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Sample records for eber lakes sw

  1. Legacy effects of nitrogen and phosphorus in a eutrophic lake catchment: Slapton Ley, SW England

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burt, T. P.; Worrall, F.; Howden, N. J. K.

    2017-12-01

    Slapton Ley is a freshwater coastal lagoon in SW England. The Ley is part of a National Nature Reserve, which is divided into two basins: the Higher Ley (39 ha) is mainly reed swamp; the Lower Ley (77 ha) is a shallow lake (maximum depth 2.9 m). In the 1960s it became apparent that the Lower Ley was becoming increasingly eutrophic. In order to gauge water, sediment and nutrient inputs into the lake, measurements began on the main catchments in 1969. Continuous monitoring of discharge and a weekly water-sampling programme have been maintained by the Slapton Ley Field Centre ever since. The monitoring programme has been supplemented by a number of research projects which have sought to identify the salient hydrological processes operating within the Slapton catchments and to relate these to the delivery of sediment and solute to the stream system. Long-term monitoring data are also available for the catchment area including the lake from the Environment Agency.The nitrate issue has been of particular interest at Slapton; although many longer series exist for large river basins like the Thames, the long record of nitrate data for the Slapton catchments is unique in Britain for a small rural basin. Recent declines in nitrate concentration may reflect less intensive agricultural activity, lower fertiliser inputs in particular, but there may also be a legacy effect in the shallow groundwater system. Phosphorus concentrations in stream and lake water have also shown declining concentrations but a phosphorus legacy in the surficial lake sediments means that algal blooms continue to develop in most summers, as indicated by a continued rise in summer pH levels. Further field observation at the sediment-water interface is needed to better understand the biogeochemical drivers and the balance between N and P limitation in the lake. Successful management of the Nature Reserve requires better understanding of the links between hydrological and biogeochemical processes operating

  2. Lake sediment records on climate change and human activities in the Xingyun Lake catchment, SW China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wenxiang; Ming, Qingzhong; Shi, Zhengtao; Chen, Guangjie; Niu, Jie; Lei, Guoliang; Chang, Fengqin; Zhang, Hucai

    2014-01-01

    Sediments from Xinyun Lake in central Yunnan, southwest China, provide a record of environmental history since the Holocene. With the application of multi-proxy indicators (total organic carbon (TOC), total nitrogen (TN), δ13C and δ15N isotopes, C/N ratio, grain size, magnetic susceptibility (MS) and CaCO3 content), as well as accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) 14C datings, four major climatic stages during the Holocene have been identified in Xingyun's catchment. A marked increase in lacustrine palaeoproductivity occurred from 11.06 to 9.98 cal. ka BP, which likely resulted from an enhanced Asian southwest monsoon and warm-humid climate. Between 9.98 and 5.93 cal. ka BP, a gradually increased lake level might have reached the optimum water depth, causing a marked decline in coverage by aquatic plants and lake productivity of the lake. This was caused by strong Asian southwest monsoon, and coincided with the global Holocene Optimum. During the period of 5.60-1.35 cal. ka BP, it resulted in a warm and dry climate at this stage, which is comparable to the aridification of India during the mid- and late Holocene. The intensifying human activity and land-use in the lake catchment since the early Tang Dynasty (∼1.35 cal. ka BP) were associated with the ancient Dian culture within Xingyun's catchment. The extensive deforestation and development of agriculture in the lake catchment caused heavy soil loss. Our study clearly shows that long-term human activities and land-use change have strongly impacted the evolution of the lake environment and therefore modulated the sediment records of the regional climate in central Yunnan for more than one thousand years.

  3. Lake sediment records on climate change and human activities in the Xingyun Lake catchment, SW China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenxiang Zhang

    Full Text Available Sediments from Xinyun Lake in central Yunnan, southwest China, provide a record of environmental history since the Holocene. With the application of multi-proxy indicators (total organic carbon (TOC, total nitrogen (TN, δ13C and δ15N isotopes, C/N ratio, grain size, magnetic susceptibility (MS and CaCO3 content, as well as accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS 14C datings, four major climatic stages during the Holocene have been identified in Xingyun's catchment. A marked increase in lacustrine palaeoproductivity occurred from 11.06 to 9.98 cal. ka BP, which likely resulted from an enhanced Asian southwest monsoon and warm-humid climate. Between 9.98 and 5.93 cal. ka BP, a gradually increased lake level might have reached the optimum water depth, causing a marked decline in coverage by aquatic plants and lake productivity of the lake. This was caused by strong Asian southwest monsoon, and coincided with the global Holocene Optimum. During the period of 5.60-1.35 cal. ka BP, it resulted in a warm and dry climate at this stage, which is comparable to the aridification of India during the mid- and late Holocene. The intensifying human activity and land-use in the lake catchment since the early Tang Dynasty (∼1.35 cal. ka BP were associated with the ancient Dian culture within Xingyun's catchment. The extensive deforestation and development of agriculture in the lake catchment caused heavy soil loss. Our study clearly shows that long-term human activities and land-use change have strongly impacted the evolution of the lake environment and therefore modulated the sediment records of the regional climate in central Yunnan for more than one thousand years.

  4. Dynamics of lake Koeycegiz, SW Turkey: An environmental isotopic and hydrochemical study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bayari, C.S.; Kurttas, T.; Tezcan, L.

    2001-01-01

    Lake Koeycegiz, located in southwestern Turkey, is a meromictic lake with a surface area of 55 km 2 . Impermeable ophiolitic rocks, and groundwater bearing alluvium and karstified limestone are the major geologic units around the lake. Lake Koeycegiz, fed mainly by rainfall and stream flow, discharges into the Mediterranean Sea via a 14 km long natural channel. The average water level is estimated to be slightly above the sea level and the estimated lake volume is 826 million m 3 . Lake level fluctuations are well correlated with rainfall intensity. Lake Koeycegiz comprises two major basins: Sultaniye basin (-32m) at the south and Koeycegiz Basin (-24m) at the north which are connected by a 12m deep strait. Environmental isotopic and chemical data reveals that the Lake Koeycegiz has complicated mixing dynamics which are controlled mainly by density-driven flow of waters from different origins. The lake is fed mainly by rainfall and stream flow as low density waters and by high density thermal groundwater inflow at the southern coast. Complete annual mixing cannot be achieved, because of the density difference between mixolimnion and recharge. Continuous high-density thermal water input into the Sultaniye basin is the major factor controlling the lake dynamics. The high density thermal groundwater discharging into the lake sinks to the bottom of Sultaniye basin and overflows toward the north along the bottom surface. During its travel, dense bottom water is mixed with mixolimnion water and as the distance from the thermal water inflow increases, the density tends to decrease throughout the lake. Calculations based on long-term average electrical conductivity data reveal that about 60% of mixolimnion in both basins is replenished annually, whereas the annual mixing with mixolinmion for Sultaniye and Koeycegiz Basins is 20% and 30%, respectively. Turnover times for mixolimnion and monimolimnions of Sultaniye and Koeycegiz Basins are estimated to be 2 years, 5 years

  5. Earthquake-induced soft-sediment deformations and seismically amplified erosion rates recorded in varved sediments of Köyceğiz Lake (SW Turkey)

    KAUST Repository

    Avsar, Ulas; Jonsson, Sigurjon; Avşar, Ö zgü r; Schmidt, Sabine

    2016-01-01

    sequence of Köyceğiz Lake (SW Turkey) that we compare with estimated peak ground acceleration (PGA) values of several nearby earthquakes. We find that earthquakes exceeding estimated PGA values of ca. 20 cm/s2 can induce soft-sediment deformations (SSD

  6. Nutrient sequestration in Aquitaine lakes (SW France) limits nutrient flux to the coastal zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buquet, Damien; Anschutz, Pierre; Charbonnier, Céline; Rapin, Anne; Sinays, Rémy; Canredon, Axel; Bujan, Stéphane; Poirier, Dominique

    2017-12-01

    Oligotrophic coastal zones are disappearing from increased nutrient loading. The quantity of nutrients reaching the coast is determined not only by their original source (e.g. fertilizers used in agriculture, waste water discharges) and the land use, but also by the pathways through which nutrients are cycled from the source to the river mouth. In particular, lakes sequester nutrients and, hence, reduce downstream transfer of nutrients to coastal environments. Here, we quantify the impact of Aquitaine great lakes on the fluxes of dissolved macro-nutrients (N, P, Si) to the Bay of Biscay. For that, we have measured nutrient concentrations and fluxes in 2014 upstream and downstream lakes of Lacanau and Carcans-Hourtin, which belongs to the catchment of the Arcachon Bay, which is the largest coastal lagoon of the Bay of Biscay French coast. Data were compared to values obtained from the Leyre river, the main freshwater and nutrient source for the lagoon. Results show that processes in lakes greatly limit nutrient flux to the lagoon compared to fluxes from Leyre river, although the watershed is similar in terms of land cover. In lakes, phosphorus and silicon are trapped for long term in the sediment, silicon as amorphous biogenic silica and phosphorus as organic P and P associated with Fe-oxides. Nitrogen that enters lakes mostly as nitrate is used for primary production. N is mineralized in the sediment; a fraction diffuses as ammonium. N2 production through benthic denitrification extracts only 10% of dissolved inorganic nitrogen from the aquatic system. The main part is sequestered in organic-rich sediment that accumulates below 5 m depth in both lakes.

  7. Geochemical processes in an acidic mine lake in the Iberian Pyrite Belt: San Telmo pit lake (SW Spain)

    OpenAIRE

    Ruiz Cánovas, Carlos; Nieto Liñán, José Miguel; Olías Álvarez, Manuel

    2012-01-01

    This study provides information on the physicochemical processes of water and sediments from San Telmo pit lake. It is a valuable tool to evaluate best treatment remediation options in the long term. This lake has a meromictic nature, is highly acidic (pH of 2.8) and pH- buffered by Fe(III) precipitation. In San Telmo sediments, iron reduction and sulphide oxidation may be thermodynamically favoured due to low pH values in pore waters and the abundance of schwertmannite. The...

  8. Limnological controls on stable isotope records of late-holocene palaeoenvironment change in sw greenland: A paired lake study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Jesper; John Anderson, N.; Leng, M.J.

    2013-01-01

    Stable isotope records are increasingly being used in palaeoenvironmental studies of Arctic lakes. Here we compare stable isotope and elemental records (δ13C, δ15N, C/N) with high resolution XRF-derived geochemical and colour data from low Arctic lakes (SS1220 and SS85) in southwest Greenland. Lake...... SS1220 sediments are laminated gyttja whereas SS85 consist of homogeneous gyttja, both records cover the last c. 5000 years. d13C and carbon content suggest that organic matter in both lakes is predominantly autochthonous. The C/N variability, ranging between 11 and 15, is interpreted...... composition of lake sediments when there is a reasonable understanding of limnological processes, and records may be lake specific....

  9. Evaluating the response of Lake Prespa (SW Balkan) to future climate change projections from a high-resolution model

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Schriek, Tim; Varotsos, Konstantinos V.; Giannakopoulos, Christos

    2017-04-01

    The Mediterranean stands out globally due to its sensitivity to (future) climate change. Projections suggest that the Balkans will experience precipitation and runoff decreases of up to 30% by 2100. However, these projections show large regional spatial variability. Mediterranean lake-wetland systems are particularly threatened by projected climate changes that compound increasingly intensive human impacts (e.g. water extraction, drainage, pollution and dam-building). Protecting the remaining systems is extremely important for supporting global biodiversity. This protection should be based on a clear understanding of individual lake-wetland hydrological responses to future climate changes, which requires fine-resolution projections and a good understanding of the impact of hydro-climate variability on individual lakes. Climate change may directly affect lake level (variability), volume and water temperatures. In turn, these variables influence lake-ecology, habitats and water quality. Land-use intensification and water abstraction multiply these climate-driven changes. To date, there are no projections of future water level and -temperature of individual Mediterranean lakes under future climate scenarios. These are, however, of crucial importance to steer preservation strategies on the relevant catchment-scale. Here we present the first projections of water level and -temperature of the Prespa Lakes covering the period 2071-2100. These lakes are of global significance for biodiversity, and of great regional socio-economic importance as a water resource and tourist attraction. Impact projections are assessed by the Regional Climate Model RCA4 of the Swedish Meteorological and Hydrological Institute (SMHI) driven by the Max Planck Institute for Meteorology global climate model MPI-ESM-LR under two RCP future emissions scenarios, the RCP4.5 and the RCP8.5, with the simulations carried out in the framework of EURO-CORDEX. Temperature, evapo(transpi)ration and

  10. Earthquake-induced soft-sediment deformations and seismically amplified erosion rates recorded in varved sediments of Köyceğiz Lake (SW Turkey)

    KAUST Repository

    Avsar, Ulas

    2016-06-06

    Earthquake-triggered landslides amplify erosion rates in catchments, i.e. catchment response to seismic shocks (CR). In addition to historical eyewitness accounts of muddy rivers implying CRs after large earthquakes, several studies have quantitatively reported increased sediment concentrations in rivers after earthquakes. However, only a few paleolimnological studies could detect CRs within lacustrine sedimentary sequences as siliciclastic-enriched intercalations within background sedimentation. Since siliciclastic-enriched intercalations can easily be of non-seismic origin, their temporal correlation with nearby earthquakes is crucial to assign a seismic triggering mechanism. In most cases, either uncertainties in dating methods or the lack of recent seismic activity has prevented reliable temporal correlations, making the seismic origin of observed sedimentary events questionable. Here, we attempt to remove this question mark by presenting sedimentary traces of CRs in the 370-year-long varved sequence of Köyceğiz Lake (SW Turkey) that we compare with estimated peak ground acceleration (PGA) values of several nearby earthquakes. We find that earthquakes exceeding estimated PGA values of ca. 20 cm/s2 can induce soft-sediment deformations (SSD), while CRs seem only to be triggered by PGA levels higher than 70 cm/s2. In Köyceğiz Lake, CRs produce Cr- and Ni-enriched sedimentation due to the seismically mobilized soils derived from ultramafic rocks in the catchment. Given the varve chronology, the residence time of the seismically mobilized material in the catchment is determined to be 5 to 10 years.

  11. Microbial Diversity and Its Relationship to Physicochemical Characteristics of the Water in Two Extreme Acidic Pit Lakes from the Iberian Pyrite Belt (SW Spain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esther Santofimia

    Full Text Available The Iberian Pyrite Belt (IPB hosts one of the world's largest accumulations of acidic mine wastes and pit lakes. The mineralogical and textural characteristics of the IPB ores have favored the oxidation and dissolution of metallic sulfides, mainly pyrite, and the subsequent formation of acidic mining drainages. This work reports the physical properties, hydrogeochemical characteristics, and microbial diversity of two pit lakes located in the IPB. Both pit lakes are acidic and showed high concentrations of sulfate and dissolved metals. Concentrations of sulfate and heavy metals were higher in the Nuestra Señora del Carmen lake (NSC by one order of magnitude than in the Concepción (CN lake. The hydrochemical characteristics of NSC were typical of acid mine waters and can be compared with other acidic environments. When compared to other IPB acidic pit lakes, the superficial water of CN is more diluted than that of any of the others due, probably, to the strong influence of runoff water. Both pit lakes showed chemical and thermal stratification with well defined chemoclines. One particular characteristic of NSC is that it has developed a chemocline very close to the surface (2 m depth. Microbial community composition of the water column was analyzed by 16S and 18S rRNA gene cloning and sequencing. The microorganisms detected in NSC were characteristic of acid mine drainage (AMD, including iron oxidizing bacteria (Leptospirillum, Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans and facultative iron reducing bacteria and archaea (Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans, Acidiphilium, Actinobacteria, Acidimicrobiales, Ferroplasma detected in the bottom layer. Diversity in CN was higher than in NSC. Microorganisms known from AMD systems (Acidiphilium, Acidobacteria and Ferrovum and microorganisms never reported from AMD systems were identified. Taking into consideration the hydrochemical characteristics of these pit lakes and the spatial distribution of the identified

  12. EBER2 RNA-induced transcriptome changes identify cellular processes likely targeted during Epstein Barr Virus infection

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    Benecke Bernd-Joachim

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Little is known about the physiological role of the EBER1 and 2 nuclear RNAs during Epstein Barr viral infection. The EBERs are transcribed by cellular RNA Polymerase III and their strong expression results in 106 to 107 copies per EBV infected cell, making them reliable diagnostic markers for the presence of EBV. Although the functions of most of the proteins targeted by EBER RNAs have been studied, the role of EBERs themselves still remains elusive. Findings The cellular transcription response to EBER2 expression using the wild-type and an internal deletion mutant was determined. Significant changes in gene expression patterns were observed. A functional meta-analysis of the regulated genes points to inhibition of stress and immune responses, as well as activation of cellular growth and cytoskeletal reorganization as potential targets for EBER2 RNA. Different functions can be assigned to different parts of the RNA. Conclusion These results provide new avenues to the understanding of EBER2 and EBV biology, and set the grounds for a more in depth functional analysis of EBER2 using transcriptome activity measurements.

  13. Subaqueous hot springs in Köyceğiz Lake, Dalyan Channel and Fethiye-Göcek Bay (SW Turkey): Locations, chemistry and origins

    KAUST Repository

    Avşar, Ö zgü r; Avsar, Ulas; Arslan, Şebnem; Kurtuluş, Bedri; Niedermann, Samuel; Gü leç , Nilgü n

    2017-01-01

    In this study, horizontal temperature measurements along organized grids have been used to detect subaqueous hot springs. The study area, located in the southwest of Turkey and comprised of Köyceğiz Lake, Dalyan Channel and Fethiye-Göcek Bay

  14. Subaqueous hot springs in Köyceğiz Lake, Dalyan Channel and Fethiye-Göcek Bay (SW Turkey): Locations, chemistry and origins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avşar, Özgür; Avşar, Ulaş; Arslan, Şebnem; Kurtuluş, Bedri; Niedermann, Samuel; Güleç, Nilgün

    2017-10-01

    In this study, horizontal temperature measurements along organized grids have been used to detect subaqueous hot springs. The study area, located in the southwest of Turkey and comprised of Köyceğiz Lake, Dalyan Channel and Fethiye-Göcek Bay, was scanned by measuring temperatures horizontally, 2-3 m above the bottom of the lake or sea. After analyzing the temperature data along the grids, the locations with anomalous temperature values were detected, and divers headed here for further verification. Accordingly, among these anomalies, the divers confirmed seven of them as subaqueous hot springs. Three of these hot springs are located in the Köyceğiz Lake, three of them are located in the Dalyan Channel and one hot spring is located in the Fethiye-Göcek Bay. At the locations where temperature anomalies were detected, the divers collected samples directly from the subaqueous hot spring using a syringe-type sampler. We evaluated these water samples together with samples collected from hot and cold springs on land and from local rivers, lakes and the sea, with an aim to generate a conceptual hydrogeochemical model of the geothermal system in the study area. This model predicts that rainwater precipitating in the highlands percolates through fractures and faults into the deeper parts of the Earth's crust, here it is heated and ascends through the sea bottom via buried faults. Pervious carbonate nappes that are underlain and overlain by impervious rocks create a confined aquifer. The southern boundary of the Carbonate-Marmaris nappes is buried under alluvium and/or sea/lake water bodies and this phenomenon determines whether hot springs occur on land or subaqueous. The chemical and isotopic properties of the hot springs point to seawater mixing at deep levels. Thus, the mixing most probably occurs while the water is ascending through the faults and fractures. The gas geochemistry results reveal that the lowest mantle He contributions occur in the samples from K

  15. Subaqueous hot springs in Köyceğiz Lake, Dalyan Channel and Fethiye-Göcek Bay (SW Turkey): Locations, chemistry and origins

    KAUST Repository

    Avşar, Özgür

    2017-08-07

    In this study, horizontal temperature measurements along organized grids have been used to detect subaqueous hot springs. The study area, located in the southwest of Turkey and comprised of Köyceğiz Lake, Dalyan Channel and Fethiye-Göcek Bay, was scanned by measuring temperatures horizontally, 2–3m above the bottom of the lake or sea. After analyzing the temperature data along the grids, the locations with anomalous temperature values were detected, and divers headed here for further verification. Accordingly, among these anomalies, the divers confirmed seven of them as subaqueous hot springs. Three of these hot springs are located in the Köyceğiz Lake, three of them are located in the Dalyan Channel and one hot spring is located in the Fethiye-Göcek Bay. At the locations where temperature anomalies were detected, the divers collected samples directly from the subaqueous hot spring using a syringe-type sampler. We evaluated these water samples together with samples collected from hot and cold springs on land and from local rivers, lakes and the sea, with an aim to generate a conceptual hydrogeochemical model of the geothermal system in the study area. This model predicts that rainwater precipitating in the highlands percolates through fractures and faults into the deeper parts of the Earth\\'s crust, here it is heated and ascends through the sea bottom via buried faults. Pervious carbonate nappes that are underlain and overlain by impervious rocks create a confined aquifer. The southern boundary of the Carbonate-Marmaris nappes is buried under alluvium and/or sea/lake water bodies and this phenomenon determines whether hot springs occur on land or subaqueous. The chemical and isotopic properties of the hot springs point to seawater mixing at deep levels. Thus, the mixing most probably occurs while the water is ascending through the faults and fractures. The gas geochemistry results reveal that the lowest mantle He contributions occur in the samples from K

  16. Evidence for Isostatic Emergence and Holocene Environmental Change Recorded in Chironomid Assemblages and Sediment Composition of Coastal Lake T1 in SW Greenland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berman, K.; Axford, Y.; Lasher, G. E.

    2017-12-01

    Multi-proxy analysis of a coastal lake in southwest Greenland near Nuuk provides evidence for regional environmental changes, including the timing of isostatic rebound and the temperature history of the area. T1 (informal name) is a small lake 50 km south of Nuuk, at 17.5 m elevation and currently isolated from glacial meltwater drainage. The lake's sediment record begins approximately 9500 cal years BP, when the site was submerged beneath sea level due to glacial isostatic depression following the Last Glacial Maximum. The record captures the transition of the environment from a submerged, glacially-influenced marine site to a non-glacially fed (and initially meromictic) freshwater lake 8600 cal years BP. Magnetic susceptibility, a proxy for sediment minerogenic content, decreased rapidly from 9500 to 8600 years BP, before abruptly stabilizing and remaining relatively low and steady for the rest of the record. The transition to a lacustrine environment was characterized by a rapid and relatively simultaneous increase in primary productivity (inferred from biogenic silica concentrations) and shift towards terrestrial versus marine sources of organic matter (inferred from carbon:nitrogen ratios and nitrogen isotopes) between 8700 and 8400 years BP. Together, these proxies and the presence of marine shells below the transition provide robust evidence for the transition from a marine environment to a freshwater lake in response to regional postglacial isostatic rebound. Within the Holocene, measures of bulk sediment composition (e.g., biogenic silica, loss-on-ignition and magnetic susceptibility) are relatively stable. Chironomid (Insecta: Diptera: Chironomidae) assemblages, which in some environments are quantitative proxies for summer temperature changes, show species-level shifts within the Holocene that will be interpreted in this presentation alongside indicators of landscape change including carbon:nitrogen ratios, bulk sediment spectral reflectance and bulk

  17. Magmatic-hydrothermal fluids and volatile metals in the Spirit Lake pluton and Margaret Cu-Mo porphyry system, SW Washington, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iveson, Alexander A.; Webster, James D.; Rowe, Michael C.; Neill, Owen K.

    2016-03-01

    The halogen-bearing minerals tourmaline, amphibole, and biotite formed during magmatic-hydrothermal processes associated with the late-stage cooling of the Spirit Lake granitoid pluton (Mt. St. Helens, WA) and with the younger sulphide-mineralised rocks of the Margaret Cu-Mo porphyry deposit located entirely within the pluton. Major- and trace-element discrimination suggests that one tourmaline population crystallised from fractionated late-stage melt pockets in granodiorite-monzogranitic dykes of the pluton. These coarse, euhedral, oscillatory, and complexly sector-zoned uvite tourmalines span a limited range in Mg/(Mg + Fe) [Mg#] space (0.4-0.7 apfu) and show the highest Ti, Ca, F, Nb, and Ta contents, and low X-site vacancies (X-site vacancies (>0.6 apfu), lower Ca and F contents, and the highest Li, As, and HREE contents (>80 ppm Li, >1200 ppm As). This population appears to record direct, rapid crystallisation from magmatic ± meteoric fluid(s) bearing the signature of the breakdown of primary feldspars and pyroxenes, with fluid exsolution from fractionated melt patches likely triggered by the formation of the previous generation of tourmaline. Mineralised porphyry deposit tourmaline compositions from the stockwork span a much larger range in Mg# space (0.05-0.9 apfu) and are almost entirely Ca-free. X-sites of these schorl tourmalines are dominated by Na or vacancies, and the Y-sites are strongly Fe enriched. The highest Mn and Zn concentrations (>4000 and >1000 ppm, respectively) potentially reflect the composition of mineralising fluids during ore deposition. A number of boron isotopic analyses yield predominantly heavy boron, but δ11B values range from -5.2 to 6.2 ‰ and average 1.4 ‰. Whilst most plutonic tourmalines conform to reported a- and c-sector element partitioning models, those from the mineralised porphyry show large and variable sector fractionation differences, suggesting that external controls may also be important. Wider evidence for

  18. HPF: The Habitable Zone Planet Finder at the Hobby-Eberly Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Jason T.; Mahadevan, Suvrath; Hearty, Fred; Monson, Andy; Stefansson, Gudmundur; Ramsey, Larry; Ninan, Joe; Bender, Chad; Kaplan, Kyle; Roy, Arpita; Terrien, Ryan; Robertson, Paul; Halverson, Sam; Schwab, Christian; Kanodia, Shubham

    2018-01-01

    The Habitable Zone Planet Finder (HPF) is an ultra-stable NIR (ZYJ) high resolution echelle spectrograph on the 10-m Hobby-Eberly Telescope capable of 1-3 m/s Doppler velocimetry on nearby late M dwarfs (M4-M9). This precision is sufficient to detect terrestrial planets in the Habitable Zones of these relatively unexplored stars. Here we present its capabilities and early commissioning results.

  19. The cellular RNA-binding protein EAP recognizes a conserved stem-loop in the Epstein-Barr virus small RNA EBER 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toczyski, D P; Steitz, J A

    1993-01-01

    EAP (EBER-associated protein) is an abundant, 15-kDa cellular RNA-binding protein which associates with certain herpesvirus small RNAs. We have raised polyclonal anti-EAP antibodies against a glutathione S-transferase-EAP fusion protein. Analysis of the RNA precipitated by these antibodies from Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)- or herpesvirus papio (HVP)-infected cells shows that > 95% of EBER 1 (EBV-encoded RNA 1) and the majority of HVP 1 (an HVP small RNA homologous to EBER 1) are associated with EAP. RNase protection experiments performed on native EBER 1 particles with affinity-purified anti-EAP antibodies demonstrate that EAP binds a stem-loop structure (stem-loop 3) of EBER 1. Since bacterially expressed glutathione S-transferase-EAP fusion protein binds EBER 1, we conclude that EAP binding is independent of any other cellular or viral protein. Detailed mutational analyses of stem-loop 3 suggest that EAP recognizes the majority of the nucleotides in this hairpin, interacting with both single-stranded and double-stranded regions in a sequence-specific manner. Binding studies utilizing EBER 1 deletion mutants suggest that there may also be a second, weaker EAP-binding site on stem-loop 4 of EBER 1. These data and the fact that stem-loop 3 represents the most highly conserved region between EBER 1 and HVP 1 suggest that EAP binding is a critical aspect of EBER 1 and HVP 1 function. Images PMID:8380232

  20. Using the Hobby-Eberly telescope to place constraints on planetary system formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cochran, William D; Endl, Michael

    2008-01-01

    We are conducting several radial velocity surveys with the 9.2 m Hobby-Eberly telescope (HET). These surveys are designed to improve our understanding of the physics of planetary system formation and evolution. We present recent results from two of these HET surveys. The first is from our survey of metal-poor stars. This survey is designed to probe the physics of planet formation at low metallicities. We present the detection of two planetary companions to HD 155358, a star with [Fe/H] of -0.68. This is the lowest metallicity of any planet host star

  1. Die Literarisierung des entzifferten Ägypten. Wissenschaft und Fiktion im Roman Uarda (1877 von Georg Ebers (1837-1898

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucia Mor

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Nel contesto dell’orientalismo ottocentesco riveste un ruolo significativo la produzione narrativa dell’egittologo berlinese Georg Ebers (1837-1898, i cui romanzi rientrano nella categoria del Professorenroman. Al confine fra letteratura e storiografia, le opere di ambientazione egizia di Ebers diedero origine ad una vera e propria egittomania e fecero conoscere ad un vasto pubblico di lettori figure, eventi, usi e costumi dell’antica terra del Nilo, a quel tempo oggetto di studio della prima generazione di egittologi tedeschi (Lepsius, Brugsch; ma la trasposizione letteraria dell’antico mondo egizio fu anche occasione per mettere a tema questioni scottanti di natura religiosa, politica e sociale del presente. L’analisi del romanzo Uarda, un successo stampato in migliaia di copie, intende non solo mettere a fuoco la Weltanschauung di Ebers, ma g anche contribuire a riscoprire uno scrittore che, seppur di valore mediocre dal punto di vista letterario, rappresenta un tassello significativo dello Zeitgeist guglielmino.

  2. Deployment of the Hobby-Eberly Telescope wide-field upgrade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Gary J.; Drory, Niv; Good, John M.; Lee, Hanshin; Vattiat, Brian L.; Kriel, Herman; Ramsey, Jason; Bryant, Randy; Elliot, Linda; Fowler, Jim; Häuser, Marco; Landiau, Martin; Leck, Ron; Odewahn, Stephen; Perry, Dave; Savage, Richard; Schroeder Mrozinski, Emily; Shetrone, Matthew; DePoy, D. L.; Prochaska, Travis; Marshall, J. L.; Damm, George; Gebhardt, Karl; MacQueen, Phillip J.; Martin, Jerry; Armandroff, Taft; Ramsey, Lawrence W.

    2016-07-01

    The Hobby-Eberly Telescope (HET) is an innovative large telescope, located in West Texas at the McDonald Observatory. The HET operates with a fixed segmented primary and has a tracker, which moves the four-mirror corrector and prime focus instrument package to track the sidereal and non-sidereal motions of objects. We have completed a major multi-year upgrade of the HET that has substantially increased the pupil size to 10 meters and the field of view to 22 arcminutes by replacing the corrector, tracker, and prime focus instrument package. The new wide field HET will feed the revolutionary integral field spectrograph called VIRUS, in support of the Hobby-Eberly Telescope Dark Energy Experiment (HETDEX§), a new low resolution spectrograph (LRS2), an upgraded high resolution spectrograph (HRS2), and later the Habitable Zone Planet Finder (HPF). The upgrade is being commissioned and this paper discusses the completion of the installation, the commissioning process and the performance of the new HET.

  3. Theoretical results on the tandem junction solar cell based on its Ebers-Moll transistor model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goradia, C.; Vaughn, J.; Baraona, C. R.

    1980-01-01

    A one-dimensional theoretical model of the tandem junction solar cell (TJC) with base resistivity greater than about 1 ohm-cm and under low level injection has been derived. This model extends a previously published conceptual model which treats the TJC as an npn transistor. The model gives theoretical expressions for each of the Ebers-Moll type currents of the illuminated TJC and allows for the calculation of the spectral response, I(sc), V(oc), FF and eta under variation of one or more of the geometrical and material parameters and 1MeV electron fluence. Results of computer calculations based on this model are presented and discussed. These results indicate that for space applications, both a high beginning of life efficiency, greater than 15% AM0, and a high radiation tolerance can be achieved only with thin (less than 50 microns) TJC's with high base resistivity (greater than 10 ohm-cm).

  4. SW21 Summary Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Juarez, A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2016-02-10

    Los Alamos and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratories hosted the tenth annual Strategic Weapons in the 21st Century Conference (SW21) on 21 January 2016 to reinforce the national commitment to leadership and institutional excellence for nuclear deterrence. The event has been successful over the years in drawing together a diverse, high-level group of policy makers and experts from multiple disciplines to engage in informed dialogue on topics related to strategic weapons in national and international security.

  5. Hunting for Supermassive Black Holes in Nearby Galaxies With the Hobby-Eberly Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Bosch, Remco C. E.; Gebhardt, Karl; Gültekin, Kayhan; Yıldırım, Akin; Walsh, Jonelle L.

    2015-05-01

    We have conducted an optical long-slit spectroscopic survey of 1022 galaxies using the 10 m Hobby-Eberly Telescope (HET) at McDonald Observatory. The main goal of the HET Massive Galaxy Survey (HETMGS) is to find nearby galaxies that are suitable for black hole mass measurements. In order to measure accurately the black hole mass, one should kinematically resolve the region where the black hole dominates the gravitational potential. For most galaxies, this region is much less than an arcsecond. Thus, black hole masses are best measured in nearby galaxies with telescopes that obtain high spatial resolution. The HETMGS focuses on those galaxies predicted to have the largest sphere-of-influence, based on published stellar velocity dispersions or the galaxy fundamental plane. To ensure coverage over galaxy types, the survey targets those galaxies across a face-on projection of the fundamental plane. We present the sample selection and resulting data products from the long-slit observations, including central stellar kinematics and emission line ratios. The full data set, including spectra and resolved kinematics, is available online. Additionally, we show that the current crop of black hole masses are highly biased toward dense galaxies and that especially large disks and low dispersion galaxies are under-represented. This survey provides the necessary groundwork for future systematic black hole mass measurement campaigns.

  6. HUNTING FOR SUPERMASSIVE BLACK HOLES IN NEARBY GALAXIES WITH THE HOBBY–EBERLY TELESCOPE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bosch, Remco C. E. van den; Yıldırım, Akin; Gebhardt, Karl; Walsh, Jonelle L.; Gültekin, Kayhan

    2015-01-01

    We have conducted an optical long-slit spectroscopic survey of 1022 galaxies using the 10 m Hobby–Eberly Telescope (HET) at McDonald Observatory. The main goal of the HET Massive Galaxy Survey (HETMGS) is to find nearby galaxies that are suitable for black hole mass measurements. In order to measure accurately the black hole mass, one should kinematically resolve the region where the black hole dominates the gravitational potential. For most galaxies, this region is much less than an arcsecond. Thus, black hole masses are best measured in nearby galaxies with telescopes that obtain high spatial resolution. The HETMGS focuses on those galaxies predicted to have the largest sphere-of-influence, based on published stellar velocity dispersions or the galaxy fundamental plane. To ensure coverage over galaxy types, the survey targets those galaxies across a face-on projection of the fundamental plane. We present the sample selection and resulting data products from the long-slit observations, including central stellar kinematics and emission line ratios. The full data set, including spectra and resolved kinematics, is available online. Additionally, we show that the current crop of black hole masses are highly biased toward dense galaxies and that especially large disks and low dispersion galaxies are under-represented. This survey provides the necessary groundwork for future systematic black hole mass measurement campaigns

  7. Software Development for the Hobby-Eberly Telescope's Segment Alignment Maintenance System using LABView

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Drew P.; Ly, William; Howard, Richard T.; Weir, John; Rakoczy, John; Roe, Fred (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The software development for an upgrade to the Hobby-Eberly Telescope (HET) was done in LABView. In order to improve the performance of the HET at the McDonald Observatory, a closed-loop system had to be implemented to keep the mirror segments aligned during periods of observation. The control system, called the Segment Alignment Maintenance System (SAMs), utilized inductive sensors to measure the relative motions of the mirror segments. Software was developed in LABView to tie the sensors, operator interface, and mirror-control motors together. Developing the software in LABView allowed the system to be flexible, understandable, and able to be modified by the end users. Since LABView is built using block diagrams, the software naturally followed the designed control system's block and flow diagrams, and individual software blocks could be easily verified. LABView's many built-in display routines allowed easy visualization of diagnostic and health-monitoring data during testing. Also, since LABView is a multi-platform software package, different programmers could develop the code remotely on various types of machines. LABView s ease of use facilitated rapid prototyping and field testing. There were some unanticipated difficulties in the software development, but the use of LABView as the software "language" for the development of SAMs contributed to the overall success of the project.

  8. Isolation and characterization of the genes for two small RNAs of herpesvirus papio and their comparison with Epstein-Barr virus-encoded EBER RNAs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howe, J G; Shu, M D

    1988-08-01

    Genes for the Epstein-Barr virus-encoded RNAs (EBERs), two low-molecular-weight RNAs encoded by the human gammaherpesvirus Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), hybridize to two small RNAs in a baboon cell line that contains a similar virus, herpesvirus papio (HVP). The genes for the HVP RNAs (HVP-1 and HVP-2) are located together in the small unique region at the left end of the viral genome and are transcribed by RNA polymerase III in a rightward direction, similar to the EBERs. There is significant similarity between EBER1 and HVP-1 RNA, except for an insert of 22 nucleotides which increases the length of HVP-1 RNA to 190 nucleotides. There is less similarity between the sequences of EBER2 and HVP-2 RNA, but both have a length of about 170 nucleotides. The predicted secondary structure of each HVP RNA is remarkably similar to that of the respective EBER, implying that the secondary structures are important for function. Upstream from the initiation sites of all four RNA genes are several highly conserved sequences which may function in the regulation of transcription. The HVP RNAs, together with the EBERs, are highly abundant in transformed cells and are efficiently bound by the cellular La protein.

  9. A meta-analysis of potential relationship between Epstein-Barr-Encoded-RNA (EBER and onset time of post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Khedmat

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Epstein-Barr virus (EBV encodes two non-polyadenylated RNAs termed EBV-encoded RNAs (EBERs. In this study, we tried to find series in which data of EBER and onset time of post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder (PTLD for patients have been documented to conduct a meta-analysis. A comprehensive search of the literature was performed by Pubmed and Google scholar to find reports indicating test results for EBER and PTLD onset in transplant patients. PTLD was considered "early onset" when it develops within the first post-transplant year. Finally, 265 patients from 15 studies have been included in the meta-analysis. The overall meta-analysis also showed a significant relation between EBER test positivity and early-onset PTLD development [relative risk (RR: 1.36; 95% CI: 1.16-1.59; P <0.001]. The i2 index was 49.8%. Our study suggests that PTLD lesions with positive EBER test are more likely to develop within the early post-transplant period. Since early-onset PTLD is supposed to have better prognosis, having a positive EBER test might not be a bad news. However, for having a precise conclusion, prospective studies are needed to be conducted.

  10. Tracker controls development and control architecture for the Hobby-Eberly Telescope Wide Field Upgrade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mock, Jason R.; Beno, Joe; Rafferty, Tom H.; Cornell, Mark E.

    2010-07-01

    To enable the Hobby-Eberly Telescope Wide Field Upgrade, the University of Texas Center for Electromechanics and McDonald Observatory are developing a precision tracker system - a 15,000 kg robot to position a 3,100 kg payload within 10 microns of a desired dynamic track. Performance requirements to meet science needs and safety requirements that emerged from detailed Failure Modes and Effects Analysis resulted in a system of 14 precision controlled actuators and 100 additional analog and digital devices (primarily sensors and safety limit switches). This level of system complexity and emphasis on fail-safe operation is typical of large modern telescopes and numerous industrial applications. Due to this complexity, demanding accuracy requirements, and stringent safety requirements, a highly versatile and easily configurable centralized control system that easily links with modeling and simulation tools during the hardware and software design process was deemed essential. The Matlab/Simulink simulation environment, coupled with dSPACE controller hardware, was selected for controls development and realization. The dSPACE real-time operating system collects sensor information; motor commands are transmitted over a PROFIBUS network to servo amplifiers and drive motor status is received over the same network. Custom designed position feedback loops, supplemented by feed forward force commands for enhanced performance, and algorithms to accommodate self-locking gearboxes (for safety), reside in dSPACE. To interface the dSPACE controller directly to absolute Heidenhain sensors with EnDat 2.2 protocol, a custom communication board was developed. This paper covers details of software and hardware, design choices and analysis, and supporting simulations (primarily Simulink).

  11. HOBBY-EBERLY TELESCOPE OBSERVATIONS OF THE DARK HALO IN NGC 821

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forestell, Amy D.; Gebhardt, Karl

    2010-01-01

    We present stellar line-of-sight velocity distributions (LOSVDs) of elliptical galaxy NGC 821 obtained to approximately 100'' (over two effective radii) with long-slit spectroscopy from the Hobby-Eberly Telescope. Our measured stellar LOSVDs are larger than the planetary nebulae measurements at similar radii. We fit axisymmetric orbit-superposition models with a range of dark halo density profiles, including two-dimensional kinematics at smaller radii from SAURON data. Within our assumptions, the best-fitted model gives a total enclosed mass of 2.0 x 10 11 M sun within 100'', with an accuracy of 2%; this mass is equally divided between halo and stars. At 1 R e , the best-fitted dark matter halo accounts for 13% of the total mass in the galaxy. This dark halo is inconsistent with previous claims of little to no dark matter halo in this galaxy from planetary nebula measurements. We find that a power-law dark halo with a slope 0.1 is the best-fitted model; both the no dark halo and Navarro-Frenk-White models are worse fits at a greater than 99% confidence level. NGC 821 does not appear to have the expected dark halo density profile. The internal moments of the stellar velocity distribution show that the model with no dark halo is radially anisotropic at small radii and tangentially isotropic at large radii, while the best-fitted halo models are slightly radially anisotropic at all radii. We test the potential effects of model smoothing and find that there are no effects on our results within the errors. Finally, we run models using the planetary nebula kinematics and assuming our best-fitted halos and find that the planetary nebulae require radial orbits throughout the galaxy.

  12. Detection and quantification of Epstein-Barr virus EBER1 in EBV-infected cells by fluorescent in situ hybridization and flow cytometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stowe, R. P.; Cubbage, M. L.; Sams, C. F.; Pierson, D. L.; Barrett, A. D.

    1998-01-01

    A rapid and highly sensitive fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) assay was developed to detect Epstein Barr virus (EBV)-infected cells in peripheral blood. Multiple fluorescein-labeled antisense oligonucleotide probes were designed to hybridize to the EBER1 transcript, which is highly expressed in latently infected cells. After a rapid (30 min) hybridization, the cells were analyzed by flow cytometry. EBER1 was detected in several positive control cell lines that have variable numbers of EBV genome copies. No EBER1 was detected in two known EBV-negative cell lines. Northern blot analyses confirmed the presence and quantity of EBER1 transcripts in each cell line. This method was used to quantify the number of EBV-infected cells in peripheral blood from a patient with chronic mononucleosis. These results indicate that EBV-infected cells can be detected at the single cell level, and that this assay can be used to quantify the number of EBV-infected cells in clinical samples.

  13. EBER - development of evaluation methods for shipping and storage containers with an increased content of metallic residual materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Droste, B.; Voelzke, H.

    1995-01-01

    Containers which are manufactured using recycled metallic residual materials from decommissioned nuclear facilities must be designed in accordance with the requirements of transport, interim and ultimate storage of radioactive waste. When metallic residual materials are added to the melt in the manufacture of containers made of cast iron with nodular graphite (GGG 40), how the effect on and characteristics of materials are to be observed as well as the permissible limits. The influence on charcteristics of relevance to safety, such as fracture toughness and the types and magnitudes of defects in construction components are the most important factors. In BAM's 'EBER' project presented here, the studies concentrate on design-based safety against the mechanical effects of accidents. (orig./DG) [de

  14. NEW OBSERVATIONAL CONSTRAINTS ON THE υ ANDROMEDAE SYSTEM WITH DATA FROM THE HUBBLE SPACE TELESCOPE AND HOBBY-EBERLY TELESCOPE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McArthur, Barbara E.; Benedict, G. Fritz.; Martioli, Eder; Barnes, Rory; Korzennik, Sylvain; Nelan, Ed; Butler, R. Paul

    2010-01-01

    We have used high-cadence radial velocity (RV) measurements from the Hobby-Eberly Telescope with existing velocities from the Lick, Elodie, Harlan J. Smith, and Whipple 60'' telescopes combined with astrometric data from the Hubble Space Telescope Fine Guidance Sensors to refine the orbital parameters and determine the orbital inclinations and position angles of the ascending node of components υ And A c and d. With these inclinations and using M * = 1.31M sun as a primary mass, we determine the actual masses of two of the companions: υ And A c is 13.98 +2.3 -5.3 M JUP , and υ And A d is 10.25 +0.7 -3.3 M JUP . These measurements represent the first astrometric determination of mutual inclination between objects in an extrasolar planetary system, which we find to be 29. 0 9 ± 1 0 . The combined RV measurements also reveal a long-period trend indicating a fourth planet in the system. We investigate the dynamic stability of this system and analyze regions of stability, which suggest a probable mass of υ And A b. Finally, our parallaxes confirm that υ And B is a stellar companion of υ And A.

  15. Climate versus in-lake processes as controls on the development of community structure in a low-arctic lake (South-West Greenland)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anderson, N. John; Brodersen, Klaus Peter; Ryves, David B.

    2008-01-01

    The dominant processes determining biological structure in lakes at millennial timescales are complex. In this study, we used a multi-proxy approach to determine the relative importance of in-lake versus indirect processes on the Holocene development of an oligotrophic lake in SW Greenland (66.99°N...

  16. A RADIAL VELOCITY STUDY OF COMPOSITE-SPECTRA HOT SUBDWARF STARS WITH THE HOBBY-EBERLY TELESCOPE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barlow, Brad N.; Wade, Richard A.; Liss, Sandra E. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Pennsylvania State University, 525 Davey Lab, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Ostensen, Roy H.; Van Winckel, Hans [Instituut voor Sterrenkunde, K.U. Leuven, B-3001 Leuven (Belgium)

    2012-10-10

    Many hot subdwarf stars show composite spectral energy distributions indicative of cool main-sequence (MS) companions. Binary population synthesis (BPS) models demonstrate such systems can be formed via Roche lobe overflow or common envelope evolution but disagree on whether the resulting orbital periods will be long (years) or short (days). Few studies have been carried out to assess the orbital parameters of these spectroscopic composite binaries; current observations suggest the periods are long. To help address this problem, we selected 15 moderately bright (V {approx} 13) hot subdwarfs with F-K dwarf companions and monitored their radial velocities from 2005 January to 2008 July using the bench-mounted Medium Resolution Spectrograph on the Hobby-Eberly Telescope (HET). Here we describe the details of our observing, reduction, and analysis techniques, and present preliminary results for all targets. By combining the HET data with recent observations from the Mercator Telescope, we are able to calculate precise orbital solutions for three systems using more than six years of observations. We also present an up-to-date period histogram for all known hot subdwarf binaries, which suggests those with F-K MS companions tend to have orbital periods on the order of several years. Such long periods challenge the predictions of conventional BPS models, although a larger sample is needed for a thorough assessment of the models' predictive success. Lastly, one of our targets has an eccentric orbit, implying some composite-spectrum systems might have formerly been hierarchical triple systems, in which the inner binary merged to create the hot subdwarf.

  17. Seismic Tomography in Reykjanes , SW Iceland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jousset, Philippe; Blanck, Hanna; Franke, Steven; Metz, M.; Águstsson, K.; Verdel, Arie; Ryberg, T.; Hersir, Gylfi Páll; Weemstra, C.; Bruhn, D.F.; Flovenz, Olafur G

    2016-01-01

    We present tomographic results obtained around geothermal reservoirs using seismic data recorded both on-land Reykjanes, SW-Iceland and offshore along Reykjanes Ridge. We gathered records from a network of 83 seismic stations (including 21 Ocean Bottom Seismometers) deployed between April 2014 and

  18. The Low-Resolution Spectrograph of the Hobby-Eberly Telescope. II. Observations of Quasar Candidates from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneider, D. P.; Hill, Gary J.; Fan, X.; Ramsey, L. W.; MacQueen, P. J.; Weedman, D. W.; Booth, J. A.; Eracleous, M.; Gunn, J. E.; Lupton, R. H.

    2000-01-01

    This paper describes spectra of quasar candidates acquired during the commissioning phase of the Low-Resolution Spectrograph of the Hobby-Eberly Telescope. The objects were identified as possible quasars from multicolor image data from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. The 10 sources had typical r' magnitudes of 19-20, except for one extremely red object with r ' ≅23. The data, obtained with exposure times between 10 and 25 minutes, reveal that the spectra of four candidates are essentially featureless and are not quasars, five are quasars with redshifts between 2.92 and 4.15 (including one broad absorption line quasar), and the red source is a very late M star or early L dwarf. (c) (c) 2000. The Astronomical Society of the Pacific

  19. A Testing Framework for Critical Space SW

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, Ignacio; Di Cerbo, Antonio; Dehnhardt, Erik; Massimo, Tipaldi; Brünjes, Bernhard

    2015-09-01

    This paper describes a testing framework for critical space SW named Technical Specification Validation Framework (TSVF). It provides a powerful and flexible means and can be used throughout the SW test activities (test case specification & implementation, test execution and test artifacts analysis). In particular, tests can be run in an automated and/or step-by-step mode. The TSVF framework is currently used for the validation of the Satellite Control Software (SCSW), which runs on the Meteosat Third Generation (MTG) satellite on-board computer. The main purpose of the SCSW is to control the spacecraft along with its various subsystems (AOCS, Payload, Electrical Power, Telemetry Tracking & Command, etc.) in a way that guarantees a high degree of flexibility and autonomy. The TSVF framework serves the challenging needs of the SCSW project, where a plan-driven approach has been combined with an agile process in order to produce preliminary SW versions (with a reduced scope of implemented functionality) in order to fulfill the stakeholders needs ([1]). The paper has been organised as follows. Section 2 gives an overview of the TSVF architecture and interfaces versus the test bench along with the technology used for its implementation. Section 3 describes the key elements of the XML based language for the test case implementation. Section 4 highlights all the benefits compared to conventional test environments requiring a manual test script development, whereas section 5 concludes the paper.

  20. LIMNOLOGY, LAKE BASINS, LAKE WATERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petre GÂŞTESCU

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Limnology is a border discipline between geography, hydrology and biology, and is also closely connected with other sciences, from it borrows research methods. Physical limnology (the geography of lakes, studies lake biotopes, and biological limnology (the biology of lakes, studies lake biocoenoses. The father of limnology is the Swiss scientist F.A. Forel, the author of a three-volume entitled Le Leman: monographie limnologique (1892-1904, which focuses on the geology physics, chemistry and biology of lakes. He was also author of the first textbook of limnology, Handbuch der Seenkunde: allgemeine Limnologie,(1901. Since both the lake biotope and its biohydrocoenosis make up a single whole, the lake and lakes, respectively, represent the most typical systems in nature. They could be called limnosystems (lacustrine ecosystems, a microcosm in itself, as the American biologist St.A. Forbes put it (1887.

  1. Age Determination in Some Ophisops elegans Mènètriès 1832 (Sauria: Lacertidae Populations Living in the Vicinity of Çanakkale and Akşehir-Eber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Varol Tok

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, age determination was performed with the method of skeletochronology in 23 (13 ♂♂, 10 ♀♀ Ophisops elegans specimens collected from Çanakkale in the west of Turkey and 20 (10 ♂♂, 10 ♀♀ Ophisops elegans specimens collected from the vicinity of AkĢehir-Eber in the Central Anatolia Region. The mean ages of the specimens whose femur cross sections had been examined were determined to be 2.9±0.99 (1-4 in females and 2.85±0.68 (2-4 in males of the Çanakkale population and 3.9±1.19 (3-6 in females and 4.6±1.17 (3-6 in males of the AkĢehir-Eber population. The oldest age among the specimens was found to be six in two female and three male individuals of the AkĢehir-Eber population. When all specimens were evaluated altogether, the correlation between snoutvent length and age was computed as (r=0.572, p=0.008 in females and as (r=0.642, p=0.001 in males.

  2. Kinematic optimization of upgrade to the Hobby-Eberly Telescope through novel use of commercially available three-dimensional CAD package

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wedeking, Gregory A.; Zierer, Joseph J.; Jackson, John R.

    2010-07-01

    The University of Texas, Center for Electromechanics (UT-CEM) is making a major upgrade to the robotic tracking system on the Hobby Eberly Telescope (HET) as part of theWide Field Upgrade (WFU). The upgrade focuses on a seven-fold increase in payload and necessitated a complete redesign of all tracker supporting structure and motion control systems, including the tracker bridge, ten drive systems, carriage frames, a hexapod, and many other subsystems. The cost and sensitivity of the scientific payload, coupled with the tracker system mass increase, necessitated major upgrades to personnel and hardware safety systems. To optimize kinematic design of the entire tracker, UT-CEM developed novel uses of constraints and drivers to interface with a commercially available CAD package (SolidWorks). For example, to optimize volume usage and minimize obscuration, the CAD software was exercised to accurately determine tracker/hexapod operational space needed to meet science requirements. To verify hexapod controller models, actuator travel requirements were graphically measured and compared to well defined equations of motion for Stewart platforms. To ensure critical hardware safety during various failure modes, UT-CEM engineers developed Visual Basic drivers to interface with the CAD software and quickly tabulate distance measurements between critical pieces of optical hardware and adjacent components for thousands of possible hexapod configurations. These advances and techniques, applicable to any challenging robotic system design, are documented and describe new ways to use commercially available software tools to more clearly define hardware requirements and help insure safe operation.

  3. KEPLER-15b: A HOT JUPITER ENRICHED IN HEAVY ELEMENTS AND THE FIRST KEPLER MISSION PLANET CONFIRMED WITH THE HOBBY-EBERLY TELESCOPE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Endl, Michael; MacQueen, Phillip J.; Cochran, William D.; Brugamyer, Erik J.; Buchhave, Lars A.; Rowe, Jason; Lucas, Phillip; Isaacson, Howard; Bryson, Steve; Howell, Steve B.; Borucki, William J.; Caldwell, Douglas; Christiansen, Jessie L.; Haas, Michael R.; Fortney, Jonathan J.; Hansen, Terese; Ciardi, David R.; Demory, Brice-Olivier; Everett, Mark; Ford, Eric B.

    2011-01-01

    We report the discovery of Kepler-15b (KOI-128), a new transiting exoplanet detected by NASA's Kepler mission. The transit signal with a period of 4.94 days was detected in the quarter 1 (Q1) Kepler photometry. For the first time, we have used the High Resolution Spectrograph (HRS) at the Hobby-Eberly Telescope (HET) to determine the mass of a Kepler planet via precise radial velocity (RV) measurements. The 24 HET/HRS RVs and 6 additional measurements from the Fibre-fed Échelle Spectrograph spectrograph at the Nordic Optical Telescope reveal a Doppler signal with the same period and phase as the transit ephemeris. We used one HET/HRS spectrum of Kepler-15 taken without the iodine cell to determine accurate stellar parameters. The host star is a metal-rich ([Fe/H] = 0.36 ± 0.07) G-type main-sequence star with T eff = 5515 ± 124 K. The semi-amplitude K of the RV orbit is 78.7 +8.5 –9.5 m s –1 , which yields a planet mass of 0.66 ± 0.1 M Jup . The planet has a radius of 0.96 ± 0.06 R Jup and a mean bulk density of 0.9 ± 0.2 g cm –3 . The radius of Kepler-15b is smaller than the majority of transiting planets with similar mass and irradiation level. This suggests that the planet is more enriched in heavy elements than most other transiting giant planets. For Kepler-15b we estimate a heavy element mass of 30-40 M ⊕ .

  4. Lake Cadagno

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tonolla, Mauro; Storelli, Nicola; Danza, Francesco

    2017-01-01

    Lake Cadagno (26 ha) is a crenogenic meromictic lake located in the Swiss Alps at 1921 m asl with a maximum depth of 21 m. The presence of crystalline rocks and a dolomite vein rich in gypsum in the catchment area makes the lake a typical “sulphuretum ” dominated by coupled carbon and sulphur...... cycles. The chemocline lies at about 12 m depth, stabilized by density differences of salt-rich water supplied by sub-aquatic springs to the monimolimnion and of electrolyte-poor surface water feeding the mixolimnion. Steep sulphide and light gradients in the chemocline support the growth of a large...... in the chemocline. Small-celled PSB together with the sulfate-reducing bacterium Desulfocapsa thiozymogenes sp. form stable aggregates in the lake, which represent small microenvironments with an internal sulphur cycle. Eukaryotic primary producers in the anoxic zones are dominated by Cryptomonas phaseolus...

  5. Playa Lakes

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — This digital dataset provides information about the spatial distribution of soil units associated with playa lakes. Specific soil types have been designated by the...

  6. Principles of lake sedimentology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janasson, L.

    1983-01-01

    This book presents a comprehensive outline on the basic sedimentological principles for lakes, and focuses on environmental aspects and matters related to lake management and control-on lake ecology rather than lake geology. This is a guide for those who plan, perform and evaluate lake sedimentological investigations. Contents abridged: Lake types and sediment types. Sedimentation in lakes and water dynamics. Lake bottom dynamics. Sediment dynamics and sediment age. Sediments in aquatic pollution control programmes. Subject index

  7. Great Lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edsall, Thomas A.; Mac, Michael J.; Opler, Paul A.; Puckett Haecker, Catherine E.; Doran, Peter D.

    1998-01-01

    The Great Lakes region, as defined here, includes the Great Lakes and their drainage basins in Minnesota, Wisconsin, Illinois, Indiana, Ohio, Pennsylvania, and New York. The region also includes the portions of Minnesota, Wisconsin, and the 21 northernmost counties of Illinois that lie in the Mississippi River drainage basin, outside the floodplain of the river. The region spans about 9º of latitude and 20º of longitude and lies roughly halfway between the equator and the North Pole in a lowland corridor that extends from the Gulf of Mexico to the Arctic Ocean.The Great Lakes are the most prominent natural feature of the region (Fig. 1). They have a combined surface area of about 245,000 square kilometers and are among the largest, deepest lakes in the world. They are the largest single aggregation of fresh water on the planet (excluding the polar ice caps) and are the only glacial feature on Earth visible from the surface of the moon (The Nature Conservancy 1994a).The Great Lakes moderate the region’s climate, which presently ranges from subarctic in the north to humid continental warm in the south (Fig. 2), reflecting the movement of major weather masses from the north and south (U.S. Department of the Interior 1970; Eichenlaub 1979). The lakes act as heat sinks in summer and heat sources in winter and are major reservoirs that help humidify much of the region. They also create local precipitation belts in areas where air masses are pushed across the lakes by prevailing winds, pick up moisture from the lake surface, and then drop that moisture over land on the other side of the lake. The mean annual frost-free period—a general measure of the growing-season length for plants and some cold-blooded animals—varies from 60 days at higher elevations in the north to 160 days in lakeshore areas in the south. The climate influences the general distribution of wild plants and animals in the region and also influences the activities and distribution of the human

  8. The Castleisland radon Survey (Sw Ireland)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Organo, C. [Radiological Protection Institute of Ireland, Dublin (Ireland); O' sullivan, F. [London Univ. College, Dept of Geomatic Engineering, London, (United Kingdom)

    2006-07-01

    Full text: In September 2003, following the identification of a house near Castleisland in County Kerry (Sw Ireland) with a seasonally adjusted annual average radon concentration of 49,000 Bq/m{sup 3}, the Radiological Protection of Ireland (R.P.I.I.) undertook to carry out a localised radon survey, the so-called 'Castleisland Radon Survey' (C.R.S.). The aim was to investigate the possibility that similarly extreme radon concentrations could be present in other houses in the surrounding area. A studied area of 400 km{sup 2} was designated around the town of Castleisland, divided in four 10 x 10 km{sup 2} grid squares, and all of the approximately 2,500 householders living in this area were invited to participate. Four hundred and eighteen householders responded to the invitation (17% response rate) but only 383 completed the survey. Fourteen percent of these 383 homes were found to have an annual average radon concentration above the Irish national Reference Level for domestic dwellings of 200 Bq/m{sup 3} while 2% were found to be above 800 Bq/m{sup 3}. An arithmetic mean of 147 Bq/m{sup 3} and a geometric mean of 70 Bq/m{sup 3} were calculated for the four studied grid squares. These can be compared with the respective values of 98 and 56 Bq/m3 calculated for the same area by the Irish National Radon Survey (N.R.S.). Similar trends are observed on a grid square by grid square basis where in one of them in particular, the C.R.S. allowed us to predict that 21% of all houses would have radon concentrations in excess of 200 Bq/m{sup 3}, against 6% predicted by the N.R.S.. This clearly indicates that the extent of the radon problem in the area has been underestimated by the N.R.S.. Two of the four grid squares investigated are currently designated as High Radon Areas (where 10% or more of all houses are predicted to exceed 200 Bq/m{sup 3}) based on the results from the N.R.S.. If one was to use predictions based on the results from the C.R.S., all four grid

  9. The validity and reliability of the handheld SW-100 autokeratometer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eghosasere Iyamu

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: The agreement of new instruments or clinical tests with other instruments or tests defines the possibility of these being used interchangeably. Aim: To investigate the validity and reliability of the SW-100 autokeratometer using a Bausch & Lomb (B&L keratometer as the ‘gold standard’. Methods: Eighty subjects (80 right eyes aged between 21 and 38 years were recruited. For intra-test repeatability, two measurements of the corneal radius of curvature were taken with the SW-100 and B&L keratometers. Forty of the 80 subjects participated in the inter-test repeatability measurement. Results: Corneal radius of curvature was found to be statistically different between the two instruments (p < 0.001, with the SW-100 providing slightly flatter values of 0.11 mm and 0.05 mm for the horizontal and vertical meridians, respectively, than the B&L keratometer. The average corneal curvature was 0.07 mm flatter with the SW-100 autokeratometer than with the B&L device. Agreement between the SW-100 and B&L keratometers’ axes was 45% within ± 5°, 60.3% within ± 10°, 78.8% within ± 15°, 80.3% within ± 20°, and 88.7% within ± 40°. Intertest repeatability was better for the B&L device than the SW-100 and showed no significant difference between the two sessions. Both instruments demonstrated comparable intrasession repeatability. As such, both instruments were comparatively reliable (per coefficients of repeatability. The range of limits of agreement of ± 0.14 mm (horizontal meridian and ± 0.17 mm (vertical meridian between the SW-100 and B&L devices showed good agreement. Conclusion: The results suggest that the SW-100 autokeratometer is a reliable and objective instrument that, however, provides flatter radii of curvature measurements than the B&L keratometer. A compensating factor incorporated into the instrument could reduce the difference between the two instruments and make them more interchangeable.

  10. Bathymetry of Lake Michigan

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Bathymetry of Lake Michigan has been compiled as a component of a NOAA project to rescue Great Lakes lake floor geological and geophysical data and make it more...

  11. Bathymetry of Lake Ontario

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Bathymetry of Lake Ontario has been compiled as a component of a NOAA project to rescue Great Lakes lake floor geological and geophysical data and make it more...

  12. Bathymetry of Lake Superior

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Bathymetry of Lake Superior has been compiled as a component of a NOAA project to rescue Great Lakes lake floor geological and geophysical data and make it more...

  13. Great Lakes Bathymetry

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Bathymetry of Lakes Michigan, Erie, Saint Clair, Ontario and Huron has been compiled as a component of a NOAA project to rescue Great Lakes lake floor geological and...

  14. Bathymetry of Lake Huron

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Bathymetry of Lake Huron has been compiled as a component of a NOAA project to rescue Great Lakes lake floor geological and geophysical data and make it more...

  15. Great Lakes Science Center

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Since 1927, Great Lakes Science Center (GLSC) research has provided critical information for the sound management of Great Lakes fish populations and other important...

  16. Geochemistry of Archaean supracrustal belts in SW Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Szilas, Kristoffer

    This PhD-thesis investigates the geological formation environment of c. 3200-3000 million-year-old volcanic rocks from SW Greenland, using whole-rock geochemical data in combination with U-Pb, Sm-Nd and Lu-Hf isotope data. The following three supracrustal areas were studied: (1) The Tartoq Group ...

  17. Heliotropium thermophilum (Boraginaceae), a new taxon from SW Anatolia, Turkey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tan, Kit; Celik, Ali; Gemici, Yusuf

    2008-01-01

    Heliotropium thermophilum Kit Tan, A. Çelik & Y. Gemici (Boraginaceae), is described as a species new to science and illustrated. Its diploid chromosome number of 2n = 16 is a first report. It is restricted to the province of Aydin bordering on Denizli in SW Anatolia and is of interest on account...

  18. Palaeoenvironmental reconstruction of Hüsamlar coal seam, SW

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The Ören and Yatağan Basins in SW Turkey host several Miocene coal deposits currently under exploitation for power generation. The present study aims to provide insight into the palaeoenvironmental conditions, which controlled the formation of the Hüsamlar coal seam located in Ören Basin. The coal seam displays ...

