Sample records for ebd

  1. The EBD Teacher Stressors Questionnaire. (United States)

    Center, David B.; Steventon, Candace


    Two studies examined the validity of a self-report instrument that assesses occupational stressors in teachers of students with emotional and behavioral disorders (EBD). Differences were found in the stress management resources of low and high scoring EBD teachers on the measure and between scores of EBD and general education teachers, although…

  2. Self-Monitoring Interventions for Students with EBD: Applying UDL to a Research-Based Practice (United States)

    Cook, Sara Cothren; Rao, Kavita; Collins, Lauren


    Students with emotional and behavioral disorders (EBD) have unique academic and behavioral needs that require the use of evidence-based practices. One way that teachers can support students with EBD is by individualizing interventions, such as self-monitoring, while maintaining a high level of fidelity. In this article, the authors describe how…

  3. Evidence-Based Social Skills Interventions for Students at Risk for EBD (United States)

    Gresham, Frank


    Children and youth with or at risk for emotional and behavioral disorders (EBDs) present substantial challenges for schools, teachers, parents, and peers. Social skills interventions have been shown to be effective for this population. Meta-analytic reviews of this literature show that about 65% of students with EBD will improve when given social…

  4. Reflections and Perceptions: My Third of a Century in the Field of EBD. (United States)

    Guetzloe, Eleanor


    A professor of special education specializing in students with emotional or behavioral disorders (EBD) reviews her career from 1966 to the present noting the influence of the literature, authorities, and Public Law 94-142. Changes during this time identified include more effective interventions and increasing danger from student weapons. She urges…

  5. Cross-Cultural Comparisons and Implications for Students with EBD: A Decade of Understanding (United States)

    Chakraborti-Ghosh, Sumita; Mofield, Emily; Orellana, Karee


    This paper presents cross-cultural comparisons on definitions, prevalence, and outcomes of students with emotional-behavior disorders (EBD). In addition, the paper addresses the concern of disproportionality and the need for teachers of students with behavior problems to be culturally responsive to perceived inappropriate behaviors. A review of…

  6. Behavior Bingo: The Effects of a Culturally Relevant Group Contingency Intervention for Students with EBD (United States)

    Collins, Tai A.; Hawkins, Renee O.; Flowers, Emily M.; Kalra, Hilary D.; Richard, Jessie; Haas, Lauren E.


    Students with emotional and behavioral disorders (EBD) have difficulty with academic engagement during independent seatwork tasks. The goal of the current study was to evaluate the effectiveness of Behavior Bingo, a novel interdependent group contingency intervention, on the academic engagement, off-task, and disruptive behavior of students with…

  7. Why Teachers Find It Difficult to Include Students with EBD in Mainstream Classes (United States)

    Gidlund, Ulrika


    In Sweden, teachers in mainstream schools show frustration and insecurity about how to organise education for inclusion and diversity. This article contributes to the understanding of how they articulate their view of the advantages and disadvantages of including students with EBD in mainstream classes. To study teachers' understanding, an…

  8. On the impact of `smart tyres' on existing ABS/EBD control systems (United States)

    Cheli, Federico; Leo, Elisbetta; Melzi, Stefano; Sabbioni, Edoardo


    The paper focuses on the possibility of enhancing the performances of the ABS (Antilock Braking System)/EBD (electronic braking distribution) control system by using the additional information provided by 'smart tyres' (i.e. tyres with embedded sensors and digital-computing capability). In particular, on the basis of previous works [Braghin et al., Future car active controls through the measurement of contact forces and patch features, Veh. Syst. Dyn. 44 (2006), pp. 3-13], the authors assumed that these components should be able to provide estimates for the normal loads acting on the four wheels and for the tyre-road friction coefficient. The benefits produced by the introduction of these additional channels into the existing ABS/EBD control logic were evaluated through simulations carried out with a validated 14 degrees of freedom (dofs) vehicle + ABS/EBD control logic numerical model. The performance of the ABS control system was evaluated through a series of braking manoeuvres on straight track focusing the attention on μ -jump conditions, while the performance of the EBD control system was assessed by means of braking manoeuvres carried out considering several weight distributions.

  9. Personality Traits of Expert Teachers of Students with EBD: Clarifying a Teacher's X-Factor (United States)

    Buttner, Svenja; Pijl, Sip Jan; Bijstra, Jan; Van den Bosch, Els


    Teaching students with emotional and behavioural difficulties (EBD) is a challenge for many teachers in inclusive education. Much research has been done to find out what differentiates expert teachers from their less skilled colleagues. Recent evidence points to personality as an underlying core factor influencing teacher performance. In this…

  10. Relationships of Aggression Subtypes and Peer Status among Aggressive Boys in General Education and Emotional/Behavioral Disorder (EBD) Classrooms (United States)

    Useche, Ana Carolina; Sullivan, Amanda L.; Merk, Welmoet; Orobio de Castro, Bram


    This study examines the concurrent and longitudinal relationships between reactive and proactive aggression and children's peer status. Participants were 94 Dutch elementary school-aged boys in self-contained special education classrooms for students with emotional/behavioral disorders (EBD) and 47 boys with no disabilities in general education…

  11. Relationships of Aggression Subtypes and Peer Status Among Aggressive Boys in General Education and Emotional/Behavioral Disorder (EBD) Classrooms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Useche, Ana Carolina; Sullivan, Amanda L.; Merk, Welmoet; Orobio de Castro, Bram


    This study examines the concurrent and longitudinal relationships between reactive and proactive aggression and children's peer status. Participants were 94 Dutch elementary school-aged boys in self-contained special education classrooms for students with emotional/behavioral disorders (EBD) and 47

  12. Combining Self-Monitoring and an Interdependent Group Contingency to Improve the Behavior of Sixth Graders with EBD (United States)

    Denune, Hilary; Hawkins, Renee; Donovan, Lauren; Mccoy, Dacia; Hall, Lyndsie; Moeder, Anthony


    A withdrawal design was used to examine the influence of a self-monitoring procedure on the overall effectiveness of an interdependent group contingency intervention implemented in a sixth-grade classroom in an alternative school serving students with emotional and behavioral disorders (EBD). Dependent variables included student on-task, off-task,…

  13. Cost Effectiveness of the Instrumentalism in Occupational Therapy (IOT) Conceptual Model as a Guide for Intervention with Adolescents with Emotional and Behavioral Disorders (EBD) (United States)

    Ikiugu, Moses N.; Anderson, Lynne


    The purpose of this paper was to demonstrate the cost-effectiveness of using the Instrumentalism in Occupational Therapy (IOT) conceptual practice model as a guide for intervention to assist teenagers with emotional and behavioral disorders (EBD) transition successfully into adulthood. The cost effectiveness analysis was based on a project…

  14. The "B" in EBD Is Not Just for Bullying (United States)

    Kauffman, James M.


    Problems in defining emotional and behavioural difficulties of all types, including bullying, are discussed. Interactions among seeing, naming and communicating about these phenomena are considered. School and community characteristics of students with emotional and behavioural difficulties are touched upon. Major problems in definition and…

  15. Electron beam fusion data acquisition program DATAIN (EBD)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boyer, W.B.


    This report describes the e beam automatic data acquisition program DATAIN. The program was written for a Modular Computer Systems Modcomp II computer interfaced to Tektronix R7912 Transient Digitizers. Operator Communications and data handling steps are described

  16. Emotional or Behavioral Disorders: Background and Current Status of the E/BD Terminology and Definition. (United States)

    Forness, Steven R.; Kavale, Kenneth A.


    This article reviews the development and current status of alternatives to the federal definition of emotional disturbance or behavior disorders. It notes that several states are now revising their own terminologies or definitions in response to the 1997 reauthorization of the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act that dropped the term…

  17. Deconstructing a Definition: Social Maladjustment versus Emotional Disturbance and Moving the EBD Field Forward (United States)

    Merrell, Kenneth W.; Walker, Hill M.


    In this article we discuss the definition of emotionally disturbed (ED) from the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act, with a specific focus on the clause contained in this definition, which is designed to exclude from special education services students who are considered to be socially maladjusted (SM). The history of the SM exclusionary…

  18. 75 FR 70730 - EBD Hydro; Notice of Application Accepted for Filing and Soliciting Comments, Motions To... (United States)


    ... Hydroelectric Project would be located on the concrete drop structure of the North Unit Irrigation District's...-inch diameter reinforced Krah/HDPE pipe; (3) a proposed powerhouse containing three proposed generating...

  19. Identifying and Assessing Community-Based Social Behavior of Adolescents and Young Adults with EBD. (United States)

    Bullis, Michael; And Others


    A battery of three measures for assessing the community-based social behavior of adolescents and young adults with emotional and behavioral disorders is described. The measures, in male and female forms, are "Test of Community-Based Social Skill Knowledge,""Scale of Community-Based Social Skill Performance," and "Behaviors That Are Undesirable for…

  20. Four Supportive Pillars in Career Exploration and Development for Adolescents with LD and EBD (United States)

    Trainor, Audrey A.; Smith, Shane Anthony; Kim, Sunyoung


    In addition to typical career development and vocational programs in general education, providing school-based programs that are directly linked to employment and career development for youth with learning and emotional and behavioral disabilities is a legally mandated service in special education. Several broad research-based strategies are…

  1. A Meta-Analysis of Video-Modeling Based Interventions for Reduction of Challenging Behaviors for Students with EBD (United States)

    Losinski, Mickey; Wiseman, Nicole; White, Sherry A.; Balluch, Felicity


    The current study examined the use of video modeling (VM)-based interventions to reduce the challenging behaviors of students with emotional or behavioral disorders. Each study was evaluated using Council for Exceptional Children's (CEC's) quality indicators for evidence-based practices. In addition, study effects were calculated along the three…

  2. Is There Any Point in Wearing Dead Men's Spectacles? How the Theoretical Insights of Adler and Colleagues Relate to Current Practice with Children Experiencing EBD (United States)

    Blamires, Mike


    This article explores the legacy of Adlerian approaches to behaviour. Mike Blamires offers an opportunity to consider the impact of Adler's premise that education is fundamentally about encouragement and the promotion of democratic principles. In so doing he challenges us to interrogate the term "behaviour management", and its current use by…

  3. Balloon Dilatation for Corrosive Esophageal Strictures in Children: Radiologic and Clinical Outcomes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Youn, Byung Jae; Kim, Woo Sun; Cheon, Jung Eun; Kim, Wha Young; Shin, Su Mi; Kim, In One; Yeon, Kyung Mo [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)


    We retrospectively evaluated the effectiveness of the esophageal balloon dilatation (EBD) in children with a corrosive esophageal stricture. The study subjects included 14 patients (M:F = 8:6, age range: 17-85 months) who underwent an EBD due to a corrosive esophageal stricture. The causative agents for the condition were glacial acetic acid (n = 9) and lye (n = 5). A total of 52 EBD sessions were performed in 14 patients (range 1-8 sessions). During the mean 15-month follow-up period (range 1-79 months), 12 patients (86%) underwent additional EBD due to recurrent esophageal stricture. Dysphagia improved after each EBD session and oral feeding was possible between EBD sessions. Long-term success (defined as dysphagia relief for at least 12 months after the last EBD) was achieved in two patients (14%). Temporary success of EBD (defined as dysphagia relief for at least one month after the EBD session) was achieved in 17 out of 52 sessions (33%). A submucosal tear of the esophagus was observed in two (4%) sessions of EBD. Only a limited number of children with corrosive esophageal strictures were considered cured by EBD. However, the outcome of repeated EBD was sufficient to allow the children to eat per os prior to surgical management.

  4. Emotional and Behavioral Disorders in South Korea: Current Status and Issues (United States)

    Kim, Joungmin; Kim, Kyeong-hwa


    In South Korea, there is no consensus on the definition of emotional and behavioral disorders (EBD). This column focuses on how the definition has affected the prevalence rates and services available for students with EBDs. Of the legal, clinical, and educational definitions, the legal definition of EBDs is currently in common use, which raises…

  5. An Idea for the Future of Dental Research: A Cloud-Based Clinical Network and Database (United States)

    Owtad, Payam; Taichman, Russell; Park, Jae Hyun; Yaibuathes, Sorn; Knapp, John


    Evidence-based dentistry (EBD) is an approach to oral healthcare requiring systematic assessment of relevant scientific evidence to clinical practice and patients' needs. EBD attempts to globally establish personalized dental care based upon the most recent and highest order scientific evidence. However, some times the EBD does not consider local…

  6. Balloon Dilatation for Corrosive Esophageal Strictures in Children: Radiologic and Clinical Outcomes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Youn, Byung Jae; Kim, Woo Sun; Cheon, Jung Eun; Kim, Wha Young; Shin, Su Mi; Kim, In One; Yeon, Kyung Mo


    We retrospectively evaluated the effectiveness of the esophageal balloon dilatation (EBD) in children with a corrosive esophageal stricture. The study subjects included 14 patients (M:F = 8:6, age range: 17-85 months) who underwent an EBD due to a corrosive esophageal stricture. The causative agents for the condition were glacial acetic acid (n = 9) and lye (n = 5). A total of 52 EBD sessions were performed in 14 patients (range 1-8 sessions). During the mean 15-month follow-up period (range 1-79 months), 12 patients (86%) underwent additional EBD due to recurrent esophageal stricture. Dysphagia improved after each EBD session and oral feeding was possible between EBD sessions. Long-term success (defined as dysphagia relief for at least 12 months after the last EBD) was achieved in two patients (14%). Temporary success of EBD (defined as dysphagia relief for at least one month after the EBD session) was achieved in 17 out of 52 sessions (33%). A submucosal tear of the esophagus was observed in two (4%) sessions of EBD. Only a limited number of children with corrosive esophageal strictures were considered cured by EBD. However, the outcome of repeated EBD was sufficient to allow the children to eat per os prior to surgical management

  7. The challenge of integrating evidence-based design. (United States)

    Martin, Caren S


    This paper discusses the integration of evidence-based design (EBD) into the design process as an innovation, illuminates the significance and progress of the diffusion of this innovation, and identifies EBD advocates and the consequences of meeting the EBD challenge. A free tool for engaging in EBD is explored. Healthcare designers are leading the EBD charge, because their clients depend on it. But not all designers engage in EBD, because it may be beyond the resources of a firm or outside its culture. However, as with other meaningful design innovations, designers who do not practice EBD could fall by the wayside. EBD is a product of the diffusion of the innovation of evidence-based medicine. The academy (i.e., the collective of institutions of higher education), design organizations, design communities, and the media all contribute to the diffusion of EBD. However, the quantity, quality, and understandability of evidence continue to challenge its broad adoption. InformeDesign®, a free, Internet-based tool, presents information to designers in a concise, understandable way. Firms must invest in EBD incrementally as a value-added component of design to meet current and future challenges. It is important for designers to realize that engaging in EBD is not a rejection of creativity, but a means by which to elevate their design solutions. ©2009 VENDOME GROUP, LLC

  8. Access to care for children with emotional/behavioral difficulties. (United States)

    Henning-Smith, Carrie; Alang, Sirry


    Emotional/behavioral difficulties (EBDs) are increasingly diagnosed in children, constituting some of the most common chronic childhood conditions. Left untreated, EBDs pose long-term individual and population-level consequences. There is a growing evidence of disparities in EBD prevalence by various demographic characteristics. This article builds on this research by examining disparities in access to medical care for children with EBD. From 2008 to 2011, using data from the US National Health Interview Survey (N = 31,631) on sample children aged 4-17, we investigate (1) whether having EBD affects access to care (modeled as delayed care due to cost and difficulty making an appointment) and (2) the role demographic characteristics, health insurance coverage, and frequency of service use play in access to care for children with EBD. Results indicate that children with EBD experience issues in accessing care at more than twice the rate of children without EBD, even though they are less likely to be uninsured than their counterparts without EBD. In multivariable models, children with EBD are still more likely to experience delayed care due to cost and difficulty making a timely appointment, even after adjusting for frequency of health service use, insurance coverage, and demographic characteristics. © The Author(s) 2015.

  9. Promise and Possibility in Special Education Services for Students with Emotional or Behavioral Disorders: Peacock Hill Revisited (United States)

    Gage, Nicholas A.; Adamson, Reesha; Mitchell, Barbara S.; Lierheimer, Kristin; O'Connor, Karen V.; Bailey, Natasha; Schultz, Tia; Schmidt, Carla; Jones, Stacey


    This article provides an historical look at how programs and practices for students with emotional or behavior disorders (E/BD) have been evaluated since 1964, leading to a codified, although not universally recognized, set of recommendations for evaluating best practices for students with E/BD set out by The Peacock Hill Working Group (1991). The…

  10. Defining Administrative Support and Its Relationship to the Attrition of Teachers of Students with Emotional and Behavioral Disorders (United States)

    Cancio, Edward J.; Albrecht, Susan Fread; Johns, Beverley H.


    Special education faces serious shortages of teachers, and the area of special education teaching with the greatest shortage is in the field emotional and behavioral disorders (EBD). This study was conducted to identify the perceptions of current teachers of students with EBD on the definition of and the extent and importance of administrative…

  11. Treatment Integrity of Literacy Interventions for Students with Emotional and/or Behavioral Disorders: A Review of Literature (United States)

    Griffith, Annette K.; Hurley, Kristin Duppong; Hagaman, Jessica L.


    This review examines the treatment integrity data of literacy interventions for students with emotional and/or behavioral disorders (EBD). Forty-four studies published between 1977 and 2005 were examined. Findings indicate that studies focusing on literacy interventions for students with EBD included clear operational definitions and data on…

  12. Investigation of a Multi-Component Intervention Addressing Mathematical Reasoning and Self-Regulation of Behavior for Students with Emotional/Behavioral Disabilities (United States)

    Fisher, Marie B.


    For students with Emotional/Behavioral Disabilities (EBD), negative student outcomes are the poorest across disability categories, including high rates of school dropouts, unemployment and incarcerations. Mathematically, students with EBD receiving instruction in special education settings experience practices not consistent with recommendations…

  13. Building on the Data and Adding to the Discussion: The Experiences and Outcomes of Students with Emotional Disturbance (United States)

    Bradley, Renee; Doolittle, Jennifer; Bartolotta, Robert


    The purpose of this article is to add to the discussion regarding identification of students with emotional and behavioral disorders (EBD). In addition, the article discusses services that students with EBD receive and their outcomes. The article reviews data from several national longitudinal studies to present a comprehensive picture of issues…

  14. Learned Helplessness and Students with Emotional or Behavioral Disorders: Deprivation in the Classroom (United States)

    Sutherland, Kevin S.; Singh, Nirbhay N.


    Students with emotional or behavioral disorders (E/BD) are characterized by academic deficits and classroom behavioral problems. The relationship between problem behavior and academic difficulties is complex, and some researchers have hypothesized that the classroom behavior problems of students with E/BD are responses to aversive stimuli, namely…

  15. Towards a Neuroaffective Approach to Healing Architecture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brorson Fich, Lars


    I de seneste år har den opfattelse vundet frem, at arkitektonisk design af hospitaler kan influerer på patienternes helbredelsesforløb. Disse ideer er kommet fra to relativt uafhængige kilder, nemlig Evidens Baseret Design (EBD) og individuelle forfattere blandt medicinske forskere. EBD har imidl...

  16. Effects of Peer Tutoring and Academic Self-Monitoring on the Mathematics Vocabulary Performance of Secondary Students with Emotional or Behavioral Disorders (United States)

    Hott, Brittany L.; Evmenova, Anya; Brigham, Frederick J.


    This study examined the effects of reciprocal peer tutoring coupled with academic self-monitoring on the mathematics vocabulary acquisition of students with emotional or behavioral disabilities (EBD). Six middle school students from diverse backgrounds with EBD attending a public, urban middle school participated in the study. A rigorous multiple…

  17. Schema-Based Strategy Instruction and the Mathematical Problem-Solving Performance of Two Students with Emotional or Behavioral Disorders (United States)

    Peltier, Corey; Vannest, Kimberly J.


    The purpose of this study was to analyze the effects of schema instruction on the mathematical problem solving of students with emotional or behavioral disorders (EBD). The participants were two fourth-grade students identified with EBD. The intervention package consisted of schema instruction, strategy instruction on problem-solving heuristics…

  18. Competitive Employment and Service Management for Adolescents and Young Adults with Emotional and Behavioral Disorders. (United States)

    Bullis, Michael; Paris, Kathleen


    Given the variety and severity of problems associated with adolescents with emotional and behavioral disorders (EBD), it is imperative that a coordinated system of vocational training and social support be afforded adolescents and young adults with EBD for them to become successful members of the workforce. Describes such a service model.…

  19. Development of an evidence-based dentistry course for dental students and its effect on their awareness, attitude and self-assessed knowledge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MR Khami


    Conclusions: The developed EBD course seemed to be effective to improve the participants’ awareness, attitude and self-assessed knowledge regarding evidence-based concepts. The results call for more emphasis on EBD in dental curriculum through designing courses on the subject.

  20. Application of an efficient Bayesian discretization method to biomedical data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gopalakrishnan Vanathi


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Several data mining methods require data that are discrete, and other methods often perform better with discrete data. We introduce an efficient Bayesian discretization (EBD method for optimal discretization of variables that runs efficiently on high-dimensional biomedical datasets. The EBD method consists of two components, namely, a Bayesian score to evaluate discretizations and a dynamic programming search procedure to efficiently search the space of possible discretizations. We compared the performance of EBD to Fayyad and Irani's (FI discretization method, which is commonly used for discretization. Results On 24 biomedical datasets obtained from high-throughput transcriptomic and proteomic studies, the classification performances of the C4.5 classifier and the naïve Bayes classifier were statistically significantly better when the predictor variables were discretized using EBD over FI. EBD was statistically significantly more stable to the variability of the datasets than FI. However, EBD was less robust, though not statistically significantly so, than FI and produced slightly more complex discretizations than FI. Conclusions On a range of biomedical datasets, a Bayesian discretization method (EBD yielded better classification performance and stability but was less robust than the widely used FI discretization method. The EBD discretization method is easy to implement, permits the incorporation of prior knowledge and belief, and is sufficiently fast for application to high-dimensional data.

  1. Sources of Occupational Stress for Teachers of Students with Emotional and Behavioral Disorders. (United States)

    Nelson, J. Ron; Maculan, Amelia; Roberts, Maura L.; Ohlund, Barbara J.


