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Sample records for eb pvd tbcs

  1. Thermal cycling behavior of EB-PVD TBCs on CVD platinum modified aluminide coatings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Zhenhua, E-mail: zhxubiam@aliyun.com; Wang, Zhankao; Huang, Guanghong; Mu, Rende; He, Limin

    2015-07-15

    Highlights: • The removed ridges at the grain boundaries with grit blasting. • The ridge, oxidation and cracking are features of damage initiation in TBCs. • Spalled location either at TGO/bond coat interface or inside of TGO layer. • The lower strain energy release rate within TGO layer can prolong of TBCs life. - Abstract: Thermal barrier coating systems (TBCs) including of chemical vapor deposited (Ni, Pt)Al bond coat with grit blasting process and electron beam physical vapor deposited Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}-stabilized-ZrO{sub 2} (YSZ) ceramic coating were investigated. The phase structures, surface and cross-sectional morphologies, cyclic oxidation behaviors and residual stresses of the TBCs were studied in detail. It was found that the fracture path traverses through the ceramic coating to TGO interface, as well as at the TGO to bond coat interface is obviously detected. The change in fracture plane occurs at grain boundaries. The ridge top spallation leads to separate of sufficient size to result in unstable fracture driven by the strain energy stored in the TGO. The bond coat can undergo a volume increase upon oxidation, so that a cavity, enlarged strictly by oxidation would be full to overflowing with TGO layer. The spalled location of the TBCs probably occurs either at the interface of TGO layer and bond coat or inside of TGO layer. The lower strain energy release rate within TGO layer during thermal cycling is beneficial to prolong of TBCs life. The lower is the compressive stress within TGO layer, the longer is the lifetime of TBCs.

  2. Evaluation of interfacial mechanical properties under shear loading in EB-PVD TBCs by the pushout method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Sang-Seok [Research Center for Advanced Science and Technology, University of Tokyo, Tokyo 153-8904 (Japan); Liu Yufu [Research Center for Advanced Science and Technology, University of Tokyo, Tokyo 153-8904 (Japan); Kagawa, Yutaka [Research Center for Advanced Science and Technology, University of Tokyo, Tokyo 153-8904 (Japan)]. E-mail: kagawa@iis.u-tokyo.ac.jp

    2007-06-15

    A new simple pushout technique for evaluation of interfacial shear mechanical properties in thermal barrier coatings has been developed. The technique is similar to the pushout test of fiber-reinforced ceramics, except for the specimen shape and support method. The technique has been applied to evaluation of interfacial delamination toughness, {gamma} {sub i}, of the electron beam physical vapor deposition (EB-PVD) ZrO{sub 2} thermal barrier coating (TBC) system. The change of {gamma} {sub i} in the EB-PVD system with thermal exposure is measured and discussed in terms of microstructural change and delamination crack path. The measured delamination toughness varied from {gamma} {sub i} = 10 to 115 J/m{sup 2}. The delamination path and TGO growth were found to be closely related. The delamination toughness significantly decreases due to the formation and growth of a spinel phase in the TGO layer. The relation between delamination toughness and delamination behavior is discussed.

  3. Thermal cycling behavior of YSZ and La2(Zr0.7Ce0.3)2O7 as double-ceramic-layer systems EB-PVD TBCs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Zhenhua; He Limin; Mu Rende; Lu Feng; He Shimei; Cao Xueqiang

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► DCL coating has a longer lifetime than that of single layer coating of LZ7C3 or YSZ. ► The unique growth modes of columns within DCL coating. ► The presence of cerium in both Ce 3+ and Ce 4+ oxidation states within the coating surface. ► The spallation of DCL coating induced by transverse cracks may be the first emergence of delamination followed by spalling layer by layer. ► The outward diffusion of Cr element (bond coat) into LZ7C3 layer. - Abstract: Double-ceramic-layer (DCL) thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) of La 2 (Zr 0.7 Ce 0.3 ) 2 O 7 (LZ7C3) and yttria stabilized zirconia (YSZ) were deposited by electron beam-physical vapor deposition (EB-PVD). The thermal cycling test at 1573 K in burner-rig with a coal gas flame indicates the thermal cycling life of DCL coating is not only much longer than that of LZ7C3 coating, but also approximately 27% longer than that of YSZ coating. The superior sintering-resistance of LZ7C3 coating and the unique growth modes of columns within DCL coating are all very helpful to the prolongation of thermal cycling life of DCL coating. The failure of DCL coating is mainly a result of the reduction–oxidation of cerium oxide, the re-crystallization of some LZ7C3 fine grains, the cracks initiation, propagation and extension, the abnormal oxidation of bond coat, the degradation of t′-phase in YSZ coating and the outward diffusion of Cr alloying element into LZ7C3 coating. Since no single material that has been studied so far satisfies all the requirements for high temperature applications, DCL coating is an important development direction of TBCs.

  4. Thermal conductivity issues of EB-PVD thermal barrier coatings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schulz, U.; Raetzer-Scheibe, H.J.; Saruhan, B. [DLR - German Aerospace Center, Institute of Materials Research, 51170 Cologne (Germany); Renteria, A.F. [BTU, Physical Metallurgy and Materials Technology, Cottbus (Germany)

    2007-09-15

    The thermal conductivity of electron-beam physical vapor deposited (EB-PVD) thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) was investigated by the Laser Flash technique. Sample type and methodology of data analyses as well as atmosphere during the measurement have some influence on the data. A large variation of the thermal conductivity was found by changes in TBC microstructure. Exposure at high temperature caused sintering of the porous microstructure that finally increased thermal conductivity up to 30 %. EB-PVD TBCs show a distinct thickness dependence of the thermal conductivity due to the anisotropic microstructure in thickness direction. Thin TBCs had a 20 % lower thermal conductivity than thick coatings. New compositions of the ceramic top layer offer the largest potential to lower thermal conductivity. Values down to 0.8W/(mK) have been already demonstrated with virgin coatings of pyrochlore compositions. (Abstract Copyright [2007], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.) [German] Die Waermeleitfaehigkeit von elektronenstrahl-aufgedampften (EB-PVD) Waermedaemmschichten (TBCs) wurde mittels Laser-Flash untersucht. Probentyp, Messmethodik und die Atmosphaere waehrend der Messung haben einen Einfluss auf die Ergebnisse. Aenderungen in der Mikrostruktur der TBC fuehrten zu grossen Unterschieden der Waermeleitfaehigkeit. Eine Hochtemperaturbelastung verursachte Sintervorgaenge in der poroesen Mikrostruktur, was die Waermeleitfaehigkeit um bis zu 30 % ansteigen liess. EB-PVD TBCs zeigen eine deutliche Dickenabhaengigkeit der Waermeleitfaehigkeit durch die Anisotropie der Mikrostruktur in dieser Richtung. Duenne TBCs haben eine um 20 % geringere Waermeleitfaehigkeit als dicke Schichten. Neue Zusammensetzungen der keramischen Deckschicht bieten die groessten Moeglichkeiten fuer eine Reduktion der Waermeleitfaehigkeit. Werte bis zu 0,8 W/(mK) wurden damit bereits erreicht. (Abstract Copyright [2007], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  5. Thermal cycling behavior of YSZ and La{sub 2}(Zr{sub 0.7}Ce{sub 0.3}){sub 2}O{sub 7} as double-ceramic-layer systems EB-PVD TBCs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu Zhenhua, E-mail: zhxuciac@yahoo.com [Beijing Institute of Aeronautical Materials, Department 5, P.O. Box 81-5, Beijing 100095 (China); He Limin; Mu Rende; Lu Feng; He Shimei [Beijing Institute of Aeronautical Materials, Department 5, P.O. Box 81-5, Beijing 100095 (China); Cao Xueqiang [State Key Laboratory of Rare Earth Resource Utilization, Changchun Institute of Applied Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changchun 130022 (China)

    2012-06-05

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer DCL coating has a longer lifetime than that of single layer coating of LZ7C3 or YSZ. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The unique growth modes of columns within DCL coating. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The presence of cerium in both Ce{sup 3+} and Ce{sup 4+} oxidation states within the coating surface. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The spallation of DCL coating induced by transverse cracks may be the first emergence of delamination followed by spalling layer by layer. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The outward diffusion of Cr element (bond coat) into LZ7C3 layer. - Abstract: Double-ceramic-layer (DCL) thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) of La{sub 2}(Zr{sub 0.7}Ce{sub 0.3}){sub 2}O{sub 7} (LZ7C3) and yttria stabilized zirconia (YSZ) were deposited by electron beam-physical vapor deposition (EB-PVD). The thermal cycling test at 1573 K in burner-rig with a coal gas flame indicates the thermal cycling life of DCL coating is not only much longer than that of LZ7C3 coating, but also approximately 27% longer than that of YSZ coating. The superior sintering-resistance of LZ7C3 coating and the unique growth modes of columns within DCL coating are all very helpful to the prolongation of thermal cycling life of DCL coating. The failure of DCL coating is mainly a result of the reduction-oxidation of cerium oxide, the re-crystallization of some LZ7C3 fine grains, the cracks initiation, propagation and extension, the abnormal oxidation of bond coat, the degradation of t Prime -phase in YSZ coating and the outward diffusion of Cr alloying element into LZ7C3 coating. Since no single material that has been studied so far satisfies all the requirements for high temperature applications, DCL coating is an important development direction of TBCs.

  6. Thermocyclic behaviour of microstructurally modified EB-PVD thermal barrier coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schulz, U.; Fritscher, K.; Raetzer-Scheibe, H.-J.; Kaysser, W.A.; Peters, M.

    1997-01-01

    This paper focuses on the combined effects of substrate temperature and rotation during electron-beam physical vapor deposition (EB-PVD) on the columnar microstructure of yttria partially stabilized zirconia (YPSZ) thermal barrier coatings. Diameter and degree of ordering of the columns and the density of the coatings are sensitive to the processing parameters. Results are discussed in the frame of common structural zone models for PVD processes. The models are extended to consider the rotational effect. EB-PVD YPSZ TBCs of different column diameters were deposited on top of an EB-PVD NiCoCrAlY bondcoat on IN 100 superalloy test bars. The performance of the TBCs was investigated in a cyclic oxidation furnace test rig between 1100 C and 130 C and in a burner rig under hot gas corrosion conditions at a maximum temperature of 900 C. Results showed a correlation between cyclic lifetime and the various microstructures of the TBCs. Samples having a non-regular arrangement of columns performed best in both tests. (orig.)

  7. Sintering and microstructure evolution of columnar nickel-based superalloy sheets prepared by EB-PVD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, S.; Qu, S.J.; Liang, J.; Han, J.C.

    2010-01-01

    Research highlights: → EB-PVD technology is commonly used to deposit thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) and columnar structure is commonly seen in EB-PVD condensates. The unique columnar structure can provide outstanding resistance against thermal shock and mechanical strains for TBCs. However, a number of researchers have found that the columnar structure can affect the mechanical properties of EB-PVD alloy thin sheet significantly. As yet, works on how to reduce this kind of effects are seldom done. In the present article, we tried to reveal the sintering effects on microstructure evolution and mechanical properties of columnar Ni-based superalloy sheet. The results suggests that after sintering, the columnar structure degrades. Degradation depends on sintering temperature and time. Both the ultimate tensile strength and the elongation percentage are effectively improved after sintering. - Abstract: A ∼0.15 mm-thick columnar nickel-based superalloy sheet was obtained by electron beam physical vapor deposition (EB-PVD). The as-deposited alloy sheet was sintered at different conditions. The microstructure of the specimens before and after sintering was characterized by using scanning electron microscopy. An X'Pert texture facility was used to determine the crystallographic orientation of the as-deposited alloy sheet. The phase transformation was investigated by X-ray diffraction. Tensile tests were conducted at room temperature on as-deposited and sintered specimens. The results show that the as-deposited sheet is composed of typical columnar structures. After sintering, however, the columnar structure degrades. The degradation depends on sintering temperature and time. Both the ultimate tensile strength and the elongation percentage are effectively improved after sintering.

  8. Characterization and evaluation of EB-PVD thermal barrier coatings by impedance spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang Chunxia; Liu Fushun; Gong Shengkai; Xu Huibin [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Beihang Univ., Beijing, BJ (China)

    2005-07-01

    Two layer thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) were prepared by EB-PVD (electron beam-physical vapor deposition) at different substrate temperatures in the range of 823 to 1123 K, and their microstructure was investigated with SEM and AC impedance as a function of substrate temperature and thermal cycling time. YSZ layer of all TBCs samples is in column structure, but the grain size and growth orientation are different with substrate. In this research, impedance spectra (IS) was measured as a function of thermal cycling between 1323 K and 298 K for these thermal barrier coatings. Grain boundary and bulk can be distinguished from analysis of AC impedance spectroa to provide information about the relation between microstructure and electric properties. The change in IS until failure was found to be related with the thickness, microcracks and macrocracks of TGO and the change in the interfacial of TGO/YSZ. (orig.)

  9. Advanced neutron and X-ray techniques for insights into the microstructure of EB-PVD thermal barrier coatings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kulkarni, Anand [State University of New York, Stony Brook, NY 11794 (United States); Goland, Allen [State University of New York, Stony Brook, NY 11794 (United States); Herman, Herbert [State University of New York, Stony Brook, NY 11794 (United States)]. E-mail: hherman@ms.cc.sunysb.edu; Allen, Andrew J. [National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD 20899 (United States); Dobbins, Tabbetha [National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD 20899 (United States); DeCarlo, Francesco [Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States); Ilavsky, Jan [Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States); Long, Gabrielle G. [Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States); Fang, Stacy [Chromalloy Gas Turbine Corporation, Orangeburg, NY 10962 (United States); Lawton, Paul [Chromalloy Gas Turbine Corporation, Orangeburg, NY 10962 (United States)

    2006-06-25

    The ongoing quest to increase gas turbine efficiency and performance (increased thrust) provides a driving force for materials development. While improved engine design and usage of novel materials provide solutions for increased engine operating temperatures, and hence fuel efficiency, reliability issues remain. Thermal barrier coatings (TBCs), deposited onto turbine components using the electron-beam physical vapor deposition (EB-PVD) process, exhibit unique pore architectures capable of bridging the technological gap between insulation/life extension and prime reliance. This article explores the potential of advanced X-ray and neutron techniques for comprehension of an EB-PVD TBC coating microstructure. While conventional microscopy reveals a hierarchy of voids, complementary advanced techniques allow quantification of these voids in terms of component porosities, anisotropy, size and gradient through the coating thickness. In addition, the derived microstructural parameters obtained both further knowledge of the nature and architecture of the porosity, and help establish its influence on the resultant thermal and mechanical properties.

  10. Relation of Thermal Conductivity with Process Induced Anisotropic Void Systems in EB-PVD PYSZ Thermal Barrier Coatings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Renteria, A. Flores; Saruhan-Brings, B.; Ilavsky, J.

    2008-03-03

    Thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) deposited by Electron-beam physical deposition (EB-PVD) protect the turbine blades situated at the high pressure sector of the aircraft and stationary turbines. It is an important task to uphold low thermal conductivity in TBCs during long-term service at elevated temperatures. One of the most promising methods to fulfil this task is to optimize the properties of PYSZ-based TBC by tailoring its microstructure. Thermal conductivity of the EB-PVD produced PYSZ TBCs is influenced mainly by the size, shape, orientation and volume of the various types of porosity present in the coatings. These pores can be classified as open (inter-columnar and between feather arms gaps) and closed (intra-columnar pores). Since such pores are located within the three-dimensionally deposited columns and enclose large differences in their sizes, shapes, distribution and anisotropy, the accessibility for their characterization is very complex and requires the use of sophisticated methods. In this work, three different EB-PVD TBC microstructures were manufactured by varying the process parameters, yielding various characteristics of their pores. The corresponding thermal conductivities in as-coated state and after ageing at 11000C/1h and 100h were measured via Laser Flash Analysis Method (LFA). The pore characteristics and their individual effect on the thermal conductivity are analysed by USAXS which is supported by subsequent modelling and LFA methods, respectively. Evident differences in the thermal conductivity values of each microstructure were found in as-coated and aged conditions. In summary, broader columns introduce higher values in thermal conductivity. In general, thermal conductivity increases after ageing for all three investigated microstructures, although those with initial smaller pore surface area show smaller changes.

  11. Relation of thermal conductivity with process induced anisotropic void system in EB-PVD PYSZ thermal barrier coatings.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Renteria, A. F.; Saruhan, B.; Ilavsky, J.; German Aerospace Center

    2007-01-01

    Thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) deposited by Electron-beam physical deposition (EB-PVD) protect the turbine blades situated at the high pressure sector of the aircraft and stationary turbines. It is an important task to uphold low thermal conductivity in TBCs during long-term service at elevated temperatures. One of the most promising methods to fulfil this task is to optimize the properties of PYSZ-based ,TBC by tailoring its microstructure. Thermal conductivity of the EB-PVD produced PYSZ TBCs is influenced mainly by the size, shape, orientation and volume of the various types of porosity present in the coatings. These pores can be classified as open (inter-columnar and between feather arms gaps) and closed (intra-columnar pores). Since such pores are located within the three-dimensionally deposited columns and enclose large differences in their sizes, shapes, distribution and anisotropy, the accessibility for their characterization is very complex and requires the use of sophisticated methods. In this work, three different EB-PVD TBC microstructures were manufactured by varying the process parameters, yielding various characteristics of their pores. The corresponding thermal conductivities in as-coated state and after ageing at 1100C/1h and 100h were measured via Laser Flash Analysis Method (LFA). The pore characteristics and their individual effect on the thermal conductivity are analysed by USAXS which is supported by subsequent modelling and LFA methods, respectively. Evident differences in the thermal conductivity values of each microstructure were found in as-coated and aged conditions. In summary, broader columns introduce higher values in thermal conductivity. In general, thermal conductivity increases after ageing for all three investigated microstructures, although those with initial smaller pore surface area show smaller changes.

  12. Adhesion and interface problems of EB-PVD thermal barrier coatings; Grenzschichtproblematik und Haftung von EB-PVD-Waermedaemmschichtsystemen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fritscher, K.; Leyens, C. [Deutsche Forschungsanstalt fuer Luft- und Raumfahrt e.V. (DLR), Koeln (Germany). Inst. fuer Werkstoff-Forschung

    1996-12-31

    Loss of adhesion in thermal insulation layers produced by EB-PVD may be caused by surface morphologies or oxide phases resulting from previous process stages, e.g. shot peening, or inappropriate annealing conditions. These undesirable oxide phases are mostly spinels and silicates which pose mechanical problems. Annealing and densification must be modified in order to promote the formation of {alpha}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} layers. It may also be possible to avoid certain categories of flaws by changing one material partner (e.g. by using {beta}-NiAl-free adhesive layers). [Deutsch] Die Ursachen der Einbussen der Haftung in WDS-Systemen aus EB-PVD-Fertigung liegen oft in der Ausbildung von Oberflaechenmorphologien oder von Oxidphasen begruendet, die aus den der WDS-Beschichtung vorangehenden Verfahrensschritten wie z.B. des Glasperlstrahlens und von unangemessenen Gluehbedingungen herruehren koennen. Bei diesen unerwuenschten Oxidphasen handelt es sich u.a. um Spinelle und Silikate, die in mechanischer Hinsicht problematisch sind. Glueh- und Verdichtungsroutinen sind entsprechend zu modifizieren, um die Bildung von {alpha}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}-Schichten zu foerdern. Moeglicherweise sind gewisse Fehlerkategorien bereits dadurch zu umgehen, dass ein Materialpartner geaendert wird (Beispiel: {beta}-NiAl-freie Haftschichten anwenden). (orig.)

  13. High temperature oxidation behavior of hafnium modified NiAl bond coat in EB-PVD thermal barrier coating system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo Hongbo; Sun Lidong; Li Hefei [Department of Material Science and Engineering, Beijing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, No.37 Xueyuan Road, Beijing 100083 (China); Gong Shengkai [Department of Material Science and Engineering, Beijing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, No.37 Xueyuan Road, Beijing 100083 (China)], E-mail: gongsk@buaa.edu.cn

    2008-06-30

    NiAl coatings doped with 0.5 at.% and 1.5 at.% Hf were produced by co-evaporation of NiAl and Hf ingots by electron beam physical vapor deposition (EB-PVD), respectively. The addition of 0.5 at.% Hf significantly improved the cyclic oxidation resistance of the NiAl coating. The TGO layer in the 1.5 at.% Hf doped NiAl coating is straight; while that in the 0.5 at.% Hf doped coating became undulated after thermal cycling. The doped NiAl thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) revealed improved thermal cycling lifetimes at 1423 K, compared to the undoped TBC. Failure of the 0.5 at.% Hf doped TBC occurred by cracking at the interface between YSZ topcoat and bond coat, while the 1.5 at.% Hf doped TBC cracked at the interface between bond coat and substrate.

  14. Nanograined Net-Shaped Fabrication of Rhenium Components by EB-PVD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Jogender; Wolfe, Douglas E.

    2004-01-01

    Cost-effective net-shaped forming components have brought considerable interest into DoD, NASA and DoE. Electron beam physical vapor deposition (EB-PVD) offers flexibility in forming net-shaped components with tailored microstructure and chemistry. High purity rhenium (Re) components including rhenium-coated graphite balls, Re- plates and tubes have been successfully manufactured by EB-PVD. EB-PVD Re components exhibited sub-micron and nano-sized grains with high hardness and strength as compared to CVD. It is estimated that the cost of Re components manufactured by EB-PVD would be less than the current CVD and powder-HIP Technologies

  15. Evolution of photo-stimulated luminescence of EB-PVD/(Ni, Pt)Al thermal barrier coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wen Mei; Jordan, Eric H.; Gell, Maurice

    2005-01-01

    Experiments are described which were designed to assess the suitability of photo-stimulated luminescence piezo-spectroscopy (PLPS) measurements as a basis for non-destructive inspection (NDI) and determination of life remaining of thermal barrier coatings (TBCs). Thermal cyclic tests were conducted on 7 wt.% Y 2 O 3 stabilized ZrO 2 (YSZ) electron beam physical vapor deposited (EB-PVD)/(Ni, Pt)Al/CMSX-4 TBCs at two temperatures 1151 and 1121 deg. C. The evolution of PLPS spectral characteristics (peak frequency shift, peak width and area ratio of peaks) was studied as a function of thermal cycles. It was observed that the average thermally grown oxide (TGO) stress and its standard deviation, and the area ratio of peaks show systematic change with thermal cycling, indicating that these characteristics can be used for NDI and determination of life remaining. The average TGO stress increases initially and then decreases monotonically with thermal cycling. The rate of change in the stress can be related to specimen life: the shallower the slope, the higher the life. The peak area ratio also decreases monotonically with cycling. The average TGO stress changes in a systematic manner versus remaining life fraction independent of temperature. Remaining life predictions were made based on average stress versus life fraction, which resulted in life assessments within ±13% of actual values excluding one specimen with abnormal behavior

  16. EB-PVD process management for highly productive zirconia thermal barrier coating of turbine blades

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reinhold, E.; Botzler, P.; Deus, C.

    1999-01-01

    Zirconia thermal barrier coatings are well used in the turbine manufacturing industry because they ensure extended lifetimes of turbine blades. Compared with other techniques, EB-PVD processes are best suited for the deposition on turbine blades with regard to the layer properties. Therefore EB-PVD coaters for turbine blades are becoming increasingly interesting. The coating costs per component are mainly dependent on a highly productive solution for the deposition task. Thus the EB-PVD process management has to be optimized in order to meet the productivity requirements of the manufacturers. This includes the requirement of high deposition rates, large deposition areas, long time stable production cycles as well as a matched duration of preheating, deposition and cooling down per charge. Modern EB-PVD solutions to be introduced allow deposition rates on blades up to 7 μm/min. The consequences for the technological process management and plant design concerning long time stable coating cycles with high productivity will be discussed. (orig.)

  17. Thermal cycling behaviour of lanthanum zirconate as EB-PVD thermal barrier coating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bobzin, K.; Lugscheider, E.; Bagcivan, N.

    2006-01-01

    Thermal cycling tests with two different EB-PVD thermal barrier coatings (TBC) were performed in a furnace cycle test. The results of these tests showed an increase of endurable cycle number when pyrochloric La 2 Zr 2 O 7 was used as TBC. 1865 cycles were reached with La 2 Zr 2 O 7 and 1380 cycles with 7 weigth-% yttria stabilised zirconia (YSZ) EB-PVD TBC. Additional investigation was made with scanning electron microscope (SEM) to investigate morphology and to determine chemical composition by electron dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDS) analysis. X-Ray diffraction was performed to analyze structural constitution of deposited coatings. (Abstract Copyright [2006], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  18. Microstructural, mechanical and oxidation features of NiCoCrAlY coating produced by plasma activated EB-PVD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He, Jian; Guo, Hongbo; Peng, Hui; Gong, Shengkai

    2013-01-01

    NiCoCrAlY coatings produced by electron beam-physical vapor deposition (EB-PVD) have been extensively used as the oxidation resistance coatings or suitable bond coats in thermal barrier coating (TBC) system. However, the inherent imperfections caused by EB-PVD process degrade the oxidation resistance of the coatings. In the present work, NiCoCrAlY coatings were creatively produced by plasma activated electron beam-physical vapor deposition (PA EB-PVD). The novel coatings showed a terraced substructure on the surface of each grain due to the increased energy of metal ions and enhanced mobility of adatoms. Also a strong (1 1 1) crystallographic texture of γ/γ′ grains was observed. The toughness of the coatings got remarkably improved compared with the coatings deposited by conventional EB-PVD and the oxidation behavior at 1373 K showed that the novel coatings had excellent oxidation resistance. The possible mechanism was finally discussed.

  19. Thermal Conductivity of EB-PVD Thermal Barrier Coatings Evaluated by a Steady-State Laser Heat Flux Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Dongming; Miller, Robert A.; Nagaraj, Ben A.; Bruce, Robert W.

    2000-01-01

    The thermal conductivity of electron beam-physical vapor deposited (EB-PVD) Zr02-8wt%Y2O3 thermal barrier coatings was determined by a steady-state heat flux laser technique. Thermal conductivity change kinetics of the EB-PVD ceramic coatings were also obtained in real time, at high temperatures, under the laser high heat flux, long term test conditions. The thermal conductivity increase due to micro-pore sintering and the decrease due to coating micro-delaminations in the EB-PVD coatings were evaluated for grooved and non-grooved EB-PVD coating systems under isothermal and thermal cycling conditions. The coating failure modes under the high heat flux test conditions were also investigated. The test technique provides a viable means for obtaining coating thermal conductivity data for use in design, development, and life prediction for engine applications.

