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Sample records for eb pvd tbcs

  1. Effects of Shot Peening Process on Thermal Cycling Lifetime of TBCs Prepared by EB-PVD

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Zhao-hui; GONG Sheng-kai; LI He-fei; XU Hui-bin; ZHANG Chun-gang; WANG Lu

    2007-01-01

    Conventional two-layered thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) are prepared by electron beam physical vapor deposition (EB-PVD)with ZrO2-8 wt% Y2O3 (8YSZ) as top coat and CoCrAlY as bond coat on disk-shaped Ni based super-alloy. In this paper, three kinds of shot peening process with different lengths of operating time were adopted for bond coating. As a result, changes took place in its surface roughness and the surface micro-hardness. A thermal cycling test at 1 273 K×55 min and another at room temperature for 5 min were performed to study the effects of shot peening process on the thermal cycling lifetime of TBCs. It is found that a moderate shot peening process will be able to prolong the life time. The oxidation dynamic of the as-processed TBCs basically accords with the parabolic rule, and the oxidation test also attests to the spallation between YSZ and thermal growth oxide (TGO) responsible mainly for the failure of TBCs.

  2. Thermal cycling behavior of EB-PVD TBCs on CVD platinum modified aluminide coatings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Zhenhua, E-mail: zhxubiam@aliyun.com; Wang, Zhankao; Huang, Guanghong; Mu, Rende; He, Limin

    2015-07-15

    Highlights: • The removed ridges at the grain boundaries with grit blasting. • The ridge, oxidation and cracking are features of damage initiation in TBCs. • Spalled location either at TGO/bond coat interface or inside of TGO layer. • The lower strain energy release rate within TGO layer can prolong of TBCs life. - Abstract: Thermal barrier coating systems (TBCs) including of chemical vapor deposited (Ni, Pt)Al bond coat with grit blasting process and electron beam physical vapor deposited Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}-stabilized-ZrO{sub 2} (YSZ) ceramic coating were investigated. The phase structures, surface and cross-sectional morphologies, cyclic oxidation behaviors and residual stresses of the TBCs were studied in detail. It was found that the fracture path traverses through the ceramic coating to TGO interface, as well as at the TGO to bond coat interface is obviously detected. The change in fracture plane occurs at grain boundaries. The ridge top spallation leads to separate of sufficient size to result in unstable fracture driven by the strain energy stored in the TGO. The bond coat can undergo a volume increase upon oxidation, so that a cavity, enlarged strictly by oxidation would be full to overflowing with TGO layer. The spalled location of the TBCs probably occurs either at the interface of TGO layer and bond coat or inside of TGO layer. The lower strain energy release rate within TGO layer during thermal cycling is beneficial to prolong of TBCs life. The lower is the compressive stress within TGO layer, the longer is the lifetime of TBCs.

  3. Thermal cycling behavior of YSZ and La{sub 2}(Zr{sub 0.7}Ce{sub 0.3}){sub 2}O{sub 7} as double-ceramic-layer systems EB-PVD TBCs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu Zhenhua, E-mail: zhxuciac@yahoo.com [Beijing Institute of Aeronautical Materials, Department 5, P.O. Box 81-5, Beijing 100095 (China); He Limin; Mu Rende; Lu Feng; He Shimei [Beijing Institute of Aeronautical Materials, Department 5, P.O. Box 81-5, Beijing 100095 (China); Cao Xueqiang [State Key Laboratory of Rare Earth Resource Utilization, Changchun Institute of Applied Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changchun 130022 (China)

    2012-06-05

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer DCL coating has a longer lifetime than that of single layer coating of LZ7C3 or YSZ. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The unique growth modes of columns within DCL coating. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The presence of cerium in both Ce{sup 3+} and Ce{sup 4+} oxidation states within the coating surface. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The spallation of DCL coating induced by transverse cracks may be the first emergence of delamination followed by spalling layer by layer. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The outward diffusion of Cr element (bond coat) into LZ7C3 layer. - Abstract: Double-ceramic-layer (DCL) thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) of La{sub 2}(Zr{sub 0.7}Ce{sub 0.3}){sub 2}O{sub 7} (LZ7C3) and yttria stabilized zirconia (YSZ) were deposited by electron beam-physical vapor deposition (EB-PVD). The thermal cycling test at 1573 K in burner-rig with a coal gas flame indicates the thermal cycling life of DCL coating is not only much longer than that of LZ7C3 coating, but also approximately 27% longer than that of YSZ coating. The superior sintering-resistance of LZ7C3 coating and the unique growth modes of columns within DCL coating are all very helpful to the prolongation of thermal cycling life of DCL coating. The failure of DCL coating is mainly a result of the reduction-oxidation of cerium oxide, the re-crystallization of some LZ7C3 fine grains, the cracks initiation, propagation and extension, the abnormal oxidation of bond coat, the degradation of t Prime -phase in YSZ coating and the outward diffusion of Cr alloying element into LZ7C3 coating. Since no single material that has been studied so far satisfies all the requirements for high temperature applications, DCL coating is an important development direction of TBCs.

  4. Crack prediction in EB-PVD thermal barrier coatings based on the simulation of residual stresses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, J. W.; Zhao, Y.; Liu, S.; Zhang, Z. Z.; Ma, J.

    2016-07-01

    Thermal barrier coatings systems (TBCs) are widely used in the field of aerospace. The durability and insulating ability of TBCs are highly dependent on the residual stresses of top coatings, thus the investigation of the residual stresses is helpful to understand the failure mechanisms of TBCs. The simulation of residual stresses evolution in electron beam physical vapor deposition (EB-PVD) TBCs is described in this work. The interface morphology of TBCs subjected to cyclic heating and cooling is observed using scanning electron microscope (SEM). An interface model of TBCs is established based on thermal elastic-plastic finite method. Residual stress distributions in TBCs are obtained to reflect the influence of interfacial roughness. Both experimental and simulation results show that it is feasible to predict the crack location by stress analysis, which is crucial to failure prediction.

  5. Oxidation and thermal fatigue of EB-PVD thermal barrier coatings on tube superalloy substrate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAO Yu; ZHANG Chun-xia; ZHOU Chun-gen; GONG Sheng-kai; XU Hui-bin

    2006-01-01

    Two-layer structure thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) (NiCoCrAlY (bond coat)+(6%-8%, mass fraction) Y2O3-stabilized ZrO2(YSZ top coat)) were deposited by electron beam physical vapor deposition (EB-PVD) on tube superalloy substrates. The samples were investigated by isothermal oxidation and thermal shock tests. It is found that the mass gains of the substrate with and without TBCs are 0.165 and 7.34 mg/cm2, respectively. So the TBCs system is a suitable protection for the substrate. In thermal shock tests the vertical cracks initiate at the top coat and grow into the bond coat, causing the oxidation of the bond coat along the cracks. Failure of the TBCs system occurs by the spallation of the YSZ from the bond coat, and some micro-cracks are found at the location where the fragment of the YSZ top coat spalled from.

  6. Effects of interface morphology and TGO thickness on residual stress of EB-PVD thermal barrier coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jianwei; Zhao, Yang; Ma, Jian

    2015-04-01

    The residual stress of electron beam-physical vapor deposition (EB-PVD) thermal barrier coatings (TBC) is complex and difficult to be obtained. In this paper, the interface morphology of TBCs subjected to cyclic heating and cooling was observed by SEM. Based on the thermal elastic-plastic finite method, corresponding interface model of TBCs was established. The residual stress of EB-PVD TBCs with different interface morphologies and TGO thicknesses was calculated using the FE method without regard to the presence of cracks and defects. The result shows that the distribution of residual stress is significantly affected by the interface morphology, and the growth of TGO also has influence on the residual stress of TC and TGO.

  7. Failure of EB-PVD Thermal Barrier Coatings Subjected to Thermo-Mechanical Loading

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Chen; ZHANG Chun-xia; GUO Hong-bo; GONG Sheng-kai; ZHANG Yue

    2006-01-01

    Thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) were developed to protect metallic blades and vanes working in turbo-engines. The two-layered structure TBCs, consisting of NiCoCrAlY bond coat and yttria stabilized zirconia (YSZ), were deposited on a cylinder of superalloy substrate by the electron beam-physical vapor deposition (EB-PVD). The failure mechanism of the TBCs was investigated with a thermo-mechanical fatigue testing system under the service condition similar to that for turbine blades. Non-destructive evaluation of the coated specimens was conducted through the impedance spectroscopy. It is found that the crack initiation mainly takes place on the top coat at the edge of the heated zones.

  8. Advanced neutron and X-ray techniques for insights into the microstructure of EB-PVD thermal barrier coatings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kulkarni, Anand [State University of New York, Stony Brook, NY 11794 (United States); Goland, Allen [State University of New York, Stony Brook, NY 11794 (United States); Herman, Herbert [State University of New York, Stony Brook, NY 11794 (United States)]. E-mail: hherman@ms.cc.sunysb.edu; Allen, Andrew J. [National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD 20899 (United States); Dobbins, Tabbetha [National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD 20899 (United States); DeCarlo, Francesco [Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States); Ilavsky, Jan [Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States); Long, Gabrielle G. [Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States); Fang, Stacy [Chromalloy Gas Turbine Corporation, Orangeburg, NY 10962 (United States); Lawton, Paul [Chromalloy Gas Turbine Corporation, Orangeburg, NY 10962 (United States)

    2006-06-25

    The ongoing quest to increase gas turbine efficiency and performance (increased thrust) provides a driving force for materials development. While improved engine design and usage of novel materials provide solutions for increased engine operating temperatures, and hence fuel efficiency, reliability issues remain. Thermal barrier coatings (TBCs), deposited onto turbine components using the electron-beam physical vapor deposition (EB-PVD) process, exhibit unique pore architectures capable of bridging the technological gap between insulation/life extension and prime reliance. This article explores the potential of advanced X-ray and neutron techniques for comprehension of an EB-PVD TBC coating microstructure. While conventional microscopy reveals a hierarchy of voids, complementary advanced techniques allow quantification of these voids in terms of component porosities, anisotropy, size and gradient through the coating thickness. In addition, the derived microstructural parameters obtained both further knowledge of the nature and architecture of the porosity, and help establish its influence on the resultant thermal and mechanical properties.

  9. Oxidation and Hot Corrosion of Gradient Thermal Barrier Coatings Prepared by EB-PVD

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The performances of gradient thermal barrier coatings (GTBCs) produced by EB-PVD were evaluated by isothermaloxidation and cyclic hot corrosion (HTHC) tests. Compared with conventional two-layered TBCs, the GTBCs exhibitebetter resistance to not only oxidation but also hot-corrosion. A dense Al2O3 layer in the GTBCs effectively prohibitesinward diffusion of O and S and outward diffusion of Al and Cr during the tests. On the other hand, an "inlaid"interface, resulting from oxidation of the Al along the columnar grains of the bond coat, enhances the adherence ofAl2O3 layer. Failure of the GTBC finally occurred by cracking at the interface between the bond coat and Al2O3layer, due to the combined effect of sulfidation of the bond coat and thermal cycling.

  10. The effect of thermal aging on the thermal conductivity of plasma sprayed and EB-PVD thermal barrier coatings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dinwiddie, R.B.; Beecher, S.C.; Porter, W.D. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Nagaraj, B.A. [General Electric Co., Cincinnati, OH (United States). Aircraft Engine Group

    1996-05-01

    Thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) applied to the hot gas components of turbine engines lead to enhanced fuel efficiency and component reliability. Understanding the mechanisms which control the thermal transport behavior of the TBCs is of primary importance. Electron beam-physical vapor deposition (EV-PVD) and air plasma spraying (APS) are the two most commonly used coating techniques. These techniques produce coatings with unique microstructures which control their performance and stability. The density of the APS coatings was controlled by varying the spray parameters. The low density APS yttria-partially stabilized zirconia (yttria-PSZ) coatings yielded a thermal conductivity that is lower than both the high density APS coatings and the EB-PVD coatings. The thermal aging of both fully and partially stabilized zirconia are compared. The thermal conductivity of the coatings permanently increases upon exposure to high temperatures. These increases are attributed to microstructural changes within the coatings. This increase in thermal conductivity can be modeled using a relationship which depends on both the temperature and time of exposure. Although the EB-PVD coatings are less susceptible to thermal aging effects, results suggest that they typically have a higher thermal conductivity than APS coatings before thermal aging. The increases in thermal conductivity due to thermal aging for plasma sprayed partially stabilized zirconia have been found to be less than for plasma sprayed fully stabilized zirconia coatings.

  11. Evolution of photo-stimulated luminescence of EB-PVD/(Ni, Pt)Al thermal barrier coatings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wen Mei [Department of Metallurgy and Materials Engineering, University of Connecticut, Storrs, CT 06269 (United States); Jordan, Eric H. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Connecticut, Storrs, CT 06269 (United States)]. E-mail: jordan@engr.uconn.edu; Gell, Maurice [Department of Metallurgy and Materials Engineering, University of Connecticut, Storrs, CT 06269 (United States)

    2005-05-25

    Experiments are described which were designed to assess the suitability of photo-stimulated luminescence piezo-spectroscopy (PLPS) measurements as a basis for non-destructive inspection (NDI) and determination of life remaining of thermal barrier coatings (TBCs). Thermal cyclic tests were conducted on 7 wt.% Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} stabilized ZrO{sub 2} (YSZ) electron beam physical vapor deposited (EB-PVD)/(Ni, Pt)Al/CMSX-4 TBCs at two temperatures 1151 and 1121 deg. C. The evolution of PLPS spectral characteristics (peak frequency shift, peak width and area ratio of peaks) was studied as a function of thermal cycles. It was observed that the average thermally grown oxide (TGO) stress and its standard deviation, and the area ratio of peaks show systematic change with thermal cycling, indicating that these characteristics can be used for NDI and determination of life remaining. The average TGO stress increases initially and then decreases monotonically with thermal cycling. The rate of change in the stress can be related to specimen life: the shallower the slope, the higher the life. The peak area ratio also decreases monotonically with cycling. The average TGO stress changes in a systematic manner versus remaining life fraction independent of temperature. Remaining life predictions were made based on average stress versus life fraction, which resulted in life assessments within {+-}13% of actual values excluding one specimen with abnormal behavior.

  12. Thermal barrier coatings of new rare-earth composite oxide by EB-PVD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Z.H., E-mail: zhxubiam@sina.com; Zhou, X.; Wang, K.; Dai, J.W.; He, L.M.

    2014-02-25

    Highlights: • 3Y-LZ7C3 coating has a cyclic lifetime longer than that of LZ7C3 coating. • Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} helps to moderate the excessive vapor pressure condition during deposition. • 3Y-LZ7C3 coating is a mixture of pyrochlore and fluorite structures. • 3Y-LZ7C3 coating has a low sintering ability as compared with LZ7C3 coating. -- Abstract: Thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) of La{sub 2}(Zr{sub 0.7}Ce{sub 0.3}){sub 2}O{sub 7} (LZ7C3) with the addition of 3 wt.% Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} (3Y-LZ7C3) were deposited by electron beam-physical vapor deposition (EB-PVD). The phase structures, surface and cross-sectional morphologies, thermal cycling behaviors of these coatings were studied in detail. The thermal cycling test at 1373 K in an air furnace indicates that the 3Y-LZ7C3 coating has a lifetime of 1134 cycles which is about 18% longer than that of LZ7C3 coating. The improvement of chemical homogeneity of the coating, the superior growth behavior of columns and the favorable mechanical properties are all very helpful to the prolongation of thermal cycling life of 3Y-LZ7C3 coating. The failure of 3Y-LZ7C3 coating is probably a result of the reduction–oxidation of cerium oxide (Ce{sub 2}O{sub 3} and CeO{sub 2}), the solid solution reactions between La{sub 2}O{sub 3} and Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} (or ZrO{sub 2}), the visible cracks initiation, propagation and extension, the abnormal oxidation of bond coat and the thermal expansion mismatch between ceramic coating and bond coat.

  13. Influence of surface modification on isothermal oxidation behavior of EB-PVD NiAl coating

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI He-fei; TAO Shu-feng; JIANG Kuo; A. HESNAWI; GONG Sheng-kai

    2006-01-01

    The isothermal oxidation behaviors of the as-deposited NiAl coating on the nickel-based superalloy by electron beam physical vapour deposition(EB-PVD) and the NiAl coating after surface modifications of grinding and polishing were investigated. The as-deposited coating shows the least mass gain, the initially formed θ-Al2O3 scale spalls after only 1 h, and the succeeding scale formed is coarse and discontinuous and thus can not be used as protective coatings. Among the two surface-modified coatings, the ground coating results in the highest oxide growth rate, which is consistent with the SEM results where the scale spalls heavily and many voids appear between the scale and the NiAl coating. The scale spallation and void formation mechanisms during isothermal oxidation test of EB-PVD NiAl coating were also discussed.

  14. Microstructural, mechanical and oxidation features of NiCoCrAlY coating produced by plasma activated EB-PVD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    He, Jian; Guo, Hongbo, E-mail: guo.hongbo@buaa.edu.cn; Peng, Hui; Gong, Shengkai

    2013-06-01

    NiCoCrAlY coatings produced by electron beam-physical vapor deposition (EB-PVD) have been extensively used as the oxidation resistance coatings or suitable bond coats in thermal barrier coating (TBC) system. However, the inherent imperfections caused by EB-PVD process degrade the oxidation resistance of the coatings. In the present work, NiCoCrAlY coatings were creatively produced by plasma activated electron beam-physical vapor deposition (PA EB-PVD). The novel coatings showed a terraced substructure on the surface of each grain due to the increased energy of metal ions and enhanced mobility of adatoms. Also a strong (1 1 1) crystallographic texture of γ/γ′ grains was observed. The toughness of the coatings got remarkably improved compared with the coatings deposited by conventional EB-PVD and the oxidation behavior at 1373 K showed that the novel coatings had excellent oxidation resistance. The possible mechanism was finally discussed.

  15. Mechanical properties of EB-PVD ZrO{sub 2} thermal barrier coatings; Mechanische Eigenschaften von EB-PVD ZrO{sub 2} Waermedaemmschichten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Held, Carolin

    2014-08-29

    In this work, the elastic properties of thermal barrier coatings which were produced by electron-beam enhanced physical vapour deposition were investigated, as well as the dependency of the properties on the sample microstructure, the thermal treatment and the test method. For this purpose, not only commercial coatings were characterized, but also special sample material was used which consists of a 1 mm thick layer of EB-PVD TBC. This material was isothermally heat treated for different times at 950 C, 1100 C and 1200 C and then tested in a specially developed miniaturized bend test and by dynamic mechanical analysis. The sample material was tested by nanoindentation in order to measure the Young's modulus on a local scale, and the porosity of the samples was determined by microstructure analysis and porosimetry. The decrease of porosity could be connected with sintering and subsequent stiffening of the material. The test results are dependent on the tested volume. A small test volume leads to larger measured Young's moduli, while a large test volume yields lower values. The test volume also has an influence on the increase of stiffness during thermal exposure. With a small tested volume, a quicker increase of the Young's modulus was registered, which could be associated to the sintering of local structures.

  16. Failure mechanism of EB-PVD thermal barrier coatings on NiAl substrate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Yttria stabilized zirconia(YSZ) was deposited on the line cut β-NiAl substrate by electron-beam physical vapour deposition(EB-PVD), and the cyclic oxidation behaviors of thermal barrier coatings on β-NiAl substrate were investigated in 1 h thermal cycles at 1 200 ℃ in air. The results show that the samples fail after 80-100 cycles. Sub-interface cavitations in the substrate develop due to depletion of Al in forming thermally grown oxides(TGOs). The collapse and closing up of cavities result in the ragged YSZ/TGO/substrate interface. Since the specific crack trajectories are quite sensitive to local geometry, cracks along the YSZ/TGO/substrate interfaces ultimately lead to YSZ spallation.

  17. Kinetic Monte Carlo Simulation of EB-PVD Film: Effects of Substrate Temperature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHAN Ying-chun; HE Xiao-dong; LI Ming-wei; LI Yao; XU Jiu-jun

    2006-01-01

    The 2D kinetic Monte Carlo (KMC) simulation was used to study the effects of different substrate temperatures on the microstructure of Ni-Cr films in the process of deposition by the electron beam physical vapor deposition (EB-PVD). In the KMC model, substrate was assumed to be a "surface" of tight-packed rows, and the simulation includes two phenomena: adatom-surface collision and adatom diffusion. While the interaction between atoms was described by the embedded atom method, the jumping energy was calculated by the molecular static (MS) calculation. The initial location of the adatom was defined by the Momentum Scheme. The results reveal that there exists a critical substrate temperature which means that the lowest packing density and the highest surface roughness structure will be achieved when the temperature is lower than the smaller critical value, while the roughness of both surfaces and the void contents keep decreasing with the substrate temperature increasing until it reaches the higher critical value. The results also indicate that the critical substrate temperature rises as the deposition rate increases.

  18. Multilayer stacks obtained by ion assisted EB PVD aimed at thermal barrier coating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roos, E.; Maile, K.; Lyutovich, A. [Stuttgart Univ. (DE). Materialpruefungsanstalt (MPA)

    2010-07-01

    Thermal Barrier Coating (TBC) using Electron Beam Physical Vapour Deposition (EB PVD) is widely implemented, especially for aero-engine turbine blades. Generally, multilayer stacks are used for these aims. For the additional improvement of intermediate layers with graded transitions to the initial Ni-based alloy, the use of accelerated ions in the EBPVD-process is advantageous. The effect of the substrate bias potential, ion current density and deposition temperature on the structure and properties of Ti and Zr intermediate layers are investigated. The morphology of the films is studied using optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). It is found that the surface morphology becomes smoother with rising bias potential and decreasing ion current density. Measurements of Vicker's micro-hardness performed on these coatings have shown its increase with higher values of the bias and its reduction with the growing temperature. This effect is caused by the observed decrease in grain size and higher porosity of the films. A multilayer coating system Ni (based substrate)-Si-Si{sub x}Al{sub y}-Al with graded transitions between the layers is obtained using ion assisted EBPVD. Architecture of a multilayer stack for TBC with graded transitions is proposed. (orig.)

  19. FEM ANALYSIS OF THERMAL STRESSES IN GRADIENT THERMAL BARRIER COATINGS PRODUCED BY EB-PVD

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    H.B. Guo; H.B. Xu; S.K. Gong

    2001-01-01

    Gradient thermal barrier coatings (GTBCs) produced by co-deposition of mixtures ofAl-Al2 O3-YSZ onto metallic bond coat exhibited longer lifetimes than the two-layeredTBCs. The finite element method (FEM) numerical models were used to investigatestress and strain states in the GTBCs and traditional two-layered TBCs as they cooledto 750℃ from a stress-free state at 850℃.

  20. Failure characteristics and mechanisms of EB-PVD TBCs with Pt-modified NiAl bond coats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Le; Mukherjee, Sriparna; Huang, Ke; Park, Young Whan; Sohn, Yongho, E-mail: Yongho.Sohn@ucf.edu

    2015-06-18

    Microstructural evolution and failure characteristics/mechanisms were investigated for thermal barrier coatings that consist of electron beam physical vapor deposited ZrO{sub 2}−8 wt% Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} (YSZ) topcoat, Pt-modified nickel aluminide, (Ni,Pt)Al bond coat, and CMSX-4 superalloy substrate with furnace cycling at 1100 °C with 1-h dwell. Photo stimulated luminescence spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy equipped with X-ray energy dispersive spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy were employed to examine the residual stress of the thermally grown oxide (TGO) and microstructural changes. For comparison, (Ni,Pt)Al bond coat on CMSX-4 without the YSZ topcoat was also characterized. The TGO grew faster for the YSZ-coated (Ni,Pt)Al bond coat than the (Ni,Pt)Al coating without the YSZ topcoat. Correspondingly, the β-to-γ′/martensite formation in the (Ni,Pt)Al bond coat occurred faster on the YSZ-coated (Ni,Pt)Al bond coat. However the rumpling occurred much faster and with larger amplitude on the (Ni,Pt)Al coating without the YSZ topcoat. Still, the rumpling at the TGO/bond coat interface caused crack initiation as early as 10 thermal cycles, decohesion at the YSZ/TGO interface, and eventual spallation failure primarily through the TGO/bond coat interface. The magnitude of compressive residual stress in the TGO showed an initial increase up to 3−4 GPa followed by a gradual decrease. The rate of stress relaxation was much quicker for the TGO scale without the YSZ topcoat with distinctive relief corresponding to the cracking at the top of geometrical ridges associated with the (Ni,Pt)Al bond coat. The maximum elastic energy for the TGO scale was estimated at 90 J/m{sup 2} at 50% of its lifetime (N{sub f}=545 cycles). The YSZ presence/adhesion to the TGO scale is emphasized to minimize the undulation of the TGO/bond coat interface, i.e., decohesion at the YSZ/TGO scale accelerates the rumpling and crack-coalescence at the TGO/bond coat interface where the spallation fracture occurs.

  1. Anisotropic TGO rumpling in EB-PVD thermal barrier coatings under in-phase thermomechanical loading

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balint, D.S., E-mail: d.balint@imperial.ac.uk [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Imperial College London, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Kim, S.-S.; Liu Yufu; Kitazawa, R.; Kagawa, Y. [Research Center for Advanced Science and Technology, University of Tokyo, 4-6-1 Komaba, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 153-8409 (Japan); Evans, A.G. [College of Engineering, University of California, Santa Barbara, CA 93106 (United States)

    2011-04-15

    An electron beam physical vapor deposited (EB-PVD) Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}-ZrO{sub 2} thermal barrier system has been tested under in-phase thermomechanical fatigue (TMF) conditions with thermal gradient in the through-thickness direction. Undulations in the thermally grown oxide (TGO) were observed to have clear anisotropic behavior with respect to the directions parallel and perpendicular to the loading axis. It was found that undulation wavelengths were nearly the same in both directions but the amplitude in the perpendicular direction was much larger than in the parallel direction. A recent model of TGO rumpling was adapted and used to analyze and explain the origins of the observed rumpling behavior under TMF conditions. Methods for deducing variation in the coefficient of thermal expansion with temperature and in the creep properties of the substrate from the experimental strain data are also presented in the course of the derivations. Model results show that tensile stress applied in the loading direction can overcome the compression occurring from lateral expansion during oxide formation, causing undulations to flatten; undulations perpendicular to the loading axis are unaffected. However, ratcheting in the strain cycle experienced by the substrate, which occurs naturally by substrate creep, is necessary for anisotropic rumpling under cyclic stress conditions. Model predictions for constant applied stress are also presented, demonstrating a reversal in the direction of undulation alignment under compression. A threshold stress is identified, in both tension and compression, sufficient to produce appreciable anisotropic rumpling. The model predictions provide a clear mechanism for the anisotropy and further evidence that the lateral expansion strain in the oxide is the driving force for oxide rumpling.

  2. THE INFLUENCE OF Mo DIFFUSION ON THE THERMAL BEHAVIOR OF TBCs ON Ni3Al BASED ALLOY IC-6

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    D.B.Zhang; S.K.Gong; H.B.Xu; Y.F.Han

    2002-01-01

    Conventional two-layered structure thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) were preparedonto γ'-Ni3Al based alloy IC-6 by electron beam physical vapor deposition (EB-PVD).Isothermal oxidation and thermal cycling tests were carried out to investigate theeffect of Mo content at the interface between bond coat and ceramic top coat causedby diffusion. It has been found that the alloy coated with TBCs presented the lowestoxidation weight gain value for the reason that the ceramic top coat in TBC systemcan effectively stop Mo oxides evaporating. The life time of TBCs has close relationwith Mo content at the interface between the bond coat and top coat. Spallation ofceramic top coat occurred during thermal cyclic testing when Mo atoms accumulatedat the interface up to certain amount to decline the combination between the bond coatand top coat.

  3. The Study of Selected Properties of Ti EB PVD Coating Deposited Onto Inner Tube Surface at Low Temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kottfer D.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the selected properties of the thin Ti coating applied by activated evaporation EB PVD technique. This technique was used for the deposition of Ti thin coating onto inner surface of OKhN3 MFA steel tubes. Deposition process was carried out at temperature 200°C. Conventional type of coatings - monolayer Ti - was analyzed by standard techniques for surface status and quality assessment - coating thickness, chemical composition by EDX analysis, adhesion, hardness, roughness, and growth direction of columns at room temperature. Ti monolayer achieved roughness Ra equal from 0.42 μm to 0.47 μm. The resulting hardness was from 2 GPa to 8.5 GPa depending on the sample location inside the vacuum chamber. Placing of the coated surface also affected the direction of grain growth of Ti coating columns. The angles α of grain growth were found to be from 40° to 60°. Angle α increased two to three times more than the incidence angle β (from 12° to 28° of evaporated Ti particles. Values of the adhesion measured along the Ti growth direction were mostly higher (up to 10% or the same as those measured perpendicular to it.

  4. Macro-microscopic morphology and phase analysis of TiAl-based alloys sheet fabricated by EB-PVD method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    TiAl-based alloys sheet with thickness of 0.3-0.4 mm as well as dimension of 150 mm×100 mm was fabricated successfully by using electron beam-physical vapor deposition(EB-PVD) method. The microscopic morphology and phase composition of specimens in various states were analyzed by atomic force microscope(AFM), scanning electron microscope(SEM)and X-ray diffractometer(XRD), respectively. The results indicate that the as-deposited TiAl-based alloys sheet has good surface quality and is composed of γ, α2 and τ phase. There is natural delamination inside the sheet, of which the microstructure is columnar crystal, and the component shows a gradient change along the normal direction of substrate. After the vacuum hot pressing treatment and subsequent homogenization treatment, the columnar crystal transforms into the coarse fully lamellar microstructure, the delamination phenomenon and τ phase disappear, α2 phase decreases obviously, and the composition tends to uniforrnization.

  5. Surface characteristics of hydroxyapatite-coated layer prepared on nanotubular Ti–35Ta–xHf alloys by EB-PVD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Yong-Hoon [Department of Dental Materials and Research Center of Nano-Interface Activation for Biomaterials, School of Dentistry, Chosun University, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of); Biomechanics and Tissue Engineering Laboratory, Division of Orthodontics, College of Dentistry, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH (United States); Moon, Byung-Hak [Department of Dental Materials and Research Center of Nano-Interface Activation for Biomaterials, School of Dentistry, Chosun University, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of); Choe, Han-Cheol, E-mail: hcchoe@chosun.ac.kr [Department of Dental Materials and Research Center of Nano-Interface Activation for Biomaterials, School of Dentistry, Chosun University, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of); Brantley, William A. [Division of Restorative, Prosthetic and Primary Care Dentistry, College of Dentistry, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH (United States)

    2013-12-31

    In this study, we investigated the surface characteristics of hydroxyapatite (HA)-coated layers prepared by electron-beam physical vapor deposition (EB-PVD) on nanotubular Ti–35Ta–xHf alloys (x = 3, 7, and 15 wt.%). Ti–35Ta–xHf alloys were first prepared by arc melting. Formation of a nanotube structure on these alloys was achieved by an electrochemical method in 1 M H{sub 3}PO{sub 4} + 0.8 wt.% NaF electrolytes. The HA coatings were then deposited on the nanotubular surface by an EB-PVD method. The surface characteristics were analyzed by field-emission scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The electrochemical behavior was examined using a potentiodynamic polarization test in 0.9% NaCl solution. The Ti–35Ta–xHf alloys had an equiaxed grain structure with α″ + β phases, and the α″ phase disappeared with increases in Hf content. The Ti–35Ta–15Hf alloy showed higher β-phase peak intensity in the XRD patterns than that for the lower Hf-content alloys. A highly ordered nanotubular oxide layer was formed on the Ti–35Ta–15Hf alloy, and the tube length depended on Hf content. The HA coating surface formed at traces of the nanotubular titanium oxide layer and completely covered the tips of the nanotubes with a cluster shape. From the potentiodynamic polarization tests, the incorporation of Hf element and formation of the nanotubular structure were the main factors for achieving lower current density. In particular, the surface of the HA coating on the nanotubular structure exhibited higher corrosion resistance than that of the nanotubular titanium oxide structure without an HA coating. - Highlights: • Hydroxyapatite (HA) was coated on nanotubular Ti–35Ta–xHf alloys, using EB-PVD. • Increasing the Hf content reduced the relative proportion of α″ martensite to β-Ti in the microstructures. • The detailed nanotubular structure formed by anodization depended on alloy composition

  6. EB-PVD热障涂层热循环性能评价方法研究%Evaluation Method of Thermal Cycling Property of EB-PVD Thermal Barrier Coatings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈立强; 宫声凯; 徐惠彬

    2013-01-01

    制备8批次EB-PVD双层结构热障涂层试样,采用循环加热快速冷却实验装置模拟热障涂层服役环境,开展了热障涂层试样在不同热循环保温时间条件下的热循环性能评价实验,采用指数下降的数学模型对热循环实验数据进行拟合分析,获得了表征热障涂层试样静态氧化性能和热疲劳性能的物理量.结果表明,在本实验工艺条件下制备的不同批次热障涂层试样的静态氧化性能和热疲劳性能具有不同的匹配关系,热障涂层试样静态氧化性能总体估计值为(677±194)h,热疲劳性能总体估计值为(6789±1818)次.%Thermal cycling testing to the 8 batches of thermal barrier coating samples for different holding time was carried out by means of cycling heating and cooling apparatus to simulate TBCs service environment. Using a mathematical model of exponential decline to fit thermal cycle experimental data, characterization parameters of static oxidation performance and thermal fatigue performance of thermal barrier coated samples were obtained. The result indicates that static state oxidation performance and thermal fatigue performance of TBCs samples prepared under present experimental technology conditions have different match relation. The estimated value for static state oxidation performance is 677±194 h, and the estimated value for thermal fatigue performance is 6789±1818 times.

  7. Thermal conductivity and thermal stability of zirconia and hafnia based thermal barrier coatings by EB-PVD for high temperature applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, J.; Wolfe, D.E.; Miller, R.; Eldridge, J.; Zhu Dong-Ming [Applied Research Lab., Penn State Univ., Univ. Park, PA and NASA-GRC, Cleveland, OH (United States)

    2004-07-01

    Zirconia and hafnia based thermal barrier coating materials were produced by industrial prototype electron beam-physical vapor deposition (EB-PVD). Columnar microstructure of the thermal barrier coatings were modified with controlled microporosity and diffuse sub-interfaces resulting in lower thermal conductivity (20-30% depending up on microporosity volume fraction), higher thermal reflectance (15-20%) and more strain tolerance as compared with standard thermal barrier coatings (TBC). The novel processed coating systems were examined by various techniques including scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction, and thermal conductivity by laser technique, hemispherical reflectance and thermal cyclic tests. The test results showed the tailored-microstructural TBC offered superior performance over the conventional thermal barrier coatings (ZrO{sub 2} -8 wt.% Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}). (orig.)

  8. Improvement in ductility of high strength polycrystalline Ni-rich Ni{sub 3}Al alloy produced by EB-PVD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, J.Y.; Pei, Y.L.; Li, S.S.; Zhang, H.; Gong, S.K., E-mail: gongsk@buaa.edu.cn

    2014-11-25

    Highlights: • High strength and high ductility of polycrystalline Ni-rich Ni{sub 3}Al alloy sheets were produced. • The elongation could be enhanced from ∼0.5% to ∼14.6% by microstructural control. • The fracture strength (∼820 MPa) was enhanced by the precipitation strengthening. • This work provides a general processing for repairing the worn single crystal blades. - Abstract: A 300 μm Ni-rich Ni{sub 3}Al sheet was produced by electron beam physical vapor deposition (EB-PVD) and followed by different heat treatments to obtain fine γ′/γ two-phase structures with large elongation. Tensile testing was performed at room-temperature, and the corresponding mechanisms were investigated in detail. Results indicated that the as-deposited Ni{sub 3}Al alloy exhibited non-equilibrium directional columnar crystal, and transited to equiaxed crystal with uniformly distributed tough γ phase after heat treatment. Meanwhile, the fracture mechanism transited from brittleness to a mixture of ductility and brittleness modes. With an appropriate heat treatment, high strength (ultimate tensile strength obtained 828 MPa) and high ductility (elongation obtained 14.6%) Ni{sub 3}Al alloy has been achieved, which was due to the mesh network microstructure. A series of transmission electron microscope (TEM) characterizations confirmed that the increasing flow stress of Ni{sub 3}Al alloy was attributed to the cubical secondary γ′ phase precipitates (25–50 nm) within the γ phase. This work provides a potential strategy for repairing the worn tip of single crystal engine blades using Ni-rich Ni{sub 3}Al alloy by EB-PVD.

  9. Study on Oxidation Property of TiAl/NiCoCrAl Microlaminated Sheet Prepared by EB-PVD%EB-PVD制备TiAl/NiCoCrAl微层板复合材料氧化性能研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈贵清; 张如炳; 章德铭; 邹豪

    2012-01-01

    TiAl/NiCoCrAl microlaminated sheet prepared by EB-PVD have been oxygenized in air at 850 °C, and its oxidation property has been studied. The phase composition and microstructure have been analyzed by XRD and SEM. The results show TiAl/NiCoCrAl microlaminated sheet has good oxidation resistance and the oxidation kinetics curves follow the parabolic law. The oxidation mechanisms of TiAl/NiCoCrAl microlaminated sheet at high temperature is that Al on the surface will generate the AI2O3 monolayer oxide film with porous structure firstly, subsequently some Ti element in the inner TiAl layers will cross over the NiCoCrAl layers and reach the surface to generate the (TiO2 + AI2O3) oxide layer, and finally Ni and Cr in the NiCoCrAl layers can generate compact outer oxide film composed of Cr2O3 and NiCr2O4 phase, which is the essential reason why the oxidation resistance of the sheet increases obviously.%采用电子束物理气相沉积(EB-PVD)技术制备了TiAl/NiCoCrAl微层板复合材料,并对其在850℃空气条件下的抗氧化性能进行了研究,利用XRD和SEM对试样进行相组成和微观结构进行分析.结果表明:TiAl/NiCoCrAl微层板具有较好的抗氧化性能,其恒温氧化动力学曲线均近似符合抛物线规律.而TiAl/NiCoCrAl微层板的高温氧化机制为:表层的Al首先氧化生成多孔结构的Al2O3单层膜;随后内部TiAl层中的Ti元素穿越NiCoCrAl层到达表面生成(TiO2+Al2O3)的氧化层;最后NiCoCrAl层中的Ni和Cr会形成以Cr2O3和NiCr2O4相为主的致密的外层氧化膜,这是其抗氧化性能显著提高的根本原因.

  10. Microstructure and Property of NiCrAl Alloy Sheet by EB- PVD%EB-PVD工艺制备NiCrAl合金薄板的组织与力学性能

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    庞勇; 曾岗

    2005-01-01

    采用电子束物理气相沉积(EB-PVD)工艺制备了NiCrAl高温合金薄板.采用XRD对薄板进行了相分析,结果表明,这种高温合金薄板是由γ'和γ两相组成.从薄板的横截面显微组织分析表明,高温合金中γ'以颗粒状形式弥散分布在γ基体上;从薄板的纵截面可以看出,组织为柱状晶和粒状晶交替组织.薄板的常温抗拉强度为446.89MPa.较低的抗拉强度是由于其组织不均匀并且含有柱状晶组织,柱状晶的组织各向异性,拉伸方向不是最佳受力方向.

  11. TBCs for better engine efficiency. [thermal barrier coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brindley, William J.; Miller, Robert A.

    1989-01-01

    State-of-the-art thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) developed for aircraft engines can achieve both hot-section component operating temperature reductions and superior oxidation resistance. Such TBCs typically consist of two layers: a metallic, often NiCrAlY 'bond' inner layer in contact with the superalloy structural component, and an outer, insulating ceramic layer. A ceramic frequently used in this role due to its high durability is plasma-sprayed ZrO2, partially stabilized with 6-8 wt pct Y2O3. TBCs can also be useful in nonaircraft gas turbines, which frequently use highly contaminated fuels.

  12. Thin Film Deposition Techniques (PVD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinbeiss, E.

    The most interesting materials for spin electronic devices are thin films of magnetic transition metals and magnetic perovskites, mainly the doped La-manganites [1] as well as several oxides and metals for passivating and contacting the magnetic films. The most suitable methods for the preparation of such films are the physical vapor deposition methods (PVD). Therefore this report will be restricted to these deposition methods.

  13. EBS Radionuclide Transport Abstraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R. Schreiner

    2001-06-27

    The purpose of this work is to develop the Engineered Barrier System (EBS) radionuclide transport abstraction model, as directed by a written development plan (CRWMS M&O 1999a). This abstraction is the conceptual model that will be used to determine the rate of release of radionuclides from the EBS to the unsaturated zone (UZ) in the total system performance assessment-license application (TSPA-LA). In particular, this model will be used to quantify the time-dependent radionuclide releases from a failed waste package (WP) and their subsequent transport through the EBS to the emplacement drift wall/UZ interface. The development of this conceptual model will allow Performance Assessment Operations (PAO) and its Engineered Barrier Performance Department to provide a more detailed and complete EBS flow and transport abstraction. The results from this conceptual model will allow PA0 to address portions of the key technical issues (KTIs) presented in three NRC Issue Resolution Status Reports (IRSRs): (1) the Evolution of the Near-Field Environment (ENFE), Revision 2 (NRC 1999a), (2) the Container Life and Source Term (CLST), Revision 2 (NRC 1999b), and (3) the Thermal Effects on Flow (TEF), Revision 1 (NRC 1998). The conceptual model for flow and transport in the EBS will be referred to as the ''EBS RT Abstraction'' in this analysis/modeling report (AMR). The scope of this abstraction and report is limited to flow and transport processes. More specifically, this AMR does not discuss elements of the TSPA-SR and TSPA-LA that relate to the EBS but are discussed in other AMRs. These elements include corrosion processes, radionuclide solubility limits, waste form dissolution rates and concentrations of colloidal particles that are generally represented as boundary conditions or input parameters for the EBS RT Abstraction. In effect, this AMR provides the algorithms for transporting radionuclides using the flow geometry and radionuclide concentrations

  14. EBS Radionuclide Transport Abstraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. Prouty

    2006-07-14

    The purpose of this report is to develop and analyze the engineered barrier system (EBS) radionuclide transport abstraction model, consistent with Level I and Level II model validation, as identified in Technical Work Plan for: Near-Field Environment and Transport: Engineered Barrier System: Radionuclide Transport Abstraction Model Report Integration (BSC 2005 [DIRS 173617]). The EBS radionuclide transport abstraction (or EBS RT Abstraction) is the conceptual model used in the total system performance assessment (TSPA) to determine the rate of radionuclide releases from the EBS to the unsaturated zone (UZ). The EBS RT Abstraction conceptual model consists of two main components: a flow model and a transport model. Both models are developed mathematically from first principles in order to show explicitly what assumptions, simplifications, and approximations are incorporated into the models used in the TSPA. The flow model defines the pathways for water flow in the EBS and specifies how the flow rate is computed in each pathway. Input to this model includes the seepage flux into a drift. The seepage flux is potentially split by the drip shield, with some (or all) of the flux being diverted by the drip shield and some passing through breaches in the drip shield that might result from corrosion or seismic damage. The flux through drip shield breaches is potentially split by the waste package, with some (or all) of the flux being diverted by the waste package and some passing through waste package breaches that might result from corrosion or seismic damage. Neither the drip shield nor the waste package survives an igneous intrusion, so the flux splitting submodel is not used in the igneous scenario class. The flow model is validated in an independent model validation technical review. The drip shield and waste package flux splitting algorithms are developed and validated using experimental data. The transport model considers advective transport and diffusive transport

  15. Pvd Growth Method:. Physics and Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moshfegh, A. Z.

    2004-06-01

    In this review, the foundation of thin film technology namely fabrication, characterization and application is described. Classification of physical vapor deposition (PVD) is presented based on evaporation and sputtering methods. The physics and technology of three main branches of PVD deposition techniques including sputtering, pulse laser deposition (PLD) and molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) along with their characteristic differences are compared. The application of bias sputtering in producing thin films with modified properties is presented. A correlation between deposition variables and parameters of nucleation and growth is discussed. The initial stages of PVD growth modes such as layer by-layer, island, and mixed layer-island growth mechanisms are reviewed. At the end, the applications of PVD in microelectronics with several recent examples especially in the metallization process are presented.

  16. EBS Radionuclide Transport Abstraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J.D. Schreiber

    2005-08-25

    The purpose of this report is to develop and analyze the engineered barrier system (EBS) radionuclide transport abstraction model, consistent with Level I and Level II model validation, as identified in ''Technical Work Plan for: Near-Field Environment and Transport: Engineered Barrier System: Radionuclide Transport Abstraction Model Report Integration'' (BSC 2005 [DIRS 173617]). The EBS radionuclide transport abstraction (or EBS RT Abstraction) is the conceptual model used in the total system performance assessment for the license application (TSPA-LA) to determine the rate of radionuclide releases from the EBS to the unsaturated zone (UZ). The EBS RT Abstraction conceptual model consists of two main components: a flow model and a transport model. Both models are developed mathematically from first principles in order to show explicitly what assumptions, simplifications, and approximations are incorporated into the models used in the TSPA-LA. The flow model defines the pathways for water flow in the EBS and specifies how the flow rate is computed in each pathway. Input to this model includes the seepage flux into a drift. The seepage flux is potentially split by the drip shield, with some (or all) of the flux being diverted by the drip shield and some passing through breaches in the drip shield that might result from corrosion or seismic damage. The flux through drip shield breaches is potentially split by the waste package, with some (or all) of the flux being diverted by the waste package and some passing through waste package breaches that might result from corrosion or seismic damage. Neither the drip shield nor the waste package survives an igneous intrusion, so the flux splitting submodel is not used in the igneous scenario class. The flow model is validated in an independent model validation technical review. The drip shield and waste package flux splitting algorithms are developed and validated using experimental data. The transport

  17. Autoinhibition of TBCB regulates EB1-mediated microtubule dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carranza, Gerardo; Castaño, Raquel; Fanarraga, Mónica L; Villegas, Juan Carlos; Gonçalves, João; Soares, Helena; Avila, Jesus; Marenchino, Marco; Campos-Olivas, Ramón; Montoya, Guillermo; Zabala, Juan Carlos

    2013-01-01

    Tubulin cofactors (TBCs) participate in the folding, dimerization, and dissociation pathways of the tubulin dimer. Among them, TBCB and TBCE are two CAP-Gly domain-containing proteins that together efficiently interact with and dissociate the tubulin dimer. In the study reported here we showed that TBCB localizes at spindle and midzone microtubules during mitosis. Furthermore, the motif DEI/M-COO(-) present in TBCB, which is similar to the EEY/F-COO(-) element characteristic of EB proteins, CLIP-170, and α-tubulin, is required for TBCE-TBCB heterodimer formation and thus for tubulin dimer dissociation. This motif is responsible for TBCB autoinhibition, and our analysis suggests that TBCB is a monomer in solution. Mutants of TBCB lacking this motif are derepressed and induce microtubule depolymerization through an interaction with EB1 associated with microtubule tips. TBCB is also able to bind to the chaperonin complex CCT containing α-tubulin, suggesting that it could escort tubulin to facilitate its folding and dimerization, recycling or degradation.

  18. Plasma Spray-Physical Vapor Deposition (PS-PVD) of Ceramics for Protective Coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harder, Bryan J.; Zhu, Dongming

    2011-01-01

    In order to generate advanced multilayer thermal and environmental protection systems, a new deposition process is needed to bridge the gap between conventional plasma spray, which produces relatively thick coatings on the order of 125-250 microns, and conventional vapor phase processes such as electron beam physical vapor deposition (EB-PVD) which are limited by relatively slow deposition rates, high investment costs, and coating material vapor pressure requirements. The use of Plasma Spray - Physical Vapor Deposition (PS-PVD) processing fills this gap and allows thin (coatings of less than 100 microns to be generated with the flexibility to tailor microstructures by changing processing conditions. Coatings of yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) were applied to NiCrAlY bond coated superalloy substrates using the PS-PVD coater at NASA Glenn Research Center. A design-of-experiments was used to examine the effects of process variables (Ar/He plasma gas ratio, the total plasma gas flow, and the torch current) on chamber pressure and torch power. Coating thickness, phase and microstructure were evaluated for each set of deposition conditions. Low chamber pressures and high power were shown to increase coating thickness and create columnar-like structures. Likewise, high chamber pressures and low power had lower growth rates, but resulted in flatter, more homogeneous layers

  19. EB-PVD thermal barrier coatings for aeroengines and gas turbines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peters, M.; Leyens, C.; Schulz, U.; Kaysser, W.A. [DLR, Koeln (Germany). Inst. of Materials Research

    2001-04-01

    High pressure turbine blades and vanes of aeroengines are among the most highly loaded parts in engineering components. For these demanding applications only high temperature Ni-base superalloys can be considered. These alloys have matured over the years from wrought to cast, then to directionally solidified alloys, whereas in the latest generation of turbines for the most demanding applications, like the rotating turbine components, single crystal material is employed. (orig.)

  20. Latest Developments in PVD Coatings for Tooling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Strnad

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the recent developments in the field of PVD coating for manufacturing tools. A review of monoblock, multilayer, nanocomposite, DLC and oxinitride coatings is discussed, with the emphasis on coatings which enables the manufacturers to implement high productivity processes such as high speed cutting and dry speed machining.

  1. Application of EB in Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sunaga, Hiromi [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Takasaki, Gunma (Japan). Takasaki Radiation Chemistry Research Establishment

    2003-02-01

    Radiation processing using electron beam (EB) facilities other than gamma-ray facilities in Japan is introduced. After briefly presented the features of EB compared with gamma ray, present status of EB application is described. Polymerized materials for use of wire, cable, radial tire, heat shrinkable tube, foam polyethylene, PTFE, battery separator, and adsorbent material are known to be resulting from cross-linking, decomposition, and graft polymerization reactions. Environmental preservation includes electron flue gas treatment in the coal- or oil-fired power plants, research for volatile organic compounds (VOC) and dioxins, as well as wastewater and sludge treatment. Finally activity of JAERI in the related fields is overviewed with the authors prospects for utilization of low energy EB with low cost for surface treatment and functional materials. (S. Ohno)

  2. Thermal Cycling Behavior of Quasi-Columnar YSZ Coatings Deposited by PS-PVD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jiasheng; Zhao, Huayu; Zhong, Xinghua; Shao, Fang; Liu, Chenguang; Zhuang, Yin; Ni, Jinxing; Tao, Shunyan

    2017-01-01

    Columnar-structured thermal barrier coatings, owing to their high strain tolerance, are expected for their potential possibilities to substantially extend turbine lives and improve engine efficiencies. In this paper, plasma spray-physical vapor deposition (PS-PVD) process was used to deposit yttria partially stabilized zirconia (YSZ) coatings with quasi-columnar structures. Thermal cyclic tests on burner rigs and thermal shock tests by heating and water-quenching method were involved to evaluate the thermal cycling and thermal shock behaviors of such kind of structured thermal barrier coatings (TBCs). Evolution of the microstructures, phase composition, residual stresses and failure behaviors of quasi-columnar YSZ coatings before and after the thermal tests was investigated. The quasi-columnar coating obtained had an average life of around 623 cycles when the spallation area reached about 10% of the total coating surface during burner rig tests with the coating surface temperature of 1250 °C. Failure of the coating is mainly due to the break and pull-out of center columnar segments.

  3. Problems for determining the thermal conductivity of TBCs by laser-flash method

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper was to investigate the parameters which effect the results of determining the thermal conductivity of thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) by laser-flash method.Design/methodology/approach: The air plasma-spray (APS) technique was used to deposition of two- and three-layered samples. Two-layered samples were composed of metal substrate (321 stainless steel), and ceramic top coat (8YSZ). Three-layered samples were composed of metal substrate (321 ...

  4. Crystal structure of PvdO from Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Zenglin; Gao, Fei; Bai, Guohui; Xia, Hengchuan; Gu, Lichuan; Xu, Sujuan

    2017-02-26

    Pyoverdine I (PVDI) is a water-soluble fluorescein siderophore with strong iron chelating ability from the gram-negative pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1. Compared to common siderophores, PVDI is a relatively large compound whose synthesis requires a group of enzymes with different catalytic activities. In addition to four nonribosomal peptide synthetases (NRPS) which are responsible for the production of the peptide backbone of PVDI, several additional enzymes are associated with the modification of the side chains. PvdO is one of these enzymes and participates in PVDI precursor maturation in the periplasm. We determined the crystal structure of PvdO at 1.24 Å resolution. The PvdO structure shares a common fold with some FGly-generating enzymes (FGE) and is stabilized by Ca(2+). However, the catalytic residues in FGE are not observed in PvdO, indicating PvdO adopts a unique catalytic mechanism.

  5. Structure and corrosion properties of PVD Cr-N coatings

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, C; Ziegele, H; Leyland, A; Matthews, A

    2002-01-01

    PVD Cr-N coatings produced by physical vapor deposition (PVD) are increasingly used for mechanical and tribological applications in various industrial sectors. These coatings are particularly attractive for their excellent corrosion resistance, which further enhances the lifetime and service quality of coated components. PVD Cr-N coated steels in an aqueous solution are usually corroded by galvanic attack via through-coating 'permeable' defects (e.g., pores). Therefore, the corrosion performance of Cr-N coated steel is determined by a number of variables of the coating properties and corrosive environment. These variables include: (i) surface continuity and uniformity; (ii) through-coating porosity; (iii) film density and chemical stability; (iv) growth stresses; (v) interfacial and intermediate layers; (vi) coating thickness; (vii) coating composition; and (viii) substrate properties. In this article, PVD Cr-N coatings were prepared, by electron-beam PVD and sputter deposition, with different compositions, t...

  6. EB1 and EB3 promote cilia biogenesis by several centrosome-related mechanisms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schrøder, Jacob M; Larsen, Jesper; Komarova, Yulia

    2011-01-01

    surrounded by vesicles. Further, GST pull-down assays, mass spectrometry and immunoprecipitation indicated that EB1 and EB3 interact with proteins implicated in MT minus-end anchoring or vesicular trafficking to the cilia base, suggesting that EB1 and EB3 promote ciliogenesis by facilitating such trafficking...

  7. La2Zr2O7 TBCs toughened by Pt particles prepared by cathode plasma electrolytic deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Shun-jie; Wang, Peng; He, Ye-dong; Zhang, Jin

    2016-06-01

    La2Zr2O7 thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) with dispersed Pt particles were prepared by cathode plasma electrolytic deposition (CPED) with ceramic balls added to the cathode region. Compared with the conventional CPED, when ceramic balls are used in the cathode region, the plasma discharge ignition current density decreases approximately 62-fold and the stable plasma discharges occur at the whole cathode surface. Such TBCs with a thickness of 100 μm exhibit a crack-free surface and are composed of pyrochlore-structured La2Zr2O7. Cyclic oxidation, scratching, and thermal insulation capability tests show that such TBCs not only exhibit high resistance to oxidation and spallation but also provide good thermal insulation. These beneficial effects are attributed to the excellent properties of TBCs, such as good thermal insulation because of low thermal conductivity, high-temperature oxidation resistance because of low-oxygen diffusion rate, and good mechanical properties because of the toughening effect of Pt particles.

  8. Problems for determining the thermal conductivity of TBCs by laser-flash method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Altun

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of this paper was to investigate the parameters which effect the results of determining the thermal conductivity of thermal barrier coatings (TBCs by laser-flash method.Design/methodology/approach: The air plasma-spray (APS technique was used to deposition of two- and three-layered samples. Two-layered samples were composed of metal substrate (321 stainless steel, and ceramic top coat (8YSZ. Three-layered samples were composed of metal substrate (321 stainless steel, bond coat (NiCrAlY and top coat (8YSZ. Thermal diffusivity of each layer have been measured in the temperature range from room temperature (RT to 900ºC by laser-flash method. The thermal conductivity was calculated with respect to density, specific heat and diffusivity of the materials.Findings: Obtained results show that the specific heat, density and thicknesses of metal substrate, bond coat and top coat play important role in the thermal conductivity measurement.Research limitations/implications: To obtain the correct results in laser-flash technique thickness, density, and cp of the materials are needed to be measured accurately and surface smoothness of samples should be provided sensitively. Errors in these parameters cause high deviations in measurements.Practical implications: It has been aimed offer an insight into the experimental determination of thermal conductivity of layered TBC system which are used in high technologic applications.Originality/value: Laser-flash method is the most widely used experimental technique to determine the thermal conductivity of APS TBCs at high temperatures. The research contributes to better understanding and recognition the importance of sample preparation in laser-flash method.

  9. Investigation on Conductive Layer, Delamination, and Recast Layer Characteristics of Electro-discharge Machined Holes in TBCs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Li; Guo, Yongfeng; Zhang, Guowei

    2017-05-01

    In this study, electrical discharge machining (EDM) is used to directly drill normal effusion cooling holes in thermal-barrier-coated nickel-based superalloys (TBCs) via the assisting electrode method. The formation of the conductive layer was studied using scanning electron microscopy and energy-dispersive spectroscopy. The effects of the EDM process parameters including peak current, pulse duration, and duty cycle on delamination and recast layer characteristics were investigated. The analysis results indicate that the conductive layer possesses a feature of bilayer structure for the EDM of TBCs. The bottom layer is generated first due to the deposition of carbon-based products and molten brass debris, and its composition primarily contains C, Cu, Zr, and Zn; the surface layer is the result of the overlying of subsequently molten superalloy debris and carbon-based products, and its composition primarily consists of Ni, C, Cr, Nb, Co, Al, Fe, Cu, and Zr. The microcracks of the superalloy substrate only reside in the recast layer during the EDM of TBCs. The thickness of recast layer sharply increases with increasing peak current, pulse duration, and duty cycle, respectively. The delamination occurs at the ceramic coating/bond coating interface for the EDM of drilling normal holes in TBCs, and it can be eliminated by the selection of low discharge energy and appropriate duty cycle. Additionally, the length of delamination increases with increasing peak current, pulse duration, and duty cycle, respectively. The spalling of ceramic coating appears at the entrance of the hole due to the thermal-shock brittle fracture if excessive peak current, pulse duration, or duty cycle is selected.

  10. Surface geometry and strain energy effects in the failure of a (Ni, Pt)Al/EB-PVD thermal barrier coating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vaidyanathan, Krishnakumar; Jordan, Eric H.; Gell, Maurice

    2004-03-08

    Thermal cycling tests were conducted on a commercial yttria-stabilized zirconia electron beam-physical vapor deposited thermal barrier coating (TBC) on a platinum aluminide ({beta}-(Ni, Pt)Al) bond coat. Surprisingly, the longest life sample lasted 10 times longer than the shortest life sample. Two distinct mechanisms have been found responsible for the observed damage initiation and progression at the thermally grown oxide (TGO)/bond coat interface. The first mechanism leads to localized debonding at the TGO/bond coat interface due to increasing out-of-plane tensile stresses at ridges that form along bond coat grain boundaries. The second mechanism is driven by cyclic plasticity of the bond coat that leads to cavity formation at the TGO/bond coat interface. The primary finding of this work is that the first mechanism, involving tensile stress at ridge tops, is life limiting. Based on this mechanism, it is demonstrated that the variation in bond coat ridge aspect ratio can explain the unusual 10x variation in observed sample life. It is proposed that ridge top spallation leads to debonds of sufficient size to result in unstable fracture driven by the strain energy stored in the TGO. The criticality of the flaw created by local debonding is supported by experimental determination of the strain energy available in the TGO through measurement of TGO stress and thickness combined with published fracture mechanics solutions of the relevant flaw geometry.

  11. A Comparison of Afghanistan, Yuma, Az, and Manufactured Sands Melted on EB-PVD Thermal Barrier Coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-18

    16  Figure 4: Relative abundance of carbonate, mafic and ultra mafic, quartz, ferrous ...To further increase combustion temperatures without exceeding the material property limitations of the Ni-based single crystal alloy , elaborate...and ultra mafic, quartz, ferrous iron, and ferric iron minerals present in Kabul Basin, Afghanistan from ASTER imaging [13]. 18 Figure 5

  12. Composite Layers “MgAl Intermetalic Layer / PVD Coating” Obtained On The AZ91D Magnesium Alloy By Different Hybrid Surface Treatment Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smolik J.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Magnesium alloys have very interesting physical properties which make them ‘materials of the future’ for tools and machine components in many industry areas. However, very low corrosion and tribological resistance of magnesium alloys hampers the implementation of this material in the industry. One of the methods to improve the properties of magnesium alloys is the application of the solutions of surface engineering like hybrid technologies. In this paper, the authors compare the tribological and corrosion properties of two types of “MgAlitermetalic / PVD coating” composite layers obtained by two different hybrid surface treatment technologies. In the first configuration, the “MgAlitermetalic / PVD coating” composite layer was obtained by multisource hybrid surface treatment technology combining magnetron sputtering (MS, arc evaporation (AE and vacuum heating methods. The second type of a composite layer was prepared using a hybrid technology combined with a diffusion treatment process in Al-powder and the electron beam evaporation (EB method. The authors conclude, that even though the application of „MgAlitermetalic / PVD coating” composite layers can be an effective solution to increase the abrasive wear resistance of magnesium alloys, it is not a good solution to increase its corrosion resistance.

  13. The Electron Beam Semiconductor (EBS) amplifier

    Science.gov (United States)

    True, R. M.; Baxendale, J. F.

    1980-07-01

    The Electron Beam Semiconductor (EBS) concept has existed for three decades; but only within the last decade has an active, well-defined program been underway to develop devices that can operate as high-power radio frequency(RF) amplifiers, fast risetime switches, and current and voltage pulse amplifiers. This report discusses the test procedures, data and results of reliability testing of RF and video pulse EBS amplifiers at Electronics Research and Development Command (ERADCOM), Fort Monmouth, New Jersey. Also, the experimental analysis of the series connected diode EBS device is described in detail. Finally, the report concludes with a discussion of the state-of-the-art of EBS and future trends of the technology.

  14. Structure And Properties Of PVD Coatings Deposited On Cermets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Żukowska L.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The main aim of the research is the investigation of the structure and properties of single-layer and gradient coatings of the type (Ti,AlN and Ti(C,N deposited by physical vapour deposition technology (PVD on the cermets substrate.

  15. Stress in and texture of PVD deposited metal nitride films

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Machunze, R.

    2010-01-01

    Thin metal nitride films deposited by Physical Vapor Deposition (PVD) are used amongst many other applications as wear protective coatings in tool industry or as diffusion barriers in integrated circuit technology. Typically these films exhibit a residual in-plane stress when deposited onto rigid su

  16. The Role of Microtubule End Binding (EB) Proteins in Ciliogenesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schrøder, Jacob Morville

    in the biflagellate green alga Chlamydomonas (Pedersen et al., 2003), and is required for ciliogenesis in mouse fibroblasts (Schroder et al., 2007). However, the exact mechanism(s) involved and roles of the two additional mammalian members of the end binding (EB) protein family, EB2 and EB3, in ciliogenesis...... also form a heterodimeric complex that is likely to be functionally distinct from the homodimeric complexes (Komarova et al., 2009; De Groot et al., 2010). This thesis is based on experiments using small interfering (si) RNA and dominant-negative constructs to show that EB1 and EB3, but not EB2......, are required for assembly of primary cilia in cultured human cells. The EB3 - siRNA ciliary phenotype could be rescued by GFP-EB1 expression, and GFP-EB3 over expression resulted in elongated cilia. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) revealed that EB3-depleted cells possess stumpy cilia, a disorganized...

  17. Trapping of normal EB1 ligands in aggresomes formed by an EB1 deletion mutant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Askham Jon M

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background EB1 is a microtubule tip-associated protein that interacts with the APC tumour suppressor protein and the p150glued subunit of dynactin. We previously reported that an EB1 deletion mutant that retains both of these interactions but does not directly associate with microtubules (EB1-ΔN2-GFP spontaneously formed perinuclear aggregates when expressed in COS-7 cells. Results In the present study live imaging indicated that EB1-ΔN2-GFP aggregates underwent dynamic microtubule-dependent changes in morphology and appeared to be internally cohesive. EB1-ΔN2-GFP aggregates were phase-dense structures that displayed microtubule-dependent accumulation around the centrosome, were immunoreactive for both the 20s subunit of the proteasome and ubiquitin, and induced the collapse of the vimentin cytoskeleton. Fractionation studies revealed that a proportion of EB1-ΔN2-GFP was detergent-insoluble and ubiquitylated, indicating that EB1-ΔN2-GFP aggregates are aggresomes. Immunostaining also revealed that APC and p150glued were present in EB1-ΔN2-GFP aggregates, whereas EB3 was not. Furthermore, evidence for p150glued degradation was found in the insoluble fraction of EB1-ΔN2-GFP transfected cultures. Conclusion Our data indicate that aggresomes can be internally cohesive and may not represent a simple "aggregate of aggregates" assembled around the centrosome. Our observations also indicate that a partially misfolded protein may retain the ability to interact with its normal physiological ligands, leading to their co-assembly into aggresomes. This supports the idea that the trapping and degradation of co-aggregated proteins might contribute to human pathologies characterised by aggresome formation.

  18. Ionic Conductivity of Membranes Based on PVdF-HFP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Bernabé, A.; Gil-Agustí, M.; González-Gutiérrez, J. P.; Quijano-López, A.

    2010-06-01

    Membranes based on PVdF-HFP have been prepared by solution-casting methode. Lithium perchlorate (LiClO4) and lithium trifluoromethane sulfonate (LiCF3SO3) were used as lithium salts, and ethylene carbonate and a mixture of ethylene and propylene carbonate (1:1 wt. %) as plasticizers. The ionic conductivity was determined by means of impedance spectroscopy. The Nyquist plot was fitted with a general equivalent circuit. The ionic conductivity increases to plastificizer content. The membrane consisting of 50 w% PVdF-HFP, 35 w% PC+EC and 15 w% LiCF3SO3 has the highest conductivity with a value of 6.892×10-3 S/cm at room temperature.

  19. Triboanalysis in Industry for PVD-coated Stamping Dies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Zdravecká

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The application of hard wear-resistant coatings is expanding into various sectors of industry to protect tools and other components from failure caused by wear and corrosion. However, in forming industry it is still rather an exception than a rule to find coated forming dies. This study has objectives to investigate wear behaviour of P/M Vanadis 6 ledeburitic steel with PVD-TiN and TiCN coatings. The tests were carried out in the laboratory and industrial process conditions. The obtained results under operating conditions show that the application of PVD coatings appears as a very effective method for increasing the lifetime and wear resistance of cold stamping dies.

  20. Antimicrobial titanium/silver PVD coatings on titanium

    OpenAIRE

    Thull Roger; Glückermann Susanne K; Ewald Andrea; Gbureck Uwe

    2006-01-01

    Abstract Background Biofilm formation and deep infection of endoprostheses is a recurrent complication in implant surgery. Post-operative infections may be overcome by adjusting antimicrobial properties of the implant surface prior to implantation. In this work we described the development of an antimicrobial titanium/silver hard coating via the physical vapor deposition (PVD) process. Methods Coatings with a thickness of approximately 2 μm were deposited on titanium surfaces by simultaneous ...

  1. EB Frond wave energy converter - phase 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    The EB Frond project is a wave energy programme developed by The Engineering Business (EB) from an original idea at Lancaster University. The EB Frond is a wave generator with a collector vane on top of an arm that pivots near the seabed. Phase 1 of the project demonstrated the technical feasibility of the project and provided proof of concept. Phase 2 involved further assesment of the technical and commercial viability of the concept through the development of mathematical and physical modelling methods. The work involved small-scale (1/25th) testing in wave tanks at Newcastle and Lancaster Universities and the development, verification and validation of a time domain mathematical model. The decision by EB to put on hold its renewable generation programme meant that plans to test at an intermediate scale (1/16th), assess different survival strategies in extreme wave conditions, carry out site characterisation for full-scale systems and to produce a robust economic model were not fulfilled. However, the mathematical and physical modelling work was used to develop an economic model for the Frond system. This produced a predicted unit cost of electricity by a pre-commercial 5 MW demonstration farm of about 17 pence/kWh. The report discusses the small-scale testing, test results, mathematical modelling, analysis and interpretation, survivability, the economic model and the development route to full-scale production.

  2. Adaptation and Validation of the HOME-SF as a Caregiver-Report Home Environment Measure for Use in the Taiwan Birth Cohort Study (TBCS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jennifer Chun-Li; Chiang, Tung-liang; Bradley, Robert H.

    2011-01-01

    This study aimed to develop a brief caregiver-report instrument for measuring the home environment of children aged three and under, as part of the Taiwan Birth Cohort Study (TBCS). Instrument development was conducted by translating and adapting the Home Observation for the Measurement of Environment Inventory-Short Form (HOME-SF) which comprises…

  3. EB1 is required for primary cilia assembly in fibroblasts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schrøder, Jacob M; Schneider, Linda; Christensen, Søren T

    2007-01-01

    EB1 is a small microtubule (MT)-binding protein that associates preferentially with MT plus ends and plays a role in regulating MT dynamics. EB1 also targets other MT-associated proteins to the plus end and thereby regulates interactions of MTs with the cell cortex, mitotic kinetochores, and diff......EB1 is a small microtubule (MT)-binding protein that associates preferentially with MT plus ends and plays a role in regulating MT dynamics. EB1 also targets other MT-associated proteins to the plus end and thereby regulates interactions of MTs with the cell cortex, mitotic kinetochores...... in the cilium/flagellum is unknown. We depleted EB1 from NIH3T3 fibroblasts by using siRNA and found that EB1 depletion causes a approximately 50% reduction in the efficiency of primary cilia assembly in serum-starved cells. Expression of dominant-negative EB1 also inhibited cilia formation, and expression...

  4. Ionized PVD with an Inductively Coupled Plasma Source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayden, D. B.; Juliano, D. R.; Ruzic, D. N.

    1997-10-01

    Ionized physical vapor deposition (iPVD) is used to enhance the directionality of metal deposition. This is a potential solution to depositing into higher aspect-ratio trenches and vias for metal interconnects. A dc magnetron (Donated by Materials Research Corporation) is coupled with an inductively coupled plasma (ICP) coil to increase the ionization of the sputtered metal atoms. This allows metal ions to be accelerated across the plasma sheath to a biased substrate and deposited normally. One coil design has a wider diameter than the substrate to reduce shadowing and flaking effects. Argon and neon working gases and aluminum and copper targets are investigated at varying pressures and power levels. Deposition rates and metal flux ionization fractions are measured with a quartz crystal microbalance and a multi-grid analyzer.

  5. Microporous PVdF gel for lithium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boudin, F.; Andrieu, X.; Jehoulet, C.; Olsen, I. I.

    A novel ionic conductor for lithium-ion batteries was developed. This electrolyte is based on a porous polymer matrix filled and swollen by a liquid. The polymer matrix obtained by phase inversion was characterized in terms of porosity and average pore size. The microporous PVdF gel formed by impregnation of this polymer matrix with liquid electrolyte exhibited a high equivalent conductivity and a good temperature stability. Complete lithium-ion batteries using this polymer-based electrolyte were manufactured with a new process. Preliminary cycling results show a good rate capability and a capacity evolution similar to that of regular lithium-ion cells. The interest of this technology, as many other lithium-polymer ones, also lies in the possibility of designing and manufacturing new battery shapes at lower cost.

  6. Photospheric response to EB-like event

    CERN Document Server

    Danilovic, S; Barthol, P; Gandorfer, A; Gizon, L; Hirzberger, J; van Noort, T L Riethmüller M; Rodríguez, J Blanco; Iniesta, J C Del Toro; Suárez, D Orozco; Schmidt, W; Pillet, V Martínez; Knölker, M

    2016-01-01

    Ellerman Bombs are signatures of magnetic reconnection, which is an important physical process in the solar atmosphere. How and where they occur is a subject of debate. In this paper we analyse Sunrise/IMaX data together with 3D MHD simulations that aim to reproduce the exact scenario proposed for the formation of these features. Although the observed event seems to be more dynamic and violent than the simulated one, simulations clearly confirm the basic scenario for the production of EBs. The simulations also reveal the full complexity of the underlying process. The simulated observations show that the Fe I 525.02 nm line gives no information on the height where reconnection takes place. It can only give clues about the heating in the aftermath of the reconnection. The information on the magnetic field vector and velocity at this spatial resolution is, however, extremely valuable because it shows what numerical models miss and how they can be improved.

  7. Simulations for EBS Task Force BMT 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lempinen, A. [Marintel Ky, Turku (Finland)

    2006-12-15

    The Aespoe HRL International Joint Committee has set up a Task Force on Engineered Barrier Systems (EBS). Its long time objective is to develop effective tools for analysis of THM(C) behaviour of buffer and backfill. The idea of the Task Force is to offer a forum to develop the tools of the work groups. This BMT has two parts: BMT 1.1 and BMT 1.2 based on the performance of THM mock-up experiments on MX-80 bentonite by CEA and FEBEX bentonite by CIEMAT, respectively. Simulation results are presented here. These simulations are performed with Freefem++ software, which is a high-level programming language for solving partiel differential equations with finite element method. The mathematical model used is based on continuum thermodynamics. The simulations repeat the evolution of relevant THM variables of the experiments fairly well, but some modificatios of parameters is needed, especially in hydraulic behaviour. (orig.)