    Occupational stress ratings from 415 teachers of students with emotional/behavioral disorders (EBD) was modeled by regression, using teacher demographic characteristics, working conditions, and the ability to work with children with EBD as factors. All working condition variables, professional experience, and ability to work with externalizing…

  2. The effect of polymer type on electric breakdown strength on a nanosecond time scale

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhao Liang; Su Jian-Cang; Pan Ya-Feng; Zhang Xi-Bo


    Based on the concepts of fast polarization,effective electric field and electron impact ionization criterion,the effect of polymer type on electric breakdown strength (EBD) on a nanosecond time scale is investigated,and a formula that qualitatively characterizes the relation between the electric breakdown strength and the polymer type is derived.According to this formula,it is found that the electric breakdown strength decreases with an increase in the effective relative dielectric constants of the polymers.By calculating the effective relative dielectric constants for different types of polymers,the theoretical relation for the electric breakdown strengths of common polymers is predicted.To verify the prediction,the polymers of PE (polyethylene),PTFE (polytetrafluoroethelene),PMMA (organic glass) and Nylon are tested with a nanosecond-pulse generator.The experimental result shows EBD (PTFE) > EBD (PMMA) > EBD (Nylon) > EBD (PE).This result is consistent with the theoretical prediction.

  3. The Winds of Change Revisited: Progress Towards Building a Culture of Evidence-Based Dentistry (United States)

    Hinton, Robert J.; McCann, Ann L.; Schneiderman, Emet D.; Dechow, Paul C.


    In 2008, Texas A&M University Baylor College of Dentistry launched a comprehensive four-year curriculum in evidence-based dentistry (EBD) along with a series of faculty development initiatives to create an EBD culture. The aim of this study was to determine the institution's success in achieving this goal. The assessment tool used was the PEAK instrument, which measures respondents’ EBD Practices, Experience, Attitudes, and Knowledge. Two EBD-trained classes of students and one class untrained in EBD (approximately 100 students in each class) were assessed annually. The faculty were assessed before and after completion of the initiative. Nearly all students responded, with samples ranging from 87 to 102; the faculty response rates were 53% (62/117) in 2009 and 66% in 2013 (81/123). In the results, the trained students scored significantly higher in knowledge than the untrained students at each of the first three PEAK administrations (p≤0.001). Regarding confidence in appraising a research report, the first trained group significantly gained in appropriate use of statistical tests (pdentistry (p<0.001). Faculty comfort level with reading peer-reviewed articles increased significantly from 2009 to 2013 (p=0.039). Faculty members who participated in the summer EBD Fundamentals course (n=28) had significantly higher EBD knowledge scores than those who did not participate (p=0.013), and their EBD attitudes and practices were more positive (p<0.05). Students and faculty trained in EBD were more knowledgeable and exhibited more positive attitudes, supporting a conclusion that the college has made substantial progress towards achieving an EBD culture. PMID:25941143

  4. The winds of change revisited: progress towards building a culture of evidence-based dentistry. (United States)

    Hinton, Robert J; McCann, Ann L; Schneiderman, Emet D; Dechow, Paul C


    In 2008, Texas A&M University Baylor College of Dentistry launched a comprehensive four-year curriculum in evidence-based dentistry (EBD) along with a series of faculty development initiatives to create an EBD culture. The aim of this study was to determine the institution's success in achieving this goal. The assessment tool used was the PEAK instrument, which measures respondents' EBD Practices, Experience, Attitudes, and Knowledge. Two EBD-trained classes of students and one class untrained in EBD (approximately 100 students in each class) were assessed annually. The faculty were assessed before and after completion of the initiative. Nearly all students responded, with samples ranging from 87 to 102; the faculty response rates were 53% (62/117) in 2009 and 66% in 2013 (81/123). In the results, the trained students scored significantly higher in knowledge than the untrained students at each of the first three PEAK administrations (p≤0.001). Regarding confidence in appraising a research report, the first trained group significantly gained in appropriate use of statistical tests (pdentistry (p<0.001). Faculty comfort level with reading peer-reviewed articles increased significantly from 2009 to 2013 (p=0.039). Faculty members who participated in the summer EBD Fundamentals course (n=28) had significantly higher EBD knowledge scores than those who did not participate (p=0.013), and their EBD attitudes and practices were more positive (p<0.05). Students and faculty trained in EBD were more knowledgeable and exhibited more positive attitudes, supporting a conclusion that the college has made substantial progress towards achieving an EBD culture.

  5. Impact of Evidence-Based Dentistry Workshops on Educators' Use of Evidence in Teaching and Practice: A Pilot Study. (United States)

    Moreira, Narjara C F; Leonardi-Dutra, Kamile; Feres, Murilo F N; Colangelo, Erica A M; Balevi, Ben; Matthews, Debora; Flores-Mir, Carlos


    The aims of this pilot study were to evaluate the short-term impact of evidence-based dentistry (EBD) workshops on educators' use of clinical evidence in their clinical practice and educational activities and to identify barriers they encountered in implementing evidence in their teaching and clinical practice. Between April 2012 and January 2014, a series of EBD workshops was delivered to 31 dental faculty members and postdoctoral students at three Canadian dental schools. Survey I, assessing participants' perceptions of various aspects of the workshops, was administered immediately following the workshops. Survey II, evaluating the impact of the workshops on participants' EBD implementation, was conducted 10 to 31 months after their completion. Survey I was completed by all 31 participants (100% response rate); their mean scores ranged from 3.94 to 4.65 on a five-point scale. Survey II was completed by 20 participants (64.5% response rate; five postdoctoral students and 15 faculty members), using an online 20-item questionnaire. Of the respondents, 19 (95%) reported implementing EBD in their professional activities at that time, and 14 (70%) stated that the workshops had positively helped with EBD implementation. Eight respondents (40%) reported having experienced barriers to EBD implementation, while 15 (75%) reported that their patients/students welcomed use of EBD. The respondents reported believing that strategies such as increasing EBD education and dissemination and improving quality and accessibility of evidence would facilitate the transition to EBD practice. Reported barriers to EBD implementation included resistance and criticism from colleagues, difficulty in changing current practice model, and lack of time.

  6. Enhanced Brine Dewatering System, Phase I (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The purpose of the Enhanced Brine Dewatering System (EBDS) is to provide an easily scalable means of completely recovering usable water from byproducts created by...

  7. Formation of aromatic products at radiation-thermal destruction of lignin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metreveli, P.K.; Bludenko, A.V.; Ponomarev, A.V.


    Influence of electron irradiation on lignin destruction is studied. Hydrolyzed lignin and mixture of fatty acid triglycerides (FATG) have been irradiated by 8.5 MeV electrons. Comparative study of four variants of lignin destruction is carried out, they are pyrogenic distillation, post-radiation dry distillation, electron-beam distillation (EBD) and EBD at combined heating. The mechanism of lignin radiation-thermal transformation with guaiacol and creosol formation is considered. Lignin EBD is investigated depending on dose rate, absorbed dose, electroheating power and addition (FATG and chitin) content. It is pointed out, that lignin stimulates radiation-thermal conversion of FATG into low-viscosity diesel fuel. The conclusion is made, that lignin EBD at radiation and combined heating can be perspective effective method of vegetal polyphenols conversion into liquid phenols [ru

  8. Enhanced Brine Dewatering System, Phase II (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The purpose of the Enhanced Brine Dewatering System (EBDS) is to provide a scalable means of completely recovering usable water from byproducts created by reverse...

  9. Everyday-Life Business Deviance Among Chinese SME Owners


    Ji, Junzhe; Dimitratos, Pavlos; Huang, Qingan; Su, Taoyong


    Despite its prevalence in emerging economies, everyday-life business deviance (EBD) and its antecedents have received surprisingly little research attention. Drawing on strain theory and the business-ethics literature, we develop a socio-psychological explanation for this deviance. Our analysis of 741 owners of Chinese small- and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) suggests that materialism and trust in institutional justice affect EBD both directly and indirectly in a relationship mediated by th...

  10. Assessment of knowledge, attitude, and practice with regard to evidence-based dentistry among dental students in Isfahan University of Medical Sciences (United States)

    Eslamipour, Faezeh; Ghaiour, Marzieh


    Aim: Evidence-based dentistry (EBD) is an approach to oral health that requires the application and examination of relevant scientific data related to the patient's oral health and his priorities. The aim of this study was to assess knowledge, attitude, and practice of dental students of Isfahan about EBD. Materials and Methods: In this descriptive study, 168 dental students in 3 final years of their education who engaged in clinical practice by consensus sampling were recruited. For data collection, a validated questionnaire was used. The questionnaire was consisted of demographic questions and some questions about four issues: Knowledge of self-assess (KSA), evidence-based practice, actual knowledge and attitude about EBD. Data were analyzed with t-test, one-way ANOVA, Chi-square, and linear regression with SPSS 16. Results: One hundred and thirty-six students from 168 students were filled the questionnaire. The mean of KSA was 13 ± 4.3, mean of usage of useful references in EBD was 16.9 ± 7.6. One-third of students were studied their last article in last 6 months before. The mean of actual knowledge and attitude was 7.4 ± 2.3 and 24 ± 3.8, respectively. The relation between 4 main issues was significant (P < 0.05). Conclusion: By considering overall interest and positive attitude toward learning EBD in dental students, it is highly recommended that practical educational courses about EBD be planned by dental faculties. PMID:27500165

  11. Integrating critical thinking and evidence-based dentistry across a four-year dental curriculum: a model for independent learning. (United States)

    Marshall, Teresa A; Straub-Morarend, Cheryl L; Handoo, Nidhi; Solow, Catherine M; Cunningham-Ford, Marsha A; Finkelstein, Michael W


    Introducing critical thinking and evidence-based dentistry (EBD) content into an established dental curriculum can be a difficult and challenging process. Over the past three years, the University of Iowa College of Dentistry has developed and implemented a progressive four-year integrated critical thinking and EBD curriculum. The objective of this article is to describe the development and implementation process to make it available as a model for other dental schools contemplating introduction of critical thinking and EBD into their curricula. The newly designed curriculum built upon an existing problem-based learning foundation, which introduces critical thinking and the scientific literature in the D1 year, in order to expose students to the rationale and resources for practicing EBD in the D2 and D3 years and provide opportunities to practice critical thinking and apply the EBD five-step process in the D2, D3, and D4 years. All curricular content is online, and D3 and D4 EBD activities are integrated within existing clinical responsibilities. The curricular content, student resources, and student activities are described.

  12. A Conceptual Framework for Integration of Evidence-Based Design with Lighting Simulation Tools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anahita Davoodi


    Full Text Available The use of lighting simulation tools has been growing over the past years which has improved lighting analysis. While computer simulations have proven to be a viable tool for analyzing lighting in physical environments, they have difficulty in assessing the effects of light on occupant’s perception. Evidence-based design (EBD is a design method that is gaining traction in building design due to its strength in providing means to assess the effects of built environments on humans. The aim of this study was to develop a conceptual framework for integrating EBD with lighting simulation tools. Based on a literature review, it was investigated how EBD and lighting simulation can be combined to provide a holistic lighting performance evaluation method. The results show that they can mutually benefit from each other. EBD makes it possible to evaluate and/or improve performance metrics by utilizing user feedback. On the other hand, performance metrics can be used for a better description of evidence, and to analyze the effects of lighting with more details. The results also show that EBD can be used to evaluate light simulations to better understand when and how they should be performed. A framework is presented for integration of lighting simulation and EBD.

  13. Effects of Streptomycin Administration on Increases in Skeletal Muscle Fiber Permeability and Size Following Eccentric Muscle Contractions. (United States)

    Hayao, Keishi; Tamaki, Hiroyuki; Nakagawa, Kouki; Tamakoshi, Keigo; Takahashi, Hideaki; Yotani, Kengo; Ogita, Futoshi; Yamamoto, Noriaki; Onishi, Hideaki


    The purpose of this study was to investigate the preventive effect of streptomycin (Str) administration on changes in membrane permeability and the histomorphological characteristics of damaged muscle fibers following eccentric contraction (ECC ). Eighteen 7-week-old male Fischer 344 rats were randomly assigned to three groups: control (Cont), ECC, and ECC with Str (ECC + Str). The tibialis anterior (TA) muscles in both ECC groups were stimulated electrically and exhibited ECC. Evans blue dye (EBD), a marker of muscle fiber damage associated with increased membrane permeability, was injected 24 hr before TA muscle sampling. The number of EBD-positive fibers, muscle fiber cross-sectional area (CSA), and roundness were determined via histomorphological analysis. The ECC intervention resulted in an increased fraction of EBD-positive fibers, a larger CSA, and decreased roundness. The fraction of EBD-positive fibers was 79% lower in the ECC + Str group than in the ECC group. However, there was no difference in the CSA and roundness of the EBD-positive fibers between the two ECC groups. These results suggest that Str administration can reduce the number of myofibers that increase membrane permeability following ECC, but does not ameliorate the extent of fiber swelling in extant EBD-positive fibers. Anat Rec, 301:1096-1102, 2018. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Current status of endoscopic balloon dilation for Crohn's disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fumihito Hirai


    Full Text Available The therapeutic target in Crohn's disease (CD has been raised to the achievement of mucosal healing. Although effective treatments that target cytokines and other molecules has been widely used for CD, intestinal strictures are still a major cause of surgery. Endoscopic balloon dilation (EBD is known to be an effective and safe intervention for intestinal strictures in CD. Since frequent intestinal resection often results in short bowel syndrome and can decrease the quality of life, EBD can help avoid surgery. EBD with a conventional colonoscope for Crohn's strictures of the colon and ileo-colonic anastomosis has established efficacy and safety. In addition, EBD using balloon-assisted enteroscopy has recently been applied for small bowel Crohn's strictures. Although the evidence is not strong, EBD may become an alternative to surgery in small bowel strictures in CD. EBD and other new methods such as self-expanding stent implantation for Crohn's strictures may be useful and safe; however, it is important to address several issues regarding these interventions and to establish a protocol for combined therapies.

  15. Emotional and behaviour difficulties in teenagers with permanent childhood hearing loss. (United States)

    Stevenson, Jim; Pimperton, Hannah; Kreppner, Jana; Worsfold, Sarah; Terlektsi, Emmanouela; Kennedy, Colin


    It is known that during the middle childhood years those with permanent childhood hearing loss (PCHL) are at increased risk of showing emotional and behaviour difficulties (EBD). It has yet to be established whether this risk continues into the late teenage years. There is a paucity of longitudinal studies on the association between PCHL and EBD. The Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) was used to measure EBD based on parent, teacher and self-ratings in 76 teenagers with PCHL and 38 in a hearing comparison group (HCG) from a population sample of children that was followed up from birth to adolescence. On parent-rated SDQ, the PCHL group had significantly higher Total Difficulties score than the HCG (Standardised mean difference (SMD) = +0.39, 95%CI 0.00 to 0.79). Amongst the PCHL group the presence of disabilities other than hearing loss had a substantial impact on the level of parent-rated EBD (SMD = +1.68, 1.04 to 2.33). There was a relationship between receptive language ability and EBD in both the HCG (r = -0.33, 95%CI -0.59 to -0.01) and the PCHI group (r = -0.33, 95%CI -0.53 to -0.02). The effect of PCHL on EBD became non-significant when receptive language was included as a covariate (F = 0.12, df = 1,95, p = 0.729). Early confirmation of hearing loss (i.e. before 9 months of age) did not have a significant effect on EBD scores (SMD = +0.31, 95%CI -0.15 to 0.77). PCHL continues to be associated with elevated EBD scores as measured by parent rated SDQ into the late teenage years but the degree of this elevation is less than in childhood and is not apparent on teacher or self-ratings. Poor receptive language ability appeared to account for these elevated EBD scores in the group with PCHL. Particular attention needs to be paid to the mental health of children and adolescents with PCHL that is accompanied by other disabilities and to those with poor receptive language ability. However, the majority of teenagers with PCHL do not

  16. Is Heller myotomy better than balloon dilation? A meta-analysis. (United States)

    Illés, Anita; Farkas, Nelli; Hegyi, Péter; Garami, András; Szabó, Imre; Solymár, Margit; Pétervári, Erika; Balaskó, Márta; Pár, Gabriella; Sarlós, Patrícia; Bajor, Judit; Szűcs, Ákos; Czimmer, József; Szemes, Kata; Vincze, Áron


    Endoscopic balloon dilation (EBD) and laparoscopic Heller myotomy (LHM) are the most commonly performed treatment options for achalasia. Decision between these treatment options is difficult. The aim of this meta-analysis was to evaluate the efficacy of EBD compared to LHM. The electronic databases PubMed, Embase and Cochrane Controlled Trials Registry were systematically searched for the period between January 1, 1976 and December 31, 2015. Meta-analysis was performed using the PICOS (problem, intervention, comparison, outcome, study design) format. Efficacy and safety of EBD were compared to LHM. Forest plot analyses were used to illustrate the success rate, perforation rate and post-procedural gastroesophageal reflux. Using the search strategy, eight studies met the selection criteria and were included in the meta-analysis. The total number of patients included was 749 (360 in the EBD group and 389 in the LHM group). The success rate was lower in the EBD group than in the LHM group (OR=0.486; CI: 0.304-0.779; p=0.003). The rate of perforation did not differ significantly between the EBD and LHM group (RR= 0.635, CI: 0.340-1.186, p=0.154). The incidence of post-procedural symptomatic gastroesophageal reflux did not differ between the two treatment groups (RR=0.663, CI: 0.328-1.343, p=0.254). Our data suggest that the efficacy of LHM is superior to that of EBD, while there is no difference in safety between the two treatment groups.

  17. Evidence-Based Design and Research-Informed Design: What's the Difference? Conceptual Definitions and Comparative Analysis. (United States)

    Peavey, Erin; Vander Wyst, Kiley B


    This article provides critical examination and comparison of the conceptual meaning and underlying assumptions of the concepts evidence-based design (EBD) and research-informed design (RID) in order to facilitate practical use and theoretical development. In recent years, EBD has experienced broad adoption, yet it has been simultaneously critiqued for rigidity and misapplication. Many practitioners are gravitating to the term RID to describe their method of integrating knowledge into the design process. However, the term RID lacks a clear definition and the blurring of terms has the potential to weaken advances made integrating research into practice. Concept analysis methods from Walker and Avant were used to define the concepts for comparison. Conceptual definitions, process descriptions, examples (i.e., model cases), and methods of evaluation are offered for EBD and RID. Although EBD and RID share similarities in meaning, the two terms are distinct. When comparing evidence based (EB) and research informed, EB is a broad base of information types (evidence) that are narrowly applied (based), while the latter references a narrow slice of information (research) that is broadly applied (informed) to create an end product of design. Much of the confusion between the use of the concepts EBD and RID arises out of differing perspectives between the way practitioners and academics understand the underlying terms. The authors hope this article serves to generate thoughtful dialogue, which is essential to the development of a discipline, and look forward to the contribution of the readership.

  18. Electrical characterization of defects introduced in n-Si during electron beam deposition of Pt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Auret, F.D.; Coelho, S.M.M.; Nel, J.M.; Meyer, W.E. [Physics Department, University of Pretoria, Pretoria (South Africa)


    We have used deep level transient spectroscopy (DLTS) and high resolution DLTS to characterize the defects introduced in epitaxially grown n-type, P-doped, Si during electron beam deposition (EBD) of Pt for Schottky contact formation. The identity of some of these defects could be established by comparing their properties to those of well-known defects introduced by high energy electron irradiation of the same material. The most prominent EBD-induced defects thus identified were the E-center (VP center), the A-center (VO center), interstitial carbon (C{sub i}), and the interstitial carbon-substitutional carbon (C{sub i}C{sub s}) pair. EBD also introduced some defects that were not observed after high energy electron irradiation. DLTS depth profiling revealed that the main defects, VO and VP, could be detected up to 0.5 {mu}m below the metal-Si interface. Shielding the sample from particles originating in the region of the electron beam significantly reduced defect introduction and resulted in Schottky contacts with improved rectification properties. Finally, we have found that exposing the sample to EBD conditions, without actually depositing metal, introduced a different set of electron traps, not introduced by the EBD process. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  19. Endoscopic balloon dilatation as an effective treatment for lower and upper benign gastrointestinal system anastomotic stenosis. (United States)

    Akarsu, Cevher; Unsal, Mustafa Gokhan; Dural, Ahmet Cem; Kones, Osman; Kocatas, Ali; Karabulut, Mehmet; Kankaya, Burak; Ates, Mustafa; Alis, Halil


    Endoscopic balloon dilatation (EBD) is currently accepted as an effective, safe, and first-line treatment of postoperative benign gastrointestinal anastomosis stenosis (BGAS); however, a limited number of publications on the subject exist in the literature. The aim of the study was to retrospectively evaluate the efficiency of endoscopic dilatation in patients with postoperative intestinal anastomotic stenoses at a single surgical center. Patients with postoperative BGAS treated by EBD at our institution from February 2008 to 2012 were included. The dilatations were all performed using through-the-scope balloons. The balloon was introduced into the stricture using a guidewire under radiologic guidance. Each dilatation session consisted of 2 to 3 two-minute multistep inflations of the balloon until adequate dilatation was achieved. Of the 48 patients included in the study, 44 patients (91.7%) fully recovered and 4 (8.3%) did not respond to treatment. The mean follow-up period was 24 months (range, 3 to 57 mo). Four patients who did not respond to the procedure were treated surgically. Two patients (4.1%) with intestinal perforation during EBD were treated conservatively with a stent. EBD has a low rate of complications and a high success rate, is well tolerated, and avoids further surgical procedures for BGAS. Therefore, EBD should be the first choice of treatment for postoperative anastomotic stenoses.

  20. Endoscopic balloon dilatation of intestinal strictures in Crohn's disease: safe alternative to surgery. (United States)

    Ajlouni, Yousef; Iser, John H; Gibson, Peter R


    Endoscopic balloon dilatation (EBD), a non-surgical treatment option for intestinal strictures in Crohn's disease, appears to be applied infrequently, possibly due to the perceived risk of perforation and early recurrence. This study aimed to determine the outcomes of EBD by a single endoscopist using a defined technique. The records of all patients with Crohn's disease in whom EBD was attempted over a 12-year period were examined to determine the rate of technical success, complications and outcome. A stricture was defined as that which prevented passage of the 14 mm diameter colonoscope. Technical success was defined as the ability to traverse the stricture postdilatation. Patients were selected on the colonoscopic appearance of the stricture and dilatation was performed using through-the-endoscope balloons. Antibiotics were given during and for 7 days postdilatation. EBD was attempted on 83 strictures (31 anastomotic and 52 primary) in 37 patients (15 males) and was successful in 75 (90%) of 31 patients. A single dilatation only was required in 21 patients who had a median follow-up of 20 months (range 6-122 months). Recurrent symptomatic stricture requiring dilatation (eight patients) or surgery (two patients) occurred 8 (1-112) months after the initial dilatation. The only complication occurred in one patient where an intra-abdominal fistula and abscess were probably related to the dilatation. EBD of intestinal strictures associated with Crohn's disease has a low complication rate and leads to prolonged clinical benefit. It should be considered as a real alternative to surgery.