  19. Verbascum lindae (Scrophulariaceae), a new species from SW Anatolia, Turkey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parolly, Gerald; Tan, Kit

    2007-01-01

    Verbascum lindae, a taxonomically isolated limestone chasmophyte from the vilayet of Isparta in SW Anatolia is described as a species new to science and illustrated. Its affinities with other Anatolian Verbascum species, which have either a chasmophytic habit or at least a woody base, are discussed....

  20. Lake Cadagno

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tonolla, Mauro; Storelli, Nicola; Danza, Francesco

    2017-01-01

    cycles. The chemocline lies at about 12 m depth, stabilized by density differences of salt-rich water supplied by sub-aquatic springs to the monimolimnion and of electrolyte-poor surface water feeding the mixolimnion. Steep sulphide and light gradients in the chemocline support the growth of a large...... in the chemocline. Small-celled PSB together with the sulfate-reducing bacterium Desulfocapsa thiozymogenes sp. form stable aggregates in the lake, which represent small microenvironments with an internal sulphur cycle. Eukaryotic primary producers in the anoxic zones are dominated by Cryptomonas phaseolus...

  1. Use of Student Experiments for Teaching Embedded Software Development Including HW/SW Co-Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitsui, H.; Kambe, H.; Koizumi, H.

    2009-01-01

    Embedded systems have been applied widely, not only to consumer products and industrial machines, but also to new applications such as ubiquitous or sensor networking. The increasing role of software (SW) in embedded system development has caused a great demand for embedded SW engineers, and university education for embedded SW engineering has…

  2. Shrub expansion in SW Greenland under modest regional warming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Rasmus Halfdan; Meilby, Henrik; Kollmann, Johannes

    2013-01-01

    Shrub expansion has been observed widely in tundra areas across the Arctic. This phenomenon has been partially attributed to increasing temperatures over the past century. However, relationships among shrub expansion, grazing, and human disturbance have been studied little. SW Greenland...... is a subarctic to low-arctic region with a long and complex land-use history and only modest temperature increases over the past 50 years (0.2 °C decade-1), but changes in shrub cover have not previously been studied in this region. We compiled historical photographs of vegetation in SW Greenland (1898......–1974) and repeated the photos in 2010 and 2011. Sixty-four photo pairs were cropped into 133 smaller units and classified by aspect, substrate stability, muskoxen grazing, and human disturbance. The photo material was evaluated by 22 experts with respect to changes in shrub cover, revealing a general increase across...

  3. Limnology of Eifel maar lakes

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Scharf, Burkhard W; Björk, Sven

    1992-01-01

    ... & morphometry - Physical & chemical characteristics - Calcite precipitation & solution in Lake Laacher See - Investigations using sediment traps in Lake Gemundener Maar - Phytoplankton of Lake Weinfelder Maar...

  4. Late Pleistocene Climate Events and The Origin of Agriculture In SW Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossignol-Strick, M.

    In the Eastern Mediterranean sea, the climate succession of the last deglaciation is documented and dated in marine cores by the d18-O variation of foraminiferal cal- cite and pollen records. The Last Glacial Maximum is identified by a large abundance of grass pollen from a prairie-type vegetal cover with low annual precipitation in the mountainous north and east borderlands of the sea, where the pollen mainly origi- nates. During the first phase of the last deglaciation, the Bolling/Allerod chronozone, the moisture availability increases and makes possible the spread of a deciduous for- est, as shown by the increasing pollen abundance of the deciduous oak. The cold and arid Younger Dryas is identified by a reversal to semi-desert conditions, with the in- crease of sage-brush (Artemisia) and the saline-tolerant Chenopodiaceae. The climate of the earliest Holocene is Optimum for at least 3000 years (9000-6000yr BP), with the largest spread of the deciduous forest at low-middle elevations signalling wet sum- mers and of the Pistacia woodland at low elevations signalling mild, no-frost winters. This is the time when the most recent sapropel deposited in the eastern Mediterranean under anoxic bottom conditions generated by a surface lid of lower salinity due to the concomitant largest floods of the Nile River fed by the strongest African monsoon rains in the Ethiopian Highlands. In SW Asia, the pollen records of lakes and marshes have been correlated with those of the marine cores, thereby obtaining a robust time-frame. In that area, the archaeo- logical data of human settlements are independently dated by 14C. Thus the archaeo- logical succession can be securely set against the well-dated climatic succession. The Late Palaeolithic populations of SW Asia were wandering hunter-gatherers in the prairies of the Last Glacial Maximum, where they already collected wild wheat, barley and fruit. With the Bolling/Allerod wetter and warmer climate, they began to settle in

  5. Bathymetry of Lake Erie and Lake Saint Clair

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Bathymetry of Lake Erie and Lake Saint Clair has been compiled as a component of a NOAA project to rescue Great Lakes lake floor geological and geophysical data and...

  6. Lake or Pond WBID

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — The VT DEC (Vermont Department of Environmental Conservation) manages an inventory of lake and pond information. The "Lakes and Ponds Inventory" stores the Water...

  7. National Lakes Assessment Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The National Lakes Assessment (NLA) is a first-ever statistically-valid survey of the biological condition of lakes and reservoirs throughout the U.S. The U.S....

  8. DNR 24K Lakes

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — Medium scale lake polygons derived from the National Wetlands Inventory (NWI) polygons and MnDOT Basemap lake delineations. Integrated with the DNR 24K Streams...

  9. Holocene oceanographic changes in SW Labrador Sea, off Newfoundland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sheldon, Christina; Seidenkrantz, Marit-Solveig; Pearce, Christof

    2016-01-01

    Benthic foraminiferal assemblages supported by selected geochemical data from three marine sediment cores collected in Placentia Bay, SE Newfoundland, are used to construct an ~13,000-year-long record of regional oceanographic changes in the SW Labrador Sea. The area is located in the boundary zo....... The Northern Hemisphere neoglacial cooling around 2.8 cal. kyr BP was characterized off SE Newfoundland by a further stabilization of the current system, dominated by the LC with some continued influx of GS water....

  10. The Robust Software Feedback Model: An Effective Waterfall Model Tailoring for Space SW

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tipaldi, Massimo; Gotz, Christoph; Ferraguto, Massimo; Troiano, Luigi; Bruenjes, Bernhard

    2013-08-01

    The selection of the most suitable software life cycle process is of paramount importance in any space SW project. Despite being the preferred choice, the waterfall model is often exposed to some criticism. As matter of fact, its main assumption of moving to a phase only when the preceding one is completed and perfected (and under the demanding SW schedule constraints) is not easily attainable. In this paper, a tailoring of the software waterfall model (named “Robust Software Feedback Model”) is presented. The proposed methodology sorts out these issues by combining a SW waterfall model with a SW prototyping approach. The former is aligned with the SW main production line and is based on the full ECSS-E-ST-40C life-cycle reviews, whereas the latter is carried out in advance versus the main SW streamline (so as to inject its lessons learnt into the main streamline) and is based on a lightweight approach.

  11. Shifts in the source and composition of dissolved organic matter in Southwest Greenland lakes along a regional hydro-climatic gradient

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Osburn, Christopher L.; Anderson, Nicholas J.; Stedmon, Colin A.

    2018-01-01

    Dissolved organic matter (DOM) concentration and quality were examined from Arctic lakes located in three clusters across south-west (SW) Greenland, covering the regional climatic gradient: cool, wet coastal zone; dry inland interior; and cool, dry ice-marginal areas. We hypothesized that differe...

  12. Fethiye-Burdur Fault Zone (SW Turkey): a myth?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaymakci, Nuretdin; Langereis, Cornelis; Özkaptan, Murat; Özacar, Arda A.; Gülyüz, Erhan; Uzel, Bora; Sözbilir, Hasan

    2017-04-01

    Fethiye Burdur Fault Zone (FBFZ) is first proposed by Dumont et al. (1979) as a sinistral strike-slip fault zone as the NE continuation of Pliny-Strabo trench in to the Anatolian Block. The fault zone supposed to accommodate at least 100 km sinistral displacement between the Menderes Massif and the Beydaǧları platform during the exhumation of the Menderes Massif, mainly during the late Miocene. Based on GPS velocities Barka and Reilinger (1997) proposed that the fault zone is still active and accommodates sinistral displacement. In order to test the presence and to unravel its kinematics we have conducted a rigorous paleomagnetic study containing more than 3000 paleomagnetic samples collected from 88 locations and 11700 fault slip data collected from 198 locations distributed evenly all over SW Anatolia spanning from Middle Miocene to Late Pliocene. The obtained rotation senses and amounts indicate slight (around 20°) counter-clockwise rotations distributed uniformly almost whole SW Anatolia and there is no change in the rotation senses and amounts on either side of the FBFZ implying no differential rotation within the zone. Additionally, the slickenside pitches and constructed paleostress configurations, along the so called FBFZ and also within the 300 km diameter of the proposed fault zone, indicated that almost all the faults, oriented parallel to subparallel to the zone, are normal in character. The fault slip measurements are also consistent with earthquake focal mechanisms suggesting active extension in the region. We have not encountered any significant strike-slip motion in the region to support presence and transcurrent nature of the FBFZ. On the contrary, the region is dominated by extensional deformation and strike-slip components are observed only on the NW-SE striking faults which are transfer faults that accommodated extension and normal motion. Therefore, we claim that the sinistral Fethiye Burdur Fault (Zone) is a myth and there is no tangible

  13. Western Alaska ESI: LAKES (Lake Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains vector polygons representing lakes and land masses used in the creation of the Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) for Western Alaska. The...

  14. Spatio-Temporal Variation in Water Quality of Orle River Basin, S.W. ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Spatio-Temporal Variation in Water Quality of Orle River Basin, S.W. Nigeria. ... Abstract. The water quality of small streams in Auchi area of Edo State, S.W. Nigeria was investigated with a view to ... and ecosystems. The study was carried out

  15. The Importance of Interfaces: A HW/SW Codesign Case Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Dan C. Raun; Madsen, Jan; Pedersen, Steen

    1997-01-01

    This paper presents a codesign case study in image analysis. The main objective is to stress the importance of handling HW/SW interfaces more precisely at the system level. In the presented case study, there is an intuitive and simple HW/SW interface, which is based upon the functional modules...

  16. Pollution at Lake Mariut

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nour ElDin, H.; Halim, S. N.; Shalby, E.

    2004-01-01

    Lake Mariut, south Alexandria, Egypt suffered in the recent decades from intensive pollution as a result of a continuous discharge of huge amounts of agriculture wastewater that contains a large concentration of the washed pesticides and fertilizers in addition to domestic and industrial untreated wastewater. The over flow from the lake is discharged directly to the sea through El-Max pumping station via EI-Umum drain. Lake Mariout is surrounded by a huge number of different industrial activities and also the desert road is cutting the lake, this means that a huge number of various pollutants cycle through the air and settle down in the lake, by the time and during different seasons these pollutants after accumulation and different chemical interactions will release again from the lake to the surrounding area affecting the surrounding zone

  17. Geologic and geophysical maps and volcanic history of the Kelton Pass SE and Monument Peak SW Quadrangles, Box Elder County, Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felger, Tracey J.; Miller, David; Langenheim, Victoria; Fleck, Robert J.

    2016-01-01

    The Kelton Pass SE and Monument Peak SW 7.5' quadrangles are located in Box Elder County, northwestern Utah (figure 1; plate 1). The northern boundary of the map area is 8.5 miles (13.7 km) south of the Utah-Idaho border, and the southern boundary reaches the edge of mud flats at the north end of Great Salt Lake. Elevations range from 4218 feet (1286 m) along the mud flats to 5078 feet (1548 m) in the Wildcat Hills. Deep Creek forms a prominent drainage between the Wildcat Hills and Cedar Hill. The closest towns are the ranching communities of Snowville, Utah (10 miles [16 km] to the northeast) (figure 1), and Park Valley, Utah (10 miles [16 km] to the west).The Kelton Pass SE and Monument Peak SW 7.5' quadrangles are located entirely within southern Curlew Valley, which drains south into Great Salt Lake, and extends north of the area shown on figure 1 into Idaho. Curlew Valley is bounded on the west by the Raft River Mountains and on the east by the Hansel Mountains (figure 1). Sedimentary and volcanic bedrock exposures within the quadrangles form the Wildcat Hills, Cedar Hill, and informally named Middle Shield (figure 1). Exposed rocks and deposits are Permian to Holocene in age, and include the Permian quartz sandstone and orthoquartzite of the Oquirrh Formation (Pos), tuffaceous sedimentary rocks of the Miocene Salt Lake Formation (Ts), Pliocene basaltic lava flows (Tb) and dacite (Tdw), Pleistocene rhyolite (Qrw) and basalt (Qb), and Pleistocene and Holocene surficial deposits of alluvial, lacustrine, and eolian origin. Structurally, the map area is situated in the northeastern Basin and Range Province, and is inferred to lie within the hanging wall of the late Miocene detachment faults exposed in the Raft River Mountains to the northwest (e.g., Wells, 1992, 2009; figure 1).This mapping project was undertaken to produce a comprehensive, large-scale geologic map of the Wildcat Hills, as well as to improve understanding of the volcanic and tectonic evolution of

  18. Great Lakes Literacy Principles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortner, Rosanne W.; Manzo, Lyndsey

    2011-03-01

    Lakes Superior, Huron, Michigan, Ontario, and Erie together form North America's Great Lakes, a region that contains 20% of the world's fresh surface water and is home to roughly one quarter of the U.S. population (Figure 1). Supporting a $4 billion sport fishing industry, plus $16 billion annually in boating, 1.5 million U.S. jobs, and $62 billion in annual wages directly, the Great Lakes form the backbone of a regional economy that is vital to the United States as a whole (see http://www.miseagrant.umich.edu/downloads/economy/11-708-Great-Lakes-Jobs.pdf). Yet the grandeur and importance of this freshwater resource are little understood, not only by people in the rest of the country but also by many in the region itself. To help address this lack of knowledge, the Centers for Ocean Sciences Education Excellence (COSEE) Great Lakes, supported by the U.S. National Science Foundation and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, developed literacy principles for the Great Lakes to serve as a guide for education of students and the public. These “Great Lakes Literacy Principles” represent an understanding of the Great Lakes' influences on society and society's influences on the Great Lakes.

  19. The Key Lake project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    Key Lake is located in the Athabasca sand stone basin, 640 kilometers north of Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Canada. The three sources of ore at Key Lake contain 70 100 tonnes of uranium. Features of the Key Lake Project were described under the key headings: work force, mining, mill process, tailings storage, permanent camp, environmental features, worker health and safety, and economic benefits. Appendices covering the historical background, construction projects, comparisons of western world mines, mining statistics, Northern Saskatchewan surface lease, and Key Lake development and regulatory agencies were included

  20. Exploration of the Key Lake uranium deposits, Saskatchewan, Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gatzweiler, R.; Schmeling, B.; Tan, B.

    1981-01-01

    In 1969, one year after the discovery of the Rabbit Lake uranium deposit, exploration started in the Key Lake area as part of a major uranium rush into Northern Saskatchewan, and within the frame of a joint venture. The area was not chosen on the basis of a particular metallogenetic concept. The lack of exploratory success in 1969 and 1970, together with the introduction in March 1970 of foreign ownership restrictions for uranium mining in Canada, discouraged six of the nine companies forming the original joint venture. In 1971 the three remaining companies decided to continue under a redefined concept, based on the knowledge obtained from the Rabbit Lake deposit (Uranerz had acquired a 49% share in 1970) and from the newly discovered uranium deposits in the Pine Creek Geosyncline, Australia. In the same year, exploration work resulted in the discovery of two high-grade mineralized boulders and significant radioactive and geochemical anomalies 5 km SW of Key Lake deposits. Subsequent exploration, aimed at finding the source of the mineralized boulders, comprised geological, glacial geological and ground radiometric surveys, boulder tracing, air-photo interpretation, lake sediment and muskeg sampling surveys, radon surveys, ground magnetic, gravity, electromagnetic and IP surveys, and drilling. The systematic exploration efforts resulted in the discovery of the Gaertner ore body in July 1975 and the Deilmann ore body in June 1976, where glacial geology, lake sediment sampling, magnetic and electromagnetic surveys were the key methods in defining the drilling targets. Three further years and a total of about 2400 drillholes were needed to fully delineate the two ore bodies. (author)

  1. Limnology of Eifel maar lakes

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Scharf, Burkhard W; Björk, Sven

    1992-01-01

    ... : Species composition & seasonal periodicity - Qualitative & quantitative investigations on cladoceran zooplankton of oligotrophic maar lakes - Population dynamics of pelagic copepods in maar lakes - Population dynamics...

  2. Lakes, Lagerstaetten, and Evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kordesch, E. G.; Park, L. E.

    2001-12-01

    The diversity of terrestrial systems is estimated to be greater than in the marine realm. However no hard data yet exists to substantiate this claim. Ancient lacustrine deposits may preserve an exceptionally diverse fossil fauna and aid in determining continental faunal diversities. Fossils preserved in lake deposits, especially those with exceptional preservation (i.e. Konservat Lagerstaetten), may represent a dependable method for determining species diversity changes in the terrestrial environment because of their faunal completeness. Important Konservat Lagerstaetten, such as the Green River Formation (US) and Messel (Germany), both Eocene in age, are found in lake sediments and show a remarkable faunal diversity for both vertebrates and invertebrates. To date information from nearly 25 lake lagerstaetten derived from different types of lake basins from the Carboniferous to the Miocene have been collected and described. Carboniferous sites derive from the cyclothems of Midcontinent of the US while many Cenozoic sites have been described from North and South America as well as Europe and Australia. Asian sites contain fossils from the Mesozoic and Cenozoic. With this data, insight into the evolutionary processes associated with lake systems can be examined. Do lakes act as unique evolutionary crucibles in contrast to marine systems? The speciation of cichlid fishes in present-day African lakes appears to be very high and is attributed to the diversity of environments found in large rift lakes. Is this true of all ancient lakes or just large rift lakes? The longevity of a lake system may be an important factor in allowing speciation and evolutionary processes to occur; marine systems are limited only in the existence of environments as controlled by tectonics and sea level changes, on the order of tens of millions of years. Rift lakes are normally the longest lived in the millions of years. Perhaps there are only certain types of lakes in which speciation of

  3. Ecology of Meromictic Lakes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gulati, R.D.; Zadereev, E.S.; Degermendzhy, A.G.

    2017-01-01

    This volume presents recent advances in the research on meromictic lakes and a state-of-the art overview of this area. After an introduction to the terminology and geographic distribution of meromictic lakes, three concise chapters describe their physical, chemical and biological features. The

  4. Lake Afdera: a threatened saline lake in Ethiopia | Getahun | SINET ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Lake Afdera is a saline lake located in the Afar region, Northern Ethiopia. Because of its inaccessibility it is one of the least studied lakes of the country. It supports life including three species of fish of which two are endemic. Recently, reports are coming out that this lake is used for salt extraction. This paper gives some ...

  5. Lake trout in northern Lake Huron spawn on submerged drumlins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riley, Stephen C.; Binder, Thomas; Wattrus, Nigel J.; Faust, Matthew D.; Janssen, John; Menzies, John; Marsden, J. Ellen; Ebener, Mark P.; Bronte, Charles R.; He, Ji X.; Tucker, Taaja R.; Hansen, Michael J.; Thompson, Henry T.; Muir, Andrew M.; Krueger, Charles C.

    2014-01-01

    Recent observations of spawning lake trout Salvelinus namaycush near Drummond Island in northern Lake Huron indicate that lake trout use drumlins, landforms created in subglacial environments by the action of ice sheets, as a primary spawning habitat. From these observations, we generated a hypothesis that may in part explain locations chosen by lake trout for spawning. Most salmonines spawn in streams where they rely on streamflows to sort and clean sediments to create good spawning habitat. Flows sufficient to sort larger sediment sizes are generally lacking in lakes, but some glacial bedforms contain large pockets of sorted sediments that can provide the interstitial spaces necessary for lake trout egg incubation, particularly if these bedforms are situated such that lake currents can penetrate these sediments. We hypothesize that sediment inclusions from glacial scavenging and sediment sorting that occurred during the creation of bedforms such as drumlins, end moraines, and eskers create suitable conditions for lake trout egg incubation, particularly where these bedforms interact with lake currents to remove fine sediments. Further, these bedforms may provide high-quality lake trout spawning habitat at many locations in the Great Lakes and may be especially important along the southern edge of the range of the species. A better understanding of the role of glacially-derived bedforms in the creation of lake trout spawning habitat may help develop powerful predictors of lake trout spawning locations, provide insight into the evolution of unique spawning behaviors by lake trout, and aid in lake trout restoration in the Great Lakes.

  6. Melitofilia em Canavalia rosea (Sw. DC. (Leguminosae-Papilionoideae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio Verçoza

    2010-11-01

    Abstract. This work aimed to study the floral biology and the pollination’s ecology of Canavalia rosea (Sw. DC. (Leguminosae-Papilionoideae by bees in the sandbank vegetation of the Grumari Environmental Protection Area (EPA , located in the western zone of Rio de Janeiro’s city. The study was developed between the months of June of 2008 to June of 2009. Sampling on morphology, color and odor of the flowers of the species were made. The number of open flowers per day in each individual was recorded, as well as the opening steps, determining the period of anthesis. The occurrence of floral visitors was recorded through the observation of the visit’s time, of the adaptability for pollination, of the ease of access to the reward and of the intra-floral behavior played. C. rosea occurs in psamophily communities and in post-beach sandbank of Grumari’s EPA. It presents typical characteristics of mellitophily (pollination by bees and the flowers are pollinated by Xylocopa frontalis Oliver. It also receives visits from Tetragonisca angustula Latreille, Trigona spinipes Fabricius and Apis mellifera Linnaeus, which collects pollen without pollinating the flowers. X. frontalis proved to be the only effective pollinator of C. rosea in the Grumari sandbank, making the plant directly dependent on this species for fruit and seed’s production in this location.

  7. Sedimentological characteristics and seafloor failure offshore SW Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-Chieh Su

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, analysis results reveal two main deposition zones are located at the flank of upper Gaoping Submarine Canyon and Lower Fangliao Basin offshore SW Taiwan. The non-event related sediments deposited in past 150 years (i.e., 632 Mt km-2 was delivered and transported from Gaoping River by suspension process with tides and coastal currents and gradually spread out offshore. Meanwhile, the total mass of accumulation sediments is 1922 Mt km-2, accounting for 40% Gaoping River’s sediment load and suggesting that the deposition process is mainly controlled by natural hazards. Sedimentation rates in much of the study area, except in the main deposition zones, are less than 0.5 cm yr-1 (5 m kyr-1. Compared with the studies at the instability seafloor caused by high sedimentation rates (~30 m kyr-1, the offshore southwestern Taiwan is relatively stable. In this study, we also discovered a series of sediment waves located on the upper continental slope between Gaoping and Fangliao Submarine Canyons, which is related to the creeping process on seafloor. In summary, our results reveal the fluid activities, existence of weak layers and earthquake triggering are potential factors which might induced seafloor failures offshore southwestern Taiwan.

  8. Growth inhibitory alkaloids from mesquite (Prosopis juliflora (Sw.) DC.) leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakano, Hiroshi; Nakajima, Eri; Hiradate, Syuntaro; Fujii, Yoshiharu; Yamada, Kosumi; Shigemori, Hideyuki; Hasegawa, Koji

    2004-03-01

    Plant growth inhibitory alkaloids were isolated from the extract of mesquite [Prosopis juliflora (Sw.) DC.] leaves. Their chemical structures were established by ESI-MS, 1H and 13C NMR spectra analysis. The I50 value (concentration required for 50% inhibition of control) for root growth of cress (Lepidium sativum L.) seedlings was 400 microM for 3''''-oxo-juliprosopine, 500 microM for secojuliprosopinal, and 100 microM for a (1:1) mixture of 3-oxo-juliprosine and 3'-oxo-juliprosine, respectively. On the other hand, the minimum concentration exhibiting inhibitory effect on shoot growth of cress seedlings was 10 microM for 3''''-oxo-juliprosopine, 100 microM for secojuliprosopinal, and 1 microM for a (1:1) mixture of 3-oxo-juliprosine and 3'-oxo-juliprosine, respectively. Among these compounds, a (1:1) mixture of 3-oxo-juliprosine and 3'-oxo-juliprosine exhibited the strongest inhibitory effect on the growth of cress seedlings.

  9. 1868-IJBCS-Article-Ebere Chukwu Lobe

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hp

    organic carbon (OC) and particle size analysis) and levels of Pb, Cu and Zn in soil samples collected from .... economic centre of Northern Nigeria. ... pestle. The crushed soil samples were sieved through a 2 mm sieve made of stainless steel.

  10. [Overexpression of N-myc downstream regulated gene 2 (NDRG2) inhibits proliferation, migration and promotes apoptosis in SW480 rectal cancer cells].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhiqiang; Sun, Yang; Wan, Hongxing; Chai, Fang

    2017-01-01

    Objective To investigate the role of N-myc downstream regulated gene 2 (NDRG2) gene in the proliferation, migration and apoptosis of rectal cancer cells. Methods Human rectal cancer SW480 cells were cultured and transfected with pCDNA3.1-NDRG2 and empty vector (SW480-Ve). SW480 cells were set as a control group. Cell proliferation was detected in SW480 cells, SW480-Ve cells and SW480-NDRG2 cells by MTT assay; cell migration distance in the three groups at 24, 48, 72 hours was tested by wound healing assay; apoptosis rate was determined in the three groups at 48 hours by flow cytometry; the expressions of Bax, caspase-3, Bcl-2 proteins in the three groups were examined by Western blotting. Results After the cells were cultured for 7 days, cell survival rate in SW480-NDRG2 group was significantly lower than that in SW480 cells and SW480-Ve cells; the cell survival rate decreased gradually with the prolongation of the culture time; and it had no significant difference between SW480-Ve group and SW480 group. Cell migration distance in SW480-NDRG2 group was significantly lower than that in SW480-Ve cells and SW480 cells, and it had also no significant difference between SW480-Ve cells and SW480 cells. The apoptosis rate in SW480-NDRG2 group was significantly higher than that in SW480 group and SW480-Ve group, and SW480 cells and SW480-Ve cells had no significant difference in the rate. The expressions of Bax and caspase-3 proteins in SW480-NDRG2 group were significantly higher than those in SW480 cells and SW480-Ve cells; Bcl-2 protein expression was significantly lower in SW480-NDRG2 group than in SW480 cells and SW480-Ve cells; and the expressions of Bax, caspase-3 and Bcl-2 proteins were not significantly different between SW480 cells and SW480-Ve cells. Conclusion Overexpression of NDRG2 can inhibit the proliferation, reduce cell migration, and promote cell apoptosis by regulating the expressions of Bcl-2, Bax and caspase-3 proteins in SW480 cells.

  11. Lake sturgeon population characteristics in Rainy Lake, Minnesota and Ontario

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, W.E.; Kallemeyn, L.W.; Willis, D.W.

    2006-01-01

    Rainy Lake contains a native population of lake sturgeon Acipenser fulvescens that has been largely unstudied. The aims of this study were to document the population characteristics of lake sturgeon in Rainy Lake and to relate environmental factors to year-class strength for this population. Gill-netting efforts throughout the study resulted in the capture of 322 lake sturgeon, including 50 recaptures. Lake sturgeon in Rainy Lake was relatively plump and fast growing compared with a 32-population summary. Population samples were dominated by lake sturgeon between 110 and 150 cm total length. Age–structure analysis of the samples indicated few younger (<10 years) lake sturgeon, but the smallest gill net mesh size used for sampling was 102 mm (bar measure) and would not retain small sturgeon. Few lake sturgeon older than age 50 years were captured, and maximum age of sampled fish was 59 years. Few correlations existed between lake sturgeon year-class indices and both annual and monthly climate variables, except that mean June air temperature was positively correlated with year-class strength. Analysis of Rainy Lake water elevation and resulting lake sturgeon year-class strength indices across years yielded consistent but weak negative correlations between late April and early June, when spawning of lake sturgeon occurs. The baseline data collected in this study should allow Rainy Lake biologists to establish more specific research questions in the future.

  12. Yellowstone Lake Nanoarchaeota

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott eClingenpeel

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Considerable Nanoarchaeota novelty and diversity were encountered in Yellowstone Lake, Yellowstone National Park, where sampling targeted lake floor hydrothermal vent fluids, streamers and sediments associated with these vents, and in planktonic photic zones in three different regions of the lake. Significant homonucleotide repeats (HR were observed in pyrosequence reads and in near full-length Sanger sequences, averaging 112 HR per 1,349 bp clone and could confound diversity estimates derived from pyrosequencing, resulting in false nucleotide insertions or deletions (indels. However, Sanger sequencing of two different sets of PCR clones (110 bp, 1349 bp demonstrated that at least some of these indels are real. The majority of the Nanoarchaeota PCR amplicons were vent associated; however, curiously, one relatively small Nanoarchaeota OTU (70 pyrosequencing reads was only found in photic zone water samples obtained from a region of the lake furthest removed from the hydrothermal regions of the lake. Extensive pyrosequencing failed to demonstrate the presence of an Ignicoccus lineage in this lake, suggesting the Nanoarchaeota in this environment are associated with novel Archaea hosts. Defined phylogroups based on near full-length PCR clones document the significant Nanoarchaeota 16S rRNA gene diversity in this lake and firmly establish a terrestrial clade distinct from the marine Nanoarcheota as well as from other geographical locations.

  13. Whiting in Lake Michigan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    Satellites provide a view from space of changes on the Earth's surface. This series of images from the Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS) aboard the Orbview-2 satellite shows the dramatic change in the color of Lake Michigan during the summer. The bright color that appears in late summer is probably caused by calcium carbonate-chalk-in the water. Lake Michigan always has a lot of calcium carbonate in it because the floor of the lake is limestone. During most of the year the calcium carbonate remains dissolved in the cold water, but at the end of summer the lake warms up, lowering the solubility of calcium carbonate. As a result, the calcium carbonate precipitates out of the water, forming clouds of very small solid particles that appear as bright swirls from above. The phenomenon is appropriately called a whiting event. A similar event occured in 1999, but appears to have started later and subsided earlier. It is also possible that a bloom of the algae Microcystis is responsible for the color change, but unlikely because of Lake Michigan's depth and size. Microcystis blooms have occured in other lakes in the region, however. On the shore of the lake it is possible to see the cities of Chicago, Illinois, and Milwaukee, Wisconsin. Both appear as clusters of gray-brown pixels. Image courtesy the SeaWiFS Project, NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center, and ORBIMAGE

  14. Ecology of playa lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haukos, David A.; Smith, Loren M.

    1992-01-01

    Between 25,000 and 30,000 playa lakes are in the playa lakes region of the southern high plains (Fig. 1). Most playas are in west Texas (about 20,000), and fewer, in New Mexico, Oklahoma, Kansas, and Colorado. The playa lakes region is one of the most intensively cultivated areas of North America. Dominant crops range from cotton in southern areas to cereal grains in the north. Therefore, most of the native short-grass prairie is gone, replaced by crops and, recently, grasses of the Conservation Reserve Program. Playas are the predominant wetlands and major wildlife habitat of the region.More than 115 bird species, including 20 species of waterfowl, and 10 mammal species have been documented in playas. Waterfowl nest in the area, producing up to 250,000 ducklings in wetter years. Dominant breeding and nesting species are mallards and blue-winged teals. During the very protracted breeding season, birds hatch from April through August. Several million shorebirds and waterfowl migrate through the area each spring and fall. More than 400,000 sandhill cranes migrate through and winter in the region, concentrating primarily on the larger saline lakes in the southern portion of the playa lakes region.The primary importance of the playa lakes region to waterfowl is as a wintering area. Wintering waterfowl populations in the playa lakes region range from 1 to 3 million birds, depending on fall precipitation patterns that determine the number of flooded playas. The most common wintering ducks are mallards, northern pintails, green-winged teals, and American wigeons. About 500,000 Canada geese and 100,000 lesser snow geese winter in the playa lakes region, and numbers of geese have increased annually since the early 1980’s. This chapter describes the physiography and ecology of playa lakes and their attributes that benefit waterfowl.

  15. Theoretical calculation of shakeup intensities using Xa--SW wave functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tse, J.S.; Loubriel, G.

    1981-01-01

    The ground and 1s core hole state molecular wave functions of CH 4 , NH 3 , H 2 O, and HF obtained from Xa--SW calculations using the touching spheres (TS) and overlapping spheres (OS) approximations are used to calculate the intensity of shakeup satellites observed in their ls core level photoelectron spectra. The sudden approximation was assumed in the calculation. In case of TS Xa--SW wave functions, the one electron overlap integral inside the intersphere was calculated via Green's theorem. For OS Xa--SW wave functions, the integration over the awkwardly shaped intersphere region was circumvented by distributing the intersphere charge into the atomic spheres according to the charge partition scheme suggested by Case and Karplus. Our results show that there are no significant differences between the shakeup energies calculated from the TS and OS approximations. However, shakeup intensities calculated from TS Xa--SW wave functions are more reliable and in better numerical agreement with experiment

  16. Amphibians and agrochemicals: Dermal contact and pesticide uptake from irrigated croplands in SW Georgia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background/Question/Methods Although isolated wetlands comprise a significant portion of amphibian breeding habitats throughout the United States, they are not protected under the Clean Water Act. In SW Georgia where agriculture is dominant within the landscape, many isolated ...

  17. seasonal variation in water quality of orle river basin, sw nigeria.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    LUCY

    The seasonal variation of water quality of Orle River and its tributatries in S.W. Nigeria was investigated forthnightly or two ... KEYWORD: water quality, river basin, wet and dry seasons; pollution. ..... Environmental Modeling and Software,.

  18. Wave hindcast experiments in the Indian Ocean using MIKE 21 SW ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Wave prediction and hindcast studies are important in ocean engineering, coastal ... wave data can be used for the assessment of wave climate in offshore and coastal areas. In the .... for the change in performance during SW monsoon.

  19. Redefinition of the genera Malaxis Sol. ex Sw. and Microstylis (Nutt. Eaton (Orchidaceae, Epidendroideae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dariusz L. Szlachetko

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A new definition of the genera Malaxis Sol. ex Sw. and Microstylis (Nutt. Eaton is presented. The genera are briefly described and illustrated. A list of Microstylis species is added. Four new nomenclatural combinations are proposed.

  20. Dosimetric properties of a Solid Water High Equivalency (SW557) phantom for megavoltage photon beams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araki, Fujio

    2017-07-01

    The dosimetric properties of the recently developed SW557 phantom have been investigated by comparison with those of the existing SW457 phantom in megavoltage photon beams. The electron fluence ratio φ pl w , and chamber ionization ratio k pl , of water to SW457 and water to SW557 for 4-15MV photons were calculated as a function of depth using Monte Carlo simulations, and compared with measured values. Values of φ pl w for SW457 were in the range of 1.004-1.014 for 4MV, and 1.014-1.018 for 15MV photons. The φ pl w for SW557 ranged from 1.005 to 1.008 for 4MV and from 1.010 to 1.015 for 15MV photons and the variation of φ pl w with depth for each beam energy was within ±0.5%. Values of k pl were obtained with a PTW 30013 Farmer-type ionization chamber. The k pl for SW457 ranged from 0.997 to 1.011 for 4-15MV photons. Values of k pl for SW557 were almost unity for 4 and 6MV photons, while in the case of 10 and 15MV photons they were less than 1.006, excepting the build-up region. The measured and calculated k pl values of water to SW557 were in the range of 0.997-1.002 and 1.000-1.006, respectively, for 4-15MV photons, at a depth of 10cm with a source-to-axis distance of 100cm. The measured and calculated k pl values were in agreement within their uncertainty ranges. As a water-equivalent phantom, SW557 can be used with a dosimetric difference within±0.6%, for 4-15MV photons, and is more water-equivalent than SW457 in megavoltage photon beams. Copyright © 2017 Associazione Italiana di Fisica Medica. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Late Glacial and Holocene sedimentary evolution of Czechowskie Lake (Eastern Pomerania, North Central Poland)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kordowski, Jarosław; Błaszkiewicz, Mirosław; Kramkowski, Mateusz; Noryśkiewicz, Agnieszka M.; Słowiński, Michał; Tyszkowski, Sebastian; Brauer, Achim; Ott, Florian

    2015-04-01

    Czechowskie Lake is located in north-central Poland in Tuchola Forest, about 100 kilometers SW away from Gdańsk. In the deepest parts of the lake there are preserved laminated sediments with an excellent Holocene climatic record. The lake has the area of 76,6 ha. Actual water level is at 109,9 m a.s.l. The average depth is 9,59 m, maximal 32 m. It occupies a large subglacial channel, reproduced within the glacifluvial sediments of the last glaciation. The lake has a history reaching back to Pommeranian phase which is proved by analysis of sedimentary succesions in the vicinity of present-day waterbody. Primarily it come to existence as an very variable ice dammed lake but after dead ice and permafrost desintegration it changed into a stable lake. In the terrestrialised part oft the lake and in its litoral zone there were curried out numerous boreholes within limnic and slope sediments. They have been analysed in respect to lithology and structure. Some of them were also investigated palynologically which along with radiocarbon datings allowed to reconstruct major phases of the water level fluctuations. The maximum infilling with the limnic and telmatic sediments reaches over 12 m. In the bottom of the lake there is a marked presence of many overdeepenings with the diameter of dozen or several dozen meters and the depth of up to 10 m with numerous, distinct throughs between them. They favoured the preservation of the lamination in the deepest parts of the lake due to waves hampering and stopping of the density circulation in the lake waterbody. The analysis of limnic sediments revealed considerable spatial and temporal variability mainly in dependance of the area of the water body and water level in time of deposition. In the lake are recorded three distinct phases of lake level decrease. The sedimentary evolution in the isolated minor lake basins showed gradual decrease of mineral and organic deposition in favour for carbonate one although in places separated by

  2. Hot topics in Modern Cosmology - SW9 - Slides of the presentations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berezhiani, Z.; Sigl, G.; Biondi, R.; Volkov, M.; Noller, J.; Starobinsky, A.; Toporensky, A.; Renaux, S.; Pilo, L.; Comelli, D.; Slagter, R.; Novello, M.; Padilla, A.; Antunes, V.; Kamenshchik, A.; Vernieri, D.; Kaloper, N.; Denkiewics, T.; Gohar, H.; Zahariade, G.; Frusciante, N.; Von Strauss, M.

    2016-01-01

    This 9. Spontaneous Workshop (SW9) brought together specialists on recent insights in Particle Physics, Astrophysics and Cosmology. The aim was to stimulate debate on common topics in views of providing us with innovating ideas. SW9 topics includes: 1) Cosmological parameters - Anomalies in CMB (Cosmic Microwave Background); 2) Dark matter and neutrinos; 3) Gravity - Dark energy; 4) Singular universes; and 5) Cosmological Large Scale Structures - Magnetic Fields; This document is made up of the slides of the presentations

  3. Sea urchins, their predators and prey in SW Portugal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuno Mamede

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Sea urchins play a key role structuring benthic communities of rocky shores through an intense herbivory. The most abundant sea urchin species on shallow rocky subtidal habitats of the SW coast of Portugal is Paracentrotus lividus (Echinodermata: Echinoidea. It is considered a key species in various locations throughout its geographical distribution by affecting the structure of macroalgae communities and may cause the abrupt transformation of habitats dominated by foliose algae to habitats dominated by encrusting algae - the urchin barrens. The removal of P. lividus predators by recreational and commercial fishing is considered a major cause of this phenomenon by affecting the trophic relationships between predators, sea urchins and algae communities. Marine protected areas (MPAs usually lead to the recovery of important predator species that control sea urchin populations and restore habitats dominated by foliose macroalgae. Therefore, MPAs provide a good opportunity to test cascading effects and indirect impacts of fishing at the ecosystem level. The ecological role of P. lividus was studied on rocky subtidal habitats of the SW coast of Portugal (Alentejo considering three trophic levels: population of P. lividus, their predators (fish and shellfish and their prey (macroalgae communities. Several studies were conducted: (1 a non-destructive observational study on the abundance and distribution patterns of P. lividus, their predators and preys, comparing areas with different protection; (2 a manipulative in situ study with cages to assess the role of P. lividus as an herbivore and the influence of predation; (3 a descriptive study of P. lividus predators based on underwater filming; (4 and a study of human perception on these trophic relationships and other issues on sea urchin ecology and fishery, based on surveys made to fishermen and divers. Subtidal studies were performed with SCUBA diving at 3-12 m deep. Results indicate that in the

  4. Tamarugite from Diana Cave (SW Romania) -first true karst occurrence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pušcaš, C. M.; Onac, B. P.; Effenberger, H. S.; Povarǎ, I.

    2012-04-01

    Diana Cave is located within the town limits of Baile Herculane (SW Romania) and develops as a 14 m long, westward oriented, unique passage guided by the Diana fault [1]. At the far end of the cave, the thermo-mineral Diana Spring wells forth. In the early 1970s a mine gallery that intersected the cave was created to drain the water into a pumping station and the original cave passage was somewhat altered and reinforced with concrete. Today the concrete and the silty limestone cave walls are heavily corroded by H2SO4 outgassing from the hot water (ca. 50°C) and display abundant gypsum crusts, soggy aggregates of native S, and a variety of more exotic sulfates. Among them, a mineral that has been previously identified in caves only in connection to volcanic activity, either as thermal springs or fumaroles [2]: tamarugite [NaAl(SO4)26H2O]. It was [3] that first mentioned the occurrence of this Na and Al sulfate in Diana Cave, our research aiming to give a detailed description of this mineral, its paragenesis, and mechanisms of precipitation. Recently, tamarugite has also been identified in a sulfuric acid cave from Greece [4]. Along with powder X-ray diffractions coupled with Rietveld refinement, scanning electron microscope, and electron probe micro-analysis, δ18O and δ34S compositions of the sulfate mineral as well as precipitates from the water were analyzed to identify and better constrain the genesis of this rare sulfate. Regrettably, the crystal size of our specimens is inappropriate for identification by means of single crystal X-ray diffraction. Physical and chemical parameters of Diana Spring were as well measured on several occasions. Geochemical analysis suggests that the minute, white tamarugite flakes precipitated in Diana Cave as a result of the interactions between the thermo-mineral water or water vapor and the original limestone bedrock and concrete that blankets the mine gallery. [1] Povara, I., Diaconu, G., Goran, C. (1972). Observations pr

  5. Halls Lake 1990

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Salt marsh habitats along the shoreline of Halls Lake are threatened by wave erosion, but the reconstruction of barrier islands to reduce this erosion will modify or...

  6. Lake Level Reconstructions

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Records of past lake levels, mostly related to changes in moisture balance (evaporation-precipitation). Parameter keywords describe what was measured in this data...

  7. The Key Lake project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glattes, G.

    1985-01-01

    Aspects of project financing for the share of the Canadian subsidiary of Uranerzbergbau-GmbH, Bonn, in the uranium mining and milling facility at Key Lake, Saskatchewan, by a Canadian bank syndicate. (orig.) [de

  8. Great Lakes Ice Charts

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Charts show ice extent and concentration three times weekly during the ice season, for all lakes except Ontario, from the 1973/74 ice season through the 2001/2002...

  9. Foy Lake paleodiatom data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Percent abundance of 109 diatom species collected from a Foy Lake (Montana, USA) sediment core that was sampled every ∼5–20 years, yielding a ∼7 kyr record over 800...

  10. Dragon Lake, Siberia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    Nicknamed 'Dragon Lake,' this body of water is formed by the Bratskove Reservoir, built along the Angara river in southern Siberia, near the city of Bratsk. This image was acquired in winter, when the lake is frozen. This image was acquired by Landsat 7's Enhanced Thematic Mapper plus (ETM+) sensor on December 19, 1999. This is a natural color composite image made using blue, green, and red wavelengths. Image provided by the USGS EROS Data Center Satellite Systems Branch

  11. Lake Chad, Chad, Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    Hydrologic and ecologic changes in the Lake Chad Basin are shown in this Oct 1992 photograph. In space photo documentation, Lake Chad was at its greatest area extent (25,000 sq. km.) during Gemini 9 in June 1966 (see S66-38444). Its reduction during the severe droughts from 1968 to 1974 was first noted during Skylab (1973-1974). After the drought began again in 1982, the lake reached its minimum extent (1,450 sq. km.) in Space Shuttle photographs taken in 1984 and 1985. In this STS-52 photograph, Lake Chad has begun to recover. The area of the open water and interdunal impoundments in the southern basin (the Chari River Basin) is estimated to be 1,900 to 2100 sq. km. Note the green vegetation in the valley of the K'Yobe flow has wetted the northern lake basin for the first time in several years. There is evidence of biomass burning south of the K'Yobe Delta and in the vegetated interdunal areas near the dike in the center of the lake. Also note the dark 'Green Line' of the Sahel (the g

  12. Resilience and Restoration of Lakes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen R. Carpenter

    1997-06-01

    Full Text Available Lake water quality and ecosystem services are normally maintained by several feedbacks. Among these are nutrient retention and humic production by wetlands, nutrient retention and woody habitat production by riparian forests, food web structures that cha nnel phosphorus to consumers rather than phytoplankton, and biogeochemical mechanisms that inhibit phosphorus recycling from sediments. In degraded lakes, these resilience mechanisms are replaced by new ones that connect lakes to larger, regional economi c and social systems. New controls that maintain degraded lakes include runoff from agricultural and urban areas, absence of wetlands and riparian forests, and changes in lake food webs and biogeochemistry that channel phosphorus to blooms of nuisance al gae. Economic analyses show that degraded lakes are significantly less valuable than normal lakes. Because of this difference in value, the economic benefits of restoring lakes could be used to create incentives for lake restoration.

  13. Is Lake Chabot Eutrophic?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellegrini, K.; Logan, J.; Esterlis, P.; Lew, A.; Nguyen, M.

    2013-12-01

    Introduction/Abstract: Lake Chabot is an integral part of the East Bay watershed that provides habitats for animals and recreation for humans year-round. Lake Chabot has been in danger of eutrophication due to excessive dumping of phosphorous and nitrogen into the water from the fertilizers of nearby golf courses and neighboring houses. If the lake turned out to be eutrophified, it could seriously impact what is currently the standby emergency water supply for many Castro Valley residents. Eutrophication is the excessive richness of nutrients such as nitrogen and phosphorus in a lake, usually as a result of runoff. This buildup of nutrients causes algal blooms. The algae uses up most of the oxygen in the water, and when it dies, it causes the lake to hypoxify. The fish in the lake can't breathe, and consequently suffocate. Other oxygen-dependant aquatic creatures die off as well. Needless to say, the eutrophication of a lake is bad news for the wildlife that lives in or around it. The level of eutrophication in our area in Northern California tends to increase during the late spring/early summer months, so our crew went out and took samples of Lake Chabot on June 2. We focused on the area of the lake where the water enters, known on the map as Honker Bay. We also took readings a ways down in deeper water for comparison's sake. Visually, the lake looked in bad shape. The water was a murky green that glimmered with particulate matter that swirled around the boat as we went by. In the Honker Bay region where we focused our testing, there were reeds bathed in algae that coated the surface of the lake in thick, swirling patterns. Surprisingly enough, however, our test results didn't reveal any extreme levels of phosphorous or nitrogen. They were slightly higher than usual, but not by any significant amount. The levels we found were high enough to stimulate plant and algae growth and promote eutrophication, but not enough to do any severe damage. After a briefing with a

  14. Glacial lake inventory and lake outburst potential in Uzbekistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrov, Maxim A; Sabitov, Timur Y; Tomashevskaya, Irina G; Glazirin, Gleb E; Chernomorets, Sergey S; Savernyuk, Elena A; Tutubalina, Olga V; Petrakov, Dmitriy A; Sokolov, Leonid S; Dokukin, Mikhail D; Mountrakis, Giorgos; Ruiz-Villanueva, Virginia; Stoffel, Markus

    2017-08-15

    Climate change has been shown to increase the number of mountain lakes across various mountain ranges in the World. In Central Asia, and in particular on the territory of Uzbekistan, a detailed assessment of glacier lakes and their evolution over time is, however lacking. For this reason we created the first detailed inventory of mountain lakes of Uzbekistan based on recent (2002-2014) satellite observations using WorldView-2, SPOT5, and IKONOS imagery with a spatial resolution from 2 to 10m. This record was complemented with data from field studies of the last 50years. The previous data were mostly in the form of inventories of lakes, available in Soviet archives, and primarily included localized in-situ data. The inventory of mountain lakes presented here, by contrast, includes an overview of all lakes of the territory of Uzbekistan. Lakes were considered if they were located at altitudes above 1500m and if lakes had an area exceeding 100m 2 . As in other mountain regions of the World, the ongoing increase of air temperatures has led to an increase in lake number and area. Moreover, the frequency and overall number of lake outburst events have been on the rise as well. Therefore, we also present the first outburst assessment with an updated version of well-known approaches considering local climate features and event histories. As a result, out of the 242 lakes identified on the territory of Uzbekistan, 15% are considered prone to outburst, 10% of these lakes have been assigned low outburst potential and the remainder of the lakes have an average level of outburst potential. We conclude that the distribution of lakes by elevation shows a significant influence on lake area and hazard potential. No significant differences, by contrast, exist between the distribution of lake area, outburst potential, and lake location with respect to glaciers by regions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Silicate melt metasomatism in the lithospheric mantle beneath SW Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puziewicz, Jacek; Matusiak-Małek, Magdalena; Ntaflos, Theodoros; Grégoire, Michel; Kukuła, Anna

    2014-05-01

    The xenoliths of peridotites representing the subcontinental lithospheric mantle (SCLM) beneath SW Poland and adjacent parts of Germany occur in the Cenozoic alkaline volcanic rocks. Our study is based on detailed characterization of xenoliths occurring in 7 locations (Steinberg in Upper Lusatia, Księginki, Pilchowice, Krzeniów, Wilcza Góra, Winna Góra and Lutynia in Lower Silesia). One of the two major lithologies occurring in the xenoliths, which we call the "B" lithology, comprises peridotites (typically harzburgites) with olivine containing from 90.5 to 84.0 mole % of forsterite. The harzburgites contain no clinopyroxene or are poor in that mineral (eg. in Krzeniów the group "B" harzburgites contain pfu in ortho-, and pfu in clinopyroxene). The exception are xenoliths from Księginki, which contain pyroxenes characterised by negative correlation between mg# and Al. The REE patterns of both ortho- and clinopyroxene in the group "B" peridotites suggest equilibration with silicate melt. The rocks of "B" lithology were formed due to alkaline silicate melt percolation in the depleted peridotitic protolith. The basaltic melts formed at high pressure are usually undersaturated in both ortho- and clinopyroxene at lower pressures (Kelemen et al. 1992). Because of cooling and dissolution of ortho- and clinopyroxene the melts change their composition and become saturated in one or both of those phases. Experimental results (e.g. Tursack & Liang 2012 and references therein) show that the same refers to alkaline basaltic silicate melts and that its reactive percolation in the peridotitic host leads to decrease of Mg/(Mg+Fe) ratios of olivine and pyroxenes. Thus, the variation of relative volumes of olivine and orthopyroxene as well as the decrease of mg# of rock-forming silicates is well explained by reactive melt percolation in the peridotitic protolith consisting of high mg# olivine and pyroxenes (in the area studied by us that protolith was characterised by olivine

  16. Lithological indicators of loess sedimentation of SW Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krawczyk Marcin

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available High-resolution grain-size investigations were carried out in two SW Polish loess sections: Biały Kościół (Niemcza-Strzelin Hills and Zaprężyn (Trzebnica Hills. Each sequence was sampled by using the same methodology and samples were taken at 5 centimeters intervals. The particle size distribution was obtained with a Mastersizer 2000 laser, used for diffraction methods. From the obtained results the basic parameters and grain size indicators were calculated: Mz, Grain Size Index ratio, U-ratio and the percentage content of clay ( 63 μm. Both loess-soil sequences are composed of interfluve and slope loess facies and consist of five litho-pedostratigraphic units developed during the Late Pleistocene and Holocene: two loess units L1LL1, L1LL2 and three polygenetic fossil soils sets S0, S1 and L1SS1. The distance between these two profiles is about 60 km. Zaprężyn, as a section located more to the north, has almost no lower younger loess and higher level of weathering which could be related to proximity of this site to the Ice Sheet margin. The climate here was more extreme and harsh. What is more, the difference in development of soil L1SS1 can be observed: while in Biały Kościół pedogenesis process was slower and less disturbed than in Zaprężyn. The upper part of L1SS1 in Biały Kościół was deformed by gelifluction, frost heave and other periglacial processes. Mz indicator by the grain-size distribution in these sediments reflects subtle variations in the climatic system. Moreover, in Zaprężyn the content of sand fraction is higher than in Biały Kościół what can be the evidence of short episodes of strong winds during cold period of sedimentation. The aim of this paper is to compare two loess profiles by their stratigraphical and lithological similarities which are result of climate conditions and features of surrounding environment.

  17. Lake Morphometry for NHD Lakes in Tennessee Region 6 HUC

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Lake morphometry metrics are known to influence productivity in lakes and are important for building various types of ecological and environmental models of lentic...

  18. Lake Morphometry for NHD Lakes in Ohio Region 5 HUC

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Lake morphometry metrics are known to influence productivity in lakes and are important for building various types of ecological and environmental models of lentic...

  19. Lake Morphometry for NHD Lakes in California Region 18 HUC

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Lake morphometry metrics are known to influence productivity in lakes and are important for building various types of ecological and environmental models of lentic...

  20. Real-estate lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rickert, David A.; Spieker, Andrew Maute

    1971-01-01

    Since the dawn of civilization waterfront land has been an irresistible attraction to man. Throughout history he has sought out locations fronting on oceans, rivers, and lakes. Originally sought for proximity .to water supply and transportation, such locations are now sought more for their esthetic qualities and for recreation. Usable natural waterfront property is limited, however, and the more desirable sites in many of our urban areas have already been taken. The lack of available waterfront sites has led to the creation of many artificial bodies of water. The rapid suburbanization that has characterized urban growth in America since the end of World War II, together with increasing affluence and le-isure time, has created a ready market for waterfront property. Accordingly, lake-centered subdivisions and developments dot the suburban landscape in many of our major urban areas. Literally thousands of lakes surrounded by homes have materialized during this period of rapid growth. Recently, several "new town" communities have been planned around this lake-centered concept. A lake can be either an asset or a liaoility to a community. A clean, clear, attractively landscaped lake is a definite asset, whereas a weed-choked, foul-smelling mudhole is a distinct liability. The urban environment poses both problems and imaginative opportunities in the development of lakes. Creation of a lake causes changes in all aspects of the environment. Hydrologic systems and ecological patterns are usually most severely altered. The developer should be aware of the potential changes; it is not sufficient merely to build a dam across a stream or to dig a hole in the ground. Development of Gl a successful lake requires careful planning for site selection and design, followed by thorough and cc ntinual management. The purpose of this report is to describe the characteristics of real-estate lakes, to pinpoint potential pmblems, and to suggest possible planning and management guidelines

  1. Lake Michigan lake trout PCB model forecast post audit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scenario forecasts for total PCBs in Lake Michigan (LM) lake trout were conducted using the linked LM2-Toxics and LM Food Chain models, supported by a suite of additional LM models. Efforts were conducted under the Lake Michigan Mass Balance Study and the post audit represents th...

  2. Methane emissions from permafrost thaw lakes limited by lake drainage.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Huissteden, J.; Berrittella, C.; Parmentier, F.J.W.; Mi, Y.; Maximov, T.C.; Dolman, A.J.

    2011-01-01

    Thaw lakes in permafrost areas are sources of the strong greenhouse gas methane. They develop mostly in sedimentary lowlands with permafrost and a high excess ground ice volume, resulting in large areas covered with lakes and drained thaw-lake basins (DTLBs; refs,). Their expansion is enhanced by

  3. Great Lakes Environmental Database (GLENDA)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Great Lakes Environmental Database (GLENDA) houses environmental data on a wide variety of constituents in water, biota, sediment, and air in the Great Lakes area.

  4. Functional microbiology of soda lakes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sorokin, D.Y.; Banciu, H.L.; Muyzer, G.

    2015-01-01

    Soda lakes represent unique permanently haloalkaline system. Despite the harsh conditions, they are inhabited by abundant, mostly prokaryotic, microbial communities. This review summarizes results of studies of main functional groups of the soda lake prokaryotes responsible for carbon, nitrogen and

  5. Detection of extracellular phosphatases in natural spring phytoplankton of a shallow eutrophic lake (Donghu, China)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Cao, X.; Štrojsová, Alena; Znachor, Petr; Zapomělová, Eliška; Liu, G.; Vrba, Jaroslav; Zhou, Y.

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 40, č. 3 (2005), s. 251-258 ISSN 0967-0262. [International symposium on river and lake environments /12./. Wuhan, 01.11.2004-12.11.2004] R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA6017202; GA MŠk(CZ) ME 617 Grant - others:Chinese Academy of Sciences(CN) KZCX1-SW-12-II-02-02; National Science Foundation(CN) 39170165, 39670149, 20177033, 2002CB412300 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60170517 Keywords : enzyme labelled fluorescence * phosphatase activity * phytoplankton Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 2.064, year: 2005

  6. 129I/127I ratios in surface waters of the English Lake District

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atarashi-Andoh, M.; Schnabel, C.; Cook, G.; MacKenzie, A.B.; Dougans, A.; Ellam, R.M.; Freeman, S.; Maden, C.; Olive, V.; Synal, H.-A.; Xu, S.

    2007-01-01

    Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (AMS) was used to measure 129 I/ 127 I ratios in surface sea, lake, and river water samples collected in 2004 and 2005 from the English Lake District and from SW Scotland, areas which are in relatively close proximity to the Sellafield nuclear fuel reprocessing plant in NW England. The 129 I/ 127 I ratios in surface water collected from the shore of the Irish Sea were in the range 2.8 x 10 -6 to 8.2 x 10 -6 . These ratios are one order of magnitude higher than that of seawater collected from the Irish Sea in 1992, correlating with the increase in 129 I content of the Sellafield liquid effluent discharge over the last decade. The 129 I/ 127 I ratios in lakes in the Lake District were in the range 0.7 x 10 -6 to 6.4 x 10 -6 and decreased exponentially as a function of distance from Sellafield. Consideration of the relative variation of stable I concentrations and 129 I/ 127 I ratios suggests that Sellafield gaseous discharges may be the dominant source of 129 I to the lakes

  7. Microplastic pollution in lakes and lake shoreline sediments - A case study on Lake Bolsena and Lake Chiusi (central Italy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Elke Kerstin; Paglialonga, Lisa; Czech, Elisa; Tamminga, Matthias

    2016-06-01

    Rivers and effluents have been identified as major pathways for microplastics of terrestrial sources. Moreover, lakes of different dimensions and even in remote locations contain microplastics in striking abundances. This study investigates concentrations of microplastic particles at two lakes in central Italy (Lake Bolsena, Lake Chiusi). A total number of six Manta Trawls have been carried out, two of them one day after heavy winds occurred on Lake Bolsena showing effects on particle distribution of fragments and fibers of varying size categories. Additionally, 36 sediment samples from lakeshores were analyzed for microplastic content. In the surface waters 2.68 to 3.36 particles/m(3) (Lake Chiusi) and 0.82 to 4.42 particles/m(3) (Lake Bolsena) were detected, respectively. Main differences between the lakes are attributed to lake characteristics such as surface and catchment area, depth and the presence of local wind patterns and tide range at Lake Bolsena. An event of heavy winds and moderate rainfall prior to one sampling led to an increase of concentrations at Lake Bolsena which is most probable related to lateral land-based and sewage effluent inputs. The abundances of microplastic particles in sediments vary from mean values of 112 (Lake Bolsena) to 234 particles/kg dry weight (Lake Chiusi). Lake Chiusi results reveal elevated fiber concentrations compared to those of Lake Bolsena what might be a result of higher organic content and a shift in grain size distribution towards the silt and clay fraction at the shallow and highly eutrophic Lake Chiusi. The distribution of particles along different beach levels revealed no significant differences. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Sanctuaries for lake trout in the Great Lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanley, Jon G.; Eshenroder, Randy L.; Hartman, Wilbur L.

    1987-01-01

    Populations of lake trout, severely depleted in Lake Superior and virtually extirpated from the other Great Lakes because of sea lamprey predation and intense fishing, are now maintained by annual plantings of hatchery-reared fish in Lakes Michigan, Huron, and Ontario and parts of Lake Superior. The extensive coastal areas of the Great Lakes and proximity to large populations resulted in fishing pressure on planted lake trout heavy enough to push annual mortality associated with sport and commercial fisheries well above the critical level needed to reestablish self-sustaining stocks. The interagency, international program for rehabilitating lake trout includes controlling sea lamprey abundance, stocking hatchery-reared lake trout, managing the catch, and establishing sanctuaries where harvest is prohibited. Three lake trout sanctuaries have been established in Lake Michigan: the Fox Island Sanctuary of 121, 500 ha, in the Chippewa-Ottawa Treaty fishing zone in the northern region of the lake; the Milwaukee Reef Sanctuary of 160, 000 ha in midlake, in boundary waters of Michigan and Wisconsin; and Julian's Reef Sanctuary of 6, 500 ha, in Illinois waters. In northern Lake Huron, Drummond Island Sanctuary of 55, 000 ha is two thirds in Indian treaty-ceded waters in Michigan and one third in Ontario waters of Canada. A second sanctuary, Six Fathom Bank-Yankee Reef Sanctuary, in central Lake Huron contains 168, 000 ha. Sanctuary status for the Canadian areas remains to be approved by the Provincial government. In Lake Superior, sanctuaries protect the spawning grounds of Gull Island Shoal (70, 000 ha) and Devils Island Shoal (44, 000 ha) in Wisconsin's Apostle Island area. These seven sanctuaries, established by the several States and agreed upon by the States, Indian tribes, the U.S. Department of the Interior, and the Province of Ontario, contribute toward solving an interjurisdictional fishery problem.

  9. 239 240Pu in Lake Michigan: 1971 to 1978

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wahlgren, M.A.; Nelson, D.M.; Orlandini, K.A.; Kucera, E.T.

    1978-01-01

    The plutonium concentration data presented previously have consisted primarily of results from studies of short-term variations, i.e., the annual plutonium cycle conducted at Lake Michigan station ANL-5, 12 km SW of Grand Haven, Michigan. In this report, mean annual concentrations of total plutonium in unfiltered water from far off-shore (> 30 km) stations for the period 1971 through 1977, and from station ANL-5 (1975 through 1978) are summarized to establish the long-term trend in plutonium concentration in Lake Michigan. The results presented show that the mean annual concentration in the water column is similar at ANL-5 and at offshore stations and has decreased at the rate of only 6% per year during the period 1972 through 1978. The nearly constant concentration indicates that steady-state equilibria exist between plutonium inputs to the lake and the loss of plutonium from the water column. Observations suggest the existence of an active redox cycle for Pu in Lake Michigan. In this cycle, Pu IV atoms in solution are continually taken up by particulate materials but may be oxidized within microzones of the particles such as freshly deposited manganese coatings and also in solution by agents such as dissolved oxygen. In turn, the concentration of Pu VI in solution may be limited by reaction with reducing constituents of the coloidal-sized fraction (or decomposer organisms such as bacteria or fungi, which might have been present after filtration) and with planktonic organisms in the environment to produce Pu IV and thus maintain the cycle

  10. Water quality of Lake Austin and Town Lake, Austin, Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, Freeman L.; Wells, Frank C.; Shelby, Wanda J.; McPherson, Emma

    1988-01-01

    Lake Austin and Town Lake are located on the Colorado River in Travis County, central Texas, and serve as a source of water for municipal and industrial water supplies, electrical-power generation, and recreation for more than 500,000 people in the Austin metropolitan area. Lake Austin, located immediately downstream of Lake Travis, extends for more than 20 miles into the western edge of the city of Austin. Town Lake extends through the downtown area of the city of Austin for nearly 6 miles where the Colorado River is impounded by Longhorn Dam.

  11. Lake Morphometry for NHD Lakes in Great Lakes Region 4 HUC

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Lake morphometry metrics are known to influence productivity in lakes and are important for building various types of ecological and environmental models of lentic...