  8. EB1 targets to kinetochores with attached, polymerizing microtubules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tirnauer, Jennifer S; Canman, Julie C; Salmon, E D; Mitchison, Timothy J

    2002-12-01

    Microtubule polymerization dynamics at kinetochores is coupled to chromosome movements, but its regulation there is poorly understood. The plus end tracking protein EB1 is required both for regulating microtubule dynamics and for maintaining a euploid genome. To address the role of EB1 in aneuploidy, we visualized its targeting in mitotic PtK1 cells. Fluorescent EB1, which localized to polymerizing ends of astral and spindle microtubules, was used to track their polymerization. EB1 also associated with a subset of attached kinetochores in late prometaphase and metaphase, and rarely in anaphase. Localization occurred in a narrow crescent, concave toward the centromere, consistent with targeting to the microtubule plus end-kinetochore interface. EB1 did not localize to kinetochores lacking attached kinetochore microtubules in prophase or early prometaphase, or upon nocodazole treatment. By time lapse, EB1 specifically targeted to kinetochores moving antipoleward, coupled to microtubule plus end polymerization, and not during plus end depolymerization. It localized independently of spindle bipolarity, the spindle checkpoint, and dynein/dynactin function. EB1 is the first protein whose targeting reflects kinetochore directionality, unlike other plus end tracking proteins that show enhanced kinetochore binding in the absence of microtubules. Our results suggest EB1 may modulate kinetochore microtubule polymerization and/or attachment.

  9. 超硬纳微米 PVD 涂层技术在模具领域的发展%Development of Superhard Nano Micron PVD Coating Technology in the Field of Mold

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张而耕; 朱州; 张体波

    2014-01-01

    介绍了 PVD 涂层技术的分类,综述了 PVD 涂层技术在冲压/成型、挤压、拉拔、塑料、铝合金等模具应用领域的研究进展。展望了随着 PVD 涂层技术的快速发展,其在模具领域的应用将会更加广泛。%This paper introduced the classification of PVD coating technology, reviewed the progress of research on application of PVD coating technology in the field of stamping/ molding, extrusion, drawing, plastic, and aluminum alloy mold and prospected the future of rapid development of PVD coating technology which will be more widely applied in the field of molding.

  10. High Temperature Thermal Properties of Columnar Yttria Stabilized Zirconia Thermal Barrier Coating Performed by Suspension Plasma Spraying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernard, B.; Schick, V.; Remy, B.; Quet, A.; Bianchi, L.

    2016-09-01

    Performance enhancement of gas turbines is a main issue for the aircraft industry. Over many years, a large part of the effort has been focused on the development of more insulating Thermal Barrier Coatings (TBCs). In this study, Yttria Stabilized Zirconia (YSZ) columnar structures are processed by Suspension Plasma Spraying (SPS). These structures have already demonstrated abilities to get improved thermal lifetime, similarly to standard YSZ TBCs performed by EB-PVD. Thermal diffusivity measurements coupled with differential scanning calorimetry analysis are performed from room temperature up to 1100 °C, first, on HastelloyX substrates and then, on bilayers including a SPS YSZ coating. Results show an effective thermal conductivity for YSZ performed by SPS lower than 1 W.m-1K-1 whereas EB- PVD YSZ coatings exhibit a value of 1.5 W.m-1K-1.

  11. Raman microscopic studies of PVD deposited hard ceramic coatings

    CERN Document Server

    Constable, C P

    2000-01-01

    GPa were deposited onto SS and HSS substrates. Subsequent Raman measurements found a correlation coefficient of 0.996 between Raman band position and stress (determined via XRD methods). In addition, there was also a similar correlation coefficient observed between hardness and Raman shift (cm sup - sup 1). The application of mechanical stresses on a TiAICrN coating via a stress rig was investigated and tensile and compressive shifts were observed. stresses caused by the scratching process. These shifts were found to be the largest at the edges of scratches. The Raman mapping of 'droplets', a defect inherent to PVD deposition processes, found that higher compressive stresses and large amounts of disorder occurred for coating growth onto droplets. Strategies designed to evaluate the ability of Raman microscopy to monitor the extent of real wear on cutting tools were evaluated. The removal of a coating layer and subsequent detection of a base layer proved successful. This was then expanded to real wear situatio...

  12. Antibacterial PVD coatings doped with silver by ion implantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osés, J.; Palacio, J. F.; Kulkarni, S.; Medrano, A.; García, J. A.; Rodríguez, R.

    2014-08-01

    The antibacterial effect of certain metal ions, like silver, has been exploited since antiquity. Obviously, the ways to employ the biocide activity of this element have evolved throughout time and it is currently used in a wide range of clinical applications. The work presented here reports the results of an investigation focused on combining the protective properties of PVD coatings with the biocide property of silver, applied by ion implantation. For this purpose, chromium nitride layers were doped with silver implanted at two different doses (5 × 1016 and 1 × 1017 ion/cm2) at 100 keV of energy and perpendicular incidence. Full characterization of the coatings was performed to determine its topographical and mechanical properties. The concentration profile of Ag was analyzed by GD-OES. The thickness of the layers, nano-hardness, roughness, wear resistance and coefficient of friction were measured. Finally, the anti-bacterial efficacy of the coatings was determined following the JIS Z-2801:2010 Standard. The results provide clear insights into the efficacy of silver for antibacterial purposes, as well as on its influence in the mechanical and tribological behaviour of the coatings matrix.

  13. Parameter tuning of PVD process based on artificial intelligence technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norlina, M. S.; Diyana, M. S. Nor; Mazidah, P.; Rusop, M.

    2016-07-01

    In this study, an artificial intelligence technique is proposed to be implemented in the parameter tuning of a PVD process. Due to its previous adaptation in similar optimization problems, genetic algorithm (GA) is selected to optimize the parameter tuning of the RF magnetron sputtering process. The most optimized parameter combination obtained from GA's optimization result is expected to produce the desirable zinc oxide (ZnO) thin film from the sputtering process. The parameters involved in this study were RF power, deposition time and substrate temperature. The algorithm was tested to optimize the 25 datasets of parameter combinations. The results from the computational experiment were then compared with the actual result from the laboratory experiment. Based on the comparison, GA had shown that the algorithm was reliable to optimize the parameter combination before the parameter tuning could be done to the RF magnetron sputtering machine. In order to verify the result of GA, the algorithm was also been compared to other well known optimization algorithms, which were, particle swarm optimization (PSO) and gravitational search algorithm (GSA). The results had shown that GA was reliable in solving this RF magnetron sputtering process parameter tuning problem. GA had shown better accuracy in the optimization based on the fitness evaluation.

  14. Effect of Elevated Temperature on Tribological Properties of PVD Layers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mária HAGAROVÁ

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The present study investigated tribological properties of multilayer TiAlN and nanocomposite (nc-Ti1-xAlxN/a-Si3N4 coatings. Tested coatings were deposited by two PVD methods on the high speed steel Böhler S 600 Isorapid substrate. The coatings demonstrated good adhesion to the substrate and high hardness (2090 - 2510 HV0.5. Tribological properties of the coated specimens were evaluated by the Ball-on-Disc test and by metallographical analysis of the tribological track after testing at room temperature and at 450°C. The specimens with multilayer TiAlN coatings showed slightly better tribological properties, as regards the course of friction coefficient. Although the values of friction coefficient of multilayer coatings were comparable to the values determined for nanocomposite, the course of friction coefficient and analysis of tribo-tracks showed that the failure of the multilayer TiAlN coating was less pronounced compared to the nanocomposite coating.

  15. Antimicrobial titanium/silver PVD coatings on titanium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thull Roger

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Biofilm formation and deep infection of endoprostheses is a recurrent complication in implant surgery. Post-operative infections may be overcome by adjusting antimicrobial properties of the implant surface prior to implantation. In this work we described the development of an antimicrobial titanium/silver hard coating via the physical vapor deposition (PVD process. Methods Coatings with a thickness of approximately 2 μm were deposited on titanium surfaces by simultaneous vaporisation of both metals in an inert argon atmosphere with a silver content of approximately 0.7 – 9% as indicated by energy dispersive X-ray analysis. On these surfaces microorganisms and eukaryotic culture cells were grown. Results The coatings released sufficient silver ions (0.5–2.3 ppb when immersed in PBS and showed significant antimicrobial potency against Staphylococcus epidermis and Klebsiella pneumoniae strains. At the same time, no cytotoxic effects of the coatings on osteoblast and epithelial cells were found. Conclusion Due to similar mechanical performance when compared to pure titanium, the TiAg coatings should be suitable to provide antimicrobial activity on load-bearing implant surfaces.

  16. Antiviral activity of the EB peptide against zoonotic poxviruses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Altmann Sharon E

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The EB peptide is a 20-mer that was previously shown to have broad spectrum in vitro activity against several unrelated viruses, including highly pathogenic avian influenza, herpes simplex virus type I, and vaccinia, the prototypic orthopoxvirus. To expand on this work, we evaluated EB for in vitro activity against the zoonotic orthopoxviruses cowpox and monkeypox and for in vivo activity in mice against vaccinia and cowpox. Findings In yield reduction assays, EB had an EC50 of 26.7 μM against cowpox and 4.4 μM against monkeypox. The EC50 for plaque reduction was 26.3 μM against cowpox and 48.6 μM against monkeypox. A scrambled peptide had no inhibitory activity against either virus. EB inhibited cowpox in vitro by disrupting virus entry, as evidenced by a reduction of the release of virus cores into the cytoplasm. Monkeypox was also inhibited in vitro by EB, but at the attachment stage of infection. EB showed protective activity in mice infected intranasally with vaccinia when co-administered with the virus, but had no effect when administered prophylactically one day prior to infection or therapeutically one day post-infection. EB had no in vivo activity against cowpox in mice. Conclusions While EB did demonstrate some in vivo efficacy against vaccinia in mice, the limited conditions under which it was effective against vaccinia and lack of activity against cowpox suggest EB may be more useful for studying orthopoxvirus entry and attachment in vitro than as a therapeutic against orthopoxviruses in vivo.

  17. Studies on EB radiation effect on PA610

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang Kebin; Zhang Huaming; Li Xiurong; Xiong Ruilin [Sichuan Forever Group Co. Ltd., China Academy of Engineering Physics, Miangany (China)

    2000-03-01

    Radiation effect of PA610 with polyfunctional monomer trially isocyanurate (TAIC) was studied, the results show that crosslinking effect of EB radiation on PA610 is obvious. After the PA610 samples were radiated by EB with dosage 75KGY, the physical characters of PA610 materials were greatly improved, especially their tensile strength being increased about 18% and their impact strength about 50%, but their water and oil absorption were decreased. So, EB radiation can enhance PA610 materials physical strength, resistance to solvents and water and increase their thermal-deformation temperature. (author)

  18. FEM application for modelling of PVD coatings properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Śliwa

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The general topic of this paper is problem of determining the internal stresses of composite tool materials with the use of finite element method (FEM. The chemical composition of the investigated materials’ core is corresponding to the M2 high-speed steel and was reinforced with the WC and TiC type hard carbide phases with the growing portions of these phases in the outward direction from the core to the surface. Such composed material was sintered, heat treated and deposited appropriately with (Ti,AlN or Ti(C,N coatings.Design/methodology/approach: Modelling of stresses was performed with the help of finite element method in ANSYS environment, and the experimental values of stresses were determined basing on the X-ray diffraction patterns. The computer simulation results were compared with the experimental results.Findings: Computer aided numerical analysis gives the possibility to select the optimal parameters for coatings covering in PVD process determining the stresses in coatings, employing the finite element method using the ANSYS software.Research limitations/implications: It was confirmed that using of finite element method in stresses modelling occurring in advanced composite materials can be a way for reducing the investigation costs. In order to reach this purpose, it was used in the paper a simplified model of composite materials with division on zones with established physical and mechanical properties. Results reached in this way are satisfying and in slight degree differ from results reached by experimental method.Originality/value: Nowadays the computer simulation is very popular and it is based on the finite element method, which allows to better understand the interdependence between parameters of process and choosing optimal solution. The possibility of application faster and faster calculation machines and coming into being many software make possible the creation of more precise models and more adequate ones to

  19. THE CONCEPT OF INTEGRATED ENGINEERING AND BUSINESS (EB EDUCATION SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michał Charlak

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In our approach to engineering and business education system an engineer is a man working as creator and user of technical products. We stress that the process of understanding and gaining knowledge of technical reality and creativity of engineers are the essential for EB concept . Next, we describe briefly three perspectives for building the system of innovative product origination as a basis for EB system: 1 designer’s perspective; 2 business perspective. 3 consumer perspective.

  20. Adaptive PVD Steganography Using Horizontal, Vertical, and Diagonal Edges in Six-Pixel Blocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anita Pradhan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The traditional pixel value differencing (PVD steganographical schemes are easily detected by pixel difference histogram (PDH analysis. This problem could be addressed by adding two tricks: (i utilizing horizontal, vertical, and diagonal edges and (ii using adaptive quantization ranges. This paper presents an adaptive PVD technique using 6-pixel blocks. There are two variants. The proposed adaptive PVD for 2×3-pixel blocks is known as variant 1, and the proposed adaptive PVD for 3×2-pixel blocks is known as variant 2. For every block in variant 1, the four corner pixels are used to hide data bits using the middle column pixels for detecting the horizontal and diagonal edges. Similarly, for every block in variant 2, the four corner pixels are used to hide data bits using the middle row pixels for detecting the vertical and diagonal edges. The quantization ranges are adaptive and are calculated using the correlation of the two middle column/row pixels with the four corner pixels. The technique performs better as compared to the existing adaptive PVD techniques by possessing higher hiding capacity and lesser distortion. Furthermore, it has been proven that the PDH steganalysis and RS steganalysis cannot detect this proposed technique.

  1. Influence of Ytterbia Content on 'Residual Stress and Microstructure of Y2O3-ZrO2 Thin Films Prepared by EB-PVD

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIAO Qi-Ling; SHAO Shu-Ying; HE Hong-Bo; SHAO Jian-Da; FAN Zheng-Xiu

    2008-01-01

    Y2O3 stabilized ZrO2 (YSZ) thin films with different Y2O3 molar contents (0, 3, 7, and 12mol%) are deposited on BK7 substrates by electron-beam evaporation technique. The effects of different Y2O3 contents on residual stresses and structures of YSZ thin films are studied. Residual stresses are investigated by means of two different techniques: the curvature measurement and x-ray diffraction method. It is found that the evolution of residual stresses of YSZ thin films by the two different methods is consistent. Residual stresses of films transform from compressive stress into tensile stress and the tensile stress increases monotonically with the increase of Y2O3content. At the same time, the structures of these films change from the mixture of amorphous and monoclinic phases into high temperature cubic phase. The variations of residual stress correspond to the evolution of structures induced by adding of Y2O3 content.

  2. Process-Structure-Property Relationships of Micron Thick Gadolinium Oxide Films Deposited by Reactive Electron Beam-Physical Vapor Deposition (EB-PVD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-01

    counters, scintillation detectors, photomultiplier tubes, and semiconductor diode detectors.1 Helium-3 (3He) has been the benchmark for new neutron...Substrate Semiconductor , Polymer, Oxide Active Detection Region Active Detection Region Figure 2.3. Schematic representations of (a) scintillator ... semiconductor -based detection method.’ 9 Figure 2.2. (a) Neutron capture cross section of gadolinium-157, boron-10, lithium-6, and helium-3 as a function

  3. Interfacial fatigue stress in PVD TiN coated tool steels under rolling contact fatigue conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Carvalho, N. J. M.; Huis in ’t Veld, A.J.; Hosson, J.Th. De

    1998-01-01

    Titanium–nitrogen (TiN) films were Physical Vapour Deposited (PVD) on tool steel substrates with different hardness and surface roughness, in a Bai 640R unit using a triode ion plating (e-gun) with a high plasma density. The coated substrates were submitted to a rolling contact fatigue test technique (modified pin-on-ring test) to obtain some clarifications of the mechanism of interfacial failure. Tests were run using PVD-coated rings finished by polishing or grinding to produce different sur...

  4. Interfacial fatigue stress in PVD TiN coated tool steels under rolling contact fatigue conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Carvalho, N.J.M.; Huis in ’t Veld, A.J.; Hosson, J.Th. De

    1998-01-01

    Titanium–nitrogen (TiN) films were Physical Vapour Deposited (PVD) on tool steel substrates with different hardness and surface roughness, in a Bai 640R unit using a triode ion plating (e-gun) with a high plasma density. The coated substrates were submitted to a rolling contact fatigue test technique (modified pin-on-ring test) to obtain some clarifications of the mechanism of interfacial failure. Tests were run using PVD-coated rings finished by polishing or grinding to produce different sur...

  5. Yttria-stabilized zirkonia / gadolinium zirconate double-layer plasma-sprayed thermal barrier coating systems (TBCs)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bakan, Emine

    2015-07-01

    thermal conductivity, coefficient of thermal expansion as well as time and temperature-dependent elastic and creep deformations. Thermal cycling results displayed that the double-layer YSZ/GZO TBC concept is able to provide significant lifetime improvement at 1400 C surface temperature compared to the standard YSZ. The investigations on the chemical composition of the as-sprayed GZO revealed that no significant gadolinia evaporation, which would compromise the performance of the coating, takes place in the examined spray current range (300 A-525 A). The detailed examination of microstructural properties of the as-sprayed GZO highlighted the importance of the process parameters for achieving the desired porosity features assisting superior lifetime performances. A significant insight was gained into the elastic and creep deformation of the plasma-sprayed YSZ and GZO coatings which play a critical role on the development of advanced TBCs. The overarching conclusion of this work is that the GZO has the potential to increase the temperature capability of gasturbines, if it is applied in double-layer TBC systems and if its microstructure is tailored by adapted processing.

  6. Experimental investigation of the ultra-precision turning capability of PVD ZnSe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wei-hao; Yang, Kun; Wang, Peng; Zhang, Gao-feng; Liu, Dan-dan

    2016-10-01

    ZnSe is widely used in infrared optical systems because of the good optical characteristics in 0.5 22μm and the good processability. Physical Vapor Deposition(PVD) of ZnSe is good at no pollution in production process, lower price, etc. Infrared optical parts should be made by single point diamond turning or single point diamond fly-cutting after the experimental investigation of the ultra-precision turning capability of PVD ZnSe. The orthogonal experiment of ultra-precision turning PVD ZnSe was done at first, then the smooth turning surface and the rough turning surface were observed by metallographic microscope and 3D profilometer, and the mechanism of the defects on the turning surface was discussed. The result shows: the quality of ultra-precision turning surface of PVD ZnSe was restricted by the grain size and the distribution of the grain which could easily cause the variegated macula at the grain size, rising the spindle speed, reducing the feed rate and reducing the cut depth could make the quality of ultra-precision turning surface better and reduce the roughness Ra value lower, the roughness Ra value of the smooth turning surface was reached 3 4nm which is enough to the infrared optical image systems currently by using the optimization of parameters.

  7. Interfacial fatigue stress in PVD TiN coated tool steels under rolling contact fatigue conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carvalho, N.J.M.; Huis in 't Veld, A.J.; Hosson, J.T. de

    1998-01-01

    Titanium-nitrogen (TiN) films were Physical Vapour Deposited (PVD) on tool steel substrates with different hardness and surface roughness, in a Bai 640R unit using a triode ion plating (e-gun) with a high plasma density. The coated substrates were submitted to a rolling contact fatigue test

  8. Electrospun PVdF-PVC nanofibrous polymer electrolytes for polymer lithium-ion batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhong Zheng [Key Laboratory of Environmentally Friendly Chemistry and Applications of Minister of Education, College of Chemistry, Xiangtan University, Xiangtan 411105 (China); Cao Qi, E-mail: wjcaoqi@163.com [Key Laboratory of Environmentally Friendly Chemistry and Applications of Minister of Education, College of Chemistry, Xiangtan University, Xiangtan 411105 (China); Jing Bo; Wang Xianyou; Li Xiaoyun; Deng Huayang [Key Laboratory of Environmentally Friendly Chemistry and Applications of Minister of Education, College of Chemistry, Xiangtan University, Xiangtan 411105 (China)

    2012-01-25

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The nanofibrous polymer electrolytes based on PVdF-PVC (8:2, w/w) prepared by electrospinning have an ionic conductivity of 2.25 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -3} S cm{sup -1} at 25 Degree-Sign C. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The nanofibrous polymer electrolytes presented a good electrochemical stability up to 5.1 V (vs. Li/Li{sup +}). Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The nanofibrous polymer electrolytes showed a very good charge/discharge and cycling performance. - Abstract: Nanofibrous membranes based on Poly (vinyl difluoride) (PVdF)-Poly (vinyl chloride) (PVC) (8:2, w/w) were prepared by electrospinning and then they were soaked in a liquid electrolyte to form polymer electrolytes (PEs). The morphology, thermal stability, function groups and crystallinity of the electrospun membranes were characterized by scanning electron microscope (SEM), thermal analysis (TG), Fourier transform infrared spectra (FT-IR) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), respectively. It was found that both electrolyte uptake and ionic conductivity of the composite PEs increased with the addition of PVC. The composite PVdF-PVC PEs had a high ionic conductivity up to 2.25 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -3} S cm{sup -1} at 25 Degree-Sign C. These results showed that nanofibrous PEs based on PVdF-PVC were of great potential application in polymer lithium-ion batteries.

  9. Interfacial fatigue stress in PVD TiN coated tool steels under rolling contact fatigue conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carvalho, N.J.M.; Huis in ’t Veld, A.J.; Hosson, J.Th. De

    1998-01-01

    Titanium–nitrogen (TiN) films were Physical Vapour Deposited (PVD) on tool steel substrates with different hardness and surface roughness, in a Bai 640R unit using a triode ion plating (e-gun) with a high plasma density. The coated substrates were submitted to a rolling contact fatigue test techniqu

  10. Interfacial fatigue stress in PVD TiN coated tool steels under rolling contact fatigue conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carvalho, N.J.M.; Huis in 't Veld, A.J.; Hosson, J.T. de

    1998-01-01

    Titanium-nitrogen (TiN) films were Physical Vapour Deposited (PVD) on tool steel substrates with different hardness and surface roughness, in a Bai 640R unit using a triode ion plating (e-gun) with a high plasma density. The coated substrates were submitted to a rolling contact fatigue test techniqu

  11. Crack resistance of pvd coatings : Influence of surface treatment prior to deposition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zoestbergen, E; De Hosson, JTM

    2002-01-01

    The crack resistance of three different PVD coatings, TiN, Ti(C,N), and a multilayer system of alternating TiN and TiAlN, have been investigated. The three coating systems were deposited onto substrates with a different surface roughness to study the influence of this pretreatment on the crack resis

  12. Performance of a dual-process PVD/PS tungsten coating structure under deuterium ion irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hyunmyung; Lee, Ho Jung; Kim, Sung Hwan [Department of Nuclear and Quantum Engineering, KAIST, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Song, Jae-Min [Department of Nuclear Engineering, Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Jang, Changheui, E-mail: chjang@kaist.ac.kr [Department of Nuclear and Quantum Engineering, KAIST, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-11-01

    Highlights: • D{sup +} irradiation performance of a dual-process PVD/PS W coating was evaluated. • Low-energy plasmas exposure of 100 eV D{sup +} with 1.17 × 10{sup 21} D/s{sup −1} m{sup 2} flux was applied. • After D ion irradiation, flakes were observed on the surface of the simple PS coating. • While, sub-μm size protrusions were observed for dual-process PVD/PS W coating. • Height of D spike in depth profile was lower for dual-process PVD/PS W coating. - Abstract: A dual-process coating structure was developed on a graphite substrate to improve the performance of the coating structure under anticipated operating condition of fusion devices. A thin multilayer W/Mo coating (6 μm) was deposited by physical vapor deposition (PVD) method with a variation of Mo interlayer thickness on plasma spray (PS) W coating (160 μm) of a graphite substrate panel. The dual-process PVD/PS W coatings then were exposed to 3.08 × 10{sup 24} D m{sup −2} of 100 eV D ions with a flux of 1.71 × 10{sup 21} D m{sup −2} s{sup −1} in an electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) chamber. After irradiation, surface morphology and D depth profiles of the dual-process coating were analyzed and compared to those of the simple PS W coating. Both changes in surface morphology and D retention were strongly dependent on the microstructure of surface coating. Meanwhile, the existence of Mo interlayer seemed to have no significant effect on the retention of deuterium.

  13. PVdF-HFP/metal oxide nanocomposites: The matrices for high-conducting, low-leakage porous polymer electrolytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Chun-Guey; Lu, Ming-I.; Tsai, Chung-Chih [Department of Chemistry, National Central University, Chung-Li, Taiwan 32054 (ROC); Chuang, Huey-Jan [Chung-Shan Institute of Science and Technology, Materials and Electro-Optics Research Division, Lung-Tan, Taiwan 325 (ROC)

    2006-09-13

    Highly conducting porous polymer electrolytes comprised of poly(vinylidene-fluoride-co-hexafluoropropylene) (PVdF-HFP), metal oxide (TiO{sub 2}, MgO, ZnO)/or mesoporous zeolite (MCM-41, SBA-15), ethylene carbonate (EC), propylene carbonate (PC), and LiClO{sub 4} were fabricated with a simple direct evaporation method. It was found that when metal oxide or mesoporous zeolite was mixed with PVdF-HFP, the impedance spectroscopy showed that the room temperature conductivity increased from 1.2x10{sup -3}Scm{sup -1} (for pure PVdF-HFP) to 2.1x10{sup -3}Scm{sup -1}. SEM micrographs showed that the pore size of the composite membrane was similar to that of pure PVdF-HFP membrane but the porosity decreased, nevertheless the solution uptake increased. The increasing in solution uptake is not related directly to the surface area or dielectric constant of the oxides. It may be due to the affinity of the metal oxide toward the electrolyte solution. Furthermore, the solution leakage of PVdF-HFP/MgO and PVdF-HFP/SBA-15 composite electrolytes also decreased compared to pure PVdF-HFP electrolyte. These polymer composite electrolytes were stable up to 5.5V (versus Li/Li{sup +}) and the lithium ion cells assembled with these polymer electrolyte show a good performance at a discharge rate below C/2. (author)

  14. PVdF-HFP/metal oxide nanocomposites: The matrices for high-conducting, low-leakage porous polymer electrolytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chun-Guey; Lu, Ming-I.; Tsai, Chung-Chih; Chuang, Huey-Jan

    Highly conducting porous polymer electrolytes comprised of poly(vinylidene-fluoride-co-hexafluoropropylene) (PVdF-HFP), metal oxide (TiO 2, MgO, ZnO)/or mesoporous zeolite (MCM-41, SBA-15), ethylene carbonate (EC), propylene carbonate (PC), and LiClO 4 were fabricated with a simple direct evaporation method. It was found that when metal oxide or mesoporous zeolite was mixed with PVdF-HFP, the impedance spectroscopy showed that the room temperature conductivity increased from 1.2 × 10 -3 S cm -1 (for pure PVdF-HFP) to 2.1 × 10 -3 S cm -1. SEM micrographs showed that the pore size of the composite membrane was similar to that of pure PVdF-HFP membrane but the porosity decreased, nevertheless the solution uptake increased. The increasing in solution uptake is not related directly to the surface area or dielectric constant of the oxides. It may be due to the affinity of the metal oxide toward the electrolyte solution. Furthermore, the solution leakage of PVdF-HFP/MgO and PVdF-HFP/SBA-15 composite electrolytes also decreased compared to pure PVdF-HFP electrolyte. These polymer composite electrolytes were stable up to 5.5 V (versus Li/Li +) and the lithium ion cells assembled with these polymer electrolyte show a good performance at a discharge rate below C/2.

  15. Creep life simulations of EB welded copper overpack

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holmstroem, S.; Laukkanen, A.; Andersson, T. [VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Espoo (Finland)

    2013-12-15

    The long term life predictions of copper overpack (sealed by EB welding in Finland) have previously been based on stress estimations that vary over a wide range, typically between 40-100 MPa. These values are usually not based on structural calculation including the EB-weld that increases the complexity of the stress state in the copper overpack. This report will attempt to pinpoint and simulate the stresses and strains developing in the copper overpack during its first decennia of repository service by advanced FEA simulations including the impact of the EB-weld. The main challenge of this work is the extrapolation of the creep strain response of OFP copper to the service relevant loads and temperatures. The uniaxial creep model is translated to a multiaxial constitutive equation form with adequate computational efficiency. The copper overpack strain and stress evolution has been simulated at up to 100 000 years at a conservative constant temperature of 80 deg C with 14 MPa of external pressure. The results indicate rapid creep relaxation in the initial stages after the load has been applied followed by limited creep strain accumulation thereafter. Local elastic-plastic and creep deformation is predicted at the EB weld root with a total strain of below 12 %. The predicted stresses after external loading and short term relaxation are moderate and the impact of weld residual stresses and the lower creep rupture properties of the EB seem not to be detrimental to the predicted long term creep response. The simulation results imply that the most crucial impact on the creep strain accumulation of the copper overpack is related to the OFP copper primary creep properties. The present study predicts sufficiently low creep strains for a 100 000 years canister life with the conservative assumption at a constant temperature of 80 deg C. However a sensitivity study on the impact of primary creep is strongly recommended due to contradicting analysis results from earlier FEA

  16. Parametric Studies Of Failure Mechanisms In Thermal Barrier Coatings During Thermal Cycling Using FEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srivathsa B.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Thermal barrier coatings (TBCs are widely used on different hot components of gas turbine engines such as blades and vanes. Although, several mechanisms for the failure of the TBCs have been suggested, it is largely accepted that the durability of these coatings is primarily determined by the residual stresses that are developed during the thermal cycling. In the present study, the residual stress build-up in an electron beam physical vapour deposition (EB-PVD based TBCs on a coupon during thermal cycling has been studied by varying three parameters such as the cooling rate, TBC thickness and substrate thickness. A two-dimensional thermomechanical generalized plane strain finite element simulations have been performed for thousand cycles. It was observed that these variations change the stress profile significantly and the stress severity factor increases non-linearly. Overall, the predictions of the model agree with reported experimental results and help in predicting the failure mechanisms.

  17. Bond strength and stress measurements in thermal barrier coatings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gell, M.; Jordan, E.

    1995-12-31

    Thermal barrier coatings have been used extensively in aircraft gas turbines for more than 15 years to insulate combustors and turbine vanes from the hot gas stream. Plasma sprayed thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) provide metal temperature reductions as much as 300{degrees}F, with improvements in durability of two times or more being achieved. The introduction of TBCs deposited by electron beam physical vapor deposition (EB-PVD) processes in the last five years has provided a major improvement in durability and also enabled TBCs to be applied to turbine blades for improved engine performance. This program evaluates the bond strength of yttria stabilized zirconia coatings with MCrAlY and Pt-Al bond coats utilizing diffraction and fluorescence methods.

  18. Overview on the Development of Nanostructured Thermal Barrier Coatings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) have successfully been used in gas turbine engines for increasing operation temperature and improving engine efficiency. Over the past thirty years, a variety of TBC materials and TBC deposition techniques have been developed. Recently, nanostructured TBCs emerge with the potential of commercial applications in various industries. In this paper, TBC materials and TBC deposition techniques such as air plasma spray (APS), electron beam physical vapor deposition (EB-PVD), laser assisted chemical vapor deposition (LACVD) are briefly reviewed. Nanostructured 7-8 wt pct yttria stabilized zirconia (7-8YSZ)TBC by air plasma spraying of powder and new TBC with novel structure deposited by solution precursor plasma spray (SPPS) are compared. Plasma spray conditions, coating forming mechanisms, microstructures,phase compositions, thermal conductivities, and thermal cycling lives of the APS nanostructured TBC and the SPPS nanostructured TBC are discussed. Research opportunities and challenges of nanostructured TBCs deposited by air plasma spray are prospected.

  19. Effect of nanoclay on properties of porous PVdF membranes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hae-Young HWANG; Deuk-Ju KIM; Hyung-Jun KIM; Young-Taik HONG; Sang-Yong NAM

    2011-01-01

    The main requirements for battery separators are high porosity which can serve pathways of lithium ion and space for gel electrolytes to impregnate in a membrane and mechanical strength to allow easy handling for battery assembly. Generally, it appears the trade-off relationship between the porosity and mechanical strength of the membrane. PVdF composite membranes containing nano-size clays were used to improve the mechanical strength of the membrane without affecting the membrane porosity. The composite membranes were prepared by phase inversion method controlling the membrane preparation conditions such as retention time. The resultant membranes show increased mechanical properties with similar membrane porosity around 80 % compared to the pristine PVdF membrane. Incorporation of nonoclay can be considered as an effective method to improve the mechanical strength in porous membrane supports, especially in a separator.

  20. Depth-resolved X-ray residual stress analysis in PVD (Ti, Cr) N hard coatings

    CERN Document Server

    Genzel, C

    2003-01-01

    Physical vapour deposition (PVD) of thin hard coatings on TiN basis is usually performed at rather low temperatures (T sub D < 500 C) far from thermal equilibrium, which leads to high intrinsic residual stresses in the growing film. In contrast to the extrinsic thermal residual stresses which can easily be estimated from the difference of the coefficients of thermal expansion between the substrate and the coating, a theoretical prediction of the intrinsic residual stresses is difficult, because their amount as well as their distribution within the film depend in a very complex way on the deposition kinetics. By the example of strongly fibre-textured PVD (Ti, Cr)N coatings which have been prepared under defined variation of the deposition parameters in order to adjust the residual stress distribution within the coatings, the paper compares different X-ray diffraction techniques with respect to their applicability for detecting residual stresses which are non-uniform over the coating thickness. (orig.)

  1. 47 CFR 27.1214 - EBS spectrum leasing arrangements and grandfathered leases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false EBS spectrum leasing arrangements and... Educational Broadband Service § 27.1214 EBS spectrum leasing arrangements and grandfathered leases. (a) A licensee in the EBS that is solely utilizing analog transmissions may enter into a spectrum...

  2. The Photovoltaic Performances of PVdF-HFP Electrospun Membranes Employed Quasi-Solid-State Dye Sensitized Solar Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gnana kumar, G; Balanay, Mannix P; Nirmala, R; Kim, Dong Hee; Raj kumar, T; Senthilkumar, N; Kim, Ae Rhan; Yoo, Dong Jin

    2016-01-01

    The PVdF-HFP nanofiber membranes with different molecular weight were prepared by electrospinning technique and were investigated as solid state electrolyte membranes in quasi solid state dye sensitized solar cells (QS-DSSC). The homogeneously distributed and fully interconnected nanofibers were obtained for all of the prepared PVdF-HFP electrospun membranes and the average fiber diameters of fabricated membranes were dependent upon the molecular weight of polymer. The thermal stability of electrospun PVdF-HFP membrane was decreased with a decrement of molecular weight, specifying the high heat transfer area of small diameter nanofibers. The QS-DSSC fabricated with the lower molecular weight PVdF-HFP electrospun nanofiber membrane exhibited the power conversion efficiency of 1 = 5.38%, which is superior over the high molecular weight membranes and is comparable with the liquid electrolyte. Furthermore, the electrospun PVdF-HFP membrane exhibited long-term durability over the liquid electrolyte, owing to the higher adsorption and retention efficiencies of liquid electrolyte in its highly porous and interconnected nanofibers. Thus the proposed electrospun PVdF-HFP membrane effectively tackled the volatilization and leakage of liquid electrolyte and provided good photoconversion efficiency associated with an excellent stability, which constructs the prepared electrospun membranes as credible solid state candidates for the application of QS-DSSCs.

  3. Electrospun PVdF-based fibrous polymer electrolytes for lithium ion polymer batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong Rae Kim [Hanyang University, Seoul (France). Applied Chemical Engineering Division; Korea Institute of Science and Technology, Seoul (Korea). Polymer Hybrid Research Center; Sung Won Choi [Yonsei University, Seoul (Korea). Department of Chemistry; Seong Mu Jo; Wha Seop Lee [Korea Institute of Science and Technology, Seoul (Korea). Polymer Hybrid Research Center; Byung Chul Kim [Hanyang University, Seoul (France). Applied Chemical Engineering Division

    2004-11-15

    This paper discusses the preparation of microporous fibrous membranes from PVdF solutions with different polymer contents, using the electrospinning technique. Electrospun PVdF-based fibrous membranes with average fiber diameters (AFD's) of 0.45-1.38 {mu}m have an apparent porosity and a mean pore size (MPS) of 80-89% and 1.1-4.3 {mu}m, respectively. They exhibited a high uptake of the electrolyte solution (320-350%) and a high ionic conductivity of above 1 x 10{sup -3} s/cm at room temperature. Their ionic conductivity increased with the decrease in the AFD of the fibrous membrane due to its high electrolyte uptake. The interaction between the electrolyte molecules and the PVdF with a high crystalline content may have had a minor effect on the lithium ion transfer in the fibrous polymer electrolyte, unlike in a nanoporous gel polymer electrolyte. The fibrous polymer electrolyte that contained a 1 M LiPF{sub 6}-EC/DMC/DEC (1/1/1 by weight) solution showed a high electrochemical stability of above 5.0 V, which increased with the decrease in the AFD. The interfacial resistance (R{sub i}) between the polymer electrolyte and the lithium electrode slightly increased with the storage time, compared with the higher increase in the interfacial resistance of other gel polymer electrolytes. The prototype cell (MCMB/PVdF-based fibrous electrolyte/LiCoO{sub 2}) showed a very stable charge-discharge behavior with a slight capacity loss under constant current and voltage conditions at the C/2-rate of 20 and 60 {sup o}C. (author)

  4. Electrospun PVdF-based fibrous polymer electrolytes for lithium ion polymer batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jeong Rae [Applied Chemical Engineering Division, Hanyang University, 17, Haengdang-dong, Seongdong-Ku, Seoul 133-791 (Korea, Republic of); Polymer Hybrid Research Center, Korea Institute of Science and Technology, 39-1, Hawolgok-dong, Seongbuk-gu, Seoul 136-791 (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Sung Won [Department of Chemistry, Yonsei University, 134, Sinchon-dong, Seodaemun-gu, Seoul 120-749 (Korea, Republic of); Polymer Hybrid Research Center, Korea Institute of Science and Technology, 39-1, Hawolgok-dong, Seongbuk-gu, Seoul 136-791 (Korea, Republic of); Jo, Seong Mu [Polymer Hybrid Research Center, Korea Institute of Science and Technology, 39-1, Hawolgok-dong, Seongbuk-gu, Seoul 136-791 (Korea, Republic of)]. E-mail: smjo@kist.re.kr; Lee, Wha Seop [Polymer Hybrid Research Center, Korea Institute of Science and Technology, 39-1, Hawolgok-dong, Seongbuk-gu, Seoul 136-791 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Byung Chul [Applied Chemical Engineering Division, Hanyang University, 17, Haengdang-dong, Seongdong-Ku, Seoul 133-791 (Korea, Republic of)

    2004-11-15

    This paper discusses the preparation of microporous fibrous membranes from PVdF solutions with different polymer contents, using the electrospinning technique. Electrospun PVdF-based fibrous membranes with average fiber diameters (AFD's) of 0.45-1.38 {mu}m have an apparent porosity and a mean pore size (MPS) of 80-89% and 1.1-4.3 {mu}m, respectively. They exhibited a high uptake of the electrolyte solution (320-350%) and a high ionic conductivity of above 1 x 10{sup -3} s/cm at room temperature. Their ionic conductivity increased with the decrease in the AFD of the fibrous membrane due to its high electrolyte uptake. The interaction between the electrolyte molecules and the PVdF with a high crystalline content may have had a minor effect on the lithium ion transfer in the fibrous polymer electrolyte, unlike in a nanoporous gel polymer electrolyte. The fibrous polymer electrolyte that contained a 1 M LiPF{sub 6}-EC/DMC/DEC (1/1/1 by weight) solution showed a high electrochemical stability of above 5.0 V, which increased with the decrease in the AFD The interfacial resistance (R{sub i}) between the polymer electrolyte and the lithium electrode slightly increased with the storage time, compared with the higher increase in the interfacial resistance of other gel polymer electrolytes. The prototype cell (MCMB/PVdF-based fibrous electrolyte/LiCoO{sub 2}) showed a very stable charge-discharge behavior with a slight capacity loss under constant current and voltage conditions at the C/2-rate of 20 and 60 deg. C.

  5. An overview on novel thermal barrier coatings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    Thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) offer the potential to significantly improve efficiencies of aero engines as well as stationary gas turbines for power generation. On internally cooled turbine parts, temperature gradients of the order of 100-150℃ can be achieved. TBCs, typically consisting of an yttrium stabilized zirconia top coat and a metallic bond coat deposited onto a superalloy substrate, are mainly used to extend lifetime. Further efficiency improvements require TBCs being an integral part of the component which requires reliable and predictable TBC performance. TBCs produced by electron beam physical vapor deposition (EbPVD) or plasma spray (PS) deposition are favored for high performance applications. The paper highlights critical R&D needs for advanced TBC systems with a special focus on reduced thermal conductivity and life prediction needs. To further enhance the efficiency of gas turbines, higher temperature and a longer lifetime of the coating are needed for the next generation of TBCs. This paper presents the development of new materials, new deposition technologies, and new concept for application as novel TBCs. This paper summarizes the basic properties of conventional thermal barrier coatings. Based on our own investigation, we reviewed the progress on materials and technologies of novel thermal barrier coatings. Except yttria stabilized zirconia, other materials such as lanthanum zirconate and rare earth oxides are also promising materials for thermal barrier coatings. Nanostructure thermal barrier coating is presented as a new concept. This paper also summarizes the technologies for depositing the thermal barrier coatings.

  6. Controlling Dielectric and Magnetic Properties of PVdF/Magnetite Nanocomposite Fibre Webs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. P. Venugopal

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The ability of filtration and separation media containing fibres to remove impurities from oil, water, and blood can be enhanced using magnetic fields. The ability to regulate the dielectric and magnetic behaviour of fibrous webs in terms of superparamagnetic or ferromagnetic properties by adjusting material composition is fundamental to meeting end-use requirements. Electrospun fibres were produced from PVdF (polyvinylidene fluoride and nanomagnetite (Fe3O4 nanoparticles from solutions of PVdF in dimethylacetamide containing Fe3O4 nanoparticle contents ranging from 3 to 10 wt%. Fibre dimensions, morphology, and nanoparticle agglomeration were characterised by environmental scanning electron microscopy (ESEM and field emission gun transmission electron microscopy (FEGTEM. Dielectric behaviour of the fibre webs was influenced by web porosity and the Fe3O4 nanoparticle content. Impedance analysis of the webs indicated an increase in dielectric constant of ∼80% by the addition of 10 wt% Fe3O4 nanoparticles compared to 100 wt% PVdF. The dielectric constants of the webs were compared with those obtained from the theoretical mixing models of Maxwell and Lichtenecker. Vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM magnetisation measurements indicated a blocking temperature above 300 K suggesting ferrimagnetic rather than superparamagnetic behaviour as a result of Fe3O4 nanoparticle agglomeration within fibres.

  7. Hybrid diffusive/PVD treatments to improve the tribological resistance of Ti-6Al-4V.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marin, E; Offoiach, R; Lanzutti, A; Regis, M; Fusi, S; Fedrizzi, L

    2014-01-01

    Titanium alloys are nowadays used for a wide range of biomedical applications thanks to their combination of high mechanical resistance, high corrosion resistance and biocompatibility. Nevertheless, the applicability of titanium alloys is sometimes limited due to their low microhardness and tribological resistance. Thus the titanium alloys cannot be successfully applied to prosthetic joint couplings. A wide range of surface treatments, in particular PVD coatings such as CrN and TiN, have been used in order to improve the tribological behaviour of titanium alloys. However, the low microhardness of the titanium substrate often results in coating failure due to cracks and delamination. For this reason, hybrid technologies based on diffusive treatments and subsequent PVD coatings may improve the overall coating resistance. In this work, conventional PVD coatings of CrN or TiCN, deposited on Titanium Grade 5, were characterized and then combined with a standard thermal diffusive nitriding treatment in order to improve the tribological resistance of the titanium alloys and avoid coating delamination. The different treatments were studied by means of scanning electron microscopy both on the sample surface and in cross-section. In-depth composition profiles were obtained using glow discharge optical emission spectrometry (GDOES) and localized energy dispersive X-ray diffraction on linear scan-lines. The microhardness and adhesion properties of the different treatments were evaluated using Vickers microhardness tests at different load conditions. The indentations were observed by means of SEM in order to evaluate delaminated areas and the crack's shape and density. The tribological behaviour of the different treatments was tested in dry conditions and in solution, in alternate pin-on-flat configuration, with a frequency of 0.5 Hz. After testing, the surface was investigated by means of stylus profilometry and SEM both on the surface and in cross-section. The standalone PVD

  8. Cap-Gly proteins at microtubule plus ends: is EB1 detyrosination involved?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosson, Anouk; Soleilhac, Jean-Marc; Valiron, Odile; Job, Didier; Andrieux, Annie; Moutin, Marie-Jo

    2012-01-01

    Localization of CAP-Gly proteins such as CLIP170 at microtubule+ends results from their dual interaction with α-tubulin and EB1 through their C-terminal amino acids -EEY. Detyrosination (cleavage of the terminal tyrosine) of α-tubulin by tubulin-carboxypeptidase abolishes CLIP170 binding. Can detyrosination affect EB1 and thus regulate the presence of CLIP170 at microtubule+ends as well? We developed specific antibodies to discriminate tyrosinated vs detyrosinated forms of EB1 and detected only tyrosinated EB1 in fibroblasts, astrocytes, and total brain tissue. Over-expressed EB1 was not detyrosinated in cells and chimeric EB1 with the eight C-terminal amino acids of α-tubulin was only barely detyrosinated. Our results indicate that detyrosination regulates CLIPs interaction with α-tubulin, but not with EB1. They highlight the specificity of carboxypeptidase toward tubulin.

  9. Cap-Gly proteins at microtubule plus ends: is EB1 detyrosination involved?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anouk Bosson

    Full Text Available Localization of CAP-Gly proteins such as CLIP170 at microtubule+ends results from their dual interaction with α-tubulin and EB1 through their C-terminal amino acids -EEY. Detyrosination (cleavage of the terminal tyrosine of α-tubulin by tubulin-carboxypeptidase abolishes CLIP170 binding. Can detyrosination affect EB1 and thus regulate the presence of CLIP170 at microtubule+ends as well? We developed specific antibodies to discriminate tyrosinated vs detyrosinated forms of EB1 and detected only tyrosinated EB1 in fibroblasts, astrocytes, and total brain tissue. Over-expressed EB1 was not detyrosinated in cells and chimeric EB1 with the eight C-terminal amino acids of α-tubulin was only barely detyrosinated. Our results indicate that detyrosination regulates CLIPs interaction with α-tubulin, but not with EB1. They highlight the specificity of carboxypeptidase toward tubulin.

  10. Microstructure, Tensile Adhesion Strength and Thermal Shock Resistance of TBCs with Different Flame-Sprayed Bond Coat Materials Onto BMI Polyimide Matrix Composite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abedi, H. R.; Salehi, M.; Shafyei, A.

    2017-08-01

    In this study, thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) composed of different bond coats (Zn, Al, Cu-8Al and Cu-6Sn) with mullite top coats were flame-sprayed and air-plasma-sprayed, respectively, onto bismaleimide matrix composites. These polyimide matrix composites are of interest to replace PMR-15, due to concerns about the toxicity of the MDA monomer from which PMR-15 is made. The results showed that pores and cracks appeared at the bond coat/substrate interface for the Al-bonded TBC because of its high thermal conductivity and diffusivity resulting in transferring of high heat flux and temperature to the polymeric substrate during top coat deposition. The other TBC systems due to the lower conductivity and diffusivity of bonding layers could decrease the adverse thermal effect on the polymer substrate during top coat deposition and exhibited adhesive bond coat/substrate interfaces. The tensile adhesion test showed that the adhesion strength of the coatings to the substrate is inversely proportional to the level of residual stress in the coatings. However, the adhesion strength of Al bond-coated sample decreased strongly after mullite top coat deposition due to thermal damage at the bond coat/substrate interface. TBC system with the Cu-6Sn bond coat exhibited the best thermal shock resistance, while Al-bonded TBC showed the lowest. It was inferred that thermal mismatch stresses and oxidation of the bond coats were the main factors causing failure in the thermal shock test.

  11. Insights on the High-Temperature Operational Limits of ZrO2-Y2O3 TBCs Manufactured via Air Plasma Spray

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Rogerio S.; Marple, Basil R.

    2017-02-01

    The effective high-temperature operation limit of a ZrO2-7-8 wt.%Y2O3 (YSZ) thermal barrier coating (TBC) manufactured via air plasma spray (APS) is considered to be 1300 °C. This is related to the metastable tetragonal t'-phase formed during the rapid quenching of the YSZ particles during spraying. The t'-phase transforms into the equilibrium tetragonal and cubic phases at temperatures ≥ 1300 °C, which can lead to the formation of the monoclinic phase of YSZ upon cooling to room temperature. This formation of the monoclinic phase is accompanied by a volume expansion that leads to TBC failure due to extensive micro-cracking. To further investigate this limitation, an APS YSZ TBC was sprayed on a CMSX-4 substrate. By using a thermal (laser) gradient cyclic testing, a temperature gradient was generated across the TBC/substrate system. The YSZ T-front and substrate backside T-back temperature levels were 1500 and 1000 °C, respectively. In cycle conditions (5-min or 1-h hot and 2-min cool), no TBC failure has been observed. This behavior was partially attributed to the unexpected absence of the monoclinic phase of the YSZ in the cycled coatings. Although preliminary, these results are promising regarding increasing the effective high-temperature operational limits of APS YSZ TBCs.

  12. Experimental Research Of Charged Particles Streams, Emitted From Area Of Eb Acting On Material, In Order To Estimate The Possibilities Of Using Them To Eb Welding Control

    CERN Document Server

    Olszewska, K

    2001-01-01

    The basic parameters of electron beam (EB) welding process are position and dimensions of so called EB active zone. Wrong position of active zone make impossible to obtain desirable shape of a weld and may cause various defects of a weld. Relatively reach source of information about EB welding process are charged particles emitted from the area of EB acting on material. The measurements of various types of signals for the three largest groups of charged particles: back-scattered electrons, really secondary electrons and ions were carried out. It was estimated that practically none of them could be used directly in procedures of EB active zone position control. It is result of ambiguous of information, they contain and susceptibility to interferences or impossibility of real time data acquisition. Using the neural networks can solve this problem. The computer simulations of various models of neural networks were done. The best result was obtained for network, which has as input signals: accelerating voltage, E...

  13. Residual Stress Distribution in PVD-Coated Carbide Cutting Tools-Origin of Cohesive Damage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Breidenstein

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available PVD-coatings for cutting tools mean a substantial progress for tool lifetime and cutting conditions. Such tools, however, hold the risk of cost intensive sudden process breaks as a result of cohesive damage. This damage mechanism does not consist of a coating adhesion problem, but it can be traced back to the residual stress distribution in coating and substrate. This paper shows how residual stresses develop during the process chain for the manufacturing of PVDcoated carbide cutting tools. By means of different methods for residual stress determination it is shown that the distribution of residual stresses within the tool finally is responsible for the risk of cohesive tool damage.

  14. Surface Modification of PVD-TiN Films Using MEVVAIon Implantation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Jian-hua; GONG Yun-guo; CHENG Ming-fei; ZHANG Tong-he

    2004-01-01

    Ti ion implantation was implanted into PVD-TiN films using a metal vapor vacuum arc (MEVVA) ion source implanted zone was measured and compared to the performance of unimplanted zone by a pin-on-disc apparatus and an optical interference microscope. The structure of the implanted zone and unimplanted zone was observed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and high voltage electron microscopy (HVEM). The wear mechanisms of the TiN film after ion implantation were discussed according to the results of XPS and HVEM.

  15. Study on the Ion Association in PVdF-based Gel Polymer Electrolyte

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Gel polymer electrolytes based on the poly (vinylidene fluoride) (PVdF) and the electrolyte of LiClO4 in propylene carbonate (PC) were prepared by the solution casting technique. The ionic conductivity of the gel electrolytes was concentration of lithium salt. Because of the strong coulombiq attractions, the dissolved salt ions might aggregate into ion pairs and multiple ion aggregates. The analysis of DSC and X-ray diffraction revealed that the ions association occurred at higher concentration of lithium salt.

  16. EBS/C proton spectra from a virgin diamond crystal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erich, M., E-mail: marko.erich@gmail.com [Laboratory of Physics, Vinča Institute of Nuclear Sciences, University of Belgrade, PO Box 552, Belgrade (Serbia); Kokkoris, M. [Department of Physics, National Technical University of Athens, Zografou Campus 157 80, Athens (Greece); Fazinić, S. [Laboratory for Ion Beam Interactions, Department of Experimental Physics, Institute Ruđer Bošković, Bijenička cesta 54, 10000 Zagreb (Croatia); Petrović, S. [Laboratory of Physics, Vinča Institute of Nuclear Sciences, University of Belgrade, PO Box 552, Belgrade (Serbia)

    2016-08-15

    In the present work, elastic backscattering channeling spectra, EBS/C, of protons in a 〈1 0 0〉 diamond crystal were experimentally and theoretically studied via a new computer simulation code. Proton incident energies for EBS/C spectra were in the energy range from 1.0 MeV to 1.9 MeV. The energy range was chosen in order to explore a distinct strong resonance of the {sup 12}C(p,p{sub 0}){sup 12}C elastic scattering at 1737 keV. The computer simulation code applied for the fitting of the experimental spectra in the random mode was compared with the corresponding SIMNRA results. In the channeling mode, it assumes a Gompertz type sigmoidal dechanneling function, which has two fitting parameters, x{sub c} and k, the dechanneling range and rate, respectively. It also uses α, ratio of the channeling to random energy losses, as a fitting parameter. It was observed that x{sub c} increases, k decreases and α stays relatively constant with the proton incident energy. These observations confirm the physical interpretation of the fitting parameters. Also, they constitute the basics for the further development of the code for the quantification of induced amorphization and depth profiling of implanted ions.

  17. The EB-ANUBAD translator: A hybrid scheme

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    This article is aimed at describing a hybrid scheme for English to Bangla translation. The translated output in English scripts is useful for learning Bengali language. This is a significant contribution to Human Language Technology generation also.About two hundred million people in West Bengal and Tripura (two states in India) and in Bangladesh (a country whose people speak and write Bangla as their first language). This proposed translator would benefit Bengalee society because rural people are not usually very conversant with English. The English to Bangla Translator is being enhanced. This system (EnglishBangla-ANUBAD or EB-ANUBAD) takes a paragraph of English sentences as input sentences and produces equivalent Bangla sentences. EB-ANUBAD system is comprised of a preprocessor, morphological parser, semantic parser using English word ontology for context disambiguation, an electronic lexicon associated with grammatical information and a discourse processor,and also uses a lexical disambiguation analyzer. This system does not rely on a stochastic approach. Rather, it is based on a special kind of hybrid architecture of transformer and rule-based Natural Language Engineering (NLE) architectures along with various linguistic knowledge components of both English and Bangla.

  18. EBS/C proton spectra from a virgin diamond crystal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erich, M.; Kokkoris, M.; Fazinić, S.; Petrović, S.

    2016-08-01

    In the present work, elastic backscattering channeling spectra, EBS/C, of protons in a diamond crystal were experimentally and theoretically studied via a new computer simulation code. Proton incident energies for EBS/C spectra were in the energy range from 1.0 MeV to 1.9 MeV. The energy range was chosen in order to explore a distinct strong resonance of the 12C(p,p0)12C elastic scattering at 1737 keV. The computer simulation code applied for the fitting of the experimental spectra in the random mode was compared with the corresponding SIMNRA results. In the channeling mode, it assumes a Gompertz type sigmoidal dechanneling function, which has two fitting parameters, xc and k, the dechanneling range and rate, respectively. It also uses α, ratio of the channeling to random energy losses, as a fitting parameter. It was observed that xc increases, k decreases and α stays relatively constant with the proton incident energy. These observations confirm the physical interpretation of the fitting parameters. Also, they constitute the basics for the further development of the code for the quantification of induced amorphization and depth profiling of implanted ions.

  19. Thermal shutdown behavior of PVdF-HFP based polymer electrolytes comprising heat sensitive cross-linkable oligomers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, C. L.; Wan, C. C.; Wang, Y. Y.; Wu, M. S.

    PVdF-HFP (polyvinylidenefluoride-hexafluoropropylene) polymer electrolytes comprising cross-linkable PEGDMA (polyethylene glycol dimethacrylate) oligomers with thermal shutdown characteristic have been developed. In contrast to the melting mechanism of polyolefin, this new polymer electrolyte possesses a thermal shutdown characteristic by a rapid cross-linking reaction of PEGDMA. The cross-linked PEGDMA network inside the PVdF-HFP matrix can provide the mechanical strength for the electrolytes, while the un-cross-linked PEGDMA oligomers serve as plasticizers for PVdF-HFP to improve the mobility of lithium ions at normal operation temperatures. In addition, the un-cross-linked PEGDMA oligomers can initiate cross-linking upon a sudden rise of temperature and thus provide thermal shutdown protection at elevated temperatures.

  20. The Influence of Technological PVD Process Parameters on the Topography, Crystal and Molecular Structure of Nanocomposite Films Containing Palladium Nanograins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rymarczyk Joanna

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes the preparation and characteristics of films composed of Pd nanograins placed in carbonaceous matrix. Films were obtained in PVD (Physical Vapor Deposition process from two sources containing: the first one - fullerene powder and the second one - palladium acetate. The topographical, morphological and structural changes due to different parameters of PVD process were studied with the use of Atomic Force Microscopy and Scanning Electron Microscopy, whereas the structure was studied with the application of the Transmission Electron Microscopy and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy methods. It was shown that topographical changes are connected with the decomposition ratio of Pd acetate as well as the form of carbonaceous matrix formed due to this decomposition. Palladium nanograins found in all films exhibit the fcc structure type and their diameter changes from 2 nm to 40 nm depending on the PVD process parameters.

  1. Identification and immunogenicity of microneme protein 2 (EbMIC2) of Eimeria brunetti.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoan, Tran Duc; Zhang, Zhenchao; Huang, Jingwei; Yan, Ruofeng; Song, Xiaokai; Xu, Lixin; Li, Xiangrui

    2016-03-01

    There have been only a few antigen genes of Eimeria brunetti reported up to now. In this study, the gene encoding the microneme protein 2 (EbMIC2) was isolated from oocysts of E. brunetti by RT-PCR and the immunogenicity of recombinant EbMIC2 was observed. The EbMIC2 was cloned into vector pMD19-T for sequencing. The sequence was compared with the published EbMIC2 gene from GenBank revealed homology of the nucleotide sequence and amino acids sequence were 99.43 and 98.63%, respectively. The correct recombinant pMD-EbMIC2 plasmid was inserted into the pET-28a (+) expressing vector and transformed into competent Escherichia coli BL21 cells for expression. The expressed product was analyzed using SDS-PAGE and Western-blot. The results indicated that the recombinant EbMIC2 protein was recognized strongly by serum from naturally infected chicken with E. brunetti. Rat rcEbMIC2 antisera bound to bands of about 36 kDa in the somatic extract of E. brunetti sporozoites. The recombinant plasmid pVAX1-EbMIC2 was constructed and then the efficacies of recombinant plasmid and recombinant protein were evaluated. The results of IgG antibody level and cytokines concentration suggested that recombinant EbMIC2 could increase the IgG antibody level and induce the expressions of cytokines. Animal challenge experiments demonstrated that the recombinant EbMIC2 protein and recombinant plasmid pVAX1-EbMIC2 could significantly increase the average body weight gains, decrease the mean lesion scores and the oocyst outputs of the immunized chickens and presented high anti-coccidial index. All results suggested that EbMIC2 could become an effective candidate for the development of new vaccine against E. brunetti infection.

  2. The Role of SiO2 Gas in the Operation of Anti-Corrosion Coating Produced by PVD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meysam Zarchi

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This study examined theSiO2 gas present in the coatings used in corrosion industry.These layers have been created by physical vapor deposition (PVD, with an appropriate performance. Sublimation of SiO2is used to protect PVD aluminum flakes from water corrosionand to generate highly porous SiO2 flakes with holes in the nanometer range. SiOx/Al/SiOx sandwiches were made as well as Ag loaded porous SiO2 as antimicrobial filler.

  3. Monitoring Delamination of Thermal Barrier Coatings by Near-Infrared and Upconversion Luminescence Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eldridge, J. I.; Martin, R. E.; Singh, Jogender; Wolfe, Doug E.

    2008-01-01

    Previous work has demonstrated that TBC delamination can be monitored by incorporating a thin luminescent sublayer that produces greatly increased luminescence intensity from delaminated regions of the TBC. Initial efforts utilized visible-wavelength luminescence from either europium or erbium doped sublayers. This approach exhibited good sensitivity to delamination of electron-beam physical-vapor-deposited (EB-PVD) TBCs, but limited sensitivity to delamination of the more highly scattering plasma-sprayed TBCs due to stronger optical scattering and to interference by luminescence from rare-earth impurities. These difficulties have now been overcome by new strategies employing near-infrared (NIR) and upconversion luminescence imaging. NIR luminescence at 1550 nm was produced in an erbium plus ytterbium co-doped yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) luminescent sublayer using 980-nm excitation. Compared to visible-wavelength luminescence, these NIR emission and excitation wavelengths are much more weakly scattered by the TBC and therefore show much improved depth-probing capabilities. In addition, two-photon upconversion luminescence excitation at 980 nm wavelength produces luminescence emission at 562 nm with near-zero fluorescence background and exceptional contrast for delamination indication. The ability to detect TBC delamination produced by Rockwell indentation and by furnace cycling is demonstrated for both EB-PVD and plasma-sprayed TBCs. The relative strengths of the NIR and upconversion luminescence methods for monitoring TBC delamination are discussed.

  4. Selenium Distribution Pattern, Antineoplastic and Immunostimulatory Activities of a Novel Organoselenium Compound Eb

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANJun; DENGSheng-ju; KUANGBin; HEFei; LIUTao; ZENGHui-hui

    2004-01-01

    Aim To study the distribution pattern, antineoplastic activity and immtmocompetence of a novel organeselenium compotmd Eb and investigate its in vivo antineoplastic potential. Methods Eb was administered to Kunming mice (dosage, 0.1 g·kg-1·d-1) intragastrically for 7 successive days. The contents of selenium in heart, liver, spleen, kidneys, lungs, stomach, brain, muscle, and bone were determined by fluommetric method on the eighth day. MTT assay was used to study tumor growth inhibition of Eb in vitro, and lymphocyte transformation, hemolysin formation and phagocytosis assay were used to study its immunocompetence. Results After 7 days' administration of Eb, the tissue contents of selenium in liver, spleen, lungs, kidneys, and bone of mice increased, especially those in liver and spleen increased significantly, compared with controls; but no significant changes of such contents were fotmd in muscle, heart, brain, and stomach. Eb demonstrated inhibitory effects on human Bel-7402, BGC-823, and Calu-3 cancer cell lines in vitro. Eb also showed ability to enhance lymphocyte transformation and serum hemolysin formation in v/tro and increase the phagocytosis of macrophages. Conclusion The validated antitumor and immtmostimulatory activities of Eb suggest a hypothesis that Eb may behave as a biological response modifier when used as an antitumor agent. Eb is worthy of further study in developing a new antineoplastic and immunity enhancing agent in the light of its antitumor activity, immtmocompetenee and specific distribution in liver, lungs, kidneys, bone, and spleen.

  5. Simulations of EBS task force BMT 1.3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lempinen, A. (Marintel Ky, Turku (Finland))

    2007-08-15

    The Aespoe HRL International Joint Committee has set up a Task Force on Engineered Barrier Systems (EBS). Its long time objective is to develop effective tools for analysis of THM(C) behaviour of buffer and backfill. The idea of the Task Force is to offer a forum to develop the tools of the work groups. Bench Mark Test (BMT) 1.3 was a small-scale heating test with no external water supply. The experiment was conducted by Technical University of Catalonia. It was a thermal-hydraulic-mechanical test, although only temperature was measured continuously. Simulation results are presented here. These simulations were performed with Freefem++ software, which is a high-level programming language for solving partial differential equations with finite element method. The mathematical model used is based on continuum thermodynamics. With the model improvements for BMT 1.3, also BMT 1.2 was recalculated. (orig.)

  6. Rechargeable lithium battery employing a new ambient temperature hybrid polymer electrolyte based on PVK+PVdF-HFP (copolymer)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael, M. S.; Prabaharan, S. R. S.

    We describe here for the first time, our recent success in developing an ambient temperature Li + conducting solid polymer electrolyte (SPE) using the concept of polymer alloying upon blending two thermoplastic polymers such as poly(vinylidene) fluoride-hexafluoropropylene (PVdF-HFP-copolymer) and poly( N-vinylcarbazole), PVK and achieved the room temperature electrolytic conductivity ( σi) of 0.7×10 -3 S/cm for a typical composition of PVdF-HFP copolymer/PVK blend mixed with EC/LiBF 4 molar composition. The ionic transference number of 0.49 was deduced from combined ac-impedance and dc polarization method. High-resolution optical microscopic examination revealed the disappearance of characteristic highly porous surface structure of PVdF-HFP matrix upon blending with PVK leading to the formation of resultant PVdF-HFP/PVK blend polymer alloy. The electrochemical stability of the polymer electrolyte membrane thus obtained was found to be stable up to ˜4.7 V versus Li/Li +. The new hybrid alloy polymer electrolyte membrane was found to exhibit good interfacial properties against lithium metal and thus, it was found to aid the room temperature operation as electrolytic membrane cum separator in all-solid state rechargeable lithium polymer test cell, LiCo 0.8Ni 0.2O 2/SPE/Li.

  7. Stress analysis and microstructure of PVD monolayer TiN and multilayer TiN/(Ti,Al)N coatings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carvalho, NJM; Zoestbergen, E; Kooi, BJ; De Hosson, JTM

    2003-01-01

    Two PVD titanium nitride based coatings; monolayer TiN and multilayer resulting from the stacking of TiN and (Ti,Al)N layers were evaluated with respect to their stress state and microstructure. The TiN was deposited by triode evaporation ion plating, whereas the TiN/(Ti,AI)N was deposited using a

  8. Stress analysis and microstructure of PVD monolayer TiN and multilayer TiN/(Ti,Al)N coatings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carvalho, NJM; Zoestbergen, E; Kooi, BJ; De Hosson, JTM

    2003-01-01

    Two PVD titanium nitride based coatings; monolayer TiN and multilayer resulting from the stacking of TiN and (Ti,Al)N layers were evaluated with respect to their stress state and microstructure. The TiN was deposited by triode evaporation ion plating, whereas the TiN/(Ti,AI)N was deposited using a r

  9. Madis Habakuk : aasta pärast alustab EBS Indias / Madis Habakuk ; interv. Taivo Paju

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Habakuk, Madis, 1938-

    2003-01-01

    EBS Grupp tegutseb juba Hiinas ning kavatseb laieneda Indiasse. EBS Grupi president selgitab, kuidas toimub töötajate juhtimine ja kontroll suure vahemaa tagant, milline peaks olema usalduse ja kontrolli vahekord, ning mida mõista lojaalsuse all ettevõttes

  10. Synthesis and application of novel EB curable polyester urethane acrylate modified by linseed oil fatty acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jun, Li; Xuecheng, Ju; Min, Yi; Jinshan, Wei; Hongfei, Ha

    1999-06-01

    A novel polyester urethane acrylate resin modified by linseed oil fatty acid (LFA) was synthesized and EB curing coating was formulated in this work. When the coating cured by EB radiation on the timber, the cured coating was possessed of good performances.

  11. Madis Habakuk : aasta pärast alustab EBS Indias / Madis Habakuk ; interv. Taivo Paju

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Habakuk, Madis, 1938-

    2003-01-01

    EBS Grupp tegutseb juba Hiinas ning kavatseb laieneda Indiasse. EBS Grupi president selgitab, kuidas toimub töötajate juhtimine ja kontroll suure vahemaa tagant, milline peaks olema usalduse ja kontrolli vahekord, ning mida mõista lojaalsuse all ettevõttes

  12. Phosphorylation of EB2 by Aurora B and CDK1 ensures mitotic progression and genome stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iimori, Makoto; Watanabe, Sugiko; Kiyonari, Shinichi; Matsuoka, Kazuaki; Sakasai, Ryo; Saeki, Hiroshi; Oki, Eiji; Kitao, Hiroyuki; Maehara, Yoshihiko

    2016-03-31

    Temporal regulation of microtubule dynamics is essential for proper progression of mitosis and control of microtubule plus-end tracking proteins by phosphorylation is an essential component of this regulation. Here we show that Aurora B and CDK1 phosphorylate microtubule end-binding protein 2 (EB2) at multiple sites within the amino terminus and a cluster of serine/threonine residues in the linker connecting the calponin homology and end-binding homology domains. EB2 phosphorylation, which is strictly associated with mitotic entry and progression, reduces the binding affinity of EB2 for microtubules. Expression of non-phosphorylatable EB2 induces stable kinetochore microtubule dynamics and delays formation of bipolar metaphase plates in a microtubule binding-dependent manner, and leads to aneuploidy even in unperturbed mitosis. We propose that Aurora B and CDK1 temporally regulate the binding affinity of EB2 for microtubules, thereby ensuring kinetochore microtubule dynamics, proper mitotic progression and genome stability.

  13. Character-Size Optimization for Reducing the Number of EB Shots of MCC Lithographic Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugihara, Makoto

    We propose a character size optimization technique to reduce the number of EB shots of multi-column-cell (MCC) lithographic systems in which transistor patterns are projected with multiple column cells in parallel. Each and every column cell is capable of projecting patterns with character projection (CP) and variable shaped beam (VSB) methods. Seeking the optimal character size of characters contributes to minimizing the number of EB shots and reducing the fabrication cost for ICs. Experimental results show that the character size optimization achieved 70.6% less EB shots in the best case with an available electron beam (EB) size. Our technique also achieved 40.6% less EB shots in the best case than a conventional character sizing technique.

  14. Structure, transport properties and interfacial stability of PVdF/HFP electrolytes containing modified inorganic filler

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stolarska, M.; Niedzicki, L.; Borkowska, R.; Zalewska, A.; Wieczorek, W. [Department of Chemistry, Warsaw University of Technology, ul. Noakowskiego 3, 00-664 Warsaw (Poland)

    2007-12-31

    Gel polymer electrolyte membranes composed of poly(vinylidene fluoride-hexafluoropropylene) (PVdF-HFP) and surface modified aluminum or titanium oxide were prepared according to the so-called Bellcore process. Modifications were done by impregnating ceramic powder with 1-8% sulphuric acid aqueous solutions. Filler grain size varied from 10 to 12 {mu}m. The membranes were conditioned in liquid electrode - 1 mol/l LiClO{sub 4} in PC. The ionic conductivity of polymer membrane increased by more than one order of magnitude upon the addition of filler into polymer host. For electrolyte membrane containing modified aluminum or titanium oxide, the interfacial resistance is stable in time as opposed to unmodified gel electrolytes. An increase in lithium transference number is observed upon the addition of filler. Lithium transference number also increases with the fraction of acidic surface groups. (author)

  15. Surface Modification of PVD-TiN Films Using MEVVAIon Implantation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANGJian-hua; GONGYun-guo; CHENGMing-fei; ZHANGTong-he

    2004-01-01

    Ti ion implantation was implanted into PVD-TiN films using a metal vapor vacuum arc (MEVVA) ion source with a low implantation dose and at a time-averaged ion beam current density of 251.tA.cm2. The wear characteristics of the implanted zone was measured and compared to the performance of unimplanted zone by a pin-on-disc apparatus and an optical interference microscope. The structure of the implanted zone and unimplanted zone was observed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and high voltage electron microscopy (HVEM). The wear mechanisms of the TiN film after ion implantation were discussed according to the results of XPS and HVEM.

  16. Non-classical crystallization of thin films and nanostructures in CVD and PVD processes

    CERN Document Server

    Hwang, Nong Moon

    2016-01-01

    This book provides a comprehensive introduction to a recently-developed approach to the growth mechanism of thin films and nanostructures via chemical vapour deposition (CVD). Starting from the underlying principles of the low pressure synthesis of diamond films, it is shown that diamond growth occurs not by individual atoms but by charged nanoparticles. This newly-discovered growth mechanism turns out to be general to many CVD and some physical vapor deposition (PVD) processes. This non-classical crystallization is a new paradigm of crystal growth, with active research taking place on growth in solution, especially in biomineralization processes. Established understanding of the growth of thin films and nanostructures is based around processes involving individual atoms or molecules. According to the author’s research over the last two decades, however, the generation of charged gas phase nuclei is shown to be the rule rather than the exception in the CVD process, and charged gas phase nuclei are actively ...

  17. Double Pulse LIBS of Titanium-Based PVD-Coatings with Submicron Resolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Ermalitskaia

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The possibility for double pulse LIBS in the process of a direct layer-by-layer analysis of the titanium-based PVD-coatings on polished flat blank samples of steel and silicon and also of the TiAlN/TiN-coating on a milling cutter is considered. A method is proposed to control thickness of the radiation evaporated layer by defocusing the laser beam with respect to the surface, making it possible to attain the depth resolution of 0.1 μm. The Ti and Ti-Zr-coatings produced using the ion-assisted condensation method and subjected to streams of the nitrogen plasma in a magnetic-plasma compressor are studied.