  1. Exciton diffusion coefficient measurement in ZnO nanowires under electron beam irradiation (United States)

    Donatini, Fabrice; Pernot, Julien


    In semiconductor nanowires (NWs) the exciton diffusion coefficient can be determined using a scanning electron microscope fitted with a cathodoluminescence system. High spatial and temporal resolution cathodoluminescence experiments are needed to measure independently the exciton diffusion length and lifetime in single NWs. However, both diffusion length and lifetime can be affected by the electron beam bombardment during observation and measurement. Thus, in this work the exciton lifetime in a ZnO NW is measured versus the electron beam dose (EBD) via a time-resolved cathodoluminescence experiment with a temporal resolution of 50 ps. The behavior of the measured exciton lifetime is consistent with our recent work on the EBD dependence of the exciton diffusion length in similar NWs investigated under comparable SEM conditions. Combining the two results, the exciton diffusion coefficient in ZnO is determined at room temperature and is found constant over the full span of EBD.

  2. From dental science to clinical practice: Knowledge translation and evidence-based dentistry principles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelvin I. Afrashtehfar


    Full Text Available It has been claimed that in order to decrease the gap between what we know and what we do, research findings must be translated from knowledge to action. Such practices better enable dentists to make evidence-based decisions instead of personal ideas and judgments. To this end, this literature review aims to revisit the concepts of knowledge translation and evidence-based dentistry (EBD and depict their role and influence within dental education. It addresses some possible strategies to facilitate knowledge translation (KT, encourage dental students to use EBD principles, and to encourage dental educators to create an environment in which students become self-directed learners. It concludes with a call to develop up-to-date and efficient online platforms that could grant dentists better access to EBD sources in order to more efficiently translate research evidence into the clinic.

  3. From dental science to clinical practice: Knowledge translation and evidence-based dentistry principles. (United States)

    Afrashtehfar, Kelvin I; Assery, Mansour K


    It has been claimed that in order to decrease the gap between what we know and what we do, research findings must be translated from knowledge to action. Such practices better enable dentists to make evidence-based decisions instead of personal ideas and judgments. To this end, this literature review aims to revisit the concepts of knowledge translation and evidence-based dentistry (EBD) and depict their role and influence within dental education. It addresses some possible strategies to facilitate knowledge translation (KT), encourage dental students to use EBD principles, and to encourage dental educators to create an environment in which students become self-directed learners. It concludes with a call to develop up-to-date and efficient online platforms that could grant dentists better access to EBD sources in order to more efficiently translate research evidence into the clinic.

  4. Therapeutic Ultrasound Enhancement of Drug Delivery to Soft Tissues (United States)

    Lewis, George; Wang, Peng; Lewis, George; Olbricht, William


    Effects of exposure to 1.58 MHz focused ultrasound on transport of Evans Blue Dye (EBD) in soft tissues are investigated when an external pressure gradient is applied to induce convective flow through the tissue. The magnitude of the external pressure gradient is chosen to simulate conditions in brain parenchyma during convection-enhanced drug delivery (CED) to the brain. EBD uptake and transport are measured in equine brain, avian muscle and agarose brain-mimicking phantoms. Results show that ultrasound enhances EBD uptake and transport, and the greatest enhancement occurs when the external pressure gradient is applied. The results suggest that exposure of the brain parenchyma to ultrasound could enhance penetration of material infused into the brain during CED therapy.

  5. Sparkling extreme-ultraviolet bright dots observed with Hi-C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Régnier, S.; Alexander, C. E.; Walsh, R. W.; Winebarger, A. R.; Cirtain, J.; Golub, L.; Korreck, K. E.; Weber, M.; Mitchell, N.; Platt, S.; De Pontieu, B.; Title, A.; Kobayashi, K.; Kuzin, S.; DeForest, C. E.


    Observing the Sun at high time and spatial scales is a step toward understanding the finest and fundamental scales of heating events in the solar corona. The high-resolution coronal (Hi-C) instrument has provided the highest spatial and temporal resolution images of the solar corona in the EUV wavelength range to date. Hi-C observed an active region on 2012 July 11 that exhibits several interesting features in the EUV line at 193 Å. One of them is the existence of short, small brightenings 'sparkling' at the edge of the active region; we call these EUV bright dots (EBDs). Individual EBDs have a characteristic duration of 25 s with a characteristic length of 680 km. These brightenings are not fully resolved by the SDO/AIA instrument at the same wavelength; however, they can be identified with respect to the Hi-C location of the EBDs. In addition, EBDs are seen in other chromospheric/coronal channels of SDO/AIA, which suggests a temperature between 0.5 and 1.5 MK. Based on their frequency in the Hi-C time series, we define four different categories of EBDs: single peak, double peak, long duration, and bursty. Based on a potential field extrapolation from an SDO/HMI magnetogram, the EBDs appear at the footpoints of large-scale, trans-equatorial coronal loops. The Hi-C observations provide the first evidence of small-scale EUV heating events at the base of these coronal loops, which have a free magnetic energy of the order of 10 26 erg.

  6. An Interactive Online Approach to Teaching Evidence-Based Dentistry with Web 2.0 Technology. (United States)

    Zheng, Meixun; Bender, Daniel; Reid, Laura; Milani, Jim


    At many dental schools, evidence-based dentistry (EBD) is taught in a traditional lecture format. To avoid the constraints of lectures, in 2012 the EBD unit was redesigned for online delivery at the Arthur A. Dugoni School of Dentistry at the University of the Pacific with a Web 2.0 tool called Voicethread. The aim of this study was to assess the impact of Voicethread-based online learning on students' perceptions of learning EBD, their participation and engagement, and their acceptance of this new online delivery approach. Students' perceptions were collected from two sources: a self-assessment quiz and a question on their self-reported preparedness in EBD from the 2014 American Dental Education Association (ADEA) Survey of Dental School Seniors. The Voicethread analytics tool provided data on students' participation and engagement. Students' responses to the survey questions on the self-assessment quiz provided data on their acceptance of Voicethread-based learning. The average score of the 124 students (91% of total) taking the quiz was 7.3 out of 8. The percentage of students who reported in the 2014 ADEA survey that they were "well prepared" in EBD was 45.2%, compared with the national average of 31.2%. Responses to this question for the Classes of 2013 and 2015, who received instruction in the traditional lecture format, were 35.2% and 34.6%, respectively. With Voicethread, students actively participated and interacted with their peers through questions and answers. They perceived Voicethread to be more effective than other delivery approaches and reported that it made learning more active and engaging. These findings suggest that Voicethread may be an effective tool for students to learn EBD since it adds interactivity to online learning.

  7. Teaching Online Social Skills to Students with Emotional and Behavioral Disorders (United States)

    Morgan, Joseph John; Higgins, Kyle; Miller, Susan; Pierce, Thomas B.; Boone, Randall; Tandy, Richard


    Students with emotional and behavioral disorders (EBDs) often lack appropriate social skills. Participation in direct and explicit instruction related to social skills is common in their educational programming. For these interventions to be effective, it is important that students have the opportunity to apply them in the natural environment.…

  8. Effects of CW-FIT on Teachers' Ratings of Elementary School Students at Risk for Emotional and Behavioral Disorders (United States)

    Caldarella, Paul; Larsen, Ross A. A.; Williams, Leslie; Wills, Howard; Kamps, Debra; Wehby, Joseph H.


    Students with deficits in social skills have been found to experience both short- and long-term problems, including interpersonal conflicts and academic difficulties. These problems are compounded for students with emotional and behavioral disorders (EBD). Classwide function-related intervention teams (CW-FIT), a multitiered classroom management…

  9. Behaviour Recovery. Second Edition (United States)

    Rogers, Bill


    This second edition of Behaviour Recovery puts emphasis on teaching behaviour concerning children with emotional and behavioural disorders (EBD). These children have many factors in their lives that affect their behaviour over which schools have limited control. This book acknowledges the challenge and explores the practical realities, options and…

  10. Children with emotional and behavioral disorders in special education : Placement, progress, and family functioning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stoutjesdijk, Regina


    The studies described in this dissertation focus on children with emotional and behavioral disorders (EBD) in special education. It was found that poor academic performance, relational problems between children and caregivers, and the age at which youth care was involved for the first time predicted

  11. Observing the World Through Your Own Lenses – The Role of Perceived Adaptability for Epistemological Beliefs About the Development of Scientific Knowledge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronny Scherer


    Full Text Available Students are exposed to vast amounts of information and knowledge that is rapidly changing. This exposure requires them to be adaptive, that is, to constantly adjust their thinking, behavior, and even their affect to successfully solve information-rich and knowledge-lean problems. Considering these developments, the purpose of the present study is twofold: First, it is aimed at exploring the link between students’ beliefs about their adaptability in an ever-changing world and their beliefs about the changing nature of scientific knowledge, thus linking two educationally relevant belief systems. Second, this study further explores validity issues related to the well-established and commonly used “Epistemological Beliefs about the Development of Scientific Knowledge (EBDE” scale. Performing structural equation modeling on a large-scale data set of 1,662 Norwegian tenth-grade students, we estimated the correlations among different aspects of adaptability (i.e., cognitive-behavioral and affective-emotional adaptability and EBDE. Moving beyond these correlations, we tested whether students’ perceived adaptability had an impact on the functioning of EBDE items by means of moderated factor analysis. Our analyses revealed that adaptability was associated with sophisticated EBDE in science, and the EB scale functioned differently with respect to different adaptability scores. The results of this study indicate that students perceive the development of scientific knowledge through the lenses of their own adaptability. Furthermore, the differential functioning of the EBDE scale challenges its validity.

  12. Reflections on the Future of Council for Children with Behavioral Disorders: A Response to Colvin, Forness, and Nelson (United States)

    Peck, Alec F.; Albrecht, Susan Fread; George, Cheryl L.; Mathur, Sarup R.; Paget, Mike; Ryan, Joseph B.; White, Richard B.; Baker, Diana


    In issue 37(1) of this journal, the authors published the findings of three studies addressing the status of Council for Children with Behavioral Disorders (CCBD) as an organization and of the field of special education for students with emotional and behavioral disorders (E/BD). In order to continue discussion of the status of CCBD, the editors…

  13. Supporting Students with Emotional and Behavioral Disorders' Comprehension and Reading Fluency (United States)

    Garwood, Justin D.; Ciullo, Stephen; Brunsting, Nelson


    This article discusses two strategies to improve reading outcomes for middle and high school adolescents with emotional and behavioral disorders (EBD). The first is providing secondary students a choice of accessible, engaging activities to more actively engage them during reading instruction and foster intrinsic motivation to engage in literacy…

  14. Mindfulness for Students Classified with Emotional/Behavioral Disorder (United States)

    Malow, Micheline S.; Austin, Vance L.


    A six-week investigation utilizing a standard mindfulness for adolescents curriculum and norm-based standardized resiliency scale was implemented in a self-contained school for students with Emotional/Behavioral Disorders (E/BD). Informal integration of mindfulness activities into a classroom setting was examined for ecological appropriateness and…

  15. Promoting the Involvement of Students with Emotional and Behavioral Disorders in Career and Vocational Planning and Decision-Making: The Self-Determined Career Development Model (United States)

    Benitez, Debra T.; Lattimore, Jennifer; Wehmeyer, Michael L.


    The authors examined the effectiveness of a support model to instruct five youth with EBD to self-direct the problem-solving processes and promote self-determination skills by enabling them to: (a) set employment/career related goals, (b) develop and implement a plan toward goal attainment; and (c) adjust and evaluate progress toward meeting their…

  16. What Affects Academic Functioning in Secondary Special Education Students with Serious Emotional and/or Behavioral Problems? (United States)

    Mattison, Richard E.; Blader, Joseph C.


    Concern is growing over the limited academic progress in special education students with emotional and/or behavioral disorders (EBD). We know little about how academic and behavioral factors interact in these students to affect their academic functioning. Therefore, potential associations were investigated over the course of one school year for…

  17. Teacher-Reported Use of Empirically Validated and Standards-Based Instructional Approaches in Secondary Mathematics (United States)

    Gagnon, Joseph Calvin; Maccini, Paula


    A random sample of 167 secondary special and general educators who taught math to students with emotional and behavioral disorders (EBD) and learning disabilities (LD) responded to a mail survey. The survey examined teacher perceptions of (a) definition of math; (b) familiarity with course topics; (c) effectiveness of methods courses; (d)…

  18. Social Skills Training and Students with Emotional and Behavioral Disorders (United States)

    Casey, Kathryn J.


    There is a large body of literature suggesting that students with emotional and behavioral disorders (EBD) lack appropriate social skills, including deficits in building and maintaining interpersonal relationships, prosocial behaviors (e.g., sharing, helping, cooperation), and self-management strategies. While the literature shows small to modest…

  19. Reducing Child Problem Behaviors and Improving Teacher-Child Interactions and Relationships: A Randomized Controlled Trial of Best in Class (United States)

    Sutherland, Kevin S.; Conroy, Maureen A.; Algina, James; Ladwig, Crystal; Jesse, Gabriel; Gyure, Maria


    Research has consistently linked early problem behavior with later adjustment problems, including antisocial behavior, learning problems and risk for the development of emotional/behavioral disorders (EBDs). Researchers have focused upon developing effective intervention programs for young children who arrive in preschool exhibiting chronic…

  20. Conservatism and the Underidentification of Students with Emotional and Behavioral Disorders in Special Education (United States)

    Wiley, Andrew L.; Kauffman, James M.; Plageman, Kristen


    Underidentification of students with emotional and behavioral disorders (EBD; emotional disturbance or ED in federal language) is a critical issue, perhaps explainable in part by causal attributions of problem behavior associated with conservatism. Conservatism in 58 counties in the state of California was measured by finding the percentage of…

  1. Using Immediate Feedback to Increase Opportunities to Respond in a General Education Classroom (United States)

    Cooper, Justin T.; Whitney, Todd; Lingo, Amy S.


    The purpose of the current study was to examine the effects of immediately prompting a general education teacher to increase her rate of Opportunities to Respond (OTR) through bug-in-ear technology on the academic engagement of a first-grade student with emotional and behavior disorders (EBD) and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). In…

  2. Three Children with Emotional and Behavioral Disorders Tell Why People Do Right (United States)

    Hardman, Elizabeth L.


    This paper presents the results of a small preliminary investigation of the moral judgment of three children with emotional and behavioral disorders (EBD) using case study research methodology to describe their moral orientations and explore how their reasoning patterns might affect the development of a cooperative moral orientation. Data were…

  3. Identification and isolation of gene differentially expressed on scrotal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Results of BLAST with GenBank show that three genes or expressed sequence tag (ESTs) were unknown, and there were eight sequences highly identified to be Bos taurus mRNA for proline-rich protein P-B and other sequences were B. taurus ebd-P2 pseudogene, B. taurus similar to F-box only protein 21 isoform 2, ...

  4. A Brief Social Skills Intervention to Reduce Challenging Classroom Behavior (United States)

    McDaniel, Sara C.; Bruhn, Allison L.; Troughton, Leonard


    Social skills instruction has been recommended as a way of improving behavioral and social outcomes for students with emotional and behavioral disorders (EBD). A brief social skills intervention ("Stop and Think" (Knoff in "The stop & think social skills program," Sopris West, Longmont, CO, 2001) was used to extend the…

  5. Social Skills Instruction for Urban Learners with Emotional and Behavioral Disorders: A Culturally Responsive and Computer-Based Intervention (United States)

    Robinson-Ervin, Porsha; Cartledge, Gwendolyn; Musti-Rao, Shobana; Gibson, Lenwood, Jr.; Keyes, Starr E.


    This study examined the effects of culturally relevant/responsive, computer-based social skills instruction on the social skill acquisition and generalization of 6 urban African American sixth graders with emotional and behavioral disorders (EBD). A multiple-probe across participants design was used to evaluate the effects of the social skills…

  6. Perceived Social Support and Domain-Specific Adjustment of Children with Emotional and Behavioural Difficulties (United States)

    Popliger, Mina; Toste, Jessica R.; Heath, Nancy L.


    The perceived availability of social support has been documented as a protective mechanism among adults and adolescents. However, little research has explored the role of social support among children with emotional and behavioural difficulties (E/BD). The current study sought to investigate the effects of perceived social support from family,…

  7. Relations between Secondary Art Teachers' Personal Education Theories and Attitudes about Inclusion (United States)

    Manjack, Sharon Kay


    The goal of this study was multifold: to define secondary art teachers. personal practical theories about the purposes of art education; to examine teachers. attitudes toward the inclusion of students with learning disabilities (LD) and those with emotional/behavioral disabilities (EBD) into their classrooms; and to determine the relation between…

  8. The Effects of a Dog Reading Visitation Program on Academic Engagement Behavior in Three Elementary Students with Emotional and Behavioral Disabilities: A Single Case Design (United States)

    Bassette, Laura A.; Taber-Doughty, Teresa


    Background: Children with emotional and behavioral disabilities (EBD) struggle with behavioral problems during reading activities in school. One way to address these concerns may be through dog reading programs which are increasing in popularity in schools and libraries. Preliminary anecdotal research suggests dog reading programs may improve…

  9. Canadian Children's Mental Health: Building Capacity in School-Based Intervention (United States)

    Climie, Emma A.


    Given the increasing identification of children with emotional/behavioral disorders (EBD), it is imperative that innovative ways of addressing these concerns are explored. Fewer than half of students identified with mental illness receive treatment, leaving a significant proportion of students to cope with mental illness without support. One…

  10. Burnout Experience of Teachers Serving Students with Emotional Behavioral Disorders in Grades PreK-8 within Non-Public Special Education Day Schools (United States)

    Hill, Kendra A.


    This exploratory study examined the relationships between five predictor variables identified by the literature (age, years of special education teaching experience, level of emotional behavioral disorders (EBD) preparation, principal support, and principal feedback) and two higher order terms (age and years of special education teaching…

  11. An Analysis of Job Satisfaction for Special Educators Who Instruct Students with Emotional/Behavioral Disorders: How Working Conditions Impact Commitment (United States)

    Adkins, Beverly


    Teachers of students with emotional/behavioral disorders (E/BD) find that myriad concerns for effective teaching (e.g., salaries, increased paperwork, classroom management) challenge their ability to meet personal and professional needs. The push for certified teachers and limited training to work with students with special needs create stressors…

  12. Teachers' Perceptions of the Concomitance of Emotional Behavioural Difficulties and Learning Disabilities in Children Referred for Learning Disabilities in Oman (United States)

    Emam, Mahmoud Mohamed; Kazem, Ali Mahdi


    Research has documented overlapping and coexisting characteristics of learning disabilities (LD) and emotional and behavioural difficulties (EBD). Such concomitance may impact teacher referrals of children at risk for LD which in turn may influence service delivery. Using the Learning Disabilities Diagnostic Inventory (LDDI) and the Strengths and…

  13. Effects of an Interdependent Group Contingency on the Transition Behavior of Middle School Students with Emotional and Behavioral Disorders (United States)

    Hawkins, Renee O.; Haydon, Todd; McCoy, Dacia; Howard, Andrea


    An ABAB design was used to evaluate the effectiveness of an interdependent group contingency with randomized components to improve the transition behavior of middle school students identified with emotional and behavioral disorders (EBDs) served in an alternative educational setting. The intervention was implemented by one teacher with three…

  14. Intertextuelle und intramediale Bezüge als Orientierungsangebot – systematische Überlegungen und exemplarische Untersuchungen zu Verweisen auf das Fernsehangebot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ben Bachmair


    Full Text Available Auch wenn das Internet sich weder so schnell noch so nachhaltig im Alltag und als Bestandteil von Massenkommunikation etablierte, wie es Ende der neunziger Jahre den Anschein hatte, so zeigt sich am Internet doch, was sich mit der Vernetzungs- und Verfügbarkeitslogik verändern könnte, die dem Internet zu eigen ist. Manuel Castells (2001 mit seiner Analyse des „Informationszeitalters“ und der als instrumentellem Netzwerk organisierten Gesellschaft skizziert die Umrisse, wie sich unsere Gesellschaft mit welcher Dynamik entwickelt. Er spricht von einer „informationeilen Entwicklungsweise“ (ebd., S. 17, die anders als die „agrarische“ oder die „industrielle“ auf das gesellschaftliche Verhältnis der Menschen zur Natur („Produktion“, zu sich selber („Erfahrung“, „kulturelle Identität“ und zu anderen (.Macht“ einwirkt. Einen Aspekt dieser „informationellen Entwicklungsweise“ beschreibt Castells mit dem Hinweis auf „globale Netzwerke der Instrumentalität“, die eine „unüberschaubare Anzahl virtueller Gemeinschaften“ hervorbringt (ebd., S. 23. Dabei konstituiert sich auch eine Art von Subjektivität, die sich im Moment als „zunehmende Distanz zwischen Globalisierung und Identität, zwischen dem Netz und dem Ich“ beschreiben lässt (ebd., S. 24. In dieser Spannung bekommt .Multimedia“ die Funktion einer „symbolischen Umwelt“ (ebd., S. 415.

  15. Knowledge of evidence-based dentistry among academic dental practitioners of Bhopal, India: a preliminary survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aishwarya Singh


    Full Text Available This study aimed to characterize the knowledge of evidence-based dentistry (EBD among dental faculty members in the city of Bhopal in central India. A cross-sectional questionnaire was administered at two dental colleges in Bhopal City. All dental faculty members who were present on the day of the study and who agreed to participate were included in the study. A total of 50 dental faculty members returned the questionnaire. Six Likert-type questions were asked, and the percentages of various responses were used for analysis. Sixteen faculty members (32.0% strongly agreed that EBD is a process of making decisions based on scientifically proven evidence. Fifteen faculty members (30.0% strongly disagreed or disagreed with the item stating that the best and quickest way to find evidence is by reading textbooks or asking experienced colleagues. Thirteen faculty members (26.0% strongly agreed that EBD allows dentists to improve their scientific knowledge and clinical skills. It is recommended that EBD be included in undergraduate and postgraduate curricula and in intensive continuing dental education programs that are conducted for dental faculty members.

