidemic spread in different countries. Among all the interventions, we find that shortening the duration between death and burial and improving the effectiveness of isolation are two effective interventions for controlling the outbreak of Ebola virus infection.

  9. Prospects for immunisation against Marburg and Ebola viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geisbert, Thomas W; Bausch, Daniel G; Feldmann, Heinz

    2010-11-01

    For more than 30 years the filoviruses, Marburg virus and Ebola virus, have been associated with periodic outbreaks of hemorrhagic fever that produce severe and often fatal disease. The filoviruses are endemic primarily in resource-poor regions in Central Africa and are also potential agents of bioterrorism. Although no vaccines or antiviral drugs for Marburg or Ebola are currently available, remarkable progress has been made over the last decade in developing candidate preventive vaccines against filoviruses in nonhuman primate models. Due to the generally remote locations of filovirus outbreaks, a single-injection vaccine is desirable. Among the prospective vaccines that have shown efficacy in nonhuman primate models of filoviral hemorrhagic fever, two candidates, one based on a replication-defective adenovirus serotype 5 and the other on a recombinant VSV (rVSV), were shown to provide complete protection to nonhuman primates when administered as a single injection. The rVSV-based vaccine has also shown utility when administered for postexposure prophylaxis against filovirus infections. A VSV-based Ebola vaccine was recently used to manage a potential laboratory exposure.

  10. Sequencing ebola and marburg viruses genomes using microarrays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardick, Justin; Woelfel, Roman; Gardner, Warren; Ibrahim, Sofi

    2016-08-01

    Periodic outbreaks of Ebola and Marburg hemorrhagic fevers have occurred in Africa over the past four decades with case fatality rates reaching as high as 90%. The latest Ebola outbreak in West Africa in 2014 raised concerns that these infections can spread across continents and pose serious health risks. Early and accurate identification of the causative agents is necessary to contain outbreaks. In this report, we describe sequencing-by-hybridization (SBH) technique using high density microarrays to identify Ebola and Marburg viruses. The microarrays were designed to interrogate the sequences of entire viral genomes, and were evaluated with three species of Ebolavirus (Reston, Sudan, and Zaire), and three strains of Marburgvirus (Angola, Musoke, and Ravn). The results showed that the consensus sequences generated with four or more hybridizations had 92.1-98.9% accuracy over 95-99% of the genomes. Additionally, with SBH microarrays it was possible to distinguish between different strains of the Lake Victoria Marburgvirus. J. Med. Virol. 88:1303-1308, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Computational elucidation of potential antigenic CTL epitopes in Ebola virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dikhit, Manas R; Kumar, Santosh; Vijaymahantesh; Sahoo, Bikash R; Mansuri, Rani; Amit, Ajay; Yousuf Ansari, Md; Sahoo, Ganesh C; Bimal, Sanjiva; Das, Pradeep

    2015-12-01

    Cell-mediated immunity is important for the control of Ebola virus infection. We hypothesized that those HLA A0201 and HLA B40 restricted epitopes derived from Ebola virus proteins, would mount a good antigenic response. Here we employed an immunoinformatics approach to identify specific 9mer amino acid which may be capable of inducing a robust cell-mediated immune response in humans. We identified a set of 28 epitopes that had no homologs in humans. Specifically, the epitopes derived from NP, RdRp, GP and VP40 share population coverage of 93.40%, 84.15%, 74.94% and 77.12%, respectively. Based on the other HLA binding specificity and population coverage, seven novel promiscuous epitopes were identified. These 7 promiscuous epitopes from NP, RdRp and GP were found to have world-wide population coverage of more than 95% indicating their potential significance as useful candidates for vaccine design. Epitope conservancy analysis also suggested that most of the peptides are highly conserved (100%) in other virulent Ebola strain (Mayinga-76, Kikwit-95 and Makona-G3816- 2014) and can therefore be further investigated for their immunological relevance and usefulness as vaccine candidates.

  12. Ebolavirus Vaccines: Progress in the Fight Against Ebola Virus Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Xin Wu

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Ebolaviruses are highly infectious pathogens that cause lethal Ebola virus disease (EVD in humans and non-human primates (NHPs. Due to their high pathogenicity and transmissibility, as well as the potential to be misused as a bioterrorism agent, ebolaviruses would threaten the health of global populations if not controlled. In this review, we describe the origin and structure of ebolaviruses and the development of vaccines from the beginning of the 1980s, including conventional ebolavirus vaccines, DNA vaccines, Ebola virus-like particles (VLPs, vaccinia virus-based vaccines, Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV-like replicon particles, Kunjin virus-based vaccine, recombinant Zaire Ebolavirus∆VP30, recombinant cytomegalovirus (CMV-based vaccines, recombinant rabies virus (RABV-based vaccines, recombinant paramyxovirus-based vaccines, adenovirus-based vaccines and vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV-based vaccines. No licensed vaccine or specific treatment is currently available to counteract ebolavirus infection, although DNA plasmids and several viral vector approaches have been evaluated as promising vaccine platforms. These vaccine candidates have been confirmed to be successful in protecting NHPs against lethal infection. Moreover, these vaccine candidates were successfully advanced to clinical trials. The present review provides an update of the current research on Ebola vaccines, with the aim of providing an overview on current prospects in the fight against EVD.

  13. Antibody Derived Peptides for Detection of Ebola Virus Glycoprotein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Martínez, Luis Mario; Marquez-Ipiña, Alan Roberto; López-Pacheco, Felipe; Pérez-Chavarría, Roberto; González-Vázquez, Juan Carlos; González-González, Everardo; Trujillo-de Santiago, Grissel; Ponce-Ponce de León, César Alejandro; Zhang, Yu Shrike; Dokmeci, Mehmet Remzi; Khademhosseini, Ali; Alvarez, Mario Moisés

    2015-01-01

    Current Ebola virus (EBOV) detection methods are costly and impractical for epidemic scenarios. Different immune-based assays have been reported for the detection and quantification of Ebola virus (EBOV) proteins. In particular, several monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) have been described that bind the capsid glycoprotein (GP) of EBOV GP. However, the currently available platforms for the design and production of full-length mAbs are cumbersome and costly. The use of antibody fragments, rather than full-length antibodies, might represent a cost-effective alternative for the development of diagnostic and possibly even therapeutic alternatives for EBOV. We report the design and expression of three recombinant anti-GP mAb fragments in Escherichia coli cultures. These fragments contained the heavy and light variable portions of the three well-studied anti-GP full-length mAbs 13C6, 13F6, and KZ52, and are consequently named scFv-13C6, scFv-13F6, and Fab-KZ52, respectively. All three fragments exhibited specific anti-GP binding activity in ELISA experiments comparable to that of full-length anti-GP antibodies (i.e., the same order of magnitude) and they are easily and economically produced in bacterial cultures. Antibody fragments might represent a useful, effective, and low cost alternative to full-length antibodies in Ebola related capture and diagnostics applications.

  14. [Ebola and Marburg hemorrhagic fever viruses: update on filoviruses].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leroy, E; Baize, S; Gonzalez, J P

    2011-04-01

    The Ebola and Marburg viruses are the sole members of the Filoviridae family of viruses. They are characterized by a long filamentous form that is unique in the viral world. Filoviruses are among the most virulent pathogens currently known to infect humans. They cause fulminating disease characterized by acute fever followed by generalized hemorrhagic syndrome that is associated with 90% mortality in the most severe forms. Epidemic outbreaks of Marburg and Ebola viruses have taken a heavy toll on human life in Central Africa and devastated large ape populations in Gabon and Republic of Congo. Since their discovery in 1967 (Marburg) and 1976 (Ebola), more than 2,300 cases and 1,670 deaths have been reported. These numbers pale in comparison with the burden caused by malnutrition or other infectious disease scourges in Africa such as malaria, cholera, AIDS, dengue or tuberculosis. However, due to their extremely high lethality, association with multifocal hemorrhaging and specificity to the African continent, these hemorrhagic fever viruses have given rise to great interest on the part not only of the international scientific community but also of the general public because of their perceived potential as biological weapons. Much research has been performed on these viruses and major progress has been made in knowledge of their ecology, epidemiology and physiopathology and in development of vaccine candidates and therapeutic schemes. The purpose of this review is to present the main developments in these particular fields in the last decade.

  15. Ebola in children: epidemiology, clinical features, diagnosis and outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olupot-Olupot, Peter

    2015-03-01

    Ebola virus disease is caused by a highly contagious and pathogenic threadlike RNA virus of the Filoviridae family. The index human case is usually a zoonosis that launches human-to-human transmission interface with varying levels of sustainability of the epidemic depending on the level of public health preparedness of the affected country and the Ebola virus strain. The disease affects all age groups in the population. Clinical diagnosis is challenging in index cases especially in the early stages of the disease when the presenting features are usually nonspecific and only similar to a flu-like illness. However, in the agonal stages, hemorrhage frequently occurs in a high proportion of cases. The diagnostic gold standard is by detecting the antigen using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. Mortality rates in the past 28 outbreaks since 1976 have ranged from 30% to 100% in different settings among adults, but lower mortality rates have been documented in children. This review aims to describe Ebola virus infection, clinical presentation, diagnosis and outcomes in children.