  18. Infrared Thermography In-situ Inspection for Damage Trend of TBCs in Simulated Service Environment%模拟服役环境下热障涂层损伤趋势的红外原位检测技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何箐; 吴鹏; 汪瑞军; 王伟平

    2013-01-01

    Thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) can increase the operating temperature and efficiency for aero engine and gas turbine,which are used under complex service conditions,and the failure of coating may result in serious damage for hot section parts.A non-destructive method for damage determination is necessary for TBCs.Damage trend for TBCs is in-situ inspected by infrared thermography in simulated service environment with high thermal gradient and heating-cooling cycle.The parameter of diversity factor of infrared radiation (△TR) is used to characterize the expansion trend of internal defects of TBCs.Thermal cycle life of defects in coating consists of steady stage (<50%-60% total cycles),thermal anomaly extend stage and acceleration unstable stage (>80%-90% total cycles).During the period of 50-60% cycle life of defect,the spallation area and remaining life can be predicted.Acceleration unstable stage can be determined to be stripped of the area with defects.%热障涂层会显著提高航空发动机和燃气轮机的运行温度和热效率,其服役工况复杂,一旦失效后会严重影响热端部件的服役性能,甚至引发事故,因而对热障涂层内部损伤进行无损检测是十分必要的.文中利用红外热成像技术,在燃气加热、高温度梯度和冷热交替循环的模拟服役环境下对多组热障涂层的损伤趋势进行了原位检测,提出了利用红热辐射差异水平参数△TR表征了热障涂层内部缺陷的扩展趋势的方法.涂层内部缺陷的寿命周期可分为稳定阶段(<50% ~60%热循环寿命)、热异常扩展阶段和加速失稳阶段(>80%~90%热循环寿命),在热异常扩展阶段可预判失效区域和剩余寿命,而加速失稳阶段可确定缺陷区域即将剥离失效.

  19. Study of high cycle fatigue of PVD surface-modified austempered ductile iron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feng, H.P.; Lee, S.C.; Hsu, C.H.; Ho, J.M. [Tatung Inst. of Technol., Taipei (Taiwan, Province of China). Dept. of Mater. Eng.

    1999-05-25

    Austempered ductile iron (ADI) is made from ductile iron by an austempering treatment, and its main microstructure is ausferrite that is composed of acicular ferrite and high carbon austenite. The purpose of this experiment is to investigate the influence of different coating layers and the size of casting (mass effect) on the high-cycle fatigue properties of ADI. Specimens in two casting sizes of the same chemical composition were subjected to a high-toughness austempering treatment, then coated with TiN or TiCN hard films by a physical vapor deposition (PVD) process. The results showed that the fatigue limit of the small casting size ADI is 292 MPa for ADI coated with TiN and 306 MPa for ADI coated with TiCN, which are 16% and 22%, respectively, higher than that of the ADI without coating (251 MPa). For the large casting size ADI, the fatigue limits are 200, 214 and 217 MPa for ADI without coating, ADI coated with TiN and ADI coated with TiCN, respectively. ADI coated with TiN and with TiCN are 7% and 9% better than the uncoated. Thus, it is concluded that TiN and TiCN coatings by PVD can improve the high-cycle fatigue strength of ADI. This is due to the high surface hardness and possibly the ADI surface compressive residual stress as well. For the small casting size ADI, TiCN-coated specimens have a bit higher fatigue strengths and this might be attributed to the higher hardness of TiCN than TiN films. As to the effect of mass, it is found that the small casting size has better fatigue properties and benefits more from the coating films. This could have stemmed from the higher nodule count and its associated benefits in thinner castings. (orig.) 24 refs.

  20. Injection moulding of optical functional micro structures using laser structured, PVD-coated mould inserts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hopmann, Ch.; Weber, M.; Schöngart, M.; Schäfer, C., E-mail: weber@ikv-aachen.de [Institute of Plastics Processing (IKV) at RWTH Aachen University (Germany); Bobzin, K.; Bagcivan, N.; Brögelmann, T.; Theiß, S.; Münstermann, T. [Surface Engineering Institute (IOT), RWTH Aachen University, Aachen (Germany); Steger, M. [Fraunhofer Institute for Laser Technology (ILT), Aachen (Germany)

    2015-05-22

    Micro structured optical plastics components are intensively used i. e. in consumer electronics, for optical sensors in metrology, innovative LED-lighting or laser technology. Injection moulding has proven to be successful for the large-scale production of those parts. However, the production of those parts still causes difficulties due to challenges in the moulding and demoulding of plastics parts created with laser structured mould inserts. A complete moulding of the structures often leads to increased demoulding forces, which then cause a breaking of the structures and a clogging of the mould. An innovative approach is to combine PVD-coated (physical vapour deposition), laser structured inserts and a variothermal moulding process to create functional mic8iüro structures in a one-step process. Therefore, a PVD-coating is applied after the laser structuring process in order to improve the wear resistance and the anti-adhesive properties against the plastics melt. In a series of moulding trials with polycarbonate (PC) and polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) using different coated moulds, the mould temperature during injection was varied in the range of the glass transition and the melt temperature of the polymers. Subsequently, the surface topography of the moulded parts is evaluated by digital 3D laser-scanning microscopy. The influence of the moulding parameters and the coating of the mould insert on the moulding accuracy and the demoulding behaviour are being analysed. It is shown that micro structures created by ultra-short pulse laser ablation can be successfully replicated in a variothermal moulding process. Due to the mould coating, significant improvements could be achieved in producing micro structured optical plastics components.

  1. Prediction of the properties of PVD/CVD coatings with the use of FEM analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Śliwa, Agata; Mikuła, Jarosław; Gołombek, Klaudiusz; Tański, Tomasz; Kwaśny, Waldemar; Bonek, Mirosław; Brytan, Zbigniew

    2016-12-01

    The aim of this paper is to present the results of the prediction of the properties of PVD/CVD coatings with the use of finite element method (FEM) analysis. The possibility of employing the FEM in the evaluation of stress distribution in multilayer Ti/Ti(C,N)/CrN, Ti/Ti(C,N)/(Ti,Al)N, Ti/(Ti,Si)N/(Ti,Si)N, and Ti/DLC/DLC coatings by taking into account their deposition conditions on magnesium alloys has been discussed in the paper. The difference in internal stresses in the zone between the coating and the substrate is caused by, first of all, the difference between the mechanical and thermal properties of the substrate and the coating, and also by the structural changes that occur in these materials during the fabrication process, especially during the cooling process following PVD and CVD treatment. The experimental values of stresses were determined based on X-ray diffraction patterns that correspond to the modelled values, which in turn can be used to confirm the correctness of the accepted mathematical model for testing the problem. An FEM model was established for the purpose of building a computer simulation of the internal stresses in the coatings. The accuracy of the FEM model was verified by comparing the results of the computer simulation of the stresses with experimental results. A computer simulation of the stresses was carried out in the ANSYS environment using the FEM method. Structure observations, chemical composition measurements, and mechanical property characterisations of the investigated materials has been carried out to give a background for the discussion of the results that were recorded during the modelling process.

  2. Injection moulding of optical functional micro structures using laser structured, PVD-coated mould inserts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopmann, Ch.; Weber, M.; Schöngart, M.; Schäfer, C.; Bobzin, K.; Bagcivan, N.; Brögelmann, T.; Theiß, S.; Münstermann, T.; Steger, M.

    2015-05-01

    Micro structured optical plastics components are intensively used i. e. in consumer electronics, for optical sensors in metrology, innovative LED-lighting or laser technology. Injection moulding has proven to be successful for the large-scale production of those parts. However, the production of those parts still causes difficulties due to challenges in the moulding and demoulding of plastics parts created with laser structured mould inserts. A complete moulding of the structures often leads to increased demoulding forces, which then cause a breaking of the structures and a clogging of the mould. An innovative approach is to combine PVD-coated (physical vapour deposition), laser structured inserts and a variothermal moulding process to create functional mic8iüro structures in a one-step process. Therefore, a PVD-coating is applied after the laser structuring process in order to improve the wear resistance and the anti-adhesive properties against the plastics melt. In a series of moulding trials with polycarbonate (PC) and polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) using different coated moulds, the mould temperature during injection was varied in the range of the glass transition and the melt temperature of the polymers. Subsequently, the surface topography of the moulded parts is evaluated by digital 3D laser-scanning microscopy. The influence of the moulding parameters and the coating of the mould insert on the moulding accuracy and the demoulding behaviour are being analysed. It is shown that micro structures created by ultra-short pulse laser ablation can be successfully replicated in a variothermal moulding process. Due to the mould coating, significant improvements could be achieved in producing micro structured optical plastics components.

  3. 锂离子电池用PVdF/PMMA电纺膜的制备及电化学性能%Preparation and Electrochemical Properties of Electrospun PVdF/PMMA Membranes for Lithium Ion Batteries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹琪; 李晓云; 钟正; 王先友; 陈权启; 蒋生辉

    2011-01-01

    In this paper,fibrous membranes of PVdF/PMMA were fabricated via electrospinning method.The morphology,structure and thermal behaviors of the electrospun membranes were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM),fourier transform infra-red (FT-IR) spectroscopy and differential scanning calorimetry ( DSC ),respectively.Polymer electrolytes were prepared by immersing membranes into 1 mol/L LiClO4/EC + PC ( 1∶ 1,V/V).Electrochemical properties of ionic conductivity,electrochemical stability,interfacial resistance and cell performance of the electrolyte were investigated.The results suggested that the addition of PMMA increased the ionic conductivity and electrochemical stability of the polymer electrolyte.The PVdF/PMMA polymer electrolyte exhibited a high ionic conductivity of 3.5 mS/cm at room temperature and electrochemically stable up to 5.1 V.Also,the addition of PMMA into PVdF decreased the interfacial resistance with lithium electrode.In addition,Li/PE/LiFePO4 cell with PE based on electrospun PVdF/PMMA membrane exhibited excellent cycling performance.These results revealed that this new method may be very promising for preparing microporous PVdF/PMMA polymer electrolytes.%通过电纺法制备PVdF/PMMA纤维膜.电纺膜的形貌,结构和热行为分别用扫描电镜(SEM),红外(FT-IR),差热扫描量热法(DSC)表征.将电纺膜浸入1mol/L LiClO4/EC+ PC(1∶1,V/V)溶液中,从而得到聚合物电解质.对聚合物电解质的电化学性能如离子电导率,电化学稳定性,界面阻抗和电池性能也进行了研究.结果表明,PMMA的加入增加了聚合物电解质的离子电导率,提高了聚合物电解质的电化学稳定性.PVdF/PMMA聚合物电解质的室温离子电导率高达3.5 mS/cm,电化学稳定性达5.1 V.PMMA的加入降低了界面阻抗.另外,由PVdF/PMMA聚合物电解质组装的Li/PE/LiFePO4电池具有良好的循环性能.试验表明,电纺法可能很有希望应用于制备微孔PVdF/PMMA聚合物电解质.

  4. Reactive Transport and Coupled THM Processes in Engineering Barrier Systems (EBS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steefel, Carl; Rutqvist, Jonny; Tsang, Chin-Fu; Liu, Hui-Hai; Sonnenthal, Eric; Houseworth, Jim; Birkholzer, Jens

    2010-08-31

    Geological repositories for disposal of high-level nuclear wastes generally rely on a multi-barrier system to isolate radioactive wastes from the biosphere. The multi-barrier system typically consists of a natural barrier system, including repository host rock and its surrounding subsurface environment, and an engineering barrier system (EBS). EBS represents the man-made, engineered materials placed within a repository, including the waste form, waste canisters, buffer materials, backfill and seals (OECD, 2003). EBS plays a significant role in the containment and long-term retardation of radionuclide release. EBS is involved in complex thermal, hydrogeological, mechanical, chemical and biological processes, such as heat release due to radionuclide decay, multiphase flow (including gas release due to canister corrosion), swelling of buffer materials, radionuclide diffusive transport, waste dissolution and chemical reactions. All these processes are related to each other. An in-depth understanding of these coupled processes is critical for the performance assessment (PA) for EBS and the entire repository. Within the EBS group of Used Fuel Disposition (UFD) Campaign, LBNL is currently focused on (1) thermal-hydraulic-mechanical-chemical (THMC) processes in buffer materials (bentonite) and (2) diffusive transport in EBS associated with clay host rock, with a long-term goal to develop a full understanding of (and needed modeling capabilities to simulate) impacts of coupled processes on radionuclide transport in different components of EBS, as well as the interaction between near-field host rock (e.g., clay) and EBS and how they effect radionuclide release. This final report documents the progress that LBNL has made in its focus areas. Specifically, Section 2 summarizes progress on literature review for THMC processes and reactive-diffusive radionuclide transport in bentonite. The literature review provides a picture of the state-of-the-art of the relevant research areas

  5. Erosion and high temperature oxidation resistance of new coatings fabricated by a sol-gel route for a TBC application.

    OpenAIRE

    Viazzi, Céline; Wellman , Richard; Oquab, Djar; Nicholls, John; Monceau, Daniel; Bonino, Jean-Pierre; Ansart, Florence

    2008-01-01

    This paper examines the erosion and cyclic oxidation performance of novel thermal barrier coatings produced via the sol-gel route. The ceramic top coat, with a thickness of 5-80 m, was deposited via a sol-gel route onto standard MCrAlY and PtAl bond coats. In both the erosion and the cyclic oxidation tests it was found that the bond coat had a profound affect on the results. The erosion of the sol-gel coatings were compared to standard EB PVD and PS TBCs and were found to be significantly...

  6. The TT, TB, EB and BB correlations in anisotropic inflation

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Xingang; Firouzjahi, Hassan; Wang, Yi

    2014-01-01

    Recently the BICEP2 experiment has detected the B-mode in the CMB polarization map. The ongoing and future experiments will measure the B-mode from different sky coverage and frequency bands, with the potential to reveal non-trivial features in polarization map. In this work we study the TT, TB, EB and BB correlations associated with the B-mode polarization of CMB map in models of charged anisotropic inflation. The model contains a complex inflaton field which is charged under the $U(1)$ gauge. We calculate the statistical anisotropies generated in the power spectra of the curvature perturbation, the tensor perturbation and their cross-correlation. It is shown that the asymmetry in tensor power spectrum is a very sensitive probe of the gauge coupling. While the level of statistical anisotropy in temperature power spectrum can be small and satisfy the observational bounds, the interactions from the gauge coupling can induce large directional dependence in tensor modes. This will leave interesting anisotropic f...

  7. Near field and altered zone environmental report Volume I: technical bases for EBS design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilder, D. G., LLNL

    1997-08-01

    This report presents an updated summary of results for the waste package (WP) and engineered barrier system (EBS) evaluations, including materials testing, waste-form characterization, EBS performance assessments, and near-field environment (NFE) characterization. Materials testing, design criteria and concept development, and waste-form characterization all require an understanding of the environmental conditions that will interact with the WP and EBS. The Near-Field Environment Report (NFER) was identified in the Waste Package Plan (WPP) (Harrison- Giesler, 1991) as the formal means for transmitting and documenting this information.

  8. Gas and RRR Distribution in High Purity Niobium EB Welded in Ultra-High Vacuum.

    OpenAIRE

    Anakhov, S.; Singer, X.; W. Singer; Wen, H.

    2006-01-01

    Electron beam (EB) welding in UHV (ultra-high vacuum, 10(-5) divided by 10(-8) mbar) is applied in the standard fabrication of high gradient niobium superconducting radio frequency (SRF) cavities of TESLA design. The quality of EB welding is critical for cavity performance. Experimental data of gas content (H-2, O-2, N-2) and RRR (residual resistivity ratio) measurements in niobium (Nb) welding seams are presented. EB welding in UHV conditions allow to preserve low gas content (1 divided by 3...

  9. Evaluation of the PetrifilmTM EB and TEMPO® EB systems with ISO 21528-2:2004 method for the count of Enterobacteriaceae in milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andréia Cirolini

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The development of alternative microbiological techniques is driven by the necessity to meet the current needs to deliver rapid results in the manufacturing process of foods, but it is important that these methods be evaluated for each application. The objective of the present study was to assess the PetrifilmTM EB and the TEMPO® EB systems with ISO 21528-2:2004 for the count of Enterobacteriaceae in pasteurized and UHT milk samples. We analyzed the microflora of 141 pasteurized milk samples, 15 samples of artificially contaminated pasteurized milk and 15 samples of artificially contaminated UHT milk. Investigation of the method PetrifilmTM EB and ISO 21528:2 regression analysis showed a high correlation in the samples, r = 0.90 for the microflora of pasteurized milk, r = 0.98 for artificially contaminated pasteurized milk and r = 0.99 for the artificially contaminated UHT milk. In evaluating the system TEMPO EB ® method and ISO 21528:2 correlation was also significant in the analyzed samples, with r = 0.86 for the microflora of pasteurized milk, r = 0.96 for artificially contaminated pasteurized milk and r = 0.99 for artificially contaminated UHT milk. No statistically significant differences were observed between the three methods conducted to analyze artificially contaminated pasteurized and UHT milk at three inoculum levels. In conclusion, the PetrifilmTM EB system and the TEMPO® EB system may be an alternative to the ISO 21528-2:2004 for the Enterobacteriaceae assay for milk as because of the ease-of-operation and the time reduction achieved for conducting the microbiological assay using these systems.

  10. Towards energy efficient climate control in storage of tulip bulbs. Pilot EB-01; Naar een energiezuiniger klimaatbeheersing bij de bewaring van tulpenbollen. Praktijkproef EB-01

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gude, H.; Dijkema, M.

    2005-09-15

    The aim of this project is to enable energy conservation in the storage of tulip bulbs. To this end, it should be examined if the agent EB-01 (1-methylcycloprene, a protection agent for plants) can be used in practical cells that are not entirely leak proof and if it offers sufficient protection against ethylene damage [Dutch] Doel van dit project is om energiebesparing bij de bewaring van tulpenbollen mogelijk te maken. Om dat te realiseren wordt onderzocht of het middel EB-01 (1- methylcyclopropeen, een beschermingsmiddel voor planten) toepasbaar is in niet volledig lekdichte praktijkcellen en voldoende bescherming tegen ethyleenschade biedt.

  11. PVD Silicon Carbide as a Thin Film Packaging Technology for Antennas on LCP Substrates for Harsh Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scardelletti, Maximilian C.; Stanton, John W.; Ponchak, George E.; Jordan, Jennifer L.; Zorman, Christian A.

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes an effort to develop a thin film packaging technology for microfabricated planar antennas on polymeric substrates based on silicon carbide (SiC) films deposited by physical vapor deposition (PVD). The antennas are coplanar waveguide fed dual frequency folded slot antennas fabricated on liquid crystal polymer (LCP) substrates. The PVD SiC thin films were deposited directly onto the antennas by RF sputtering at room temperature at a chamber pressure of 30 mTorr and a power level of 300 W. The SiC film thickness is 450 nm. The return loss and radiation patterns were measured before and after the SiC-coated antennas were submerged into perchloric acid for 1 hour. No degradation in RF performance or physical integrity of the antenna was observed.

  12. Effects of Thermal Exposure on Structures of DD6 Single Crystal Superalloy with Thermal Barrier Coatings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DONG Jianmin

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available In order to investigate the effect of water grit-blasting and high temperature thermal exposure on the microstructures of DD6 alloy with TBCs, DD6 single crystal superalloy specimens were water grit-blasted with 0.3 MPa pressure, then the specimens were coated with thermal barrier coatings by electron beam physical vapor deposition (EB-PVD. Specimens with TBCs were exposed at 1100℃ for 50 and 100 hours in the air respectively, and then these specimens were subjected to stress-rupture tests under the condition of 1100℃/130 MPa. The results show that grit-blasting doesn't lead into the recrystallization, thermal exposure can induce element interdiffusion between the bond coat and alloy substrate, the residual stress and element diffusion lead into the changes of γ' phase coarsing direction. After stress rupture tests, the secondary reaction zone emerges into a local area.

  13. Substrate Effects on the High-Temperature Oxidation Behavior of Thermal Barrier Coatings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Limin He; Zhenhua Xu; Jianping Li; Rende Mu; Shimei He; Guanghong Huang

    2009-01-01

    The high-temperature oxidation behaviors of the NiCrAIYSi/P-YSZ thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) pro-duced by electron beam-physical vapor deposition (EB-PVD) on directionally solidified (DS) and single crys-talline (SC) Ni-based superalloy substrates were investigated. The cross-sectional microstructure investigation, isothermal and cyclic oxidation tests were conducted for the comparison of oxidation behaviors of TBCs on different substrates. Although TBC on DS substrate has a relatively higher oxidation rate, it has a longer thermal cycling lifetime than that on SC substrate. The primary factor for TBC spallation is the mismatch of thermal expansion coefficient (TEC) of the bond coat and substrate. The morphological feature of thermally grown oxide (TGO) has a strong influence on the TBC performance. By optimizing the elemental interdiffusion between bond coat and substrate, a high quality TGO layer is formed on the DS substrate, and therefore the TBC oxidation behavior is improved.

  14. Tribología de nuevas capas autolubricantes producidas mediante PVD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oñate, J. I.

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available MoS2 coatings, deposited by PVD show a low friction under vacuum conditions, but degrade easily under atmospheric conditions. This work describes the development of a new type of MoSx, coating, modified with WC. These coatings presented a very low and stable friction coefficient lower than 0.04 when tested under vacuum at 0.75 GPa in a ball on disc tribometer. Durability was higher than 1 million wear cycles, showing a wear rate of 1.3 10-16 m3/Nm. When tested under atmospheric conditions and up to 70 % RH, friction increased to 0.15 and durability reached a lower value of up to 3 x 105 cycles. Surface analyses in these coatings showed S/Mo ratios higher than 1.2 and with oxygen levels lower than 2 %, demonstrating the lubricant character of the coating.

    Las capas de MoS2 depositadas mediante PVD tienen baja fricción en vacío pero se degradan con facilidad al aire, especialmente en presencia de humedad. Este trabajo describe el desarrollo de nuevas capas de MoSx modificadas con WC. En ensayos de "bola sobre disco" a 0,75 GPa, las capas presentaron una fricción muy baja y estable (< 0,04 en vacío. Se obtuvo una durabilidad superior a 1 millón de ciclos, mostrando un desgaste de 1,3 x 10-16 m3/Nm, mejorado respecto a otras capas de MoSx. El coeficiente de fricción aumentó a 0,15 y la durabilidad disminuyó hasta 1 a 3 x 105 ciclos en aire hasta 70 % HR. El análisis superficial mostró ratios de S/Mo superiores a 1,2, con menos del 2 % de oxígeno, demostrando carácter lubricante.

  15. Nord ja EBS tahavad liituda Tallinna Ülikooliga / Igor Taro, Anu Mõistlik

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Taro, Igor

    2001-01-01

    Erakõrgkoolid Akadeemia Nord ja EBS loodavad järgmisel õppeaastal saada allasutusteks Tallinna Ülikoolis, mida on asunud looma Tallinna Pedagoogikaülikool, Eesti Kunstiakadeemia ja Eesti Humanitaarinstituut

  16. E.B. Forsythe National Wildlife Refuge : Annual narrative report : Calendar year 1989

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for E.B. Forsythe National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1989 calendar year. The report begins with a...

  17. E.B. Forsythe National Wildlife Refuge : Annual narrative report : Calendar year 1991

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for E.B. Forsythe National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1991 calendar year. The report begins with a...

  18. E.B. Forsythe National Wildlife Refuge : Annual narrative report : Calendar year 1992

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for E.B. Forsythe National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1992 calendar year. The report begins with a...

  19. Gas and RRR distribution in high purity Niobium EB welded in Ultra-High Vacuum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anakhov, S.; Singer, X.; Singer, W.; Wen, H.

    2006-05-01

    Electron beam (EB) welding in UHV (ultra-high vacuum, 10-5÷10-8 mbar) is applied in the standard fabrication of high gradient niobium superconducting radio frequency (SRF) cavities of TESLA design. The quality of EB welding is critical for cavity performance. Experimental data of gas content (H2, O2, N2) and RRR (residual resistivity ratio) measurements in niobium (Nb) welding seams are presented. EB welding in UHV conditions allow to preserve low gas content (1÷3 wt. ppm hydrogen and 5÷7 ppm oxygen and nitrogen), essential for high values of RRR — 350÷400 units. Gas content redistribution in the electron beam welded and heat affected region take place in the welding process. Correlation between gas solubility parameters, RRR and thermal conductivity are presented. Mechanisms of gas solubility in EB welding process are discussed.

  20. E.B. Forsythe National Wildlife Refuge : Annual narrative report : Calendar year 1990

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for E.B. Forsythe National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1990 calendar year. The report begins with a...

  1. Nord ja EBS tahavad liituda Tallinna Ülikooliga / Igor Taro, Anu Mõistlik

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Taro, Igor

    2001-01-01

    Erakõrgkoolid Akadeemia Nord ja EBS loodavad järgmisel õppeaastal saada allasutusteks Tallinna Ülikoolis, mida on asunud looma Tallinna Pedagoogikaülikool, Eesti Kunstiakadeemia ja Eesti Humanitaarinstituut

  2. Development of a PVD-based manufacturing process of monolithic LEU irradiation targets for {sup 99}Mo production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hollmer, Tobias

    2015-08-03

    {sup 99}Mo is the most important radioisotope in nuclear medicine. It is produced by fission of uranium in irradiation targets. The usage of cylindrical monolithic targets can ensure a safe supply of {sup 99}Mo and at the same reduce the amount of highly radioactive waste generated during production. To manufacture these targets, a novel PVD-based technique was developed. Both the feasibility and the high efficiency of this process were demonstrated in a prototype apparatus.

  3. Disposal systems evaluations and tool development : Engineered Barrier System (EBS) evaluation.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rutqvist, Jonny (LBNL); Liu, Hui-Hai (LBNL); Steefel, Carl I. (LBNL); Serrano de Caro, M. A. (LLNL); Caporuscio, Florie Andre (LANL); Birkholzer, Jens T. (LBNL); Blink, James A. (LLNL); Sutton, Mark A. (LLNL); Xu, Hongwu (LANL); Buscheck, Thomas A. (LLNL); Levy, Schon S. (LANL); Tsang, Chin-Fu (LBNL); Sonnenthal, Eric (LBNL); Halsey, William G. (LLNL); Jove-Colon, Carlos F.; Wolery, Thomas J. (LLNL)

    2011-01-01

    Key components of the nuclear fuel cycle are short-term storage and long-term disposal of nuclear waste. The latter encompasses the immobilization of used nuclear fuel (UNF) and radioactive waste streams generated by various phases of the nuclear fuel cycle, and the safe and permanent disposition of these waste forms in geological repository environments. The engineered barrier system (EBS) plays a very important role in the long-term isolation of nuclear waste in geological repository environments. EBS concepts and their interactions with the natural barrier are inherently important to the long-term performance assessment of the safety case where nuclear waste disposition needs to be evaluated for time periods of up to one million years. Making the safety case needed in the decision-making process for the recommendation and the eventual embracement of a disposal system concept requires a multi-faceted integration of knowledge and evidence-gathering to demonstrate the required confidence level in a deep geological disposal site and to evaluate long-term repository performance. The focus of this report is the following: (1) Evaluation of EBS in long-term disposal systems in deep geologic environments with emphasis on the multi-barrier concept; (2) Evaluation of key parameters in the characterization of EBS performance; (3) Identification of key knowledge gaps and uncertainties; and (4) Evaluation of tools and modeling approaches for EBS processes and performance. The above topics will be evaluated through the analysis of the following: (1) Overview of EBS concepts for various NW disposal systems; (2) Natural and man-made analogs, room chemistry, hydrochemistry of deep subsurface environments, and EBS material stability in near-field environments; (3) Reactive Transport and Coupled Thermal-Hydrological-Mechanical-Chemical (THMC) processes in EBS; and (4) Thermal analysis toolkit, metallic barrier degradation mode survey, and development of a Disposal Systems

  4. Complete genome sequence of "Thioalkalivibrio sulfidophilus" HL-EbGr7.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muyzer, Gerard; Sorokin, Dimitry Yu; Mavromatis, Konstantinos; Lapidus, Alla; Clum, Alicia; Ivanova, Natalia; Pati, Amrita; d'Haeseleer, Patrick; Woyke, Tanja; Kyrpides, Nikos C

    2011-02-14

    "Thioalkalivibrio sulfidophilus" HL-EbGr7 is an obligately chemolithoautotrophic, haloalkaliphilic sulfur-oxidizing bacterium (SOB) belonging to the Gammaproteobacteria. The strain was found to predominate a full-scale bioreactor, removing sulfide from biogas. Here we report the complete genome sequence of strain HL-EbGr7 and its annotation. The genome was sequenced within the Joint Genome Institute Community Sequencing Program, because of its relevance to the sustainable removal of sulfide from bio- and industrial waste gases.

  5. Blending effect of poly (ethyl methacrylate) on lithium bis(perfluoroethanesulfonyl) imide-ferroceramic PVdF-HFP composite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vickraman, P.; Jayaraman, R.; Purushothaman, K.

    2013-06-01

    PEMA as a supportive host matrix is physically blended in five different proportions with PVdF-HFP based system containing LiBETI as a electrolyte, EC / DMC mixture in 1:1 v/v ratio as a plasticizer and BaTiO3 as a filler for improving ionic conductivity is attempted. The A.C impedance, DSC, and FTIR studies are carried out. The ionic conductivity measurements on these Polymer Blend Nano Composites(PBNC) showed that blending improved ionic conductivity, and enhancement in magnitude is observed for 22.5% PEMA blended PVdF-HFP (7.5 wt%) system with 7.5% BaTiO3. The DSC showed PEMA interaction with PVDF causing reorientation of VDF crystals and resulting conformational changes showed variations in melting endotherms, are observed. FTIR studies identified PEMA interaction with plasticizer and PVdF-HFP through the change in the C-F stretching and C=O Carbonyl bond.

  6. Optimization of hybrid polymer electrolytes with the effect of lithium salt concentration in PEO/PVdF-HFP blends

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pradeepa, P.; Edwin raj, S.; Sowmya, G.; Kalaiselvimary, J.; Ramesh Prabhu, M., E-mail: mkram83@gmail.com

    2016-03-15

    Highlights: • Polymer blends based on PVdF-HFP/PEO were prepared for Li-ion battery applications. • Structural and electrochemical studies were carried out on prepared electrolytes. • The electrolytes can be used as electrolyte in the possible device fabrications. - Abstract: Poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) 6.25 wt%/poly(vinylidene fluoride-co-hexafluoropropylene) [P(VdF-HFP)] 18.75 wt% blend based electrolyte films containing different concentrations (2–10) wt% of lithium salt were prepared. The miscibility studies have been performed by using X-ray diffraction and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The role of interaction between polymer hosts on conductivity is discussed using the results of a.c. impedance studies. A room temperature conductivity of 2.3912 × 10{sup −4} S cm{sup −1} has been obtained for PEO (6.25)–PVdF-HFP (18.75)–LiClO{sub 4} (8)–PC (67) polymer complex. The temperature dependence of the conductivity of polymer electrolyte seems to obey VTF relation. Electrochemical stability (3.3 V) was observed in the prepared polymer electrolyte. Reduction process and oxidation process of the prepared electrolyte system have also been evaluated by means of cyclic voltammetry. Thermogravimetric analysis results indicate thermal stability of PEO/PVdF-HFP lithium salt complexes. Roughness parameter of the sample having maximum ionic conductivity was studied by AFM. The morphology of the polymer complex is investigated by using SEM.

  7. The Leber congenital amaurosis protein AIPL1 and EB proteins co-localize at the photoreceptor cilium.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Hidalgo-de-Quintana

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the interaction and co-localization of novel interacting proteins with the Leber congenital amaurosis (LCA associated protein aryl hydrocarbon receptor interacting protein-like 1 (AIPL1.The CytoTrapXR yeast two-hybrid system was used to screen a bovine retinal cDNA library. A novel interaction between AIPL1 and members of the family of EB proteins was confirmed by directed yeast two-hybrid analysis and co-immunoprecipitation assays. The localization of AIPL1 and the EB proteins in cultured cells and in retinal cryosections was examined by immunofluorescence microscopy and cryo-immunogold electron microscopy.Yeast two-hybrid (Y2H analysis identified the interaction between AIPL1 and the EB proteins, EB1 and EB3. EB1 and EB3 were specifically co-immunoprecipitated with AIPL1 from SK-N-SH neuroblastoma cells. In directed 1:1 Y2H analysis, the interaction of EB1 with AIPL1 harbouring the LCA-causing mutations A197P, C239R and W278X was severely compromised. Immunofluorescent confocal microscopy revealed that AIPL1 did not co-localize with endogenous EB1 at the tips of microtubules, endogenous EB1 at the microtubule organising centre following disruption of the microtubule network, or with endogenous β-tubulin. Moreover, AIPL1 did not localize to primary cilia in ARPE-19 cells, whereas EB1 co-localized with the centrosomal marker pericentrin at the base of primary cilia. However, both AIPL1 and the EB proteins, EB1 and EB3, co-localized with centrin-3 in the connecting cilium of photoreceptor cells. Cryo-immunogold electron microscopy confirmed the co-localization of AIPL1 and EB1 in the connecting cilia in human retinal photoreceptors.AIPL1 and the EB proteins, EB1 and EB3, localize at the connecting cilia of retinal photoreceptor cells, but do not co-localize in the cellular microtubule network or in primary cilia in non-retinal cells. These findings suggest that AIPL1 function in these cells is not related

  8. Evaluation of Osseous Integration of PVD-Silver-Coated Hip Prostheses in a Canine Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregor Hauschild

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Infection associated with biomaterials used for orthopedic prostheses remains a serious complication in orthopedics, especially tumor surgery. Silver-coating of orthopedic (megaprostheses proved its efficiency in reducing infections but has been limited to surface areas exposed to soft tissues due to concerns of silver inhibiting osseous integration of cementless stems. To close this gap in the bactericidal capacity of silver-coated orthopedic prostheses extension of the silver-coating on surface areas intended for osseous integration seems to be inevitable. Our study reports about a PVD- (physical-vapor-deposition- silver-coated cementless stem in a canine model for the first time and showed osseous integration of a silver-coated titanium surface in vivo. Radiological, histological, and biomechanical analysis revealed a stable osseous integration of four of nine stems implanted. Silver trace elemental concentrations in serum did not exceed 1.82 parts per billion (ppb and can be considered as nontoxic. Changes in liver and kidney functions associated with the silver-coating could be excluded by blood chemistry analysis. This was in accordance with very limited metal displacement from coated surfaces observed by laser ablation inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS 12 months after implantation. In conclusion our results represent a step towards complete bactericidal silver-coating of orthopedic prostheses.

  9. Ionic liquid-polymer gel electrolytes based on morpholinium salt and PVdF(HFP) copolymer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Ki-Sub; Park, Seung-Yeob; Choi, Sukjeong; Lee, Huen [Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, 373-1 Guseong-dong, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-701 (Korea, Republic of)

    2006-04-21

    New ionic liquid-polymer gel electrolytes (IPGEs) are prepared from N-ethyl-N-methylmorpholinium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide (Mor{sub 1,2}TFSI) and poly(vinylidene fluoride)-hexafluoropropylene copolymer (PVdF(HFP)). To investigate the effect of propylene carbonate (PC) on the ionic conductivity of the IPGEs, the preparation methods are roughly divided into two groups according to the presence or absence of PC. The ionic conductivity for each IPGE is measured with increasing temperature and changing weight ratio of Mor{sub 1,2}TFSI. The results show that the ionic conductivity increases as the temperature and weight ratio of the Mor{sub 1,2}TFSI increase, and that the added PC improves the ionic conductivity of the IPGEs. In addition, thermogravimetric analysis and the data from infrared spectroscopy demonstrate the thermal stability of each IPGE and the presence of PC in the polymer network. Although the IPGEs that contain PC display high conductivity ({approx}1.1x10{sup -2}Scm{sup -1}) at 60{sup o}C, they are thermally unstable. (author)

  10. N-Butyl-N-methylmorpholinium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide-PVdF(HFP) gel electrolytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Ki-Sub; Park, Seung-Yeob; Yeon, Sun-Hwa; Lee, Huen [Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, 373-1 Guseong-dong, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-701 (Korea)

    2005-09-30

    Ionic liquid-polymer gels were prepared by incorporating N-butyl-N-methylmorpholinium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide (Mor{sub 1,4}TFSI) and poly(vinylidene fluoride)-hexafluoropropylene copolymer (PVdF(HFP)) using three different methods in order to observe the variation of ionic conductivities according to the presence of propylene carbonate (PC) and various weight ratios between Mor{sub 1,4}TFSI and gel polymer electrolyte (GPE). Ionic conductivities for each gel polymer electrolyte were measured with increasing temperature. Ionic conductivities of the GPEs increased with increasing temperature and weight ratio of Mor{sub 1,4}TFSI. In addition, the addition of PC into GPE led to the improvement of ionic conductivities. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) showed the suggested gel polymer electrolytes composed of only ionic liquid and polymer were stable up to approximately 400 C. TGA and infrared spectroscopy data indicated that residual PC remains after evaporating PC in a vacuum oven, which did not affect the ionic conductivities. The GPEs containing PC displayed high conductivity (ca. 10{sup -2} S cm{sup -1}) at 60 C. (author)

  11. Active soft solder deposition by magnetron-sputter-ion-plating (MSIP)-PVD-process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lugscheider, E.; Bobzin, K.; Erdle, A

    2004-01-30

    In different technical areas micro electro mechanical systems (M.E.M.S.), e.g. micro pumps, micro sensors, actuators and micro dosage systems are in use today. The components of these M.E.M.S. consist of various materials, which have to be joined. To join materials like ceramics, plastics or metals to a hybrid M.E.M.S., established joining technologies have to be adjusted. For the assembling and mounting of temperature sensible micro components, a low temperature joining process, e.g. transient liquid phase (TLP) bonding or an active soft soldering process can be performed. In this article the deposition of a low melting active soft solder by magnetron-sputter (MS)-PVD deposition with an active substrate cooling will be presented. The substrate temperatures were set and controlled by an additional cooling unit, which was integrated into the sputtering facility. In the performed experiments a substrate temperature range from -40 to +20 deg. C was investigated. The effects of these different substrate temperatures to the microstructure and the soldering suitability of the solder system were investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), nanoindentation and soldering tests. The chemical composition of the deposited solder systems was examined by glow discharge optical spectroscopy (GDOS)-analysis. As a suitable substrate temperature range for deposition -10 to -20 deg. C was detected. Solder systems deposited in this temperature range showed good solder abilities.

  12. Tweedracht maakt macht. De PvdA, de doorbraak en de ontluikende polarisatiestrategie (1946-1966

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Mellink

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Divide and Rule: The Dutch Labour Party (PvdA, the Breakthrough and the Emerging Polarisation Strategy (1946-1966In 1966, after a lengthy debate in the Dutch parliament, the Cals cabinet came to a sudden end. As a motion proposed by Norbert Schmelzer, the parliamentary leader of the prime minister’s own Catholic party precipitated the cabinet’s fall, ‘Schmelzer’s Night’ received an iconic status in Dutch political history. Many historians have interpreted Schmelzer’s Night as the birth of a Social Democratic ‘polarisation strategy’: differences between Left and Right were exaggerated in order to divide the confessional parties along ideological lines. Established analyses ascribe the development of this polarisation strategy to the ascendancy of a younger generation in Dutch politics. This article argues instead that the polarisation strategy of the late 1960s was not so much caused by a new generation, but rather emerged as a consequence of postwar Social Democrats’ efforts to abolish pillarisation (verzuiling in Dutch society.

  13. Performance of PVD-Coated Carbide Tools When Turning Inconel 718 in Dry Machining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gusri Akhyar Ibrahim

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Inconel 718 has found its niche in many industries, owing to its unique properties such as high oxidation resistance and corrosion resistance even at very high temperatures. Coated carbide tool with hard layer of PVD TiAlN is used to turn Inconel 718. Taguchi method with the orthogonal array L9 is applied in this experiment with the parameter cutting speed of 60–80 m/min, feed rate of 0.2–0.3 mm/rev, and depth of cut of 0.3–0.5 mm. The results show that depth of cut is a significant influence to the tool life. Cutting speed of 60 m/min, feed rate of 0.2 mm/rev, and depth of cut of 0.3 mm are the optimum parameters. The flank wear, crater wear, notch wear, and nose wear are the wear mechanisms on the carbide tool. Through the SEM, abrasion, attrition, and adhesion are the wear mechanisms which can be seen on the cutting tool.

  14. Surface Roughness Prediction Model in Machining of Carbon Steel by PVD Coated Cutting Tools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusuf Sahin

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The surface roughness model in the turning of AISI 1040 carbon steel was developed in terms of cutting speed, feed rate and depth of cut using response surface methodology. Machining tests were carried out using PVD-coated tools under different cutting conditions. The surface roughness equations of cutting tools when machining the carbon steels were achieved by using the experimental data. The results are presented in terms of mean values and confidence levels. The established equation shows that the feed rate was found to be a main influencing factor on the surface roughness. It increased with increasing the feed rate, but decreased with increasing the cutting speed and the depth of cut, respectively. The variance analysis for the second-order model shows that the interaction terms and the square terms were statically insignificant. However, it could be seen that the first-order effect of feed rate was significant while cutting speed and depth of cut was insignificant. The predicted surface roughness of the samples was found to lie close to that of the experimentally observed ones with 95% confident intervals.

  15. Investigation of hard gradient PVD (Ti,Al,SiN coating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.A. Dobrzański

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Investigation of gradient coating of (Ti,Al,SiN deposited on the Al2O3+SiC(woxide ceramics substrate by cathodic arc evaporation CAE-PVD method.Design/methodology/approach: Structure of substrate and coating was investigated with use of scanning electron microscopy (SEM. The X-Ray Photoelectron Spectrometry (XPS examination was carried out for proving the gradient character of the (Ti,Al,SiN coating. The investigation includes also microhardness and roughness tests of the deposited coating and used substrate; The Ra surface roughness parameter measurements were made on confocal microscope.Findings: Gradient structure and main properties of the investigated materials were introduced. It has been stated, that properties of the oxide tool ceramic with gradient (Ti,Al,SiN coating increase in comparison with uncoated material.Practical implications: Depositing the wear resistant gradient coating onto the Al2O3+SiC(woxide tool ceramic results in a significant increase of the surface layer microhardness, contributing most probably in this way in machining to the decrease of the wear intensity of cutting tools’ flanks made from the Al2O3+SiC(woxide tool ceramic.Originality/value: Functionally gradient coating form is a new class of structures in which the microstructure and properties vary gradually from the surface to the interior of the material.

  16. Tweedracht maakt macht. De PvdA, de doorbraak en de ontluikende polarisatiestrategie (1946-1966

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Mellink

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Divide and Rule: The Dutch Labour Party (PvdA, the Breakthrough and the Emerging Polarisation Strategy (1946-1966In 1966, after a lengthy debate in the Dutch parliament, the Cals cabinet came to a sudden end. As a motion proposed by Norbert Schmelzer, the parliamentary leader of the prime minister’s own Catholic party precipitated the cabinet’s fall, ‘Schmelzer’s Night’ received an iconic status in Dutch political history. Many historians have interpreted Schmelzer’s Night as the birth of a Social Democratic ‘polarisation strategy’: differences between Left and Right were exaggerated in order to divide the confessional parties along ideological lines. Established analyses ascribe the development of this polarisation strategy to the ascendancy of a younger generation in Dutch politics. This article argues instead that the polarisation strategy of the late 1960s was not so much caused by a new generation, but rather emerged as a consequence of postwar Social Democrats’ efforts to abolish pillarisation (verzuiling in Dutch society.

  17. Analysis and Research of E-commerce Platform Based on ebXML%基于ebXML的电子商务平台分析与研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    阮梦黎

    2009-01-01

    ebXML是由UN/CEFACT和OASIS共同倡导、全球参与开发和使用的一组支持模块化电子商务框架的规范,是基于XML的,它的目标是提供一种全球化的、开放的、基于XML的架构,使不同企业规模的用户之间的电子商务交换能够成功、安全和可靠地进行.本文以ebXML的体系结构及其在电子商务中的应用为主题进行分析和研究.%ebXML,based on XML, is a group of rules which is advocated coordinately by UN/CEFACT and OASIS and explored and used globally. Its taget is to provide a global and open framework based on XML which can enable different users of different enterprise scale to exchange e-commerce successfully, safely and reliably. This thesis mainly analyse and study the framework of ebXML and its application in e-commerce.

  18. EB1089抑制肝癌细胞增殖的研究%Regulatory mechanism of EB1089 for hepatocarcinoma cell proliferation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    骆文静; 陈景元; 张雪萍; 王文亮; 陈耀明; 赵芳

    2004-01-01

    目的探讨维生素D类似物EB1089对肝癌细胞增殖的可能机制.方法体外培养了肝癌细胞株HHCC细胞,培养时添加10、10和1nmol/LEB1089分别作用2d、4d、6d后,用四唑蓝比色实验(MTT)、平板克隆形成实验检测细胞的存活和生长;用电子显微镜和流式细胞仪方法检测细胞凋亡;用Wester blot方法检测蛋白的表达.结果EB1089可以抑制肝癌细胞增殖(抑制率为17.50%~72.14%),诱导肝癌细胞发生凋亡.10nmol/L EB1089作用肝癌细胞4d可使p27kipl和PTEN蛋白表达增加.结论EB1089对于人肝癌细胞的增殖具有抑制作用,能机诱导肝癌细胞凋亡,增加肝癌细胞中p27kipl和PTEN蛋白的表达.

  19. Application of advanced 100-kV EB writer EB-X3 for 100-nm node x-ray mask fabrication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Hiroshi; Nakayama, Yoshinori; Tsuboi, Shinji; Ezaki, Mizunori; Aoyama, Hajime; Matsui, Yasuji; Morosawa, Tetsuo; Oda, Masatoshi

    2001-08-01

    Most important issues in a precise X-ray mask fabrication are the mask materials and EB writing to achieve good accuracy in critical dimension (CD) control and image placement (IP). However, 1-to-1 X-ray mask is required severe accuracy in comparison with photo reticles. The following discussions focus on how to realize the precise IP accuracy. We installed and evaluated 100-kV electron-beam (EB) mask writer (EB-X3), and developed the writing process on a thin membrane. Key factors in accurate EB mask writing include not only EB positioning accuracy but also mask distortions caused by mask holding and the temperature change of the mask and a mask holder. This paper presents mask distortion characteristics due to the holding, temperature change, and then, good results of mask accuracy of 4-Gb dynamic random access memory (DRAM) test patterns (gate and contact layers) and 90 nm SRAM test patterns. In addition, we employed the advanced PAT method with 4-multi-pass writing that adequately compensates the process-induced mask distortion and the beam drift. These improvements resulted in IP accuracy of better than 10 nm (3(sigma) ), 100 nm CD uniformity within 8 nm (mean shift +/- 3(sigma) ) and the overlay accuracy within 10 nm for 4-Gb gate and contact layers with a 24 mm x 24 mm area on the X-ray membrane mask. These results demonstrate that we can actually fabricate precise X-ray membrane masks that meet our final target of IP accuracy corresponding to the 100 nm technology node.

  20. Caracterización microestructural y mecánica de barreras térmicas por APS y EB-PVD degradadas por fatiga térmica y mecánica

    OpenAIRE

    Armengol, Suzanne

    2006-01-01

    Las superaleaciones de inconel con recubrimientos de barrera térmica generalmente se utilizan en el área aeroespacial para álabes de turbina de aviones. Durante servicio, la aleación se expone a temperaturas muy altas lo que puede implicar una degradación en sus propiedades. Por ello, se impusieron los sistemas TBC que constan en un conjunto de tres capas, el sustrato, la capa de unión “bond coat” y los recubrimientos de barrera térmica generalmente compuestos de circona estabi...

  1. Single photon detection and localization accuracy with an ebCMOS camera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cajgfinger, T.; Dominjon, A.; Barbier, R.

    2015-07-01

    The CMOS sensor technologies evolve very fast and offer today very promising solutions to existing issues facing by imaging camera systems. CMOS sensors are very attractive for fast and sensitive imaging thanks to their low pixel noise (1e-) and their possibility of backside illumination. The ebCMOS group of IPNL has produced a camera system dedicated to Low Light Level detection and based on a 640 kPixels ebCMOS with its acquisition system. After reminding the principle of detection of an ebCMOS and the characteristics of our prototype, we confront our camera to other imaging systems. We compare the identification efficiency and the localization accuracy of a point source by four different photo-detection devices: the scientific CMOS (sCMOS), the Charge Coupled Device (CDD), the Electron Multiplying CCD (emCCD) and the Electron Bombarded CMOS (ebCMOS). Our ebCMOS camera is able to identify a single photon source in less than 10 ms with a localization accuracy better than 1 μm. We report as well efficiency measurement and the false positive identification of the ebCMOS camera by identifying more than hundreds of single photon sources in parallel. About 700 spots are identified with a detection efficiency higher than 90% and a false positive percentage lower than 5. With these measurements, we show that our target tracking algorithm can be implemented in real time at 500 frames per second under a photon flux of the order of 8000 photons per frame. These results demonstrate that the ebCMOS camera concept with its single photon detection and target tracking algorithm is one of the best devices for low light and fast applications such as bioluminescence imaging, quantum dots tracking or adaptive optics.

  2. Single photon detection and localization accuracy with an ebCMOS camera

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cajgfinger, T. [CNRS/IN2P3, Institut de Physique Nucléaire de Lyon, Villeurbanne F-69622 (France); Dominjon, A., E-mail: agnes.dominjon@nao.ac.jp [Université de Lyon, Université de Lyon 1, Lyon 69003 France. (France); Barbier, R. [CNRS/IN2P3, Institut de Physique Nucléaire de Lyon, Villeurbanne F-69622 (France); Université de Lyon, Université de Lyon 1, Lyon 69003 France. (France)

    2015-07-01

    The CMOS sensor technologies evolve very fast and offer today very promising solutions to existing issues facing by imaging camera systems. CMOS sensors are very attractive for fast and sensitive imaging thanks to their low pixel noise (1e-) and their possibility of backside illumination. The ebCMOS group of IPNL has produced a camera system dedicated to Low Light Level detection and based on a 640 kPixels ebCMOS with its acquisition system. After reminding the principle of detection of an ebCMOS and the characteristics of our prototype, we confront our camera to other imaging systems. We compare the identification efficiency and the localization accuracy of a point source by four different photo-detection devices: the scientific CMOS (sCMOS), the Charge Coupled Device (CDD), the Electron Multiplying CCD (emCCD) and the Electron Bombarded CMOS (ebCMOS). Our ebCMOS camera is able to identify a single photon source in less than 10 ms with a localization accuracy better than 1 µm. We report as well efficiency measurement and the false positive identification of the ebCMOS camera by identifying more than hundreds of single photon sources in parallel. About 700 spots are identified with a detection efficiency higher than 90% and a false positive percentage lower than 5. With these measurements, we show that our target tracking algorithm can be implemented in real time at 500 frames per second under a photon flux of the order of 8000 photons per frame. These results demonstrate that the ebCMOS camera concept with its single photon detection and target tracking algorithm is one of the best devices for low light and fast applications such as bioluminescence imaging, quantum dots tracking or adaptive optics.

  3. Plasma thermal performance of a dual-process PVD/PS tungsten coating on carbon-based panels for nuclear fusion application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hyunmyung; Lee, Ho Jung; Kim, Sung Hwan; Jang, Changheui, E-mail: chjang@kaist.ac.kr

    2016-11-01

    Highlights: • Plasma thermal performance of a dual-process PVD/PS W coating was evaluated. • Steady-state heat fluxes of 1–3 MW/m{sup 2} were applied to the W coated specimens. • Less micro-pores and grain growth were observed for the dual-process coating. • Loss of coating thickness was observed for the simple PS W coating. • Dual-process PVD/PS W coating was resistant to erosion due to the surface PVD layer. - Abstract: Various tungsten (W) coating techniques have been used for the application of plasma facing material in nuclear fusion devices, which resulted in limited success. In this study, a dual-process W coating structure was developed on a graphite substrate to improve the thermal performance of the coating structure. The dual-process coating structure consisted of a thin (∼7 μm) multilayer W/Mo physical vapor deposition (PVD) coating layer deposited on top of the relatively thick (∼160 μm) plasma spray (PS) W coating on a graphite substrate panel. Then the coated sample was exposed to plasma heat flux of 1–3 MW/m{sup 2} for 300 s. With addition of a thin surface PVD coating layer, the microstructure change in underlying PS W coating was substantially reduced compared to the simple PS W coating structure. The thickness of overall coating structure was maintained for the dual-process PVD/PS coated samples after the thermal loading tests, while a significant reduction in thickness due to surface erosion was observed for the simple PS W coated samples. The improvement in surface erosion resistance in the dual-process coating structure was discussed in view of the characteristics of PVD and PS coating layers.

  4. CrCuAgN PVD nanocomposite coatings: Effects of annealing on coating morphology and nanostructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xingguang; Iamvasant, Chanon; Liu, Chang; Matthews, Allan; Leyland, Adrian

    2017-01-01

    CrCuAgN PVD nanocomposite coatings were produced using pulsed DC unbalanced magnetron sputtering. This investigation focuses on the effects of post-coat annealing on the surface morphology, phase composition and nanostructure of such coatings. In coatings with nitrogen contents up to 16 at.%, chromium exists as metallic Cr with N in supersaturated solid solution, even after 300 °C and 500 °C post-coat annealing. Annealing at 300 °C did not obviously change the phase composition of both nitrogen-free and nitrogen-containing coatings; however, 500 °C annealing resulted in significant transformation of the nitrogen-containing coatings. The formation of Ag aggregates relates to the (Cu + Ag)/Cr atomic ratio (threshold around 0.2), whereas the formation of Cu aggregates relates to the (Cu + Ag + N)/Cr atomic ratio (threshold around 0.5). The primary annealing-induced changes were reduced solubility of Cu, Ag and N in Cr, and the composition altering from a mixed ultra-fine nanocrystalline and partly amorphous phase constitution to a coarser, but still largely nanocrystalline structure. It was also found that, with sufficient Cu content (>12 at.%), annealing at a moderately high temperature (e.g. 500 °C) leads to transportation of both Cu and Ag (even at relatively low concentrations of Ag, ≤3 at.%) from inside the coating to the coating surface, which resulted in significant reductions in friction coefficient, by over 50% compared to that of the substrate (from 0.31 to 0.14 with a hemispherical diamond indenter, and from 0.83 to 0.40 with an alumina ball counterface, respectively). Results indicate that the addition of both Cu and Ag (in appropriate concentrations) to nitrogen-containing chromium is a viable strategy for the development of 'self-replenishing' silver-containing thin film architectures for temperature-dependent solid lubrication requirements or antimicrobial coating applications.

  5. Comparative Study of the PVD Coatings on the Plasma Nitrided Steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrei SURZHENKOV

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available In the current study, the cracking, impact and sliding wear resistance of the PVD single layer TiN (I generation, multilayer (Ti,AlN-ML (II generation, gradient (Al,TiN-G and multilayer nanocomposite FiVIc® (both – III generation coatings on the nitrided low alloy steel 42CrMo4 are analysed. The cyclic indentation test (normal load 50 N, 10 000 cycles was carried out to determine the cracking resistance of the coatings. Impact wear test was performed at the normal load 16 N, strokes’ frequency 25 Hz, 104 – 107 strokes. Sliding wear test was applied, using the block-on-plate scheme, Ø 10 mm Al2O3 ball as the counterbody, at the normal load of 10 N, the frequency 5 Hz, the amplitude 10 mm and the test duration 10 min. Best resistance to cracks’ formation is demonstrated by the gradient (Al,TiN-G coating, showing medium radial cracks’ formation, whereas delamination of the coating can be observed in other cases. 1.6 – 1.7 times higher impact wear resistance is shown by the TiN coating in comparison with the other coatings. The FiVIc® coating demonstrates lightly better resistance to sliding wear in comparison with the TiN and (Ti,AlN-ML coatings due to a lower coefficient of friction. The worst sliding wear resistance is observed in the case of the (Al,TiN-G coating due to a high affinity of the coating’s and counterbody’s materials.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.ms.18.1.1339

  6. Effect of Annealing Temperature on the Water Contact Angle of PVD Hard Coatings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Sen Yang

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Various PVD (physical vapor deposition hard coatings including nitrides and metal-doped diamond-like carbons (Me-DLC were applied in plastic injection and die-casting molds to improve wear resistance and reduce sticking. In this study, nitrides hcp-AlN (hexagonal close-packed AlN, Cr2N, (CrAl2N and Me-DLC (Si-DLC and Cr-DLC coatings were prepared using a closed field unbalanced magnetron reactive sputtering system. The coatings were annealed in air for 2 h at various temperatures, after which the anti-sticking properties were assessed using water contact angle (WCA measurements. The as-deposited hcp-AlN, Cr2N and (CrAl2N coatings exhibit hydrophobic behavior and exhibit respective WCAs of 119°, 106° and 101°. The as-deposited Si-DLC and Cr-DLC coatings exhibit hydrophilic behavior and exhibit respective WCAs of 74° and 88°. The annealed Cr2N and (CrAl2N coatings exhibit hydrophobic behavior with higher WCAs, while the annealed hcp-AlN, Si-DLC and Cr-DLC coatings are hydrophilic. The increased WCA of the annealed Cr2N and (CrAl2N coatings is related to their crystal structure and increased roughness. The decreased WCA of the annealed hcp-AlN, Si-DLC and Cr-DLC coatings is related to their crystal structures and has little correlation with roughness.

  7. Vanadium Alloyed PVD CrAlN Coatings for Friction Reduction in Metal Forming Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Bobzin

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Hard coatings deposited on forming tools are used to improve the forming process and to increase tool life. The decrease of tool wear and reduction of friction are the main motivations for the development of self-lubricating coatings for forming applications at elevated temperatures. In the present study (Cr,Al,VN (Physical Vapour Deposition coatings with 5, 11 and 20 at % vanadium were deposited via a combination of HPPMS (High Power Pulse Magnetron Sputtering technology and direct current (DC Magnetron Sputter Ion Plating (MSIP PVD. The hardness and Young’s Modulus of the coatings were investigated by nanoidentation. Furthermore, high temperature Pin-on-Disk (PoD tribometer measurements against Ck15 (AISI 1015 were realized at different temperatures and compared with a (Cr,AlN reference hard coating. The samples were analyzed by means of SEM (Scanning Electron Microscopy and XRD (X-Ray Diffraction measurements after Pin-on-Disk (PoD tests. Moreover TEM (Transmission Electron Microscopy analyses were carried out after 4 h annealing at 800 °C in ambient air to investigate the diffusion of vanadium to the coating surface. The tribological results at 800 °C show no improvement of the friction coefficient for the pure (Cr,AlN coating and for the layer with 5 at % V. A time-dependent decrease of the friction coefficient was achieved for the coatings with 11 at % V (µ=0.4 and 20 at % V (µ=0.4 at 800 °C.

  8. Detecting Thermal Barrier Coating Delamination Using Visible and Near-Infrared Luminescence from Erbium-Doped Sublayers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eldridge, J. I.; Bencic, T. J.; Martin, R. E.; Singh, J.; Wolfe, D. E.

    2007-01-01

    Nondestructive diagnostic tools are needed to monitor early stages of delamination progression in thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) because the risk of delamination induced coating failure will compromise engine performance and safety. Previous work has demonstrated that for TBCs composed of yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ), luminescence from a buried europium-doped sublayer can be utilized to identify the location of TBC delamination from the substantially higher luminescence intensity observed from the delaminated regions of the TBC. Luminescence measurements from buried europium-doped layers depend on sufficient transmittance of the 532 nm excitation and 606 nm emission wavelengths through the attenuating undoped YSZ overlayer to produce easily detected luminescence. In the present work, improved delamination indication is demonstrated using erbium-doped YSZ sublayers. For visible-wavelength luminescence, the erbium-doped sublayer offers the advantage of a very strong excitation peak at 517 nm that can be conveniently excited a 514 nm Ar ion laser. More importantly, the erbium-doped sublayer also produces near-infrared luminescence at 1550 nm that is effectively excited by a 980 nm laser diode. Both the 980 nm excitation and the 1550 nm emission are transmitted through the TBC with much less attenuation than visible wavelengths and therefore show great promise for delamination monitoring through thicker or more highly scattering TBCs. The application of this approach for both electron beam physical vapor deposited (EB-PVD) and plasma-sprayed TBCs is discussed.

  9. STUDIES ON TiCl4/Mg (Oet)2/EB SUPPORTED CATALYSTS FOR PROPYLENE POLYMERIZATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIAO Shijing; LU Honglan; ZHANG Minghui

    1990-01-01

    The supported catalysts for propylene polymerization were prepared by milling Mg (OEt)2 with EB (ethylbenzoate) and treating with TiCl4 solution. When TiCl4/(Mg (OEt)2/EB) (mol.) ratio was increased, decrease in contents of -OEt and Ti of the catalysts was observed, while the content of EB increased. It is proved by analyses of IR, X-ray and XPS that during co-milling Mg(OEt)2with EB no reactions have taken place. But after treatment with TiCl4 solution, Mg (OEt)2 converts into MgCl2 and EB coordinates on the resulting MgCl2 carrier, a surface complex forms.The activity of catalysts,isotacticityand vicosimetric molecular weight of polypropylene increase with the decrease of the content of ethoxyl group. The kinetic curves of propene polymerization obtained with present catalysts system display decay curves. It is found from the triad tacticity calculated from the expanded spectra of methyl carbon region that, ethoxyl group in catalyst has an effect on the configuration of polymer chain.

  10. PSD-95 alters microtubule dynamics via an association with EB3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweet, Eric S.; Previtera, Michelle L.; Fernández, Jose R.; Charych, Erik I.; Tseng, Chia-Yi; Kwon, Munjin; Starovoytov, Valentin; Zheng, James Q.; Firestein, Bonnie L.

    2011-01-01

    Little is known about how the neuronal cytoskeleton is regulated when a dendrite decides whether to branch or not. Previously, we reported that postsynaptic density protein 95 (PSD-95) acts as a stop signal for dendrite branching. It is yet to be elucidated how PSD-95 affects the cytoskeleton and how this regulation relates to the dendritic arbor. Here, we show that the SH3 (src homology 3) domain of PSD-95 interacts with a proline-rich region within the microtubule end-binding protein EB3. Overexpression of PSD-95 or mutant EB3 results in a decreased lifetime of EB3 comets in dendrites. In line with these data, transfected rat neurons show that overexpression of PSD-95 results in less organized microtubules at dendritic branch points and decreased dendritogensis. The interaction between PSD-95 and EB3 elucidates a function for a novel region of EB3 and provides a new and important mechanism for the regulation of microtubules in determining dendritic morphology. PMID:21248129

  11. International Collaborations on Engineered Barrier Systems: Brief Overview of SKB-EBS Activities.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jove-Colon, Carlos F. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-10-01

    Research collaborations with international partners on the behavior and performance of engineered barrier systems (EBS) are an important aspect of the DOE-NE Used Fuel Disposition Campaign strategy in the evaluation of disposal design concepts. These international partnerships are a cost-effective way of engaging in key R&D activities with common goals resulting in effective scientific knowledge exchanges thus enhancing existing and future research programs in the USA. This report provides a brief description of the activities covered by the Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Company (SKB) EBS Task Force (TF) (referred hereafter as SKB EBS TF) and potential future directions for engagement of the DOE-NE UFDC program in relevant R&D activities. Emphasis is given to SKB EBS TF activities that are still ongoing and aligned to the UFDC R&D program. This include utilization of data collected in the bentonite rock interaction experiment (BRIE) and data sets from benchmark experiments produced by the chemistry or “C” part of the SKB EBS TF. Potential applications of information generated by this program include comparisons/tests between model and data (e.g., reactive diffusion), development and implementation of coupled-process models (e.g., HM), and code/model benchmarking.

  12. Isolation and characterization of Bacillus subtilis EB-28, an endophytic bacterium strain displaying biocontrol activity against Botrytis cinerea Pers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shutong WANG; Tongle HU; Yanling JIAO; Jianjian WEI; Keqiang CAO

    2009-01-01

    The fungal pathogen Botrytis cinerea Pers. causes severe rotting on tomato fruits during storage and shelf life. As a biological control agent, endophytic bacterium was regarded as an effective alternative to chemical control. Out of 238 endophytic bacterial isolates, three strains (EB-15, EB-28, and EB-122) isolated from Lycopersicum esculentum Mill., Speranskia tuberculata (Bge.) Baill, and Dictamnus dasycarpus Turcz. respectively were found to be strongly antagonistic to the pathogen in vitro and were selected for further in vivo tests. One endophytic bacterium strain, encoded EB-28, was selected from the three in vivo tested isolates. The inhibitive rate of EB-28 reached 71.1% in vitro and 52.4% in vivo. EB-28 was identified as Bacillus subtilis according to its morphological, physiological, and biochemical characteristics and 16S rDNA sequence analysis.

  13. Human Eb Peptide: Not just a By-product of Pre-pro-IGF1b Processing?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durzyńska, J.; Wardziński, A.; Koczorowska, M.; Goździcka-Józefiak, A.; Barton, E. R.

    2015-01-01

    Several physiological activities have been assigned to E-peptides derived from pre-pro-insulin-like growth factor (IGF1) processing; however, the whole range of the E-peptides’ functions is still unknown. The objective of this study was to investigate human Eb peptide (hEb) in terms of its bioactivity, cellular localization, and intracellular trafficking using human cancer cells. Human Eb fused with red fluorescence protein (RFP) or green fluorescence protein (GFP) localizes strongly to nucleoli and to a lesser extent to nuclei of HeLa and U2-OS cells. Mutagenesis of hEb nucleolus localization sequence (NoLS) leads to its partial delocalization from nuclei and nucleoli to cytoplasm of transfected cells. Thus, NoLS is not sufficient for the hEb to be localized in nucleoli of the cells and a different mechanism may be involved in hEb targeting. A BrdU ELISA showed that the proliferation index of cells expressing hEb hybrid proteins increased up to 28 %. For comparison, the same assay was performed using HeLa cells treated extracellularly with synthetic hEb. A significant increase in the proliferation index was observed (41–58 % for concentrations ranging from 10–100 nM, respectively). Additionally, a cell migration assay was performed using stable U2-OS cell lines expressing hEb fused with RFP or RFP alone as a negative control. The migration index of hEb expressing cells was 38.3 % greater. The increase in cell proliferation index and in motile properties of hEb expressing cells demonstrate that hEb is more than a pre-pro-IGF1b processing product, and has intrinsic activity of biological significance. PMID:23335048

  14. Superior Thermal Barrier Coatings Using Solution Precursor Plasma Spray

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, E. H.; Xie, L.; Gell, M.; Padture, N. P.; Cetegen, B.; Ozturk, A.; Ma, X.; Roth, J.; Xiao, T. D.; Bryant, P. E. C.

    2004-03-01

    A novel process, solution precursor plasma spray (SPPS), is presented for depositing thermal barrier coatings (TBCs), in which aqueous chemical precursors are injected into a standard direct current plasma spray system. The resulting coatings microstructure has three unique features: (1) ultra fine splats (1 µm), (2) nanometer and micron-sized interconnected porosity, and (3) closely spaced, through-thickness cracks. Coatings over 3 mm thick can be readily deposited using the SPPS process. Coating durability is excellent, with SPPS coatings showing, in furnace cycling tests, 2.5 times the spallation life of air plasma coatings (APS) and 1.5 times the life of electron beam physical vapor deposited (EB-PVD) coatings. The conductivity of SPPS coatings is lower than EB-PVD coatings and higher than the best APS coatings. Manufacturing cost is expected to be similar to APS coatings and much lower than EB-PVD coatings. The SPPS deposition process includes droplet break-up and material arriving at the deposition surface in various physical states ranging from aqueous solution, gel phase, to fully-molten ceramic. The relation between the arrival state of the material and the microstructure is described.

  15. Resistencia a la corrosión y desgaste de recubrinnientos deTiN obtenidos por PVD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Conde, A.

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Surface hardening techniques for metallic alloys are widely used to achieve layers of very high hardness and corrosion and wear resistance. In the present paper TiN coatings are obtained by PVD on a tool steel. The films are characterized by SEM, X-ray diffraction and XPS. Corrosion behaviour in NaCl solution showed the importance of the presence of defects on the PVD coating due to the different electrochemical behaviour of the steel base. Pin-on-disk measurements at approximately 40% RH against a corundum (Al2O3 ball showed a significant decrease in the wear rate compared with the results for the standard tool steel.

    Los tratamientos de endurecimiento superficial de aleaciones metálicas se utilizan para lograr capas de muy elevada dureza, resistencia a la corrosión y desgaste. En este trabajo, se estudia el comportamiento de recubrimientos de TiN obtenidos mediante PVD sobre aceros de herramientas. Las capas obtenidas se caracterizan mediante microscopía electrónica de barrido, difracción de rayos X y XPS. Se analiza el comportamiento frente a la corrosión de las capas protectoras, así como la influencia del substrato en su comportamiento en soluciones de NaCl. Finalmente, se realizan ensayos de desgaste por deslizamiento en seco mediante la técnica de pin-on-disk, comprobándose la mayor resistencia de estas capas.

  16. GPS navigation based on ADXL345 and EB3631%ADXL345与EB3631在GPS导航中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王波

    2014-01-01

    为实现用户到目标点的距离测量和方向控制,设计并实现了基于加速度传感器ADXL345和EB3631的GPS模块的实时导航系统.系统选用EB3631搭建GPS模块,通过串口与ATMEGA644P控制器通信采集GPS定位信息;采用加速度传感器ADXL345,通过ⅡC协议与控制器通信实现位移测量.在0m-500m范围内,对系统稳定性和准确性的反复测试,最终实现了相对误差在10%以内的准确度较高的导航系统.

  17. Development of Production PVD-AIN Buffer Layer System and Processes to Reduce Epitaxy Costs and Increase LED Efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cerio, Frank

    2013-09-14

    was analyzed and improvements implemented to the Veeco PVD-AlN prototype system to establish a specification and baseline PVD-AlN films on sapphire and in parallel the evaluation of PVD AlN on silicon substrates began. In Phase II of the project a Beta tool based on a scaled-up process module capable of depositing uniform films on batches of 4”or 6” diameter substrates in a production worthy operation was developed and qualified. In Phase III, the means to increase the throughput of the PVD-AlN system was evaluated and focused primarily on minimizing the impact of the substrate heating and cooling times that dominated the overall cycle time.

  18. Three New Pierce's Disease Pathogenicity Effectors Identified Using Xylella fastidiosa Biocontrol Strain EB92-1.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shujian Zhang

    Full Text Available Xylella fastidiosa (X. fastidiosa infects a wide range of plant hosts and causes economically serious diseases, including Pierce's Disease (PD of grapevines. X. fastidiosa biocontrol strain EB92-1 was isolated from elderberry and is infectious and persistent in grapevines but causes only very slight symptoms under ideal conditions. The draft genome of EB92-1 revealed that it appeared to be missing genes encoding 10 potential PD pathogenicity effectors found in Temecula1. Subsequent PCR and sequencing analyses confirmed that EB92-1 was missing the following predicted effectors found in Temecula1: two type II secreted enzymes, including a lipase (LipA; PD1703 and a serine protease (PD0956; two identical genes encoding proteins similar to Zonula occludens toxins (Zot; PD0915 and PD0928, and at least one relatively short, hemagglutinin-like protein (PD0986. Leaves of tobacco and citrus inoculated with cell-free, crude protein extracts of E. coli BL21(DE3 overexpressing PD1703 exhibited a hypersensitive response (HR in less than 24 hours. When cloned into shuttle vector pBBR1MCS-5, PD1703 conferred strong secreted lipase activity to Xanthomonas citri, E. coli and X. fastidiosa EB92-1 in plate assays. EB92-1/PD1703 transformants also showed significantly increased disease symptoms on grapevines, characteristic of PD. Genes predicted to encode PD0928 (Zot and a PD0986 (hemagglutinin were also cloned into pBBR1MCS-5 and moved into EB92-1; both transformants also showed significantly increased symptoms on V. vinifera vines, characteristic of PD. Together, these results reveal that PD effectors include at least a lipase, two Zot-like toxins and a possibly redundant hemagglutinin, none of which are necessary for parasitic survival of X. fastidiosa populations in grapevines or elderberry.

  19. EB 病毒 LMP2A 在胃癌研究中的进展%Research progress in EB virus LMP2A in gastric cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    夏琳钦; 伍石华; 张志伟

    2016-01-01

    EB 病毒(EBV)是具有致瘤潜能的疱疹病毒,其编码的潜伏性膜蛋白2A(LMP2A)通过多条信号传导通路,参与上皮细胞的转化。 EB 病毒存在于胃癌组织中,在胃癌的发生和发展过程中发挥重要的作用。本文主要就 LMP2A 的结构、介导的信号传导通路与胃癌的关系进行综述。%Epstein-Barr virus is a herpes virus with tumorigenic potential, its encoded latent membrane protein-2A through multiple signaling pathways, involved in the transformation of epithelial cells. The EB virus exists in gastric cancer cells,in the process of the occurrence and development of gastric cancer play an important role. This article mainly reviews the structure of LMP2A, mediated signaling pathway and gastric cancer.