  12. Transient Tsunamis in Lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couston, L.; Mei, C.; Alam, M.

    2013-12-01

    A large number of lakes are surrounded by steep and unstable mountains with slopes prone to failure. As a result, landslides are likely to occur and impact water sitting in closed reservoirs. These rare geological phenomena pose serious threats to dam reservoirs and nearshore facilities because they can generate unexpectedly large tsunami waves. In fact, the tallest wave experienced by contemporary humans occurred because of a landslide in the narrow bay of Lituya in 1958, and five years later, a deadly landslide tsunami overtopped Lake Vajont's dam, flooding and damaging villages along the lakefront and in the Piave valley. If unstable slopes and potential slides are detected ahead of time, inundation maps can be drawn to help people know the risks, and mitigate the destructive power of the ensuing waves. These maps give the maximum wave runup height along the lake's vertical and sloping boundaries, and can be obtained by numerical simulations. Keeping track of the moving shorelines along beaches is challenging in classical Eulerian formulations because the horizontal extent of the fluid domain can change over time. As a result, assuming a solid slide and nonbreaking waves, here we develop a nonlinear shallow-water model equation in the Lagrangian framework to address the problem of transient landslide-tsunamis. In this manner, the shorelines' three-dimensional motion is part of the solution. The model equation is hyperbolic and can be solved numerically by finite differences. Here, a 4th order Runge-Kutta method and a compact finite-difference scheme are implemented to integrate in time and spatially discretize the forced shallow-water equation in Lagrangian coordinates. The formulation is applied to different lake and slide geometries to better understand the effects of the lake's finite lengths and slide's forcing mechanism on the generated wavefield. Specifically, for a slide moving down a plane beach, we show that edge-waves trapped by the shoreline and free

  13. Technologies for lake restoration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helmut KLAPPER

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Lakes are suffering from different stress factors and need to be restored using different approaches. The eutrophication remains as the main water quality management problem for inland waters: both lakes and reservoirs. The way to curb the degradation is to stop the nutrient sources and to accelerate the restoration with help of in-lake technologies. Especially lakes with a long retention time need (eco- technological help to decrease the nutrient content in the free water. The microbial and other organic matter from sewage and other autochthonous biomasses, causes oxygen depletion, which has many adverse effects. In less developed countries big reservoirs function as sewage treatment plants. Natural aeration solves problems only partly and many pollutants tend to accumulate in the sediments. The acidification by acid rain and by pyrite oxidation has to be controlled by acid neutralizing technologies. Addition of alkaline chemicals is useful only for soft waters, and technologies for (microbial alkalinization of very acidic hardwater mining lakes are in development. The corrective measures differ from those in use for eutrophication control. The salinization and water shortage mostly occurs if more water is used than available. L. Aral, L. Tschad, the Dead Sea or L. Nasser belong to waters with most severe environmental problems on a global scale. Their hydrologic regime needs to be evaluated. The inflow of salt water at the bottom of some mining lakes adds to stability of stratification, and thus accumulation of hydrogen sulphide in the monimolimnion of the meromictic lakes. Destratification, which is the most used technology, is only restricted applicable because of the dangerous concentrations of the byproducts of biological degradation. The contamination of lakes with hazardous substances from industry and agriculture require different restoration technologies, including subhydric isolation and storage, addition of nutrients for better self

  14. Lakes on Mars

    CERN Document Server

    Cabrol, Nathalie A

    2014-01-01

    On Earth, lakes provide favorable environments for the development of life and its preservation as fossils. They are extremely sensitive to climate fluctuations and to conditions within their watersheds. As such, lakes are unique markers of the impact of environmental changes. Past and current missions have now demonstrated that water once flowed at the surface of Mars early in its history. Evidence of ancient ponding has been uncovered at scales ranging from a few kilometers to possibly that of the Arctic ocean. Whether life existed on Mars is still unknown; upcoming missions may find critic

  15. Sr-Nd isotope systematics of xenoliths in Cenozoic volcanic rocks from SW Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kagami, Hiroo; Iwata, Masatoshi; Iizumi, Shigeru; Nureki, Terukazu.

    1993-01-01

    Based on new and previously published Sr and Nd isotope data, we examined the petrogenetic relationship between deep crust- and upper mantle-derived xenoliths contained in Cenozoic volcanic rocks and Cretaceous-Paleogene granitoid rocks in SW Japan. The deep crust- and upper mantle-derived mafic to ultramafic xenoliths contained in Cenozoic volcanic rocks from SW Japan have comparable initial Sr and Nd isotope ratios to the Cretaceous-Paleogene granitoid rocks in their respective districts. This may suggest that these xenoliths were genetically related to the Cretaceous-Paleogene granitoid rocks in SW Japan, and that regional variations in Sr and Nd isotope ratios observed in the granitoid rocks are attributed to differences in the geochemistry of the magma sources. (author)

  16. Terrestrial CDOM in Lakes of Yamal Peninsula: Connection to Lake and Lake Catchment Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yury Dvornikov

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we analyze interactions in lake and lake catchment systems of a continuous permafrost area. We assessed colored dissolved organic matter (CDOM absorption at 440 nm (a(440CDOM and absorption slope (S300–500 in lakes using field sampling and optical remote sensing data for an area of 350 km2 in Central Yamal, Siberia. Applying a CDOM algorithm (ratio of green and red band reflectance for two high spatial resolution multispectral GeoEye-1 and Worldview-2 satellite images, we were able to extrapolate the a(λCDOM data from 18 lakes sampled in the field to 356 lakes in the study area (model R2 = 0.79. Values of a(440CDOM in 356 lakes varied from 0.48 to 8.35 m−1 with a median of 1.43 m−1. This a(λCDOM dataset was used to relate lake CDOM to 17 lake and lake catchment parameters derived from optical and radar remote sensing data and from digital elevation model analysis in order to establish the parameters controlling CDOM in lakes on the Yamal Peninsula. Regression tree model and boosted regression tree analysis showed that the activity of cryogenic processes (thermocirques in the lake shores and lake water level were the two most important controls, explaining 48.4% and 28.4% of lake CDOM, respectively (R2 = 0.61. Activation of thermocirques led to a large input of terrestrial organic matter and sediments from catchments and thawed permafrost to lakes (n = 15, mean a(440CDOM = 5.3 m−1. Large lakes on the floodplain with a connection to Mordy-Yakha River received more CDOM (n = 7, mean a(440CDOM = 3.8 m−1 compared to lakes located on higher terraces.

  17. Perturbative determination of c{sub SW} with Symanzik improved gauge action and stout smearing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horsley, R. [Edinburgh Univ. (United Kingdom). School of Physics; Perlt, H.; Schiller, A. [Leipzig Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik; Rakow, P.E.L. [Liverpool Univ. (United Kingdom). Theoretical Physics Dept., Dept. of Mathematical Sciences; Schierholz, G. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany)

    2007-10-15

    We determine the improvement factor c{sub SW} in one-loop lattice perturbation theory for the plaquette and Symanzik improved gauge actions. The fermionic action is O(a) clover improved with one-time stout smearing. c{sub SW} is derived from the one-loop correction to the quark-quark-gluon vertex in the off-shell regime. We give a first numerical value for the one-loop contribution to the non gauge-invariant improvement coefficient c{sub NGI} for the quark field using the plaquette action. A discussion of mean field improvement is included. (orig.)

  18. Poet Lake Crystal Approval

    Science.gov (United States)

    This September 19, 2016 letter from EPA approves the petition from Poet Biorefining-Lake Crystal, regarding non-grandfathered ethanol produced through a dry mill process, qualifying under the Clean Air Act for renewable fuel (D-code 6) RINs under the RFS

  19. Lake Kariba, Zimbabwe

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1984-02-01

    Feb 1, 1984 ... rings word opgesom terwyl sommige van die lesse wat by Kariba geleer is en 'n ... one area of the lake must have an effect, directly or indirectly, on other consumer organisms in the aquatic environment. Con- sidering ... are liable to attain their high density at the price of other taxa. ... be measured. Data on ...

  20. IN LAKE TANA, ETHIOPIA

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Turbidity showed depressed effect on biomass ... Key words/phrases: Biomass, duration of development, Lake Tana, large-turbid ... 36°45'-38°14'E and at an altitude of 1830 In, a.s.l. ... 30 cm mouth opening, 1.2 m cod end), which was ... times of the three copepods were measured under .... The greatest density values were.

  1. Lake whitefish diet, condition, and energy density in Lake Champlain and the lower four Great Lakes following dreissenid invasions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbst, Seth J.; Marsden, J. Ellen; Lantry, Brian F.

    2013-01-01

    Lake Whitefish Coregonus clupeaformis support some of the most valuable commercial freshwater fisheries in North America. Recent growth and condition decreases in Lake Whitefish populations in the Great Lakes have been attributed to the invasion of the dreissenid mussels, zebra mussels Dreissena polymorpha and quagga mussels D. bugensis, and the subsequent collapse of the amphipod, Diporeia, a once-abundant high energy prey source. Since 1993, Lake Champlain has also experienced the invasion and proliferation of zebra mussels, but in contrast to the Great Lakes, Diporeia were not historically abundant. We compared the diet, condition, and energy density of Lake Whitefish from Lake Champlain after the dreissenid mussel invasion to values for those of Lake Whitefish from Lakes Michigan, Huron, Erie, and Ontario. Lake Whitefish were collected using gill nets and bottom trawls, and their diets were quantified seasonally. Condition was estimated using Fulton's condition factor (K) and by determining energy density. In contrast to Lake Whitefish from some of the Great Lakes, those from Lake Champlain Lake Whitefish did not show a dietary shift towards dreissenid mussels, but instead fed primarily on fish eggs in spring, Mysis diluviana in summer, and gastropods and sphaeriids in fall and winter. Along with these dietary differences, the condition and energy density of Lake Whitefish from Lake Champlain were high compared with those of Lake Whitefish from Lakes Michigan, Huron, and Ontario after the dreissenid invasion, and were similar to Lake Whitefish from Lake Erie; fish from Lakes Michigan, Huron, and Ontario consumed dreissenids, whereas fish from Lake Erie did not. Our comparisons of Lake Whitefish populations in Lake Champlain to those in the Great Lakes indicate that diet and condition of Lake Champlain Lake Whitefish were not negatively affected by the dreissenid mussel invasion.

  2. The radiological hazards of some radionuclides in Mariout and Brullus Lakes, Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dar, M.A.; El Saharty, A.A.

    2012-01-01

    Mariout and Brullus were considered two of the highly fish productive lakes in Egypt as well as they widely used to drain huge quantities of industrial wastewater, sewage and agriculture drainage. Thousands of peoples inhabited the areas around the lakes and depend on them completely in their lives. The activities of 238 U, 232 Th and 40 K were measured in the upper most part of the surface sediments of the two lakes using gamma ray spectrophotometery. Brullus Lake recorded significantly higher 238 U and 232 Th and lower 40 K (17.22±2.49 Bq/kg, 10.0 ±56 Bq/kg and 299.7±17.78 Bq/kg) than Mariout Lake (12.65±1.53 Bq/kg, 7.24±0.76 Bq/kg and 518.75±46.24 Bq/kg respectively). Inversely, the mean average of absorbed dose rate (D), annual effective dose rate (mSvy -1 ), radium equivalent (Ra eq ), external hazard index (H ex ) and the representative level index (Iγr) were; 32.01 nGy/h, 0.04 mSv/y, 62.95 Bq/kg, 0.17 and 0.50 at Mariout Lake higher than those in Brullus lake (26.42 nGy/h, 0.03 mSv/y, 54.25 Bq/kg, 0.15 and 0.41) respectively. The recorded and calculated values were lower than the acceptable limits published in the different localities around the world. The activity distributions of the radiological hazards show the highest intensities in the western part of Mariout Lake and decreasing gradually eastward and north eastward affecting by the drainage agriculture water from Kabary Drain, Umum Drain, S.W. Basin and Nubaria Canal. At Brullus Lake, the radiological hazard intensities were concentrated in the west and southwest influenced by Zaglul Drain, Rosetta Drain, Brembal canal, Drain 11, Drain 9, Drain 8 and partially by Drain 1 while the lowest intensities were in the north and northeast affecting by the interaction with the Mediterranean Sea. K-40 recorded positive correlations and significant linear regression relationships with radiological hazard parameters at Mariout Like meaning that 40 K is the main gamma emitter in the lake, while the

  3. Microbiology of Lonar Lake and other soda lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul Antony, Chakkiath; Kumaresan, Deepak; Hunger, Sindy; Drake, Harold L; Murrell, J Colin; Shouche, Yogesh S

    2013-01-01

    Soda lakes are saline and alkaline ecosystems that are believed to have existed throughout the geological record of Earth. They are widely distributed across the globe, but are highly abundant in terrestrial biomes such as deserts and steppes and in geologically interesting regions such as the East African Rift valley. The unusual geochemistry of these lakes supports the growth of an impressive array of microorganisms that are of ecological and economic importance. Haloalkaliphilic Bacteria and Archaea belonging to all major trophic groups have been described from many soda lakes, including lakes with exceptionally high levels of heavy metals. Lonar Lake is a soda lake that is centered at an unusual meteorite impact structure in the Deccan basalts in India and its key physicochemical and microbiological characteristics are highlighted in this article. The occurrence of diverse functional groups of microbes, such as methanogens, methanotrophs, phototrophs, denitrifiers, sulfur oxidizers, sulfate reducers and syntrophs in soda lakes, suggests that these habitats harbor complex microbial food webs that (a) interconnect various biological cycles via redox coupling and (b) impact on the production and consumption of greenhouse gases. Soda lake microorganisms harbor several biotechnologically relevant enzymes and biomolecules (for example, cellulases, amylases, ectoine) and there is the need to augment bioprospecting efforts in soda lake environments with new integrated approaches. Importantly, some saline and alkaline lake ecosystems around the world need to be protected from anthropogenic pressures that threaten their long-term existence. PMID:23178675

  4. Lake trout rehabilitation in Lake Erie: a case history

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornelius, Floyd C.; Muth, Kenneth M.; Kenyon, Roger

    1995-01-01

    Native lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) once thrived in the deep waters of eastern Lake Erie. The impact of nearly 70 years of unregulated exploitation and over 100 years of progressively severe cultural eutrophication resulted in the elimination of lake trout stocks by 1950. Early attempts to restore lake trout by stocking were unsuccessful in establishing a self-sustaining population. In the early 1980s, New York's Department of Environmental Conservation, Pennsylvania's Fish and Boat Commission, and the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service entered into a cooperative program to rehabilitate lake trout in the eastern basin of Lake Erie. After 11 years of stocking selected strains of lake trout in U.S. waters, followed by effective sea lamprey control, lake trout appear to be successfully recolonizing their native habitat. Adult stocks have built up significantly and are expanding their range in the lake. Preliminary investigations suggest that lake trout reproductive habitat is still adequate for natural reproduction, but natural recruitment has not been documented. Future assessments will be directed toward evaluation of spawning success and tracking age-class cohorts as they move through the fishery.

  5. On SW-minimal models and N=1 supersymmetric quantum Toda-field theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mallwitz, S.

    1994-04-01

    Integrable N=1 supersymmetric Toda-field theories are determined by a contragredient simple Super-Lie-Algebra (SSLS) with purely fermionic lowering and raising operators. For the SSLA's Osp(3/2) and D(2/1;α) we construct explicitly the higher spin conserved currents and obtain free field representations of the super W-algebras SW(3/2,2) and SW(3/2,3/2,2). In constructing the corresponding series of minimal models using covariant vertex operators, we find a necessary restriction on the Cartan matrix of the SSLA, also for the general case. Within this framework, this restriction claims that there be a minimum of one non-vanishing element on the diagonal of the Cartan matrix. This condition is without parallel in bosonic conformal field theory. As a consequence only two series of SSLA's yield minimal models, namely Osp(2n/2n-1) and Osp(2n/2n+1). Subsequently some general aspects of degenerate representations of SW-algebras, notably the fusion rules, are investigated. As an application we discuss minimal models of SW(3/2, 2), which were constructed with independent methods, in this framework. Covariant formulation is used throughout this paper. (orig.)

  6. Unravelling the role of SW Sextantis stars in the evolution of cataclysmic variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araujo-Betancor, Sofia; Gansicke, Boris; Long, Knox; Rodriguez-Gil, Pablo

    2005-08-01

    SW Sextantis stars are a relatively large group of cataclysmic variables whose properties contradict all predictions made by the current CV evolution theories. Very little is known about the properties of their accreting white dwarfs and their donor stars, as the stellar components are usually outshone by an extremely bright accretion flow. Consequently, a proper assessment of their evolutionary state is illusionary. There is one particular behavior of the SW Sex stars that can allow us to overcome this problem: SW Sex stars exhibit low states during which accretion onto the white dwarf decreases or shuts off completely. Only during this rare occasions we can directly observe the white dwarf and the donor star in these systems, and measurements of the white dwarf temperature, spectral type of the donor, mass and distance to the system can be carried out. With this aim in mind, we have set up a long-term monitoring of a group of five SW Sex stars using the 1.3 m telescope at CTIO. Here we propose to activate follow-up TOOs to obtain optical spectra of the low states to accurately determine the fundamental properties of these systems.

  7. Study of the gamma irradiation effects on the PMMA/HA and PMMA/SW

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, P., E-mail: silva@ivic.v [Instituto Venezolano de Investigaciones Cientificas, Centro de Fisica, Carretera Panamericana Km. 11, Caracas 1020-A (Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of); Albano, C. [Universidad Central de Venezuela, Facultad de Ingenieria (Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of); Instituto Venezolano de Investigaciones Cientificas, Centro de Quimica (Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of); Perera, R. [Departamento de Mecanica, Universidad Simon Bolivar, Caracas 1080-A (Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of); Dominguez, N. [Instituto Venezolano de Investigaciones Cientificas, Centro de Quimica (Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of)

    2010-03-15

    The behavior of the poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) under the action of gamma radiation has been sufficiently studied. In this work, we present results from melt flow index (MFI), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) of PMMA composites with hydroxyapatite (HA) and seaweed residues (SW) irradiated with gamma rays at 1.08 kGy/h. Composites of PMMA/HA and PMMA/SW with 10%, 20% and 30% of the filler were prepared. The results show an increase in the MFI values with the integral dose of radiation, being consistent with chain-scission reactions. No EPR signal was observed in pure PMMA, while in the composites, the typical EPR signal of the PMMA radicals was observed, which increased with the amount of HA or SW. When comparing the relative intensities of the EPR signals for both types of composites, a slight increase in the concentration of free radicals generated in the sample with SW respect to that of PMMA/HA composite was obtained. A decay of the total free radical concentration was observed as time elapsed.

  8. Hot topics in modern cosmology - SW6 - Slides of the presentations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Starobinsky, A.A.; Gorbunov, D.; Reverberi, L.; Arbuzova, E.; Arbuzov, A.; Maeda, K.; Borowiec, A.; Moschella, U.; Karshenboim, S.; Tinyakov, P.; Watanabe, Y.; Deffrayet, C.; Pilo, L.; Rham, C. de; Fasiello, M.; Tolley, A.; Chernodub, M.; Kunze, K.; Berezhiani, Z.; Kamyshkov, Y.

    2014-01-01

    This spontaneous workshop (SW) brings together specialists on recent insights in particle physics, astrophysics and cosmology. The aim is to stimulate debates on common topics in views of providing the scientific community with innovating ideas. The main topics are gravity, dark matter and cosmological models. This document is made of the slides of the presentations.

  9. sw-SVM: sensor weighting support vector machines for EEG-based brain-computer interfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jrad, N; Congedo, M; Phlypo, R; Rousseau, S; Flamary, R; Yger, F; Rakotomamonjy, A

    2011-10-01

    In many machine learning applications, like brain-computer interfaces (BCI), high-dimensional sensor array data are available. Sensor measurements are often highly correlated and signal-to-noise ratio is not homogeneously spread across sensors. Thus, collected data are highly variable and discrimination tasks are challenging. In this work, we focus on sensor weighting as an efficient tool to improve the classification procedure. We present an approach integrating sensor weighting in the classification framework. Sensor weights are considered as hyper-parameters to be learned by a support vector machine (SVM). The resulting sensor weighting SVM (sw-SVM) is designed to satisfy a margin criterion, that is, the generalization error. Experimental studies on two data sets are presented, a P300 data set and an error-related potential (ErrP) data set. For the P300 data set (BCI competition III), for which a large number of trials is available, the sw-SVM proves to perform equivalently with respect to the ensemble SVM strategy that won the competition. For the ErrP data set, for which a small number of trials are available, the sw-SVM shows superior performances as compared to three state-of-the art approaches. Results suggest that the sw-SVM promises to be useful in event-related potentials classification, even with a small number of training trials.

  10. Does SW Monsoon Influence Total Suspended Matter Flux into the Arabian Sea?

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Raghavan, B.R.; Chauhan, O.S.

    Seasonal enhancement in the flux of total suspended matter (TSM) has been attributed to climatology of the SW monsoon (SWM) in time-series trap experiments conducted in the Arabian Sea. To determine the influence of climate on TSM flux, synoptic...

  11. Enhanced production of poly glutamic acid by Bacillus sp. SW1-2 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bacillus sp. SW1-2 producing poly glutamic acid (PGA), locally isolated from Eastern province in Saudi Arabia, was characterized and identified based on 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Phylogenetic analysis revealed its closeness to Bacillus megaterium. The homopolymer consists mainly of glutamic as indicated in the ...

  12. Geochemistry of calcareous sediments from the SW Carlsberg Ridge: Evidence for deeper carbonate compensation depth

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Valsangkar, A.B.; Ambre, N.V.

    Concentration of Mn, Fe, Ni, Co, Zn, Ca, Mg, K, Al, Si, Ti, P and CaCO sub(3) show wide range for the calcareous sediments from SW Carlsberg Ridge (CR). Compared with the average pelagic clays, the CR sediments are enriched by Mg, Ni, Co, and Zn...

  13. Nitrogen Dynamics in the Westerschelde Estuary (Sw Netherlands) Estimated by Means of the Ecosystem Model Moses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Soetaert, K.E.R.; Herman, P.M.J.

    1995-01-01

    A tentative nitrogen budget for the Westerschelde (SW Netherlands) is constructed by means of a simulation model with thirteen spatial compartments. Biochemical and chemical processes in the water column are dynamically modeled; fluxes of dissolved constituents across the water-bottom interface are

  14. Contrasting styles of Sn-W mineralisation in peninsular Thailand and SW England

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manning, D. A. C.

    1986-01-01

    The Sn-W deposits of SW England and SE Asia are associated with crustally derived granitic rocks with late volatile-enriched (F, Li, B, P) differentiates. In peninsular Thailand, primary ores are principally pegmatitic, and hydrothermal vein systems are only locally important. In SW England, wolframite and cassiterite mainly occur in hydrothermal vein systems, and are associated with greisening and tourmalinisation; mineralised pegmatites are rare. These two styles of mineralisation are thought to arise because of differences in the character of late magmatic processes. In peninsular Thailand, late-stage tourmaline-bearing granitic rocks are enriched in B, but not Li and F, compared to earlier biotite granites. Similar late-stage granitic rocks occur also in SW England, but a later topaz granite, enriched in F, Li and P, also occurs. The Thai pegmatitic Sn-W deposits are thought to have formed by late magmatic crystallisation from an aqueous phase enriched in metals and derived by exsolution from a B and metal-rich magma, whereas the SW England mineralisation involved essentially post-magmatic hydrothermal processes. Complexing agents (especially F) and metals may have been derived from granitic or country rocks during hydrothermal circulation at the current level of emplacement.

  15. Larger foraminifera distribution on a mesotrophic carbonate shelf in SW Sulawesi (Indonesia)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Renema, W.; Troelstra, S.R.

    2001-01-01

    Larger symbiont bearing foraminifera typically live in shallow tropical seas. In this study the fauna composition of patch reefs scattered over the Spermonde Shelf (SW Sulawesi, Indonesia), a mesotrophic carbonate shelf, is examined. The foraminiferal fauna of the Spermonde Shelf is characterised by

  16. Monitoring the potential introduction of the Swedish Chlamydia trachomatis variant (swCT) in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Morré, S. A.; Catsburg, A.; de Boer, M.; Spaargaren, J.; de Vries, H. J. C.; Schirm, J.; Savelkoul, P. H. M.; van Steenbergen, J.; Swaan, C.

    2007-01-01

    This report describes the actions of public health experts in cooperation with specialists in sexually transmitted diseases (STD), epidemiologists and (molecular) microbiologists to investigate the possible introduction of the swCT variant in the Netherlands: 1. Investigating trends in CT

  17. Lateglacial and early Holocene tephrostratigraphy and sedimentology of the Store Slotseng basin, SW Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Jeppe Joel; Noe-Nygaard, Nanna

    2014-01-01

    The history of the Lateglacial and Preboreal sedimentary succession from the Store Slotseng kettle hole basin, SW Denmark is presented. A tephrostratigraphical and multi-proxy investigation of the sediments, including stable isotope geochemistry, reveals small- and large-scale changes in the surr...

  18. Keurmerk voor sociaal aannamebeleid. Prestatieladder Socialer Ondernemer ook bruikbaar voor SW

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, A.

    2012-01-01

    De Prestatieladder Socialer Ondernemen (PSO) geeft bedrijven die meer dan gemiddeld bijdragen aan werkgelegenheid voor personen met een afstand tot de arbeidsmarkt een erkenning. De PSO is 14 juni gelanceerd door TNO en ontwikkeld in samenwerking met onder andere zeven SW-bedrijven.ln dit artikeì de

  19. Properties of cast films made of chayote (Sechium edule Sw.) tuber starch reinforced with cellulose nanocrystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    In this study, cellulose (C) and cellulose nanocrystals (CN) were blended with chayote tuber (Sechium edule Sw.) starch (CS) in formulations cast into films. The films were conditioned at different storage temperatures and relative humidity (RH), and analyzed by mechanical tests, X-ray diffraction, ...

  20. Supporting document for the SW Quadrant Historical Tank Content Estimate for U-Tank Farm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brevick, C.H.; Gaddis, L.A.; Johnson, E.D.

    1994-06-01

    This Supporting Document provides historical characterization information gathered on U-Tank Farm, such as historical waste transfer and level data, tank physical information, temperature data, sampling data, and drywell and liquid observation well data for Historical Tank Content Estimate of the SW Quadrant at the Hanford 200 West Area

  1. Supporting Document for the SW Quadrant Historical Tank Content Estimate for SX-Tank Farm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brevick, C.H.; Gaddis, L.A.; Johnson, E.D.

    1994-06-01

    This Supporting Document provides historical characterization information gathered on SX-Tank Farm, such as historical waste transfer and level data, tank physical information, temperature data, sampling data, and drywell and liquid observation well data for Historical Tank Content Estimate of the SW Quadrant at the Hanford 200 West Area

  2. Evolution of alkaline lakes - Lake Van case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tillman Meyer, Felix; Viehberg, Finn; Bahroun, Sonya; Wolf, Annabel; Immenhauser, Adrian; Kwiecien, Ola

    2017-04-01

    Lake Van in Eastern Anatolia (Turkey) is the largest terminal soda lake on Earth. The lake sedimentary profile covers ca. 600 ka (Stockhecke et al. 2014) Based on lithological changes, the presence of freshwater microfossils and close-to-freshwater pH value in the pore water, members of ICDP PALEOVAN concluded that Lake Van might have started as an open lake. Here we show paleontological and geochemical evidence in favour of this idea and constrain the time, when Lake Van likely transformed into a closed lake. Additionally we provide the first conceptual model of how this closure may have happened. Our archives of choice are inorganic and biogenic carbonates, separated by wet sieving. We identified microfossil assemblages (fraction > 125 µm) and performed high-resolution oxygen isotope (delta18O) and elemental (Mg/Ca, Sr/Ca) analyses of the fraction plants growing in the photic zone as food supply. These two aspects point to an increasing salinity in a shallowing lake. The delta18O values of inorganic carbonates are relatively low during the initial phase of Lake Van and increase abruptly (ca. 7‰) after 530 ka BP. At approximately the same time combination of Sr/Ca and Mg/Ca data suggest first occurrence of aragonite. Again, these findings suggest geochemical changes of the lake water concurrent with transition documented by microfossils. Comparison between Lake Van and Lake Ohrid (Lacey et al. 2016) delta18O data, precludes regional climate change (e.g.: increased evaporation) as the main driver of observed changes. With no evidence for increased volcanic or tectonic activity (e.g.: tephra layers, deformation structures, slumping) in the Lake Van sedimentary profile around 530 ka, it seems unlikely that a pyroclastic flow blocked the outflow of the lake. Alternatively, a portion of inflow has been diverged which might have caused a change in the hydrological balance and lake level falling below its outlet. However, as no geomorphological data confirming this

  3. Predicting Maximum Lake Depth from Surrounding Topography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lake volume aids understanding of the physical and ecological dynamics of lakes, yet is often not readily available. The data needed to calculate lake volume (i.e. bathymetry) are usually only collected on a lake by lake basis and are difficult to obtain across broad regions. ...

  4. Lake-level frequency analysis for Devils Lake, North Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiche, Gregg J.; Vecchia, Aldo V.

    1996-01-01

    Two approaches were used to estimate future lake-level probabilities for Devils Lake. The first approach is based on an annual lake-volume model, and the second approach is based on a statistical water mass-balance model that generates seasonal lake volumes on the basis of seasonal precipitation, evaporation, and inflow. Autoregressive moving average models were used to model the annual mean lake volume and the difference between the annual maximum lake volume and the annual mean lake volume. Residuals from both models were determined to be uncorrelated with zero mean and constant variance. However, a nonlinear relation between the residuals of the two models was included in the final annual lakevolume model.Because of high autocorrelation in the annual lake levels of Devils Lake, the annual lake-volume model was verified using annual lake-level changes. The annual lake-volume model closely reproduced the statistics of the recorded lake-level changes for 1901-93 except for the skewness coefficient. However, the model output is less skewed than the data indicate because of some unrealistically large lake-level declines. The statistical water mass-balance model requires as inputs seasonal precipitation, evaporation, and inflow data for Devils Lake. Analysis of annual precipitation, evaporation, and inflow data for 1950-93 revealed no significant trends or long-range dependence so the input time series were assumed to be stationary and short-range dependent.Normality transformations were used to approximately maintain the marginal probability distributions; and a multivariate, periodic autoregressive model was used to reproduce the correlation structure. Each of the coefficients in the model is significantly different from zero at the 5-percent significance level. Coefficients relating spring inflow from one year to spring and fall inflows from the previous year had the largest effect on the lake-level frequency analysis.Inclusion of parameter uncertainty in the model

  5. Lake-wide distribution of Dreissena in Lake Michigan, 1999

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleischer, Guy W.; DeSorcie, Timothy J.; Holuszko, Jeffrey D.

    2001-01-01

    The Great Lakes Science Center has conducted lake-wide bottom trawl surveys of the fish community in Lake Michigan each fall since 1973. These systematic surveys are performed at depths of 9 to 110 m at each of seven index sites around Lake Michigan. Zebra mussel (Dreissena polymorpha) populations have expanded to all survey locations and at a level to sufficiently contribute to the bottom trawl catches. The quagga (Dreissena bugensis), recently reported in Lake Michigan, was likely in the catches though not recognized. Dreissena spp. biomass ranged from about 0.6 to 15 kg/ha at the various sites in 1999. Dreissenid mussels were found at depths of 9 to 82 m, with their peak biomass at 27 to 46 m. The colonization of these exotic mussels has ecological implications as well as potential ramifications on the ability to sample fish consistently and effectively with bottom trawls in Lake Michigan.

  6. The diversity of benthic mollusks of Lake Victoria and Lake Burigi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Molluscan diversity, abundance and distribution in sediments of Lake Victoria and its satellite lake, Lake Burigi, were investigated. The survey was carried out in January and February 2002 for Lake Victoria and in March and April 2002 for Lake Burigi. Ten genera were recorded from four zones of Lake Victoria while only ...

  7. Elliot Lake progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Findlay, W.; Scott, A.S.

    1980-01-01

    The intent of the Elliot Lake remedial program is to identify houses in Elliot Lake with annual average WL's in excess of 0.02, discover the routes of radon entry into identified houses and close enough of them to reduce the annual average WL to an acceptable level, and to demonstrate that the annual average WL is below 0.02 in houses where remedial work was not thought necessary as well as in houses where remedial work has been completed. The remedial program is organized into two subprograms, the survey program and the remedial action program. By December 31, 1979 more than 17000 survey measurements had been carried out, identifying 157 houses where remedial action was required and confirming that no action was needed in 413 houses. Remedial work had been completed on 98 houses

  8. Angora Fire, Lake Tahoe

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    On the weekend of June 23, 2007, a wildfire broke out south of Lake Tahoe, which stretches across the California-Nevada border. By June 28, the Angora Fire had burned more than 200 homes and forced some 2,000 residents to evacuate, according to The Seattle Times and the Central Valley Business Times. On June 27, the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) on NASA's Terra satellite captured this image of the burn scar left by the Angora fire. The burn scar is dark gray, or charcoal. Water bodies, including the southern tip of Lake Tahoe and Fallen Leaf Lake, are pale silvery blue, the silver color a result of sunlight reflecting off the surface of the water. Vegetation ranges in color from dark to bright green. Streets are light gray, and the customary pattern of meandering residential streets and cul-de-sacs appears throughout the image, including the area that burned. The burn scar shows where the fire obliterated some of the residential areas just east of Fallen Leaf Lake. According to news reports, the U.S. Forest Service had expressed optimism about containing the fire within a week of the outbreak, but a few days after the fire started, it jumped a defense, forcing the evacuation of hundreds more residents. Strong winds that had been forecast for June 27, however, did not materialize, allowing firefighters to regain ground in controlling the blaze. On June 27, authorities hoped that the fire would be completely contained by July 3. According to estimates provided in the daily report from the National Interagency Fire Center, the fire had burned 3,100 acres (about 12.5 square kilometers) and was about 55 percent contained as of June 28. Some mandatory evacuations remained in effect. NASA image by Jesse Allen, using data provided courtesy of the NASA/GSFC/MITI/ERSDAC/JAROS, and U.S./Japan ASTER Science Team.

  9. Great Lakes Energy Institute

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alexander, J. Iwan [Case Western Reserve Univ., Cleveland, OH (United States)

    2012-11-18

    The vision of the Great Lakes Energy Institute is to enable the transition to advanced, sustainable energy generation, storage, distribution and utilization through coordinated research, development, and education. The Institute will place emphasis on translating leading edge research into next generation energy technology. The Institute’s research thrusts focus on coordinated research in decentralized power generation devices (e.g. fuel cells, wind turbines, solar photovoltaic devices), management of electrical power transmission and distribution, energy storage, and energy efficiency.

  10. Limnology of Lake Midmar

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Breen, CM

    1983-12-01

    Full Text Available goals. Those which seem important to us are: the identification of the limnological responses affecting water quality which are of universal application. Some such as phosphorus load are well known whereas others may still require to be identified... Figure 17 Pattern of release of total nitrogen and phosphorus from decomposing vegetation ............................. 56 Figure 18 Changes in the amounts of total phosphorus within the lake, the inflow and the outflow on a weekly basis....... 59...

  11. Restoring life to acidified lakes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shepard, M

    1986-05-01

    In 1983 EPRI initiated the lake acidification mitigation project (LAMP) in order to examine the long-term ecosystem effects of liming lakes, and to develop a model for calculating optimal liming doses. Investigations were carried out at lakes under 3 sets of conditions: reacidification, maintenance liming and preventive maintenance liming. The research so far has indicated that liming is a safe and effective technique.

  12. Radioecological characteristics of Lake Zarnowieckie

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soszka, G.J.; Grzybowska, D.; Rostek, J.; Pietruszewski, A.; Wardaszko, T.; Kalinowska, A.; Tomczak, J.

    1986-01-01

    Results are presented of the radioecological studies carried out in Lake Zarnowieckie as a part of pre-operational investigations related to the construction of a nuclear power station at this lake. Concentrations of essential radionuclides were determined in water, bottom sediments and selected plants and animals. Analyses were made of the distribution and spreading of 90 Sr and 137 Cs in the lake ecosystem and in the near-by meadows. 28 refs., 6 figs., 6 tabs. (author)

  13. The endemic mollusks reveal history of the long-lived Pliocene Lake Slavonia in NW Croatia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandic, Oleg; Kurečić, Tomislav; Neubauer, Thomas A.; Harzhauser, Mathias

    2015-04-01

    The present investigation deals with the fossil mollusk record of the long-lived Pliocene Lake Slavonia settled in the southern Pannonian Basin. The samples originate from Vukomeričke gorice, a low hill-range situated north of the Kupa River in the area between the towns of Zagreb, Sisak and Karlovac in NW Croatia. Representing the SW margin of the Lake Slavonia the freshwater deposits alternate there with the alluvial series, providing altogether about 400-m-thick, Pliocene continental succession, known in literature by informal name Paludina beds (acc. to a junior synonym of Viviparus). The endemic fauna of the Lake Slavonia became particularly well-known in the late 19th century after Melchior Neumayr demonstrated that the gradual evolutionary change of the mollusk phenotypes toward more complex morphology represents a function of adaptation to environmental change in the paleolake. Even Charles Darwin commented that result as by far the best case which I have ever met with, showing the direct influence of the conditions of life on the organization. The deposition in the Lake Slavonia (~4.5 to ~1.8 Ma) coincides with the Pliocene Climate Optimum (PCO), but captures also the transition into the Pleistocene climate marked by the initial Ice Age pulse at 2.59 Ma. The increase of polar temperatures resulted during PCO in a significant melting of the ice caps leading to a global sea level rise tentatively getting up to 25 m higher than today. Coincidence of the climate and geodynamic settings in southeastern Europe provided conditions supporting extended settlement of lacustrine environments including Lake Slavonia, Lake Kosovo, Lake Transylvania and Lake Dacia, all characterized by explosive adaptive radiations of viviparid snails. In particular, the latter adaptive radiations resulted in the regional phylostratigraphy of Lake Slavonia Viviparus species enabling excellent stratigraphic control for the investigated deposits. Hence, based on this evidence, the

  14. Environmental Monitoring, Water Quality - Lakes Assessments - Attaining

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Education | GIS Inventory — This layer shows only attaining lakes of the Integrated List. The Lakes Integrated List represents lake assessments in an integrated format for the Clean Water Act...

  15. Algae Bloom in a Lake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Sanabria

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to determine the likelihood of an algae bloom in a particular lake located in upstate New York. The growth of algae in this lake is caused by a high concentration of phosphorous that diffuses to the surface of the lake. Our calculations, based on Fick's Law, are used to create a mathematical model of the driving force of diffusion for phosphorous. Empirical observations are also used to predict whether the concentration of phosphorous will diffuse to the surface of this lake within a specified time and under specified conditions.

  16. Submerged Grove in Lake Onogawa

    OpenAIRE

    Sato, Yasuhiro; Nakamura, Soken; Ochiai, Masahiro

    1996-01-01

    Abstract : The first record by ultrasonic echo sounding on the distribution of the submerged standing trees on the bottom of Lake Onogawa is presented. Lake Onogawa is a dammed lake formed at the time of the eruption of the volcano Mt.Bandai in 1888. Since then the original vegetation of the dammed valley has remained submerged. Many submerged standing trees are distributed on the bottom within about 600m from the northeast end of the lake. The density of the trees in this area is sufficient ...

  17. Lake Charles CCS Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leib, Thomas [Leucadia Energy, LLC, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Cole, Dan [Denbury Onshore, LLC, Plano, TX (United States)

    2015-06-30

    In late September 2014 development of the Lake Charles Clean Energy (LCCE) Plant was abandoned resulting in termination of Lake Charles Carbon Capture and Sequestration (CCS) Project which was a subset the LCCE Plant. As a result, the project was only funded through Phase 2A (Design) and did not enter Phase 2B (Construction) or Phase 2C (Operations). This report was prepared relying on information prepared and provided by engineering companies which were engaged by Leucadia Energy, LLC to prepare or review Front End Engineering and Design (FEED) for the Lake Charles Clean Energy Project, which includes the Carbon Capture and Sequestration (CCS) Project in Lake Charles, Louisiana. The Lake Charles Carbon Capture and Sequestration (CCS) Project was to be a large-scale industrial CCS project intended to demonstrate advanced technologies that capture and sequester carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions from industrial sources into underground formations. The Scope of work was divided into two discrete sections; 1) Capture and Compression prepared by the Recipient Leucadia Energy, LLC, and 2) Transport and Sequestration prepared by sub-Recipient Denbury Onshore, LLC. Capture and Compression-The Lake Charles CCS Project Final Technical Report describes the systems and equipment that would be necessary to capture CO2 generated in a large industrial gasification process and sequester the CO2 into underground formations. The purpose of each system is defined along with a description of its equipment and operation. Criteria for selection of major equipment are provided and ancillary utilities necessary for safe and reliable operation in compliance with environmental regulations are described. Construction considerations are described including a general arrangement of the CCS process units within the overall gasification project. A cost estimate is provided, delineated by system area with cost breakdown showing equipment, piping and materials

  18. The Legionella pneumophila IcmSW complex interacts with multiple Dot/Icm effectors to facilitate type IV translocation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric D Cambronne

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Many gram-negative pathogens use a type IV secretion system (T4SS to deliver effector proteins into eukaryotic host cells. The fidelity of protein translocation depends on the efficient recognition of effector proteins by the T4SS. Legionella pneumophila delivers a large number of effector proteins into eukaryotic cells using the Dot/Icm T4SS. How the Dot/Icm system is able to recognize and control the delivery of effectors is poorly understood. Recent studies suggest that the IcmS and IcmW proteins interact to form a stable complex that facilitates translocation of effector proteins by the Dot/Icm system by an unknown mechanism. Here we demonstrate that the IcmSW complex is necessary for the productive translocation of multiple Dot/Icm effector proteins. Effector proteins that were able to bind IcmSW in vitro required icmS and icmW for efficient translocation into eukaryotic cells during L. pneumophila infection. We identified regions in the effector protein SidG involved in icmSW-dependent translocation. Although the full-length SidG protein was translocated by an icmSW-dependent mechanism, deletion of amino terminal regions in the SidG protein resulted in icmSW-independent translocation, indicating that the IcmSW complex is not contributing directly to recognition of effector proteins by the Dot/Icm system. Biochemical and genetic studies showed that the IcmSW complex interacts with a central region of the SidG protein. The IcmSW interaction resulted in a conformational change in the SidG protein as determined by differences in protease sensitivity in vitro. These data suggest that IcmSW binding to effectors could enhance effector protein delivery by mediating a conformational change that facilitates T4SS recognition of a translocation domain located in the carboxyl region of the effector protein.

  19. Holocene Lake-Level Fluctuations of Lake Aricota, Southern Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Placzek, Christa; Quade, Jay; Betancourt, Julio L.

    2001-09-01

    Lacustrine deposits exposed around Lake Aricota, Peru (17° 22‧S), a 7.5-km2 lake dammed by debris flows, provide a middle to late Holocene record of lake-level fluctuations. Chronological context for shoreline deposits was obtained from radiocarbon dating of vascular plant remains and other datable material with minimal 14C reservoir effects (<350 yr). Diatomites associated with highstands several meters above the modern lake level indicate wet episodes. Maximum Holocene lake level was attained before 6100 14C yr B.P. and ended ∼2700 14C yr B.P. Moderately high lake levels occurred at 1700 and 1300 14C yr B.P. The highstand at Lake Aricota during the middle Holocene is coeval with a major lowstand at Lake Titicaca (16°S), which is only 130 km to the northeast and shares a similar climatology. Comparisons with other marine and terrestrial records highlight emerging contradictions over the nature of mid-Holocene climate in the central Andes.

  20. ESTABILIDAD DE ANTOCIANINAS EN JUGO Y CONCENTRADO DE AGRAZ (VACCINIUM MERIDIONALE SW. STABILITY OF ANTHOCYANINS IN JUICE AND CONCENTRATE OF AGRAZ(VACCINIUM MERIDIONALE SW.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Jobanny Martínez Zambrano

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Se estudió la cinética de la estabilidad térmica y de almacenamiento de las antocianinas en jugo y concentrado de agraz (Vaccinium meridionale Sw. siguiendo una cinética de primer orden. La degradación de las antocianinas con la temperatura fue modelada adecuadamente con la ecuación de Arrhenius. El efecto del pH en la estabilidad térmica de las antocianinas en los concentrados de agraz se estudió a seis diferentes valores (3,0 - 8,0 en buffer citrato-fosfato. La degradación de las antocianinas fue mayor para el jugo que para el concentrado. Una disminución significante en la estabilidad de las antocianinas del concentrado se observó a pH cercano a 5,0.The kinetics of thermal and storage stabilities of anthocyanins in agraz (Vaccinium meridionale Sw. juice and concentrate were studied with first-order reaction kinetics. The temperature-dependent degradation was adequately modeled on the Arrhenius equation. The effect of pH on thermal stability of anthocyanins in concentrate of agraz was studied at six different pHs (3.0 - 8.0 in citrate-phosphate buffer solutions. The results indicated that anthocyanins degradation was higher in juice than concentrate. A significant decrease in anthocyanin stability was observed at pHs above 5.0.

  1. Strategies to improve performance od SW-SAGD (Single Well-Steam Assisted Gravity Drainage); Estrategias para melhor desempenho do SW-SAGD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreira, Richard Douglas Ribeiro [Norse Energy do Brasil S/A, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Trevisan, Osvair Vidal [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    The present work presents an extensive numerical study, using a commercial reservoir simulator, on the recovery of heavy oil by steam injection assisted by gravity drainage in single horizontal wells. The goal is to study several strategies to improve performance of the Single Well - Steam Assisted Drainage Gravity (SW-SAGD), a new but promising thermal recovery technique aimed at exploitation of heavy oils. The strategies are basically made up of two measures: cyclic steam injection prior to the main injection-production process; and well bore splitting into injection and production zones by packer settings. The measures are scrutinized when used separately or together. Cyclic injection is varied according to cycle duration. Comparisons are made between the performance of oil recovery for the developed strategies and the performance of the traditional dual well SAGD technique with similar operating parameters and field conditions. The results point out the best strategy regarding key parameters such as the oil recovery factor and the steam oil ratio. Results were also verified for variations of rock and fluid properties in the range of a typical heavy oil reservoir. As a result, a new strategy for the SW-SAGD process is presented, providing oil recovery, which is higher than that yielded by the equivalent DW-SAGD. (author)

  2. On the SW Sex-type eclipsing cataclysmic variable SDSS0756+0858

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tovmassian, Gagik; Hernandez, Mercedes Stephania; González-Buitrago, Diego; Zharikov, Sergey; García-Díaz, Maria Teresa, E-mail: gag@astro.unam.mx [Instituto de Astronomía, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de México, Apdo. Postal 877, Ensenada, Baja California 22800 (Mexico)

    2014-03-01

    We conducted a spectroscopic and photometric study of SDSS J075653.11+085831. X-ray observations were also attempted. We determined the orbital period of this binary system to be 3.29 hr. It is a deep eclipsing system, whose spectra show mostly single-peaked, Balmer emission lines and a rather intense He II line. There is also the presence of faint (often double-peaked) He I emission lines as well as several absorption lines, Mg I being the most prominent. All of these features point toward the affiliation of this object with the growing number of SW Sex-type objects. We developed a phenomenological model of an SW Sex system to reproduce the observed photometric and spectral features.

  3. On the SW Sex-type eclipsing cataclysmic variable SDSS0756+0858

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tovmassian, Gagik; Hernandez, Mercedes Stephania; González-Buitrago, Diego; Zharikov, Sergey; García-Díaz, Maria Teresa

    2014-01-01

    We conducted a spectroscopic and photometric study of SDSS J075653.11+085831. X-ray observations were also attempted. We determined the orbital period of this binary system to be 3.29 hr. It is a deep eclipsing system, whose spectra show mostly single-peaked, Balmer emission lines and a rather intense He II line. There is also the presence of faint (often double-peaked) He I emission lines as well as several absorption lines, Mg I being the most prominent. All of these features point toward the affiliation of this object with the growing number of SW Sex-type objects. We developed a phenomenological model of an SW Sex system to reproduce the observed photometric and spectral features.

  4. swLORETA: a novel approach to robust source localization and synchronization tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palmero-Soler, Ernesto; Dolan, Kevin; Hadamschek, Volker; Tass, Peter A

    2007-01-01

    Standardized low-resolution brain electromagnetic tomography (sLORETA) is a widely used technique for source localization. However, this technique still has some limitations, especially under realistic noisy conditions and in the case of deep sources. To overcome these problems, we present here swLORETA, an improved version of sLORETA, obtained by incorporating a singular value decomposition-based lead field weighting. We show that the precision of the source localization can further be improved by a tomographic phase synchronization analysis based on swLORETA. The phase synchronization analysis turns out to be superior to a standard linear coherence analysis, since the latter cannot distinguish between real phase locking and signal mixing

  5. Coastal urbanization leads to remarkable seaweed species loss and community shifts along the SW Atlantic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherner, Fernando; Horta, Paulo Antunes; de Oliveira, Eurico Cabral; Simonassi, José Carlos; Hall-Spencer, Jason M; Chow, Fungyi; Nunes, José Marcos C; Pereira, Sonia Maria Barreto

    2013-11-15

    Coastal urbanization is rapidly expanding worldwide while its impacts on seaweed communities remain poorly understood. We assessed the impact of urbanization along an extensive latitudinal gradient encompassing three phycogeographical regions in the SW Atlantic. Human population density, number of dwellings, and terrestrial vegetation cover were determined for each survey area and correlated with diversity indices calculated from seaweed percent cover data. Urban areas had significantly lower calcareous algal cover (-38%), and there was significantly less carbonate in the sediment off urban areas than off reference areas. Seaweed richness averaged 26% less in urban areas than in areas with higher vegetation cover. We observed a remarkable decline in Phaeophyceae and a substantial increase of Chlorophyta in urban areas across a wide latitudinal gradient. Our data show that coastal urbanization is causing substantial loss of seaweed biodiversity in the SW Atlantic, and is considerably changing seaweed assemblages. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Adaptation of SW-846 methodology for the organic analysis of radioactive mixed wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Griest, W.H.; Schenley, R.L.; Tomkins, B.A.; Caton, J.E. Jr.; Fleming, G.S.; Harmon, S.H.; Wachter, L.J.; Garcia, M.E.; Edwards, M.D.

    1990-01-01

    Modifications to SW-846 sample preparation methodology permit the organic analysis of radioactive mixed waste with minimum personal radiation exposure and equipment contamination. This paper describes modifications to SW-846 methods 5030 and 3510-3550 for sample preparation in radiation-zoned facilities (hood, glove box, and hot cell) and GC-MS analysis of the decontaminated organic extracts in a conventional laboratory for volatile and semivolatile organics by methods 8240 and 8270 (respectively). Results will be presented from the analysis of nearly 70 nuclear waste storage tank liquids and 17 sludges. Regulatory organics do not account for the organic matter suggested to be present by total organic carbon measurements. 7 refs., 5 tabs

  7. 5-Geranyloxy-7-methoxycoumarin inhibits colon cancer (SW480) cells growth by inducing apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patil, Jaiprakash R; Jayaprakasha, Guddadarangavvanahally K; Kim, Jinhee; Murthy, Kotamballi N Chidambara; Chetti, Mahadev B; Nam, Sang-Yong; Patil, Bhimanagouda S

    2013-03-01

    For the first time, three coumarins were isolated from the hexane extract of limes (Citrus aurantifolia) and purified by flash chromatography. The structures were identified by NMR (1D, 2D) and mass spectral analyses as 5-geranyloxy-7-methoxycoumarin, limettin, and isopimpinellin. These compounds inhibited human colon cancer (SW-480) cell proliferation, with 5-geranyloxy-7-methoxycoumarin showing the highest inhibition activity (67 %) at 25 µM. Suppression of SW480 cell proliferation by 5-geranyloxy-7-methoxycoumarin was associated with induction of apoptosis, as evidenced by annexin V staining and DNA fragmentation. In addition, 5-geranyloxy-7-methoxycoumarin arrested cells at the G0/G1 phase, and induction of apoptosis was demonstrated through the activation of tumour suppressor gene p53, caspase8/3, regulation of Bcl2, and inhibition of p38 MAPK phosphorylation. These findings suggest that 5-geranyloxy-7-methoxycoumarin has potential as a cancer preventive agent. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  8. PYRAMID LAKE RENEWEABLE ENERGY PLAN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    HIGH DESERT GEOCULTURE, LLC

    2009-06-06

    The Pyramid Lake Renewable Energy Plan covers these areas: energy potential (primarily focusing on geothermal resource potential, but also more generally addressing wind energy potential); renewable energy market potential; transmission system development; geothermal direct use potential; and business structures to accomplish the development objectives of the Pyramid Lake Paiute Tribe.

  9. Speculative dynamic vectorization to assist static vectorization in a HW/SW co-designed environment

    OpenAIRE

    Kumar, R.; Martinez, A.; Gonzalez, A.

    2013-01-01

    Compiler based static vectorization is used widely to extract data level parallelism from computation intensive applications. Static vectorization is very effective in vectorizing traditional array based applications. However, compilers inability to reorder ambiguous memory references severely limits vectorization opportunities, especially in pointer rich applications. HW/SW co-designed processors provide an excellent opportunity to optimize the applications at runtime. The availability of dy...

  10. Compaction and evolution of rock properties and rock physics diagnostics of Albatross discovery, SW Barents Sea

    OpenAIRE

    Butt, Arif

    2012-01-01

    The Albatross discovery is located approximately 140 km northwest of Hammerfest (city of midnight sun), Norway in the central part of Hammerfest Basin, SW Barents Sea. The Albatross discovery included within Snøhvit field development project (the first gas development project in the Barents Sea) with two other discoveries, Snøhvit and Askeladd, in the area. The reservoirs contain gas and condensate in the Lower and Middle Jurassic sandstones of the Stø Formation. The study focuses compaction ...

  11. Surface wave statistics and spectra for Valiathura coastlines, SW coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Asharaf, T.T.M.; Nair, R.P.; Sanjana, M.C.; Muraleedharan, G.; Kurup, P.G.

    Sciences Vol. 30, March , 2001, pp 9-17 Surface wave statistics and spectra for Valiathura coastline, SW coast of India T T Mohamed Asharaf National Institute of Oceanography, Regional Centre, Cochin, 682 014, India and Ratish P Nair, M.... 2D), the prominent direction was MOHAMED ASHARAF et al. : WAVE STATISTICS AND SPECTRA 11 Fig. 2Direction surface plots of January-June INDIAN J. MAR. SCI., VOL 30, MARCH 2001 12 Fig. 2  (Contd) ... Direction surface...

  12. Physico-chemical behaviour of underground waters after October 1, 1995 Dinar earthquake, SW Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woith, H.; Milkereit, C.; Maiwald, U.; Pekdeger, A.

    1999-01-01

    The paper reports the investigations conducted by a team of the German Earthquake Task Force arrived in the city of Dinar (SW Turkey) after the October 1, 1994 earthquake. The investigations recorded post-seismic changes in water discharge, water temperature and conductivity. In the first month after the event, the groundwater discharge increased at springs located within the down-thrown block, whereas a slight decrease was observed at sites on the hanging wall

  13. Alkaloids in Solanum torvum Sw (Solanaceae): (With 2 Tables & 1 Figure)

    OpenAIRE

    Pérez-Amador, MC; Muñoz Ocotero, V; García Castañeda, JM; González Esquinca, AR

    2007-01-01

    A comparison was made between plants of Solanum torvum Sw that grow in Chiapas, Mexico, and plants of the same species originating from India. This was effected to establish either similarities or differences between these plants in total alkaloid contents and presence of solasodine, an important alkaloid for the partial synthesis of steroids. The total alkaloid content (0.12%) of the plants coming from Chiapas and India was the same. However, solasodine was found only in the plants of Chiapa...

  14. COxSwAIN: Compressive Sensing for Advanced Imaging and Navigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurwitz, Richard; Pulley, Marina; LaFerney, Nathan; Munoz, Carlos

    2015-01-01

    The COxSwAIN project focuses on building an image and video compression scheme that can be implemented in a small or low-power satellite. To do this, we used Compressive Sensing, where the compression is performed by matrix multiplications on the satellite and reconstructed on the ground. Our paper explains our methodology and demonstrates the results of the scheme, being able to achieve high quality image compression that is robust to noise and corruption.

  15. Choking Lake Winnipeg

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrne, J. M.; Little, L. J.; Dodgson, K. A.; MacDonald, R. J.; Graham, J.

    2009-12-01

    The problems of waterway eutrophication and coastal zone hypoxia are reaching epidemic proportions. Fresh water and coastal marine environments around the world are suffering unprecedented pollution loadings. We are developing an education program to address the dramatic need for public, community and K-12 education about the harsh impacts of elevated nutrient loads on fresh and marine water environments. The Lake Winnipeg watershed is adopted as the poster child of fresh water eutrophication in western North America. The watershed, one of the largest on the continent, is in rapid decline due to pollution, population pressures and water diversion. A concerted education program is needed to change personal and society actions that negatively impact the Winnipeg watershed; and the confluence of the watershed - Lake Winnipeg. But the education program goes beyond Lake Winnipeg. Negative impacts of nutrient loads are adversely affecting environments right to the oceans. Major dead zones that are expanding on our continental shelves due to nutrient overloading threaten to coalesce into extensive regions of marine life die-off. This presentation outlines the documentary education production process under development. We are building a series of Public Service Announcements (PSAs) for national television networks. The PSAs will direct educators, stakeholders and citizens to an associated website with educational video clips detailing the issues of eutrophication and hypoxia. The video clips or webisodes, present interviews with leading scientists. The discussions address the causes of the problems, and presents workable solutions to nutrient overloads from a variety of sources. The webisodes are accompanied by notes and advice to teachers on ways and means to use the webisodes in classrooms. The project is fully funed by a group of Canadian Community Foundations, with the understanding the work wil be available free to educators anywhere in the world. Our education

  16. Lake Carnegie, Western Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    Ephemeral Lake Carnegie, in Western Australia, fills with water only during periods of significant rainfall. In dry years, it is reduced to a muddy marsh. This image was acquired by Landsat 7's Enhanced Thematic Mapper plus (ETM+) sensor on May 19, 1999. This is a false-color composite image made using shortwave infrared, infrared, and red wavelengths. The image has also been sharpened using the sensor's panchromatic band. Image provided by the USGS EROS Data Center Satellite Systems Branch. This image is part of the ongoing Landsat Earth as Art series.

  17. L-Lake macroinvertebrate community

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Specht, W.L.

    1996-06-01

    To characterize the present benthic macroinvertebrate community of L-Lake, Regions 5 and 7 of the reservoir were sampled in September 1995 at the same locations sampled in 1988 and 1989 during the L-Lake monitoring program. The macroinvertebrate community of 1995 is compared to that of 1988 and 1989. The species composition of L-Lake`s macroinvertebrate community has changed considerably since 1988-1989, due primarily to maturation of the reservoir ecosystem. L-Lake contains a reasonably diverse macroinvertebrate community that is capable of supporting higher trophic levels, including a diverse assemblage of fish species. The L-Lake macroinvertebrate community is similar to those of many other southeastern reservoirs, and there is no indication that the macroinvertebrate community is perturbed by chemical or physical stressors.

  18. L-Lake macroinvertebrate community

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Specht, W.L.

    1996-06-01

    To characterize the present benthic macroinvertebrate community of L-Lake, Regions 5 and 7 of the reservoir were sampled in September 1995 at the same locations sampled in 1988 and 1989 during the L-Lake monitoring program. The macroinvertebrate community of 1995 is compared to that of 1988 and 1989. The species composition of L-Lake's macroinvertebrate community has changed considerably since 1988-1989, due primarily to maturation of the reservoir ecosystem. L-Lake contains a reasonably diverse macroinvertebrate community that is capable of supporting higher trophic levels, including a diverse assemblage of fish species. The L-Lake macroinvertebrate community is similar to those of many other southeastern reservoirs, and there is no indication that the macroinvertebrate community is perturbed by chemical or physical stressors

  19. Light-Time Effect and Mass Transfer in the Triple Star SW Lyncis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun-Hwey Kim

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper all the photoelectric times of minimum for the triple star SW Lyn have been analyzed in terms of light-time e ect due to the third-body and secular period decreases induced by mass transfer process. The light-time orbit determined recently by Ogloza et al.(1998 were modi ed and improved. And it is found that the orbital period of SW Lyn have been decreasing secularly. The third-body revolves around the mass center of triple stars every 5y.77 in a highly eccentric elliptical orbit(e=0.61. The third-body with a minimum mass of 1.13M may be a binary or a white dwarf. The rate of secular period-decrease were obtained as ¡âP/P = -12.45 x 10^-11, implying the mass-transfer from the massive primary star to the secondary. The mass losing rate from the primary were calculated as about 1.24 x 10^-8M /y. It is noticed that the mass-transfer in SW Lyn system is opposite in direction to that deduced from it's Roche geometry by previous investigators.

  20. The primary role of the SW Sextantis stars in the evolution of cataclysmic variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Manuel; Gaensicke, Boris; Rodriguez-Gil, Pablo; Long, Knox; Marsh, Tom; Steeghs, Danny; Munoz-Darias, Teodoro; Shahbaz, Tariq; Schmidtobreick, Linda; Schreiber, Matthias

    2009-02-01

    SW Sextantis stars are a relatively large group of cataclysmic variables (CVs) which plays a fundamental role in our understanding of CV structure and evolution. Very little is known about the properties of their accreting white dwarfs and their donor stars, as the stellar components are usually outshone by an extremely bright accretion flow. Consequently, a proper assesment of their evolutionary state is illusionary. We are monitoring the brightness of a number of SW Sex stars and request here Gemini/GMOS-N ToO time to obtain orbital phase-resolved spectroscopy if one of them enters a low state, since this is the only opportunity for studying the stellar components individually. These data will be used to accurately measure the binary parameters, white dwarf temperature, and distance to the system for a SW Sex star for the first time. The measured stellar masses and radii will especially be a precious input to the theory of compact binary evolution as a whole.

  1. Unravelling the role of the SW Sextantis stars in the evolution of cataclysmic variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Manuel; Steeghs, Danny; Gaensicke, Boris; Marsh, Tom; Rodriguez-Gil, Pablo; Schmidtobreick, Linda; Long, Knox; Schreiber, Matthias

    2007-08-01

    SW Sextantis stars are a relatively large group of cataclysmic variables (CVs) whose properties contradict all predictions made by the current CV evolution theories. Very little is known about the properties of their accreting white dwarfs and their donor stars, as the stellar components are usually outshone by an extremely bright accretion flow. Consequently, a proper assesment of their evolutionary state is illusionary. We are monitoring the brightness of a number of SW Sex stars and request here Gemini/GMOS-N ToO time to obtain orbital phase-resolved spectroscopy if one of them enters a low state, since this is the only opportunity for studying the stellar components individually. These data will be used to accurately measure the mass ratio of the system which, combined with the orbital inclination derived from modelling of either the disc eclipses in the high state or the ellipsoidal modulation in the low state, will eventually provide the first detailed system parameters for any SW Sex star.

  2. New data on distribution of Cypripedium macranthon sw. on the territory of Altai krai

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. V. Vazhov

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The Family Orchidaceae Juss. –occupies an important place among the plants, which were highlighted related to their biology and ecology. The total number of species of the family in the Altai region – 27 (ruberoidny -13, rhizomatous – 14, 10 species of orchids are rare and protected. Among the many flowering plants highlights one of the most beautiful and the most noticeable because of its large flowers Orchid – lady's slipper large-flowered Cypripedium (Cypripedium macranthon Sw.. This species is rare and listed in the regional Red book, as residential landscape areas suffers from collecting in bouquets and digging out the gardeners for the introduction into the culture. Exterminated Orchid in the procurement of herbal raw materials in traditional medicine. The Shoe form a plurality of decorative forms that is of interest to collectors of plants, promotes the collection and implementation in connection with the market demand. Increasing anthropogenic load on the territory of the region, which also adversely affects the number and state of coenopopulations of C. macranthon Sw. For the Altai territory, the modern updated data on the habitat of the Orchid. Four previously unknown local populations of C. macranthon Sw. it is noted in the upper basin of the river Angara in the virgin area.

  3. Antibiofilm activity of Bacillus pumilus SW9 against initial biofouling on microfiltration membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ying; Yu, Xin; Gong, Song; Ye, Chengsong; Fan, Zihong; Lin, Huirong

    2014-02-01

    Membrane biofouling, resulting from biofilm formation on the membrane, has become the main obstacle hindering wider application of membrane technology. Initial biofouling proves to be crucial which involves early stages of microbial adhesion and biofilm formation. Biological control of microbial attachment seems to be a promising strategy due to its high efficiency and eco-friendliness. The present study investigated the effects of a bacterium Bacillus pumilus SW9 on controlling the initial fouling formed by four target bacterial strains which were pioneer species responsible for biofouling in membrane bioreactors, using microfiltration membranes as the abiotic surfaces. The results suggested that strain SW9 exhibited excellent antibiofilm activity by decreasing the attached biomass of target strains. The production of extracellular polysaccharides and proteins by four target strains was also reduced. A distinct improvement of permeate flux in dead-end filtration systems was achieved when introducing strain SW9 to microfiltration experiments. Scanning electron microscopy and confocal laser scanning microscopy were performed to further ascertain significant changes of the biofouling layers. A link between biofilm inhibition and initial biofouling mitigation was thus provided, suggesting an alternatively potential way to control membrane biofouling through bacterial interactions.