  16. Ebola virus disease in Africa: epidemiology and nosocomial transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shears, P; O'Dempsey, T J D

    2015-05-01

    The 2014 Ebola outbreak in West Africa, primarily affecting Guinea, Sierra Leone, and Liberia, has exceeded all previous Ebola outbreaks in the number of cases and in international response. There have been 20 significant outbreaks of Ebola virus disease in Sub-Saharan Africa prior to the 2014 outbreak, the largest being that in Uganda in 2000, with 425 cases and a mortality of 53%. Since the first outbreaks in Sudan and Zaire in 1976, transmission within health facilities has been of major concern, affecting healthcare workers and acting as amplifiers of spread into the community. The lack of resources for infection control and personal protective equipment are the main reasons for nosocomial transmission. Local strategies to improve infection control, and a greater understanding of local community views on the disease, have helped to bring outbreaks under control. Recommendations from previous outbreaks include improved disease surveillance to enable more rapid health responses, the wider availability of personal protective equipment, and greater international preparedness. Copyright © 2015 The Healthcare Infection Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Impact of genetic counseling and Connexin-26 and Connexin-30 testing on deaf identity and comprehension of genetic test results in a sample of deaf adults: a prospective, longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Christina G S; Boudreault, Patrick; Baldwin, Erin E; Sinsheimer, Janet S

    2014-01-01

    Using a prospective, longitudinal study design, this paper addresses the impact of genetic counseling and testing for deafness on deaf adults and the Deaf community. This study specifically evaluated the effect of genetic counseling and Connexin-26 and Connexin-30 genetic test results on participants' deaf identity and understanding of their genetic test results. Connexin-26 and Connexin-30 genetic testing was offered to participants in the context of linguistically and culturally appropriate genetic counseling. Questionnaire data collected from 209 deaf adults at four time points (baseline, immediately following pre-test genetic counseling, 1-month following genetic test result disclosure, and 6-months after result disclosure) were analyzed. Four deaf identity orientations (hearing, marginal, immersion, bicultural) were evaluated using subscales of the Deaf Identity Development Scale-Revised. We found evidence that participants understood their specific genetic test results following genetic counseling, but found no evidence of change in deaf identity based on genetic counseling or their genetic test results. This study demonstrated that culturally and linguistically appropriate genetic counseling can improve deaf clients' understanding of genetic test results, and the formation of deaf identity was not directly related to genetic counseling or Connexin-26 and Connexin-30 genetic test results.

  18. Efficient Boar Semen Production and Genetic Contribution: The Impact of Low-Dose Artificial Insemination on Fertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broekhuijse, M L W J; Gaustad, A H; Bolarin Guillén, A; Knol, E F

    2015-07-01

    Diluting semen from high fertile breeding boars, and by that inseminating many sows, is the core business for artificial insemination (AI) companies worldwide. Knowledge about fertility results is the reason by which an AI company can lower the concentration of a dose. Efficient use of AI boars with high genetic merit by decreasing the number of sperm cells per insemination dose is important to maximize dissemination of the genetic progress made in the breeding nucleus. However, a potential decrease in fertility performance in the field should be weighed against the added value of improved genetics and, in general, is not tolerated in commercial production. This overview provides some important aspects that influence the impact of low-dose AI on fertility: (i) the importance of monitoring field fertility, (ii) the need for accurate and precise semen assessment, (iii) the parameters that are taken into account, (iv) the application of information from genetic and genomic selection and (v) the optimization when using different AI techniques. Efficient semen production, processing and insemination in combination with increasing use of genetic and genomic applications result in maximum impact of genetic trend.

  19. Risk posed by the Ebola epidemic to the Pacific islands: findings of a recent World Health Organization assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam T Craig

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To assess the public health risk posed by the ongoing Ebola virus disease (EVD epidemic in West Africa to Pacific island countries and areas and to highlight priority risk management actions for preparedness and response. Method: The likelihood of EVD importation and the magnitude of public health impact in Pacific island countries and areas were assessed to determine overall risk. Literature about the hazard, epidemiology, exposure and contextual factors associated with EVD was collected and reviewed. Epidemiological information from the current EVD outbreak was assessed. Results: As of 11 March 2015, there have been more than 24 200 reported cases of EVD and at least 9976 deaths in six West African countries. Three EVD cases have been infected outside of the West African region, and all have epidemiological links to the outbreak in West Africa. Pacific island countries’ and areas’ relative geographic isolation and lack of travel or trade links between countries with transmission means that EVD importation is very unlikely. However, should a case be imported, the health and non-health consequences would be major. The capacity of Pacific island countries and areas to respond adequately varies greatly between (and within states but in general is limited. Discussion: This risk assessment highlights the needs to enhance preparedness for EVD in the Pacific by strengthening the capacities outlined in the World Health Organization Framework for Action on Ebola. Priority areas include the ability to detect and respond to suspected EVD cases quickly, isolation and management of cases in appropriately resourced facilities and the prevention of further cases through infection prevention and control. These efforts for Ebola should enhance all-hazards public health preparedness in line with the International Health Regulations (2005.

  20. Gauging the impact of Forensic Science International: Genetics--Citation metrics for top articles in the journal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Chris

    2014-07-01

    Using the Thomson Reuters' Web of Knowledge bibliometric tool enables the analysis of citation patterns for the articles published in FSI: Genetics since it was launched. This brief survey identifies the most cited articles published by the journal since its inception and amongst these, the most impactful original research articles: those showing the highest citation rates per year since their publication.

  1. IMPACT OF GENETIC STRAIN ON BODY FAT LOSS, FOOD CONSUMPTION, METABOLISM, VENTILATION, AND MOTOR ACTIVITY IN FREE RUNNING FEMALE RATS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Physiologic data associated with different strains of common laboratory rat strains.This dataset is associated with the following publication:Gordon , C., P. Phillips , and A. Johnstone. Impact of Genetic Strain on Body Fat Loss, Food Consumption, Metabolism, Ventilation, and Motor Activity in Free Running Female Rats. PHYSIOLOGY AND BEHAVIOR. Elsevier Science Ltd, New York, NY, USA, 153: 56-63, (2016).

  2. Coincident polio and Ebola crises expose similar fault lines in the current global health regime.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calain, Philippe; Abu Sa'Da, Caroline

    2015-01-01

    In 2014, the World Health Organization (WHO) declared two "public health emergencies of international concern", in response to the worldwide polio situation and the Ebola epidemic in West Africa respectively. Both emergencies can be seen as testing moments, challenging the current model of epidemic governance, where two worldviews co-exist: global health security and humanitarian biomedicine. The resurgence of polio and the spread of Ebola in 2014 have not only exposed the weaknesses of national health systems, but also the shortcomings of the current global health regime in dealing with transnational epidemic threats. These shortcomings are of three sorts. Firstly, the global health regime is fragmented and dominated by the domestic security priorities of industrialised nations. Secondly, the WHO has been constrained by constitutional country allegiances, crippling reforms and the limited impact of the (2005) International Health Regulations (IHR) framework. Thirdly, the securitization of infectious diseases and the militarization of humanitarian aid undermine the establishment of credible public health surveillance networks and the capacity to control epidemic threats. The securitization of communicable diseases has so far led foreign aid policies to sideline health systems. It has also been the source of ongoing misperceptions over the aims of global health initiatives. With its strict allegiance to Member States, the WHO mandate is problematic, particularly when it comes to controlling epidemic diseases. In this context, humanitarian medical organizations are expected to palliate the absence of public health services in the most destitute areas, particularly in conflict zones. The militarization of humanitarian aid itself threatens this fragile and imperfect equilibrium. None of the reforms announced by the WHO in the wake of the 68(th) World Health Assembly address these fundamental issues.

  3. Rapid Detection of Ebola Virus with a Reagent-Free, Point-of-Care Biosensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justin T. Baca

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Surface acoustic wave (SAW sensors can rapidly detect Ebola antigens at the point-of-care without the need for added reagents, sample processing, or specialized personnel. This preliminary study demonstrates SAW biosensor detection of the Ebola virus in a concentration-dependent manner. The detection limit with this methodology is below the average level of viremia detected on the first day of symptoms by PCR. We observe a log-linear sensor response for highly fragmented Ebola viral particles, with a detection limit corresponding to 1.9 × 104 PFU/mL prior to virus inactivation. We predict greatly improved sensitivity for intact, infectious Ebola virus. This point-of-care methodology has the potential to detect Ebola viremia prior to symptom onset, greatly enabling infection control and rapid treatment. This biosensor platform is powered by disposable AA batteries and can be rapidly adapted to detect other emerging diseases in austere conditions.