  20. Validade convergente do tipo de vivência (EB no teste de Zulliger/SC = Convergent validity evidence of the personality Style (EB in Z-test/SC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Villemor-Amaral, Anna Elisa de

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available O Zulliger foi adaptado para o Sistema Compreensivo de Exner numa amostra brasileira, pois embora o Sistema Compreensivo tenha sido desenvolvido para codificação e interpretação do método de Rorschach, a semelhança entre as duas técnicas levou a supor que o Zulliger poderia se beneficiar das mesmas vantagens alcançadas para o Rorschach. Esse estudo tem por objetivo verificar evidências de validade convergente para a classificação do Tipo de Vivência (EB no Zulliger, por meio de correlações com o indicador EB do Rorschach. Selecionaram-se de um banco de dados 51 protocolos de adultos, de ambos os sexos, com idade, escolaridade e nível socioeconômicos variados. As pessoas responderam a técnica de Zulliger e do Rorschach em dias consecutivos, alternando-se a ordem de aplicação das técnicas. Os resultados indicaram correlações significativas, mas apontam à necessidade de estabelecer novas proporções das variáveis que compõe o EB para a técnica de Zulliger

  1. Effect of UV/EB radiation dosages on the properties of nanocomposite coatings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nik Salleh, Nik Ghazali, E-mail: Nik_Ghazali@nuclearmalaysia.gov.m [Malaysian Nuclear Agency, Block 42, Radiation Curing and Synthesis Group, Bangi, 43000 Kajang, Selangor (Malaysia); Firdaus Yhaya, Mohd; Hassan, Azman; Abu Bakar, Aznizam; Mokhtar, Munirah [Faculty of Chemical and Natural Resources Engineering, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310 UTM Skudai, Johor (Malaysia)

    2011-02-15

    The aim of this study was to compare the effects of ultraviolet (UV) and electron beam (EB) radiation on the properties of cured nanocomposite coatings. Surface hardness increased with increase in radiation dosages (number of passes) for all samples. This was due to the increase in crosslinking with increase in radiation dosage. Pendulum hardness, gel content, and thumb twist results were analyzed to choose appropriate curing dosage for both curing techniques. The selected dosages were then used to cure coatings for scratch and abrasion resistance tests. It was found that the UV curing produced coatings with better abrasion resistance, whereas EB curing was a more suitable approach for producing scratch resistance coatings.

  2. Low friction MoS2TiW Coatings Manufactured on X38CrMoV5-1 Steel Using PVD Method

    OpenAIRE

    GOLABCZAK, Marcin; Jacquet, Philippe; Nouveau, Corinne; FLITI, Romain

    2013-01-01

    In this article the friction coefficients and the wear resistances of MoS2TiW protective coatings manufactured on X38CrMoV5-1 steel samples by using PVD technology are studied. The investi- gations based on tribometer tests which were carried out in different temperature conditions. The process of deposition of PVD coatings was realized by using multisource, hybrid factory- scale equipment of type URM 079. This equipment allows for deposition of coatings by the phys- ical method...

  3. Structural, thermal and ion transport studies of different particle size nanocomposite fillers incorporated PVdF-HFP hybrid membranes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, G. Gnana [Specialized Graduate School of Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Engineering, Chonbuk National University, Jeonju 561-756 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Pil [Specialized Graduate School of Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Engineering, Chonbuk National University, Jeonju 561-756 (Korea, Republic of); School of Chemical Engineering and Technology, Chonbuk National University, Jeonju 561-756 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Ae Rhan [Specialized Graduate School of Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Engineering, Chonbuk National University, Jeonju 561-756 (Korea, Republic of); Nahm, Kee Suk [Specialized Graduate School of Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Engineering, Chonbuk National University, Jeonju 561-756 (Korea, Republic of); School of Chemical Engineering and Technology, Chonbuk National University, Jeonju 561-756 (Korea, Republic of)], E-mail: nahmks@chonbuk.ac.kr; Elizabeth, R. Nimma [Department of Physics, Lady Doak College, Madurai 625002 (India)

    2009-05-15

    Organic-inorganic hybrid membranes based on poly(vinylidene fluoride-co-hexa fluoropropylene) (PVdF-HFP)/sulfosuccinic acid were fabricated with different nanometer sizes of silica particles. Morphological images reveal the embedded ceramic filler over the membrane. Structural characterizations were made by FT-IR and XPS, ensure the inclusion of sulfosuccinic acid and silica into the PVdF-HFP polymer matrix. Sulfonic acid groups promote the IEC values and greater swelling behavior. Silica content in the hybrid membranes had a great effect on crystalline character as well as thermal properties of the membranes. Decrease in the filler size creates an effective route of polymer-filler interface and promotes the protonic conductivity of the membranes. The high conductivities in the range of 10{sup -2} to 10{sup -3} S cm{sup -1} were achieved through synergistic interactions between the organic and inorganic moieties of the hybrid membranes. Due to these splendid features, the prepared hybrid membranes can be a trademark in the field of fuel cells.

  4. Preparation of porous, chemically cross-linked, PVdF-based gel polymer electrolytes for rechargeable lithium batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, C. L.; Wan, C. C.; Wang, Y. Y.

    This study reports the development of a new system of porous, chemically cross-linked, gel polymer electrolytes based on poly(vinylidene fluoride-co-hexafluoropropylene) (PVdF-HFP) copolymer as a polymer matrix, polyethylene glycol (PEG) as a plasticizer, and polyethylene glycol dimethacrylate (PEGDMA) as a chemical cross-linking oligomer. The electrolytes are prepared by a combination of controlled evaporation and thermal polymerization of PEGDMA. PVdF-HFP/PEG/PEGDMA gel polymer electrolytes with a composition of 5/3/2 exhibit both high ambient ionic conductivity, viz., >1 mS cm -1, and a high tensile modulus of 52 MPa, because of their porous and network structures. All the blends of electrolytes are electrochemically stable up to 5 V versus Li/Li + in the presence of 1 M LiPF 6/ethylene carbonate-diethyl carbonate (EC-DEC). With these polymer electrolytes, rechargeable lithium batteries composed of carbon anode and LiCoO 2 cathode have acceptable cycleability and a good rate capability.

  5. Studies on electrical conductivity and dielectric behaviour of PVdF–HFP–PMMA–NaI polymer blend electrolyte

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S K Tripathi; Ashish Gupta; Manju Kumari

    2012-11-01

    Polymer blend electrolytes composed of poly(vinylidene fluoride-co-hexafluoro-propylene), poly(methyl methacrylate) and 1.0 M NaI as salt have been synthesized using solution caste technique by varying the PVdF(HFP)–PMMA blend concentration ratio systematically. A.c. impedance studies were performed to evaluate the ionic conductivity of the polymer electrolyte films. The highest ionic conductivity at room temperature for [PVdF(HFP)–PMMA(4:1)](20 wt%) – [NaI(1.0M)](80 wt%) system is found to be 1.67 × 10-2 S cm-1. XRD studies reveal complete complexation of the salt in the polymeric blend systems. The temperature dependence conductivity has been performed in the range of 303–373 K and it is observed that it obeys the Arrhenius behaviour. It has been observed that the dielectric constant, r and dielectric loss, i, increases with temperature in the lower frequency region and is almost negligible in the higher frequency region. This behaviour can be explained on the basis of electrode polarization effects. Plot of real part, r and imaginary part, i vs frequency indicates that the systems are predominantly ionic conductors. The phenomenon suggests a plurality of relaxation mechanism.

  6. 76 FR 59927 - Treatment of Aliens Whose Employment Creation Immigrant (EB-5) Petitions Were Approved After...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-28

    ... SECURITY 8 CFR Parts 216 and 245 RIN 1615-AA90 Treatment of Aliens Whose Employment Creation Immigrant (EB... applications and petitions of qualifying aliens whose employment-creation immigrant petitions were approved by...-273 Provisions C. Summary of the Adjudications Required by Public Law 107-273 III. Aliens Eligible To...

  7. 76 FR 61288 - Treatment of Aliens Whose Employment Creation Immigrant (EB-5) Petitions Were Approved After...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-04

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY 8 CFR Parts 216 and 245 RIN 1615-AA90 Treatment of Aliens Whose Employment Creation Immigrant (EB... Homeland Security corrects an inadvertent error contained in the proposed rule titled Treatment of Aliens...

  8. Enhanced -->E*-->B drift effects in the TCV snowflake divertor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G.P. Canal,; Lunt, T.; Reimerdes, H.; Duval, B. P.; Labit, B.; Vijvers, W. A. J.; TCV team,

    2015-01-01

    Measurements of various plasma parameters at the divertor targets of snowflake (SF) and conventional single-null configurations indicate an enhanced effect of the -->E*-->B drift in the scrape-off layer of plasmas in the SF configuration. Plasma boundary transport simulations using the EMC3-Ei

  9. Kebab: kinetochore and EB1 associated basic protein that dynamically changes its localisation during Drosophila mitosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meireles, Ana M; Dzhindzhev, Nikola S; Ohkura, Hiroyuki

    2011-01-01

    Microtubule plus ends are dynamic ends that interact with other cellular structures. Microtubule plus end tracking proteins are considered to play important roles in the regulation of microtubule plus ends. Recent studies revealed that EB1 is the central regulator for microtubule plus end tracking proteins by recruiting them to microtubule plus ends through direct interaction. Here we report the identification of a novel Drosophila protein, which we call Kebab (kinetochore and EB1 associated basic protein), through in vitro expression screening for EB1-interacting proteins. Kebab fused to GFP shows a novel pattern of dynamic localisation in mitosis. It localises to kinetochores weakly in metaphase and accumulates progressively during anaphase. In telophase, it associates with microtubules in central-spindle and centrosomal regions. The localisation to kinetochores depends on microtubules. The protein has a domain most similar to the atypical CH domain of Ndc80, and a coiled-coil domain. The interaction with EB1 is mediated by two SxIP motifs but is not required for the localisation. Depletion of Kebab in cultured cells by RNA interference did not show obvious defects in mitotic progression or microtubule organisation. Generation of mutants lacking the kebab gene indicated that Kebab is dispensable for viability and fertility.

  10. Narvas näeb Eesti tantsuauhinna võitnud tantsulavastust / Rene Nõmmik ; intervjueerinud Tiia Linnart

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Nõmmik, Rene, 1962-

    2015-01-01

    Narva kultuurimajas Rugodiv näeb Fine5 tantsuteatri lavastust "...and blue", mis võitis tänavu Eesti teatriauhinna. Etenduse koreograafideks ja lavastajateks on Tiina Ollesk ja Rene Nõmmik, keda on palutud lavastama ka Venemaale. Intervjuu Rene Nõmmikuga

  11. 47 CFR 73.4097 - EBS (now EAS) attention signals on automated programing systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false EBS (now EAS) attention signals on automated programing systems. 73.4097 Section 73.4097 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED... (now EAS) attention signals on automated programing systems. See Public Notice dated March 1, 1979....

  12. Narvas näeb Eesti tantsuauhinna võitnud tantsulavastust / Rene Nõmmik ; intervjueerinud Tiia Linnart

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Nõmmik, Rene, 1962-

    2015-01-01

    Narva kultuurimajas Rugodiv näeb Fine5 tantsuteatri lavastust "...and blue", mis võitis tänavu Eesti teatriauhinna. Etenduse koreograafideks ja lavastajateks on Tiina Ollesk ja Rene Nõmmik, keda on palutud lavastama ka Venemaale. Intervjuu Rene Nõmmikuga

  13. [Scientability - a concept for the handling of homeopathic remedies by EbM].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weymayr, Christian

    2013-01-01

    Evidence-based medicine (EbM) has proved to be very useful in healthcare; thanks to its methodology the reliability of our knowledge of the benefits and harms of interventions can be assessed. This at least applies to interventions which are based on a plausible concept for their mechanism of action and which have already achieved positive effects in experiments and simple studies. However, for interventions whose concepts contradict scientific findings EbM has proved to be unsuitable; it has not been able to prevent that they are still regarded as effective amongst wide parts of the population and medical experts. Particularly homeopathy has managed to even present itself as scientifically justified by using EbM. With the aim of highlighting the speculative character of homeopathy and other procedures and of preventing EbM from getting damaged, the concept of scientability is introduced in this article. This concept only approves of clinical studies if the intervention that is to be tested does not contradict definite scientific findings. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier GmbH.

  14. Kebab: kinetochore and EB1 associated basic protein that dynamically changes its localisation during Drosophila mitosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana M Meireles

    Full Text Available Microtubule plus ends are dynamic ends that interact with other cellular structures. Microtubule plus end tracking proteins are considered to play important roles in the regulation of microtubule plus ends. Recent studies revealed that EB1 is the central regulator for microtubule plus end tracking proteins by recruiting them to microtubule plus ends through direct interaction. Here we report the identification of a novel Drosophila protein, which we call Kebab (kinetochore and EB1 associated basic protein, through in vitro expression screening for EB1-interacting proteins. Kebab fused to GFP shows a novel pattern of dynamic localisation in mitosis. It localises to kinetochores weakly in metaphase and accumulates progressively during anaphase. In telophase, it associates with microtubules in central-spindle and centrosomal regions. The localisation to kinetochores depends on microtubules. The protein has a domain most similar to the atypical CH domain of Ndc80, and a coiled-coil domain. The interaction with EB1 is mediated by two SxIP motifs but is not required for the localisation. Depletion of Kebab in cultured cells by RNA interference did not show obvious defects in mitotic progression or microtubule organisation. Generation of mutants lacking the kebab gene indicated that Kebab is dispensable for viability and fertility.

  15. Complete genome sequence of Thioalkalivibrio sulfidophilus HL-EbGr7

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muyzer, G.; Sorokin, D.Y.; Mavromatis, K.; Lapidus, A.; Clum, A.; Ivanova, N.; Pati, A.; d' Haeseleer, P.; Woyke, T.; Kyrpides, N.C.

    2011-01-01

    "Thioalkalivibrio sulfidophilus" HL-EbGr7 is an obligately chemolithoautotrophic, haloalkaliphilic sulfur-oxidizing bacterium (SOB) belonging to the Gammaproteobacteria. The strain was found to predominate a full-scale bioreactor, removing sulfide from biogas. Here we report the complete genome

  16. A Metallurgical Characterization and Assessment of SMA, GMA, EB, and LB Welds of HY-130 Steel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-09-30

    and GMA welds consisted of a large percentage of acicular ferrite with smaller amounts of bainite and martensite; EB and LB welds comprised mostly...martensite and a small percentage of bainite . Strain hardening exponent values for SMA, GMA, and LB welds were appreciably higher than the values

  17. Robust EBS design and source-term analysis for the partially saturated Yucca Mountain Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Apted, M. [Intera Information Technologies, Inc., Denver, CO (United States)

    1994-12-31

    The concept of robust repository design and assessment is examined. Successful demonstration of decoupling of near-field and far-field performance is a central principle in achieving robustness. An innovative design for the engineered barrier system (EBS) for the partially saturated conditions at Yucca Mountain is described based on this principle of robustness.

  18. 47 CFR 27.58 - Interference to BRS/EBS receivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... downconverters if all of the following conditions are met: (1) The complaint is received by the WCS licensee...) The BRS/EBS customer or licensee has informed the WCS licensee of the interference within one year... increases at the WCS station. (b) Resolution of the complaint shall be at no cost to the complainant....

  19. The EB Factory Project. II. Validation with the Kepler Field in Preparation for K2 and TESS

    CERN Document Server

    Parvizi, Mahmoud; Stassun, Keivan G

    2014-01-01

    Large repositories of high precision light curve data, such as the Kepler data set, provide the opportunity to identify astrophysically important eclipsing binary (EB) systems in large quantities. However, the rate of classical "by eye" human analysis restricts complete and efficient mining of EBs from these data using classical techniques. To prepare for mining EBs from the upcoming K2 mission as well as other current missions, we developed an automated end-to-end computational pipeline - the Eclipsing Binary Factory (EBF) - that automatically identifies EBs and classifies them into morphological types. The EBF has been previously tested on ground-based light curves. To assess the performance of the EBF in the context of space-based data, we apply the EBF to the full set of light curves in the Kepler "Q3" Data Release. We compare the EBs identified from this automated approach against the human generated Kepler EB Catalog of ~2,600 EBs. When we require EB classification with at least 90% confidence, we find ...

  20. The EB factory project. II. Validation with the Kepler field in preparation for K2 and TESS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parvizi, Mahmoud; Paegert, Martin; Stassun, Keivan G., E-mail: mahmoud.parvizi@vanderbilt.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Vanderbilt University, VU Station B 1807, Nashville, TN 37235 (United States)

    2014-12-01

    Large repositories of high precision light curve data, such as the Kepler data set, provide the opportunity to identify astrophysically important eclipsing binary (EB) systems in large quantities. However, the rate of classical “by eye” human analysis restricts complete and efficient mining of EBs from these data using classical techniques. To prepare for mining EBs from the upcoming K2 mission as well as other current missions, we developed an automated end-to-end computational pipeline—the Eclipsing Binary Factory (EBF)—that automatically identifies EBs and classifies them into morphological types. The EBF has been previously tested on ground-based light curves. To assess the performance of the EBF in the context of space-based data, we apply the EBF to the full set of light curves in the Kepler “Q3” Data Release. We compare the EBs identified from this automated approach against the human generated Kepler EB Catalog of ∼2600 EBs. When we require EB classification with ⩾90% confidence, we find that the EBF correctly identifies and classifies eclipsing contact (EC), eclipsing semi-detached (ESD), and eclipsing detached (ED) systems with a false positive rate of only 4%, 4%, and 8%, while complete to 64%, 46%, and 32%, respectively. When classification confidence is relaxed, the EBF identifies and classifies ECs, ESDs, and EDs with a slightly higher false positive rate of 6%, 16%, and 8%, while much more complete to 86%, 74%, and 62%, respectively. Through our processing of the entire Kepler “Q3” data set, we also identify 68 new candidate EBs that may have been missed by the human generated Kepler EB Catalog. We discuss the EBF's potential application to light curve classification for periodic variable stars more generally for current and upcoming surveys like K2 and the Transiting Exoplanet Survey Satellite.

  1. Evolution of self-organization in nano-structured PVD coatings under extreme tribological conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fox-Rabinovich, G., E-mail: gfox@mcmaster.ca [Department of Mechanical Engineering, McMaster University, 1280 Main St. W., Hamilton, ON, Canada L8S 4L7 (Canada); Kovalev, A. [Surface Phenomena Researches Group, CNIICHERMET, 9/23, 2-nd Baumanskaya Street, Moscow 105005 (Russian Federation); Aguirre, M.H. [Laboratory of Advanced Microscopy, Institute of Nanoscience of Aragón, University of Zaragoza, 50018 Zaragoza (Spain); Yamamoto, K. [Materials Research Laboratory, Kobe Steel Ltd, 1-5-5 Takatsuda-dai, Nishi-ku, Kobe 651-2271, Hyogo (Japan); Veldhuis, S. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, McMaster University, 1280 Main St. W., Hamilton, ON, Canada L8S 4L7 (Canada); Gershman, I. [All-Russian Railway Research Institute, 10 Third Mytishchinskaya Street, Moscow 29851 (Russian Federation); Rashkovskiy, A. [Surface Phenomena Researches Group, CNIICHERMET, 9/23, 2-nd Baumanskaya Street, Moscow 105005 (Russian Federation); Endrino, J.L. [Albengoa Research, Energia Solar 1, Palmas Altas, Seville 41014 (Spain); Beake, B. [Micro Materials Limited, Willow House, Yale Business Village, Ellice Way, Wrexham LL13 7YL (United Kingdom); Dosbaeva, G. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, McMaster University, 1280 Main St. W., Hamilton, ON, Canada L8S 4L7 (Canada); Wainstein, D. [Surface Phenomena Researches Group, CNIICHERMET, 9/23, 2-nd Baumanskaya Street, Moscow 105005 (Russian Federation); Yuan, Junifeng; Bunting, J.W. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, McMaster University, 1280 Main St. W., Hamilton, ON, Canada L8S 4L7 (Canada)

    2014-04-01

    Highlights: • The evolution of self-organization under extreme frictional conditions has been studied. • Comprehensive characterization of the tribo-films was made using various surface analytical techniques. • During the running-in stage, mullite tribo-ceramics predominate on the surface of the nano-multilayer coating, establishing a functional hierarchy within the layer of tribo-films. • It is possible to control tribo-film evolution during self-organization by means of an increase in structural complexity and the non-equilibrium state of the surface engineered layer. - Abstract: The evolution of the self-organization process where dissipative structures are formed under the extreme frictional conditions associated with high performance dry machining of hardened steels has been studied in detail. The emphasis was on the progressive studies of surface transformations within multilayer and monolayer TiAlCrSiYN-based PVD coatings during the running-in stage of wear when self-organization process occurs. The coating layer was characterized by high resolution electron energy-loss spectroscopy (HREELS). It is shown that the nano-multilayer coating possesses higher non-equilibrium structure in comparison to the monolayer. Comprehensive studies of the tribo-films (dissipative structures) formed on the friction surface were made using a number of advanced surface characterization techniques such as X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES). The data obtained for the tribo-films was combined with the detailed TEM studies of the structural and phase transformations within the underlying coating layer. This data was related to the micro-mechanical characteristics of the coating layer and its wear resistance. It was demonstrated that the evolution of the self-organization process is strongly controlled by the characteristics of the tribo-films formed at different stages of the wear process. Within running-in stage (after

  2. Laveren tussen ontspanning en solidariteit: de PvdA en de FNV ten tijde van de Poolse crisis (1980-1982)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Miedema, C.

    2013-01-01

    The Polish independent trade union Solidarność appeared in a time of rising tension between East and West. This created a dilemma for Western left-wing movements: maintain solidarity with the Polish workers or continue the détente policy of the 1970s? The Dutch social democratic party PvdA and the l

  3. The Integration and Abstracyion of EBS Models in Yucca Mountain Performance Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    S.D. Sevougian; V. Jain; A.V. Luik

    2006-01-11

    The safety strategy for geological disposal of radioactive waste at Yucca Mountain relies on a multi-barrier system to contain the waste and isolate it from the biosphere. The multi-barrier system consists of the natural barrier provided by the geological setting and the engineered barrier system (EBS). In the case of Yucca Mountain (YM) the geologic setting is the unsaturated-zone host rock, consisting of about 600 meters of layered ash-flow volcanic tuffs above the water table, and the saturated zone beneath the water table. Both the unsaturated and saturated rocks are part of a closed hydrologic basin in a desert surface environment. The waste is to be buried about halfway between the desert surface and the water table. The primary engineered barriers at YM consist of metal components that are highly durable in an oxidizing environment. The two primary components of the engineered barrier system are highly corrosion-resistant metal waste packages, made from a nickel-chromium-molybdenum alloy, Alloy 22, and titanium drip shields that protect the waste packages from corrosive dripping water and falling rocks. Design and performance assessment of the EBS requires models that describe how the EBS and near field behave under anticipated repository-relevant conditions. These models must describe coupled hydrologic, thermal, chemical, and mechanical (THCM) processes that drive radionuclide transport in a highly fractured host rock, consisting of a relatively permeable network of conductive fractures in a setting of highly impermeable tuff rock matrix. An integrated performance assessment of the EBS must include a quantification of the uncertainties that arise from (1) incomplete understanding of processes and (2) from lack of data representative of the large spatial scales and long time scales relevant to radioactive waste disposal (e.g., long-term metal corrosion rates and heterogeneities in rock properties over the large 5 km{sup 2} emplacement area of the repository

  4. Porous PVdF-HFP/P123 electrolyte membrane containing flexible quasi-solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells produced by the compression method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jae Hong; Jung, Hee Suk; Park, Chung Hee; Kang, Tae Jin

    2014-01-01

    Flexible quasi-solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) with porous poly(vinylidenefluoride-co-hexafluoropropylene) (PVdF-HFP)/polyethylene oxide-co-polypropylene oxide-co-polyethylene oxide (P123) electrolyte membranes were fabricated and their photocurrent-voltage (I-V) characteristics are studied. Flexible TiO2 photoelectrodes were prepared using the compression method and porous PVdF-HFP/P123 membranes, by the nonsolvent-induced phase inversion technique. To activate the electrolyte membrane, the membrane was immersed in liquid-state electrolyte. Increased compression pressure improved the interconnection between TiO2 nanoparticles, enhancing the photovoltaic performances of the flexible liquid-state DSSCs to a maximum of 3.92% efficiency. Meanwhile, the overall pore structure of the PVdF-HFP/P123 membranes was controlled by varying the blend ratio of P123 to PVdF-HFP. Membranes higher in P123 content gave larger pores and pore volume, increasing the electrolyte uptake of the porous membrane, and thus the ionic conductivity of the electrolyte membrane as well. The photovoltaic characteristics of the flexible quasi-solid-state DSSCs containing a porous PVdF-HFP/P123 electrolyte membrane showed a maximum at 50 wt% P123 content, which gave a short-circuit current density (Jsc) value of 7.28 mA/cm2, an open-circuit voltage (Voc) of 0.67 V, a fill factor (FF) of 0.61 and an energy conversion efficiency (η) of 2.98%. Furthermore, the device designed in this study showed good durability compared to those based on liquid-state electrolyte.

  5. Progress toward Treatment and Cure of Epidermolysis Bullosa: Summary of the DEBRA International Research Symposium EB2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uitto, Jouni; Bruckner-Tuderman, Leena; Christiano, Angela M; McGrath, John A; Has, Cristina; South, Andrew P; Kopelan, Brett; Robinson, E Clare

    2016-02-01

    Epidermolysis bullosa (EB), a group of complex heritable blistering diseases, is the topic of triennial research meetings organized by DEBRA International, Vienna, Austria, the network of national EB patient advocacy organizations. The DEBRA 2015 Research Conference, held in May 2015, brought together investigators and clinicians from around the world working at the forefront of EB research. Discussing the state-of-the-art approaches from a wide range of disciplines, there was a palpable excitement at this conference brought about by the optimism about applying new sequencing techniques, genome editing, protein replacement, autologous and allogeneic stem cell therapy, innovations in cancer biology, revertant mosaicism, and induced pluripotent stem cell techniques, all of which are aimed at developing new therapies for EB. Many in the field who have participated in EB research for many years were especially enthusiastic and felt that, possibly for the first time, the field seems uniquely poised to bring these new tools to effectively tackle EB. Multiple complementary approaches are currently in motion toward improved quality of life and eventually a cure for patients suffering from EB, a currently intractable disease.

  6. Nanofiller incorporated poly(vinylidene fluoride-hexafluoropropylene) (PVdF-HFP) composite electrolytes for lithium batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manuel Stephan, A.; Nahm, Kee Suk [School of Chemical Engineering and Technology, Chonbuk National University, Chonju 561-756 (Korea, Republic of); Prem Kumar, T.; Kulandainathan, M. Anbu [Central Electrochemical Research Institute, Karaikudi 630006 (India); Ravi, G.; Wilson, J. [Department of Physics, Alagappa University, Karaikudi 630003 (India)

    2006-09-22

    Composite polymer electrolyte (CPE) membranes, comprising poly(vinylidene fluoride-hexafluoropropylene) (PVdF-HFP), aluminum oxyhydroxide (AlO[OH]{sub n}) of two different sizes 7{mu}m/14nm and LiN(C{sub 2}F{sub 5}SO{sub 2}){sub 2} as the lithium salt were prepared using a solution casting technique. The prepared membranes were subjected to XRD, impedance spectroscopy, compatibility and transport number studies. Also Li Cr{sub 0.01}Mn{sub 1.99}O{sub 4}/CPE/Li cells were assembled and their charge-discharge profiles made at 70{sup o}C. The incorporation of nanofiller greatly enhanced the ionic conductivity and the compatibility of the composite polymer electrolyte. The film which possesses a nanosized filler offered better electrochemical properties than a film with micron sized fillers. The results are discussed based on Lewis acid-base theory. (author)

  7. Low pressure hand made PVD system for high crystalline metal thin film preparation in micro-nanometer scale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosikhin, Ahmad, E-mail: a.rosikhin86@yahoo.co.id; Hidayat, Aulia Fikri; Marimpul, Rinaldo; Syuhada, Ibnu; Winata, Toto, E-mail: toto@fi.itb.ac.id [Department of physics, physics of electronic materials research division Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Institut Teknologi Bandung Jl. Ganesha 10, Bandung 40132, Jawa Barat – Indonesia (Indonesia)

    2016-02-08

    High crystalline metal thin film preparation in application both for catalyst substrate or electrode in any electronic devices always to be considered in material functional material research and development. As a substrate catalyst, this metal take a role as guidance for material growth in order to resulted in proper surface structure although at the end it will be removed via etching process. Meanwhile as electrodes, it will dragging charges to be collected inside. This brief discussion will elaborate general fundamental principle of physical vapor deposition (PVD) system for metal thin film preparation in micro-nanometer scale. The influence of thermodynamic parameters and metal characteristic such as melting point and particle size will be elucidated. Physical description of deposition process in the chamber can be simplified by schematic evaporation phenomena which is supported by experimental measurement such as SEM and XRD.

  8. Cutting performance and wear mechanisms of PVD coated carbide tools during dry drilling of newly produced ADI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meena, Anil; El Mansori, Mohamed

    2016-10-01

    The austempered ductile iron (ADI) material is widely used for automotive and structural applications. However, it is considered a difficult to machine material due to its strain hardening behavior and low thermal conductivity characteristics; thus delivering higher mechanical and thermal loads at the tool-chip interface, which significantly affects the tool wear and surface quality. The paper thus overviews the cutting performance and wear behavior of different cutting tools during dry drilling of newly produced ADI material. Cutting performance was evaluated in terms of specific cutting energy, workpiece surface integrity and tool wear behavior. Tool wear behavior shows crater wear mode and workpiece adhesion. The surface alteration at the machined subsurface was confirmed from the hardness variation. Multilayer (Ti,Al,Cr)N coated tool shows improved cutting performance and wear behavior due to its enhanced tribological adaptability as compared to another PVD coating leading to the reduction in specific cutting energy by 25%.

  9. Tribological Behaviour of PVD Coatings Lubricated with a FAP− Anion-Based Ionic Liquid Used as an Additive

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José-Luis Viesca

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies 1-butyl-1-methylpyrrolidinium tris(pentafluoroethyl trifluorophosphate ionic liquid ([BMP][FAP] as a 1 wt% additive to a polyalphaolefin (PAO 6 in the lubrication of CrN and TiN PVD coatings. Friction and wear behaviour were determined by using a ball-on-plate reciprocating tribometer at two loads (20 and 40 N and a reciprocating frequency of 10 Hz. The tribological behaviour of this mixture has also been compared to a traditional oil additive, like zinc dialkyldithiophosphate (ZDDP. As an additive, ionic liquid exhibited an important friction and wear reduction compared to the base oil. However, tests conducted with ZDDP show slightly better results. XPS was used to analyse wear surfaces. The interactions of each additive with the surface contributed to improving the tribological behaviour of the lubricants.

  10. An investigation of PVdF/PVC-based blend electrolytes with EC/PC as plasticizers in lithium battery applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajendran, S.; Sivakumar, P.

    2008-03-01

    Solid polymer electrolytes (SPEs) composed of poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVdF)-poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) complexed with lithium perchlorate (LiClO 4) as salt and ethylene carbonate (EC)/propylene carbonate (PC) as plasticizers were prepared using solvent-casting technique, with different weight ratios of EC and PC. The amorphicity and complexation behavior of the polymer electrolytes were confirmed using X-ray diffraction (XRD) and FTIR studies. TG/DTA and scanning electron microscope (SEM) studies explained the thermal stability and surface morphology of electrolytes, respectively. The prepared thin films were subjected to AC impedance measurements as a function of temperature ranging from 302 to 373 K. The temperature-dependence conductivity of polymer films seems to obey VTF relation.

  11. Nanofiller incorporated poly(vinylidene fluoride-hexafluoropropylene) (PVdF-HFP) composite electrolytes for lithium batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manuel Stephan, A.; Nahm, Kee Suk; Prem Kumar, T.; Kulandainathan, M. Anbu; Ravi, G.; Wilson, J.

    Composite polymer electrolyte (CPE) membranes, comprising poly(vinylidene fluoride-hexafluoropropylene) (PVdF-HFP), aluminum oxyhydroxide (AlO[OH] n) of two different sizes 7 μm/14 nm and LiN(C 2F 5SO 2) 2 as the lithium salt were prepared using a solution casting technique. The prepared membranes were subjected to XRD, impedance spectroscopy, compatibility and transport number studies. Also Li Cr 0.01Mn 1.99O 4/CPE/Li cells were assembled and their charge-discharge profiles made at 70 °C. The incorporation of nanofiller greatly enhanced the ionic conductivity and the compatibility of the composite polymer electrolyte. The film which possesses a nanosized filler offered better electrochemical properties than a film with micron sized fillers. The results are discussed based on Lewis acid-base theory.

  12. Important contribution of the novel locus comEB to extracellular DNA-dependent Staphylococcus lugdunensis biofilm formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajendran, Nithya Babu; Eikmeier, Julian; Becker, Karsten; Hussain, Muzaffar; Peters, Georg; Heilmann, Christine

    2015-12-01

    The coagulase-negative species Staphylococcus lugdunensis is an emerging cause of serious and potentially life-threatening infections, such as infective endocarditis. The pathogenesis of these infections is characterized by the ability of S. lugdunensis to form biofilms on either biotic or abiotic surfaces. To elucidate the genetic basis of biofilm formation in S. lugdunensis, we performed transposon (Tn917) mutagenesis. One mutant had a significantly reduced biofilm-forming capacity and carried a Tn917 insertion within the competence gene comEB. Site-directed mutagenesis and subsequent complementation with a functional copy of comEB verified the importance of comEB in biofilm formation. In several bacterial species, natural competence stimulates DNA release via lysis-dependent or -independent mechanisms. Extracellular DNA (eDNA) has been demonstrated to be an important structural component of many bacterial biofilms. Therefore, we quantified the eDNA in the biofilms and found diminished eDNA amounts in the comEB mutant biofilm. High-resolution images and three-dimensional data obtained via confocal laser scanning microscopy (CSLM) visualized the impact of the comEB mutation on biofilm integrity. The comEB mutant did not show reduced expression of autolysin genes, decreased autolytic activities, or increased cell viability, suggesting a cell lysis-independent mechanism of DNA release. Furthermore, reduced amounts of eDNA in the comEB mutant biofilms did not result from elevated levels or activity of the S. lugdunensis thermonuclease NucI. In conclusion, we defined here, for the first time, a role for the competence gene comEB in staphylococcal biofilm formation. Our findings indicate that comEB stimulates biofilm formation via a lysis-independent mechanism of DNA release.

  13. EB病毒相关性肿瘤疾病%EB virus-associated tumors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖智辉; 文飞球

    2010-01-01

    EB病毒(EBV)是一种能诱发肿瘤的疱疹病毒.近年来,有关EBV在人体内生存的机制、感染后的免疫调控、相关疾病的发病机制等方面均有了新的认识.现就近年来EBV相关性肿瘤的研究进展情况进行介绍.%Epstein-Barr virus is a herpes virus that is associated with many human neoplasms. In re-cent years, there are some developments for the research on the mechanism of survival of EBV in the human body,immune regulation after EBV infection and pathogenesis of EB virus-associated diseases. This article presents an overview and update of EB virus-associated tumors.

  14. Regulation of EB1/3 proteins by classical MAPs in neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayas, C L; Avila, Jesús

    2014-01-01

    Microtubules (MTs) are key cytoskeletal elements in developing and mature neurons. MT reorganization underlies the morphological changes that occur during neuronal development. Furthermore, MTs contribute to the maintenance of neuronal architecture, enable intracellular transport and act as scaffolds for signaling molecules. Thus, a fine-tuned regulation of MT dynamics and stability is crucial for the correct differentiation and functioning of neurons. Different types of proteins contribute to the regulation of the MT state, such as plus-end tracking proteins (+TIPs), which interact with the plus-ends of growing microtubules, and classical microtubule-associated proteins (MAPs), which bind along the microtubule lattice. Recent evidence indicates that MAPs interplay with End Binding Proteins (EBs), the core +TIPs, in neuronal cells. This might contribute to the orchestrated regulation of MT dynamics in neurons. In this mini-review article, we address recent research on the neuronal crosstalk between EBs and classical MAPs and speculate on its possible functional relevance.

  15. e-Relationships for e-Readiness:culture and corruption in international e-B2B

    OpenAIRE

    Berthon, Pierre; Pitt, Leyland; Berthon, Jean-Paul; Campbell, Colin; Thwaites, Des

    2008-01-01

    The role of electronic networks in B2B relationships has been growing exponentially. From massive internet B2B exchanges to tiny RFID chips, B2B is increasingly becoming e-B2B. Whilst e-B2B has been explored intra-nationally, its international counterpart is less well documented; as has been the role that culture might play in the development of international e-B2B relationships. In this paper we address this important issue of international e-business relationships. Specifically we explore t...

  16. AUTOMATED EB BILLING SYSTEM USING GSM AND AD-HOC WIRELESS ROUTING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.Saravanan

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available With the passage of time, technology has merged itself with the daily life of humans. We have seen so much progress in the field of science and technology but we are not able to make full use of it. One such area for improvement is the Electricity board billing system. Our existing electricity board billing system in India is obsolete and time consuming. We are proposing a system through which electricity billing becomes fully automated and communication is made possiblevia wireless networks. The existing manual system in India has major drawbacks. This system is prone to errors and can also be easily manipulated. The prevailing manual system also requires lot of human workforce. The major disadvantage in this system is that the meter cannot be accessed by the meter reader if the customer is not present at home. In our system the central EB office has immediate access to all consumer homes in a locality with the help of an RF system. The EB meter present in each house is connected by wireless network with the EB office which periodically gets updates from the meter. The EB office using a backend database calculates the amount to be paid according to the number of units consumed and sends it back to the meter for display and also to the user’s mobile phone. The advantages of the proposed system make the existing system incompetent. It ispossible to connect to remote areas even when there is a power failure as it employs wireless technology. The new system is user friendly, easy to access and far more efficient than the existing system.

  17. Mainstreaming Ecosystem Services Based Climate Change Adaptation (EbA in Bangladesh: Status, Challenges and Opportunities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nazmul Huq

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper aims to analyze the extent of Ecosystem Service (ESS based Adaptation (EbA to climate change in the policy-making process of Bangladesh. The paper is based on a three stage hybrid policy-making cycle: (i agenda setting; (ii policy formulation; and (iii policy implementation stage, where the contributions of EbA can horizontally (on the ground or vertically (strategic stage be mainstreamed and integrated. A total of nine national and sectoral development and climate change policies, and 329 climate change adaptation projects are examined belonging to different policy-making stages. The major findings include that the role of ESS is marginally considered as an adaptation component in most of the reviewed policies, especially at the top strategic level (vertical mainstreaming. However, at the policy formulation and implementation stage (horizontal mainstreaming, they are largely ignored and priority is given to structural adaptation policies and projects, e.g., large scale concrete dams and embankments. For example, ESS’s roles to adapt sectors such as urban planning, biodiversity management and disaster risk reduction are left unchecked, and the implementation stage receives overwhelming priorities and investments to undertake hard adaptation measures such that only 38 projects are related to EbA. The paper argues that: (i dominant structural adaptation ideologies; (ii the expert and bureaucracy dependent policy making process; and (iii the lack of adaptive and integration capacities at institutional level are considerably offsetting the EbA mainstreaming process that need to be adequately addressed for climate change adaptation.

  18. DOE-Managed HLW and SNF Research: FY15 EBS and Thermal Analysis Work Package Status.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matteo, Edward N. [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Hadgu, Teklu [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-11-01

    This report examines the technical elements necessary to evaluate EBS concepts and perform thermal analysis of DOE-Managed SNF and HLW in the disposal settings of primary interest – argillite, crystalline, salt, and deep borehole. As the disposal design concept is composed of waste inventory, geologic setting, and engineered concept of operation, the engineered barrier system (EBS) falls into the last component of engineered concept of operation. The waste inventory for DOE-Managed HLW and SNF is closely examined, with specific attention to the number of waste packages, the size of waste packages, and the thermal output per package. As expected, the DOE-Managed HLW and SNF inventory has a much smaller volume, and hence smaller number of canisters, as well a lower thermal output, relative to a waste inventory that would include commercial spent nuclear fuel (CSNF). A survey of available data and methods from previous studies of thermal analysis indicates that, in some cases, thermo-hydrologic modeling will be necessary to appropriately address the problem. This report also outlines scope for FY16 work -- a key challenge identified is developing a methodology to effectively and efficiently evaluate EBS performance in each disposal setting on the basis of thermal analyses results.

  19. Study on Establishment of the Main Flowchart of CPFR Based on ebXML%基于ebXML的CPFR主要流程构建与实施研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘斌; 王喜富

    2009-01-01

    通过分析CPFR实施过程中对信息技术的要求,结合ebXML自身特点,指出在CPFR实施中建立基于ebxML的信息交换平台的必要性,并根据CPFR实施的步骤,构建了基于ebXML的CPFR主要步骤的流程模型.

  20. The Integration of EDI and JDF Based on ebXML%基于ebXML规范实现EDI与JDF的集成

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐骁俊; 丁岳伟

    2006-01-01

    传统的B2B信息化应用中,EDI(Electronic Data Interface)最大缺点在于没有一个统一规范的标准.我们提供一种开放的技术框架将XML作为数据载体,利用现有的网络资源基础上进行电子数据交换.本文在此基础上,提出了一种在印刷行业SCM系统中,将基于全球统一ebXML规范的XML/EDI与JDF(Job Definition Format作业定义格式)的集成解决方法.

  1. BPAG1a and b associate with EB1 and EB3 and modulate vesicular transport, Golgi apparatus structure, and cell migration in C2.7 myoblasts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kseniia Poliakova

    Full Text Available BPAG1a and BPAG1b (BPAG1a/b constitute two major isoforms encoded by the dystonin (Dst gene and show homology with MACF1a and MACF1b. These proteins are members of the plakin family, giant multi-modular proteins able to connect the intermediate filament, microtubule and microfilament cytoskeletal networks with each other and to distinct cell membrane sites. They also serve as scaffolds for signaling proteins that modulate cytoskeletal dynamics. To gain better insights into the functions of BPAG1a/b, we further characterized their C-terminal region important for their interaction with microtubules and assessed the role of these isoforms in the cytoskeletal organization of C2.7 myoblast cells. Our results show that alternative splicing does not only occur at the 5' end of Dst and Macf1 pre-mRNAs, as previously reported, but also at their 3' end, resulting in expression of additional four mRNA variants of BPAG1 and MACF1. These isoform-specific C-tails were able to bundle microtubules and bound to both EB1 and EB3, two microtubule plus end proteins. In the C2.7 cell line, knockdown of BPAG1a/b had no major effect on the organization of the microtubule and microfilament networks, but negatively affected endocytosis and maintenance of the Golgi apparatus structure, which became dispersed. Finally, knockdown of BPAG1a/b caused a specific decrease in the directness of cell migration, but did not impair initial cell adhesion. These data provide novel insights into the complexity of alternative splicing of Dst pre-mRNAs and into the role of BPAG1a/b in vesicular transport, Golgi apparatus structure as well as in migration in C2.7 myoblasts.

  2. Shot number estimation for EB direct writing for logic LSI utilizing character-build standard-cell layout technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kajiya, Yoshihiko; Nakamura, Akihiro; Yoshikawa, Masaya; Fujino, Takeshi

    2006-05-01

    Electron Beam direct writing (EBDW) technology is the most cost-effective lithography tool for small-volume logic-LSI fabrication. The EB exposure time will be greatly reduced by applying character-projection (CP) aperture. But the applicable number of CP aperture is limited to 25-400 depending upon EB lithography apparatus. The cell-based logic LSIs are composed of standard-cells (SCs) whose number is 400-1000. Therefore, it is impossible to implement all SCs as CP apertures, because the SCs are placed to 4-directions in general. We had proposed the new technique named 'Character-Build (CB) standard-cell', and demonstrate the most of the combination-logic SCs can be composed by only 17 CP apertures. In this paper, not only combination-logic SCs but also sequential-logic SCs are considered. The number of EB-shots and the chip-area are estimated for some sample circuits. Compared to the simply-limited SCs, The EB shot number is 30-40% reduced by using proposed CB standard-cell, when the CP aperture numbers are 20-30. Moreover, CB standard-cell was advantageous in the module area. Considering 2-directional placement of SCs, the combination of the EB apparatus with 50-100 CP apertures and the CB standard-cell technique may be the best method for high-speed EB direct-writing.

  3. Protective effects of ebselen (Ebs) and para-aminosalicylic acid (PAS) against manganese (Mn)-induced neurotoxicity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marreilha dos Santos, A.P., E-mail: apsantos@ff.ul.pt [I-Med.UL, Department of Toxicology and Food Sciences, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Lisbon, Lisbon (Portugal); Lucas, Rui L.; Andrade, Vanda; Mateus, M. Luísa [I-Med.UL, Department of Toxicology and Food Sciences, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Lisbon, Lisbon (Portugal); Milatovic, Dejan; Aschner, Michael [Department of Pediatrics, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, TN 37232 (United States); Batoreu, M. Camila [I-Med.UL, Department of Toxicology and Food Sciences, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Lisbon, Lisbon (Portugal)

    2012-02-01

    Chronic, excessive exposure to manganese (Mn) may induce neurotoxicity and cause an irreversible brain disease, referred to as manganism. Efficacious therapies for the treatment of Mn are lacking, mandating the development of new interventions. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the efficacy of ebselen (Ebs) and para-aminosalicylic acid (PAS) in attenuating the neurotoxic effects of Mn in an in vivo rat model. Exposure biomarkers, inflammatory and oxidative stress biomarkers, as well as behavioral parameters were evaluated. Co-treatment with Mn plus Ebs or Mn plus PAS caused a significant decrease in blood and brain Mn concentrations (compared to rats treated with Mn alone), concomitant with reduced brain E{sub 2} prostaglandin (PGE{sub 2}) and enhanced brain glutathione (GSH) levels, decreased serum prolactin (PRL) levels, and increased ambulation and rearing activities. Taken together, these results establish that both PAS and Ebs are efficacious in reducing Mn body burden, neuroinflammation, oxidative stress and locomotor activity impairments in a rat model of Mn-induced toxicity. -- Highlights: ► The manuscript is unique in its approach to the neurotoxicity of Mn. ► The manuscript incorporates molecular, cellular and functional (behavioral) analyses. ► Both PAS and Ebs are effective in restoring Mn behavioral function. ► Both PAS and Ebs are effective in reducing Mn-induced oxidative stress. ► Both PAS and Ebs led to a decrease in Mn-induced neuro-inflammation.

  4. Heat treatment of CVD and PVD coated steels. Influence on coating build-up, dimensional changes, residual stress distribution and technological properties. Final report; Waermebehandlung CVD- und PVD-beschichteter Staehle. Einfluss auf Schichtaufbau, Massaenderungen, Eigenspannungsverteilung und technologische Eigenschaften. Abschlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kessler, O.

    1993-12-31

    Coating in accordance with the CVD process offers a number of advantages as compared to other processes. CVD facilities are of a relatively simple construction, as coating is possible almost at ambient pressure. The disadvantage of the CVD process is the high coating temperature involved. Previously, this fact has led to a low volume of air-hardening steels being coated. Due to high coating temperatures, coated steel substrates require subsequent heat treatment, in order to obtain an operational material condition. Steels with different hardenabilities (Ck 45, 42 CrMo 4, 100 Cr 6, X 155 CrVmo 12.1) and different coatings (HT-CVD TiN, MT-CVD TiCN, PVD TiN) were retreated with heat under inert gas and vacuum. The following coating and substrate properties were investigated before and after retreatment with heat: chemical and phase composition, structure, hardness, residual stresses, and adhesion of the coating. It was possible to obtain the desired structures and hardnesses in the substrates. The coatings remained macroscopically unchanged during vacuum heat treatment, while the coating color changed during inert gas heat treatment. (orig./MM) [Deutsch] Die Beschichtung nach dem CVD-Verfahren weist gegenueber anderen Verfahren eine Reihe von Vorteilen auf. CVD-Anlagen sind relativ einfach aufgebaut, da nahezu bei Umgebungsdruck beschichtet werden kann. Der Nachteil des CVD-Verfahrens ist die hohe Beschichtungstemperatur. Diese Tatsache hat bisher dazu gefuehrt, dass nicht lufthaertende Staehle nur in geringem Umfang beschichtet wurden. Aufgrund der hohen Beschichtungstemperaturen beduerfen beschichtete Stahlsubstrate einer nachtraeglichen Waermebehandlung zur Erzielung eines einsatzgerechten Werkstoffzustands. Staehle mit unterschiedlichen Haertbarkeiten (Ck 45, 42 CrMo 4, 100 Cr 6, X 155 CrVMo 12.1) und verschiedenen Schichten (HT-CVD TiN, MT-CVDTiCN, PVD TiN) wurden unter Schutzgas und Vakuum nachwaermebehandelt. Folgende Schicht- und Substrateigenschaften wurden

  5. Effect of aging on the ionic conductivity of polyvinylidenefluoride-hexafluoropropylene (PVdF-HFP) membrane impregnated with different lithium salts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aravindan, Vanchiappan; Vickraman, Palanisamy

    2012-05-01

    The aging towards the ionic conductivity have been studied using of different lithium salts namely, lithium bis(oxalate)borate (LiBOB), lithium difluoro(oxalato)borate (LiDFOB), lithium fluoroalkylphosphate (LiFAP) and LiPF6 in polyvinylidenefluoride-hexafluoropropylene (PVdF-HFP) matrix. The crystallization behavior of LiBOB and LiDFOB has been noticed for the first time during storage of such membranes within the texture of PVdF-HFP matrix. At the same time, such behavior has not been observed in the case of LiFAP and LiPF6 based membranes. The growth of such crystallites would certainly hinder the mobility mechanism of Li+ ions and it has been confirmed by ionic conductivity measurements. The formation of such crystals has been validated through scanning electron microscopic studies.

  6. High performance a-IGZO thin-film transistors with mf-PVD SiO2 as an etch-stop-layer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nag, M.; Steudel, S.; Bhoolokam, A.; Chasin, A.; Rockele, M.; Myny, K.; Maas, J.; Fritz, T.; Trube, J.; Groeseneken, G.; Heremans, P.

    2014-01-01

    In this work, we report on high-performance bottom-gate top-contact (BGTC) amorphous-Indium-Gallium-Zinc-Oxide (a-IGZO) thin-film transistor (TFT) with SiO2 as an etch-stop-layer (ESL) deposited by medium frequency physical vapor deposition (mf-PVD). The TFTs show field-effect mobility (μFE) of 16.0

  7. The investigations of (Ti,Al)N and (Al,Ti)N coatings obtained by PVD process onto sintered cutting tools

    OpenAIRE

    L.A. Dobrzański; M. Staszuk; M. Pawlyta; J. Konieczny

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The main aim of this research was an investigation of both the coatings structure and mechanical properties deposited by the cathode arc evaporation physical vapor deposition (CAE-PVD) on sintered carbides and sialon tool ceramics substrates.Design/methodology/approach: The (Ti,Al)N and (Al,Ti)N coatings were investigated. Microstructure was characterized using the scanning and transmission electron microscopy. Phases composition analysis was carried out by the XRD and GIXRD method. ...

  8. In-situ measurement of elastic modulus for ceramic top-coat at high temperature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    齐红宇; 周立柱; 马海全; 杨晓光; 李旭

    2008-01-01

    The ceramic thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) play an increasingly important in advanced gas turbine engines because of their ability to further increase the engine operating temperature and reduce the cooling, thus help achieve future engine low emission, high efficiency and improve the reliability goals. Currently, there are two different processes such as the plasma spraying (PS) and the electron beam-physical vapor deposition (EB-PVD) techniques. The PS coating was selected to test the elastic modulus. Using the nanoindentation and resonant frequency method, the mechanical properties of ceramic top-coat were measured in-situ. According to the theory of the resonant frequency and composite beam, the testing system was set up including the hardware and software. The results show that the accurate characterization of the elastic properties of TBCs is important for stress-strain analysis and failure prediction. The TBCs systems are multi-layer material system. It is difficult to measure the elastic modulus of top-coat by tensile method. The testing data is scatter by nanoindentation method because of the microstructure of the ceramic top-coat. The elastic modulus of the top-coat between 20?1 150 ℃ is obtained. The elastic modulus is from 2 to 70 GPa at room temperature. The elastic modulus changes from 62.5 GPa to 18.6 GPa when the temperature increases from 20 ℃ to 1 150 ℃.

  9. A mutation of the fission yeast EB1 overcomes negative regulation by phosphorylation and stabilizes microtubules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iimori, Makoto; Ozaki, Kanako [Graduate School of Biostudies, Kyoto University, Kitashirakawa-Oiwake cho, Sakyo ku, Kyoto, 606-8502 (Japan); Chikashige, Yuji [Kobe Advanced ICT Research Center, National Institute of Information and Communications Technology, Kobe, 651-2492 (Japan); Habu, Toshiyuki [Graduate School of Biostudies, Kyoto University, Kitashirakawa-Oiwake cho, Sakyo ku, Kyoto, 606-8502 (Japan); Radiation Biology Center, Kyoto University, Yoshida-Konoe cho, Sakyo ku, Kyoto, 606-8501 (Japan); Hiraoka, Yasushi [Kobe Advanced ICT Research Center, National Institute of Information and Communications Technology, Kobe, 651-2492 (Japan); Graduate School of Frontier Biosciences, Osaka University, 1-3 Yamadaoka, Suita, 565-0871 (Japan); Maki, Takahisa; Hayashi, Ikuko [Graduate School of Nanobioscience, Yokohama City University, Tsurumi, Yokohama, 230-0045 (Japan); Obuse, Chikashi [Graduate School of Life Science, Hokkaido University, Sapporo 001-0021 (Japan); Matsumoto, Tomohiro, E-mail: tmatsumo@house.rbc.kyoto-u.ac.jp [Graduate School of Biostudies, Kyoto University, Kitashirakawa-Oiwake cho, Sakyo ku, Kyoto, 606-8502 (Japan); Radiation Biology Center, Kyoto University, Yoshida-Konoe cho, Sakyo ku, Kyoto, 606-8501 (Japan)

    2012-02-01

    Mal3 is a fission yeast homolog of EB1, a plus-end tracking protein (+ TIP). We have generated a mutation (89R) replacing glutamine with arginine in the calponin homology (CH) domain of Mal3. Analysis of the 89R mutant in vitro has revealed that the mutation confers a higher affinity to microtubules and enhances the intrinsic activity to promote the microtubule-assembly. The mutant Mal3 is no longer a + TIP, but binds strongly the microtubule lattice. Live cell imaging has revealed that while the wild type Mal3 proteins dissociate from the tip of the growing microtubules before the onset of shrinkage, the mutant Mal3 proteins persist on microtubules and reduces a rate of shrinkage after a longer pausing period. Consequently, the mutant Mal3 proteins cause abnormal elongation of microtubules composing the spindle and aster. Mal3 is phosphorylated at a cluster of serine/threonine residues in the linker connecting the CH and EB1-like C-terminal motif domains. The phosphorylation occurs in a microtubule-dependent manner and reduces the affinity of Mal3 to microtubules. We propose that because the 89R mutation is resistant to the effect of phosphorylation, it can associate persistently with microtubules and confers a stronger stability of microtubules likely by reinforcing the cylindrical structure. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We characterize a mutation (mal3-89R) in fission yeast homolog of EB1. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The mutation enhances the activity to assemble microtubules. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Mal3 is phosphorylated in a microtubule-dependent manner. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The phosphorylation negatively regulates the Mal3 activity.

  10. Chlamydophila psittaci genotype E/B transmission from African grey parrots to humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harkinezhad, Taher; Verminnen, Kristel; Van Droogenbroeck, Caroline; Vanrompay, Daisy

    2007-08-01

    Thirty-six birds from a parrot relief and breeding centre, as well as the manager, were examined for the presence of Chlamydophila psittaci. In the relief unit, 5 of 20 African grey parrots showed depression, ruffled feathers, loss of weight and mild dyspnoea. The birds received no antibiotic treatment. Birds of the breeding unit, 14 blue and gold macaws and 2 green-winged macaws, were healthy. They received doxycycline at the start of each breeding season. The manager complained of shortness of breath but took no medication. Using a nested PCR enzyme immunoassay (EIA), Cp. psittaci was detected in the faeces of all five sick birds, as well as in a nasal and pharyngeal swab from the manager. The veterinarian and her assistant became infected while sampling the parrots, as pharyngeal and nasal swabs from both were positive by nested PCR/EIA after visiting the parrot relief and breeding centre, but they showed no clinical signs of infection. Bacteria could be isolated from three of five nested PCR/EIA-positive birds, the manager and the veterinarian, but not from the veterinary assistant. Using an ompA genotype-specific real-time PCR, Cp. psittaci genotype E/B was identified as the transmitted strain. All breeding birds tested negative for Cp. psittaci. This is believed to be the first report on Cp. psittaci genotype E/B transmission from parrots to humans. In contradiction to genotype A strains, which are thought to be highly virulent to both birds and men, the currently described genotype E/B strain apparently caused no severe clinical symptoms in either parrots or humans.

  11. Lithium ion conducting PVdF-HFP composite gel electrolytes based on N-methoxyethyl- N-methylpyrrolidinium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)-imide ionic liquid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrari, S.; Quartarone, E.; Mustarelli, P.; Magistris, A.; Fagnoni, M.; Protti, S.; Gerbaldi, C.; Spinella, A.

    Blends of PVdF-HFP and ionic liquids (ILs) are interesting for application as electrolytes in plastic Li batteries. They combine the advantages of the gel polymer electrolytes (GPEs) swollen by conventional organic liquid electrolytes with the nonflammability, and high thermal and electrochemical stability of ILs. In this work we prepared and characterized PVdF-HFP composite membranes swollen with a solution of LiTFSI in ether-functionalized pyrrolidinium-imide ionic liquid (PYRA 12O1TFSI). The membranes were filled in with two different types of silica: (i) mesoporous SiO 2 (SBA-15) and (ii) a commercial nano-size one (HiSil™ T700). The ionic conductivity and the electrochemical properties of the gel electrolytes were studied in terms of the nature of the filler. The thermal and the transport properties of the composite membranes are similar. In particular, room temperature ionic conductivities higher than 0.25 mS cm -1 are easily obtained at defined filler contents. However, the mesoporous filler guarantees higher lithium transference numbers, a more stable electrochemical interface and better cycling performances. Contrary to the HiSil™-based membrane, the Li/LiFePO 4 cells with PVdF-HFP/PYRA 12O1TFSI-LiTFSI films containing 10 wt% of SBA-15 show good charge/discharge capacity, columbic efficiency close to unity, and low capacity losses at medium C-rates during 180 cycles.

  12. Thermal stability, complexing behavior, and ionic transport of polymeric gel membranes based on polymer PVdF-HFP and ionic liquid, [BMIM][BF4].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shalu; Chaurasia, S K; Singh, R K; Chandra, S

    2013-01-24

    PVdF-HFP + IL(1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate; [BMIM][BF(4)]) polymeric gel membranes containing different amounts of ionic liquid have been synthesized and characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), differential scanning calorimetry, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), and complex impedance spectroscopic techniques. Incorporation of IL in PVdF-HFP polymer changes different physicochemical properties such as melting temperature (T(m)), thermal stability, structural morphology, amorphicity, and ionic transport. It is shown by FTIR, TGA (also first derivative of TGA, "DTGA") that IL partly complexes with the polymer PVdF-HFP and partly remains dispersed in the matrix. The ionic conductivity of polymeric gel membranes has been found to increase with increasing concentration of IL and attains a maximum value of 1.6 × 10(-2) S·cm(-1) for polymer gel membrane containing 90 wt % IL at room temperature. Interestingly, the values of conductivity of membranes with 80 and 90 wt % of IL were higher than that of pure IL (100 wt %). The polymer chain breathing model has been suggested to explain it. The variation of ionic conductivity with temperature of these gel polymeric membranes follows Arrhenius type thermally activated behavior.

  13. Surface modification of the X40CrMoV5-1 steel by laser alloying and PVD coatings deposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Lukaszkowicz

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The paper presents the influence of alloying with NbC powder by the use of a high-power diode laser and TiAlN, AlSiCrN and TiCN gradient coatings deposition by PVD process on microstructure and hardness of the X40CrMoV5-1 steel surface layer.Design/methodology/approach: Microstructure was characterised using optical metallography, scanning and transmission electron microscopy.Findings: In the effect of laser alloying with powders of carbide NbC occurs size reduction of microstructure as well as dispersion hardening through fused in but partially dissolved carbides and consolidation through enrichment of surface layer in alloying additions coming from dissolving carbides. The structure of the PVD coatings consisted of fine crystallites while their average size fitted within the range of 15-50 nm, depending on the coating type. The coatings demonstrated columnar structure.Research limitations/implications: It is necessary to continue the research to determine alloying parameters for demanded properties of hot work tool steels surface layers. Further investigations should be concentrated on the determination of the thermal fatigue resistance of the layers.Practical implications: Good properties of the PVD coatings and the laser treatment make these layers suitable for various technical and industrial applications.Originality/value: Laser alloying by using different carbide powders and HPDL laser is a new way to improve the structure and mechanical properties of the hot work tool steels.

  14. The mouse Eb meiotic recombination hotspot contains a tissue-specific transcriptional enhancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, X; Shenkar, R; Sakai, D; Arnheim, N

    1993-01-01

    A meiotic recombination hotspot exists within the second intron of the mouse major histocompatibility complex (MHC) gene, Eb. In the present study, a small fragment from the intron which contains two potential transcriptional regulatory elements was cloned into an expression vector and its effect on transcription was tested. This fragment was found to contain tissue-specific transcriptional enhancer activity. An octamer-like sequence and a B motif may contribute to this enhancer activity. Similar regulatory sequences with the same orientation and distance from one another are found in another mouse MHC recombination hotspot.

  15. Anti-migratory effect of vinflunine in endothelial and glioblastoma cells is associated with changes in EB1 C-terminal detyrosinated/tyrosinated status.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amandine Rovini

    Full Text Available We previously showed that vinflunine, a microtubule-targeting drug of the Vinca-alkaloid family exerted its anti-angiogenic/anti-migratory activities through an increase in microtubule dynamics and an inhibition of microtubule targeting to adhesion sites. Such effect was associated with a reduction of EB1 comet length at microtubule (+ ends. In this work we first showed that the pro-angiogenic vascular endothelial growth factor VEGF suppressed microtubule dynamics in living Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells (HUVECs, increased EB1 comet length by 40%, and induced EB1 to bind all along the microtubules, without modifying its expression level. Such microtubule (+ end stabilization occurred close to the plasma membrane in the vicinity of focal adhesion as shown by TIRF microscopy experiments. Vinflunine completely abolished the effect of VEGF on EB1 comets. Interestingly, we found a correlation between the reduction of EB1 comet length by vinflunine and the inhibition of cell migration. By using 2D gel electrophoresis we demonstrated for the first time that EB1 underwent several post-translational modifications in endothelial and tumor cells. Particularly, the C-terminal EEY sequence was poorly detectable in control and VEGF-treated HUVECs suggesting the existence of a non-tyrosinated form of EB1. By using specific antibodies that specifically recognized and discriminated the native tyrosinated form of EB1 and a putative C-terminal detyrosinated form, we showed that a detyrosinated form of EB1 exists in HUVECs and tumor cells. Interestingly, vinflunine decreased the level of the detyrosinated form and increased the native tyrosinated form of EB1. Using 3-L-Nitrotyrosine incorporation experiments, we concluded that the EB1 C-terminal modifications result from a detyrosination/retyrosination cycle as described for tubulin. Altogether, our results show that vinflunine inhibits endothelial cell migration through an alteration of EB1 comet length

  16. A novel monolithic LEU foil target based on a PVD manufacturing process for (99)Mo production via fission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollmer, Tobias; Petry, Winfried

    2016-12-01

    (99)Mo is the most widely used radioactive isotope in nuclear medicine. Its main production route is the fission of uranium. A major challenge for a reliable supply is the conversion from highly enriched uranium (HEU) to low enriched uranium (LEU). A promising candidate to realize this conversion is the cylindrical LEU irradiation target. The target consists of a uranium foil encapsulated between two coaxial aluminum cladding cylinders. This target allows a separate processing of the irradiated uranium foil and the cladding when recovering the (99)Mo. Thereby, both the costs and the volume of highly radioactive liquid waste are significantly reduced compared to conventional targets. The presented manufacturing process is based on the direct coating of the uranium on the inside of the outer cladding cylinder. This process was realized by a cylindrical magnetron enhanced physical vapor deposition (PVD) technique. The method features a highly automated process, a good quality of the resulting uranium foils and a high material utilization. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. TBCS/Chameleon Utility Trial Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-05-01

    mission contexts, different mission tasks, different time pressures and different team roles . For example, the levels of detail to support planning before...predictive value of the results. • the low level of experience in the personnel who played combat team roles in the trial • a single participant at each

  18. Management služeb IT (ISO 20000) v Iterity s.r.o.

    OpenAIRE

    Vlček, Daniel

    2007-01-01

    Předložená diplomová práce se zabývá standardizací procesů v oblasti informačních technologií. Oblast managementu služeb IT popisují normy ISO 20000 a ITIL, ze kterých je primárně čerpáno. Za hlavní cíl si klade revizi firemních procesů v konkrétní společnosti dle struktury zmíněných norem. Diplomová práce se snaží o sloučení zásad a principů obecného managementu v prostředí informačních technologií. Do velké míry by měla sloužit potřebám konkrétního IT podniku, je proto psána odborným a stan...

  19. A single-photon sensitive ebCMOS camera: The LUSIPHER prototype

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barbier, R., E-mail: rbarbier@ipnl.in2p3.fr [Universite de Lyon, Universite Lyon 1, Lyon F-69003 (France); CNRS/IN2P3, Institut de Physique Nucleaire de Lyon, Villeurbanne F-69622 (France); Cajgfinger, T.; Calabria, P.; Chabanat, E.; Chaize, D.; Depasse, P.; Doan, Q.T.; Dominjon, A.; Guerin, C.; Houles, J.; Vagneron, L. [Universite de Lyon, Universite Lyon 1, Lyon F-69003 (France); CNRS/IN2P3, Institut de Physique Nucleaire de Lyon, Villeurbanne F-69622 (France); Baudot, J.; Dorokhov, A.; Dulinski, W.; Winter, M. [Universite Louis Pasteur Strasbourg, Strasbourg (France); CNRS/IN2P3, Institut Pluridisciplinaire Hubert Curien, Strasbourg F-67037 (France); Kaiser, C.T. [PHOTONIS Netherlands BV, Roden B.O. Box 60, 9300 AB Roden (Netherlands)

    2011-08-21

    Processing high-definition images with single-photon sensitivity acquired above 500 frames per second (fps) will certainly find ground-breaking applications in scientific and industrial domains such as nano-photonics. However, current technologies for low light imaging suffer limitations above the standard 30 fps to keep providing both excellent spatial resolution and signal-over-noise. This paper presents the state of the art on a promising way to answer this challenge, the electron bombarded CMOS (ebCMOS) detector. A large-scale ultra fast single-photon tracker camera prototype produced with an industrial partner is described. The full characterization of the back-thinned CMOS sensor is presented and a method for Point Spread Function measurements is elaborated. Then the study of the ebCMOS performance is presented for two different multi-alkali cathodes, S20 and S25. Point Spread Function measurements carried out on an optical test bench are analysed to extract the PSF of the tube by deconvolution. The resolution of the tube is studied as a function of temperature, high voltage and incident wavelength. Results are discussed for both multi-alkali cathodes as well as a Maxwellian modelization of the radial initial energy of the photo-electrons.

  20. Production of bacterial endoglucanase from pretreated oil palm empty fruit bunch by bacillus pumilus EB3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ariffin, Hidayah; Hassan, Mohd Ali; Shah, Umi Kalsom Md; Abdullah, Norhafizah; Ghazali, Farinazleen Mohd; Shirai, Yoshihito

    2008-09-01

    In this study, endoglucanase was produced from oil palm empty fruit bunch (OPEFB) by a locally isolated aerobic bacterium, Bacillus pumilus EB3. The effects of the fermentation parameters such as initial pH, temperature, and nitrogen source on the endoglucanase production were studied using carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) as the carbon source. Endoglucanase from B. pumilus EB3 was maximally secreted at 37 degrees C, initial pH 7.0 with 10 g/l of CMC as carbon source, and 2 g/l of yeast extract as organic nitrogen source. The activity recorded during the fermentation was 0.076 U/ml. The productivity of the enzyme increased twofold when 2 g/l of yeast extract was used as the organic nitrogen supplement as compared to the non-supplemented medium. An interesting finding from this study is that pretreated OPEFB medium showed comparable results to CMC medium in terms of enzyme production with an activity of 0.063 U/ml. As OPEFB is an abundant solid waste at palm oil mills, it has the potential of acting as a substrate in cellulase production.

  1. The Influence of EB-Irradiated Treatment on Enhancing Barrier Property and Crystallization Behavior of Rubber-Toughened Nanocomposites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. A. Jamal

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Electron beam (EB irradiation technique was introduced to modify the crystallization and oxygen (O2 barrier properties of high density-polyethylene (HDPE/ethylene propylene diene monomer (EPDM matrix and HDPE/EPDM filled withorganophilic montmorillonite (OMMT. The absorbed dose for EB-irradiation was fixed at 100 kGy. HDPE/EPDM matrix and HDPE/EPDM filled with OMMT at 4 vol% loading were prepared via melt intercalation method. It was found that the barrier resistance of HDPE/EPDM filled withOMMT against oxygen (O2 transmission was significantly enhanced by EB-irradiation absorbed dose of 100 kGy as compared to the control system. The crystallization temperature, Tc, and melting temperature, Tm, were also improved with the addition of OMMT along with the aids of EB-irradiation technique. Field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM revealed that the stacking condition of OMMT particles was greatly reduced by EB-irradiation treatment as evidenced by finer surface and less formation of voids.

  2. The microtubule plus-end tracking proteins SPR1 and EB1b interact to maintain polar cell elongation and directional organ growth in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galva, Charitha; Kirik, Viktor; Lindeboom, Jelmer J; Kaloriti, Despoina; Rancour, David M; Hussey, Patrick J; Bednarek, Sebastian Y; Ehrhardt, David W; Sedbrook, John C

    2014-11-01

    The microtubule plus-end tracking proteins (+TIPs) END BINDING1b (EB1b) and SPIRAL1 (SPR1) are required for normal cell expansion and organ growth. EB proteins are viewed as central regulators of +TIPs and cell polarity in animals; SPR1 homologs are specific to plants. To explore if EB1b and SPR1 fundamentally function together, we combined genetic, biochemical, and cell imaging approaches in Arabidopsis thaliana. We found that eb1b-2 spr1-6 double mutant roots exhibit substantially more severe polar expansion defects than either single mutant, undergoing right-looping growth and severe axial twisting instead of waving on tilted hard-agar surfaces. Protein interaction assays revealed that EB1b and SPR1 bind each other and tubulin heterodimers, which is suggestive of a microtubule loading mechanism. EB1b and SPR1 show antagonistic association with microtubules in vitro. Surprisingly, our combined analyses revealed that SPR1 can load onto microtubules and function independently of EB1 proteins, setting SPR1 apart from most studied +TIPs in animals and fungi. Moreover, we found that the severity of defects in microtubule dynamics in spr1 eb1b mutant hypocotyl cells correlated well with the severity of growth defects. These data indicate that SPR1 and EB1b have complex interactions as they load onto microtubule plus ends and direct polar cell expansion and organ growth in response to directional cues.

  3. The Microtubule Plus-End Tracking Proteins SPR1 and EB1b Interact to Maintain Polar Cell Elongation and Directional Organ Growth in Arabidopsis[W

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galva, Charitha; Kirik, Viktor; Lindeboom, Jelmer J.; Kaloriti, Despoina; Rancour, David M.; Hussey, Patrick J.; Bednarek, Sebastian Y.; Ehrhardt, David W.; Sedbrook, John C.