  20. Structure and characteristics of EB-PVD thermal insulation layers; Struktur und Eigenschaften von EB-PVD-Waermedaemmschichten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schulz, U. [Deutsche Forschungsanstalt fuer Luft- und Raumfahrt e.V. (DLR), Koeln (Germany). Inst. fuer Werkstoff-Forschung

    1996-12-31

    Thermal insulation layers for guide blades and rotor blades in the first two stages of a high-pressure turbines are produced by electron-beam physical vapour deposition for maximum quality. The layers have a lifetime that is longer by a factor of 2 to 10 than for plasma-sprayed layers. The following characteristics of the ceramic layer have a decisive influence on the life of the composite system: Phase composition, distribution and stability, microstructure, density, thickness, crack distribution and cohesive strength. Some selected aspects of the interdependence between production parameters, microstructure of the thermal insulation layer and service life are gone into. [Deutsch] Zur Herstellung von Waermedaemmschichten (WDS) fuer Turbinenleit- und Laufschaufeln der ersten beiden Stufen in der Hochdruckturbine wird fuer hoechste Ansprueche an die Schichtqualitaet das EB-PDV-Verfahren (electron-beam physical vapour deposition) eingesetzt. Die Lebensdauer dieser Schichten ist um den Faktor 2 bis 10 besser als beim Plasmaspritzen. Bei der keramischen Waermedaemmschicht selbst beeinflussen folgende Eigenschaften die Lebensdauer des Gesamtschichtsystems nachhaltig: Phasenzusammensetzung, -verteilung und -stabilitaet, Mikrogefuege, Dichte, Dicke, Rissverteilung und kohaesive Festigkeit. Auf einige ausgewaehlt Aspekte des Zusammenhangs zwischen Herstellungsparametern, Mikrostruktur der Waermedaemmschicht und Lebensdauer wird kurz eingegangen. (orig.)

  1. NiCoCrAl/YSZ laminate composites fabricated by EB-PVD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi Guodong; Wang Zhi; Liang Jun; Wu Zhanjun

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → The metal-ceramic laminate composites were fabricated by EB-PVD. → Both metal and ceramic layers consisted of straight columns with banded structures. → Columnar grain size was limited by the periodic layer interfaces in the laminates. → Effect of columns on fracture property was decreased by limiting layer thickness. → Laminates showed greater specific strength than monolithic metal foil. - Abstract: Two NiCoCrAl/YSZ laminate composites (A and B) with different metal-layer thickness (∼35 μm and 14 μm, respectively) were fabricated by electron beam physical vapor deposition (EB-PVD). Their microstructure was examined and their mechanical properties were compared with the 289 μm thick NiCoCrAl monolithic foil produced by EB-PVD. Both the YSZ and NiCoCrAl layers of the laminate composites had columnar grain structure. But the periodic layer interfaces limited the columnar grain size. Some pores between the columns were also observed. It was found that the strength of the laminate A was equal approximately to that of the NiCoCrAl monolithic foil, and that laminate B had the greater strength. Moreover, the density of the foils decreased with the increasing thickness ratio of YSZ/NiCoCrAl layers and the increasing the layer number. Thus, comparing with the NiCoCrAl monolithic foil, the NiCoCrAl/YSZ laminate composites not only had the equal or greater strength, but also had the much greater specific strength.

  2. Mechanical properties of EB-PVD ZrO{sub 2} thermal barrier coatings; Mechanische Eigenschaften von EB-PVD ZrO{sub 2} Waermedaemmschichten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Held, Carolin

    2014-08-29

    In this work, the elastic properties of thermal barrier coatings which were produced by electron-beam enhanced physical vapour deposition were investigated, as well as the dependency of the properties on the sample microstructure, the thermal treatment and the test method. For this purpose, not only commercial coatings were characterized, but also special sample material was used which consists of a 1 mm thick layer of EB-PVD TBC. This material was isothermally heat treated for different times at 950 C, 1100 C and 1200 C and then tested in a specially developed miniaturized bend test and by dynamic mechanical analysis. The sample material was tested by nanoindentation in order to measure the Young's modulus on a local scale, and the porosity of the samples was determined by microstructure analysis and porosimetry. The decrease of porosity could be connected with sintering and subsequent stiffening of the material. The test results are dependent on the tested volume. A small test volume leads to larger measured Young's moduli, while a large test volume yields lower values. The test volume also has an influence on the increase of stiffness during thermal exposure. With a small tested volume, a quicker increase of the Young's modulus was registered, which could be associated to the sintering of local structures.

  3. Mechanical properties of EB-PVD ZrO{sub 2} thermal barrier coatings; Mechanische Eigenschaften von EB-PVD ZrO{sub 2} Waermedaemmschichten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Held, Carolin

    2014-08-29

    In this work, the elastic properties of thermal barrier coatings which were produced by electron-beam enhanced physical vapour deposition were investigated, as well as the dependency of the properties on the sample microstructure, the thermal treatment and the test method. For this purpose, not only commercial coatings were characterized, but also special sample material was used which consists of a 1 mm thick layer of EB-PVD TBC. This material was isothermally heat treated for different times at 950 C, 1100 C and 1200 C and then tested in a specially developed miniaturized bend test and by dynamic mechanical analysis. The sample material was tested by nanoindentation in order to measure the Young's modulus on a local scale, and the porosity of the samples was determined by microstructure analysis and porosimetry. The decrease of porosity could be connected with sintering and subsequent stiffening of the material. The test results are dependent on the tested volume. A small test volume leads to larger measured Young's moduli, while a large test volume yields lower values. The test volume also has an influence on the increase of stiffness during thermal exposure. With a small tested volume, a quicker increase of the Young's modulus was registered, which could be associated to the sintering of local structures.

  4. Failure characteristics and mechanisms of EB-PVD TBCs with Pt-modified NiAl bond coats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Le; Mukherjee, Sriparna; Huang, Ke; Park, Young Whan; Sohn, Yongho, E-mail: Yongho.Sohn@ucf.edu

    2015-06-18

    Microstructural evolution and failure characteristics/mechanisms were investigated for thermal barrier coatings that consist of electron beam physical vapor deposited ZrO{sub 2}−8 wt% Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} (YSZ) topcoat, Pt-modified nickel aluminide, (Ni,Pt)Al bond coat, and CMSX-4 superalloy substrate with furnace cycling at 1100 °C with 1-h dwell. Photo stimulated luminescence spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy equipped with X-ray energy dispersive spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy were employed to examine the residual stress of the thermally grown oxide (TGO) and microstructural changes. For comparison, (Ni,Pt)Al bond coat on CMSX-4 without the YSZ topcoat was also characterized. The TGO grew faster for the YSZ-coated (Ni,Pt)Al bond coat than the (Ni,Pt)Al coating without the YSZ topcoat. Correspondingly, the β-to-γ′/martensite formation in the (Ni,Pt)Al bond coat occurred faster on the YSZ-coated (Ni,Pt)Al bond coat. However the rumpling occurred much faster and with larger amplitude on the (Ni,Pt)Al coating without the YSZ topcoat. Still, the rumpling at the TGO/bond coat interface caused crack initiation as early as 10 thermal cycles, decohesion at the YSZ/TGO interface, and eventual spallation failure primarily through the TGO/bond coat interface. The magnitude of compressive residual stress in the TGO showed an initial increase up to 3−4 GPa followed by a gradual decrease. The rate of stress relaxation was much quicker for the TGO scale without the YSZ topcoat with distinctive relief corresponding to the cracking at the top of geometrical ridges associated with the (Ni,Pt)Al bond coat. The maximum elastic energy for the TGO scale was estimated at 90 J/m{sup 2} at 50% of its lifetime (N{sub f}=545 cycles). The YSZ presence/adhesion to the TGO scale is emphasized to minimize the undulation of the TGO/bond coat interface, i.e., decohesion at the YSZ/TGO scale accelerates the rumpling and crack-coalescence at the TGO/bond coat interface where the spallation fracture occurs.

  5. Multilayer stacks obtained by ion assisted EB PVD aimed at thermal barrier coating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roos, E.; Maile, K.; Lyutovich, A. [Stuttgart Univ. (DE). Materialpruefungsanstalt (MPA)

    2010-07-01

    Thermal Barrier Coating (TBC) using Electron Beam Physical Vapour Deposition (EB PVD) is widely implemented, especially for aero-engine turbine blades. Generally, multilayer stacks are used for these aims. For the additional improvement of intermediate layers with graded transitions to the initial Ni-based alloy, the use of accelerated ions in the EBPVD-process is advantageous. The effect of the substrate bias potential, ion current density and deposition temperature on the structure and properties of Ti and Zr intermediate layers are investigated. The morphology of the films is studied using optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). It is found that the surface morphology becomes smoother with rising bias potential and decreasing ion current density. Measurements of Vicker's micro-hardness performed on these coatings have shown its increase with higher values of the bias and its reduction with the growing temperature. This effect is caused by the observed decrease in grain size and higher porosity of the films. A multilayer coating system Ni (based substrate)-Si-Si{sub x}Al{sub y}-Al with graded transitions between the layers is obtained using ion assisted EBPVD. Architecture of a multilayer stack for TBC with graded transitions is proposed. (orig.)

  6. Mechanical properties of EB-PVD ZrO2 thermal barrier coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Held, Carolin

    2014-01-01

    In this work, the elastic properties of thermal barrier coatings which were produced by electron-beam enhanced physical vapour deposition were investigated, as well as the dependency of the properties on the sample microstructure, the thermal treatment and the test method. For this purpose, not only commercial coatings were characterized, but also special sample material was used which consists of a 1 mm thick layer of EB-PVD TBC. This material was isothermally heat treated for different times at 950 C, 1100 C and 1200 C and then tested in a specially developed miniaturized bend test and by dynamic mechanical analysis. The sample material was tested by nanoindentation in order to measure the Young's modulus on a local scale, and the porosity of the samples was determined by microstructure analysis and porosimetry. The decrease of porosity could be connected with sintering and subsequent stiffening of the material. The test results are dependent on the tested volume. A small test volume leads to larger measured Young's moduli, while a large test volume yields lower values. The test volume also has an influence on the increase of stiffness during thermal exposure. With a small tested volume, a quicker increase of the Young's modulus was registered, which could be associated to the sintering of local structures.

  7. Effect of Hf Additions to Pt Aluminide Bond Coats on EB-PVD TBC Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nesbitt, James; Nagaraj, Ben; Williams, Jeffrey

    2000-01-01

    Small Hf additions were incorporated into a Pt aluminide coating during chemical vapor deposition (CVD) on single crystal RENE N5 substrates. Standard yttria-stabilized zirconia top coats were subsequently deposited onto the coated substrates by electron beam-physical vapor deposition (EB-PVD). The coated substrates underwent accelerated thermal cycle testing in a furnace at a temperature in excess of 1121 C (2050 F) (45 minute hot exposure, 15 minute cool to approximately 121 C (250 F)) until the thermal barrier coating (TBC) failed by spallation. Incorporating Hf in the bond coat increased the TBC life by slightly more than three times that of a baseline coating without added Hf. Scanning electron microscopy of the spalled surfaces indicated that the presence of the Hf increased the adherence of the thermally grown alumina to the Pt aluminide bond coat. The presence of oxide pegs growing into the coating from the thermally grown alumina may also partially account for the improved TBC life by creating a near-surface layer with a graded coefficient of thermal expansion.

  8. Anisotropic TGO rumpling in EB-PVD thermal barrier coatings under in-phase thermomechanical loading

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balint, D.S., E-mail: d.balint@imperial.ac.uk [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Imperial College London, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Kim, S.-S.; Liu Yufu; Kitazawa, R.; Kagawa, Y. [Research Center for Advanced Science and Technology, University of Tokyo, 4-6-1 Komaba, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 153-8409 (Japan); Evans, A.G. [College of Engineering, University of California, Santa Barbara, CA 93106 (United States)

    2011-04-15

    An electron beam physical vapor deposited (EB-PVD) Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}-ZrO{sub 2} thermal barrier system has been tested under in-phase thermomechanical fatigue (TMF) conditions with thermal gradient in the through-thickness direction. Undulations in the thermally grown oxide (TGO) were observed to have clear anisotropic behavior with respect to the directions parallel and perpendicular to the loading axis. It was found that undulation wavelengths were nearly the same in both directions but the amplitude in the perpendicular direction was much larger than in the parallel direction. A recent model of TGO rumpling was adapted and used to analyze and explain the origins of the observed rumpling behavior under TMF conditions. Methods for deducing variation in the coefficient of thermal expansion with temperature and in the creep properties of the substrate from the experimental strain data are also presented in the course of the derivations. Model results show that tensile stress applied in the loading direction can overcome the compression occurring from lateral expansion during oxide formation, causing undulations to flatten; undulations perpendicular to the loading axis are unaffected. However, ratcheting in the strain cycle experienced by the substrate, which occurs naturally by substrate creep, is necessary for anisotropic rumpling under cyclic stress conditions. Model predictions for constant applied stress are also presented, demonstrating a reversal in the direction of undulation alignment under compression. A threshold stress is identified, in both tension and compression, sufficient to produce appreciable anisotropic rumpling. The model predictions provide a clear mechanism for the anisotropy and further evidence that the lateral expansion strain in the oxide is the driving force for oxide rumpling.

  9. Anisotropic TGO rumpling in EB-PVD thermal barrier coatings under in-phase thermomechanical loading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balint, D.S.; Kim, S.-S.; Liu Yufu; Kitazawa, R.; Kagawa, Y.; Evans, A.G.

    2011-01-01

    An electron beam physical vapor deposited (EB-PVD) Y 2 O 3 -ZrO 2 thermal barrier system has been tested under in-phase thermomechanical fatigue (TMF) conditions with thermal gradient in the through-thickness direction. Undulations in the thermally grown oxide (TGO) were observed to have clear anisotropic behavior with respect to the directions parallel and perpendicular to the loading axis. It was found that undulation wavelengths were nearly the same in both directions but the amplitude in the perpendicular direction was much larger than in the parallel direction. A recent model of TGO rumpling was adapted and used to analyze and explain the origins of the observed rumpling behavior under TMF conditions. Methods for deducing variation in the coefficient of thermal expansion with temperature and in the creep properties of the substrate from the experimental strain data are also presented in the course of the derivations. Model results show that tensile stress applied in the loading direction can overcome the compression occurring from lateral expansion during oxide formation, causing undulations to flatten; undulations perpendicular to the loading axis are unaffected. However, ratcheting in the strain cycle experienced by the substrate, which occurs naturally by substrate creep, is necessary for anisotropic rumpling under cyclic stress conditions. Model predictions for constant applied stress are also presented, demonstrating a reversal in the direction of undulation alignment under compression. A threshold stress is identified, in both tension and compression, sufficient to produce appreciable anisotropic rumpling. The model predictions provide a clear mechanism for the anisotropy and further evidence that the lateral expansion strain in the oxide is the driving force for oxide rumpling.

  10. Lifetime-determining spalling mechanisms of NiCoCrAlRe/EB-PVD zirconia TBC systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fritscher, K.; Schulz, U. [DLR - German Aerospace Center, Institute of Materials Research, 51170 Cologne (Germany); Leyens, C. [Technical University of Brandenburg (BTU) Cottbus, Chair of Physical Metallurgy and Materials Technology, 03046 Cottbus (Germany)

    2007-09-15

    The mechanisms that control the lifetime of thermal barrier coating (TBC) systems have been traced by two particular overlay bondcoats serving as model systems: superalloy pins (IN100, CMSX-4) with two alternative NiCoCrAlRE (RE: Hf, Y) bond coat compositions (i) NiCoCrAlY without and (ii) with co-dopants of silicon and hafnium. On top an electron-beam physical-vapor deposited (EB-PVD) yttria partially stabilized zirconia (YPSZ) TBC commonly mixed with 2 wt.% hafnia, or, rarely with 10 wt.%, was applied. The test pins were thermo-cycled at 1100 and 1150 C until failure. Identical lifetimes in cyclic tests on YPSZ TBCs with 2 (relatively high sintering rate) and 10 wt.% hafnia (relatively low sintering rate) preclude an effect of diffusion mechanisms of the YPSZ TBC on lifetime. The fit of lifetimes and test temperatures to Arrhenius-type relationships gives activation energies for failure. These energies agree with the activation energies for anion and cation diffusion in alumina for the respective bondcoat variant: (i) for the NiCoCrAlY/TBC system for O{sup 2-} diffusion in alumina, (ii) for the NiCoCrAlYSiHf/TBC system for Al{sup 3+} diffusion in alumina. SEM and EDS investigations of the thermally grown oxides (TGOs) confirm the mechanisms responsible for TBC failure as indicated by activation energies. Two categories of failure can be distinguished: (i) NiCoCrAlY coatings fail by an ''adhesive mode of failure'' along smooth bond coat/TGO interfaces driven by a critical TGO thickness. (ii) NiCoCrAlYSiHf coatings fail later and more reluctantly by a ''cohesive'' crack mode via de-cohesion at the TGO/TBC interface. In the latter case a quasi-integrity of the crack-affected TGO is lengthily maintained up to failure by a crack-pinning mechanism which runs via Al{sup 3+} supply from the bondcoat. (Abstract Copyright [2007], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.) [German] Die Mechanismen, welche die Lebensdauer von Waermedaemmschichtsystemen

  11. Microstructure evolution during annealing of TiAl/NiCoCrAl multilayer composite prepared by EB-PVD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Rubing, E-mail: zrb86411680@126.com [Department of Mechanics, School of Civil Engineering, Beijing Jiaotong University, Beijing 100044 (China); Zhang, Deming [Beijing General Research Institute of Mining and Metallurgy, Beijing 100044 (China); Chen, Guiqing [Center for Composite Materials, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China); Wang, Yuesheng [Department of Mechanics, School of Civil Engineering, Beijing Jiaotong University, Beijing 100044 (China)

    2014-07-01

    TiAl/NiCoCrAl laminate composite sheet with a thickness of 0.4–0.6 mm as well as a dimension of 150 mm × 100 mm was fabricated successfully by using electron beam physical vapor deposition (EB-PVD) method. The annealing treatment was processed at 1123 and 1323 K for 3 h in a high vacuum atmosphere, respectively. The phase composition and microstructure of TiAl/NiCoCrAl microlaminated sheet have been analyzed by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Based on the sheet characterization and results of the microstructure evolution during annealing treatment process, the diffusion mechanism of interfacial reaction in TiAl/NiCoCrAl microlaminate was investigated and discussed.

  12. Thermal cycling behavior of La{sub 2}Zr{sub 2}O{sub 7} coating with the addition of Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} by EB-PVD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu Zhenhua [State Key Laboratory of Rare Earth Resources Utilization, Changchun Institute of Applied Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changchun 130022 (China); Graduate School of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100039 (China); Beijing Institute of Aeronautical Materials, Department 5, P.O. Box 81-5, Beijing 100095 (China); He Limin, E-mail: he_limin@yahoo.co [Beijing Institute of Aeronautical Materials, Department 5, P.O. Box 81-5, Beijing 100095 (China); Chen Xiaolong; Zhao Yu [State Key Laboratory of Rare Earth Resources Utilization, Changchun Institute of Applied Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changchun 130022 (China); Mu Rende; He Shimei [Beijing Institute of Aeronautical Materials, Department 5, P.O. Box 81-5, Beijing 100095 (China); Cao Xueqiang, E-mail: xcao@ciac.jl.c [State Key Laboratory of Rare Earth Resources Utilization, Changchun Institute of Applied Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changchun 130022 (China)

    2010-10-15

    Thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) of La{sub 2}Zr{sub 2}O{sub 7} (LZ) with the addition of 3 wt.% Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} (LZ3Y) were deposited by electron beam-physical vapor deposition (EB-PVD). The phase structures, surface and cross-sectional morphologies, cyclic oxidation behaviors of these coatings were studied in detail. The thermal cycling test at 1373 K in an air furnace indicates that the LZ3Y coating has a lifetime of 617 cycles which is about 10% longer than that of LZ coating. The improvement of chemical homogeneity of the coating, the superior growth behavior of columns and the favorable mechanical properties are all very helpful to the prolongation of thermal cycling life of LZ3Y coating. The failure of LZ and LZ3Y coatings is mainly a result of the excess La{sub 2}O{sub 3}, the chemical incompatibility of ceramic coatings with TGO layer, the thermal expansion mismatch between ceramic coatings and bond coat, and the outward diffusion of alloying elements into the ceramic coatings.

  13. Effect of grit blasting on the thermal cycling behavior of diffusion aluminide/YSZ TBCs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Zhenhua, E-mail: zhxuciac@163.com; Huang, Guanghong; He, Limin; Mu, Rende; Wang, Kai; Dai, Jianwei

    2014-02-15

    Highlights: • TBCs including of CVD NiAl bond coat and EB-PVD YSZ ceramic coating with and without grit blasting process. • Grain boundary ridges are the sites for spallation damage initiation in aluminide/YSZ TBCs. • Ridges are removed, and no cavity formation and this damage initiation mode are suppressed. • Damage initiation and progression occurs at the bond coat to TGO interface leading to a buckling failure behavior. -- Abstract: Thermal barrier coating system (TBCs) including of chemical vapor deposited NiAl bond coat and electron beam physical vapor deposited Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}–stabilized-ZrO{sub 2} (YSZ) ceramic coating with and without grit blasting process were investigated. The phase structures, surface and cross-sectional morphologies, cyclic oxidation behaviors of these coatings were studied in detail. Grain boundary ridges form on the surface of aluminide bond coat prior to the deposition of the ceramic coating by EB-PVD, which are shown to be the sites for spallation damage initiation in aluminide/YSZ TBCs. When these ridges are removed, there is no cavity formation and this damage initiation mode is suppressed. Damage initiation and progression occurs at the bond coat to TGO interface leading to a buckling failure behavior. A buckle failure once started may be arrested when it runs into a region of high bond coat to TGO interface toughness. Thus, complete failure requires further loss in toughness of the bond coat to TGO interface with additional cycling. From the result of thermal cycling, an averaged four folds lifetime improvement can be achieved with samples after grit blasting of bond coat surface as compared with those samples existence in ridges on the bond coats’ surface.

  14. The Study of Selected Properties of Ti EB PVD Coating Deposited Onto Inner Tube Surface at Low Temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kottfer D.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the selected properties of the thin Ti coating applied by activated evaporation EB PVD technique. This technique was used for the deposition of Ti thin coating onto inner surface of OKhN3 MFA steel tubes. Deposition process was carried out at temperature 200°C. Conventional type of coatings - monolayer Ti - was analyzed by standard techniques for surface status and quality assessment - coating thickness, chemical composition by EDX analysis, adhesion, hardness, roughness, and growth direction of columns at room temperature. Ti monolayer achieved roughness Ra equal from 0.42 μm to 0.47 μm. The resulting hardness was from 2 GPa to 8.5 GPa depending on the sample location inside the vacuum chamber. Placing of the coated surface also affected the direction of grain growth of Ti coating columns. The angles α of grain growth were found to be from 40° to 60°. Angle α increased two to three times more than the incidence angle β (from 12° to 28° of evaporated Ti particles. Values of the adhesion measured along the Ti growth direction were mostly higher (up to 10% or the same as those measured perpendicular to it.

  15. Comparison of effective relative dielectric permittivities obtained by three independent ways for CeO2-Sm2O3 films prepared by EB-PVD (+IBAD) techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kundracik, F.; Neilinger, P.; Hartmanova, M.; Nadazdy, V.; Mansilla, C.

    2011-01-01

    Ceria, as material with relatively high dielectric permittivity, ε r , and ability to form films on the Si substrate, is a candidate for the gate dielectrics in the MOS devices. Doping with suitable e.g. trivalent rare earth oxides and suitable treatment after deposition (preparation) can improve their properties, e.g. ionic conductivity, dielectric permittivity and mechanical hardness. In this work, the dielectric properties of CeO 2 + Sm 2 O 3 films prepared by electron beam physical vapour deposition (EB-PVD) and some of them simultaneously also by the Ar + ionic beam assisted deposition (IBAD) techniques are analysed. (authors)

  16. Improved mechanical properties of Ni-rich Ni3Al coatings produced by EB-PVD for repairing single crystal blades

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jing-Yong Sun; Yan-Ling Pei; Shu-Suo Li; Hu Zhang; Sheng-Kai Gong

    2017-01-01

    Active control of turbine blade tip clearance for aircraft engine continues to be a concern in engine operation,because turbine blades are subjected to wear and therefore cause an increasing tip clearance between the rotating blades and the shroud and also reduce the engine efficiency.In this work,a Ni-rich Ni3Al coating with γ'/γtwo-phase microstructure was deposited by electron beam physical vapor deposition (EB-PVD),which worked as repairing the worn blade tips of single crystal blades.Nb molten pool was used to increase the molten pool temperature and thus to enhance the deposition rate.The microstructures and mechanical properties can be modified by the deposition temperatures and the following heat treatments.All coatings consist of γ'and γ phases.At deposition temperature of 600 ℃,a dense microstructure can be achieved to produce a coating with grain size of ~ 1 μm and microhardness of ~HV 477.After being heated for 4 h at a temperature of 1,100 ℃,the coatings have a more uniform microstructure,and microhardness maintains at a high level of ~ HV 292.Effect of Hf and Zr on EB-PVD Ni3Al repair coating will be further investigated.

  17. Surface characteristics of hydroxyapatite-coated layer prepared on nanotubular Ti–35Ta–xHf alloys by EB-PVD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Yong-Hoon [Department of Dental Materials and Research Center of Nano-Interface Activation for Biomaterials, School of Dentistry, Chosun University, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of); Biomechanics and Tissue Engineering Laboratory, Division of Orthodontics, College of Dentistry, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH (United States); Moon, Byung-Hak [Department of Dental Materials and Research Center of Nano-Interface Activation for Biomaterials, School of Dentistry, Chosun University, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of); Choe, Han-Cheol, E-mail: hcchoe@chosun.ac.kr [Department of Dental Materials and Research Center of Nano-Interface Activation for Biomaterials, School of Dentistry, Chosun University, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of); Brantley, William A. [Division of Restorative, Prosthetic and Primary Care Dentistry, College of Dentistry, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH (United States)

    2013-12-31

    In this study, we investigated the surface characteristics of hydroxyapatite (HA)-coated layers prepared by electron-beam physical vapor deposition (EB-PVD) on nanotubular Ti–35Ta–xHf alloys (x = 3, 7, and 15 wt.%). Ti–35Ta–xHf alloys were first prepared by arc melting. Formation of a nanotube structure on these alloys was achieved by an electrochemical method in 1 M H{sub 3}PO{sub 4} + 0.8 wt.% NaF electrolytes. The HA coatings were then deposited on the nanotubular surface by an EB-PVD method. The surface characteristics were analyzed by field-emission scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The electrochemical behavior was examined using a potentiodynamic polarization test in 0.9% NaCl solution. The Ti–35Ta–xHf alloys had an equiaxed grain structure with α″ + β phases, and the α″ phase disappeared with increases in Hf content. The Ti–35Ta–15Hf alloy showed higher β-phase peak intensity in the XRD patterns than that for the lower Hf-content alloys. A highly ordered nanotubular oxide layer was formed on the Ti–35Ta–15Hf alloy, and the tube length depended on Hf content. The HA coating surface formed at traces of the nanotubular titanium oxide layer and completely covered the tips of the nanotubes with a cluster shape. From the potentiodynamic polarization tests, the incorporation of Hf element and formation of the nanotubular structure were the main factors for achieving lower current density. In particular, the surface of the HA coating on the nanotubular structure exhibited higher corrosion resistance than that of the nanotubular titanium oxide structure without an HA coating. - Highlights: • Hydroxyapatite (HA) was coated on nanotubular Ti–35Ta–xHf alloys, using EB-PVD. • Increasing the Hf content reduced the relative proportion of α″ martensite to β-Ti in the microstructures. • The detailed nanotubular structure formed by anodization depended on alloy composition

  18. Surface characteristics of hydroxyapatite-coated layer prepared on nanotubular Ti–35Ta–xHf alloys by EB-PVD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong, Yong-Hoon; Moon, Byung-Hak; Choe, Han-Cheol; Brantley, William A.