  16. Preparation of Teachers of Students with Emotional/Behavioral Disorders. Retrospective Series on Critical Issues in Emotional/Behavioral Disorders. (United States)

    Bullock, Lyndal M., Ed.; Gable, Robert A., Ed.; Rutherford, Robert B., Jr., Ed.

    The third in a series, this collection of previously published monographs examines the challenges of preparing teachers to work with students who have emotional and behavioral disorders (EBD). Monographs include: (1) "Issues in Training Teachers for the Seriously Emotionally Disturbed" (Frank H. Wood), which discusses preparing regular and special…

  17. Influence of Peer Buddy Program Interventions for Adolescents with Disabilities in a High School Setting: Impact on Social and Academic Achievement (United States)

    Alqahtani, Ragea Mohammed


    A mixed methods research design was chosen for this study in order to examine the effectiveness of the Peer Buddy Program across one year on the social and academic skill acquisition of high school students with learning disabilities (LD) and/or emotional/behavioral disabilities (EBD). Specifically, this research focused on identifying the…

  18. Ecological Factors in Social Skill Acquisition: High School Students with Emotional and/or Behavioral Disorders in the United States and Norway (United States)

    Anderson, Sarah K.


    The purpose of my study was to develop a grounded theory of the underlying social processes and/or other ecological factors that impact the effectiveness of skill acquisition for students with emotional and/or behavioral disorders (EBD) in "sister" cities located in the United States (Site One) and in Norway (Site Two). Theory…

  19. Rediscovering the Art of Developmental Therapy: An Interview with Mary M. Wood (United States)

    Teagarden, James M.; Kaff, Marilyn S.; Zabel, Robert H.


    Dr. Mary Margaret Wood is best known for developing psychoeducational programs that integrate mental health and special education interventions for children with emotional and behavioral disorders (EBD). Developmental Therapy (DT) includes comprehensive assessment of student behavior, communication, social, and cognitive development,…

  20. "Teacher, It's Just like What Happens at My House" (United States)

    Verden, Claire E.; Hickman, Peggy


    This article describes a sixteen-week, read-aloud intervention conducted using culturally and experientially-relevant literature with six urban middle school youth with emotional and behavioral disorders (EBD), to facilitate prosocial skill development through opportunities for personal reflection and sharing through journaling and group…

  1. A randomized trial of endoscopic balloon dilation and endoscopic sphincterotomy for removal of bile duct stones in patients with a prior Billroth II gastrectomy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergman, J. J.; van Berkel, A. M.; Bruno, M. J.; Fockens, P.; Rauws, E. A.; Tijssen, J. G.; Tytgat, G. N.; Huibregtse, K.


    BACKGROUND: A prior Billroth II gastrectomy renders endoscopic sphincterotomy (EST) more difficult in patients with bile duct stones. Endoscopic balloon dilation (EBD) is a relatively easy procedure that potentially reduces the risk of bleeding and perforation. METHODS: Thirty-four patients with

  2. Teaching academic skills as an answer to behavioural problems of students with emotional or behavioural disorders : A review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Worp -van der Kamp, Lidy; Pijl, Sip Jan; Bijstra, Jan O.; van den Bosch, Els J.


    Academic learning has always been a serious issue for students with emotional and behavioural disorders (EBD) and their teachers. However, teaching academic skills could be an important protective and curative factor for the problem behaviour of these students. The current review was conducted to

  3. Teaching academic skills as an answer to behavioural problems of students with emotional or behavioural disorders: a review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Worp-van der Kamp, Lidy; Pijl, S.J.; Bijstra, Jan; van den Bosch, Els


    Academic learning has always been a serious issue for students with emotional and behavioural disorders (EBD) and their teachers. However, teaching academic skills could be an important protective and curative factor for the problem behaviour of these students. The current review was conducted to

  4. Use of ROOM in the design of data-acquisition software components

    CERN Document Server

    Carena, W; Van de Vyvre, P; Vascotto, Alessandro


    Presentation made at the Real Time Conference, Santa Fe, New Mexico 14-18 June 1999The Event Builder and Distribution System (EBDS) is a component of the data-acquisition architecture of the ALICE experiment at CERN. The purpose of the EBDS is to dispatch the sub-events originated in the detector front-end electronics to the processors of the Event Filter Farm, where the full events are assembled.For the design of the EBDS, we use the Real-time Object-Oriented Modelling method (ROOM), which was chosen because of its powerful modelling paradigm, well suited to this type of application. The use of ROOM is aided by the ObecTime Developer tool set, which fully supports the method and covers all the aspects of the development cycle, from analysis to code generation. Fast prototyping and simulation bring a new perspective to the designer, who can advance by gradual refinements.We describe how ROOM has been used to design a model of both the EBDS and its environment, and the results obtained from the simulation. We ...

  5. The Effects of Function-Based Self-Management Interventions on Student Behavior (United States)

    Hansen, Blake D.; Wills, Howard P.; Kamps, Debra M.; Greenwood, Charles R.


    Children with emotional and behavioral disorders (E/BD) struggle to achieve social and academic outcomes. Many studies have demonstrated self-management interventions to be effective at reducing problem behavior and increasing positive social and academic behaviors. Functional behavior assessment (FBA) information may be used in designing…

  6. Behavior Modification/Traditional Techniques for Students with Emotional and Behavioral Disorders (United States)

    Mooney, Paul; Ryan, Joseph B.; Gunter, Philip L.; Denny, R. Kenton


    In addressing positive general education teaching practices for use with students with or at risk for emotional and behavioral disorders (EBD), the chapter emphasizes teacher behavior change research that has been informed by applied behavior analytic (ABA) principles. Its central theme is that general education teachers can access research…

  7. Phase distribution of products of radiation and post-radiation distillation of biopolymers: Cellulose, lignin and chitin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ponomarev, A.V.; Kholodkova, E.M.; Metreveli, A.K.; Metreveli, P.K.; Erasov, V.S.; Bludenko, A.V.; Chulkov, V.N.


    Influence of both the absorbed dose and the dose rate of 8 MeV electron-beam radiation on destruction of microcrystalline cellulose, pine lignin and krill chitin was investigated. Two conversion modes were compared: (1) post-radiation distillation PRD and (2) electron-beam distillation EBD. Cellulose, chitin and lignin demonstrate different responses to irradiation and distillation in PRD and EBD modes. Treatment in EBD mode transforms biopolymers to organic liquid more productively than conventional dry distillation and treatment in PRD mode. Both radiation heating and an irradiation without heating intensify chitin and cellulose decomposition and distillation. At the same time lignin decaying rather efficiently in EBD mode appears to be insensitive to a preliminary irradiation in PRD mode up to a dose of 2.4 MGy. - Highlights: → Direct conversion of cellulose, chitin and lignin to organic liquid is intensified by electron-beam irradiation. → Alternative approach to bio-oil production. → Both electron-beam distillation mode and post-radiation distillation mode are effective for cellulose and chitin conversion. → Electron-beam distillation mode is preferable for lignin conversion. → Preliminary deep dehydration of biopolymers is realizable at low dose rates.

  8. Psychometric properties of a shortened version of the Physical Self-Concept Questionnaire (PSQ-S). (United States)

    Rodríguez-Fernández, Arantzazu; Axpe, Inge; Goñi, Alfredo


    The four-dimensional model of physical self-concept which differentiates the physical self-perceptions of ability, condition, attractiveness and strength is widely accepted. In the last two decades much research has been done on the physical self-concept and its relations with the psychological well-being/distress, anxiety disorders or Eating Behavior Disorders (EBD). To validate a shortened version of the Physical Self-Concept Questionnaire (PSQ-S) and verify its ability to discriminate between people with different levels of EBD. Responses of 1478 subjects between 13 and 21 years old to the shortened version of the PSQ were analyzed in order to check indexes of reliability and validity. Furthermore, the scores of 96 women aged 14 to 23 years old diagnosed of EBD were compared to 96 others without clinical diagnosis. The results indicate a reliability of 0.93 and confirm the tetrafactorial structure of the physical selfconcept. The highest physical self-concept is that of those without a clinical diagnosis of EBD. The Shortened-PSQ is a simple, reliable and suitable screening tool both for educational and clinical settings. It also provides a sufficient measure of physical self-concept for research purposes.

  9. Validation of the Ford Score as a Measure for Predicting the Level of Emotional and Behavioural Problems in Mainstream Schools (United States)

    Goodman, Anna; Ford, Tamsin


    Emotional and behavioural difficulties (EBD) are common in children, and forecasting their prevalence in schools is of interest to both academic researchers and local authorities. Percentage of pupils eligible for free school meals is one measure often used for this purpose. The article presents the first independent validation of a simple…

  10. Electrical Characterisation of electron beam exposure induced Defects in silicon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Danga, Helga T., E-mail:; Auret, Francois D.; Coelho, Sergio M.M.; Diale, Mmantsae


    The defects introduced in epitaxially grown p-type silicon (Si) during electron beam exposure were electrically characterised using deep level transient spectroscopy (DLTS) and high resolution Laplace-DLTS. In this process, Si samples were first exposed to the conditions of electron beam deposition (EBD) without metal deposition. This is called electron beam exposure (EBE) herein. After 50 minutes of EBE, nickel (Ni) Schottky contacts were fabricated using the resistive deposition method. The defect level observed using the Ni contacts had an activation energy of H(0.55). This defect has an activation energy similar to that of the I-defect. The defect level is similar to that of the HB4, a boron related defect. DLTS depth profiling revealed that H(0.55) could be detected up to a depth of 0.8 μm below the junction. We found that exposing the samples to EBD conditions without metal deposition introduced a defect which was not introduced by the EBD method. We also observed that the damage caused by EBE extended deeper into the material compared to that caused by EBD.

  11. Evidence-Based Dentistry: The Next Frontier in Translational and Trans-National Dental Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reem Ajaj


    Full Text Available Evidence-Based Dentistry (EBD is a systematic approach for ob-taining the best available clini-cally relevant scientific evidence with the ultimate goal and intent of increasing effectiveness and efficacy in clinical decision-making. EBD pursues optimizing both the patient’s benefit through the best utilization of dentist’s experience and clinical expertise, and on making full use of the most reliable and va-lid research outcomes. EBD is initiated by the patient-dentist interaction, which is translated into a patient-centered P.I.C.O. question. The resulting literature bibliome is assessed and quantified for the level and quality of the evidence by means of fully validated and reli-able instruments based on common standard criteria of research methodology, design and statistical analysis. The outcomes are evaluated by acceptable sampling analysis, Such that studies, whose flaws have been identified to result potentially into misleading infor-mation to the patients and/or practitioner may be judiciously removed from further consideration". The research synthesis process tests for overarching statistical sig-nificance among non-heterogeneous outcomes, and yields a consensus of the best available evidence. The systematic nature of the re-search review and synthesis that characterizes EBD is reported in the literature as “systematic reviews”, “complex systematic reviews”, or “clinically relevant complex systematic reviews”. Thus the reported best available evidence ensures patient-centered clinical decision for interventions of the highest possible effectiveness and effi-cacy. EBD contrasts with traditional dentistry based on the evidence for its systematic stringency, coupled with its fundamental validity as a patient-centered optimization of clinical modes of interventions.

  12. Evidence-based dentistry for planning restorative treatments: barriers and potential solutions. (United States)

    Afrashtehfar, K I; Eimar, H; Yassine, R; Abi-Nader, S; Tamimi, F


    Evidence-based dentistry (EBD) can help provide the best treatment option for every patient, however, its implementation in restorative dentistry is very limited. This study aimed at assessing the barriers preventing the implementation of EBD among dental undergraduate and graduate students in Montreal, and explore possible solutions to overcome these barriers. A cross-sectional survey was conducted by means of a paper format self-administrated questionnaire distributed among dental students. The survey assessed the barriers and potential solutions for implementation of an evidence-based practice. Sixty-one students completed the questionnaire. Forty-one percent of respondents found evidence-based literature to be the most reliable source of information for restorative treatment planning, however, only 16% used it. They considered that finding reliable information was difficult and they sometimes encountered conflicting information when consulting different sources. Dental students had positive attitudes towards the need for better access to evidence-based literature to assist learning and decision making in restorative treatment planning and to improve treatment outcomes. Even for dentists trained in EBD, online searching takes too much time, and even though it can provide information of better quality than personal intuition, it might not be enough to identify the best available evidence. Even though dental students are aware of the importance of EBD in restorative dentistry they rarely apply the concept, mainly due to time constraints. For this reason, implementation of EBD would probably require faster access to evidence-based knowledge. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Making the case for evidence-based design in healthcare: a descriptive case study of organizational decision making. (United States)

    Shoemaker, Lorie K; Kazley, Abby Swanson; White, Andrea


    The aim of this study was to describe the organizational decision-making process used in the selection of evidence-based design (EBD) concepts, the criteria used to make these decisions, and the extent to which leadership style may have influenced the decision-making process. Five research questions were formulated to frame the direction of this study, including: (1) How did healthcare leaders learn of innovations in design? (2) How did healthcare leaders make decisions in the selection of healthcare design concepts? (3) What criteria did healthcare leaders use in the decision-making process? (4) How did healthcare leaders consider input from the staff in design decisions? and (5) To what extent did the leadership style of administrators affect the outcomes of the decision-making process? Current issues affecting healthcare in the community led the principal investigator's organization to undertake an ambitious facilities expansion project. As part of its planning process, the organization learned of EBD principles that seemingly had a positive impact on patient care and safety and staff working conditions. Although promising, a paucity of empirical research addressed the cost/benefit of incorporating many EBD concepts into one hospital setting, and there was no research that articulated the organizational decision-making process used by healthcare administrators when considering the use of EBD in expansion projects. A mixed-method, descriptive, qualitative, single-case study and quantitative design were used to address the five research questions. The Systems Research Organizing Model provided the theoretical framework. A variety of data collection methods was used, including interviews of key respondents, the review of documentary evidence, and the Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire. A participatory process was used throughout the design decision phases, involving staff at all levels of the organization. The Internet and architects facilitated learning about

  14. Peer Acceptance and Social Interaction of Children with Emotional/Behavioral Disorders in Inclusive Education%情绪行为障碍儿童之同侪接纳与社会互动研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    通过社交关系调查、实地观察和访谈等发现,情绪行为障碍儿童在融合教育中多数未获得同侪的接纳,被拒绝的情况严重,颇显孤独;上课时间内情障儿童在普通班与同侪互动的次数比在资源班多,而下课时间内大部分情障儿童主动参与同侪活动的时间和次数比单独游戏或观看同侪游戏的时间长,次数也较多;情障儿童在同侪行为的示范与同侪压力下可训练出良好的行为模式;而普通班儿童能培养出对问题行为的包容、协助和乐于与情障儿童互动的态度。普通班儿童受情障儿童问题行为的干扰易形成集体排斥后者的现象,后者则因受到排斥而产生孤独、焦虑、自暴自弃的心理。%This study is to investigate peer acceptance,social interaction and social skills influence be-tween emotional/behavioral disorders (EBD)and their classmates through socio-metric test,direct ob-servation and interview methods.The results shows that:Children with EBD received lower social accept-ance are more likely to have rej ected status;in the class time,children with EBD show more frequencies of social initiative interaction with their peers in regular classroom than in resource room;and in the recess, they show more social initiative in peers'activity than solitarily play or observing others play;children with EBD can learn good behavior models through peer modeling and peer pressure,whereas the regular chil-dren can develop positive attitudes of pardon,help others and social interaction with EBD children.These findings suggest that the EBD children's partial placement time in regular classroom can have a significant effect in positive social interaction in spite of poor peer social acceptance.

  15. 2nd International Workshop on Evidence-Based Technology Enhanced Learning

    CERN Document Server

    Gennari, Rosella; Marenzi, Ivana; Mascio, Tania; Prieta, Fernando


    Research on Technology Enhanced Learning (TEL) investigates how information and communication technologies can be designed in order to support pedagogical activities. The Evidence Based Design (EBD) of a system bases its decisions on empirical evidence and effectiveness. The evidence-based TEL workshop (ebTEL) brings together TEL and EBD.   The first edition of ebTEL collected contributions in the area of TEL from computer science, artificial intelligence, evidence-based medicine, educational psychology and pedagogy. Like the previous edition, this second edition, ebTEL’13, wants to be a forum in which TEL researchers and practitioners alike can discuss innovative evidence-based ideas, projects, and lessons related to TEL.   The workshop took place in Salamanca, Spain, on May 22nd-24th 2013.  

  16. Gilles de la Tourette's syndrome in special education schools: a United Kingdom study. (United States)

    Eapen, V; Robertson, M M; Zeitlin, H; Kurlan, R


    In order to determine the prevalence of tic disorders in children with severe school problems requiring a residential facility and comparison groups of children in regular day schools, we performed direct clinical examinations for the presence of tics and Gilles de la Tourette's syndrome (GTS) in 20 children from a residential school for emotional and behavioral difficulties (EBD); 25 children from a residential school for learning disabilities; 17 "problem" children (PC) (identified by teachers as having academic or behaviour problems) and 19 normal children (NC) selected at random (using random numbers) from a regular school. Of the EBD students, 65% were judged to have definite tics as compared with 24% of students with learning difficulties (P education and that this association is particularly robust for children with severe school problems. In these children, the presence of tics may be an indicator of an underlying dysfunction of neurological development.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noerkayatin ,


    Full Text Available The Hospital facilities built under Evidence Based Design (EBD will create a safe and comfortable environment, lower the nosocomial infection, quicken the patient recovery, lower the treatment cost, and improve staffs’ performance. The emergency room of public hospital of Dr.R.Sosodoro Djatikoesoemo Bojonegoro needs to be redesigned because the existing design does not meet physical safety. The reparation should refer to Facilities and Safety Management (FMS, Indonesian regulation, EBD concept and benchmarking to RSCM Jakarta considered as an application sample. This research applies case study with descriptive single case study design. The result of the research shows that reparation should be done that includes site and location, building components, and rooms lay out. The width of the rooms should meet minimal standard. The placing of triage room and resuscitation should be in the front area. Sinks should be located near the entrance of every room. The isolation and decontamination rooms should be provided.

  18. Usefulness of transpapillary bile duct brushing cytology and forceps biopsy for improved diagnosis in patients with biliary strictures. (United States)

    Kitajima, Yasuhiro; Ohara, Hirotaka; Nakazawa, Takahiro; Ando, Tomoaki; Hayashi, Kazuki; Takada, Hiroki; Tanaka, Hajime; Ogawa, Kanto; Sano, Hitoshi; Togawa, Shozo; Naito, Itaru; Hirai, Masaaki; Ueno, Koichiro; Ban, Tessin; Miyabe, Katuyuki; Yamashita, Hiroaki; Yoshimura, Norihiro; Akita, Shinji; Gotoh, Kazuo; Joh, Takashi


    Transpapillary bile duct brushing cytology and/or forceps biopsy was performed in the presence of an indwelling guidewire in patients with biliary stricture, and the treatment time, overall diagnosis rate, diagnosis rate of each disease, complications, and influences on subsequent biliary drainage were investigated. After endoscopic retrograde cholangiography, brushing cytology was performed, followed by forceps biopsy. In patients with obstructive jaundice, endoscopic biliary drainage (EBD) was subsequently performed. To investigate the influences of bile duct brushing cytology and forceps biopsy on EBD, patients who underwent subsequent EBD by plastic stent were compared with patients who underwent EBD alone. The samples for cytology were collected successfully in all cases, and the sensitivity for malignancy/benignity, specificity, and accuracy were 71.6%, 100%, and 75.0%, respectively. The biopsy sampling was successful in 51 patients, and samples applicable to the evaluation were collected in all 51 patients. The sensitivity for malignancy/benignity, specificity, and accuracy were 65.2%, 100%, and 68.6%, respectively. Combination of the two procedures increased the sensitivity and accuracy to 73.5% and 76.6%, respectively. The time required for cytology and biopsy was 11.7 min, which is relatively short. Cytology and biopsy did not affect drainage. Regarding accidents, bile duct perforation occurred during biopsy in one patient (1.9%), but was rapidly improved by endoscopic biliary drainage. Transpapillary brushing cytology and forceps biopsy could be performed in a short time. The diagnosis rate was high, and the incidence of complication was low, having no influence on subsequent biliary drainage.

  19. Locoregional mitomycin C injection for esophageal stricture after endoscopic submucosal dissection. (United States)

    Machida, H; Tominaga, K; Minamino, H; Sugimori, S; Okazaki, H; Yamagami, H; Tanigawa, T; Watanabe, K; Watanabe, T; Fujiwara, Y; Arakawa, T


    This prospective study aimed to evaluate the feasibility and safety of locoregional mitomycin C (MMC) injection to treat refractory esophageal strictures after endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) for superficial esophageal carcinoma. Patients with dysphagia and strictures that were refractory to repeated endoscopic balloon dilation (EBD) were eligible. After EBD, MMC was injected into the dilated site. Between June 2009 and August 2010, five patients were recruited. The treatment was performed once in two patients and twice in three patients with recurrent dysphagia or restenosis. In all patients, passing a standard endoscope through the site was easy and the dysphagia grade improved (grade 3→1 in 3 patients, grade 4→2 in 2 patients). No serious complications were noted. During the observation period of 4.8 months, neither recurrent dysphagia nor re-stricture appeared in any of the patients. The combination of locoregional MMC injections and EBD is feasible and safe for the treatment of esophageal strictures after ESD.Recently, endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) has been developed and accepted as a new endoscopic treatment for gastrointestinal tumors. ESD is a promising treatment for superficial esophageal carcinoma (SEC), and it has a reliable en bloc resection rate. However, the application of ESD for widespread lesions is challenging because of the high risk of the development of severe strictures, which lead to a low quality of life after ESD. Although endoscopic balloon dilation (EBD) is effective for benign strictures, it needs to be performed frequently until the dysphagia disappears 1. Mitomycin C (MMC), which is a chemotherapeutic agent derived from some Streptomyces species 2, reduces scar formation when topically applied to a surgical lesion. MMC has been applied to treat strictures in a variety of anatomical locations, including a variety of organs 3. The aim of this study was to prospectively evaluate both the feasibility and the safety of

  20. The Effects of Applied Stress and Sensitization on the Passive Film Stability of Al-Mg Alloys (United States)


    evaluates effects of stress on the corrosion behavior for the aluminum magnesium alloy AA5083 in a comprehensive and systematic manner. This study used... comprehensive and systematic manner. This study used cyclic polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy to study passive film stability...cyclic polarization DoD Department of Defense DON Department of the Navy EBD breakdown potential ECORR corrosion potential ECRIT critical potential

  1. Making the Case for Practice-Based Research and the Imperative Role of Design Practitioners. (United States)

    Freihoefer, Kara; Zborowsky, Terri


    The purpose of this article is to justify the need for evidence-based design (EBD) in a research-based architecture and design practice. This article examines the current state of practice-based research (PBR), supports the need for EBD, illustrates PBR methods that can be applied to design work, and explores how findings can be used as a decision-making tool during design and as a validation tool during postoccupancy. As a result, design professions' body of knowledge will advance and practitioners will be better informed to protect the health, safety, and welfare of the society. Furthermore, characteristics of Friedman's progressive research program are used as a framework to examine the current state of PBR in design practice. A modified EBD approach is proposed and showcased with a case study of a renovated inpatient unit. The modified approach demonstrates how a highly integrated project team, especially the role of design practitioners, contributed to the success of utilizing baseline findings and evidence in decision-making throughout the design process. Lastly, recommendations and resources for learning research concepts are provided for practitioners. It is the role of practitioners to pave the way for the next generation of design professionals, as the request and expectation for research become more prevalent in design practice.