    2014-01-01

    The microtubule plus-end tracking proteins (+TIPs) END BINDING1b (EB1b) and SPIRAL1 (SPR1) are required for normal cell expansion and organ growth. EB proteins are viewed as central regulators of +TIPs and cell polarity in animals; SPR1 homologs are specific to plants. To explore if EB1b and SPR1 fundamentally function together, we combined genetic, biochemical, and cell imaging approaches in Arabidopsis thaliana. We found that eb1b-2 spr1-6 double mutant roots exhibit substantially more severe polar expansion defects than either single mutant, undergoing right-looping growth and severe axial twisting instead of waving on tilted hard-agar surfaces. Protein interaction assays revealed that EB1b and SPR1 bind each other and tubulin heterodimers, which is suggestive of a microtubule loading mechanism. EB1b and SPR1 show antagonistic association with microtubules in vitro. Surprisingly, our combined analyses revealed that SPR1 can load onto microtubules and function independently of EB1 proteins, setting SPR1 apart from most studied +TIPs in animals and fungi. Moreover, we found that the severity of defects in microtubule dynamics in spr1 eb1b mutant hypocotyl cells correlated well with the severity of growth defects. These data indicate that SPR1 and EB1b have complex interactions as they load onto microtubule plus ends and direct polar cell expansion and organ growth in response to directional cues. PMID:25415978

  4. Targeted proteolysis of plectin isoform 1a accounts for hemidesmosome dysfunction in mice mimicking the dominant skin blistering disease EBS-Ogna.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gernot Walko

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Autosomal recessive mutations in the cytolinker protein plectin account for the multisystem disorders epidermolysis bullosa simplex (EBS associated with muscular dystrophy (EBS-MD, pyloric atresia (EBS-PA, and congenital myasthenia (EBS-CMS. In contrast, a dominant missense mutation leads to the disease EBS-Ogna, manifesting exclusively as skin fragility. We have exploited this trait to study the molecular basis of hemidesmosome failure in EBS-Ogna and to reveal the contribution of plectin to hemidesmosome homeostasis. We generated EBS-Ogna knock-in mice mimicking the human phenotype and show that blistering reflects insufficient protein levels of the hemidesmosome-associated plectin isoform 1a. We found that plectin 1a, in contrast to plectin 1c, the major isoform expressed in epidermal keratinocytes, is proteolytically degraded, supporting the notion that degradation of hemidesmosome-anchored plectin is spatially controlled. Using recombinant proteins, we show that the mutation renders plectin's 190-nm-long coiled-coil rod domain more vulnerable to cleavage by calpains and other proteases activated in the epidermis but not in skeletal muscle. Accordingly, treatment of cultured EBS-Ogna keratinocytes as well as of EBS-Ogna mouse skin with calpain inhibitors resulted in increased plectin 1a protein expression levels. Moreover, we report that plectin's rod domain forms dimeric structures that can further associate laterally into remarkably stable (paracrystalline polymers. We propose focal self-association of plectin molecules as a novel mechanism contributing to hemidesmosome homeostasis and stabilization.

  5. Overexpression of EB1 in human esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) may promote cellular growth by activating beta-catenin/TCF pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yihua; Zhou, Xiaobo; Zhu, Hongxia; Liu, Shuang; Zhou, Cuiqi; Zhang, Guo; Xue, Liyan; Lu, Ning; Quan, Lanping; Bai, Jinfeng; Zhan, Qimin; Xu, Ningzhi

    2005-10-01

    Esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) has a multifactorial etiology involving environmental and/or genetic factors. End-binding protein 1 (EB1), which was cloned as an interacting partner of the adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) tumor suppressor protein, was previously found overexpressed in ESCC. However, the precise role of EB1 in the development of this malignancy has not yet been elucidated. In this study, we analysed freshly resected ESCC specimens and demonstrated that EB1 was overexpressed in approximately 63% of tumor samples compared to matched normal tissue. We report that overexpression of EB1 in the ESCC line EC9706 significantly promotes cell growth, whereas suppression of EB1 protein level by RNA interference significantly inhibited growth of esophageal tumor cells. In addition, EB1 overexpression induced nuclear accumulation of beta-catenin and promoted the transcriptional activity of beta-catenin/T-cell factor (TCF). These effects were partially or completely abolished by coexpression of APC or DeltaN TCF4, respectively. Also, we found that EB1 affected the interaction between beta-catenin and APC. Furthermore, EB1 overexpression was correlated with cytoplasmic/nuclear accumulation of beta-catenin in primary human ESCC. Taken together, these results support the novel hypothesis that EB1 overexpression may play a role in the development of ESCC by affecting APC function and activating the beta-catenin/TCF pathway.

  6. Characteristics of CrAlSiN + DLC coating deposited by lateral rotating cathode arc PVD and PACVD process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukaszkowicz, Krzysztof; Sondor, Jozef; Balin, Katarzyna; Kubacki, Jerzy

    2014-09-01

    Coating system composed of CrAlSiN film covered by diamond-like carbon (DLC)-based lubricant, deposited on hot work tool steel substrate was the subject of the research. The CrAlSiN and DLC layers were deposited by PVD lateral rotating ARC-cathodes (LARC) and PACVD technology on the X40CrMoV5-1 respectively. HRTEM investigation shows an amorphous character of DLC layer. It was found that the tested CrAlSiN layer has a nanostructural character with fine crystallites while their average size is less than 10 nm. Based on the XRD pattern of the CrAlSiN, the occurrence of fcc phase was only observed in the coating, the texture direction is perpendicular to the sample surface. Combined SEM, AES and ToF-SIMS studies confirmed assumed chemical composition and layered structure of the coating. The chemical distribution of the elements inside the layers and at the interfaces was analyzed by SEM and AES methods. It was shown that additional CrN layer is present between substrate and CrAlSiN coating. The atomic concentration of the particular elements of DLC and CrAlSiN layer was calculated from the XPS measurements. In sliding dry friction conditions the friction coefficient for the investigated elements is set in the range between 0.05 and 0.07. The investigated coating reveals high wear resistance. The coating demonstrated a dense cross-sectional morphology as well as good adhesion to the substrate.

  7. Hierarchical adaptive nanostructured PVD coatings for extreme tribological applications: the quest for nonequilibrium states and emergent behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    German S Fox-Rabinovich, Kenji Yamamoto, Ben D Beake, Iosif S Gershman, Anatoly I Kovalev, Stephen C Veldhuis, Myram H Aguirre, Goulnara Dosbaeva and Jose L Endrino

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Adaptive wear-resistant coatings produced by physical vapor deposition (PVD are a relatively new generation of coatings which are attracting attention in the development of nanostructured materials for extreme tribological applications. An excellent example of such extreme operating conditions is high performance machining of hard-to-cut materials. The adaptive characteristics of such coatings develop fully during interaction with the severe environment. Modern adaptive coatings could be regarded as hierarchical surface-engineered nanostructural materials. They exhibit dynamic hierarchy on two major structural scales: (a nanoscale surface layers of protective tribofilms generated during friction and (b an underlying nano/microscaled layer. The tribofilms are responsible for some critical nanoscale effects that strongly impact the wear resistance of adaptive coatings. A new direction in nanomaterial research is discussed: compositional and microstructural optimization of the dynamically regenerating nanoscaled tribofilms on the surface of the adaptive coatings during friction. In this review we demonstrate the correlation between the microstructure, physical, chemical and micromechanical properties of hard coatings in their dynamic interaction (adaptation with environment and the involvement of complex natural processes associated with self-organization during friction. Major physical, chemical and mechanical characteristics of the adaptive coating, which play a significant role in its operating properties, such as enhanced mass transfer, and the ability of the layer to provide dissipation and accumulation of frictional energy during operation are presented as well. Strategies for adaptive nanostructural coating design that enhance beneficial natural processes are outlined. The coatings exhibit emergent behavior during operation when their improved features work as a whole. In this way, as higher-ordered systems, they achieve multifunctionality

  8. 基于ebXML规范实现EDI与JDF的集成

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐骁俊; 丁岳伟

    2006-01-01

    传统的B2B信息化应用中,EDI(Electronic Data Interface)大缺点在于没有一个统一规范的标准.我们提供一种开放的技术框架将XML作为数据载体,利用现有的网络资源基础上进行电子数据变换.本文在此基础上,提出了一种在印刷行业SCM系统中,将基于全球统一ebXML规范的XML/EDI与JDF(Job Deftnition Fonnat作业定义格式)的集成解决方法。

  9. Steady-state EB cap size fluctuations are determined by stochastic microtubule growth and maturation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rickman, Jamie; Duellberg, Christian; Cade, Nicholas I; Griffin, Lewis D; Surrey, Thomas

    2017-03-28

    Growing microtubules are protected from depolymerization by the presence of a GTP or GDP/Pi cap. End-binding proteins of the EB1 family bind to the stabilizing cap, allowing monitoring of its size in real time. The cap size has been shown to correlate with instantaneous microtubule stability. Here we have quantitatively characterized the properties of cap size fluctuations during steady-state growth and have developed a theory predicting their timescale and amplitude from the kinetics of microtubule growth and cap maturation. In contrast to growth speed fluctuations, cap size fluctuations show a characteristic timescale, which is defined by the lifetime of the cap sites. Growth fluctuations affect the amplitude of cap size fluctuations; however, cap size does not affect growth speed, indicating that microtubules are far from instability during most of their time of growth. Our theory provides the basis for a quantitative understanding of microtubule stability fluctuations during steady-state growth.

  10. Mechanisms of cellular adaptation to quantum dots--the role of glutathione and transcription factor EB.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neibert, Kevin D; Maysinger, Dusica

    2012-05-01

    Cellular adaptation is the dynamic response of a cell to adverse changes in its intra/extra cellular environment. The aims of this study were to investigate the role of: (i) the glutathione antioxidant system, and (ii) the transcription factor EB (TFEB), a newly revealed master regulator of lysosome biogenesis, in cellular adaptation to nanoparticle-induced oxidative stress. Intracellular concentrations of glutathione species and activation of TFEB were assessed in rat pheochromocytoma (PC12) cells following treatment with uncapped CdTe quantum dots (QDs), using biochemical, live cell fluorescence and immunocytochemical techniques. Exposure to toxic concentrations of QDs resulted in a significant enhancement of intracellular glutathione concentrations, redistribution of glutathione species and a progressive translocation and activation of TFEB. These changes were associated with an enlargement of the cellular lysosomal compartment. Together, these processes appear to have an adaptive character, and thereby participate in the adaptive cellular response to toxic nanoparticles.

  11. Evaluation of Factors Affecting Polyhydroxyalkanoates Production by Comamonas sp. EB172 Using Central Composite Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noor Azman Mohd Johar

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Aims: Statistical approach, central composite design (CCD was used to investigate the complex interaction among temperature (25-37 °C, initial medium pH (5-9, inoculum size (4-10 % (v/v, concentration of (NH42SO4 (0-1 g/L and concentration of mixed organic acids (5-10 g/L in the production of polyhydroxyalkanoates by Comamonas sp. EB172.Methodology and Results: Mixed organic acids derived from anaerobically treated palm oil mill effluent (POME containing acetic:propionic:butyric (ratio of 3:1:1 were used as carbon source in the batch culture of Comamonas sp. EB172 to produce polyhydoxyalkanoates (PHAs. The analysis of variance (ANOVA showed that all five factors were significantly important in the batch fermentation by shake flask with a P value of less than 0.001. The optimal temperature, initial medium pH, inoculum size, concentration of (NH42SO4 and concentration of mixed organic acids were 30 °C, 7.04, 4.0 % (v/v, 0.01 g/L and 5.05 g/L respectively.Conclusion, significance and impact of study: Optimization of the production medium containing mixed organic acids has improved the PHA production for more than 2 folds. Under optimal condition in the shake flask fermentation, the predicted growth is 2.98 g/L of dry cell weight (DCW with 47.07 wt % of PHA content. The highest yield of PHA was 0.28 g of PHA per g mixed organic acids.

  12. High efficiency turbine blade coatings.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Youchison, Dennis L.; Gallis, Michail A.

    2014-06-01

    The development of advanced thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) of yttria stabilized zirconia (YSZ) that exhibit lower thermal conductivity through better control of electron beam - physical vapor deposition (EB-PVD) processing is of prime interest to both the aerospace and power industries. This report summarizes the work performed under a two-year Lab-Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project (38664) to produce lower thermal conductivity, graded-layer thermal barrier coatings for turbine blades in an effort to increase the efficiency of high temperature gas turbines. This project was sponsored by the Nuclear Fuel Cycle Investment Area. Therefore, particular importance was given to the processing of the large blades required for industrial gas turbines proposed for use in the Brayton cycle of nuclear plants powered by high temperature gas-cooled reactors (HTGRs). During this modest (~1 full-time equivalent (FTE)) project, the processing technology was developed to create graded TBCs by coupling ion beam-assisted deposition (IBAD) with substrate pivoting in the alumina-YSZ system. The Electron Beam - 1200 kW (EB-1200) PVD system was used to deposit a variety of TBC coatings with micron layered microstructures and reduced thermal conductivity below 1.5 W/m.K. The use of IBAD produced fully stoichiometric coatings at a reduced substrate temperature of 600 oC and a reduced oxygen background pressure of 0.1 Pa. IBAD was also used to successfully demonstrate the transitioning of amorphous PVD-deposited alumina to the -phase alumina required as an oxygen diffusion barrier and for good adhesion to the substrate Ni2Al3 bondcoat. This process replaces the time consuming thermally grown oxide formation required before the YSZ deposition. In addition to the process technology, Direct Simulation Monte Carlo plume modeling and spectroscopic characterization of the PVD plumes were performed. The project consisted of five tasks. These included the production of layered

  13. High efficiency turbine blade coatings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Youchison, Dennis L. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Gallis, Michail A. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2014-06-01

    The development of advanced thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) of yttria stabilized zirconia (YSZ) that exhibit lower thermal conductivity through better control of electron beam - physical vapor deposition (EB-PVD) processing is of prime interest to both the aerospace and power industries. This report summarizes the work performed under a two-year Lab-Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project (38664) to produce lower thermal conductivity, graded-layer thermal barrier coatings for turbine blades in an effort to increase the efficiency of high temperature gas turbines. This project was sponsored by the Nuclear Fuel Cycle Investment Area. Therefore, particular importance was given to the processing of the large blades required for industrial gas turbines proposed for use in the Brayton cycle of nuclear plants powered by high temperature gas-cooled reactors (HTGRs). During this modest (~1 full-time equivalent (FTE)) project, the processing technology was developed to create graded TBCs by coupling ion beam-assisted deposition (IBAD) with substrate pivoting in the alumina-YSZ system. The Electron Beam - 1200 kW (EB-1200) PVD system was used to deposit a variety of TBC coatings with micron layered microstructures and reduced thermal conductivity below 1.5 W/m.K. The use of IBAD produced fully stoichiometric coatings at a reduced substrate temperature of 600°C and a reduced oxygen background pressure of 0.1 Pa. IBAD was also used to successfully demonstrate the transitioning of amorphous PVD-deposited alumina to the -phase alumina required as an oxygen diffusion barrier and for good adhesion to the substrate Ni2Al3 bondcoat. This process replaces the time consuming thermally grown oxide formation required before the YSZ deposition. In addition to the process technology, Direct Simulation Monte Carlo plume modeling and spectroscopic characterization of the PVD plumes were performed. The project consisted of five tasks. These included the

  14. Analysis of the environmental and nature impacts of 'Building Bridges'. Coalition VVD-PvdA, October 29, 2012. A quick scan; Analyse van de milieu- en natuureffecten van 'Bruggen slaan'. Regeerakkoord VVD-PvdA d.d. 29 oktober 2012. Een quick-scan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dietz, F. (ed.)

    2012-11-15

    The coalition between the political parties VVD (liberals) and PvdA (socialists) connects the transition to a sustainable economy and green growth to strengthening the competitive capacity of the Dutch economy. The role of the Dutch government in the coalition aims at creating a framework and to provide facilities to realize the transition. In this memo the results of an analysis of the impacts of the coalition are given for the themes Energy and Climate, Nature, Transport and Traffic, and Green Growth [Dutch] Het Regeerakkoord VVD-PvdA koppelt de transitie naar een duurzame economie en groene groei aan het versterken van het concurrentievermogen van de Nederlandse economie. De rol van de rijksoverheid wordt in het regeerakkoord met name ingevuld als kaderstellend en faciliterend. De PBL-notitie analyseert de effecten van het regeringsakkoord voor de thema's Energie en Klimaat, Natuur, Verkeer en Vervoer, en Groene groei.

  15. Lithium ion conducting PVdF-HFP composite gel electrolytes based on N-methoxyethyl-N-methylpyrrolidinium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)-imide ionic liquid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferrari, S.; Quartarone, E.; Mustarelli, P.; Magistris, A. [Dept. of Physical Chemistry, University of Pavia, Via Taramelli 16, 27100 Pavia (Italy); Fagnoni, M.; Protti, S. [Dept. of Organic Chemistry, University of Pavia, Via Taramelli 12, 27100 Pavia (Italy); Gerbaldi, C. [Dept. of Material Science and Chemical Engineering, Politecnico di Torino, C.so Duca degli Abruzzi, 24, 10129 Torino (Italy); Spinella, A. [Centro Grandi Apparecchiature - UniNetLab, University of Palermo, Via F. Marini 14, 90128 Palermo (Italy)

    2010-01-15

    Blends of PVdF-HFP and ionic liquids (ILs) are interesting for application as electrolytes in plastic Li batteries. They combine the advantages of the gel polymer electrolytes (GPEs) swollen by conventional organic liquid electrolytes with the nonflammability, and high thermal and electrochemical stability of ILs. In this work we prepared and characterized PVdF-HFP composite membranes swollen with a solution of LiTFSI in ether-functionalized pyrrolidinium-imide ionic liquid (PYRA{sub 12O1}TFSI). The membranes were filled in with two different types of silica: (i) mesoporous SiO{sub 2} (SBA-15) and (ii) a commercial nano-size one (HiSil trademark T700). The ionic conductivity and the electrochemical properties of the gel electrolytes were studied in terms of the nature of the filler. The thermal and the transport properties of the composite membranes are similar. In particular, room temperature ionic conductivities higher than 0.25 mS cm{sup -1} are easily obtained at defined filler contents. However, the mesoporous filler guarantees higher lithium transference numbers, a more stable electrochemical interface and better cycling performances. Contrary to the HiSil trademark -based membrane, the Li/LiFePO{sub 4} cells with PVdF-HFP/PYRA{sub 12O1}TFSI-LiTFSI films containing 10 wt% of SBA-15 show good charge/discharge capacity, columbic efficiency close to unity, and low capacity losses at medium C-rates during 180 cycles. (author)

  16. Comportamiento mecánico de ADI tratada superficialmente mediante la aplicación de recubrimientos PVD de baja temperatura

    OpenAIRE

    Colombo, Diego Alejandro; Echeverría, María D.; Massone, Juan Miguel

    2015-01-01

    En este trabajo se aplican recubrimientos PVD de TiN y CrN sobre ADI y se analiza la influencia del material del recubrimiento sobre las propiedades mecánicas del producto ADI recubierto. Se analiza también, el efecto del proceso de deposición sobre la microestructura de los sustratos. Los recubrimientos se aplican en un reactor industrial mediante la técnica de plateado iónico con arco catódico, utilizando parámetros de proceso específicamente seleccionados para este material. Se determinan ...

  17. Comparison of the PVD gradient coatings deposited onto X40CrMoV5-1 and HS6-5-2 tool steel substrate

    OpenAIRE

    K. Lukaszkowicz; L.A. Dobrzański; M. Staszuk; M. Pancielejko

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The main aim of this research was investigation and comparison of selected properties of gradient coatings TiCN and AlSiCrN. In this paper both coatings were deposited by cathode arc evaporation physical vapour deposition (CAE-PVD) method onto high speed steel HS6-5-2 and hot work tool steel X40CrMoV5-1.Design/methodology/approach: Observations of surface and structures of the deposited coatings were carried out on cross sections in the scanning electron microscope. The phase composi...

  18. Removal of metal ions from wastewater using EB irradiation in combination with HA/TiO₂/UV treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaki, A A; El-Gendy, Naima A

    2014-04-30

    The electron beam (EB) irradiation technology was applied for removal of Cu(2+), Sr(2+), and Co(2+) ions from wastewater. The aim of this study is to achieve an efficient treatment process of wastewater using EB and introducing a combination of humic acid (HA) as a natural organic polymer and ultraviolet irradiation of a TiO2 (TiO2/UV), as a suspended catalyst in the treatment of wastewater solutions (TiO2/UV+HA). The experimental results showed that the percentage removal of Cu(2+), Sr(2+), and Co(2+)ions was 41%, 87% and 75% respectively, at 125 kGy. In the presence of TiO2 photocatalyst and exposure of the investigated wastewater to ultraviolet rays before irradiation by the EB the percentage removal of Cu(2+) ions became 51%, while the percentage removal of both Sr(2+) and Co(2+) ions was slightly improved; was 87% and 75%, respectively at the same EB dose. On the other hand, by introducing the combination of TiO2/UV+HA, only an irradiation dose of about 50kGy led to removal of Cu(2+), Sr(2+), and Co(2+) completely from the wastewater. Mechanisms of interactions between HA and Cu(2+), Co(2+) and Sr(2+) metal ions were suggested and discussed.

  19. Development and validation of the self-acceptance scale for persons with early blindness: the SAS-EB.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgado, Fabiane Frota da Rocha; Campana, Angela Nogueira Neves Betanho; Tavares, Maria da Consolação Gomes Cunha Fernandes

    2014-01-01

    Investigations of self-acceptance are critical to understanding the development and maintenance of psychological health. However, valid and reliable instruments for measuring self-acceptance in persons with early blindness have yet to be developed. The current research describes three studies designed to develop and validate the Self-acceptance Scale for Persons with Early Blindness (SAS-EB). In Study 1, we developed the initial item pool. Thirty-three items were generated, based on data from specialized literature and from 2 focus groups. Items were organized in a three-factor structure, theoretically predicted for SAS-EB - (1) body acceptance, (2) self-protection from social stigmas, and (3) feeling and believing in one's capacities. In Study 2, information obtained from a panel of 9 experts and 22 persons with early blindness representing the target population was used to refine the initial item pool, generating a new pool of 27 items. In Study 3, 318 persons with early blindness (141 women and 177 men), between 18 and 60 years of age (M = 37.74 years, SD = 12.37) answered the new pool of 27 items. After the elimination of 9 items using confirmatory factor analysis, we confirmed the theoretical three-factor structure of the SAS-EB. Study 3 also provided support for the scale's internal consistency and construct validity. Finally, the psychometric properties of the SAS-EB, its utility, and its limitations are discussed along with considerations for future research.

  20. Microstructural characterization of electron beam-physical vapor deposition thermal barrier coatings through high-resolution computed microtomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulkarni, Anand; Herman, Herbert; Decarlo, Francesco; Subramanian, Ramesh

    2004-07-01

    Thermal barrier coatings (TBCs), deposited using the electron beam-physical vapor deposition (EB-PVD) process, comprise a unique architecture of porosity capable of bridging the technological gap between insulation/life extension and prime reliance. The TBC microstructures consist of columnar structure, nucleated via vapor condensation, along with a high degree of intercolumnar porosity, thus providing enhanced stress relief on thermomechanical loading and also accommodating misfit stresses resulting from CTE mismatch. In this article, we report the characterization of these coatings using high-resolution synchrotron-based X-ray computed microtomography (XMT) at 1.3- µm resolution. Experiments focused on quantitative characterization/visualization of imperfections in these coatings and on the relative changes in microstructural features upon isothermal annealing. The influence of time/temperature of exposure was investigated and the results were correlated with elastic modulus.

  1. Bond strength and stress measurements in thermal barrier coatings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gell, M.; Jordan, E. [Univ. of Connecticut, Storrs, CT (United States)

    1995-10-01

    Thermal barrier coatings have been used extensively in aircraft gas turbines for more than 15 years to insulate combustors and turbine vanes from the hot gas stream. Plasma sprayed thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) provide metal temperature reductions as much as 300{degrees}F, with improvements in durability of two times or more being achieved. The introduction of TBCs deposited by electron beam physical vapor deposition (EB-PVD) processes in the last five years has provided a major improvement in durability and also enabled TBCs to be applied to turbine blades for improved engine performance. To meet the aggressive Advanced Turbine Systems goals for efficiency, durability and the environment, it will be necessary to employ thermal barrier coatings on turbine airfoils and other hot section components. For The successful application of TBCs to ATS engines with 2600{degrees}F turbine inlet temperatures and required component lives 10 times greater than those for aircraft gas turbine engines, it is necessary to develop quantitative assessment techniques for TBC coating integrity with time and cycles in ATS engines. Thermal barrier coatings in production today consist of a metallic bond coat, such as an MCrAlY overlay coating or a platinum aluminide (Pt-Al) diffusion coating. During heat treatment, both these coatings form a thin, tightly adherent alumina (Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}) film. Failure of TBC coatings in engine service occurs by spallation of the ceramic coating at or near the bond coat to alumina or the alumina to zirconia bonds. Thus, it is the initial strength of these bonds and the stresses at the bond plane, and their changes with engine exposure, that determines coating durability. The purpose of this program is to provide, for the first time, a quantitative assessment of TBC bond strength and bond plane stresses as a function of engine time and cycles.

  2. Recruitment of EB1, a master regulator of microtubule dynamics, to the surface of the Theileria annulata schizont.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kerry L Woods

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The apicomplexan parasite Theileria annulata transforms infected host cells, inducing uncontrolled proliferation and clonal expansion of the parasitized cell population. Shortly after sporozoite entry into the target cell, the surrounding host cell membrane is dissolved and an array of host cell microtubules (MTs surrounds the parasite, which develops into the transforming schizont. The latter does not egress to invade and transform other cells. Instead, it remains tethered to host cell MTs and, during mitosis and cytokinesis, engages the cell's astral and central spindle MTs to secure its distribution between the two daughter cells. The molecular mechanism by which the schizont recruits and stabilizes host cell MTs is not known. MT minus ends are mostly anchored in the MT organizing center, while the plus ends explore the cellular space, switching constantly between phases of growth and shrinkage (called dynamic instability. Assuming the plus ends of growing MTs provide the first point of contact with the parasite, we focused on the complex protein machinery associated with these structures. We now report how the schizont recruits end-binding protein 1 (EB1, a central component of the MT plus end protein interaction network and key regulator of host cell MT dynamics. Using a range of in vitro experiments, we demonstrate that T. annulata p104, a polymorphic antigen expressed on the schizont surface, functions as a genuine EB1-binding protein and can recruit EB1 in the absence of any other parasite proteins. Binding strictly depends on a consensus SxIP motif located in a highly disordered C-terminal region of p104. We further show that parasite interaction with host cell EB1 is cell cycle regulated. This is the first description of a pathogen-encoded protein to interact with EB1 via a bona-fide SxIP motif. Our findings provide important new insight into the mode of interaction between Theileria and the host cell cytoskeleton.

  3. Recruitment of EB1, a Master Regulator of Microtubule Dynamics, to the Surface of the Theileria annulata Schizont

    KAUST Repository

    Woods, Kerry L.

    2013-05-09

    The apicomplexan parasite Theileria annulata transforms infected host cells, inducing uncontrolled proliferation and clonal expansion of the parasitized cell population. Shortly after sporozoite entry into the target cell, the surrounding host cell membrane is dissolved and an array of host cell microtubules (MTs) surrounds the parasite, which develops into the transforming schizont. The latter does not egress to invade and transform other cells. Instead, it remains tethered to host cell MTs and, during mitosis and cytokinesis, engages the cell\\'s astral and central spindle MTs to secure its distribution between the two daughter cells. The molecular mechanism by which the schizont recruits and stabilizes host cell MTs is not known. MT minus ends are mostly anchored in the MT organizing center, while the plus ends explore the cellular space, switching constantly between phases of growth and shrinkage (called dynamic instability). Assuming the plus ends of growing MTs provide the first point of contact with the parasite, we focused on the complex protein machinery associated with these structures. We now report how the schizont recruits end-binding protein 1 (EB1), a central component of the MT plus end protein interaction network and key regulator of host cell MT dynamics. Using a range of in vitro experiments, we demonstrate that T. annulata p104, a polymorphic antigen expressed on the schizont surface, functions as a genuine EB1-binding protein and can recruit EB1 in the absence of any other parasite proteins. Binding strictly depends on a consensus SxIP motif located in a highly disordered C-terminal region of p104. We further show that parasite interaction with host cell EB1 is cell cycle regulated. This is the first description of a pathogen-encoded protein to interact with EB1 via a bona-fide SxIP motif. Our findings provide important new insight into the mode of interaction between Theileria and the host cell cytoskeleton. 2013 Woods et al.

  4. Investigation on effect of weight ratios of PEG to BaTiO3 on PVdF-HFP nano composites for Li-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vickraman, P.; Ravindran, D.

    2013-06-01

    In the present study Polyethylene Glycol 2000(PEG2000)-Barium Titanate(BaTiO3) in five different weight ratios were physically blended to the plasticized PVdF-HFP/LIBETI matrix to study the ionic conductivity thermal, morphology and XRD properties was attempted. The ionic Conductivity observation show that 15:5wt% PEG:BaTiO3 only improved magnitude of conductivity 1.256×10-5 S/cm (Sample-V2) than 20:0(V1), 10:10(V3), 5:15(V4), 0:20(V5). The XRD profile show the suppression of β-phase of PVdF and presence of BaTiO3, irrespective of increase/decrease in the mass gradient of PEG, and not supportive of the conductivity beyond V2 was noted. The TGA on PEG:BaTiO3 20:0(V1), 0:20(V5) and, 15:5(V2) it was observed that V1 underwent three stages of weight losses and V5 with single stage (over the sample V2) suggest that membrane not having more weight losses due to higher aggregation of filler was observed.

  5. Characteristics of PVdF-HFP/TiO{sub 2} composite membrane electrolytes prepared by phase inversion and conventional casting methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Kwang Man; Ryu, Kwang Sun; Chang, Soon Ho [Ionics Devices Team, Basic Research Lab., Electronics and Telecommunications Research Institute (ETRI), 161 Gajong, Yusong, Daejon 305-700 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Nam-Gyu [Materials Science and Technology Division, Korea Institute of Science and Technology (KIST), 39-1 Hwaolgok, Seongbuk, Seoul 136-791 (Korea, Republic of)

    2006-08-15

    Porous poly(vinylidene fluoride-co-hexafluoropropylene) (PVdF-HFP)-based polymer membranes filled with various contents of titania (TiO{sub 2}) nanocrystalline particles are prepared by phase inversion technique and, along with conventional casting method for comparison. N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone (NMP) as a solvent is used to dissolve the polymer and to make the slurry with TiO{sub 2}. Cast film is obtained by spreading the slurry and evaporating NMP in a dry oven, while phase inversion membrane by promptly immersing the spread slurry into flowing water as a non-solvent. Physical and electrochemical characterizations, such as morphology, thermal and crystalline behavior, and other transport properties of lithium ionic species, are carried out for the polymer films/membranes and the polymer electrolytes with absorbing an electrolyte solution. Phase inversion polymer electrolytes are proved to show superior behaviors in electrochemical properties, such as ionic conductivity, electrochemical and interfacial stability, than cast film electrolytes. This is greatly owed to highly porous structure of phase inversion membranes. Even including the feature of interfacial resistance with lithium electrode, phase inversion polymer electrolytes of PVdF-HFP/(5-20wt.% TiO{sub 2}) can be optimized as the adequate ones in applying to the electrolyte medium of lithium rechargeable batteries. (author)

  6. Study of the interfacial stability of PVdF/HFP gel electrolytes with sub-micro- and nano-sized surface-modified silicas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zalewska, A., E-mail: aldona@ch.pw.edu.p [Warsaw University of Technology, Department of Chemistry, Noakowskiego 3, 00-664 Warszawa (Poland); Walkowiak, M. [Institute of Non-Ferrous Metals Branch in Poznan Central Laboratory of Batteries and Cells, Forteczna 12, 61-362 Poznan (Poland); Niedzicki, L. [Warsaw University of Technology, Department of Chemistry, Noakowskiego 3, 00-664 Warszawa (Poland); Jesionowski, T. [Poznan University of Technology, Institute of Chemical Technology and Engineering, Pl. Marii Sklodowskiej-Curie 2, 60-965 Poznan (Poland); Langwald, N. [Warsaw University of Technology, Department of Chemistry, Noakowskiego 3, 00-664 Warszawa (Poland)

    2010-01-25

    The aim of the presented work was to perform a preliminary study of the physicochemical and interfacial properties of hybrid organic-inorganic gel electrolytes for Li-ion batteries based on the PVdF/HFP polymeric matrix and surface-modified silicas. Two types of silica fillers of different grain sizes (>500 nm and approx100 nm) were used as additives. The silica particles were modified by two different functional groups, i.e. methacryloxy and vinyl ones. The gel electrolytes based on PVdF/HFP copolymer were prepared according to the so-called Bellcore two-step process. The motivation of the present work was to study more deeply those systems in terms of morphology by means of scanning electron microscopy techniques. Fillers modified with identical functional groups but differing fundamentally in the manufacturing processes were compared in terms of the impact on morphology and electrochemical performance of the resulting membranes. Interfacial properties were examined by means of impedance spectroscopy technique using Swagelok-type cells with two lithium electrodes.

  7. Improving the Wear Resistance of Moulds for the Injection of Glass Fibre–Reinforced Plastics Using PVD Coatings: A Comparative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Silva

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available It is well known that injection of glass fibre–reinforced plastics (GFRP causes abrasive wear in moulds’ cavities and runners. Physical vapour deposition (PVD coatings are intensively used to improve the wear resistance of different tools, also being one of the most promising ways to increase the moulds’ lifespan, mainly when used with plastics strongly reinforced with glass fibres. This work compares four different thin, hard coatings obtained using the PVD magnetron sputtering process: TiAlN, TiAlSiN, CrN/TiAlCrSiN and CrN/CrCN/DLC. The first two are monolayer coatings while the last ones are nanostructured and consist of multilayer systems. In order to carry out the corresponding tribological characterization, two different approaches were selected: A laboratorial method, using micro-abrasion wear tests based on a ball-cratering configuration, and an industrial mode, analysing the wear resistance of the coated samples when inserted in a plastic injection mould. As expected, the wear phenomena are not equivalent and the results between micro-abrasion and industrial tests are not similar due to the different means used to promote the abrasion. The best wear resistance performance in the laboratorial wear tests was attained by the TiAlN monolayer coating while the best performance in the industrial wear tests was obtained by the CrN/TiAlCrSiN nanostructured multilayer coating.

  8. 用于TFT-LCD生产线的新一代PECVD和PVD系统%New PECVD & PVD System Generation used for TFT LCD Production Line

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Julia Li; Haiyan Sun; Klaus Neubeck; Alexander Marxer; Christine Algate

    2004-01-01

    The biggest a-Si deposited substrate was introduced by Unaxis Displays at Yokohama FPD exhibition held on November, 28-31, 2003. This substrate enables up to eight 40" televisions to be produced on one substrate, thus indicating the new era of large size TFTLCD television is coming.This present paper outlines the innovative solution of PECVD and PVD systems (Generation 6 and 7) used for TFT-LCD production line: -Concept-System configuration-Substrate handling (external and internal)-Process reactors / chamber Finally, the future trend of PECVD & PVD system used for TFT LCD production is discussed.%在2003年11月28~31日于日本YoKohama举办的FPD展览会上展示了最大尺寸的aSi淀积基板,这种基板可满足在一块基板上生产40英寸电视的要求.从而表明大尺寸TFT-LCD 电视的新纪元正在来临.从原理、系统结构、基板传输(外部和内部)、工艺概述了用于TFT-LCD生产线的第6代和第7代PECVD和PVD系统的腔室等方面新技术方案.讨论了用于TFTLCD生产的PECVD和PVD系统的未来趋势.

  9. Lithium ion conducting PVA:PVdF polymer electrolytes doped with nano SiO2 and TiO2 filler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hema, M.; Tamilselvi, P.

    2016-09-01

    The effect of nano SiO2 and TiO2 fillers on the thermal, mechanical and electrochemical properties of PVA:PVdF:LiCF3SO3 have been investigated by three optimized systems of SPE (80PVA:20PVdF:15LiCF3SO3), CPE-I (SPE:8SiO2) and CPE-II (SPE:4TiO2). From the TGA curve least weight loss has been observed for CPE-II indicating high thermal stability compared to other systems. Stress-strain curve of the prepared samples confirm the enhancement of tensile strength in CPE-II compared to CPE-I and SPE. Conductivity studies show that addition of TiO2 filler slightly enhances ionic conductivity 3.7×10-3 S cm-1 compared to filler free system at 303 K. Dielectric plots have been analyzed and CPE-II possesses higher dielectric constant compared to CPE-I and filler free system. Temperature dependence of modulus plots has been studied for highest conductivity possessing sample. Wider electrochemical stability has been obtained for nano-composite polymer electrolytes. The results conclude that the prepared CPE-II shows the best performance and it will be well suited for lithium ion batteries.

  10. GEP-based method to formulate adhesion strength and hardness of Nb PVD coated on Ti-6Al-7Nb aimed at developing mixed oxide nanotubular arrays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafieerad, A R; Bushroa, A R; Nasiri-Tabrizi, B; Fallahpour, A; Vadivelu, J; Musa, S N; Kaboli, S H A

    2016-08-01

    PVD process as a thin film coating method is highly applicable for both metallic and ceramic materials, which is faced with the necessity of choosing the correct parameters to achieve optimal results. In the present study, a GEP-based model for the first time was proposed as a safe and accurate method to predict the adhesion strength and hardness of the Nb PVD coated aimed at growing the mixed oxide nanotubular arrays on Ti67. Here, the training and testing analysis were executed for both adhesion strength and hardness. The optimum parameter combination for the scratch adhesion strength and micro hardness was determined by the maximum mean S/N ratio, which was 350W, 20 sccm, and a DC bias of 90V. Results showed that the values calculated in the training and testing in GEP model were very close to the actual experiments designed by Taguchi. The as-sputtered Nb coating with highest adhesion strength and microhardness was electrochemically anodized at 20V for 4h. From the FESEM images and EDS results of the annealed sample, a thick layer of bone-like apatite was formed on the sample surface after soaking in SBF for 10 days, which can be connected to the development of a highly ordered nanotube arrays. This novel approach provides an outline for the future design of nanostructured coatings for a wide range of applications.

  11. Study on the effects of modified SiO2 nanoparticles on the morphologies and properties of PVdF-HFP membranes for Li-ion batteries%改性纳米SiO2对PVdF—HFP膜形态和性能影响的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孟菊雯; 张明祖; 倪沛红; 徐玲妍; 何金林; 李晓菲

    2012-01-01

    Microporous separators for Li-ion batteries were made by adding SiO2 modified with different silane- coupling agents (KH550, KH560 and KH570) to the solution of PVdF-HFP. The modified SiO2 nanoparticles were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and thermo gravimetric analysis (TGA). The SEM, stretching, shrinking and AC impedance test results of membranes showed that the properties of PVdF-HFP composite membranes were improved significantly by the addition of modified SiO2 nanoparticles. The electrochemical tests showed that the discharge capacity and cycle stability of the PVdF-HFP composite membranes containing modified SiO2 nanoparticles were better than that containing the unmodified SiO2 nanoparticles. Especially for the PVdF-HFP composite membranes containing SiO2 nanoparticles treated with KH-570, the tensile strength was up to 8.63 MPa, the ionic conductivity was as high as 1.53× 10^-3 S/cm, and the discharge capacity remained above 142mAh/g within 100 charge-discharge cyeles.%利用不同硅烷偶联剂改性纳米SiO2,并将改性物分别加入聚(偏氟乙烯-六氟丙烯)共聚物(PVdF—HFP)溶液中,制备成锂离子电池隔膜。FT—IR和TGA测试表明,偶联剂已成功接枝到纳米SiO2表面;SEM、拉伸、热收缩和交流阻抗测试结果显示,电池隔膜中纳米SiO2的分散性、膜的机械强度、热收缩及电导率都有明显的改善;电化学测试结果表明,含改性纳米SiO2的PVdF—HFP电池隔膜的放电比容量和循环稳定性均比含未改性纳米SiO2的电池隔膜有所提高,尤其是含7~(甲基丙烯酰氧)丙基三甲氧基硅烷(KH570)改性SiO2的PVdF-HFP电池隔膜,各项性能均有较大的提高,其拉伸强度可达8.63MPa,离子电导率高达1.53×10^-3S/cm,放电比容量在充放电循环100次以内一直保持在142mAh/g以上。

  12. Dismantling of the EB experiment: Experimental research on the retrieved GBM and bentonite blocks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Jiang-Feng, E-mail: jeafliu@hotmail.com [State Key Laboratory for Geomchanics & Deep Underground Engineering, and School of Mechanics and Civil Engineering, China University of Mining & Technology, Xuzhou, Jiangsu 221116 (China); Laboratoire de Méchanique de Lille (LML), and École Centrale de Lille, BP 48, F-59651 Villeneuve d’Ascq Cedex (France); Skoczylas, Frédéric [Laboratoire de Méchanique de Lille (LML), and École Centrale de Lille, BP 48, F-59651 Villeneuve d’Ascq Cedex (France); Talandier, Jean [ANDRA, 1-7 rue Jean Monnet, 92298 Châtenay-Malabry Cedex (France); Pu, Hai [State Key Laboratory for Geomchanics & Deep Underground Engineering, and School of Mechanics and Civil Engineering, China University of Mining & Technology, Xuzhou, Jiangsu 221116 (China)

    2016-04-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • We present a demonstration of a new concept of HLW (high-level waste) repositories. • The hydro-mechanical characteristics of GBM and blocks were determined. • The water retention curves (WRCs) of GBM and blocks were presented. • The effective gas permeability of the GBM and blocks were measured. • The homogeneity of the GBM and blocks were investigated. - Abstract: The Engineered Barrier Emplacement Experiment in Opalinus Clay (EB experiment) was a full-scale test for the demonstration of a new concept of high-level waste (HLW) repositories in horizontal drifts in the Opalinus Clay formation. After 10.5 years of hydration, the EB experiment was dismantled in autumn 2012. Samples obtained from the granular bentonite material (GBM), and bentonite blocks were sent to a laboratory for further analysis. The bentonite samples analyzed at the Laboratory of Mechanic of Lille (LML) were obtained from the CMT1, CMT2, CMT3 and RW sections. Their physical states were determined, as were their effective gas permeability and swelling capacity at different relative humidity (RH) levels. The results indicate that the water contents of the GBM determined in the laboratory ranged between 25.63% and 44.88% and that the dry densities ranged between 1.13 and 1.44 g/cm{sup 3}. The blocks had water contents similar to (or slightly higher than) those of the GBM, and their dry densities had decreased from an initial value of 1.69 g/cm{sup 3} to values close to 1.30 g/cm{sup 3}, which were similar to the average values found in the GBM. The effective gas permeabilities of the GBM samples were within the range of 1.50 × 10{sup −22} m{sup 2} and 1.03 × 10{sup −17} m{sup 2}, whereas, the corresponding values of the samples obtained from the blocks were between 2.20 × 10{sup −21} m{sup 2} and 5.12 × 10{sup −21} m{sup 2}. The permeability values are primarily related to the dry densities and water contents of the samples. Contact with

  13. Thermal Conductivity Analysis and Lifetime Testing of Suspension Plasma-Sprayed Thermal Barrier Coatings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas Curry

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Suspension plasma spraying (SPS has become an interesting method for the production of thermal barrier coatings for gas turbine components. The development of the SPS process has led to structures with segmented vertical cracks or column-like structures that can imitate strain-tolerant air plasma spraying (APS or electron beam physical vapor deposition (EB-PVD coatings. Additionally, SPS coatings can have lower thermal conductivity than EB-PVD coatings, while also being easier to produce. The combination of similar or improved properties with a potential for lower production costs makes SPS of great interest to the gas turbine industry. This study compares a number of SPS thermal barrier coatings (TBCs with vertical cracks or column-like structures with the reference of segmented APS coatings. The primary focus has been on lifetime testing of these new coating systems. Samples were tested in thermo-cyclic fatigue at temperatures of 1100 °C for 1 h cycles. Additional testing was performed to assess thermal shock performance and erosion resistance. Thermal conductivity was also assessed for samples in their as-sprayed state, and the microstructures were investigated using SEM.

  14. Mechanical properties of TIG and EB weld joints of F82H

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirose, Takanori, E-mail: hirose.takanori@jaea.go.jp; Sakasegawa, Hideo; Nakajima, Motoki; Tanigawa, Hiroyasu

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • Narrow groove TIG minimized volume of F82H weld. • Mechanical properties of TIG and EB welds of F82H have been characterized. • Post weld heat treatment successfully moderate the toughness of weld metal without softening the base metal. - Abstract: This work investigates mechanical properties of weld joints of a reduced activation ferritic/martensitic steel, F82H and effects of post weld heat treatment on the welds. Vickers hardness, tensile and Charpy impact tests were conducted on F82H weld joints prepared using tungsten-inert-gas and electron beam after various heat treatments. Although narrow groove tungsten-inert-gas welding reduced volume of weld bead, significant embrittlement was observed in a heat affected zone transformed due to heat input. Post weld heat treatment above 993 K successfully moderated the brittle transformed region. The hardness of the brittle region strongly depends on the heat treatment temperature. Meanwhile, strength of base metal was slightly reduced by the treatment at temperature ranging from 993 to 1053 K. Moreover, softening due to double welding was observed only in the weld metal, but negligible in base metal.

  15. Current Status and Performance Tests of Korea Heat Load Test Facility KoHLT-EB

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Sukkwon; Jin, Hyunggon; Shin, Kyuin; Choi, Boguen; Lee, Eohwak; Yoon, Jaesung; Lee, Dongwon [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Duckhoi; Cho, Seungyon [National Fusion Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-05-15

    A commissioning test has been scheduled to establish the installation and preliminary performance experiments of the copper hypervapotron mockups. And a qualification test will be performed to evaluate the CuCrZr duct liner in the ITER neutral beam injection facility and the ITER first wall small-scale mockups of the semi-prototype, at up to 1.5 and 5 MW/m{sup 2} high heat flux. Also, this system will be used to test other PFCs for ITER and materials for tokamak reactors. Korean high heat flux test facility(KoHLT-EB; Korea Heat Load Test facility - Electron Beam) by using an electron beam system has been constructed in KAERI to perform the qualification test for ITER blanket FW semi-prototype mockups, hypervapotron cooling devices in fusion devices, and other ITER plasma facing components. The commissioning and performance tests with the supplier of e-gun system have been performed on November 2012. The high heat flux test for hypervapotron cooling device and calorimetry were performed to measure the surface heat flux, the temperature profile and cooling performance. Korean high heat flux test facility for the plasma facing components of nuclear fusion machines will be constructed to evaluate the performance of each component. This facility for the plasma facing materials will be equipped with an electron beam system with a 60 kV acceleration gun.

  16. Tumor Suppressor RARRES1 Regulates DLG2, PP2A, VCP, EB1, and Ankrd26

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ziad J. Sahab, Michael D. Hall, Lihua Zhang, Amrita K. Cheema, Stephen W. Byers

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Retinoic Acid Receptor Responder (RARRES1 initially identified as a novel retinoic acid receptor regulated gene in the skin is a putative tumor suppressor of unknown function. RARRES1 was knocked down in immortalized human prostatic epithelial cell line PWR-1E cells and differential protein expression was identified using differential in-gel electrophoresis (DIGE followed by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization (MALDI mass spectrometry and western Blot analysis excluding highly abundant proteins routinely identified in almost all proteomics projects. Knock-down of RARRES1: 1- down-regulates PP2A, an enzyme involved in the negative regulation of the growth hormone-stimulated signal transduction pathways; 2- down-regulates Valosin-containing protein causing impaired autophagy; 3- up-regulates the tumor suppressor disks large 2; 4- up-regulates Ankrd26 that belongs to the POTE family of genes that are highly expressed in cancer patients with poor outcome; and 5- down-regulates EB1, a protein that is involved in spindle dynamics and chromosome alignment during mitosis.

  17. Decision making models and human factors: TOPSIS and Ergonomic Behaviors (TOPSIS-EB

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available An effective safety management requires attention to human factors as well as system compo-nents which make risky or safe situations at technical components. This study evaluates and ana-lyze ergonomic behaviors in order to select the best work shift group in an Iranian process in-dustry, in 2010.The methodology was based on the Ergonomic Behavior Sampling (EBS, and TOPSIS method. After specifying the unergonomic behaviors and with reference to the results of a pilot study, a sample of 1755 was determined, with a sampling accuracy of 5% and confi-dence level of 95%. However, in order to gain more confidence, 2631 observations were collect-ed. The results indicate that 43.6% of workers’ behaviors were unergonomic. The most frequent unergonomic behavior was amusing of legs while load lifting with 83.01% of total unergonomic behaviors observations. Using TOPSIS method, the most effective shift group and the least at-tractive alternatives for intervention were selected in this company. Findings declare high number of unergonomic behaviors. Catastrophic consequences of accidents in petrochemical industry ne-cessitate attention to workers’ ergonomic behaviors in the workplace and promotion of them.

  18. The phytoestrogen genistein modulates lysosomal metabolism and transcription factor EB (TFEB) activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moskot, Marta; Montefusco, Sandro; Jakóbkiewicz-Banecka, Joanna; Mozolewski, Paweł; Węgrzyn, Alicja; Di Bernardo, Diego; Węgrzyn, Grzegorz; Medina, Diego L; Ballabio, Andrea; Gabig-Cimińska, Magdalena

    2014-06-13

    Genistein (5,7-dihydroxy-3-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-4H-1-benzopyran-4-one) has been previously proposed as a potential drug for use in substrate reduction therapy for mucopolysaccharidoses, a group of inherited metabolic diseases caused by mutations leading to inefficient degradation of glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) in lysosomes. It was demonstrated that this isoflavone can cross the blood-brain barrier, making it an especially desirable potential drug for the treatment of neurological symptoms present in most lysosomal storage diseases. So far, no comprehensive genomic analyses have been performed to elucidate the molecular mechanisms underlying the effect elicited by genistein. Therefore, the aim of this work was to identify the genistein-modulated gene network regulating GAG biosynthesis and degradation, taking into consideration the entire lysosomal metabolism. Our analyses identified over 60 genes with known roles in lysosomal biogenesis and/or function whose expression was enhanced by genistein. Moreover, 19 genes whose products are involved in both GAG synthesis and degradation pathways were found to be remarkably differentially regulated by genistein treatment. We found a regulatory network linking genistein-mediated control of transcription factor EB (TFEB) gene expression, TFEB nuclear translocation, and activation of TFEB-dependent lysosome biogenesis to lysosomal metabolism. Our data indicate that the molecular mechanism of genistein action involves not only impairment of GAG synthesis but more importantly lysosomal enhancement via TFEB. These findings contribute to explaining the beneficial effects of genistein in lysosomal storage diseases as well as envisage new therapeutic approaches to treat these devastating diseases.

  19. High resolution hole patterning with EB lithography for NIL template production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanabe, Mana; Yagawa, Keisuke; Motokawa, Takeharu; Hagihara, Kazuki; Suenaga, Machiko; Saito, Masato; Kanamitsu, Shingo; Itoh, Masamitsu

    2016-05-01

    Nano imprint lithography (NIL) is one to one lithography and contact transfer technique using template. Therefore, the lithography performance depends greatly on the quality of the template pattern. In this study, we investigated the resolution and the defect level for hole patterning using chemical amplified resists (CAR) and VSB type EB writer, EBM9000. To form smaller pattern with high quality, high resolution resist process and high sensitivity etching process are needed. After these elements were optimized, we succeeded to form 24 nm dense hole pattern on template. In general, it is difficult to suppress the defect density in a large area because of fogging effect and process loading and so forth. However, from the view point of defect quality, 26 nm hole pattern is achieved to form with practical level in a large area. Therefore, we indicate the capability of forming 26 nm hole master template which will be required in 2019 from ITRS2013. These results show that this process is possible to obtain less than 30 nm hole pattern without enormous writing time. As future work, we will imprint master to replica template and check the printability.

  20. Activation of the transcription factor EB rescues lysosomal abnormalities in cystinotic kidney cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rega, Laura R; Polishchuk, Elena; Montefusco, Sandro; Napolitano, Gennaro; Tozzi, Giulia; Zhang, Jinzhong; Bellomo, Francesco; Taranta, Anna; Pastore, Anna; Polishchuk, Roman; Piemonte, Fiorella; Medina, Diego L; Catz, Sergio D; Ballabio, Andrea; Emma, Francesco

    2016-04-01

    Nephropathic cystinosis is a rare autosomal recessive lysosomal storage disease characterized by accumulation of cystine into lysosomes secondary to mutations in the cystine lysosomal transporter, cystinosin. The defect initially causes proximal tubular dysfunction (Fanconi syndrome) which in time progresses to end-stage renal disease. Cystinotic patients treated with the cystine-depleting agent, cysteamine, have improved life expectancy, delayed progression to chronic renal failure, but persistence of Fanconi syndrome. Here, we have investigated the role of the transcription factor EB (TFEB), a master regulator of the autophagy-lysosomal pathway, in conditionally immortalized proximal tubular epithelial cells derived from the urine of a healthy volunteer or a cystinotic patient. Lack of cystinosin reduced TFEB expression and induced TFEB nuclear translocation. Stimulation of endogenous TFEB activity by genistein, or overexpression of exogenous TFEB lowered cystine levels within 24 hours in cystinotic cells. Overexpression of TFEB also stimulated delayed endocytic cargo processing within 24 hours. Rescue of other abnormalities of the lysosomal compartment was observed but required prolonged expression of TFEB. These abnormalities could not be corrected with cysteamine. Thus, these data show that the consequences of cystinosin deficiency are not restricted to cystine accumulation and support the role of TFEB as a therapeutic target for the treatment of lysosomal storage diseases, in particular of cystinosis. Copyright © 2016 International Society of Nephrology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. An ebCMOS camera system for marine bioluminescence observation: The LuSEApher prototype

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dominjon, A., E-mail: a.dominjon@ipnl.in2p3.fr [CNRS/IN2P3, Institut de Physique Nucleaire de Lyon, Villeurbanne F-69622 (France); Ageron, M. [CNRS/IN2P3, Centre de Physique des Particules de Marseille, Marseille, F-13288 (France); Barbier, R. [CNRS/IN2P3, Institut de Physique Nucleaire de Lyon, Villeurbanne F-69622 (France); Universite de Lyon, Universite Lyon 1, Lyon F-69003 (France); Billault, M.; Brunner, J. [CNRS/IN2P3, Centre de Physique des Particules de Marseille, Marseille, F-13288 (France); Cajgfinger, T. [CNRS/IN2P3, Institut de Physique Nucleaire de Lyon, Villeurbanne F-69622 (France); Universite de Lyon, Universite Lyon 1, Lyon F-69003 (France); Calabria, P. [CNRS/IN2P3, Institut de Physique Nucleaire de Lyon, Villeurbanne F-69622 (France); Chabanat, E. [CNRS/IN2P3, Institut de Physique Nucleaire de Lyon, Villeurbanne F-69622 (France); Universite de Lyon, Universite Lyon 1, Lyon F-69003 (France); Chaize, D.; Doan, Q.T.; Guerin, C.; Houles, J.; Vagneron, L. [CNRS/IN2P3, Institut de Physique Nucleaire de Lyon, Villeurbanne F-69622 (France)

    2012-12-11

    The ebCMOS camera, called LuSEApher, is a marine bioluminescence recorder device adapted to extreme low light level. This prototype is based on the skeleton of the LUSIPHER camera system originally developed for fluorescence imaging. It has been installed at 2500 m depth off the Mediterranean shore on the site of the ANTARES neutrino telescope. The LuSEApher camera is mounted on the Instrumented Interface Module connected to the ANTARES network for environmental science purposes (European Seas Observatory Network). The LuSEApher is a self-triggered photo detection system with photon counting ability. The presentation of the device is given and its performances such as the single photon reconstruction, noise performances and trigger strategy are presented. The first recorded movies of bioluminescence are analyzed. To our knowledge, those types of events have never been obtained with such a sensitivity and such a frame rate. We believe that this camera concept could open a new window on bioluminescence studies in the deep sea.

  2. TOXICITY OF EB-82 APHIDICIDE ON MACROSIPHUM ROSAE AND THE INFLUENCE OF TEMPERATURE AND HUMIDITY%EB-82灭蚜菌对蔷薇长管蚜的毒力及温湿度对其的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马江; 龙厚茹

    1998-01-01

    @@ 蔷薇长管蚜(Macrosiphum rosae L.)是蔷薇(Rosa amblyotis)、月季(Rosa chinensis)等花卉上重要的害虫之一(严衡元等,1985).程素琴(内部资料,1985)报道了生物农药EB-82灭蚜菌对蔬菜及花卉上多种蚜虫有较好的防治效果.本试验在室内采用点滴法研究不同浓度的EB-82灭蚜菌对蔷薇长管蚜的毒力及温湿度对其的影响.现将结果报告如下.

  3. Dissecting the nanoscale distributions and functions of microtubule-end-binding proteins EB1 and ch-TOG in interphase HeLa cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satoko Nakamura

    Full Text Available Recently, the EB1 and XMAP215/TOG families of microtubule binding proteins have been demonstrated to bind autonomously to the growing plus ends of microtubules and regulate their behaviour in in vitro systems. However, their functional redundancy or difference in cells remains obscure. Here, we compared the nanoscale distributions of EB1 and ch-TOG along microtubules using high-resolution microscopy techniques, and also their roles in microtubule organisation in interphase HeLa cells. The ch-TOG accumulation sites protruded ∼100 nm from the EB1 comets. Overexpression experiments showed that ch-TOG and EB1 did not interfere with each other's localisation, confirming that they recognise distinct regions at the ends of microtubules. While both EB1 and ch-TOG showed similar effects on microtubule plus end dynamics and additively increased microtubule dynamicity, only EB1 exhibited microtubule-cell cortex attachment activity. These observations indicate that EB1 and ch-TOG regulate microtubule organisation differently via distinct regions in the plus ends of microtubules.

  4. Targeting FMS-related tyrosine kinase receptor 3 with the human immunoglobulin G1 monoclonal antibody IMC-EB10.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youssoufian, Hagop; Rowinsky, Eric K; Tonra, James; Li, Yiwen

    2010-02-15

    FMS-related tyrosine kinase receptor 3 (FLT3) is a class III receptor tyrosine kinase that holds considerable promise as a therapeutic target in hematologic malignancies. Current efforts directed toward the development of small-molecule tyrosine kinase inhibitors of FLT3 may be limited by off-target toxicities and the development of drug resistance. Target-specific antibodies could overcome these hurdles and provide additional mechanisms to enhance the antitumor efficacy of FLT3 inhibitors. IMC-EB10 is a novel antibody directed against FLT3. The binding of IMC-EB10 to FLT3 results in antiproliferative effects in vitro and in mouse models engrafted with human leukemia cells that harbor wild-type or constitutively activated FLT3. Future clinical trials will test these notions formally and will identify the most appropriate opportunities for this member of a new generation of antileukemic therapies.

  5. Oil palm empty fruit bunch as alternative substrate for acetone-butanol-ethanol production by Clostridium butyricum EB6.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Mohamad Faizal; Abd-Aziz, Suraini; Razak, Mohamad Nafis Abdul; Phang, Lai Yee; Hassan, Mohd Ali

    2012-04-01

    Acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE) production from renewable resources has been widely reported. In this study, Clostridium butyricum EB6 was employed for ABE fermentation using fermentable sugar derived from treated oil palm empty fruit bunch (OPEFB). A higher amount of ABE (2.61 g/l) was produced in a fermentation using treated OPEFB as the substrate when compared to a glucose based medium that produced 0.24 g/l at pH 5.5. ABE production was increased to 3.47 g/l with a yield of 0.24 g/g at pH 6.0. The fermentation using limited nitrogen concentration of 3 g/l improved the ABE yield by 64%. The study showed that OPEFB has the potential to be applied for renewable ABE production by C. butyricum EB6.

  6. A novel EB-1/AIDA-1 isoform, AIDA-1c, interacts with the Cajal body protein coilin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hebert Michael D

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cajal bodies (CBs are nuclear suborganelles that play a role in the biogenesis of small nuclear ribonucleoproteins (snRNPs, which are crucial for pre-mRNA splicing. Upon nuclear reentry, Sm-class snRNPs localize first to the CB, where the snRNA moiety of the snRNP is modified. It is not clear how snRNPs target to the CB and are released from this structure after their modification. Coilin, the CB marker protein, may participate in snRNP biogenesis given that it can interact with snRNPs and SMN. SMN is crucial for snRNP assembly and is the protein mutated in the neurodegenerative disease Spinal Muscular Atrophy. Coilin knockout mice display significant viability problems and altered CB formation. Thus characterization of the CB and its associated proteins will give insight into snRNP biogenesis and clarify the dynamic organization of the nucleus. Results In this report, we identify a novel protein isoform of EB-1/AIDA-1, termed AIDA-1c, that interacts with the CB marker protein, coilin. Northern and nested PCR experiments reveal that the AIDA-1c isoform is expressed in brain and several cancer cell lines. Competition binding experiments demonstrate that AIDA-1c competes with SmB' for coilin binding sites, but does not bind SMN. When ectopically expressed, AIDA-1c is predominantly nuclear with no obvious accumulations in CBs. Interestingly, another EB-1/AIDA-1 nuclear isoform, AIDA-1a, does not bind coilin in vivo as efficiently as AIDA-1c. Knockdown of EB-1/AIDA-1 isoforms by siRNA altered Cajal body organization and reduced cell viability. Conclusion These data suggest that specific EB-1/AIDA-1 isoforms, such as AIDA-1c, may participate in the regulation of nucleoplasmic coilin protein interactions in neuronal and transformed cells.

  7. Thermal sensor properties of PANI(EB)–CSA ( = 0.4 ± 0.1 mol) polymer thin films

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    T Prakash; S A K Narayan Dass; K Prem Nazeer

    2002-11-01

    Films of polyaniline(EB) doped with camphor sulfonic acid (CSA) from -cresol on glass substrates exhibit considerable metallic properties. Such polymer metallic films have thermal sensitivity superior to ceramic metal (Cermet) films, prepared by metallo organic deposition (MOD) technique on silicon substrates. These PANI(EB)–CSA ( = 0.5, 0.4, 0.3 mol) polymer films were developed through controlled temperature atmosphere 60 ± 2°C for 60 min, and with the help of temperature dependence of resistivity (ρ) values, high temperature coefficient of resistance (TCR) i.e. values, and figure of merit (ρ ) values of these films, thermal sensitivity were compared from that we observed. Among the three doping ratios the PANI(EB)–CSA$_{0.3 mol}$ film (4.4 m thick) on glass substrate resistivity (ρ) values in the range of 838–1699 .m with high TCR i.e. = 10,291 ppm/°C and figure of merit (ρ ) value in range of 8.62–17.48 m/°C seems to be the best. This paper deals with these superior thermal-sensing properties together with optical studies and surface topography by atomic force microscopy (AFM). These polymer films offer design advantages in developing ‘thin film polymer thermal sensor’.

  8. Kank Is an EB1 interacting protein that localises to muscle-tendon attachment sites in Drosophila.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara M R Clohisey

    Full Text Available Little is known about how microtubules are regulated in different cell types during development. EB1 plays a central role in the regulation of microtubule plus ends. It directly binds to microtubule plus ends and recruits proteins which regulate microtubule dynamics and behaviour. We report the identification of Kank, the sole Drosophila orthologue of human Kank proteins, as an EB1 interactor that predominantly localises to embryonic attachment sites between muscle and tendon cells. Human Kank1 was identified as a tumour suppressor and has documented roles in actin regulation and cell polarity in cultured mammalian cells. We found that Drosophila Kank binds EB1 directly and this interaction is essential for Kank localisation to microtubule plus ends in cultured cells. Kank protein is expressed throughout fly development and increases during embryogenesis. In late embryos, it accumulates to sites of attachment between muscle and epidermal cells. A kank deletion mutant was generated. We found that the mutant is viable and fertile without noticeable defects. Further analysis showed that Kank is dispensable for muscle function in larvae. This is in sharp contrast to C. elegans in which the Kank orthologue VAB-19 is required for development by stabilising attachment structures between muscle and epidermal cells.

  9. Elemental imaging of organic matter and associated metals in ore deposits using micro PIXE and micro-EBS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuchs, S., E-mail: fuchs@geomin.eu [Department of Earth and Planetary Science, McGill University, 3450 University Street, Montreal H3A 0E8 (Canada); Przybylowicz, W.J., E-mail: przybylowicz@tlabs.ac.za [Materials Research Department, iThemba LABS, National Research Foundation, P.O. Box 722, Somerset West 7129 (South Africa); AGH University of Science and Technology, Faculty of Physics and Applied Computer Science, Al. A. Mickiewicza 30, 30-059 Krakow (Poland); Williams-Jones, A.E., E-mail: anthony.williams-jones@mcgill.ca [Department of Earth and Planetary Science, McGill University, 3450 University Street, Montreal H3A 0E8 (Canada)

    2014-01-01

    Micro-PIXE and micro-EBS analyses were carried out on samples from the Au–U-bearing Carbon Leader Reef of the Witwatersrand in South Africa to investigate the role of organic matter in the formation of this deposit. Micro-PIXE and Micro-EBS shows a very complex metal distribution within the bitumen nodules and their interstitial spaces. The style of the gold distribution and its association with epigenetic minerals (REE phosphates, phyllosilicates) indicates that all observed gold migrated in aqueous solution and precipitated by reduction on the surfaces of the bitumen nodules. Uraninite occurrences are confined to the bitumen nodules, which supports the argument of a uraninite paleo-placer; however the pervasive distribution of uranium also supports the argument that uraninite is derived from organo-metallic complexes. This study shows that micro-PIXE is a powerful tool to characterize metals associated with hydrocarbons. However, the organic matrix, the complexity of the obtained spectra and the small size of the minerals have significant influence on the reliability of the quantitative data. Due to highly variable amounts of heavy metals (U, Au, Pb) the obtained micro-EBS results are of questionable quality.

  10. Conceptual Model for Radionuclide Release from the Engineered Barrier Systems (EBS) at Yucca Mountain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamdan, L. K.; Walton, J.; Woocay, A.

    2008-12-01

    Over time, nuclear waste packages at Yucca Mountain repository are likely to fail gradually or in stages, due to general or localized corrosion. Rock fall and other physical (or chemical) disturbances will lead to different general corrosion rates and different times of penetration. In the long run, the waste package is likely to evolve into a combination of failure locations mixed with relicts of intact Alloy-22 (or other waste package materials). Release of radionuclides (mostly by dissolution in water) from the waste packages is one of the most important factors determining the performance of the proposed Yucca Mountain repository. In this paper we develop a conceptual model of radionuclide release from the EBS. In this system, residual heat release in the waste, in conjunction with the capillary effect, is anticipated to set up flow systems in the relict protected areas, where liquid water flows into the protected area toward the warmest region, and vapor flows outward away from the warmest region - effectively preventing release and sometimes sequestering radionuclides in the relict sheltered areas (dead ends). We derive a dimensionless group that specifies the condition for the internal heat driven flow system, and estimates the minimum size of the covered areas required to sequester radionuclides and prevent release. Over time, the minimum area required for protection slowly increases while general corrosion decreases the average size of relict areas. Convolution of the two processes suggests that radionuclide release from the flow-through system of partially failed waste packages will be gradual and long delayed (100,000 - 1,000,000 years), even in the case of early penetration by localized corrosion.

  11. Charge-discharge studies on a lithium cell composed of PVdF-HFP polymer membranes prepared by phase inversion technique with a nanocomposite cathode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manuel Stephan, A.; Teeters, Dale

    A novel polymer membrane of poly(vinylidene fluoride-hexafluoropropylene) (PVdF-HFP) co-polymer was prepared by the phase inversion technique with two different non-solvents, 1-butanol or hexane. The prepared films were analyzed by scanning electron microscope (SEM) and nitrogen absorption/desorption techniques. The change in the morphology and pore diameter of the films prepared with different non-solvents correlates with the structure of the non-solvents used. This electrolyte membrane was coupled with a nanocomposite LiAl 0.01Co 0.99O 2 cathode which was prepared by a solid-state reaction method and subsequently by ball-milling. Lithium cells consisting of LiAl 0.01Co 0.99O 2/polymer electrolyte/Li were assembled and their charge-discharge studies were investigated.

  12. Preparation and characterization on nano-hybrid composite solid polymer electrolyte of PVdF-HFP /MG49-ZrO2 for battery application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee T., K.; Ahmad, A.; Hasyareeda, N.

    2014-09-01

    Initial study on nano composite polymer electrolyte of PVdF-HFP/MG49-ZrO2 has been done. The zirconium was synthesis via in-situ sol-gel method in a dissolved polymer blends. The effects of different concentrations of zirconium and pH values have been investigated on nano composite polymer (NCP). Analysis impedance show that only at 6 wt. % of zirconium for all pH values show a semi-circle arc which have lowest value of bulk resistance. No ionic conductivity value is obtain due to the absent of ion charge carriers. Analysis of XRD revealed that crystallinity phase of the nano composite polymer was affect by different pH values. However, no significant changes have been observed in IR bands. This could well indicate that different pH medium did not affect the chemical bonding in the structure.

  13. Preparation and characterization on nano-hybrid composite solid polymer electrolyte of PVdF-HFP /MG49-ZrO{sub 2} for battery application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, T. K.; Ahmad, A. [Polymer Research Center, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600, Bangi, Selangor D. E. Malaysia and School of Chemical Sciences and Food Technology, Faculty of Science and Technology (Malaysia); Hasyareeda, N. [School of Chemical Sciences and Food Technology, Faculty of Science and Technology (Malaysia)

    2014-09-03

    Initial study on nano composite polymer electrolyte of PVdF-HFP/MG49-ZrO{sub 2} has been done. The zirconium was synthesis via in-situ sol-gel method in a dissolved polymer blends. The effects of different concentrations of zirconium and pH values have been investigated on nano composite polymer (NCP). Analysis impedance show that only at 6 wt. % of zirconium for all pH values show a semi-circle arc which have lowest value of bulk resistance. No ionic conductivity value is obtain due to the absent of ion charge carriers. Analysis of XRD revealed that crystallinity phase of the nano composite polymer was affect by different pH values. However, no significant changes have been observed in IR bands. This could well indicate that different pH medium did not affect the chemical bonding in the structure.

  14. High-sensitivity green resist material with organic solvent-free spin-coating and tetramethylammonium hydroxide-free water-developable processes for EB and EUV lithography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takei, Satoshi; Hanabata, Makoto; Oshima, Akihiro; Kashiwakura, Miki; Kozawa, Takahiro; Tagawa, Seiichi

    2015-03-01

    We investigated the eco-friendly electron beam (EB) and extreme-ultraviolet (EUV) lithography using a high-sensitive negative type of green resist material derived from biomass to take advantage of organic solvent-free water spin-coating and tetramethylammonium hydroxide(TMAH)-free water-developable techniques. A water developable, non-chemically amplified, high sensitive, and negative tone resist material in EB lithography was developed for environmental affair, safety, easiness of handling, and health of the working people, instead of the common developable process of TMAH. The material design concept to use the water-soluble resist material with acceptable properties such as pillar patterns with less than 100 nm in high EB sensitivity of 10 μC/cm2 and etch selectivity with a silicon-based middle layer in CF4 plasma treatment was demonstrated for EB and EUV lithography.

  15. [Heinike Heinsoo. Mā ja pūd lēväd, meid eb lē] / Fedor Rozhanskiy

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Rozhanskiy, Fedor

    2013-01-01

    Arvustus: Heinike Heinsoo. Mā ja pūd lēväd, meid eb lē : the subject and the predicate in Votic. Tallinn : Teaduste Akadeemia Kirjastus, 2010. (Linguistica Uralica. Supplementary series ; vol. 4)

  16. [Heinike Heinsoo. Mā ja pūd lēväd, meid eb lē : the subject and the predicate in Votic] / Johanna Laakso

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Laakso, Johanna, 1962-

    2012-01-01

    Arvustus: Heinike Heinsoo. Mā ja pūd lēväd, meid eb lē : the subject and the predicate in Votic. Tallinn : Teaduste Akadeemia Kirjastus, 2010. (Linguistica Uralica. Supplementary series ; vol. 4)

  17. [Heinike Heinsoo. Mā ja pūd lēväd, meid eb lē : the subject and the predicate in Votic] / Johanna Laakso

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Laakso, Johanna, 1962-

    2012-01-01

    Arvustus: Heinike Heinsoo. Mā ja pūd lēväd, meid eb lē : the subject and the predicate in Votic. Tallinn : Teaduste Akadeemia Kirjastus, 2010. (Linguistica Uralica. Supplementary series ; vol. 4)

  18. [Heinike Heinsoo. Mā ja pūd lēväd, meid eb lē] / Fedor Rozhanskiy

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Rozhanskiy, Fedor

    2013-01-01

    Arvustus: Heinike Heinsoo. Mā ja pūd lēväd, meid eb lē : the subject and the predicate in Votic. Tallinn : Teaduste Akadeemia Kirjastus, 2010. (Linguistica Uralica. Supplementary series ; vol. 4)

  19. [The EbM Commentary at the Annual Meeting of the German Congress of Orthopaedics and Traumatology (DKOU): background, aims and vision].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubs, L; Kirschner, S; Neugebauer, E; Hassenpflug, J

    2011-08-01

    The critical appraisal of clinical and scientific work to assure the effectiveness and to balance the risks of treatment are mandatory today. Recent innovations in medicine often lead only to minor improvement in patient benefit. For the better understanding of the presented study results, the EbM commentary was introduced in 2007 at the Annual Meeting of the German Society of Orthopaedics and Traumatology. The EbM commentary was developed within the Swiss Orthopaedic Society and is a vital part of the Annual Meetings. The EbM commentary is a carefully prepared critical appraisal of an orally presented study by a specially trained colleague. The commentary consists of three components and begins with a systematic analysis following the SPION principle. What kind of study was carried out? Which patients were enrolled in the investigation? What kind of interventions were compared? How was the outcome measured? What is the benefit of the study for my own practice and what is the benefit for the patient? The reporting and the evaluation of the patient benefit is of great interest. In the second step the strengths and weaknesses of the study were discussed and the study will be rated for their evidence. For the best case the presented study implies direct changes in the usual treatment of patients. In the worst case no changes are necessary and the study is rated "so what" because of methodological weaknesses making the drawn conclusions invalid. For the audience the EbM commentary may support their rating of the quality of the presented study. The congress team selects interesting presentations for the EbM commentary. The EbM commentators receive the oral presentation and in most cases additional information from the selected studies four weeks in advance of the meeting. The EbM commentary is focused on a precise analysis of the presented data in an open and pleasant discussion. The aim of the EbM commentary is to clearly point out the patient benefit and to disclose

  20. Synthesis of polymer materials by low energy electron beam. IV. EB-polymerized urethane-acrylate, -methacrylate and -acrylamide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ando, Masayuki; Uryu, Toshiyuki

    The structure and properties before and after electron beam (EB) irradiation were investigated using urethane prepolymers with different terminal groups of 2-hydroxyethyl acrylate (HEA), 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate (HEMA) and N-hydroxymethyl acrylamide (HMAAm). The prepolymers were synthesized by reaction of HEA, HEMA and HMAAm with the isocyanate-capped intermediate, which was obtained by reaction of poly(butylene adipate)diol (PBAD) with 4,4'-diphenylmethane diisocyanate. The resulting urethane-acrylate (UA-251M), -methacrylate (UMA-251M) and -acrylamide (UNAA-251M) had the crystallinity arising from PBAD moieties, and UA-251M and UMA-251M had higher crystallinity than UNAA-251M. IR results indicated that UNAA-251M was larger in the fraction of free NH stretching absorption than UA-251M and UMA-251M regardless of the number of NH group per a molecule. Accordingly, it was assumed that the difference in crystallinity was attributed to the polarity of terminal group. Hence, the rate of gel formation for UA-251M and UMA-251M was higher than that of UNAA-251M. The crystallinity based on PBAD of the prepolymers was remained also after EB irradiation. Spherulitic texture was observed on the EB-polymerized gel film surfaces for UA-251M and UMA-251M, while it was almost destroyed for UNAA-251M. Mechanical properties of UA-251M and UMA-251M gel films were much superior to those of UNAA-251M gel film according to the phase structure. Especially, UMA-251M gel film represented most excellent mechanical properties. Schematic models of the phase structure for UA-251M, UMA-251M and UNAA-251M were suggested from all experimental results.