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we investigated the surface characteristics of hydroxyapatite (HA)-coated layers prepared by electron-beam physical vapor deposition (EB-PVD) on nanotubular Ti–35Ta–xHf alloys (x = 3, 7, and 15 wt.%). Ti–35Ta–xHf alloys were first prepared by arc melting. Formation of a nanotube structure on these alloys was achieved by an electrochemical method in 1 M H 3 PO 4 + 0.8 wt.% NaF electrolytes. The HA coatings were then deposited on the nanotubular surface by an EB-PVD method. The surface characteristics were analyzed by field-emission scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The electrochemical behavior was examined using a potentiodynamic polarization test in 0.9% NaCl solution. The Ti–35Ta–xHf alloys had an equiaxed grain structure with α″ + β phases, and the α″ phase disappeared with increases in Hf content. The Ti–35Ta–15Hf alloy showed higher β-phase peak intensity in the XRD patterns than that for the lower Hf-content alloys. A highly ordered nanotubular oxide layer was formed on the Ti–35Ta–15Hf alloy, and the tube length depended on Hf content. The HA coating surface formed at traces of the nanotubular titanium oxide layer and completely covered the tips of the nanotubes with a cluster shape. From the potentiodynamic polarization tests, the incorporation of Hf element and formation of the nanotubular structure were the main factors for achieving lower current density. In particular, the surface of the HA coating on the nanotubular structure exhibited higher corrosion resistance than that of the nanotubular titanium oxide structure without an HA coating. - Highlights: • Hydroxyapatite (HA) was coated on nanotubular Ti–35Ta–xHf alloys, using EB-PVD. • Increasing the Hf content reduced the relative proportion of α″ martensite to β-Ti in the microstructures. • The detailed nanotubular structure formed by anodization depended on alloy composition. • The

  19. Improvement in ductility of high strength polycrystalline Ni-rich Ni{sub 3}Al alloy produced by EB-PVD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, J.Y.; Pei, Y.L.; Li, S.S.; Zhang, H.; Gong, S.K., E-mail: gongsk@buaa.edu.cn

    2014-11-25

    Highlights: • High strength and high ductility of polycrystalline Ni-rich Ni{sub 3}Al alloy sheets were produced. • The elongation could be enhanced from ∼0.5% to ∼14.6% by microstructural control. • The fracture strength (∼820 MPa) was enhanced by the precipitation strengthening. • This work provides a general processing for repairing the worn single crystal blades. - Abstract: A 300 μm Ni-rich Ni{sub 3}Al sheet was produced by electron beam physical vapor deposition (EB-PVD) and followed by different heat treatments to obtain fine γ′/γ two-phase structures with large elongation. Tensile testing was performed at room-temperature, and the corresponding mechanisms were investigated in detail. Results indicated that the as-deposited Ni{sub 3}Al alloy exhibited non-equilibrium directional columnar crystal, and transited to equiaxed crystal with uniformly distributed tough γ phase after heat treatment. Meanwhile, the fracture mechanism transited from brittleness to a mixture of ductility and brittleness modes. With an appropriate heat treatment, high strength (ultimate tensile strength obtained 828 MPa) and high ductility (elongation obtained 14.6%) Ni{sub 3}Al alloy has been achieved, which was due to the mesh network microstructure. A series of transmission electron microscope (TEM) characterizations confirmed that the increasing flow stress of Ni{sub 3}Al alloy was attributed to the cubical secondary γ′ phase precipitates (25–50 nm) within the γ phase. This work provides a potential strategy for repairing the worn tip of single crystal engine blades using Ni-rich Ni{sub 3}Al alloy by EB-PVD.

  20. Effect of La2O3 addition on interface chemistry between 4YSZ top layer and Ni based alloy bond coat in thermal barrier coating by EB PVD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Chan-Young; Yang, Young-Hwan; Kim, Seong-Won; Lee, Sung-Min; Kim, Hyung-Tae; Jang, Byung-Koog; Lim, Dae-Soon; Oh, Yoon-Suk

    2014-11-01

    The effect of a 5 mol% La2O3 addition on the forming behavior and compositional variation at interface between a 4 mol% Yttria (Y2O3) stabilized ZrO2 (4YSZ) top coat and bond coat (NiCrAlY) as a thermal barrier coating (TBC) has been investigated. Top coats were deposited by electron beam physical vapor deposition (EB PVD) onto a super alloy (Ni-Cr-Co-Al) substrate without pre-oxidation of the bond coat. Top coats are found to consist of dense columnar grains with a thin interdiffusion layer between metallic bond coats. In the as-received 4YSZ coating, a thin interdiffusion zone at the interface between the top and bond coats was found to consist of a Ni-Zr intermetallic compound with a reduced quantity of Y, Al or O elements. On the other hand, in the case of an interdiffusion area of 5 mol% La2O3-added 4YSZ coating, it was found that the complicated composition and structure with La-added YSZ and Ni-Al rich compounds separately. The thermal conductivity of 5 mol% La2O3-added 4YSZ coating (- 1.6 W/m x k at 1100 degrees C) was lower than a 4YSZ coating (- 3.2 W/m x k at 1100 degrees C) alone.

  1. Effect of a ductility layer on the tensile strength of TiAl-based multilayer composite sheets prepared by EB-PVD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Rubing, E-mail: zrb86411680@126.com [Department of Mechanics, School of Civil Engineering, Beijing Jiaotong University, Beijing 100044 (China); Zhang, Yaoyao [Department of Mechanics, School of Civil Engineering, Beijing Jiaotong University, Beijing 100044 (China); Liu, Qiang [Beijing Institute of Astronautical Systems Engineering, Beijing 100076 (China); Chen, Guiqing [Center for Composite Materials, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China); Zhang, Deming [Beijing General Research Institute of Mining and Metallurgy, Beijing 100044 (China)

    2014-09-15

    TiAl/Nb and TiAl/NiCoCrAl laminate composite sheets with a thickness of 0.4–0.6 mm and dimensions of 150 mm × 100 mm were successfully fabricated by electron beam physical vapor deposition. The microstructures of the sheets were examined, and their mechanical properties were compared with those of TiAl monolithic sheet produced by electron beam physical vapor deposition. Tensile testing was performed at room temperature and 750 °C, and the fracture surfaces were examined by scanning electron microscopy. Among the three microlaminate sheets, the TiAl/NiCoCrAl micro-laminate sheet had the best comprehensive properties at room temperature, and the TiAl/Nb micro-laminate sheet showed the ideal high-temperature strength and plasticity at 750 °C. The result was discussed in terms of metal strengthening mechanism. - Highlights: • TiAl-based multilayer foils was fabricated successfully by using EB-PVD method; • The tensile properties and micro-fracture morphologies of the sheet were investigated; • The deformation behavior of the multilayer foils was discussed.

  2. High speed PVD thermal barrier coatings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beele, W. [Sulzer Metco Coatings BV (Netherlands); Eschendorff, G. [Sulzer Metco Coatings BV (Netherlands); Eldim BV (Netherlands)

    2006-07-15

    The high speed PVD process (HS-PVD) combines gas phase coating synthesis with high deposition rates. The process has been demonstrated for high purity YSZ deposited as a chemically bonded top thermal barrier with columnar structure of EB-PVD features. The process can manufacture EB-PVD like coatings that match in regards to their TGO-formation and columnar structure. Coatings with a columnar structure formed by individual columns of 1/4 of the diameter of a classical EB-PVD type TBC have been deposited. These coatings have the potential to prove a significant reduction in thermal conductivity and in erosion performance. (Abstract Copyright [2006], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  3. High speed PVD thermal barrier coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beele, W.; Eschendorff, G.

    2006-01-01

    The high speed PVD process (HS-PVD) combines gas phase coating synthesis with high deposition rates. The process has been demonstrated for high purity YSZ deposited as a chemically bonded top thermal barrier with columnar structure of EB-PVD features. The process can manufacture EB-PVD like coatings that match in regards to their TGO-formation and columnar structure. Coatings with a columnar structure formed by individual columns of 1/4 of the diameter of a classical EB-PVD type TBC have been deposited. These coatings have the potential to prove a significant reduction in thermal conductivity and in erosion performance. (Abstract Copyright [2006], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  4. 7YSZ coating prepared by PS-PVD based on heterogeneous nucleation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ziqian DENG

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Plasma spray-physical vapor deposition (PS-PVD as a novel coating process based on low-pressure plasma spray (LPPS has been significantly used for thermal barrier coatings (TBCs. A coating can be deposited from liquid splats, nano-sized clusters, and the vapor phase forming different structured coatings, which shows obvious advantages in contrast to conventional technologies like atmospheric plasma spray (APS and electron beam-physical vapor deposition (EB-PVD. In addition, it can be used to produce thin, dense, and porous ceramic coatings for special applications because of its special characteristics, such as high power, very low pressure, etc. These provide new opportunities to obtain different advanced microstructures, thus to meet the growing requirements of modern functional coatings. In this work, focusing on exploiting the potential of gas-phase deposition from PS-PVD, a series of 7YSZ coating experiments with various process conditions was performed in order to better understand the deposition process in PS-PVD, where coatings were deposited on different substrates including graphite and zirconia. Meanwhile, various substrate temperatures were investigated for the same substrate. As a result, a deposition mechanism of heterogeneous nucleation has been presented showing that surface energy is an important influencing factor for coating structures. Besides, undercooling of the interface between substrate and vapor phase plays an important role in coating structures. Keywords: 7YSZ, Deposition mechanism, Heterogeneous nucleation, PS-PVD, TBC

  5. Process-structure-property relationships of micron thick gadolinium oxide films deposited by reactive electron beam-physical vapor deposition (EB-PVD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grave, Daniel A.

    Gadolinium oxide (Gd2O3) is an attractive material for solid state neutron detection due to gadolinium's high thermal neutron capture cross section. Development of neutron detectors based on Gd2 O3 requires sufficiently thick films to ensure neutron absorption. In this dissertation work, the process-structure-property relationships of micron thick Gd2O3 films deposited by reactive electron-beam physical vapor deposition (EB-PVD) were studied. Through a systematic design of experiments, fundamental studies were conducted to determine the effects of processing conditions such as deposition temperature, oxygen flow rate, deposition rate, and substrate material on Gd2O3 film crystallographic phase, texture, morphology, grain size, density, and surface roughness. Films deposited at high rates (> 5 A/s) were examined via x-ray diffraction (XRD) and Raman spectroscopy. Quantitative phase volume calculations were performed via a Rietveld refinement technique. All films deposited at high rates were found to be fully monoclinic or mixed cubic/monoclinic phase. Generally, increased deposition temperature and increased oxygen flow resulted in increased cubic phase volume. As film thickness increased, monoclinic phase volume increased. Grazing incidence x-ray diffraction (GIXRD) depth profiling analysis showed that cubic phase was only present under large incidence angle (large penetration depth) measurements, and after a certain point, only monoclinic phase was grown. This was confirmed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analysis with selected area diffraction (SAD). Based on this information, a large compressive stress was hypothesized to cause the formation of the monoclinic phase and this hypothesis was confirmed by demonstrating the existence of a stress induced phase transition. An experiment was designed to introduce compressive stress into the Gd2O 3 films via ion beam assisted deposition (IBAD). This allowed for systematic increase in compressive stress while

  6. Advanced homogenization strategies in material modeling of thermally sprayed TBCs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bobzin, K.; Lugscheider, E.; Nickel, R.; Kashko, T.

    2006-01-01

    Thermal barrier coatings (TBC), obtained by atmospheric plasma spraying (APS), have a complex microstructure (lamellar, porous, micro-cracked). Process parameters take an influence on this microstructure. Two methods based on the homogenization for periodic structures are presented in this article. The methods are used to calculate the effective material behavior of APS-TBCs made of partially yttria stabilized zirconia (PYSZ) depending on the microstructure. (Abstract Copyright [2006], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  7. Morphology of PVD films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carr, M.J.; Grotzky, V.K.; Helms, C.J.; Johns, W.L.; Naimon, E.R.; Rafalski, A.L.; Smith, C.J.

    1982-01-01

    Experimental data show that the morphology of PVD chromium coatings is dependent on substrate temperature, deposition rate, and the oxygen content of the chromium source material. For chromium containing about 700-ppM oxygen, a variety of morphologies can form depending on substrate temperature and deposition rate. For chromium contaning 1000 to 2000 ppM of oxygen, porous coatings of the Type IV variety are produced over essentially the full range of temperatures and rates possible with current coating equipment. For chromium containing less than about 400 ppM of oxygen, dense coatings of the Type I variety are produced over the range of temperatures and rates investigated

  8. EBS Radionuclide Transport Abstraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schreiner, R.

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this work is to develop the Engineered Barrier System (EBS) radionuclide transport abstraction model, as directed by a written development plan (CRWMS M and O 1999a). This abstraction is the conceptual model that will be used to determine the rate of release of radionuclides from the EBS to the unsaturated zone (UZ) in the total system performance assessment-license application (TSPA-LA). In particular, this model will be used to quantify the time-dependent radionuclide releases from a failed waste package (WP) and their subsequent transport through the EBS to the emplacement drift wall/UZ interface. The development of this conceptual model will allow Performance Assessment Operations (PAO) and its Engineered Barrier Performance Department to provide a more detailed and complete EBS flow and transport abstraction. The results from this conceptual model will allow PA0 to address portions of the key technical issues (KTIs) presented in three NRC Issue Resolution Status Reports (IRSRs): (1) the Evolution of the Near-Field Environment (ENFE), Revision 2 (NRC 1999a), (2) the Container Life and Source Term (CLST), Revision 2 (NRC 1999b), and (3) the Thermal Effects on Flow (TEF), Revision 1 (NRC 1998). The conceptual model for flow and transport in the EBS will be referred to as the ''EBS RT Abstraction'' in this analysis/modeling report (AMR). The scope of this abstraction and report is limited to flow and transport processes. More specifically, this AMR does not discuss elements of the TSPA-SR and TSPA-LA that relate to the EBS but are discussed in other AMRs. These elements include corrosion processes, radionuclide solubility limits, waste form dissolution rates and concentrations of colloidal particles that are generally represented as boundary conditions or input parameters for the EBS RT Abstraction. In effect, this AMR provides the algorithms for transporting radionuclides using the flow geometry and radionuclide concentrations determined by other

  9. EB curable laminating adhesives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuyama, Asao; Kobayashi, Masahide; Gotoh, Sakiko

    1992-01-01

    New developed solvent free EB curable laminating adhesives have two liquid components, A with hydroxy and acryloyl group, B with isocyanate and acryloyl group in a molecule. These EB laminating adhesives do not need any aging process, which is a big advantage, and are very suitable for environment, safety, and health because of no heating process and solvent free formulas. And we have made basic research about the relation of peel strength or heat seal strength versus Tg of cured film, elongation at break, elastic modulus, and so on. Basic specifications of the new developed adhesives are shown. (author)

  10. EBS Radionuclide Transport Abstraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    J. Prouty

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to develop and analyze the engineered barrier system (EBS) radionuclide transport abstraction model, consistent with Level I and Level II model validation, as identified in Technical Work Plan for: Near-Field Environment and Transport: Engineered Barrier System: Radionuclide Transport Abstraction Model Report Integration (BSC 2005 [DIRS 173617]). The EBS radionuclide transport abstraction (or EBS RT Abstraction) is the conceptual model used in the total system performance assessment (TSPA) to determine the rate of radionuclide releases from the EBS to the unsaturated zone (UZ). The EBS RT Abstraction conceptual model consists of two main components: a flow model and a transport model. Both models are developed mathematically from first principles in order to show explicitly what assumptions, simplifications, and approximations are incorporated into the models used in the TSPA. The flow model defines the pathways for water flow in the EBS and specifies how the flow rate is computed in each pathway. Input to this model includes the seepage flux into a drift. The seepage flux is potentially split by the drip shield, with some (or all) of the flux being diverted by the drip shield and some passing through breaches in the drip shield that might result from corrosion or seismic damage. The flux through drip shield breaches is potentially split by the waste package, with some (or all) of the flux being diverted by the waste package and some passing through waste package breaches that might result from corrosion or seismic damage. Neither the drip shield nor the waste package survives an igneous intrusion, so the flux splitting submodel is not used in the igneous scenario class. The flow model is validated in an independent model validation technical review. The drip shield and waste package flux splitting algorithms are developed and validated using experimental data. The transport model considers advective transport and diffusive transport

  11. EBS Radionuclide Transport Abstraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. Prouty

    2006-07-14

    The purpose of this report is to develop and analyze the engineered barrier system (EBS) radionuclide transport abstraction model, consistent with Level I and Level II model validation, as identified in Technical Work Plan for: Near-Field Environment and Transport: Engineered Barrier System: Radionuclide Transport Abstraction Model Report Integration (BSC 2005 [DIRS 173617]). The EBS radionuclide transport abstraction (or EBS RT Abstraction) is the conceptual model used in the total system performance assessment (TSPA) to determine the rate of radionuclide releases from the EBS to the unsaturated zone (UZ). The EBS RT Abstraction conceptual model consists of two main components: a flow model and a transport model. Both models are developed mathematically from first principles in order to show explicitly what assumptions, simplifications, and approximations are incorporated into the models used in the TSPA. The flow model defines the pathways for water flow in the EBS and specifies how the flow rate is computed in each pathway. Input to this model includes the seepage flux into a drift. The seepage flux is potentially split by the drip shield, with some (or all) of the flux being diverted by the drip shield and some passing through breaches in the drip shield that might result from corrosion or seismic damage. The flux through drip shield breaches is potentially split by the waste package, with some (or all) of the flux being diverted by the waste package and some passing through waste package breaches that might result from corrosion or seismic damage. Neither the drip shield nor the waste package survives an igneous intrusion, so the flux splitting submodel is not used in the igneous scenario class. The flow model is validated in an independent model validation technical review. The drip shield and waste package flux splitting algorithms are developed and validated using experimental data. The transport model considers advective transport and diffusive transport

  12. EBS Radionuclide Transport Abstraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J.D. Schreiber

    2005-08-25

    The purpose of this report is to develop and analyze the engineered barrier system (EBS) radionuclide transport abstraction model, consistent with Level I and Level II model validation, as identified in ''Technical Work Plan for: Near-Field Environment and Transport: Engineered Barrier System: Radionuclide Transport Abstraction Model Report Integration'' (BSC 2005 [DIRS 173617]). The EBS radionuclide transport abstraction (or EBS RT Abstraction) is the conceptual model used in the total system performance assessment for the license application (TSPA-LA) to determine the rate of radionuclide releases from the EBS to the unsaturated zone (UZ). The EBS RT Abstraction conceptual model consists of two main components: a flow model and a transport model. Both models are developed mathematically from first principles in order to show explicitly what assumptions, simplifications, and approximations are incorporated into the models used in the TSPA-LA. The flow model defines the pathways for water flow in the EBS and specifies how the flow rate is computed in each pathway. Input to this model includes the seepage flux into a drift. The seepage flux is potentially split by the drip shield, with some (or all) of the flux being diverted by the drip shield and some passing through breaches in the drip shield that might result from corrosion or seismic damage. The flux through drip shield breaches is potentially split by the waste package, with some (or all) of the flux being diverted by the waste package and some passing through waste package breaches that might result from corrosion or seismic damage. Neither the drip shield nor the waste package survives an igneous intrusion, so the flux splitting submodel is not used in the igneous scenario class. The flow model is validated in an independent model validation technical review. The drip shield and waste package flux splitting algorithms are developed and validated using experimental data. The transport

  13. EBS Radionuclide Transport Abstraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    J.D. Schreiber

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to develop and analyze the engineered barrier system (EBS) radionuclide transport abstraction model, consistent with Level I and Level II model validation, as identified in ''Technical Work Plan for: Near-Field Environment and Transport: Engineered Barrier System: Radionuclide Transport Abstraction Model Report Integration'' (BSC 2005 [DIRS 173617]). The EBS radionuclide transport abstraction (or EBS RT Abstraction) is the conceptual model used in the total system performance assessment for the license application (TSPA-LA) to determine the rate of radionuclide releases from the EBS to the unsaturated zone (UZ). The EBS RT Abstraction conceptual model consists of two main components: a flow model and a transport model. Both models are developed mathematically from first principles in order to show explicitly what assumptions, simplifications, and approximations are incorporated into the models used in the TSPA-LA. The flow model defines the pathways for water flow in the EBS and specifies how the flow rate is computed in each pathway. Input to this model includes the seepage flux into a drift. The seepage flux is potentially split by the drip shield, with some (or all) of the flux being diverted by the drip shield and some passing through breaches in the drip shield that might result from corrosion or seismic damage. The flux through drip shield breaches is potentially split by the waste package, with some (or all) of the flux being diverted by the waste package and some passing through waste package breaches that might result from corrosion or seismic damage. Neither the drip shield nor the waste package survives an igneous intrusion, so the flux splitting submodel is not used in the igneous scenario class. The flow model is validated in an independent model validation technical review. The drip shield and waste package flux splitting algorithms are developed and validated using experimental data. The transport model considers

  14. Residual stresses in as-sprayed and heat treated TBCs : measurements and FEM calculations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koolloos, M.F.J.; Houben, J.M.

    2000-01-01

    The first part of this paper concerns measurement of through-thickness residual stresses in TBCs by the hole-drilling method. The influences of top coat thickness and different thermal histories (furnace and burner rig) were determined. Low tensile stresses prevailed in the as-sprayed state, and low

  15. Surface coatings deposited by CVD and PVD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gabriel, H.M.

    1982-01-01

    The demand for wear and corrosion protective coatings is increasing due to economic facts. Deposition processes in gas atmospheres like the CVD and PVD processes attained a tremendous importance especially in the field of the deposition of thin hard refractory and ceramic coatings. CVD and PVD processes are reviewed in detail. Some examples of coating installations are shown and numerous applications are given to demonstrate the present state of the art. (orig.) [de

  16. FEM simulation study on relationship of interfacial morphology and residual stress in TBCs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liqiang Chen; Shengkai Gong; Huibin Xu [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Beihang Univ., Beijing, BJ (China)

    2005-07-01

    It is generally believed that the failure of TBCs is attributed to the spallation occurred in the ceramic coat. The spallation is closed linked with sinuate morphology factors, including its amplitude and period, at the TGO/bond coat interface. In this work, dependence of the residual stress distribution on the sinuate morphology in the TBCs has been studied by means of finite element method (FEM) simulation for isothermally annealed specimens. The simulation results indicated that the maximum value of residual stress existed inside the TGO layer. It was also found that the maximum residual stress occurred at different points, near the TGO/bond coat interface at the peak of the sinuate interface, while near the TGO/ceramic coat interface at the valley, respectively. And the maximum residual stress increased with increasing the ratio of the amplitude to period in the sine morphology, which has been proved by the thermal cycle experimental results. (orig.)

  17. UV/EB curable psa's

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glotfelter, C.A.

    1995-01-01

    The author describe both water-based and 100% solids UV/EB curable PSA's (Pressure Sensitive Adhesives) and their properties. A new acrylate monomer, ethoxylated nonyl phenol acrylate, has great utility in the formulation of water-based PSA's

  18. Application of EB in Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sunaga, Hiromi [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Takasaki, Gunma (Japan). Takasaki Radiation Chemistry Research Establishment

    2003-02-01

    Radiation processing using electron beam (EB) facilities other than gamma-ray facilities in Japan is introduced. After briefly presented the features of EB compared with gamma ray, present status of EB application is described. Polymerized materials for use of wire, cable, radial tire, heat shrinkable tube, foam polyethylene, PTFE, battery separator, and adsorbent material are known to be resulting from cross-linking, decomposition, and graft polymerization reactions. Environmental preservation includes electron flue gas treatment in the coal- or oil-fired power plants, research for volatile organic compounds (VOC) and dioxins, as well as wastewater and sludge treatment. Finally activity of JAERI in the related fields is overviewed with the authors prospects for utilization of low energy EB with low cost for surface treatment and functional materials. (S. Ohno)

  19. Application of EB in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sunaga, Hiromi

    2003-01-01

    Radiation processing using electron beam (EB) facilities other than gamma-ray facilities in Japan is introduced. After briefly presented the features of EB compared with gamma ray, present status of EB application is described. Polymerized materials for use of wire, cable, radial tire, heat shrinkable tube, foam polyethylene, PTFE, battery separator, and adsorbent material are known to be resulting from cross-linking, decomposition, and graft polymerization reactions. Environmental preservation includes electron flue gas treatment in the coal- or oil-fired power plants, research for volatile organic compounds (VOC) and dioxins, as well as wastewater and sludge treatment. Finally activity of JAERI in the related fields is overviewed with the authors prospects for utilization of low energy EB with low cost for surface treatment and functional materials. (S. Ohno)

  20. Plasma Spray-Physical Vapor Deposition (PS-PVD) of Ceramics for Protective Coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harder, Bryan J.; Zhu, Dongming

    2011-01-01

    In order to generate advanced multilayer thermal and environmental protection systems, a new deposition process is needed to bridge the gap between conventional plasma spray, which produces relatively thick coatings on the order of 125-250 microns, and conventional vapor phase processes such as electron beam physical vapor deposition (EB-PVD) which are limited by relatively slow deposition rates, high investment costs, and coating material vapor pressure requirements. The use of Plasma Spray - Physical Vapor Deposition (PS-PVD) processing fills this gap and allows thin (deposited and multilayer coatings of less than 100 microns to be generated with the flexibility to tailor microstructures by changing processing conditions. Coatings of yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) were applied to NiCrAlY bond coated superalloy substrates using the PS-PVD coater at NASA Glenn Research Center. A design-of-experiments was used to examine the effects of process variables (Ar/He plasma gas ratio, the total plasma gas flow, and the torch current) on chamber pressure and torch power. Coating thickness, phase and microstructure were evaluated for each set of deposition conditions. Low chamber pressures and high power were shown to increase coating thickness and create columnar-like structures. Likewise, high chamber pressures and low power had lower growth rates, but resulted in flatter, more homogeneous layers

  1. Elastic and anelastic behavior of TBCs sprayed at high-deposition rates

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Valarezo, A.; Dwivedi, G.; Sampath, S.; Mušálek, Radek; Matějíček, Jiří

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 24, 1-2 (2015), s. 160-167 ISSN 1059-9630 R&D Projects: GA MŠk ME 901; GA ČR(CZ) GPP108/12/P552 Institutional support: RVO:61389021 Keywords : dense vertically cracked coating * elastic modulus * in-situ monitoring * mechanical properties * quenching stress * thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) * triplex system Subject RIV: JK - Corrosion ; Surface Treatment of Materials Impact factor: 1.568, year: 2015 http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs11666-014-0154-6

  2. Latest Developments in PVD Coatings for Tooling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Strnad

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the recent developments in the field of PVD coating for manufacturing tools. A review of monoblock, multilayer, nanocomposite, DLC and oxinitride coatings is discussed, with the emphasis on coatings which enables the manufacturers to implement high productivity processes such as high speed cutting and dry speed machining.