  4. Protective monotherapy against lethal Ebola virus infection by a potently neutralizing antibody.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corti, Davide; Misasi, John; Mulangu, Sabue; Stanley, Daphne A; Kanekiyo, Masaru; Wollen, Suzanne; Ploquin, Aurélie; Doria-Rose, Nicole A; Staupe, Ryan P; Bailey, Michael; Shi, Wei; Choe, Misook; Marcus, Hadar; Thompson, Emily A; Cagigi, Alberto; Silacci, Chiara; Fernandez-Rodriguez, Blanca; Perez, Laurent; Sallusto, Federica; Vanzetta, Fabrizia; Agatic, Gloria; Cameroni, Elisabetta; Kisalu, Neville; Gordon, Ingelise; Ledgerwood, Julie E; Mascola, John R; Graham, Barney S; Muyembe-Tamfun, Jean-Jacques; Trefry, John C; Lanzavecchia, Antonio; Sullivan, Nancy J

    2016-03-18

    Ebola virus disease in humans is highly lethal, with case fatality rates ranging from 25 to 90%. There is no licensed treatment or vaccine against the virus, underscoring the need for efficacious countermeasures. We ascertained that a human survivor of the 1995 Kikwit Ebola virus disease outbreak maintained circulating antibodies against the Ebola virus surface glycoprotein for more than a decade after infection. From this survivor we isolated monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) that neutralize recent and previous outbreak variants of Ebola virus and mediate antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity in vitro. Strikingly, monotherapy with mAb114 protected macaques when given as late as 5 days after challenge. Treatment with a single human mAb suggests that a simplified therapeutic strategy for human Ebola infection may be possible.

  5. Search for the Ebola virus reservoir in Kikwit, Democratic Republic of the Congo

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leirs, Herwig; Mills, James N.; Krebs, John W.

    1999-01-01

    A 3-month ecologic investigation was done to identify the reservoir of Ebola virus following the 1995 outbreak in Kikwit, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Efforts focused on the fields where the putative primary case had worked but included other habitats near Kikwit, Samples were collected from...... 3066 vertebrates and tested for the presence of antibodies to Ebola (subtype Zaire) virus: All tests were negative, and attempts to isolate Ebola virus were unsuccessful. The investigation was hampered by a lack of information beyond the daily activities of the primary case, a lack of information...... on Ebola virus ecology, which precluded the detailed study of select groups of animals, and sample-size limitations for rare species, The epidemiology of Ebola hemorrhagic fever suggests that humans have only intermittent contact with the virus, which complicates selection of target species. Further study...

  6. Temporal Genetic Variance and Propagule-Driven Genetic Structure Characterize Naturalized Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) from a Patagonian Lake Impacted by Trout Farming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seeb, Lisa W.; Seeb, James E.; Arismendi, Ivan; Hernández, Cristián E.; Gajardo, Gonzalo; Galleguillos, Ricardo; Cádiz, Maria I.; Musleh, Selim S.

    2015-01-01

    Knowledge about the genetic underpinnings of invasions—a theme addressed by invasion genetics as a discipline—is still scarce amid well documented ecological impacts of non-native species on ecosystems of Patagonia in South America. One of the most invasive species in Patagonia’s freshwater systems and elsewhere is rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). This species was introduced to Chile during the early twentieth century for stocking and promoting recreational fishing; during the late twentieth century was reintroduced for farming purposes and is now naturalized. We used population- and individual-based inference from single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) to illuminate three objectives related to the establishment and naturalization of Rainbow Trout in Lake Llanquihue. This lake has been intensively used for trout farming during the last three decades. Our results emanate from samples collected from five inlet streams over two seasons, winter and spring. First, we found that significant intra- population (temporal) genetic variance was greater than inter-population (spatial) genetic variance, downplaying the importance of spatial divergence during the process of naturalization. Allele frequency differences between cohorts, consistent with variation in fish length between spring and winter collections, might explain temporal genetic differences. Second, individual-based Bayesian clustering suggested that genetic structure within Lake Llanquihue was largely driven by putative farm propagules found at one single stream during spring, but not in winter. This suggests that farm broodstock might migrate upstream to breed during spring at that particular stream. It is unclear whether interbreeding has occurred between “pure” naturalized and farm trout in this and other streams. Third, estimates of the annual number of breeders (Nb) were below 73 in half of the collections, suggestive of genetically small and recently founded populations that might experience

  7. Youtube as a source of information on Ebola virus disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ranjan Pathak

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The current West Africa epidemic of Ebola virus disease (EVD, which began from Guinea in December 2013, has been the longest and deadliest Ebola outbreak to date. With the propagation of the internet, public health officials must now compete with other official and unofficial sources of information to get their message out. Aims: This study aimed at critically appraising videos available on one popular internet video site (YouTube as a source of information for Ebola virus disease (EVD. Materials and Methods: Videos were searched in YouTube (http://www.youtube.com using the keyword "Ebola outbreak" from inception to November 1, 2014 with the default "relevance" filter. Only videos in English language under 10 min duration within first 10 pages of search were included. Duplicates were removed and the rest were classified as useful or misleading by two independent reviewers. Video sources were categorized by source. Inter-observer agreement was evaluated with kappa coefficient. Continuous and categorical variables were analyzed using the Student t-test and Chi-squared test, respectively. Results: One hundred and eighteen out of 198 videos were evaluated. Thirty-one (26.27% videos were classified as misleading and 87 (73.73% videos were classified as useful. The kappa coefficient of agreement regarding the usefulness of the videos was 0.68 (P < 0.001. Independent users were more likely to post misleading videos (93.55% vs 29.89%, OR = 34.02, 95% CI = 7.55-153.12, P < 0.001 whereas news agencies were most likely to post useful videos (65.52% vs 3.23%, OR = 57.00, 95% CI = 7.40-438.74, P < 0.001. Conclusions: This study demonstrates that majority of the internet videos about Ebola on YouTube were characterized as useful. Although YouTube seems to generally be a useful source of information on the current outbreak, increased efforts to disseminate scientifically correct information is desired to prevent unnecessary panic among the among

  8. Beyond Knowledge and Awareness: Addressing Misconceptions in Ghana's Preparation towards an Outbreak of Ebola Virus Disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip Baba Adongo

    Full Text Available Ebola Virus Disease (EVD is not new to the world. However, the West African EVD epidemic which started in 2014 evolved into the largest, most severe and most complex outbreak in the history of the disease. The three most-affected countries faced enormous challenges in stopping the transmission and providing care for all patients. Although Ghana had not recorded any confirmed Ebola case, social factors have been reported to hinder efforts to control the outbreak in the three most affected countries. This qualitative study was designed to explore community knowledge and attitudes about Ebola and its transmission.This study was carried out in five of the ten regions in Ghana. Twenty-five focus group discussions (N = 235 and 40 in-depth interviews were conducted across the five regions with community members, stakeholders and opinion leaders. The interviews were recorded digitally and transcribed verbatim. Framework analysis was adopted in the analysis of the data using Nvivo 10.The results showed a high level of awareness and knowledge about Ebola. The study further showed that knowledge on how to identify suspected cases of Ebola was also high among respondents. However, there was a firm belief that Ebola was a spiritual condition and could also be transmitted through air, mosquito bites and houseflies. These misconceptions resulted in perceptions of stigma and discrimination towards people who may get Ebola or work with Ebola patients.We conclude that although knowledge and awareness about Ebola is high among Ghanaians who participated in the study, there are still misconceptions about the disease. The study recommends that health education on Ebola disease should move beyond creating awareness to targeting the identified misconceptions to improve future containment efforts.

  9. Infection Prevention and Control for Ebola in Health Care Settings - West Africa and United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hageman, Jeffrey C; Hazim, Carmen; Wilson, Katie; Malpiedi, Paul; Gupta, Neil; Bennett, Sarah; Kolwaite, Amy; Tumpey, Abbigail; Brinsley-Rainisch, Kristin; Christensen, Bryan; Gould, Carolyn; Fisher, Angela; Jhung, Michael; Hamilton, Douglas; Moran, Kerri; Delaney, Lisa; Dowell, Chad; Bell, Michael; Srinivasan, Arjun; Schaefer, Melissa; Fagan, Ryan; Adrien, Nedghie; Chea, Nora; Park, Benjamin J

    2016-07-08

    The 2014-2016 Ebola virus disease (Ebola) epidemic in West Africa underscores the need for health care infection prevention and control (IPC) practices to be implemented properly and consistently to interrupt transmission of pathogens in health care settings to patients and health care workers. Training and assessing IPC practices in general health care facilities not designated as Ebola treatment units or centers became a priority for CDC as the number of Ebola virus transmissions among health care workers in West Africa began to affect the West African health care system and increasingly more persons became infected. CDC and partners developed policies, procedures, and training materials tailored to the affected countries. Safety training courses were also provided to U.S. health care workers intending to work with Ebola patients in West Africa. As the Ebola epidemic continued in West Africa, the possibility that patients with Ebola could be identified and treated in the United States became more realistic. In response, CDC, other federal components (e.g., Office of the Assistant Secretary for Preparedness and Response) and public health partners focused on health care worker training and preparedness for U.S. health care facilities. CDC used the input from these partners to develop guidelines on IPC for hospitalized patients with known or suspected Ebola, which was updated based on feedback from partners who provided care for Ebola patients in the United States. Strengthening and sustaining IPC helps health care systems be better prepared to prevent and respond to current and future infectious disease threats.The activities summarized in this report would not have been possible without collaboration with many U.S. and international partners (http://www.cdc.gov/vhf/ebola/outbreaks/2014-west-africa/partners.html).