  2. An approach to define semantics for BPM systems interoperability (United States)

    Rico, Mariela; Caliusco, María Laura; Chiotti, Omar; Rosa Galli, María


    This article proposes defining semantics for Business Process Management systems interoperability through the ontology of Electronic Business Documents (EBD) used to interchange the information required to perform cross-organizational processes. The semantic model generated allows aligning enterprise's business processes to support cross-organizational processes by matching the business ontology of each business partner with the EBD ontology. The result is a flexible software architecture that allows dynamically defining cross-organizational business processes by reusing the EBD ontology. For developing the semantic model, a method is presented, which is based on a strategy for discovering entity features whose interpretation depends on the context, and representing them for enriching the ontology. The proposed method complements ontology learning techniques that can not infer semantic features not represented in data sources. In order to improve the representation of these entity features, the method proposes using widely accepted ontologies, for representing time entities and relations, physical quantities, measurement units, official country names, and currencies and funds, among others. When the ontologies reuse is not possible, the method proposes identifying whether that feature is simple or complex, and defines a strategy to be followed. An empirical validation of the approach has been performed through a case study.

  3. Introducing evidence-based dentistry to dental students using histology. (United States)

    Lallier, Thomas E


    The expansion of evidence-based dentistry (EBD) is essential to the continued growth and development of the dental profession. Expanding EBD requires increased emphasis on critical thinking skills during dental education, as noted in the American Dental Education Association's Competencies for the New General Dentist. In order to achieve this goal, educational exercises must be introduced to increase the use of critical thinking skills early in the dental curriculum, with continued reinforcement as students progress through subsequent years. Described in this article is one approach to increasing student exposure to critical thinking during the early basic science curriculum-specifically, within the confines of a traditional histology course. A method of utilizing the medical and dental research literature to reinforce and enliven the concepts taught in histology is described, along with an approach for using peer-to-peer presentations to demonstrate the tools needed to critically evaluate research studies and their presentation in published articles. This approach, which could be applied to any basic science course, will result in a stronger foundation on which students can build their EBD and critical thinking skills.

  4. Creating an evidence-based dentistry culture at Baylor College of Dentistry: the winds of change. (United States)

    Hinton, Robert J; Dechow, Paul C; Abdellatif, Hoda; Jones, Daniel L; McCann, Ann L; Schneiderman, Emet D; D'Souza, Rena


    In the early years of the new millennium, the National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research of the National Institutes of Health began funding Oral Health Research Education Grants using the R25 mechanism to promote the application of basic and clinical research findings to clinical training and to encourage students to pursue careers in oral health research. This report describes the impact of an R25 grant awarded to the Texas A&M Health Science Center's Baylor College of Dentistry (BCD) on its curriculum and faculty development efforts. At BCD, the R25 grant supports a multipronged initiative that employs clinical research as a vehicle for acquainting both students and faculty with the tools of evidence-based dentistry (EBD). New coursework and experiences in all four years of the curriculum plus a variety of faculty development offerings are being used to achieve this goal. Progress on these fronts is reflected in a nascent EBD culture characterized by increasing participation and buy-in by students and faculty. The production of a new generation of dental graduates equipped with the EBD skill set as well as a growing nucleus of faculty members who can model the importance of evidence-based practice is of paramount importance for the future of dentistry.

  5. The evidence-based dentistry initiative at Baylor College of Dentistry. (United States)

    Jones, Daniel L; Hinton, Robert J; Dechow, Paul C; Abdellatif, Hoda; McCann, Ann L; Schneiderman, Emet D; D'Souza, Rena


    This report describes the impact of an R25 Oral Health Research Education Grant awarded to the Texas A&M Health Science Center-Baylor College of Dentistry (BCD) to promote the application of basic and clinical research findings to clinical training and encourage students to pursue careers in oral health research. At Baylor, the R25 grant supports a multi-pronged initiative that employs clinical research as a vehicle for acquainting both students and faculty with the tools of evidence-based dentistry (EBD). New coursework and experiences in all 4 years of the curriculum plus a variety of faculty development offerings are being used to achieve this goal. Progress on these fronts is reflected in a nascent "EBD culture" characterized by increasing participation and buy-in by students and faculty. The production of a new generation of dental graduates equipped with the EBD skill set as well as a growing nucleus of faculty who can model the importance of evidence-based practice is of paramount importance for the future of dentistry.

  6. Evidence and speculation: reimagining approaches to architecture and research within the paediatric hospital. (United States)

    McLaughlan, Rebecca; Pert, Alan


    As the dominant research paradigm within the construction of contemporary healthcare facilities, evidence-based design (EBD) will increasingly impact our expectations of what hospital architecture should be. Research methods within EBD focus on prototyping incremental advances and evaluating what has already been built. Yet medical care is a rapidly evolving system; changes to technology, workforce composition, patient demographics and funding models can create rapid and unpredictable changes to medical practice and modes of care. This dynamism has the potential to curtail or negate the usefulness of current best practice approaches. To imagine new directions for the role of the hospital in society, or innovative ways in which the built environment might support well-being, requires a model that can project beyond existing constraints. Speculative design employs a design-based research methodology to imagine alternative futures and uses the artefacts created through this process to enable broader critical reflection on existing practices. This paper examines the contribution of speculative design within the context of the paediatric hospital as a means of facilitating critical reflection regarding the design of new healthcare facilities. While EBD is largely limited by what has already been built, speculative design offers a complementary research method to meet this limitation. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  7. Experimental evidence of nitrous acid formation in the electron beam treatment of flue gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maetzing, H.; Namba, H.; Tokunaga, O.


    In the Electron Beam Dry Scrubbing (EBDS) process, flue gas from fossil fuel burning power plants is irradiated with accelerated (300-800 keV) electrons. Thereby, nitrogen oxide (NO x ) and sulfur dioxide (SO 2 ) traces are transformed into nitric and sulfuric acids, respectively, which are converted into particulate ammonium nitrate and sulfate upon the addition of ammonia. The powdery product can be filtered from the main gas stream and can be sold as agricultural fertilizer. A lot of experimental investigations have been performed on the EBDS process and computer models have been developed to interpret the experimental results and to predict economic improvements. According to the model calculations, substantial amounts of intermediate nitrous acid (HNO 2 ) are formed in the electron beam treatment of flue gas. The first experimental investigation about the formation of nitrous acid in an irradiated mixture of NO in synthetic air has been undertaken. Under these conditions, aerosol formation is avoided. UV spectra of the irradiated gas were recorded in the wavelength range λ = 345-375 nm. Both NO 2 and HNO 2 have characteristic absorption bands in this wavelength range. Calibration spectra of NO 2 were subtracted from the sample spectra. The remaining absorption bands can clearly be assigned to nitrous acid. The concentration of nitrous acid was determined by differential optical absorption. It was found lower than the model prediction. The importance of nitrous acid formation in the EBDS process needs to be clarified. (author)

  8. Evidence-based dentistry. (United States)

    Chambers, David W


    Both panegyric and criticism of evidence-based dentistry tend to be clumsy because the concept is poorly defined. This analysis identifies several contributions to the profession that have been made under the EBD banner. Although the concept of clinicians integrating clinical epidemiology, the wisdom of their practices, and patients' values is powerful, its implementation has been distorted by a too heavy emphasis of computerized searches for research findings that meet the standards of academics. Although EBD advocates enjoy sharing anecdotal accounts of mistakes others have made, faulting others is not proof that one's own position is correct. There is no systematic, high-quality evidence that EBD is effective. The metaphor of a three-legged stool (evidence, experience, values, and integration) is used as an organizing principle. "Best evidence" has become a preoccupation among EBD enthusiasts. That overlong but thinly developed leg of the stool is critiqued from the perspectives of the criteria for evidence, the difference between internal and external validity, the relationship between evidence and decision making, the ambiguous meaning of "best," and the role of reasonable doubt. The strongest leg of the stool is clinical experience. Although bias exists in all observations (including searches for evidence), there are simple procedures that can be employed in practice to increase useful and objective evidence there, and there are dangers in delegating policy regarding allowable treatments to external groups. Patient and practitioner values are the shortest leg of the stool. As they are so little recognized, their integration in EBD is problematic and ethical tensions exist where paternalism privileges science over patient's self-determined best interests. Four potential approaches to integration are suggested, recognizing that there is virtually no literature on how the "seat" of the three-legged stool works or should work. It is likely that most dentists

  9. Evidence-Based Design in Nederlandse ziekenhuizen: Ruimtelijke kwaliteiten die van invloed zijn op het welbevinden en de gezondheid van patiënten

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie Helene Herweijer-van Gelder


    Full Text Available Subject Evidence-Based Design in hospitals.   Problem What role can Evidence-Based Design have in the design of better hospitals?   Purpose To determine spatial (or: concrete qualities, scientifically proven to have a positive influence on the health and well being of patients and staff, in order to offer the architect a helping hand for designing better hospitals. These measures are drawn from research that has been done in the framework of Evidence-Based Design (EBD, which can be perceived as the scientific variant of the healing environment.   Relevance In the Dutch media the term healing environment is often used by architects, representatives of hospitals and researchers. Everyone provides their own content (colour, nature, treatment, hospitality, etc. to this collective concept. The determination of concrete design elements, with a proven positive effect for patients, can contribute to the design of better care environments.   Method and approach Literature research and case studies. EBD → elements → checklist → case studies in field research ↑ ---------- analysis ---------- ↑ Spatial measures were selected from scientific articles from Evidence-Based Design research that are applicable for an architect. Only those measures were selected for which the effect has been proven sufficiently. The selection was based on scientific articles that have been validated by EBD expert teams. The measures in this study cover waiting rooms, consultation rooms, nursing departments, patient rooms and day treatment areas. The measures have an effect on: • A positive contribution to the health of patients (chapter 3; • A positive contribution to the well being (less anxiety, stress of patients (chapter 4; • A positive contribution to the efficiency and effectiveness of staff (chapter 5.  The literature research gives information on how physical environmental interventions can contribute to the problems of the patient (such as lack of

  10. A study of Knowledge, Attitude and Self-Assessment of Residents on Evidence-Based Dentistry at Faculty of Dentistry of Tabriz University of Medical Sciences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Pourkazemi


    Full Text Available Introduction: Evidence-based dentistry is the combination of individual clinical experiences withthe highest-quality evidence available as the result of systematic studies.Evidence-based dentistryis an approach in which the clinician uses the best evidence available to make the most appropriatedecision for the patient. In this descriptive study, the knowledge, attitude and self-assessment ofTabriz dental school residents were examined on evidence-based dentistry in the academic year2014-2015. Methods: All residents of Tabriz Dentistry Faculty (100 in total were enrolled in the study.Thedata collection tool was a questionnaire, and the validity of the questionnaire was determined inprevious studies. To determine the reliability of the questionnaire, it was distributed among the20 residents ina pilot study. Descriptive statistical methods were used to study the data obtained.Chi-square, t-test, and Kruskal-Wallis tests were used to assess the relationship between variablesusing SPSS 20. Results: The results showed that the level of residents’ knowledge on evidence-based dentistrywas moderate and 94.4% of residents had a positive attitude toward EBD. The highest and lowestself-assessments were related to the terms PubMed and Cochrane Collaboration (CI=29.27-30.73,CI=42.06-43.32 CI=28.69-31.09with 95%confidence interval, respectively. Conclusion: Given the increasing importance of evidence-based dentistry and considering themoderate knowledge of the residents on the topic, a need is felt for proper planning to teach itat Tabriz University of Medical Sciences. Considering dentists’ positive attitude toward EBD, Itseems that there is an appropriate background for EBD education in the country

  11. Using multi-detector-row CT to diagnose ampullary adenoma or adenocarcinoma in situ

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Myungsu; Kim, Myeong-Jin; Park, Mi-Suk; Choi, Jin-Young; Chung, Yong Eun


    Objective: To assess the diagnostic accuracy of multi-detector-row computed tomography (MDCT) for the detection of ampullary adenomas or adenocarcinomas in situ. Materials and methods: We retrospectively reviewed 21 computed tomography (CT) images from 20 patients with ampullary tumors, and 22 CT images from 22 patients without periampullary tumor. Three radiologists blindly and independently reviewed CT images. The sensitivities and specificities for identification of ampullary masses were calculated in all cases and in cases with adequate duodenal distension. The sensitivities and specificities for the diagnosis of ampullary tumors were calculated using the following criteria: identification of mass alone; presence of extrahepatic bile duct (EBD) dilation or identification of mass; presence of pancreatic duct (PD) dilation or identification of mass. Paired t-tests were performed to assess differences in mean values. Results: The mean sensitivity and specificity of MDCT for the detection of an ampullary mass in all cases were 47.6% and 86.4%, and in cases with adequate duodenal distension, 66.7% (p = 0.07) and 80.5% (p = 0.32), respectively. When the presence of EBD dilation or identification of mass were used as criteria, the mean sensitivity and specificity were 73.0% (p = 0.03) and 60.6% (p = 0.03), respectively. When presence of PD dilation or identification of mass were used as criteria, the mean sensitivity and specificity were 47.6% and 81.8% (p = 0.23). Conclusions: MDCT is moderately accurate for the diagnosis of ampullary adenoma or adenocarcinoma in situ. When EBD dilation or identification of mass were used as criteria, the sensitivity can be improved.

  12. Factors promoting or potentially impeding school success: disparities and state variations for children with special health care needs. (United States)

    Bethell, Christina; Forrest, Christopher B; Stumbo, Scott; Gombojav, Narangerel; Carle, Adam; Irwin, Charles E


    School success predicts many pathways for health and well-being across the life span. Factors promoting or potentially impeding school success are critical to understand for all children and for children with special health care needs (CSHCN), whose life course trajectories are already impacted by their chronic health problems. The 2007 National Survey of Children's Health was used (1) to estimate national and state prevalence and within and across states disparities in factors promoting school success (engagement, participation, safety) or potentially impeding success (missing school, grade repetition, school identified problems) for all children and CSHCN and (2) to evaluate associations with CSHCN service need complexity and presence of emotional, behavioral or developmental problems (EBD) as well as with school case management policies in states. Among school age children, 60 % experienced all three factors promoting school success (49.3-73.8 % across states), dropping to 51.3 % for CSHCN (39.4-64.7 % across states) and to 36.2 % for the 40 % of all CSHCN who have both more complex service needs and EBD. CSHCN were more likely to experience factors potentially impeding school success. After accounting for child factors, CSHCN living in states requiring case management in schools for children with disabilities were less likely to experience grade repetition (OR 0.65). Within-state disparities between non-CSHCN and CSHCN varied across states. Threats to school success for US children are pervasive and are especially pronounced for CSHCN with more complex needs and EBD. Findings support broad, non-condition specific efforts to promote school success for CSHCN and consideration of state school policies, such as case management.

  13. Strengths and Limitations of Evidence-Based Dermatology (United States)

    Williams, Hywel C


    The need for understanding and reflecting on evidence-based dermatology (EBD) has never been greater given the exponential growth of new external evidence to inform clinical practice. Like any other branch of medicine, dermatologists need to acquire new skills in constructing answerable questions, efficiently searching electronic bibliographic databases, and critically appraising different types of studies. Secondary summaries of evidence in the form of systematic reviews (SR), that is, reviews that are conducted in a systematic, unbiased and explicit manner, reside at the top of the evidence hierarchy, because they are less prone to bias than traditional expert reviews. In addition to providing summaries of the best external evidence, systematic reviews and randomized controlled trials (RCTs) are also powerful ways of identifying research gaps and ultimately setting the agenda of future clinical research in dermatology. But like any paradigm, EBD can have its limitations. Wrong application, misuse and overuse of EBD can have serious consequences. For example, mindless pooling together of data from dissimilar studies in a meta-analysis may render it a form of reductionism that does not make any sense. Similarly, even highly protocolised study designs such as SRs and RCTs are still susceptible to some degree of dishonesty and bias. Over-reliance on randomized controlled trials (RCT) may be inappropriate, as RCTs are not a good source for picking up rare but important adverse effects such as lupus syndrome with minocycline. A common criticism leveled against SRs is that these frequently conclude that there is lack of sufficient evidence to inform current clinical practice, but arguably, such a perception is grounded more on the interpretation of the SRs than anything else. The apparent absence of evidence should not paralyze the dermatologist to adopt a state of therapeutic nihilism. Poor primary data and an SR based on evidence that is not up-to-date are also

  14. Decision making. (United States)

    Chambers, David W


    A decision is a commitment of resources under conditions of risk in expectation of the best future outcome. The smart decision is always the strategy with the best overall expected value-the best combination of facts and values. Some of the special circumstances involved in decision making are discussed, including decisions where there are multiple goals, those where more than one person is involved in making the decision, using trigger points, framing decisions correctly, commitments to lost causes, and expert decision makers. A complex example of deciding about removal of asymptomatic third molars, with and without an EBD search, is discussed.

  15. Möglichkeiten der Umsetzung einer Bildung für nachhaltige Entwicklung unter Verwendung kooperativer Lernformen im Geographieunterricht


    Stange, Sarah


    „Ohne Nachhaltigkeit gibt es keine gute Zukunft“ betonte die Bildungsstaatssekretärin Cornelia Quennet-Thielen in einem Interview Anfang Oktober (BMBF 2015). Sie erklärte weiter: „Und ohne Bildung bleibt Nachhaltigkeit nur eine Forderung.“ (ebd.) Genau zehn Jahre sind vergangen, seit die Vereinten Nationen die UN-Dekade für Bildung für nachhaltige Entwicklung, kurz BNE, ausriefen. Der Leitgedanken der Nachhaltigkeit sollte über die Bildung Eingang in die Alltagswelten finden. Nun ist die UN-D...

  16. Comparison of biophysical factors influencing on emphysema quantification with low-dose CT (United States)

    Heo, Chang Yong; Kim, Jong Hyo


    Emphysema Index(EI) measurements in MDCT is known to be influenced by various biophysical factors such as total lung volume, and body size. We investigated the association of the four biophysical factors with emphysema index in low-dose MDCT. In particular, we attempted to identify a potentially stronger biophysical factor than total lung volume. A total of 400 low-dose MDCT volumes taken at 120kVp, 40mAs, 1mm thickness, and B30f reconstruction kernel were used. The lungs, airways, and pulmonary vessels were automatically segmented, and two Emphysema Indices, relative area below -950HU(RA950) and 15th percentile(Perc15), were extracted from the segmented lungs. The biophysical factors such as total lung volume(TLV), mode of lung attenuation(ModLA), effective body diameter(EBD), and the water equivalent body diameter(WBD) were estimated from the segmented lung and body area. The association of biophysical factors with emphysema indices were evaluated by correlation coefficients. The mean emphysema indices were 8.3±5.5(%) in RA950, and -930±18(HU) in Perc15. The estimates of biophysical factors were 4.7±1.0(L) in TLV, -901±21(HU) in ModLA, 26.9±2.2(cm) in EBD, and 25.9±2.6(cm) in WBD. The correlation coefficients of biophysical factors with RA950 were 0.73 in TLV, 0.94 in ModLA, 0.31 in EBD, and 0.18 WBD, the ones with Perc15 were 0.74 in TLV, 0.98 in ModLA, 0.29 in EBD, and 0.15 WBD. Study results revealed that two biophysical factors, TLV and ModLA, mostly affects the emphysema indices. In particular, the ModLA exhibited strongest correlation of 0.98 with Perc15, which indicating the ModLA is the most significant confounding biophysical factor in emphysema indices measurement.

  17. Quantification of biventricular myocardial function using cardiac magnetic resonance feature tracking, endocardial border delineation and echocardiographic speckle tracking in patients with repaired tetralogy of fallot and healthy controls (United States)


    Background Parameters of myocardial deformation have been suggested to be superior to conventional measures of ventricular function in patients with tetralogy of Fallot (ToF), but have required non-routine, tagged cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) techniques. We assessed biventricular myocardial function using CMR cine-based feature tracking (FT) and compared it to speckle tracking echocardiography (STE) and to simple endocardial border delineation (EBD). In addition, the relation between parameters of myocardial deformation and clinical parameters was assessed. Methods Overall, 28 consecutive adult patients with repaired ToF (age 40.4 ± 13.3 years) underwent standard steady-state-free precession sequence CMR, echocardiography, and cardiopulmonary exercise testing. In addition, 25 healthy subjects served as controls. Myocardial deformation was assessed by CMR based FT (TomTec Diogenes software), CMR based EBD (using custom written software) and STE (TomTec Cardiac Performance Analysis software). Results Feature tracking was feasible in all subjects. A close agreement was found between measures of global left (LV) and right ventricular (RV) global strain. Interobserver agreement for FT and STE was similar for longitudinal LV global strain, but FT showed better inter-observer reproducibility than STE for circumferential or radial LV and longitudinal RV global strain. Reproducibility of regional strain on FT was, however, poor. The relative systolic length change of the endocardial border measured by EBD yielded similar results to FT global strain. Clinically, biventricular longitudinal strain on FT was reduced compared to controls (P < 0.0001) and was related to the number of previous cardiac operations. In addition, FT derived RV strain was related to exercise capacity and VE/VCO2-slope. Conclusions Although neither the inter-study reproducibility nor accuracy of FT software were investigated, and its inter-observer reproducibility for regional

  18. Sustainability and evidence-based design in the healthcare estate

    CERN Document Server

    Phiri, Michael


    This work aims to deepen our understanding of the role played by technical guidelines and tools for the design, construction and operation of healthcare facilities, ultimately establishing the impact of the physical environment on staff and patient outcomes. Using case studies largely drawn from the UK, Europe, China and Australasia, design approaches such as sustainability (e.g. targets for energy efficiency, carbon neutrality, reduction of waste), evidence-based design (EBD), and Post-Project Evaluation (PPE) are examined in order to identify policies, mechanisms and strategies that can promote an integrated learning environment that in turn supports innovation in healthcare.