  1. Monitoring Delamination of Thermal Barrier Coating During Interrupted High-Heat Flux Laser Testing Using Upconversion Luminescence Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eldridge, Jeffrey I.; Zhu, Dongming; Wolfe, Douglas E.

    2011-01-01

    Upconversion luminescence imaging of thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) has been shown to successfully monitor TBC delamination progression during interrupted furnace cycling. However, furnace cycling does not adequately model engine conditions where TBC-coated components are subjected to significant heat fluxes that produce through-thickness temperature gradients that may alter both the rate and path of delamination progression. Therefore, new measurements are presented based on luminescence imaging of TBC-coated specimens subjected to interrupted high-heat-flux laser cycling exposures that much better simulate the thermal gradients present in engine conditions. The TBCs tested were deposited by electron-beam physical vapor deposition (EB-PVD) and were composed of 7wt% yttria-stabilized zirconia (7YSZ) with an integrated delamination sensing layer composed of 7YSZ co-doped with erbium and ytterbium (7YSZ:Er,Yb). The high-heat-flux exposures that produce the desired through-thickness thermal gradients were performed using a high power CO2 laser operating at a wavelength of 10.6 microns. Upconversion luminescence images revealed the debond progression produced by the cyclic high-heat-flux exposures and these results were compared to that observed for furnace cycling.

  2. Degradation Mechanisms of an Advanced Jet Engine Service-Retired TBC Component

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Rudder T.; Osawa, Makoto; Yokokawa, Tadaharu; Kawagishi, Kyoko; Harada, Hiroshi

    Current use of TBCs is subjected to premature spallation failure mainly due to the formation of thermally grown oxides (TGOs). Although extensive research has been carried out to gain better understanding of the thermo - mechanical and -chemical characteristics of TBCs, laboratory-scale studies and simulation tests are often carried out in conditions significantly differed from the complex and extreme environment typically of a modern gas-turbine engine, thus, failed to truly model service conditions. In particular, the difference in oxygen partial pressure and the effects of contaminants present in the engine compartment have often been neglected. In this respect, an investigation is carried out to study the in-service degradation of an EB-PVD TBC coated nozzle-guide vane. Several modes of degradation were observed due to three factors: 1) presence of residual stresses induced by the thermal-expansion mismatches, 2) evolution of bond coat microstructure and subsequent formation of oxide spinels, 3) deposition of CMAS on the surface of TBC.

  3. Formation and behavior of thermal barrier coatings on nickel-base superalloys

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高阳; 解仑; 曾飞

    2004-01-01

    Plasma-sprayed thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) have been used to extend the life of combustors. Electron beam physical vapor deposited (EB-PVD) ceramic coating has been developed for more demanding rotating as well as stationary turbine components. Here 3 kW RF magnetron sputtering equipment was used to gain zirconia ceramic coatings on hollow turbine blades and vanes, which had been deposited NiCrAlY by cathodic arc deposition.NiCrAlY coating surface was treated by shot peening; the effects of shot peening on the residual stress are presented. The results show that RF sputtered TBCs are columnar ceramics, strongly bonded to metal substrates. NiCrAlY bond coat is made of β, γ′ and Cr phases, ZrO2 ceramic layer consists of t' and c phases. No degradation occursto RF ceramic coatings after 100 h high temperature oxidation at 1 150 ℃ and 500 thermal cycles at 1 150 ℃ for 2 min,air-cooling.

  4. Development and installation of an advanced beam guidance system on Viking`s 2.4 megawatt EB furnace

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Motchenbacher, C.A.; Grosse, I.A. [Viking Metallurgical, Verdi, NV (United States)

    1994-12-31

    Viking Metallurgical is a manufacturer of titanium alloy and superalloy seamless ring forgings for the aerospace industry. For more than 20 years Viking has used electron beam cold hearth melting to recover titanium alloy scrap and to produce commercially pure titanium ingot for direct forging. In the 1970`s Viking pioneered electron beam cold hearth melting and in 1983 added a two-gun, 2.4 MW furnace. As part of Vikings efforts to improve process control we have commissioned and installed a new electron beam guidance system. The system is capable of generating virtually unlimited EB patterns resulting in improved melt control.

  5. Analysis of the situation of EB virus infection in patients with Sjogren′s syndrome%干燥综合征患者 EB 病毒感染分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李华; 王吉波; 王丽芹

    2014-01-01

    目的:分析干燥综合征患者EB病毒感染状况,研究干燥综合征发病与EB病毒感染之间的相关性,为干燥综合征的诊断和治疗提供依据。方法选取干燥综合征患者75例、健康人员74名,取其血清进行ELISA和实时定量PCR检测,分析干燥综合征与EB病毒感染的相关性,采用SPSS13.0进行统计分析。结果 VCA‐IgM抗体阳性率患者组为18.7%、对照组为2.7%,两组比较,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05);VCA‐IgG抗体阳性率患者组为100.0%、对照组为97.3%,两组比较,差异无统计学意义;EA‐IgG抗体阳性率患者组为60.0%、对照组为5.4%,两组比较,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05),患者组EB病毒DNA拷贝数均值明显高于对照组,差异均有统计学意义( P<0.05)。结论干燥综合征的发病与EB病毒的感染相关,给干燥综合征的诊断和治疗提供指导意义。%OBJECTIVE To analyze the situation of EB virus infection in patients with Sjogren′s syndrome ,investi‐gate the relevancy between Sjogren′s syndrome and EB virus ,so as to provide some evidences for diagnosis and treatment of patients with Sjogren′s syndrome .METHODS Totally 75 cases of patients with Sjogren′s syndrome and 74 controlled cases were chosen .Blood serum was isolated ,and ELISA and RT‐PCR were used to analyze the relevancy between Sjogren′s syndrome and EB virus . SPSS13 .0 was adopted to make a statistic analysis . RESULTS The positive rate of VCA‐IgM antibody for the patients group (18 .7% ) was significantly higher than that of the control group (2 .7% ) .The comparison has statistical significance (P< 0 .05) .The positive rate of VCA‐IgG antibody for the patients group (100 .0% ) was a little higher than that of the control group (97 .3% ) , which is without statistical significance .The positive rate of EA‐IgG antibody for the patients group (60 .0% ) was significanfly

  6. 在双镶嵌铜互联中O.13微米器件生成用的基于PVD和ALD阻挡层的先进技术%Advanced Engineering of PVD and ALD based Barriers for Submicron Device Generations in Dual Damascene Copper Interconnects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    @@ 1. Introduction The requirement of minimal bottom coverageand thick sidewall coverage for PVD-based films forlow via resistance and improved stress migration isnot easy to achieve with traditional depositionmethods. Modern I-PVD techniques give high bot-tom coverage, due to the ionized component of thedeposition flux. Sidewall coverage tends to be low,which is mainly due to off-normal deposition fluxand a less than unity sticking coefficient.

  7. EB-welding of the copper canister for the nuclear waste disposal. Final report of the development programme 1994-1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aalto, H. [Outokumpu Oy Poricopper, Pori (Finland)

    1998-10-01

    During 1994-1997 Posiva Oy and Outokumpu Poricopper Oy had a joint project Development of EB-welding method for massive copper canister manufacturing. The project was part of the national technology program `Weld 2000` and it was supported financially by Technology Development Centre (TEKES). The spent fuel from Finnish nuclear reactors is planned to be encapsulated in thick-walled copper canisters and placed deep into the bedrock. The thick copper layer of the canister provides a long time corrosion resistance and prevents deposited nuclear fuel from contact with water. The quality requirements of the copper components are high because of the designed long lifetime of the canister. The EB-welding technology has proved to be applicable method for the production of the copper canisters and the EB-welding technique is needed at least when the lids of the copper canister will be closed. There are a number of parameters in EB-welding which affect weldability. However, the effect of the welding parameters and their optimization has not been extensively studied in welding of thick copper sections using conventional high vacuum EB-welding. One aim of this development work was to extensively study effect of welding parameters on weld quality. The final objective was to minimise welding defects in the main weld and optimize slope out procedure in thick copper EB-welding. Welding of 50 mm thick copper sections was optimized using vertical and horizontal EB-welding techniques. As a result two full scale copper lids were welded to a short cylinder successfully. The resulting weld quality with optimised welding parameters was reasonable good. The optimised welding parameters for horizontal and vertical beam can be applied to the longitudinal body welds of the canister. The optimal slope out procedure for the lid closure needs some additional development work. In addition of extensive EB-welding program ultrasonic inspection and creep strength of the weld were studied. According

  8. EB-welding of the copper canister for the nuclear waste disposal. Final report of the development programme 1994-1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aalto, H. [Outokumpu Oy Poricopper, Pori (Finland)

    1998-10-01

    During 1994-1997 Posiva Oy and Outokumpu Poricopper Oy had a joint project Development of EB-welding method for massive copper canister manufacturing. The project was part of the national technology program `Weld 2000` and it was supported financially by Technology Development Centre (TEKES). The spent fuel from Finnish nuclear reactors is planned to be encapsulated in thick-walled copper canisters and placed deep into the bedrock. The thick copper layer of the canister provides a long time corrosion resistance and prevents deposited nuclear fuel from contact with water. The quality requirements of the copper components are high because of the designed long lifetime of the canister. The EB-welding technology has proved to be applicable method for the production of the copper canisters and the EB-welding technique is needed at least when the lids of the copper canister will be closed. There are a number of parameters in EB-welding which affect weldability. However, the effect of the welding parameters and their optimization has not been extensively studied in welding of thick copper sections using conventional high vacuum EB-welding. One aim of this development work was to extensively study effect of welding parameters on weld quality. The final objective was to minimise welding defects in the main weld and optimize slope out procedure in thick copper EB-welding. Welding of 50 mm thick copper sections was optimized using vertical and horizontal EB-welding techniques. As a result two full scale copper lids were welded to a short cylinder successfully. The resulting weld quality with optimised welding parameters was reasonable good. The optimised welding parameters for horizontal and vertical beam can be applied to the longitudinal body welds of the canister. The optimal slope out procedure for the lid closure needs some additional development work. In addition of extensive EB-welding program ultrasonic inspection and creep strength of the weld were studied. According

  9. GTSE1 is a microtubule plus-end tracking protein that regulates EB1-dependent cell migration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimilano Scolz

    Full Text Available The regulation of cell migration is a highly complex process that is often compromised when cancer cells become metastatic. The microtubule cytoskeleton is necessary for cell migration, but how microtubules and microtubule-associated proteins regulate multiple pathways promoting cell migration remains unclear. Microtubule plus-end binding proteins (+TIPs are emerging as important players in many cellular functions, including cell migration. Here we identify a +TIP, GTSE1, that promotes cell migration. GTSE1 accumulates at growing microtubule plus ends through interaction with the EB1+TIP. The EB1-dependent +TIP activity of GTSE1 is required for cell migration, as well as for microtubule-dependent disassembly of focal adhesions. GTSE1 protein levels determine the migratory capacity of both nontransformed and breast cancer cell lines. In breast cancers, increased GTSE1 expression correlates with invasive potential, tumor stage, and time to distant metastasis, suggesting that misregulation of GTSE1 expression could be associated with increased invasive potential.

  10. Effects of pH, glucose and iron sulfate concentration on the yield of biohydrogen by Clostridium butyricum EB6

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chong, Mei-Ling; Abdul Rahman, Nor' Aini; Yee, Phang Lai; Aziz, Suraini Abd; Hassan, Mohd Ali [Department of Bioprocess Technology, Faculty of Biotechnology and Biomolecular Sciences, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 Serdang, Selangor (Malaysia); Rahim, Raha Abdul [Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, Faculty of Biotechnology and Biomolecular Sciences, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 Serdang, Selangor (Malaysia); Shirai, Yoshihito [Graduate School of Life Sciences and System Engineering, Kyushu Institute of Technology, 808-0196 Hibikino 2-4, Wakamatsu-ku, Kitakyushu-shi, Fukuoka (Japan)

    2009-11-15

    A local bacterial isolate from palm oil mill effluent (POME) sludge, identified as Clostridium butyricum EB6, was used for biohydrogen production. Optimization of biohydrogen production was performed via statistical analysis, namely response surface methodology (RSM), with respect to pH, glucose and iron concentration. The results show that pH, glucose concentration and iron concentration significantly influenced the biohydrogen gas production individually, interactively and quadratically (P < 0.05). The center composite design (CCD) results indicated that pH 5.6, 15.7 g/L glucose and 0.39 g/L FeSO{sub 4} were the optimal conditions for biohydrogen production, yielding 2.2 mol H{sub 2}/mol glucose. In confirmation of the experimental model, t-test results showed that curve fitted to the experimental data had a high confidence level, at 95% with t = 2.225. Based on the results of this study, optimization of the culture conditions for C. butyricum EB6 significantly increased the production of biohydrogen. (author)

  11. Plasma-Enhanced Chemical Vapor Deposition (PE-CVD) yields better Hydrolytical Stability of Biocompatible SiOx Thin Films on Implant Alumina Ceramics compared to Rapid Thermal Evaporation Physical Vapor Deposition (PVD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Böke, Frederik; Giner, Ignacio; Keller, Adrian; Grundmeier, Guido; Fischer, Horst

    2016-07-20

    Densely sintered aluminum oxide (α-Al2O3) is chemically and biologically inert. To improve the interaction with biomolecules and cells, its surface has to be modified prior to use in biomedical applications. In this study, we compared two deposition techniques for adhesion promoting SiOx films to facilitate the coupling of stable organosilane monolayers on monolithic α-alumina; physical vapor deposition (PVD) by thermal evaporation and plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PE-CVD). We also investigated the influence of etching on the formation of silanol surface groups using hydrogen peroxide and sulfuric acid solutions. The film characteristics, that is, surface morphology and surface chemistry, as well as the film stability and its adhesion properties under accelerated aging conditions were characterized by means of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES), and tensile strength tests. Differences in surface functionalization were investigated via two model organosilanes as well as the cell-cytotoxicity and viability on murine fibroblasts and human mesenchymal stromal cells (hMSC). We found that both SiOx interfaces did not affect the cell viability of both cell types. No significant differences between both films with regard to their interfacial tensile strength were detected, although failure mode analyses revealed a higher interfacial stability of the PE-CVD films compared to the PVD films. Twenty-eight day exposure to simulated body fluid (SBF) at 37 °C revealed a partial delamination of the thermally deposited PVD films whereas the PE-CVD films stayed largely intact. SiOx layers deposited by both PVD and PE-CVD may thus serve as viable adhesion-promoters for subsequent organosilane coupling agent binding to α-alumina. However, PE-CVD appears to be favorable for long-term direct film exposure to aqueous

  12. Monitoring thermally grown oxides under thermal barrier coatings using photoluminescence piezospectroscopy (PLPS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Del Corno, A.; De Maria, L.; Rinaldi, C. [ERSE, Milan (Italy); Nalin, L.; Simms, N.J. [Cranfield Univ., Bedford (United Kingdom). Energy Technology Centre

    2010-07-01

    The use of thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) on cooled components in industrial gas turbine has enabled higher inlet gas temperatures to be used and hence higher efficiencies to be achieved, without increasing component metal temperatures. However TBCs have a complex coating structure that during high temperature exposure and thermal cycling modifies until TBC spalling which can result in dangerous over-heating of components. This paper reports the results of a TBC exposure programme planned to monitor TGOs development in an example TBC system in terms of both stress evolution within the TGOs and TGO growth. The COST538 reference TBC system was used: an yttria stabilised zirconia TBC applied to an Amdry 995 bond coat on an CMSX-4 substrate. Samples were in the form of 10 mm diameter bars, with the TBC applied to their curved surface. Coated samples were exposed in simulated combustion gases at temperatures 850, 900 and 950 C for periods of up to 10,000 hours. Every 1000 hours samples were cooled and weighed to monitor the progression of the oxidation: selected samples NDT inspected using PLPS and/or destructive examination. Cross-sections were prepared and examined in a scanning electron microscope (SEM) at multiple locations to determine TGO thickness distributions. PLPS spectra were measured and elaborated with a system self developed in ERSE, able to calculate and map the TGO residual stress values under columnar TBCs. So the positions could be evidenced where the damage of the TBC /TGO/BC interface is higher on the exposed bars. The data of TGO thickness distributions and PLPS stress measurement distributions were compared to the exposures carried out on samples to identify and quantify trends in their development. Metallography confirmed that the PLPs technique can reliably detect interface cracking before visible EB-PVD TBC spalling. (orig.)

  13. Vitamin D analog EB1089 could repair the defective bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stromal cells in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jing-Jing; Sun, Yan-Bin; Zhang, Xiao-Li; Wang, Xiao-Fei

    2015-01-01

    Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) involves multiple factors, which result in the breakdown of self-tolerance and development of autoimmunity with organ damage. Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMMSCs) from the patients with SLE showed an impaired proliferative capacity compared with that from normal controls. In this study, we isolated BMMSCs from the patients with SLE and found that Vitamin D analog EB1089 could induce BMMSCs proliferation and mineralization deposition. Furthermore, we found that the expression of p-Smad 1/5/8 was promoted in BMMSCs with EB1089 treatment. In conclusion, our results support the notion that EB1089 promoted proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of BMMSCs by Smad 1/5/8 signaling pathway.

  14. LiFAP-based PVdF-HFP microporous membranes by phase-inversion technique with Li/LiFePO{sub 4} cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aravindan, V.; Vickraman, P. [Gandhigram Rural University, Department of Physics, Gandhigram (India); Sivashanmugam, A.; Thirunakaran, R.; Gopukumar, S. [Central Electrochemical Research Institute, Electrochemical Energy Systems Division, Karaikudi (India)

    2009-12-15

    Polyvinylidenefluoride-hexafluoropropylene-based (PVdF-HFP-based) gel and composite microporous membranes (GPMs and CPMs) were prepared by phase-inversion technique in the presence 10 wt% of AlO(OH){sub n} nanoparticles. The prepared membranes were gelled with 0.5-M LiPF{sub 3}(CF{sub 2}CF{sub 3}){sub 3} (lithium fluoroalkylphosphate, LiFAP) in EC:DEC (1:1 v/v) and subjected to various characterizations; the AC impedance study shows that CPMs exhibit higher conductivity than GPMs. Mechanical stability measurements on these systems reveal that CPMs exhibit Young's modulus higher than that of bare and GPMs and addition of nanoparticles drastically improves the elongation break was also noted. Transition of the host from {alpha} to {beta} phase after the loading of nanosized filler was confirmed by XRD and Raman studies. Physico-chemical properties, like liquid uptake, porosity, surface area, and activation energy, of the membranes were calculated and results are summarized. Cycling performance of Li/CPM/LiFePO{sub 4} coin cell was fabricated and evaluated at C/10 rate and delivered a discharge capacity of 157 and 148 mAh g {sup -1} respectively for first and tenth cycles. (orig.)

  15. LiFAP-based PVdF-HFP microporous membranes by phase-inversion technique with Li/LiFePO4 cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aravindan, V.; Vickraman, P.; Sivashanmugam, A.; Thirunakaran, R.; Gopukumar, S.

    2009-12-01

    Polyvinylidenefluoride-hexafluoropropylene-based (PVdF-HFP-based) gel and composite microporous membranes (GPMs and CPMs) were prepared by phase-inversion technique in the presence 10 wt% of AlO(OH) n nanoparticles. The prepared membranes were gelled with 0.5-M LiPF3(CF2CF3)3 (lithium fluoroalkylphosphate, LiFAP) in EC:DEC (1:1 v/v) and subjected to various characterizations; the AC impedance study shows that CPMs exhibit higher conductivity than GPMs. Mechanical stability measurements on these systems reveal that CPMs exhibit Young’s modulus higher than that of bare and GPMs and addition of nanoparticles drastically improves the elongation break was also noted. Transition of the host from α to β phase after the loading of nanosized filler was confirmed by XRD and Raman studies. Physico-chemical properties, like liquid uptake, porosity, surface area, and activation energy, of the membranes were calculated and results are summarized. Cycling performance of Li/CPM/LiFePO4 coin cell was fabricated and evaluated at C/10 rate and delivered a discharge capacity of 157 and 148 mAh g-1 respectively for first and tenth cycles.

  16. High-performance quasi-solid-state dye-sensitized solar cell based on an electrospun PVdF-HFP membrane electrolyte.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priya, A R Sathiya; Subramania, A; Jung, Young-Sam; Kim, Kang-Jin

    2008-09-02

    An electrospun membrane was prepared from a 16 wt % solution of poly(vinylidenefluoride- co-hexafluoropropylene) (PVdF-HFP) in a mixture of acetone/ N, N-dimethylacetamide (7:3 wt %) at an applied voltage of 12 kV. It was then activated by immersing it in 0.6 M 1-hexyl-2,3-dimethylimidazolium iodide, 0.1 M LiI, 0.05 M I 2, and 0.5 M 4- tert-butylpyridine in ethylene carbonate/propylene carbonate (1:1 wt %) to obtain the corresponding membrane electrolyte with an ionic conductivity of 10 (-5) S cm (-1) at 25 degrees C. On the basis of this electrospun membrane electrolyte, quasi-solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells were fabricated, which showed an open-circuit voltage ( V oc) of 0.76 V, a fill factor of 0.62, and a short-circuit current density ( J sc) of 15.57 mA cm (-2) at an incident light intensity of 100 mW cm (-2). This yields a light-to-electricity conversion efficiency of 7.3%. Moreover, this cell possessed better long-term stability than that fabricated with conventional liquid electrolyte.

  17. Design of interpenetrated networks of mesostructured hybrid silica and nonconductive poly(vinylidene fluoride)-cohexafluoropropylene (PVdF-HFP) polymer for proton exchange membrane fuel cell applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Franck; Chan, Alida; Vallé, Karine; Palmas, Pascal; Bigarré, Janick; Belleville, Philippe; Sanchez, Clément

    2011-05-02

    Organic-inorganic hybrid membranes of poly(vinylidene fluoride)-cohexafluoropropylene (PVdF-HFP) and mesostructured silica containing sulfonic acid groups were synthesized by using the sol-gel process. These hybrid membranes were prepared by in situ co-condensation of tetraethoxysilane and an organically modified silane (ormosil) by a self-assembly route using organic surfactants as templates for tuning the architecture of the hybrid organosilica component. In this paper, we describe the elaboration and characterization of hybrid membranes all the way from the precursor solution to the evaluation of the fuel cell performances. These hybrid materials were extensively characterized by using NMR and IR spectroscopy, electron microscopy, or impedance spectroscopy so as to determinate their physicochemical and electrochemical properties. Even though the ion-exchange capacity (IEC) was quite weak, the first fuel cell tests performed with these hybrid membranes show promising results relative to optimized Nafion 112 thanks to great water management of the silica inside the hydrophobic polymer.

  18. Highly conductive and electrochemically stable plasticized blend polymer electrolytes based on PVdF-HFP and triblock copolymer PPG-PEG-PPG diamine for Li-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saikia, Diganta; Wu, Hao-Yiang; Pan, Yu-Chi; Lin, Chi-Pin; Huang, Kai-Pin; Chen, Kan-Nan; Fey, George T. K.; Kao, Hsien-Ming

    2011-03-01

    A new plasticized poly(vinylidene fluoride-co-hexafluoropropylene (PVdF-HFP)/PPG-PEG-PPG diamine/organosilane blend-based polymer electrolyte system has been synthesized and characterized. The structural and electrochemical properties of the electrolytes thus obtained were systematically investigated by a variety of techniques including differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), tensile test, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), 13C and 29Si solid-state NMR, AC impedance, linear sweep voltammetry (LSV) and charge-discharge measurements. The FTIR and NMR results provided the information about the interaction among the constituents in the blend polymer membrane. The present blend polymer electrolyte exhibits several advantageous electrochemical properties such as ionic conductivity up to 1.3 × 10-2 S cm-1 at room temperature, high value of Li+ transference number (t+ = 0.82), electrochemical stability up to 6.4 V vs. Li/Li+ with the platinum electrode, and stable charge-discharge cycles for lithium-ion batteries.

  19. Synthesis and characterization of electrospun PVdF-HFP/silane-functionalized ZrO2 hybrid nanofiber electrolyte with enhanced optical and electrochemical properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puguan, John Marc C.; Chung, Wook-Jin; Kim, Hern

    2016-12-01

    A facile method to produce a hybrid of organic-inorganic nanofiber electrolyte via electrospinning is hereby presented. The incorporation of functionalized zirconium oxide (ZrO2) nanoparticles into poly(vinylidene fluoride-co-hexafluoropropylene) (PVdF-HFP) and complexed with lithium trifluoromethanesulfonate (LiCF3SO3) provided an enhanced optical transmissivity and ionic conductivity. The dependence of the nanofiber's morphology, optical and electrochemical properties on the various ZrO2 loading was studied. Results show that while nanofiller content was increased, the diameter of the nanofibers was reduced. The improved bulk ionic conductivity of the nanofiber electrolyte was at 1.96 × 10-5 S cm-1. Owing to the enhanced dispersibility of the 3-(trimethoxysilyl)propyl methacrylate (MPS) functionalized ZrO2, the optical transmissivity of the nanofiber electrolyte was improved significantly. This new nanofiber composite electrolyte membrane with further development has the potential to be next generation electrolyte for energy efficient windows like electrochromic devices.

  20. Dimensional stability and electrochemical behaviour of ZrO2 incorporated electrospun PVdF-HFP based nanocomposite polymer membrane electrolyte for Li-ion capacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solarajan, Arun Kumar; Murugadoss, Vignesh; Angaiah, Subramania

    2017-01-01

    Different weight percentages of ZrO2 (0, 3, 5, 7 and 10 wt%) incorporated electrospun PVDF-HFP nanocomposite polymer membranes (esCPMs) were prepared by electrospinning technique. They were activated by soaking in 1 M LiPF6 containing 1:1 volume ratio of EC : DMC (ethylene carbonate:dimethyl carbonate) to get electrospun nanocomposite polymer membrane electrolytes (esCPMEs). The influence of ZrO2 on the physical, mechanical and electrochemical properties of esCPM was studied in detail. Finally, coin type Li-ion capacitor cell was assembled using LiCo0.2Mn1.8O4 as the cathode, Activated carbon as the anode and the esCPME containing 7 wt% of ZrO2 as the separator, which delivered a discharge capacitance of 182.5 Fg−1 at the current density of 1Ag−1 and retained 92% of its initial discharge capacitance even after 2,000 cycles. It revealed that the electrospun PVdF-HFP/ZrO2 based nanocomposite membrane electrolyte could be used as a good candidate for high performance Li-ion capacitors.

  1. Application of response surface methodology on investigating flank wear in machining hardened steel using PVD TiN coated mixed ceramic insert

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashok Kumar Sahoo

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the development of flank wear model in turning hardened EN 24 steel with PVD TiN coated mixed ceramic insert under dry environment. The paper also investigates the effect of process parameter on flank wear (VBc. The experiments have been conducted using three level full factorial design techniques. The machinability model has been developed in terms of cutting speed (v, feed (f and machining time (t as input variable using response surface methodology. The adequacy of model has been checked using correlation coefficients. As the determination coefficient, R2 (98% is higher for the model developed; the better is the response model fits the actual data. In addition, residuals of the normal probability plot lie reasonably close to a straight line showing that the terms mentioned in the model are statistically significant. The predicted flank wear has been found to lie close to the experimental value. This indicates that the developed model can be effectively used to predict the flank wear in the hard turning. Abrasion and diffusion has been found to be the dominant wear mechanism in machining hardened steel from SEM micrographs at highest parametric range. Machining time has been found to be the most significant parameter on flank wear followed by cutting speed and feed as observed from main effect plot and ANOVA study.

  2. On the application of response surface methodology for predicting and optimizing surface roughness and cutting forces in hard turning by PVD coated insert

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hessainia Zahia

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on the exploitation of the response surface methodology (RSM to determine optimum cutting conditions leading to minimum surface roughness and cutting force components. The technique of RSM helps to create an efficient statistical model for studying the evolution of surface roughness and cutting forces according to cutting parameters: cutting speed, feed rate and depth of cut. For this purpose, turning tests of hardened steel alloy (AISI 4140 (56 HRC were carried out using PVD – coated ceramic insert under different cutting conditions. The equations of surface roughness and cutting forces were achieved by using the experimental data and the technique of the analysis of variance (ANOVA. The obtained results are presented in terms of mean values and confidence levels. It is shown that feed rate and depth of cut are the most influential factors on surface roughness and cutting forces, respectively. In addition, it is underlined that the surface roughness is mainly related to the cutting speed, whereas depth of cut has the greatest effect on the evolution of cutting forces. The optimal machining parameters obtained in this study represent reductions about 6.88%, 3.65%, 19.05% in cutting force components (Fa, Fr, Ft, respectively. The latters are compared with the results of initial cutting parameters for machining AISI 4140 steel in the hard turning process.

  3. Optimization of Wet or Dry Micro-blasting on PVD Films by Various Al2O3 Grain Sizes for Improving the Coated Tools' Cutting Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. -D. Bouzakis

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Micro-blasting on PVD coated tools is an effective technology for improving their cutting performance. Through micro-blasting, compressive stresses are induced into the film, thus increasing the coating hardness, but its brittleness too. Simultaneously, abrasion phenomena are activated, which may lead to roughness augmentation, film thickness decrease and substrate revelation. In this way, for a successful process conduct, it is pivotal to adapt, among others, the applied micro-blasting pressure to the employed medium, air or water. The paper deals with the optimization of wet or dry micro-blasting pressure by various Al2O3 grain sizes for improving the coated tool’s wear resistance. The wear behaviour of coated and variously dry or wet micro-blasted tools was investigated in milling. Considering the grains’ penetration kinematics into the coated tool surface and the film deformation mechanisms during dry or wet microblasting by fine or coarse sharp–edged Al2O3 grains, optimum process pressures can be determined.

  4. Differential skeletal responses of hindlimb unloaded rats on a vitamin D-deficient diet to 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 and its analog, seocalcitol (EB1089)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayanan, Ramesh; Allen, Matthew R.; Gaddy, Dana; Bloomfield, Susan A.; Smith, Carolyn L.; Weigel, Nancy L.

    2004-01-01

    Conditions of disuse in bed rest patients, as well as microgravity experienced by astronauts are accompanied by reduced mechanical loading, reduced calcium absorption, and lower serum levels of 1,25(OH)2D3 (1,25-D), the active metabolite of vitamin D, all contributing to bone loss. To determine whether 1,25-D or a less calcemic analog, Seocalcitol or EB1089 (1 alpha,25-dihydroxy-22,24-diene-24,26,27-trihomovitamin D3) can alleviate bone loss in a rat hindlimb unloading model of disuse osteopenia, mature male rats originally on a vitamin D replete diet containing 1.01% calcium were transferred to a vitamin D-deficient diet containing 0.48% calcium and then tail suspended and treated for 28 days with vehicle, 0.05 microg/kg 1,25-D, or 0.05 microg/kg EB1089. The vitamin D-deficient diet caused a substantial decrease in bone mineral density (-8%), which may be compounded by hindlimb unloading (-10%). Exogenous 1,25-D not only prevented the bone loss but also increased the bone mineral density to greater than the baseline level (+7%). EB1089 was less effective in preventing bone loss. Analysis of site and cell-specific effects of 1,25-D and EB1089 revealed that 1,25-D was more active than EB1089 in the intestine, the site of calcium absorption, and in inducing osteoclastogenesis and bone resorption whereas EB1089 was more effective in inducing osteoblast differentiation. These studies suggest that elevating circulating 1,25-D levels presumably increasing calcium absorption can counteract bone loss induced by disuse or microgravity with its associated reductions in circulating 1,25-D and decreased calcium absorption.

  5. Estudio de 5 edificios de la administración pública basado en un certificado Norte Americano (LEED-EB)

    OpenAIRE

    Garcia Navarro, Miquel; Mestre Castillo, Jesús

    2013-01-01

    El proyecto del estudio de cinco edificios de la administración pública basado en un certificado Norte americano LEED-EB se ha analizado primeramente el tipo de certificación LEED-EB para edificio de operaciones y mantenimiento contrastándolo con algunos de los sellos de sostenibilidad que se encuentran en la actualidad como por ejemplo: Breeam, Casbee, HQE y Green Star, con el objetivo de encontrar las similitudes y diferencias de todos ellos y como el sello LEED en la actualidad...

  6. RBS/EBS/PIXE measurement of single-walled carbon nanotube modification by nitric acid purification treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeynes, J. C. G.; Jeynes, C.; Kirkby, K. J.; Rümmeli, M.; Silva, S. R. P.

    2008-04-01

    Single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) have many potential applications, including a number of promising biological applications. Nitric acid treatment solubilises CNTs by introducing functional groups, as well as removing amorphous carbon contaminants. Here, we report simultaneous RBS/EBS/PIXE measurements of nitric acid treated SWCNTs, focussing on the metal, nitrogen and oxygen content. We found that nitrogen remains constant in the samples despite washing and dialysis indicating it has either bound irreversibly via intercalation with the SWCNT and/or has been included in functional groups. We also found that the ratio between oxygen and platinum (catalyst) remains constant with treatment time (sampled at 2, 4, 6 h), indicating no more functional groups are made after 2 h exposure.

  7. Analysis of VIA and EbA in a River Bank Erosion Prone Area of Bangladesh Applying DPSIR Framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syed Hafizur Rahman

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to set up a comprehensive approach to the Vulnerability and Impact Assessment (VIA of river erosion and to suggest Ecosystem-based Adaptation (EbA practices. Based on the analysis of vulnerability using the Driver-Pressure-State-Impact-Response (DPSIR framework, this paper discusses some of the significant climatic (rainfall pattern, temperature, seasonal drift, cold wave and heat wave and non-climatic (river erosion, repetitive death of field crops and agrochemicals forces in the Kazipur Upazila (Sirajganj District—a river erosion-prone area of Bangladesh. Both primary (Key Informants Interview, Household Survey, and Focus Group Discussion and secondary (climatic, literature review data have been used in revealing the scenario of climatic stress. The analysis revealed a slightly increasing trend of mean annual temperature, and a decreasing trend of total annual rainfall from 1981 to 2015, which have been supported by people’s perception. This study found that river erosion, the increase of temperature and the late arrival of monsoon rain, excessive monsoon rainfall, high use of agrochemicals, and flow alterations are major drivers in the riverine ecosystem. These drivers are creating pressures on agricultural land, soil fertility, water availability and livelihood patterns of affected communities. Hence, floating bed cultivation, integrated pest management, use of cover crops, reforestation, the introduction of an agro-weather forecasting system, and a new variety of flood tolerant species have been suggested as potential EbA to cope with river bank erosion and to increase the capacity of the affected ecosystem.

  8. Rac1 and Stathmin but Not EB1 Are Required for Invasion of Breast Cancer Cells in Response to IGF-I

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shigeru Morimura

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Cell migration is considered necessary for the invasion that accompanies the directional formation of the cellular protrusions termed lamellipodia. In invasive breast cancer MDA-MB-231 cells, lamellipodia formation is preceded by translocation of the actin cytoskeletal regulatory protein WAVE2 to the leading edge. WAVE2 translocation and lamellipodia formation require many signaling molecules, including PI3K, Rac1, Pak1, IRSp53, stathmin, and EB1, but whether these molecules are necessary for invasion remains unclear. In noninvasive breast cancer MCF7 cells, no lamellipodia were induced by IGF-I, whereas in MDA-MB-231 cells, Rac1, stathmin, and EB1 were overexpressed. Depletion of Rac1 or stathmin by small interfering RNA abrogated the IGF-I-induced invasion of MDA-MB-231 cells; however, depletion of EB1 did not, indicating the necessity of Rac1 and stathmin but not EB1 for invasion. The signaling pathway leading to cell invasion may not be identical but shares some common molecules, leading to cell migration through lamellipodia formation.

  9. Use of biogas biscuit meal EKPO-EB for agricultural biogas plant for substitution of energy crops utilization with organic waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chamrádová Kateřina

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available A laboratory experiment of two-stage mesophilic, low-dry mass, anaerobic digestion was carried out, focused on verifying the benefit of processing the biscuit meal EKPO-EB instead of triticale silage Agostino (GPS and corn silage LG3266 in a regular batch for the agricultural biogas station in Pustějov. While anaerobic digestion of ensilages is largely difficult due to the content of lignocellulose, biscuit meal provides a high yield of biogas or methane, respectively, thanks to its high content of simple saccharides and lipids. When the original GPS (or the replacement EKPO-EB, respectively represented 0.81% of weight of the daily input mixture dose for the first stage, the rise in volumetric methane production was 20% which is significant. The biscuit meal EKPO-EB decomposes almost completely in the first stage. Later, when the EKPO-EB represented 1.63% of weight of the daily input mixture dose for the first stage, the rise in volumetric methane production was 54% in the first stage and 16% in the second stage.

  10. The kinesin-13 KLP10A motor regulates oocyte spindle length and affects EB1 binding without altering microtubule growth rates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin K. Do

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Kinesin-13 motors are unusual in that they do not walk along microtubules, but instead diffuse to the ends, where they remove tubulin dimers, regulating microtubule dynamics. Here we show that Drosophila kinesin-13 klp10A regulates oocyte meiosis I spindle length and is haplo-insufficient – KLP10A, reduced by RNAi or a loss-of-function P element insertion mutant, results in elongated and mispositioned oocyte spindles, and abnormal cortical microtubule asters and aggregates. KLP10A knockdown by RNAi does not significantly affect microtubule growth rates in oocyte spindles, but, unexpectedly, EB1 binding and unbinding are slowed, suggesting a previously unobserved role for kinesin-13 in mediating EB1 binding interactions with microtubules. Kinesin-13 may regulate spindle length both by disassembling subunits from microtubule ends and facilitating EB1 binding to plus ends. We also observe an increased number of paused microtubules in klp10A RNAi knockdown spindles, consistent with a reduced frequency of microtubule catastrophes. Overall, our findings indicate that reduced kinesin-13 decreases microtubule disassembly rates and affects EB1 interactions with microtubules, rather than altering microtubule growth rates, causing spindles to elongate and abnormal cortical microtubule asters and aggregates to form.

  11. Électrolytes-gels pour piles au lithium système PVdF-HFP/SiO2/VL-LiTFSI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caillon-Caravanier, M.; Claude-Montigny, B.; Lemordant, D.; Bosser, G.

    2002-04-01

    Les électrolytes-gels étudiés sont constitués du copolymère poly (fluorure de vinylidène-hexafluoropropylène) (PVdF-HFP) contenant où non de la silice et ayant absorbé un électrolyte liquide obtenu par dissolution du (trifluorométhyl sulfone) imidure de lithium (LiTFSI) dans la gamma-valérolactone (VL) ou dans le mélange VL:EC (90:10 en moles) (EC:carbonate d'éthylène). L'influence du pourcentage en sel de lithium dans l'électrolyte liquide, de la proportion de silice dans le copolymère sec et de la température sur la capacité d'absorption est étudiée. L'évolution de la conductivité en fonction de la composition de l'électrolyte-gel et de la température ainsi que l'étude de la solvatation de l'ion Li^+ par spectroscopie RAMAN ont permis de proposer un modèle de conductivité ionique pour ces matériaux. Après avoir déterminé le domaine d'électroactivité des gels, l'évolution des spectres d'impédance à l'interface Li / gel est interprétée par le modèle “couche polymère solide" (SPL).

  12. Formation of semi-IPN membrane composed of crosslinked SPS-[PVdF-co-HFP/Nafion] for application in DMFC: A fine tuning between crosslinker and initiator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, Piyush; Kundu, Patit Paban, E-mail: ppk923@yahoo.com

    2015-08-15

    The semi-interpenetrating (semi-IPN) membrane composed of crosslinked sulfonated polystyrene (SPS) within the host blend of PVdF-co-HFP (Polyvinylidenefluoride-co-hexafluoropropylene) and Nafion has already been tested as a promising polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) in terms of improved water uptake, proton conductivity and electrical efficiency for application in the direct methanol fuel cell (DMFC). These desired results have generated further curiosity about a fine tuning between the contents of divinyl benzene (DVB) as a crosslinker and azobisisobutyronitrile (AIBN) as an initiator for the optimization of PEM characteristics. It has been observed that an increase in AIBN content leads to an acceptable degree of water uptake, swelling ratio and proton conductivity in PEM, while higher DVB content causes declined methanol crossover, leading to higher membrane selectivity. These two opposing effects are optimized in terms of proton conductivity, tensile strength and membrane selectivity for the membrane consisting of 0.4 wt% of AIBN and 1.2 wt% of DVB. Moreover, the maximum power density obtained for the membrane having optimum selectivity is 56 mW cm{sup −2}, when analyzed at 90 °C. These results indicate that one can achieve a high power density in comparison to Nafion by fine tuning the contents of initiator and cross-linker during the synthesis of the semi-IPN membrane. - Graphical abstract: Display Omitted - Highlights: • PEM composed of 0.4/1.2 wt% of AIBN/DVB produced best result. • Lower methanol crossover (1.02 × 10{sup −6} cm{sup 2} s{sup −1}) compare to Nafion-117. • Higher membrane selectivity i.e 3.05 × 10{sup 4} Ss cm{sup −3} was obtained. • A maximum power density of 56 mW cm{sup −2} was obtained at 90 °C.

  13. 106例儿童EB病毒感染的临床分析%106 case of laboratory examinations and analysis to EB virus infection in children

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈波; 王峰; 郑瑞丰; 周彤

    2008-01-01

    Objective To study laboratory examinations of the EB virus infection in children. MethodsRetrospective analysis laboratory data of 106 cases of EB virus infection treated in our hospital in January 2005 to November 2007. Results WBC and lymphocyte ratio increased significantly in EB virus infection,some have increased platelet and mild anemia, often without CRP and erythrocyte sedimentation rate in-creused, devoted liver enzyme and myocardial enzyme common, LDH which increased the most common, fol-lowed by αHBDH, AST and ALT. Heterotypic lymphocyte did not reach 10 percent was also more common.Conclusion We should attach importance to the analysis of laboratory examination of EB virns in fection, inorder to get early dues to find EB virus infection%目的 分析儿童EB病毒感染实验室检查的临床特点.方法 回顾性分析我院2005年1月至2007年11月收治的EB病毒感染患儿106例的实验室检查资料.结果 EB病毒感染WBC及淋巴细胞比例常明显升高,部分有血小板升高及轻度贫血,CRP及血沉常无升高.肝酶及心肌酶升高常见,其中LDH最常见,其次为αHBDH、AST、ALT.外周血异常淋巴细胞未达到10%者也较常见.结论 要重视分析EB病毒的实验检查,以便找到早期诊断EB病毒感染的线索.

  14. PVD 微合金化涂层AlTiSiXN在C70 S6材料连杆攻丝中的应用%Applications of PVD Coating AlTiSiXN on Threading Connecting-Rods Based on C70S6 Steel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邬本祥; 彭新海; 徐启明; 徐和平

    2016-01-01

    TiN and AlTiSiXN hard thin films are coated on HSSCo M8 taps with Domino L PVD coating system to test the performances of the taps on site.The results show that better performance and higher tool life are obtained with MAC (micro-alloyed coating)coating AlTiSiXN for the tapping of threads on connecting rods made of C70S6.%采用多米诺PVD涂层技术在钴高速钢丝锥M8上进行PVD涂层。选择TiN、AlTiSiXN涂层并对涂层丝锥进行性能测试。结果表明,连杆材料C70S6的攻丝加工宜选择耐磨性更好的微合金化涂层AlTiSiXN,可获得较好的切削性能和寿命。

  15. The tumor suppressor p53 regulates autophagosomal and lysosomal biogenesis in lung cancer cells by targeting transcription factor EB.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zengli; Wang, Hongfeng; Ding, Qifeng; Xing, Yufei; Xu, Delai; Xu, Zhonghua; Zhou, Tong; Qian, Bin; Ji, Chenghong; Pan, Xue; Zhong, Anyuan; Ying, Zheng; Zhou, Caicun; Shi, Minhua

    2017-03-10

    The cellular protein degradation system, such as proteasomal or autophagy-lysosomal system plays an important role in the pathogenesis of a variety of human diseases including cancer. Transcription factor EB (TFEB) is a master transcriptional factor in the regulation of autophagy-lysosome pathway (ALP), and it has multiple biological functions including protein degradation, cell homeostasis and cell survival. In the present study we show that the tumor suppressor p53 can regulate TFEB nuclear translocation and activity in lung cancer cells. We found p53 deletion or chemical inhibition of p53 using pifithrin-α could promote the translocation of TFEB from cytoplasm to the nucleus, thus increased the TFEB-mediated lysosomal and autophagosomal biogenesis in lung cancer cells. Moreover, re-expression of p53 could decrease the expression levels of TFEB-targeting genes involved in ALP, and knockdown of TFEB could abolish the effect of p53 on the regulation of ALP gene expression. Taken together, our data indicate that p53 affects ALP through regulating TFEB nuclear translocation in lung cancer cells. Importantly, our study reveals a critical link between two keys factors in tumourigenesis and autophagy, and suggests a potential important role of p53-TFEB signaling axis in lung cancer.

  16. Revisiting CFHTLenS cosmic shear: optimal E/B mode decomposition using COSEBIs and compressed COSEBIs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asgari, Marika; Heymans, Catherine; Blake, Chris; Harnois-Deraps, Joachim; Schneider, Peter; Van Waerbeke, Ludovic

    2017-01-01

    We present a re-analysis of the CFHTLenS weak gravitational lensing survey using Complete Orthogonal Sets of E/B-mode Integrals, known as COSEBIs. COSEBIs provide a complete set of functions to efficiently separate E-modes from B-modes and hence allow for robust and stringent tests for systematic errors in the data. This analysis reveals significant B-modes on large angular scales that were not previously seen using the standard E/B decomposition analyses. We find that the significance of the B-modes is enhanced when the data are split by galaxy type and analysed in tomographic redshift bins. Adding tomographic bins to the analysis increases the number of COSEBIs modes, which results in a less-accurate estimation of the covariance matrix from a set of simulations. We therefore also present the first compressed COSEBIs analysis of survey data, where the COSEBIs modes are optimally combined based on their sensitivity to cosmological parameters. In this tomographic CCOSEBIs analysis, we find the B-modes to be consistent with zero when the full range of angular scales are considered.

  17. Benchmarking the evaluated proton differential cross sections suitable for the EBS analysis of natSi and 16O

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokkoris, M.; Dede, S.; Kantre, K.; Lagoyannis, A.; Ntemou, E.; Paneta, V.; Preketes-Sigalas, K.; Provatas, G.; Vlastou, R.; Bogdanović-Radović, I.; Siketić, Z.; Obajdin, N.

    2017-08-01

    The evaluated proton differential cross sections suitable for the Elastic Backscattering Spectroscopy (EBS) analysis of natSi and 16O, as obtained from SigmaCalc 2.0, have been benchmarked over a wide energy and angular range at two different accelerator laboratories, namely at N.C.S.R. 'Demokritos', Athens, Greece and at Ruđer Bošković Institute (RBI), Zagreb, Croatia, using a variety of high-purity thick targets of known stoichiometry. The results are presented in graphical and tabular forms, while the observed discrepancies, as well as, the limits in accuracy of the benchmarking procedure, along with target related effects, are thoroughly discussed and analysed. In the case of oxygen the agreement between simulated and experimental spectra was generally good, while for silicon serious discrepancies were observed above Ep,lab = 2.5 MeV, suggesting that a further tuning of the appropriate nuclear model parameters in the evaluated differential cross-section datasets is required.

  18. A full 3D model of fluid flow and heat transfer in an E.B. heated liquid metal bath

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matveichev, A.; Jardy, A.; Bellot, J. P.

    2016-07-01

    In order to study the dissolution of exogeneous inclusions in the liquid metal during processing of titanium alloys, a series of dipping experiments has been performed in an Electron Beam Melting laboratory furnace. Precise determination of the dissolution kinetics requires knowing and mastering the exact thermohydrodynamic behavior of the melt pool, which implies full 3D modeling of the process. To achieve this goal, one needs to describe momentum and heat transfer, phase change, as well as the development of flow turbulence in the liquid. EB power input, thermal radiation, heat loss through the cooling circuit, surface tension effects (i.e. Marangoni-induced flow) must also be addressed in the model. Therefore a new solver dealing with all these phenomena was implemented within OpenFOAM platform. Numerical results were compared with experimental data from actual Ti melting, showing a pretty good agreement. In the second stage, the immersion of a refractory sample rod in the liquid pool was simulated. Results of the simulations showed that the introduction of the sample slightly disturbs the flow field inside the bath. The amount of such disturbance depends on the exact location of the dipping.

  19. A relay mechanism between EB1 and APC facilitate STIM1 puncta assembly at endoplasmic reticulum-plasma membrane junctions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asanov, Alexander; Sherry, Ryan; Sampieri, Alicia; Vaca, Luis

    2013-09-01

    The assembly of STIM1 protein puncta near endoplasmic reticulum-plasma membrane (ER-PM) junctions is required for optimal activation of store-operated channels (SOC). The mechanisms controlling the translocation of STIM1 puncta to ER-PM junctions remain largely unknown. In the present study, we have explored the role of the microtubule binding protein adenomatous polyposis coli (APC), on STIM1 puncta and store-operated calcium entry (SOCE). APC-depleted cells showed reduced STIM1 puncta near ER-PM junctions, instead puncta is found at the ER surrounding the cell nucleus. Reduced STIM1 puncta near ER-PM junctions in APC-depleted cells correlates with a strong inhibition of SOCE and diminished Orai whole-cell currents. Immunoprecipitation and confocal microscopy co-localization studies indicate that, upon depletion of the ER, STIM1 dissociates from EB1 and associates to APC. Deletion analysis identified an APC-binding domain in the carboxyl terminus of STIM1 (STIM1 650-685). These results together position APC as an important element in facilitating the translocation of STIM1 puncta near ER-PM junctions, which in turn is required for efficient SOCE and Orai activation upon depletion of the ER. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Synthesis of per-fluorinated polymer-alloy based on PTFE by high temperature EB-irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oshima, Akihiro; Mutou, Fumihiro; Hyuga, Toshiyuki; Asano, Saneto; Ichizuri, Shogo; Li, Jingye; Miura, Takaharu; Washio, Masakazu

    2005-07-01

    In this study, synthesis of per-fluorinated polymer-alloy based on polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) has been demonstrated by high temperature irradiation techniques. The per-fluorinated polymer-blend thin films originated from polymer dispersion (PTFE, PTFE/PFA polymer-blend: FA and PTFE/FEP polymer-blend: FE) have been fabricated by the wire-bar coating equipment. The obtained films (thickness: 5-15 μm) were irradiated by EB at 335 °C ± 5 °C in nitrogen gas atmosphere. Characterization of irradiated polymer-blends has been performed by 19F solid-state NMR spectroscopy, thermal analysis and so on. By DSC analysis, the heat of crystallization (ΔHc) of both irradiated polymer-blends were decreased with increase in absorbed dose. Moreover, the melting and crystallization temperatures of both materials shift to lower temperatures, compared with crosslinked PTFE. The obtained materials showed the lower crystallinity. By 19F solid-state NMR spectroscopy, the new signals appeared at around -160 ppm and at -188 ppm. The signals are assigned to the fluorine signals of CF groups, which represent crosslinking sites with Y-type (>CF-) and Y‧-type (>Cdbnd CF-) in the polymer-blend chains. Thus, it is confirmed that the polymer-alloys with good performance based on PTFE are synthesized through the radiation crosslinking reaction between PTFE and PFA or FEP molecules.

  1. Enhancing lysosomal biogenesis and autophagic flux by activating the transcription factor EB protects against cadmium-induced neurotoxicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pi, Huifeng; Li, Min; Tian, Li; Yang, Zhiqi; Yu, Zhengping; Zhou, Zhou

    2017-01-01

    Cadmium (Cd), a highly ubiquitous heavy metal, is a well-known inducer of neurotoxicity. However, the mechanism underlying cadmium-induced neurotoxicity remains unclear. In this study, we found that Cd inhibits autophagosome-lysosome fusion and impairs lysosomal function by reducing the levels of lysosomal-associated membrane proteins, inhibiting lysosomal proteolysis and altering lysosomal pH, contributing to defects in autophagic clearance and subsequently leading to nerve cell death. In addition, Cd decreases transcription factor EB (TFEB) expression at both the mRNA and protein levels. Furthermore, Cd induces the nuclear translocation of TFEB and TFEB target-gene expression, associated with compromised lysosomal function or a compensatory effect after the impairment of the autophagic flux. Notably, restoration of the levels of lysosomal-associated membrane protein, lysosomal proteolysis, lysosomal pH and autophagic flux through Tfeb overexpression protects against Cd-induced neurotoxicity, and this protective effect is incompletely dependent on TFEB nuclear translocation. Moreover, gene transfer of the master autophagy regulator TFEB results in the clearance of toxic proteins and the correction of Cd-induced neurotoxicity in vivo. Our study is the first to demonstrate that Cd disrupts lysosomal function and autophagic flux and manipulation of TFEB signalling may be a therapeutic approach for antagonizing Cd-induced neurotoxicity. PMID:28240313

  2. Improvement of data transfer speed and development of an EB data verification system in a VSB mask writer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakimoto, Osamu; Manabe, Hironobu; Hoshi, Hiromichi; Samoto, Norihiko; Komagata, Tadashi; Nakagawa, Yasutoshi; Yamabe, Masaki

    2009-04-01

    To extend the effectiveness of photo lithography, Optical Proximity Effect Correction (OPC) and Resolution Enhancement Technique (RET) incorporate increasingly complicated process steps, handling large volumes of data. This poses a challenge for mask making with EB lithography in two areas: data transfer speed and the reliability of pattern data processed by hardware. Traditionally, JEOL's variable shaped beam mask writers used single board CPU control to save in buffer memory pattern data per field on a magnetic disk. We developed a new parallel transfer technique using a dual board CPU to enhance the data transfer speed to buffer memory. This technique improved the data transfer speed from 40 MB/sec to 80 MB/sec or higher. To insure the reliability of pattern data processed by hardware, we also devised a way to save in the hard disk the shot position, size, and dose of patterns processed in the data transfer system. We verified that the system was able to record in real time 250G shot pattern data (size and positional data of figures to be exposed).

  3. Influence of material and testing parameters on the lifetime of TBC systems with MCrAlY and NiPtAl bondcoats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Peng

    2012-08-31

    The oxidation behavior of the bond coat is an important factor determining the lifetime of thermal barrier coatings (TBC) in the advanced gas turbine components. In the present work, the effect of various testing parameters, such as hot/cold dwell time, heating/cooling rate, atmosphere composition on the bondcoat oxidation and associated TBC lifetime has been investigated. The range of coating systems included Electron Beam - Physical Vapor Deposited (EB-PVD) and Air Plasma Sprayed (APS) TBC's with MCrAlY (M = Ni, Co) and NiPtAl-bondcoats of various compositions. The effect of the testing parameters strongly depended on the type and properties of the studied system. The lifetime of EB-PVD TBC systems with conventional MCrAlY and NiPtAl bondcoats forming uniform, flat alumina scales was found to be limited by critical scale thickness, upon which a rapid crack propagation at the scale/bondcoat interface results in macroscopic failure. The lifetime of such systems was found to be affected by factors, which influence the scale growth rate and adherence (in particular by oxygen partial pressure (pO{sub 2}) and water vapor content in the test gas in the case of MCrAlY), whereas the temperature cyclic frequency showed no significant effect. NiPtAl bondcoats showed a superior behavior than the conventional MCrAlY-bondcoats due to slower scale growth rate and better scale adherence. For EB-PVD TBC systems with Zr-doped MCrAlYbondcoats the lifetime is mainly determined by the crack growth rate in the inhomogeneous inwardly growing oxide scales, whereas the lifetime is not dependent on the pO{sub 2} but rather on the cyclic frequency. For APS TBC systems the bondcoat oxidation is only one of several factors determining the ceramic topcoat lifetime. Therefore the oxide scale adherence is of less importance for lifetime of APS TBCs as compared to EBPVD TBCs. For the former systems, the cracks initiated at the convex asperities of the rough oxide scale / bondcoat interface

  4. Synthesis of vanadium pentoxide (V{sub 2}O{sub 5}) nanobelts with high coverage using plasma assisted PVD approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharma, Rabindar K., E-mail: rkrksharma6@gmail.com; Kumar, Prabhat; Reddy, G.B.

    2015-07-25

    Highlights: • This report shows the growth of α-V{sub 2}O{sub 5} on Si [1 0 0] substrate using a facile PVD route. • The presence of O{sub 2}-plasma at 500 °C is most essential for the growth of NBs with excellent coverage. • The properties of V{sub 2}O{sub 5} films are systematically studied as function of growth temperature. • The three step growth mechanism of V{sub 2}O{sub 5} NBs is discussed in this paper briefly. - Abstract: Cost-saving, easy-handling, and eco-affable plasma assisted sublimation process (PASP) is proposed to synthesize vanadium pentoxide (V{sub 2}O{sub 5}) nanobelts (NBs) with excellent coverage on Si [1 0 0] wafer using oxygen plasma without using surfactants/catalysts. Pure orthorhombic V{sub 2}O{sub 5} NBs having average length of few hundred of microns with quite uniform width nearly of 100 nm are formed at 500 °C. No film is deposited on Si in presence of oxygen gas without exciting plasma at 500 °C. HRTEM analysis with SAED pattern confirm that all V{sub 2}O{sub 5} NBs are single crystalline in nature with the fringe width of 0.33 nm corresponding to [0 1 0] crystal plane. The XPS analysis shows the compositional purity and sub-stoichiometric nature of V{sub 2}O{sub 5} NBs. The sub-stoichiometric nature of NBs is manifested through an appearance of low intensity peak corresponding to low oxidation state of V (i.e. V{sup 4+}) at the binding energy of 514.8 eV. The micro-Raman and FTIR analysis of NBs are carried out to study the different vibrational modes exhibited by V and O atoms coordinated in distinct fashions. The nanobelts exhibit room temperature PL emission in UV–visible realm with a broad hump in the range of 450–750 nm, which confirms the presence of oxygen defects in NBs and strongly supports the XPS results as well. The possible growth mechanism of α-V{sub 2}O{sub 5} NBs is proposed in this paper briefly.

  5. Corrosion Resistance Behavior of Single-Layer Cathodic Arc PVD Nitride-Base Coatings in 1M HCl and 3.5 pct NaCl Solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adesina, Akeem Yusuf; Gasem, Zuhair M.; Madhan Kumar, Arumugam

    2017-04-01

    The electrochemical behavior of single-layer TiN, CrN, CrAlN, and TiAlN coatings on 304 stainless steel substrate, deposited using state-of-the-art and industrial size cathodic arc PVD machine, were evaluated in 1M HCl and 3.5 pct NaCl solutions. The corrosion behavior of the blank and coated substrates was analyzed by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), linear polarization resistance, and potentiodynamic polarization. Bond-coat layers of pure-Ti, pure-Cr, alloyed-CrAl, and alloyed-TiAl for TiN, CrN, CrAlN, and TiAlN coatings were, respectively, first deposited for improved coating adhesion before the actual coating. The average coating thickness was about 1.80 µm. Results showed that the corrosion potentials ( E corr) of the coated substrates were shifted to more noble values which indicated improvement of the coated substrate resistance to corrosion susceptibility. The corrosion current densities were lower for all coated substrates as compared to the blank substrate. Similarly, EIS parameters showed that these coatings possessed improved resistance to defects and pores in similar solution compared to the same nitride coatings developed by magnetron sputtering. The charge transfer resistance ( R ct) can be ranked in the following order: TiAlN > CrN > TiN > CrAlN in both media except in NaCl solution where R ct of TiN is lowest. While the pore resistance ( R po) followed the order: CrAlN > CrN > TiAlN > TiN in HCl solution and TiAlN > CrN > CrAlN > TiN in NaCl solution. It is found that TiAlN coating has the highest protective efficiencies of 79 and 99 pct in 1M HCl and 3.5 pct NaCl, respectively. SEM analysis of the corroded substrates in both media was also presented.

  6. Corrosion Resistance Behavior of Single-Layer Cathodic Arc PVD Nitride-Base Coatings in 1M HCl and 3.5 pct NaCl Solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adesina, Akeem Yusuf; Gasem, Zuhair M.; Madhan Kumar, Arumugam

    2017-01-01

    The electrochemical behavior of single-layer TiN, CrN, CrAlN, and TiAlN coatings on 304 stainless steel substrate, deposited using state-of-the-art and industrial size cathodic arc PVD machine, were evaluated in 1M HCl and 3.5 pct NaCl solutions. The corrosion behavior of the blank and coated substrates was analyzed by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), linear polarization resistance, and potentiodynamic polarization. Bond-coat layers of pure-Ti, pure-Cr, alloyed-CrAl, and alloyed-TiAl for TiN, CrN, CrAlN, and TiAlN coatings were, respectively, first deposited for improved coating adhesion before the actual coating. The average coating thickness was about 1.80 µm. Results showed that the corrosion potentials (E corr) of the coated substrates were shifted to more noble values which indicated improvement of the coated substrate resistance to corrosion susceptibility. The corrosion current densities were lower for all coated substrates as compared to the blank substrate. Similarly, EIS parameters showed that these coatings possessed improved resistance to defects and pores in similar solution compared to the same nitride coatings developed by magnetron sputtering. The charge transfer resistance (R ct) can be ranked in the following order: TiAlN > CrN > TiN > CrAlN in both media except in NaCl solution where R ct of TiN is lowest. While the pore resistance (R po) followed the order: CrAlN > CrN > TiAlN > TiN in HCl solution and TiAlN > CrN > CrAlN > TiN in NaCl solution. It is found that TiAlN coating has the highest protective efficiencies of 79 and 99 pct in 1M HCl and 3.5 pct NaCl, respectively. SEM analysis of the corroded substrates in both media was also presented.

  7. Regulation of a dynamic interaction between two microtubule-binding proteins, EB1 and TIP150, by the mitotic p300/CBP-associated factor (PCAF) orchestrates kinetochore microtubule plasticity and chromosome stability during mitosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Tarsha; Wang, Ming; Liu, Xing; Wang, Zhikai; Xia, Peng; Chu, Youjun; Wang, Xiwei; Liu, Lifang; Jiang, Kai; Yu, Huijuan; Yan, Maomao; Wang, Jianyu; Hill, Donald L; Huang, Yuejia; Zhu, Tongge; Yao, Xuebiao

    2013-05-31

    The microtubule cytoskeleton network orchestrates cellular dynamics and chromosome stability in mitosis. Although tubulin acetylation is essential for cellular plasticity, it has remained elusive how kinetochore microtubule plus-end dynamics are regulated by p300/CBP-associated factor (PCAF) acetylation in mitosis. Here, we demonstrate that the plus-end tracking protein, TIP150, regulates dynamic kinetochore-microtubule attachments by promoting the stability of spindle microtubule plus-ends. Suppression of TIP150 by siRNA results in metaphase alignment delays and perturbations in chromosome biorientation. TIP150 is a tetramer that binds an end-binding protein (EB1) dimer through the C-terminal domains, and overexpression of the C-terminal TIP150 or disruption of the TIP150-EB1 interface by a membrane-permeable peptide perturbs chromosome segregation. Acetylation of EB1-PCAF regulates the TIP150 interaction, and persistent acetylation perturbs EB1-TIP150 interaction and accurate metaphase alignment, resulting in spindle checkpoint activation. Suppression of the mitotic checkpoint serine/threonine protein kinase, BubR1, overrides mitotic arrest induced by impaired EB1-TIP150 interaction, but cells exhibit whole chromosome aneuploidy. Thus, the results identify a mechanism by which the TIP150-EB1 interaction governs kinetochore microtubule plus-end plasticity and establish that the temporal control of the TIP150-EB1 interaction by PCAF acetylation ensures chromosome stability in mitosis.

  8. Regulation of a Dynamic Interaction between Two Microtubule-binding Proteins, EB1 and TIP150, by the Mitotic p300/CBP-associated Factor (PCAF) Orchestrates Kinetochore Microtubule Plasticity and Chromosome Stability during Mitosis*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Tarsha; Wang, Ming; Liu, Xing; Wang, Zhikai; Xia, Peng; Chu, Youjun; Wang, Xiwei; Liu, Lifang; Jiang, Kai; Yu, Huijuan; Yan, Maomao; Wang, Jianyu; Hill, Donald L.; Huang, Yuejia; Zhu, Tongge; Yao, Xuebiao

    2013-01-01

    The microtubule cytoskeleton network orchestrates cellular dynamics and chromosome stability in mitosis. Although tubulin acetylation is essential for cellular plasticity, it has remained elusive how kinetochore microtubule plus-end dynamics are regulated by p300/CBP-associated factor (PCAF) acetylation in mitosis. Here, we demonstrate that the plus-end tracking protein, TIP150, regulates dynamic kinetochore-microtubule attachments by promoting the stability of spindle microtubule plus-ends. Suppression of TIP150 by siRNA results in metaphase alignment delays and perturbations in chromosome biorientation. TIP150 is a tetramer that binds an end-binding protein (EB1) dimer through the C-terminal domains, and overexpression of the C-terminal TIP150 or disruption of the TIP150-EB1 interface by a membrane-permeable peptide perturbs chromosome segregation. Acetylation of EB1-PCAF regulates the TIP150 interaction, and persistent acetylation perturbs EB1-TIP150 interaction and accurate metaphase alignment, resulting in spindle checkpoint activation. Suppression of the mitotic checkpoint serine/threonine protein kinase, BubR1, overrides mitotic arrest induced by impaired EB1-TIP150 interaction, but cells exhibit whole chromosome aneuploidy. Thus, the results identify a mechanism by which the TIP150-EB1 interaction governs kinetochore microtubule plus-end plasticity and establish that the temporal control of the TIP150-EB1 interaction by PCAF acetylation ensures chromosome stability in mitosis. PMID:23595990

  9. Research Progress and Application of Superhard Nano-Micron PVD Coating Technology in the Cutting Manufacturing Area%超硬纳微米PVD涂层技术在刀具领域的应用及研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张而耕; 朱州; 张体波

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT:The paper introduced the principle, characteristics, and advantages and disadvantages of three methods of vacuum evaporation, sputtering and ion plating in physical vapor deposition ( PVD) technology, and introduced the PVD coating technology that is widely used in cutting tools by four categories of binary, multiple coatings, multilayer coatings and nano multilayer composite coating. Based on a large amount of literature, combined with the author's experience in the research and application of PVD tech-nology for many years, the paper reviewed the research progress of superhard nano-micron PVD coating technology in the field of application of cutting tool from the most important perspective of improving the cutting tool life, and further discussed the multiple coating, multilayer coating and nanometer coating in details. Cutting tool surface with application of physical vapor deposition coa-ting technology enabled the tool to obtain excellent overall performance, which significantly improved the life of cutting tools, re-duced production costs, and increased the machining efficiency substantially. Finally, the paper forecasted the wide application of physical vapor deposition coating technology in composite superhard cutting ( including milling of mold steel, hardened steel whose hardness over HRC55 ) , cutting hard processing materials ( including high-temperature alloys, titanium alloy, stainless steel, etc. ) , machining and processing composite materials of graphite and carbon fiber, etc. and high-speedily machining non-ferrous metals ( including aluminum, copper alloys, nickel, etc. ) in the future.%介绍了物理气相沉积( PVD)技术的原理、特点和真空蒸镀、溅射镀和离子镀之间的优缺点,从二元涂层、多元涂层、多层涂层和纳米多层复合涂层等4种类别上介绍了PVD涂层技术在切削刀具上的广泛应用。在查阅和整理大量文献资料的基础上,也结合笔者多年从事PVD技术的

  10. 40 CFR Table 2a to Subpart Ce of... - Emissions Limits for Small HMIWI Which Meet the Criteria Under § 60.33e(b)(1)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Emissions Limits for Small HMIWI Which Meet the Criteria Under § 60.33e(b)(1) 2A Table 2A to Subpart Ce of Part 60 Protection of Environment..., Subpt. Ce, Table 2A Table 2A to Subpart Ce of Part 60—Emissions Limits for Small HMIWI Which Meet the...

  11. 40 CFR Table 2b to Subpart Ce of... - Emissions Limits for Small HMIWI Which Meet the Criteria Under § 60.33e(b)(2)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Emissions Limits for Small HMIWI Which Meet the Criteria Under § 60.33e(b)(2) 2B Table 2B to Subpart Ce of Part 60 Protection of Environment..., Subpt. Ce, Table 2B Table 2B to Subpart Ce of Part 60—Emissions Limits for Small HMIWI Which Meet the...

  12. Applied socio-hydrology using volunteer geographic information (VGI) to integrate ecosystem-based adaptation (EbA) and disaster risk reduction (DRR)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendiondo, Eduardo; Taffarello, Denise; Mohor, Guilherme; Guzmán, Diego; Câmara de Freitas, Clarissa; Fava, Maria Clara; Restrepo, Camilo; Abreu, Fernando; Batalini, Marina; Lago, Cesar; Abe, Narumi; Rosa, Altair

    2017-04-01

    Socio-hydrology proposes to understand coupled human-water systems by conceptualizing its components to be dynamically connected by bi-directional feedbacks. For practical purposes, especially in developing countries of South America, socio-hydrology does integrate practical, empirical and theoretical fundamentals from citizens' knowledge and culture. This contribution shows South American examples of how volunteer geographic information (VGI) can help socio-hydrology to integrate emerging aspects with heavy feedbacks, exploding uncertainties and relevant scales of socio-hydrological scales. Here we select examples at different scales of using VGI to link aspects of ecosystem-based adaptation (EbA) and disaster risk reduction (DRR). On the one hand, we show some learning cases of EbA/VGI linked to socio-hydrology also related with water valuation, both monetary and non-monetary, under scenarios of changing conditions of land-use and land cover changes of strategic water supply systems in subtropical biomes. This example brings a bridge of VGI and EbA towards Disaster Risk Reduction (DRR) through water topics of securitization, insurance, smart cities and sustainable urban drainage systems (SUDS). Thus, on the other hand, we also depict how VGI support applied elements for socio-hydrology on South American urban areas, capable of policy actions for DRR through SUDS at human-impacted biomes under extremes of droughts, floods and pollution. We here recommend yardsticks of learning conditions from these real examples of using VGI's knowledge and culture biases for a more resilient socio-hydrology, in order to create opportunities for theoretical, conceptual and applied nature of EbA and DRR with viable alliances from IAHS/Panta Rhei with UN/Sendai/DRR Framework and UN/Sustainable Development Goals. From these examples, however, seem plausible co-evolutionary dynamics with stakeholders if local-scale constraints, from sociopolitical nature, institutions' policies and

  13. Simultaneous use and self-consistent analyses of μ-PIXE and μ-EBS for the characterization of corrosion layers grown on ancient coins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz, J.; Corregidor, V.; Alves, L. C.

    2017-09-01

    The study of corrosion products in two XVI century coins through the simultaneous and self-consistent μ-PIXE and μ-EBS spectra analyses is presented in this work. The fitted spectra give consistent results, showing the feasibility of this approach to determine in a fast and non-destructive way the elemental composition and concentration depth profiles of the corrosion layers.