  3. PVD TBC experience on GE aircraft engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maricocchi, Antonio; Bartz, Andi; Wortman, David

    1995-01-01

    The higher performance levels of modern gas turbine engines present significant challenges in the reliability of materials in the turbine. The increased engine temperatures required to achieve the higher performance levels reduce the strength of the materials used in the turbine sections of the engine. Various forms of thermal barrier coatings (TBC's) have been used for many years to increase the reliability of gas turbine engine components. Recent experience with the physical vapor deposition (PVD) process using ceramic material has demonstrated success in extending the service life of turbine blades and nozzles. Engine test results of turbine components with a 125 micron (0.005 in) PVD TBC have demonstrated component operating temperatures of 56-83 C (100-150 F) lower than non-PVD TBC components. Engine testing has also revealed the TBC is susceptible to high angle particle impact damage. Sand particles and other engine debris impact the TBC surface at the leading edge of airfoils and fracture the PVD columns. As the impacting continues, the TBC erodes away in local areas. Analysis of the eroded areas has shown a slight increase in temperature over a fully coated area, however a significant temperature reduction was realized over an airfoil without TBC.

  4. New PVD Technologies for New Ordnance Coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-01

    characteristics using a Tantalum and a Chrome target; 4) Deposition of Ta coatings and reactive deposition of CrN; 5) Deposition parameters affecting film...Vapor Deposition (PVD); High Power Impulse Magnetron Sputtering (HIPIMS); Modulated Pulsed Power (MPP); Tantalum; Chrome ; Ta coatings; CrN; coating...The pre-production chemicals and acids are hazardous and hexavalent Cr is a known carcinogen. Significant annual expenditures are necessary to

  5. Ordered metal nanotube arrays fabricated by PVD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marquez, F; Morant, C; Campo, T; Sanz, J M; Elizalde, E

    2010-02-01

    In this work we report a simple method to fabricate ordered arrays of metal nanotubes. This method is based on the deposition of a metal by PVD onto an anodized aluminum oxide (AAO) template. The dimensions of the synthesized nanotubes depend both on the AAO template and on the deposited metal. In fact, it is observed that the aspect ratios of the nanotubes clearly depend significantly on the metal, ranging from 0.6 (Fe) to at least 3 (Zr).

  6. Recent status of EB applications in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Zhiguang; Zhan Wenlong

    2004-01-01

    The advantages of energetic electron beam (EB) made it an attractive method for radiation processing of materials. In the present paper, the recent status of R and D of EB applications in China has demonstrated briefly. (author)

  7. EB1 and EB3 promote cilia biogenesis by several centrosome-related mechanisms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schrøder, Jacob M; Larsen, Jesper; Komarova, Yulia

    2011-01-01

    surrounded by vesicles. Further, GST pull-down assays, mass spectrometry and immunoprecipitation indicated that EB1 and EB3 interact with proteins implicated in MT minus-end anchoring or vesicular trafficking to the cilia base, suggesting that EB1 and EB3 promote ciliogenesis by facilitating such trafficking...

  8. Structure and corrosion properties of PVD Cr-N coatings

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, C; Ziegele, H; Leyland, A; Matthews, A

    2002-01-01

    PVD Cr-N coatings produced by physical vapor deposition (PVD) are increasingly used for mechanical and tribological applications in various industrial sectors. These coatings are particularly attractive for their excellent corrosion resistance, which further enhances the lifetime and service quality of coated components. PVD Cr-N coated steels in an aqueous solution are usually corroded by galvanic attack via through-coating 'permeable' defects (e.g., pores). Therefore, the corrosion performance of Cr-N coated steel is determined by a number of variables of the coating properties and corrosive environment. These variables include: (i) surface continuity and uniformity; (ii) through-coating porosity; (iii) film density and chemical stability; (iv) growth stresses; (v) interfacial and intermediate layers; (vi) coating thickness; (vii) coating composition; and (viii) substrate properties. In this article, PVD Cr-N coatings were prepared, by electron-beam PVD and sputter deposition, with different compositions, t...

  9. TBCs for Gas Turbines under Thermomechanical Loadings: Failure Behaviour and Life Prediction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herzog R.

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The present contribution gives an overview about recent research on a thermal barrier coating (TBC system consisted of (i an intermetallic MCrAlY-alloy Bondcoat (BC applied by vacuum plasma spraying (VPS and (ii an Yttria Stabilised Zirconia (YSZ top coat air plasma sprayed (APS at Forschungszentrum Juelich, Institute of Energy and Climate Research (IEK-1. The influence of high temperature dwell time, maximum and minimum temperature on crack growth kinetics during thermal cycling of such plasma sprayed TBCs is investigated using infrared pulse thermography (IT, acoustic emission (AE analysis and scanning electron microscopy. Thermocyclic life in terms of accumulated time at maximum temperature decreases with increasing high temperature dwell time and increases with increasing minimum temperature. AE analysis proves that crack growth mainly occurs during cooling at temperatures below the ductile-to-brittle transition temperature of the BC. Superimposed mechanical load cycles accelerate delamination crack growth and, in case of sufficiently high mechanical loadings, result in premature fatigue failure of the substrate. A life prediction model based on TGO growth kinetics and a fracture mechanics approach has been developed which accounts for the influence of maximum and minimum temperature as well as of high temperature dwell time with good accuracy in an extremely wide parameter range.

  10. Corrosion behaviour of Arc-PVD coatings and hybrid systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reichel, K.

    1992-01-01

    To achieve a comprehensive protective effect against corrosion and wear stresses, coating systems are increasingly being developed, in which there is a separation of the tasks of the coating materials regarding the protective effect. On the one hand, pure PVD coating systems are used, on the other hand hybrid coatings are examined, where galvanic processes are combined with PVD technique. The results of experiments introduced in this article were determined on Arc-PVD coatings. By this process, titanium nitride and chromium nitride coatings are both deposited directly on the basic material and are also deposited as combination coatings of Ti/TiN and chemical nickel/TiN. (orig.) [de

  11. Overview of PVD wear resistant coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teeter, F.J.

    1999-01-01

    The combined functionality of wear-resistant and low-friction multilayer coatings has widened application possibilities for a new generation of coated tools. For the first time tool wear mechanisms are comprehensively addressed both at the cutting edge and contact areas away from the edge where chip evacuation is facilitated. Since its recent market introduction a combined TiA1N and WC/C PVD coating has been proven to increase cutting performance in various metal cutting operations, notably drilling and tapping of steels and aluminum alloys. Significant improvements have been obtained under dry as well as with coolant conditions. The results of laboratory metal cutting tests and field trials to date will be described. Correlations between chip formation / wear mechanisms and coating properties are given to explain the effectiveness of this coating. (author)

  12. The recent industrial EB applications in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakai, Koji; Kashiwagi, Masayuki; Mizusawa, Kenichi

    1995-01-01

    The conventional applications of electron beam processing such as, crosslinking of electric wire and cable insulations, polyethylene foam, and of rubber tire components have been the main part of the EB business for many years. New applications are continuing to appear, however, the growth of the new applications has been relatively slow. Nissin High-Voltage, as one of the worlds leading manufacturers of electron beam equipments, continues to develop and improve EB equipment to meet the requirements of these new applications. In this paper recent EB applications and its improvements are described. (author)

  13. Bond Coat Engineering Influence on the Evolution of the Microstructure, Bond Strength, and Failure of TBCs Subjected to Thermal Cycling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, R. S.; Nagy, D.; Marple, B. R.

    2015-01-01

    Different types of thermal spray systems, including HVOF (JP5000 and DJ2600-hybrid), APS (F4-MB and Axial III), and LPPS (Oerlikon Metco system) were employed to spray CoNiCrAlY bond coats (BCs) onto Inconel 625 substrates. The chemical composition of the BC powder was the same in all cases; however, the particle size distribution of the powder employed with each torch was that specifically recommended for the torch. For optimization purposes, these BCs were screened based on initial evaluations of roughness, porosity, residual stress, relative oxidation, and isothermal TGO growth. A single type of standard YSZ top coat was deposited via APS (F4MB) on all the optimized BCs. The TBCs were thermally cycled by employing a furnace cycle test (FCT) (1080 °C-1 h—followed by forced air cooling). Samples were submitted to 10, 100, 400, and 1400 cycles as well as being cycled to failure. The behavior of the microstructures, bond strength values (ASTM 633), and the TGO evolution of these TBCs, were investigated for the as-sprayed and thermally cycled samples. During FCT, the TBCs found to be both the best and poorest performing and had their BCs deposited via HVOF. The results showed that engineering low-oxidized BCs does not necessarily lead to an optimal TBC performance. Moreover, the bond strength values decrease significantly only when the TBC is about to fail (top coat spall off) and the as-sprayed bond strength values cannot be used as an indicator of TBC performance.

  14. Antibacterial Functionalization of PVD Coatings on Ceramics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Osés

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The application of surface treatments that incorporate silver or copper as antibacterial elements has become a common practice for a wide variety of medical devices and materials because of their effective activity against nosocomial infections. Ceramic tiles are choice materials for cladding the floors and walls of operation rooms and other hospital spaces. This study is focused on the deposition of biocide physical vapor deposition (PVD coatings on glazed ceramic tiles. The objective was to provide antibacterial activity to the surfaces without worsening their mechanical properties. Silver and copper-doped chromium nitride (CrN and titanium nitride (TiN coatings were deposited on samples of tiles. A complete characterization was carried out in order to determine the composition and structure of the coatings, as well as their topographical and mechanical properties. The distribution of Ag and Cu within the coating was analyzed using glow discharge optical emission spectrometry (GD-OES and field emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM. Roughness, microhardness, and scratch resistance were measured for all of the combinations of coatings and dopants, as well as their wettability. Finally, tests of antibacterial efficacy against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli were carried out, showing that all of the doped coatings had pronounced biocide activity.

  15. Iron-regulated transcription of the pvdA gene in Pseudomonas aeruginosa: effect of Fur and PvdS on promoter activity.

    OpenAIRE

    Leoni, L; Ciervo, A; Orsi, N; Visca, P

    1996-01-01

    The pvdA gene, encoding the enzyme L-ornithine N5-oxygenase, catalyzes a key step of the pyoverdin biosynthetic pathway in Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Expression studies with a promoter probe vector made it possible to identify three tightly iron-regulated promoter regions in the 5.9-kb DNA fragment upstream of pvdA. The promoter governing pvdA expression was located within the 154-bp sequence upstream of the pvdA translation start site. RNA analysis showed that expression of PvdA is iron regulat...

  16. Non-destructive evaluation of degradation in EB-PVD thermal barrier coatings by infrared reflectance spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flattum, Richard Y.; Cooney, Adam T.

    2013-01-01

    At room temperature and atmospheric conditions infrared reflectance spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction were employed for the detection of the phase transformation and residual stress within thermal barrier coatings (TBC). The TBC's samples initially consisted of the porous ceramic topcoat deposited by electron beam plasma vapor deposition, a bond coat and a superalloy substrate. Reflectance spectroscopy scans were performed from 7497 cm −1 to 68 cm −1 to analysis the fingerprint region as well as the chemical bonding region. These regions should indicate if a detectable change within the TBC response is a result of thermal degradation of the microstructure and the changes in yttrium dispersion throughout the yttrium stabilized zirconium. The thermal degradation was induced by thermal cycling the samples to 1100° C and then cooling them in an atmospheric environment. X-ray diffraction was also used to detect the phase composition within the TBC samples and see if either would clearly identify failure prior to actual spallation. The eventual measurability and quantify-ability of the phase changes within the TBC's may be used as an effective non-destructive evaluation (NDE) technique that would allow personnel in the field to know when servicing of the turbine blade was necessary.

  17. A Comparison of Afghanistan, Yuma, Az, and Manufactured Sands Melted on EB-PVD Thermal Barrier Coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-18

    mentoring me through the field of geology . His vast knowledge in this field and close “First Cousins” motivate me to broaden my knowledge within the...Blade sand sample BC – Bond Coat Button A – TBC Button made by Manufacturer A Button B – TBC Button made by Manufacturer B Ca – Calcium CMAS... Calcium , Magnesium, Aluminum, Silicate CTIO – Coating Technology Integration Office Cr – Chromium CTE – Coefficient of Thermal Expansion DoD

  18. Effect of thermally grown oxide (TGO) microstructure on the durability of TBCs with PtNiAl diffusion bond coats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spitsberg, Irene [Materials and Process Engineering Department, GE Aircraft Engines, Evendale, OH (United States)]. E-mail: irene.spitsberg@kennametal.com; More, Karren [Metals and Ceramics Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2006-02-15

    The role of pre-oxidation surface treatments on the oxide microstructure and the failure mechanism of multi-layer thermal barrier systems based on Pt-modified NiAl bond coats and electron beam deposited thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) have been studied. The primary pre-oxidation experimental variable was the partial pressure of oxygen in the pre-oxidizing atmosphere at constant temperature and bond coat composition. The durability of TBCs deposited on surfaces following different pre-oxidation treatments were measured and compared using furnace cycling tests. The oxide layers corresponding to different levels of TBC performance were characterized microstructurally, chemically, and compositionally using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) techniques. TBC performance was enhanced by the formation of a surface oxide having a coarse-grained columnar structure during the pre-oxidation process. Increased TBC durability was consistent with a slower oxide growth rate during exposure of the TBC to high-temperature, cyclic conditions, as was observed for this particular pre-oxidation condition. An oxide microstructure having fewer through-thickness transport pathways (grain boundaries) should also result in slower lateral oxide growth rates, consistent with a slowed rate of ratcheting as was observed in the pre-oxidized samples that had the best TBC performance. The desired surface oxide grain structure was achieved by pre-oxidizing the bond coat prior to TBC deposition at an intermediate partial pressure of oxygen.

  19. Composite Layers “MgAl Intermetalic Layer / PVD Coating” Obtained On The AZ91D Magnesium Alloy By Different Hybrid Surface Treatment Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smolik J.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Magnesium alloys have very interesting physical properties which make them ‘materials of the future’ for tools and machine components in many industry areas. However, very low corrosion and tribological resistance of magnesium alloys hampers the implementation of this material in the industry. One of the methods to improve the properties of magnesium alloys is the application of the solutions of surface engineering like hybrid technologies. In this paper, the authors compare the tribological and corrosion properties of two types of “MgAlitermetalic / PVD coating” composite layers obtained by two different hybrid surface treatment technologies. In the first configuration, the “MgAlitermetalic / PVD coating” composite layer was obtained by multisource hybrid surface treatment technology combining magnetron sputtering (MS, arc evaporation (AE and vacuum heating methods. The second type of a composite layer was prepared using a hybrid technology combined with a diffusion treatment process in Al-powder and the electron beam evaporation (EB method. The authors conclude, that even though the application of „MgAlitermetalic / PVD coating” composite layers can be an effective solution to increase the abrasive wear resistance of magnesium alloys, it is not a good solution to increase its corrosion resistance.

  20. UV/EB curing in Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woods, R.; Garnett, J.; Loo Teck Ng

    1999-01-01

    Progress in LTV/EB curing is reviewed in Australia. Generally the technology is used by those industries where curing is well developed in Europe and North America, however the scale is an order of magnitude lower due to the smaller market size. The Asian economic crisis does not appear to have affected expansion of the technology in Australia. EB continues to be successfully used in the packaging and foam fields whilst in UV, security devices, particularly banknotes are steadily expanding especially in export markets have been studied

  1. EB application in pressure sensitive adhesives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hisashi Itoh; Ichiro Enomoto

    1999-01-01

    Two kinds of pressure sensitive adhesives (PSA's), that were formulations of radiation cross-linkable styrene-isoprene block copolymer (SIS) and complete hydrogenated aliphatic tackifying resin or non-hydrogenated, were prepared and the electron beam (EB) irradiation effect on these PSA performances such as peel strength against some kinds of adherends was studied. The results from measuring of PSA performance exhibit the close correlation between EB irradiation effect of these and the miscibility of the tackifying resin against SIS. Further it was clarified that PSA performance was influenced by the surface tension of adherends

  2. RPC industries - UV and EB equipment manufacturers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodrigues, A.M.

    1987-01-01

    RPC Industries has been manufacturing electron beam and ultraviolet equipment for the industrial processing of materials for more than 15 years. RPC maintains its headquarters and electron processor manufacturing plant in Hayward, California. UV equipment is made in the company's plant near Chicago. Sales offices are maintained in New York, Illinois, and California in the USA, and in Germany, Japan, Australia, Italy, Israel, and Sweden. Complete testing and pilot facilities are available in Hayward (EB) and near Chicago (UV). Described below are the basic system components, applications and advantages of RPC's UV and EB systems. (orig.)

  3. UV/EB curing market in Indonesia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hilmy, N.; Danu, S.

    1999-01-01

    The most application of UV curing of surface coating in Indonesia are on fancy plywood, furniture and wood flooring industry. Other application are on papers, printing ink/labelling, printed circuit board/PCB and dental materials. At present, application of EB curing coating is still in a pilot plant scale due to the high cost of production. Limited number of application of EB curing by using low energy electron beam machine are on wood panels, ceramics and marbles. This paper describes the market and the problem faced by the largest user of radiation curing systems such as the secondary process plywood, furniture and paper industries

  4. Adaptation and Validation of the HOME-SF as a Caregiver-Report Home Environment Measure for Use in the Taiwan Birth Cohort Study (TBCS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jennifer Chun-Li; Chiang, Tung-liang; Bradley, Robert H.

    2011-01-01

    This study aimed to develop a brief caregiver-report instrument for measuring the home environment of children aged three and under, as part of the Taiwan Birth Cohort Study (TBCS). Instrument development was conducted by translating and adapting the Home Observation for the Measurement of Environment Inventory-Short Form (HOME-SF) which comprises…

  5. EB Frond wave energy converter - phase 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    The EB Frond project is a wave energy programme developed by The Engineering Business (EB) from an original idea at Lancaster University. The EB Frond is a wave generator with a collector vane on top of an arm that pivots near the seabed. Phase 1 of the project demonstrated the technical feasibility of the project and provided proof of concept. Phase 2 involved further assesment of the technical and commercial viability of the concept through the development of mathematical and physical modelling methods. The work involved small-scale (1/25th) testing in wave tanks at Newcastle and Lancaster Universities and the development, verification and validation of a time domain mathematical model. The decision by EB to put on hold its renewable generation programme meant that plans to test at an intermediate scale (1/16th), assess different survival strategies in extreme wave conditions, carry out site characterisation for full-scale systems and to produce a robust economic model were not fulfilled. However, the mathematical and physical modelling work was used to develop an economic model for the Frond system. This produced a predicted unit cost of electricity by a pre-commercial 5 MW demonstration farm of about 17 pence/kWh. The report discusses the small-scale testing, test results, mathematical modelling, analysis and interpretation, survivability, the economic model and the development route to full-scale production.

  6. E.B. White: Aspects of Style.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neumeyer, Peter F.

    1987-01-01

    Assesses the writing style of a famous author of children's books, concluding that E.B. White's informal tone uses anaphora, simple sentences, doubling and redundancy, and mixes colloquial with standard English. Provides examples of his style, from 10 years old to maturity. (NKA)

  7. E.B. White and Charlotte's Web.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elledge, Scott

    2001-01-01

    Discusses the life and work of E.B. White, describing his research on spiders, examining his development of the story, "Charlotte's Web," and explaining how "Charlotte's Web" is a fabric of memories. Notes how this book faces a variety of truths about the human condition and how it celebrates a child's generous view of and love…

  8. Structure And Properties Of PVD Coatings Deposited On Cermets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Żukowska L.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The main aim of the research is the investigation of the structure and properties of single-layer and gradient coatings of the type (Ti,AlN and Ti(C,N deposited by physical vapour deposition technology (PVD on the cermets substrate.

  9. The Role of Microtubule End Binding (EB) Proteins in Ciliogenesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schrøder, Jacob Morville

    cellular organelles (Lansbergen and Akhmanova, 2006). EB1 also localizes to centrosomes and is required for centrosomal MT anchoring and organization of the MT network (Askham et al., 2002). Further, EB1 has been shown to localize to the flagellar tip and proximal region of the basal bodies......, are required for assembly of primary cilia in cultured human cells. The EB3 - siRNA ciliary phenotype could be rescued by GFP-EB1 expression, and GFP-EB3 over expression resulted in elongated cilia. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) revealed that EB3-depleted cells possess stumpy cilia, a disorganized...... centrosomal MT array and abnormally long centriole-associated rootlet filaments. Cells lacking EB1 also had stumpy cilia and a disorganized centrosomal MT array, but rootlet filaments appeared normal. Further, live imaging revealed increased release frequency of MTs from the centrosome upon EB1 or EB3...

  10. A chemically stable PVD multilayer encapsulation for lithium microbatteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ribeiro, J F; Sousa, R; Cunha, D J; Vieira, E M F; Goncalves, L M; Silva, M M; Dupont, L

    2015-01-01

    A multilayer physical vapour deposition (PVD) thin-film encapsulation method for lithium microbatteries is presented. Lithium microbatteries with a lithium cobalt oxide (LiCoO 2 ) cathode, a lithium phosphorous oxynitride (LiPON) electrolyte and a metallic lithium anode are under development, using PVD deposition techniques. Metallic lithium film is still the most common anode on this battery technology; however, it presents a huge challenge in terms of material encapsulation (lithium reacts with almost any materials deposited on top and almost instantly begins oxidizing in contact with atmosphere). To prove the encapsulation concept and perform all the experiments, lithium films were deposited by thermal evaporation technique on top of a glass substrate, with previously patterned Al/Ti contacts. Three distinct materials, in a multilayer combination, were tested to prevent lithium from reacting with protection materials and atmosphere. These multilayer films were deposited by RF sputtering and were composed of lithium phosphorous oxide (LiPO), LiPON and silicon nitride (Si 3 N 4 ). To complete the long-term encapsulation after breaking the vacuum, an epoxy was applied on top of the PVD multilayer. In order to evaluate oxidation state of lithium films, the lithium resistance was measured in a four probe setup (cancelling wires/contact resistances) and resistivity calculated, considering physical dimensions. A lithium resistivity of 0.16 Ω μm was maintained for more than a week. This PVD multilayer exonerates the use of chemical vapour deposition (CVD), glove-box chambers and sample manipulation between them, significantly reducing the fabrication cost, since battery and its encapsulation are fabricated in the same PVD chamber. (paper)

  11. A chemically stable PVD multilayer encapsulation for lithium microbatteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, J. F.; Sousa, R.; Cunha, D. J.; Vieira, E. M. F.; Silva, M. M.; Dupont, L.; Goncalves, L. M.

    2015-10-01

    A multilayer physical vapour deposition (PVD) thin-film encapsulation method for lithium microbatteries is presented. Lithium microbatteries with a lithium cobalt oxide (LiCoO2) cathode, a lithium phosphorous oxynitride (LiPON) electrolyte and a metallic lithium anode are under development, using PVD deposition techniques. Metallic lithium film is still the most common anode on this battery technology; however, it presents a huge challenge in terms of material encapsulation (lithium reacts with almost any materials deposited on top and almost instantly begins oxidizing in contact with atmosphere). To prove the encapsulation concept and perform all the experiments, lithium films were deposited by thermal evaporation technique on top of a glass substrate, with previously patterned Al/Ti contacts. Three distinct materials, in a multilayer combination, were tested to prevent lithium from reacting with protection materials and atmosphere. These multilayer films were deposited by RF sputtering and were composed of lithium phosphorous oxide (LiPO), LiPON and silicon nitride (Si3N4). To complete the long-term encapsulation after breaking the vacuum, an epoxy was applied on top of the PVD multilayer. In order to evaluate oxidation state of lithium films, the lithium resistance was measured in a four probe setup (cancelling wires/contact resistances) and resistivity calculated, considering physical dimensions. A lithium resistivity of 0.16 Ω μm was maintained for more than a week. This PVD multilayer exonerates the use of chemical vapour deposition (CVD), glove-box chambers and sample manipulation between them, significantly reducing the fabrication cost, since battery and its encapsulation are fabricated in the same PVD chamber.