  4. Effect of nitrogen sources on biomass, lipid and docosahexanoic acid production by Aurantiochytrium sp. SW1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auma, Khairunnisa; Hamid, Aidil Abdul; Yusoff, Wan Mohtar Wan

    2018-04-01

    A local isolate, Aurantiochytrium sp. SW1 has been verified to have high content of docosahexanoic acid (DHA). However, the effect of different nitrogen sources on biomass, lipid concentration and DHA content in Aurantiochytrium sp. SW1 is still unknown. Hence, this study is focused in using six different organic and inorganic nitrogen sources to grow Aurantiochytrium sp. SW1 in optimized Burja medium. Monosodium glutamate (MSG) gave the highest biomass concentration of 15.97 g/L followed by ammonium nitrate (NH4NO3) with 13.37 g/L at 96 hr. These two nitrogen sources had significant effect on the biomass concentration (pDHA content in lipid showed cultivation using MSG reached 47.9% (4.95 g/L). Statistical analysis using least significant difference (LSD) showed significant lipid production (pDHA productivity (0.052 g/L hr-1) was obtained in medium containing MSG. This study proves that nitrogen component in the medium significantly affects the biomass concentration, lipid and DHA content.

  5. An Orbital Stability Study of the Proposed Companions of SW Lyncis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. C. Hinse

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available We have investigated the dynamical stability of the proposed companions orbiting the Algol type short-period eclipsing binary SW Lyncis (Kim et al. 2010. The two candidate companions are of stellar to substellar nature, and were inferred from timing measurements of the system’s primary and secondary eclipses. We applied well-tested numerical techniques to accurately integrate the orbits of the two companions and to test for chaotic dynamical behavior. We carried out the stability analysis within a systematic parameter survey varying both the geometries and orientation of the orbits of the companions, as well as their masses. In all our numerical integrations we found that the proposed SW Lyn multi-body system is highly unstable on time-scales on the order of 1000 years. Our results cast doubt on the interpretation that the timing variations are caused by two companions. This work demonstrates that a straightforward dynamical analysis can help to test whether a best-fit companion-based model is a physically viable explanation for measured eclipse timing variations. We conclude that dynamical considerations reveal that the proposed SW Lyncis multi-body system most likely does not exist or the companions have significantly different orbital properties from those conjectured in Kim et al. (2010.

  6. WATER TEMPERATURE and Other Data from ALMIRANTE SALDANHA From SW Atlantic (limit-20 W) (NODC Accession 9700075)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Zooplankton, phytoplankton, chlorophyll, and other data were collected from net and bottle casts in the SW Atlantic Ocean (limit-20 W) from the Almirante Saldanha...

  7. Calamagrostis nyingchiensis, a new combination for Deyeuxia nyingchiensis (Poaceae: Agrostidinae, and its first record from Yunnan Province, SW China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paszko Beata

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Deyeuxia nyingchiensis is here recombined as Calamagrostis nyingchiensis comb. nov. as a result of recent studies of worldwide Agrostidinae. A new record of C. nyingchiensis is reported from Shangri-la (Zhongdian County in Yunnan Province, SW China. Previously, C. nyingchiensis was noted from eastern Xizang and southern Sichuan, SW China. It is compared with the morphologically similar species C. scabrescens. A map with all known geographic records of C. nyingchiensis is presented.

  8. The Characteristics of Seismogenic Zones in SW Taiwan: Implications from Studying Mechanisms of Microearthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Strong; Chang, Yi-Zen; Yeh, Yu-Lien; Wen, Yi-Ying

    2017-04-01

    Due to the complicated geomorphology and geological conditions, the southwest (SW) Taiwan suffers the invasion of various natural disasters, such as landslide, mud flow and especially the threat of strong earthquakes as result of convergence between the Eurasian and the Philippine Sea plate. Several disastrous earthquakes had occurred in this area and often caused serious hazards. Therefore, it is fundamentally important to understand the correlation between seismic activity and seismogenic structures in SW Taiwan. Previous studies have indicated that before the failure of rock strength, the behaviors of micro-earthquakes can provide essential clues to help investigating the process of rock deformation. Thus, monitoring the activity of micro-earthquakes plays an important role in studying fault rupture or crustal deformation before the occurrence of a large earthquake. Because the time duration of micro-earthquakes activity can last for years, this phenomenon can be used to indicate the change of physical properties in the crust, such as crustal stress changes or fluid migration. The main purpose of this research is to perform a nonlinear waveform inversion to investigate source parameters of micro-earthquakes which include the non-double couple components owing to the shear rupture usually associated with complex morphology as well as tectonic fault systems. We applied a nonlinear waveform procedure to investigate local stress status and source parameters of micro-earthquakes that occurred in SW Taiwan. Previous studies has shown that microseismic fracture behaviors were controlled by the non-double components, which could lead to cracks generating and fluid migration, which can result in changing rock volume and produce partial compensation. Our results not only giving better understanding the seismogenic structures in the SW Taiwan, but also allowing us to detect variations of physical parameters caused by crack propagating in stratum. Thus, the derived source

  9. 75 FR 34934 - Safety Zone; Fireworks for the Virginia Lake Festival, Buggs Island Lake, Clarksville, VA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-21

    ...-AA00 Safety Zone; Fireworks for the Virginia Lake Festival, Buggs Island Lake, Clarksville, VA AGENCY... Fireworks for the Virginia Lake Festival event. This action is intended to restrict vessel traffic movement... Virginia Lake Festival, Buggs Island Lake, Clarksville, VA (a) Regulated Area. The following area is a...

  10. Holocene lake-level fluctuations of Lake Aricota, Southern Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Placzek, C.; Quade, Jay; Betancourt, J.L.

    2001-01-01

    Lacustrine deposits exposed around Lake Aricota, Peru (17?? 22???S), a 7.5-km2 lake dammed by debris flows, provide a middle to late Holocene record of lake-level fluctuations. Chronological context for shoreline deposits was obtained from radiocarbon dating of vascular plant remains and other datable material with minimal 14C reservoir effects (Titicaca (16?? S), which is only 130 km to the northeast and shares a similar climatology. Comparisons with other marine and terrestrial records highlight emerging contradictions over the nature of mid-Holocene climate in the central Andes. ?? 2001 University of Washington.

  11. Forest blowdown and lake acidification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dobson, J.E.; Rush, R.M.; Peplies, R.W.

    1990-01-01

    The authors examine the role of forest blowdown in lake acidification. The approach combines geographic information systems (GIS) and digital remote sensing with traditional field methods. The methods of analysis consist of direct observation, interpretation of satellite imagery and aerial photographs, and statistical comparison of two geographical distributions-one representing forest blow-down and another representing lake chemistry. Spatial and temporal associations between surface water pH and landscape disturbance are strong and consistent in the Adirondack Mountains of New York. In 43 Adirondack Mountain watersheds, lake pH is associated with the percentage of the watershed area blown down and with hydrogen ion deposition (Spearman rank correlation coefficients of -0.67 and -0.73, respectively). Evidence of a temporal association is found at Big Moose Lake and Jerseyfield Lake in New York and the Lygners Vider Plateau of Sweden. They conclude that forest blowdown facilities the acidification of some lakes by altering hydrologic pathways so that waters (previously acidified by acid deposition and/or other sources) do not experience the neutralization normally available through contact with subsurface soils and bedrock. Increased pipeflow is suggested as a mechanism that may link the biogeochemical impacts of forest blowdown to lake chemistry

  12. Microplastics in Taihu Lake, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Lei; Xue, Yingang; Li, Lingyun; Yang, Dongqi; Kolandhasamy, Prabhu; Li, Daoji; Shi, Huahong

    2016-09-01

    In comparison with marine environments, the occurrence of microplastics in freshwater environments is less understood. In the present study, we investigated microplastic pollution levels during 2015 in Taihu Lake, the third largest Chinese lake located in one of the most developed areas of China. The abundance of microplastics reached 0.01 × 10(6)-6.8 × 10(6) items/km(2) in plankton net samples, 3.4-25.8 items/L in surface water, 11.0-234.6 items/kg dw in sediments and 0.2-12.5 items/g ww in Asian clams (Corbicula fluminea). The average abundance of microplastics was the highest in plankton net samples from the southeast area of the lake and in the sediments from the northwest area of the lake. The northwest area of the lake was the most heavily contaminated area of the lake, as indicated by chlorophyll-α and total phosphorus. The microplastics were dominated by fiber, 100-1000 μm in size and cellophane in composition. To our best knowledge, the microplastic levels measured in plankton net samples collected from Taihu Lake were the highest found in freshwater lakes worldwide. The ratio of the microplastics in clams to each sediment sample ranged from 38 to 3810 and was negatively correlated to the microplastic level in sediments. In brief, our results strongly suggest that high levels of microplastics occurred not only in water but also in organisms in Taihu Lake. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Key Lake spill. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-03-01

    On January 5, 1984 contaminated water overflowed a storage reservoir at the Key Lake uranium mill onto the ice on a neighboring lake, into a muskeg area and onto a road. Outflow continued for two days, partially undercutting a retaining dyke. This report concludes the spill was the result of poor operation by the Key Lake Mining Corp.. The environmental impact will be minimal after cleanup. Improvements can be made in the regulatory process, and it is necessary to prepare for possible future mishaps

  14. 2010 Great Lakes Restoration Initiative Bathymetric Lidar: Lake Superior

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The data contained in this file contain hydrographic and topographic data collected by the Fugro LADS Mk II system along the Lake Superior coast of Minnessota,...

  15. Jordan Lake Watershed Protection District

    Data.gov (United States)

    Town of Chapel Hill, North Carolina — Polygon representing the area of the Jordan Lake Watershed Protection District. The Watershed Protection District (PDF) is a sensitive area of land that drains to...

  16. Great Lakes Environmental Research Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — NOAA-GLERL and its partners conduct innovative research on the dynamic environments and ecosystems of the Great Lakes and coastal regions to provide information for...

  17. Paleosecular variations from lake sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lund, S.P.; Banerjee, S.K.

    1979-01-01

    Data are presented on the secular variations of the magnetization of wet and dry lake sediments for 17 North American locations. The usefullness of this data in terms of the geomagnetic field is discussed

  18. NORM levels in Spanish pit lakes and their impact in neighboring environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manjon, G.; Galvan, J.A.; Mantero, J.; Diaz, I.; Garcia-Tenorio, R. [University of Seville (Spain)

    2014-07-01

    The Iberian Pyrite Belt (IPB) is a part of the South Zone of the Hercynian Iberian Massif (SW of Iberian Peninsula), being pyrite (FeS{sub 2}) the main mineral associated to this volcano-sedimentary complex. The intensive mining activities in the area, which started in the Roman Empire, have generated mine pits where underground and/or rainwater are stored. These stored waters have produced oxidation of pyrite and, consequently, the pH of pit water has become acid (pH around 2), causing the dissolution of metals and natural radionuclides. The main objective of this work is to show and discuss the levels found for different natural radionuclides (mainly uranium isotopes and daughters via α/γ spectrometry) in water samples and sediments collected from several mine pit lakes located in the south-west of Spain. The waters of the studied pit lakes can interact with the environment, and a fraction can be transferred to surrounding aquifers and even to the main river of the zone (the Odiel River). The waters of this river, when cross the mining area, show low pH values and high concentrations of U-isotopes due to acid mining drainage. Through the analysis of several isotope activity ratios, the presence of natural radionuclides in these pit lakes and its influence in the surrounding area and Odiel river will be additionally evaluated. Document available in abstract form only. (authors)

  19. Cloud effects on the SW radiation at the surface at a mid-latitude site in southwestern Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salgueiro, Vanda; João Costa, Maria; Silva, Ana Maria; Lanconelli, Christian; Bortoli, Daniele

    2017-04-01

    This work presents a study of cloud radiative effects on shortwave (CRESW) radiation at the surface in Évora region (southwestern Europe) during 2015 and a case study is analyzed. CRESW (in Wm-2) is defined as the difference between the net shortwave irradiance (downward minus upward shortwave irradiance) in cloudy and clear sky conditions. This measure is usually used to translate changes in the SW radiation that reaches the surface due to changes in clouds (type and/or cover). The CRESW is obtained using measured SW irradiance recorded with a Kipp&Zonen CM 6B pyranometer (broadband 305 - 2800 nm) during the period from January to December 2015, and is related with the cloud liquid water path (LWP) and with cloud ice water path (IWP) showing the importance of the different type of clouds in attenuating the SW radiation at the surface. The cloud modification factor, also a measure of the cloud radiative effects (CMF; ratio between the measured SW irradiance under cloudy conditions and the estimated SW irradiance in clear-sky conditions) is related with the cloud optical thickness (COT; obtained from satellite data). This relation between CMF and COT is shown for different cloud fractions revealing an exponential decreasing of CMF as COT increases. Reductions in the SW radiation of the order of 80% (CMF = 0.2) as well enhancements in the SW radiation larger than 30% (CMF = 1.3) were found for small COT values and for different cloud fractions. A case study to analyse the enhancement events in a cloudy day was considered and the cloud properties, COT and LWP (from satellite and surface measurements), were related with the CRESW.

  20. Spatial distribution of seepage at a flow-through lake: Lake Hampen, Western Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kidmose, Jacob Baarstrøm; Engesgaard, Peter Knudegaard; Nilsson, Bertel

    2011-01-01

    recharge patiern of the lake and relating these to the geologic history of the lake. Recharge of the surrounding aquifer by lake water occurs off shore in a narrow zone, as measured from lake–groundwater gradients. A 33-m-deep d18O profi le at the recharge side shows a lake d18O plume at depths...... that corroborates the interpretation of lake water recharging off shore and moving down gradient. Inclusion of lake bed heterogeneity in the model improved the comparison of simulated and observed discharge to the lake. The apparent age of the discharging groundwater to the lake was determined by CFCs, resulting...

  1. Can small zooplankton mix lakes?

    OpenAIRE

    Simoncelli, S.; Thackeray, S.J.; Wain, D.J.

    2017-01-01

    The idea that living organisms may contribute to turbulence and mixing in lakes and oceans (biomixing) dates to the 1960s, but has attracted increasing attention in recent years. Recent modeling and experimental studies suggest that marine organisms can enhance turbulence as much as winds and tides in oceans, with an impact on mixing. However, other studies show opposite and contradictory results, precluding definitive conclusions regarding the potential importance of biomixing. For lakes, on...

  2. Lake Turkana National Parks Kenya.

    OpenAIRE

    2005-01-01

    Lake Turkana is the largest, most northerly and most saline of Africa's Rift Valley lakes and an outstanding laboratory for the study of plant and animal communities. The three National Parks are a stopover for migrant waterfowl and are major breeding grounds for the Nile crocodile and hippopotamus. The Koobi Fora deposits are rich in pre-human, mammalian, molluscan and other fossil remains and have contributed more to the understanding of Quaternary palaeoenvironments than any other site on ...

  3. Radiocarbon dating of lake sediments

    OpenAIRE

    Pocevičius, Matas

    2016-01-01

    Matas Pocevičius, Radiocarbon dating of lake sediments, bachelor thesis, Vilnius University, Faculty of Physics, Department of General Physics and Spectroscopy, physics, Vilnius, 45 p., 2016. The aim of this study is to evaluate the possibility of radiocarbon dating application for Tapeliai lake bottom sediments. The literature review discusses topics related to accelerator mass spectrometry, principles of radiocarbon formation, importance of nuclear fallout for 14C, possible applications of ...

  4. Dual Effect of Phenolic Nectar on Three Floral Visitors of Elsholtzia rugulosa (Lamiaceae) in SW China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Feng-Ping; Yang, Qiu-Yun; Zhang, Shi-Bao

    2016-01-01

    Some plants secrete toxic nectar to appeal to most effective pollinators and deter non-pollinators or nectar thieves; however available information about ecological function of toxic nectar remains scarce. Elsholtzia rugulosa stands out as a plant with toxic nectar recorded in SW China. We focused on the functional significance of the phenolic compound that imparts toxic to the nectar of E. rugulosa. The effects of phenolic nectar were studied in three visitors of the flowers of the winter-blooming E. rugulosa Hemsl. (Lamiaceae) in SW China. The pollinating species Apis cerana Fabricius (Apidae; Asian honey bee) and two occasional visitors, Vespa velutina Lepeletier (Vespidae; yellow-legged Asian hornet) and Bombus eximius Smith (Apidae; a bumble bee) were tested for their preferences for low and high concentrations of 4-hydroxybenzoic acid in hexose and sucrose solutions. The pollinator is important for the plant, which is dependent on pollinator visits to attain a higher seed production and it is most likely that the combination of phenolic toxic nectar and the adaptation to phenolic nectar by A. cerana delivers an evolutionary advantage to both actors. The low and high concentrations of the phenolic acid were nearly totally refused by both occasional visitors V. velutina and B. eximius and were preferred by the pollinator A. cerana. E. rugulosa gains by having a much higher seed production and the pollinating honey bee by having an exclusive and reliable food source during the winter season at high altitudes in SW China. We found that the function of the toxic phenolic compound has dual roles by appealing to legitimate pollinators and deterring non-pollinators of E. rugulosa.

  5. Dual Effect of Phenolic Nectar on Three Floral Visitors of Elsholtzia rugulosa (Lamiaceae in SW China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng-Ping Zhang

    Full Text Available Some plants secrete toxic nectar to appeal to most effective pollinators and deter non-pollinators or nectar thieves; however available information about ecological function of toxic nectar remains scarce. Elsholtzia rugulosa stands out as a plant with toxic nectar recorded in SW China. We focused on the functional significance of the phenolic compound that imparts toxic to the nectar of E. rugulosa. The effects of phenolic nectar were studied in three visitors of the flowers of the winter-blooming E. rugulosa Hemsl. (Lamiaceae in SW China. The pollinating species Apis cerana Fabricius (Apidae; Asian honey bee and two occasional visitors, Vespa velutina Lepeletier (Vespidae; yellow-legged Asian hornet and Bombus eximius Smith (Apidae; a bumble bee were tested for their preferences for low and high concentrations of 4-hydroxybenzoic acid in hexose and sucrose solutions. The pollinator is important for the plant, which is dependent on pollinator visits to attain a higher seed production and it is most likely that the combination of phenolic toxic nectar and the adaptation to phenolic nectar by A. cerana delivers an evolutionary advantage to both actors. The low and high concentrations of the phenolic acid were nearly totally refused by both occasional visitors V. velutina and B. eximius and were preferred by the pollinator A. cerana. E. rugulosa gains by having a much higher seed production and the pollinating honey bee by having an exclusive and reliable food source during the winter season at high altitudes in SW China. We found that the function of the toxic phenolic compound has dual roles by appealing to legitimate pollinators and deterring non-pollinators of E. rugulosa.

  6. Sedimentary features and exploration targets of Middle Permian reservoirs in the SW Sichuan Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guoming Xu

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The exploration direction and targets for the large-scale Middle Permian gas reservoirs in the Sichuan Basin are hot spots and challenges in current exploration researches. The exploration successes of large gas field of Cambrian Longwangmiao Formation in Gaoshiti-Moxi region, Central Sichuan Basin, indicated that prospective sedimentary facies belt was the basis for the formation of large gas fields. In this paper, based on seismic data, outcrop data and drilling data, the tectonic framework and sedimentary features of the Middle Permian in the SW Sichuan Basin were comprehensively studied. The following conclusions were reached from the perspective of sedimentary facies control: (1 during the Middle Permian, this region was in shallow water gentle slope belts with high energy, where thick reef flat facies were deposited; (2 the basement was uplifted during Middle Permian, resulting in the unconformity weathering crust at the top of Maokou Formation due to erosion; the SW Sichuan Basin was located in the karst slope belt, where epigenic karstification was intense; and (3 reef flat deposits superimposed by karst weathering crust was favorable for the formation of large-scale reef flat karst reservoirs. Based on the combination of the resources conditions and hydrocarbon accumulation conditions in this region, it was pointed out that the Middle Permian has great potential of large-scale reef flat karst gas reservoir due to its advantageous geological conditions; the Middle Permian traps with good hydrocarbon accumulation conditions were developed in the Longmen Mountain front closed structural belt in the SW Sichuan Basin and Western Sichuan Basin depression slope belt, which are favorable targets for large-scale reef flat karst reservoirs.

  7. Reconfiguration Management in the Context of RTOS-Based HW/SW Embedded Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eustache Yvan

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This paper presents a safe and efficient solution to manage asynchronous configurations of dynamically reconfigurable systems-on-chip. We first define our unified RTOS-based framework for HW/SW task communication and configuration management. Then three issues are discussed and solutions are given: the formalization of configuration space modeling including its different dimensions, the synchronization of configuration that mainly addresses the question of task configuration ordering, and the configuration coherency that solves the way a task accepts a new configuration. Finally, we present the global method and give some implementation figures from a smart camera case study.

  8. Reconfiguration Management in the Context of RTOS-Based HW/SW Embedded Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yvan Eustache

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a safe and efficient solution to manage asynchronous configurations of dynamically reconfigurable systems-on-chip. We first define our unified RTOS-based framework for HW/SW task communication and configuration management. Then three issues are discussed and solutions are given: the formalization of configuration space modeling including its different dimensions, the synchronization of configuration that mainly addresses the question of task configuration ordering, and the configuration coherency that solves the way a task accepts a new configuration. Finally, we present the global method and give some implementation figures from a smart camera case study.

  9. Extensional Tectonics of SW Anatolia In relation to Slab Edge Processes in the Eastern Mediterranean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaymakci, N.; Özacar, A.; Langereis, C. G.; Ozkaptan, M.; Koç, A.; Uzel, B.; Gulyuz, E.; Sözbilir, H.

    2017-12-01

    The tectonics of SW Anatolia is expressed in terms of emplacement of Lycian Nappes during the Eocene to Middle Miocene and synconvergent extension as part of the Aegean-West Anatolian extensional tectonic regime. Recent studies identified that there is a tear in the northwards subducting African Oceanic lithosphere along the Pliny-Strabo Trenches (PST). Such tears are coined as Subduction Transform-Edge Propagator (STEP) faults developed high angle to trenches. Hypothetically, the evolution of a STEP fault is somewhat similar to strike-slip fault zones and resultant asymmetric role-back of the subducting slab leads to differential block rotations and back arc type extension on the overriding plate. Recent studies claimed that the tear along the PST propagated NE on-land and developed Fethiye-Burdur Fault/Shear Zone (FBFZ) in SW Turkey. We have conducted a rigorous paleomagnetic study containing more than 3000 samples collected from 88 locations and 11700 fault slip data sets from 198 locations distributed evenly all over SW Anatolia spanning from Middle Miocene to Late Pliocene to test if FBFZ ever existed. The results show that there is slight (20°) counter-clockwise rotation distributed uniformly almost whole SW Anatolia and there is no change in the rotation senses and amounts on either side of the FBFZ implying no differential rotation within the zone. Additionally, constructed paleostress configurations, along the so-called FBFZ and within the 300 km diameter of the proposed fault zone, indicated that almost all the faults that are parallel to subparallel to the zone are almost pure normal faults similar to earthquake focal mechanisms suggesting active extension in the region. It is important to note that we have not encountered any significant strike-slip motion parallel to so-called "FBFZ" to support presence and transcurrent nature of it. On the contrary, the region is dominated by extensional deformation and strike-slip components are observed only on the

  10. Distributed power-law seismicity changes and crustal deformation in the SW Hellenic ARC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Tzanis

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available A region of definite accelerating seismic release rates has been identified at the SW Hellenic Arc and Trench system, of Peloponnesus, and to the south-west of the island of Kythera (Greece. The identification was made after detailed, parametric time-to-failure modelling on a 0.1° square grid over the area 20° E – 27° E and 34° N–38° N. The observations are strongly suggestive of terminal-stage critical point behaviour (critical exponent of the order of 0.25, leading to a large earthquake with magnitude 7.1 ± 0.4, to occur at time 2003.6 ± 0.6. In addition to the region of accelerating seismic release rates, an adjacent region of decelerating seismicity was also observed. The acceleration/deceleration pattern appears in such a well structured and organised manner, which is strongly suggestive of a causal relationship. An explanation may be that the observed characteristics of distributed power-law seismicity changes may be produced by stress transfer from a fault, to a region already subjected to stress inhomogeneities, i.e. a region defined by the stress field required to rupture a fault with a specified size, orientation and rake. Around a fault that is going to rupture, there are bright spots (regions of increasing stress and stress shadows (regions relaxing stress; whereas acceleration may be observed in bright spots, deceleration may be expected in the shadows. We concluded that the observed seismic release patterns can possibly be explained with a family of NE-SW oriented, left-lateral, strike-slip to oblique-slip faults, located to the SW of Kythera and Antikythera and capable of producing earthquakes with magnitudes MS ~ 7. Time-to-failure modelling and empirical analysis of earthquakes in the stress bright spots yield a critical exponent of the order 0.25 as expected from theory, and a predicted magnitude and critical time perfectly consistent with the figures given above. Although we have determined an approximate location

  11. Sulfur and lead isotope characteristics of the Pontes e Lacerda gold deposits, SW Amazonian Craton Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geraldes, M.C.; Tassinari, C.C.G.; Babinski; M; Iyer, S

    2001-01-01

    This work deals with the characterization of the S and Pb isotope signatures in sulfides from the Pontes e Lacerda mesothermal gold deposits located in the SW sector of Amazonian craton. Stable and radiogenic isotopes have played an important role in the study of ore deposited and hydrothermal processes and they are most useful when can be used together. The purpose of this study is to constrain the sources and the mechanisms of gold deposition in Pontes e Lacerda region which may be a helpful contribution to an exploratory model in the area (au)

  12. Ecosystem metabolism in a temporary Mediterranean marsh (Donana National Park, SW Spain)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geertz-Hansen, O.; Montes, C.; Duarte, C.M.

    2011-01-01

    metabolic balance of the open waters supporting submerged macrophytes of the Donana marsh (SW Spain) was investigated in spring, when community production is highest. The marsh community (benthic + pelagic) was net autotrophic with net community production rates averaging 0.61 g C m(-2) d(-1......), and gross production rates exceeding community respiration rates by, on average, 43%. Net community production increased greatly with increasing irradiance, with the threshold irradiance for communities to become net autotrophic ranging from 42 to 255 mu E m(-2) s(-1), with net heterotrophic at lower...

  13. Abnormal number cell division of human thyroid anaplastic carcinoma cell line, SW 1736

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keiichi Ikeda

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Cell division, during which a mother cell usually divides into two daughter cells during one cell cycle, is the most important physiological event of cell biology. We observed one-to-four cell division during imaging of live SW1736 human thyroid anaplastic carcinoma cells transfected with a plasmid expressing the hybrid protein of green fluorescent protein and histone 2B (plasmid eGFP-H2B. Analysis of the images revealed a mother cell divided into four daughter cells. And one of the abnormally divided daughter cells subsequently formed a dinucleate cell.

  14. The formation of lipid droplets favors intracellular Mycobacterium leprae survival in SW-10, non-myelinating Schwann cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Song-Hyo; An, Sung-Kwan; Lee, Seong-Beom

    2017-06-01

    Leprosy is a chronic infectious disease that is caused by the obligate intracellular pathogen Mycobacterium leprae (M.leprae), which is the leading cause of all non-traumatic peripheral neuropathies worldwide. Although both myelinating and non-myelinating Schwann cells are infected by M.leprae in patients with lepromatous leprosy, M.leprae preferentially invades the non-myelinating Schwann cells. However, the effect of M.leprae infection on non-myelinating Schwann cells has not been elucidated. Lipid droplets (LDs) are found in M.leprae-infected Schwann cells in the nerve biopsies of lepromatous leprosy patients. M.leprae-induced LD formation favors intracellular M.leprae survival in primary Schwann cells and in a myelinating Schwann cell line referred to as ST88-14. In the current study, we initially characterized SW-10 cells and investigated the effects of LDs on M.leprae-infected SW-10 cells, which are non-myelinating Schwann cells. SW-10 cells express S100, a marker for cells from the neural crest, and NGFR p75, a marker for immature or non-myelinating Schwann cells. SW-10 cells, however, do not express myelin basic protein (MBP), a marker for myelinating Schwann cells, and myelin protein zero (MPZ), a marker for precursor, immature, or myelinating Schwann cells, all of which suggests that SW-10 cells are non-myelinating Schwann cells. In addition, SW-10 cells have phagocytic activity and can be infected with M. leprae. Infection with M. leprae induces the formation of LDs. Furthermore, inhibiting the formation of M. leprae-induced LD enhances the maturation of phagosomes containing live M.leprae and decreases the ATP content in the M. leprae found in SW-10 cells. These facts suggest that LD formation by M. leprae favors intracellular M. leprae survival in SW-10 cells, which leads to the logical conclusion that M.leprae-infected SW-10 cells can be a new model for investigating the interaction of M.leprae with non-myelinating Schwann cells.

  15. Aquatic macrophyte richness in Danish lakes in relation to alkalinity, transparency, and lake area

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, Ole Skafte; Sand-Jensen, Kaj

    2000-01-01

    We examined the relationship between environmental factors and the richness of submerged macrophytes species in 73 Danish lakes, which are mainly small, shallow, and have mesotrophic to hypertrophic conditions. We found that mean species richness per lake was only 4.5 in acid lakes of low...... alkalinity but 12.3 in lakes of high alkalinity due to a greater occurrence of the species-rich group of elodeids. Mean species richness per lake also increased significantly with increasing Secchi depth. No significant relationship between species richness and lake surface area was observed among the entire...... group of lakes or a subset of eutrophic lakes, as the growth of submerged macrophytes in large lakes may be restricted by wave action in shallow water and light restriction in deep water. In contrast, macrophyte species richness increased with lake surface area in transparent lakes, presumably due...

  16. Effects of lake trout refuges on lake whitefish and cisco in the Apostle Islands Region of Lake Superior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuccarino-Crowe , Chiara M.; Taylor, William W.; Hansen, Michael J.; Seider, Michael J.; Krueger, Charles C.

    2016-01-01

    Lake trout refuges in the Apostle Islands region of Lake Superior are analogous to the concept of marine protected areas. These refuges, established specifically for lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) and closed to most forms of recreational and commercial fishing, were implicated as one of several management actions leading to successful rehabilitation of Lake Superior lake trout. To investigate the potential significance of Gull Island Shoal and Devils Island Shoal refuges for populations of not only lake trout but also other fish species, relative abundances of lake trout, lake whitefish (Coregonus clupeaformis), and cisco (Coregonus artedi) were compared between areas sampled inside versus outside of refuge boundaries. During 1982–2010, lake trout relative abundance was higher and increased faster inside the refuges, where lake trout fishing was prohibited, than outside the refuges. Over the same period, lake whitefish relative abundance increased faster inside than outside the refuges. Both evaluations provided clear evidence that refuges protected these species. In contrast, trends in relative abundance of cisco, a prey item of lake trout, did not differ significantly between areas inside and outside the refuges. This result did not suggest indirect or cascading refuge effects due to changes in predator levels. Overall, this study highlights the potential of species-specific refuges to benefit other fish species beyond those that were the refuges' original target. Improved understanding of refuge effects on multiple species of Great Lakes fishes can be valuable for developing rationales for refuge establishment and predicting associated fish community-level effects.

  17. The Effects of NDRG2 Overexpression on Cell Proliferation and Invasiveness of SW48 Colorectal Cancer Cell Line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golestan, Ali; Mojtahedi, Zahra; Ghalamfarsa, Ghasem; Hamidinia, Maryam; Takhshid, Mohammad Ali

    2015-09-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the most common causes of cancer-related death in the world. The expression of N-myc downstream-regulated gene 2 (NDRG2) is down-regulated in CRC. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of NDRG2 overexpression on cell proliferation and invasive potential of SW48 cells. SW48 cells were transfected with a plasmid overexpressing NDRG2. After stable transfection, the effect of NDRG2 overexpression on cell proliferation was evaluated by MTT assay. The effects of NDRG2 overexpression on cell migration, invasion and cell motility and matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP9) activities were also investigated using matrigel transwell assay, wound healing assay and gelatin zymography, respectively. MTT assay showed that overexpression of NDRG2 caused attenuation of SW48 cell proliferation. Transwell and wound healing assay revealed that NDRG2 overexpression led to inhibition of migration, invasion, and motility of SW48 cells. The overexpression of NDRG2 also reduced the activity of secreted MMP-9. The results of this study suggest that NDRG2 overexpression inhibits proliferation and invasive potential of SW48 cells, which likely occurs via suppression of MMP-9 activity.

  18. Changes in Rongbuk lake and Imja lake in the Everest region of Himalaya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, W.; Doko, T.; Liu, C.; Ichinose, T.; Fukui, H.; Feng, Q.; Gou, P.

    2014-12-01

    The Himalaya holds the world record in terms of range and elevation. It is one of the most extensively glacierized regions in the world except the Polar Regions. The Himalaya is a region sensitive to climate change. Changes in the glacial regime are indicators of global climate changes. Since the second half of the last century, most Himalayan glaciers have melted due to climate change. These changes directly affected the changes of glacial lakes in the Himalayan region due to the glacier retreat. New glacial lakes are formed, and a number of them have expanded in the Everest region of the Himalayas. This paper focuses on the two glacial lakes which are Imja Lake, located at the southern slope, and Rongbuk Lake, located at the northern slope in the Mt. Everest region, Himalaya to present the spatio-temporal changes from 1976 to 2008. Topographical conditions between two lakes were different (Kruskal-Wallis test, p < 0.05). Rongbuk Lake was located at 623 m higher than Imja Lake, and radiation of Rongbuk Lake was higher than the Imja Lake. Although size of Imja Lake was larger than the Rongbuk Lake in 2008, the growth speed of Rongbuk Lake was accelerating since 2000 and exceeds Imja Lake in 2000-2008. This trend of expansion of Rongbuk Lake is anticipated to be continued in the 21st century. Rongbuk Lake would be the biggest potential risk of glacial lake outburst flood (GLOF) at the Everest region of Himalaya in the future.

  19. Revisiting platinum group elements of Late Permian coals from western Guizhou Province, SW China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qi, Liang [State Key Lab of Ore Deposit Geochemistry, Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guiyang, 550002 (China); Gao, Jianfeng [Department of Earth Sciences, The University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam Road, Hong Kong SAR (China)

    2008-08-05

    Twenty five coal samples from the Late Permian coal-bearing strata in Weining, Nayong, and Zhijin, western Guizhou Province, SW, China, were analyzed for platinum group elements (PGEs). The coal ashes were digested by the Carius tube technique and accurately measured by isotope dilution-inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ID-ICP-MS) for all PGEs. The results are much lower than the previous reported values. Our study suggested that the previously reported PGE values are incorrect and may due to the polyatomic interferences in ICP-MS measurements. In our study, samples from the Weining coalfield have the lowest PGE contents (from 0.019 Ir to 0.42 ng/g Pd), which represent the PGE background value in coal in western Guizhou province. Some of the coals have Pt and Pd contents about 20-times higher than the background value, indicating PGEs are concentrated. We also reported new and reliable PGE data and background value of coal in western Guizhou province, SW, China, and suggested to rework the PGE background values of Chinese coals. (author)

  20. Anticonvulsant effect of the ethanol extract of Caesalpiniapulcherrima (L. Sw., Fabaceae, leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dinesh Kumar

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available In this study, ethanol extract of Caesalpinia pulcherrima (L. Sw., Fabaceae, leaves (CPEE was investigated for anticonvulsant effect against maximal electroshock (MES and pentylenetetrazole (PTZ induced seizures in rats and mice at dose levels 200 and 400 mg/kg, i.p. respectively. Diazepam (3 mg/kg, i.p. was used as a standard anticonvulsant drug for comparison. CPEE was found to be safe up to the dose of 4000 mg/kg in mice, when administered intraperitoneally. The extract at 400 mg/kg dose produced significant (p<0.01 anticonvulsant effect w.r.t. control against PTZ-induced clonic seizures. In MES-induced seizure model, there were no significant alterations in the onset as well as duration of hind limb extension seizures as compared to control at a dose of 200 mg/kg when administered intraperitoneally. However, the extract (CPEE, 400 mg/kg i.p. significantly (p<0.01 delayed the onset as well as decreased the duration of hind limb extension seizures (HLES as compared to control. However, the extract, CPEE, percentage protection of the animals was increased at higher dose (200 mg/kg in both the models. The results of the study suggest that ethanol extract of Caesalpinia pulcherrima (L. Sw. leaves possess anticonvulsant effect.

  1. Dynamics of root and leaf decomposition in chronosequence of rubber plantation (Hevea brasilensis) in SW China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moazzam, N.S.; Yiping, Z.; Liqing, S.; Moazzam, N.S.

    2018-01-01

    This study highlighted the dynamics of stand parameters as well as root and leaf litter decomposition in the chronosequence (49, 32, 24 and 12 years old plantations established in the year 1965, 1982, 1990 and 2002) of the rubber plantation in Xishuangbanna SW China. Litter trappers were installed on the study site to collect the leaf litter and litter bag experiment was carried out to investigate the rate of root and leaf litter decomposition. The study revealed significant variation of stand characteristics during the decomposition process. The monthly litter fall and root biomass (all categories; kg m-3) showed positive correlation with stand characteristics and age. Remaining leaf litter mass % in the litter bags reduced with the passage of time and was significantly different in the chronosequence. The highest root decomposition rate (55%) was shown by fine roots and minimum (32%) by coarse roots during the study period. The investigations on elemental composition of the leaf and root provides basic important information for rate of nutrient cycle along with decomposition rate in rubber plantation and result are quite helpful for simulating the below ground carbon stock of rubber plantation in SW China. (author)

  2. Photometry of the SW Sextantis-type nova-like BH Lyncis in high state

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanishev, V.; Kraicheva, Z.; Genkov, V.

    2006-08-01

    Aims.We present a photometric study of the deeply eclipsing SW Sex-type nova-like cataclysmic variable star BH Lyn. Methods: .Time-resolved V-band CCD photometry was obtained for seven nights between 1999 and 2004. Results: .We determined 11 new eclipse timings of BH Lyn and derived a refined orbital ephemeris with an orbital period of 0.155875577(14) °. During the observations, BH Lyn was in high-state with V≃15.5 mag. The star presents ~1.5 mag deep eclipses with mean full-width at half-flux of 0.0683(±0.0054)P_orb. The eclipse shape is highly variable, even changing form cycle to cycle. This is most likely due to accretion disc surface brightness distribution variations, most probably caused by strong flickering. Time-dependent accretion disc self-occultation or variations of the hot spot(s) intensity are also possible explanations. Negative superhumps with period of ˜0.145 ° are detected in two long runs in 2000. A possible connection between SW Sex and negative superhump phenomena through the presence of tilted accretion disc is discussed, and a way to observationally test this is suggested.

  3. Production, purification and characterization of an exo-polygalacturonase from Penicillium janthinellum sw09

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    YUPING MA

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT A soil isolate, Penicillium janthinellum sw09 has been found to produce significant amounts of an extracellular pectinase subsequently characterized as exo-polygalacturonase (exo-PG. By optimizing growth conditions, P. janthinellum sw09 produced high amount of exo-PG (16.54 units/mL. The crude enzyme was purified by gel filtration chromatography and two exo-PG activity peaks (designated as PGI and PGII were revealed. On SDS-PAGE analysis, purified PGII using DEAE-Sepharose FF column, was found to be a single band with a molecular mass of 66.2 kDa. The purified PGII exhibited maximal activity at the temperature of 45 oC and pH 5.0. The stability profiles show that PGII is more stable in the pH range of 4.0-8.0 and below 60 oC. The Km and Vmax for the enzyme was 1.74 mg/mL and 18.08 μmol/ (mL•min, respectively. Due to this enzymatic characterization, this pectinase is an attractive candidate for applications in degradation of pectin.

  4. Ostreid herpesvirus in wild oysters from the Huelva coast (SW Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Sanmartín, M; López-Fernández, J R; Cunha, M E; De la Herrán, R; Navas, J I

    2016-08-09

    This is the first report of ostreid herpesvirus 1 microvariant (OsHV-1 µVar) infecting natural oyster beds located in Huelva (SW Spain). The virus was detected in 3 oyster species present in the intertidal zone: Crassostrea gigas (Thunberg, 1793), C. angulata (Lamarck, 1819) and, for the first time, in Ostrea stentina Payraudeau, 1826. Oysters were identified by a specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and posterior restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis based on cytochrome oxidase I (COI) mitochondrial DNA. Results confirmed that C. angulata still remains the dominant oyster population in SW Spain despite the introduction of C. gigas for cultivation in the late 1970s, and its subsequent naturalization. C. angulata shows a higher haplotype diversity than C. gigas. OsHV-1 virus was detected by PCR with C2/C6 pair primers. Posterior RFLP analyses with the restriction enzyme MfeI were done in order to reveal the OsHV-1 µVar. Detections were confirmed by DNA sequencing, and infections were evidenced by in situ hybridization in C. gigas, C. angulata and O. stentina samples. The prevalence was similar among the 3 oyster species but varied between sampling locations, being higher in areas with greater harvesting activities. OsHV-1 µVar accounted for 93% of all OsHV-1 detected.

  5. Echinacoside Induces Apoptosis in Human SW480 Colorectal Cancer Cells by Induction of Oxidative DNA Damages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liwei Dong

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Echinacoside is a natural compound with potent reactive oxygen species (ROS-scavenging and anti-oxidative bioactivities, which protect cells from oxidative damages. As cancer cells are often under intense oxidative stress, we therefore tested if Echinacoside treatment would promote cancer development. Surprisingly, we found that Echinacoside significantly inhibited the growth and proliferation of a panel of cancer cell lines. Treatment of the human SW480 cancer cells with Echinacoside resulted in marked apoptosis and cell cycle arrest, together with a significant increase in active caspase 3 and cleaved PARP, and upregulation of the G1/S-CDK blocker CDKN1B (p21. Interestingly, immunocytochemistry examination of drug-treated cancer cells revealed that Echinacoside caused a significant increase of intracellular oxidized guanine, 8-oxoG, and dramatic upregulation of the double-strand DNA break (DSB-binding protein 53BP1, suggesting that Echinacoside induced cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in SW480 cancer cells via induction of oxidative DNA damages. These results establish Echinacoside as a novel chemical scaffold for development of anticancer drugs.

  6. Crustal structure of the SW Iberian passive margin: The westernmost remnant of the Ligurian Tethys?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, A.; Fernández, O.; Torne, M.; Sánchez de la Muela, A.; Muñoz, J. A.; Terrinha, P.; Manatschal, G.; Salas, M. C.

    2017-05-01

    At present, the SW Iberian margin is located along the convergent Iberia-Nubia plate boundary. In Mesozoic times, the margin was located at the triple junction of the Ligurian Tethys, Central Atlantic and Northern Atlantic. The characterization of its crustal structure has allowed us to propose a configuration for this triple junction and to determine the role that this transform margin played within the plate kinematic system. In this paper we present an integrated study based on the interpretation of a 2D regional multichannel seismic survey consisting of 58 profiles, tied with onshore geology and exploratory wells, and on gravimetric modeling performed over four NW-SE trending profiles. Integrated interpretation of MCS data combined with 2D gravity modeling reveals a complex pattern in the southward crustal thinning of SW Iberia and supports the possible presence of oceanic crust under the Gulf of Cadiz. The tapering of Iberian crust is characterized by steps with rapid changes in the thickness of the crust, and thinning to Bank. Margin inversion and the pre-existing extensional crustal structure are responsible for the areal distribution and amplitude of the prominent positive gravity anomaly observed in the Gulf of Cadiz.

  7. The prevalence of Anaplasma phagocytophilum in questing Ixodes ricinus ticks in SW Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiewra, Dorota; Zaleśny, Grzegorz; Czułowska, Aleksandra

    2014-01-01

    Ticks constitute important vectors of human and animal pathogens. Besides the Lyme borreliosis and tick-borne encephalitis, other pathogens such as Babesia spp., Rickettsia spp., and Anaplasma phagocytophilum, are of increasing public health interest. In Poland, as in other European countries, Ixodes ricinus, the most prevalent tick species responsible for the majority of tick bites in humans, is the main vector of A. phagocytophilum. The aim of the study was to estimate the infection level of I. ricinus with A. phagocytophilum in selected districts, not previously surveyed for the presence of this agent. Sampling of questing ticks was performed in 12 forested sites, located in four districts (Legnica, Milicz, Lubań, and Oława) in SW Poland. Altogether, 792 ticks (151 females, 101 males, and 540 nymphs) representing I. ricinus were checked for the presence of A. phagocytophilum. The average infection level was 4.3%, with higher rate reported for adult ticks. The highest percentage of infected adults was observed in Milicz (17.4%) and the lowest in Oława (6.8%). The abundance of questing I. ricinus in all examined sites as well as the infection with A. phagocytophilum indicate for the first time the risk for HGA transmission in SW Poland.

  8. Alfinated coating structure on HS6-5-2 (SW7M high speed steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Szymczak

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of immersion alfinated coating structure in AlSi5 silumin on HS6-5-2 (SW7M high speed steel. Alfinating bath temperature was 750 ± 5 ° C, time of sample immersion was τ = 180s. Thickness of obtained coating under specified conditions was g = 150μm. Manufactured coating consists of three layers of different construction phase. The first layer from the substrate „g1`” constructed with a AlFe phase consist of alloy additives constituents of HS6-5-2 (SW7M steel: W, Mo, V, Cr and Si. On it crystallizes the second layer „g1``” of AlFeWMoCr intermetallic phases also containing Si and small amount of V. Last, the outer layer „g2” of the coating is composed with silumin including AlFeWMoCrVSi intermetallic phases. Within all layers of the coating occurs carbides. Penetration of carbides to individual coating layers is mainly due to steel surface partial melting and crystallizing layers „g1`” and „g1``” by alfinating liquid and shifting into her of carbides as well as partial carbides rejection by crystallization front of intermetallic phases occurs in coating.

  9. Regional forecast model for the Olea pollen season in Extremadura (SW Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Rodríguez, Santiago; Durán-Barroso, Pablo; Silva-Palacios, Inmaculada; Tormo-Molina, Rafael; Maya-Manzano, José María; Gonzalo-Garijo, Ángela

    2016-10-01

    The olive tree ( Olea europaea) is a predominantly Mediterranean anemophilous species. The pollen allergens from this tree are an important cause of allergic problems. Olea pollen may be relevant in relation to climate change, due to the fact that its flowering phenology is related to meteorological parameters. This study aims to investigate airborne Olea pollen data from a city on the SW Iberian Peninsula, to analyse the trends in these data and their relationships with meteorological parameters using time series analysis. Aerobiological sampling was conducted from 1994 to 2013 in Badajoz (SW Spain) using a 7-day Hirst-type volumetric sampler. The main Olea pollen season lasted an average of 34 days, from May 4th to June 7th. The model proposed to forecast airborne pollen concentrations, described by one equation. This expression is composed of two terms: the first term represents the resilience of the pollen concentration trend in the air according to the average concentration of the previous 10 days; the second term was obtained from considering the actual pollen concentration value, which is calculated based on the most representative meteorological variables multiplied by a fitting coefficient. Due to the allergenic characteristics of this pollen type, it should be necessary to forecast its short-term prevalence using a long record of data in a city with a Mediterranean climate. The model obtained provides a suitable level of confidence to forecast Olea airborne pollen concentration.

  10. COMPORTAMIENTO DEL CRECIMIENTO EN ALTURA DE Hibiscus elatus Sw CULTIVADA EN CONTENEDORES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Cobas-López

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Hibiscus elatus Sw. (majagua es una especie nativa de Cuba, incluida en los planes de reforestación del país por su importancia económica, ecológica y su condición de ser una madera preciosa. En el trabajo se describe el comportamiento en vivero del crecimiento en altura de la especie, cultivada en contenedores. Se utilizaron cuatro tipos de sustratos, que fueron los siguientes: S1- Turba (40 %, humus de lombriz (40 % y corteza de pino compostada (20 %; S2- Estiércol de caballo (45 %, composta (40 %, y humus de lombriz (15 %; S3- Humus de lombriz (30 %, composta (25 %, turba (25 %, y estiércol de caballo (20 %; S4- Testigo, consistente en suelo proveniente de una plantación de la especie. A través del análisis de regresión se probaron nueve modelos matemáticos del tipo y = f (x, polinómicos, exponenciales y logarítmicos. De acuerdo con el coeficiente de determinación obtenido, del análisis de residuos y la validación de los modelos, se comprobó que la función que mejor representa el crecimiento en altura de Hibiscus elatus Sw., para los sustratos estudiados fue b t y b e 1 = 0 + .

  11. Spruce Lake Dam reconstruction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Snyder, G. [SGE Acres Ltd., Fredericton, NB (Canada); Barnard, J. [SGE Acres Ltd., St. John' s, NF (Canada); Vriezen, C. [City of Saint John, NF (Canada); Stephenson, M. [Jacques Whitford Environment Ltd., Fredericton, NB (Canada)

    2004-09-01

    Spruce Lake Dam was constructed in 1898 as part of the water supply system for Saint John, New Brunswick. The original dam was a 6 meter high, 140 meter long concrete gravity dam with an intake structure at its mid point and an overflow spillway at the left abutment. A rehabilitation project was launched in 2001 to bring the deteriorated dam into conformance with the dam safety guidelines of the Canadian Dam Association. The project criteria included minimal disruption to normal operation of water supply facilities and no negative effect on water quality. The project involved installation of a new low level outlet, removal of a gate house and water intake pipes, replacement of an access road culvert in the spillway channel, and raising the earth dam section by 1.8 meters to allow for increased water storage. The new raised section has an impervious core. The project also involved site and geotechnical investigations as well as hydrotechnical and environmental studies. This presentation described the final design of the remedial work and the environmental permitting procedures. Raising the operating level of the system proved successful as demonstrated by the fewer number of pumping days required after dam rehabilitation. The dam safety assessment under the Canadian Environmental Assessment Act began in April 2001, and the rehabilitation was completed by the end of 2002. 1 tab., 8 figs.

  12. Spray Lakes reclamation project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zacaruk, M.R.

    1996-01-01

    When the level of the Spray Lakes (Alberta) reservoir was lowered by four metres, 208 ha of shoreline was exposed offering little to no wildlife benefit and only limited recreation potential. A reclamation plan for 128 ha of shoreline was therefore developed. A wild life-palatable, self-sustaining vegetation cover was established. Approximately 90 ha was scarified, and/or had tree stumps removed prior to seeding, while approximately 40 ha was seeded and fertilized only. The remaining 80 ha of shoreline was not revegetated due to limited access; these areas will be allowed to re-establish naturally from the forested edge. The species were selected based on their adaptation to alkaline soils, drought tolerance, persistence in a stand and rooting characteristics, as well as palatability to wildlife. Alfalfa, white clover and fall rye were seeded. In general, all areas of the reclamation plan are successfully revegetated. Areas which were recontoured are stable and non-eroding. Success was most significant in areas which had been scarified, then seeded and trackpacked. Areas that were seeded and fertilized only were less well established at the end of the first year, but showed improvement in the second and third years. The area will be monitored to ensure the reclaimed vegetation is self-sustaining

  13. Late Holocene climate variability from Lake Pupuke maar, Auckland, New Zealand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Striewski, B.; Shulmeister, J.; Augustinus, P. C.; Soderholm, J.

    2013-10-01

    Spectral analyses of quasi-annual organo-diatomaceous laminae couplets in an Auckland maar lake indicate brief (sub-decadal scale) episodes with strong spectral power and long periods of weak to no spectral power between c. 1700 to c. 550 cal. yr BP. Laminae couplet thickness appears to be a function of changes in wind flow over the basin, with enhanced wind flow deepening the mixing zone and providing additional nutrients for laminae formation. Aeolian dust from Australia amplifies the wind signal. Spectral signals in the high power episodes are focused in Auckland climate whereby strongly negative (positive) ENSO are associated with enhanced (diminished) SW airflow over Auckland. ENSO events interact in the modern climate and the spectral results indicate that this is the case when spectral power is strong in the laminae. These results highlight strong but intermittent ENSO activity between 600 and 1400 cal. yr BP.

  14. The reproduction of lake trout in southern Lake Superior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eschmeyer, Paul H.

    1955-01-01

    The principal spawning grounds of lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush namaycush) in United States waters of southern Lake Superior are on rocky shoals at depths of less than 20 fathoms. Most spawning occurs in October and early November. Of the mature fish collected on or near the spawning grounds, 60 to 69 percent were males. Among mature fish the average length of females was greater than that of males; few males less than 24 inches or females less than 26 inches in total length were caught. Recoveries of lake trout tagged on the spawning grounds showed that some males remained in the immediate area for a period of several weeks during the spawning season. Marked fish showed a tendency to return during later years to spawning grounds on which they had been tagged, even though many of them ranged long distances between spawning seasons.

  15. KRAS exon 2 mutations influence activity of regorafenib in an SW48-based disease model of colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camaj, Peter; Primo, Stefano; Wang, Yan; Heinemann, Volker; Zhao, Yue; Laubender, Ruediger Paul; Stintzing, Sebastian; Giessen-Jung, Clemens; Jung, Andreas; Gamba, Sebastian; Bruns, Christiane Josephine; Modest, Dominik Paul

    2015-01-01

    To investigate the impact of KRAS mutation variants on the activity of regorafenib in SW48 colorectal cancer cells. Activity of regorafenib was evaluated in isogenic SW48 KRAS wild-type (WT) and mutant cells. Subcutaneous xenografts (KRAS WT and G12C mutant variants) in NOD/SCID mice were analyzed to elucidate the effect of regorafenib treatment in vivo. Compared with KRAS WT cells, all mutant variants seemed associated with some degree of resistance to regorafenib-treatment in vitro. In vivo, activation of apoptosis (TUNEL) and reduction of proliferation (Ki67) after treatment with regorafenib were more pronounced in KRAS WT tumors as compared with G12C variants. In SW48 cells, exon 2 mutations of the KRAS gene may influence antitumor effects of regorafenib.

  16. A HW-SW Co-Designed System for the Lunar Lander Hazard Detection and Avoidance Breadboarding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palomo, Pedro; Latorre, Antonio; Valle, Carlos; Gomez de Aguero, Sergio; Hagenfeldt, Miguel; Parreira, Baltazar; Lindoso, Almudena; Portela, Marta; Garcia, Mario; San Millan, Enrique; Zharikov, Yuri; Entrena, Luis

    2014-08-01

    This paper presents the HW-SW co-design approach followed to tackle the design of the Hazard Detection and Avoidance (HDA) system breadboarding for the Lunar Lander ESA mission, undertaken given the fact that novel GNC technologies used to promote autonomous systems demand processing capabilities that current (and forthcoming) space processors are not able to satisfy. The paper shows how the current system design has been performed in a process in which the original HDA functionally validated design has been partitioned between SW (deemed for execution in a microprocessor) and HW algorithms (to be executed in an FPGA), considering the performance requirements and resorting to a deep analysis of the algorithms in view of their adequacy to HW or SW implementation.

  17. Detection of Cytotoxic Activity of Lectin on Human Colon Adenocarcinoma (Sw480 and Epithelial Cervical Carcinoma (C33-A

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirandeli Bautista

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Lectins comprise a heterogeneous class of proteins that recognize the carbohydrate moieties of glycoconjugates with high specificity. Numerous studies have shown that lectins are capable of recognizing specific carbohydrate moieties displayed by malignant cells or tissues. The present work was performed to investigate the effects of tepary bean (Phaseolus acutifolius lectins on proliferation, colony formation, and alteration of DNA synthesis of human malignant cells. Tepary bean lectin showed dose dependent  effects on the inhibition of viability as well as on colony formation in two human malignant cells lines (C33-A, Sw480; By contrast, tepary bean lectin only showed significant effects on DNA synthesis on Sw480 cells. Our results provide evidence of the anti- proliferative and cytotoxic effects of the tepary bean lectins on C33-A and Sw480 cells lines.

  18. Determination of radiocarbon reservoir age of Lake Van by mineral magnetic and geochemical analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makaroglu, Ozlem; Namik Cagatay, M.; Pesonen, Lauri J.; Orbay, Naci

    2017-04-01

    Lake Van is the largest soda lake in the world, located on the east Anatolian Plateau in Turkey. Its varved sediments provide an excellent archive of high-resolution paleoclimate record for the Near East. Varve counting and radiocarbon methods are therefore important dating techniques for investigating the Lake Van sedimentary paleoclimate record. In here we present detailed magnetic and geochemical record of Lake Van. We have studied 4.56 m (core VP0801) and 4.70 m (core VP0807) long cores recovered from 80 m and 65 m water depths located in SE and SW of Lake Van, respectively. Here, we have benefited from magnetic properties with associated remanent magnetization of the sediments from Lake Van to correlate the cores which contain of tephra layers. The cores cover the last 8.4 ka and lithologically include three laminated sedimentary units. From top to the bottom, the units were dated 4.2 ka BP-present, 5.4-4.2 ka BP and older than 5.4 ka BP. We identified tephra layers previously dated by varve counting, and used the varve ages to obtain age models for the cores. We also obtained a total of eight Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (AMS) 14C dates from total organic carbon (TOC) in the two cores, close to the tephra layers. Comparison of the varve ages of the AMS 14C dated samples with their corresponding AMS 14C dates indicates large differences, suggesting significant reservoir ages that range from 2.8 to 2.5 ka for 3.0-2.4 varve ka BP and from 2.8 to 3.3 ka for 8.0-5.9 varve ka BP. The results suggest that the reservoir age of the organic matter increases with the varve age of the sediments. This increase is mainly related to the rate of supply of "dead" carbon from the old carbonate rocks in the watershed of Lake Van, which was relatively higher during 8.4-5.9 ka than during 3.0-2.4 ka BP because of the higher atmospheric precipitation and higher rate of biochemical weathering during the former period.

  19. Recent warming of lake Kivu.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katsev, Sergei; Aaberg, Arthur A; Crowe, Sean A; Hecky, Robert E

    2014-01-01

    Lake Kivu in East Africa has gained notoriety for its prodigious amounts of dissolved methane and dangers of limnic eruption. Being meromictic, it is also expected to accumulate heat due to rising regional air temperatures. To investigate the warming trend and distinguish between atmospheric and geothermal heating sources, we compiled historical temperature data, performed measurements with logging instruments, and simulated heat propagation. We also performed isotopic analyses of water from the lake's main basin and isolated Kabuno Bay. The results reveal that the lake surface is warming at the rate of 0.12°C per decade, which matches the warming rates in other East African lakes. Temperatures increase throughout the entire water column. Though warming is strongest near the surface, warming rates in the deep waters cannot be accounted for solely by propagation of atmospheric heat at presently assumed rates of vertical mixing. Unless the transport rates are significantly higher than presently believed, this indicates significant contributions from subterranean heat sources. Temperature time series in the deep monimolimnion suggest evidence of convection. The progressive deepening of the depth of temperature minimum in the water column is expected to accelerate the warming in deeper waters. The warming trend, however, is unlikely to strongly affect the physical stability of the lake, which depends primarily on salinity gradient.

  20. Recent warming of lake Kivu.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergei Katsev

    Full Text Available Lake Kivu in East Africa has gained notoriety for its prodigious amounts of dissolved methane and dangers of limnic eruption. Being meromictic, it is also expected to accumulate heat due to rising regional air temperatures. To investigate the warming trend and distinguish between atmospheric and geothermal heating sources, we compiled historical temperature data, performed measurements with logging instruments, and simulated heat propagation. We also performed isotopic analyses of water from the lake's main basin and isolated Kabuno Bay. The results reveal that the lake surface is warming at the rate of 0.12°C per decade, which matches the warming rates in other East African lakes. Temperatures increase throughout the entire water column. Though warming is strongest near the surface, warming rates in the deep waters cannot be accounted for solely by propagation of atmospheric heat at presently assumed rates of vertical mixing. Unless the transport rates are significantly higher than presently believed, this indicates significant contributions from subterranean heat sources. Temperature time series in the deep monimolimnion suggest evidence of convection. The progressive deepening of the depth of temperature minimum in the water column is expected to accelerate the warming in deeper waters. The warming trend, however, is unlikely to strongly affect the physical stability of the lake, which depends primarily on salinity gradient.

  1. 33 CFR 162.134 - Connecting waters from Lake Huron to Lake Erie; traffic rules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Connecting waters from Lake Huron to Lake Erie; traffic rules. 162.134 Section 162.134 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD... REGULATIONS § 162.134 Connecting waters from Lake Huron to Lake Erie; traffic rules. (a) Detroit River. The...

  2. 33 CFR 162.132 - Connecting waters from Lake Huron to Lake Erie; communications rules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Connecting waters from Lake Huron to Lake Erie; communications rules. 162.132 Section 162.132 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST... NAVIGATION REGULATIONS § 162.132 Connecting waters from Lake Huron to Lake Erie; communications rules. (a...

  3. 33 CFR 162.130 - Connecting waters from Lake Huron to Lake Erie; general rules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Connecting waters from Lake Huron to Lake Erie; general rules. 162.130 Section 162.130 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD... REGULATIONS § 162.130 Connecting waters from Lake Huron to Lake Erie; general rules. (a) Purpose. The...

  4. 33 CFR 162.138 - Connecting waters from Lake Huron to Lake Erie; speed rules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Connecting waters from Lake Huron to Lake Erie; speed rules. 162.138 Section 162.138 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD... REGULATIONS § 162.138 Connecting waters from Lake Huron to Lake Erie; speed rules. (a) Maximum speed limit for...

  5. 33 CFR 162.136 - Connecting waters from Lake Huron to Lake Erie; anchorage grounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Connecting waters from Lake Huron to Lake Erie; anchorage grounds. 162.136 Section 162.136 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD... REGULATIONS § 162.136 Connecting waters from Lake Huron to Lake Erie; anchorage grounds. (a) In the Detroit...

  6. 33 CFR 162.140 - Connecting waters from Lake Huron to Lake Erie; miscellaneous rules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Connecting waters from Lake Huron to Lake Erie; miscellaneous rules. 162.140 Section 162.140 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST... NAVIGATION REGULATIONS § 162.140 Connecting waters from Lake Huron to Lake Erie; miscellaneous rules. (a...

  7. Energy density of lake whitefish Coregonus clupeaformis in Lakes Huron and Michigan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pothoven, S.A.; Nalepa, T.F.; Madenjian, C.P.; Rediske, R.R.; Schneeberger, P.J.; He, J.X.

    2006-01-01

    We collected lake whitefish Coregonus clupeaformis off Alpena and Tawas City, Michigan, USA in Lake Huron and off Muskegon, Michigan USA in Lake Michigan during 2002–2004. We determined energy density and percent dry weight for lake whitefish from both lakes and lipid content for Lake Michigan fish. Energy density increased with increasing fish weight up to 800 g, and then remained relatively constant with further increases in fish weight. Energy density, adjusted for weight, was lower in Lake Huron than in Lake Michigan for both small (≤800 g) and large fish (>800 g). Energy density did not differ seasonally for small or large lake whitefish or between adult male and female fish. Energy density was strongly correlated with percent dry weight and percent lipid content. Based on data from commercially caught lake whitefish, body condition was lower in Lake Huron than Lake Michigan during 1981–2003, indicating that the dissimilarity in body condition between the lakes could be long standing. Energy density and lipid content in 2002–2004 in Lake Michigan were lower than data for comparable sized fish collected in 1969–1971. Differences in energy density between lakes were attributed to variation in diet and prey energy content as well as factors that affect feeding rates such as lake whitefish density and prey abundance.

  8. Preparation of aluminium lakes by electrocoagulation

    OpenAIRE

    Prapai Pradabkham

    2008-01-01

    Aluminium lakes have been prepared by electrocoagulation employing aluminium as electrodes. The electrocoagulation is conducted in an aqueous alcoholic solution and is completed within one hour. The dye content in the lake ranges approximately between 4-32%.

  9. Global Lake and River Ice Phenology Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Global Lake and River Ice Phenology Database contains freeze and thaw/breakup dates as well as other descriptive ice cover data for 865 lakes and rivers in the...

  10. Lake Tahoe Water Quality Improvement Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Information on the Lake Tahoe watershed, EPA's protection efforts, water quality issues, effects of climate, change, Lake Tahoe Total Maximum Daily Load (TMDL), EPA-sponsored projects, and list of partner agencies.

  11. Biota - 2011 Vegetation Inventory - Marsh Lake, MN

    Data.gov (United States)

    Army Corps of Engineers, Department of the Army, Department of Defense — 2011 Vegetation Classification for Marsh Lake, MN Vegetation Project Report, OMBIL Environmental Stewardship - Level 1 Inventory. Marsh Lake is located on the...