  19. Metalliferous sediment and a silica-hematite deposit within the Blanco fracture zone, Northeast Pacific (United States)

    Hein, J.R.; Clague, D.A.; Koski, R.A.; Embley, R.W.; Dunham, R.E.


    A Tiburon ROV dive within the East Blanco Depression (EBD) increased the mapped extent of a known hydrothermal field by an order of magnitude. In addition, a unique opal-CT (cristobalite-tridymite)-hematite mound was discovered, and mineralized sediments and rock were collected and analyzed. Silica-hematite mounds have not previously been found on the deep ocean floor. The light-weight rock of the porous mound consists predominantly of opal-CT and hematite filaments, rods, and strands, and averages 77.8% SiO2 and 11.8% Fe2O3. The hematite and opal-CT precipitated from a low-temperature (???115?? C), strongly oxidized, silica- and iron-rich, sulfur-poor hydrothermal fluid; a bacterial mat provided the framework for precipitation. Samples collected from a volcaniclastic rock outcrop consist primarily of quartz with lesser plagioclase, smectite, pyroxene, and sulfides; SiO2 content averages 72.5%. Formation of these quartz-rich samples is best explained by cooling in an up-flow zone of silica-rich hydrothermal fluids within a low permeability system. Opal-A, opal-CT, and quartz mineralization found in different places within the EBD hydrothermal field likely reflects decreasing silica saturation and increasing temperature of the mineralizing fluid with increasing silica crystallinity. Six push cores recovered gravel, coarse sand, and mud mineralized variously by Fe or Mn oxides, silica, and sulfides. Total rare-earth element concentrations are low for both the rock and push core samples. Ce and Eu anomalies reflect high and low temperature hydrothermal components and detrital phases. A remarkable variety of types of mineralization occur within the EBD field, yet a consistent suite of elements is enriched (relative to basalt and unmineralized cores) in all samples analyzed: Ag, Au, S, Mo, Hg, As, Sb, Sr, and U; most samples are also enriched in Cu, Pb, Cd, and Zn. On the basis of these element enrichments, the EBD hydrothermal field might best be described as a base

  20. Developing evidence-based dentistry skills: how to interpret randomized clinical trials and systematic reviews. (United States)

    Kiriakou, Juliana; Pandis, Nikolaos; Madianos, Phoebus; Polychronopoulou, Argy


    Decision-making based on reliable evidence is more likely to lead to effective and efficient treatments. Evidence-based dentistry was developed, similarly to evidence-based medicine, to help clinicians apply current and valid research findings into their own clinical practice. Interpreting and appraising the literature is fundamental and involves the development of evidence-based dentistry (EBD) skills. Systematic reviews (SRs) of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) are considered to be evidence of the highest level in evaluating the effectiveness of interventions. Furthermore, the assessment of the report of a RCT, as well as a SR, can lead to an estimation of how the study was designed and conducted.

  1. Detection of and response to a probable volcanogenic T-wave event swarm on the western Blanco Transform Fault Zone (United States)

    Dziak, R.P.; Fox, C.G.; Embley, R.W.; Lupton, J.E.; Johnson, G.C.; Chadwick, W.W.; Koski, R.A.


    The East Blanco Depression (EBD), a pull-apart basin within the western Blanco Transform Fault Zone (BTFZ), was the site of an intense earthquake T-wave swarm that began at 1317Z on January 9, 1994. Although tectonically generated earthquakes occur frequently along the BTFZ, this swarm was unusual in that it was preceded and accompanied by periodic, low-frequency, long-duration acoustic signals, that originated from near the swarm epicenters. These tremor-like signals were very similar in character to acoustic energy produced by a shallow-submarine eruption near Socorro Island, a seamount several hundred km west of Baja, California. The ???69 earthquakes and ???400 tremor-like events at the EBD occurred sporadically, with two periods of peak activity occurring between January 5-16 and 27-31. The swarm-like character of the earthquakes and the similarity of the tremor activity to the Socorro eruption indicated that the EBD was undergoing an intrusion or eruption episode. On January 27, six CTD/rosette casts were conducted at the site. Water samples from two of the stations yielded anomalous 3He concentrations, with maxima at ???2800 m depth over the main basin. In June 1994 two camera tows within the basin yielded evidence of pillow-lava volcanism and hydrothermal deposits, but no conclusive evidence of a recent seafloor eruption. In September 1994, deployments of the U.S. Navy's Advanced Tethered Vehicle resulted in the discovery of an active hydrothermal mound on the flanks of a pillow-lava volcano. The hydrothermal mound consists of Fe-rich hydrothermal precipitate and bacterial mats. Temperatures to 60??C were measured 30 cm below the surface. This is the first discovery of active hydrothermal vents along an oceanic fracture zone. Although no conclusive evidence of volcanic activity associated with the T-wave event swarm was found during these response efforts, the EBD has been the site of recent seafloor eruptions. Copyright 1996 by the American Geophysical

  2. A new species of Aphis Linnaeus, 1758 (Hem. Aphididae collected on Gymnophyton Clos (Apiaceae in Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara I. López Ciruelos


    Full Text Available Aphis cuyana López Ciruelos & Ortego, sp. n. (Aphididae, Aphidinae is described from apterous and alate viviparous females collected on Gymnophyton polycephalum (Apiaceae in localities of the Argentinean provinces of La Rioja, San Juan and Mendoza. A table with differences of the apterous viviparous females of the new species from the species of Aphis and its close genera Andinaphis and Protaphis known in South America is presented.

  3. International Workshop on Evidence-Based Technology Enhanced Learning

    CERN Document Server

    Gennari, Rosella; Marenzi, Ivana; Prieta, Fernando; Rodríguez, Juan


    Research on Technology Enhanced Learning (TEL) investigates how information and communication technologies can be designed in order to support pedagogical activities. The workshop proceedings collects contributions concerning evidence based TEL systems, like their design following EBD principles as well as studies or best practices that educators, education stakeholders or psychologists used to diagnose or improve their students' learning skills, including students with specific difficulties. The international ebTEL’12 workshop wants to be a forum in which TEL researchers and practitioners alike can discuss ideas, projects, and lessons related to ebTEL. The workshop takes place in Salamanca, Spain, on March 28th-30th 2012.  

  4. Chemical kinetics of flue gas cleaning by electron beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maetzing, H.


    By electron beam treatment of flue gases, NO x and SO 2 are converted to nitric and sulfuric acids simultaneously. Upon ammonia addition, the corresponding salts are collected in solid state and can be sold as fertilizer. Both homogeneous gas phase reactions and physico-chemical aerosol dynamics are involved in product formation. These processes have been analyzed by model calculations. In part 1, the present report summarizes the model results and gives an account of the theoretical understanding of the EBDS process and its performance characteristics. Part 2 of this report gives a complete listing of the reactions used in the AGATE code. (orig.) [de

  5. Evidence based dentistry – between the science and the clinical practice


    Dimova, Cena; Pandilova, Maja; Kovacevska, Ivona; Evrosimovska, Biljana; Georgiev, Zlatko


    It is generally accepted that the more experience a physician or a dentist possess better the quality of health care delivery. However, recent studies had shown that there is in fact an inverse relationship between the number of years of practice and the quality of care provided. Evidence-Based Dentistry (EBD) is a process that restructures the way in which we think about clinical problems. It is an approach to clinical problem solving that has evolved from a self-directed and problem based a...

  6. Fundamentals in Biostatistics for Investigation in Pediatric Dentistry: Part II -Biostatistical Methods. (United States)

    Pozos-Guillén, Amaury; Ruiz-Rodríguez, Socorro; Garrocho-Rangel, Arturo

    The main purpose of the second part of this series was to provide the reader with some basic aspects of the most common biostatistical methods employed in health sciences, in order to better understand the validity, significance and reliability of the results from any article on Pediatric Dentistry. Currently, as mentioned in the first paper, Pediatric Dentists need basic biostatistical knowledge to be able to apply it when critically appraise a dental article during the Evidence-based Dentistry (EBD) process, or when participating in the development of a clinical study with dental pediatric patients. The EBD process provides a systematic approach of collecting, review and analyze current and relevant published evidence about oral health care in order to answer a particular clinical question; then this evidence should be applied in everyday practice. This second report describes the most commonly used statistical methods for analyzing and interpret collected data, and the methodological criteria to be considered when choosing the most appropriate tests for a specific study. These are available to Pediatric Dentistry practicants interested in reading or designing original clinical or epidemiological studies.

  7. Expanded beam deflection method for simultaneous measurement of displacement and vibrations of multiple microcantilevers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nieradka, K.; MaloziePc, G.; Kopiec, D.; Gotszalk, T.; Grabiec, P.; Janus, P.; Sierakowski, A.


    Here we present an extension of optical beam deflection (OBD) method for measuring displacement and vibrations of an array of microcantilevers. Instead of focusing on the cantilever, the optical beam is either focused above or below the cantilever array, or focused only in the axis parallel to the cantilevers length, allowing a wide optical line to span multiple cantilevers in the array. Each cantilever reflects a part of the incident beam, which is then directed onto a photodiode array detector in a manner allowing distinguishing between individual beams. Each part of reflected beam behaves like a single beam of roughly the same divergence angle in the bending sensing axis as the incident beam. Since sensitivity of the OBD method depends on the divergence angle of deflected beam, high sensitivity is preserved in proposed expanded beam deflection (EBD) method. At the detector, each spot's position is measured at the same time, without time multiplexing of light sources. This provides real simultaneous readout of entire array, unavailable in most of competitive methods, and thus increases time resolution of the measurement. Expanded beam can also span another line of cantilevers allowing monitoring of specially designed two-dimensional arrays. In this paper, we present first results of application of EBD method to cantilever sensors. We show how thermal noise resolution can be easily achieved and combined with thermal noise based resonance frequency measurement.

  8. Assessment of the optimal temporal window for intravenous CT cholangiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schindera, Sebastian T.; Nelson, Rendon C.; Paulson, Erik K.; DeLong, David M.; Merkle, Elmar M. [Duke University Medical Center, Department of Radiology, P.O. Box 3808, Durham, NC (United States)


    The optimal temporal window of intravenous (IV) computed tomography (CT) cholangiography was prospectively determined. Fifteen volunteers (eight women, seven men; mean age, 38 years) underwent dynamic CT cholangiography. Two unenhanced images were acquired at the porta hepatis. Starting 5 min after initiation of IV contrast infusion (20 ml iodipamide meglumine 52%), 15 pairs of images at 5-min intervals were obtained. Attenuation of the extrahepatic bile duct (EBD) and the liver parenchyma was measured. Two readers graded visualization of the higher-order biliary branches. The first biliary opacification in the EBD occurred between 15 and 25 min (mean, 22.3 min {+-} 3.2) after initiation of the contrast agent. Biliary attenuation plateaued between the 35- and the 75-min time points. Maximum hepatic parenchymal enhancement was 18.5 HU {+-} 2.7. Twelve subjects demonstrated poor or non-visualization of higher-order biliary branches; three showed good or excellent visualization. Body weight and both biliary attenuation and visualization of the higher-order biliary branches correlated significantly (P<0.05). For peak enhancement of the biliary tree, CT cholangiography should be performed no earlier than 35 min after initiation of IV infusion. For a fixed contrast dose, superior visualization of the biliary system is achieved in subjects with lower body weight. (orig.)

  9. Implementing healthcare excellence: the vital role of the CEO in evidence-based design. (United States)

    Zimring, Craig; Augenbroe, Godfried L; Malone, Eileen B; Sadler, Blair L


    This paper explores the role of the chief executive officer (CEO) in evidence-based design (EBD), discussing the internal and external challenges that a CEO faces, such as demands for increased quality, safety, patient-and-family-centeredness, increased revenue, and reduced cost. Based on a series of interviews and case studies and the experience of the authors as researchers, consultants, and CEOs, this paper provides a model for EBD and recommends actions that a CEO can undertake to create an effective project over the life cycle of a building. TOPICAL HEADINGS: Evidence-Based Design: A Performance-Based Approach to Achieving Key Goals; Key Approaches to Executing Evidence-Based Design; Overcoming Barriers to Innovation: The CEO's Vital Role in Implementing Evidence-Based Design The CEO bears special responsibility for successful facility project implementation. Only the CEO possesses the responsibility and authority to articulate the strategy, vision, goals, and resource constraints that frame every project. With the support of their boards, CEOs set the stage for the transformation of an organization's culture and fuel clinical and business process reengineering by encouraging and, if necessary, forcing collaboration between the strong disciplinary and departmental divisions found in healthcare systems.

  10. Growth and electrical properties of AlOx grown by mist chemical vapor deposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toshiyuki Kawaharamura


    Full Text Available Aluminum oxide (AlOx thin films were grown using aluminum acetylacetonate (Al(acac3 as a source solute by mist chemical vapor deposition (mist CVD. The AlOx thin films grown at temperatures above 400°C exhibited a breakdown field (EBD over 6 MV/cm and a dielectric constant (κ over 6. It is suggested that residual OH bonding in the AlOx thin films grown at temperatures below 375°C caused degradation of the breakdown field (EBD. With FC type mist CVD, the reaction proceeded efficiently (Ea = 22–24 kJ/mol because the solvent, especially H2O, worked as a stronger oxygen source. The AlOx film could be grown at 450°C with a high deposition rate (23 nm/min and smooth surface (RMS = 1.5 nm. Moreover, the AlOx thin films grown by mist CVD had excellent practicality as insulators because the gate leakage current (IG of the oxide thin film transistor (TFT with an IGZO/AlOx stack was suppressed below 1 pA at a gate voltage (VG of 20 V.

  11. Stakeholders' Voices: Defining Needs of Students with Emotional and Behavioral Disorders Transitioning between School Settings. (United States)

    Buchanan, Rohanna; Nese, Rhonda N T; Clark, Miriam


    Students with emotional and behavioral disorders (EBD) too often do not receive adequate services or care in their school settings, particularly during transitions in educational placements. In addition, school support teams often struggle with creating transition plans that honor the needs of students with input from key stakeholders responsible for supporting student success. This article presents findings from the information-gathering phase of an iterative project that aims to develop a support program for students with EBD transitioning from day-treatment schools to district schools. We conducted 5 semistructured, qualitative focus groups with parents and teachers to explore needs during students' transitions between school settings. Five themes emerged from the focus groups: (a) consistent, behavior-specific feedback and positive reinforcement are vital to sustaining learned prosocial skills; (b) students benefit from regular opportunities to learn and practice social skills; (c) transition programming should emphasize communication between school and home; (d) routines at home and school should be coordinated; and (e) parents need support at school meetings. We will use findings from this study to develop a multifaceted intervention that aims to support students, their caregivers, and their teachers during transitions between the aforementioned types of schools.

  12. Off-line wafer level reliability control: unique measurement method to monitor the lifetime indicator of gate oxide validated within bipolar/CMOS/DMOS technology (United States)

    Gagnard, Xavier; Bonnaud, Olivier


    We have recently published a paper on a new rapid method for the determination of the lifetime of the gate oxide involved in a Bipolar/CMOS/DMOS technology (BCD). Because this previous method was based on a current measurement with gate voltage as a parameter needing several stress voltages, it was applied only by lot sampling. Thus, we tried to find an indicator in order to monitor the gate oxide lifetime during the wafer level parametric test and involving only one measurement of the device on each wafer test cell. Using the Weibull law and Crook model, combined with our recent model, we have developed a new test method needing only one electrical measurement of MOS capacitor to monitor the quality of the gate oxide. Based also on a current measurement, the parameter is the lifetime indicator of the gate oxide. From the analysis of several wafers, we gave evidence of the possibility to detect a low performance wafer, which corresponds to the infantile failure on the Weibull plot. In order to insert this new method in the BCD parametric program, a parametric flowchart was established. This type of measurement is an important challenges, because the actual measurements, breakdown charge, Qbd, and breakdown electric field, Ebd, at parametric level and Ebd and interface states density, Dit during the process cannot guarantee the gate oxide lifetime all along fabrication process. This indicator measurement is the only one, which predicts the lifetime decrease.

  13. Exploring the Concept of Healing Spaces. (United States)

    DuBose, Jennifer; MacAllister, Lorissa; Hadi, Khatereh; Sakallaris, Bonnie


    Evidence-based design (EBD) research has demonstrated the power of environmental design to support improved patient, family, and staff outcomes and to minimize or avoid harm in healthcare settings. While healthcare has primarily focused on fixing the body, there is a growing recognition that our healthcare system could do more by promoting overall wellness, and this requires expanding the focus to healing. This article explores how we can extend what we know from EBD about health impacts of spatial design to the more elusive goal of healing. By breaking the concept of healing into antecedent components (emotional, psychological, social, behavioral, and functional), this review of the literature presents the existing evidence to identify how healthcare spaces can foster healing. The environmental variables found to directly affect or facilitate one or more dimension of healing were organized into six groups of variables-homelike environment, access to views and nature, light, noise control, barrier-free environment, and room layout. While there is limited scientific research confirming design solutions for creating healing spaces, the literature search revealed relationships that provide a basis for a draft definition. Healing spaces evoke a sense of cohesion of the mind, body, and spirit. They support healing intention and foster healing relationships.

  14. Influence of blood-brain barrier permeability on O-(2-{sup 18}F-fluoroethyl)-L-tyrosine uptake in rat gliomas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stegmayr, Carina; Bandelow, Ulrike; Oliveira, Dennis; Lohmann, Philipp; Willuweit, Antje; Galldiks, Norbert; Luebke, Joachim H.R. [Institute of Neuroscience and Medicine, Forschungszentrum Juelich, Juelich (Germany); Filss, Christian; Ermert, Johannes; Langen, Karl-Josef [Institute of Neuroscience and Medicine, Forschungszentrum Juelich, Juelich (Germany); RWTH/University Hospital Aachen, Department of Nuclear Medicine and Neurology, Aachen (Germany); Shah, N. Jon [Institute of Neuroscience and Medicine, Forschungszentrum Juelich, Juelich (Germany); RWTH/University Hospital Aachen, Department of Nuclear Medicine and Neurology, Aachen (Germany); Juelich-Aachen Research Alliance (JARA) - Section JARA-Brain, Aachen (Germany)


    O-(2-{sup 18}F-fluoroethyl)-L-tyrosine ({sup 18}F-FET) is an established tracer for the diagnosis of brain tumors with PET. This study investigates the influence of blood-brain barrier (BBB) permeability on {sup 18}F-FET uptake in two rat glioma models and one human xenograft model. F98 glioma, 9L gliosarcoma or human U87 glioblastoma cells were implanted into the striatum of 56 Fischer or RNU rats. Thereafter, animals were divided into a control group and a group receiving injections of the glucocorticoid dexamethasone (Dex). After 12-13 days of tumor growth animals received injection of Evans blue dye (EBD) to visualize BBB disturbance and underwent {sup 18}F-FET PET followed by autoradiography. Time activity curves, standardized uptake values (SUV) and Tumor-to-brain ratios (TBR) of {sup 18}F-FET uptake [18-61 min post injection (p.i.)] were evaluated using a volume-of-Interest (VOI) analysis. BBB disturbance was quantitatively evaluated by EBD fluorescence. The membrane gaps of blood vessel endothelial tight junctions were measured using electron microscopy to visualize ultrastructural BBB alterations in one untreated and one Dex treated F98 glioma. Data were analyzed by two-way ANOVAs. In Dex treated animals EBD extravasation was significantly reduced in 9L (P < 0.001) and U87 (P = 0.008) models and showed a trend in F98 models (P = 0.053). In contrast, no significant differences of {sup 18}F-FET uptake were observed between Dex treated animals and control group except a decrease of the TBR in the 9L tumor model in PET (P < 0.01). Ultrastructural evaluation of tumor blood vessel endothelia revealed significant reduction of the cleft diameter between endothelial cells after Dex treatment in F98 model (P = 0.010). Despite a considerable reduction of BBB permeability in rat gliomas after Dex treatment, no relevant changes of {sup 18}F-FET uptake were noted in this experimental study. Thus, {sup 18}F-FET uptake in gliomas appears to be widely independent of the

  15. Comparison of two stochastic techniques for reliable urban runoff prediction by modeling systematic errors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Del Giudice, Dario; Löwe, Roland; Madsen, Henrik


    from different fields and have not yet been compared in environmental modeling. To compare the two approaches, we develop a unifying terminology, evaluate them theoretically, and apply them to conceptual rainfall-runoff modeling in the same drainage system. Our results show that both approaches can......In urban rainfall-runoff, commonly applied statistical techniques for uncertainty quantification mostly ignore systematic output errors originating from simplified models and erroneous inputs. Consequently, the resulting predictive uncertainty is often unreliable. Our objective is to present two...... approaches which use stochastic processes to describe systematic deviations and to discuss their advantages and drawbacks for urban drainage modeling. The two methodologies are an external bias description (EBD) and an internal noise description (IND, also known as stochastic gray-box modeling). They emerge...

  16. Smart Textiles in Humanistic Hospital Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, Jeppe; Fisker, Anna Marie; Poulsen, Søren Bolvig


    of some of the stakeholders involved in the design process? Relating to the Danish scene of hospital design, we introduce the research project “Smart Textiles in Future Hospitals”, stating the overall hypothesis that textiles in hospital interiors possess an unexploited architectural potential in relation......Hospitalised patients’ healing process, supported by stimulating architecture. In this regard, we address focus on the potential influence of the design principle, discussing how healing architecture may contribute in making the future hospital institutions more responsive to human needs. The main...... purpose of this paper is thus to present a review of healing architecture, by considering some of the challenges in the operational use of the design principle. Associated with the methodology of evidence-based design (EBD), we in this regard question, if these challenges derive from conflicting paradigms...