  12. New EB curing system for narrow web, using Min-EB

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamura, Tetsuhisa; Tominaga, Hiroshi; Oizumi, Kei

    2003-01-01

    We, TOYO INK, developed the new equipment of EB curing system for narrow web composed of vacuum tube-type electron beam irradiation apparatus called Min-EB which is specialized with ultra-low voltage, 50-60 KV, and not damaging against the substrate. The new development is very small size, 66 cm width, 64 cm depth, 80 cm height and convenient to install into printing and coating machines. Several tubes, Min-EB, are assembled to be multi-tube module, called MTM, to easily handle. Basically we can change the irradiation width and printing and coating speed by increasing MTM due to the sheet size and printing and coating condition. We got good results, showing high density for the printed film, after used new EB curing system. (author)

  13. EB detoxification of liquid hazardous wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tata, A.; Giuliani, S.

    1996-07-01

    In the work, an engineering approach to technical solutions, considering accelerated electron beams as radiation source, is carried out, in order to allow and evaluate an effective recovery of drinking water from highly chemically polluted groundwaters. In connection with different engineering technical and economic parameters (suitable doses, EB-machine type, plant features, etc.) and with reference to 1-100 ton/hr contaminated stream flowrate range (2-50 kGy as considered absorbed dose range), a specifically developed computer code was run. Analysis results, based on investment and functioning cost figures evaluated with reference to industrial plant management scenarios, are treatment unit costs showing a noticeable economic attractiveness of radiation EB-technologies in the field of considered applications

  14. Recent advances in application of EB Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mittendorfer, J [Mediscan GmbH, Kremsmuenster (Austria)

    2001-07-01

    In this paper recent advances in application of electron beam technology are presented. Important industrial and scientific achievements of the international community, together with research by Mediscan, Austria, an operator of state-of-the-art electron beam service center and innovator in the field of EB-Technology are reviewed. In addition, areas which may play an important role in the future are identified. Special focus is on the use of X-ray converters and the potential for industrial applications. (author)

  15. Current status of low energy EB machine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toshiro Nishikimi; Shuichi Taniguchi; Kenichi Mizusawa

    1999-01-01

    Electron beam processing systems have been in use in a variety of applications such as curing of paints and printing inks, crosslinking of PE products, treating of rubber tire and so on. Low energy electron processing systems have become popular as self-shielded machines, which are compact and easy to use and do not require special facility as an irradiation room. This manuscript introduces the status of low energy EB (electron beam) machine through Nissin's products current

  16. Recent advances in application of EB Technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mittendorfer, J.

    2001-01-01

    In this paper recent advances in application of electron beam technology are presented. Important industrial and scientific achievements of the international community, together with research by Mediscan, Austria, an operator of state-of-the-art electron beam service center and innovator in the field of EB-Technology are reviewed. In addition, areas which may play an important role in the future are identified. Special focus is on the use of X-ray converters and the potential for industrial applications. (author)

  17. Recubrimientos por PVD decorativos sobre cerámicas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    García, J. A.

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available During the last years PVD coatings has been used for decorative purposes on ceramics and other substrates. Standards layers like TiN, CrN, TiCN, etc, give us the possibly of obtaining a wide range of colours, with a good mechanical, chemical properties. This paper gathers the works carried out in the Center of Advance Surface engineering of AIN during the three last years in the field of the decorative coatings. Different layer have been deposited by means of a METAPLAS 232 PVD equipment. A complete chemical and mechanical characterisation have been carried out on the different deposited layers like ultramicroindentation, scratch tests, wear resistance and GDOES.

    En los últimos años se ha venido estudiado la aplicabilidad de las técnicas de depósitos mediante métodos físicos en fase vapor (PVD, para la realización de recubrimientos sobre cerámicas y otros substratos con fines decorativos. Los recubrimientos estándar por PVD como el TiN, CrN, TiCN, etc, ofrecen la posibilidad de conseguir acabados de apariencia metálica, de una amplia gama de colores, y con buenas propiedades mecánicas y químicas, como resistencia a la abrasión, estabilidad térmica, o resistencia a la corrosión. En este trabajo se recogen las experiencias realizadas en el recubrimiento y caracterización de cerámicas decorativas, durante los tres últimos años, en el Centro de Ingeniería de Superficies de la Asociación de la Industria Navarra. Los distintos tipos de recubrimientos se han realizado mediante un equipo de PVD modelo METAPLAS 232, con seis evaporadores de arco eléctrico y sistema de limpieza iónica patentado AEGD. Los recubrimientos han sido caracterizados, tanto química como mecánicamente, empleando las más modernas técnicas tribológicas (ultramicrodureza, scrascth tests, resistencia al desgaste... y espectroscópicas óptica por descarga luminiscente (GDOES. Los resultados obtenidos muestran que las técnicas de PVD son una

  18. Structure and corrosion properties of PVD Cr-N coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, C.; Bi, Q.; Ziegele, H.; Leyland, A.; Matthews, A.

    2002-01-01

    PVD Cr-N coatings produced by physical vapor deposition (PVD) are increasingly used for mechanical and tribological applications in various industrial sectors. These coatings are particularly attractive for their excellent corrosion resistance, which further enhances the lifetime and service quality of coated components. PVD Cr-N coated steels in an aqueous solution are usually corroded by galvanic attack via through-coating 'permeable' defects (e.g., pores). Therefore, the corrosion performance of Cr-N coated steel is determined by a number of variables of the coating properties and corrosive environment. These variables include: (i) surface continuity and uniformity; (ii) through-coating porosity; (iii) film density and chemical stability; (iv) growth stresses; (v) interfacial and intermediate layers; (vi) coating thickness; (vii) coating composition; and (viii) substrate properties. In this article, PVD Cr-N coatings were prepared, by electron-beam PVD and sputter deposition, with different compositions, thicknesses, and surface roughnesses, by changing the N 2 flow rate, applying multilayering techniques and changing the substrate finish prior to coating. The microstructure of such coatings is investigated by various analytical techniques such as glancing angle x-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy, which are also correlated with the corrosion performance of the coated steel. Both dc polarization and ac impedance spectroscopy were employed to investigate the corrosion resistance of Cr-N coated steel in a 0.5N NaCl solution. It has been found that the N 2 flow rate during reactive deposition strongly determines the microstructure of Cr-N coatings (due to the changing nitrogen content in the film) and can thus affect the corrosion resistance of coated systems. The surface finish of the steel substrate also affects the uniformity and coverage of PVD coatings; grooves and inclusions on the original substrate can raise the susceptibility of coated

  19. 47 CFR 27.1203 - EBS programming requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false EBS programming requirements. 27.1203 Section....1203 EBS programming requirements. (a) Except as provided in paragraphs (b), (c), and (d) of this section, BRS and EBS licensees are authorized to provide fixed or mobile service, except aeronautical...

  20. Development of environmentally compatible tribosystems with PVD-technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lugscheider, E.; Hornig, T.; Kienitz, S.; Klocke, F.; Krieg, T.

    2001-01-01

    PVD coatings offer a wide variety of applications. The focal point of this work is the development of an advanced type of PVD-hardcoating which allows machining with environmentally compatible lubricants. Representative examples for the investigations are the tribological systems 'turning of quenched and tempered steel 42CrMo4 V' and 'austenitic stainless steel X5CrNi18-10'. Ti-Hf-Cr-N and TiAlN/Al 2 O 3 were deposited by AIP- and H.I.S. TM - process respectively. These coating systems showed best results concerning oxidation wear and abrasive wear in former investigations. This was necessary because main cutting-edge life criterias are oxidation wear and abrasive wear at the minor cutting edge. Consequently, a high oxidation stability and a high hardness at high temperatures are required. (author)

  1. PVD Ti coatings on Sm-Co magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bovda, O.M.; Bovda, V.O.; Garkusha, I.E.; Leonov, S.O.; Onishchenko, L.V.; Tereshin, V.I.; Totrika, O.S.; Chen, C.H.

    2008-01-01

    The combination of conventional ion-plasma deposition (PVD) and pulsed plasma technologies (PPT) has been applied for rare-earth Sm-Co based magnets, to provide them with enhanced corrosion resistance. The influence of pulsed plasma treatment on Sm-Co magnets with deposited titanium PVD coatings has been investigated. It was revealed that thickness of modified layer significantly depends on the thickness of initial titanium film and plasma treatment regimes. As a result of plasma treatment with energy density of 30 J/cm 2 and pulse duration of ∼ 5 μs fine-grained layer with the thickness of 70 microns has been formed on the Sm-Co magnet with pure titanium film of 50 micron. According to SEM analyses considerable diffusion of titanium to the bulk of the magnet, on the depth of 20 microns, took place. Such reaction enhances strong bonding between the coating and the magnet

  2. Overview of UV and EB curing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garnett, J.L.

    2000-01-01

    Full text: UV and EB are complementary techniques in radiation curing. In the proposed paper, a brief review of both fields will be given. This will include principles of the process, the chemistry of the systems including monomers/oligomers/polymers used, additives required where necessary such as photoinitiators for UV, flow aids, adhesion promoters and the like. The types of equipment used in such processes will also be discussed including low energy electron beam utilisation and excimer curing. The advantages and disadvantages of both techniques will be examined. Mechanistic aspects of both curing systems will be discussed. Applications of the technology including developments in the banknote printing field will be summarised

  3. EB1 is required for primary cilia assembly in fibroblasts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schrøder, Jacob M; Schneider, Linda; Christensen, Søren T

    2007-01-01

    EB1 is a small microtubule (MT)-binding protein that associates preferentially with MT plus ends and plays a role in regulating MT dynamics. EB1 also targets other MT-associated proteins to the plus end and thereby regulates interactions of MTs with the cell cortex, mitotic kinetochores, and diff...... that localization of EB1 at the centriole/basal body is required for primary cilia assembly in fibroblasts....

  4. UV and EB radiation processing in developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garnett, J.L.

    1991-01-01

    Ultraviolet and electron beams (EB) are to be considered as complementary technologies in the radiation processing field. In many countries, UV processing is used as the pathfinder for EB. In the developing countries the decision to adopt radiation processing techniques to choose between UV and EB will largely be determined by economics, the availability of the chemists and also skilled personnel to service both lines and equipment. (orig./A.B.)

  5. PVD following plasmin but not hyaluronidase: implications for combination pharmacologic vitreolysis therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhi-Liang; Zhang, Xi; Xu, Xun; Sun, Xiao-Dong; Wang, Fang

    2005-01-01

    To study whether intravitreal injection of plasmin + hyaluronidase safely induces posterior vitreous detachment (PVD). Rabbits were randomized into three groups: (A) 20 rabbits, intravitreal injection of plasmin 1 U + hyaluronidase 20 U in balanced salt solution (BSS) 0.1 mL into one eye; (B) 12 rabbits, plasmin alone; (C) 12 rabbits, hyaluronidase alone. The fellow eye of each rabbit was injected BSS 0.1 mL. In Group A, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was done in four rabbits at 0.5 hour and in four rabbits at 1 hour. After 7 days, all the remaining 36 rabbits received electroretinography, SEM was examined in eight of each group, and immunohistochemistry was done in four of each group. SEM disclosed the eyes of Group A had complete PVD (8/8), Group B partial PVD (7/8), and Group C (8/8) and all the control eyes (24/24) no PVD after 7 days. Partial PVD was found in 4/4 at 0.5 hour and complete PVD was seen in 3/4 at 1 hour in Group A. Immunohistochemistry showed that the amounts of laminin and fibronectin in the vitreoretinal interface were decreased in Group A and B versus the control eyes (P 0.05). Electroretinography showed no changes in any group (P >0.05). Vitreous injection of plasmin + hyaluronidase induced complete PVD with no obvious toxicity. Plasmin induced partial PVD, but hyaluronidase had no effects.

  6. Study on the heat-resistant EB curing composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bao Jianwen; Li Yang; Li Fengmei

    2000-01-01

    There are many advantages in the EB-curing process of composites. Heat-resistant EB-curing composites could substitute for polyimide composites used in aeronautical engine. The effects of catalyst and dose on the cured resin were investigated. The heat-resistance of the resin cured by EB was evaluated by dynamic mechanical thermal analysis (DMTA). The experiment result shows that the mechanical property of the composites cured by EB could meet the needs of the aeronautical engine in 250degC. (author)

  7. Wear of Shaped Surfaces of PVD Coated Dies for Clinching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miroslav Džupon

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available A clinching method that uses a simple toolset consisting of a punch and a die, is utilized for joining lightweight materials. This paper is aimed at investigating the wear of the die cavity of a clinching tool. A clinching tool with a specially shaped cavity was used for joining thin hot-dip galvanized steel sheets. Various types of physical vapour deposition (PVD coatings such as ZrN, CrN and TiCN were deposited on the shaped surface of the die using Lateral Rotating Arc-Cathodes technology. Hot-dip galvanized steel sheets were used for testing the clinching tool. The material properties of PVD coatings that were deposited on the shaped part of the clinching die were evaluated. Finite Element Analysis was used to localize the area of the shaped part of the die and the part of surface area of the cylindrical die cavity of ϕ 5.0 mm, in which high contact pressure values were predicted. The prediction of the start of the wear cycle was verified experimentally by the clinching of 300 samples of hot-dip galvanized steel sheets. Unlike the CrN and ZrN coatings, the TiCN coating remained intact on the entire surface of the die.

  8. Raman microscopic studies of PVD deposited hard ceramic coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Constable, C.P.

    2000-01-01

    PVD hard ceramic coatings grown via the combined cathodic arc/unbalance magnetron deposition process were studied using Raman microscopy. Characteristic spectra from binary, multicomponent, multilayered and superlattice coatings were acquired to gain knowledge of the solid-state physics associated with Raman scattering from polycrystalline PVD coatings and to compile a comprehensive spectral database. Defect-induced first order scattering mechanisms were observed which gave rise to two pronounced groups of bands related to the acoustical (150- 300cm -1 ) and optical (400-7 50cm -1 ) parts of the phonon spectrum. Evidence was gathered to support the theory that the optic modes were mainly due to the vibrations of the lighter elements and the acoustic modes due to the vibrations of the heavier elements within the lattice. A study into the deformation and disordering on the Raman spectral bands of PVD coatings was performed. TiAIN and TiZrN coatings were intentionally damaged via scratching methods. These scratches were then analysed by Raman mapping, both across and along, and a detailed spectral interpretation performed. Band broadening occurred which was related to 'phonon relaxation mechanisms' as a direct result of the breaking up of coating grains resulting in a larger proportion of grain boundaries per-unit-volume. A direct correlation of the amount of damage with band width was observed. Band shifts were also found to occur which were due to the stresses caused by the scratching process. These shifts were found to be the largest at the edges of scratches. The Raman mapping of 'droplets', a defect inherent to PVD deposition processes, found that higher compressive stresses and large amounts of disorder occurred for coating growth onto droplets. Strategies designed to evaluate the ability of Raman microscopy to monitor the extent of real wear on cutting tools were evaluated. The removal of a coating layer and subsequent detection of a base layer proved

  9. Creep properties of EB welded joint on Hastelloy X

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arata, Yoshiaki; Susei, Shuzo; Shimizu, Shigeki; Satoh, Keisuke; Nagai, Hiroyoshi.

    1980-01-01

    In order to clarify the creep properties of EB welds on Hastelloy X which is one of the candidate alloys for components of VHTR, creep tests on EB weld metal and welded joint were carried out. The results were discussed in comparison with those of base metal and TIG welds. Further, EB welds were evaluated from the standpoint of high temperature structural design. The results obtained are summarized as follows. 1) Both creep rupture strengths of EB weld metal and EB welded joint are almost equal to that of base metal, but those of TIG welds are lower than base metal. As for the secondary creep rate, EB weld metal is higher and TIG weld metal is lower than base metal. As for the time to onset of tertiary creep, no remarkable difference among base metal, EB weld metal and TIG weld metal is observed. 2) In case of EB weld metal, although anisotropy is slightly observed, the ductility is same or more as compared with base metal. In case of TIG weld metal, on the contrary, anisotropy is not observed and the ductility is essentially low. 3) Such rupture morphology of EB weld metal as appears to have resulted from interconnection of voids which occurred at grain boundary is similar to base metal. In case of TIG weld metal, however, many cracks with sharp tips are observed at grain boundary, and the rupture appears to have occurred in brittle by propagation and connection of the cracks. 4) It can be said from the standpoint of high temperature structural design that EB welding is very suitable to welding for structure where creep effects are significant, because both of the creep ductility and the rupture strength are almost equal to those of base metal. (author)

  10. Analysis of influence of different pressure and different depth of pvd on soft foundation treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Bin; Wang, XueKui

    2018-02-01

    According to the depth of plastic vertical drainage (pvd), the arrangement mode and the loading mode to analyze the influence of Vacuum preloading near the existing road. An arrangement mode of vacuum preloading to reduce the impact was put forward. The combination of different depth of pvd and loading modes are used to analyze the effect of vacuum preloading treatment and its influence range. The calculations show that the deformation and the influence distance are smaller by using the 40kPa vacuum loading and 41kPa surcharge load preloading. Reducing the depth of the pvd and vacuum combined surcharge preloading can weaken the influence to the existing highway.

  11. Antiviral activity of the EB peptide against zoonotic poxviruses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Altmann Sharon E

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The EB peptide is a 20-mer that was previously shown to have broad spectrum in vitro activity against several unrelated viruses, including highly pathogenic avian influenza, herpes simplex virus type I, and vaccinia, the prototypic orthopoxvirus. To expand on this work, we evaluated EB for in vitro activity against the zoonotic orthopoxviruses cowpox and monkeypox and for in vivo activity in mice against vaccinia and cowpox. Findings In yield reduction assays, EB had an EC50 of 26.7 μM against cowpox and 4.4 μM against monkeypox. The EC50 for plaque reduction was 26.3 μM against cowpox and 48.6 μM against monkeypox. A scrambled peptide had no inhibitory activity against either virus. EB inhibited cowpox in vitro by disrupting virus entry, as evidenced by a reduction of the release of virus cores into the cytoplasm. Monkeypox was also inhibited in vitro by EB, but at the attachment stage of infection. EB showed protective activity in mice infected intranasally with vaccinia when co-administered with the virus, but had no effect when administered prophylactically one day prior to infection or therapeutically one day post-infection. EB had no in vivo activity against cowpox in mice. Conclusions While EB did demonstrate some in vivo efficacy against vaccinia in mice, the limited conditions under which it was effective against vaccinia and lack of activity against cowpox suggest EB may be more useful for studying orthopoxvirus entry and attachment in vitro than as a therapeutic against orthopoxviruses in vivo.

  12. Yttria-stabilized zirkonia / gadolinium zirconate double-layer plasma-sprayed thermal barrier coating systems (TBCs)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bakan, Emine

    2015-07-01

    thermal conductivity, coefficient of thermal expansion as well as time and temperature-dependent elastic and creep deformations. Thermal cycling results displayed that the double-layer YSZ/GZO TBC concept is able to provide significant lifetime improvement at 1400 C surface temperature compared to the standard YSZ. The investigations on the chemical composition of the as-sprayed GZO revealed that no significant gadolinia evaporation, which would compromise the performance of the coating, takes place in the examined spray current range (300 A-525 A). The detailed examination of microstructural properties of the as-sprayed GZO highlighted the importance of the process parameters for achieving the desired porosity features assisting superior lifetime performances. A significant insight was gained into the elastic and creep deformation of the plasma-sprayed YSZ and GZO coatings which play a critical role on the development of advanced TBCs. The overarching conclusion of this work is that the GZO has the potential to increase the temperature capability of gasturbines, if it is applied in double-layer TBC systems and if its microstructure is tailored by adapted processing.

  13. Yttria-stabilized zirkonia / gadolinium zirconate double-layer plasma-sprayed thermal barrier coating systems (TBCs)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bakan, Emine

    2015-01-01

    as time and temperature-dependent elastic and creep deformations. Thermal cycling results displayed that the double-layer YSZ/GZO TBC concept is able to provide significant lifetime improvement at 1400 C surface temperature compared to the standard YSZ. The investigations on the chemical composition of the as-sprayed GZO revealed that no significant gadolinia evaporation, which would compromise the performance of the coating, takes place in the examined spray current range (300 A-525 A). The detailed examination of microstructural properties of the as-sprayed GZO highlighted the importance of the process parameters for achieving the desired porosity features assisting superior lifetime performances. A significant insight was gained into the elastic and creep deformation of the plasma-sprayed YSZ and GZO coatings which play a critical role on the development of advanced TBCs. The overarching conclusion of this work is that the GZO has the potential to increase the temperature capability of gasturbines, if it is applied in double-layer TBC systems and if its microstructure is tailored by adapted processing.

  14. Simultaneous Co-deposition of Zn-Mg Alloy Layers on Steel Strip by PVD Process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Tae Yeob [POSCO Technical Research Laboratories, Gwangyang (Korea, Republic of); Goodenough, Mark [Strategic Marketing, Tata Steel, Warwickshire (United Kingdom)

    2011-12-15

    This is the first release of an interim report on the development of coating technology of Zn-Mg alloy layers on steel strip by EML-PVD (electromagnetic levitation - physical vapor deposition) process in an air-to-air type continuous PVD pilot plant. It intends to introduce a basic principle of the EML-PVD process together with the high speed PVD pilot plant built in Posco. Due to the agitation effect provided by the high frequency induction coil, simultaneous evaporation of Zn and Mg from a droplet could produce alloy coating layers with Mg content of 6% to 12% depending on the composition of the droplet inside the coil. For its superior corrosion resistance, Zn-Mg alloy coated steel would be a very promising material for automotive, electrical appliances, and construction applications.

  15. Simultaneous Co-deposition of Zn-Mg Alloy Layers on Steel Strip by PVD Process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Tae Yeob; Goodenough, Mark

    2011-01-01

    This is the first release of an interim report on the development of coating technology of Zn-Mg alloy layers on steel strip by EML-PVD (electromagnetic levitation - physical vapor deposition) process in an air-to-air type continuous PVD pilot plant. It intends to introduce a basic principle of the EML-PVD process together with the high speed PVD pilot plant built in Posco. Due to the agitation effect provided by the high frequency induction coil, simultaneous evaporation of Zn and Mg from a droplet could produce alloy coating layers with Mg content of 6% to 12% depending on the composition of the droplet inside the coil. For its superior corrosion resistance, Zn-Mg alloy coated steel would be a very promising material for automotive, electrical appliances, and construction applications

  16. THE CONCEPT OF INTEGRATED ENGINEERING AND BUSINESS (EB EDUCATION SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michał Charlak

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In our approach to engineering and business education system an engineer is a man working as creator and user of technical products. We stress that the process of understanding and gaining knowledge of technical reality and creativity of engineers are the essential for EB concept . Next, we describe briefly three perspectives for building the system of innovative product origination as a basis for EB system: 1 designer’s perspective; 2 business perspective. 3 consumer perspective.

  17. Process-Structure-Property Relationships of Micron Thick Gadolinium Oxide Films Deposited by Reactive Electron Beam-Physical Vapor Deposition (EB-PVD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-01

    transparency is important (i.e., protective eyewear , windshields, building windows and architecture, road signs, etc).22 However, for development of a Gd2G...B. in Industrial Minerals and Rocks 769-792 (2006). 32. Atwood, D. A. The Rare Earth Elements : Fundamentals and Applications. 1-624 (Wiley, 2013

  18. Low Conductive Thermal Barrier Coatings Produced by Ion Beam Assisted EB-PVD with Controlled Porosity, Microstructure Refinement and Alloying Additions for High Temperature Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfe, Douglas E.; Singh, Jogender

    2005-01-01

    Various advanced Hafnia-based thermal barrier coatings (TBC) were applied on nickel-based superalloy coupons by electron beam physical vapor deposition. In addition, microstructural modifications to the coating material were made in an effort to reduce the thermal conductivity of the coating materials. Various processing parameters and coating system modifications were made in order to deposit the alloyed TBC with the desired microstructure and thus coating performance, some of which include applying coatings at substrate temperatures of 1150 C on both PtAl and CoNiCrAlY bond coated samples, as well as using 8YSZ as a bond layer. In addition, various characterization techniques including thermal cyclic tests, scanning electron microscopy, x-ray diffraction, thermal conductivity, and reflectivity measurements were performed. Although the coating microstructure was never fully optimized due to funding being cut short, significant reductions in thermal conductivity were accomplished through both chemistry changes (composition) and microstructural modifications.

  19. The effect of Al intermediate layer on thermal resistance of EB-PVD yttria-stabilized zirconia coatings on titanium substrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panin, Alexey; Panin, Victor; Kazachenok, Marina; Shugurov, Artur; Sinyakova, Elena; Martynov, Sergey; Rusyaev, Andrey; Kasterov, Artur

    2017-12-01

    The yttria-stabilized zirconia coatings sprayed on titanium substrates by the electron beam physical vapor deposition were subjected to thermal annealing in air at 1000°C for 1, 30 and 60 min. The delamination and fracture of the coatings are studied by the scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. It is shown that a magnetron sputtered Al interlayer between the coating and the substrate considerably improves the thermal resistance of ceramic coatings.

  20. Prevalence of early and late stages of physiologic PVD in emmetropic elderly population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwab, Christoph; Ivastinovic, Domagoj; Borkenstein, Andreas; Lackner, Eva-Maria; Wedrich, Andreas; Velikay-Parel, Michaela

    2012-05-01

    To investigate the early and late stages of posterior vitreous detachment (PVD) in the foveal area in correlation with age and gender. Three hundred and thirty-five emmetropic eyes of 271 Caucasian patients (216 women/119 men) were examined by optical coherence tomography (OCT) and ultrasound (US). Eyes were classified into groups according to the patients age (up to 69.9; 70-74.9; 75-79.9; over 80 years) and to the clinical findings [Vitreous state: Detached in US; Detached in OCT; Foveal adhesion (FA); Attached vitreous]. The mean age was 76 ± 8 ranging from 44 to 89 years in female and 72 ± 10 ranging from 46 to 87 years in male subjects. The vitreous was attached in 32% of all eyes, 18.5% had FA, 18.5% were detached in OCT and 68% were detached in US. While prevalence of FA decreases with increasing age, OCT-diagnosed detachments did not change significantly with age. Between the ages of 70 and 75, an increase in PVD rates occurred. The prevalence of PVD was similar in both genders. Women were significantly older than men in the late-stage PVD in the eyes. The use of OCT and US enabled us to detect a partial or total PVD in 80% of the eyes. A sudden increase in late-stage PVD between the ages of 70 and 75 was observed, correlating with the reported age prevalence of various macular diseases. In contrast to myopics, both genders of elderly emmetropics have a similar prevalence of PVD. © 2011 The Authors. Acta Ophthalmologica © 2011 Acta Ophthalmologica Scandinavica Foundation.

  1. EB-curing of coatings on wood composite boards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Czvikovszky, T.; Czajlic, I.; Takacs, E.; Ille, A.; Salleh, N.G.; Alpar, T.

    1988-01-01

    The industrial radiation processing using low energy electron beam (EB) accelerators lower than 300 keV offers high speed, safe technologies for the chemical conversion of thin layer coatings. Because of the nonselective mode of initiating chain reaction polymerization involving free radicals in synthetic coating layers and suitable substrates, the EB curing of the coatings on woods and papers has particular advantage. Hungary decided to start an up-to-date EB line to process cement-bound (CB) wood chipboards with pigmented acrylic coatings. The CB wood chipboards contain more than 60 % of portland cement and up to 40 % of wood particles. They are produced as large boads of 6 - 16 mm thickness. In their fireproof character and other aspects, they are similar to asbestos-cement boards without containing carcinagenic asbestos, and are stable against moisture and atmospheric influences. EB-cured acrylate coating improved further those properties, and makes them valuable structural material. Oligomers and monomers as the main components of EB curable coatings, the irradiation with a Van de Graaff type electron accelerator of 2 MeV and the results are reported. The oligomers play the most important role in the formation of radiation curable coatings. (K.I.)