  12. Paleofloristic and paleofaunistic analysis of Dudváh River oxbow and implication for Late Holocene paleoenvironmental development of the Žitný ostrov Island (SW Slovakia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pišút, Peter; Břízová, Eva; Čejka, Tomáš; Pipík, Radovan

    2010-12-01

    Žitný ostrov, the largest island of the Danube River (SW Slovakia) gained its present shape in the Neoholocene period. As a result of increased flood and geomorphological Danube river activity dated to 1378-1528 AD, the Lower Dudváh River was abandoned and its alluvium became a part of the Žitný ostrov. Study of a Dudváh terrestrialized paleomeander by means of pollen and macrofossil analysis provides new information about the paleoenvironments of the Danubian Plain. The meander under study was cut-off during the Sub-Boreal period when the land was mostly covered by oak-dominated mixed forest with a notable high frequency of Fagus and Abies. In low-lying depressions, Alnus glutinosa formed typical alder carrs. The largest decline of the mixed forest occurred during the Sub-Atlantic period. Until the mid-19th century the region was strongly influenced by shallow groundwater and periodical floods, as reflected by pollen of aquatics and marsh species. Amongst non-arboreal taxa, pollen of Cyperaceae, Brassicaceae/Cuscuta, Poaceae and Apiaceae prevailed. Local successional changes started with i) stage of abandoned oxbow still with influx of moving water, poor in both macrophytes and molluscs, ii) shallow eutrophic oxbow lake with slowly flowing or stagnant water overgrown with aquatics (Ranunculus subgen. Batrachium, Potamogeton sp., Ceratophyllum demersum etc.) and abundant molluscs, iii) an open marsh dominated by Cyperaceae (mainly Carex riparia) with Atriplex prostrata, supporting diverse molluscan and Ostracod fauna. Present-day habitat is a result of landscape changes, which have been associated with draining, intensified agriculture, ruderalisation and spread of invasive species.

  13. Biosynthesis, characterization, and evaluation of bioactivities of leaf extract-mediated biocompatible silver nanoparticles from an early tracheophyte, Pteris tripartita Sw.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baskaran XR

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Xavierravi Baskaran,1 Antony Varuvel Geo Vigila,2 Thangaraj Parimelazhagan,3 Doulathabad Muralidhara-Rao,4 Shouzhou Zhang1 1Shenzhen Key Laboratory of Southern Subtropical Plant Diversity, Fairy Lake Botanical Garden, Shenzhen and Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenzhen, People’s Republic of China; 2Department of Zoology, St Xavier’s College, Palayamkottai, 3Department of Botany, Bioprospecting Laboratory, Bharathiar University, Coimbatore, Tamil Nadu, 4Department of Biotechnology, Sri Krishnadevaraya University, Anantapur, Andhra Pradesh, IndiaAbstract: The objective of the study was to characterize silver nanoparticles (Ag-NPs and their bioactivities in early tracheophytes (Pteridophyta. Aqueous leaf extract of a critically endangered fern, Pteris tripartita Sw., was used for one-step green synthesis of Ag-NPs. The biosynthesized Ag-NPs were characterized using ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy. Morphologically, the Ag-NPs showed hexagonal, spherical, and rod-shaped structures. Size distributions of Ag-NPs, calculated using Scherrer’s formula, showed an average size of 32 nm. Ag-NPs were studied for in vitro antioxidant, antimicrobial, and in vivo anti-inflammatory activities. Ag-NPs exhibited significant anti-inflammatory activity in carrageenan-induced paw volume tests performed in female Wistar albino rats. Furthermore, Ag-NPs showed significant antimicrobial activity against 12 different microorganisms in three different assays (disk diffusion, time course growth, and minimum inhibitory concentration. This study reports that colloidal Ag-NPs can be synthesized by simple, nonhazardous methods, and that biosynthesized Ag-NPs have significant therapeutic properties.Keywords: silver nanoparticles, Pteris tripartita, FTIR, HRTEM, antioxidant, antimicrobial

  14. Zooplankton communities in a large prealpine lake, Lake Constance: comparison between the Upper and the Lower Lake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerhard MAIER

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available The zooplankton communities of two basins of a large lake, Lake Constance, were compared during the years 2002 and 2003. The two basins differ in morphology, physical and chemical conditions. The Upper Lake basin has a surface area of 470 km2, a mean depth of 100 and a maximum depth of 250 m; the Lower Lake basin has a surface area of 62 km2, a mean depth of only 13 and a maximum depth of 40 m. Nutrient, chlorophyll-a concentrations and mean temperatures are somewhat higher in the Lower than in the Upper Lake. Total abundance of rotifers (number per m2 lake surface was higher and rotifer development started earlier in the year in the Lower than in the Upper Lake. Total abundance of crustaceans was higher in the Upper Lake in the year 2002; in the year 2003 no difference in abundance could be detected between the lake basins, although in summer crustacean abundance was higher in the Lower than in the Upper Lake. Crustacean communities differed significantly between lake basins while there was no apparent difference in rotifer communities. In the Lower Lake small crustaceans, like Bosmina spp., Ceriodaphnia pulchella and Thermocyclops oithonoides prevailed. Abundance (number per m2 lake surface of predatory cladocerans, large daphnids and large copepods was much lower in the Lower than in the Upper Lake, in particular during the summer months. Ordination with nonmetric multidimensional scaling (NMS separated communities of both lakes along gradients that correlated with temperature and chlorophyll a concentration. Clutches of copepods were larger in the Lower than in the Upper Lake. No difference could be detected in clutch size of large daphnids between lake basins. Our results show that zooplankton communities in different basins of Lake Constance can be very different. They further suggest that the lack of large crustaceans in particular the lack of large predatory cladocerans in the Lower Lake can have negative effects on growth and

  15. 33 CFR 162.220 - Hoover Dam, Lake Mead, and Lake Mohave (Colorado River), Ariz.-Nev.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Hoover Dam, Lake Mead, and Lake... REGULATIONS § 162.220 Hoover Dam, Lake Mead, and Lake Mohave (Colorado River), Ariz.-Nev. (a) Lake Mead and... the axis of Hoover Dam and that portion of Lake Mohave (Colorado River) extending 4,500 feet...

  16. Perturbative determination of c{sub sw} for plaquette and Symanzik gauge action and stout link clover fermions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horsley, R. [Edinburgh Univ. (United Kingdom). School of Physics; Perlt, H.; Schiller, A. [Leipzig Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik; Rakow, P.E.L. [Liverpool Univ. (United Kingdom). Theoretical Physics Division, Dept. of Mathematical Sicences; Schierholz, G. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany)

    2008-06-15

    Using plaquette and Symanzik improved gauge action and stout link clover fermions we determine the improvement coefficient c{sub SW} in one-loop lattice perturbation theory from the off-shell quark-quark-gluon three-point function. In addition, we compute the coefficients needed for the most general form of quark field improvement and present the one-loop result for the critical hopping parameter {kappa}{sub c}. We discuss mean field improvement for c{sub SW} and {kappa}{sub c} and the choice of the mean field coupling for the actions we have considered. (orig.)

  17. lakemorpho: Calculating lake morphometry metrics in R.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollister, Jeffrey; Stachelek, Joseph

    2017-01-01

    Metrics describing the shape and size of lakes, known as lake morphometry metrics, are important for any limnological study. In cases where a lake has long been the subject of study these data are often already collected and are openly available. Many other lakes have these data collected, but access is challenging as it is often stored on individual computers (or worse, in filing cabinets) and is available only to the primary investigators. The vast majority of lakes fall into a third category in which the data are not available. This makes broad scale modelling of lake ecology a challenge as some of the key information about in-lake processes are unavailable. While this valuable in situ information may be difficult to obtain, several national datasets exist that may be used to model and estimate lake morphometry. In particular, digital elevation models and hydrography have been shown to be predictive of several lake morphometry metrics. The R package lakemorpho has been developed to utilize these data and estimate the following morphometry metrics: surface area, shoreline length, major axis length, minor axis length, major and minor axis length ratio, shoreline development, maximum depth, mean depth, volume, maximum lake length, mean lake width, maximum lake width, and fetch. In this software tool article we describe the motivation behind developing lakemorpho , discuss the implementation in R, and describe the use of lakemorpho with an example of a typical use case.

  18. Study of pollution in Rawal lake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad, M.; Khan, M.I.A.; Nisar, M.; Kaleem, M.Y.

    1999-01-01

    It was intended to establish effects of pollution on quality of water of Rawal Lake, Islamabad. Six stations were located for collection of water. The data collected and analyzed so far indicated increasing pollution in the lake Increase in growth of hydrophytes in quite evident, leading towards process of eutrophication of the lake. (author)

  19. Decline of the world's saline lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wayne A. Wurtsbaugh; Craig Miller; Sarah E. Null; R. Justin DeRose; Peter Wilcock; Maura Hahnenberger; Frank Howe; Johnnie Moore

    2017-01-01

    Many of the world’s saline lakes are shrinking at alarming rates, reducing waterbird habitat and economic benefits while threatening human health. Saline lakes are long-term basin-wide integrators of climatic conditions that shrink and grow with natural climatic variation. In contrast, water withdrawals for human use exert a sustained reduction in lake inflows and...

  20. A reactive nitrogen budget for Lake Michigan

    Science.gov (United States)

    The reactive nitrogen budget for Lake Michigan was reviewed and updated, making use of recent estimates of watershed and atmospheric nitrogen loads. The updated total N load to Lake Michigan was approximately double the previous estimate from the Lake Michigan Mass Balance study ...

  1. Historical changes to Lake Washington and route of the Lake Washington Ship Canal, King County, Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chrzastowski, Michael J.

    1983-01-01

    Lake Washington, in the midst of the greater Seattle metropolitan area of the Puget Sound region (fig. 1), is an exceptional commercial, recreational, and esthetic resource for the region . In the past 130 years, Lake Washington has been changed from a " wild " lake in a wilderness setting to a regulated lake surrounded by a growing metropolis--a transformation that provides an unusual opportunity to study changes to a lake's shoreline and hydrologic characteristics -resulting from urbanization.

  2. First evidence of successful natural reproduction by planted lake trout in Lake Huron

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nester, Robert T.; Poe, Thomas P.

    1984-01-01

    Twenty-two lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) swim-up fry, 24-27 mm long, were captured with emergent fry traps and a tow net in northwestern Lake Huron on a small nearshore reef off Alpena, Michigan, between May 10 and June 1, 1982. These catches represent the first evidence of successful production of swim-up fry by planted, hatchery-reared lake trout in Lake Huron since the lake trout rehabilitation program began in 1973.

  3. Horizontal drilling under Lake Erie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meller, R.

    2001-07-01

    Drilling oil wells under Lake Erie calls for horizontal drilling wells to be drilled from shore out into the pay-zone under the lake. The nature and characteristics of horizontal wells as compared to vertical wells are explored. Considerations that have to be taken into account in drilling horizontal wells are explained (the degree of curvature, drilling fluid quality, geosteering in the pay-zone, steering instrumentation, measurements while drilling (MWD), logging while drilling (LWD)). The concept and reasons for extended reach wells are outlined, along with characteristic features of multilateral wells.

  4. The Lake and the City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantin Lidin

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The article considers relations between the city of Irkutsk and Lake Baikal in terms of cultural geography. Baikal is included in the UNESCO world heritage list. Unlike the majority of lakes also included in this list, Baikal’s coast is inhabited, especially its southern part. Similar situation is, for example, in the cluster “the city of Bergen – Geiranger village – Geirangerfjord” in Norway. The comparative analysis shows how Norway’s positive experience of the system “a city – a village – a natural phenomenon” could be used in order to make Irkutsk more attractive for tourists and citizens.

  5. Protecting the endangered lake salmon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soimakallio, H.; Oesch, P.

    1997-01-01

    In addition to the Ringed Seal, the labyrinthine Saimaa lake system created after the Ice Age also trapped a species of salmon, whose entire life cycle became adapted to fresh water. In order to improve the living conditions of this lake salmon which - like the ringed seal - is today classified as an endangered species, an intensive research programme has been launched. The partners include the Finnish Game and Fisheries Research Institute, fishing and environmental authorities and - in collaboration with UPM-Kymmene Oy and Kuurnan Voima Oy - the IVO subsidiary Pamilo Oy

  6. LAKE BAIKAL: Underwater neutrino detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1991-01-01

    A new underwater detector soon to be deployed in Lake Baikal in Siberia, the world's deepest lake with depths down to 1.7 kilometres, could help probe the deepest mysteries of physics. One of the big unsolved problems of astrophysics is the origin of very energetic cosmic rays. However there are many ideas on how particles could be accelerated by exotic concentrations of matter and provide the majority of the Galaxy's high energy particles. Clarification would come from new detectors picking up the energetic photons and neutrinos from these sources

  7. Protecting the endangered lake salmon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soimakallio, H.; Oesch, P. [ed.

    1997-11-01

    In addition to the Ringed Seal, the labyrinthine Saimaa lake system created after the Ice Age also trapped a species of salmon, whose entire life cycle became adapted to fresh water. In order to improve the living conditions of this lake salmon which - like the ringed seal - is today classified as an endangered species, an intensive research programme has been launched. The partners include the Finnish Game and Fisheries Research Institute, fishing and environmental authorities and - in collaboration with UPM-Kymmene Oy and Kuurnan Voima Oy - the IVO subsidiary Pamilo Oy

  8. Post Audit of Lake Michigan Lake Trout PCB Model Forecasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Lake Michigan (LM) Mass Balance Study was conducted to measure and model polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and other anthropogenic substances to gain a better understanding of the transport, fate, and effects of these substances within the system and to aid managers in the env...

  9. Feeding ecology of lake whitefish larvae in eastern Lake Ontario

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, James H.; McKenna, James E.; Chalupnicki, Marc A.; Wallbridge, Tim; Chiavelli, Rich

    2009-01-01

    We examined the feeding ecology of larval lake whitefish (Coregonus clupeaformis) in Chaumont Bay, Lake Ontario, during April and May 2004-2006. Larvae were collected with towed ichthyoplankton nets offshore and with larval seines along the shoreline. Larval feeding periodicity was examined from collections made at 4-h intervals over one 24-h period in 2005. Inter-annual variation in diet composition (% dry weight) was low, as was spatial variation among collection sites within the bay. Copepods (81.4%), primarily cyclopoids (59.1%), were the primary prey of larvae over the 3-year period. Cladocerans (8.1%; mainly daphnids, 6.7%) and chironomids (7.3%) were the other major prey consumed. Larvae did not exhibit a preference for any specific prey taxa. Food consumption of lake whitefish larvae was significantly lower at night (i.e., 2400 and 0400 h). Substantial variation in diet composition occurred over the 24-h diel study. For the 24-h period, copepods were the major prey consumed (50.4%) and their contribution in the diet ranged from 29.3% (0400 h) to 85.9% (1200 h). Chironomids made up 33.4% of the diel diet, ranging from 8.0% (0800 h) to 69.9% (0400 h). Diel variation in the diet composition of lake whitefish larvae may require samples taken at several intervals over a 24-h period to gain adequate representation of their feeding ecology.

  10. USB HW/SW Co-Simulation Environment with Custom Test Tool Integration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grigor Y. Zargaryan

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a new verification environment for USB 2.0 controller. New methodology is presented, where a co-simulation environment is used as one of the starting points for the embedded hardware/software development and as an accelerator of the overall design process. The verification environment is based on the device emulation/virtualization technique, using USB controller’s real register transfer level (RTL instead of models. This approach is functionally very close to the corresponding real-world devices and allows wider opportunities for hardware debugging. The new software utilities for USB host and device functionality testing are also presented. This tool allows generating custom tests by including various transfer types and modifying parameters such as data payload, interval, number of pipes, etc. It can be used for both hardware (HW and software (SW limitations characterization, as well as debugging.

  11. Comportement de Stylosanthes guianensis (Aubl. Sw. dans la basse Ruzizi et le Mosso (Burundi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vancoppenolle, R.

    1984-01-01

    Full Text Available Requirements of Stylosanthes guianensis (Aubl Sw in lower Ruzizi and Mosso (Burundi. This paper describes the requirements of Stylosanthes guianensis in two ecological regions : Mosso (1 280 m alt. and lower Ruzizi (800 m alt.. This legume was introduced in 1953 into the grasslands of the east and in 1970 into lower Ruzizi, with the aim of improving the value of the natural pastures using leguminous plants. At Mosso, soil and climatic conditions were favourable for Stylosanthes and it grew well. However, since 1981. Anthracnose has severely reduced its growth and until a solution is found its general introduction will not be possible. In lower Ruzizi plant development was limited by low rainfall (670, 4 mm per year and soils with a low water retention capacity (sand dunes. For this region, it is necessary to identify cultivars resistant to drought and devise a method of establishing these cultivars on sand dunes.

  12. Monitoring physical properties of a submarine groundwater discharge source at Kalogria Bay, SW Peloponnissos, Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Papathanassiou E.

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available An impressive SGD in Kalogria Bay (SW Peloponnissos was surveyed for the first time in 2006, revealing the existence of 2 major and 2 minor point sources of freshwater (salinity ~l-2; the discharge was ~ 1000 m3 h−1. The major point source was located in a karstic cavity at 25 m depth. In July 2009, and for a period of one year, the site was monitored intensively. During summer, the underwater discharge was not very strong, the water was flowing from many dispersed points, and salinity range was 20–36. During autumn and winter, flow velocity increased considerably (> 1 m s−1, and the SGDs discharged water of low salinity (< 2. Gradually, the smaller SGDs ceased their operation, and the major SGD emanated brackish water during spring and summer, thus hampering the possibilities of freshwater exploitation, in a touristic area which suffers from great aridity and water demand is high during summer.

  13. Neogene to recent contraction and basin inversion along the Nubia-Iberia boundary in SW Iberia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, Adrià; Fernández, Oscar; Terrinha, Pedro; Muñoz, Josep Anton

    2017-02-01

    The SW of Iberia is currently undergoing compression related to the convergence between Nubia and Iberia. Multiple compressive structures, and their related seismic activity, have been documented along the diffuse Nubia-Iberia plate boundary, including the Gorringe bank west of the Gulf of Cadiz, and the Betic-Rif orogen to the east. Despite seismic activity indicating a dominant compressive stress along the Algarve margin in the Gulf of Cadiz, the structures at the origin of this seismicity remain elusive. This paper documents the contractional structures that provide linkage across the Gulf of Cadiz and play a major role in defining the present-day seismicity and bathymetry of this area. The structures described in this paper caused the Neogene inversion of the Jurassic oblique passive margin that formed between the central Atlantic and the Ligurian Tethys. This example of a partially inverted margin provides insights into the factors that condition the inversion of passive margins.

  14. JVLA observations of IC 348 SW: Compact radio sources and their nature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodríguez, Luis F.; Zapata, Luis A.; Palau, Aina, E-mail: l.rodriguez@crya.unam.mx, E-mail: l.zapata@crya.unam.mx, E-mail: a.palau@crya.unam.mx [Centro de Radioastronomía y Astrofísica, UNAM, Apdo. Postal 3-72 (Xangari), 58089 Morelia, Michoacán (Mexico)

    2014-07-20

    We present sensitive 2.1 and 3.3 cm Jansky Very Large Array radio continuum observations of the region IC 348 SW. We detect a total of 10 compact radio sources in the region, 7 of which are first reported here. One of the sources is associated with the remarkable periodic time-variable infrared source LRLL 54361, opening the possibility of monitoring this object at radio wavelengths. Four of the sources appear to be powering outflows in the region, including HH 211 and HH 797. In the case of the rotating outflow HH 797, we detect a double radio source at its center, separated by ∼3''. Two of the sources are associated with infrared stars that possibly have gyrosynchrotron emission produced in active magnetospheres. Finally, three of the sources are interpreted as background objects.

  15. Trace element mapping of two Pyrenean chert deposits (SW Europe) by PIXE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sánchez de la Torre, Marta, E-mail: marta.sanchez-de-la-torre@u-bordeaux-montaigne.fr [IRAMAT-CRP2A (UMR 5060), CNRS/Université Bordeaux Montaigne, Maison de l’Archéologie, Esplanade des Antilles, 33607 Pessac Cedex (France); SERP-Universitat de Barcelona, Montalegre St 6-8, 08001 Barcelona (Spain); Angyal, Anikó; Kertész, Zsófia [MTA Atomki, Institute for Nuclear Research, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, H-4026 Debrecen (Hungary); Dubernet, Stéphan; Le Bourdonnec, François-Xavier [IRAMAT-CRP2A (UMR 5060), CNRS/Université Bordeaux Montaigne, Maison de l’Archéologie, Esplanade des Antilles, 33607 Pessac Cedex (France); Csedreki, László; Furu, Enikő; Papp, Enikő; Szoboszlai, Zoltán; Szikszai, Zita [MTA Atomki, Institute for Nuclear Research, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, H-4026 Debrecen (Hungary)

    2017-06-01

    The geochemical character of two chert formations from the Pyrenean mountain range (SW Europe) was established by PIXE analyses. While it was not possible to distinguish the formations through reference to major and minor elements, some variations were revealed at the trace elemental level. In order to determine if these elements are associated with the Si matrix or to the contents of a specific inclusion, elemental maps were acquired and the elemental composition of the identified inclusions were also determined. As a result, Sr, Ni and Zn are better represented in Montgaillard samples while Y, Hf, W and Zr are typical of Montsaunès cherts. Thanks to elemental maps it has been possible to determine that most of these characteristic elements are usually related to a specific inclusion content.

  16. Sedimentology models from activity concentration measurements: application to the 'Bay of Cadiz' Natural Park (SW Spain)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ligero, R.A.; Vidal, J.; Melendez, M.J.; Hamani, M.; Casas-Ruiz, M.

    2009-01-01

    A previous study on seabed sediments of the Bay of Cadiz (SW of Spain) enabled us to identify several relations between sedimentological variables and activity concentrations of environmental radionuclides such as 137 Cs, 226 Ra, 232 Th and 40 K. In this paper the study has been extended to a large neighbouring inter-tidal area in order to establish if the above mentioned models can be generalized. As a result we have determined that the measured activity concentrations are closely to the values predicted by the theoretical models (correlation coefficient range = 0.85-0.93). Furthermore, the proposal model for granulometric facies as a function of activity concentrations of the abovementioned radionuclides provides for the sediments distribution a representation which agrees with the values of the tidal energy distribution obtained using numeric models calibrated with experimental data from current meters and water level recorders

  17. Physiological responses of coastal phytoplankton (Visakhapatnam, SW Bay of Bengal, India) to experimental copper addition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biswas, Haimanti; Bandyopadhyay, Debasmita

    2017-10-01

    Trace amount of copper (Cu) is essential for many physiological processes; however, it can be potentially toxic at elevated levels. The impact of variable Cu concentrations on a coastal phytoplankton community was investigated along a coastal transect in SW Bay of Bengal. A small increase in Cu supply enhanced the concentrations of particulate organic carbon, particulate organic nitrogen, biogenic silica, total pigment, phytoplankton cell and total bacterial count. At elevated Cu levels all these parameters were adversely affected. δ 13 C POM and δ 15 N POC reflected a visible signature of both beneficial and toxic impacts of Cu supply. Skeletonema costatum, the dominant diatom species, showed higher tolerance to increasing Cu levels relative to Chaetoceros sp. Cyanobacteria showed greater sensitivity to copper than diatoms. The magnitude of Cu toxicity on the phytoplankton communities was inversely related to the distance from the coast. Co-enrichment of iron alleviated Cu toxicity to phytoplankton. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Saddle-shaped reticulate Nummulites from Early Oligocene rocks of Khari area, SW Kutch, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sengupta, S.; Sarkar, Sampa; Mukhopadhyay, S.

    2011-04-01

    Saddle-shaped reticulate Nummulites from the Early Oligocene rocks of Khari area, SW Kutch, India is reported here for the first time. Unusual shape of this Nummulites is due to the curved nature of the coiling plane, indicating space constrained postembryonic test growth. With regular development of chambers, septa and septal filaments, the saddle-shaped Nummulites constitutes the third morphotype of N. cf. fichteli Michelotti form A. Other morphotypes of the species reported earlier include inflated lenticular and conical tests. Multiple morphotypes of N. cf. fichteli form A indicates varied test growth in response to substrate conditions. Morphological variability exhibited by N. cf. fichteli form A from Kutch and some Early Oligocene reticulate Nummulites from the Far East are comparable. This faunal suite is morphologically distinct from the contemporary reticulate Nummulites of the European localities.

  19. Comparative study of uranium concentration in water samples of SW and NE Punjab, India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saini, Komal; Bajwa, B.S.

    2014-01-01

    Since the commencement of the earth, radiations and natural radioactivity has always been a part of environment. Uranium is heaviest naturally occurring element which is widespread in nature, mainly occurs in granites mineral deposits. The natural weathering of rocks such as granite dissolves the natural uranium, which goes into groundwater by leaching and precipitation called illumination process. People are always exposed to certain amount of uranium from air, water, soil and food as it is usually present in these components. About 85% of ingested uranium enter into human body through drinking water which makes it very important to estimate uranium concentration in potable water. Uranium and some other heavy metals may increase the risk of kidney damage, cancer diseases where experimental evidence suggests that respiratory and reproductive system are also affected by uranium exposure. In the present study comparative study of uranium concentration in potable water samples of SW and NE Punjab has been analysed

  20. Nuclear DNA content of the pigeon orchid (Dendrobium crumenatum Sw. with the analysis of flow cytometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Upatham Meesawat

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Nuclear DNA content for the adult plants grown in a greenhouse and in vitro young plantlets of the pigeon orchid (Dendrobium crumenatum Sw. was analyzed using flow cytometry. The resulting 2C DNA values ranged from 2.30±0.14 pgto 2.43±0.06 pg. However, nuclear DNA ploidy levels of long-term in vitro plantlets were found to be triploid and tetraploid.These ploidy levels were confirmed by chromosome counting. Tetraploid individuals (2n = 4x = 76 had approximately two times DNA content than diploid (2n = 2x = 38 individuals. This variation may be due to prolonged cultivation and thepresence of exogenous plant growth regulators.

  1. Effector-driven marker development and cloning of resistance genes against Phytophthora infestans in potato breeding clone SW93-1015

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lenman, Marit; Ali, Ashfaq; Mühlenbock, Per

    2016-01-01

    different P. infestans effectors, containing the conserved motif RXLR (for Arg, any amino acid, Leu, Arg), revealed a specific response to Avr2, which suggests that SW93-1015 might contain a functional homolog of the R2 resistance gene. We cloned eight R2 gene homologs from SW93-1015, whereof seven have...

  2. Back analysis of an earthquake-triggered submarine landslide near the SW of Xiaoliuqiu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huai-Houh Hsu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Occurred in the offshore of SW Taiwan on 26 December 2006 with a magnitude of 7, the Pingtung earthquake had triggered numbers of submarine landslides. This event provides an excellent opportunity to incorporate the back analysis approach to evaluate the in situ shear strength parameters. According to the chirp sonar images of the seabed near the SW Xiaoliuqiu obtained before and after the earthquake were adopted to establish the slope profile and identified the location of a circular sliding surface. Consequently, the in situ, effective strength parameters under the critical condition can be calculated by back slope stability analysis. Submarine sediment sampler was obtained via gravity sampling method and the laboratory tests were performed to determine the index properties and strength parameters. Test results indicate the cored sediment has the characteristics of normally consolidated (NC clay. The effective friction angle (φ’ is 15.3° with cohesion (c’ of 19.4 kPa. The effective and total stress methods were used to perform the back analysis. The strength parameters derived from back analysis of effective and total stress methods all indicate values approach the CIU triaxial tests results. Consequently, the representativeness of the marine sediment characteristics obtained from laboratory tests is identified. The total stress approach yields an undrained strength ratio cu/σ'vo of 0.26 which well fit the ratio used in geotechnical practice for estimating NC clay. According to the analytical approach, the landslide was applied seismic forces (seismic coefficient kh = 0.14 and generated excess pore pressure of 31 kPa at the sliding surface.

  3. Isotope techniques in lake water studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gourcy, L.

    1999-01-01

    Freshwater lakes are among the most easily exploitable freshwater resources. Lakes are also recognized as major sedimentological features in which stored material can be used to study recent climate and pollution evolution. To adequately preserve these important landscape features, and to use them as climatic archives, an improved understanding of processes controlling their hydrologic and bio-geochemical environments if necessary. This article briefly describes the IAEA activities related to the study of lakes in such areas as lake budget, lake dynamics, water contamination, and paleolimnological investigations

  4. Evaluation of thermal performance in fields subjected to steam injection (SW-SAGD mode), Orinoco oil belt, Venezuela

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Armas, F.; Mago, R.; Franco, L.; Rodriguez, J.; Gil, E. [PDVSA EandP (Venezuela)

    2011-07-01

    The first well to operate the SW-SAGD process in the Orinoco oil belt in Venezuela was built in 2006 by Petroleos de Venezuela S.A (PDVSA). SW-SAGD is a thermal recovery process consisting in the injection of steam through a horizontal well pipe insulation. In order to follow the behavior of steam and the movement of heated fluids in such a process better, PDVSA installed a monitoring system composed of high temperature fiber optic and thermocouple type sensors. The aim of this paper is to assess the thermal behavior of reservoirs in wells under the SW-SAGD process. A pilot test has been conducted over the last 3 years. Results show an increase in production and estimations show a recovery factor twice as high as in other wells. This study demonstrated that SW-SAGD is an excellent alternative solution to stimulate reservoirs in the Orinoco oil belt and valuable information on the reservoir's thermal behavior was established.

  5. Ams Fabric and Deformation of The Jawornik Granitoids In The Zloty Stok - Skrzynka Deformation Zone (sudetes, SW Poland)- Preliminary Interpretations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, T.; Bialek, D.

    Jawornik granitoids comprise the NE-SW trending sequences of the 1cm up to 1 km thick granitoid veins surrounded by schists and gneisses of the Zloty Stok - Skrzynka deformation zone in Eastern Sudetes (SW Poland). According to conflicting theories granitoids are of magmatic origin or were formed from blastomylonitic rocks that underwent multiphase deformation. AMS studies were performed for the 53 sites lo- calized within granitoid veins and within the surrounding gneisses. AMS foliations for granitoid veins of various thickness as well as for gneisses dip at moderate to steep an- gles to N-NW. AMS lineations in the surrounding gneisses plunge subhorizontally to NE-SW that reflects the regional NE-SW shearing components. Magnetic lineations for sites within wider veins of granitoids plunge at low angles (mostly from S to W) but with more varying trends between sites. Mezoscopic tectonic foliations are record- able only in 50% of sites. They show good correlation with AMS planar fabric on the site scale. The uniformity of AMS fabric on the site scale and high AMS anisotropy within all sites (P of 1.05-1.30, T of 0.3-0.6 on average) suggest syntectonic gener- ation of granitoids. Further interpretations of the AMS and tectonic fabrics will be performed when microtectonic studies and chemical analyses results are available.

  6. Late-Quaternary variations in clay minerals along the SW continental margin of India: Evidence of climatic variations

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Chauhan, O.S.; Sukhija, B.S.; Gujar, A.R.; Nagabhushanam, P.; Paropkari, A.L.

    Down-core variations in illite, chlorite, smectite and kaolinite (the major clays) in two sup(14)C-dated cores collected along the SW continental margin of India show that illite and chlorite have enhanced abundance during 20-17, 12.5, 11-9.5, and 5...

  7. Multi-temporal InSAR evidence of ground subsidence induced by groundwater withdrawal: the Montellano aquifer (SW Spain)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruiz-Constán, A.; Ruiz-Armenteros, A.M.; Lamas-Fernández, F.; Martos-Rosillo, S.; Delgado, J.M.; Bekaert, D.P.S.; Sousa, J.J.; Gil, A.J.; Caro Cuenca, M.; Hanssen, R.F.; Galindo-Zaldívar, J.; Sanz de Galdeano, C.

    2016-01-01

    This study uses the InSAR technique to analyse ground subsidence due to intensive exploitation of an aquifer for agricultural and urban purposes in the Montellano town (SW Spain). The detailed deformation maps clearly show that the spatial and temporal extent of subsidence is controlled by

  8. Human induced soil erosion and the implications on crop yield in a small mountainous Mediterranean catchment (SW-Turkey)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Loo, Maarten; Dusar, Bert; Verstraeten, Gert; Renssen, Hans; Notebaert, Bastiaan; D'Haen, Koen; Bakker, Johan

    2017-01-01

    Many hillslopes in the limestone dominated Taurus Mountain Range (SW Turkey) are characterized by severely depleted soils, while a significant amount of sediment is being stored in the valley bottoms. The same holds true for the 11.4 km2 endorheic Gravgaz basin in the vicinity of the

  9. Decline of the world's saline lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wurtsbaugh, Wayne A.; Miller, Craig; Null, Sarah E.; Derose, R. Justin; Wilcock, Peter; Hahnenberger, Maura; Howe, Frank; Moore, Johnnie

    2017-11-01

    Many of the world's saline lakes are shrinking at alarming rates, reducing waterbird habitat and economic benefits while threatening human health. Saline lakes are long-term basin-wide integrators of climatic conditions that shrink and grow with natural climatic variation. In contrast, water withdrawals for human use exert a sustained reduction in lake inflows and levels. Quantifying the relative contributions of natural variability and human impacts to lake inflows is needed to preserve these lakes. With a credible water balance, causes of lake decline from water diversions or climate variability can be identified and the inflow needed to maintain lake health can be defined. Without a water balance, natural variability can be an excuse for inaction. Here we describe the decline of several of the world's large saline lakes and use a water balance for Great Salt Lake (USA) to demonstrate that consumptive water use rather than long-term climate change has greatly reduced its size. The inflow needed to maintain bird habitat, support lake-related industries and prevent dust storms that threaten human health and agriculture can be identified and provides the information to evaluate the difficult tradeoffs between direct benefits of consumptive water use and ecosystem services provided by saline lakes.

  10. Ohio Lake Erie Commission Homepage

    Science.gov (United States)

    management of Lake Erie: including, water quality protection, fisheries management, wetlands restoration over 365 projects since 1993. Projects have focused on an array of issues critical to the effective quality of its waters and ecosystem, and to promote economic development of the region by ensuring the

  11. Schistosomiasis in Lake Malawi villages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Henry; Bloch, Paul; Makaula, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Historically, open shorelines of Lake Malawi were free from schistosome, Schistosoma haematobium, transmission, but this changed in the mid-1980s, possibly as a result of over-fishing reducing density of molluscivore fishes. Very little information is available on schistosome infections among...

  12. Pollutant transformations over Lake Michigan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alkezweeny, A.J.; Arbuthnot, D.R.; Busness, K.M.; Easter, R.C.; Hales, J.M.; Lee, R.N.; Young, J.M.

    1979-01-01

    An aircraft, a chartered boat, and a constant altitude balloon were used to study pollutant transformations over Lake Michigan in a Lagrangian frame of reference. The experiments were conducted during the summer under strong atmospheric stability where diffusion and dry deposition of pollutants can be neglected

  13. The lakes of the Jordan Rift Valley

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gat, J.R.

    2001-01-01

    This paper presents a summary of the proceedings of a workshop on the Lakes of the Jordan Rift Valley that was held in conjunction with the CRP on The Use of Isotope Techniques in Lake Dynamics Investigations. The paper presents a review of the geological, hydrogeological and physical limnological setting of the lakes in the Jordan Rift Valley, Lake Hula, Lake Kinneret and the Dead Sea. This is complemented by a description of the isotope hydrology of the system that includes the use of a wide range of isotopes: oxygen-18, deuterium, tritium, carbon-14, carbon-13, chlorine isotopes, boron-11 and helium-3/4. Environmental isotope aspects of the salt balances of the lakes, their palaeolimnology and biogeochemical tracers are also presented. The scope of application of isotopic tracers is very broad and provides a clear insight into many aspects of the physical, chemical and biological limnology of the Rift Valley Lakes. (author)

  14. Eutrophication potential of Payette Lake, Idaho

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, Paul F.

    1997-01-01

    Payette Lake was studied during water years 1995-96 to determine the 20.5-square-kilometer lake's assimilative capacity for nutrients and, thus, its eutrophication potential. The study included quantification of hydrologic and nutrient budgets, characterization of water quality in the limnetic and littoral zones, development of an empirical nutrient load/lake response model, and estimation of the limnological effects of a large-scale forest fire in the lake's 373-square-kilometer watershed during the autumn of 1994. Streamflow from the North Fork Payette River, the lake's primary tributary, delivered about 73 percent of the lake's inflow over the 2 years. Outflow from the lake, measured since 1908, was 128 and 148 percent of the long-term average in 1995 and 1996, respectively. The larger volumes of outflow reduced the long-term average water-

  15. Contaminant Monitoring Strategy for Henrys Lake, Idaho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John S. Irving; R. P. Breckenridge

    1992-12-01

    Henrys Lake, located in southeastern Idaho, is a large, shallow lake (6,600 acres, {approx} 17.1 feet maximum depth) located at 6,472 feet elevation in Fremont Co., Idaho at the headwaters of the Henrys Fork of the Snake River. The upper watershed is comprised of high mountains of the Targhee National Forest and the lakeshore is surrounded by extensive flats and wetlands, which are mostly privately owned. The lake has been dammed since 1922, and the upper 12 feet of the lake waters are allocated for downriver use. Henrys Lake is a naturally productive lake supporting a nationally recognized ''Blue Ribbon'' trout fishery. There is concern that increasing housing development and cattle grazing may accelerate eutrophication and result in winter and early spring fish kills. There has not been a recent thorough assessment of lake water quality. However, the Department of Environmental Quality (DEQ) is currently conducting a study of water quality on Henrys Lake and tributary streams. Septic systems and lawn runoff from housing developments on the north, west, and southwest shores could potentially contribute to the nutrient enrichment of the lake. Many houses are on steep hillsides where runoff from lawns, driveways, etc. drain into wetland flats along the lake or directly into the lake. In addition, seepage from septic systems (drainfields) drain directly into the wetlands enter groundwater areas that seep into the lake. Cattle grazing along the lake margin, riparian areas, and uplands is likely accelerating erosion and nutrient enrichment. Also, cattle grazing along riparian areas likely adds to nutrient enrichment of the lake through subsurface flow and direct runoff. Stream bank and lakeshore erosion may also accelerate eutrophication by increasing the sedimentation of the lake. Approximately nine streams feed the lake (see map), but flows are often severely reduced or completely eliminated due to irrigation diversion. In addition, subsurface

  16. Life history of lake herring of Green Bay, Lake Michigan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Stanford H.

    1956-01-01

    Although the lake herring has been an important contributor to the commercial fish production of Green Bay, little has been known about it. This study is based on field observations and data from about 6,500 lake herring collected over the period 1948 to 1952. Relatively nonselective commercial pound nets were a primary source of material for the study of age and growth. Commercial and experimental gill nets were used to obtain data on gear selectivity and vertical distribution. Scales were employed to investigate age and growth. Age group IV normally dominated commercial catches during the first half of the calendar year and age group III the last half. At these ages the fish averaged about 10.5 inches in length. The season's growth started in May, was most rapid in July, and terminated near the end of October. The sexes grew at the same rate. Selectivity of fishing gear was found to influence the estimation of growth. Geographical and annual differences in growth are shown. Factors that might contribute to discrepancies in calculated growth are evaluated. Possible real and apparent causes of growth compensation are given. The relation between length and weight is shown to vary with sex, season, year, and method of capture. Females were relatively more plentiful in commercial catches in February than in May through December. The percentage of females decreased with increase in age in pound-net catches but increased with age in gill-net samples. Within a year class the percentage of females decreased with increase in age. Most Green Bay lake herring mature during their second or third year of life. They are pelagic spawners with most intensive spawning over shallow areas. Spawning takes place between mid-November and mid-December, and eggs hatch in April and May. Lake herring ovaries contained from 3,500 to 11,200 eggs (averaged 6,375). Progress of spawning by age, sex, and length is given. Lake herring were distributed at all depths in Green Bay in early May, were

  17. Spatial and temporal genetic diversity of lake whitefish (Coregonus clupeaformis (Mitchill)) from Lake Huron and Lake Erie

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stott, Wendylee; Ebener, Mark P.; Mohr, Lloyd; Hartman, Travis; Johnson, Jim; Roseman, Edward F.

    2013-01-01

    Lake whitefish (Coregonus clupeaformis (Mitchill)) are important commercially, culturally, and ecologically in the Laurentian Great Lakes. Stocks of lake whitefish in the Great Lakes have recovered from low levels of abundance in the 1960s. Reductions in abundance, loss of habitat and environmental degradation can be accompanied by losses of genetic diversity and overall fitness that may persist even as populations recover demographically. Therefore, it is important to be able to identify stocks that have reduced levels of genetic diversity. In this study, we investigated patterns of genetic diversity at microsatellite DNA loci in lake whitefish collected between 1927 and 1929 (historical period) and between 1997 and 2005 (contemporary period) from Lake Huron and Lake Erie. Genetic analysis of lake whitefish from Lakes Huron and Erie shows that the amount of population structuring varies from lake to lake. Greater genetic divergences among collections from Lake Huron may be the result of sampling scale, migration patterns and demographic processes. Fluctuations in abundance of lake whitefish populations may have resulted in periods of increased genetic drift that have resulted in changes in allele frequencies over time, but periodic genetic drift was not severe enough to result in a significant loss of genetic diversity. Migration among stocks may have decreased levels of genetic differentiation while not completely obscuring stock boundaries. Recent changes in spatial boundaries to stocks, the number of stocks and life history characteristics of stocks further demonstrate the potential of coregonids for a swift and varied response to environmental change and emphasise the importance of incorporating both spatial and temporal considerations into management plans to ensure that diversity is preserved.

  18. Establishment patterns of water-elm at Catahoula Lake, Louisiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karen S. Doerr; Sanjeev Joshi; Richard F. Keim

    2015-01-01

    At Catahoula Lake in central Louisiana, an internationally important lake for water fowl, hydrologic alterations to the surrounding rivers and the lake itself have led to an expansion of water-elm (Planera aquatic J.F. Gmel.) into the lake bed. In this study, we used dendrochronology and aerial photography to quantify the expansion of water-elm in the lake and identify...

  19. Comparison of the distribution coefficients of plutonium and other radionuclides in Lake Michigan to those in other systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wahlgren, M.A.; Nelson, D.M.

    1976-01-01

    Filtration of Lake Michigan water samples has been carried out routinely since 1973, and some plutonium concentrations in the seston have been reported. During 1975 and 1976 a sufficient number of filter samples from various depths was obtained throughout the field seasons to establish whether or not a distribution coefficient also controls the uptake of plutonium by the formation of particulates and their settling from the surface waters. Samples from ANL station 5 (10 km SW of Grand Haven, Michigan, water depth 67 m), of the southern basin, and from the lower Great Lakes have been analyzed for dry weight, ash weight, total organic (loss of weight on ignition), amorphous silica, calcite, and residual minerals. Distribution coefficients were calculated on the basis of each of these solid components, and self-consistent values were observed for depth, season, or lake only, on the basis of dry weight of seston. The findings strongly suggest that the uptake of fallout plutonium (including inputs of new fallout during the summer of 1975) is dominated by a surface coating process common to all seston particle types. An insufficient number of 137 Cs analyses were obtained to correlate its uptake to a specific component of the seston, but its behavior is clearly different from that of plutonium

  20. Linking Tengchong Terrane in SW Yunnan with Lhasa Terrane in southern Tibet through magmatic correlation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Jincheng; Zhu, Dicheng; Dong, Guochen; Zhao, Zhidan; Wang, Qing

    2016-04-01

    New zircon U-Pb data, along with the data reported in the literature, reveal five phases of magmatic activity in the Tengchong Terrane since the Early Paleozoic with spatial and temporal variations summarized as: Cambrian-Ordovician (500-460 Ma) to the eastern, minor Triassic (245-206 Ma) in the eastern and western, abundant Early Cretaceous (131-114 Ma) in the eastern, extensive Late Cretaceous (77-65 Ma) in the central, and Paleocene-Eocene (65-49 Ma) in the central and western Tengchong Terrane, in which the Cretaceous-Eocene magmatism was migrated from east to west (Xu et al., 2012). The increased zircon eHf(t) of the Early Cretaceous granitoids from -12.3 to -1.4 at ca. 131-122 Ma to -4.6 to +7.1 at ca. 122-114 Ma identified for the first time in this study and the magmatic flare-up at ca. 53 Ma in the central and western Tengchong Terrane (Wang et al., 2014, Ma et al., 2015) indicate the increased contributions from mantle- or juvenile crust-derived components. The spatial and temporal variations and changing magmatic compositions with time in the Tengchong Terrane closely resemble the Lhasa Terrane in southern Tibet. Such similarities, together with the data of stratigraphy and paleobiogeography (Zhang et al., 2013), enable us to propose that the Tengchong Terrane in SW Yunnan is most likely linked with the Lhasa Terrane in southern Tibet, both of which experience similar tectonomagmatic histories since the Early Paleozoic. References Ma, L.Y., Wang, Y.J., Fan, W.M., Geng, H.Y., Cai, Y.F., Zhong, H., Liu, H.C., Xing, X.W., 2014. Petrogenesis of the early Eocene I-type granites in west Yingjiang (SW Yunnan) and its implication for the eastern extension of the Gangdese batholiths. Gondwana Research 25, 401-419. Wang, Y.J., Zhang, L.M., Cawood, P.A., Ma, L.Y., Fan, W.M., Zhang, A.M., Zhang, Y.Z., Bi, X.W., 2014. Eocene supra-subduction zone mafic magmatism in the Sibumasu Block of SW Yunnan: Implications for Neotethyan subduction and India-Asia collision

  1. Metasomatic processes in the orthogneiss-hosted Archaean peridotites of the Fiskefjord region, SW Greenland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szilas, K.; Cruz, M. F.; Grove, M.; Morishita, T.; Pearson, D. G.

    2016-12-01

    Field observations and preliminary geochemical data are presented for large (>500x1000m) peridotite enclaves from the Fiskefjord region of SW Greenland. These ultramafic complexes are dominated by dunite, amphibole-harzburgite, lesser amounts of norite and horizons of stratiform chromitite and are therefore interpreted as cumulate rocks[1]. The ultramafic enclaves are hosted by intrusive tonalitic orthogneiss, which provide U-Pb zircon minimum age constraints of ca. 2980 Ma, whereas preliminary Re-Os isotope data on the dunite and chromitite yield TRD ages of ca. 3300 Ma[2]. Dunite has highly forsteritic olivine compositions with Mg# mostly around 92 to 93, which is uncorrelated with the bulk-rock mg# or modal chromite contents. This indicates that the primary olivine records equilibration with a highly magnesian parental magma, which may have been responsible for the strong depletion of the SCLM in this region. Amphibole and phlogopite is mostly associated with granitoid sheets or infiltrating veins in the dunite and appear to replace chromite. Argon dating (40Ar/39Ar) of the phlogopite yields ages ranging from ca. 3400 Ma to ca. 1750 Ma, with most ages clustering around 3000 Ma. This is consistent with formation of the phlogopite and amphibole by metasomatic processes involving reaction between granitoid-derived siliceous fluids and the ultramafic rocks. The older 40Ar/39Ar age plateaus most plausibly represent excess Ar, potentially inherited from the nearby Itsaq Gneiss Complex (3900 to 3600 Ga) based on its proximity. The youngest 40Ar/39Ar age plateaus on the other hand may potentially signify the closure-age for this system, which could have important implications for determining the exhumation history of the North Atlantic craton. References [1] Szilas, K., Kelemen, P. B., & Bernstein, S. (2015). Peridotite enclaves hosted by Mesoarchaean TTG-suite orthogneisses in the Fiskefjord region of southern West Greenland. GeoResJ, 7, 22-34. [2] Szilas, K., van

  2. The predicted CLARREO sampling error of the inter-annual SW variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doelling, D. R.; Keyes, D. F.; Nguyen, C.; Macdonnell, D.; Young, D. F.

    2009-12-01

    The NRC Decadal Survey has called for SI traceability of long-term hyper-spectral flux measurements in order to monitor climate variability. This mission is called the Climate Absolute Radiance and Refractivity Observatory (CLARREO) and is currently defining its mission requirements. The requirements are focused on the ability to measure decadal change of key climate variables at very high accuracy. The accuracy goals are set using anticipated climate change magnitudes, but the accuracy achieved for any given climate variable must take into account the temporal and spatial sampling errors based on satellite orbits and calibration accuracy. The time period to detect a significant trend in the CLARREO record depends on the magnitude of the sampling calibration errors relative to the current inter-annual variability. The largest uncertainty in climate feedbacks remains the effect of changing clouds on planetary energy balance. Some regions on earth have strong diurnal cycles, such as maritime stratus and afternoon land convection; other regions have strong seasonal cycles, such as the monsoon. However, when monitoring inter-annual variability these cycles are only important if the strength of these cycles vary on decadal time scales. This study will attempt to determine the best satellite constellations to reduce sampling error and to compare the error with the current inter-annual variability signal to ensure the viability of the mission. The study will incorporate Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) (Monthly TOA/Surface Averages) SRBAVG product TOA LW and SW climate quality fluxes. The fluxes are derived by combining Terra (10:30 local equator crossing time) CERES fluxes with 3-hourly 5-geostationary satellite estimated broadband fluxes, which are normalized using the CERES fluxes, to complete the diurnal cycle. These fluxes were saved hourly during processing and considered the truth dataset. 90°, 83° and 74° inclination precessionary orbits as

  3. Retrieving SW fluxes from geostationary narrowband radiances for the NASA-CERES SYN1deg product

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wrenn, F. J., IV; Doelling, D. R.; Liang, L.

    2017-12-01

    The CERES mission was designed to measure the natural variability of the net TOA flux over long time scales relevant to climate monitoring. To achieve this goal, CERES provides the level-3 SSF1deg, SYN1deg, and EBAF monthly 1° by 1° regional TOA flux. The single satellite (Terra or Aqua) SSF1deg 24-hour shortwave flux is based on one daytime measurements and assumes constant meteorology to model the diurnal change in albedo. To accurately describe regions with a prominent diurnal signal, the SYN1deg Edition4 dataset employs hourly geostationary (GEO) measurements. This improves upon Edition3, which used 3-hourly GEO measurements and with temporal interpolation. The EBAF product combines the temporal stability of the SSF1deg product with the diurnal information from SYN1deg and removes the CERES instrument calibration bias by constraining the net flux balance to the ocean heat storage term. The SYN-1deg product retrieves hourly SW fluxes from GEO measurements. Over regions with large diurnal cycles, such as maritime stratus and land afternoon convective locations, the GEO derived SW fluxes will capture the diurnal flux not observed with Terra or Aqua sun-synchronous satellites. Obtaining fluxes from geostationary satellite radiance is a multistep process. First, most GEO visible imagers lack calibration and must be calibrated to MODIS and VIIRS. Second, the GEO imager visible channel radiances are converted to broadband radiances using empirical and theoretical models. The lack of coincident, collocated, and co-angled GEO and CERES measurements makes building an empirical model difficult. The narrowband to broadband models are a function of surface and cloud conditions, which are difficult to identify due to the inconsistent cloud retrievals between the 16 GEO imagers used in the CERES record. Third, the GEO derived broadband radiances are passed through the CERES angular distribution model (ADM) to convert the radiances to fluxes. Lastly, the GEO derived

  4. 75 FR 22620 - Upper Klamath, Lower Klamath, Tule Lake, Bear Valley, and Clear Lake National Wildlife Refuges...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-29

    ...] Upper Klamath, Lower Klamath, Tule Lake, Bear Valley, and Clear Lake National Wildlife Refuges, Klamath..., Bear Valley, and Clear Lake National Wildlife Refuges (Refuges) located in Klamath County, Oregon, and..., Tule Lake, Bear Valley, and Clear Lake Refuges located in Klamath County, Oregon, and Siskiyou and...

  5. Differential RNA-seq analysis comparing APC-defective and APC-restored SW480 colorectal cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Lauren E; Love, Christopher G; Sieber, Oliver M; Faux, Maree C; Burgess, Antony W

    2016-03-01

    The adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) tumour suppressor gene is mutated in about 80% of colorectal cancers (CRC) Brannon et al. (2014) [1]. APC is a large multifunctional protein that regulates many biological functions including Wnt signalling (through the regulation of beta-catenin stability) Reya and Clevers (2005) [2], cell migration Kroboth et al. (2007), Sansom et al. (2004) [3], [4], mitosis Kaplan et al. (2001) [5], cell adhesion Faux et al. (2004), Carothers et al. (2001) [6], [7] and differentiation Sansom et al. (2004) [4]. Although the role of APC in CRC is often described as the deregulation of Wnt signalling, its other biological functions suggest that there are other factors at play that contribute to the onset of adenomas and the progression of CRC upon the truncation of APC. To identify genes and pathways that are dysregulated as a consequence of loss of function of APC, we compared the gene expression profiles of the APC mutated human CRC cell line SW480 following reintroduction of wild-type APC (SW480 + APC) or empty control vector (SW480 + vector control) Faux et al. (2004) . Here we describe the RNA-seq data derived for three biological replicates of parental SW480, SW480 + vector control and SW480 + APC cells, and present the bioinformatics pipeline used to test for differential gene expression and pathway enrichment analysis. A total of 1735 genes showed significant differential expression when APC was restored and were enriched for genes associated with cell polarity, Wnt signalling and the epithelial to mesenchymal transition. There was additional enrichment for genes involved in cell-cell adhesion, cell-matrix junctions, angiogenesis, axon morphogenesis and cell movement. The raw and analysed RNA-seq data have been deposited in the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) database under accession number GSE76307. This dataset is useful for further investigations of the impact of APC mutation on the properties of colorectal cancer cells.

  6. Large Lakes Dominate CO2 Evasion From Lakes in an Arctic Catchment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocher-Ros, Gerard; Giesler, Reiner; Lundin, Erik; Salimi, Shokoufeh; Jonsson, Anders; Karlsson, Jan

    2017-12-01

    CO2 evasion from freshwater lakes is an important component of the carbon cycle. However, the relative contribution from different lake sizes may vary, since several parameters underlying CO2 flux are size dependent. Here we estimated the annual lake CO2 evasion from a catchment in northern Sweden encompassing about 30,000 differently sized lakes. We show that areal CO2 fluxes decreased rapidly with lake size, but this was counteracted by the greater overall coverage of larger lakes. As a result, total efflux increased with lake size and the single largest lake in the catchment dominated the CO2 evasion (53% of all CO2 evaded). By contrast, the contribution from the smallest ponds (about 27,000) was minor (evasion at the landscape scale.

  7. Great Lakes Restoration Initiative Great Lakes Mussel Watch(2009-2014)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Following the inception of the Great Lakes Restoration Initiative (GLRI) to address the significant environmental issues plaguing the Great Lakes region, the...

  8. From Greenland to green lakes: Cultural eutrophication and the loss of benthic pathways in lakes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vadeboncoeur, Y.; Jeppesen, E.; Zanden, M. J. V.

    2003-01-01

    Benthic community responses to lake eutrophication are poorly understood relative to pelagic responses. We compared phytoplankton and periphyton productivity along a eutrophication gradient in Greenland, U.S., and Danish lakes. Phytoplankton productivity increased along the phosphorus gradient (t...

  9. Lake Morphometry for NHD Lakes in Upper Colorado Region 14 HUC

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Lake morphometry metrics are known to influence productivity in lakes and are important for building various types of ecological and environmental models of lentic...

  10. Lake Morphometry for NHD Lakes in North East Region 1 HUC

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Lake morphometry metrics are known to influence productivity in lakes and are important for building various types of ecological and environmental models of lentic...

  11. Lake Morphometry for NHD Lakes in Souris Red Rainy Region 9 HUC

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Lake morphometry metrics are known to influence productivity in lakes and are important for building various types of ecological and environmental models of lentic...

  12. Lake Morphometry for NHD Lakes in Lower Colorado Region 15 HUC

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Lake morphometry metrics are known to influence productivity in lakes and are important for building various types of ecological and environmental models of lentic...

  13. Lake Morphometry for NHD Lakes in Upper Mississippi Region 7 HUC

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Lake morphometry metrics are known to influence productivity in lakes and are important for building various types of ecological and environmental models of lentic...

  14. Lake Morphometry for NHD Lakes in the Upper Portion of the Missouri Region 10 HUC

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Lake morphometry metrics are known to influence productivity in lakes and are important for building various types of ecological and environmental models of lentic...

  15. Lake Morphometry for NHD Lakes in Rio Grande Region 13 HUC

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Lake morphometry metrics are known to influence productivity in lakes and are important for building various types of ecological and environmental models of lentic...

  16. Lake Morphometry for NHD Lakes in Arkansas White Red Region 11 HUC

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Lake morphometry metrics are known to influence productivity in lakes and are important for building various types of ecological and environmental models of lentic...

  17. Lake Morphometry for NHD Lakes in Pacific Northwest Region 17 HUC

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Lake morphometry metrics are known to influence productivity in lakes and are important for building various types of ecological and environmental models of lentic...

  18. Lake Morphometry for NHD Lakes in Lower Mississippi Region 8 HUC

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Lake morphometry metrics are known to influence productivity in lakes and are important for building various types of ecological and environmental models of lentic...

  19. Lake Morphometry for NHD Lakes in Texas-Gulf Region 12 HUC

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Lake morphometry metrics are known to influence productivity in lakes and are important for building various types of ecological and environmental models of lentic...

  20. Lake Morphometry for NHD Lakes in the Lower Portion of the Missouri Region 10 HUC

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Lake morphometry metrics are known to influence productivity in lakes and are important for building various types of ecological and environmental models of lentic...

  1. Expanding models of lake trophic state to predict cyanobacteria in lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background/Question/Methods: Cyanobacteria are a primary taxonomic group associated with harmful algal blooms in lakes. Understanding the drivers of cyanobacteria presence has important implications for lake management and for the protection of human and ecosystem health. Chlor...

  2. Geoquímica e Geocronologia do Plutonismo Granítico Mesoproterozóico do SW do Estado de Mato Grosso (SW do Cráton Amazônico)

    OpenAIRE

    Mauro Cesar Geraldes

    2000-01-01

    O objetivo deste trabalho é o estudo geocronológico e da composição química dos granitóides da porção SW do estado do Mato Grosso. A abordagem deste projeto tem relevância para o entendimento da evolução geológica através da identificação, na área de estudo, de eventos de acresção crustal durante o Paleo e Mesoproterozóico que vieram a compor significativa fração do SW Cráton Amazônico. Na região do Terreno Jauru, tonalitos, vulcânicas ácidas e gnaisses analisados pelo método U/Pb em zircões ...

  3. Bubbles in a freshwater lake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorpe, S A; Stubbs, A R

    1979-05-31

    WHEN the wind is strong enough to produce whitecaps on Loch Ness, patchy 'clouds' of acoustic reflectors are detected well below the surface, the depth to which they penetrate increasing with wind speed (Fig. 1). No seasonal variation in the occurrence of the reflectors has been detected. A biological explanation is therefore discounted and we suggest here that they are bubbles caused by waves breaking and forming whitecaps in deep water. Similar bubble clouds may occur in other lakes and in the sea.

  4. Lake Nasser evaporation reduction study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hala M.I. Ebaid

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to evaluate the reduction of evaporation of Lake Nasser’s water caused by disconnecting (fully or partially some of its secondary channels (khors. This evaluation integrates remote sensing, Geographic Information System (GIS techniques, aerodynamic principles, and Landsat7 ETM+ images. Three main procedures were carried out in this study; the first derived the surface temperature from Landsat thermal band; the second derived evaporation depth and approximate evaporation volume for the entire lake, and quantified evaporation loss to the secondary channels’ level over one month (March by applied aerodynamic principles on surface temperature of the raster data; the third procedure applied GIS suitability analysis to determine which of these secondary channels (khors should be disconnected. The results showed evaporation depth ranging from 2.73 mm/day at the middle of the lake to 9.58 mm/day at the edge. The evaporated water-loss value throughout the entire lake was about 0.86 billion m3/month (March. The analysis suggests that it is possible to save an approximate total evaporation volume loss of 19.7 million m3/month (March, and thus 2.4 billion m3/year, by disconnecting two khors with approximate construction heights of 8 m and 15 m. In conclusion, remote sensing and GIS are useful for applications in remote locations where field-based information is not readily available and thus recommended for decision makers remotely planning in water conservation and management.

  5. Decomposition of lake phytoplankton. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hansen, L.; Krog, G.F.; Soendergaard, M.

    1986-01-01

    Short-time (24 h) and long-time (4-6 d) decomposition of phytoplankton cells were investigasted under in situ conditions in four Danish lakes. Carbon-14-labelled, dead algae were exposed to sterile or natural lake water and the dynamics of cell lysis and bacterial utilization of the leached products were followed. The lysis process was dominated by an initial fast water extraction. Within 2 to 4 h from 4 to 34% of the labelled carbon leached from the algal cells. After 24 h from 11 to 43% of the initial particulate carbon was found as dissolved carbon in the experiments with sterile lake water; after 4 to 6 d the leaching was from 67 to 78% of the initial 14 C. The leached compounds were utilized by bacteria. A comparison of the incubations using sterile and natural water showed that a mean of 71% of the lysis products was metabolized by microorganisms within 24 h. In two experiments the uptake rate equalled the leaching rate. (author)

  6. Macrobenthic fauna community in the Middle Songkhla Lake, Southern Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angsupanich, S.

    2005-02-01

    richness was in the SW monsoon season (light rain, June-August. Polychaetes and molluscs tended to decrease in the NE monsoon season with heavy rain from December-February, while crustaceans increased during this time. The best fitting of the environmental variables to explain the macrobenthic fauna community pattern of the Inner Songkhla Lake was an 8-variable combination of %clay, %silt, %organic carbon, soil pH, depth, dissolved oxygen, total suspended solid and temperature (harmonic rank correlation coefficient, ρw = 0.84.

  7. Mapping Lake Michigan Fish Catch Data

    OpenAIRE

    Wodd, Jacob; Doucette, Jarrod; Höök, Tomas O.

    2014-01-01

    The only Great Lake completely contained in the U.S., Lake Michigan offers an abundance of recreational fishing. This project takes 20 years’ worth of salmonid fish catch data, and uses GIS to organize and visually represent the data in a way that is meaningful and helpful to local fisherman and researchers. Species represented included Brown Trout, Lake Trout, Rainbow Trout, Chinook Salmon, and Coho Salmon. The species are organized by both decadal and yearly spans, as well as catch per t...

  8. Pacific salmonines in the Great Lakes Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claramunt, Randall M.; Madenjian, Charles P.; Clapp, David; Taylor, William W.; Lynch, Abigail J.; Léonard, Nancy J.

    2012-01-01

    Pacific salmon (genus Oncorhynchus) are a valuable resource, both within their native range in the North Pacific rim and in the Great Lakes basin. Understanding their value from a biological and economic perspective in the Great Lakes, however, requires an understanding of changes in the ecosystem and of management actions that have been taken to promote system stability, integrity, and sustainable fisheries. Pacific salmonine introductions to the Great Lakes are comprised mainly of Chinook salmon, coho salmon, and steelhead and have accounted for 421, 177, and 247 million fish, respectively, stocked during 1966-2007. Stocking of Pacific salmonines has been effective in substantially reducing exotic prey fish abundances in several of the Great Lakes (e.g., lakes Michigan, Huron, and Ontario). The goal of our evaluation was to highlight differences in management strategies and perspectives across the basin, and to evaluate policies for Pacific salmonine management in the Great Lakes. Currently, a potential conflict exists between Pacific salmonine management and native fish rehabilitation goals because of the desire to sustain recreational fisheries and to develop self-sustaining populations of stocked Pacific salmonines in the Great Lakes. We provide evidence that suggests Pacific salmonines have not only become naturalized to the food webs of the Great Lakes, but that their populations (specifically Chinook salmon) may be fluctuating in concert with specific prey (i.e., alewives) whose populations are changing relative to environmental conditions and ecosystem disturbances. Remaining questions, however, are whether or not “natural” fluctuations in predator and prey provide enough “stability” in the Great Lakes food webs, and even more importantly, would a choice by managers to attempt to reduce the severity of predator-prey oscillations be antagonistic to native fish restoration efforts. We argue that, on each of the Great Lakes, managers are pursuing

  9. Effects of Krill Oil on serum lipids of hyperlipidemic rats and human SW480 cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qian Wen-Bin

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cardiovascular disease (CVD and colon cancer incidence are known to be closely related to dietary factors. This article evaluated effects of krill oil (KO on serum lipids of hyperlipidemia rats and human colon cancer cells (SW480. Serum lipids of rats fed with high fat diet (HFD and different doses of KO were measured by automatic analyzer. Effect of KO on viability of cells was determined by methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium (MTT assay. Results Except for higher dose group, body weights decreased significantly. Total cholesterol (TC, LDL-cholesterol (LDL-C of all dose groups, Triglycerides (TG of low and mid dose groups descended significantly, while there were no significant differences of HDL-cholesterol (HDL-C, compared with control group. Treatment of colon cancer cells with KO also resulted in time-dependent inhibition of cell growth. Conclusion Our findings indicated that the consumption of KO may provide benefits to control serum lipid levels in certain diseases and inhibit growth of colon cancer cells. Therefore, KO may be a good candidate for development as a functional food and nutraceutical.