  17. Fundamentals in Biostatistics for Research in Pediatric Dentistry: Part I - Basic Concepts. (United States)

    Garrocho-Rangel, J A; Ruiz-Rodríguez, M S; Pozos-Guillén, A J

    The purpose of this report was to provide the reader with some basic concepts in order to better understand the significance and reliability of the results of any article on Pediatric Dentistry. Currently, Pediatric Dentists need the best evidence available in the literature on which to base their diagnoses and treatment decisions for the children's oral care. Basic understanding of Biostatistics plays an important role during the entire Evidence-Based Dentistry (EBD) process. This report describes Biostatistics fundamentals in order to introduce the basic concepts used in statistics, such as summary measures, estimation, hypothesis testing, effect size, level of significance, p value, confidence intervals, etc., which are available to Pediatric Dentists interested in reading or designing original clinical or epidemiological studies.

  18. Synthesis and Tribological Studies of Branched Alcohol Derived Epoxidized Biodiesel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qinggong Ren


    Full Text Available The optimization and kinetics of the ring-opening reaction of an epoxidized biodiesel (epoxidized rapeseed oil methyl ester (EBD with 2-ethyl hexanol (2-EH were studied. The determined optimum conditions were 4:1 2-EH/oil molar ratio, 90 °C, 18 h, and 7 wt % of Amberlyst D001 (dry catalyst; the product’s oxirane oxygen content was 0.081% with 38.32 mm2/s viscosity at 40 °C. The catalyst retained its high catalytic power after recycling five times. Furthermore, the determined non-catalyzed activation energy was 76 kJ·mol−1 and 54 kJ·mol−1 with the D001 resin catalyst. The product’s chemical structure was investigated through FT-IR and 1H NMR. The viscosity, flash point, pour point, and anti-wear properties of the product were improved compared with those of epoxidized biodiesel.

  19. Extended burnup demonstration: reactor fuel program. Pre-irradiation characterization and summary of pre-program poolside examinations. Big Rock Point extended burnup fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Exarhos, C.A.; Van Swam, L.F.; Wahlquist, F.P.


    This report is a resource document characterizing the 64 fuel rods being irradiated at the Big Rock Point reactor as part of the Extended Burnup Demonstration being sponsored jointly by the US Department of Energy, Consumers Power Company, Exxon Nuclear Company, and General Public Utilities. The program entails extending the exposure of standard BWR fuel to a discharge average of 38,000 MWD/MTU to demonstrate the feasibility of operating fuel of standard design to levels significantly above current limits. The fabrication characteristics of the Big Rock Point EBD fuel are presented along with measurement of rod length, rod diameter, pellet stack height, and fuel rod withdrawal force taken at poolside at burnups up to 26,200 MWD/MTU. A review of the fuel examination data indicates no performance characteristics which might restrict the continued irradiation of the fuel

  20. Typologische Aufgaben der historischen Textlinguistik

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingo Warnke


    Full Text Available Die gegenwärtige germanistische Historiolinguistik ist geprägt durch eine pragmatische Ausweitung ihres traditionell sprachstrukturellen Erkenntnisinteresses. Ausdruck dieser Entwicklung ist z.B. die gänzliche Neubearbeitung der Sprachgeschichte von P. von Polenz (1991 und 1994, die an Stelle der wiederholt neu aufgelegten und auf H. Sperber (1926 gründenden Geschichte der deutschen Sprache (von Polenz 1978 erschienen ist und insbesondere eine "sozial- und mediengeschichtliche Fundierung" (ebd., 3 anstrebt, wobei neben anderen Aspekten als Schwerpunkt der Darstellung explizi1t die Sprachpragmatik genannt wird (ebd.. Sind die konzeptionellen Ecksteine einer solchen pragmatischen Sprachgeschichtsschreibung auch schon Anfang der 1980er Jahre insbesondere mit H. Sitta (1980 und D. Cherubim (1984 gesetzt, so verstärkt sich das sprachhandlungsbezogene Interesse an der Geschichte des Deutschen erst in jüngster Zeit. Die Entwicklung läuft dabei parallel zur Konstituierung eines pragmatischen Paradigmas, das als Gemeinschaftswerk geisteswissenschaftlicher Forschung ebenfalls in den 1980er Jahren an Bedeutung gewann und als dessen notwendige Folge H. Stachowiak ([Hg.] 1986, XVII einen '"Paradigmawechsel' großen Stils" prophezeit hat.1 Bei den Pragmatisierungstendenzen sprachgeschichtlicher Fragestellungen kommt der historischen Dimensionierung textlinguistischer Erkenntnisfelder besondere Bedeutung zu. Es ist bekannt, daß die in den späten 1960er und 70er Jahren begründete Textlinguistik zunächst ebenso ahistorisch gewesen ist, wie die Historiolinguistik apragmatisch. Doch mit der fortschreitenden Rezeption sprachhandlungsorientierter Ansätze in der Sprachgeschichte gewann der Text i.S. einer komplexen sprachlichen Handlung (vgl. u.a. Sandig 1978, 69f., 99ff., 157f. als Analyseobjekt für die pragmatische Orientierung der Sprachgeschichte zunehmend an Bedeutung. In diesem Zusammenhang ist die Forderung nach textlinguistischer bzw

  1. Visualization versus neuromonitoring of recurrent laryngeal nerves during thyroidectomy: what about the costs? (United States)

    Dionigi, Gianlorenzo; Bacuzzi, Alessandro; Boni, Luigi; Rausei, Stefano; Rovera, Francesca; Dionigi, Renzo


    The objective of the present study was to evaluate costs for thyroidectomy performed with the aid of intraoperative neural monitoring (IONM), which has gained widespread acceptance during thyroid surgery as an adjunct to the gold standard of visual nerve identification. Through a micro-costing approach, the thyroidectomy patient-care process (with and without IONM) was analyzed by considering direct costs (staff time, consumables, equipment, drugs, operating room, and general expenses). Unit costs were collected from hospital accounting and standard tariff lists. To assess the impact of the IONM technology on hospital management, three macro-scenarios were considered: (1) traditional thyroidectomy; (2) thyroidectomy with IONM in a high-volume setting (5 procedures per week); and (3) thyroidectomy with IONM in a low-volume setting (1 procedure per week). Energy-based devices (EBD) for hemostasis and dissection in thyroidectomy were also evaluated, as well as the reimbursement made by the Italian Healthcare System on the basis of diagnosis related groups (DRGs), about €2,600. Comparison between costs and the DRG fee shows an underfunding of total hospitalization costs for all thyroidectomies, regardless of IONM use (scenario 1: €3,471). The main cost drivers are consumables and technologies (25%), operating room (16%), and staff (14%). Hospitalization costs for a thyroidectomy with IONM range from €3,713 to €3,770 (scenarios 2 and 3), 5–7% higher than those for traditional thyroidectomy. Major economic differences emerge when an EBD is used (€3,969). The regional DRG tariff for thyroid surgery is barely sufficient to cover conventional surgery costs. Intraoperative neural monitoring accounts for 5–7% of the hospitalization costs for a thyroidectomy.

  2. Fabrication of p-{beta}-Fe{sub 1{minus}x}Mn{sub x}Si{sub 2}/nSi heterostructure diode and their electrical and optical properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takada, T; Katsumata, H; Makita, Y; Kobayashi, N; Hasegawa, M; Uekusa, S


    The authors report on the fabrication of p-type {beta}-FeSi{sub 2} layers on n-type Si(100) substrates and the investigation of their p-n diode characteristics. Since the undoped {beta}-FeSi{sub 2} layers have typically shown n-type conductivity, the p-type layers were formed by the introduction of Mn impurity into {beta}-FeSi{sub 2} layers using two types of doping methods; one is an Electron-Beam-Deposition (EBD) procedure of Fe{sub 1{minus}x}Mn{sub x}Si{sub 2} (x < {approximately}0.1) at room temperature and subsequent annealing at 900 C for 1--120 min, where FeSi{sub 2} ingots added with Mn({approximately}10%) were used as starting materials. The other is a {sup 55}Mn{sup +}-implantation into {beta}-FeSi{sub 2} layers formed by EBD and subsequent annealing at 850 C for 1--120 min. From van der Pauw measurements, p-type {beta}-Fe{sub 1{minus}x}Mn{sub x}Si{sub 2} layers with the resistivity of 0.0036--0.031 {Omega}{center{underscore}dot}cm and hole mobility of 11.9--89.0 cm{sup 2}/V{center{underscore}dot}sec were found to be successfully formed on n-Si substrates by both doping methods. The p-n diode characteristics of these heterostructure diodes were investigated by I-V and C-V measurements. The results indicate that the carrier distribution does not agree with either ideal one-side step or one-side slop junctions, although optical transmittance and reflectance measurements indicate that the silicide/Si interface is of good quality.

  3. Tracing the role of endogenous carbon in denitrification using wine industry by-product as an external electron donor: Coupling isotopic tools with mathematical modeling. (United States)

    Carrey, R; Rodríguez-Escales, P; Soler, A; Otero, N


    Nitrate removal through enhanced biological denitrification (EBD), consisting of the inoculation of an external electron donor, is a feasible solution for the recovery of groundwater quality. In this context, liquid waste from wine industries (wine industry by-products, WIB) may be feasible for use as a reactant to enhance heterotrophic denitrification. To address the feasibility of WIB as electron donor to promote denitrification, as well as to evaluate the role of biomass as a secondary organic C source, a flow-through experiment was carried out. Chemical and isotopic characterization was performed and coupled with mathematical modeling. Complete nitrate attenuation with no nitrite accumulation was successfully achieved after 10 days. Four different C/N molar ratios (7.0, 2.0, 1.0 and 0) were tested. Progressive decrease of the C/N ratio reduced the remaining C in the outflow and favored biomass migration, producing significant changes in dispersivity in the reactor, which favored efficient nitrate degradation. The applied mathematical model described the general trends for nitrate, ethanol, dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) concentrations. This model shows how the biomass present in the system is degraded to dissolved organic C (DOC en ) and becomes the main source of DOC for a C/N ratio between 1.0 and 0. The isotopic model developed for organic and inorganic carbon also describes the general trends of δ 13 C of ethanol, DOC and DIC in the outflow water. The study of the evolution of the isotopic fractionation of organic C using a Rayleigh distillation model shows the shift in the organic carbon source from the WIB to the biomass and is in agreement with the isotopic fractionation values used to calibrate the model. Isotopic fractionations (ε) of C-ethanol and C-DOC en were -1‰ and -5‰ (model) and -3.3‰ and -4.8‰ (Rayleigh), respectively. In addition, an inverse isotopic fractionation of +10‰ was observed for

  4. [Anaesthetic management in a paediatric patient with a difficult airway due to epidermolysis bullosa dystrophica]. (United States)

    Blázquez Gómez, E; Garcés Aletá, A; Monclus Diaz, E; Manen Berga, F; García-Aparicio, L; Ontanilla López, A


    Dystrophic epidermolysis bullosa (DEB) is a rare inherited disorder characterized by blistering after minimal trauma. These blisters tend to form dystrophic scars, leading to limiting and life-threatening sequelae. The anaesthetic management of patients with DEB is a challenge, even for the most experienced anaesthesiologists, but basic principles can help us prepare the plan of care. The main goals are to prevent trauma/infection of skin/mucous, and to establish a secure airway without causing bullae. Patient positioning and the instruments used to monitor vital signs and administering anaesthetic agents can cause new lesions. It is advisable to lubricate the instruments and to avoid adhesive material and shearing forces on the skin. Besides the implications of the comorbidities, there is a potential difficult intubation and difficult vascular access. Acute airway obstruction can occur due to airway instrumentation. We report the case of a patient diagnosed with EBD difficult airway and undergoing correction of syndactylyl and dental extractions. Copyright © 2014 Sociedad Española de Anestesiología, Reanimación y Terapéutica del Dolor. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  5. Frameworks for analyzing and testing theories of gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, D.L.


    Theoretical frameworks are presented for the analysis and testing of gravitation theories--both metric and nonmetric. For nonmetric theories, the high precision Eotvos--Dicke--Braginskii (EBD) experiments are demonstrated to be powerful tests of their gravitational coupling to electromagnetic interactions. All known nonmetric theories are ruled out to within the precision of the EDB experiments. A new metric theory of gravity is presented that cannot be distinguished from general relativity in all current and planned solar system experiments. However, this theory has very different gravitational-wave properties. Hence, the need for further tests of metric theories beyond the Parametrized Post--Newtonian formalism is pointed out and the importance of the observation of gravitational waves as a tool for testing relativistic gravity in the future is emphasized. A theory-independent formalism delineating the properties of weak, plane gravitational waves in metric theories is set up. General conservation laws that follow from variational principles in metric theories of gravity are investigated. (U.S.)

  6. Making generic tutorials content specific: recycling evidence-based practice (EBP) tutorials for two disciplines. (United States)

    Jeffery, Keven M; Maggio, Lauren; Blanchard, Mary


    Librarians at the Boston University Medical Center constructed two interactive online tutorials, "Introduction to EBM" and "Formulating a Clinical Question (PICO)," for a Family Medicine Clerkship and then quickly repurposed the existing tutorials to support an Evidence-based Dentistry course. Adobe's ColdFusion software was used to populate the tutorials with course-specific content based on the URL used to enter each tutorial, and a MySQL database was used to collect student input. Student responses were viewable immediately by course faculty on a password-protected Web site. The tutorials ensured that all students received the same baseline training and allowed librarians to tailor a subsequent library skills workshop to student tutorial answers. The tutorials were well-received by the medical and dental schools and have been added to mandatory first-year Evidence-based Medicine (EBM) and Evidence-based Dentistry (EBD) courses, meaning that every medical and dental student at BUMC will be expected to complete these tutorials.

  7. Vagotomy decreases the neuronal activities of medulla oblongata and alleviates neurogenic inflammation of airways induced by repeated intra-esophageal instillation of HCl in guinea pigs. (United States)

    Chen, Zhe; Chen, Hui; Chen, Fagui; Gu, Dachuan; Sun, Lejia; Zhang, Weitao; Fan, Linfeng; Lin, Yong; Dong, Rong; Lai, Kefang


    Neuronal activity in the medulla oblongata and neurogenic inflammation of airways were investigated in a guinea pig model induced by repeated intra-esophageal instillation of hydrochloric acid (HCl) after vagotomy. Unilateral vagotomy was performed in the vagotomy group, while a sham-operation was performed in the sham group. Operation was not conducted in sham control group. Airway inflammation was observed with hematoxylin and eosin (HE) staining. C-fos protein was measured by immunohistochemistry (IHC) and Western blot (WB). Substance P was examined by IHC and enzyme-linked immuno sorbent assay (ELISA). Airway microvascular permeability was detected by evans blue dye (EBD) fluorescence. Inflammation of airway was observed in the trachea and bronchi after chronic HCl perfusion into the lower esophagus, and was alleviated after unilateral vagotomy. C-fos expression in the medulla oblongata was lower in the vagotomy group compared to the sham control and sham groups. Substance P-like immunoreactivity (SP-li), concentration and microvascular leakage in airway were lower in the vagotomy group than that in the other groups. Our results suggest that vagotomy improved neurogenic inflammation of airways and decreased neuronal activities, the afferent nerves and neurons in medulla oblongata may be involved in neurogenic inflammation of airways mediated by esophageal-bronchial reflex.

  8. Toxic stress and protective factors in multi-ethnic school age children: A research protocol. (United States)

    Condon, Eileen M; Sadler, Lois S; Mayes, Linda C


    Exposure to stressful environments in early childhood can cause a toxic stress response and lead to poor health outcomes, including obesity, cardiac disease, diabetes, and mental illness. In animals and maltreated children, the presence of a nurturing caregiver can buffer against the physiological disruptions associated with a toxic stress response; however, the specific caregiver and parenting characteristics that best promote a protective relationship in humans remain largely unexplored, particularly in families living in high-risk environments. In this study, framed in an ecobiodevelopmental (EBD) model, a cross-sectional design is being used to study 54 multi-ethnic, urban maternal-child dyads with children at early school age (4-9 years). Mothers' past experiences, mental health, and caregiving patterns and children's hair cortisol, C-reactive protein, pro-inflammatory cytokines, blood pressure, BMI, behavior, and school performance are being analyzed to identify maternal characteristics that may protect against children's toxic stress response in families at high risk for exposure to stressors such as poverty, trauma, or exposure to violence. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. “Evidence-Based Dentistry in Oral Surgery: Could We Do Better?” (United States)

    Nocini, Pier Francesco; Verlato, Giuseppe; Frustaci, Andrea; de Gemmis, Antonio; Rigoni, Giovanni; De Santis, Daniele


    Evidence-based Dentistry (EBD), like Evidence-based Medicine (EBM), was born in order to seek the “best available research evidence” in the field of dentistry both in research and clinical routine. But evidence is not clearly measurable in all fields of healthcare: in particular, while drug effect is rather independent from clinician’s characteristics, the effectiveness of surgical procedures is strictly related to surgeon’s expertise, which is difficult to quantify. The research problems of dentistry have a lot in common with other surgical fields, where at the moment the best therapeutic recommendations and guidelines originates from an integration of evidence-based medicine and data from consensus conferences. To cope with these problems, new instruments have been developed, aimed at standardizing clinical procedures (CAD-CAM technology) and at integrating EBM achievements with the opinions of expert clinicians (GRADE System). One thing we have to remember however: it is necessary to use the instruments developed by evidence-based medicine but is impossible to produce sound knowledge without considering clinical expertise and quality of surgical procedures simultaneously. Only in this way we will obtain an evidence-based dentistry both in dental research and clinical practice, which is up to third millennium standards. PMID:20871758

  10. Electron beam exposure mechanisms in hydrogen silsesquioxane investigated by vibrational spectroscopy and in-situ electron beam induced desorption

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olynick, D.L.; Cord, B.; Schipotinin, A.; Ogletree, D.F.; Schuck, P.J.


    Hydrogen Silsesquioxane (HSQ) is used as a high-resolution resist with resolution down below 10nm half-pitch. This material or materials with related functionalities could have widespread impact in nanolithography and nanoscience applications if the exposure mechanism was understood and instabilities controlled. Here we have directly investigated the exposure mechanism using vibrational spectroscopy (both Raman and Fourier transform Infrared) and electron beam desorption spectrocscopy (EBDS). In the non-networked HSQ system, silicon atoms sit at the corners of a cubic structure. Each silicon is bonded to a hydrogen atom and bridges 3 oxygen atoms (formula: HSiO3/2). For the first time, we have shown, via changes in the Si-H2 peak at ~;;2200 cm -1 in the Raman spectra and the release of SiHx products in EBID, that electron-bam exposed materials crosslinks via a redistribution reaction. In addition, we observe the release of significantly more H2 than SiH2 during EBID, which is indicative of additional reaction mechanisms. Additionally, we compare the behavior of HSQ in response to both thermal and electron-beam induced reactions.

  11. Metagenomic Analysis of Subtidal Sediments from Polar and Subpolar Coastal Environments Highlights the Relevance of Anaerobic Hydrocarbon Degradation Processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Espinola, Fernando J.; Dionisi, Hebe M.; Borglin, Sharon; Brislawn, Colin J.; Jansson, Janet K.; Mac Cormack, Walter P.; Carroll, Jolynn; Sjoling, Sara; Lozada , Mariana


    In this work, we analyzed the community structure and metabolic potential of sediment microbial communities in high-latitude coastal environments subjected to low to moderate levels of chronic pollution. Subtidal sediments from four low-energy inlets located in polar and subpolar regions from both Hemispheres were analyzed using large-scale 16S rRNA gene and metagenomic sequencing. Communities showed high diversity (Shannon’s index 6.8 to 10.2), with distinct phylogenetic structures (<40% shared taxa at the Phylum level among regions) but similar metabolic potential in terms of sequences assigned to KOs. Environmental factors (mainly salinity, temperature, and in less extent organic pollution) were drivers of both phylogenetic and functional traits. Bacterial taxa correlating with hydrocarbon pollution included families of anaerobic or facultative anaerobic lifestyle, such as Desulfuromonadaceae, Geobacteraceae, and Rhodocyclaceae. In accordance, biomarker genes for anaerobic hydrocarbon degradation (bamA, ebdA, bcrA, and bssA) were prevalent, only outnumbered by alkB, and their sequences were taxonomically binned to the same bacterial groups. BssA-assigned metagenomic sequences showed an extremely wide diversity distributed all along the phylogeny known for this gene, including bssA sensu stricto, nmsA, assA, and other clusters from poorly or not yet described variants. This work increases our understanding of microbial community patterns in cold coastal sediments, and highlights the relevance of anaerobic hydrocarbon degradation processes in subtidal environments.

  12. Development of analytical methods for the gas chromatographic determination of 1,2-epoxy-3-butene, 1,2:3,4-diepoxybutane, 3-butene-1,2-diol, 3,4-epoxybutane-1,2-diol and crotonaldehyde from perfusate samples of 1,3-butadiene exposed isolated mouse and rat livers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhowmik, S.; Schuster, A.; Filser, J.G.


    Mutagenicity and carcinogenicity of 1,3-butadiene (BD) highly probably results from epoxide metabolites as 1,2-epoxy-3-butene (EB), 1,2:3,4-diepoxybutane (DEB) and 3,4-epoxybutane-1,2-diol (EBD). A further metabolite crotonaldehyde (CA) has also been discussed to be relevant. So far, in BD exposed rodents only EB and DEB concentrations had been quantified. However, the methods used were either not very sensitive or instrumentally expensive. Therefore, the goal of the present work was to establish simple analytical methods selective and sensitive enough to determine all of these compounds and a further secondary BD intermediate, 3-butene-1,2-diol (B-diol), in BD exposed rodent livers. The once-through perfused liver system was chosen for testing the applicability of the methods to be developed, since it enables BD exposures of this quantitatively most relevant metabolising organ near to the in-vivo situation. All the metabolites were extracted from the aqueous perfusion medium and analysed using a gas chromatograph equipped with a mass selective detector (GC/MS) in the PCI mode. (orig.)