  2. Adaptive PVD Steganography Using Horizontal, Vertical, and Diagonal Edges in Six-Pixel Blocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anita Pradhan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The traditional pixel value differencing (PVD steganographical schemes are easily detected by pixel difference histogram (PDH analysis. This problem could be addressed by adding two tricks: (i utilizing horizontal, vertical, and diagonal edges and (ii using adaptive quantization ranges. This paper presents an adaptive PVD technique using 6-pixel blocks. There are two variants. The proposed adaptive PVD for 2×3-pixel blocks is known as variant 1, and the proposed adaptive PVD for 3×2-pixel blocks is known as variant 2. For every block in variant 1, the four corner pixels are used to hide data bits using the middle column pixels for detecting the horizontal and diagonal edges. Similarly, for every block in variant 2, the four corner pixels are used to hide data bits using the middle row pixels for detecting the vertical and diagonal edges. The quantization ranges are adaptive and are calculated using the correlation of the two middle column/row pixels with the four corner pixels. The technique performs better as compared to the existing adaptive PVD techniques by possessing higher hiding capacity and lesser distortion. Furthermore, it has been proven that the PDH steganalysis and RS steganalysis cannot detect this proposed technique.

  3. Scania RBS brake system; Das Bremssystem EBS von Scania

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winterhagen, J.

    1996-09-01

    Scania claims to be the first producer of industrial vehicles to market an electronic braking system (EBS) combined with disc brakes for all axles. The new braking systems for long-distance trailers were presented for the first time at the IAA, Hanover, in September 1996. (orig.) [Deutsch] Scania ist nach eigenen Angaben der erste Lkw-Hersteller, der eine elektronisch geregelte Bremsanlage (EBS) in Kombination mit Scheibenbremsen an allen Achsen auf den Markt bringt. Der Oeffentlichkeit stellt Scania das neue Bremssystem fuer die Fernverkehrs-Zugmaschinen der Baureihe 4 zum ersten Mal auf der IAA in Hannover im September 1996 vor. (orig.)

  4. The chemistry of UV and EB radiation curing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garnett, J.L.

    1987-01-01

    The application of photopolymerisation (UV) and electron beam (EB) technologies in radiation rapid cure (RRC) processing is discussed. The chemistry associated with such reactions and the mechanisms of the processes are treated. The occurrence of concurrent grafting to substrate with radiation curing of film is shown to be an advantage in enhancing the properties of certain finished products. The parameters influencing the optimum grafting yield in such RRC processes are discussed. In many applications, the chemistry of the process combined with the machine, expecially for EB, is shown a so-called ''turn-key'' operation. (author)

  5. EB dose calibration for 10 MeV linear accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Owczarczyk, H.B.; Migdal, W.; Stachowicz, W.

    2002-01-01

    The National Institute of Standards and Technology Gaitherburg USA has done in co-operation with INCT Warsaw the EPR dose measurements for two INCT 60 Co irradiators using l-alanine standard pellets as dosimeter medium. In the study the comparative EPR measurements of doses up to 40 kGy have been done using l-alanine powder with 60 Co source (reference to NIST standard) and EB linear accelerator, respectively. On the basis of this comparative study 5% correction factor for EB dose measurements has been adapted in the INCT Experimental Plant for Food Irradiation traceable to the dose estimations done with the Risoe calorimetric system

  6. Comparative study of dlc coatings by pvd against cvd technique on textile dents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malik, M.; Alam, S.; Iftikhar, F.

    2007-01-01

    Diamond like Carbon (DLC) film is a hard amorphous carbon hydride film formed by Physical or Chemical vapor deposition (PVD or CVD) techniques. Due to its unique properties especially high hardness, lower coefficient of friction and lubricious nature, these coatings are not only used to extend the life of cutting tools but also for non cutting applications such as for forming dies, molds and on many functional parts of textile. In the present work two techniques were employed i.e. PVD and CVD for deposition of diamond like carbon film on textile dents. These dents are used as thread guider in high speed weaving machine. The measurement of coating thickness, adhesion, hardness and roughness values indicates that overall properties of DLC coating developed by PVD LARC technology reduces abrasion and increases the workability and durability of textile dents as well as suppress the need of lubricants. (author)

  7. Life assessment of PVD based hard coatings by linear sweep voltammetry for high performance industrial application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malik, M.; Alam, S.; Irfan, M.; Hassan, Z.

    2006-01-01

    PVD based hard coatings have remarkable achievements in order to improve Tribological and surface properties of coating tools and dies. As PVD based hard coatings have a wide range of industrial applications especially in aerospace and automobile parts where they met different chemical attacks and in order to improve industrial performance these coatings must provide an excellent resistance against corrosion, high temperature oxidation and chemical reaction. This paper focuses on study of behaviour of PVD based hard coatings under different corrosive environments like as H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/, HCl, NaCl, KCl, NaOH etc. Corrosion rate was calculate under linear sweep voltammetry method where the Tafel extrapolation curves used for continuously monitoring the corrosion rate. The results show that these coatings have an excellent resistance against chemical attack. (author)

  8. EB treatment of carbon nanotube-reinforced polymer composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szebenyi, G.; Romhany, G.; Czvikovszky, T.; Vajna, B.

    2011-01-01

    Complete text of publication follows. A small amount - less than 0.5% - carbon nanotube reinforcement may improve significantly the mechanical properties of epoxy based composite materials. The basic technical problem is on one side the dispersion of the nanotubes into the viscous matrix resin. Namely the fine, powder-like - less than 100 nanometer diameter - nanotubes are prone to form aggregates. On the other side, the good connection between the nanofiber and matrix, - which is determining the success of the reinforcement, - requires some efficient adhesion promoting treatment. After an elaborate masterbatch mixing technology we applied Electron Beam treatment of epoxy-matrix polymer composites containing carbon nanotubes in presence of vinylester resins. The Raman spectra of vinylester-epoxy mixtures treated by an 8 MeV EB showed the advantage of the electron treatment. Even in the case of partially immiscible epoxy and vinylester resins, the anchorage of carbon nanotubes reflects improvement if a reasonable 25 kGy EB dose is applied. Atomic Force Microscopy as well as mechanical tests on flexural and impact properties confirm the benefits of EB treatment. Simultaneous application of multiwall carbon nanotubes and 'conventional' carbon fibers as reinforcement in vinylester modified epoxies results in new types of hybrid nanocomposites as engineering materials. The bending- and interlaminar properties of such hybrid systems showed the beneficial effect of the EB treatment. Acknowledgement: This work has been supported by the New Hungary Development Plan (Project ID: TAMOP-4.2.1/B-09/1/KMR-2010-0002).

  9. Interfacial fatigue stress in PVD TiN coated tool steels under rolling contact fatigue conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Carvalho, N.J.M.; Huis in ’t Veld, A.J.; Hosson, J.Th. De

    1998-01-01

    Titanium–nitrogen (TiN) films were Physical Vapour Deposited (PVD) on tool steel substrates with different hardness and surface roughness, in a Bai 640R unit using a triode ion plating (e-gun) with a high plasma density. The coated substrates were submitted to a rolling contact fatigue test technique (modified pin-on-ring test) to obtain some clarifications of the mechanism of interfacial failure. Tests were run using PVD-coated rings finished by polishing or grinding to produce different sur...

  10. PVD processes of thin films deposition using Hall-current discharge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Svadkovskij, I.V.

    2007-01-01

    Results of research and developments in the field of PVD processes of thin films deposition using Hall-current discharge have been summarized. Effects of interaction of ions with surface during deposition have been considered. Also features of application and prospects of devices based on ion beam and magnetron sputtering systems in thin films technologies have been analyzed. The aspects in the field plasma physics, technology and equipment plasma PVD processes of thin films deposition have been systematized, on the base of investigations made by author and other scientists. (authors)

  11. Properties of Pd nanograins in C-Pd composite films obtained by PVD method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kozłowski M.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Properties of palladium nanograins obtained by sedimentation of a soluted C-Pd film prepared by PVD method are presented. These properties were studied using SEM and TEM methods. Dissolved films were prepared by PVD method and after dissolving, they were fractionated to obtain different parts classified with palladium nanograins diameters. Several classes of diameters were determined: below 20 nm, between 20 and 100 nm and above 100 nm. The defects and triple junction were observed. Multishell carbonaceous structures were found in the big and medium size Pd nanograins.

  12. Microstructure, Tensile Adhesion Strength and Thermal Shock Resistance of TBCs with Different Flame-Sprayed Bond Coat Materials Onto BMI Polyimide Matrix Composite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abedi, H. R.; Salehi, M.; Shafyei, A.

    2017-10-01

    In this study, thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) composed of different bond coats (Zn, Al, Cu-8Al and Cu-6Sn) with mullite top coats were flame-sprayed and air-plasma-sprayed, respectively, onto bismaleimide matrix composites. These polyimide matrix composites are of interest to replace PMR-15, due to concerns about the toxicity of the MDA monomer from which PMR-15 is made. The results showed that pores and cracks appeared at the bond coat/substrate interface for the Al-bonded TBC because of its high thermal conductivity and diffusivity resulting in transferring of high heat flux and temperature to the polymeric substrate during top coat deposition. The other TBC systems due to the lower conductivity and diffusivity of bonding layers could decrease the adverse thermal effect on the polymer substrate during top coat deposition and exhibited adhesive bond coat/substrate interfaces. The tensile adhesion test showed that the adhesion strength of the coatings to the substrate is inversely proportional to the level of residual stress in the coatings. However, the adhesion strength of Al bond-coated sample decreased strongly after mullite top coat deposition due to thermal damage at the bond coat/substrate interface. TBC system with the Cu-6Sn bond coat exhibited the best thermal shock resistance, while Al-bonded TBC showed the lowest. It was inferred that thermal mismatch stresses and oxidation of the bond coats were the main factors causing failure in the thermal shock test.

  13. Insights on the High-Temperature Operational Limits of ZrO2-Y2O3 TBCs Manufactured via Air Plasma Spray

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Rogerio S.; Marple, Basil R.

    2017-03-01

    The effective high-temperature operation limit of a ZrO2-7-8 wt.%Y2O3 (YSZ) thermal barrier coating (TBC) manufactured via air plasma spray (APS) is considered to be 1300 °C. This is related to the metastable tetragonal t'-phase formed during the rapid quenching of the YSZ particles during spraying. The t'-phase transforms into the equilibrium tetragonal and cubic phases at temperatures ≥ 1300 °C, which can lead to the formation of the monoclinic phase of YSZ upon cooling to room temperature. This formation of the monoclinic phase is accompanied by a volume expansion that leads to TBC failure due to extensive micro-cracking. To further investigate this limitation, an APS YSZ TBC was sprayed on a CMSX-4 substrate. By using a thermal (laser) gradient cyclic testing, a temperature gradient was generated across the TBC/substrate system. The YSZ T- front and substrate backside T- back temperature levels were 1500 and 1000 °C, respectively. In cycle conditions (5-min or 1-h hot and 2-min cool), no TBC failure has been observed. This behavior was partially attributed to the unexpected absence of the monoclinic phase of the YSZ in the cycled coatings. Although preliminary, these results are promising regarding increasing the effective high-temperature operational limits of APS YSZ TBCs.

  14. Challenging metastatic breast cancer with the natural defensin PvD1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueira, Tiago N; Oliveira, Filipa D; Almeida, Inês; Mello, Érica O; Gomes, Valdirene M; Castanho, Miguel A R B; Gaspar, Diana

    2017-11-09

    Metastatic breast cancer is a very serious life threatening condition that poses many challenges for the pharmaceutical development of effective chemotherapeutics. As the therapeutics targeted to the localized masses in breast improve, metastatic lesions in the brain slowly increase in their incidence compromising successful treatment outcomes overall. The blood-brain-barrier (BBB) is one important obstacle for the management of breast cancer brain metastases. New therapeutic approaches are in demand for overcoming the BBB's breaching by breast tumor cells. In this work we demonstrate the potential dual role of a natural antimicrobial plant defensin, PvD 1 : it interferes with the formation of solid tumors in the breast and concomitantly controls adhesion of breast cancer cells to human brain endothelial cells. We have used a combination of techniques that probe PvD 1 's effect at the single cell level and reveal that this peptide can effectively damage breast tumor cells, leaving healthy breast and brain cells unaffected. Results suggest that PvD1 quickly internalizes in cancer cells but remains located in the membrane of normal cells with no significant damage to its structure and biomechanical properties. These interactions in turn modulate cell adhesiveness between tumor and BBB cells. PvD 1 is a potential template for the design of innovative pharmacological approaches for metastatic breast cancer treatment: the manipulation of the biomechanical properties of tumor cells that ultimately prevent their attachment to the BBB.

  15. Interfacial fatigue stress in PVD TiN coated tool steels under rolling contact fatigue conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carvalho, N.J.M.; Huis in 't Veld, A.J.; Hosson, J.T. de

    1998-01-01

    Titanium-nitrogen (TiN) films were Physical Vapour Deposited (PVD) on tool steel substrates with different hardness and surface roughness, in a Bai 640R unit using a triode ion plating (e-gun) with a high plasma density. The coated substrates were submitted to a rolling contact fatigue test

  16. Interfacial fatigue stress in PVD TiN coated tool steels under rolling contact fatigue conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carvalho, N.J.M.; Huis in ’t Veld, A.J.; Hosson, J.Th. De

    1998-01-01

    Titanium–nitrogen (TiN) films were Physical Vapour Deposited (PVD) on tool steel substrates with different hardness and surface roughness, in a Bai 640R unit using a triode ion plating (e-gun) with a high plasma density. The coated substrates were submitted to a rolling contact fatigue test

  17. Microstructural investigations of interfaces in PVD TiN coated tool steels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carvalho, NJM; in't Veld, AJH; De Hosson, JTM; Lejcek, P; Paidar,

    1999-01-01

    The microstructure of PVD TiN coated tools steels composites has been investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). It was found that the microstructure of the coatings consists of a dense fibrous structure typical of a zone T structure. When the

  18. Crack resistance of pvd coatings : Influence of surface treatment prior to deposition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zoestbergen, E; de Hosson, J.T.M.

    The crack resistance of three different PVD coatings, TiN, Ti(C,N), and a multilayer system of alternating TiN and TiAlN, have been investigated. The three coating systems were deposited onto substrates with a different surface roughness to study the influence of this pretreatment on the crack

  19. EB-promoted recycling of waste tire rubber with polyolefins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mészáros, László; Bárány, Tamás; Czvikovszky, Tibor

    2012-09-01

    Despite the fact that more and more methods and solutions are used in the recycling of polymers, there are still some problems, especially in the recycling of cross-linked materials such as rubber. Usually the biggest problem is the lack of compatibility between the cross-linked rubber and the thermoplastic matrix. In this study we applied ground tire rubber (GTR) as recycled material. The GTR was embedded into polyethylene (PE) and polyethylene/ethylene-vinyl acetate copolymer (PE/EVA) matrices. In order to increase the compatibility of the components electron beam (EB) irradiation was applied. The results showed that the irradiation has a beneficial effect on the polymer-GTR interfacial connection. The EB treatment increased not only the tensile strength but also the elongation at break. The irradiation had also positive effect on the impact strength properties.

  20. Performance of a dual-process PVD/PS tungsten coating structure under deuterium ion irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hyunmyung; Lee, Ho Jung; Kim, Sung Hwan [Department of Nuclear and Quantum Engineering, KAIST, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Song, Jae-Min [Department of Nuclear Engineering, Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Jang, Changheui, E-mail: chjang@kaist.ac.kr [Department of Nuclear and Quantum Engineering, KAIST, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-11-01

    Highlights: • D{sup +} irradiation performance of a dual-process PVD/PS W coating was evaluated. • Low-energy plasmas exposure of 100 eV D{sup +} with 1.17 × 10{sup 21} D/s{sup −1} m{sup 2} flux was applied. • After D ion irradiation, flakes were observed on the surface of the simple PS coating. • While, sub-μm size protrusions were observed for dual-process PVD/PS W coating. • Height of D spike in depth profile was lower for dual-process PVD/PS W coating. - Abstract: A dual-process coating structure was developed on a graphite substrate to improve the performance of the coating structure under anticipated operating condition of fusion devices. A thin multilayer W/Mo coating (6 μm) was deposited by physical vapor deposition (PVD) method with a variation of Mo interlayer thickness on plasma spray (PS) W coating (160 μm) of a graphite substrate panel. The dual-process PVD/PS W coatings then were exposed to 3.08 × 10{sup 24} D m{sup −2} of 100 eV D ions with a flux of 1.71 × 10{sup 21} D m{sup −2} s{sup −1} in an electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) chamber. After irradiation, surface morphology and D depth profiles of the dual-process coating were analyzed and compared to those of the simple PS W coating. Both changes in surface morphology and D retention were strongly dependent on the microstructure of surface coating. Meanwhile, the existence of Mo interlayer seemed to have no significant effect on the retention of deuterium.

  1. Production of AlN films: ion nitriding versus PVD coating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Figueroa, U.; Salas, O.; Oseguera, J.

    2004-01-01

    The properties of AlN render this material very attractive for optical, electronic, and tribological applications; thus, a great interest exists for the production of thin AlN films on a variety of substrates. Many methods have been developed for this purpose where two processes stand out: plasma-assisted nitriding (PAN) and PVD coating. In the present paper, we compare the processing advantages and disadvantages of both methods in terms of the characteristics of the layers formed. AlN production by ion nitriding is very sensitive to presputtering cleaning and working pressure. Layers several micrometers thick can be produced in a few hours, which are formed by a fine mixture of Al+AlN. The surface morphology of the layers is rather rough. On the other hand, formation of PVD AlN coatings by DC reactive magnetron sputtering is more readily performed and better controlled than in ion nitriding. PVD results in macroscopically smoother AlN films and with similar thickness than the ion nitrided layers but produced in shorter processing times. The morphology of the PVD AlN layers is columnar with a fairly flat surface. Mechanisms for the formation of both types of AlN layers are proposed. One of the main differences between the two processes that explain the different AlN layer morphologies is the energy of the particles that arrive at the substrate. Considering only the processing advantages and the morphology of the AlN layers formed, PVD performs better than PAN processing

  2. TIP maker and TIP marker; EB1 as a master controller of microtubule plus ends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaughan, Kevin T

    2005-10-24

    The EB1 protein is a member of the exciting and enigmatic family of microtubule (MT) tip-tracking proteins. EB1 acts as an exquisite marker of dynamic MT plus ends in some cases, whereas in others EB1 is thought to directly dictate the behavior of the plus ends. How EB1 differentiates between these two roles remains unclear; however, a growing list of interactions between EB1 and other MT binding proteins suggests there may be a single mechanism. Adding another layer of complexity to these interactions, two studies published in this issue implicate EB1 in cross-talk between mitotic MTs and between MTs and actin filaments (Goshima et al., p. 229; Wu et al., p. 201). These results raise the possibility that EB1 is a central player in MT-based transport, and that the activity of MT-binding proteins depends on their ability or inability to interact with EB1.

  3. Using EB-QFD to achieve competitive advantages for world class manufacturing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahman Mostofi

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper introduces a tool named EB-QFD used for electronic business planning in strategic issues. Nowadays, the challenges of manufacturing sectors for achieving global competition will depend on their speed to change from domestic to world class manufacturing organizations, also the rapid global deployment of electronic business, information technology and their benefits have required managers to make decision, which look for a balance world class manufacturing factors with strategic business goals. To ensure that selected e-business strategies meet world class manufacturing requirements, organizations should simultaneously explore and communicate the relationship between world class manufacturing and electronic business. Electronic business planners can achieve competitive advantages through the implementation of an integration of quality function deployment (QFD with electronic business (EB called EB-QFD. This study is based on data collected from an Iranian auto parts manufacturing company and the implementation of EB-QFD. In this research, EB-QFD contains two parts named EB-WHATs as needs of Electronic Business and EB-HOWs as resources for EB-WHATs. Statistical analysis points that there are positive relationships between using EB-WHATs and EB-HOW and world class manufacturing factors as competitive advantages. We used electronic business systems for EB-WHATs and resource based view (RBV for EB-HOWs.

  4. New surface modification method of bio-titanium alloy by EB polishing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okada, Akira; Uno, Yoshiyuki; Iio, Atsuo; Fujiwara, Kunihiko; Doi, Kenji

    2008-01-01

    A new surface modification for bio-titanium alloy products by electron beam (EB) polishing is proposed. In this EB polishing method, high energy density EB can be irradiated without concentrating the beam. Therefore, large-area EB with a maximum diameter of 60 mm can be used for instantaneously melting or evaporating metal surface. Experimental results made it clear that surface characteristics, such as repellency, corrosion resistance and coefficient of friction could be improved simultaneously with the surface smoothing in a few minutes under a proper condition. Therefore, EB polishing method has a possibility of high efficient surface smoothing and surface modification process for bio-titanium alloy. (author)

  5. EB curable wetting resins for magnetic media coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laskin, L.; Ansel, R.E.; Murray, K.P.; Schmid, S.R.

    1984-01-01

    The magnetic media industry is studying means to improve the recording density, durability, product uniformity and production efficiency and to reduce wetting agent migration in the magnetic film. The use of electron beam curable resin binders for magnetic coatings is one of the approaches being studied for this. This paper compares the wetting efficiencies of several electron beam curable systems with a conventional resin and a conventional wetting agent. In this study it has been demonstrated that EB resins can be designed to effect proper magnetic pigment dispersion

  6. Engineered barrier systems (EBS): design requirements and constraints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    A joint NEA-EC workshop entitled 'Engineered Barrier Systems: Design Requirements and Constraints' was organised in Turku, Finland on 26-29 August 2003 and hosted by Posiva Oy. The main objectives of the workshop were to promote interaction and collaboration among experts responsible for engineering design and safety assessment in order to develop a greater understanding of how to achieve the integration needed for the successful design of engineered barrier systems, and to clarify the role that an EBS can play in the overall safety case for a repository. These proceedings present the outcomes of this workshop. (author)

  7. EB curing of oxidative-polymerized linseed oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ju Xuecheng; Ha Hongfei

    2000-01-01

    The properties of EB curing coating films, which were determined by the structure of oxidative-polymerized linseed oil, were as following: good gloss, low hardness, better flexibility and impact resistance, low glass transition temperature and bad adhesion on tinplate. Oxidative-polymerized linseed oil could be used with other compositions not only as oligomer, but also as functional monomer to improve the properties of coating films of composite systems. Both absorbed dose sand Cobaltous naphthenate had little influence on the properties of these coating films

  8. Identification of residues of FpvA involved in the different steps of Pvd-Fe uptake in Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nader, Mirella; Dobbelaere, Wim; Vincent, Michel; Journet, Laure; Adams, Hendrik; Cobessi, David; Gallay, Jacques; Schalk, Isabelle J

    2007-10-23

    FpvA is an outer membrane transporter involved in iron uptake by the siderophore pyoverdine (Pvd) in Pseudomonas aeruginosa. This transporter, like all other proteins of the same family, consists of a transmembrane 22 beta-stranded barrel occluded by a plug domain. The beta-strands of the barrel are connected by large extracellular loops and short periplasmic turns. Site-directed mutagenesis was carried out on FpvA to identify the extracellular loops or parts of these loops involved in the various stages of Pvd-Fe uptake. The G286C, W362C, and W434C mutations in loops L1, L3, and L4, respectively, disturbed the binding of the apo siderophore, as shown by time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy. Iron uptake experiments followed by fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) or using 55Fe indicated that residues W434 and G701 and, therefore, loops L4 and L9 must be involved in Pvd-Fe uptake by FpvA. The two corresponding mutants incorporated smaller than normal amounts of 55Fe into cells, and no Pvd recycling on FpvA was observed after iron release. Surprisingly, the S603C mutation in loop L7 increased the amount of Pvd-Fe transported. Our results suggest that W434 (L4), S603 (L7), and G701 (L9) are involved in the mechanism of Pvd-Fe uptake.

  9. Depth-resolved X-ray residual stress analysis in PVD (Ti, Cr) N hard coatings

    CERN Document Server

    Genzel, C

    2003-01-01

    Physical vapour deposition (PVD) of thin hard coatings on TiN basis is usually performed at rather low temperatures (T sub D < 500 C) far from thermal equilibrium, which leads to high intrinsic residual stresses in the growing film. In contrast to the extrinsic thermal residual stresses which can easily be estimated from the difference of the coefficients of thermal expansion between the substrate and the coating, a theoretical prediction of the intrinsic residual stresses is difficult, because their amount as well as their distribution within the film depend in a very complex way on the deposition kinetics. By the example of strongly fibre-textured PVD (Ti, Cr)N coatings which have been prepared under defined variation of the deposition parameters in order to adjust the residual stress distribution within the coatings, the paper compares different X-ray diffraction techniques with respect to their applicability for detecting residual stresses which are non-uniform over the coating thickness. (orig.)