  10. Structure of the epiphyte community in a tropical montane forest in SW China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingxu Zhao

    Full Text Available Vascular epiphytes are an understudied and particularly important component of tropical forest ecosystems. However, owing to the difficulties of access, little is known about the properties of epiphyte-host tree communities and the factors structuring them, especially in Asia. We investigated factors structuring the vascular epiphyte-host community and its network properties in a tropical montane forest in Xishuangbanna, SW China. Vascular epiphytes were surveyed in six plots located in mature forests. Six host and four micro-site environmental factors were investigated. Epiphyte diversity was strongly correlated with host size (DBH, diameter at breast height, while within hosts the highest epiphyte diversity was in the middle canopy and epiphyte diversity was significantly higher in sites with canopy soil or a moss mat than on bare bark. DBH, elevation and stem height explained 22% of the total variation in the epiphyte species assemblage among hosts, and DBH was the most important factor which alone explained 6% of the variation. Within hosts, 51% of the variation in epiphyte assemblage composition was explained by canopy position and substrate, and the most important single factor was substrate which accounted for 16% of the variation. Analysis of network properties indicated that the epiphyte host community was highly nested, with a low level of epiphyte specialization, and an almost even interaction strength between epiphytes and host trees. Together, these results indicate that large trees harbor a substantial proportion of the epiphyte community in this forest.

  11. Mineralogy and origin of atmospheric particles in the industrial area of Huelva (SW Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernabé, J. M.; Carretero, M. I.; Galán, E.

    The mineralogy of atmospheric particles at the confluence of the Tinto and Odiel rivers, south of Huelva (a highly industrialized city in the SW Spain), was characterized in view to identify source origins. In spite of the small amount of sample collected, mineralogical characterization was performed by X-ray diffraction, polarized light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy with EDS analysis system, using an adequate sample preparation methodology. Sedimentable (SP) and aerosols particles were sampled an one-week basis every two months for one year. Quartz, calcite and feldspars were found to be the major minerals in both fractions, and phyllosilicates, dolomite and gypsum were also identified in lower content. Minor mineral particles included barite, apatite, sphalerite and pyrite. SEM studies revealed the additional presence of chalcopyrite in both SP and aerosols, and of chalcocite-covellite, halite and sylvite in the latter. Siderite, hematite and ankerite were only detected in the SP fraction. The concentrations of the previous minerals increased in summer by effect of the limited rain and the resulting scarcity of atmosphere washing. Non-mineral particles detected by SEM in SP and aerosol fractions included spherical, biological and compositionally complex particles. The main source of mineral particles was found to be the soil suspension in addition to the metallurgical and fertilizer production industries in the area.

  12. Structure of the epiphyte community in a tropical montane forest in SW China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Mingxu; Geekiyanage, Nalaka; Xu, Jianchu; Khin, Myo Myo; Nurdiana, Dian Ridwan; Paudel, Ekananda; Harrison, Rhett Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Vascular epiphytes are an understudied and particularly important component of tropical forest ecosystems. However, owing to the difficulties of access, little is known about the properties of epiphyte-host tree communities and the factors structuring them, especially in Asia. We investigated factors structuring the vascular epiphyte-host community and its network properties in a tropical montane forest in Xishuangbanna, SW China. Vascular epiphytes were surveyed in six plots located in mature forests. Six host and four micro-site environmental factors were investigated. Epiphyte diversity was strongly correlated with host size (DBH, diameter at breast height), while within hosts the highest epiphyte diversity was in the middle canopy and epiphyte diversity was significantly higher in sites with canopy soil or a moss mat than on bare bark. DBH, elevation and stem height explained 22% of the total variation in the epiphyte species assemblage among hosts, and DBH was the most important factor which alone explained 6% of the variation. Within hosts, 51% of the variation in epiphyte assemblage composition was explained by canopy position and substrate, and the most important single factor was substrate which accounted for 16% of the variation. Analysis of network properties indicated that the epiphyte host community was highly nested, with a low level of epiphyte specialization, and an almost even interaction strength between epiphytes and host trees. Together, these results indicate that large trees harbor a substantial proportion of the epiphyte community in this forest.

  13. Neogene magmatism and its possible causal relationship with hydrocarbon generation in SW Colombia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vásquez, Mónica; Altenberger, Uwe; Romer, Rolf L.

    2009-07-01

    The Cretaceous oil-bearing source and reservoir sedimentary succession in the Putumayo Basin, SW Colombia, was intruded by gabbroic dykes and sills. The petrological and geochemical character of the magmatic rocks shows calc-alkaline tendency, pointing to a subduction-related magmatic event. K/Ar dating of amphibole indicates a Late Miocene to Pliocene age (6.1 ± 0.7 Ma) for the igneous episode in the basin. Therefore, we assume the intrusions to be part of the Andean magmatism of the Northern Volcanic Zone (NVZ). The age of the intrusions has significant tectonic and economic implications because it coincides with two regional events: (1) the late Miocene/Pliocene Andean orogenic uplift of most of the sub-Andean regions in Peru, Ecuador and Colombia and (2) a pulse of hydrocarbon generation and expulsion that has reached the gas window. High La/Yb, K/Nb and La/Nb ratios, and the obtained Sr-Nd-Pb isotopic compositions suggest the involvement of subducted sediments and/or the assimilation of oceanic crust of the subducting slab. We discuss the possibility that magma chamber(s) west of the basin, below the Cordillera, did increase the heat flow in the basin causing generation and expulsion of hydrocarbons and CO2.

  14. Subaqueous rhyolite block lavas in the Miocene Ushikiri Formation, Shimane Peninsula, SW Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kano, Kazuhiko; Takeuchi, Keiji; Yamamoto, Takahiro; Hoshizumi, Hideo

    1991-06-01

    A rhyolite mass of the Miocene Ushikiri Formation in the western part of the Shimane Peninsula, SW Japan, is a small subaqueous edifice about 600 m high and 4 km wide, formed at water depths between 200 and 1000 m. It consists mainly of three relatively flat, lava-flow units 50-300 m in maximum thickness, each of which includes lobes and their polyhedral fragments. The lava lobes are poorly to well vesiculated, glassy to microcrystalline and flow-banded and -folded. Compared with mafic pillows, they are large, having thick, quenched and brecciated, glassy crusts because of their high viscosity, surface tension and thermal conductivity. Their surfaces disintegrate into polyhedral fragments and grade into massive volcanic breccia. The massive volcanic breccia composed of the lobe fragments is poorly sorted and covered with stratified volcanic breccia of the same rock type. The rhyolite lavas commonly bifurcate in a manner similar to mafic pillow lavas. However, they are highly silicic with 1-5 vol.% phenocrysts and have elongated vesicles and flow-folds, implying that they were visco-plastic during flowage. Their surface features are similar to those of subaerial block lava. With respect to rheological and morphological features, they are subaqueous equivalents of block lava.

  15. ECOLOGIC FEATURES OF WOOD ANATOMY OF Casearia sylvestris SW (SALICACEAE IN THREE BRAZILIAN ECOSYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graciene da Silva Mota

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Casearia sylvestris SW (Salicaceae is a highly adaptive perennial species that is found throughout Latin America and widely spread in Brazil. This work analyzed the ecological features of wood anatomy of C. sylvestris occurring in three ecosystem types: Cerrado, Gallery Forest (Northern of Minas Gerais and Mata Atlântica (Southern of Minas Gerais. Qualitative features were similar among plants in the three ecosystems, differing only in the distribution of pith flecks and neighboring tyloses that were more frequent in Cerrado and Gallery Forest. The quantitative results showed significant differences for several parameters, as well as variation between individuals of vegetation types of Northern and Southern of Minas Gerais. The correlation matrix of variables including quantitative anatomical characteristics, soil characteristics, height and diameter of the plants showed that plants were grouped by ecosystem type. Casearia sylvestris might adopt different survival strategies regarding safety and efficiency of water transport by wood anatomy ecological adaptation. The adaptive anatomical features to drought were mostly an decrease of vessel frequency and an increase of ray width and frequency.

  16. Probabilistic seismic hazard assessment for the two layer fault system of Antalya (SW Turkey) area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dipova, Nihat; Cangir, Bülent

    2017-09-01

    Southwest Turkey, along Mediterranean coast, is prone to large earthquakes resulting from subduction of the African plate under the Eurasian plate and shallow crustal faults. Maximum observed magnitude of subduction earthquakes is Mw = 6.5 whereas that of crustal earthquakes is Mw = 6.6. Crustal earthquakes are sourced from faults which are related with Isparta Angle and Cyprus Arc tectonic structures. The primary goal of this study is to assess seismic hazard for Antalya area (SW Turkey) using a probabilistic approach. A new earthquake catalog for Antalya area, with unified moment magnitude scale, was prepared in the scope of the study. Seismicity of the area has been evaluated by the Gutenberg-Richter recurrence relationship. For hazard computation, CRISIS2007 software was used following the standard Cornell-McGuire methodology. Attenuation model developed by Youngs et al. Seismol Res Lett 68(1):58-73, (1997) was used for deep subduction earthquakes and Chiou and Youngs Earthq Spectra 24(1):173-215, (2008) model was used for shallow crustal earthquakes. A seismic hazard map was developed for peak ground acceleration and for rock ground with a hazard level of a 10% probability of exceedance in 50 years. Results of the study show that peak ground acceleration values on bedrock change between 0.215 and 0.23 g in the center of Antalya.

  17. Landsat TM data processing for lithological discrimination in the Caraculo area (Namibe Province, SW Angola)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alberti, A.; Alessandro, V.; Pieruccini, U.; Pranzini, E.

    1993-10-01

    Landsat TM data were used for lithological discrimination and mapping in the little-known, semiarid 900 km 2 area around Caraculo station and the middle course of the Rio Giraul (Namibe Province, SW Angola) following two main procedures. The first of these was based on visual evaluation of three-band composites, band-ratio composites and Principal Component Analysis. The second method relied on the extraction of spectral signatures, and their use to obtain automatic classifications. Satisfactory results were reached with the first procedure, thus allowing - with limited support of ground information — the draft of a lithological map, while the second method was not systematically efficient, even for confirmation of data acquired with the first procedure. Image interpretation suggests that an extensive but hithertoun differentiated metasedimentary complex consisting of a heterogeneous supracrustal sequence should be subdivided into at least two units. Field observations proved that one of these is marked by a notable frequency of marbles and the other is characterized by a widespread occurrence of amphibolitic bodies. Moreover, a belt of undetermined (thermally metamorphosed ?) metamorphic rocks is interposed between them. The distinction of so far unidentified units, though restricted to interpretation of processed Landsat TM data, has significant geological implications also in the regional context and will be helpful in guiding future work with conventional geological methods.

  18. Soft-Sediment Deformation Structures Interpreted as Seismites in the Kolankaya Formation, Denizli Basin (SW Turkey)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topal, Savaş; Özkul, Mehmet

    2014-01-01

    The NW-trending Denizli basin of the SW Turkey is one of the neotectonic grabens in the Aegean extensional province. It is bounded by normal faults on both southern and northern margins. The basin is filled by Neogene and Quaternary terrestrial deposits. Late Miocene- Late Pliocene aged Kolankaya formation crops out along the NW trending Karakova uplift in the Denizli basin. It is a typical fluviolacustrine succession that thickens and coarsens upward, comprising poorly consolidated sand, gravelly sand, siltstone and marl. Various soft-sediment deformation structures occur in the formation, especially in fine- to medium grained sands, silts and marls: load structures, flame structures, clastic dikes (sand and gravely-sand dike), disturbed layers, laminated convolute beds, slumps and synsedimentary faulting. The deformation mechanism and driving force for the soft-sediment deformation are related essentially to gravitational instability, dewatering, liquefaction-liquidization, and brittle deformation. Field data and the wide lateral extent of the structures as well as regional geological data show that most of the deformation is related to seismicity and the structures are interpreted as seismites. The existence of seismites in the Kolankaya Formation is evidence for continuing tectonic activity in the study area during the Neogene and is consistent with the occurrence of the paleoearthquakes of magnitude >5. PMID:25152909

  19. Phototrophic microbes form endolithic biofilms in ikaite tufa columns (SW Greenland).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trampe, Erik; Castenholz, Richard W; Larsen, Jens E N; Kühl, Michael

    2017-11-01

    Marine tufa-columns, formed by the hydrated carbonate mineral ikaite, present a unique alkaline microbial habitat only found in Ikka Fjord (SW-Greenland). The outermost parts of the ikaite columns exhibit a multitude of physico-chemical gradients, and the porous ikaite is colonized by endolithic phototrophic biofilms serving as a substrate for grazing epifauna, where scraping by sea urchins affects overall column-topography. We present a detailed study of the optical microenvironment, spatial organization, and photosynthetic activity of endolithic phototrophs within the porous ikaite crystal matrix. Cyanobacteria and diatoms formed distinctly coloured zones and were closely associated with ikaite-crystals via excretion of exopolymers. Scalar-irradiance measurements showed strong attenuation of visible light (400-700 nm), where only ∼1% of incident irradiance remained at 20 mm depth. Transmission spectra showed in vivo absorption signatures of diatom and cyanobacterial photopigments, which were confirmed by HPLC-analysis. Variable-chlorophyll-fluorescence-imaging showed active photosynthesis with high-light acclimation in the outer diatom layer, and low-light acclimation in the underlying cyanobacterial part. Phototrophs in ikaite thus thrive in polymer-bound endolithic biofilms in a complex gradient microhabitat experiencing constant slow percolation of highly alkaline phosphate-enriched spring water mixing with cold seawater at the tufa-column-apex. We discuss the potential role of these biofilms in ikaite column formation. © 2017 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Environmental Monitoring, Water Quality - Lakes Assessments - Non Attaining

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Education | GIS Inventory — This layer shows only non attaining lakes of the Integrated List. The Lakes Integrated List represents lake assessments in an integrated format for the Clean Water...

  1. Antarctic Active Subglacial Lake Inventory from ICESat Altimetry, Version 1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set contains lake boundaries, volume changes, and gridded elevations for 124 active subglacial lakes beneath the Antarctic ice sheet. Lakes were identified...

  2. 75 FR 6354 - NOAA Great Lakes Habitat Restoration Program Project Grants under the Great Lakes Restoration...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-09

    ...-04] RIN 0648-ZC10 NOAA Great Lakes Habitat Restoration Program Project Grants under the Great Lakes... Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Department of Commerce. ACTION: Notice of funding availability; Date... on January 19, 2010. That notice announced the NOAA Great Lakes Habitat Restoration Program Project...

  3. Crustacean plankton communities in forty-five lakes in the experimental lakes area, northwestern Ontario

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patalas, K

    1971-01-01

    Zooplankton communities were characterized on the basis of samples taken in summer as vertical net hauls in the central part of lakes. Twenty-eight species of crustaceans were found in the 45 lakes studied. The highest number of species as well as the highest numbers of individuals (per unit of area) usually occurred in the largest deepest lakes with most transparent water.

  4. Human impact on lake ecosystems: the case of Lake Naivasha, Kenya

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Lake Naivasha is a wetland of national and international importance. However, it is under constant anthropogenic pressures, which include the quest for socioeconomic development within the lake ecosystem itself as well as other activities within the catchment. The lake is an important source of fresh water in an otherwise ...

  5. Clearing lakes : an ecosystem approach to the restoration and management of shallow lakes in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hosper, H.

    1997-01-01

    In the 1950 s and 1960 s, most shallow lakes in the Netherlands shifted from macrophyte-dominated clear water lakes, towards algae-dominated turbid water lakes. Eutrophication, i.e. increased nutrient loading, is the main cause of the deterioration

  6. Lake Michigan lake trout PCB model forecast post audit (oral presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scenario forecasts for total PCBs in Lake Michigan (LM) lake trout were conducted using the linked LM2-Toxics and LM Food Chain models, supported by a suite of additional LM models. Efforts were conducted under the Lake Michigan Mass Balance Study and the post audit represents an...

  7. Lake Titicaca: History and current studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paredes Riveros, M.A.; Gonfiantini, R.

    1999-01-01

    This article summarizes results of Titicaca lake water balance studies including the findings of the IAEA Technical Cooperation Project RLA/08/022. Direct precipitation over the lake accounts for about 55% of the water inflow and rivers and streams provide about 45% of the water inflow. Diffuse groundwater leakage into the lake from coastal aquifers is believed to represent a negligible term of water balance. Evaporation from the lake is strong and accounts for more than 95% of the water losses. The isotopic and chemical composition data obtained within the frameworks of the IAEA Technical Cooperation Project RLA/08/022 are discussed

  8. Lake Titicaca: History and current studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paredes Riveros, M A [PELT, Puno (Peru); Gonfiantini, R [Istituto di Geocronologia e Geochimica Isotopica del CNR, Pisa (Italy)

    1999-12-01

    This article summarizes results of Titicaca lake water balance studies including the findings of the IAEA Technical Cooperation Project RLA/08/022. Direct precipitation over the lake accounts for about 55% of the water inflow and rivers and streams provide about 45% of the water inflow. Diffuse groundwater leakage into the lake from coastal aquifers is believed to represent a negligible term of water balance. Evaporation from the lake is strong and accounts for more than 95% of the water losses. The isotopic and chemical composition data obtained within the frameworks of the IAEA Technical Cooperation Project RLA/08/022 are discussed.

  9. Diatoms in Liyu Lake, Eastern Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang-Chi Wang

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available This study described the diatoms appeared in the sediments of Liyu Lake, a lowland natural lake situated at Hualen, eastern Taiwan. A total of 50 species was found in the sediments of this eutrophic lake. In them, 8 species were reported for the first time in Taiwan. They are: Cymbella thienemannii, Navicula absoluta, Navicula bacillum, Frustulia rhomboides var. crassinervia, Gyrosigma procerum, Nitzschia paleacea Epithemia smithii and Eunotia subarcuatioides. The ultrastructures of each species were described on the basis of observations under a scanning electron microscope. The ecological implications of the occurrence of these diatom species in this lake were inferred.

  10. Fish impingement at Lake Michigan power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, R.K.; Freeman, R.F.; Spigarelli, S.A.

    1976-01-01

    A study was initiated in 1974 to survey the magnitude and to evaluate the impact of fish impingement at 20 power plants on the Great Lakes. Data on impingement rates, site characteristics, intake designs and operational features have been collected and analyzed. Interpretive analyses of these data are in progress. The objectives of this study were: to summarize fish impingement data for Lake Michigan (16/20 plants surveyed are on Lake Michigan); to assess the significance of total and source-related mortalities on populations of forage and predator species; and to expand the assessment of power plant impingement to include all water intakes on Lake Michigan. Data are tabulated

  11. Residence time and physical processes in lakes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicoletta SALA

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available The residence time of a lake is highly dependent on internal physical processes in the water mass conditioning its hydrodynamics; early attempts to evaluate this physical parameter emphasize the complexity of the problem, which depends on very different natural phenomena with widespread synergies. The aim of this study is to analyse the agents involved in these processes and arrive at a more realistic definition of water residence time which takes account of these agents, and how they influence internal hydrodynamics. With particular reference to temperate lakes, the following characteristics are analysed: 1 the set of the lake's caloric components which, along with summer heating, determine the stabilizing effect of the surface layers, and the consequent thermal stratification, as well as the winter destabilizing effect; 2 the wind force, which transfers part of its momentum to the water mass, generating a complex of movements (turbulence, waves, currents with the production of active kinetic energy; 3 the water flowing into the lake from the tributaries, and flowing out through the outflow, from the standpoint of hydrology and of the kinetic effect generated by the introduction of these water masses into the lake. These factors were studied in the context of the general geographical properties of the lake basin and the watershed (latitude, longitude, morphology, also taking account of the local and regional climatic situation. Also analysed is the impact of ongoing climatic change on the renewal of the lake water, which is currently changing the equilibrium between lake and atmosphere, river and lake, and relationships

  12. Geological Study of Active Cold Seeps in the Syn-collision Accretionary Prism Kaoping Slope off SW Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chi-Yue Huang

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Pogonophoran tube worms, elongated pyrite tubes and authigenic carbonate nodules are used to evaluate the occurrence of potential cold seeps in the syn-collision accretionary prism Kaoping Slope off SW Taiwan. At least two species of pogonophoran tubeworms were found in surface and core sediments. Pyrites occur in three different forms: fillings inside foraminiferal chambers, cements between calcareous microfossils, and elongated tubes. The bottom water off SW Taiwan is aerobic, but authigenic pyrites are found in the surface sediments at several sites, suggesting the existence of local reducing environments enabling the formation of pyrites. These environments are most likely caused by the occurrence of active cold seeps where methane expulses. Authigenic carbonates with highly depleted carbon isotope values (-54 to -43‰ were found at more than 5 locations, in agreement with a methane-derived source for the carbon.

  13. Interaction of fructose with other medium components to affect bioproduction of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) by Aurantiochytrium sp. SW1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manikan, Vidyah; Kalil, Mohd. Sahaid; Shuib, Shuwahida; Hamid, Aidil Abdul

    2018-04-01

    Thraustochytrids are a group of marine fungus-like microheterotrophs of which some can accumulate considerable amounts of the high valued omega-3 oil, docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). In this study, a local thraustochytrid isolate, Aurantiochytrium sp. SW1, was cultivated in a medium containing fructose as the major carbon source. The effects of this carbon source in interaction with yeast extract, monosodium glutamate (MSG) and sea salt were studied using a software-based two level full factorial design. Results showed that fructose as a single factor, has significant positive effect on the volumetric DHA content of SW1. Similarly, its interaction with yeast extract has profound positive effect. However, interactions of fructose with MSG and sea salt were significant negative effects. These results indicate that manipulation of the concentration of fructose in the culture medium may serve as a simple and useful strategy to help achieve preferred amount of DHA.

  14. Hydrological network and classification of lakes on the Third Pole

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yang; Wang, Weicai; Yao, Tandong; Lu, Ning; Lu, Anxin

    2018-05-01

    The intensity and form of changes in closed lakes, upstream lakes and outflow lakes on the Third Pole (TP) differ based on their drainage mode. Researchers' insufficient understanding of the hydrological networks associated with lakes hampers studies of the relationship between lakes and climate. In this study, we establish a comprehensive hydrological network for each lake (>1 km2) on the TP using 106 Landsat images, 236 Chinese topographic maps, and SRTM DEM. Three-hundred-ninety-seven closed lakes, 488 upstream lakes and 317 outflow lakes totaling 3,5498.49 km2, 7,378.82 km2, and 3,382.29 km2, respectively, were identified on the TP using 2010 data. Two-hundred-thirty-four closed lakes were found to not be linked to upstream lakes. The remaining 163 closed lakes were connected to and fed by the 488 upstream lakes. The object-oriented analyses within this study indicated that more rapid changes occurred in the surface extent of closed lakes than in upstream lakes or outflow lakes on the TP from 1970 s to 2010. Furthermore, the water volume of the examined closed lakes was almost nine times greater than that of the upstream lakes from 2003 to 2009. All the examined closed lakes exhibited an obvious water volume change compared to the corresponding upstream lakes in the same basin. Furthermore, two case studies illustrate that the annual and seasonal dynamics associated with the changes in closed lakes may reflect climate change patterns, while the upstream lake dynamics may be more controlled by the lakeshore terrain and drainage characteristics. The lake inventory and hydrological network catalogued in this study provide a basis for developing a better understanding of lake response to climate change on the TP.

  15. Correlation between catch data from bottom longlines and fish censures in the SW lagoon of New Caledonia

    OpenAIRE

    Kulbicki, Michel

    1988-01-01

    On a total of 363 bottoms longline sets in the SW lagoon of New Caledonia, 45 were surveyed using visual census. Abundance and biomass estimates were derived from these censuses. These estimates were highly correlated to catch per unit effort in numbers and weight. From these relationships were established contour maps of soft bottom fish abundance and biomass. The total biomass of longline catchable fish was estimated between 11800 and 25500 tons with an average of 17700 tons which represent...

  16. Cryopreservation of chayote (Sechium edule JACQ.SW.) zygotic embryos and shoot-tips from in vitroplantlets

    OpenAIRE

    Abdelnour-Esquivel, Ana; Engelmann, Florent

    2002-01-01

    This paper presents the development of cryopreservation protocols for zygotic embryos and apices of chayote (Sechium edule Jacq. Sw.), a tropical plant species with recalcitrant seeds. Zygotic embryos of two cultivars, Ccocro negro (CN) and Claudio (Cl) could withstand cryopreservation, with survival percentages of 10 and 30 %, after desiccation to 23 and 19 % moisture content (fresh weight basis), respectively. Apices sampled on in vitro plantlets of cultivars Cl, 13 and JM we...

  17. ECONOMICAL VIABILITY OF PRESERVATIVE TREATMENT OF Prosopis juliflora (SW) D.C. WOOD SUBMITTED TO SAP DISPLACEMENT METHOD

    OpenAIRE

    Desmoulis Wanderley de Farias Sobrinho; Juarez Benigno Paes; Judernor Fernandes Filgueiras

    2008-01-01

    This work aimed to evaluate the economical viability of preservative treatment of Prosopis juliflora (Sw) D.C. roundpieces treated with Osmose CCB commercial preservative applied by sap displacement method in rural property and to comparetheir costs with Mimosa caesalpiniifolia, Mimosa tenuiflora and Prosopis juliflora non-treated pieces costs. The treatment of Prosopisjuliflora wood demonstrated to be economically viable when compared to alternatives using the Equivalent Annual Costs (EACs),...

  18. A Dynamical Downscaling study over the Great Lakes Region Using WRF-Lake: Historical Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, C.; Lofgren, B. M.

    2014-12-01

    As the largest group of fresh water bodies on Earth, the Laurentian Great Lakes have significant influence on local and regional weather and climate through their unique physical features compared with the surrounding land. Due to the limited spatial resolution and computational efficiency of general circulation models (GCMs), the Great Lakes are geometrically ignored or idealized into several grid cells in GCMs. Thus, the nested regional climate modeling (RCM) technique, known as dynamical downscaling, serves as a feasible solution to fill the gap. The latest Weather Research and Forecasting model (WRF) is employed to dynamically downscale the historical simulation produced by the Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory-Coupled Model (GFDL-CM3) from 1970-2005. An updated lake scheme originated from the Community Land Model is implemented in the latest WRF version 3.6. It is a one-dimensional mass and energy balance scheme with 20-25 model layers, including up to 5 snow layers on the lake ice, 10 water layers, and 10 soil layers on the lake bottom. The lake scheme is used with actual lake points and lake depth. The preliminary results show that WRF-Lake model, with a fine horizontal resolution and realistic lake representation, provides significantly improved hydroclimates, in terms of lake surface temperature, annual cycle of precipitation, ice content, and lake-effect snowfall. Those improvements suggest that better resolution of the lakes and the mesoscale process of lake-atmosphere interaction are crucial to understanding the climate and climate change in the Great Lakes region.

  19. Refuge Lake Reclassification in 620 Minnesota Cisco Lakes under Future Climate Scenarios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liping Jiang

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Cisco (Coregonus artedi is the most common coldwater stenothermal fish in Minnesota lakes. Water temperature (T and dissolved oxygen (DO in lakes are important controls of fish growth and reproduction and likely change with future climate warming. Built upon a previous study, this study uses a modified method to identify which of 620 cisco lakes in Minnesota can still support cisco populations under future climate and therefore be classified as cisco refuge lakes. The previous study used oxythermal stress parameter TDO3, the temperature at DO of 3 mg/L, simulated only from deep virtual lakes to classify 620 cisco lakes. Using four categories of virtual but representative cisco lakes in modified method, a one-dimensional water quality model MINLAKE2012 was used to simulate daily T and DO profiles in 82 virtual lakes under the past (1961–2008 and two future climate scenarios. A multiyear average of 31-day largest TDO3 over variable benchmark (VB periods, AvgATDO3VB, was calculated from simulated T and DO profiles using FishHabitat2013. Contour plots of AvgATDO3VB for four categories of virtual lakes were then developed to reclassify 620 cisco lakes into Tier 1 (AvgATDO3VB < 11 °C or Tier 2 refuge lakes, and Tier 3 non-refuge lakes (AvgATDO3VB > 17 °C. About 20% of 620 cisco lakes are projected to be refuge lakes under future climate scenarios, which is a more accurate projection (improving the prediction accuracy by ~6.5% from the previous study since AvgATDO3VB was found to vary by lake categories.

  20. Mississippian lamprophyre dikes in western Sierras Pampeanas, Argentina: Evidence of transtensional tectonics along the SW margin of Gondwana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martina, Federico; Canelo, Horacio N.; Dávila, Federico M.; de Hollanda, María Helena M.; Teixeira, Wilson

    2018-04-01

    In the Famatina range, Sierras Pampeanas of Argentina (SW Gondwana), subvertical calc-alkaline lamprophyric dike swarms crop out through >300 km. The dikes cut Ordovician units with a prominent NW-SE trending and are covered by continental sedimentary successions of Pennsylvanian to Permian age. The dikes show a strong structural control associated with Riedel fault systems. Detailed field analysis suggested a ∼N-S opening direction oblique to the attitude of dike walls and a left-lateral transtensional tectonics during the emplacement. 40Ar/39Ar geochronology of a lamprophyric sample defined a crystallization age (plateau; whole rock) of 357.1 ± 7.1 Ma (MSWD = 2.3). Coetaneous ductile zones with dominant strike-slip motion, documented along western Argentina for >600 km, suggest a regional event in SW Gondwana during the Mississippian. We propose that this deformation was the result of the counterclockwise fast rotation of Gondwana between 365 and 345 Ma, when the Famatina range and western Argentina occupied a sub-polar position. A transform margin along SW Gondwana better explains our (and others) data rather than a subduction margin. This scenario is also consistent with the occurrence of A-type granites and normal-fault basins within the foreland as well as bimodal volcanics.

  1. Rosiglitazone induces autophagy in H295R and cell cycle deregulation in SW13 adrenocortical cancer cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cerquetti, Lidia; Sampaoli, Camilla; Amendola, Donatella; Bucci, Barbara; Masuelli, Laura; Marchese, Rodolfo; Misiti, Silvia; De Venanzi, Agostino; Poggi, Maurizio; Toscano, Vincenzo; Stigliano, Antonio

    2011-01-01

    Thiazolidinediones, specific peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPAR-γ) ligands, used in type-2 diabetes therapy, show favourable effects in several cancer cells. In this study we demonstrate that the growth of H295R and SW13 adrenocortical cancer cells is inhibited by rosiglitazone, a thiazolidinediones member, even though the mechanisms underlying this effect appeared to be cell-specific. Treatment with GW9662, a selective PPAR-γ-inhibitor, showed that rosiglitazone acts through both PPAR-γ-dependent and -independent mechanisms in H295R, while in SW13 cells the effect seems to be independent of PPAR-γ. H295R cells treated with rosiglitazone undergo an autophagic process, leading to morphological changes detectable by electron microscopy and an increased expression of specific proteins such as AMPKα and beclin-1. The autophagy seems to be independent of PPAR-γ activation and could be related to an increase in oxidative stress mediated by reactive oxygen species production with the disruption of the mitochondrial membrane potential, triggered by rosiglitazone. In SW13 cells, flow cytometry analysis showed an arrest in the G0/G1 phase of the cell cycle with a decrease of cyclin E and cdk2 activity, following the administration of rosiglitazone. Our data show the potential role of rosiglitazone in the therapeutic approach to adrenocortical carcinoma and indicate the molecular mechanisms at the base of its antiproliferative effects, which appear to be manifold and cell-specific in adrenocortical cancer lines.

  2. Comparison of SW and TW non-synchronous accelerating cavities as used in electron beam storage rings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zolfaghari, A.; Demos, P.T.; Flanz, J.B.; Jacobs, K.

    1991-01-01

    The authors relate the parameters of detuned standing wave (SW) and non-synchronous beam travelling wave (TW) accelerating cavities of equivalent equilibrium performance when used to compensate for radiation and parasitic energy losses by electrons circulating in a high energy electron storage ring. The relationship is expressed in terms of the coupling parameter β and cavity tuning angle ψ of the TW accelerator's equivalent SW system. A given TW cavity corresponds to a standing wave system possessing specific settings of β and ψ. This is shown for the constant impedance TW waveguide, for which β and ψ can be expressed as explicit functions of TW cavity length 1, attenuation factor I, RF electric field phase velocity V p , and shunt impedance r. Coupling parameter β depends additionally on SW cavity shunt impedance R. The basis they have used for formulating the equivalence of the two systems follows Travelling Wave Cavity Non-Synchronous Beam Loading theory developed by G.A. Loew and Standing Wave Circuit Analysis theory as described by P.B. Wilson

  3. Rosiglitazone induces autophagy in H295R and cell cycle deregulation in SW13 adrenocortical cancer cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cerquetti, Lidia; Sampaoli, Camilla [Endocrinology, Department of Clinical and Molecular Medicine, Sant' Andrea Hospital, Faculty of Medicine and Psychology ' Sapienza' University of Rome, Via di Grottarossa, 1035-00189 Rome (Italy); Research Center S. Pietro Hospital, Via Cassia, 600-00189 Rome (Italy); Amendola, Donatella; Bucci, Barbara [Research Center S. Pietro Hospital, Via Cassia, 600-00189 Rome (Italy); Masuelli, Laura [Department of Experimental Medicine, ' Sapienza' University of Rome, Rome (Italy); Marchese, Rodolfo [Research Center S. Pietro Hospital, Via Cassia, 600-00189 Rome (Italy); Misiti, Silvia [Endocrinology, Department of Clinical and Molecular Medicine, Sant' Andrea Hospital, Faculty of Medicine and Psychology ' Sapienza' University of Rome, Via di Grottarossa, 1035-00189 Rome (Italy); Research Center S. Pietro Hospital, Via Cassia, 600-00189 Rome (Italy); De Venanzi, Agostino; Poggi, Maurizio; Toscano, Vincenzo [Endocrinology, Department of Clinical and Molecular Medicine, Sant' Andrea Hospital, Faculty of Medicine and Psychology ' Sapienza' University of Rome, Via di Grottarossa, 1035-00189 Rome (Italy); Stigliano, Antonio, E-mail: antonio.stigliano@uniroma1.it [Endocrinology, Department of Clinical and Molecular Medicine, Sant' Andrea Hospital, Faculty of Medicine and Psychology ' Sapienza' University of Rome, Via di Grottarossa, 1035-00189 Rome (Italy); Research Center S. Pietro Hospital, Via Cassia, 600-00189 Rome (Italy)

    2011-06-10

    Thiazolidinediones, specific peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-{gamma} (PPAR-{gamma}) ligands, used in type-2 diabetes therapy, show favourable effects in several cancer cells. In this study we demonstrate that the growth of H295R and SW13 adrenocortical cancer cells is inhibited by rosiglitazone, a thiazolidinediones member, even though the mechanisms underlying this effect appeared to be cell-specific. Treatment with GW9662, a selective PPAR-{gamma}-inhibitor, showed that rosiglitazone acts through both PPAR-{gamma}-dependent and -independent mechanisms in H295R, while in SW13 cells the effect seems to be independent of PPAR-{gamma}. H295R cells treated with rosiglitazone undergo an autophagic process, leading to morphological changes detectable by electron microscopy and an increased expression of specific proteins such as AMPK{alpha} and beclin-1. The autophagy seems to be independent of PPAR-{gamma} activation and could be related to an increase in oxidative stress mediated by reactive oxygen species production with the disruption of the mitochondrial membrane potential, triggered by rosiglitazone. In SW13 cells, flow cytometry analysis showed an arrest in the G0/G1 phase of the cell cycle with a decrease of cyclin E and cdk2 activity, following the administration of rosiglitazone. Our data show the potential role of rosiglitazone in the therapeutic approach to adrenocortical carcinoma and indicate the molecular mechanisms at the base of its antiproliferative effects, which appear to be manifold and cell-specific in adrenocortical cancer lines.

  4. Effect of LED irradiation on the expression of MMP-3 and MMP-13 in SW1353 cells in vitro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Chang-chun; Guo, Zhou-yi; Zhang, Feng-xue; Deng, Wen-di; Liu, Song-hao

    2007-05-01

    Matrix Metalloproteinase (MMP) plays an active role in remodeling cartilage in osteoarthritic cartilage. To find an effective method of prevention of osteoclasia, this in vitro study focuses on the expression of MMP-3 and MMP-13 in the SW1353 cells by LED irradiation. The human chondrosarcoma cell line SW1353 were stimulated with the proinflammatory cytokine IL-1beta or tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), and were received the irradiation of LED (632nm, 4mW/cm2). The cell count was assessed over a 96-hour period by using Trypan blue dye exclusion assay, and the cell activity was evaluated with a Cell Counting Kit-8 Assays. The subsequent expression of MMP-3 and MMP-13 was quantified. Results of this experiment showed that the cultural cell activity was decreased, and the expression of MMP-3 and MMP-13 was increased by being stimulated with IL-1beta or TNF-alpha. After received LED irradiation, the death rate of cultural cell was increased and the expression of MMP-3 and MMP-13 was decreased significantly. The present study concluded that particular LED irradiation stimulates SW1353 cell proliferation activity and inhibit the MMP-3 and MMP-13 enzymatic activity. These findings might be clinically relevant, indicating that the low power laser irradiation treatment is likely to achieve the repair of articular cartilage in clinic.

  5. Geometric-kinematic characteristics of the main faults in the W-SW of the Lut Block (SE Iran)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashidi Boshrabadi, Ahmad; Khatib, Mohamad Mahdi; Raeesi, Mohamad; Mousavi, Seyed Morteza; Djamour, Yahya

    2018-03-01

    The area to the W-SW of the Lut Block in Iran has experienced numerous historical and recent destructive earthquakes. We examined a number of faults in this area that have high potential for generating destructive earthquakes. In this study a number of faults are introduced and named for the first time. These new faults are Takdar, Dehno, Suru, Hojat Abad, North Faryab, North Kahnoj, Heydarabad, Khatun Abad and South Faryab. For a group of previously known faults, their mechanism and geological offsets are investigated for the first time. This group of faults include East Nayband, West Nayband, Sardueiyeh, Dalfard, Khordum, South Jabal-e-Barez, and North Jabal-e-Barez. The N-S fault systems of Sabzevaran, Gowk, and Nayband induce slip on the E-W, NE-SW and NW-SE fault systems. The faulting patterns appear to preserve different stages of fault development. We investigated the distribution of active faults and the role that they play in accommodating tectonic strain in the SW-Lut. In the study area, the fault systems with en-echelon arrangement create structures such as restraining and releasing stepover, fault bend and pullapart basin. The main mechanism for fault growth in the region seems to be 'segment linkage of preexisting weaknesses' and also for a limited area through 'process zone'. Estimations are made for the likely magnitudes of separate or combined failure of the fault segments. Such magnitudes are used in hazard analysis of the region.

  6. Environmental isotope signatures of the largest freshwater lake in Kerala

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Unnikrishnan Warrier, C.

    2007-01-01

    Sasthamkotta lake, the largest freshwater lake in Kerala, serves as a source for drinking water for more than half a million people. Environmental 137 Cs analysis done on undisturbed sediment core samples reveals that the recent rate of sedimentation is not uniform in the lake. The useful life of lake is estimated as about 800 years. The δD and δ 18 O values of the lake waters indicate that the lake is well mixed with a slight variation horizontally. The stable isotope studies on well waters from the catchment indicate hydraulic communication with the lake and lake groundwater system is flow-through type. Analytical model also supports this view. (author)

  7. Anaerobic Psychrophiles from Lake Zub and Lake Untersee, Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townsend, Alisa; Pikuta, Elena V.; Guisler, Melissa; Stahl, Sarah; Hoover, Richard B.

    2009-01-01

    The study of samples from Antarctica 2008 and 2009 expeditions organized and successfully conducted by Richard Hoover led to the isolation of diverse anaerobic strains with psychrotolerant and psychrophilic physiology. Due to the fact that Lake Untersee has never been subject to microbiological study, this work with the samples has significant and pioneering impact to the knowledge about the biology of this unique ecosystem. Also, the astrobiological significance for the study of these ecosystems is based on new findings of ice covered water systems on other bodies of our solar system. Anaerobic psychrotolerant strain LZ-22 was isolated from a frozen sample of green moss with soils around the rhizosphere collected near Lake Zub in Antarctica. Morphology of strain LZ-22 was observed to be motile, rod shaped and spore-forming cells with sizes 1 x 5-10 micron. This new isolate is a mesophile with the maximum temperature of growth at 40C. Strain LZ-22 is able to live on media without NaCl and in media with up to 7% (w/v) NaCl. It is catalase negative and grows only on sugars with the best growth rate being on lactose. The strain is a neutrophile and grows between pH 5 and 9.0 with the optimum at 7.8. Another two strains UL7-96mG and LU-96m7P were isolated from deep water samples of Lake Untersee. Proteolytic strain LU-96m7P had a truly psychrophilic nature and refused to grow at room temperature. Sugarlytic strain UL7-96mG was found to be psychrotolerant, but its rate of growth at 3C was very high compared with other mesophiles. Two homoacetogenic psychrophilic strains A7AC-96m and AC-DS7 were isolated and purified from samples of Lake Untersee; both of them are able to grow chemolithotrophically on H2+CO2. In the presence of lactate, these strains are able to grow only at 0-18C, and growth at 22C was observed only with yeast extract stimulation. In this paper, physiological and morphological characteristics of novel psychrophilic and psychrotolerant isolates from

  8. Stable isotope and hydrogeochemical studies of Beaver Lake and Radok Lake, MacRobertson Land, East Antarctica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wand, U.; Hermichen, W.D.

    1988-01-01

    Beaver Lake and Radok Lake, the largest known epishelf lake and the deepest freshwater lake on the Antarctic continent, respectively, were isotopically (δ 2 H, δ 18 O) and hydrogeochemically studied. Radok Lake is an isothermal and nonstratified, i.e. homogeneous water body, while Beaver Lake is stratified with respect to temperature, salinity and isotopic composition. The results for the latter attest to freshwater (derived from snow and glacier melt) overlying seawater. (author)

  9. Watershed vs. within-lake drivers of nitrogen: phosphorus dynamics in shallow lakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginger, Luke J; Zimmer, Kyle D; Herwig, Brian R; Hanson, Mark A; Hobbs, William O; Small, Gaston E; Cotner, James B

    2017-10-01

    Research on lake eutrophication often identifies variables affecting amounts of phosphorus (P) and nitrogen (N) in lakes, but understanding factors influencing N:P ratios is important given its influence on species composition and toxin production by cyanobacteria. We sampled 80 shallow lakes in Minnesota (USA) for three years to assess effects of watershed size, proportion of watershed as both row crop and natural area, fish biomass, and lake alternative state (turbid vs. clear) on total N : total P (TN : TP), ammonium, total dissolved phosphorus (TDP), and seston stoichiometry. We also examined N:P stoichiometry in 20 additional lakes that shifted states during the study. Last, we assessed the importance of denitrification by measuring denitrification rates in sediment cores from a subset of 34 lakes, and by measuring seston δ 15 N in four additional experimental lakes before and after they were experimentally manipulated from turbid to clear states. Results showed alternative state had the largest influence on overall N:P stoichiometry in these systems, as it had the strongest relationship with TN : TP, seston C:N:P, ammonium, and TDP. Turbid lakes had higher N at given levels of P than clear lakes, with TN and ammonium 2-fold and 1.4-fold higher in turbid lakes, respectively. In lakes that shifted states, TN was 3-fold higher in turbid lakes, while TP was only 2-fold higher, supporting the notion N is more responsive to state shifts than is P. Seston δ 15 N increased after lakes shifted to clear states, suggesting higher denitrification rates may be important for reducing N levels in clear states, and potential denitrification rates in sediment cores were among the highest recorded in the literature. Overall, our results indicate lake state was a primary driver of N:P dynamics in shallow lakes, and lakes in clear states had much lower N at a given level of P relative to turbid lakes, likely due to higher denitrification rates. Shallow lakes are often

  10. WATER TEMPERATURE and Other Data from ALMIRANTE SALDANHA From SW Atlantic (limit-20 W) for 1967-01-01 (NODC Accession 9700076)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Phytoplankton, chlorophyll, and other data were collected from bottle casts in the SW Atlantic Ocean (lim-20 W) from the Almirante Saldanha from 16 March 1967 to 30...

  11. Benthic organisms collected using sediment sampler from the SW RESEARCHER in the Gulf of Mexico from 22 September 1977 to 16 December 1977 (NODC Accession 8100224)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Benthic organisms were collected using sediment sampler casts from the SW RESEARCHER in the Gulf of Mexico from 22 September 1977 to 16 December 1977. Data were...

  12. Hazards of volcanic lakes: analysis of Lakes Quilotoa and Cuicocha, Ecuador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Gunkel

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Volcanic lakes within calderas should be viewed as high-risk systems, and an intensive lake monitoring must be carried out to evaluate the hazard of potential limnic or phreatic-magmatic eruptions. In Ecuador, two caldera lakesLakes Quilotoa and Cuicocha, located in the high Andean region >3000 a.s.l. – have been the focus of these investigations. Both volcanoes are geologically young or historically active, and have formed large and deep calderas with lakes of 2 to 3 km in diameter, and 248 and 148 m in depth, respectively. In both lakes, visible gas emissions of CO2 occur, and an accumulation of CO2 in the deep water body must be taken into account.

    Investigations were carried out to evaluate the hazards of these volcanic lakes, and in Lake Cuicocha intensive monitoring was carried out for the evaluation of possible renewed volcanic activities. At Lake Quilotoa, a limnic eruption and diffuse CO2 degassing at the lake surface are to be expected, while at Lake Cuicocha, an increased risk of a phreatic-magmatic eruption exists.

  13. Rubidium-strontium ages from the Oxford Lake-Knee Lake greenstone belt, northern Manitoba

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, G.S.; Cheung, S.-P.

    1980-01-01

    Rb-Sr whole-rock ages have been determined for rocks from the Oxford Lake-Knee Lake-Gods Lake geenstone belt in the Superior Province of northeastern Manitoba. The age of the Magill Lake Pluton is 2455 +- 35 Ma(lambda 87 Rb = 1.42 x 10 -11 yr -1 ), with an initial 87 Sr/ 86 Sr ratio of 0.7078 +- 0.0043. This granite stock intrudes the Oxford Lake Group, so it is post-tectonic and probably related to the second, weaker stage of metamorphism. The age of the Bayly Lake Pluton is 2424 +- 74 Ma, with an initial 87 Sr/ 86 Sr ratio of 0.7029 +- 0.0001. This granodioritic batholith complex does not intrude the Oxford Lake Group. It is syn-tectonic and metamorphosed. The age of volcanic rocks of the Hayes River Group, from Goose Lake (30 km south of Gods Lake Narrows), is 2680 +- 125 Ma, with an initial 87 Sr/ 86 Sr ratio of 0.7014 +- 0.0009. The age for the Magill Lake and Bayly Lake Plutons can be interpreted as the minimum ages of granite intrusion in the area. The age for the Hayes River Group volcanic rocks is consistent with Rb-Sr ages of volcanic rocks from other Archean greenstone belts within the northwestern Superior Province. (auth)

  14. Activation of AMP-Activated Protein Kinase α and Extracelluar Signal-Regulated Kinase Mediates CB-PIC-Induced Apoptosis in Hypoxic SW620 Colorectal Cancer Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sung-Yun Cho

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Here, antitumor mechanism of cinnamaldehyde derivative CB-PIC was elucidated in human SW620 colon cancer cells. CB-PIC significantly exerted cytotoxicity, increased sub-G1 accumulation, and cleaved PARP with apoptotic features, while it enhanced the phosphorylation of AMPK alpha and ACC as well as activated the ERK in hypoxic SW620 cells. Furthermore, CB-PIC suppressed the expression of HIF1 alpha, Akt, and mTOR and activated the AMPK phosphorylation in hypoxic SW620 cells. Conversely, silencing of AMPKα blocked PARP cleavage and ERK activation induced by CB-PIC, while ERK inhibitor PD 98059 attenuated the phosphorylation of AMPKα in hypoxic SW620 cells, implying cross-talk between ERK and AMPKα. Furthermore, cotreatment of CB-PIC and metformin enhanced the inhibition of HIF1α and Akt/mTOR and the activation of AMPKα and pACC in hypoxic SW620 cells. In addition, CB-PIC suppressed the growth of SW620 cells inoculated in BALB/c athymic nude mice, and immunohistochemistry revealed that CB-PIC treatment attenuated the expression of Ki-67, CD34, and CAIX and increased the expression of pAMPKα in CB-PIC-treated group. Interestingly, CP-PIC showed better antitumor activity in SW620 colon cancer cells under hypoxia than under normoxia, since it may be applied to chemoresistance. Overall, our findings suggest that activation of AMPKα and ERK mediates CB-PIC-induced apoptosis in hypoxic SW620 colon cancer cells.

  15. Changing values of lake ecosystem services as a result of bacteriological contamination on Lake Trzesiecko and Lake Wielimie, Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cichoń Małgorzata

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Lake ecosystems, on the one hand, are affected by tourism, and on the other by development for tourism. Lake ecosystem services include: water with its self-cleaning processes, air with climate control processes, as well as flora and fauna. Utilisation of services leads to interventions in the structure of ecosystems and their processes. Only to a certain extent, this is specific to each type of environmental interference, remains within the limits of ecosystem resilience and does not lead to its degradation. One of the threats is bacteriological contamination, for which the most reliable sanitation indicator is Escherichia coli. In lake water quality studies it is assumed that the lakeshore cannot be a source of bacteria. It has been hypothesised that the problem of bacterial contamination can be serious for the places that do not have any infrastructure, especially sanitation. Consequently, the purpose of the study was to determine the extent to which lakeshore sanitation, in particular the level of bacteriological contamination, has an impact on the value of services provided by the selected lake ecosystems (Lake Trzesiecko and Lake Wielimie – Szczecinek Lake District. Five selected services related to lake ecosystems are: water, control over the spread of contagious diseases, aesthetic values, tourism and recreation, as well as the hydrological cycle with its self-cleaning function. Services, as well as the criteria adopted for evaluation, allow us to conclude that the services provided by the lake ecosystems are suitable to fulfill a recreation function. However, the inclusion of quality criteria for sanitary status has shown that the value of system services has dropped by as much as 50%. Value changes are visible primarily for water and aesthetic qualities. Such a significant decrease in the value of services clearly indicates the importance of the sanitary conditions of lakes and their appropriate infrastructure. In view of the

  16. Anaglyph, Salt Lake City, Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    The 2002 Winter Olympics are hosted by Salt Lake City at several venues within the city, in nearby cities, and within the adjacent Wasatch Mountains. This anaglyph image provides a stereoscopic map view of north central Utah that includes all of these Olympic sites. In the south, next to Utah Lake, Provo hosts the ice hockey competition. In the north, northeast of the Great Salt Lake, Ogden hosts curling and the nearby Snowbasin ski area hosts the downhill events. In between, southeast of the Great Salt Lake, Salt Lake City hosts the Olympic Village and the various skating events. Further east, across the Wasatch Mountains, the Park City ski resort hosts the bobsled, ski jumping, and snowboarding events. The Winter Olympics are always hosted in mountainous terrain. This view shows the dramatic landscape that makes the Salt Lake City region a world-class center for winter sports.The stereoscopic effect of this anaglyph was created by first draping a Landsat satellite image over a Shuttle Radar Topography Mission digital elevation model and then generating two differing perspectives, one for each eye. When viewed through special glasses, the result is a vertically exaggerated view of Earth's surface in its full three dimensions. Anaglyph glasses cover the left eye with a red filter and cover the right eye with a blue filter.Landsat has been providing visible and infrared views of the Earth since 1972. SRTM elevation data matches the 30-meter (98-foot) resolution of most Landsat images and will substantially help in analyzing the large and growing Landsat image archive, managed by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS).Elevation data used in this image was acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on Feb. 11, 2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. SRTM was designed

  17. Apatite intergrowths in clinopyroxene megacrysts from the Ostrzyca Proboszczowicka (SW Poland) basanite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipa, Danuta; Puziewicz, Jacek; Ntaflos, Theodoros; Matusiak-Małek, Magdalena

    2015-04-01

    The Cenozoic basanite from the Ostrzyca Proboszczowicka in Lower Silesia (SW Poland) belongs to numerous lavas occurring in the NE part of the Central European Volcanic Province. Basanite contains clinopyroxene megacrysts up to 3 cm in size. The clinopyroxene has the composition of aluminian-sodian diopside (mg# 0.61-0.70, 0.08-0.12 atoms Na pfu and 0.88-0.93 atoms Ca pfu). Cr is absent. The REE contents are above the primitive mantle reaching up to 18 x PM at Nd. Primitive-mantle normalized REE patterns show enrichment in LREE relative to HREE (LaN/LuN=3.81-5.01). The REE patterns of all the megacrysts show deflection in La-Nd. The trace element patterns are characterized by positive Zr, Hf and in some cases also Ta anomalies, and negative U, La, Sr, Ti and Pb ones. In some samples strong depletion (down to 0.01 x PM) in Rb and Ba is observed.The Ostrzyca megacrysts formed cumulate, which crystallized from magma similar to the host basanite, but more fractionated and enriched in REE, particularly in LREE (Lipa et al., 2014). This happened at mid-crustal depths (10-15 km) and the new pulse of basanitic magma entrained the crystals forming the non-solidified cumulate and brought them to the surface (Lipa et al., 2014). Clinopyroxene megacrysts contain large, transparent, euhedral apatite crystals up to 7 mm. The major element composition indicates the fluor-apatite with F content ranging from 0.87 to 1.93 wt.%. Chlorine content is strongly variable between grains (0.05-1.75 wt.%). Apatite is strongly enriched in LREE relative to HREE (LaN/LuN=60.39-62.23, about 1000 x PM for LREE and about 10 x PM for HREE). The REE patterns are nearly linear, with slight positive Nd and Gd anomalies. The trace element patterns are characterized by very strong negative anomalies of HFSE (Nb, Ta, Zr, Hf, Ti) and Pb, and weaker negative Sr anomaly. Concentration of Yb and Lu is on the level 10 x PM, whereas Rb, Hf and Ti are depleted relative to PM. Apatite preceded clinopyroxene

  18. Diversity and aboveground biomass of lianas in the tropical seasonal rain forests of Xishuangbanna, SW China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Tao Lü

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Lianas are important components of tropical forests and have significant impacts on the diversity, structure and dynamics of tropical forests. The present study documented the liana flora in a Chinese tropical region. Species richness, abundance, size-class distribution and spatial patterns of lianas were investigated in three 1-ha plots in tropical seasonal rain forests in Xishuangbanna, SW China. All lianas with = 2 cm diameter at breast height (dbh were measured, tagged and identified. A total of 458 liana stems belonging to 95 species (ranging from 38 to 50 species/ha, 59 genera and 32 families were recorded in the three plots. The most well-represented families were Loganiaceae, Annonceae, Papilionaceae, Apocynaceae and Rhamnaceae. Papilionaceae (14 species recorded was the most important family in the study forests. The population density, basal area and importance value index (IVI varied greatly across the three plots. Strychnos cathayensis, Byttneria grandifolia and Bousigonia mekongensis were the dominant species in terms of IVI across the three plots. The mean aboveground biomass of lianas (3 396 kg/ha accounted for 1.4% of the total community aboveground biomass. The abundance, diversity and biomass of lianas in Xishuangbanna tropical seasonal rain forests are lower than those in tropical moist and wet forests, but higher than those in tropical dry forests. This study provides new data on lianas from a geographical region that has been little-studied. Our findings emphasize that other factors beyond the amount and seasonality of precipitation should be included when considering the liana abundance patterns across scales. Rev. Biol. Trop. 57 (1-2: 211-222. Epub 2009 June 30.Las lianas son componentes importantes de los bosques tropicales y tienen importantes impactos en la diversidad, la estructura y la dinámica de los bosques tropicales. El presente estudio documenta la flora de lianas en una región tropical estacional china. La

  19. Woody debris transport modelling by a coupled DE-SW approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persi, Elisabetta; Petaccia, Gabriella; Sibilla, Stefano

    2016-04-01

    The presence of wood in rivers is gaining more and more attention: on one side, the inclusion of woody debris in streams is emphasized for its ecological benefits; on the other hand, particular attention must be paid to its management, not to affect hydraulic safety. Recent events have shown that wood can be mobilized during floodings (Comiti et al. 2008, Lange and Bezzola 2006), aggravating inundations, in particular near urban areas. For this reason, the inclusion of woody debris influence on the prediction of flooded areas is an important step toward the reduction of hydraulic risk. Numerical modelling plays an important role to this purpose. Ruiz-Villanueva et al. (2014) use a two-dimensional numerical model to calculate the kinetics of cylindrical woody debris transport, taking into account also the hydrodynamic effects of wood. The model here presented couples a Discrete Element approach (DE) for the calculation of motion of a cylindrical log with the solution of the Shallow Water Equations (SW), in order to simulate woody debris transport in a two-dimensional stream. In a first step, drag force, added mass force and side force are calculated from flow and log velocities, assuming a reference area and hydrodynamic coefficients taken from literature. Then, the equations of dynamics are solved to model the planar roto-translation of the wooden cylinder. Model results and its physical reliability are clearly affected by the values of the drag and side coefficients, which in turn depend upon log submergence and angle towards the flow direction. Experimental studies to evaluate drag and side coefficients can be found for a submerged cylinder, with various orientations (Gippel et al. 1996; Hoang et al. 2015). To extend such results to the case of a floating (non-totally submerged) cylinder, the authors performed a series of laboratory tests whose outcomes are implemented in the proposed DE-SW model, to assess the effects of these values on the dynamic of woody

  20. Environmental drivers of phototrophic biofilms in an Alpine show cave (SW-Italian Alps)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piano, E.; Bona, F.; Falasco, E.; La Morgia, V.; Badino, G.; Isaia, M.

    2015-01-01

    The proliferation of lampenflora is a major threat for the conservation of show caves, since phototrophic organisms cause physical, chemical and aesthetic damage to speleothems. In this paper we examine the environmental factors influencing the presence and the growth of the three main photosynthetic groups composing phototrophic biofilms in the Bossea show cave (SW-Italian Alps). The presence and the primary production of cyanobacteria, diatoms and green algae were detected with BenthoTorch®, an instrument for in situ measurement of chlorophyll a concentration that has never been used before in caves. By means of different techniques of regression analysis, we highlighted the response of the three photosynthetic groups to different environmental factors. Illuminance proved to be the main factor influencing positively both the probability of the presence and the productivity of the three groups. The presence of seeping water on the substrate and the distance from the cave entrance proved to play an important role in determining patterns of colonization. By means of GIS techniques, we provide thematic maps of the cave, providing a representation of pattern of the density of the three examined photosynthetic groups within different areas of the cave. The same approach may apply to other show caves, aiming at providing suggestions for the cave management (i.e. cleaning of the cave walls and positioning of artificial lights) and reduce impact caused by tourism. - Highlights: • We used a PAM fluorimeter on autotrophic biofilms in a show cave for the first time. • We modelled the environmental factors influencing phototrophic biofilms. • Illuminance, moisture and distance from the entrance proved to be significant. • We produced thematic maps illustrating our results. • We provide suggestions for cave management

  1. Report for Treating Hanford LAW and WTP SW Simulants: Pilot Plant Mineralizing Flowsheet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olson, Arlin

    2012-01-01

    The US Department of Energy is responsible for managing the disposal of radioactive liquid waste in underground storage tanks at the Hanford site in Washington State. The Hanford waste treatment and immobilization plant (WPT) will separate the waste into a small volume of high level waste (HLW), containing most of the radioactive constituents, and a larger volume of low activity waste (LAW), containing most of the non-radioactive chemical and hazardous constituents. The HLW and LAW will be converted into immobilized waste forms for disposal. Currently there is inadequate LAW vitrification capacity planned at the WTP to complete the mission within the required timeframe. Therefore additional LAW capacity is required. One candidate supplemental treatment technology is the fluidized bed steam reformer process (FBSR). This report describes the demonstration testing of the FBSR process using a mineralizing flowsheet for treating simulated Hanford LAW and secondary waste from the WTP (WTP SW). The FBSR testing project produced leach-resistant solid products and environmentally compliant gaseous effluents. The solid products incorporated normally soluble ions into an alkali alumino-silicate (NaS) mineral matrix. Gaseous emissions were found to be within regulatory limits. Cesium and rhenium were captured in the mineralized products with system removal efficiencies of 99.999% and 99.998 respectively. The durability and leach performance of the FBSR granular solid were superior to the low activity reference material (LMR) glass standards. Normalized product consistency test (PCT) release rates for constituents of concern were approximately 2 orders of magnitude less than that of sodium in the Hanford glass [standard].

  2. An airborne gamma ray survey of parts of SW Scotland in February 1993. Final Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanderson, D.C.W.; Allyson, J.D.; Tyler, A.N.; Ni Riain, S.; Murphy, S.

    1994-01-01

    An airborne gamma ray survey was conducted for the Scottish Office Environment Department of coastal and inland parts of SW Scotland to define existing background levels, to locate features worthy of further attention, and to demonstrate the emergency response capabilities of radiometric methods. Coastal areas were surveyed with 500 m line spacing. Inland areas were specified to 2 km line spacing, however it was possible to achieve 1 km line spacing in the majority of the inland zone. The radiometric maps show clearly the distributions of each individual nuclide and indicate the contribution which individual localised features make to the overall gamma ray dose rate. Naturally occurring nuclides reflect the underlying geological and geomorphological contexts of the landscapes. The main granite intrusions, most notably at Cairnsmore of Fleet, the Loch Doon Granodiorite, Glencairn of Carsphairn, the Dalbeattie granite, and Criffel Pluton are readily visible in 40 K, 214 Bi and 208 Tl maps, and control their local radiation environments. A number of areas of enhanced 214 Bi, which may reflect radon potential, were noted. A transient radon associated 214 Bi signal was observed on the west of the Wigtown peninsular during the survey. Examination of spectral data in the vicinity Dundrennan has confirmed that there is no evidence of widespread terrestrial contamination arising from the use of depleted uranium projectiles on the range. The 137 Cs map indicates the environmental distribution of this nuclide in considerable detail. Levels of 137 Cs range from approximately 2 kBq m -2 , a level consistent with global weapons' testing fallout, from 2-40 kBq m -2 on terrestrial sites affected by deposition from the Chernobyl accident, and from 40 kBq m -2 to over 200 kBq m -2 on tide washed pastures which have accumulated marine sediments from the Irish sea. (author)

  3. Assessment of Submarine Slope Stability on the Continental Margin off SW Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Huai-Houh; Dong, Jia-Jyun; Cheng, Win-Bin; Su, Chih-Chieh

    2017-04-01

    The abundant gas hydrate reservoirs are distributed in the southwest (SW) off Taiwan. To explore this new energy, geological methods were systematically used and mainly emphasized on the storage potential evaluation. On the other hand, the correlation between gas hydrate dissociation and submarine slope stability is also an important issue. In this study, three submarine profiles on the active and passive continental margin were selected and assessed their slope stabilities by considering two influence factors (seismic forces and number of sedimentary layers). The gravity corers obtained from these three sites (Xiaoliuqiu, Yuan-An Ridge, and Pointer Ridge) to conduct soil laboratory tests. The physical property tests and isotropically consolidated undrained (CIU) triaxial tests were carried out to establish reference properties and shear strength parameters. Before the stability analysis is performed, it is also necessary to construct the seabed profile. For each submarine profile, data from P-waves and from S-waves generated by P-S conversion on reflection from airgun shots recorded along one line of ocean bottom seismometers were used to construct 2-D velocity sections. The seabed strata could be simplified to be only one sedimentary layer or to be multilayer in accordance with the velocity structure profile. Results show the safety factors (FS) of stability analysis are obviously different in considering the number of sedimentary layers, especially for a very thin layer of sediments on a steep slope. The simplified strata condition which treated all seabed strata as only one sedimentary layer might result in the FS lower than 1 and the slope was in an unstable state. On the contrary, the FS could be higher than 10 in a multilayer condition.