  10. Mass Media and the Contagion of Fear: The Case of Ebola in America.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sherry Towers

    Full Text Available In the weeks following the first imported case of Ebola in the U. S. on September 29, 2014, coverage of the very limited outbreak dominated the news media, in a manner quite disproportionate to the actual threat to national public health; by the end of October, 2014, there were only four laboratory confirmed cases of Ebola in the entire nation. Public interest in these events was high, as reflected in the millions of Ebola-related Internet searches and tweets performed in the month following the first confirmed case. Use of trending Internet searches and tweets has been proposed in the past for real-time prediction of outbreaks (a field referred to as "digital epidemiology", but accounting for the biases of public panic has been problematic. In the case of the limited U. S. Ebola outbreak, we know that the Ebola-related searches and tweets originating the U. S. during the outbreak were due only to public interest or panic, providing an unprecedented means to determine how these dynamics affect such data, and how news media may be driving these trends.We examine daily Ebola-related Internet search and Twitter data in the U. S. during the six week period ending Oct 31, 2014. TV news coverage data were obtained from the daily number of Ebola-related news videos appearing on two major news networks. We fit the parameters of a mathematical contagion model to the data to determine if the news coverage was a significant factor in the temporal patterns in Ebola-related Internet and Twitter data.We find significant evidence of contagion, with each Ebola-related news video inspiring tens of thousands of Ebola-related tweets and Internet searches. Between 65% to 76% of the variance in all samples is described by the news media contagion model.

  11. Representations of far-flung illnesses: the case of Ebola in Britain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joffe, Hélène; Haarhoff, Georgina

    2002-03-01

    In western cultures lay people are faced with a plethora of far-flung illnesses, relayed to them by the mass media. A number of social scientists have called for scrutiny of the link between people's patterns of thinking concerning such events, and the messages to which they are exposed. Using the outbreaks of Ebola in Africa in the mid-1990s as a vehicle, the study examines how British broadsheets and their readers, and British tabloids and their readers, make sense of this far-flung illness. Existing work on early representations of HIV/AIDS in the west is utilised to inform the research questions. In particular, this study investigates whether Ebola is constructed as a threat, how media and lay representations of Ebola interact, and whether there are different pockets of shared thinking, or a more uniform representation, in relation to Ebola in Britain. An analysis of the themes in 48 broadsheet and tabloid articles, and 50 interviews with their readers, reveals a common picture in which Ebola is represented as African. associated with African practices, and seen as posing little threat to Britain. However, group differences exist, and are characterised by a more essentialised vision of Ebola in the tabloids and their readers, in contrast to a focus on structural features linked to Ebola's escalation in the broadsheets and their readers. In terms of the media-mind relationship, beyond the similarities found between media type and their respective readers' ideas, certain key differences exist: While the newspapers make Ebola 'real' by referring to its potential to globalise. as well as to how it can be contained, lay thinkers feel detached from it, and draw an analogy between Ebola and science fiction. This is discussed as a method of symbolic coping on the part of the readers, as well as in terms of the power exerted by media imagery on lay representations of Ebola.

  12. Mass Media and the Contagion of Fear: The Case of Ebola in America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Towers, Sherry; Afzal, Shehzad; Bernal, Gilbert; Bliss, Nadya; Brown, Shala; Espinoza, Baltazar; Jackson, Jasmine; Judson-Garcia, Julia; Khan, Maryam; Lin, Michael; Mamada, Robert; Moreno, Victor M.; Nazari, Fereshteh; Okuneye, Kamaldeen; Ross, Mary L.; Rodriguez, Claudia; Medlock, Jan; Ebert, David; Castillo-Chavez, Carlos

    2015-01-01

    Background In the weeks following the first imported case of Ebola in the U. S. on September 29, 2014, coverage of the very limited outbreak dominated the news media, in a manner quite disproportionate to the actual threat to national public health; by the end of October, 2014, there were only four laboratory confirmed cases of Ebola in the entire nation. Public interest in these events was high, as reflected in the millions of Ebola-related Internet searches and tweets performed in the month following the first confirmed case. Use of trending Internet searches and tweets has been proposed in the past for real-time prediction of outbreaks (a field referred to as “digital epidemiology”), but accounting for the biases of public panic has been problematic. In the case of the limited U. S. Ebola outbreak, we know that the Ebola-related searches and tweets originating the U. S. during the outbreak were due only to public interest or panic, providing an unprecedented means to determine how these dynamics affect such data, and how news media may be driving these trends. Methodology We examine daily Ebola-related Internet search and Twitter data in the U. S. during the six week period ending Oct 31, 2014. TV news coverage data were obtained from the daily number of Ebola-related news videos appearing on two major news networks. We fit the parameters of a mathematical contagion model to the data to determine if the news coverage was a significant factor in the temporal patterns in Ebola-related Internet and Twitter data. Conclusions We find significant evidence of contagion, with each Ebola-related news video inspiring tens of thousands of Ebola-related tweets and Internet searches. Between 65% to 76% of the variance in all samples is described by the news media contagion model. PMID:26067433

  13. Successful post-exposure prophylaxis of Ebola infected non-human primates using Ebola glycoprotein-specific equine IgG

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyankov, Oleg V.; Setoh, Yin Xiang; Bodnev, Sergey A.; Edmonds, Judith H.; Pyankova, Olga G.; Pyankov, Stepan A.; Pali, Gabor; Belford, Shane; Lu, Louis; La, Mylinh; Lovrecz, George; Volchkova, Valentina A.; Chappell, Keith J.; Watterson, Daniel; Marsh, Glenn; Young, Paul R.; Agafonov, Alexander A.; Farmer, Jillann F.; Volchkov, Victor E.; Suhrbier, Andreas; Khromykh, Alexander A.

    2017-01-01

    Herein we describe production of purified equine IgG obtained from horses immunized with plasmid DNA followed by boosting with Kunjin replicon virus-like particles both encoding a modified Ebola glycoprotein. Administration of the equine IgG over 5 days to cynomolgus macaques infected 24 hours previously with a lethal dose of Ebola virus suppressed viral loads by more than 5 logs and protected animals from mortality. Animals generated their own Ebola glycoprotein-specific IgG responses 9–15 days after infection, with circulating virus undetectable by day 15–17. Such equine IgG may find utility as a post-exposure prophylactic for Ebola infection and provides a low cost, scalable alternative to monoclonal antibodies, with extensive human safety data and WHO-standardized international manufacturing capability available in both high and low income countries. PMID:28155869

  14. The impact of childhood maltreatment: A review of neurobiological and genetic factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eamon eMcCrory

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Childhood maltreatment represents a significant risk factor for psychopathology. Recent research has begun to examine both the functional and structural neurobiological correlates of adverse care-giving experiences, including maltreatment, and how these might impact on a child's psychological and emotional development. The relationship between such experiences and risk for psychopathology has been shown to vary as a function of genetic factors. In this review we begin by providing a brief overview of neuroendocrine findings, which indicate an association between maltreatment and atypical development of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis stress response, which may predispose to psychiatric vulnerability in adulthood. We then selectively review the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI studies that have investigated possible structural and functional brain differences in children and adults who have experienced childhood maltreatment. Differences in the corpus callosum identified by structural MRI have now been reliably reported in children who have experienced abuse, while differences in the hippocampus have been reported in adults with childhood histories of maltreatment. In addition, there is preliminary evidence from functional MRI studies of adults who have experienced childhood maltreatment of amygdala hyperactivity and atypical activation of frontal regions. These functional differences can be partly understood in the context of the information biases observed in event-related potential and behavioural studies of physically abused children. Finally we consider research that has indicated that the effect of environmental adversity may be moderated by genotype, reviewing pertinent studies pointing to gene by environment (GxE interactions. We conclude by exploring the extent to which the growing evidence base in relation to neurobiological and genetic research may be relevant to clinical practice and intervention.

  15. A framework for a european network for a systematic environmental impact assessment of genetically modified organisms (GMO)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Graef, Frieder; Römbke, Jörg; Binimelis, Rosa;

    2012-01-01

    The assessment of the impacts of growing genetically modified (GM) crops remains a major political and scientific challenge in Europe. Concerns have been raised by the evidence of adverse and unexpected environmental effects and differing opinions on the outcomes of environmental risk assessments...... Network for systematic GMO impact assessment (ENSyGMO) with the aim directly to enhance ERA and post-market environmental monitoring (PMEM) of GM crops, to harmonize and ultimately secure the long-term socio-political impact of the ERA process and the PMEM in the EU. These goals would be achieved...