  10. Electrospun PVdF-based fibrous polymer electrolytes for lithium ion polymer batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jeong Rae; Choi, Sung Won; Jo, Seong Mu; Lee, Wha Seop; Kim, Byung Chul

    2004-01-01

    This paper discusses the preparation of microporous fibrous membranes from PVdF solutions with different polymer contents, using the electrospinning technique. Electrospun PVdF-based fibrous membranes with average fiber diameters (AFD's) of 0.45-1.38 μm have an apparent porosity and a mean pore size (MPS) of 80-89% and 1.1-4.3 μm, respectively. They exhibited a high uptake of the electrolyte solution (320-350%) and a high ionic conductivity of above 1 x 10 -3 s/cm at room temperature. Their ionic conductivity increased with the decrease in the AFD of the fibrous membrane due to its high electrolyte uptake. The interaction between the electrolyte molecules and the PVdF with a high crystalline content may have had a minor effect on the lithium ion transfer in the fibrous polymer electrolyte, unlike in a nanoporous gel polymer electrolyte. The fibrous polymer electrolyte that contained a 1 M LiPF 6 -EC/DMC/DEC (1/1/1 by weight) solution showed a high electrochemical stability of above 5.0 V, which increased with the decrease in the AFD The interfacial resistance (R i ) between the polymer electrolyte and the lithium electrode slightly increased with the storage time, compared with the higher increase in the interfacial resistance of other gel polymer electrolytes. The prototype cell (MCMB/PVdF-based fibrous electrolyte/LiCoO 2 ) showed a very stable charge-discharge behavior with a slight capacity loss under constant current and voltage conditions at the C/2-rate of 20 and 60 deg. C

  11. EBS/C proton spectra from a virgin diamond crystal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erich, M., E-mail: marko.erich@gmail.com [Laboratory of Physics, Vinča Institute of Nuclear Sciences, University of Belgrade, PO Box 552, Belgrade (Serbia); Kokkoris, M. [Department of Physics, National Technical University of Athens, Zografou Campus 157 80, Athens (Greece); Fazinić, S. [Laboratory for Ion Beam Interactions, Department of Experimental Physics, Institute Ruđer Bošković, Bijenička cesta 54, 10000 Zagreb (Croatia); Petrović, S. [Laboratory of Physics, Vinča Institute of Nuclear Sciences, University of Belgrade, PO Box 552, Belgrade (Serbia)

    2016-08-15

    In the present work, elastic backscattering channeling spectra, EBS/C, of protons in a 〈1 0 0〉 diamond crystal were experimentally and theoretically studied via a new computer simulation code. Proton incident energies for EBS/C spectra were in the energy range from 1.0 MeV to 1.9 MeV. The energy range was chosen in order to explore a distinct strong resonance of the {sup 12}C(p,p{sub 0}){sup 12}C elastic scattering at 1737 keV. The computer simulation code applied for the fitting of the experimental spectra in the random mode was compared with the corresponding SIMNRA results. In the channeling mode, it assumes a Gompertz type sigmoidal dechanneling function, which has two fitting parameters, x{sub c} and k, the dechanneling range and rate, respectively. It also uses α, ratio of the channeling to random energy losses, as a fitting parameter. It was observed that x{sub c} increases, k decreases and α stays relatively constant with the proton incident energy. These observations confirm the physical interpretation of the fitting parameters. Also, they constitute the basics for the further development of the code for the quantification of induced amorphization and depth profiling of implanted ions.

  12. Effective data compaction algorithm for vector scan EB writing system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueki, Shinichi; Ashida, Isao; Kawahira, Hiroichi

    2001-01-01

    We have developed a new mask data compaction algorithm dedicated to vector scan electron beam (EB) writing systems for 0.13 μm device generation. Large mask data size has become a significant problem at mask data processing for which data compaction is an important technique. In our new mask data compaction, 'array' representation and 'cell' representation are used. The mask data format for the EB writing system with vector scan supports these representations. The array representation has a pitch and a number of repetitions in both X and Y direction. The cell representation has a definition of figure group and its reference. The new data compaction method has the following three steps. (1) Search arrays of figures by selecting pitches of array so that a number of figures are included. (2) Find out same arrays that have same repetitive pitch and number of figures. (3) Search cells of figures, where the figures in each cell take identical positional relationship. By this new method for the mask data of a 4M-DRAM block gate layer with peripheral circuits, 202 Mbytes without compaction was highly compacted to 6.7 Mbytes in 20 minutes on a 500 MHz PC.

  13. EB-promoted recycling of waste tire rubber with polyolefins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mészáros, László; Bárány, Tamás; Czvikovszky, Tibor

    2012-01-01

    Despite the fact that more and more methods and solutions are used in the recycling of polymers, there are still some problems, especially in the recycling of cross-linked materials such as rubber. Usually the biggest problem is the lack of compatibility between the cross-linked rubber and the thermoplastic matrix. In this study we applied ground tire rubber (GTR) as recycled material. The GTR was embedded into polyethylene (PE) and polyethylene/ethylene-vinyl acetate copolymer (PE/EVA) matrices. In order to increase the compatibility of the components electron beam (EB) irradiation was applied. The results showed that the irradiation has a beneficial effect on the polymer–GTR interfacial connection. The EB treatment increased not only the tensile strength but also the elongation at break. The irradiation had also positive effect on the impact strength properties. - Highlights: ► In this study ground tire rubber was incorporated into polyethylene (LDPE) matrix. ► Compatibilizing effects of irradiation and ethylene-vinyl acetate were investigated. ► The samples were manufactured by twin-screw extrusion and injection molding. ► Both compatibilizing methods improved the rubber-like properties of the blends. ► This improvement was especially significant when they were applied together.

  14. The effect of PVD coatings on the corrosion behaviour of AZ91 magnesium alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Altun, Hikmet; Sen, Sadri

    2006-01-01

    In this study, multilayered AlN (AlN + AlN + AlN) and AlN + TiN were coated on AZ91 magnesium alloy using physical vapour deposition (PVD) technique of DC magnetron sputtering, and the influence of the coatings on the corrosion behaviour of the AZ91 alloy was examined. A PVD system for coating processes, a potentiostat for electrochemical corrosion tests, X-ray difractometer for compositional analysis of the coatings, and scanning electron microscopy for surface examinations were used. It was determined that PVD coatings deposited on AZ91 magnesium alloy increased the corrosion resistance of the alloy, and AlN + AlN + AlN coating increased the corrosion resistance much more than AlN + TiN coating. However, it was observed that, in the coating layers, small structural defects e.g., pores, pinholes, cracks that could arise from the coating process or substrate and get the ability of protection from corrosion worsened were present

  15. PEGDA/PVdF/F127 gel type polymer electrolyte membranes for lithium secondary batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Yan-Jie; Kim, Dukjoon [Department of Chemical Engineering, Polymer Technology Institute, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon, Kyunggi 440-746 (Korea)

    2007-03-30

    A novel porous gel polymer electrolyte (GPE) membrane based on poly(ethylene glycol) diacrylate (PEGDA), poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVdF), and polyethylene oxide-co-polypropylene oxide-co-polyethylene oxide (PEO-PPO-PEO, F127) was fabricated by a phase inversion technique. The PEGDA cross-linking oligomer could be randomly mixed with unraveled PVdF polymer chains to form the interpenetrating polymer network (IPN) structure. Several experimental techniques including infrared (IR) spectra, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and potentiostat/galvanostat were employed to investigate the characteristics of the polymer membranes. PEGDA and F127 influenced the porous size and structure. The mechanical strength and flexibility of the membrane were controlled by its composition. The membrane with the composition of PEGDA/PVdF/F127 (0/4/4) showed the highest electrolyte uptake of 152.6% and the maximum ionic conductivity of 2.0 x 10{sup -3} S cm{sup -1} at room temperature. All GPEs prepared in this study were electrochemically stable up to 4.5 V. (author)

  16. Additional ion bombardment in PVD processes generated by a superimposed pulse bias voltage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olbrich, W.; Kampschulte, G.

    1993-01-01

    The superimposed pulse bias voltage is a tool to apply an additional ion bombardment during deposition in physical vapour deposition (PVD) processes. It is generated by the combination of a d.c. ground voltage and a higher d.c. pulse voltage. Using a superimposed pulse bias voltage in ion-assisted PVD processes effects an additional all-around ion bombardment on the surface with ions of higher energy. Both metal and reactive or inert-gas ions are accelerated to the surface. The basic principles and important characteristics of this newly developed process such as ion fluxes or deposition rates are shown. Because of pulsing the high voltage, the deposition temperature does not increase much. The adhesion, structure, morphology and internal stresses are influenced by these additional ion impacts. The columnar growth of the deposited films could be suppressed by using the superimposed pulse bias voltage without increasing the deposition temperature. Different metallizations (Cr and Cu) produced by arc and sputter ion plating are investigated. Carbon-fibre-reinforced epoxy are coated with PVD copper films for further treatment in electrochemical processes. (orig.)

  17. Controlling Dielectric and Magnetic Properties of PVdF/Magnetite Nanocomposite Fibre Webs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. P. Venugopal

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The ability of filtration and separation media containing fibres to remove impurities from oil, water, and blood can be enhanced using magnetic fields. The ability to regulate the dielectric and magnetic behaviour of fibrous webs in terms of superparamagnetic or ferromagnetic properties by adjusting material composition is fundamental to meeting end-use requirements. Electrospun fibres were produced from PVdF (polyvinylidene fluoride and nanomagnetite (Fe3O4 nanoparticles from solutions of PVdF in dimethylacetamide containing Fe3O4 nanoparticle contents ranging from 3 to 10 wt%. Fibre dimensions, morphology, and nanoparticle agglomeration were characterised by environmental scanning electron microscopy (ESEM and field emission gun transmission electron microscopy (FEGTEM. Dielectric behaviour of the fibre webs was influenced by web porosity and the Fe3O4 nanoparticle content. Impedance analysis of the webs indicated an increase in dielectric constant of ∼80% by the addition of 10 wt% Fe3O4 nanoparticles compared to 100 wt% PVdF. The dielectric constants of the webs were compared with those obtained from the theoretical mixing models of Maxwell and Lichtenecker. Vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM magnetisation measurements indicated a blocking temperature above 300 K suggesting ferrimagnetic rather than superparamagnetic behaviour as a result of Fe3O4 nanoparticle agglomeration within fibres.

  18. Hybrid diffusive/PVD treatments to improve the tribological resistance of Ti-6Al-4V.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marin, E; Offoiach, R; Lanzutti, A; Regis, M; Fusi, S; Fedrizzi, L

    2014-01-01

    Titanium alloys are nowadays used for a wide range of biomedical applications thanks to their combination of high mechanical resistance, high corrosion resistance and biocompatibility. Nevertheless, the applicability of titanium alloys is sometimes limited due to their low microhardness and tribological resistance. Thus the titanium alloys cannot be successfully applied to prosthetic joint couplings. A wide range of surface treatments, in particular PVD coatings such as CrN and TiN, have been used in order to improve the tribological behaviour of titanium alloys. However, the low microhardness of the titanium substrate often results in coating failure due to cracks and delamination. For this reason, hybrid technologies based on diffusive treatments and subsequent PVD coatings may improve the overall coating resistance. In this work, conventional PVD coatings of CrN or TiCN, deposited on Titanium Grade 5, were characterized and then combined with a standard thermal diffusive nitriding treatment in order to improve the tribological resistance of the titanium alloys and avoid coating delamination. The different treatments were studied by means of scanning electron microscopy both on the sample surface and in cross-section. In-depth composition profiles were obtained using glow discharge optical emission spectrometry (GDOES) and localized energy dispersive X-ray diffraction on linear scan-lines. The microhardness and adhesion properties of the different treatments were evaluated using Vickers microhardness tests at different load conditions. The indentations were observed by means of SEM in order to evaluate delaminated areas and the crack's shape and density. The tribological behaviour of the different treatments was tested in dry conditions and in solution, in alternate pin-on-flat configuration, with a frequency of 0.5 Hz. After testing, the surface was investigated by means of stylus profilometry and SEM both on the surface and in cross-section. The standalone PVD

  19. Clinical use of Malay Version of Vertigo Symptom Scale (MWSS) in patients with peripheral vestibular disorder (PVD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zainun, Zuraida; Zakaria, Mohd Normani; Sidek, Dinsuhaimi; Ismail, Zalina

    2012-08-01

    The Vertigo symptom scale (VSS) is a well established tool for the evaluation of vestibular disorders and the associated symptoms of autonomic arousal and somatosensation. By using a validated Malay version of vertigo symptom scale (MVVSS) questionnaire, the severity of the vertigo from patients' perspective can be determined and rated. Before MVVSS can be applied clinically among Malaysians, it was of interest to determine its clinical value in identifying vestibular disorders. Forty normal and 65 PVD subjects participated in this cross-sectional study. Normal subjects were recruited amongst Universiti Sains Malaysia (USM) staff and students who had no history of ear and vestibular disorders. Mean total score of MVVSS in normal and PVD subjects were 13.9 +/- 11.1 and 30.1 +/- 20.9, respectively. When the total scores of normal and PVD group were compared, the Mann-Whitney U test showed that there was a significant difference between the two groups (p PVD [benign paroxymal positional vertigo (BPPV), Meniere's disease, labyrinthitis and unknown] have different MVVSS results. However, analysis of variance (ANOVA) found no significant difference in term of outcomes of MVVSS among the different PVD pathologies. Using receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC) method, the sensitivity and specificity of MVVSS were 71% and 60%, respectively. MVVSS is able to discriminate clinically among the normal and PVD subjects. However, it is not a good indicator for differential diagnosis of PVD subtypes, at least in this study. Its sensitivity and specificity in clinical diagnosis are reasonably high. Perhaps a bigger sample size would be useful to further study the clinical usefulness of MVVSS.

  20. Development of Ground Test System For RKX-200EB

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yudhi Irwanto, Herma

    2018-04-01

    After being postponed for seven years, the development of RKX-200EB now restarts by initiating a ground test, preceding the real flight test. The series of the development starts from simulation test using the real vehicle and its components, focusing on a flight sequence test using hardware in the loop simulation. The result of the simulation shows that the autonomous control system in development is able to control the X tail fin vehicle, since take off using booster, separating booster-sustainer, making flight maneuver using sustainer with average cruise speed of 1000 km/h, and doing bank to maneuver up to ±40 deg heading to the target. The simulation result also shows that the presence of sustainer in vehicle control can expand the distance range by 162% (12.6 km) from its ballistic range using only a booster.

  1. The French methodology for EBS confirmation and demonstration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plas, F.; Voinis, S.; Mayer, S.

    2007-01-01

    The December 30, 1991 French Waste Act entrusted ANDRA, the French national agency for radioactive waste management, with the task of assessing the feasibility of deep geological disposal of high- and medium-level long-lived waste (HLW and ILW, respectively C-waste and B-waste types in French) plus spent fuel (CU in French). In that context, the 'Dossier 2005 Argile' submitted by ANDRA presents the feasibility assessment - with regard to the technical capacity to accommodate all wastes, to reversibility, and to safety - of a radioactive waste disposal in a clay formation studied at the Meuse/Haute-Marne URL. This report was built upon an iterative approach between site characterisation, design, modelling, phenomenological analysis and safety analysis, in which two principles always guided the elaboration of the safety case: the principle of robustness - repository components must maintain their functionality given reasonable solicitations, taking into account uncertainties on the nature and level of these solicitations; and the principle of demonstrability - safety must be verified without requiring complex demonstrations, and based on multiple lines of evidence/argument (numerical simulation, qualitative arguments such as use of natural analogues, experiments and technological demonstrators). In that respect, the EBS definition, demonstration and confirmation of design is a part of the overall safety case. The 'Dossier 2005 Argile' was submitted to three independent peer reviews. The aim. of this article is to present the methodology that ANDRA implemented in the context of 'Dossier 2005 Argile' for defining, demonstrating and confirming the EBS design as well as the future programme with respect with the new Act of 28 June 2006. (author)

  2. Properties of TEM standing waves with E||B

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaghloul, H.; Buckmaster, H. A.

    This paper summarizes the known properties of E∥B TEM standing waves and shows that for such waves (i) E and B cannot be linearly polarized, (ii) E ≠ αB where α is a constant (iii) it is impossible to find a Lorentz frame where E>B, (iv) direction of the propagation vector cannot be inferred from the fields at one point of the space, (v) their behaviour under Lorentz, parity, time-reversal and gauge transformations is proper, (vi) both Lorentz invariants E2 - B2 and E·B are nonzero, (vii) the magnetic helicity may be nonzero, (viii) the magnetic field may be force-free, and (ix) kμFμv ≠ 0. It also shows how electromagnetic waves can be classified using Lorentz invariants. Cet article résume les qualités connues des ondes stationnaires E∥B TEM et montre que pour des ondes parallèles (i) E et B ne peuvent pas être polarisées linéairement, (ii) E ≠ αB où a est une constante, (iii) il est impossible de trouver une construction de Lorentz où E>B, (iv) la direction de propagation d'un vecteur ne peut pas être déduite des opérations à un point d'intervalle, (v) leur conduite sous Lorentz, parité, temps inverse et transformations de jauge est propre, (vi) les deux invariants de Lorentz E2 - B2 et E·B sont non nulles (vii) l'hélice magnétique peut être non nulle (viii) l'opération magnétique peut être de force libre et (ix) KμFμ v ≠ 0. Ceci montre aussi comment les ondes électromagnétiques peuvent être classifiées, en employant les invariants de Lorentz.

  3. Main studies results for introduction of EB machine to Vietnam and for its application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tran, Khac An; Nguyen, Quoc Hien; Le, Hai

    2004-01-01

    Upon the national program on utilization of EB machine for research and development purposes and the FNCA project on application of electron accelerator, as a counterpart the Research and Development Center for Radiation Technology (VINAGAMMA) is preparing technical, manpower and financial conditions for introduction of an EB machine for R and D purposes. The paper offers main studied results in the field of Radiation Processing aimed at putting applications of EB technology into Vietnam and studies on selection of EB machine for R and D purposes in Vietnam. (author)

  4. Pain, psychological distress and motor pattern in women with provoked vestibulodynia (PVD) - symptom characteristics and therapy suggestions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haugstad, Gro Killi; Wojniusz, Slawomir; Kirste, Unni Merete; Kirschner, Rolf Steinar; Lilleheie, Ingvild; Haugstad, Tor Sigbjørn

    2018-04-25

    Provoked vestibulodynia (PVD) represent a longstanding pain syndrome that affects large numbers of women worldwide. However, no standardized guidelines for PVD treatment exist. In a cross-sectional pilot study we examined 30 PVD patients on multidimensional parameters including pain, psychological distress and quality of movement, in order to obtain a broader understanding of the somatic and psychological symptoms in PVD, and for the future to develop better interventions. Additionally, we compare the findings to previously published results regarding the same parameters in women with chronic pelvic pain (CPP). Thirty women with PVD recruited from a tertiary care university clinic of gynecology were assessed for demographic data, pain intensity (VAS), psychological distress (GHQ-30 and Tampa scale of Kinesophobia) and quality of movement (standardized Mensendieck test, SMT). Average age of the PVD women was 24.7±3.60 years, 60% of them were in permanent relationships, all were nulliparous, none had been subjected to surgical procedures, 100% were working full or part time and 90% were educated to at least undergraduate level. Mean VAS score was 7.77±1.97 (mean±SD), kinesiophobia 24.4±3.95 and anxiety domain of GHQ-30 9.73±4.06. SMT scores were particularly low for the domains of respiration and gait (less than 50% of optimal scores). PVD women display reduced quality of movement, especially for gait and respiration patterns, increased level of anxiety and high average pain scores. These findings are similar to what we have previously reported in CPP patients. However, in contrast to CPP group, PVD women are on average younger, have higher work participation, higher education level and have not been subjected to surgical procedures. Since PVD women display similar, although somewhat less severe, symptom profile than CPP, we suggest that a multidimensional approach to treatment, such as "somatocognitive therapy" should be investigated in this group as it has

  5. Protection of yttria-stabilized zirconia for dental applications by oxidic PVD coating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hübsch, C; Dellinger, P; Maier, H J; Stemme, F; Bruns, M; Stiesch, M; Borchers, L

    2015-01-01

    In this study, the application of transparent physical vapor deposition (PVD) coatings on zirconia ceramics was examined as an approach to retard the low-temperature degradation of zirconia for dental applications. Transparent monolayers of titanium oxide (TixOy) and multilayers consisting of titanium oxide-alumina-titanium oxide (TixOy-AlxOy-TixOy) were deposited onto standardized discs of 3Y-TZP using magnetron sputtering. Using X-ray photospectroscopy and time-of-flight secondary-ion mass spectrometry, the compositions of the coatings were verified, and an approximate thickness of 50 nm for each type of coating was ascertained. After aging the coated and uncoated samples in water vapor at 134°C and 3 bar for 4, 8, 16, 32, 64 and 128 h, the monoclinic phase content was determined using X-ray diffraction, and its impact on mechanical properties was assessed in biaxial flexural strength tests. In addition, the depth of the transformation zone was measured from scanning electron microscopy images of the fracture surfaces of hydrothermally aged samples. The results revealed that the tetragonal-to-monoclinic phase transformation of the zirconia ceramic was retarded by the application of PVD coatings. During the first stages of aging, the coated samples exhibited a significantly lower monoclinic phase content than the uncoated samples and, after 128 h of aging, showed a transformation zone which was only ∼12-15 μm thick compared to ∼30 μm in the control group. Biaxial flexural strength decreased by ∼10% during aging and was not influenced by the application of a PVD coating. Copyright © 2014 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. The properties of B-Sb thin films prepared by molecular flow region PVD process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumashiro, Y.; Nakamura, K.; Sato, K.; Ohtsuka, M.; Ohishi, Y.; Nakano, M.; Doi, Y.

    2004-01-01

    The present paper is the first description on the electrical and thermoelectric properties of amorphous PVD B 12 Sb 2 films prepared using the reaction of decaborane gas with evaporated antimony gas on Si (1900 A) / SiO x (3700 A) / Si (100) (625 μm) substrate at the temperature 350 deg. C. Ohmic metals contacts of the film were examined by making evaporated Al, followed by annealing at 200 deg. C. The comparatively high mobility of ∼100 cm 2 /V s and high thermoelectric figures-of-merit of ∼10 -4 /K were confirmed

  7. Growth Mechanism for Low Temperature PVD Graphene Synthesis on Copper Using Amorphous Carbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narula, Udit; Tan, Cher Ming; Lai, Chao Sung

    2017-03-01

    Growth mechanism for synthesizing PVD based Graphene using Amorphous Carbon, catalyzed by Copper is investigated in this work. Different experiments with respect to Amorphous Carbon film thickness, annealing time and temperature are performed for the investigation. Copper film stress and its effect on hydrogen diffusion through the film grain boundaries are found to be the key factors for the growth mechanism, and supported by our Finite Element Modeling. Low temperature growth of Graphene is achieved and the proposed growth mechanism is found to remain valid at low temperatures.

  8. Structural characterisation of oxygen diffusion hardened alpha-tantalum PVD-coatings on titanium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hertl, C; Koll, L; Schmitz, T; Werner, E; Gbureck, U

    2014-08-01

    Titanium substrates were coated with tantalum layers of 5 μm thickness using physical vapour deposition (PVD). The tantalum layers showed a (110)-preferred orientation. The coated samples were hardened by oxygen diffusion. Using X-ray diffraction the crystallographic structure of the tantalum coatings was characterised, comparing untreated and diffusion hardened specimen conditions. Oxygen depth profiles were determined by glow discharge spectrometry. The hardening effect of the heat treatment was examined by Vickers microhardness testing. The increase of surface hardness caused by oxygen diffusion was at least 50%. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Multilayered and composite PVD-CVD coatings in cemented carbides manufacture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glushkov, V.N.; Anikeev, A.I.; Anikin, V.N.; Vereshchaka, A.S.

    2001-01-01

    Carbide cutting tools with wear-resistant coatings deposited by CVD process are widely employed in mechanical engineering to ensure a substantially longer service life of tool systems. However, the relatively high temperature and long time of the process make the substrate decarburise and, as a result, the bend strength and performance characteristics of a tool decrease. The present study suggests the problem of deteriorated strength of CVD-coated carbide tools be solved by the development of a technology that combines arc-PVD and CVD processes to deposit multilayered coatings of titanium and aluminium compounds. (author)

  10. An apparatus for sequential pulsed plasma beam treatment in combination with Arc PVD deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stanislawski, J.; Werner, Z.; Piekoszewski, J.; Richter, E.

    2002-01-01

    A hybrid type of apparatus is described which enables one to form a thin multi-layer film on the surface of any kind of solid substrate. In one process, the surface is treated with a high intensity pulse plasma beam which introduces the chosen kind of atoms into the near-surface layer of the substrate. In the second process, following the first without breaking the vacuum, the coating is formed by arc PVD (physics vapour deposition) process. Two examples of coatings formed on metallic and ceramic substrates are presented. (author)

  11. The TT, TB, EB and BB correlations in anisotropic inflation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Xingang [Department of Physics, The University of Texas at Dallas, Richardson, TX 75083 (United States); Emami, Razieh [School of Physics, Institute for Research in Fundamental Sciences (IPM), P. O. Box 19395-5531, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Firouzjahi, Hassan [School of Astronomy, Institute for Research in Fundamental Sciences (IPM), P. O. Box 19395-5531, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Wang, Yi, E-mail: Xingang.Chen@utdallas.edu, E-mail: emami@ipm.ir, E-mail: firouz@ipm.ir, E-mail: yw366@cam.ac.uk [Centre for Theoretical Cosmology, DAMTP, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB3 0WA (United Kingdom)

    2014-08-01

    The ongoing and future experiments will measure the B-mode from different sky coverage and frequency bands, with the potential to reveal non-trivial features in polarization map. In this work we study the TT, TB, EB and BB correlations associated with the B-mode polarization of CMB map in models of charged anisotropic inflation. The model contains a chaotic-type large field complex inflaton which is charged under the U(1) gauge field. We calculate the statistical anisotropies generated in the power spectra of the curvature perturbation, the tensor perturbation and their cross-correlation. It is shown that the asymmetry in tensor power spectrum is a very sensitive probe of the gauge coupling. While the level of statistical anisotropy in temperature power spectrum can be small and satisfy the observational bounds, the interactions from the gauge coupling can induce large directional dependence in tensor modes. This will leave interesting anisotropic fingerprints in various correlations involving the B-mode polarization such as the TB cross-correlation which may be detected in upcoming Planck polarization data. In addition, the TT correlation receives an anisotropic contribution from the tensor sector which naturally decays after l ∼> 100. We expect that the mechanism of using tensor sector to induce asymmetry at low l to be generic which can also be applied to address other low l CMB anomalies.

  12. Frozen-in vacancies in PVD-Cu films with improved high-pressure reflowability studied using a slow positron beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yabuuchi, A; Kubo, D; Mizuno, M; Araki, H [Division of Materials and Manufacturing Science, Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka University, 2-1 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Onishi, T [Materials Research Laboratory, Kobe Steel Ltd., 5-5 Takatsukadai 1-chome, Nishi-ku, Kobe, Hyogo 651-2271 (Japan); Shirai, Y [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering, Kyoto University, Yoshida-Honmachi, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8501 (Japan)], E-mail: atsushi.yabuuchi@mat.eng.osaka-u.ac.jp

    2009-05-01

    Recently, a new process has been proposed for fabricating a LSI interconnection; filling trenches and via holes with Cu using high-pressure annealing treatment. It is already known that a Cu film produced by physical vapor deposition (PVD) has a lower reflowability compared to a Cu film produced by electrochemical deposition (ECD). Additionally, it has also been recognized that the addition of Sb to the PVD-Cu film improves the reflowability. However, the factors responsible for the reflowability of Cu films have not yet been studied. In this work, we evaluated a PVD pure-Cu film and a PVD Cu-0.5at%Sb film by using a slow positron beam. Addition of Sb led to the introduction of lattice defects in the as-deposited film. These defects that were observed in the PVD-CuSb dilute alloy film were identified as frozen-in vacancies that were produced during deposition.