  4. Studying radon exhalation rates variability from phosphogypsum piles in the SW of Spain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    López-Coto, I., E-mail: israel.lopez@dfa.uhu.es [Dpto. Física Aplicada, Facultad CC. Experimentales, University of Huelva, Campus de El Carmen s/n, 21007 Huelva (Spain); Mas, J.L. [Dpto. Física Aplicada I. Escuela Politécnica Superior, University of Sevilla, C/Virgen de Africa 7, 41012 Sevilla (Spain); Vargas, A. [Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya, Instituto de Técnicas Energéticas, Campus Sud Edificio ETSEIB, Planta 0, Pabellón C, Av. Diagonal 647, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Bolívar, J.P. [Dpto. Física Aplicada, Facultad CC. Experimentales, University of Huelva, Campus de El Carmen s/n, 21007 Huelva (Spain)

    2014-09-15

    Highlights: • Variability of radon exhalation rates from PG piles has been studied using numerical simulation supported by experimental data. • Most relevant parameters controlling the exhalation rate are radon potential and moisture saturation. • Piling up the waste increasing the height instead of the surface allows the reduction of the exhalation rate. • A proposed cover here is expected to allow exhalation rates reductions up to 95%. - Abstract: Nearly 1.0 × 10{sup 8} tonnes of phosphogypsum were accumulated during last 50 years on a 1200 ha disposal site near Huelva town (SW of Spain). Previous measurements of exhalation rates offered very variable values, in such a way that a worst case scenario could not be established. Here, new experimental data coupled to numerical simulations show that increasing the moisture contents or the temperature reduces the exhalation rate whilst increasing the radon potential or porosity has the contrary effect. Once the relative effects are compared, it can be drawn that the most relevant parameters controlling the exhalation rate are radon potential (product of emanation factor by {sup 226}Ra concentration) and moisture saturation of PG. From wastes management point of view, it can be concluded that piling up the waste increasing the height instead of the surface allows the reduction of the exhalation rate. Furthermore, a proposed cover here is expected to allow exhalation rates reductions up to 95%. We established that the worst case scenario corresponds to a situation of extremely dry winter. Under these conditions, the radon exhalation rate (0.508 Bq m{sup −2} s{sup −1}) would be below though close to the upper limit established by U.S.E.P.A. for inactive phopsphogypsum piles (0.722 Bq m{sup −2} s{sup −1})

  5. Evaluation of forest structure, biomass and carbon sequestration in subtropical pristine forests of SW China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nizami, Syed Moazzam; Yiping, Zhang; Zheng, Zheng; Zhiyun, Lu; Guoping, Yang; Liqing, Sha

    2017-03-01

    Very old natural forests comprising the species of Fagaceae (Lithocarpus xylocarpus, Castanopsis wattii, Lithocarpus hancei) have been prevailing since years in the Ailaoshan Mountain Nature Reserve (AMNR) SW China. Within these forest trees, density is quite variable. We studied the forest structure, stand dynamics and carbon density at two different sites to know the main factors which drives carbon sequestration process in old forests by considering the following questions: How much is the carbon density in these forest trees of different DBH (diameter at breast height)? How much carbon potential possessed by dominant species of these forests? How vegetation carbon is distributed in these forests? Which species shows high carbon sequestration? What are the physiochemical properties of soil in these forests? Five-year (2005-2010) tree growth data from permanently established plots in the AMNR was analysed for species composition, density, stem diameter (DBH), height and carbon (C) density both in aboveground and belowground vegetation biomass. Our study indicated that among two comparative sites, overall 54 species of 16 different families were present. The stem density, height, C density and soil properties varied significantly with time among the sites showing uneven distribution across the forests. Among the dominant species, L. xylocarpus represents 30% of the total carbon on site 1 while C. wattii represents 50% of the total carbon on site 2. The average C density ranged from 176.35 to 243.97 t C ha -1 . The study emphasized that there is generous degree to expand the carbon stocking in this AMNR through scientific management gearing towards conservation of old trees and planting of potentially high carbon sequestering species on good site quality areas.

  6. Management Implications for the Most Attractive Scenic Sites along the Andalusia Coast (SW Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexis Mooser

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available A coastal scenery assessment was carried out at 50 sites along the 910 km long Andalusia coast (SW Spain using a checklist of 26 natural and human parameters, parameter weighting matrices, and fuzzy logic. A scenic classification was utilised that can rate sites as Class I (natural areas of great scenic beauty to Class V (urbanised areas of poor scenic interest, but, for this study, only natural sites of great scenic value were investigated; 41 sites were included in Class I, 9 in Class II and, apart from four, all of the sites were under some feature of protection—managed by the Andalusia Environmental Agency (RENPA, in Spanish. Sites belong to the Natural Park Cabo de Gata-Nijar (24% of sites, the Natural Park of Gibraltar Strait (18%, the Natural Place Acantilado de Maro-Cerro Gordo (12%, and the Natural and National parks of Doñana (8%. Results obtained by means of scenic evaluation constitute a sound scientific basis for any envisaged management plan for investigated coastal areas preservation/conservation and responsible future developments, especially for natural protected areas, which represent the most attractive coastal tourist destinations. With respect to natural parameters, excellent scenic values appeared to be linked to the geological setting and the presence of mountainous landscapes related to the Betic Chain. Human parameters usually show good scores because null or extremely reduced human impacts are recorded, but, at places, conflicts arose between conservation and recreational activities because visitors are often interested in beach activities more so than ecotourism. Low scores of human parameters were often related to litter presence or the unsuitable emplacement of utilities, such as informative panels, litter bins, etc.

  7. Sedimentological and Stratigraphic Controls on Natural Fracture Distribution in Wajid Group, SW Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benaafi, Mohammed; Hariri, Mustafa; Abdullatif, Osman; Makkawi, Mohammed; Korvin, Gabor

    2016-04-01

    The Cambro-Permian Wajid Group, SW Saudi Arabia, is the main groundwater aquifer in Wadi Al-Dawasir and Najran areas. In addition, it has a reservoir potentiality for oil and natural gas in Rub' Al-Khali Basin. Wajid Group divided into four formations, ascending Dibsiyah, Sanamah, Khussyayan and Juwayl. They are mainly sandstone and exposed in an area extend from Wadi Al-Dawasir southward to Najran city and deposited within fluvial, shallow marine and glacial environments. This study aims to investigate the sedimentological and stratigraphic controls on the distribution of natural fractures within Wajid Group outcrops. A scanline sampling method was used to study the natural fracture network within Wajid Group outcrops, where the natural fractures were measured and characterized in 12 locations. Four regional natural fracture sets were observed with mean strikes of 050o, 075o, 345o, and 320o. Seven lithofacies characterized the Wajid Group at these locations and include fine-grained sandstone, coarse to pebbly sandstone, cross-bedded sandstone, massive sandstone, bioturbated sandstone, conglomerate sandstone, and conglomerate lithofacies. We found that the fine-grained and small scale cross-bedded sandstones lithofacies are characterized by high fracture intensity. In contrast, the coarse-grained sandstone and conglomerate lithofacies have low fracture intensity. Therefore, the relative fracture intensity and spacing of natural fractures within Wajid Group in the subsurface can be predicted by using the lithofacies and their depositional environments. In terms of stratigraphy, we found that the bed thickness and the stratigraphic architecture are the main controls on fractures intensity. The outcomes of this study can help to understand and predict the natural fracture distribution within the subsurface fractured sandstone hosting groundwater and hydrocarbon in Wajid and Rub' Al-Khali Basins. Hence, the finding of this study might help to explore and develop the

  8. Diversity and aboveground biomass of lianas in the tropical seasonal rain forests of Xishuangbanna, SW China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lü, Xiao-Tao; Tang, Jian-Wei; Feng, Zhi-Li; Li, Mai-He

    2009-01-01

    Lianas are important components of tropical forests and have significant impacts on the diversity, structure and dynamics of tropical forests. The present study documented the liana flora in a Chinese tropical region. Species richness, abundance, size-class distribution and spatial patterns of lianas were investigated in three 1-ha plots in tropical seasonal rain forests in Xishuangbanna, SW China. All lianas with > or = 2 cm diameter at breast height (dbh) were measured, tagged and identified. A total of 458 liana stems belonging to 95 species (ranging from 38 to 50 species/ha), 59 genera and 32 families were recorded in the three plots. The most well-represented families were Loganiaceae, Annonceae, Papilionaceae, Apocynaceae and Rhamnaceae. Papilionaceae (14 species recorded) was the most important family in the study forests. The population density, basal area and importance value index (IVI) varied greatly across the three plots. Strychnos cathayensis, Byttneria grandifolia and Bousigonia mekongensis were the dominant species in terms of IVI across the three plots. The mean aboveground biomass of lianas (3 396 kg/ha) accounted for 1.4% of the total community above-ground biomass. The abundance, diversity and biomass of lianas in Xishuangbanna tropical seasonal rain forests are lower than those in tropical moist and wet forests, but higher than those in tropical dry forests. This study provides new data on lianas from a geographical region that has been little-studied. Our findings emphasize that other factors beyond the amount and seasonality of precipitation should be included when considering the liana abundance patterns across scales.

  9. The Manila clam population in Arcachon Bay (SW France): Can it be kept sustainable?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dang, Cécile; de Montaudouin, Xavier; Gam, Mériame; Paroissin, Christian; Bru, Noëlle; Caill-Milly, Nathalie

    2010-02-01

    The venerid clam Ruditapes philippinarum is the most prominent suspension-feeding bivalve inhabiting muddy intertidal seagrass beds in Arcachon Bay (SW France). It is exploited by fishermen, and Arcachon Bay ranks number one in France in terms of production and total biomass of this species. Previous studies revealed a decrease in the standing stock of R. philippinarum since 2003 and unbalanced length-frequency distributions with a lack of juveniles and of adults > 40 mm. Consequently, the population dynamics of this bivalve were studied at four intertidal sites and one oceanic site in Arcachon Bay. As clam size structure did not allow classical dynamics computations, field monitoring was coupled with field experiments (tagging-recapture) over two years. Monitoring of condition index and gonadal maturation stages highlighted a high variability in spawning number and intensity between sites. Recruitment events in the exploited area varied spatially but with uniformly low values. Von Bertalanffy Growth Function (VBGF) parameters ( K, L∞) were determined using Appeldoorn and ELEFAN methods. In the exploited sites in the inner lagoon, K was relatively high (mean = 0.72 yr - 1 ) but L∞ was low (mean = 41.1 mm) resulting in a moderate growth performance index (Φ' = 2.99). Growth parameters were not correlated with immersion time and L∞ was different between sites. Comparison of mortality coefficients ( Z) between cage experiments and field monitoring suggested that fishing accounts for 65-75% of total adult mortality. Low recruitment, a low growth rate and a normal mortality rate led to low somatic production (4.1 and 8.7 g Shell-Free Dry Weight (SFDW) m - 2 yr - 1 ) and an annual P/ B ratio from 0.44 to 0.92 yr - 1 . Under current conditions, the possibility of a sustainable population in Arcachon Bay will strongly depend on recruitment success and fishing management.

  10. Characterisation of the heterogeneity of karst using electrical geophysics - applications in SW China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binley, A. M.; Cheng, Q.; Tao, M.; Chen, X.

    2017-12-01

    The southwest China karst region is one of the largest globally continuous karst areas. The great (structural, hydrological and geochemical) complexity of karstic environments and their rapidly evolving nature make them extremely vulnerable to natural and anthropogenic processes/activities. Characterising the location and properties of structures within the karst critical zone, and understanding how the landform is evolving is essential for the mitigation and adaption to locally- and globally-driven changes. Because of the specific nature of karst geology and geomorphology in the humid tropics and subtropics, spatial heterogeneity is high, evidenced by specific landforms features. Such heterogeneity leads to a high dynamic variability of hydrological processes in space and time, along with a complex exchange of surface water and groundwater. Investigating karst hydrogeological features is extremely challenging because of the three-dimensional nature of the system. Observations from boreholes can vary significantly over several metres, making conventional aquifer investigative methods limited. Geophysical methods have emerged as potentially powerful tools for hydrogeological investigations. Geophysical surveys can help to obtain more insight into the complex conduit networks and depth of weathering, both of which can provide quantitative information about the hydrological and hydrochemical dynamics of the system, in addition to providing a better understanding of how critical zone structures have been established and how the landscape is evolving. We present here results from recent geophysical field campaigns in SW China. We illustrate the effectiveness of electrical methods for mapping soil infil in epikarst and report results from field-based investigations along hillslope and valley transects. Our results reveal distinct zones of relatively high electrical conductivity to depths of tens of metres, which we attribute to localised increased fracture density. We

  11. SPATIAL VARIATIONS OF PAH PROPERTIES IN M17SW REVEALED BY SPITZER /IRS SPECTRAL MAPPING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamagishi, M. [Institute of Space and Astronautical Science, Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency, Chuo-ku, Sagamihara 252-5210 (Japan); Kaneda, H.; Ishihara, D.; Oyabu, S.; Suzuki, T.; Nishimura, A.; Kohno, M. [Graduate School of Science, Nagoya University, Furo-cho, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya 464-8602 (Japan); Onaka, T.; Ohashi, S. [Graduate School of Science, The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Nagayama, T.; Matsuo, M. [Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Kagoshima University, 1-21-35 Korimoto, Kagoshima 890-0065 (Japan); Umemoto, T.; Minamidani, T.; Fujita, S. [Nobeyama Radio Observatory, National Astronomical Observatory of Japan (NAOJ), National Institutes of Natural Sciences (NINS), 462-2, Nobeyama, Minamimaki, Minamisaku, Nagano 384-1305 (Japan); Tsuda, Y., E-mail: yamagish@ir.isas.jaxa.jp [Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Meisei University, 2-1-1 Hodokubo, Hino, Tokyo 191-0042 (Japan)

    2016-12-20

    We present Spitzer /IRS mid-infrared spectral maps of the Galactic star-forming region M17 as well as IRSF/SIRIUS Br γ and Nobeyama 45 m/FOREST {sup 13}CO ( J = 1–0) maps. The spectra show prominent features due to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) at wavelengths of 6.2, 7.7, 8.6, 11.3, 12.0, 12.7, 13.5, and 14.2  μ m. We find that the PAH emission features are bright in the region between the H ii region traced by Br γ and the molecular cloud traced by {sup 13}CO, supporting that the PAH emission originates mostly from photo-dissociation regions. Based on the spatially resolved Spitzer /IRS maps, we examine spatial variations of the PAH properties in detail. As a result, we find that the interband ratio of PAH 7.7  μ m/PAH 11.3  μ m varies locally near M17SW, but rather independently of the distance from the OB stars in M17, suggesting that the degree of PAH ionization is mainly controlled by local conditions rather than the global UV environments determined by the OB stars in M17. We also find that the interband ratios of the PAH 12.0  μ m, 12.7  μ m, 13.5  μ m, and 14.2  μ m features to the PAH 11.3  μ m feature are high near the M17 center, which suggests structural changes of PAHs through processing due to intense UV radiation, producing abundant edgy irregular PAHs near the M17 center.

  12. A Novel Halotolerant Thermoalkaliphilic Esterase from Marine Bacterium Erythrobacter seohaensis SW-135

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying-Yi Huo

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available A novel esterase gene, e69, was cloned from Erythrobacter seohaensis SW-135, which was isolated from a tidal flat sediment of the Yellow Sea in Korea. This gene is 825 bp in length and codes for a 29.54 kDa protein containing 274 amino acids. Phylogenetic analysis showed that E69 is a new member of the bacterial lipolytic enzyme family IV. This enzyme exhibited the highest level of activity toward p-nitrophenyl (NP butyrate but little or no activity toward the other p-NP esters tested. The optimum temperature and pH of the catalytic activity of E69 were 60°C and pH 10.5, respectively. The enzyme exhibited stable activity over a wide range of alkaline pH values (7.5–9.5. In addition, E69 was found to be a halotolerant esterase as it exhibited the highest hydrolytic activity in the presence of 0.5 M NaCl and was still active in the presence of 3 M NaCl. Moreover, it possessed some degree of tolerance to Triton X-100 and several organic solvents. Through homology modeling and comparison with other esterases, it was suggested that the absence of the cap domain and its narrow substrate-binding pocket might be responsible for its narrow substrate specificity. Sequence and structural analysis results suggested that its high ratio of negatively to positively charged residues, large hydrophobic surface area, and negative electrostatic potential on the surface may be responsible for its alkaline adaptation. The results of this study provide insight into marine alkaliphilic esterases, and the unique properties of E69 make it a promising candidate as a biocatalyst for industrial applications.

  13. Report for Treating Hanford LAW and WTP SW Simulants: Pilot Plant Mineralizing Flowsheet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arlin Olson

    2012-02-28

    The US Department of Energy is responsible for managing the disposal of radioactive liquid waste in underground storage tanks at the Hanford site in Washington State. The Hanford waste treatment and immobilization plant (WPT) will separate the waste into a small volume of high level waste (HLW), containing most of the radioactive constituents, and a larger volume of low activity waste (LAW), containing most of the non-radioactive chemical and hazardous constituents. The HLW and LAW will be converted into immobilized waste forms for disposal. Currently there is inadequate LAW vitrification capacity planned at the WTP to complete the mission within the required timeframe. Therefore additional LAW capacity is required. One candidate supplemental treatment technology is the fluidized bed steam reformer process (FBSR). This report describes the demonstration testing of the FBSR process using a mineralizing flowsheet for treating simulated Hanford LAW and secondary waste from the WTP (WTP SW). The FBSR testing project produced leach-resistant solid products and environmentally compliant gaseous effluents. The solid products incorporated normally soluble ions into an alkali alumino-silicate (NaS) mineral matrix. Gaseous emissions were found to be within regulatory limits. Cesium and rhenium were captured in the mineralized products with system removal efficiencies of 99.999% and 99.998 respectively. The durability and leach performance of the FBSR granular solid were superior to the low activity reference material (LMR) glass standards. Normalized product consistency test (PCT) release rates for constituents of concern were approximately 2 orders of magnitude less than that of sodium in the Hanford glass [standard].

  14. Hydrothermal alteration of plagioclase and growth of secondary feldspar in the Hengill Volcanic Centre, SW Iceland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsson, D.; Grönvold, K.; Oskarsson, N.; Gunnlaugsson, E.

    2002-05-01

    Dissolution of igneous feldspar and the formation and occurrence of secondary feldspar in tholeiitic basalts from the Hengill volcanic centre, in SW Iceland was studied by microprobe analysis of cuttings from two ca. 2000 m deep geothermal wells. Well NG-7 in Nesjavellir represents a geothermal system in a rift zone where the intensity of young, insignificantly altered intrusions increases with depth. Well KhG-1 in Kolviðarhóll represents the margin of a rift zone where the intensity of intrusives is lower and the intensity of alteration higher. This marginal well represents altered basaltic crust in an early retrograde state. The secondary plagioclase in both wells is mainly oligoclase, occurring in association with K-feldspar and chlorite±actinolite. The texture of this assemblage depends on the lithology and intensity of alteration. In Nesjavellir (NG-7) the composition of secondary albite-oligoclase is correlated with the host-rock composition. This connection is not apparent in more intensely altered samples from Kolviðarhóll (KhG-1). The influence of temperature on composition of secondary Na-feldspar is unclear in both wells although Ca is expected to increase with temperature. Any temperature dependence may be suppressed by the influence of rock composition in Nesjavellir and by retrograde conditions at Kolviðarhóll. The absence of clear compositional gradients between igneous plagioclase and secondary feldspar and between Na-feldspar and K-feldspar suggests that secondary feldspars formed by dissolution precipitation reactions.

  15. The significance of GW-SW interactions for biogeochemical processes in sandy streambeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnon, Shai; De Falco, Natalie; Fox, Aryeh; Laube, Gerrit; Schmidt, Christian; Fleckenstein, Jan; Boano, Fulvio

    2015-04-01

    Stream-groundwater interactions have a major impact on hyporheic exchange fluxes in sandy streambeds. However, the physical complexity of natural streams has limited our ability to study these types of interactions systematically, and to evaluate their importance to biogeochemical processes and nutrient cycling. In this work we were able to quantify the effect of losing and gaining fluxes on hyporheic exchange and nutrient cycling in homogeneous and heterogeneous streambeds by combining experiments in laboratory flumes and modeling. Tracer experiments for measuring hyporheic exchange were done using dyes and NaCl under various combinations of overlying water velocity and losing or gaining fluxes. Nutrient cycling experiments were conducted after growing a benthic biofilm by spiking with Sodium Benzoate (as a source of labile dissolved organic carbon, DOC) and measuring DOC and oxygen dynamics. The combination of experimental observations and modeling revealed that interfacial transport increases with the streambed hydraulic conductivity and proportional to the square of the overlying water velocity. Hyporheic exchange fluxes under losing and gaining flow conditions were similar, and became smaller when the losing or gaining flux increases. Increasing in streambed hydraulic conductivity led to higher hyporheic fluxes and reduction in the effects of losing and gaining flow conditions to constrain exchange. Despite the evident effect of flow conditions on hyporheic exchange, labile DOC uptake was positively linked to increasing overlying water velocity but was not affected by losing and gaining fluxes. This is because microbial aerobic activity was taking place at the upper few millimeters of the streambed as shown by local oxygen consumption rates, which was measured using microelectrodes. Based on modeling work, it is expected that GW-SW interaction will be more significant for less labile DOC and anaerobic processes. Our results enable us to study systematically

  16. Soil respiration in tropical seasonal rain forest in Xishuangbanna, SW China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHA; Liqing; ZHENG; Zheng; TANG; Jianwei; WANG; Yinghong

    2005-01-01

    With the static opaque chamber and gas chromatography technique, from January 2003 to January 2004 soil respiration was investigated in a tropical seasonal rain forest in Xishuangbanna, SW China. In this study three treatments were applied, each with three replicates: A (bare soil), B (soil+litter), and C (soil+litter+seedling). The results showed that soil respiration varied seasonally, low from December 2003 to February 2004, and high from June to July 2004. The annual average values of CO2 efflux from soil respiration differed among the treatments at 1% level, with the rank of C (14642 mgCO2· m-2. h-1)>B (12807 mgCO2· m-2. h-1)>A (9532 mgCO2· m-2. h-1). Diurnal variation in soil respiration was not apparent due to little diurnal temperate change in Xishuangbanna. There was a parabola relationship between soil respiration and soil moisture at 1% level. Soil respiration rates were higher when soil moisture ranged from 35% to 45%. There was an exponential relationship between soil respiration and soil temperature (at a depth of 5cm in mineral soil) at 1% level. The calculated Q1o values in this study,ranging from 2.03 to 2.36, were very near to those of tropical soil reported. The CO2 efflux in 2003was 5.34 kgCO2· m-2. a-1 from soil plus litter plus seedling, of them 3.48 kgCO2· m-2. a-1 from soil (accounting for 62.5%), 1.19 kgCO2· m-2. a-1 from litter (22.3%) and 0.67 kgCO2·m-2. a-1 from seedling (12.5%).

  17. Environmental drivers of phototrophic biofilms in an Alpine show cave (SW-Italian Alps)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piano, E., E-mail: elena.piano@unito.it [Department of Life Sciences and Systems Biology, University of Turin, Via Accademia Albertina 13, 10123 Turin (Italy); Bona, F.; Falasco, E. [Department of Life Sciences and Systems Biology, University of Turin, Via Accademia Albertina 13, 10123 Turin (Italy); La Morgia, V. [ISPRA, via Ca' Fornacetta, 9, 40064 Ozzano dell' Emilia (Italy); Badino, G. [Department of Physics, University of Turin, Via P. Giuria 1, 10125 Turin (Italy); Isaia, M. [Department of Life Sciences and Systems Biology, University of Turin, Via Accademia Albertina 13, 10123 Turin (Italy)

    2015-12-01

    The proliferation of lampenflora is a major threat for the conservation of show caves, since phototrophic organisms cause physical, chemical and aesthetic damage to speleothems. In this paper we examine the environmental factors influencing the presence and the growth of the three main photosynthetic groups composing phototrophic biofilms in the Bossea show cave (SW-Italian Alps). The presence and the primary production of cyanobacteria, diatoms and green algae were detected with BenthoTorch®, an instrument for in situ measurement of chlorophyll a concentration that has never been used before in caves. By means of different techniques of regression analysis, we highlighted the response of the three photosynthetic groups to different environmental factors. Illuminance proved to be the main factor influencing positively both the probability of the presence and the productivity of the three groups. The presence of seeping water on the substrate and the distance from the cave entrance proved to play an important role in determining patterns of colonization. By means of GIS techniques, we provide thematic maps of the cave, providing a representation of pattern of the density of the three examined photosynthetic groups within different areas of the cave. The same approach may apply to other show caves, aiming at providing suggestions for the cave management (i.e. cleaning of the cave walls and positioning of artificial lights) and reduce impact caused by tourism. - Highlights: • We used a PAM fluorimeter on autotrophic biofilms in a show cave for the first time. • We modelled the environmental factors influencing phototrophic biofilms. • Illuminance, moisture and distance from the entrance proved to be significant. • We produced thematic maps illustrating our results. • We provide suggestions for cave management.

  18. Environmental isotope application to investigate the hydrogeological aquifers of Yarmouk basin SW of Syria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Charideh, A.

    2002-01-01

    Environmental isotopic variations have been used to investigate the source of recharge and age in the basaltic and deep limestone aquifers system in the Yarmouk basin, SW of Syria. Isotopic results show that recharge of basaltic aquifer is directly related to infiltration of rainwater from high and transitional zones. However, the homogeneity noted of stable and radioactive isotopes values (δ 18 O= -5.58± 0.25%, 14 C=46.2± 4.45 % pmc) in Laja plateau and central zone, confirm the mechanism of common recharge and critical role of this plateau in absorbing great amount of precipitation. In addition these values indicate, to a high rate mixing taking place in this plateau and the central zone. In the Kahiel area, the groundwater is of recent age as shown from the high values of 14 C activity ( 14 C= 66.3 ± 5.3 % pcm) accompanied by enriched 18 O (δ 18 O=-4.7±0.22 %). The recharge of groundwater is related to the leakage of water from dams and drainage network. The tectonic setting in this area constitutes an additional factor in increasing this recharge. Netpath model was used to determine the age of groundwater. the age of groundwater in the basaltic aquifer is generally modern and reaches 2000 y BP in discharge area. Preliminary conclusion of deep limestone aquifer, indicate that its groundwater occur under high piezometric pressure. The salinity is less than 1g/L and the temperature water varied between 35 to 45 degreed centigrade. The low 14 C activities in deep groundwater suggest pleistocene and holocene recharge, although their stable isotopes values indicate recharge by modern meteoric precipitation. The corrected age of this groundwater determined by Netpath model indicate that this age fall between recent water in recharge area and 20 Ky BP. (author)

  19. A palynostratigraphic approach to the SW Anatolian molasse basin: Kale-Tavas molasse and Denizli molasse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akgün, Funda; Sözbilir, Hasan

    The study, explains stratigraphy of the Oligo-Miocene molasse around the Denizli province (SW Anatolia), based on the palynology which is also supported by the detailed mapping and correlation of the measured sections from the coal-bearing sequences of the molasse deposits. For this purpose, two huge depressions named as the Kale-Tavas molasse and Denizli molasse basins were examined. The Kale-Tavas molasse deposits has a basal unconformity with the underlying pre-Oligocene basement and begins with the Chattian Karadere and Mortuma formations which are covered unconformably by the Aquitanian Yenidere formation. An angular unconformity between the Chattian and the Burdigalian is only observed in the middle part of the basin, around Kale. In the Tavas section, the Aquitanian and the Burdigalian are absent. The Denizli molasse is characterized by Chattian-Aquitanian sequence consisting of distinctive sedimentary facies, alluvial fan and deltaic-shallow marine deposits with carbonate patch reefs. Palynostratigraphic studies, which have given the Chattian age, have been carried out from the coal lenses of alluvial fan and delta plain deposits. In addition to the palynological determinations, coral and foraminiferal content of the carbonate patch reefs which rest conformably on the coal-bearing sequences have yielded the Chattian-Aquitanian age. Two different palynomorph associations have been determined from the molasse deposits. The first palynomorph association which is established in the samples from the Sağdere and Mortuma formations, corresponds to the Chattian age, whilst the second is of the Aquitanian age. The Late Oligocene-Early Miocene which is claimed as the time of N-S-extensional tectonics in western Turkey, is related to the depositional time of the molasse sequences in the study area. Thus, the molasse is older than the basal deposits of the Gediz and Büyük Menderes grabens.

  20. Modeling Oligo-Miocence channel sands (Dezful Embayment, SW Iran): an integrated facies classification workflow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heydari, Mostafa; Maddahi, Iradj; Moradpour, Mehran; Esmaeilpour, Sajjad

    2014-01-01

    This study has been conducted on Mansuri onshore oilfield located in Dezful Embayment, south-west Iran. One of the hydrocarbon-bearing formations is a Oligo-Miocene Asmari formation—the most prolific Iranian reservoir rock. Like many other oilfields in the area, the trap in this field is deemed structural (anticline), formed during the collision of the Arabian plate with the Iranian plate and the folding of Neotethys deposits with a NW–SE trend. This study integrates three different quantitative studies from geology, geophysics and petrophysics disciplines to quantitate ‘the qualitative study of seismic facies analysis based on trace shapes and 3D multi-attribute clustering’. First, stratigraphic sequences and seismic detectable facies were derived at one well location using the available high resolution core facies analysis and depositional environment assessment reports. Paleo and petrophysical logs from other wells were subsequently used for the extrapolation of stratigraphic sequences interpreted at the first well. Utilizing lithology discrimination obtained by wire-line log interpretation, facies were extrapolated to all wells in the area. Seismic 3D attribute analysis and seismic facies classification established a 3D facies volume accordingly, which was finally calibrated to geological facies at well locations. The ultimate extracted facies-guided geobody shows that good reservoir-quality channel sands have accumulated with NW/SE elongation at the ridge of the structure. As a result, this type of geometry has created a stratigraphic/structural hydrocarbon trap in this oilfield. Moreover, seismic facies analysis shows that buried channels do not parallel the predominant Arabian plate-originated channels (with SW–NE trends) in SW Zagros and are locally swerved in this area. (paper)

  1. The Lake Charles CCS Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doug Cathro

    2010-06-30

    The Lake Charles CCS Project is a large-scale industrial carbon capture and sequestration (CCS) project which will demonstrate advanced technologies that capture and sequester carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) emissions from industrial sources into underground formations. Specifically the Lake Charles CCS Project will accelerate commercialization of large-scale CO{sub 2} storage from industrial sources by leveraging synergy between a proposed petroleum coke to chemicals plant (the LCC Gasification Project) and the largest integrated anthropogenic CO{sub 2} capture, transport, and monitored sequestration program in the U.S. Gulf Coast Region. The Lake Charles CCS Project will promote the expansion of EOR in Texas and Louisiana and supply greater energy security by expanding domestic energy supplies. The capture, compression, pipeline, injection, and monitoring infrastructure will continue to sequester CO{sub 2} for many years after the completion of the term of the DOE agreement. The objectives of this project are expected to be fulfilled by working through two distinct phases. The overall objective of Phase 1 was to develop a fully definitive project basis for a competitive Renewal Application process to proceed into Phase 2 - Design, Construction and Operations. Phase 1 includes the studies attached hereto that will establish: the engineering design basis for the capture, compression and transportation of CO{sub 2} from the LCC Gasification Project, and the criteria and specifications for a monitoring, verification and accounting (MVA) plan at the Hastings oil field in Texas. The overall objective of Phase 2, provided a successful competitive down-selection, is to execute design, construction and operations of three capital projects: (1) the CO{sub 2} capture and compression equipment, (2) a Connector Pipeline from the LLC Gasification Project to the Green Pipeline owned by Denbury and an affiliate of Denbury, and (3) a comprehensive MVA system at the Hastings oil field.

  2. Geological setting of the Olkiluoto investigation site, Eurajoki, SW Finland. Excursion guidebook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paulamaeki, S.

    2009-08-01

    -1250 million years in age. Their geochemical features suggest that they are feeder channels to continental flood basalts, which have not, however, been preserved in the Satakunta area. Lake Saeaeksjaervi, northeast of the Satakunta sandstone, hosts approximately 4.5 km wide impact structure of early Cambrian age (ca. 560 Ma). Below water level it contains unexposed suevite breccia and impact melt breccia. Day 1 of the field excursion introduces the Palaeoproterozoic geology of the Olkiluoto site, with special emphasis to the structural geology. Day 2 presents the Mesoproterozoic history of southern Satakunta area, including the Laitila and Eurajoki rapakivi granites, the Satakunta sandstone and the olivine diabases. The excursion ends to the Lake Saeaeksjaervi, where boulders of impact rocks can be found on the northern shore of the lake. (orig.)

  3. Current and temperature structure of Rihand Lake

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Suryanarayana, A.; Swamy, G.N.; Sadhuram, Y.

    The environmental parameters such as wind, water and air temperatures, and currents were measured in Rihand Lake, Madhya Pradesh, India during the hotest months, May-June of 1983. Rihand is an artificial lake having an area of 300 km super(2...

  4. Preparation of aluminium lakes by electrocoagulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prapai Pradabkham

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Aluminium lakes have been prepared by electrocoagulation employing aluminium as electrodes. The electrocoagulation is conducted in an aqueous alcoholic solution and is completed within one hour. The dye content in the lake ranges approximately between 4-32%.

  5. Lake-tilting investigations in southern Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paasse, T.

    1996-04-01

    The main aim of lake-tilting investigations is to determine the course of the glacio-isostatic uplift, i.e. to find a formula for the uplift. Besides the lake-tilting graphs, knowledge of the recent relative uplift and the gradient of some marine shorelines are used for solving this problem. This paper summarizes four investigations. 23 refs, 10 figs

  6. Lake Chapala change detection using time series

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Caloca, Alejandra; Tapia-Silva, Felipe-Omar; Escalante-Ramírez, Boris

    2008-10-01

    The Lake Chapala is the largest natural lake in Mexico. It presents a hydrological imbalance problem caused by diminishing intakes from the Lerma River, pollution from said volumes, native vegetation and solid waste. This article presents a study that allows us to determine with high precision the extent of the affectation in both extension and volume reduction of the Lake Chapala in the period going from 1990 to 2007. Through satellite images this above-mentioned period was monitored. Image segmentation was achieved through a Markov Random Field model, extending the application towards edge detection. This allows adequately defining the lake's limits as well as determining new zones within the lake, both changes pertaining the Lake Chapala. Detected changes are related to a hydrological balance study based on measuring variables such as storage volumes, evapotranspiration and water balance. Results show that the changes in the Lake Chapala establish frail conditions which pose a future risk situation. Rehabilitation of the lake requires a hydrologic balance in its banks and aquifers.

  7. Cryptanalysis of the LAKE Hash Family

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biryukov, Alex; Gauravaram, Praveen; Guo, Jian

    2009-01-01

    We analyse the security of the cryptographic hash function LAKE-256 proposed at FSE 2008 by Aumasson, Meier and Phan. By exploiting non-injectivity of some of the building primitives of LAKE, we show three different collision and near-collision attacks on the compression function. The first attac...

  8. Combining lake and watershed characteristics with Landsat TM data for remote estimation of regional lake clarity

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCullough, Ian M.; Loftin, Cyndy; Sader, Steven A.

    2012-01-01

    Water clarity is a reliable indicator of lake productivity and an ideal metric of regional water quality. Clarity is an indicator of other water quality variables including chlorophyll-a, total phosphorus and trophic status; however, unlike these metrics, clarity can be accurately and efficiently estimated remotely on a regional scale. Remote sensing is useful in regions containing a large number of lakes that are cost prohibitive to monitor regularly using traditional field methods. Field-assessed lakes generally are easily accessible and may represent a spatially irregular, non-random sample of a region. We developed a remote monitoring program for Maine lakes >8 ha (1511 lakes) to supplement existing field monitoring programs. We combined Landsat 5 Thematic Mapper (TM) and Landsat 7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+) brightness values for TM bands 1 (blue) and 3 (red) to estimate water clarity (secchi disk depth) during 1990–2010. Although similar procedures have been applied to Minnesota and Wisconsin lakes, neither state incorporates physical lake variables or watershed characteristics that potentially affect clarity into their models. Average lake depth consistently improved model fitness, and the proportion of wetland area in lake watersheds also explained variability in clarity in some cases. Nine regression models predicted water clarity (R2 = 0.69–0.90) during 1990–2010, with separate models for eastern (TM path 11; four models) and western Maine (TM path 12; five models that captured differences in topography and landscape disturbance. Average absolute difference between model-estimated and observed secchi depth ranged 0.65–1.03 m. Eutrophic and mesotrophic lakes consistently were estimated more accurately than oligotrophic lakes. Our results show that TM bands 1 and 3 can be used to estimate regional lake water clarity outside the Great Lakes Region and that the accuracy of estimates is improved with additional model variables that reflect

  9. TGF-β1 increases invasiveness of SW1990 cells through Rac1/ROS/NF-κB/IL-6/MMP-2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Binker, Marcelo G.; Binker-Cosen, Andres A.; Gaisano, Herbert Y.; Cosen, Rodica H. de; Cosen-Binker, Laura I.

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → Rac1 mediates TGF-β1-induced SW1990 invasion through MMP-2 secretion and activation. → NADPH-generated ROS act downstream of Rac1 in TGF-β1-challenged SW1990 cells. → TGF-β1-stimulated ROS activate NF-κB in SW1990 cells. → NFκB-induced IL-6 release is required for secretion and activation of MMP-2 in SW1990 cells. -- Abstract: Human pancreatic cancer invasion and metastasis have been found to correlate with increased levels of active matrix metalloproteinase 2 (MMP-2). The multifunctional cytokine transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF-β1) has been shown to increase both secretion of MMP-2 and invasion by several pancreatic cancer cell types. In the present study, we investigated the signaling pathway involved in TGF-β1-promoted MMP-2 secretion and invasion by human pancreatic cancer cells SW1990. Using specific inhibitors, we found that stimulation of these tumor cells with TGF-β1 induced secretion and activation of the collagenase MMP-2, which was required for TGF-β1-stimulated invasion. Our results also indicate that signaling events involved in TGF-β1-enhanced SW1990 invasiveness comprehend activation of Rac1 followed by generation of reactive oxygen species through nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate-oxidase, activation of nuclear factor-kappa beta, release of interleukin-6, and secretion and activation of MMP-2.

  10. TGF-{beta}1 increases invasiveness of SW1990 cells through Rac1/ROS/NF-{kappa}B/IL-6/MMP-2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Binker, Marcelo G. [Departments of Medicine and Physiology, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada M5S 1A8 (Canada); CBRHC Research Center, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Binker-Cosen, Andres A. [CBRHC Research Center, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Gaisano, Herbert Y. [Departments of Medicine and Physiology, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada M5S 1A8 (Canada); Cosen, Rodica H. de [CBRHC Research Center, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Cosen-Binker, Laura I., E-mail: laura.cosen.binker@utoronto.ca [Departments of Medicine and Physiology, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada M5S 1A8 (Canada); CBRHC Research Center, Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2011-02-04

    Research highlights: {yields} Rac1 mediates TGF-{beta}1-induced SW1990 invasion through MMP-2 secretion and activation. {yields} NADPH-generated ROS act downstream of Rac1 in TGF-{beta}1-challenged SW1990 cells. {yields} TGF-{beta}1-stimulated ROS activate NF-{kappa}B in SW1990 cells. {yields} NF{kappa}B-induced IL-6 release is required for secretion and activation of MMP-2 in SW1990 cells. -- Abstract: Human pancreatic cancer invasion and metastasis have been found to correlate with increased levels of active matrix metalloproteinase 2 (MMP-2). The multifunctional cytokine transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF-{beta}1) has been shown to increase both secretion of MMP-2 and invasion by several pancreatic cancer cell types. In the present study, we investigated the signaling pathway involved in TGF-{beta}1-promoted MMP-2 secretion and invasion by human pancreatic cancer cells SW1990. Using specific inhibitors, we found that stimulation of these tumor cells with TGF-{beta}1 induced secretion and activation of the collagenase MMP-2, which was required for TGF-{beta}1-stimulated invasion. Our results also indicate that signaling events involved in TGF-{beta}1-enhanced SW1990 invasiveness comprehend activation of Rac1 followed by generation of reactive oxygen species through nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate-oxidase, activation of nuclear factor-kappa beta, release of interleukin-6, and secretion and activation of MMP-2.

  11. Stennis visits Lake Cormorant school

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Alexis Harry, assistant director of Astro Camp at NASA's John C. Stennis Space Center, talks with students at Lake Cormorant (Miss.) Elementary School during a 'Living and Working in Space' presentation March 30. Stennis hosted the school presentation during a visit to the Oxford area. Harry, who also is a high school biology teacher in Slidell, La., spent time discussing space travel with students and answering questions they had about the experience, including queries about how astronauts eat, sleep and drink in space. The presentation was sponsored by the NASA Office of External Affairs and Education at Stennis. For more information about NASA education initiatives, visit: http://education.ssc.nasa.gov/.

  12. Pleistocene lake level changes in Western Mongolia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borodavko, P. S.

    2009-04-01

    Global cooling in the Early Pleistocene caused extensive continental glaciation in the northern hemisphere including the arid areas of Central Asia. The reduction of temperatures (particularly summer temperatures) reduced evaporation and strengthened the importance of precipitation. The simultaneity of "lakes periods" (pluvials) and stages of glaciation is established experience confirmed by investigations in the west of North America and Russia. In the Mongolian Great Lakes Depression new evidence for similar conditions is found. The Great Lakes Depression is one of the largest in Central Asia, and is divided into 2 main Lakes basins: Hyargas Lake Basin and Uvs Lake Basin. The basin is 600-650 km in length with a width of 200-250 km in the north and 60-100 km in the south. Total catchment area is about 186600 km2. The elevation of the basin floor is from 1700 m a.s.l. to 760 m a.s.l., decreasing to the north and south-east. The depression extends south-north and is bounded by mountains: Tannu-Ola to the north, Hangai to the east; Gobi Altai to the south and Mongolian Altay to the west. The maximum elevation of the mountains is 4000 m a.s.l. There are some mountains with an elevation between 2000 and 3000 m a.s.l in the lake catchment. These mountains are not glaciated today. The geological record [1] suggests the Great Lakes Depression already existed in the Mesozoic, but assumed its modern form only during the Pliocene-Quaternary when tectonic movements caused the uplift of the surrounding mountains. A phase of tectonic stability occurred during the Late Quaternary. The depression is filled by Quaternary fluvial, aeolian and lacustrine deposits (e.g. sand, pebbles). The Neogene deposits are represented by coloured clay, marl, sand and sandstone [1]. Hyargas Lake is the end base level of erosion of the lake group consisting of the Hara-Us Nur, Dorgon, Hara Nur and Airag lakes. Hyargas is one of the largest lakes in Mongolia, with a water surface of 1,407 km2. The

  13. Investigation of landscape and lake acidification relationships

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rush, R.M.; Honea, R.B.; Krug, E.C.; Peplies, R.W.; Dobson, J.E.; Baxter, F.P.

    1985-10-01

    This interim report presents the rationale and initial results for a program designed to gather and analyze information essential to a better understanding of lake acidification in the northeastern United States. The literature pertinent to a study of landscape and lake acidification relationships is reviewed and presented as the rationale for a landscape/lake acidification study. The results of a study of Emmons Pond in northwestern Connecticut are described and lead to the conclusion that a landscape change was a contributor to the acidification of this pond. A regional study of sixteen lakes in southern New England using Landsat imagery is described, and preliminary observations from a similar study in the Adirondack Mountains are given. These results indicate that satellite imagery can be useful in identifying types of ground cover important to landscape/lake acidification relationships.

  14. Residues of Organochlorine Pesticides in Lake Mariut

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saad, M.A.H.; Abu-Elamayem, M.M.; El-Sebae, A.B.; Sharaf, I.P.

    1981-01-01

    Lake Mariut, a brackish water lake adjoining the Mediterranean Coast of Egypt, has suffered much from intensive pollution in recent years due to the successive increase of human population and industry around it (Saad, 1980). The occurrence and distribution of organochlorine pesticides in the water of Lake Mariut during a period of one year were studied. This study represents an essential part of a pilot project on pollution of Lake Mariut supported by IAEA. The major organochlorine pesticides detected in the water of Lake Mariut were Lindane, p, p'-DDE, o,p'-DDT and p, p'-DDT. The mean concentrations of these pesticides were 2.091, 4.493, 0.009 and 0.134 ppb, respectively. The mean concentration of the calculated total DDT (Σ DDT) was 5.1 PPb

  15. Comparative limnology of strip-mine lakes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parsons, J D

    1964-01-01

    Lakes were classified according to chemical properties. The concentration of the ferric iron oxides was responsible for a reddish-black turbidity which, in turn, played a major role in the thermal stratification of red strip-mine lakes. Owing to the lack of measurable turbidity and as a result of selective absorption of visible solar radiation, other strip-mine lakes appeared blue in color. The annual heat budget and the summer heat budget are essentially equivalent under saline conditions. Regardless of the physical and chemical conditions of the strip-mine lakes, heat income was a function of the circulating water mass. The progressive oxidation and precipitation of the iron oxides is the key to the classification of strip-mine lakes.

  16. Reconstruction of early Holocene paleoclimate and environment in the SW Kola region, Russian Arctic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grekov, Ivan; Kolka, Vasiliy; Syrykh, Liudmila; Nazarova, Larisa

    2016-04-01

    In the current period of the global climate change it becomes necessary to have a clear understanding of not only the changes taking place in the components of the natural environment, but also to understand development of all interactions between those components. Quaternary terrigenic sediments and lakes of the Kola Peninsula store information about the development of the region in the Late Glacial and Holocene: movements of the glacier, neotectonic activity, post-glacial rebound, formation and development of natural environments after deglaciation. Multi-proxy study of landscapes evolution of the Kola Peninsula in the Late Quaternary will help to establish a detailed reconstruction of climatic and environmental changes of this poor studied sector of the Arctic. Quaternary history on the Kola Peninsula is represented mainly by Late Pleistocene and Holocene sediments covering the Baltic Shield (Lavrova, 1960; Evzerov, 2015). Several palaeolimnological investigations in the Baltic Shield area have been performed earlier (Donner et al., 1977; Anundsen, 1985; Berglund, 2004). Studies of the southern coast of the Kola Peninsula have shown that marine transgression took place in the Late Pleistocene that was then replaced by a regression with variable speed. The slowdown of the uplift of the area took place between 8800 - 6800 BP (cal. years) and corresponded to the time of the Tapes transgression of the Arctic Ocean (Evzerov et al. 2010; Kolka, et al., 2013). Palaeoclimatic studies based on micro-paleontological analyzes indicate uneven development of the Kola Peninsula landscapes in the Late Glacial and Early Holocene. The northern coast of the Peninsula became free of ice first. In this area tundra-steppe vegetation was established for a short time and was later replaced by tundra (Snyder et al, 2000). Southern part of the Kola Peninsula was dependent on the conditions of deglaciation of the White Sea basin and cleared of ice much later (Evzerov et al., 2010; Kolka

  17. International Planning for Subglacial Lake Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennicutt, M.; Priscu, J.

    2003-04-01

    As one of the last unexplored frontiers on our planet, subglacial lakes offer a unique and exciting venue for exploration and research. Over the past several years, subglacial lakes have captured the imagination of the scientific community and public, evoking images of potential exotic life forms surviving under some of the most extreme conditions on earth. Various planning activities have recognized that due to the remote and harsh conditions, that a successful subglacial lake exploration program will entail a concerted effort for a number of years. It will also require an international commitment of major financial and human resources. To begin a detailed planning process, the Scientific Committee on Antarctic Research (SCAR) convened the Subglacial Antarctic Lake Exploration Group of Specialists (SALEGOS) in Tokyo in 2000. The group was asked to build on previous workshops and meetings to develop a plan to explore subglacial lake environments. Its mandate adopted the guiding principles as agreed in Cambridge in 1999 that the program would be interdisciplinary in scope, be designed for minimum contamination and disturbance of the subglacial lake environment, have as a goal lake entry and sample retrieval, and that the ultimate target of the program should be Lake Vostok exploration. Since its formation SALEGOS has met three times and addressed some of the more intractable issues related to subglacial lake exploration. Topics under discussion include current state-of-the-knowledge of subglacial environments, technological needs, international management and organizational strategies, a portfolio of scientific projects, "clean" requirements, and logistical considerations. In this presentation the actvities of SALEGOS will be summarized and recommendations for an international subglacial lake exploration program discussed.

  18. Using Satellite Imagery to Monitor the Major Lakes; Case Study Lake Hamun

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norouzi, H.; Islam, R.; Bah, A.; AghaKouchak, A.

    2015-12-01

    Proper lakes function can ease the impact of floods and drought especially in arid and semi-arid regions. They are important environmentally and can directly affect human lives. Better understanding of the effect of climate change and human-driven changes on lakes would provide invaluable information for policy-makers and local people. As part of a comprehensive study, we aim to monitor the land-cover/ land-use changes in the world's major lakes using satellite observations. As a case study, Hamun Lake which is a pluvial Lake, also known as shallow Lake, located on the south-east of Iran and adjacent to Afghanistan, and Pakistan borders is investigated. The Lake is the main source of resources (agriculture, fishing and hunting) for the people around it and politically important in the region since it is shared among three different countries. The purpose of the research is to find the Lake's area from 1972 to 2015 and to see if any drought or water resources management has affected the lake. Analyzing satellites imagery from Landsat shows that the area of the Lake changes seasonally and intra-annually. Significant seasonal effects are found in 1975,1977, 1987, 1993, 1996, 1998, 2000, 2009 and 2011, as well as, substantial amount of shallow water is found throughout the years. The precipitation records as well as drought historical records are studied for the lake's basin. Meteorological studies suggest that the drought, decrease of rainfalls in the province and the improper management of the Lake have caused environmental, economic and geographical consequences. The results reveal that lake has experienced at least two prolong dryings since 1972 which drought cannot solely be blamed as main forcing factor.Proper lakes function can ease the impact of floods and drought especially in arid and semi-arid regions. They are important environmentally and can directly affect human lives. Better understanding of the effect of climate change and human-driven changes on lakes

  19. Decomposition of lake phytoplankton. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hansen, L.; Krog, G.F.; Soendergaard, M.

    1986-01-01

    The lysis process of phytoplankton was followed in 24 h incubations in three Danish lakes. By means of gel-chromatography it was shown that the dissolved carbon leaching from different algal groups differed in molecular weight composition. Three distinct molecular weight classes (>10,000; 700 to 10,000 and < 700 Daltons) leached from blue-green algae in almost equal proportion. The lysis products of spring-bloom diatoms included only the two smaller size classes, and the molecules between 700 and 10,000 Daltons dominated. Measurements of cell content during decomposition of the diatoms revealed polysaccharides and low molecular weight compounds to dominate the lysis products. No proteins were leached during the first 24 h after cell death. By incubating the dead algae in natural lake water, it was possible to detect a high bacterial affinity towards molecules between 700 and 10,000 Daltons, although the other size classes were also utilized. Bacterial transformation of small molecules to larger molecules could be demonstrated. (author)

  20. Lake Roosevelt fisheries monitoring program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Griffith, J.R.; Scholz, A.T.

    1991-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to provide baseline data that could be used to evaluate the effectiveness of two kokanee salmon hatcheries that will produce 8 million kokanee salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) fry or 3.2 million adults for stocking into Lake Roosevelt. The hatcheries will also produce 500,000 rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) fingerlings to support the Lake Roosevelt net-pen programs. The baseline data will also be used to evaluate the effectiveness of the habitat improvement projects ongoing on a separate contract. At the present time, the principle sport fish in the reservoir are net-pen rainbow trout and walleye (Stizostedion vitreum). The objectives of the second year of the monitoring program were: (1) to determine angling pressure, catch per unit effort, total harvest and the economic value; (2) to determine relative abundance of fish species in the reservoir by conducting electrofishing and gillnet surveys at nine index stations during May, August, and October; (3) to determine growth rates of kokanee, rainbow trout, and walleye based upon backcalculations from scales collected during May, August and October and creel surveys; (4) to determine density, size, and biomass of zooplankton and how reservoir operations affect their population dynamics; (5) to determine feeding habits of kokanee, rainbow trout, and walleye and their preferred prey densities; and (6) to determine migration patterns of tagged walleye and net-pen rainbow trout. 118 refs., 20 figs., 98 tabs

  1. Changes in the dreissenid community in the lower Great Lakes with emphasis on southern Lake Ontario

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Edward L.; Chrisman, Jana R.; Baldwin, Brad; Owens, Randall W.; O'Gorman, Robert; Howell, Todd; Roseman, Edward F.; Raths, Melinda K.

    1999-01-01

    A field study was conducted in the lower Great Lakes to assess changes in spatial distribution and population structure of dreissenid mussel populations. More specifically, the westward range expansion of quagga mussel into western Lake Erie and toward Lake Huron was investigated and the shell size, density, and biomass of zebra and quagga mussel with depth in southern Lake Ontario in 1992 and 1995 were compared. In Lake Erie, quagga mussel dominated the dreissenid community in the eastern basin and zebra mussel dominated in the western basin. In southern Lake Ontario, an east to west gradient was observed with the quagga mussel dominant at western sites and zebra mussel dominant at eastern locations. Mean shell size of quagga mussel was generally larger than that of zebra mussel except in western Lake Erie and one site in eastern Lake Erie. Although mean shell size and our index of numbers and biomass of both dreissenid species increased sharply in southern Lake Ontario between 1992 and 1995, the increase in density and biomass was much greater for quagga mussels over the 3-year period. In 1995, zebra mussels were most abundant at 15 to 25 m whereas the highest numbers and biomass of quagga mussel were at 35 to 45 m. The quagga mussel is now the most abundant dreissenid in areas of southern Lake Ontario where the zebra mussel was once the most abundant dreissenid; this trend parallels that observed for dreissenid populations in the Dneiper River basin in the Ukraine.

  2. Hydro biological investigations of lake Drukshiai

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazheikaite, S.; Sinkevichiene, Z.; Marchiulioniene, D.; Astrauskas, A.; Barshiene, J.

    1998-01-01

    Purposes of this research were to investigate changes in the physical, chemical and tropic conditions of Lake Drukshiai caused by the combined effect of Ignalina NPP and how it effects on structures and function of biocenoses; to estimate the influence of phytocenoses, zoocenoses and bacteriocenoses on the quality of water in Lake Drukshiai; to estimate the eco toxicological state of Lake Drukshiai. According to the complex hydro biological investigations on Lake Drukshiai - Ignalina NPP cooler great changes in planktonic organism community, tendencies of those changes in different ecological zones were evaluated in 1993 - 1997. The amount of species of most dominant planktonic organisms in 1993 - 1997 decreased 2-3 times in comparison with that before Ignalina NPP operation: phytoplankton from 116 to 40 - 50, zooplankton - from 233 to 139. The organic matter increasing tendency was determined in bottom sediments of the lake. The highest amount of it was evaluated in the south - eastern part of the lake. 69 water macrophyte species were found in bottom sediments during the investigation period. 16 species were not found in this lake earlier. Abundance of filamentous green algae was registered.The rates of fish communities successional transformation were ten times in excess of those of the given processes in natural lakes. Moreover the comparison of results on Lake Drukshiai bioindication analysis with changes of comparable bio markers which were obtained from other water systems of Lithuania, Switzerland, Sweden and Poland, including those with active nuclear power plants in their environment was carried out. It was determined that the functional and structural changes in Lake Drukshiai biota are mostly caused by chemical pollution. It was found out that the frequency of cytogenetic damage emerged as a specific radionuclide - caused effect in aquatic organisms inhabiting Lake Drukshiai, is slightly above the background level and is 5 times lower than the same

  3. Outflows of groundwater in lakes: case study of Lake Raduńske Górne

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cieśliński Roman

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to locate and describe groundwater outflows in a selected lake basin. The study hypothesis was based on the fact that, according to the specialist literature, one of the forms of lake water supply is through groundwater outflows. It was also assumed that the lakes of the Kashubian Lake District are characterised by such a form of lake water supply. The time scope of the work included the period from January 2011 to September 2012. The spatial scope of the work included the area of Lake Raduńskie Górne, located in the Kashubian Lake District in north Poland. The research plot was in the north-eastern part of the lake. Office works were aimed at gathering and studying source materials and maps. Cartographic materials were analysed with the use of the MapInfo Professional 9.5. The purpose of the field work was to find the groundwater outflows in the basin of Lake Raduńskie Górne. During the field research diving was carried out in the lake. During the dive audiovisual documentation was conducted using a Nikon D90 camera with Ikelite underwater housing for Nikon D90 and an Ikelite DS 161 movie substrobe, as well as a GoPro HD HERO 2 Outdoor camera. During the project, four groundwater outflows were found. In order to examine these springs audiovisual and photographic documentation was made. To systematise the typology of the discovered springs, new nomenclature was suggested, namely under-lake springs with subtypes: an under-lake slope spring and under-lake offshore spring

  4. 76 FR 23276 - Lake Tahoe Basin Federal Advisory Committee (LTFAC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-26

    ... Interagency Partnership on the Lake Tahoe Region and other matters raised by the Secretary. DATES: The meeting... preliminary recommendation of Lake Tahoe Southern Nevada Public Land Management Act (SNPLMA) Round 12 capital... Lake Tahoe SNPLMA Round 12 capital projects and science themes, and 3) public comment. All Lake Tahoe...

  5. Acidity of Lakes and Impoundments in North-Central Minnesota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elon S. Verry

    1981-01-01

    Measurements of lake and impoundment pH for several years, intensive sampling within years, and pH-calcium plots verify normal pH levels and do not show evidence of changes due to acid precipitation. These data in comparison with general lake data narrow the northern Lake States area in which rain or snow may cause lake acidification.

  6. BATHYMETRIC STUDY OF WADI EL-RAYAN LAKES, EGYPT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radwan Gad Elrab ABD ELLAH

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Bathymetry is a technique of measuring depths to determine the morphometry of water bodies. The derivation of bathymetry from the surveys is one of the basic researches of the aquatic environment, which has several practical implications to on the lake environment and it's monitoring. Wadi El-Rayan, as Ramsar site, is a very important wetland, in Egypt, as a reservoir for agricultural drainage water, fisheries and tourism. The Lakes are man-made basins in the Fayoum depression. Wadi El-Rayan Lakes are two reservoirs (upper Lake and Lower Lake, at different elevations. The Upper Lake is classified as open basin, while the Lower Lake is a closed basin, with no significant obvious water outflow. During recent decades, human impact on Wadi El-Rayan Lakes has increased due to intensification of agriculture and fish farming. Analyses of bathyemtric plans from 1996, 2010 and 2016 showed, the differences between morphometric parameters of the Upper Lake were generally small, while the Lower Lake changes are obvious at the three periods. The small fluctuate, in the features of Upper Lake is due to the water balance between the water inflow and water. The Lower Lake has faced extreme water loss through last twenty years is due to the agricultural lands and fish farms extended in the depression. The Upper Lake is rich in Lakeshores macrophyets, while decline the water plants in the Lower Lake. With low water levels, in the Lower Lake, the future continuity of the Lake system is in jeopardy

  7. Trophic diversity of Poznań Lakeland lakes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dzieszko Piotr

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The main goal of the presented work is to determine the current trophic state of 31 lakes located in Poznań Lakeland. These lakes are included in the lake monitoring programme executed by the Voivodship Environmental Protection Inspectorate in Poznań. The place in the trophic classification for investigated lakes was determined as well as the relationships between their trophic state indices. The trophic state of investigated lakes in the research area is poor. More than a half of the investigated lakes are eutrophic. Depending on the factor that is taken into account the trophic state of investigated lakes differs radically.

  8. Ice formation in subglacial Lake Vostok, Central Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souchez, R.; Petit, J. R.; Tison, J.-L.; Jouzel, J.; Verbeke, V.

    2000-09-01

    The investigation of chemical and isotopic properties in the lake ice from the Vostok ice core gives clues to the mechanisms involved in ice formation within the lake. A small lake water salinity can be reasonably deduced from the chemical data. Possible implications for the water circulation of Lake Vostok are developed. The characteristics of the isotopic composition of the lake ice indicate that ice formation in Lake Vostok occurred by frazil ice crystal generation due to supercooling as a consequence of rising waters and a possible contrast in water salinity. Subsequent consolidation of the developed loose ice crystals results in the accretion of ice to the ceiling of the lake.

  9. Alkaline and carbonatite metasomatism of lithospheric mantle beneath SW Poland- Pilchowice case

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ćwiek, Mateusz; Matusiak-Małek, Magdalena; Puziewicz, Jacek; Ntaflos, Theodoros

    2014-05-01

    The Cenozoic basanites from Pilchowice (SW Poland) form volcanic plug located exactly at Intra- Sudetic Fault. These basanites belong to the Polish part of the Central European Volcanic Province and contain numerous, usually small (pfu and mg# from 0.915- 0.920 . One xenolith contains clinopyroxene with abundant spongy rims. Primary clinopyroxene is very rare and Al-enriched (mg# 0.92, 0.17 atoms of Al pfu). The spinel is Cr enriched (cr# 0.46-0.68) and is usually associated with clinopyroxene. Orthopyroxene is depleted in REE compared to primitive mantle. Orthopyroxene from majority of xenoliths are strongly LREE depleted ((La/Lu)N = 0.03-0.21). All studied peridotites contain clinopyroxene which is enriched (2 to 70 times) in REE compared to primitive mantle. Clinopyroxene patterns show relative low HREE concentration ((La/Lu)N = 4.75- 19.99), moreover patterns from three samples are convex- upward shaped with inflection point on Nd ((La/Nd)N = 0.36-0.96). Clinopyroxene- poor lithology, high cr# in spinel and LREE- depleted nature of orthopyroxene suggest that upper mantle sampled by Pilchowice basanite is a restite after partial melting. The LREE enriched composition of clinopyroxene suggest that peridotites were metasomatised. Clinopyroxene convex- upward shaped REE plots with inflection point on Nd is typical for metasomatism related with alkaline melt. On the other hand very low ratios of Ti/ Eu (24.8- 738.9) and high (La/ Yb)N (3.5- 17) ratio (Coltorti, 1999) suggest that the metasomatic agent was either a mixture of alkaline silicate melt with carbonatite or peridotite reaction with two independent agents is recorded. This study is a part of MSc thesis of the first author and was possible thanks to the project NCN 2011/03/B/ST10/06248 of Polish National Centre for Science. Coltorti, M., Bonadiman, C., Hinton, R. W., Siena, F. & Upton, B. G. J. (1999). Carbonatite metasomatism of the oceanic upper mantle: Evidence from clinopyroxenes and glasses in

  10. The reactivation of the SW Iberian passive margin: a brief review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duarte, Joao; Rosas, Filipe; Terrinha, Pedro; Schellart, Wouter; Almeida, Pedro; Gutscher, Marc-André; Riel, Nicolas; Ribeiro, António

    2016-04-01

    On the morning of the 1st of November of 1755 a major earthquake struck offshore the Southwest Iberian margin. This was the strongest earthquake ever felt in Western Europe. The shake, fire and tsunami devastated Lisbon, was felt as far as Finland and had a profound impact on the thinkers of that time, in particular on the Enlightenment philosophers such as Voltaire, Rousseau and Kant. The Great Lisbon Earthquake is considered by many as the event that marks the birth of modern geosciences; and made of this region one of the most well studied areas in the world. After the 1755 earthquake, Kant and others authors wrote several treaties dealing with the causes and dynamics of earthquakes and tsunamis and were close to identify some key elements of what we now call plate tectonics. More than two hundred years later, in the year of 1969, the region was struck by another major earthquake. This was precisely during the period in which the theory of plate tectonics was being built. Geoscientists like Fukao (1973), Purdy (1975) and Mackenzie (1977) immediately focused their attention in the area. They suggested that these events were related with "transient" subduction of Africa below Iberia, along the East-West Azores-Gibraltar plate boundary. Several years later, Ribeiro (1989) suggested that instead of Africa being subducted below Iberia, it was the West Iberian passive margin that was being reactivated, a process that may, in time, lead to the formation of a new subduction zone. In the turning of the millennium, a subducting slab was imaged bellow the Gibraltar Straits, a remanent of the Western Mediterranean arc system that according to Gutscher et al. (2002) was related with ongoing subduction. Recently, it was proposed that a causal link between the Gibraltar subduction system and the reactivation of the SW Iberian margin might exist. In addition, the large-scale Africa-Eurasia convergence is inducing compressive stresses along the West Iberian margin. The margin

  11. Structural inheritance and coastal geomorphology in SW Brittany, France: An onshore/offshore integrated approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raimbault, Céline; Duperret, Anne; Le Gall, Bernard; Authemayou, Christine

    2018-04-01

    The Variscan crystalline basement exposed along the SW Brittany coast recorded extensive long-term planation processes during Mesozoic times. Detailed onshore-offshore mapping (600 km2) in the Penmarc'h-Concarneau granitic coastal area reveals a km-scale, deeply fractured submarine rocky shelf. High-resolution offshore imagery (bathymetry and seismic reflection dataset), combined to structural field investigations, on these surfaces allow us to identify a preserved network of both ductile and brittle structures. The inherited fault pattern is dominated by the N160°E-trending and long-lived Concarneau-Toulven fault zone (CTFS) that separates two distinct morphostructural blocks, and strongly influences the seaward limit of the Concarneau submarine rocky shelf, as well as the linear coastline of the Concarneau embayment. The structural imprint of the CTFS decreases progressively westwards with respect to a composite network of large-scale N50°E- and N140°E-oriented faults bounding the seaward edge of the Penmarc'h rocky shelf. The latter in turn splits into three large-scale blocks along N50°E- (La Torche Fault - LTF), N140°E- (Saint Guénolé Fault - SGF) and N160°E-trending normal faults. The morphostructural evolutionary model applied here to the Penmarc'h-Concarneau granitic coastal area resulted from the combined effects of structural Variscan inheritance and post-Variscan tectonics. Paleo-stress analysis of striated fault planes indicates three main Cenozoic tectonic events, inferred to have operated from Eocene to post-Oligocene times. The 3D-architecture of the Concarneau embayment, as a rocky shelf partially sealed with quaternary sediments, chiefly resulted from the reactivation of the CTFS during Eocene and Oligocene times. Further west, the surface of the Penmarc'h rocky shelf was tilted southeastward by the brittle reactivation of the LTF, and dissected by a horst-graben network post-Oligocene in age. The present-day morphology of the Penmarc'h and

  12. Lithofacies characteristics of diatreme deposits: Examples from a basaltic volcanic field of SW Sardinia (Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mundula, F.; Cioni, R.; Funedda, A.; Leone, F.