  16. Generation and epitope mapping of a monoclonal antibody against nucleoprotein of Ebola virus%埃博拉病毒NP蛋白的单克隆抗体制备及抗原肽的定位

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王晓杜; 刘阳; 王皓婷; 史子学; 赵凡凡; 魏建超; 邵东华; 马志永

    2012-01-01

    Ebola virus(EBOV)causes highly lethal hemorrhagic fever in humans and nonhuman primates and has a significant impact on public health.The nucleoprotein(NP)of EBOV(EBOV-NP)plays a central role in virus replication and has been used as a target molecule for disease diagnosis.In this study,we generated a monoclonal antibody(MAb)against EBOV-NP and mapped the epitope motif required for recognition by the MAb.The MAb generated via immunization of mice with prokaryotically expressed recombinant NP of the Zaire Ebola virus(ZEBOV-NP)was specific to ZEBOV-NP and able to recognize ZEBOV-NP expressed in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.The MAb cross-reacted with the NP of the Reston Ebola virus(REBOV),the Cote-d'Ivoire Ebola virus(CIEBOV)and the Bundibugyo Ebola virus(BEBOV)but not with the NP of the Sudan Ebola virus(SEBOV)or the Marburg virus(MARV).The minimal epitope sequence required for recognition by the MAb was the motif PPLESD,which is located between amino acid residues 583 and 588 at the C-terminus of ZEBOV-NP and well conserved among all 16 strains of ZEBOV,CIEBOV and BEBOV deposited in GenBank.The epitope motif is conserved in four out of five strains of REBOV.%埃博拉病毒(Ebola virus,EBOV)是一种能导致人类及脊椎动物出血热的致死性病毒,对公共卫生具有较严重的危害.EBOV的NP蛋白在病毒复制中具有重要作用,也是诊断该病重要的靶蛋白.文中原核表达重组扎伊尔型EBOV的NP蛋白,重组蛋白免疫bal/c小鼠,制备了一株小鼠抗EBOV-NP的单克隆抗体.利用Western blotting方法,该抗体能特异识别真核表达和原核表达的重组EBOV-NP,并能同莱斯顿型(Reston Ebola virus,REBOV)、科特迪瓦型(Cote-d'Ivoire Ebola virus,CIEBOV)和本迪布焦型(Bundibugyo Ebola virus,BEBOV)埃博拉病毒产生交叉反应,而不与苏丹型(the Sudan Ebola virus,SEBOV)和马堡型(the Marburg virus,MARV)埃博拉病毒产生反应.利用突变PCR和Western blotting方法,定位了该抗体识别

  17. Social Mobilization and Community Engagement Central to the Ebola Response in West Africa: Lessons for Future Public Health Emergencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillespie, Amaya M; Obregon, Rafael; El Asawi, Rania; Richey, Catherine; Manoncourt, Erma; Joshi, Kshiitij; Naqvi, Savita; Pouye, Ade; Safi, Naqibullah; Chitnis, Ketan; Quereshi, Sabeeha

    2016-12-23

    Following the World Health Organization (WHO) declaration of a Public Health Emergency of International Concern regarding the Ebola outbreak in West Africa in July 2014, UNICEF was asked to co-lead, in coordination with WHO and the ministries of health of affected countries, the communication and social mobilization component-which UNICEF refers to as communication for development (C4D)-of the Ebola response. For the first time in an emergency setting, C4D was formally incorporated into each country's national response, alongside more typical components such as supplies and logistics, surveillance, and clinical care. This article describes the lessons learned about social mobilization and community engagement in the emergency response to the Ebola outbreak, with a particular focus on UNICEF's C4D work in Guinea, Liberia, and Sierra Leone. The lessons emerged through an assessment conducted by UNICEF using 4 methods: a literature review of key documents, meeting reports, and other articles; structured discussions conducted in June 2015 and October 2015 with UNICEF and civil society experts; an electronic survey, launched in October and November 2015, with staff from government, the UN, or any partner organization who worked on Ebola (N = 53); and key informant interviews (N = 5). After triangulating the findings from all data sources, we distilled lessons under 7 major domains: (1) strategy and decentralization: develop a comprehensive C4D strategy with communities at the center and decentralized programming to facilitate flexibility and adaptation to the local context; (2) coordination: establish C4D leadership with the necessary authority to coordinate between partners and enforce use of standard operating procedures as a central coordination and quality assurance tool; (3) entering and engaging communities: invest in key communication channels (such as radio) and trusted local community members; (4) messaging: adapt messages and strategies continually as patterns

  18. Development of risk reduction behavioral counseling for Ebola virus disease survivors enrolled in the Sierra Leone Ebola Virus Persistence Study, 2015-2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abad, Neetu; Malik, Tasneem; Ariyarajah, Archchun; Ongpin, Patricia; Hogben, Matthew; McDonald, Suzanna L R; Marrinan, Jaclyn; Massaquoi, Thomas; Thorson, Anna; Ervin, Elizabeth; Bernstein, Kyle; Ross, Christine; Liu, William J; Kroeger, Karen; Durski, Kara N; Broutet, Nathalie; Knust, Barbara; Deen, Gibrilla F

    2017-09-01

    During the 2014-2016 West Africa Ebola Virus Disease (EVD) epidemic, the public health community had concerns that sexual transmission of the Ebola virus (EBOV) from EVD survivors was a risk, due to EBOV persistence in body fluids of EVD survivors, particularly semen. The Sierra Leone Ebola Virus Persistence Study was initiated to investigate this risk by assessing EBOV persistence in numerous body fluids of EVD survivors and providing risk reduction counseling based on test results for semen, vaginal fluid, menstrual blood, urine, rectal fluid, sweat, tears, saliva, and breast milk. This publication describes implementation of the counseling protocol and the key lessons learned. The Ebola Virus Persistence Risk Reduction Behavioral Counseling Protocol was developed from a framework used to prevent transmission of HIV and other sexually transmitted infections. The framework helped to identify barriers to risk reduction and facilitated the development of a personalized risk-reduction plan, particularly around condom use and abstinence. Pre-test and post-test counseling sessions included risk reduction guidance, and post-test counseling was based on the participants' individual test results. The behavioral counseling protocol enabled study staff to translate the study's body fluid test results into individualized information for study participants. The Ebola Virus Persistence Risk Reduction Behavioral Counseling Protocol provided guidance to mitigate the risk of EBOV transmission from EVD survivors. It has since been shared with and adapted by other EVD survivor body fluid testing programs and studies in Ebola-affected countries.

  19. 埃博拉出血热及埃博拉病毒的研究进展%Progress on Ebola Hemorrhagic Fever and Ebola Viruses

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许黎黎; 张连峰

    2011-01-01

    Ebola virus, which was first identified in 1976 during outbreaks in Ebola River vally, is an zoonotic pathogen that causes highly lethal hemorrhagic fever syndrome in human and nonhuman primates. Since the high mortality rates of Ebola viruses, up to 88% in humans, Ebola viruses are listed in the most dangerous viruses to humans by World Health Organization. Comprehending the characterization and pathogenesis of Ebola hemorrhagic fever and Ebola viruses, is very important for the prevention and control of this disease.%埃博拉病毒町以引起一种人畜共患烈性传染病,即埃博托出血热,此病于1976年始发于埃博拉河流域,并且于该区域严重流行,故而得名.人类一旦感染埃博拉病毒,死亡率可高达88%,从而引起医学界的广泛关注,世界卫生组织已将埃博拉病毒列为对人类危害最为严重的病毒之一.深入地了解埃博拉出血热及埃博拉病毒,及其致病机理,对于埃博拉出血热的预防和控制具有非常重要的意义.

  20. EU import restrictions on genetically modified feeds: impacts on Spanish, EU and global livestock sectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Philippidis, G.

    2010-07-01

    Over the last decade, much controversy has surrounded the usage of genetically modified organism (GMO) technology in commercial agriculture. More specifically, it is feared that GMOs may introduce new allergens into the food chain or contribute to antibiotic resistance. At the current time, the European Union (EU) adopts a zero tolerance policy toward non-approved GMO imports, whilst the approval process has not kept pace with the proliferation of new GMO varieties. In the EU livestock sectors, this apparent mis-match threatens to interrupt supplies of high protein feed inputs (e.g., soy meal) from countries with more relaxed regulations regarding GMOs. Employing a well known multi-region computable general equilibrium framework, this study quantitatively assesses the impact of a hypothetical EU import ban on unapproved GMO varieties of soybean and maize imports on livestock, meat and dairy sectors. The model code is heavily modified to improve the characterisation of the agricultural sectors and land usage, whilst a realistic baseline is employed to update the global database to 2008, the year the hypothetical ban is implemented. In the worst case scenario, there are significant competitive losses in EU livestock, meat and dairy sectors. In Spain, the negative impacts are particularly pronounced given the importance of pig production in agriculture. In contrast, all non-EU regions trade balances improve, with notable trade gains in the USA and Brazil. To conclude, the EU must urgently find a long term strategy for GMOs if it is to reconcile political expediency with pragmatic economic concerns. (Author) 21 refs.