  14. Comparison between Duncan and Chang’s EB Model and the Generalized Plasticity Model in the Analysis of a High Earth-Rockfill Dam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weixin Dong

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Nonlinear elastic model and elastoplastic model are two main kinds of constitutive models of soil, which are widely used in the numerical analyses of soil structure. In this study, Duncan and Chang's EB model and the generalized plasticity model proposed by Pastor, Zienkiewicz, and Chan was discussed and applied to describe the stress-strain relationship of rockfill materials. The two models were validated using the results of triaxial shear tests under different confining pressures. The comparisons between the fittings of models and test data showed that the modified generalized plasticity model is capable of simulating the mechanical behaviours of rockfill materials. The modified generalized plasticity model was implemented into a finite element code to carry out static analyses of a high earth-rockfill dam in China. Nonlinear elastic analyses were also performed with Duncan and Chang's EB model in the same program framework. The comparisons of FEM results and in situ monitoring data showed that the modified PZ-III model can give a better description of deformation of the earth-rockfill dam than Duncan and Chang’s EB model.

  15. Eb&D: A new clustering approach for signed social networks based on both edge-betweenness centrality and density of subgraphs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Xingqin; Song, Huimin; Wu, Jianliang; Fuller, Edgar; Luo, Rong; Zhang, Cun-Quan

    2017-09-01

    Clustering algorithms for unsigned social networks which have only positive edges have been studied intensively. However, when a network has like/dislike, love/hate, respect/disrespect, or trust/distrust relationships, unsigned social networks with only positive edges are inadequate. Thus we model such kind of networks as signed networks which can have both negative and positive edges. Detecting the cluster structures of signed networks is much harder than for unsigned networks, because it not only requires that positive edges within clusters are as many as possible, but also requires that negative edges between clusters are as many as possible. Currently, we have few clustering algorithms for signed networks, and most of them requires the number of final clusters as an input while it is actually hard to predict beforehand. In this paper, we will propose a novel clustering algorithm called Eb &D for signed networks, where both the betweenness of edges and the density of subgraphs are used to detect cluster structures. A hierarchically nested system will be constructed to illustrate the inclusion relationships of clusters. To show the validity and efficiency of Eb &D, we test it on several classical social networks and also hundreds of synthetic data sets, and all obtain better results compared with other methods. The biggest advantage of Eb &D compared with other methods is that the number of clusters do not need to be known prior.

  16. Simultaneous quantification of light elements in thin films deposited on Si substrates using proton EBS (Elastic Backscattering Spectroscopy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrer, F. J.; Alcaire, M.; Caballero-Hernández, J.; Garcia-Garcia, F. J.; Gil-Rostra, J.; Terriza, A.; Godinho, V.; García-López, J.; Barranco, A.; Fernández-Camacho, A.

    2014-08-01

    Quantification of light elements content in thin films is an important and difficult issue in many technological fields such as polymeric functional thin films, organic thin film devices, biomaterials, and doped semiconducting structures. Light elements are difficult to detect with techniques based on X-ray emission, such as energy dispersive analysis of X-rays (EDAX). Other techniques, like X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), can easily quantify the content of light elements within a surface but often these surface measurements are not representative of the lights elements global composition of the thin film. Standard Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy (RBS), using alpha particles as probe projectiles, is not a good option to measure light elements deposited on heavier substrates composed of heavier elements like Si or glass. Nuclear Reaction Analysis (NRA) offers a good quantification method, but most of the nuclear reactions used are selective for the quantification of only one element, so several reactions and analysis are necessary to measure different elements. In this study, Elastic Backscattering Spectroscopy (EBS) using proton beams of 2.0 MeV simultaneously quantified different light elements (helium, carbon, nitrogen, oxygen, and fluorine) contained in thin films supported on silicon substrates. The capabilities of the proposed quantification method are illustrated with examples of the analysis for a series of thin film samples: amorphous silicon with helium bubbles, fluorinated silica, fluorinated diamond-like carbon and organic thin films. It is shown that this simple and versatile procedure allows the simultaneous quantification of light elements in thin films with thicknesses in the 200-500 nm range and contents lower than 10 at.%.

  17. Qualification Program of Korea Heat Load Test Facility KoHLT-EB for ITER Plasma Facing Components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Suk-Kwon; Park, Seoung Dae; Jin, Hyung Gon; Lee, Eo Hwak; Yoon, Jae-Sung; Lee, Dong Won [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Seungyon [National Fusion Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    The qualification tests were performed to evaluate the high heat flux test facility for the PFCs and fusion reactor materials. For the thermal fatigue test, two types of tungsten mock-ups were fabricated. The cooling performance was tested under the similar operation condition of ITER and fusion reactor. After the completion of the preliminary mockup test and facility qualification, the high heat flux test facility will assess the performance test for the various plasma facing components in fusion reactor materials. Preliminary thermo-hydraulic and performance tests were conducted using various test mockups for the plasma facing components in the high heat flux test facilities of the world. The previous heat flux tests were performed by using the graphite heater facilities in Korea. Several facilities which equipped with an electron beam as the uniform heat source were fabricated for the tokamak PFCs in the EU, Russia and US. These heat flux test facilities are utilized for a cyclic heat flux test of the PFCs. Each facility working for their own purpose in EU FZJ, US SNL, and Russia Efremov institute. For this purpose, KoHLTEB was constructed and this facility will be used for ITER TBM performance test with the small-scale and large-scale mockups, and prototype. Also, it has been used for other fusion application for developing plasma facing component (PFC) for ITER FW, tungsten divertor, and heat transfer experiment and so on under the domestic R and D program. Korea heat load test facility by using electron beam KoHLT-EB was constructed for the high heat flux test to verify the plasma facing components, including ITER TBM first wall.

  18. Performance Test of Korea Heat Load Test Facility (KoHLT-EB) for the Plasma Facing Components of Fusion Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Suk-Kwon; Jin, Hyung Gon; Lee, Eo Hwak; Yoon, Jae-Sung; Lee, Dong Won [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Seungyon [National Fusion Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-10-15

    The main components of the plasma facing components (PFCs) in the tokamak are the blanket first wall and divertor, which include the armour materials, the heat sink with the cooling mechanism, and the diagnostics devices for the temperature measurement. The Korea Heat Load Test facility by using electron beam (KoHLT-EB) has been operating for the plasma facing components to develop fusion engineering. This electron beam facility was constructed using a 300 kW electron gun and a cylindrical vacuum chamber. Performance tests were carried out for the calorimetric calibrations with Cu dummy mockup and for the heat load test of large Cu module. For the simulation of the heat load test of each mockup, the preliminary thermal-hydraulic analyses with ANSYS-CFX were performed. For the development of the plasma facing components in the fusion reactors, test mockups were fabricated and tested in the high heat flux test facility. To perform a beam profile test, an assessment of the possibility of electron beam Gaussian power density profile and the results of the absorbed power for that profile before the test starts are needed. To assess the possibility of a Gaussian profile, for the qualification test of the Gaussian heat load profile, a calorimeter mockup and large Cu module were manufactured to simulate real heat. For this high-heat flux test, the Korean high-heat flux test facility using an electron beam system was constructed. In this facility, a cyclic heat flux test will be performed to measure the surface heat flux, surface temperature profile, and cooling capacity.

  19. Comments on: Further studies of Bolivian crocidolite-Part IV: Fibre width, fibre drift and their relation to mesothelioma induction: Preliminary findings, by Ilgren EB, van Orden DR, Lee RJ, Kamiya YM, Hoskins JA.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corrado Magnani

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Comments on: Further studies of Bolivian crocidolite-Part IV: Fibre width, fibre drift and their relation to mesothelioma induction: Preliminary findings, by Ilgren EB, van Orden DR, Lee RJ, Kamiya YM, Hoskins JA.

  20. CODE: EB10

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Philippe

    was a need to revisit policies concerning teachers‟ welfare. .... food, clothing, housing, education of children, health care, budget travel for commuting and ..... It should provide teachers with regular training to equip them with new methods, ...

  1. CODE: EB10

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Philippe

    The purpose of this paper is to reveal that physical punishment is still recognized ... reasonably believes that force is necessary to discipline the child to ..... the Rwandan society which argues that “igiti kigororwa kikiri gito” (meaning that a tree.

  2. CODE: EB10

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Philippe

    design and organizational culture) for KIE employees? Null hypothesis .... Data collected were analyzed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS). Cronbach‟s Alpha ... The level of significance was set at 0.05. Findings and ...

  3. CODE: EB10

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Philippe

    The plight of non-native English-speaking teachers of languages in the teaching ... for teaching and learning the English language because of their shared ..... to be considered such as; age, sex aptitude, charisma, motivation [and] training;.

  4. CODE: EB10

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Philippe

    2011-08-31

    Aug 31, 2011 ... Editorial Board; I take this opportunity to express my appreciation to all those .... and adds that it could be of great benefit if a compulsory module of drama ... gratitude to our well-wishers and contributors for their support, and I ...

  5. EBV逃避宿主免疫的机制%The Mechanism of EB Virus to Evade the Host Immune

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张军华(综述); 田兴德(审校)

    2015-01-01

    In order to resist the host immune system in the infection process ,EB virus ( EBV) produced a series of interference of human immune system.EBV can latent in the B cells of host for a long-term after infection and interference the expression of host MHC to affect the host immune system .EBV BCRF1 protein can induce the creation of Th2 cells,BARF1 protein can induce secretion of IFN-α.Many viral proteins could interfere in the cytokine network.The BHRF1 protein encoded by EBV may play an anti apoptotic role in host body.This paper describes many mechanisms of EBV to evade from the host immune .In this paper, latest re-search progress in immune evasion of EBV is summarized to provide a reference for EBV prevention and con-trol as well as the design of new vaccines.%EB病毒(EBV)在感染宿主的过程中需要克服宿主免疫系统的防御,因此衍生了一系列干扰人体免疫的策略。 EBV感染后会长期潜伏在宿主B细胞中,并对宿主MHC分子的表达进行干扰,影响宿主的抗病毒免疫。 EBV表达的BCRF1蛋白可刺激Th2细胞的产生,BARF1蛋白可诱发α型干扰素等细胞因子的分泌,多种病毒蛋白均可干扰细胞因子网络。同时 EBV 编码的 BHRF1等蛋白可发挥抗凋亡作用。该文就EBV免疫逃避的最新研究进展进行了归纳总结,以期为EBV防控、新型疫苗设计等提供参考。

  6. Dam-induced and natural channel changes in the Saskatchewan River below the E.B. Campbell Dam, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Norman D.; Morozova, Galina S.; Pérez-Arlucea, Marta; Gibling, Martin R.

    2016-09-01

    The E.B. Campbell Dam on the Saskatchewan River, east-central Saskatchewan, was constructed in 1962, forming Tobin Lake (2.2 billion m3 capacity), which today impounds most fluvial sediment and disrupts normal outflow patterns. Thirty-five kilometers below the dam, the river diverts into a 500 km2 belt of alluvial sediment initiated by an avulsion 140 years ago, rejoining the parent channel 108 km from the dam. Effects of the dam on channel geomorphology, including the historical channel (reach I) and the more recent avulsion-affected channels, were investigated by pre- and post-dam cross section surveys combined with grain-size and bedload measurements. Twenty-three sites were surveyed at least twice, and 14 were resurveyed annually in 2003-2014 (except 2007) during which significant floods occurred in 2005, 2011, and 2013. All channel cross sections up to 81 km below the dam have coarsened and enlarged since closure, resulting in excavation of 35.4 × 106 m3 of channel-perimeter sediment since 1962. The most proximal segment is armored and has changed little in recent years. Since 2003, channel enlargement has been greatest in the 35-81 km segment between the avulsion site and the Forks (reaches II, III), manifested as widening and deepening. Enlargement rates were greatest during the three floods, and the paucity of bedload has prevented degraded portions of the channel bed from replenishment following flooding. Budget calculations based on bedload measurements and channel cross-section areas suggest that > 30 years would be required to replace the sediment removed between 2003 and 2014, assuming all available bedload remains in the affected reach. Dam effects appear to be absent or uncertain beyond 81 km, a multichanneled region of varied stages of activity (reach IV), recombining and eventually rejoining the parent Saskatchewan River channel at km 108 (reach V). Sediment evacuated from reaches I-III is sufficient to sustain modest aggradation in some distal

  7. DEFORMACIÓN ELÁSTICA RESIDUAL EN LÁMINAS DE ACERO AISI 304 RECUBIERTAS CON UNA PELÍCULA DE NITRURO DE TITANIO DEPOSITADA POR PVD-MAGNETRON SPUTTERING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. A. COLORADO

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó una caracterización mediante difracción de rayos x (DRX en láminas de acero inoxidable AISI 304 recubierto con una capa de nitruro de titanio de 3 um de espesor, obtenida mediante deposición física de vapor (PVD-MAGNETRON SPUTTERING a una temperatura de 200 °C. se tomaron imágenes de microscopía electrónica de barrido (MEB, microscopía óptica (MO y microscopía de fuerza atómica (MFA para caracterizar el sustrato, la capa y la zona cercana a la intercara. adicionalmente se determinó la deformación elástica residual asociada con el ensanchamiento de los picos de DRX.

  8. DEFORMACIÓN ELÁSTICA RESIDUAL EN LÁMINAS DE ACERO AISI 304 RECUBIERTAS CON UNA PELÍCULA DE NITRURO DE TITANIO DEPOSITADA POR PVD-MAGNETRON SPUTTERING

    OpenAIRE

    COLORADO, H. A.; SALVA, H. R.; GHILARDUCCI, A. A.

    2009-01-01

    se realizó una caracterización mediante difracción de rayos x (DRX) en láminas de acero inoxidable AISI 304 recubierto con una capa de nitruro de titanio de 3 mm de espesor, obtenida mediante deposición física de vapor (PVD-magnetron sputtering) a una temperatura de 200 ˚C. se tomaron imágenes de microscopía electrónica de barrido (MEB), microscopía óptica (MO) y microscopía de fuerza atómica (MFA) para caracterizar el sustrato, la capa y la zona cercana a la intercara. adicionalmente se dete...

  9. Deformación elástica residual en láminas de acero aisi 304 recubiertas con una película de nitruro de titanio depositada por pvd-magnetron sputtering

    OpenAIRE

    H. A. COLORADO; Salva, H. R.; GHILARDUCCI, A. A.

    2010-01-01

    Se realizó una caracterización mediante difracción de rayos x (DRX) en láminas de acero inoxidable AISI 304 recubierto con una capa de nitruro de titanio de 3 um de espesor, obtenida mediante deposición física de vapor (PVD-MAGNETRON SPUTTERING) a una temperatura de 200 °C. se tomaron imágenes de microscopía electrónica de barrido (MEB), microscopía óptica (MO) y microscopía de fuerza atómica (MFA) para caracterizar el sustrato, la capa y la zona cercana a la intercara. adicionalmente se dete...

  10. 论"EB"环境中消费合同的履行——从消费者权益救济视角%Discussion on the Performance of Consumer Contract in the "EB" Environment: From the Perspective of Consumer Right Relieving

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    温晓芸

    2011-01-01

    我国相关电子商务立法的缺位是导致消费者知情权遭受损害的根本原因.鉴于"EB"环境中消费者求偿权实现的特殊性,立法要在交易后保障消费者求偿权的实现,完善"EB"环境中消费合同履行制度设计,促进我国电子商务行业的有序发展.%The absence of relevant e-commerce legislation is the root cause which result in the damage to the consumer's right to know. In view of the specificity of the realization of the consumer's right of claim, the legislation must ensure the realization of consumer's right of claim after transaction and improve the design for the performance system of consumer contract under "EB" environment, in order to promote the order development of ecommerce industry.

  11. Biomimetic thermal barrier coating in jet engine to resist volcanic ash deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Wenjia; Major, Zsuzsanna; Schulz, Uwe; Muth, Tobias; Lavallée, Yan; Hess, Kai-Uwe; Dingwell, Donald B.

    2017-04-01

    The threat of volcanic ash to aviation safety is attracting extensive attention when several commercial jet aircraft were damaged after flying through volcanic ash clouds from the May 1980 eruptions of Mount St. Helen in Washington, U.S. and especially after the air traffic disruption in 2010 Eyjafjallajökull eruption. A major hazard presented by volcanic ash to aircraft is linked to the wetting and spreading of molten ash droplets on engine component surfaces. Due to the fact ash has a lower melting point, around 1100 °C, than the gas temperature in the hot section (between 1400 to 2000 °C), this cause the ash to melt and potentially stick to the internal components (e.g., combustor and turbine blades), this cause the ash to melt and potentially stick to the internal components of the engine creating, substantial damage or even engine failure after ingestion. Here, inspiring form the natural surface of lotus leaf (exhibiting extreme water repellency, known as 'lotus effect'), we firstly create the multifunctional surface thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) by producing a hierarchical structure with femtosecond laser pulses. In detail, we investigate the effect of one of primary femtosecond laser irradiation process parameter (scanning speed) on the hydrophobicity of water droplets onto the two kinds of TBCs fabricated by electron-beam physical vapor deposition (EB-PVD) and air plasma spray (APS), respectively as well as their corresponding to morphology. It is found that, comparison with the original surface (without femtosecond laser ablation), all of the irradiated samples demonstrate more significant hydrophobic properties due to nanostructuring. On the basis of these preliminary room-temperature results, the wettability of volcanic ash droplets will be analysed at the high temperature to constrain the potential impact of volcanic ash on the jet engines.

  12. IMC-EB10, an anti-FLT3 monoclonal antibody, prolongs survival and reduces nonobese diabetic/severe combined immunodeficient engraftment of some acute lymphoblastic leukemia cell lines and primary leukemic samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piloto, Obdulio; Nguyen, Bao; Huso, David; Kim, Kyu-Tae; Li, Yiwen; Witte, Larry; Hicklin, Daniel J; Brown, Patrick; Small, Donald

    2006-05-01

    The class III receptor tyrosine kinase FLT3 is expressed on the blasts of >90% of patients with B-lineage acute lymphoblastic leukemias (ALL). In addition, it is expressed at extremely high levels in ALL patients with mixed lineage leukemia rearrangements or hyperdiploidy and is sometimes mutated in these same patients. In this report, we investigate the effects of treating ALL cell lines and primary samples with human anti-FLT3 monoclonal antibodies (mAb) capable of preventing binding of FLT3 ligand. In vitro studies, examining the ability of two anti-FLT3 mAbs (IMC-EB10 and IMC-NC7) to affect FLT3 activation and downstream signaling in ALL cell lines and primary blasts, yielded variable results. FLT3 phosphorylation was consistently inhibited by IMC-NC7 treatment, but in some cell lines, IMC-EB10 actually stimulated FLT3 activation, possibly as a result of antibody-mediated receptor dimerization. Through antibody-dependent, cell-mediated cytotoxicity, such an antibody could still prove efficacious against leukemia cells in vivo. In fact, IMC-EB10 treatment significantly prolonged survival and/or reduced engraftment of several ALL cell lines and primary ALL samples in nonobese diabetic/severe combined immunodeficient (NOD/SCID) mice. This occurred even when IMC-EB10 treatment resulted in FLT3 activation in vitro. Moreover, fluorescence-activated cell sorting and PCR analysis of IMC-EB10-treated NOD/SCID mice surviving 150 days post-leukemic cell injection revealed that FLT3 immunotherapy reduced leukemic engraftment below the level of detection in these assays (IMC-EB10 treatment did not select for resistant cells, because cells surviving IMC-EB10 treatment remain sensitive to IMC-EB10 cytotoxicity upon retransplantation. In vivo studies involving either partial depletion or activation of natural killer (NK) cells show that most of the cytotoxic effect of IMC-EB10 is mediated through NK cells. Therefore, such an antibody, either naked or conjugated to radioactive

  13. Improved Properties of Poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate Produced by Comamonas sp. EB172 Utilizing Volatile Fatty Acids by Regulating the Nitrogen Source

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd Rafein Zakaria

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study presents the effect of carbon to nitrogen ratio (C/N (mol/mol on the cell growth and poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate accumulation by Comamonas sp. EB172 in 2 L fermenters using volatile fatty acids (VFA as the carbon source. This VFA was supplemented with ammonium sulphate and yeast extract in the feeding solution to achieve C/N (mol/mol 5, 15, 25, and 34.4, respectively. By extrapolating the C/N and the source of nitrogen, the properties of the polymers can be regulated. The number average molecular weight (Mn of P(3HB-co-3HV copolymer reached the highest at 838 × 103 Da with polydispersity index (PDI value of 1.8, when the culture broth was supplemented with yeast extract (C/N 34.4. Tensile strength and Young’s modulus of the copolymer containing 6–8 mol% 3HV were in the ranges of 13–14.4 MPa and 0.26–0.34 GPa, respectively, comparable to those of polyethylene (PE. Thus, Comamonas sp. EB172 has shown promising bacterial isolates producing polyhydroxyalkanoates from renewable carbon materials.

  14. Single-photon sensitive fast ebCMOS camera system for multiple-target tracking of single fluorophores: application to nano-biophotonics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cajgfinger, Thomas; Chabanat, Eric; Dominjon, Agnes; Doan, Quang T.; Guerin, Cyrille; Houles, Julien; Barbier, Remi

    2011-03-01

    Nano-biophotonics applications will benefit from new fluorescent microscopy methods based essentially on super-resolution techniques (beyond the diffraction limit) on large biological structures (membranes) with fast frame rate (1000 Hz). This trend tends to push the photon detectors to the single-photon counting regime and the camera acquisition system to real time dynamic multiple-target tracing. The LUSIPHER prototype presented in this paper aims to give a different approach than those of Electron Multiplied CCD (EMCCD) technology and try to answer to the stringent demands of the new nano-biophotonics imaging techniques. The electron bombarded CMOS (ebCMOS) device has the potential to respond to this challenge, thanks to the linear gain of the accelerating high voltage of the photo-cathode, to the possible ultra fast frame rate of CMOS sensors and to the single-photon sensitivity. We produced a camera system based on a 640 kPixels ebCMOS with its acquisition system. The proof of concept for single-photon based tracking for multiple single-emitters is the main result of this paper.

  15. [EbM from the bottom up: are questions asking for evidence in daily clinical practice answerable?---a report from a pilot test to assist general practitioners with using evidence-based medicine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blank, Wolfgang; Weingart, Olaf

    2009-01-01

    Many physicians agree on the advantages of using Evidence-based Medicine (EbM) in daily practice, but they do not make use of this method very often. One reason for this lack of EbM implementation is that it is difficult to access clinically relevant and appropriate information in daily practice. The division "Principles and Practices of EbM" in the German Network for Evidence-based Medicine (DNEbM) initiated a pilot project to improve their information management. During two weeks in February 2007 physicians in a local setting in the southeast part of Germany were offered an EbM expert service. They were asked to formulate open-ended questions arising from daily practice. Seventeen experts answered these questions within a three day period. In addition, all participants regularly received an edited version of these topics, and finally a questionnaire was sent out to evaluate physician satisfaction. Five family doctors and two hospital departments formulated 28 questions in two weeks. There was a wide range of answers, from evidence summaries (including full texts of the trials or relevant guidelines) up to expert opinion together with a discussion of different action strategies in the case of uncertain evidence. The participating physicians' satisfaction with this offer of low-barrier access to the best available evidence and the answers provided by the experts was high. Apart from the suggested solutions to the respective problems the project initiated a critical self-analysis of their individual clinical practice among the participating physicians. All of them saw the need for continuing this project. Further investigations are needed in order to optimise both the process of EbM implementation on a long-term basis and the health care quality by providing EbM expert services.

  16. Comparative study of Cu(In,Ga)Se{sub 2}/(PVD)In{sub 2}S{sub 3} and Cu(In,Ga)Se{sub 2}/(CBD)CdS heterojunction based solar cells by admittance spectroscopy, current-voltage and spectral response measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Darga, A. [Laboratoire de Genie Electrique de Paris, CNRS UMR8507, SUPELEC, UPMC Univ Paris 06, Univ Paris-Sud, 11 rue Joliot-Curie, Plateau de Moulon, F-91192 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France)], E-mail: arouna.darga@lgep.supelec.fr; Mencaraglia, D.; Djebbour, Z.; Dubois, A. Migan; Chouffot, R.; Serhan, J. [Laboratoire de Genie Electrique de Paris, CNRS UMR8507, SUPELEC, UPMC Univ Paris 06, Univ Paris-Sud, 11 rue Joliot-Curie, Plateau de Moulon, F-91192 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France); Couzinie-Devy, F.; Barreau, N.; Kessler, J. [Institut des Materiaux Jean Rouxel (IMN)-UMR 6502, Universite de Nantes, CNRS, 2 rue de la Houssiniere, BP 32229, 44322 Nantes cedex 3 (France)

    2009-02-02

    Co-evaporated Cu(In,Ga)Se{sub 2} (CIGSe) based solar cells with Physical Vapour Deposited (PVD) Indium Sulphide (In{sub 2}S{sub 3}) as buffer layer have been studied by admittance spectroscopy and current-voltage characteristics measurements. The results have been compared to those obtained with a reference CBD-CdS/CIGSe device. In darkness, the PVD-In{sub 2}S{sub 3} buffer layer devices exhibit higher densities of trapping defects and low values of shunt resistance. However, under illumination we have observed an important improvement of the In{sub 2}S{sub 3}/CIGSe electronic transport properties. This behavior seems to be linked to the presence of a metastable defect with activation energy of 0.3 eV.

  17. Propiedades mecánicas de la aleación Mg-14Ti-1Al-0,9Mn(% masa sintetizada mediante deposición física desde fase vapor (PVD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garcés, G.

    2001-04-01

    Full Text Available The mechanical properties of the alloy Mg-14 %Ti-l % Al-0.9 % Mn obtained by PVD techniques have been evaluated up to 300 °C. The alloy presents a columnar grain microstructure , typical of the zone 2 of the structure zone model of MD, where surface diffusion takes place. The alloy tested in compression at room temperature presented a high yield stress, 360 MPa. This resistance to the plastic deformation is principally due to a solid solution hardening and small grain size. The yield stress decrease with the compression temperature. However, the alloy showed low fracture resistance, especially at room temperature. The presence of pores at the grain boundaries, results in the crack formation, running fast along the grain boundary.

    Las propiedades mecánicas de la aleación Mg-14 %Ti-l % Al-0,9 % Mn obtenida mediante técnicas de PVD se han evaluado hasta una temperatura de 300 °C. La aleación presenta una microestructura monofásica con granos columnares típica de la zona 2 del modelo de zonas de Movchan-Demchishin. La microestructura es típica de la zona 2 del modelo de zonas de MD, donde el átomo sólo puede difundir superficialmente. La aleación ensayada en compresión a temperatura ambiente presenta un elevado valor del límite elástico, 360 MPa. Esta resistencia a la deformación plástica se debe básicamente a un fenómeno de endurecimiento por solución sólida y al pequeño tamaño de grano. El límite elástico disminuye a medida que aumenta la temperatura del ensayo. Por el contrario, la aleación presenta una baja resistencia a la fractura, especialmente a temperatura ambiente. La presencia de poros en frontera de grano facilita la nucleación de grietas, propagándose rápidamente a lo largo de la frontera de grano.

  18. Mal3, the Schizosaccharomyces pombe homolog of EB1, is required for karyogamy and for promoting oscillatory nuclear movement during meiosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polakova, Silvia; Benko, Zsigmond; Zhang, Lijuan; Gregan, Juraj

    2014-01-01

    Two successive rounds of chromosome segregation following a single round of DNA replication enable the production of haploid gametes during meiosis. In the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe, karyogamy is the process where the nuclei from 2 haploid cells fuse to create a diploid nucleus, which then undergoes meiosis to produce 4 haploid spores. By screening a collection of S. pombe deletion strains, we found that the deletion of 2 genes, mal3 and mto1, leads to the production of asci containing up to 8 spores. Here, we show that Mal3, the fission yeast member of the EB1 family of conserved microtubule plus-end tracking proteins, is required for karyogamy, oscillatory nuclear movement, and proper segregation of chromosomes during meiosis. In the absence of Mal3, meiosis frequently initiates before the completion of karyogamy, thus producing up to 8 nuclei in a single ascus. Our results provide new evidence that fission yeast can initiate meiosis prior to completing karyogamy.

  19. Safety and efficacy of minimal biliary sphincterotomy with papillary balloon dilation (m-EBS+EPBD) in patients using clopidogrel or anticoagulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mok, Shaffer R. S.; Arif, Murtaza; Diehl, David L; Khara, Harshit S; Ho, Henry C; Elfant, Adam B

    2017-01-01

    Background and study aims Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) with endoscopic biliary sphincterotomy (EBS) or endoscopic papillary balloon dilation (EPBD) are common techniques of biliary decompression. Potential risks include gastrointestinal hemorrhage, which can be increased by antiplatelet agents, anticoagulants (AC) and/or novel oral anticoagulants (NOACs) (ie. apixaban, dabigatran and rivaroxaban). The study aim is to evaluate the safety/efficacy of an alternative technique, minimal-EBS plus EPBD (m-EBS + EPBD), in individuals for whom clopidogrel, AC, and/or NOACs cannot be interrupted due to high cardiovascular or thromboembolic risk. Patients and methods Patients undergoing m-EBS + EPBD while taking clopidogrel and/or AC were retrospectively evaluated at two United States tertiary care centers for efficacy, GIB and procedure-related, cardiovascular and thromboembolic adverse events (AE). Results Ninety-five patients were identified [55 = clopidogrel and 45 = AC (31.1 % NOACs)]. The main indication for ERCP was choledocholithiasis (34 %). 100 % clinical improvement and 97.9 % endoscopic success were found. The incidence of AE was 5.3 %. There was a 4.2 % incidence of gastrointestinal hemorrhage (2 cases requiring endoscopic intervention). Both severe gastrointestinal hemorrhages also experienced the cases of post-ERCP pancreatitis, and 2 /3 of cholangitis (all aspirin + AC). There was 1cardiovascular event (non-ST elevation myocardial infarction), and no thromboembolic events. Conclusions Minimal-EBS + EPBD is an effective and safe therapy with an incidence of gastrointestinal hemorrhage of 4.2 %, (2.1 % requiring endoscopic intervention), for patients on clopidogrel and/or AC, with a high risk for cardiovascular/thromboembolic events. PMID:28337485

  20. Effect of precipitation, sorption and stable of isotope on maximum release rates of radionuclides from engineered barrier system (EBS) in deep repository.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malekifarsani, A; Skachek, M A

    2009-10-01

    The basic function of the engineered barrier system (EBS) in geological disposal is to prevent or limit the release of radionuclides into the underground environment. For this purpose, the vitrified waste is contained in an overpack to isolate it from contact with groundwater for a certain initial period of time. However, it is impossible to ensure complete containment for all time. Therefore, the eventual release of nuclides must be minimized after the overpack fails (AEC, 1984. Radioactive waste processing and disposal measures; JNC, 2000a. Project to establish the scientific and technical basis for HLW disposal in Japan--first progress report-H3. Geological Environment in Japan, JNC TN1410 2000-002; JNC, 2000b. H12: project to establish the scientific and technical basis for HLW disposal in Japan--repository design and engineering technology, JNC TN1410 2000-003.). Low-permeability buffer material is installed between the overpack and the host rock to ensure that radionuclide release from the vitrified waste is limited by diffusive transport rather than advective transport in groundwater. Nuclides released from the waste form precipitate when their concentrations in the porewater result in their elemental solubility limits being exceeded. This limits the concentrations of many nuclides in the buffer and thus limits the release rates to the surrounding rock. High sorption coefficients act to delay the transport of certain nuclides during their migration through the buffer (PNC, development and management of the technical knowledge base for the geological disposal of HLW. Supporting report 2: repository engineering technology). The presence of isotopes of the same element has the effect of reducing the effective solubility of some nuclides; a lower nuclide concentration is required for precipitation to occur if the presence of any isotopes of the same element is taken into account. The calculated release rates of radionuclides from the EBS (per waste package) are

  1. Corrosion resistance appraisal of TiN, TiCN and TiAlN coatings deposited by CAE-PVD method on WC-Co cutting tools exposed to artificial sea water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matei, A. A.; Pencea, I.; Branzei, M.; Trancă, D. E.; Ţepeş, G.; Sfăt, C. E.; Ciovica (Coman), E.; Gherghilescu, A. I.; Stanciu, G. A.

    2015-12-01

    A new advanced sintered composite cutting tool has been developed based on tungsten carbide matrix ligated with cobalt (WC-Co) additivated with tantalum carbide (TaC), titanium carbide (TiC) and niobium carbide (NbC) as grain growth inhibitors. Titanium nitride (TiN), titanium carbonitride (TiCN) and titanium aluminium nitride (TiAlN) coatings were deposited on these tools by CAE-PVD technique to find out the best solution to improve the corrosion resistance of this tool in marine environment. The electrochemical behaviours of the specimens in 3.5% NaCl water solution were estimated by potentiodynamic polarization measurements i.e. the open circuit potential (Eoc), corrosion potential (Ecorr) and corrosion current density (icorr). Wide angle X-ray diffraction (WAXD), optical microscopy (OM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) investigations have been carried on tested and untested specimens to substantiate the corrosion resistance of the tested specimens. Based on the open circuit potential (Eoc) and corrosion potential (Ecorr) results, the tested specimens were ranked as TiN, TiAlN, TiCN and WC-Co while on corrosion current density (icorr) and protective efficiency (P) values they have been ranked as TiN, TiAlN, WC-Co and TiCN. The WAXD, MO and AFM results unambiguously show that the corrosion resistance depends on the nature and morphology of the coating.

  2. Ionic, XRD, dielectric and cyclic voltammetry studies on PVdF-co-HFP / MMT clay intercalated LiN(C2F5SO2)2 based composite electrolyte for Li-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vickraman, P.; Purushothaman, K.; SankaraSubramanian, N.

    2014-04-01

    The composition dependence of plasticizer, (EC/DMC)(70-x(wt%)) and LiBETIx(wt%) salt for fixed contents on PVdF-co-HFP(25wt%)/surface modified(SM)-octadecylamine MMT(ODA-MMT) nanoclay(5wt%) host matrix by varying its compositions x=1.5, 3.0, 4.5, 6.0 wt% prepared via solution casting technique has been investigated by A.C. Impedance, Dielectric, XRD, and cyclic voltammetry(CV) studies. The enhanced conductivity 2.1×10-5 S/cm at 300C is observed for (EC/DMC)(70-6)wt%/LiBETI(x=6)wt%. The XRD at 2θ=20.9° confirms β-phase formation, and CV studies on membranes show cyclability and reversibility. The dielectric studies show increase in dielectric constant and dielectric loss with decrease in frequency is attributed to high contribution of charge accumulation at the electrode-electrolyte interface.

  3. Standard practice for prediction of the long-term behavior of materials, including waste forms, used in engineered barrier systems (EBS) for geological disposal of high-level radioactive waste

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2007-01-01

    1.1 This practice describes test methods and data analyses used to develop models for the prediction of the long-term behavior of materials, such as engineered barrier system (EBS) materials and waste forms, used in the geologic disposal of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) and other high-level nuclear waste in a geologic repository. The alteration behavior of waste form and EBS materials is important because it affects the retention of radionuclides by the disposal system. The waste form and EBS materials provide a barrier to release either directly (as in the case of waste forms in which the radionuclides are initially immobilized), or indirectly (as in the case of containment materials that restrict the ingress of groundwater or the egress of radionuclides that are released as the waste forms and EBS materials degrade). 1.1.1 Steps involved in making such predictions include problem definition, testing, modeling, and model confirmation. 1.1.2 The predictions are based on models derived from theoretical considerat...

  4. Study of two different thin film coating methods in transmission laser micro-joining of thin Ti-film coated glass and polyimide for biomedical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sultana, T; Georgiev, G L; Baird, R J; Auner, G W; Newaz, G; Patwa, R; Herfurth, H J

    2009-07-01

    Biomedical devices and implants require precision joining for hermetic sealing which can be achieved with low power lasers. The effect of two different thin metal film coating methods was studied in transmission laser micro-joints of titanium-coated glass and polyimide. The coating methods were cathodic arc physical vapor deposition (CA-PVD) and electron beam evaporation (EB-PVD). Titanium-coated glass joined to polyimide film can have neural electrode application. The improvement of the joint quality will be essential for robust performance of the device. Low power fiber laser (wave length = 1100 nm) was used for transmission laser micro-joining of thin titanium (Ti) film (approximately 200 nm) coated Pyrex borosilicate 7740 glass wafer (0.5 mm thick) and polyimide (Imidex) film (0.2 mm thick). Ti film acts as the coupling agent in the joining process. The Ti film deposition rate in the CA-PVD was 5-10 A/s and in the EB-PVD 1.5 A/s. The laser joint strength was measured by a lap shear test, the Ti film surfaces were analyzed by atomic force microscopy (AFM) and the lap shear tested joints were analyzed by optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The film properties and the failure modes of the joints were correlated to joint strength. The CA-PVD produced around 4 times stronger laser joints than EB-PVD. The adhesion of the Ti film on glass by CA-PVD is better than that of the EB-PVD method. This is likely to be due to a higher film deposition rate and consequently higher adhesion or sticking coefficient for the CA-PVD particles arriving on the substrate compared to that of the EB-PVD film. EB-PVD shows poor laser bonding properties due to the development of thermal hotspots which occurs from film decohesion.

  5. Evaluation of parameters associated with UV/EB cured clearcoats degradation used in outdoor environment;Avaliacao da formacao e degradacao de filmes de vernizes curados por radiacao ultravioleta e feixe de eletrons e expostos ao envelhecimento acelerado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruiz, Carmen Silvia Bentivoglio

    2003-07-01

    The materials curable by ultraviolet (UV) or electron beam (EB) radiation such as inks, adhesives and coatings are reactive compounds made up of resin, monomer, photoinitiator and additives which undergo polymerization and crosslinking under irradiation producing thermoset products. This technology has been used in a great variety of industrial applications, replacing the conventional curing process in the development of new products. One of the challenging applications has been to design weatherable radiation cured coating which maintain their desirable physical properties and aesthetic appearance. This research reports information about the behavior of four UV and EB curable clear coatings -with or without light stabilizer additives- under accelerated weathering. Thermogravimetry, differential scanning calorimetry, differential photo calorimetry, infrared and ultraviolet spectroscopy and tensile properties were used to evaluate these formulations. Clear coating 50 mum thick films were cured with UV and EB radiation at different doses. The UV curing process was carried out at room temperature using an UV tunnel, with a medium pressure mercury lamp and a transport belt with variable speed. The ultraviolet radiation doses were in the range of 50 to 1500 mJ cm{sup -2}. The EB curing process was performed under N{sub 2} atmosphere, with doses in the range from 1,6 to 300 kGy using the IPEN-CNEN/SP Dynamitron electron beam accelerator with energy of 1.5 MeV. The cure degree was determined by means of the residual reaction heat of the under cured samples obtained from photo-DSC or DSC measurements. The accelerated aging tests were carried out using a Weather-Ometer chamber with exposition times in the range of 100 to 3000 hours. The experimental data obtained from the photo-aged samples were evaluated and correlated to the formulation composition, type of radiation - UV or EB, radiation dose and residence time in the aging chamber. The results have shown that the EB

  6. Evaluation of parameters associated with UV/EB cured clearcoats degradation used in outdoor environment;Avaliacao da formacao e degradacao de filmes de vernizes curados por radiacao ultravioleta e feixe de eletrons e expostos ao envelhecimento acelerado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruiz, Carmen Silvia Bentivoglio, E-mail: brazilruiz@comcast.ne

    2009-07-01

    The materials curable by ultraviolet (UV) or electron beam (EB) radiation such as inks, adhesives and coatings are reactive compounds made up of resin, monomer, photoinitiator and additives which undergo polymerization and crosslinking under irradiation producing thermoset products. This technology has been used in a great variety of industrial applications, replacing the conventional curing process in the development of new products. One of the challenging applications has been to design weatherable radiation cured coating which maintain their desirable physical properties and aesthetic appearance. This research reports information about the behavior of four UV and EB curable clear coatings -with or without light stabilizer additives- under accelerated weathering. Thermogravimetry, differential scanning calorimetry, differential photocalorimetry, infrared and ultraviolet spectroscopy and tensile properties were used to evaluate these formulations. Clear coating 50 {mu}m thick films were cured with UV and EB radiation at different doses. The UV curing process was carried out at room temperature using an UV tunnel, with a medium pressure mercury lamp and a transport belt with variable speed. The ultraviolet radiation doses were in the range of 50 to 1500 mJ cm{sup -2}. The EB curing process was performed under N{sub 2} atmosphere, with doses in the range from 1,6 to 300 kGy using the IPEN-CNEN/SP Dynamitron electron beam accelerator with energy of 1.5 MeV. The cure degree was determined by means of the residual reaction heat of the undercured samples obtained from photo-DSC or DSC measurements. The accelerated aging tests were carried out using a Weather-Ometer chamber with exposition times in the range of 100 to 3000 hours. The experimental data obtained from the photo-aged samples were evaluated and correlated to the formulation composition, type of radiation - UV or EB, radiation dose and residence time in the aging chamber. The results have shown that the EB

  7. 小儿急性原发性EB病毒感染临床分析%Children with acute primary EB infection, clinical analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘文梅

    2016-01-01

    Objective To analyze the clinical symptoms of children with acute primary EB infection. Methods In our hospital from January 2013 to January 2016 were admitted to the pediatric acute primary EB virus infection were analyzed using the ELISA method examination, 110 cases were EBV-VCA-IgM positive. Results In 110 cases of infectious mononucleosis in 6 cases accounted for 5.5%, accounted for 40%of 44 cases of acute upper respiratory tract infection, lymphadenitis in 9 cases accounted for 8.2%, 25.5%in 28 cases of acute bronchitis or pneumonia, 4 cases of viral encephalitis were accounted for 3.6%, accounted for 5.5%of 6 cases of viral myocarditis, idiopathic platelet reduction purpura in 7 cases accounted for 6.4%, 5 cases of allergic purpura disease in 1 cases accounted for 4.5%, Kawasaki accounted for 0.9%. Conclusion Children with acute primary EB infection may lead to respiratory system, nervous system, circulatory system and other serious damage, timely treatment, can effectively control the disease.%目的:分析探讨小儿急性原发性E B病毒感染的临床症状。方法:我院于2013年1月至2016年1月共收治的小儿急性原发性EB病毒感染患儿进行分析,使用ELISA法检查,检测EBV-VCA-IgM,阳性110例。结果:110例患儿中,传染性单核细胞增多症6例占5.5%,急性上呼吸道感染44例占40.0%,淋巴结炎9例占8.2%,急性支气管炎或肺炎28例25.5%,病毒性脑炎4例占3.6%,病毒性心肌炎6例占5.5%,特发性血小板减少性紫癜7例占6.4%,过敏性紫癜5例占4.5%,川崎病1例占0.9%。结论:小儿急性原发性EB病毒感染会导致呼吸系统、神经系统、循环系统等的严重损伤,及时治疗,能有效控制病情。

  8. Inspection of copper canisters for spent nuclear fuel by means of ultrasound. Ultrasonic imaging of EB weld, theory of harmonic imaging of welds, NDE of cast iron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stepinski, T.; Lingvall, F.; Ping Wu [Uppsala Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Materials Science

    2001-07-01

    The objective of task presented in the first chapter, ultrasonic imaging of EB weld is to investigate imaging methods capable of improving ultrasonic imaging of defects in EB-welds. Algorithms based on ideas from ultrasonic tomography were examined as the first step. After a concise review of literature in the field of tomography the attention is focused on synthetic focusing and particularly on using linear phased array systems for imaging. Synthetic focusing is a technique where the focusing is performed by software after gathering the ultrasonic data. General principles of synthetic aperture focusing technique (SAFT) - a synthetic focusing technique especially suitable for linear ultrasonic arrays are presented. Problems related to the application of SAFT to ultrasonic transducers with large apertures are identified and the solution is proposed. It appears that when the probe becomes larger (i.e., cannot be regarded as a point source) the ultrasonic pulses that it generates will be smeared by its spatial impulse response (SIR). This impairs the spatial resolution achieved for the finite aperture probes comparing to the point source. Thus, a proper application of synthetic focusing requires taking into account the spatially varying probe's SIR. The SIR has to be calculated (measured) in the interesting points of space and than deconvoluted. A technique for deconvoluting the SIR based on Wiener filter is proposed and illustrated by experimental results. Some preliminary results from immersion testing of copper blocks using the ALLIN system in our lab facility are presented. Nonlinear propagation of plane waves in fluids based on the Burgers equation is investigated in the second chapter. The presented method is basically adopted from the existing literature although some modification has been made to adapt to our situation. The solution has been re-derived and two alternative forms feasible for computer calculation are given and some numerical results are

  9. Analysis of EB virus antibody level in population of Fuzhou area%福州地区部分人群EB病毒VCA-IgA抗体水平的调查分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张臣青; 宋艳芳; 祝先进; 林萌; 曹颖平

    2012-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the distribution of EB Virus capsid antigen(VCA) and immunoglobulin A (IgA) in the population of Fuzhou district. Methods; Enzyme - linked immunosorbent assay ( ELISA) was used to detect EB Virus VCA -IgA in the 8000 individuals going through the physical examination in Fuzhou district. Comparison was made on the level of EB Virus VCA - IgA in Fuzhou district and that in other areas. Results: 712 cases were tested positive with VCA -JgA and the positive rate was 8. 90% , 9. 27% (346/3732) for female population and 8.58% ( 366/4268 ) for male population respectively. The level of EB Virus VCA-IgA was positively correlated with age. Conclusion; The infection rate of EB Virus VCA - IgA was high in all age groups of the 8000 study subjects in Fuzhou district, among which the group with age more than 60 had the infection rate as high as 14.11%. The monitoring of EB Virus infection in the population of Fuzhou district should be reinforced.%目的:调查福州地区EB病毒壳抗原-免疫球蛋白A(VCA-IgA)在本地人群中分布的情况.方法:用酶联免疫法( ELISA)检测8000例福州体检人群的EB病毒VCA - IgA,并与其它地区进行比较.结果:VCA - IgA阳性者712例,阳性率为8.90%,其中女性阳性率为9.27% (346/3732),男性阳性率为8.58%( 366/4268);EB病毒VCA - IgA检出率高低与年龄呈正相关.结论:在福州地区8000例人群中,EB病毒VCA-IgA在各年龄段均有较高的感染率,其中≥60岁年龄组VCA -IgA感染率最高达14.11%,应加强对福州地区人群EB病毒感染的监测.

  10. An optimally tuned ensemble of the "eb_go_gs" configuration of GENIE: parameter sensitivity and bifurcations in the Atlantic overturning circulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Marsh

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The key physical parameters of the "eb_go_gs" configuration of GENIE, an Earth system Model of Intermediate Complexity (EMIC, are tuned using a multi-objective genetic algorithm. An ensemble of 90 parameter sets is tuned using two ocean and two atmospheric state variables as targets. These are "Pareto-optimal", representing a range of trade-offs between the four tuning targets. For the leading five parameter sets, simulations are further evaluated alongside a simulation with untuned "default" parameters, comparing selected variables and diagnostics that describe the state of the atmosphere, ocean and sea ice. One of these parameter sets is selected for further analysis of the objective function (error landscape in the vicinity of its tuned values. "Cliffs" along some dimensions motivate closer inspection of corresponding variations in the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation (AMOC. This reveals that bifurcations in the AMOC are highly sensitive to parameters that are not commonly associated with MOC stability. Specifically, the state of the AMOC is sensitive to parameters governing the wind-driven circulation and atmospheric heat transport. Five optimal parameter sets are recommended for future use of GENIE in the configuration presented here.

  11. Sub-lethal oxidative stress induces lysosome biogenesis via a lysosomal membrane permeabilization-cathepsin-caspase 3-transcription factor EB-dependent pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leow, San Min; Chua, Shu Xian Serene; Venkatachalam, Gireedhar; Shen, Liang; Luo, Le; Clement, Marie-Veronique

    2016-12-18

    Here we provide evidence to link sub-lethal oxidative stress to lysosomal biogenesis. Exposure of cells to sub-lethal concentrations of exogenously added hydrogen peroxide resulted in cytosol to nuclear translocation of the Transcription Factor EB (TFEB), the master controller of lysosome biogenesis and function. Nuclear translocation of TFEB was dependent upon the activation of a cathepsin-caspase 3 signaling pathway, downstream of a lysosomal membrane permeabilization and accompanied by a significant increase in lysosome numbers as well as induction of TFEB dependent lysosome-associated genes expression such as Ctsl, Lamp2 and its spliced variant Lamp2a, Neu1and Ctsb and Sqstm1 and Atg9b. The effects of sub-lethal oxidative stress on lysosomal gene expression and biogenesis were rescued upon gene silencing of caspase 3 and TFEB. Notably, caspase 3 activation was not associated with phenotypic hallmarks of apoptosis, evidenced by the absence of caspase 3 substrate cleavage, such as PARP, Lamin A/C or gelsolin. Taken together, these data demonstrate for the first time an unexpected and non-canonical role of a cathepsin-caspase 3 axis in the nuclear translocation of TFEB leading to lysosomes biogenesis under conditions of sub-lethal oxidative stress.

  12. Analýza využití strategie kooperace do oblasti zdravotnických služeb

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šebestová Jarmila

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Článek se zabývá analýzou specifik podnikání ve zdravotních službách a nástinem překážek tvorby kooperačních struktur v tomto oboru podnikání. Srovnává různé kooperační strategie a navrhuje možnosti aplikace na oblast zdravotních služeb. Na základě výsledků praktického šetření mezi subjekty, poskytujícími zdravotní služby, navrhuje optimalizaci činností, které by mohly těžit z předností kooperačních seskupení. Tento příspěvek vznikl za podpory GAČR 402/07/0234 „Tvorba a využití neprůmyslových klastrů malých a středních podniků“.

  13. Evaluation of the use of PetrifilmTM EB count plates for the enumeration of Enterobacteriaceae in poultry samples Avaliação do uso de placas PetrifilmTM EB para a enumeração de Enterobacteriaceae em amostras de carcaças de frango

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tainá Drebes

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available A test that is rapid, simple, accurate, not expensive, gives rapid results, and is sensitive enough to detect low levels of microorganisms would be the most suitable for food industry routine laboratories, or even for a public health laboratories. A ready-to-use alternative, commercially available method is the PetrifilmTM EB method. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether there is a statistically significant difference between the conventional methods based on Violet Red Bile Glucose Agar and the alternative 3M TM Petrifilm (EB method for the enumeration of Enterobacteriaceae in poultry carcasses. This study also assessed whether the alternative method showed ability to produce results that were directly proportional to the concentration of the target (approximately 270 colony-forming unit.mL-1. A total of 120 poultry carcasses samples showed a significant difference (p Um teste rápido, que apresente o resultado em curto período de tempo, que seja simples, sensível para detectar baixos níveis de micro-organismos, preciso e que não seja caro, seria o mais adequado para a rotina laboratorial da indústria de alimentos ou mesmo para os laboratórios de Saúde Pública. Um dos métodos alternativos prontos para o uso, comercialmente disponíveis no mercado, são as placas PetrifilmTM. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar se há diferença estatística significativa entre o método convencional - empregando o ágar vermelho violeta bile glicose - e o método alternativo, PetrifilmTM EB (3M Company, para a enumeração de Enterobacteriaceae em carcaças de frango. Também foi avaliado se o método alternativo apresentou capacidade de produzir resultados que fossem diretamente proporcionais à concentração do alvo (contendo aproximadamente 270 unidades formadoras de colônia.mL-1. O total de 120 amostras de carcaças de frango analisadas revelou que houve diferença significativa (p < 0,05 nas populações obtidas entre os dois m

  14. Three-Dimensional Structure of CAP-Gly Domain of Mammalian Dynactin Determined by Magic Angle Spinning NMR Spectroscopy: Conformational Plasticity and Interactions with End Binding Protein EB1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Si; Hou, Guangjin; Schwieters, Charles D.; Ahmed, Shubbir; Williams, John C.; Polenova, Tatyana

    2013-01-01

    Microtubules (MTs) and their associated proteins (MAPs) play important roles in vesicle and organelle transport, cell motility and cell division. Perturbation of these processes by mutation typically gives rise to severe pathological conditions. In our efforts to obtain atomic information on MAP/MT interactions with the goal to understand mechanisms that might potentially assist in the development of treatments for these diseases, we have determined the 3D structure of CAP-Gly domain of mammalian dynactin by MAS NMR spectroscopy. We observe two conformations in the β2 strand encompassing residues T43-V44-A45, residues that are adjacent to the disease associated mutation, G59S. Upon binding of CAP-Gly to microtubule plus-end tracking protein EB1, the CAP-Gly shifts to a single conformer. We find extensive chemical shift perturbations in several stretches of residues of CAP-Gly upon binding to EB1, from which we define accurately the CAP-Gly/EB1 binding interface. We also observe that the loop regions may exhibit unique flexibility, especially in the GKNDG motif, which participates in the microtubule binding. This study in conjunction with our previous reports suggests that conformational plasticity is an intrinsic property of CAP-Gly likely due to its unusually high loop content and may be required for its biological functions. PMID:23648839

  15. ''MBE-Litho'': 3 nm-thick amorphous GaAs oxidized thin film functioning as highly sensitive inorganic resist for EB lithography and oxide mask for selective processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsuda, Kazuhiro; Hirokawa, Yuki; Ushio, Shoji; Kaneko, Tadaaki [Department of Physics, School of Science and Technology, Kwansei Gakuin University, 2-1 Gakuen, Sanda, Hyogo 669-1337 (Japan)

    2011-02-15

    Molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) is one of the growth methods, which has been widely used for single crystalline semiconductor materials. In this study, we report a novel function of a 3 nm-thick amorphous GaAs thin layer deposited using MBE at room temperature. Its oxidized region exposed to H{sub 2}O-vapor ambient works as a highly sensitive inorganic resist film for low-energy electron-beam (LE-EB) lithography of 1-5 keV. In this method, the surface area modified by LE-EB direct writing provides a thermally stable oxide pattern, which can be directly applied to successive selective processes such as etching and growth under MBE environment. All the condition required for its selective etching/growth is to remove the background residual GaAs oxide of EB non-irradiated area in the same UHV chamber. Thus, MBE gives the simplest and most efficient solution to all the processes including the resist film pre-depositing, the background oxide removing and the successive etching/growth functions. We call this solution ''MBE-Litho ''. (copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  16. CMAS Degradation of Environmental Barrier Coatings: Mechanisms and Mitigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-30

    CLASSIFICATION OF: a. REPORT b. ABSTRACT c. THIS PAGE 17. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT 18. NUMBER OF PAGES 19a NAME OF RESPONSIBLE PERSON Carlos...using electron beam physi- cal vapor deposition (EB- PVD ) and current assisted den- sification (CAD) facilities at UCSB. The research also in- volved...higher calculated ERR; as a result it was impractical to produce trilayer Gd-based architectures. The outer zirconate layers were deposited by EB- PVD

  17. An optimally tuned ensemble of the "eb_go_gs" configuration of GENIE: parameter sensitivity and bifurcations in the Atlantic overturning circulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Marsh

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The key physical parameters for the "eb_go_gs" configuration of version 2.7.4 of GENIE, an Earth system model of intermediate complexity (EMIC, are tuned using a multi-objective genetic algorithm. An ensemble of 90 parameter sets is tuned using two ocean and two atmospheric state variables as targets. These are "Pareto-optimal", representing a range of trade-offs between the four tuning targets. For the leading five parameter sets, simulations are evaluated alongside a simulation with untuned "default" parameters, comparing selected variables and diagnostics that describe the state of the atmosphere, ocean and sea ice. Further experiments are undertaken with these selected parameter sets to compare equilibrium climate sensitivities and transient climate responses. The pattern of warming under doubled CO2 is strongly shaped by changes in the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation (AMOC, while the pattern and rate of warming under rising CO2 is closely linked to changing sea ice extent. One of the five tuned parameter sets is identified as marginally optimal, and the objective function (error landscape is further analysed in the vicinity of the tuned values of this parameter set. "Cliffs" along some dimensions motivate closer inspection of corresponding variations in the AMOC. This reveals that bifurcations in the AMOC are highly sensitive to parameters that are not typically associated with MOC stability. Specifically, the state of the AMOC is sensitive to parameters governing the wind-driven circulation and atmospheric heat transport. For the GENIE configuration presented here, the marginally optimal parameter set is recommended for single simulations, although the leading five parameter sets may be used in ensemble mode to admit a constrained degree of parametric uncertainty in climate prediction.

  18. Metallographic studies of electron beam welded copper plates. EBSD studies of the cross-sections and determination of EBSD reference curves by EB-welded tensile test samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karhula, T. [Tampere Univ. of Technology (Finland)

    2013-07-15

    This work is part of Posiva's spent nuclear fuel disposal canister sealing development. Posiva has welded series of plate welding experiments at Patria Aviation Facilities. At Tampere University of Technology, Department of Materials Science (TUT DMS) metallographic and electron microscopy studies of electron beam welded copper samples have been carried out. In this report a part of the welding test program is analyzed. The results of the cross-sections of the test welds X436-X440 and X453-X458 are presented here together with the methods used. These two sets of welds were conducted to study the effects of welding speed, annealing temperature and the presence of cosmetic pass. The aim of this study was to estimate the residual stresses present in the EB-welds using electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) technique. For this task various EBSD reference curves with tensile test samples were constructed: the recrystallized, substructured and deformed fractions of grains, the occurrence of 1.5 deg C and 2.5 deg C misorientations, the average of mean intra-grain misorientation AMIS, and the hardness could be related to the applied strain. It was found that the hardness was higher if there was a cosmetic pass on the weld. The welding speed and the annealing temperature did not seem to have a noticeable effect on the measured properties. The estimated residual stresses were mainly very low, in the range 27-34 MPa. In the values estimated based on the hardness reference curve, the maximum residual stress was 58.7 MPa (in X455A). (orig.)

  19. Expression of Etk/Bmx tyrosine kinase in the tumorigenicity of nasopharyngeal epithelium and its relation with EB virus infection and the apoptosis-related protein Bcl-2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Linlang; Guo, Ying; Xiao, Sha

    2006-02-08

    We compared Etk/Bmx expression in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) and non-neoplastic nasopharyngeal lesions in order to learn whether the expression of this non-receptor protein tyrosine kinase is associated with the development of NPC. We also related Etk/Bmx expression to factors resulting from Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection. We used immunohistochemistry (IHC) and in situ hybridization to examine 20 non-neoplastic nasopharyngeal lesions and 49 cases of NPC to assess Etk/Bmx, EB virus latent membrane protein-1 (LMP-1), Bcl-2 and EBV-encoded small RNA-1 expression in these samples. Etk/Bmx expression was present in the basal cell nuclei of the nasopharyngeal epithelium in 1/9 (11.1%) cases of chronic nasopharyngitis and 2/11 cases (18.2%) of dysplasia. While 13/49 (26.5%) NPC cases expressed Etk/Bmx, the difference in frequency between the expression of Etk/Bmx in the non-neoplastic and NPC cases was not significant. Etk/Bmx expression was correlated with the presence of EBER-1 immunopositivity in dysplasia and in NPC but not in chronic nasopharyngitis. The presence of Etk/Bmx immunopositivity was independent of the expression of either LMP-1 or Bcl-2 in either the nasopharyngeal carcinoma or the non-neoplastic lesions. This suggests that in some cases of non-neoplastic and neoplastic nasopharyngeal lesions, Etk/Bmx may participate in regulating epithelial differentiation. While EBV-related small RNA-1 may participate in this regulation, neither LMP-1 or Bcl-2 expression appears to be related to Etk/Bmx expression.

  20. EB radiation crosslinking of elastomers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bik, J.; Gluszewski, W.; Rzymski, W.M.; Zagorski, Z.P. E-mail: zagorski@ichtj.waw.pl

    2003-06-01

    Radiation-induced crosslinking is proposed as successful alternative to conventional, chemical methods of crosslinking of elastomers. Hydrogenated acrylonitrile-butadiene rubber was irradiated with 10 MeV electron beam to doses up to 300 kGy. Irradiated samples were investigated for the extent of crosslinking and for properties important for understanding of mechanisms. It follows from sol-gel analysis, that for 100 crosslinking acts there are 6-9 acts of chain scission. It is less than expected from the 20% participation of multi-ionization spurs, also in the solid state, as announced during the previous 9th Tihany Conference (Radiat. Phys. Chem. 56 (1999) 559). However, the apparent too low yield of multi-ionization spurs could be explained by partial conversion of scission products into crosslinks of specific trifunctional Y type. Our investigations confirm the usefulness of consideration of different radiation spurs in polymers, as well as in all, low LET irradiated media.

  1. PVD涂层刀具高速铣削CoCrMo合金的性能研究%Performance of PVD-coated Tool in High Speed Milling of CoCrMo Alloy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张而耕; 王琴雪; 张锁怀

    2017-01-01

    目的 为了提高涂层硬质合金刀具的切削性能,研究了物理气相沉积PVD法制备的涂层硬质合金铣刀在高速干式环境下的铣削性能.方法 采用阴极电弧技术制备了TiN、TiAlN以及TiAlSiN涂层硬质合金铣刀刀头,通过一同沉积涂层的硬质合金圆片,间接测量得出涂层的显微硬度、厚度和平均摩擦系数,并以CoCrMo合金为切削对象,进行了PVD涂层与无涂层刀具高速铣削下的对比试验.结果 TiAlSiN显微硬度最高达3800HV,摩擦系数达0.3,TiAlN涂层平均膜厚为2μm,间接测得TiN、TiAlN以及TiAlSiN涂层的结合力依次为60、58、42 N.在三者的切削性能中,TiAlSiN涂层的切削性能比TiAlN和TiN涂层的好,同等切削参数时,TiN刀具的高速铣削时间最短,TiAlSiN涂层的平均磨损值为0.1895,TiN的平均磨损值为0.3047.结论 涂层中添加A1、Si,极大地提高了刀具的使用性能,改善了刀具切削过程中的耐磨性、红硬性,极大地延长了刀具的使用寿命.TiAlSiN涂层的硬度高,耐磨损性好,切削性能好,适合高速铣削加工.%The work aims to improve cutting performance of coated carbide-tipped alloy cutters by studying milling performance of physical vapor deposition (PVD) coated carbide-tipped alloy cutters in at high speed and dry environment.TiN,TiAlN and TiAlSiN coated carbide-tipped alloy cutter heads were prepared on surfaces of carbide substrates by cathode arc plasma method.Microhardness,thickness and average friction coefficient were determined by indirect measurement of the cemented carbide disks deposited together with the coating system.A comparative test was performed to CoCrMo alloy at high-speed milling between PVD coatings and uncoated tools.The mechanical properties of the coating obtained were as follows,TiAlSiN micro hardness was up to 3800HV,friction coefficient 0.3,average thickness of TiAlN coating 2 μm,and adhesive force of TiN,TiAlN and TiAlSiN coatings indirectly measured

  2. New PVD Technologies for New Ordnance Coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-01

    bcc Ta coatings on A723 steel. The sample was subjected to pulse laser heating ( PLH ) test at 2.5 msec, 1.0 J/mm2, 20 cycles, simulating ~1400ºC...electroplated HC Cr deposited on A723 steel under the same PLH conditions. While HC Cr is full of cracks causing erosion of the substrate steel, the MPP Ta...untempered martensite resulting from temperatures into austenite region. 20 Fig. 6g Pulsed Laser Heating ( PLH ) adhesion test of MPP deposited Ta

  3. Oleophobic optical coating deposited by magnetron PVD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernt, D.; Ponomarenko, V.; Pisarev, A.

    2016-09-01

    Thin oxinitride films of Zn-Sn-O-N and Si-Al-O-N were deposited on glass by reactive magnetron sputtering at various nitrogen-to-oxygen ratios. Nitrogen added to oxygen led to decrease of the surface roughness and increase of oleophobic properties studied by the oil-drop test. The best oleophobity was obtained for Zn-Sn-O-N oxinitride at Zn:Sn=1:1 and N:O=1:2. Improved oleophobic properties were also demonstrated if the oxinitride film was deposited on top of the multilayer coating as the final step in the industrial cycle of production of energy efficient glass.

  4. Výživové zvyklosti žáků vybraných základních škol v Třebíči

    OpenAIRE

    Pospíšilová, Lucie

    2010-01-01

    The Diploma Thesis is focused on the nutritional habits of the pupils of the selected primary schools in Třebíč. The nutritional habits and correct diet in children is very important and can be influenced easily. The children are influenced by the family, school, friends and environment they live in, also by the advertisements, especially on TV and the Internet. Correct diet is the one which provides the human organism with the regular and sufficient supply of energy and food. They play a sig...

  5. ADVANCED NUCLEAR FUEL CYCLE EFFECTS ON THE TREATMENT OF UNCERTAINTY IN THE LONG-TERM ASSESSMENT OF GEOLOGIC DISPOSAL SYSTEMS - EBS INPUT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sutton, M; Blink, J A; Greenberg, H R; Sharma, M

    2012-04-25

    The Used Fuel Disposition (UFD) Campaign within the Department of Energy's Office of Nuclear Energy (DOE-NE) Fuel Cycle Technology (FCT) program has been tasked with investigating the disposal of the nation's spent nuclear fuel (SNF) and high-level nuclear waste (HLW) for a range of potential waste forms and geologic environments. The planning, construction, and operation of a nuclear disposal facility is a long-term process that involves engineered barriers that are tailored to both the geologic environment and the waste forms being emplaced. The UFD Campaign is considering a range of fuel cycles that in turn produce a range of waste forms. The UFD Campaign is also considering a range of geologic media. These ranges could be thought of as adding uncertainty to what the disposal facility design will ultimately be; however, it may be preferable to thinking about the ranges as adding flexibility to design of a disposal facility. For example, as the overall DOE-NE program and industrial actions result in the fuel cycles that will produce waste to be disposed, and the characteristics of those wastes become clear, the disposal program retains flexibility in both the choice of geologic environment and the specific repository design. Of course, other factors also play a major role, including local and State-level acceptance of the specific site that provides the geologic environment. In contrast, the Yucca Mountain Project (YMP) repository license application (LA) is based on waste forms from an open fuel cycle (PWR and BWR assemblies from an open fuel cycle). These waste forms were about 90% of the total waste, and they were the determining waste form in developing the engineered barrier system (EBS) design for the Yucca Mountain Repository design. About 10% of the repository capacity was reserved for waste from a full recycle fuel cycle in which some actinides were extracted for weapons use, and the remaining fission products and some minor actinides were

  6. Persistently Exist of ES-like Cell Population in Long-term Cultured Embryoid Bodies%长期培养小鼠胚胎干细胞拟胚体(EB)的观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨科; 董娟; 徐兰; 周桢宁; 王沁; 丁小燕

    2008-01-01

    胚胎干细胞在体外培养条件下能够维持自我更新,并具有向多种细胞类型分化的能力,因此被广泛用于研究细胞分化的分子机理以及药物筛选.形成拟胚体(Embryoid body,EB)是胚胎干细胞分化常用的技术手段.为了便于今后利用EB做进一步的药物筛选及分化研究,严格规范了形成EB的条件,得到了分化状态均一性很高的EB.利用这一条件,观察到在分化条件下长期培养(长达60 d)的EB中仍有表达各项多能性指标的细胞集落.有关这一现象的进一步分析工作正在进行中.

  7. Measurement of residual stress in thermally grown oxide layers in thermal barrier coating systems - development of non-destructive test methods.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saunders, S.R.J.; Banks, J.P.; Chen, G.; Chunnilall, C.J. [National Physical Lab., Teddington, Middlesex (United Kingdom)

    2004-07-01

    It is established that the adhesion of thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) is dependent upon the characteristics of the thermally grown oxide (TGO) that forms between the TBC (zirconia) and the corrosion resistant bond coat. Work has been carried using laser induced fluorescence out to investigate the properties of the TGO (normally alumina) as a function of ageing treatments. The zirconia layer is transparent to the laser light used and thus the laser light can cause fluorescence in the TGO layer present on the bondcoat, so that the method is non-destructive. Fluorescence in the TGO is caused by trace impurities of Cr in the alumina layer. The position of the spectral peaks generated is stress dependent so that residual stress in the TGO can be determined; the method is also known as piezospectroscopy. Residual stress maps were generated for an electron beam physical vapour deposited (EB-PVD) TBC that showed a large variation in residual stress over the surface of a coated sample. The two peaks generally associated with {alpha} alumina (R1 and R2) frequently appear as doublets with a high and low stress component. In addition, the presence of a metastable {theta}-alumina was detected in aged samples. It is believed that these observations can be related to incipient spallation of the TBC. The development of residual stress and the metastable oxide have been studied and correlated with the spallation behaviour of the TBC. Additionally, the intensity of the spectra has been shown to yield information about the Cr content of the TGO, and this in turn could also be used as an indication of the remaining life of the TBC system. (orig.)

  8. 妊娠各期及新生儿EB病毒感染情况及母婴垂直传播的初步研究%Brief research of newborn EB virus infection and mother-to-child vertical transmission in pregnancy periods

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    申辉; 吴小艳; 欧小凤

    2016-01-01

    ObjectiveTo investigate newborn EB virus infection and mother-to-child vertical transmission in pregnancy periods, in order to provide reference for preventing newborn EB virus infection and improving neonatal outcome.MethodsDetection of EB virus infection was made in 120 single pregnancy women in the first, second and third trimester of pregnancy and their newborn infection condition. Comparison was made on newborn EB virus infection and neonatal outcome of different infection period and delivery ways.Results Infection rate of EB virus was 28.33% in 120 pregnant women, and the infection rate in first trimester was lower than second and third trimester (P0.05). The difference of newborn infection rate of EB virus between natural labour and cesarean section had no statistical significance (P>0.05). Comparing with EB virus infected newborn, those without EB virus infection had lower incidence of neonatal malformation and lower body mass (P0.05)。顺产和剖宫产新生儿EB病毒感染率比较差异无统计学意义(P>0.05)。与出现EB病毒感染的新生儿比较,无EB病毒感染的新生儿畸形、低体质量等不良结局的发生率降低(P<0.05或P<0.01)。结论EB病毒感染率随着妊娠过程的进展而增加,其新生儿的EB病毒感染率高且可影响新生儿结局;EB病毒可经母婴垂直传播途径引发新生儿EB病毒感染,剖宫产无法减少新生儿EB病毒感染;妊娠期间尤其是妊娠晚期注意对EB病毒感染的防控有利于减少新生儿EB病毒感染和改善新生儿结局。

  9. Relatório final de estágio pedagógico : relatório final de estágio realizado na Escola EB 2,3 Gaspar Correia

    OpenAIRE

    Carreira, Ricardo

    2013-01-01

    Mestrado em Ensino da Educação Física nos Ensinos Básico e Secundário Este relatório tem como objetivo analisar e refletir sobre o estágio pedagógico realizado na escola EB 2,3 Gaspar Correia no ano letivo de 2012/2013. Neste analisam-se os efeitos que a experiência formativa teve na formação pessoal e profissional do professor estagiário. A prática letiva foi realizada junto de uma turma de 3ºciclo, caracterizada por ser bastante heterogénea em termos motores e por apresentar bastantes co...

  10. A New Testing Method to Evaluate Adhesion Strength of Ceramic Top Coat in TBCs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okazaki, Masakazu; Yamagishi, Satoshi; Osakabe, Masakazu; Fukanuma, Hirotaka

    A new testing method to evaluate adhesion strength of ceramic top coat has been proposed, employing a ring shape of TBC specimen specifically designed. It was shown by the experiments that a delamination behavior of the top coat was successfully reproduced in the proposed method, associating with a buckling mode; a similar mode frequently observed in actual gas turbine components. A method to quantitatively evaluate a resistance to delamination was also introduced, based on an energy release rate criterion. The experiments demonstrated that the testing method provided reasonable adhesion strength in terms of energy criterion, that almost agreed with the values measured by other researchers employing different type of testing method. It was also shown that the present method has many advantages, compared with the traditional methods.

  11. Thermal Insulation and Thermal Shock Behavior of Conventional and Nanostructured Plasma-Sprayed TBCs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamaddon Masoule, S.; Valefi, Z.; Ehsani, N.; Qazi Lavasani, H.

    2016-12-01

    This study investigated the thermal insulation and thermal shock resistance behavior of nanostructured versus conventional yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) thermal barrier coatings. To evaluate their coating performance in service conditions, samples were furnace sintered at 1150 °C for 100 h in ambient atmosphere. The results show that the nanostructured coatings exhibited better heat transfer resistance and thermal shock resistance compared with the conventional coating. In addition, the larger size of the initial agglomerates in the nanostructured coatings increased the percentage area of nanozones and decreased the heat transfer resistance. The thermal insulation behavior of the conventional coating was improved after heat treatment because of horizontal cracking. Disappearance of cracks, bridging between grains, and their growth by connecting with each other were observed in the conventional coating. However, in the nanostructured coatings, the nanoareas and their related properties disappeared. Microstructural and phase investigations were carried out by optical microscopy, field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), and x-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis. The thermal behavior was investigated by thermal insulation capability testing.