    2013-04-01

    A deeply eroded diatreme field, consisting in several, decametric-sized, vertical, mainly clastic volcanic bodies of basaltic composition is described for the first time in the Variscan basement of SW Sardinia. The recognition and description of four different lithofacies in these diatremes allowed discussion of the role of the different processes which control magma eruption and conduit infilling, and making general inferences about diatremes. The studied diatremes have a cross-sectional shape from elliptical to sub-triangular, and are slightly elongated nearly parallel to the main foliation of the intruded meta-sedimentary rocks. Foliation of host rocks is locally reoriented or folded close to the contact with the diatremes, suggesting that magma possibly rose to the surface through fissures oriented nearly parallel to host rock foliation. Textural features of the volcanic bodies show many analogies with kimberlitic diatremes, despite the difference in petrography and composition. Juvenile lapilli are mainly made by ghosts of mafic phenocrysts (olivine and clinopyroxene) set in a groundmass formed by plagioclase microlites immersed in a cryptocrystalline, chlorite-rich matrix. The four lithofacies were described mainly based on the shape and physical features of the clasts and textural anisotropy: a globular, juvenile-rich, lapilli tuff facies (GJLt); an angular, juvenile-rich, lapilli tuff facies (AJLt); a lithic-rich, lapilli tuff facies LiRLt), and a coherent, lava-like facies (COH). All the clastic lithofacies are generally well sorted and typically lack a fine-grained matrix. Juvenile fragments are lapilli sized and from equant to oblate in axial ratio, and from rounded-globular to very angular in shape. Conversely, lithic clasts are largely variable in shape and size, and are mainly represented by basement-derived clasts. The absence of bedding, the scarcity of the coherent facies and the dominance of clast supported, structureless, volcaniclastic facies

  13. Morphology and sediment dynamics of the Capbreton canyon (Bay of Biscay, SW France)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaudin, M.; Umr 5805; Ifremer Team

    2003-04-01

    The Canyon of Capbreton extending in the Bay of Biscay (SW France) is the deepest canyon in the world. Its structure and morphology was studied using new multibeam bathymetry, acoustic imagery and high-resolution seismic data. The canyon head appears only 250 m away from the coast line and runs westward parallel to the north coast of Spain for 160 km due to structural control, then turns northward, widens and abruptly disappears in the continental rise by 3500 m water depth. Its northern margin is flat and progrades clearly westward. Conversely the southern margin is steep and progrades towards the north (i.e. towards the canyon). Down to 800 m water depth, the canyon deeply incises the continental shelf and the axial channel is meandering (sinuosity of 1.9). The canyon shows both major and minor stream beds, perched tributary valleys, nested terraces and abandoned meanders. The terraces have three morphologies: (1) flat, (2) with a raised side or (3) with a horseshoe structure. These morphologies have been interpreted as overbank deposits or nested levees (1 and 2) or as the result of meander abandon (3). Terraces of types (1) and (2) contain mainly fine deposits resulting from decantation of the top of turbulent surges that flow in the canyon. Westward (800 to 2000 m water depth) the main talweg remains sinuous (1.7). On the southern margin, several straight or slightly sinuous S-N tributary valleys are followed by alignments of pockmarks that also indicate a structural control. On the northern margin, a single large tributary valley with a sinuous central talweg, flowing from the upper Aquitaine continental slope, is interpreted as a giant slump scar due to sediment instability. This valley is bordered to the west by a topographic high with sediment waves on the external flank that might be interpreted as a sedimentary levee. The canyon recorded a recent turbidite activity. An 18 cm-thick turbidite was deposited at 650 m water depth by a turbidity current

  14. Influence of wind turbines on seismic stations in the upper rhine graben, SW Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zieger, Toni; Ritter, Joachim R. R.

    2018-01-01

    By analysing long- and short-term seismological measurements at wind farms close to the town of Landau, SW Germany, we present new insights into ground motion signals from wind turbines (WTs) at local seismic stations. Because of their need to be located in similar regions with sparsely anthropogenic activities, wind turbines impact seismic stations and their recordings in a way that is not yet fully understood by researchers. To ensure the undisturbed recording tasks of a regional seismic array or a single station by a protected area around those endangered stations, it is very important to investigate the behavior of WTs as a seismic source. For that reason, we calculate averaged one-hour long spectra of the power spectral density (PSD) before and after the installation of a new wind farm within the investigated area. These PSD are ordered according to the rotation speed. We observe a clear increase of the PSD level after the WT installation in a frequency range of 0.5 to 10 Hz up to a distance of 5.5 km away from the WT. By analysing seismic borehole data, we also observe a decrease of the PSD of wind dependent signals with depth. The impact of wind-dependent signals is found to be much more pronounced for the shallower station (150 m depth) than for the deeper one (305 m depth). Using short-term profile measurements, we fit a power-law decay proportional to 1/ r b to the main WT-induced PSD peaks and differentiate between near-field and far-field effects of ground motions. For low frequencies in the range from 1 to 4 Hz, we determine a b value of 0.78 to 0.85 for the far field, which is consistent with surface waves. The b value increases (up to 1.59) with increasing frequencies (up to 5.5 Hz), which is obviously due to attenuating effects like scattering or anelasticity. These results give a better understanding of the seismic wavefield interactions between wind turbines (or wind farms) with nearby seismic stations, including borehole installations, in a

  15. Development of soil quality along a chronosequence under natural succession in the Dragonja catchment, SW Slovenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Hall, Rutger; Cammeraat, Erik

    2015-04-01

    Agricultural fields have been increasingly abandoned in several regions in Southern Europe. In many cases this leads to natural vegetation succession which may have a direct impact on soil quality,biodiversity and hydrological connectivity. This research aims at getting insight on the effects of natural vegetation succession on the development of soil quality in the Sub-Mediterranean Dragonja catchment in SW Slovenia. This site was chosen due to its uniform geology, geomorphology and soil types. Four different stages of vegetation succession (i.e. field, abandoned field, young forest, semi-mature forest) were selected and sampled on both north-, and south-facing slopes, resulting in 8 treatments for which 6 representative sites were sampled. Samples were analysed on OC and TN content, EC, pH, bulk density, aggregate stability and grain size distribution. To get insight on the changes in biodiversity vegetation records were made distinguishing five different plant functional groups (i.e. juveniles, grasses, herbs, shrubs and trees). Age group (i.e. stage of vegetation succession) significantly influenced the OC and TN content, aggregate stability, bulk density and pH. Directly after abandonment, between age group 0 and 1, OC and TN content, aggregate stability and pH increased significantly and bulk density decreased significantly. OC content was most affected by age group and furthermore significantly correlated to TN content, aggregate stability, bulk density and pH. Regarding biodiversity, there was a significant increase in cover by trees between age group 1 and 2 and a significant decrease between age group 2 and 3. Cover by herbs decreased significantly between age group 1 and 2. The number of different trees and shrubs increased significantly between age group 0 and 1, and the number of different juveniles increased significantly between age group 2 and 3. Another factor significantly influencing the soil's quality is aspect. Although not found for each age

  16. Internal tides affect benthic community structure in an energetic submarine canyon off SW Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Jian-Xiang; Chen, Guan-Ming; Chiou, Ming-Da; Jan, Sen; Wei, Chih-Lin

    2017-07-01

    Submarine canyons are major conduits of terrestrial and shelf organic matter, potentially benefiting the seafloor communities in the food-deprived deep sea; however, strong bottom currents driven by internal tides and the potentially frequent turbidity currents triggered by storm surges, river flooding, and earthquakes may negatively impact the benthos. In this study, we investigated the upper Gaoping Submarine Canyon (GPSC), a high-sediment-yield canyon connected to a small mountain river (SMR) off southwest (SW) Taiwan. By contrasting the benthic meiofaunal and macrofaunal communities within and outside the GPSC, we examined how food supplies and disturbance influenced the benthic community assemblages. The benthic communities in the upper GPSC were mainly a nested subset of the adjacent slope assemblages. Several meiofaunal (e.g. ostracods) and macrofaunal taxa (e.g. peracarid crustaceans and mollusks) that typically occurred on the slope were lost from the canyon. The polychaete families switched from diverse feeding guilds on the slope to motile subsurface deposit feeders dominant in the canyon. The diminishing of epibenthic peracarids and proliferation of deep burrowing polychaetes in the GPSC resulted in macrofauna occurring largely within deeper sediment horizons in the canyon than on the slope. The densities and numbers of taxa were depressed with distinct and more variable composition in the canyon than on the adjacent slope. Both the densities and numbers of taxa were negatively influenced by internal tide flushing and positively influenced by food availability; however, the internal tides also negatively influenced the food supplies. While the meiofauna and macrofauna densities were both depressed by the extreme physical conditions in the GPSC, only the macrofaunal densities increased with depth in the canyon, presumably related to increased frequency and intensity of disturbance toward the canyon head. The population densities of meiofauna, on the

  17. HONGOS CAUSANTES DE ENFERMEDADES POSTCOSECHA EN CHAYOTE (Sechium edule (Jacq. SW. Y SU CONTROL IN VITRO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siul D. Romero-Velazquez

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available El fruto de chayote (Sechium edule (Jaqc. Sw. es una hortaliza de exportación de importancia para México y Costa Rica. El proceso comercial exige cumplir con estándares de calidad, que implican frutos sanos y libres de defectos. Sin embargo, debido a las condiciones de alta humedad que se desarrollan en los frutos empacados en películas plásticas, se han presentado rechazos en el mercado de exportación, por la presencia de enfermedades fungosas. El objetivo de este trabajo fue identificar morfológica (microscopía óptica y electrónica de barrido y molecularmente (PCR: Polimerase Chain Reaction las especies de hongos causales de las principales enfermedades postcosecha de chayote en frutos infectados procedentes de huertas comerciales para exportación, así como probar in vitro la efectividad de diversos productos comerciales en la inhibición del crecimiento de dichos hongos. Los resultados mostraron a Didymella bryoniae como el causante de “gomosis de las cucurbitáceas” y a Fusarium oxysporum y F. solani como causales de fusariosis o ahogamiento de guías; estos patógenos dañan la parte basal y media de frutos comerciales, además de Chaetomium globosum, un asociado al proceso infeccioso de Fusarium sp., como saprófito no patógeno. La inoculación con Bacillus subtilis presentó una inhibición efectiva (0,01 mg.l-1 i.a en las pruebas in vitro contra Didymella bryoniae, Fusarium oxysporum y F. solani; el fungicida más efectivo contra los 2 primeros fue Tebuconazole-trifloxystrobin, con una DL50 de 0,0116 y 0,0106 mg.l-1 respectivamente; no así contra F. solani, cuyo mayor control fue registrado con procloraz, con DL50 de 0,0042 mg.l-1. Estos resultados contribuyen al reconocimiento de las enfermedades fungosas más importantes en chayote y su perspectiva de control durante el manejo postcosecha de frutos para exportación.

  18. Modeling stem increment in individual Pinus occidentalis Sw. trees in La Sierra, Dominican Republic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bueno, S.; Bevilacqua, E.

    2010-07-01

    One of the most common and important tree characteristics used in forest management decision-making is tree diameter-at-breast height (DBH). This paper presents results on an evaluation of two growth functions developed to model stem diameter increases in individual Pinus occidentalis Sw. trees in La Sierra, Dominican Republic. The first model was developed in order to predict future DBH (FDM) at different intervals of time and the other for predicting growth, that is, periodic annual diameter increment (PADIM). Each model employed two statistical techniques for fitting model parameters: stepwise ordinary least squares (OLS) regression, and mixed models. The two statistical approaches varied in how they accounted for the repeated measurements on individual trees over time, affecting standard error estimates and statistical inference of model parameters. Each approach was evaluated based on six goodness of- fit statistics, using both calibration and validation data sets. The objectives were 1) to determine the best model for predicting future tree DBH; 2) to determine the best model for predicting periodic annual diameter increment, both models using tree size, age, site index and different indices of competitive status; and 3) compare which of these two modeling approaches predicts better the future DBH. OLS provided a better fit for both of the growth functions, especially in regards to bias. Both models showed advantages and disadvantages when they were used to predict growth and future diameter. For the prediction of future diameter with FDM, accuracy of predictions were within one centimeter for a five-year projection interval. The PADIM presented negligible bias in estimating future diameter, although there was a small increase in bias as time of prediction increased. As expected, each model was the best in estimating the response variable it was developed for.. However, a closer examination of the distribution of errors showed a slight advantage of the FDM

  19. Geophysical investigation of sentinel lakes in Lake, Seminole, Orange, and Volusia Counties, Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reich, Christopher; Flocks, James; Davis, Jeffrey

    2012-01-01

    This study was initiated in cooperation with the St. Johns River Water Management District (SJRWMD) to investigate groundwater and surface-water interaction in designated sentinel lakes in central Florida. Sentinel lakes are a SJRWMD established set of priority water bodies (lakes) for which minimum flows and levels (MFLs) are determined. Understanding both the structure and lithology beneath these lakes can ultimately lead to a better understanding of the MFLs and why water levels fluctuate in certain lakes more so than in other lakes. These sentinel lakes have become important water bodies to use as water-fluctuation indicators in the SJRWMD Minimum Flows and Levels program and will be used to define long-term hydrologic and ecologic performance measures. Geologic control on lake hydrology remains poorly understood in this study area. Therefore, the U.S. Geological Survey investigated 16 of the 21 water bodies on the SJRWMD priority list. Geologic information was obtained by the tandem use of high-resolution seismic profiling (HRSP) and direct-current (DC) resistivity profiling to isolate both the geologic framework (structure) and composition (lithology). Previous HRSP surveys from various lakes in the study area have been successful in identifying karst features, such as subsidence sinkholes. However, by using this method only, it is difficult to image highly irregular or chaotic surfaces, such as collapse sinkholes. Resistivity profiling was used to complement HRSP by detecting porosity change within fractured or collapsed structures and increase the ability to fully characterize the subsurface. Lake Saunders (Lake County) is an example of a lake composed of a series of north-south-trending sinkholes that have joined to form one lake body. HRSP shows surface depressions and deformation in the substrate. Resistivity data likewise show areas in the southern part of the lake where resistivity shifts abruptly from approximately 400 ohm meters (ohm-m) along the

  20. Rehabilitation of Mohawk Lake: Brantford's crown jewel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farrell, C.W.; Kube, D.J.

    1994-01-01

    Mohawk Lake in Brantford, Ontario had been receiving contaminants from various industrial and municipal sources since the late 1800s. The lake suffered a slow death with the absence of any watershed management plan. A citizen committee was established in 1990 to rehabilitate the lake so that its recreational and resource potential could be fully realized. In 1993, the committee obtained government funding to carry out a detailed baseline environmental study of the lake. Lake sediments were found to consist of an upper horizon of poorly consolidated, organic-rich, odoriferous material overlying a more compact sandy layer. Lake water was characterized by high concentrations of nutrients and metals, and high biological oxygen demand. Sediments also had high concentrations of heavy metals and low concentrations of such organic contaminants as pyrene, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and polychlorinated biphenyls. The most distinct contaminant appeared to be petroleum hydrocarbons at 0.5-1% concentration. It was determined that lake rehabilitation would require removal of these sediments. Tests indicated that the sediments were non-hazardous non-registrable solid waste, and the preferred removal option was hydraulic dredging into settlement ponds along the undeveloped south shore of the lake. A sediment trap was recommended to be installed at the entrance of the lake, along with a constructed wetland to remove a variety of water pollutants. The sediment dredging, dewatering, trap and wetland installation, and land remediation of the sediment disposal area are estimated to cost ca $3.75 million, and the work will require at least 18 months to complete. 1 fig

  1. Estimating Spring Condensation on the Great Lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, A.; Welp, L.

    2017-12-01

    The Laurentian Great Lakes region provides opportunities for shipping, recreation, and consumptive water use to a large part of the United States and Canada. Water levels in the lakes fluctuate yearly, but attempts to model the system are inadequate because the water and energy budgets are still not fully understood. For example, water levels in the Great Lakes experienced a 15-year low period ending in 2013, the recovery of which has been attributed partially to decreased evaporation and increased precipitation and runoff. Unlike precipitation, the exchange of water vapor between the lake and the atmosphere through evaporation or condensation is difficult to measure directly. However, estimates have been constructed using off-shore eddy covariance direct measurements of latent heat fluxes, remote sensing observations, and a small network of monitoring buoys. When the lake surface temperature is colder than air temperature as it is in spring, condensation is larger than evaporation. This is a relatively small component of the net annual water budget of the lakes, but the total amount of condensation may be important for seasonal energy fluxes and atmospheric deposition of pollutants and nutrients to the lakes. Seasonal energy fluxes determine, and are influenced by, ice cover, water and air temperatures, and evaporation in the Great Lakes. We aim to quantify the amount of spring condensation on the Great Lakes using the National Center for Atmospheric Prediction North American Regional Reanalysis (NCEP NARR) Data for Winter 2013 to Spring 2017 and compare the condensation values of spring seasons following high volume, high duration and low volume, low duration ice cover.

  2. Forecasting cyanobacteria dominance in Canadian temperate lakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persaud, Anurani D; Paterson, Andrew M; Dillon, Peter J; Winter, Jennifer G; Palmer, Michelle; Somers, Keith M

    2015-03-15

    Predictive models based on broad scale, spatial surveys typically identify nutrients and climate as the most important predictors of cyanobacteria abundance; however these models generally have low predictive power because at smaller geographic scales numerous other factors may be equally or more important. At the lake level, for example, the ability to forecast cyanobacteria dominance is of tremendous value to lake managers as they can use such models to communicate exposure risks associated with recreational and drinking water use, and possible exposure to algal toxins, in advance of bloom occurrence. We used detailed algal, limnological and meteorological data from two temperate lakes in south-central Ontario, Canada to determine the factors that are closely linked to cyanobacteria dominance, and to develop easy to use models to forecast cyanobacteria biovolume. For Brandy Lake (BL), the strongest and most parsimonious model for forecasting % cyanobacteria biovolume (% CB) included water column stability, hypolimnetic TP, and % cyanobacteria biovolume two weeks prior. For Three Mile Lake (TML), the best model for forecasting % CB included water column stability, hypolimnetic TP concentration, and 7-d mean wind speed. The models for forecasting % CB in BL and TML are fundamentally different in their lag periods (BL = lag 1 model and TML = lag 2 model) and in some predictor variables despite the close proximity of the study lakes. We speculate that three main factors (nutrient concentrations, water transparency and lake morphometry) may have contributed to differences in the models developed, and may account for variation observed in models derived from large spatial surveys. Our results illustrate that while forecast models can be developed to determine when cyanobacteria will dominate within two temperate lakes, the models require detailed, lake-specific calibration to be effective as risk-management tools. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Licoricidin inhibits the growth of SW480 human colorectal adenocarcinoma cells in vitro and in vivo by inducing cycle arrest, apoptosis and autophagy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ji, Shuai [State Key Laboratory of Natural and Biomimetic Drugs, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Peking University, 38 Xueyuan Road, Beijing 100191 (China); Jiangsu Key Laboratory of New Drug Research and Clinical Pharmacy, School of Pharmacy, Xuzhou Medical University, 209 Tongshan Road, Xuzhou 221004 (China); Tang, Shunan; Li, Kai; Li, Ziwei; Liang, Wenfei; Qiao, Xue; Wang, Qi [State Key Laboratory of Natural and Biomimetic Drugs, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Peking University, 38 Xueyuan Road, Beijing 100191 (China); Yu, Siwang, E-mail: swang_yu@bjmu.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Natural and Biomimetic Drugs, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Peking University, 38 Xueyuan Road, Beijing 100191 (China); Ye, Min, E-mail: yemin@bjmu.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Natural and Biomimetic Drugs, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Peking University, 38 Xueyuan Road, Beijing 100191 (China)

    2017-07-01

    Licorice (Glycyrrhiza uralensis Fisch.) possesses significant anti-cancer activities, but the active ingredients and underlying mechanisms have not been revealed. By screening the cytotoxic activities of 122 licorice compounds against SW480 human colorectal adenocarcinoma cells, we found that licoricidin (LCD) inhibited SW480 cell viability with an IC{sub 50} value of 7.2 μM. Further studies indicated that LCD significantly induced G1/S cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in SW480 cells, accompanied by inhibition of cyclins/CDK1 expression and activation of caspase-dependent pro-apoptotic signaling. Meanwhile, LCD promoted autophagy in SW480 cells, and activated AMPK signaling and inhibited Akt/mTOR pathway. Overexpression of a dominant-negative AMPKα2 abolished LCD-induced inhibition of Akt/mTOR, autophagic and pro-apoptotic signaling pathways, and significantly reversed loss of cell viability, suggesting activation of AMPK is essential for the anti-cancer activity of LCD. In vivo anti-tumor experiments indicated that LCD (20 mg/kg, i.p.) significantly inhibited the growth of SW480 xenografts in nude mice with an inhibitory rate of 43.5%. In addition, we obtained the glycosylated product LCDG by microbial transformation, and found that glycosylation slightly enhanced the in vivo anti-cancer activities of LCD. This study indicates that LCD could inhibit SW480 cells by inducing cycle arrest, apoptosis and autophagy, and is a potential chemopreventive or chemotherapeutic agent against colorectal cancer. - Highlights: • Molecular mechanisms for cytotoxic activity of licoricidin (LCD) were investigated. • LCD promoted autophagy of SW480 cells through AMPK and Akt/mTOR signaling pathways. • Both LCD and its glucoside showed in vivo anti-colorectal cancer activities.

  4. Circulation and sedimentation in a tidal-influenced fjord lake: Lake McKerrow, New Zealand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickrill, R. A.; Irwin, J.; Shakespeare, B. S.

    1981-01-01

    Lake McKerrow is a tide-influenced fjord lake, separated from the open sea by a Holocene barrier spit. Fresh, oxygenated waters of the epilimnion overlie saline, deoxygenated waters of the hypolimnion. During winter, water from the Upper Hollyford River interflows along the pycnocline, depositing coarse silt on the steep delta and transporting finer sediment down-lake. An extensive sub-lacustrine channel system on the foreset delta slope is possibly maintained by turbidity currents. Saline waters of the hypolimnion are periodically replenished. During high tides and low lake levels saline water flows into the lake and downslope into the lake basin as a density current in a well defined channel.

  5. Measuring stigma affecting sex workers (SW) and men who have sex with men (MSM): A systematic review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzgerald-Husek, Alanna; Van Wert, Michael J.; Ewing, Whitney F.; Holland, Claire E.; Katterl, Rachel; Rosman, Lori; Baral, Stefan D.

    2017-01-01

    Background Stigma involves discrediting a person or group based on a perceived attribute, behaviour or reputation associated with them. Sex workers (SW) and men who have sex with men (MSM) are key populations who are often at increased risk for the acquisition and transmission of HIV and who are affected by stigma that can negatively impact their health and well-being. Although stigma was included as an indicator in the US National HIV/AIDS Strategic Plan and there have been consultations focused on adding a stigma indicator within PEPFAR and the Global Fund in relation to potentiating HIV risks among key populations, there remains limited consensus on the appropriate measurement of SW- or MSM-associated stigma. Consequently, this systematic review summarizes studies using quantitative, qualitative, or mixed methods approaches to measure stigma affecting sex workers and men who have sex with men. Methods and findings This systematic review included English, French, and Spanish peer-reviewed research of any study design measuring SW- or MSM-associated stigma. Articles were published from January 1, 2004 to March 26, 2014 in PsycINFO, PubMed, EMBASE, CINAHL Plus, Global Health, and World Health Organization Global Health Library Regional Indexes. Of the 541 articles reviewed, the majority measured stigma toward MSM (over 97%), were conducted in North America, used quantitative methods, and focused on internalized stigma. Conclusions With the inclusion of addressing stigma in several domestic and international HIV strategies, there is a need to ensure the use of validated metrics for stigma. The field to date has completed limited measurement of stigma affecting sex workers, and limited measurement of stigma affecting MSM outside of higher income settings. Moving forward requires a concerted effort integrating validated metrics of stigma into health-related surveys and programs for key populations. PMID:29190642

  6. Hsa-miR-11181 regulates Wnt signaling pathway through targeting of APC2 transcripts in SW480 cell line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dokanehiifard, Sadat; Soltani, Bahram M

    2018-01-30

    Wnt signaling plays important roles in differentiation, morphogenesis and development. This signaling pathway is highly regulated at all levels and microRNAs are small noncoding RNAs regulating Wnt signaling. Here, we intended to investigate hsa-miR-11181 (a novel miRNA located in TrkC gene) effect on Wnt signaling pathway in SW480 cell line. TOP/FOP flash assay indicated up-regulation of Wnt signaling, following the overexpression of hsa-miR-11181, verified through RT-qPCR. Bioinformatics analysis predicted APC1, APC2 and Axin1 might be targeted by hsa-miR-11181. Then, RT-qPCR analysis indicated that APC2 and Axin1 have been significantly down-regulated following the hsa-miR-11181 overexpression. However dual luciferase assay analysis supported only APC2 3'-UTR is directly targeted by this miRNA. Then, treatment of SW480 cells with Wnt-inhibitory small molecules supported the effect of hsa-miR-11181 at the inhibitory complex level containing APC2 protein. Consistently, viability of SW480 cells overexpressing hsa-miR-11181 was significantly elevated, measured through MTT assay. Overall, these results suggest that hsa-miR-11181 may play a crucial role in Wnt signaling regulation and confirmed that APC2 3'-UTR is targeted by hsa-miR-11181 and propose the presence of its recognition sites in the promoter or coding regions of Axin1 gene. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  7. Measuring stigma affecting sex workers (SW and men who have sex with men (MSM: A systematic review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alanna Fitzgerald-Husek

    Full Text Available Stigma involves discrediting a person or group based on a perceived attribute, behaviour or reputation associated with them. Sex workers (SW and men who have sex with men (MSM are key populations who are often at increased risk for the acquisition and transmission of HIV and who are affected by stigma that can negatively impact their health and well-being. Although stigma was included as an indicator in the US National HIV/AIDS Strategic Plan and there have been consultations focused on adding a stigma indicator within PEPFAR and the Global Fund in relation to potentiating HIV risks among key populations, there remains limited consensus on the appropriate measurement of SW- or MSM-associated stigma. Consequently, this systematic review summarizes studies using quantitative, qualitative, or mixed methods approaches to measure stigma affecting sex workers and men who have sex with men.This systematic review included English, French, and Spanish peer-reviewed research of any study design measuring SW- or MSM-associated stigma. Articles were published from January 1, 2004 to March 26, 2014 in PsycINFO, PubMed, EMBASE, CINAHL Plus, Global Health, and World Health Organization Global Health Library Regional Indexes. Of the 541 articles reviewed, the majority measured stigma toward MSM (over 97%, were conducted in North America, used quantitative methods, and focused on internalized stigma.With the inclusion of addressing stigma in several domestic and international HIV strategies, there is a need to ensure the use of validated metrics for stigma. The field to date has completed limited measurement of stigma affecting sex workers, and limited measurement of stigma affecting MSM outside of higher income settings. Moving forward requires a concerted effort integrating validated metrics of stigma into health-related surveys and programs for key populations.

  8. Using a combination of radiogenic and stable isotopes coupled with hydrogeochemistry, limnometrics and meteorological data in hydrological research of complex underground mine-pit lake systems: The case of Cueva de la Mora

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-España, J.; Diez Ercilla, M.; Pérez Cerdán, F.; Yusta, I.

    2012-04-01

    This study presents a combination of radiogenic and stable isotopes (3H, 2H and 18O on pit lake water, and 34S on dissolved sulfate) coupled with bathymetric, meteorological and limnometric investigations, and detailed hydrogeochemical studies to decipher the flooding history and hydrological dynamics of a meromictic and deeply stratified pit lake in SW Spain. The application of these combined techniques has been specially succesful considering the complexity of the studied system, which includes a substantial number of horizontal galleries, shafts and large rooms physically connected to the pit lake. Specific conductance and temperature profiles have depicted a physical structure of the water body which includes four monimolimnetic layers of increasing density with depth. This internal configuration includes m-scale layers separated by sharp transional zones and is rarely observed in natural, fresh water bodies and most other pit lakes. The tritium abundance of the different layers indicate that the deepest water consists in strongly acidified and metal-laden meteoric water infiltrated in the mine system soon after the mine closure in 1971-72. Oxygen and hydrogen isotope ratios of the different layers reflect a sharp stratification with increasing evaporative influence towards the lake surface. The combination of tritium data with the oxygen and hydrogen isotope composition of the different layers suggests a model of pit lake formation with an initial stage of flooding (with entrance of highly metal- and sulfate-loaded mine drainage from the underlying mine galleries) that deeply determined the physical structure and meromictic nature of the lake. After reaching the present water level and morphology, the stagnant, anoxic part of pit lake seems to have remained chemically and isotopically unmodified during its 40 year-old history. Although the pit lake receives significant water input during autumn and winter (which in turn provoke significant volumetric increases

  9. Hydrothermal Petroleum in Active Continental Rift: Lake Chapala, Western Mexico, Initial Results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarate-del Valle, P. F.; Simoneit, B. R.; Ramirez-Sanchez, H. U.

    2003-12-01

    Lake Chapala in western Mexico is located partially in the Citala Rift, which belongs to the well-known neotectonic Jalisco continental triple junction. The region is characterized by active volcanism (Ceboruco, Volcan de Fuego), tectonic (1995 earthquake, M=8, 40-50 mm to SW) and hydrothermal (San Juan Cosala & Villa Corona spas and La Calera sinter deposit) activities. Hydrothermal petroleum has been described in active continental rift (East African Rift) and marine spreading zones (Guaymas Basin, Gulf of California). In 1868 the Mexican local press reported that manifestations of bitumen were appearing in front of the Columba Cap on the mid south shore of Lake Chapala. This bitumen is linked to the lake bottom and when the water level decreases sufficiently it is possible to access these tar bodies as islands. Because of these manifestations the Mexican oil company (PEMEX) drilled an exploration well (2,348m) at Tizapan El Alto without success. Hydrothermal activity is evident in the tar island zone as three in-shore thermal springs (26.8 m depth, 48.5° C, pH 7.8 and oriented N-S). The preliminary analyses by GC-MS of the tar from these islands indicate hydrothermal petroleum derived from lake sedimentary organic matter, generated at low temperatures (150° -200° C). The tars contain no n-alkanes, no PAH or other aromatics, but a major UCM of branched and cyclic hydrocarbons and mature biomarkers derived from lacustrine biota. The biomarkers consist of mainly 17α (H),21β (H)-hopanes ranging from C27 to C34 (no C28), gammacerane, tricyclic terpanes (C20-C26), carotane and its cracking products, and drimanes (C14-C16). The biomarker composition indicates an organic matter source from bacteria and algae, typical of lacustrine ecosystems. 14C dating of samples from two tar islands yielded ages exceeding 40 kyrs, i.e., old carbon from hydrothermal/tectonic remobilization of bitumen from deeper horizons to the surface. The occurrence of hydrothermal petroleum in

  10. Great Lakes rivermouths: a primer for managers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pebbles, Victoria; Larson, James; Seelbach, Paul; Pebbles, Victoria; Larson, James; Seelbach, Paul

    2013-01-01

    Between the North American Great Lakes and their tributaries are the places where the confluence of river and lake waters creates a distinct ecosystem: the rivermouth ecosystem. Human development has often centered around these rivermouths, in part, because they provide a rich array of ecosystem services. Not surprisingly, centuries of intense human activity have led to substantial pressures on, and alterations to, these ecosystems, often diminishing or degrading their ecological functions and associated ecological services. Many Great Lakes rivermouths are the focus of intense restoration efforts. For example, 36 of the active Great Lakes Areas of Concern (AOCs) are rivermouths or areas that include one or more rivermouths. Historically, research of rivermouth ecosystems has been piecemeal, focused on the Great Lakes proper or on the upper reaches of tributaries, with little direct study of the rivermouth itself. Researchers have been divided among disciplines, agencies and institutions; and they often work independently and use disparate venues to communicate their work. Management has also been fragmented with a focus on smaller, localized, sub-habitat units and socio-political or economic elements, rather than system-level consideration. This Primer presents the case for a more holistic approach to rivermouth science and management that can enable restoration of ecosystem services with multiple benefits to humans and the Great Lakes ecosystem. A conceptual model is presented with supporting text that describes the structures and processes common to all rivermouths, substantiating the case for treating these ecosystems as an identifiable class.1 Ecological services provided by rivermouths and changes in how humans value those services over time are illustrated through case studies of two Great Lakes rivermouths—the St. Louis River and the Maumee River. Specific ecosystem services are identified in italics throughout this Primer and follow definitions described

  11. Heavy Metals Pollution in Lake Mariut

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saad, M.A.H.; Ezzat, A.A.E.; El-Rayis, O.A.; Hafez, H.

    1981-01-01

    The occurrence and distribution of heavy metals in the water of the heavily polluted Lake Mariut (Egypt) during August 1978 to September 1979 as well as the accumulation of these metals in the different parts of the common fish, Tilapia species, were studied. The study represents a second part of a pilot project on pollution of Lake Mariut supported by IAEA. The mean concentrations of the measured Zn, Gu, Fe, Mn and Cd in the lake water were 10.9, 4.2, 19.1, 26.2 and 0.62 μg/l, respectively

  12. Green synthesis of selenium nanoparticles using Acinetobacter sp. SW30: optimization, characterization and its anticancer activity in breast cancer cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wadhwani SA

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Sweety A Wadhwani,1 Mahadeo Gorain,2 Pinaki Banerjee,2 Utkarsha U Shedbalkar,3 Richa Singh,1 Gopal C Kundu,2 Balu A Chopade1,4 1Department of Microbiology, Savitribai Phule Pune University, 2Laboratory of Tumor Biology, Angiogenesis and Nanomedicine Research, National Center for Cell Science, Savitribai Phule Pune University Campus, Pune, 3Department of Biochemistry, The Institute of Science, Mumbai, 4Dr Babasaheb Ambedkar Marathwada University, Aurangabad, Maharashtra, India Abstract: The aim of this study was to synthesize selenium nanoparticles (SeNPs using cell suspension and total cell protein of Acinetobacter sp. SW30 and optimize its synthesis by studying the influence of physiological and physicochemical parameters. Also, we aimed to compare its anticancer activity with that of chemically synthesized SeNPs in breast cancer cells. Cell suspension of Acinetobacter sp. SW30 was exposed to various physiological and physicochemical conditions in the presence of sodium selenite to study their effects on the synthesis and morphology of SeNPs. Breast cancer cells (4T1, MCF-7 and noncancer cells (NIH/3T3, HEK293 were exposed to different concentrations of SeNPs. The 18 h grown culture with 2.7×109 cfu/mL could synthesize amorphous nanospheres of size 78 nm at 1.5 mM and crystalline nanorods at above 2.0 mM Na2SeO3 concentration. Polygonal-shaped SeNPs of average size 79 nm were obtained in the supernatant of 4 mg/mL of total cell protein of Acinetobacter sp. SW30. Chemical SeNPs showed more anticancer activity than SeNPs synthesized by Acinetobacter sp. SW30 (BSeNPs, but they were found to be toxic to noncancer cells also. However, BSeNPs were selective against breast cancer cells than chemical ones. Results suggest that BSeNPs are a good choice of selection as anticancer agents. Keywords: comparison, selective, 4T1, MCF7

  13. Distributions and seasonal abundances of krill eggs and larvae in the sub-Arctic Godthåbsfjord, SW Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Teglhus, Frederik Wolff; Agersted, Mette Dalgaard; Akther, Hasna

    2015-01-01

    The larval krill community (Thysanoessa spp.) was investigated along the sub-Arctic Godthåbsfjord, SW Greenland, in June 2010. In addition, the progress of krill development from egg to furcilia was studied from March to August 2010 in a fjord branching off the Godthåbsfjord. Krill spawned from...... and furcilia stages lasted 22 and 63 d, respectively. The growth rate from metanauplius to calyptopis was 0.12 d−1, while the growth rate across all developmental stages was 0.05 d−1. Mortality rates were calculated as 25% from eggs to nauplii, 48% from eggs to calyptopes and 83% from eggs to furcilia. During...

  14. Variations of soil radon and thoron concentrations in a fault zone and prospective earthquakes in SW Taiwan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, T.F.; Walia, V.; Chyi, L.L.; Fu, C.C.; Chen, C.-H.; Liu, T.K.; Song, S.R.; Lee, C.Y.; Lee, M.

    2005-01-01

    An automatic station for soil gas monitoring was set up on an active fault zone of SW Taiwan. After more than one year of continuous measurements, some spike-like anomalous high radon and thoron concentrations could be observed. A similar soil radon spectrum was also obtained from an independent monitoring station, which was only 100m away. These anomalous peaks usually occurred a few days or weeks before the earthquakes (M L >=4.5). This indicates that variations of both soil radon and thoron can serve as useful tools for earthquake surveillance, esp. at fault zones

  15. Checklist of recent brachiopod species collected during the Terrasses and Exbodi cruises in the New Caledonian region, SW Pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bitner, Maria Aleksandra

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Twenty species belonging to 16 genera, i.e. Neoancistrocrania, Novocrania, Basiliola, Basiliolella, Ebiscothyris, Stenosarina, Kanakythyris, Xenobrochus, Terebratulina, Eucalathis, Fallax, Frenulina, Septicollarina, Campages, Annuloplatidia, and Thecidellina have been identified in the material collected during the Terrasses and Exbodi cruises in the New Caledonian region, SW Pacific. The species Basiliolella grayi (Woodward, 1855) and Fallax neocaledonensis Laurin, 1997 are the most common in the studied collection, while Eucalathis murrayi (Davidson, 1878) is reported for the first time from the New Caledonian region. PMID:26798235

  16. Changes in depth occupied by Great Lakes lake whitefish populations and the influence of survey design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rennie, Michael D.; Weidel, Brian C.; Claramunt, Randall M.; Dunlob, Erin S.

    2015-01-01

    Understanding fish habitat use is important in determining conditions that ultimately affect fish energetics, growth and reproduction. Great Lakes lake whitefish (Coregonus clupeaformis) have demonstrated dramatic changes in growth and life history traits since the appearance of dreissenid mussels in the Great Lakes, but the role of habitat occupancy in driving these changes is poorly understood. To better understand temporal changes in lake whitefish depth of capture (Dw), we compiled a database of fishery-independent surveys representing multiple populations across all five Laurentian Great Lakes. By demonstrating the importance of survey design in estimating Dw, we describe a novel method for detecting survey-based bias in Dw and removing potentially biased data. Using unbiased Dw estimates, we show clear differences in the pattern and timing of changes in lake whitefish Dw between our reference sites (Lake Superior) and those that have experienced significant benthic food web changes (lakes Michigan, Huron, Erie and Ontario). Lake whitefish Dw in Lake Superior tended to gradually shift to shallower waters, but changed rapidly in other locations coincident with dreissenid establishment and declines in Diporeia densities. Almost all lake whitefish populations that were exposed to dreissenids demonstrated deeper Dw following benthic food web change, though a subset of these populations subsequently shifted to more shallow depths. In some cases in lakes Huron and Ontario, shifts towards more shallow Dw are occurring well after documented Diporeia collapse, suggesting the role of other drivers such as habitat availability or reliance on alternative prey sources.

  17. Geochemical monitoring of volcanic lakes. A generalized box model for active crater lakes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franco Tassi

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available

    In the past, variations in the chemical contents (SO42−, Cl−, cations of crater lake water have not systematically demonstrated any relationships with eruptive activity. Intensive parameters (i.e., concentrations, temperature, pH, salinity should be converted into extensive parameters (i.e., fluxes, changes with time of mass and solutes, taking into account all the internal and external chemical–physical factors that affect the crater lake system. This study presents a generalized box model approach that can be useful for geochemical monitoring of active crater lakes, as highly dynamic natural systems. The mass budget of a lake is based on observations of physical variations over a certain period of time: lake volume (level, surface area, lake water temperature, meteorological precipitation, air humidity, wind velocity, input of spring water, and overflow of the lake. This first approach leads to quantification of the input and output fluxes that contribute to the actual crater lake volume. Estimating the input flux of the "volcanic" fluid (Qf- kg/s –– an unmeasurable subsurface parameter –– and tracing its variations with time is the major focus during crater lake monitoring. Through expanding the mass budget into an isotope and chemical budget of the lake, the box model helps to qualitatively characterize the fluids involved. The (calculated Cl− content and dD ratio of the rising "volcanic" fluid defines its origin. With reference to continuous monitoring of crater lakes, the present study provides tips that allow better calculation of Qf in the future. At present, this study offers the most comprehensive and up-to-date literature review on active crater lakes.

  18. A Systematic Study of Zerbar Lake Restoration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseini, Reza; Oveis Torabi, Seyed; Forman Asgharzadeh, Deonna

    2017-04-01

    The beautiful lake of Zerbar, located near Marivan City at the west of Iran, is a freshwater lake with an area of 20 km2 and average depth of 5 meters. The lake is created by regional tectonic activities and is mainly fed with natural spring water from bottom. During the past three decades, regional development has caused much disturbance to the natural environment of the lake and its watershed. Rescuing the lake is crucial to the sustainability of the whole region. The study of Zerbar Restoration was performed with the aim to restore its health indicators. Variety of human activities in the watershed, as well as the multidisciplinary nature of lake restoration studies, made it necessary to develop a systematic approach to conduct the study. In Step I of restoration studies, satellite images were investigated to identify the historical changes of watershed during the past 30 years. Meanwhile, documents since 50 years ago were studied. Results indicate that farmland and graze land areas have been relatively constant during the past 50 years. Also, the area of lake, its riparian canes and floating plants have not changed much. In fact, the only significant land use change observed was the significant spread of Marivan City that has stretched toward the lake. The main physical variation to the lake has been elevating the southern edge of the lake by a constructing a landfill dam which was done to control the lake's overflow discharge for irrigation of downstream farmland development. Step II consists of studies performed by disciplines of water resources, hydrogeology, water quality, wetland and watershed ecology, agriculture, animal farming and fishery. Study results indicate that eutrophication (TSL>100), mainly caused by sewage from Marivan City and the surrounding rural areas has been the main reason for lake ecosystem degradation. DPSIR framework, as a novel approach in lake restoration, was applied to synthesize the study results of different disciplines in a

  19. Sphagnum mosses as a microhabitat for invertebrates in acidified lakes and the colour adaptation and substrate preference in Leucorrhinia dubia (Odonata, Anisoptera)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henrikson, B.-I. (Dept. of Zoology, Sect. of Animal Ecology, Univ. of Goeteborg, Goeteborg (Sweden))

    1993-01-01

    The increase of peat mosses, Sphagnum spp., in acidified lakes leads to a changed microhabitat structure for benthic invertebrates. The importance of this change was investigated for some benthic invertebrates. Comparisons between quantitative samples of Sphagnum and debris within the acidified Lake Stora Haestevatten, in the Lake Gaardsjoen catchment of SW Sweden, showed significantly higher abundances of Chironomidae, Ceratopogonidae, Odonata, Trichoptera, Cladocera and Argyroneta aquatica (Araneae) in Sphagnum. For chironomidae and Cladocera the differences were tenfold. Special reference was made to the libellulid Leucorrhinia dubia which is common in acid lakes. In a laboratory test, late instar larvae of L. dubia were shown to change colour to correspond to the brown and green colour of Sphagnum. This result was completed with a field test where larvae of L. dubia were significantly more common in Sphagnum of the same colour as the larvae. The ability to change colour may have an adaptive value when coexisting with visual predators. Small larvae were more prevalent in Sphagnum and they also showed a preference for this substrate in the laboratory test. Laboratory tests showed mediumsized larvae preferred Sphagnum. Larvae of L. dubia were more successful as predators on Asellus aquaticus in Sphagnum substrate than in debris in the laboratory test. Laboratory predation tests with notonecta glauca, Corixa dentipes, Acilius sulcatus, Hyphydrus ovatus and L. dubia showed that they could all feed on larvae of L. dubia. The complex habitat structure of Sphagnum is probably the reason for the high abundance of invertebrates since it may serve as both shelter against predation and as foraging sites. it is probably important as a key habitat for young instars of, for example, L. dubia. In lakes with large Sphagnum mats, L. dubia can coexist with fish. The expansion of Sphagnum due to acidification will probably benefit many acid-tolerant invertebrate species. (au)

  20. Crotch Lake dam rehabilitation project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brunet, G.; Dobrowolski, E.

    1999-01-01

    Replacement of the existing wood crib dam structure on Crotch Lake on the Mississippi River in eastern Ontario that provided water storage for the power production at High Falls Generating Station, became necessary when it was determined that the dam did not meet Ontario-Hydro's safety standards. This paper describes the project of replacing the existing structure with a PVC coated gabion wall with waterproofing. The entire structure was covered with three layers of wire mesh, laced together, and criss-crossed for superior strength and rigidity. The work was completed in 28 days with no environmental impact . Life expectancy of the new structure is in excess of 40 years. With periodic maintenance of the gabion mat cover, life span could be extended an additional 20 to 40 years. 5 figs

  1. Sources and distribution of microplastics in China's largest inland lake - Qinghai Lake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Xiong; Zhang, Kai; Chen, Xianchuan; Shi, Huahong; Luo, Ze; Wu, Chenxi

    2018-04-01

    Microplastic pollution was studied in China's largest inland lake - Qinghai Lake in this work. Microplastics were detected with abundance varies from 0.05 × 10 5 to 7.58 × 10 5 items km -2 in the lake surface water, 0.03 × 10 5 to 0.31 × 10 5 items km -2 in the inflowing rivers, 50 to 1292 items m -2 in the lakeshore sediment, and 2 to 15 items per individual in the fish samples, respectively. Small microplastics (0.1-0.5 mm) dominated in the lake surface water while large microplastics (1-5 mm) are more abundant in the river samples. Microplastics were predominantly in sheet and fiber shapes in the lake and river water samples but were more diverse in the lakeshore sediment samples. Polymer types of microplastics were mainly polyethylene (PE) and polypropylene (PP) as identified using Raman Spectroscopy. Spatially, microplastic abundance was the highest in the central part of the lake, likely due to the transport of lake current. Based on the higher abundance of microplastics near the tourist access points, plastic wastes from tourism are considered as an important source of microplastics in Qinghai Lake. As an important area for wildlife conservation, better waste management practice should be implemented, and waste disposal and recycling infrastructures should be improved for the protection of Qinghai Lake. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Hydrological and solute budgets of Lake Qinghai, the largest lake on the Tibetan Plateau

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jin, Zhangdong [Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), Beijing (China); National Cheng Kung Univ., Tainan City (Taiwan); You, Chen-Feng [National Cheng Kung Univ., Tainan City (Taiwan); Wang, Yi [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Shi, Yuewei [Bureau of Hydrology and Water Resources of Qinghai Province, Xining (China)

    2009-12-04

    Water level and chemistry of Lake Qinghai are sensitive to climate changes and are important for paleoclimatic implications. An accurate understanding of hydrological and chemical budgets is crucial for quantifying geochemical proxies and carbon cycle. Published results of water budget are firstly reviewed in this paper. Chemical budget and residence time of major dissolved constituents in the lake are estimated using reliable water budget and newly obtained data for seasonal water chemistry. The results indicate that carbonate weathering is the most important riverine process, resulting in dominance of Ca 2+ and DIC for river waters and groundwater. Groundwater contribution to major dissolved constituents is relatively small (4.2 ± 0.5%). Wet atmospheric deposition contributes annually 7.4–44.0% soluble flux to the lake, resulting from eolian dust throughout the seasons. Estimates of chemical budget further suggest that (1) the Buha-type water dominates the chemical components of the lake water, (2) Na+, Cl-, Mg 2+ , and K+ in lake water are enriched owing to their conservative behaviors, and (3) precipitation of authigenic carbonates (low-Mg calcite, aragonite, and dolomite) transits quickly dissolved Ca 2+ into the bottom sediments of the lake, resulting in very low Ca 2+ in the lake water. Therefore, authigenic carbonates in the sediments hold potential information on the relative contribution of different solute inputs to the lake and the lake chemistry in the past.

  3. L-Lake zooplankton: L-Lake/Steel Creek Biological Monitoring Program, November 1985--December 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bowers, J.A. [Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States); Bowen, M. [Normandeau Associates, Inc., New Ellenton, SC (United States)

    1992-03-01

    The L- Lake Biological Monitoring Program was designed to meet environmental regulatory requirements associated with the restart of L-Reactor and address portions of Section 316(a) of the Clean Water Act, which requires an applicant for a discharge permit to provide scientific evidence that the discharge causes no significant impact on the indigenous ecosystem. The Department of Energy (DOE) must demonstrate that the discharge of L-Reactor affluent into L Lake will not inhibit the eventual establishment of a ``Balanced Biological Community`` (BBC) in at least 50% of the lake. This report details results of monitoring zooplankton populations in L-Lake.

  4. L-Lake zooplankton: L-Lake/Steel Creek Biological Monitoring Program, November 1985--December 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bowers, J.A.; Bowen, M.

    1992-03-01

    The L- Lake Biological Monitoring Program was designed to meet environmental regulatory requirements associated with the restart of L-Reactor and address portions of Section 316(a) of the Clean Water Act, which requires an applicant for a discharge permit to provide scientific evidence that the discharge causes no significant impact on the indigenous ecosystem. The Department of Energy (DOE) must demonstrate that the discharge of L-Reactor affluent into L Lake will not inhibit the eventual establishment of a ''Balanced Biological Community'' (BBC) in at least 50% of the lake. This report details results of monitoring zooplankton populations in L-Lake

  5. Stable isotope and hydrogeochemical studies of Beaver Lake and Lake Radok, MacRobertson Land, East Antarctica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wand, U.; Hermichen, W.D.; Hoefling, R.; Muehle, K.

    1987-01-01

    Beaver Lake and Lake Radok, the largest known epishelf and the deepest freshwater lake on the Antarctic continent, respectively, were isotopically (δ 2 H, δ 18 O) and hydrogeochemically studied. Lake Radok is an isothermal and non-stratified, i.e. homogeneous water body, while Beaver Lake is stratified with respect to temperature, salinity and isotopic composition. The results for the latter attest to freshwater (derived from snow and glacier melt) overlying seawater. (author)

  6. Palaeolimnological evidence of vulnerability of Lake Neusiedl (Austria) toward climate related changes since the last "vanished-lake" stage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolotti, Monica; Milan, Manuela; Boscaini, Adriano; Soja, Gerhard; Herzig, Alois

    2013-04-01

    The palaeolimnological reconstruction of secular evolution of Euroepan Lakes with key socio-economical relevance respect to large (climate change) and local scale (land use, tourism) environmental changes, represents one of the objectives of the project EuLakes (European Lakes Under Environmental Stressors, Supporting lake governance to mitigate the impact of climate change, Reg. N. 2CE243P3), launched in 2010 within the Central European Inititiative. The project consortium comprises lakes of different morphology and prevalent human uses, including the meso-eutrophic Lake Neusiedl, the largest Austrian lake (total area 315 km2), and the westernmost shallow (mean depth 1.2 m) steppe lake of the Euro-Asiatic continent. The volume of Lake Neusiedl can potentially change over the years, in relation with changing balance between atmospheric precipitation and lake water evapotranspiration. Changing water budget, together with high lake salinity and turbidity, have important implications over the lake ecosystem. This contribution illustrates results of the multi-proxi palaeolimnological reconstruction of ecologial changes occurred in Lake Neusiedl during the last ca. 140 years, i.e. since the end of the last "vanished-lake" stage (1865-1871). Geochemical and biological proxies anticipate the increase in lake productivity of ca. 10 years (1950s) respect to what reported in the literature. Diatom species composition indicate a biological lake recovery in the late 1980s, and suggest a second increment in lake productivity since the late 1990s, possibly in relation with the progressive increase in the nitrogen input from agriculture. Abundance of diatoms typical of brackish waters indicated no significant long-term change in lake salinity, while variations in species toleranting dessiccation confirm the vulnerability of Lake Neusiedl toward climate-driven changes in the lake water balance. This fragility is aggravated by the the semi-arid climate conditions of the catchemnt

  7. Investigation of Residence and Travel Times in a Large Floodplain Lake with Complex Lake-River Interactions: Poyang Lake (China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunliang Li

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Most biochemical processes and associated water quality in lakes depends on their flushing abilities. The main objective of this study was to investigate the transport time scale in a large floodplain lake, Poyang Lake (China. A 2D hydrodynamic model (MIKE 21 was combined with dye tracer simulations to determine residence and travel times of the lake for various water level variation periods. The results indicate that Poyang Lake exhibits strong but spatially heterogeneous residence times that vary with its highly seasonal water level dynamics. Generally, the average residence times are less than 10 days along the lake’s main flow channels due to the prevailing northward flow pattern; whereas approximately 30 days were estimated during high water level conditions in the summer. The local topographically controlled flow patterns substantially increase the residence time in some bays with high spatial values of six months to one year during all water level variation periods. Depending on changes in the water level regime, the travel times from the pollution sources to the lake outlet during the high and falling water level periods (up to 32 days are four times greater than those under the rising and low water level periods (approximately seven days.

  8. Estimation of lake water - groundwater interactions in meromictic mining lakes by modelling isotope signatures of lake water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seebach, Anne; Dietz, Severine; Lessmann, Dieter; Knoeller, Kay

    2008-03-01

    A method is presented to assess lake water-groundwater interactions by modelling isotope signatures of lake water using meteorological parameters and field data. The modelling of delta(18)O and deltaD variations offers information about the groundwater influx into a meromictic Lusatian mining lake. Therefore, a water balance model is combined with an isotope water balance model to estimate analogies between simulated and measured isotope signatures within the lake water body. The model is operated with different evaporation rates to predict delta(18)O and deltaD values in a lake that is only controlled by weather conditions with neither groundwater inflow nor outflow. Comparisons between modelled and measured isotope values show whether the lake is fed by the groundwater or not. Furthermore, our investigations show that an adaptation of the Craig and Gordon model [H. Craig, L.I. Gordon. Deuterium and oxygen-18 variations in the ocean and the marine atmosphere. In Stable Isotopes in Oceanographic Studies and Paleotemperature, Spoleto, E. Tongiorgi (Ed.), pp. 9-130, Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Laboratorio di Geologia Nucleare, Pisa (1965).] to specific conditions in temperate regions seems necessary.

  9. Late Quaternary stratigraphy of the La Janda Basin (SW Spain) - first results and palaeoenvironmental significance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Höbig, Nicole; Santisteban, Juan; Mediavilla, Rosa; May, Simon Matthias; Klasen, Nicole; Brückner, Helmut; van't Hoff, Jasmijn; Reicherter, Klaus

    2017-04-01

    The La Janda basin in southern Spain is a near-shore geo-bio-archive comprising a variable Quaternary depositional history, with shallow marine, lacustrine, palustrine, and terrestrial strata. In the 1930s the lake was drained and is serving now as a huge agricultural area. The 33 m-core recovered in fall 2016 along with several shallower drill cores up to c. 15 m, reveals insights into a unique mixed terrestrial palaeo-environmental archive in Andalucia influenced by the Atlantic Ocean and hence the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) within the Gulf of Cádiz. The basin's evolution was influenced both by the postglacial marine transgression and by an active tectonic fault controlling most of the accommodation space by causing subsidence. Our long core was accompanied by further corings along an E-W striking transect in order to reveal also the relation of the influence of tectonic activity with sedimentary sequences. Multi-Sensor Core Logging has been completed. Results of sedimentological, geochemical and micropalaeontological analyses will be presented in the frame of the climate variations during the Late Pleistocene and the Holocene, along with a preliminary age-depth model based on radiocarbon (AMS-14C) and optical stimulated luminescence (OSL) dating techniques. Our investigations ultimately aim at providing valuable information on major Late Pleistocene to Holocene climatic and palaeo-environmental fluctuations in the southernmost part of the Iberian Peninsula.

  10. Morphogenesis of the Czechowskie Lake as inferred from the sedimentological analysis of limnic, colluvial and glacifluvial deposits (Eastern Pomerania, North Central Poland)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kordowski, Jaroslaw; Błaszkiewicz, Mirosław; Kramkowski, Mateusz; Słowiński, Michał; Tyszkowski, Sebastian; Brauer, Achim; Ott, Florian

    2014-05-01

    Czechowskie Lake is situated in north-central Poland in Tuchola Forest, about 100 kilometers SW away from Gdańsk. In the deepest parts of the lake bottom, there are hidden laminated sediments which hold the Late Glacial and Holcene climatic record. These deposits are subject of detailled work of the joint German-Polish Virtual Institute of Integrated Climate and Landscape Evolution (ICLEA) of the Helmholtz Association. It has the area of 76,6 ha. Actual water level is at 109,9 m a.s.l. The average depth is 9,59 m, maximal 32 m. The lake occupies a large subglacial channel, reproduced within the glacifluvial sediments of the Pomeranian Phase of the last glaciation. In the widest place it has the width of 1 kilometer. The maximal depth of the channel (counting from the channel edges to the reconstructed deepest lake mineral floor (after removal of the limnic sediments)) may reach 70 meters. Inside of the channel some throughs and small hills do exist which are built of outwash sediments but, considering internal structures, they bear some similarity to the dead ice moraines and kames. The vicinity of the channel consists of two outwash plain levels. The lower one was created on the dead ice blocks. The maximum infilling with the limnic and telmatic sediments reaches over 12 m. In the bottom of the lake there is a marked presence of many overdeepenings with the diameter of dozen or several dozen meters and the depth of up to 10 m with numerous, distinct throughs between them. They favoured the preservation of the lamination in the deepest parts of the lake due to waves hampering and stopping of the density circulation in the lake waterbody. In the colluvial and fluvioglacial deposits there were carried out carefull sedminetological analyses. Limnic sediments were identified by bore holes with preserved undisturbed structure. All done works revealed that some of the glacifluvial deposits were deposited in subglacial conditions in supercritical flow regime. They were

  11. Predicting the locations of naturally fishless lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schilling, Emily Gaenzle; Loftin, C.S.; Degoosh, K.E.; Huryn, Alexander D.; Webster, K.E.

    2008-01-01

    1. Fish have been introduced into many previously fishless lakes throughout North America over the past 100+ years. It is difficult to determine the historical distribution of fishless lakes, however, because these introductions have not always been well-documented. 2. Due to its glacial history and low human population density, the state of Maine (U.S.A.) may host the greatest number of naturally fishless lakes in the northeastern United States. However, less than one-quarter of Maine's 6000+ lakes have been surveyed for fish presence, and no accurate assessments of either the historical or current abundance and distribution of fishless lakes exist. 3. We developed methods to assess the abundance and distribution of Maine's naturally fishless lakes (0.6-10.1 ha). We hypothesized that the historical distribution of fishless lakes across a landscape is controlled by geomorphic and geographic conditions. 4. We used ArcGIS to identify landscape-scale geomorphic and geographic factors (e.g. connectivity, surrounding slope) correlated with fish absence in two geomorphic regions of Maine - the western and interior mountains and the eastern lowlands and foothills. By using readily available geographic information systems data our method was not limited to field-visited sites. We estimated the likelihood that a particular lake is fishless with a stepwise logistic regression model developed for each region. 5. The absence of fish from western lakes is related to altitude (+), minimum percent slope in the 500 m buffer (+), maximum percent slope in the 500 m buffer (+) and percent cover of herbaceous-emergent wetland in 1000 m buffer (-). The absence of fish from eastern lakes is related to the lack of a stream within 50 m of the lake. 6. The models predict that a total of 4% (131) of study lakes in the two regions were historically fishless, with the eastern region hosting a greater proportion than the western region. 7. We verified the model predictions with two

  12. VT Lake Champlain (extracted from VHDCARTO) - polygon

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) LKCH5K is an extract of Lake Champlain that is derived from VHDCARTO. The following metadata is from VHDCARTO.VHDCARTO is a simplified version of...

  13. DNR 100K Lakes and Rivers

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — Polygons representing hydrographic features (lakes, ponds, some rivers, and open water areas) originating from the USGS 1:100,000 (100K)DLG (Digital Line Graph)...

  14. Lake Naivasha Sustainability : Ecosystem Improvement for Health ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Lake Naivasha Sustainability : Ecosystem Improvement for Health and ... The overall goal is to make recommendations for the sustainable management of natural ... to improve livestock vaccine development and production to benefit farmers ...

  15. Targets set to reduce Lake Erie algae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Mary

    2016-01-01

    In February 2016, the Great Lakes Executive Committee, which oversees the implementation of the Great Lakes Water Quality Agreement (GLWQA) between the U.S. and Canada, approved phosphorus loading targets for Lake Erie to reduce the size of harmful algal blooms (HABs), reduce the presence of the low oxygen zone in the central basin, and protect nearshore water quality. The targets are set with respect to the nutrient loads calculated for 2008. To reduce the impacts of HABs on Lake Erie a target was set of a 40 percent reduction in total and soluble reactive phosphorus loads in the spring from two Canadian rivers and several Michigan and Ohio rivers, especially the Maumee River (https://binational.net/2016/02/22/ finalptargets-ciblesfinalesdep/). States and the province of Ontario are already developing Domestic Action Plans to accomplish the reductions and scientists are developing research and monitoring plans to assess progress.

  16. Pulpwood Production in the Lake States

    Science.gov (United States)

    James E. Blyth; Jerold T. Hahn

    1977-01-01

    This 31st annual report shows 1976 pulpwood production by county and species group in Michigan, Minnesota, and Wisconsin. Production in these three Lake States climbed to 4.7 million cords from 4.1 million cords in 1975

  17. Lake Beach Monitoring Locations in Iowa

    Data.gov (United States)

    Iowa State University GIS Support and Research Facility — Monitored state lake beach locations in Iowa. The Watershed Monitoring & Assessment Section of the Iowa DNR takes regular water samples at these listed beaches...

  18. Great Lakes CoastWatch Node

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — CoastWatch is a nationwide National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) program within which the Great Lakes Environmental Research Laboratory (GLERL)...

  19. Biota - 2009 Vegetation Inventory - Lake Ashtabula, ND

    Data.gov (United States)

    Army Corps of Engineers, Department of the Army, Department of Defense — 2009 Vegetation Classification for Lake Ashtabula, ND Vegetation Project Report, OMBIL Environmental Stewardship - Level 1 Inventory, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers...

  20. Network Skewness Measures Resilience in Lake Ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langdon, P. G.; Wang, R.; Dearing, J.; Zhang, E.; Doncaster, P.; Yang, X.; Yang, H.; Dong, X.; Hu, Z.; Xu, M.; Yanjie, Z.; Shen, J.

    2017-12-01

    Changes in ecosystem resilience defy straightforward quantification from biodiversity metrics, which ignore influences of community structure. Naturally self-organized network structures show positive skewness in the distribution of node connections. Here we test for skewness reduction in lake diatom communities facing anthropogenic stressors, across a network of 273 lakes in China containing 452 diatom species. Species connections show positively skewed distributions in little-impacted lakes, switching to negative skewness in lakes associated with human settlement, surrounding land-use change, and higher phosphorus concentration. Dated sediment cores reveal a down-shifting of network skewness as human impacts intensify, and reversal with recovery from disturbance. The appearance and degree of negative skew presents a new diagnostic for quantifying system resilience and impacts from exogenous forcing on ecosystem communities.