  1. Ebola exposure, illness experience, and Ebola antibody prevalence in international responders to the West African Ebola epidemic 2014-2016: A cross-sectional study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine F Houlihan

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Healthcare and other front-line workers are at particular risk of infection with Ebola virus (EBOV. Despite the large-scale deployment of international responders, few cases of Ebola virus disease have been diagnosed in this group. Since asymptomatic or pauci-symptomatic infection has been described, it is plausible that infections have occurred in healthcare workers but have escaped being diagnosed. We aimed to assess the prevalence of asymptomatic or pauci-symptomatic infection, and of exposure events, among returned responders to the West African Ebola epidemic 2014-2016.We used snowball sampling to identify responders who had returned to the UK or Ireland, and used an online consent and questionnaire to determine their exposure to EBOV and their experience of illness. Oral fluid collection devices were sent and returned by post, and samples were tested using an EBOV IgG capture assay that detects IgG to Ebola glycoprotein. Blood was collected from returnees with reactive samples for further testing. Unexposed UK controls were also recruited. In all, 300 individuals consented, of whom 268 (89.3% returned an oral fluid sample (OFS. The majority had worked in Sierra Leone in clinical, laboratory, research, and other roles. Fifty-three UK controls consented and provided samples using the same method. Of the returnees, 47 (17.5% reported that they had had a possible EBOV exposure. Based on their free-text descriptions, using a published risk assessment method, we classified 43 (16% as having had incidents with risk of Ebola transmission, including five intermediate-risk and one high-risk exposure. Of the returnees, 57 (21% reported a febrile or diarrhoeal illness in West Africa or within 1 mo of return, of whom 40 (70% were not tested at the time for EBOV infection. Of the 268 OFSs, 266 were unreactive. Two returnees, who did not experience an illness in West Africa or on return, had OFSs that were reactive on the EBOV IgG capture assay, with

  2. Evaluating the impact of a fluoropolymer plant on a river macrobenthic community by a combined chemical, ecological and genetic approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusconi, Marianna; Marziali, Laura; Stefani, Fabrizio; Valsecchi, Sara; Bettinetti, Roberta; Mazzoni, Michela; Rosignoli, Federica; Polesello, Stefano

    2015-12-15

    Effect-based monitoring is a recommended approach suggested in European Guidelines to assess the response of ecosystem affected by a pollution source, considering the effects at community, population, individual but also at suborganism level. A combined chemical, ecological and genetic approach was applied in order to assess the impact of a fluoropolymer plant on the macrobenthic community of the Northern Italian river Bormida (Piedmont region). The macrobenthic community living downstream of the industrial discharge was chronically exposed to a mixture of perfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS), with perfluorooctanoic acid as the main compound, at concentrations up to several μgL(-1). Ecological assessment proved that the downstream community was not substantially different from that living upstream of the pollution source. The impact on community is not quantifiable with the traditional monitoring methods used for ecological classification under European regulation because macrobenthic communities showed only slight differences in their structure. In order to highlight effects on genetic variability of the native population, a subcellular analysis by using the AFLP (Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism) genetic technique was applied to genotype of individuals of a selected species (Hydropsyche modesta, Trichoptera) collected in the two sampling sites. Percentage of variation between the two populations was 6.8%, a threshold compatible with a genetic drift induced in the downstream population. The genetic study carried out in field identified a significant divergence between exposed and non-exposed populations, but at present it is not possible to associate this divergence to a specific effect induced by PFAS.

  3. Burden Analysis of Rare Microdeletions Suggests a Strong Impact of Neurodevelopmental Genes in Genetic Generalised Epilepsies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lal, Dennis; Ruppert, Ann-Kathrin; Trucks, Holger; Schulz, Herbert; de Kovel, Carolien G.; Trenite, Dorothee Kasteleijn-Nolst; Sonsma, Anja C. M.; Koeleman, Bobby P.; Lindhout, Dick; Weber, Yvonne G.; Lerche, Holger; Kapser, Claudia; Schankin, Christoph J.; Kunz, Wolfram S.; Surges, Rainer; Elger, Christian E.; Gaus, Verena; Schmitz, Bettina; Helbig, Ingo; Muhle, Hiltrud; Stephani, Ulrich; Klein, Karl M.; Rosenow, Felix; Neubauer, Bernd A.; Reinthaler, Eva M.; Zimprich, Fritz; Feucht, Martha; Moller, Rikke S.; Hjalgrim, Helle; De Jonghe, Peter; Suls, Arvid; Lieb, Wolfgang; Franke, Andre; Strauch, Konstantin; Gieger, Christian; Schurmann, Claudia; Schminke, Ulf; Nuernberg, Peter; Sander, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Genetic generalised epilepsy (GGE) is the most common form of genetic epilepsy, accounting for 20% of all epilepsies. Genomic copy number variations (CNVs) constitute important genetic risk factors of common GGE syndromes. In our present genome-wide burden analysis, large (>= 400 kb) and rare (= 200

  4. 75 FR 8299 - Draft Environmental Impact Statement; Determination of Regulated Status of Alfalfa Genetically...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-24

    ... Regulated Status of Alfalfa Genetically Engineered for Tolerance to the Herbicide Glyphosate AGENCY: Animal... and Forage Genetics International alfalfa lines designated as events J101 and J163 as regulated... determination on the status of the Monsanto Company and Forage Genetics International alfalfa lines designated...

  5. 75 FR 1585 - Draft Environmental Impact Statement; Determination of Regulated Status of Alfalfa Genetically...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-12

    ... Regulated Status of Alfalfa Genetically Engineered for Tolerance to the Herbicide Glyphosate AGENCY: Animal... determination on the status of the Monsanto Company and Forage Genetics International alfalfa lines designated... Monsanto/Forage Genetics International (FGI) alfalfa events J101 and J163 were no longer considered...

  6. The impact of genetic susceptibility to systemic lupus erythematosus on placental malaria in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Waisberg

    Full Text Available Severe malaria, including cerebral malaria (CM and placental malaria (PM, have been recognized to have many of the features of uncontrolled inflammation. We recently showed that in mice genetic susceptibility to the lethal inflammatory autoimmune disease, systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE, conferred resistance to CM. Protection appeared to be mediated by immune mechanisms that allowed SLE-prone mice, prior to the onset of overt SLE symptoms, to better control their inflammatory response to Plasmodium infection. Here we extend these findings to ask does SLE susceptibility have 1 a cost to reproductive fitness and/or 2 an effect on PM in mice? The rates of conception for WT and SLE susceptible (SLE(s mice were similar as were the number and viability of fetuses in pregnant WT and SLE(s mice indicating that SLE susceptibility does not have a reproductive cost. We found that Plasmodium chabaudi AS (Pc infection disrupted early stages of pregnancy before the placenta was completely formed resulting in massive decidual necrosis 8 days after conception. Pc-infected pregnant SLE(s mice had significantly more fetuses (∼1.8 fold but SLE did not significantly affect fetal viability in infected animals. This was despite the fact that Pc-infected pregnant SLE(s mice had more severe symptoms of malaria as compared to Pc-infected pregnant WT mice. Thus, although SLE susceptibility was not protective in PM in mice it also did not have a negative impact on reproductive fitness.

  7. Impact of genetic alterations on mTOR-targeted cancer therapy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shi-Yong Sun

    2013-01-01

    Rapamycin and its derivatives (rapalogs),a group of allosteric inhibitors of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR),have been actively tested in a variety of cancer clinical trials,and some have been approved by the Food and Drug Administration for the treatment of certain types of cancers.However,the single agent activity of these compounds in many tumor types remains modest.The mTOR axis is regulated by multiple upstream signaling pathways.Because the genes (e.g.,PIK3CA,KRAS,PTEN,and LKB1) that encode key components in these signaling pathways are frequently mutated in human cancers,a subset of cancer types may be addicted to a given mutation,leading to hyperactivation of the mTOR axis.Thus,efforts have been made to demonstrate the potential impact of genetic alterations on rapalogbased or mTOR-targeted cancer therapy.This review will primarily summarize research advances in this direction.

  8. The Impact of Genetic Susceptibility to Systemic Lupus Erythematosus on Placental Malaria in Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waisberg, Michael; Lin, Christina K.; Huang, Chiung-Yu; Pena, Mirna; Orandle, Marlene; Bolland, Silvia; Pierce, Susan K.