  13. The dynamic performance and economic benefit of a blended braking system in a multi-speed battery electric vehicle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruan, Jiageng; Walker, Paul D.; Watterson, Peter A.; Zhang, Nong


    Highlights: • Maximum braking energy recovery potentials of various cycles are reported. • Braking strategies are proposed for performance, comfort and energy recovery. • Braking force distributions and wheel slip ratios of different strategies are demonstrated. • The performance of ‘Eco’ strategy is experimentally validated in HWFET and NEDC. • The economic benefit of energy recovering is summarized, regarding to the fuel and maintenance cost saving. - Abstract: As motor-supplied braking torque is applied to the wheels in an entirely different way to hydraulic friction braking systems and it is usually only connected to one axle complicated effects such as wheel slip and locking, vehicle body bounce and braking distance variation will inevitability impact on the performance and safety of braking. The potential for braking energy recovery in typical driving cycles is presented to show its benefit in this study. A general predictive model is designed to analysis the economic and dynamic performance of blended braking systems, satisfying the relevant regulations/laws and critical limitations. Braking strategies for different purposes are proposed to achieve a balance between braking performance, driving comfort and energy recovery rate. Special measures are taken to avoid any effects of motor failure. All strategies are analyzed in detail for various braking events. Advanced driver assistance systems (ADAS), such as ABS and EBD, are properly integrated to work with the regenerative braking system (RBS) harmoniously. Different switching plans during braking are discussed. The braking energy recovery rates and brake force distribution details for different driving cycles are simulated. Results for two of the cycles in an ‘Eco’ mode are measured on a drive train test rig and found to agree with the simulated results to within approximately 10%. Reliable conclusions can thus be gained on the economic benefit and dynamic braking performance. The

  14. High throughput HPLC-ESI(-)-MS/MS methodology for mercapturic acid metabolites of 1,3-butadiene: Biomarkers of exposure and bioactivation. (United States)

    Kotapati, Srikanth; Esades, Amanda; Matter, Brock; Le, Chap; Tretyakova, Natalia


    1,3-Butadiene (BD) is an important industrial and environmental carcinogen present in cigarette smoke, automobile exhaust, and urban air. The major urinary metabolites of BD in humans are 2-(N-acetyl-L-cystein-S-yl)-1-hydroxybut-3-ene/1-(N-acetyl-L-cystein-S-yl)-2-hydroxybut-3-ene (MHBMA), 4-(N-acetyl-L-cystein-S-yl)-1,2-dihydroxybutane (DHBMA), and 4-(N-acetyl-L-cystein-S-yl)-1,2,3-trihydroxybutyl mercapturic acid (THBMA), which are formed from the electrophilic metabolites of BD, 3,4-epoxy-1-butene (EB), hydroxymethyl vinyl ketone (HMVK), and 3,4-epoxy-1,2-diol (EBD), respectively. In the present work, a sensitive high-throughput HPLC-ESI(-)-MS/MS method was developed for simultaneous quantification of MHBMA and DHBMA in small volumes of human urine (200 μl). The method employs a 96 well Oasis HLB SPE enrichment step, followed by isotope dilution HPLC-ESI(-)-MS/MS analysis on a triple quadrupole mass spectrometer. The validated method was used to quantify MHBMA and DHBMA in urine of workers from a BD monomer and styrene-butadiene rubber production facility (40 controls and 32 occupationally exposed to BD). Urinary THBMA concentrations were also determined in the same samples. The concentrations of all three BD-mercapturic acids and the metabolic ratio (MHBMA/(MHBMA+DHBMA+THBMA)) were significantly higher in the occupationally exposed group as compared to controls and correlated with BD exposure, with each other, and with BD-hemoglobin biomarkers. This improved high throughput methodology for MHBMA and DHBMA will be useful for future epidemiological studies in smokers and occupationally exposed workers. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Critical review of the building downwash algorithms in AERMOD. (United States)

    Petersen, Ron L; Guerra, Sergio A; Bova, Anthony S


    The only documentation on the building downwash algorithm in AERMOD (American Meteorological Society/U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Regulatory Model), referred to as PRIME (Plume Rise Model Enhancements), is found in the 2000 A&WMA journal article by Schulman, Strimaitis and Scire. Recent field and wind tunnel studies have shown that AERMOD can overpredict concentrations by factors of 2 to 8 for certain building configurations. While a wind tunnel equivalent building dimension study (EBD) can be conducted to approximately correct the overprediction bias, past field and wind tunnel studies indicate that there are notable flaws in the PRIME building downwash theory. A detailed review of the theory supported by CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics) and wind tunnel simulations of flow over simple rectangular buildings revealed the following serious theoretical flaws: enhanced turbulence in the building wake starting at the wrong longitudinal location; constant enhanced turbulence extending up to the wake height; constant initial enhanced turbulence in the building wake (does not vary with roughness or stability); discontinuities in the streamline calculations; and no method to account for streamlined or porous structures. This paper documents theoretical and other problems in PRIME along with CFD simulations and wind tunnel observations that support these findings. Although AERMOD/PRIME may provide accurate and unbiased estimates (within a factor of 2) for some building configurations, a major review and update is needed so that accurate estimates can be obtained for other building configurations where significant overpredictions or underpredictions are common due to downwash effects. This will ensure that regulatory evaluations subject to dispersion modeling requirements can be based on an accurate model. Thus, it is imperative that the downwash theory in PRIME is corrected to improve model performance and ensure that the model better represents reality.

  16. Alleviation of Kainic Acid-Induced Brain Barrier Dysfunction by 4-O-Methylhonokiol in In Vitro and In Vivo Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin-Yi Han


    Full Text Available This experiment was designed to investigate whether 4-O-methylhonokiol (MH, a principal ingredient of Magnolia (M. officinalis bark, alleviated acute intraperitoneal (i.p. kainic acid- (KA- induced brain blood barrier dysfunction (BBBD via pathological examination and cytological analyses of the brain tissues of mice. KA (10–30 mg/kg time- and dose-dependently increased the water content of brain tissues and induced edema and encephalopathy. However, pretreatment with MH (5 and 20 mg/kg, i.p. significantly reduced the water content of the brain compared to that observed in the KA control group. Furthermore, MH significantly and dose-dependently reversed the remarkable variations in evan’s blue dye (EBD staining and malondialdehyde (MDA levels that were induced by KA (10 mg/kg, i.p.. MH also decreased the elevated seizure scores that were induced by KA (10 mg/kg, i.p. in mice in a manner similar to scavengers such as DMTU and trolox. Additionally, MH significantly scavenged intracellular ROS and Ca2+ within hippocampal cells. The tight junction seals mediated by claudin (Cld-5 were also found to be modulated by MH. MH efficiently reduced 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH (IC50, 52.4 mM and •OH with an electron spin resonance (ESR signal rate constant of 4×109 M-1·S-1, which is close to the reactivity of the vitamin E analog trolox. Taken together, these results suggest that MH may enhance radical scavenging in lipid and hydrophobic environments, which may be important for the physiological activity of the barrier.

  17. Trauma hemorrhagic shock-induced lung injury involves a gut-lymph-induced TLR4 pathway in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego C Reino

    Full Text Available Injurious non-microbial factors released from the stressed gut during shocked states contribute to the development of acute lung injury (ALI and multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS. Since Toll-like receptors (TLR act as sensors of tissue injury as well as microbial invasion and TLR4 signaling occurs in both sepsis and noninfectious models of ischemia/reperfusion (I/R injury, we hypothesized that factors in the intestinal mesenteric lymph after trauma hemorrhagic shock (T/HS mediate gut-induced lung injury via TLR4 activation.The concept that factors in T/HS lymph exiting the gut recreates ALI is evidenced by our findings that the infusion of porcine lymph, collected from animals subjected to global T/HS injury, into naïve wildtype (WT mice induced lung injury. Using C3H/HeJ mice that harbor a TLR4 mutation, we found that TLR4 activation was necessary for the development of T/HS porcine lymph-induced lung injury as determined by Evan's blue dye (EBD lung permeability and myeloperoxidase (MPO levels as well as the induction of the injurious pulmonary iNOS response. TRIF and Myd88 deficiency fully and partially attenuated T/HS lymph-induced increases in lung permeability respectively. Additional studies in TLR2 deficient mice showed that TLR2 activation was not involved in the pathology of T/HS lymph-induced lung injury. Lastly, the lymph samples were devoid of bacteria, endotoxin and bacterial DNA and passage of lymph through an endotoxin removal column did not abrogate the ability of T/HS lymph to cause lung injury in naïve mice.Our findings suggest that non-microbial factors in the intestinal mesenteric lymph after T/HS are capable of recreating T/HS-induced lung injury via TLR4 activation.

  18. Dorsal Vagal Complex Modulates Neurogenic Airway Inflammation in a Guinea Pig Model With Esophageal Perfusion of HCl

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhe Chen


    Full Text Available Neurogenic airway inflammation in chronic cough and bronchial asthma related to gastroesophageal reflux (GER is involved in the esophageal–bronchial reflex, but it is unclear whether this reflex is mediated by central neurons. This study aimed to investigate the regulatory effects of the dorsal vagal complex (DVC on airway inflammation induced by the esophageal perfusion of hydrochloric acid (HCl following the microinjection of nuclei in the DVC in guinea pigs. Airway inflammation was evaluated by measuring the extravasation of Evans blue dye (EBD and substance P (SP expression in the airway. Neuronal activity was indicated by Fos expression in the DVC. The neural pathways from the lower esophagus to the DVC and the DVC to the airway were identified using DiI tracing and pseudorabies virus Bartha (PRV-Bartha retrograde tracing, respectively. HCl perfusion significantly increased plasma extravasation, SP expression in the trachea, and the expression of SP and Fos in the medulla oblongata nuclei, including the nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS and the dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus (DMV. The microinjection of glutamic acid (Glu or exogenous SP to enhance neuronal activity in the DVC significantly potentiated plasma extravasation and SP release induced by intra-esophageal perfusion. The microinjection of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA, lidocaine to inhibit neuronal activity or anti-SP serum in the DVC alleviated plasma extravasation and SP release. In conclusion, airway inflammation induced by the esophageal perfusion of HCl is regulated by DVC. This study provides new insight for the mechanism of airway neurogenic inflammation related to GER.

  19. Atividade antiproliferativa dos extratos e da fração orgânica obtidos das folhas de Virola sebifera Aubl. (Myristicaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carina Denny

    Full Text Available As cascas de Virola sebifera (Myristicaceae são utilizadas por populações indígenas amazônicas em preparações alucinógenas, nas quais foram encontrados alcalóides como a dimetiltriptamina e seus derivados. Considerando a enorme importância dos alcalóides isolados de plantas na terapêutica do câncer e a presença desses compostos em espécies de Virola, o presente trabalho teve por objetivo o estudo da atividade antiproliferativa em cultura de células tumorais humanas de extratos e da fração orgânica, obtidos das folhas de Virola sebifera. O extrato bruto diclorometânico (EBD foi considerado o mais ativo, com seletividade principalmente para a linhagem de pulmão (NCI-460 - IC50: 4,46 µg/mL e para a fração orgânica (FO obtida por extração ácido-base - IC50; 6,91 µg/mL. A atividade observada possivelmente pode ser atribuída a alcalóides ou compostos nitrogenados que foram evidenciados pelo corante Dragendorff. Assim, a purificação da FO será necessária a fim de comprovar a presença de compostos nitrogenados, através de isolamento e determinação estrutural, bem como a participação desses compostos na atividade antiproliferativa observada.

  20. Ortodontia baseada em evidência científica: incorporando ciência na prática clínica Scientific evidence-based orthodontics: incorporating science within clinic practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Tereza Scardua Mariano


    Full Text Available O objetivo deste artigo é despertar o ortodontista e conscientizá-lo sobre a importância da tomada de decisão baseada em evidência científica no cuidado aos pacientes. Serão descritos os passos essenciais para a prática da Odontologia baseada em evidência (OBE, assim como os princípios da ciência e da pesquisa. Existem caminhos adequados para a busca da informação de qualidade, sendo esses a única garantia de encontrar artigos válidos. Na seleção de artigos científicos, o primeiro passo é definir o seu desenho, pois para cada dúvida clínica há um delineamento adequado capaz de respondê-la. Dessa maneira, questões sobre tratamento, etiologia, diagnóstico, prognóstico ou prevenção só podem ser respondidas por um artigo que tenha sido delineado para tal. O conhecimento da alocação randomizada, do mascaramento e do grupo-controle é fundamental para que possamos realizar uma leitura crítica dos artigos científicos, reconhecendo os que merecem credibilidade. Em meio a tantas publicações, precisamos definir, com segurança, o que deve ser incorporado ao nosso conhecimento e o que deve ser incorporado à prática clínica, mudando a nossa conduta. Desse modo, poderemos oferecer aos nossos pacientes opções terapêuticas mais consistentes e previsíveis.The aim of this article is to warn the orthodontist about the importance of making decision based on scientific evidence when taking care of the patients. It describes the main steps for the Dentistry practices based in evidence (EBD as well as the science and research principles. There are adequate ways for the search of quality information. While selecting the scientific articles, the first step would be defining its design, since for each question there is an adequate delineation able to answer it. Questions about treatment, etiology, diagnostic, prognostic or prevention could be answered in the article if it has been delineated for that. Understanding the meaning

  1. Levantamento das atitudes e crenças dos ortodontistas com relação à disfunção têmporo-mandibular e dor orofacial Survey of attitudes and beliefs of orthodontists regarding temporomandibular disfunction and orofacial pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Estephan José Moana Filho


    of the most recent and validated articles pertinent to the theme and also the use of the Evidence-Based Dentistry(EBD as a way for professionals acquire self-sufficiency in the critical appraisal of the available literature.

  2. LifeWatchGreece Portal development: architecture, implementation and challenges for a biodiversity research e-infrastructure. (United States)

    Gougousis, Alexandros; Bailly, Nicolas


    Biodiversity data is characterized by its cross-disciplinary character, the extremely broad range of data types and structures, and the plethora of different data sources providing resources for the same piece of information in a heterogeneous way. Since the web inception two decades ago, there are multiple initiatives to connect, aggregate, share, and publish biodiversity data, and to establish data and work flows in order to analyze them. The European program LifeWatch aims at establishing a distributed network of nodes implementing virtual research environment in Europe to facilitate the work of biodiversity researchers and managers. LifeWatchGreece is one of these nodes where a portal was developed offering access to a suite of virtual laboratories and e-services. Despite its strict definition in information technology, in practice "portal" is a fairly broad term that embraces many web architectures. In the biodiversity domain, the term "portal" is usually used to indicate either a web site that provides access to a single or an aggregation of data repositories (like:,,, a web site that gathers information about various online biodiversity tools (like, or a web site that just gathers information and news about the biodiversity domain (like LifeWatchGreece's portal takes the concept of a portal a step further. In strict IT terms, LifeWatchGreece's portal is partly a portal, partly a platform and partly an aggregator. It includes a number of biodiversity-related web tools integrated into a centrally-controlled software ecosystem. This ecosystem includes subsystems for access control, traffic monitoring, user notifications and web tool management. These subsystems are shared to all the web tools that have been integrated to the portal and thereby are part of this

  3. Five-year examination of utilization and drug cost outcomes associated with benefit design changes including reference pricing for proton pump inhibitors in a state employee health plan. (United States)

    Johnson, Jill T; Neill, Kathryn K; Davis, Dwight A


    The Arkansas State Employee Benefits Division (EBD) is a self-insured program comprising public school and other state employees, their spouses, and dependents. Previous research published in JMCP (2006) showed drug cost savings of $2.20 per member per month (PMPM; 37.6%) or annualized savings of $3.4 million associated with a benefit design change and coverage of the proton pump inhibitor (PPI) omeprazole over-the-counter (OTC) beginning in March 2004. On May 1, 2005, brand esomeprazole was excluded from coverage, with current users grandfathered for 4 months until September 2005. Reference pricing for PPIs, including esomeprazole but excluding generic omeprazole, was implemented on September 1, 2005, and the beneficiary cost share for all PPIs except generic omeprazole was determined from comparison of the PPI actual price to the $0.90 omeprazole OTC reference price per unit. To examine PPI utilization and drug costs before and after (a) excluding esomeprazole from coverage (with grandfathering current users) and (b) implementing a therapeutic maximum allowable cost (TMAC), or reference-pricing benefit design, for the PPI class in a large state employee health plan with fairly stable enrollment of approximately 127,500 members in 2005 through 2008 and approximately 128,000 members in 2009 Q1. The pharmacy claims database for the EBD was used to examine utilization and cost data for PPIs in a longitudinal analysis for the 61-month period from March 1, 2004, through March 31, 2009. Pharmacy claims data were compared for the period 14 months prior to esomeprazole exclusion (preperiod), 4 months during the esomeprazole exclusion (postperiod 1), and the ensuing 43 months of PPI reference pricing (postperiod 2). PPI cost and utilization data for the intervention group of approximately 127,500 beneficiaries were compared with a group of 122 self-insured employers with a total of nearly 1 million beneficiaries whose pharmacy benefits did not include reference pricing for

  4. Hauptschülers’ Conceptions of Work – An Exclusion from the Subjective Dissolution of Boundaries?/Hauptschüler und ihre Vorstellung von Arbeit – eine Ausgrenzung von der subjektivierten Entgrenzung?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolin Kölzer


    sich die Erfahrungen, die Hauptschüler mit Arbeit sammeln, einseitig auf atypische, unsichere Beschäftigungsverhältnisse mit hohem Prekaritätsrisiko konzentrieren sowie auf Normalarbeitsverhältnisse, beschränkt auf Berufe mit niedrigem Status, schlechter Bezahlung und hohen Gesundheitsrisiken. Privilegierte Tätigkeiten mit hohem Subjektivierungsgrad bleiben ihnen meist vorenthalten. Diese institutionell und sozial erzeugte eher einseitige Erfahrungskonzentration verursacht daher im Prozess der emotionalen Konditionierung einen eher engen Arbeitsbegriff. Gleichzeitig stellt Subjektivierung zusammen mit ihren Entgrenzungsphänomenenzunehmend eine „generelle Anforderungsstruktur an alle Beschäftigten“ (Lohr, Nickel 2005, 217 dar. Um sich auf „Arbeitsanforderungen mit höherem Gehalt an subjektiven Flexibilitäts- und Selbstgestaltungspotenzialen einzustellen“ (ebd., 221, – so meine These – bedarf es allerdings vorab einer differenzierteren Vorstellung von Arbeit, insbesondere ein Bewusstsein für die Subjektivierung von Erwerbsarbeit mit ihren Entgrenzungsphänomenen. Doch treten die befragten Hauptschüler mit einer eher einseitigen, negativen und vorwiegend fordistisch geprägten Perspektive auf Arbeit in den Lernprozess und später wahrscheinlich auch in den Arbeitsmarkt ein, wenn es Schule und Unterricht nicht gelingt, diese Vorstellungen zu erweitern und zu differenzieren. Insofern kann von einer Ausgrenzung von subjektiver Entgrenzung aufgrund eines unzureichenden Arbeitsbegriffes und einer mit aktuellen Anforderungen wenig kompatiblen Arbeitseinstellung gesprochen werden.

  5. Transtorno do comportamento alimentar em atletas de elite de nado sincronizado Eating disorders in elite synchronized swimmers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Talita Adão Perini


    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: O objetivo do presente estudo foi identificar a presença de transtorno do comportamento alimentar (TCA ou síndromes precursoras e o grau de distorção da imagem corporal em atletas de elite de nado sincronizado. Essa modalidade é considerada de risco para desenvolvimento de TCA por valorizar, além de outros aspectos, a leveza e beleza de movimentos que, de certa forma, estão associados a baixa massa corporal. MÉTODOS: Foram avaliadas 27 atletas de nado sincronizado, sendo 19 da categoria juniores (15,6 ± 0,8 anos e oito da categoria de seniores (19,0 ± 1,3 anos que compunham a seleção brasileira na época do estudo (2000. Um grupo de 32 adolescentes não-atletas (15,0 ± 1,6 anos foi usado para comparação com as atletas. Os procedimentos metodológicos adotados foram: aplicação de três instrumentos de auto-relato, validados. 1 EAT-26 - presença de comportamentos alimentares inadequados; 2 BITE - presença de atitudes sugestivas de bulimia nervosa; e 3 BSQ - insatisfação da auto-imagem corporal. RESULTADOS: Embora tanto o grupo de atletas, quanto o de não-atletas tenham apresentado parâmetros antropométricos compatíveis com padrões saudáveis para a idade e sexo, os resultados evidenciam a presença de insatisfação com a auto-imagem corporal e a adoção de práticas patológicas de controle da massa corporal, sobretudo entre atletas da categoria juniores e entre as adolescentes não-atletas. CONCLUSÕES: Os resultados encontrados no presente estudo retratam uma tendência mundial de preocupação com a aparência entre adolescentes capaz de levá-las à adoção de condutas não-saudáveis.OBJECTIVES: The aim of the present study was to identify the Eating Behavior Disorder (EBD or precursory syndromes and the level of distortion of the body image of elite synchronized swimming athletes. This sport modality is considered of risk for development of eating disorders for valuing, among other aspects, the

  6. Rainfall spatiotemporal variability relation to wetlands hydroperiods (United States)

    Serrano-Hidalgo, Carmen; Guardiola-Albert, Carolina; Fernandez-Naranjo, Nuria


    hydroperiods of wetlands present in Doñana natural space. Key issues: spatiotemporal variability, geostatistics, hydroperiod, wetlands. References: Cifuentes, V., García, M.A., Checa, M.J. & Escudero, R. (2015). Estimación por teledetección de la superficie de la lámina de agua y los niveles de profundidad de las lagunas en los humedales de la Campiña Andaluza Central incluidos en la demarcación hidrográfica del Guadalquivir. Teledetección: Humedales y Espacios Protegidos. Presented in XVI Congreso de la Asociación Española de Teledetección. pp. 322-325. Sevilla 21-23 octubre 2015. Díaz-Delgado, R., Carro, F., Herruzo, F. Q., Osuna, A., & Baena, M. (2016). Contribución del seguimiento ecológico a largo plazo a la investigación y la gestión en la plataforma LTSER-Doñana. Revista Ecosistemas, 25(1), 9-18. Pebesma, E. (2012). spacetime: Spatio-temporal data in r. Journal of Statistical Software, 51(7), 1-30.