  12. Application of FQ-PCR technology in early diagnosis of children with EB virus infection%FQ-PCR技术在儿童EB病毒感染早期诊断中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李基明; 张慧芬; 谢辉

    2011-01-01

    目的:探讨荧光定量PCR(FQ-PCR)技术在儿童Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV)感染早期诊断巾的应用.方法:将2009年4月-2011年2月份收治的186例表现为发热、咽峡炎、淋巴结肿大等患儿采用实时荧光定量PCR法检测外周血淋巴细胞中EBV-DNA.结果:186例患儿中,外周血EBV-DNA阳性66例,其中男39例,女27例;受EBV感染的患儿,近1/4阳性病例在3d内测出,超过4/5的阳性病例在发病7d内即可明确诊断.结论:FQ-PCR技术对儿童EBV感染的检测具有早期、快速、准确等优点,值得推广应用.%Objective:To explore value of FQ - PCR technique in early diagnosis of the children infected by EB virus. Methods-. 186 children with fever, pharyngitis or lymphadenopathy et al, received from April in 2009 to February in 2011, were selected to conduct detection of EBV - DNA in peripheral blood cells by FQ - PCR method. Results; There are 66 positive cases, including 39 boys and 27 girls. A quarter of them can be diagnosed in 3 days, overrun 80% of them can be diagnosed in 7 days. Conclusion; Children infected by EB virus have complex clinical symptoms, which is hard to diagnose early; FQ -PCR technique is the best method to check EBV - DNA. It has many virtues and worth application.

  13. RE: Comments on: Further studies of Bolivian crocidolite-Part IV: Fibre width, fibre drift and their relation to mesothelioma induction: Preliminary findings, by Ilgren EB, van Order DR, Lee RJ, Kamiya YM, Hoskins JA ebph 2015; 12 (2 e11167

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefania Boccia

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available RE: Comments on: Further studies of Bolivian crocidolite-Part IV: Fibre width, fibre drift and their relation to mesothelioma induction: Preliminary findings, by Ilgren EB, van Order DR, Lee RJ, Kamiya YM, Hoskins JA Epidemiology Biostatistics and Public Health 2015; 12 (2, e11167

  14. PVD法制备6.5%Si高硅钢过程合金磁性能演化机理研究%Study on the evolution of magnetic properties in preparing Fe-6 .5%Si alloy by means of PVD method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马天国; 李辉; 田广科; 毕晓昉

    2016-01-01

    PVD法制备 Fe-6.5%Si(质量分数,下同)高硅钢过程基片预处理工艺以及 Si 渗入对合金的软磁性能均有显著影响。采用磁损耗分离的方法剖析铁硅合金磁性变化的内在机理。采用四探针方法测试合金的电阻率;采用基于热分析仪(DSC)配置永磁场技术测量热重(TG)曲线确定合金的居里温度;采用振动样品磁强计(VSM)测定了材料的饱和质量磁矩;采用直流测试装置和硅钢测试仪测试合金的直流交流软磁性能。PVD法制备6.5%Si高硅钢最大磁导率达到16400,相比于初始态3%低硅钢基片,铁损值降低40%~50%。%In the processes of preparing Fe-6 .5%Si alloy by means of PVD method,both pre-treatment tech-niques to the starting substrate and Si-enrichment have distinct effect on the soft magnetic properties.The total loss is subdivided into hysteresis,classical and excess components to clarify the changing mechanism of the soft magnetic properties under different conditions.Resistivity of the samples is measured by four-probe method. Curie temperature is characterized by thermo-gravity curve of differential scanning calorimeter (DSC)with ap-pendix of permanent magnet.Magnetic properties were evaluated by vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM), automatic DC B-H curve tracer and alternating current (AC)iron loss analyzer.Maximum permeability of PVD-prepared Fe-6.5% Si alloy reaches to 16 400,and its iron losses are declined about 40-50% comparing with the starting substrate.

  15. Status and perspectives of waste product utilisation in the T2C plant at Hoechst; Stand und Perspektiven in der EBS-Verwertung in der T2C-Anlage Hoechst

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lorbach, Dirk [Infraserv GmbH und Co. Hoechst KG, Frankfurt am Main (Germany). Geschaeftsfeld Energien

    2012-11-01

    The plant concept is based on combustion of a multitude of substitute fuels. According to the substitute fuel specifications for general entrepreneur EBARA, comminution of waste materials in a slow shredder should be sufficient, and experience so far has shown that this is indeed the case. The plant was commissioned in 2011, and the envisaged performance parameters were achieved after some initial difficulties, i.e. the envisaged volumes of waste could be combusted. The efficiency of heat generation was below expectations, however, as the integrated heat exchangers did not run at full capacity. Reconstruction of the plant is now planned with a view to optimizing the energy yield. It is expected that the energy efficiency goals will be reached in 2013. Modernisation will comprise retrofitting of a flue gas circulation system for better temperature control in the fluidized bed and for optimum energy yield. All other plant components - off-gas filters, water/steam cycle and turbine - work satisfactorily according to the planned parameters. (orig.) [German] Das Konzept der Anlage basiert auf der thermischen Verwertung einer Vielzahl von Ersatzbrennstoffen. Entsprechend der EBS-Spezifikation fuer den Generalunternehmer EBARA sollte fuer eine ausreichende Stueckgroesse eine Zerkleinerung der Abfaelle mit einem langsam laufenden Shredder ausreichen. In der bisherigen Inbetriebnahme hat sich gezeigt, dass dies grundsaetzlich von der Anlagentechnik, bis auf eine Einschraenkung, auch erreicht wird. Die Inbetriebnahme der Anlage wurde 2011 fuer den Dauerbetrieb abgeschlossen. Nach anfaenglichen Schwierigkeiten hat die Firma EBARA die vertraglichen Leistungsparameter im Bereich der Verbrennung erreicht. Die vorgesehenen EBS-Mengen koennen verbrannt werden. Bisher is allerdings die Waermeausbeute hinter den Erwartungen zurueckgeblieben, da die Einbauten in der Wirbelschicht, das sind integrierte Waermetauscher (HRC's), bisher ihre vollstaendige Leistung nicht erbracht

  16. Effects of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 [1,25(OH)2D3] and its analogues (EB1089 and analog V) on canine adenocarcinoma (CAC-8) in nude mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunakornsawat, Sunee; Rosol, Thomas John; Capen, Charles Chabert; Reddy, Gudimetla Satyanarayana; Binderup, Lise; Inpanbutr, Nongnuch

    2002-05-01

    The aim of this study is to determine the effects of 1,25(OH)2D3 and its analogues on tumor growth and body weight, changes in plasma ionized calcium, parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTHrP) production, bone resorption, and the distribution of the 1,25(OH)2D3 receptor (VDR) on tumors in nude mice-bearing the canine adenocarcinoma (CAC-8). Thirty-seven nude mice were implanted subcutaneously with CAC-8. Two weeks after implantation, the mice were divided into 5 groups and injected intraperitoneally 3 times/week for 4 weeks with 5 different substrates. Group I (nontumor-bearing mice) were injected with vehicle. Groups II through V were CAC-8-bearing mice injected with the following: Grp. II, vehicle; Grp. III, analog V; Grp. IV, 1,25(OH)2D3; and Grp. V, EB1089. Our results showed that mice body weight (% change) of CAC-8-bearing mice was significantly lower than those of nontumor-bearing mice (pCAC-8-bearing mice treated with analog V maintained their body weight better than CAC-8-bearing mice treated with either vehicle, 1,25(OH)2D3, or EB1089. A reduction of tumor growth was observed in CAC-8-bearing mice treated with 1,25(OH)2D3 and its analogues; however, the reduction was not statistically significant compared to the vehicle-treated CAC-8-bearing mice. All CAC-8-bearing mice increased osteoclastic bone resorption and hypercalcemia. Immunohistochemical staining of CAC-8 with VDR antibody demonstrated a positive reaction in nuclei of tumor cells. In conclusion, CAC-8-bearing mice treated with analog V were more active and maintained their body weight better than other CAC-8-bearing groups. Analog V-treated mice also showed no toxic side effects of hypercalcemia despite an increase in plasmaionized calcium comparable to nontumor-bearing mice. Tumor volumes of CAC-8-bearing mice treated with 1,25(OH)2D3 and its analogues were smaller than vehicle-treated CAC-8-bearing mice. This finding suggested an inhibitory effect on tumor cell growth.

  17. Photometry of Centaurs and trans-Neptunian objects: 2060 Chiron (1977 UB), 10199 Chariklo (1997 CU26), 38628 Huya (2000 EB173), 28978 Ixion (2001 KX76), and 90482 Orcus (2004 DW)

    CERN Document Server

    Galiazzo, Mattia; Marcos, Raul de la Fuente; Carraro, Giovanni; Maris, Michele; Montalto, Marco

    2016-01-01

    Both Centaurs and trans-Neptunian objects (TNOs) are minor bodies found in the outer Solar System. Centaurs are a transient population that moves between the orbits of Jupiter and Neptune, and they probably diffused out of the TNOs. TNOs move mainly beyond Neptune. Some of these objects display episodic cometary behaviour; a few percent of them are known to host binary companions. Here, we study the light-curves of two Centaurs -2060 Chiron (1977 UB) and 10199 Chariklo (1997 CU26)- and three TNOs -38628 Huya (2000 EB173), 28978 Ixion (2001 KX76), and 90482 Orcus (2004 DW)- and the colours of the Centaurs and Huya. Precise, ~1%, R-band absolute CCD photometry of these minor bodies acquired between 2006 and 2011 is presented; the new data are used to investigate the rotation rate of these objects. The colours of the Centaurs and Huya are determined using BVRI photometry. The point spread function of the five minor bodies is analysed, searching for signs of a coma or close companions. Astrometry is also discusse...

  18. Optimal Design of Electromagnetic Focusing Lens Control System Based on EB Welding Machine%电子束焊机电磁聚焦控制系统的优化设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陆幼青; 韩瑞清; 郭光耀; 左从进

    2013-01-01

    The focus current is a very important parameter in the electron beam welding practice. The change of focus current determines the distance between focal point and the workpiece surface, which leads to the better weld shape. Using the hybrid integrated circuit technology, a new type of constant current source with high-precision temperature stability to accommodate high accuracy and larger current demand is studied. It is found that the EB beam spot can obtain higher quality at the different focal distance.%聚焦电流是电子束焊接过程中一个非常重要的参数,调节聚焦电流可以控制电子束焦点相对于工件的位置,从而获得较好的焊缝截面形貌.研究了一种应用混合集成电路技术实现的恒流源,以适应聚焦系统对恒流源高精度、高温度稳定性和较大电流的需求,满足焊接工件在不同的工作距离下都可获得品质较好的电子束束斑.

  19. 贵州省苗族、布依族及汉族 EB 病毒感染情况及鼻咽癌诊断试验效果评价研究%The investigation of EB virus infection of Miao,Buyi and Han population and evaluation of the di-agnosis of Zta-IgA, EBNA1-IgA and VCA-IgA antibody for nasopharyngeal carcinoma in Guizhou

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡德峰; 令狐颖; 苗燕; 梁隆俐; 钟宇; 鲍安珍

    2014-01-01

    目的:调查贵州省苗族、布依族及汉族EB病毒感染情况并探讨EB病毒特异性Zta-IgA、EBNA1-IgA与VCA-IgA抗体定量检测对鼻咽癌的诊断价值。方法采用随机抽样的方法抽取苗族、布依族及汉族共3040例研究对象,收集研究对象的基本信息;采用 ELISA法检测研究对象血浆EB病毒的Zta-IgA、EBNA1-IgA、VCA-IgA标志物水平,分析上述指标诊断鼻咽癌的价值。结果3040例研究对象中,Zta-IgA阳性率为15.03%;EBNA1-IgA阳性率为16.09%;VCA-IgA阳性率为14.41%(χ2=16.027, P=0.000);Zta-IgA、EBNA1-IgA、VCA-IgA 阳性率均为布依族最高(P<0.05);>45岁组Zta-IgA、EBNA1-IgA、VCA-IgA阳性率均明显高于≤45岁年龄组(P<0.05);吸烟、饮酒可以明显提高Zta-IgA、EBNA1-IgA、VCA-IgA阳性率(P<0.05);三者联合检测对诊断鼻咽癌的灵敏度和特异度均明显升高。结论贵州省少数民族 EB感染率水平较高,应开展Zta-IgA、EB-NA1-IgA、VCA-IgA监测;三者联合检测对鼻咽癌的早监测、早发现有积极意义。%Objective To investigate EB virus infection of Miao ,Buyi and Han population and e-valuate the diagnosis of Zta-IgA ,EBNA1-IgA and VCA-IgA antibody for nasopharyngeal carcinoma in Guizhou Province .Methods A random sampling method was used to select 3040 subjects from Miao , Buyi and Han ,collecting basic information .ELISA was used to detected serum Zta-IgA ,EBNA1-IgA ,VCA-IgA of EB virus for analysing the value of these indicators diagnosis of NPC .Results Zta-IgA positive rate was 15 .03% .EBNA1-IgA-positive rate was 16 .09% .VCA1-IgA-positive rate was 14 .41% (χ2 = 16 .027 ,P= 0 .000) .Zta-IgA ,EBNA1-IgA ,VCA-IgA-positive rate of Buyi was the highest (P 45 age group was signifi-cantly higher than that of ≤ 45 age group (P<0 .05) .Smoking ,alcohol could significantly increase Zta-IgA ,EBNA1-IgA ,VCA-IgA-positive rate (P<0 .05) .Combined detection of

  20. Reforma účetnictví státní správy a samosprávy, platná od 1.1.2010, v konkrétních podmínkách města Třebíče

    OpenAIRE

    Helanová, Soňa

    2012-01-01

    The paper focuses on state accounting reform and its practical application in the Třebíč Municipality. First part of the paper relates to legal definition of the municipality and compilation of the municipality budget. Following part engages in reform of the public administration and self administration accounting firstly regarding to the legal aspects, and secondly regarding practical examples of the new accounting methods applied in municipalities. In addition, the paper covers comparison o...

  1. Mechanisms of spallation of electron beam physical vapor deposited thermal barrier coatings with and without platinum aluminide bond coat ridges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vaidyanathan, K.; Gell, M. [Connecticut Univ., Storrs, CT (United States). Dept. of Metallurgy; Jordan, E. [Dept. Mechanical Engineering, University of Connecticut, CT-06269, Storrs (United States)

    2000-11-01

    Grain boundary ridges, that form on the surface of platinum aluminide [(Ni,Pt)Al] bond coats prior to the deposition of the yttria stabilized zirconia ceramic layer by the electron beam physical vapor deposition (EB-PVD) process, were shown to be the sites for spallation damage initiation in (Ni,Pt)Al/EB-PVD thermal barrier coatings. When these ridges are removed prior to deposition of the ceramic layer, a 3 x life improvement is achieved. This study compares the spallation mechanisms in specimens with and without bond coat ridges, in order to explain the improvement in spallation life. (orig.)

  2. Analysis on Residual Stress in Electron Beam-Physical Vapor Deposited Thermal Barrier Coating using Hard Synchrotron X-Rays

    OpenAIRE

    鈴木, 賢治; 松本, 一秀; 久保, 貴博; 町屋, 修太郎; 田中, 啓介; 秋庭, 義明; SUZUKI, Kenji; MATSUMOTO, Kazuhide; Kubo, Takahiro; Machiya, Syutaro; Tanaka, Keisuke; Akiniwa, Yoshiaki

    2005-01-01

    The distribution of the residual stress in the thermal barrier coating, which was made by an electron beam-physical vapor deposition (EB-PVD) method, was determined using X-ray stress measurements. As the bond coating, NiCoCrAlY was low-pressure plasma sprayed on the substrate of austenitic stainless steel. The 8 mass% Y_2O_3-ZrO_2 was coated on the bond coating using the EB-PVD method as the top coating. The top coating had the preferred orientation with the axis direction perpendicular to ...

  3. EB-PVDによる遮熱コーティングの残留応力のX線評価

    OpenAIRE

    鈴木, 賢治; 和田, 国彦; 松原, 秀彰; 菖蒲, 敬久; 川村, 昌志; 田中, 啓介; SUZUKI, Kenji; Wada, Kunihiko; Matsubara, Hideaki; Shobu, Takahisa; Kawamura. Masashi; Tanaka, Keisuke

    2007-01-01

    The Ni-based superalloy IN738LC was used as the substrate material, and CoNiCrAIY powder was pressureless plasma-sprayed on the substrate as the bond coating. Zirconia was coated as the top coating by the electron beam-physical vapor deposition (EB-PVD) method. In the EB-PVD process, the specimens were kept at 1223K and rotated with 5rpm, 10rpm and 20rpm. According to the microscopic observation and the result of the pole figures, the top coalings had a columnar structure, which was made by t...

  4. EB病毒血症对儿童传染性单核细胞增多症免疫功能的影响%Effect of EB virus on infectious mononucleosis in children effects of immune function

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张翊; 伍鸣杰; 朱朝海

    2014-01-01

    目的:探讨EB病毒血症对儿童传染性单核细胞增多症(IM)免疫功能的影响。方法:回顾性分析2011年9月至2013年6月本院住院62例IM患儿的临床资料,比较血EBV-DNA 阳性组与阴性组之间T淋巴细胞亚群、B淋巴细胞和NK细胞比例是否有统计学意义。结果:62例IM患儿中EBV-DNA阴性18例(29.03%),EBV-DNA阳性44例(70.97%),阳性组平均值6.1×103/mL。IM患儿的CD3+、CD8+细胞比例明显高于正常对照组(P<0.01),CD4+、CD19+细胞比例明显低于正常对照组(P<0.01),而 NK 细胞比例无明显差异(P>0.05)。在IM患儿中DNA阳性组CD4+、CD19+细胞比例明显少于DNA 阴性组(P<0.01),CD8+细胞比例高于DNA阴性组(P<0.05),NK 细胞比例无明显差异(P>0.05)。结论:血EBV-DNA阳性与T淋巴细胞亚群、B淋巴细胞的变化密切相关,与NK 细胞无明显相关性。 EB病毒血症对病情严重程度和预后判断有一定的临床价值。%Objective To explore effect of immune function of children with EB virus infectious mononu-cleosis (IM). Methods From Sep. 2011 to Jun. 2013, a total of 62 cases of children with IM were analyzed retrospectively. The proportion of T-lymphocyte subsets ,B-lymphocytesand and NK cells in EBV-DNA group with positive and negative were compared. Results The numbers of IM EBV-DNA-negative cases were 18 (29.03%), the numbers of IM EBV-DNA-positive cases were 44(70.97%), the averages of EBV-DNA in positive group is 6.1 × 103/mL. CD3+,CD8+cell ratios in IM children are significantly higher than control group (P0.05). In the IM children, CD4+, CD19+cells in DNA-positive group are significantly less than DNA-negative group (P0.05). Conclusions Positive blood EBV-DNA is closely related to changes in T-lymphocyte and B-lymphocyte, but isn′t obviously related in NK cells. So effect of EB virus in IM child have certain clinical values to

  5. The function of EB virus specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes after primary infection%原发性EB病毒感染后特异性T细胞免疫功能的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚瑶; 谢正德; 申昆玲

    2010-01-01

    原发性EB病毒(EBV)感染后机体产生针对裂解期和潜伏期病毒抗原特异性CD8~+/CD4~+细胞毒性T细胞(CTL),清除病毒控制EBV感染.EBV原发感染后临床表现多样,造成这一现象的原因尚不明确,其特异性T细胞对控制病毒感染起到关键作用.随访研究发现EBV原发感染后针对裂解期和潜伏期病毒抗原特异性T细胞功能变化不同,同时对EBV特异性T细胞亚群的分析发现,T细胞的迁移活化在EBV感染机制中亦起到重要作用.%After primary EB virus(EBV) infection there are expansions of EBV-specific CD8~+/CD4~+ CTLs responses against lytic peptides and latent peptides in order to control EBV infection. Clinical manifestations of EBV infection are diverse.Its pathogenesis is not clear. The surveillance of EBV specific-immunity plays an important role to control viral replication.There are differences between the CTL responses against lytic peptides and latent peptides. And the migration and activation of EBV specific CTLs with different cell surface molecules play an important role in EBV infection .

  6. Transient Enhancement ('Spike-on-Tail') Observed on Neutral-Beam-Injected Energetic Ion Spectra Using the E||B Neutral Particle Analyzer in the National Spherical Torus Experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Medley, S. S. [Princeton Plasma Physics Lab. (PPPL), Princeton, NJ (United States); Gorelenkov, N. N. [Princeton Plasma Physics Lab. (PPPL), Princeton, NJ (United States); Bell, R. E. [Princeton Plasma Physics Lab. (PPPL), Princeton, NJ (United States); Fredrickson, E. D. [Princeton Plasma Physics Lab. (PPPL), Princeton, NJ (United States); Gerhardt, S. P. [Princeton Plasma Physics Lab. (PPPL), Princeton, NJ (United States); LeBlanc, B. P. [Princeton Plasma Physics Lab. (PPPL), Princeton, NJ (United States); Podesta, M. [Princeton Plasma Physics Lab. (PPPL), Princeton, NJ (United States); Roquemore, A. L. [Princeton Plasma Physics Lab. (PPPL), Princeton, NJ (United States)

    2010-06-01

    An increase of up to four-fold in the E||B Neutral Particle Analyzer (NPA) charge exchange neutral flux localized at the Neutral Beam (NB) injection full energy is observed in the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX). Termed the High-Energy Feature (HEF), it appears on the NB-injected energetic ion spectrum only in discharges where tearing or kink-type modes (f < 10 kHz) are absent, TAE activity (f ~ 10-150 kHz) is weak (δBrms < 75 mGauss) and CAE/GAE activity (f ~ 400 – 1200 kHz) is robust. The feature exhibits a growth time of ~ 20 - 80 ms and occasionally develops a slowing down distribution that continues to evolve over periods of 100's of milliseconds, a time scale long compared with the typical ~ 10's ms equilibration time of the NB injected particles. The HEF is observed only in H-mode (not L-mode) discharges with injected NB power of 4 MW or greater and in the field pitch range v||/v ~ 0.7 – 0.9; i.e. only for passing (never trapped) energetic ions. The HEF is suppressed by vessel conditioning using lithium deposition at rates ~ 100 mg/shot, a level sufficient to suppress ELM activity. Increases of ~ 10 - 30 % in the measured neutron yield and total stored energy are observed to coincide with the feature along with broadening of measured Te(r), Ti(r) and ne(r) profiles. However, TRANSP analysis shows that such increases are driven by plasma profile changes and not the HEF phenomenon itself. Though a definitive mechanism has yet to be developed, the HEF appears to be caused by a form of TAE/CAE wave-particle interaction that distorts of the NB fast ion distribution in phase space.

  7. Vector-averaged gravity-induced changes in cell signaling and vitamin D receptor activity in MG-63 cells are reversed by a 1,25-(OH)2D3 analog, EB1089

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayanan, R.; Smith, C. L.; Weigel, N. L.

    2002-01-01

    Skeletal unloading in an animal hindlimb suspension model and microgravity experienced by astronauts or as a result of prolonged bed rest causes site-specific losses in bone mineral density of 1%-2% per month. This is accompanied by reductions in circulating levels of 1,25-(OH)(2)D(3), the active metabolite of vitamin D. 1,25-(OH)(2)D(3), the ligand for the vitamin D receptor (VDR), is important for calcium absorption and plays a role in differentiation of osteoblasts and osteoclasts. To examine the responses of cells to activators of the VDR in a simulated microgravity environment, we used slow-turning lateral vessels (STLVs) in a rotating cell culture system. We found that, similar to cells grown in microgravity, MG-63 cells grown in the STLVs produce less osteocalcin, alkaline phosphatase, and collagen Ialpha1 mRNA and are less responsive to 1,25-(OH)(2)D(3). In addition, expression of VDR was reduced. Moreover, growth in the STLV caused activation of the stress-activated protein kinase pathway (SAPK), a kinase that inhibits VDR activity. In contrast, the 1,25-(OH)(2)D(3) analog, EB1089, was able to compensate for some of the STLV-associated responses by reducing SAPK activity, elevating VDR levels, and increasing expression of osteocalcin and alkaline phosphatase. These studies suggest that, not only does simulated microgravity reduce differentiation of MG-63 cells, but the activity of the VDR, an important regulator of bone metabolism, is reduced. Use of potent, less calcemic analogs of 1,25-(OH)(2)D(3) may aid in overcoming this defect. Copyright 2002 Elsevier Science Inc.

  8. Research protocol: EB-GIS4HEALTH UK – foundation evidence base and ontology-based framework of modular, reusable models for UK/NHS health and healthcare GIS applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boulos Maged

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract EB-GIS4HEALTH UK aims at building a UK-oriented foundation evidence base and modular conceptual models for GIS applications and programmes in health and healthcare to improve the currently poor GIS state of affairs within the NHS; help the NHS understand and harness the importance of spatial information in the health sector in order to better respond to national health plans, priorities, and requirements; and also foster the much-needed NHS-academia GIS collaboration. The project will focus on diabetes and dental care, which together account for about 11% of the annual NHS budget, and are thus important topics where GIS can help optimising resource utilisation and outcomes. Virtual e-focus groups will ensure all UK/NHS health GIS stakeholders are represented. The models will be built using Protégé ontology editor http://protege.stanford.edu/ based on the best evidence pooled in the project's evidence base (from critical literature reviews and e-focus groups. We will disseminate our evidence base, GIS models, and documentation through the project's Web server. The models will be human-readable in different ways to inform NHS GIS implementers, and it will be possible to also use them to generate the necessary template databases (and even to develop "intelligent" health GIS solutions using software agents for running the modelled applications. Our products and experience in this project will be transferable to address other national health topics based on the same principles. Our ultimate goal is to provide the NHS with practical, vendor-neutral, modular workflow models, and ready-to-use, evidence-based frameworks for developing successful GIS business plans and implementing GIS to address various health issues. NHS organisations adopting such frameworks will achieve a common understanding of spatial data and processes, which will enable them to efficiently and effectively share, compare, and integrate their data silos and results for

  9. 47 CFR 27.1201 - EBS eligibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... institution or to a governmental organization engaged in the formal education of enrolled students or to a... an administrator or authority who is responsible for the receive site's curriculum planning. No... and that such programming will be incorporated in the site's curriculum. Where educational...

  10. EB radiation crosslinking of elastomers [rapid communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bik, J.; Głuszewski, W.; Rzymski, W. M.; Zagórski, Z. P.

    2003-06-01

    Radiation-induced crosslinking is proposed as successful alternative to conventional, chemical methods of crosslinking of elastomers. Hydrogenated acrylonitrile-butadiene rubber was irradiated with 10 MeV electron beam to doses up to 300 kGy. Irradiated samples were investigated for the extent of crosslinking and for properties important for understanding of mechanisms. It follows from sol-gel analysis, that for 100 crosslinking acts there are 6-9 acts of chain scission. It is less than expected from the 20% participation of multi-ionization spurs, also in the solid state, as announced during the previous 9th Tihany Conference (Radiat. Phys. Chem. 56 (1999) 559). However, the apparent too low yield of multi-ionization spurs could be explained by partial conversion of scission products into crosslinks of specific trifunctional Y type. Our investigations confirm the usefulness of consideration of different radiation spurs in polymers, as well as in all, low LET irradiated media.

  11. Rakveres näeb uut teatrit

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2003-01-01

    Rakvere Teatris esineb 8. ja 9. aug. rahvusvaheline performance'i trupp Insightout Company, kus teeb kaasa ka Mari Mägi. Lavastus kannab pealkirja "Ära anda tulevik" ja see on inspireeritud trupi liikmete mälupiltidest ja I. Allende romaanist "Paula"

  12. Rakveres näeb uut teatrit

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2003-01-01

    Rakvere Teatris esineb 8. ja 9. aug. rahvusvaheline performance'i trupp Insightout Company, kus teeb kaasa ka Mari Mägi. Lavastus kannab pealkirja "Ära anda tulevik" ja see on inspireeritud trupi liikmete mälupiltidest ja I. Allende romaanist "Paula"

  13. Limonaadikinos näeb teatrit

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2009-01-01

    25. juunil stardib Forum Cinemas keti suuremates kinodes pilootprojekt, kus linale jõuab otseülekanne London National Theatre etendusest "Phềdre", lavastaja Nicholas Hytner (Ted Hughes' versioon Jean Racine tragöödiast)

  14. Limonaadikinos näeb teatrit

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2009-01-01

    25. juunil stardib Forum Cinemas keti suuremates kinodes pilootprojekt, kus linale jõuab otseülekanne London National Theatre etendusest "Phềdre", lavastaja Nicholas Hytner (Ted Hughes' versioon Jean Racine tragöödiast)

  15. The Beaverdam Group: Archaeological Investigations at 9EB92, 9EB207, 9EB208 and 9EB219 Richard B. Russell Multiple Resource Area, Elbert County, Georgia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-01-01

    36 Laboratory Methods ........... .................. ..... .. 37 -- Lithic Analysis ................................... 37...historic activity. The majority of the historic items were expended shotgun shells and discarded cans. Lithic Analysis The majority of artifacts...recovered from the Beaverdam Group sites consists of lithic material, most of which is crudely worked. Lithic analysis proceeded on the basis of two

  16. ETVs näeb uusi dokfilme

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2006-01-01

    ETVs täna kolm noore autori 2005.a. valminud dokumentaalfilmi : Kullar Viimse "Jumalaga", Kristin Raubi "O.M.V.K." ja Riin Kranna ja shveitslase Enrico Pizzolato "Vaimu võsuke". Viimase filmi meeskond koosneb India filmitudengitest, tegevus toimub Indias

  17. ETVs näeb uusi dokfilme

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2006-01-01

    ETVs täna kolm noore autori 2005.a. valminud dokumentaalfilmi : Kullar Viimse "Jumalaga", Kristin Raubi "O.M.V.K." ja Riin Kranna ja shveitslase Enrico Pizzolato "Vaimu võsuke". Viimase filmi meeskond koosneb India filmitudengitest, tegevus toimub Indias

  18. 燃气轮机应用的热障涂层%The Application of Thermal Barrier C oatings for Gas Turbine Components

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐文文; 赵迎炬

    2001-01-01

    A concise account is given of the recent progress in the use of thermal barrier coating technology for gas turbine flow path components. The newly developed EB - PVD (electronic beam - physical vapor deposition) method represents a major bre a kthrough in thermal barrier coating technology. The present paper briefly explai ns the EB PVD method and its related equipment%简要叙述了燃气轮机热燃气通流部件上热障涂层镀敷工艺的 进展情况。最新开发的EB-PVD方法是TBC技术的重大突破,简介了EB-PVD方法及其设备。

  19. 淋巴系统肿瘤发病与EB病毒和IL-10基因多态性的关系%Association of Lymphoid Malignancy Incidence with EB Virus and IL-10 Gene Polymorphism——Review

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王慈; 潘凌; 朱平

    2011-01-01

    EBV (Epstein-Barr Virus) is a common herpes virus in patient with lymphatic system tumor, which firstly discovered in the cell line of Burkitt's lymphoma. 90% people worldwide had been infected by EB virus before grown-up, but not all people have the EBV-related disease or tumor. Most EBV infection can not elicit clinical symptoms. EBV infection in tumor of lymphatic system is common. It was early known that the EBV existence may cause the immortalization of normal B cells, which like the tumor cells. It means that EBV plays an important role in the tumorigenesis. EBV Bcrfl code frame is homology to human IL-10, which is also called viral IL-10, showing immunosuppressive effect similar to the IL-10. IL-10 is also an important immunoregulatory factor, the secretory level of which influences the occurrence and development of lymphatic system deseases; the genotype of SNP site in IL-10 promoter region also associates with secretory level of IL-10. This review disccuses the close relation between tumor of lymphatic system, EBV infection and gene polymorphison of IL-10.%淋巴系统肿瘤与病毒感染有密切关系,EBV(Epstein-Barn Virus)转染正常B细胞会造成B细胞发生类似肿瘤的永生化,是最可疑的致病因素.EBV的Bcrfl编码框又称为病毒IL-10,和人类IL-10同源,具有和IL-10相似的免疫抑制作用.IL-10是一种重要的免疫调节因子,其分泌水平的高低影响着淋巴系统疾病的发生和发展;IL-10启动子区的SNP位点基因型也与IL-10的分泌水平相关.本综述探讨淋巴系统肿瘤,EBV感染以及IL-10基因多态性之间的密切关系.

  20. Photometry of Centaurs and trans-Neptunian objects: 2060 Chiron (1977 UB), 10199 Chariklo (1997 CU26), 38628 Huya (2000 EB173), 28978 Ixion (2001 KX76), and 90482 Orcus (2004 DW)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galiazzo, M.; de la Fuente Marcos, C.; de la Fuente Marcos, R.; Carraro, G.; Maris, M.; Montalto, M.

    2016-07-01

    Both Centaurs and trans-Neptunian objects (TNOs) are minor bodies found in the outer Solar System. Centaurs are a transient population that moves between the orbits of Jupiter and Neptune, and they probably diffused out of the TNOs. TNOs move mainly beyond Neptune. Some of these objects display episodic cometary behaviour; a few percent of them are known to host binary companions. Here, we study the light-curves of two Centaurs—2060 Chiron (1977 UB) and 10199 Chariklo (1997 CU26)—and three TNOs—38628 Huya (2000 EB173), 28978 Ixion (2001 KX76), and 90482 Orcus (2004 DW)—and the colours of the Centaurs and Huya. Precise, ˜1~%, R-band absolute CCD photometry of these minor bodies acquired between 2006 and 2011 is presented; the new data are used to investigate the rotation rate of these objects. The colours of the Centaurs and Huya are determined using BVRI photometry. The point spread function of the five minor bodies is analysed, searching for signs of a coma or close companions. Astrometry is also discussed. A periodogram analysis of the light-curves of these objects gives the following rotational periods: 5.5±0.4~h for Chiron, 7.0± 0.6~h for Chariklo, 4.45±0.07~h for Huya, 12.4±0.3~h for Ixion, and 11.9±0.5~h for Orcus. The colour indices of Chiron are found to be B-V=0.53±0.05, V-R=0.37±0.08, and R-I=0.36±0.15. The values computed for Chariklo are V-R=0.62±0.07 and R-I=0.61±0.07. For Huya, we find V-R=0.58±0.09 and R-I=0.64±0.20. Our rotation periods are similar to and our colour values are consistent with those already published for these objects. We find very low levels of cometary activity (if any) and no sign of close or wide binary companions for these minor bodies.

  1. Software Design Document PVD CSCI (3). Volume 2, Appendices

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-06-01

    save- laser -info in lase.c, (null) check-lasing-duration in lase.c, (null) C-68 BBN Systems and Technologies Plan View Display CSCl FUNCTION: fstat(fd... huesO calledBy: init_catc in catc.c, (null) FUNCTION: createtiangle() called.By: init_catc in catc.c, (null) zoom-icon in icon.c, (null) FUNCTION...drawjlaserolaserpacket) calledBy: lase in lase.c, (null) FUNCTION: savejaserjinfo(laserx, laser -y, muzzle-x, muzzle-y) calledBy: draw- laser in lase.c, (null

  2. Thin film zinc oxide deposited by CVD and PVD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamelmann, Frank U.

    2016-10-01

    Zinc oxide is known as a mineral since 1810, but it came to scientific interest after its optoelectronic properties found to be tuneable by p-type doping. Since the late 1980’s the number of publications increased exponentially. All thin film deposition technologies, including sol-gel and spray pyrolysis, are able to produce ZnO films. However, for outstanding properties and specific doping, only chemical vapor deposition and physical vapor deposition have shown so far satisfying results in terms of high conductivity and high transparency. In this paper the different possibilities for doping will be discussed, some important applications of doped ZnO thin films will be presented. The deposition technologies used for industrial applications are shown in this paper. Especially sputtering of aluminium doped Zinc Oxide (ZnO:Al or AZO) and LPCVD of boron doped Zinc Oxide (ZnO:B or BZO) are used for the commercial production of transparent conductive oxide films on glass used for thin film photovoltaic cells. For this special application the typical process development for large area deposition is presented, with the important trade-off between optical properties (transparency and ability for light scattering) and electrical properties (conductivity). Also, the long term stability of doped ZnO films is important for applications, humidity in the ambient is often the reason for degradation of the films. The differences between the mentioned materials are presented.

  3. Multicomponent Thin Films Deposited by PVD ARC and LARC Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dagmar JAKUBÉCZYOVÁ

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper is focused on a comparison of advanced layers deposited by two coating technologies – cathodic arc deposition (ARC and lateral rotating cathodes (LARC. For characterization standard analyses were selected: the determination of the layer wear resistance by Calotest method, specification of the depth concentration profiles of constituting elements from the coating surface down to the substrate, and measurement of the nanohardness at dynamic loading. The thickness of the CrTiN layer reached 1380 nm – 1740 nm and that of the multi/nanolayers AlXN3 was 2630 nm – 3160 nm. The coating nanohardness on the surface attained 39 GPa for AlXN3 (X = Cr, 33 GPa for CrTiN and 12.5 GPa for the substrate. Only at coating prepared by LARC-Technology it is possible to create the multilayers of nanometric dimensions. AlXN3 coating was formed by 48 layers with dimensions of 58 nm – 70 nm. These nanolayers lead to the increase of system toughness as they prevent the crack propagation. Their application on the tools and components promises to increase their durability under service conditions.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.ms.20.1.3716

  4. PVD materials for electrochromic all-solid-state devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ottermann, Clemens R.; Segner, Johannes G.; Bange, Klaus

    1992-11-01

    The electrochromic properties of all solid state devices (ASSDs) are strongly defined by thin film materials used as well as the method of deposition. Various thin film materials deposited by evaporation and sputtering are described serving as electrode, reflector, electrolyte, storage medium, or electrochromic film in ASSD. The impact of process parameters upon the device functionality is shown. In addition, the long-term stability of ASSDs for the different thin film systems is reported.

  5. An Auto Forecasting System for Rice Insect Based on WebGIS%基于W ebG IS的水稻害虫自动预警系统

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张谷丰; 易红娟; 朱先敏; 朱凤; 张志春

    2014-01-01

    According to the artificial influence factors and bad timeliness in rice insect control decision ,a WebGIS based system for the simulation and forecasting of rice insect was constructed .The system included the simulation module for the insect stage that based on the function of degree-days calculating ,that could automatically forecast the occurrence stage of insect ;the real-time weather information including the temperature and humdity could remind the users the suitability of the weather for the pest prevalence ,then provide decision support information for the guest ;and the pest information showed based on WebGIS could help the user to decide the control tactics for the large-scale field ,corrected the error decision .In 2012 ,the system forecasted the occurrence condition of for SBPH , WBPH ,BPH and the rice leaf-roller successfully in Jiangsu province and then the IPM methods to control the pest were applied .The system was based on the structure of Apache+PHP+MySQL+MapServer ,it was easy for the guest to use ,and it provided the powerful tool for the management of standard and information pest data ,precision control and support for pest forecasting .%针对当前水稻害虫防治决策人为因素影响大、时效性差的状况,应用网络平台,结合公共气象信息,开发应用于生产的水稻害虫自动预警系统。系统包括基于积温函数的害虫发育模拟系统,能自动根据天气预报值预警多种害虫的发生期,并据此给用户提供参考;实时的气象信息包括气温和湿度等可随时提醒用户当前气候条件对害虫发生的适宜度,辅助用户决策害虫的发生趋势;基于WebGIS的病虫信息展示预警可提供宏观大范围的决策,纠正害虫防治决策中的工作失误。2012年该系统在江苏省范围内成功进行了灰飞虱、白背飞虱、褐飞虱和纵卷叶螟等害虫综合防治的决策,取得了明显的效果。系统基于Apache+ PHP+ My

  6. Enhancing the oxidation resistance of graphite by applying an SiC coat with crack healing at an elevated temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jae-Won; Kim, Eung-Seon; Kim, Jae-Un; Kim, Yootaek; Windes, William E.

    2016-08-01

    The potential of reducing the oxidation of the supporting graphite components during normal and/or accident conditions in the Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) design has been studied. In this work efforts have been made to slow the oxidation process of the graphite with a thin SiC coating (∼ 10 μm). Upon heating at ≥ 1173 K in air, the spallations and cracks were formed in the dense columnar structured SiC coating layer grown on the graphite with a functionally gradient electron beam physical vapor deposition (EB-PVD. In accordance with the formations of these defects, the sample was vigorously oxidized, leaving only the SiC coating layer. Then, efforts were made to heal the surface defects using additional EB-PVD with ion beam bombardment and chemical vapor deposition (CVD). The EB-PVD did not effectively heal the cracks. But, the CVD was more appropriate for crack healing, likely due to its excellent crack line filling capability with a high density and high aspect ratio. It took ∼ 34 min for the 20% weight loss of the CVD crack healed sample in the oxidation test with annealing at 1173 K, while it took ∼ 8 min for the EB-PVD coated sample, which means it took ∼4 times longer at 1173 K for the same weight reduction in this experimental set-up.

  7. Computational Models in the Materials World - We are Nearly There...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-10

    CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT Same as Report (SAR) 18. NUMBER OF PAGES 21 19a. NAME OF RESPONSIBLE PERSON a. REPORT unclassified b...Technology DS blades, Cast &Wrought disks, 1st Gen Thermal Spray TBC coatings 1st Gen SC blades, 1st Gen PM disk, 1st Gen EB- PVD TBC 2nd Gen SC

  8. Hydroa vacciniforme-like EB virus-associated lymphoproliferative disorder in adults:three cases re-port%成人种痘样水疱病样EB病毒相关淋巴细胞增生性疾病三例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张秋鹂; 汪旸; 涂平

    2016-01-01

    Three female patients presented with red papules, blister, nodules, scab and depressed scar all over the whole body symmetrically, with systemic symptoms including fever and lymphadenectasis. Biopsy of the skin lesion showed dense infiltration constituting of lymphoid cells in dermis. High titers of IgG antibody to EBV antigen, high copies of EBV-DNA and abnormal lymphocyte immunotype were identified in the sera of the three patients.%3例均为成年女性患者,全身可见对称性分布的红色丘疹、水疱、结节、坏死结痂及凹陷性瘢痕,伴有发热、淋巴结肿大等系统症状。组织病理学示:真皮内淋巴样细胞浸润,部分围绕血管周围浸润。血清中 EB 病毒抗体 IgG 阳性,外周血淋巴细胞有高拷贝的 EB 病毒 DNA。患者外周血免疫分型示异常成熟 T 细胞增生。

  9. "EB, or Not EB?" Neonatal Desquamative Impetigo in a Degloving Pattern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Tuyet A; Wang, Audrey S; Eichenfield, Lawrence F; Barrio, Victoria

    2016-01-01

    We present the case of a 7-day-old boy with significant, rapidly spreading blistering and desquamation in a "degloving" pattern on the hands that mimicked epidermolysis bullosa but was ultimately diagnosed as bullous impetigo caused by a clinically aggressive strain of Staphylococcus aureus. Bullous impetigo is a desquamating condition caused by local release of S. aureus exfoliative toxin A and is more commonly seen in children. This case highlights the fragility of newborn skin and reviews the major diagnoses that should be considered in an infant with significant blistering. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Evolution of high temperature corrosion behavior of La{sub 2}(Zr{sub 0.7}Ce{sub 0.3}){sub 2}O{sub 7} with the addition of Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} thermal barrier coatings in contacts with vanadate-sulfate salts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu Zhenhua, E-mail: zhxuciac@yahoo.com.cn [Beijing Institute of Aeronautical Materials, Department 5, P.O. Box 81-5, Beijing 100095 (China); He Limin; Tang Zhihui; Mu Rende [Beijing Institute of Aeronautical Materials, Department 5, P.O. Box 81-5, Beijing 100095 (China); Cao Xueqiang [State Key Laboratory of Rare Earth Resource Utilization, Changchun Institute of Applied Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changchun 130022 (China)

    2012-09-25

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Phase transformation and chemical interaction are the primarily corrosive mechanisms for deterioration of 3Y-LZ7C3 coating. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The 3Y-LZ7C3 material has a good corrosion resistance behavior and low hot corrosion ability. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer V element is obvious appeared in the outer region of 3Y-LZ7C3 coating. - Abstract: Thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) of La{sub 2}(Zr{sub 0.7}Ce{sub 0.3}){sub 2}O{sub 7} with the addition of 3 wt.% Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} (3Y-LZ7C3) were deposited by electron beam-physical vapor deposition (EB-PVD). The phase structure, surface and cross-sectional morphologies, hot corrosion behavior of the 3Y-LZ7C3 coatings were studied in detail. The present study investigates the hot corrosion performance of 3Y-LZ7C3 coating in the presence of molten mixture of Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4} + V{sub 2}O{sub 5} at 1173 K for 100 h. X-ray diffraction (XRD) indicates that the chemical reaction between NaVO{sub 3} and 3Y-LZ7C3 produces LaVO{sub 4}, YVO{sub 4}, m-ZrO{sub 2} and CeO{sub 2}, leaching La{sub 2}O{sub 3} and Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} from 3Y-LZ7C3 and causing the progressive destabilization transformation from t Prime to m-ZrO{sub 2}. The excess La{sub 2}O{sub 3} in the as-deposited 3Y-LZ7C3 coating can largely aggravate the degradation of 3Y-LZ7C3 coating by both NaVO{sub 3} and Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4} (Usually formation of the mixtures of LaVO{sub 3}, (Y{sub k}La{sub 1-k}){sub 2}O{sub 2}SO{sub 4} and few of (Y{sub k}La{sub 1-k}){sub 2}(SO{sub 4}){sub 3} (k = i or j) phases), resulting in very rapid disintegration of the coating. Phase transformation and chemical interaction are the primarily corrosive mechanisms for deterioration of 3Y-LZ7C3 coating.

  11. 全血EBV DNA载量检测在儿童EB病毒感染中的应用价值%Detection of whole blood EBV DNA load in children with EB virus infection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡荣盛; 徐亚丽; 俞晓春; 薛静俊

    2014-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the detection of whole blood Epstein- Barr virus (EBV) DNA load in childhood EBV in-fection. Methods Two hundred and thirty- one children with active EBV infection (174 cases with primary infection and 57 cases with recurrent infection), 258 children with previous EBV infection and 45 healthy children were enrol ed in the study. Whole blood EBV DNA load was detected with automatic nucleic acid extraction method and real- time PCR. The relationship between EBV DNA load and EBV infection was analyzed. Results The positive rate of whole blood EBV in children with active EBV infection was 81.8%and the EBV DNA load was 3.99±0.96lg copies/ml. There were no significant differences between primary infection and recurrent infection groups (x2=0.419, P=0.517 and t=1.236, P=0.221, respectively). The positive rate and whole blood EBV DNA load in children with inactive EBV infection were 10.9%and 2.89±0.20lg copies/ml respectively;there were significant dif-ferences between active and inactive patients(x2=251.6, P=0.0001 and t=3.389, P=0.001, respectively) . The positive rate of whole blood EBV DNA in healthy children was 0%. The positive rate of whole blood EBV DNA in primary EBV infection group was 82.7%, which was higher than that of EBV- CA IgM positive rate (75.8%, P=0.008 ) with a poor consistency (Kappa=0.687). The sensi-tivity, specificity and accuracy of positive blood EBV DNA for diagnosis of EBV infection were 81.8%, 89.5%and 85.9%, respec-tively. Taking DNA load of 3.00lg copies/ml as cut- off value the sensitivity, specificity and accuracy for diagnosis of active EBV infection were 70.1%, 95.3%and 83.4%, respectively. Conclusion Detection of whole blood EBV DNA load can be used for di-agnosis and prognosis of EB virus infection in children.%目的:评价全血EBV DNA载量检测在儿童EB病毒(EBV)感染中的应用价值。方法将231例EBV活动感染儿童(原发感染174例,复发感染57例)、258例非活

  12. Effect of Suspension Plasma-Sprayed YSZ Columnar Microstructure and Bond Coat Surface Preparation on Thermal Barrier Coating Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernard, Benjamin; Quet, Aurélie; Bianchi, Luc; Schick, Vincent; Joulia, Aurélien; Malié, André; Rémy, Benjamin

    2017-08-01

    Suspension plasma spraying (SPS) is identified as promising for the enhancement of thermal barrier coating (TBC) systems used in gas turbines. Particularly, the emerging columnar microstructure enabled by the SPS process is likely to bring about an interesting TBC lifetime. At the same time, the SPS process opens the way to a decrease in thermal conductivity, one of the main issues for the next generation of gas turbines, compared to the state-of-the-art deposition technique, so-called electron beam physical vapor deposition (EB-PVD). In this paper, yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) coatings presenting columnar structures, performed using both SPS and EB-PVD processes, were studied. Depending on the columnar microstructure readily adaptable in the SPS process, low thermal conductivities can be obtained. At 1100 °C, a decrease from 1.3 W m-1 K-1 for EB-PVD YSZ coatings to about 0.7 W m-1 K-1 for SPS coatings was shown. The higher content of porosity in the case of SPS coatings increases the thermal resistance through the thickness and decreases thermal conductivity. The lifetime of SPS YSZ coatings was studied by isothermal cyclic tests, showing equivalent or even higher performances compared to EB-PVD ones. Tests were performed using classical bond coats used for EB-PVD TBC coatings. Thermal cyclic fatigue performance of the best SPS coating reached 1000 cycles to failure on AM1 substrates with a β-(Ni,Pt)Al bond coat. Tests were also performed on AM1 substrates with a Pt-diffused γ-Ni/γ'-Ni3Al bond coat for which more than 2000 cycles to failure were observed for columnar SPS YSZ coatings. The high thermal compliance offered by both the columnar structure and the porosity allowed the reaching of a high lifetime, promising for a TBC application.

  13. 成人重症肺炎患者EB病毒和人鼻病毒混合感染的病原学分子鉴定%Molecular identification of a mixed infection of EB and human rhinovirus in an adult patient with severe pneumonia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢桂兰; 曹彬; 马建新; 刘医萌; 张代涛; 吴双胜; 杨鹏; 王全意

    2012-01-01

    目的 对1例有禽类接触史的成人重症肺炎患者进行病原学研究,确定其病原体. 方法 采集患者的下呼吸道标本,应用荧光PCR方法检测禽流感H5N1和SARS病毒及甲型H1N1和季节性流感病毒;应用多重PCR方法检测12种常见呼吸道病毒;应用普通PCR方法检测EB病毒和臣细胞病毒,扩增阳性的病毒基因片段测序后,与GenBank 数据库参考序列进行同源性分析. 结果 荧光PCR法检测禽流感病毒H5N1病毒和SARS病毒核酸阴性,甲型H1N1和季节性流感病毒核酸阴性;多重PCR检测人鼻病毒、EB病毒均阳性;普通PCR检测EB病毒核酸阳性.基因序列比对显示,EB病毒核苷酸序列与GenBank数据库中参考序列同源性为99.5%~100%;人鼻病毒的核苷酸序列与GenBank数据库中A组鼻病毒(73血清型)同源性最高,为94.7%. 结论 该例重症肺炎患者为EB病毒和A组(73血清型)人鼻病毒混合感染,排除禽流感H5N1和SARS感染.%Objective To determine the etiology of severe pneumonia in an adult patient with a history of contact with birds. Methods A lower respiratory tract specimen was collected from the patient to extract nucleic acid for use as a template in real-time PCR. Multiplex PCR was used to test for H5N1, SARS-CoV, pandemic H1N1, seasonal influenza virus, and other common respiratory viruses and unusual pathogens including EB and CMV virus. Resulting gene fragments were identified and their homology was analyzed with other reference sequences downloaded from the GenBank database. Results TPCR revealed that the patient had a mixed infection of the EB virus and human rhinovirus. Nucleo-tide sequences had a homology as high as 99.5%-100% with the EB virus and 94. 7% with human rhinovirus (A-serotype 73). Conclusion Based on laboratory analysis, the patient had a mixed infection of the EB virus and human Rhinovirus (A-serotype 73). The possibility of infection with the H5N1 virus or SARS was excluded.

  14. 血浆EB病毒DNA载量检测在儿童EB病毒感染中的应用价值%The value of plasma Epstein-Barr vi rus DNA load detection in EB vi rus infection of children

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡荣盛; 徐亚丽; 俞晓春; 薛静俊; 张超

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To evaluate the value of plasma EBV DNA load detection in EBV infection of children . METHODS A total of 189 children with EB virus infection were selected using laboratory parameters control study (123 cases of EBV primary infection ,66 cases of EBV-recurrence infection ) and 153 cases of non-EBV-infected children (135 cases of EBV previous infection ,18 cases of non-EB virus infection) .The real-time quantitative PCR method was used for detection of plasma EBV DNA load and indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA ) detection of EBV antibody spectrum .33 cases of primary EB virus-infected children were tracked and monitored for two weeks ,2 ,6 months for the change of plasma EBV NDA load and EBV antibody spectrum .RESULTS The plasma EBV DNA positive rate was 22 .2% in the EBV infection group ,and the plasma EBV DNA load was 3 .72 lgcopies/ml .The plasma EBV DNA positive rate in EBV primary infection group and recurrent infection group were 26 .8% and 13 .6% respectively ,and the difference was significant (P< 0 .05) .In diagnosis of children Epstein-Barr virus infection , the plasma EBV DNA sensitivity was 22 .2% , specificity was 100% ,and the diagnosis rate was 57 .0% ,the difference of plasma EBV DNA and EBV-CA IgM diagnostic coincidence rate was not significant .In Children′s EB virus primary infection diagnosis ,the plasma EBV DNA sensitivity was 26 .8% , specificity was 95 .7% ,and the diagnosis rate was 54 .4% ,the difference of plasma EBV DNA and EBV-CA IgM diagnostic coincidence rate was significant (P<0 .05) .The consistency of plasma EBV DNA and EBV-CA IgM test results was not good ,and the difference was statistically significant (P< 0 .05) .The plasma EBV DNA negative conversion ratio in 33 cases of acute EB virus-infected children was 84 .8% (2 weeks) ,93 .9% (2 months ) ,EBV antibody spectrum from primary infection to previous infection was 6 .1% for two months and 93 .9% for 6 months .CONCLUSION Plasma EBV DNA load detection can

  15. 等离子体激活电子束物理气相沉积NiCoCrAlY涂层的制备及微观组织结构研究%Microstructures of NiCoCrAlY Coatings Grown by Plasma Activated Electron Beam Physical Vapor Deposition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    常健; 郑蕾; 彭徽; 郭洪波; 宫声凯

    2012-01-01

    针对传统电子束物理气相沉积(EB-PVD)制备的柱状晶结构MCrAlY涂层存在线性缺陷的问题,本文建立了等离子体激活EB-PVD(PA EB-PVD)设备,并采用PA EB-PVD技术制备出了具有等轴晶结构的新型NiCoCrAlY涂层.结果表明,增大电弧放电电压和基板偏压均可以提高沉积粒子的能量.随着沉积粒子能量增强,涂层逐渐由柱状晶结构转变为致密等轴晶结构,晶粒尺寸增大;另一方面,涂层成份离析效应增强,主要体现在Al含量降低和Cr含量升高.%a novel technique - the plasma activated electron beam-physical vapor deposition (PAEB-PVD) - was developed by modifying the conventional electron beam physical vapor deposition (EB-PVD) to significantly reduce the columnar and linear defects of the NiCoCrAlY coatings, grown by EB-PVD. The high quality NiCoCrAlY coatings were deposited by the newly-developed technique. The impacts of the deposition conditions on microstructures and mechanical properties of the coating were evaluated, The results show that the energy of the impinging adatom strongly affects its microstructures . The energy of the adatom can be increased by increasing the arc discharge voltage and substrate bias. As the adatom energy increased, the columnar grains of the coating changed into the more compact equiaxial ones, accompanied with grain growth. Meanwhile, strong segregation was observed, resulting in an increased of Al content, a decreased Gr content, and an increase of plasticity.

  16. Performance Improvements of DSSC with EB Irradiated PAN/PEO-based Gel Electrolyte%电子辐照改性PAN/PEO基体凝胶电解质对染料敏化太阳电池性能的提高

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马艺准; 周明; 李远飞; 缑洁; 盛彦斌; 朱亚滨; 王志光; 申铁龙; 庞立龙; 宋银; 孙建荣; 姚存峰; 魏孔芳

    2011-01-01

    采用电子束(EB)对聚丙烯腈/聚氧化乙烯(PAN/PEO)凝胶电解质进行了剂量为13~260kGy的辐照,并对辐照改性的电解质组装的染料敏化太阳电池(DSSC)进行了性能测量。结果表明,改性后的DSSC的光电转化效率比改性前的高;并且随EB辐照剂量的增加,DSSC效率先迅速增加(0~65kGy),然后缓慢减小(65~130kGy)直至趋于一个平衡值(130~260kGy)。提升DSSC效率的最佳辐照剂量为65kGy,此时效率提高了约36%。对比DSSC短路电流、开路电压和填充因子随辐照剂量的变化,发现DSSC效率的提高主要是由短路电流的提高引起的。测量表明,辐照改性后的DSSC时间稳定性得到了改善,并且辐照剂量越高,稳定性的改善越明显。%In this work,PAN/PEO(polyacrylonitrile/polyethylene oxide)-based gel electrolyte was irradiated by electron beam(EB) with dose from 13 to 260 kGy.Then,DSSC(dye-sensitized solar cell) was fabricated by the irradiated electrolyte and characterized.The results show that the efficiency of the DSSC fabricated by irradiated electrolyte is promoted comparing with DSSC fabricated by un-irradiated electrolyte.And with irradiation dose increasing,the DSSC efficiency increases rapidly at first(0~65 kGy),then,drops down slowly(65~130 kGy),finally trends to a stable value(130~260 kGy).It indicates that there is an optimal irradiation dose,at which the promotion of DSSC efficiency is the highest,approximate 36%.Observed from the change of short-circuit current,open-circuit voltage and fill factor,short-circuit current promotion by EB irradiation is found to be the main reason of DSSC performance promotion.The time stability measurement of the DSSC indicates that EB irradiation on PAN/PEO electrolyte reduces the loss of efficiency and the limiting-effects become more apparent as the irradiation dose increases.

  17. Structures and stabilities of group 13 adducts [(NHC)(EX3)] and [(NHC)2(E2X(n))] (E=B to In; X=H, Cl; n=4, 2, 0; NHC=N-heterocyclic carbene) and the search for hydrogen storage systems: a theoretical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holzmann, Nicole; Stasch, Andreas; Jones, Cameron; Frenking, Gernot

    2011-11-25

    Quantum chemical calculations using density functional theory at the BP86/TZVPP level and ab initio calculations at the SCS-MP2/TZVPP level have been carried out for the group 13 complexes [(NHC)(EX(3))] and [(NHC)(2)(E(2)X(n))] (E=B to In; X=H, Cl; n=4, 2, 0; NHC=N-heterocyclic carbene). The monodentate Lewis acids EX(3) and the bidentate Lewis acids E(2) X(n) bind N-heterocyclic carbenes rather strongly in donor-acceptor complexes [(NHC)(EX(3))] and [(NHC)(2)(E(2)X(n))]. The equilibrium structures of the bidentate complexes depend on the electronic reference state of E(2)X(n), which may vary for different atoms E and X. All complexes [(NHC)(2)(E(2)X(4))] possess C(s) symmetry in which the NHC ligands bind in a trans conformation to the group 13 atoms E. The complexes [(NHC)(2)(E(2)H(2))] with E=B, Al, Ga have also C(s) symmetry with a trans arrangement of the NHC ligands and a planar CE(H)E(H)C moiety that has a E=E π bond. In contrast, the indium complex [(NHC)(2)(In(2) H(2))] has C(i) symmetry with pyramidal-coordinated In atoms in which the hydrogen atoms are twisted above and below the CInInC plane. The latter C(i) form is calculated for all chloride systems [(NHC)(2)(E(2)Cl(2))], but the boron complex [(NHC)(2)(B(2)Cl(2))] deviates only slightly from C(s) symmetry. The B(2) fragment in the linear coordinated complex [(NHC)(2)(B(2))] has a highly excited (3)(1)Σ(g)(-) reference state, which gives an effective B≡B triple bond with a very short interatomic distance. The heavier homologues [(NHC)(2)(E(2))] (E=Al to In) exhibit a anti-periplanar arrangement of the NHC ligands in which the E(2) fragments have a (1)(1) Δ(g) reference state and an E=E double bond. The calculated energies suggest that the dihydrogen release from the complexes [(NHC)(EH(3))] and [(NHC)(2)(E(2)H(n))] becomes energetically more favourable when atom E becomes heavier. The indium complexes should therefore be the best candidates of the investigated series for hydrogen-storage systems

  18. Characteristics and Preparation Technologies of Nb/Nb5Si3 Microlaminate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MU Rende

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Nb/Nb5Si3 superalloy has the most potential in the application of future high temperature structures. Realization of microstructure lamination for this material is a new material design and preparation method. Characteristics and prevailing preparation technologies of Nb/Nb5Si3 microlaminate, including hot pressing, plasma spaying, magnetic sputtering and electron beam physical vapor deposition (EB-PVD are reviewed. It is pointed out that EB-PVD is a promising technology for producing Nb/Nb5Si3 microlaminate from the engineering application point of view. Structure and function compound, nano-laminating and toughening are the developing directions in the future electron beam physical vapor deposited Nb/Nb5Si3 microlaminate field.

  19. Advances on Propulsion Technology for High-Speed Aircraft. Volume 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-03-01

    and non- intrusive optical approaches. Much of the information of interest 11 I I must be deduced from measurements which are sensitive to competing...physical vapour deposition (EB-PVD), vacuum plasma spraying (VPS) and solution plasma spraying (SPS) [38-41]. A segmented sub-scale model combustor with...advantage of the existing alumina pebble bed heater which allows to perform test with air non vitiated by water vapour up to Mach 6.5 conditions (1800

  20. Vaatab ja näeb teistmoodi / Aavo Kokk

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kokk, Aavo, 1964-

    2002-01-01

    Kui varem oli strateegilise planeerimise alus ettevõtetes see, kuidas tulevikku paremini ette näha, siis nüüd arutavad ettevõtted selle üle, kuidas tekitada uus turg ja uus nõudlus. Lennukifirmade Airbus ja Boeing erinev ettekujutus lennunduse arengust

  1. A. UBA", K. IBRAHIM", AA MAKINDE" and EB AGBO

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2004-07-26

    Jul 26, 2004 ... Department of Pharmaceutical Microbiology and Biotechnology, National Institute of. Pharmaceutical ..... oxidation, denitrification, and aerobic metabolism by bacteria in .... Molecular Biology; The 2002 ESA Annual Meeting.

  2. Continuous EB welding of the reinforcement of the CMS conductor

    CERN Document Server

    Folch, R; Campi, D; Christin, R; Creton, J P; Curé, B; Hervé, A; Horváth, I L; Neuenschwander, J; Riboni, P; Sequeira-Lopes-Tavares, S; Sgobba, Stefano

    2002-01-01

    The Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) is one of the general-purpose detectors to be provided for the LHC project at CERN. The design field of the CMS superconducting magnet is 4 T, the magnetic length is 12.5 m and the free bore is 6 m. In order to withstand the electro-mechanical forces during the operation of the CMS magnet, the superconducting cable embedded in a 99.998% pure aluminum matrix is reinforced with two sections of aluminum alloy EN AW-6082 assembled by continuous Electron Beam Welding (EBW). A dedicated production line has been designed by Techmeta, a leading company in the field of EBW. The production line has a total length of 70 m. Non-stop welding of each of the 20 lengths of 2.5 km, required to build the coil, will last 22 hours. EBW is the most critical process involved in the production line. The main advantage of the EBW process is to minimize the Heat Affected Zone; this is particularly important for avoiding damage to the superconducting cable located only 4.7 mm from the welded joints. Two...

  3. Muuseumis näeb graafikat / Silja Joon

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Joon, Silja, 1966-

    2008-01-01

    Reedel avatakse Pärnu muuseumi näitusesaalis Jasper Zoova näitus "Reis ma ei tea kuhu". Esindatud on autori 30 plakatiformaadis mustvalget graafilist lehte vangistatud narri seiklustest ja Hollandi residentuuris 2002. aastal valminud seitsmeminutiline animafilm. Näitus jääb avatuks 15. jaanuarini

  4. Kas inimkond näeb aastat 2106? / Stephen Hawking

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Hawking, Stephen W., 1942-

    2006-01-01

    Briti füüsik Stephen Hawking avas Yahoo! internetifoorumis debati, küsides foorumikasutajatelt: "Maailmas valitseb poliitiline, sotsiaalne ja ökoloogiline kaos - kuidas suudab inimkond järgmised sada aastat üle elada?". Kommenteerivad julgeolekuekspert Eerik-Niiles Kross, meditsiiniteaduste doktor Mari Järvelaid ja keskkonnaekspert Marek Strandberg

  5. "Georgicat" näeb USA-s Californias

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2000-01-01

    Sulev Keeduse mängufilm "Georgica" linastub Berkeley kinos Fine Arts Cinema. Edasi läheb film Poola eesti filmi päevadele 6.-10. novembrini. Seal näidatakse ka V. Kuigi lühimängufilmi "Lurjus" ja R. Heidmetsa lastefilmi "Kallis härra Q"

  6. Viljandi kinolinal näeb haruldasi kaadreid

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2003-01-01

    Ürituste sarja "Viljandi 720" lõpetab kinos Rubiin filmiprogramm, mis hõlmab kroonikakaadreid alates Johannes Pääsukese 1913. aastal filmitud Eesti tuntumate paikadega ja lõpetades 1936. aastal filmitud "Talverõõmudega Viljandis"

  7. Broadband Radio Service (BRS) and Educational Broadband Service (EBS) Transmitters

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — The Broadband Radio Service (BRS), formerly known as the Multipoint Distribution Service (MDS)/Multichannel Multipoint Distribution Service (MMDS), is a commercial...

  8. Kas inimkond näeb aastat 2106? / Stephen Hawking

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Hawking, Stephen W., 1942-

    2006-01-01

    Briti füüsik Stephen Hawking avas Yahoo! internetifoorumis debati, küsides foorumikasutajatelt: "Maailmas valitseb poliitiline, sotsiaalne ja ökoloogiline kaos - kuidas suudab inimkond järgmised sada aastat üle elada?". Kommenteerivad julgeolekuekspert Eerik-Niiles Kross, meditsiiniteaduste doktor Mari Järvelaid ja keskkonnaekspert Marek Strandberg

  9. Kinos näeb Dostojevski "Idiooti" / Andres Laasik

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Laasik, Andres, 1960-2016

    2011-01-01

    12. oktoobril esilinastub Fjodor Dostojevski romaanil põhinev Rainer Sarneti mängufilm "Idioot". Peaosas Risto Kübar. Film valiti 6. oktoobril alanud Lõuna-Korea Busani rahvusvahelise filmifestivali programmi Flash Forward

  10. Vaatab ja näeb teistmoodi / Aavo Kokk

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kokk, Aavo, 1964-

    2002-01-01

    Kui varem oli strateegilise planeerimise alus ettevõtetes see, kuidas tulevikku paremini ette näha, siis nüüd arutavad ettevõtted selle üle, kuidas tekitada uus turg ja uus nõudlus. Lennukifirmade Airbus ja Boeing erinev ettekujutus lennunduse arengust

  11. Kvalita služeb ve zdravotnictví

    OpenAIRE

    Kosková, Adéla

    2015-01-01

    Kosková, A., Quality of health care services. Diploma thesis, Brno: Mendel University in Brno, 2015. The aim of the diploma thesis is to analyse health care delivery in particular health care organization using quantitative method of questioning the patients and employees of the organization. The theoretical part deals with the basic definitions of quality management in health care, quality of health care, management tools in health care system, measurement of patients and employees satisfact...

  12. Kinos näeb Dostojevski "Idiooti" / Andres Laasik

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Laasik, Andres, 1960-2016

    2011-01-01

    12. oktoobril esilinastub Fjodor Dostojevski romaanil põhinev Rainer Sarneti mängufilm "Idioot". Peaosas Risto Kübar. Film valiti 6. oktoobril alanud Lõuna-Korea Busani rahvusvahelise filmifestivali programmi Flash Forward

  13. Muuseumis näeb puupõletusprotsessi / Lea Pruuli

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Pruuli, Lea

    2001-01-01

    Tarbekunstimuuseumis keraamikanäitusel "Läbipaistev põletus" on asuurkeraamika ateljee kunstnikud Urmas Puhkan, Kärt Seppel, Külli Kõiv, Kadri Pärnamets, Aigi Orav ja ameerika keraamik Kenneth Jarvis rekonstrueerinud unikaalse keraamika põletusprotsessi.

  14. 47 CFR 27.1203 - EBS programming requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... wired distribution systems or radio facilities authorized under other parts of this chapter, or to... MISCELLANEOUS WIRELESS COMMUNICATIONS SERVICES Broadband Radio Service and Educational Broadband Service § 27... material from, commercial and noncommercial educational television broadcast stations for use on...

  15. Kumus näeb maailmamuutjaid / Helen Teesalu

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Teesalu, Helen

    2008-01-01

    Maailmamuutjate filmifestival näitab neljal järjestikusel kolmapäeval dokfilme eriliste inimeste erilistest ettevõtmistest. Täna on Kumus Chema Rodrigueze "Raudtee tähed", mida kommenteerivad Eda Mölder ja Artur Taevere

  16. "Georgicat" näeb USA-s Californias

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2000-01-01

    Sulev Keeduse mängufilm "Georgica" linastub Berkeley kinos Fine Arts Cinema. Edasi läheb film Poola eesti filmi päevadele 6.-10. novembrini. Seal näidatakse ka V. Kuigi lühimängufilmi "Lurjus" ja R. Heidmetsa lastefilmi "Kallis härra Q"

  17. Including Students with Disabilities. ERIC Mini-Bib EB14.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorenson, Barbara R., Comp.

    This annotated bibliography lists 19 publications to help educators more effectively include students with disabilities in general education classrooms. The publications, including books, journal articles, videotapes, and reports, are dated from 1993 through 1999, and most are available through the ERIC (Educational Resources Information Center)…

  18. EB technology for the purification of flue gases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kojima, Takuji [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Takasaki, Gunma (Japan). Takasaki Radiation Chemistry Research Establishment

    2003-02-01

    Sulfur oxides and nitrogen oxides in flue gas from coal-combustion boilers in power plants, dioxins in flue gas from municipal waste incineration facilities and toxic volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in off-gas from painting or cleaning factories are among air pollutants for which emission is regulated by a law in Japan. Electron beam is the effective and easy controllable radiation source for treatment of these flue gases. This report describes outline of the results so far obtained at JAERI on electron beam treatment of flue gas. The removal performance higher than 90% at 10 kGy for flue gas containing 800 ppm SOx and 225 ppm NOx were achieved and being applied to real-scale power plants in Poland and China with expectation of cost reduction of 20% compared to conventional plants. Decomposition of dioxins in flue gas from solid waste incinerators is another project. Using an accelerator of 300 keV and 40 mA for treatment of real incineration gas at 200degC, we obtain 90% decomposition of dioxins at 15 kGy irradiation. Expansion of these flue gas purification technologies combined with low-energy electron accelerators is expected. (S. Ohno)

  19. A case of gastric cancer with heterogeneous components of EB virus (+)/TP53 (+) and EB virus (-)/TP53 (-).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuda, Ikuo; Kan, Kazuomi; Doi, Sadayuki; Motoki, Yoshiyuki; Onodera, Masayuki; Hirota, Seiichi

    2015-01-01

    Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-associated gastric adenocarcinoma is a histological subtype of gastric adenocarcinoma, in which all of the carcinoma cells are basically positive for EBV-encoded small RNA (EBER) by in situ hybridization. Although its typical histology has some overlap with gastric carcinoma with lymphoid stroma, absence of massive lymphoid infiltrate is sometimes observed either in whole or in part. EBV-associated adenocarcinoma is one of the four representative molecular pathological subtypes recently identified by comprehensive genomic analysis of gastric adenocarcinomas. According to the analysis, typical EBV-associated gastric adenocarcinoma constitutes an independent molecular pathological subgroup, which is mutually exclusive to TP53-mutated adenocarcinoma with chromosomal instability, another molecular pathological subtype in gastric adenocarcinomas. Here, we report a rare case of gastric cancer heterogeneously composed of EBER (+)/TP53 (+) and EBER (-)/TP53 (-) portions. The EBER (+)/TP53 (+) component with massive lymphoid infiltrate surrounded the EBER (-)/TP53 (-) component showing well to moderately differentiated tubular adenocarcinoma. Although collision of two independent gastric cancers could be the simplest and most possible explanation for this situation, we discussed another possibility. In the case of gastric collision tumors, concurrent development of EBER (+) gastric adenocarcinomas and EBER (-) gastric adenocarcinomas in a single stomach is a rare incident. Since presence of the EBER (+)/TP53 (+) tumor component is atypical in itself, we also discussed the mechanism of development of the clone.

  20. Compatibilization of low-density polyethylene/polystyrene blends by segmented EB(PS-block-EB)(n) block copolymers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kroeze, E; ten Brinke, G.; Hadziioannou, G

    1997-01-01

    Hydrogenated segmented poly[butadiene-block-(styrene-block-butadiene)(n)] block copolymers, which were developed by use of a polymeric iniferter technique, were tested on their compatibilizing effectiveness for (10/90) LDPE/PS blends. They were found to be effective compatibilizers for this mixture,