    2013-01-01

    Severe malaria, including cerebral malaria (CM) and placental malaria (PM), have been recognized to have many of the features of uncontrolled inflammation. We recently showed that in mice genetic susceptibility to the lethal inflammatory autoimmune disease, systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), conferred resistance to CM. Protection appeared to be mediated by immune mechanisms that allowed SLE-prone mice, prior to the onset of overt SLE symptoms, to better control their inflammatory response to Plasmodium infection. Here we extend these findings to ask does SLE susceptibility have 1) a cost to reproductive fitness and/or 2) an effect on PM in mice? The rates of conception for WT and SLE susceptible (SLEs) mice were similar as were the number and viability of fetuses in pregnant WT and SLEs mice indicating that SLE susceptibility does not have a reproductive cost. We found that Plasmodium chabaudi AS (Pc) infection disrupted early stages of pregnancy before the placenta was completely formed resulting in massive decidual necrosis 8 days after conception. Pc-infected pregnant SLEs mice had significantly more fetuses (∼1.8 fold) but SLE did not significantly affect fetal viability in infected animals. This was despite the fact that Pc-infected pregnant SLEs mice had more severe symptoms of malaria as compared to Pc-infected pregnant WT mice. Thus, although SLE susceptibility was not protective in PM in mice it also did not have a negative impact on reproductive fitness. PMID:23675429

  9. Impact of genetically regulated T cell proliferation on acquired resistance to Listeria monocytogenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berche, P; Decreusefond, C; Theodorou, I; Stiffel, C

    1989-02-01

    Two lines of mice genetically selected for high and low in vitro responses to PHA were used to evaluate the impact of T cell polyclonal expansion on acquired resistance to Listeria monocytogenes. The selective breeding induced two major consequences in low responder mice: (1) a reduction of the number of L3T4+ cells and (2) a restriction of T cell expansion upon PHA stimulation, predominantly affecting the Lyt-2+ subset, and associated with an abridgment of IL-2 production. In vivo PHA stimulation induced anti-Listeria protection in high responder mice, but was much less effective in low responder mice. Flow cytometer analysis revealed that T cell proliferation was also reduced in low responder mice during the course of Listeria infection, implying both L3T4+ and Lyt-2+ subsets. This defect did not apparently influence the kinetics of bacterial elimination in host tissues, which was similar in both lines during primary Listeria infection. In contrast, the expression of delayed-type hypersensitivity to Listeria antigens and the level of immunologic memory were significantly reduced in low responder mice. In vivo selective T cell depletion by anti-L3T4 or anti-Lyt-2 mAb allowed us to demonstrate the predominant role of Lyt-2+ cells in protection and that of L3T4+ cells in the expression of delayed-type hypersensitivity.

  10. Engineering the Genetic Code in Cells and Animals: Biological Considerations and Impacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lei

    2017-10-06

    Expansion of the genetic code allows unnatural amino acids (Uaas) to be site-specifically incorporated into proteins in live biological systems, thus enabling novel properties selectively introduced into target proteins in vivo for basic biological studies and for engineering of novel biological functions. Orthogonal components including tRNA and aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase (aaRS) are expressed in live cells to decode a unique codon (often the amber stop codon UAG) as the desired Uaa. Initially developed in E. coli, this methodology has now been expanded in multiple eukaryotic cells and animals. In this Account, we focus on addressing various biological challenges for rewriting the genetic code, describing impacts of code expansion on cell physiology and discussing implications for fundamental studies of code evolution. Specifically, a general method using the type-3 polymerase III promoter was developed to efficiently express prokaryotic tRNAs as orthogonal tRNAs and a transfer strategy was devised to generate Uaa-specific aaRS for use in eukaryotic cells and animals. The aaRSs have been found to be highly amenable for engineering substrate specificity toward Uaas that are structurally far deviating from the native amino acid, dramatically increasing the stereochemical diversity of Uaas accessible. Preparation of the Uaa in ester or dipeptide format markedly increases the bioavailability of Uaas to cells and animals. Nonsense-mediated mRNA decay (NMD), an mRNA surveillance mechanism of eukaryotic cells, degrades mRNA containing a premature stop codon. Inhibition of NMD increases Uaa incorporation efficiency in yeast and Caenorhabditis elegans. In bacteria, release factor one (RF1) competes with the orthogonal tRNA for the amber stop codon to terminate protein translation, leading to low Uaa incorporation efficiency. Contradictory to the paradigm that RF1 is essential, it is discovered that RF1 is actually nonessential in E. coli. Knockout of RF1 dramatically

  11. Genetic impact of the Prestige oil spill in wild populations of a poor dispersal marine snail from intertidal rocky shores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piñeira, Jaime; Quesada, Humberto; Rolán-Alvarez, Emilio; Caballero, Armando

    2008-02-01

    In November 2002, the sinking of the Prestige cargo ship produced an oil spill of 60,000 tons that affected many areas along the Galician coast (in the northwest of Spain). In a number of rocky shore sites, most organisms (particularly marine mollusks) were nearly extinct at a local scale. We tested whether the local bottleneck/extinction that occurred in affected localities caused any detectable reduction of the genetic diversity in the marine snail Littorina saxatilis, an ovoviviparous rocky shore model species characterized by a low dispersal ability, high population density, and wide distribution range. We compared the level of genetic variation and population differentiation between affected (polluted) and control sites located in seven geographical areas (three sites per area, one impacted and two controls, and two replicates per site) one and a half years after the spill. The analysis included molecular marker variation (microsatellite and AFLP loci) and quantitative trait genetic variation for shell variables in embryos extracted from pregnant females. Our results indicate that the affected populations did not show a significant overall reduction in genetic diversity when compared to the controls, suggesting that the species is highly resistant to losing genetic variability as a consequence of a local short-term pollution process in spite of its low dispersal ability and direct development. However, some genetic effects were detected in the polluted populations, particularly for quantitative shell traits and AFLPs, consistent with local adaptations resulting from the fuel contamination.

  12. Digital sensing and sizing of vesicular stomatitis virus pseudotypes in complex media: a model for Ebola and Marburg detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daaboul, George G; Lopez, Carlos A; Chinnala, Jyothsna; Goldberg, Bennett B; Connor, John H; Unlü, M Selim

    2014-06-24

    Rapid, sensitive, and direct label-free capture and characterization of nanoparticles from complex media such as blood or serum will broadly impact medicine and the life sciences. We demonstrate identification of virus particles in complex samples for replication-competent wild-type vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV), defective VSV, and Ebola- and Marburg-pseudotyped VSV with high sensitivity and specificity. Size discrimination of the imaged nanoparticles (virions) allows differentiation between modified viruses having different genome lengths and facilitates a reduction in the counting of nonspecifically bound particles to achieve a limit-of-detection (LOD) of 5 × 10(3) pfu/mL for the Ebola and Marburg VSV pseudotypes. We demonstrate the simultaneous detection of multiple viruses in a single sample (composed of serum or whole blood) for screening applications and uncompromised detection capabilities in samples contaminated with high levels of bacteria. By employing affinity-based capture, size discrimination, and a "digital" detection scheme to count single virus particles, we show that a robust and sensitive virus/nanoparticle sensing assay can be established for targets in complex samples. The nanoparticle microscopy system is termed the Single Particle Interferometric Reflectance Imaging Sensor (SP-IRIS) and is capable of high-throughput and rapid sizing of large numbers of biological nanoparticles on an antibody microarray for research and diagnostic applications.

  13. Febrile illness in healthcare workers caring for Ebola virus disease patients in a high-resource setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fink, Douglas; Cropley, Ian; Jacobs, Michael; Mepham, Stephen

    2017-01-26

    Ebola virus disease (EVD) patients treated in high-resource facilities are cared for by large numbers of healthcare staff. Monitoring these healthcare workers (HCWs) for any illness that may represent transmission of Ebola virus is important both for the individuals and to minimise the community risk. International policies for monitoring HCWs vary considerably and their effectiveness is unknown. Here we describe the United Kingdom (UK) experience of illness in HCWs who cared for three patients who acquired EVD in West Africa. Five of these 93 high-level isolation unit (HLIU) HCWs presented with fever within 21 days of working on the unit; one of these five presented outside of the UK. This article discusses different approaches to monitoring of HCW symptom reporting. The potential impact of these approaches on HLIU staff recruitment, including travel restrictions, is also considered. An international surveillance system enhancing collaboration between national public health authorities may assist HLIU HCW monitoring in case they travel. This article is copyright of The Authors, 2017.

  14. Emergency nurses' perceptions of emergency department preparedness for an ebola outbreak: A qualitative descriptive study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pincha Baduge, Mihirika Sds; Moss, Cheryle; Morphet, Julia

    2017-05-01

    Ebola Virus Disease is highly contagious and has high mortality. In 2014, when the outbreak in West Africa was declared a public health emergency, emergency departments in Australia commenced preparation and vigilance for people presenting with ebola like symptoms, to limit spread of the disease. To examine Australian emergency nurses' perceptions regarding their own and their emergency departments' preparedness to manage an ebola outbreak. A qualitative descriptive design was used to collect and analyse data in one metropolitan emergency department in Victoria, Australia. Four focus groups were conducted with 13 emergency nurses. Data were thematically analysed. Major themes emerged from the data: organisational, personal and future preparedness. Participants' believed that both the organisation and themselves had achieved desirable and appropriate preparedness for ebola in their emergency setting. Participants trusted their organisation to prepare and protect them for ebola. Appropriate policies, procedures, and equipment infrastructure were reportedly in place. Nurses' decisions to care for a patient with ebola were informed by professional commitment, and personal responsibilities. Participants were concerned about transmitting ebola to their families, and suggested that more regular training in personal protective equipment would increase confidence and skill in self-protection. Copyright © 2017 College of Emergency Nursing Australasia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Virtual screening of the inhibitors targeting at the viral protein 40 of Ebola virus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    V.Karthick; N.Nagasundaram; C.George Priya Doss; Chiranjib Chakraborty; R.Siva; Aiping Lu; Ge Zhang

    2016-01-01

    Background:The Ebola virus is highly pathogenic and destructive to humans and other primates.The Ebola virus encodes viral protein 40 (VP40),which is highly expressed and regulates the assembly and release of viral particles in the host cell.Because VP40 plays a prominent role in the life cycle of the Ebola virus,it is considered as a key target for antiviral treatment.However,there is currently no FDA-approved drug for treating Ebola virus infection,resulting in an urgent need to develop effective antiviral inhibitors that display good safety profiles in a short duration.Methods:This study aimed to screen the effective lead candidate against Ebola infection.First,the lead molecules were filtered based on the docking score.Second,Lipinski rule of five and the other drug likeliness properties are predicted to assess the safety profile of the lead candidates.Finally,molecular dynamics simulations was performed to validate the lead compound.Results:Our results revealed that emodin-8-beta-D-glucoside from the Traditional Chinese Medicine Database (TCMD) represents an active lead candidate that targets the Ebola virus by inhibiting the activity of VP40,and displays good pharmacokinetic properties.Conclusion:This report will considerably assist in the development of the competitive and robust antiviral agents against Ebola infection.

  16. The Ebola epidemic in West Africa: challenges, opportunities, and policy priority areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buseh, Aaron G; Stevens, Patricia E; Bromberg, Mel; Kelber, Sheryl T

    2015-01-01

    The ongoing Ebola epidemic in West Africa has drawn attention to global health inequalities, in particular the inadequacies of health care systems in sub-Saharan African countries for appropriately managing and containing infectious diseases. The purpose of this article is to examine the sociopolitical and economic conditions that created the environment for the Ebola epidemic to occur, identify challenges to and opportunities for the prevention and control of Ebola and future outbreaks, and discuss policy recommendations and priority areas for addressing the Ebola epidemic and future outbreaks in West Africa. Articles in peer-reviewed journals on health system reforms in developing countries and periodicals of international organizations were used to gather the overview reported in this article. We identify individual, structural, and community challenges that must be addressed in an effort to reduce the spread of Ebola in West Africa. The Ebola epidemic in West Africa underscores the need for the overhaul and transformation of African health care systems to build the capacity in these countries to address infectious diseases. Public-private partnerships for investment in developing countries' health care systems that involve the international community are critical in addressing the current Ebola epidemic and future outbreaks.

  17. Marine reserves help preserve genetic diversity after impacts derived from climate variability: Lessons from the pink abalone in Baja California

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrián Munguía-Vega

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Genetic diversity is crucial for the adaptation of exploited species like the pink abalone (Haliotis corrugata, faced with threats from climate change, overfishing and impacts associated with aquaculture production. While marine reserves are commonly used to mitigate risks to marine populations, the duration, size, location and larval connectivity needed for a reserve to help conserve genetic resources is still poorly understood. Here, we examine the effects of fishing, reserves, and restocking on the genetic diversity of 10 populations from central Baja California, Mexico, and Southern California, USA. We demonstrate that each population shows characteristic genetic signatures according to recent management decisions. We found high allelic diversity, particularly rare alleles, a larger effective population size and a lack of a recent genetic bottleneck in pink abalones within a small (0.8 km2, recently established (5 years reserve in Baja California, compared to other fished sites after a climatic bottleneck. Higher diversity may result from the presence of older animals in the reserve. Due to its location, the reserve may also act as an important hub connecting distant populations via larval dispersal. In contrast, a population from California showed genetic isolation, loss of allelic diversity and high relatedness, consistent with the collapse of fisheries in the 1990s and their lack of recovery thereafter. In addition, a fished area in Baja California with a history of restocking for over a decade showed an increase in frequency of related individuals and high genetic differentiation from nearby sites that were consistent with the production of larvae from a few adults in the laboratory. A network of strategically placed small marine reserves that considers ocean circulation patterns could help to maintain genetic diversity and connectivity of exploited populations.

  18. Support services for survivors of ebola virus disease - Sierra Leone, 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee-Kwan, Seung Hee; DeLuca, Nickolas; Adams, Monica; Dalling, Matthew; Drevlow, Elizabeth; Gassama, Gladys; Davies, Tina

    2014-12-19

    As of December 6, 2014, Sierra Leone reported 6,317 laboratory-confirmed cases of Ebola virus disease (Ebola), the highest number of reported cases in the current West Africa epidemic. The Sierra Leone Ministry of Health and Sanitation reported that as of December 6, 2014, there were 1,181 persons who had survived and were discharged. Survivors from previous Ebola outbreaks have reported major barriers to resuming normal lives after release from treatment, such as emotional distress, health issues, loss of possessions, and difficulty regaining their livelihoods. In August 2014, a knowledge, attitude, and practice survey regarding the Ebola outbreak in Sierra Leone, administered by a consortium of partners that included the Ministry of Health and Sanitation, UNICEF, CDC, and a local nongovernmental organization, Focus 1000, found that 96% of the general population respondents reported some discriminatory attitude towards persons with suspected or known Ebola. Access to increased psychosocial support, provision of goods, and family and community reunification programs might reduce these barriers. Survivors also have unique potential to contribute to the Ebola response, particularly because survivors might have some immunity to the same virus strain. In previous outbreaks, survivors served as burial team members, contact tracers, and community educators promoting messages that seeking treatment improves the chances for survival and that persons who survived Ebola can help their communities. As caregivers in Ebola treatment units, survivors have encouraged patients to stay hydrated and eat and inspired them to believe that they, too, can survive. Survivors regaining livelihood through participation in the response might offset the stigma associated with Ebola.

  19. Current trends in the management of Ebola virus disease-an updated systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Palanisamy Sivanandy

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The Ebola virus created a ripple of fear when its number of cases rose rapidly and drastically in recent years. Ebola infection is transmitted in humans when contact closely with blood, organs or other body fluids of infected animals or secretions. It is often mortal as it affects vascular system of the body, results in organ failure and serious internal bleeding. Hence, this review was aimed to summarize various essential aspects of Ebola virus disease and its management. A systematic review was carried out by collecting various literatures, published research articles, notes and other published date related to Ebola virus disease. Standard supporting care in a hospital setting such as replenishment of fluid and electrolytes, ventilation support, pain control and nutritional support is initiated to the patients to manage the symptoms and prevent any complications of Ebola disease since there are no Food and Drug Administrationapproved medications available. In terms of pharmacological drug therapy, favipiravir has been shown to be efficacious and safe in treating the Ebola virus disease. Nevertheless, there are some preventive measures as well to decrease the risk of getting the disease. Further, the review suggests the efficient control and prevention of Ebola epidemic require adequate political support from the government as well as the establishment of a robust public health infrastructure and medical reserve. Strengthening of contact tracing and quarantine policies are also important for the prevention of Ebola virus disease. There should be a well-designed disease surveillance system when a suspected case is reported. Given the elevated case-fatality rate and the absence of effective treatment, it is sensible to evade research ethics and develop the promising future of experimental vaccines. The collection of clinical and epidemiological information of Ebola should be vigorous and systematic in the endemic affected areas.

  20. Minimally Symptomatic Infection in an Ebola 'Hotspot': A Cross-Sectional Serosurvey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Eugene T; Kelly, J Daniel; Barrie, Mohamed Bailor; Mesman, Annelies W; Karku, Sahr; Quiwa, Komba; Marsh, Regan H; Koedoyoma, Songor; Daboh, Fodei; Barron, Kathryn P; Grady, Michael; Tucker, Elizabeth; Dierberg, Kerry L; Rutherford, George W; Barry, Michele; Jones, James Holland; Murray, Megan B; Farmer, Paul E

    2016-11-01

    Evidence for minimally symptomatic Ebola virus (EBOV) infection is limited. During the 2013-16 outbreak in West Africa, it was not considered epidemiologically relevant to published models or projections of intervention effects. In order to improve our understanding of the transmission dynamics of EBOV in humans, we investigated the occurrence of minimally symptomatic EBOV infection in quarantined contacts of reported Ebola virus disease cases in a recognized 'hotspot.' We conducted a cross-sectional serosurvey in Sukudu, Kono District, Sierra Leone, from October 2015 to January 2016. A blood sample was collected from 187 study participants, 132 negative controls (individuals with a low likelihood of previous exposure to Ebola virus), and 30 positive controls (Ebola virus disease survivors). IgG responses to Ebola glycoprotein and nucleoprotein were measured using Alpha Diagnostic International ELISA kits with plasma diluted at 1:200. Optical density was read at 450 nm (subtracting OD at 630nm to normalize well background) on a ChroMate 4300 microplate reader. A cutoff of 4.7 U/mL for the anti-GP ELISA yielded 96.7% sensitivity and 97.7% specificity in distinguishing positive and negative controls. We identified 14 seropositive individuals not known to have had Ebola virus disease. Two of the 14 seropositive individuals reported only fever during quarantine while the remaining 12 denied any signs or symptoms during quarantine. By using ELISA to measure Zaire Ebola virus antibody concentrations, we identified a significant number of individuals with previously undetected EBOV infection in a 'hotspot' village in Sierra Leone, approximately one year after the village outbreak. The findings provide further evidence that Ebola, like many other viral infections, presents with a spectrum of clinical manifestations, including minimally symptomatic infection. These data also suggest that a significant portion of Ebola transmission events may have gone undetected during the