  13. Frozen-in vacancies in PVD-Cu films with improved high-pressure reflowability studied using a slow positron beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yabuuchi, A; Kubo, D; Mizuno, M; Araki, H; Onishi, T; Shirai, Y

    2009-01-01

    Recently, a new process has been proposed for fabricating a LSI interconnection; filling trenches and via holes with Cu using high-pressure annealing treatment. It is already known that a Cu film produced by physical vapor deposition (PVD) has a lower reflowability compared to a Cu film produced by electrochemical deposition (ECD). Additionally, it has also been recognized that the addition of Sb to the PVD-Cu film improves the reflowability. However, the factors responsible for the reflowability of Cu films have not yet been studied. In this work, we evaluated a PVD pure-Cu film and a PVD Cu-0.5at%Sb film by using a slow positron beam. Addition of Sb led to the introduction of lattice defects in the as-deposited film. These defects that were observed in the PVD-CuSb dilute alloy film were identified as frozen-in vacancies that were produced during deposition.

  14. The Role of SiO2 Gas in the Operation of Anti-Corrosion Coating Produced by PVD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meysam Zarchi

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This study examined theSiO2 gas present in the coatings used in corrosion industry.These layers have been created by physical vapor deposition (PVD, with an appropriate performance. Sublimation of SiO2is used to protect PVD aluminum flakes from water corrosionand to generate highly porous SiO2 flakes with holes in the nanometer range. SiOx/Al/SiOx sandwiches were made as well as Ag loaded porous SiO2 as antimicrobial filler.

  15. Current state of low energy EB devices and its application technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kinoshita, Shinobu

    2000-01-01

    This paper introduced the current state of low energy type EB (electron beam) devices with an acceleration voltage of 300 kV or below and specific application examples. As for EB devices, it introduced the ultra-compact new EB device (microbeam LV), experimental devices, and the pilot/production devices which have been recently developed by the manufacturer to which the author belongs. As the applications of low energy EB devices, it specifically introduced curing, graft polymerization, crosslinking, and sterilization/disinfection with soft electrons: (1) examples of EB curing; antistatic agents in antibacterial/antifungal property imparting processing, hard coat, printing and topcoat, high gloss/pattern transfer processing, and metal vapor deposition film, (2) example of graft polymerization; barrier imparting films, and (3) examples of crosslinking; shrinking films/tubes and foamed sheets. (A.O.)

  16. Development and characterization of nano structured hard coatings for high performance tools by using PVD technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Irfan, M.; Alam, S.; Hassan, Z.; Iftikhar, F.; Khadim, S.

    2006-01-01

    No doubt hard coatings nave major applications in high performance cutting tools in order to improve tribological and mechanical properties of these tools since last years. The actual top development in this regard is the development of PVD based AlTiN coatings and their supplementation with nano. layers. In present these nano coatings are replaced by nano composites along with an additional development of Multilayer Nano structured coatings. This PVD based nano structured coating development optimized by process parameters, crystalline structure and deposition in multilayer. These coating are definitely produced by combination of ARC and Sputtering with filtration of arc droplets. It is studied that the properties like oxidation resistance, wear resistance and resistance against chemical reaction may be obtained by alloying additions of different elements. This paper presents different development stages and Process parameters for- producing high performance Nanostructure coatings and including adhesion test by using Kalomax system for determination of adhesion strength of these coatings and coating thickness measurements by using image analyzer system. Results and conclusions are showing the optimum values for better coatings for different applications. (author)

  17. A study on the high velocity impact behavior of titanium alloy by PVD method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sohn, Se Won; Lee, Doo Sung; Hong, Sung Hee

    2001-01-01

    In order to investigate the fracture behaviors(penetration modes) and resistance to penetration during ballistic impact of titanium alloy laminates and nitrified titanium alloy laminates which were treated by PVD(Physical Vapor Deposition) method, ballistic tests were conducted. Evaporation, sputtering, and ion plating are three kinds of PVD method. In this research, ion plating was used to achieve higher surface hardness and surface hardness test were conducted using a micro Vicker's hardness tester. Resistance to penetration is determined by the protection ballistic limit(V 50 ), a statistical velocity with 50% probability for complete penetration. Fracture behaviors and ballistic tolerance, described by penetration modes, are respectfully observed at and above ballistic limit velocities, as a result of V 50 test and Projectile Through Plates(PTP) test methods. PTP tests were conducted with 0 .deg. obliquity at room temperature using 5.56mm ball projectile. V 50 tests with 0 .deg. obliquity at room temperature were conducted with projectiles that were able to achieve near or complete penetration during PTP tests. Surface hardness, resistance to penetration, and penetration modes of titanium alloy laminates are compared to those of nitrified titanium alloy laminates

  18. Effects of synchrotron x-rays on PVD deposited and ion implanted α-Si

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, K.M.; Wang, L.; Walukiewicz, W.; Muto, S.; McCormick, S.; Abelson, J.R.

    1997-01-01

    The authors have studied the effects of intense X-ray irradiation on the structure of amorphous Si films. The films were obtained by either physical vapor deposition or by implantation of high energy ions into crystalline Si. They were exposed to different total doses of synchrotron X-rays. From the EXAFS and EXELFS measurements they find that an exposure to X-rays increases the Si coordination number. Also in the PVD films a prolonged X-ray exposure enlarges, by about 2%, the Si-Si bond length. Raman spectroscopy shows that Si amorphized with high energy ions contains small residual amounts of crystalline material. Irradiation of such films with X-rays annihilates those crystallites resulting in homogeneously amorphous layer with a close to four-fold coordination of Si atoms. This rearrangement of the local structure has a pronounced effect on the crystallization process of the amorphous films. Thermal annealing of X-ray irradiated ion amorphized films leads to nearly defect free solid phase epitaxy at 500 C. Also they observe a delay in the onset of the crystallization process in X-ray irradiated PVD films. They associate this with a reduced concentration of nucleation centers in the x-ray treated materials

  19. Metallic Conductive Nanowires Elaborated by PVD Metal Deposition on Suspended DNA Bundles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brun, Christophe; Elchinger, Pierre-Henri; Nonglaton, Guillaume; Tidiane-Diagne, Cheikh; Tiron, Raluca; Thuaire, Aurélie; Gasparutto, Didier; Baillin, Xavier

    2017-09-01

    Metallic conductive nanowires (NWs) with DNA bundle core are achieved, thanks to an original process relying on double-stranded DNA alignment and physical vapor deposition (PVD) metallization steps involving a silicon substrate. First, bundles of DNA are suspended with a repeatable process between 2 µm high parallel electrodes with separating gaps ranging from 800 nm to 2 µm. The process consists in the drop deposition of a DNA lambda-phage solution on the electrodes followed by a naturally evaporation step. The deposition process is controlled by the DNA concentration within the buffer solution, the drop volume, and the electrode hydrophobicity. The suspended bundles are finally metallized with various thicknesses of titanium and gold by a PVD e-beam evaporation process. The achieved NWs have a width ranging from a few nanometers up to 100 nm. The electrical behavior of the achieved 60 and 80 nm width metallic NWs is shown to be Ohmic and their intrinsic resistance is estimated according to different geometrical models of the NW section area. For the 80 nm width NWs, a resistance of about few ohms is established, opening exploration fields for applications in microelectronics. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Ion irradiation-induced stress relaxation in thin films and multilayers deposited using energetic PVD techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abadias, Gregory; Michel, Anny; Debelle, Aurelien; Jaouen, Christiane; Djemia Philippe

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the present work is to understand the stress build-up during energetic PVD film growth and the stress relaxation during subsequent ion irradiation at low dose (typically in the range 0.1-1.0 displacement per atom). Monolithic Mo thin films and Mo/Ni multilayers were grown using Dual Ion Beam Sputtering and Magnetron Sputtering at room temperature. Due to the high energy of incoming species (sputtered atoms, backscattered Ar), growth defects of interstitial-type are created during growth. The defect density can reach up to 1.4 % (far from equilibrium) in these Mo refractory layers. These defects act as misfitting particles, inducing a hydrostatic stress component and an associated in-plane compressive stress component. However, after Ar ion irradiation at low dose (∼0.2 dpa), most of the stress is relieved, showing that the growth induced defects are highly unstable. For Ni layers, the compressive stress is much lower due to the higher bulk atom mobility in this metal, making annihilation of defects more effective. An intermixing occurring mainly at the Mo/Ni interfaces is revealed from a complete strain-stress analysis using X-ray Diffraction. The magnitude of this interfacial alloying is found to increase with the energetics of the PVD process and is at the origin of the huge softening of the C 4 4 elastic constant, as measured using Brillouin light scattering. (authors)

  1. Effects of Thermal Exposure on Structures of DD6 Single Crystal Superalloy with Thermal Barrier Coatings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DONG Jianmin

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available In order to investigate the effect of water grit-blasting and high temperature thermal exposure on the microstructures of DD6 alloy with TBCs, DD6 single crystal superalloy specimens were water grit-blasted with 0.3 MPa pressure, then the specimens were coated with thermal barrier coatings by electron beam physical vapor deposition (EB-PVD. Specimens with TBCs were exposed at 1100℃ for 50 and 100 hours in the air respectively, and then these specimens were subjected to stress-rupture tests under the condition of 1100℃/130 MPa. The results show that grit-blasting doesn't lead into the recrystallization, thermal exposure can induce element interdiffusion between the bond coat and alloy substrate, the residual stress and element diffusion lead into the changes of γ' phase coarsing direction. After stress rupture tests, the secondary reaction zone emerges into a local area.

  2. Reactive Transport and Coupled THM Processes in Engineering Barrier Systems (EBS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steefel, Carl; Rutqvist, Jonny; Tsang, Chin-Fu; Liu, Hui-Hai; Sonnenthal, Eric; Houseworth, Jim; Birkholzer, Jens

    2010-01-01

    Geological repositories for disposal of high-level nuclear wastes generally rely on a multi-barrier system to isolate radioactive wastes from the biosphere. The multi-barrier system typically consists of a natural barrier system, including repository host rock and its surrounding subsurface environment, and an engineering barrier system (EBS). EBS represents the man-made, engineered materials placed within a repository, including the waste form, waste canisters, buffer materials, backfill and seals (OECD, 2003). EBS plays a significant role in the containment and long-term retardation of radionuclide release. EBS is involved in complex thermal, hydrogeological, mechanical, chemical and biological processes, such as heat release due to radionuclide decay, multiphase flow (including gas release due to canister corrosion), swelling of buffer materials, radionuclide diffusive transport, waste dissolution and chemical reactions. All these processes are related to each other. An in-depth understanding of these coupled processes is critical for the performance assessment (PA) for EBS and the entire repository. Within the EBS group of Used Fuel Disposition (UFD) Campaign, LBNL is currently focused on (1) thermal-hydraulic-mechanical-chemical (THMC) processes in buffer materials (bentonite) and (2) diffusive transport in EBS associated with clay host rock, with a long-term goal to develop a full understanding of (and needed modeling capabilities to simulate) impacts of coupled processes on radionuclide transport in different components of EBS, as well as the interaction between near-field host rock (e.g., clay) and EBS and how they effect radionuclide release. This final report documents the progress that LBNL has made in its focus areas. Specifically, Section 2 summarizes progress on literature review for THMC processes and reactive-diffusive radionuclide transport in bentonite. The literature review provides a picture of the state-of-the-art of the relevant research areas

  3. Reactive Transport and Coupled THM Processes in Engineering Barrier Systems (EBS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steefel, Carl; Rutqvist, Jonny; Tsang, Chin-Fu; Liu, Hui-Hai; Sonnenthal, Eric; Houseworth, Jim; Birkholzer, Jens

    2010-08-31

    Geological repositories for disposal of high-level nuclear wastes generally rely on a multi-barrier system to isolate radioactive wastes from the biosphere. The multi-barrier system typically consists of a natural barrier system, including repository host rock and its surrounding subsurface environment, and an engineering barrier system (EBS). EBS represents the man-made, engineered materials placed within a repository, including the waste form, waste canisters, buffer materials, backfill and seals (OECD, 2003). EBS plays a significant role in the containment and long-term retardation of radionuclide release. EBS is involved in complex thermal, hydrogeological, mechanical, chemical and biological processes, such as heat release due to radionuclide decay, multiphase flow (including gas release due to canister corrosion), swelling of buffer materials, radionuclide diffusive transport, waste dissolution and chemical reactions. All these processes are related to each other. An in-depth understanding of these coupled processes is critical for the performance assessment (PA) for EBS and the entire repository. Within the EBS group of Used Fuel Disposition (UFD) Campaign, LBNL is currently focused on (1) thermal-hydraulic-mechanical-chemical (THMC) processes in buffer materials (bentonite) and (2) diffusive transport in EBS associated with clay host rock, with a long-term goal to develop a full understanding of (and needed modeling capabilities to simulate) impacts of coupled processes on radionuclide transport in different components of EBS, as well as the interaction between near-field host rock (e.g., clay) and EBS and how they effect radionuclide release. This final report documents the progress that LBNL has made in its focus areas. Specifically, Section 2 summarizes progress on literature review for THMC processes and reactive-diffusive radionuclide transport in bentonite. The literature review provides a picture of the state-of-the-art of the relevant research areas

  4. Stress analysis and microstructure of PVD monolayer TiN and multilayer TiN/(Ti,Al)N coatings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carvalho, NJM; Zoestbergen, E; Kooi, BJ; De Hosson, JTM

    2003-01-01

    Two PVD titanium nitride based coatings; monolayer TiN and multilayer resulting from the stacking of TiN and (Ti,Al)N layers were evaluated with respect to their stress state and microstructure. The TiN was deposited by triode evaporation ion plating, whereas the TiN/(Ti,AI)N was deposited using a

  5. Partial sulfonation of PVdF-co-HFP: A preliminary study and characterization for application in direct methanol fuel cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Das, Suparna; Kumar, Piyush; Dutta, Kingshuk; Kundu, Patit Paban

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Synthesis of sulfonated PVdF-co-HFP by reacting with chlorosulfonic acid. • Maximum degree of sulfonation and best properties were obtained for 7 h reaction. • A maximum water uptake value of 20% was obtained. • A maximum IEC value of 0.42 meq g −1 was obtained. • A methanol permeability of 2.44 × 10 −7 cm 2 s −1 was obtained. - Abstract: Sulfonation of PVdF-co-HFP was conducted by treating the copolymer with chlorosulfonic acid. The efficiency of this sulfonated copolymer towards application as a polymer electrolyte membrane in direct methanol fuel cell (DMFC) was evaluated. For this purpose, we determined the thermal stability, water uptake, ion exchange capacity (IEC), methanol crossover, and proton conductivity of the prepared membranes as functions of duration and degree of sulfonation. The characteristic aromatic peaks obtained in the FT-IR spectra confirmed the successful sulfonation of PVdF-co-HFP. The effect of sulfonation on the semi-crystalline nature of pure PVdF-co-HFP was determined from XRD analysis. Water uptake results indicated that a sulfonation time of 7 h produced maximum water uptake value of about 20%, with a corresponding IEC and proton conductivity values of about 0.42 meq g −1 and 0.00375 S cm −1 respectively. The maximum current density was recorded to be 30 mA cm −2 at 0.2 V potential

  6. [Efficacy of PVD regimen combined with IMRT for early-stage extranodal nasal NK/T-cell lymphoma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Y; Huang, Y H; Hu, Y F; Liu, Q L; Wu, T

    2017-07-11

    Objective: To evaluate the efficacy of PVD chemo-regimen (Pegaspargase, vincristine and dexamethasone) combined with intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) for patients with early-stage extranodal nasal NK/T-cell lymphoma (ENKL). Methods: Clinical data of 52 patients with early-stage ENKL were collected during May 2010 and June 2015 in Department of Lymphoma, Cancer Hospital of Guizhou Medical University, and these patients firstly received a concurrent chemoradiotherapy of two-cycle of PVD and IMRT (gross tumor volume primary: 12.6-59.4 Gy) and then 2 to 4 cycles of PVD as subsequent chemotherapy, the efficacy and adverse responses were retrospectively analyzed and observed. Results: Follow-up stopped until December 2015, complete remission was seen in 44 cases (84.6%) and partial remission 7 cases (13.5%), out of 52 cases. A total of 1 case died of progression disease during treatment and within 1 year after treatment, 1 case died of pulmonary infection within 1 week after treatment, 2 cases survived with tumor; so the objective response rate and clinical benefit rate were both 98.1%, 1-year, 2-year and 3-year overall survival rates and progression free survival rates were all 93.6%, 1-year and 2-year disease free survival rates were both 90.3%; the correlation analysis showed that the radiotherapy dose was related to the curative effect ( P PVD regimen and IMRT have a good therapeutic effect and adverse response can be tolerated.

  7. Near field and altered zone environmental report Volume I: technical bases for EBS design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilder, D. G., LLNL

    1997-08-01

    This report presents an updated summary of results for the waste package (WP) and engineered barrier system (EBS) evaluations, including materials testing, waste-form characterization, EBS performance assessments, and near-field environment (NFE) characterization. Materials testing, design criteria and concept development, and waste-form characterization all require an understanding of the environmental conditions that will interact with the WP and EBS. The Near-Field Environment Report (NFER) was identified in the Waste Package Plan (WPP) (Harrison- Giesler, 1991) as the formal means for transmitting and documenting this information.

  8. Full-scale demonstration of EBS construction technology II. Design, manufacturing and transportation of pre-fabricated EBS module (PEM)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asano, Hidekazu; Toguri, Satohito; Iwata, Yumiko; Kawakami, Susumu; Nagasawa, Yuji; Yoshida, Takeshi

    2008-01-01

    PEM was investigated as a full-scale demonstration for the design, manufacturing and construction by using simulated buffer material and overpack in consideration of horizontal emplacement. Also near full-scale tests were conducted to examine the applicability of air-bearing system which can be used to transport a heavy load at the drift tunnel as for PEM. With regard to PEM casing, design requirements were selected from the viewpoints of EBS performance and operation safety issues. The construction procedure was examined in consideration of the shapes of buffer material, which are previously positioned inside the casing. And design procedure of the casing was also examined and presented. A full-scale PEM casing as a longitudinally two-part divided cylinder type with connection flanges was manufactured by using carbon steel plate. The wall thickness of this non-leak tight type PEM casing was evaluated its mechanical integrity by 2-dimensional stress analysis in consideration of the emplacement condition on the drift tunnel basement. Mechanical integrity of a percolated type casing was also examined its mechanical integrity. Air-bearing unit, which originally apply to a flat/smooth surface, was modified to fit a curved surface of the drift tunnel. Two units were aligned with two parallel lines, which estimate to be able to lift 12 tons, about two-fifth of the total weight of full scale PEM. On the conducted transportation tests of the air-bearing units, considering the surface roughness of the drift tunnel, especially for its unevenness, capability and availability of the run-over such gaps were investigated. And effect of covering sheets which can improve the gapped surface into relatively smooth was also examined by using several candidate materials. Through these tests, combination of the covering sheets and the maximum available height difference were evaluated and identified. Also the maximum traction force to toe the loading was measured to design the air

  9. Methods to improve the PVD coatability of brass by using diffusion barriers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langer, Bernd

    Previous work involving PVD coatings on brass has used a combination of multilayers consisting of electroplated films like nickel or chromium and deposited decorative PVD coatings like TiN, TiAIN or ZrN systems. The disadvantages of these systems are the combination of wet electrochemistry and high tech vacuum processes. Furthermore the allergic reaction to nickel and the toxic nature of Cr(VI) must be considered.There is a need for intermediate layers to 'seal-off the brass in order to avoid the evaporation of zinc in vacuum using a diffusion barrier. Furthermore the intermediate layers are required to act as a corrosion barrier.This thesis reports on the development of PVD coatings on heat sensitive brass substrate materials utilising ABS technology with Al, CuAl8 and Nb targets as vapour sources.The brass pretreatment includes careful grinding, polishing and cleaning steps as well as steered arc metal ion etching using the above target materials. The coatings are produced at temperatures between 100 and 250°C in the unbalanced magnetron mode, including layers made from Al, Al-Nb, CuA18, CuAl8-Nb and Nb.Scratch adhesion and Rockwell indentation tests are found not to be directly applicable to the system of soft brass and ductile coating(s). Therefore a new classification for both scratch and indentation tests was defined. The best adhesion was shown by the CuA18 coatings on brass. Corrosion tests showed good results for the Al coatings and poor results for the pure Nb coatings directly applied on brass. The best corrosion result was obtained with a CuAl8-Nb layer system. This layer system also offers very good barrier behaviour concerning Zn diffusion.Other investigations like Glow Discharge Optical Emission Spectroscopy (GDOES), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) imaging, Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) and X-ray Diffraction (XRD) were undertaken to characterise the new coating systems for brass.

  10. Prediction of the properties of PVD/CVD coatings with the use of FEM analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Śliwa, Agata; Mikuła, Jarosław; Gołombek, Klaudiusz; Tański, Tomasz; Kwaśny, Waldemar; Bonek, Mirosław; Brytan, Zbigniew

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Prediction of the properties of PVD/CVD coatings with the use of (FEM) analysis. • Stress distribution in multilayer Ti/Ti(C,N)/CrN, Ti/Ti(C,N)/(Ti,Al)N coatings. • The experimental values of stresses were determined on X-ray diffraction patterns. • An FEM model was established for the purpose of building a computer simulation. - Abstract: The aim of this paper is to present the results of the prediction of the properties of PVD/CVD coatings with the use of finite element method (FEM) analysis. The possibility of employing the FEM in the evaluation of stress distribution in multilayer Ti/Ti(C,N)/CrN, Ti/Ti(C,N)/(Ti,Al)N, Ti/(Ti,Si)N/(Ti,Si)N, and Ti/DLC/DLC coatings by taking into account their deposition conditions on magnesium alloys has been discussed in the paper. The difference in internal stresses in the zone between the coating and the substrate is caused by, first of all, the difference between the mechanical and thermal properties of the substrate and the coating, and also by the structural changes that occur in these materials during the fabrication process, especially during the cooling process following PVD and CVD treatment. The experimental values of stresses were determined based on X-ray diffraction patterns that correspond to the modelled values, which in turn can be used to confirm the correctness of the accepted mathematical model for testing the problem. An FEM model was established for the purpose of building a computer simulation of the internal stresses in the coatings. The accuracy of the FEM model was verified by comparing the results of the computer simulation of the stresses with experimental results. A computer simulation of the stresses was carried out in the ANSYS environment using the FEM method. Structure observations, chemical composition measurements, and mechanical property characterisations of the investigated materials has been carried out to give a background for the discussion of the results that were

  11. Prediction of the properties of PVD/CVD coatings with the use of FEM analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Śliwa, Agata; Mikuła, Jarosław; Gołombek, Klaudiusz; Tański, Tomasz; Kwaśny, Waldemar; Bonek, Mirosław, E-mail: miroslaw.bonek@polsl.pl; Brytan, Zbigniew

    2016-12-01

    Highlights: • Prediction of the properties of PVD/CVD coatings with the use of (FEM) analysis. • Stress distribution in multilayer Ti/Ti(C,N)/CrN, Ti/Ti(C,N)/(Ti,Al)N coatings. • The experimental values of stresses were determined on X-ray diffraction patterns. • An FEM model was established for the purpose of building a computer simulation. - Abstract: The aim of this paper is to present the results of the prediction of the properties of PVD/CVD coatings with the use of finite element method (FEM) analysis. The possibility of employing the FEM in the evaluation of stress distribution in multilayer Ti/Ti(C,N)/CrN, Ti/Ti(C,N)/(Ti,Al)N, Ti/(Ti,Si)N/(Ti,Si)N, and Ti/DLC/DLC coatings by taking into account their deposition conditions on magnesium alloys has been discussed in the paper. The difference in internal stresses in the zone between the coating and the substrate is caused by, first of all, the difference between the mechanical and thermal properties of the substrate and the coating, and also by the structural changes that occur in these materials during the fabrication process, especially during the cooling process following PVD and CVD treatment. The experimental values of stresses were determined based on X-ray diffraction patterns that correspond to the modelled values, which in turn can be used to confirm the correctness of the accepted mathematical model for testing the problem. An FEM model was established for the purpose of building a computer simulation of the internal stresses in the coatings. The accuracy of the FEM model was verified by comparing the results of the computer simulation of the stresses with experimental results. A computer simulation of the stresses was carried out in the ANSYS environment using the FEM method. Structure observations, chemical composition measurements, and mechanical property characterisations of the investigated materials has been carried out to give a background for the discussion of the results that were

  12. Evaluation of the PetrifilmTM EB and TEMPO® EB systems with ISO 21528-2:2004 method for the count of Enterobacteriaceae in milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andréia Cirolini

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The development of alternative microbiological techniques is driven by the necessity to meet the current needs to deliver rapid results in the manufacturing process of foods, but it is important that these methods be evaluated for each application. The objective of the present study was to assess the PetrifilmTM EB and the TEMPO® EB systems with ISO 21528-2:2004 for the count of Enterobacteriaceae in pasteurized and UHT milk samples. We analyzed the microflora of 141 pasteurized milk samples, 15 samples of artificially contaminated pasteurized milk and 15 samples of artificially contaminated UHT milk. Investigation of the method PetrifilmTM EB and ISO 21528:2 regression analysis showed a high correlation in the samples, r = 0.90 for the microflora of pasteurized milk, r = 0.98 for artificially contaminated pasteurized milk and r = 0.99 for the artificially contaminated UHT milk. In evaluating the system TEMPO EB ® method and ISO 21528:2 correlation was also significant in the analyzed samples, with r = 0.86 for the microflora of pasteurized milk, r = 0.96 for artificially contaminated pasteurized milk and r = 0.99 for artificially contaminated UHT milk. No statistically significant differences were observed between the three methods conducted to analyze artificially contaminated pasteurized and UHT milk at three inoculum levels. In conclusion, the PetrifilmTM EB system and the TEMPO® EB system may be an alternative to the ISO 21528-2:2004 for the Enterobacteriaceae assay for milk as because of the ease-of-operation and the time reduction achieved for conducting the microbiological assay using these systems.

  13. Woman and partner-perceived partner responses predict pain and sexual satisfaction in provoked vestibulodynia (PVD) couples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosen, Natalie O; Bergeron, Sophie; Leclerc, Bianca; Lambert, Bernard; Steben, Marc

    2010-11-01

    Provoked vestibulodynia (PVD) is a highly prevalent vulvovaginal pain condition that results in significant sexual dysfunction, psychological distress, and reduced quality of life. Although some intra-individual psychological factors have been associated with PVD, studies to date have neglected the interpersonal context of this condition. We examined whether partner responses to women's pain experience-from the perspective of both the woman and her partner-are associated with pain intensity, sexual function, and sexual satisfaction. One hundred ninety-one couples (M age for women=33.28, standard deviation [SD]=12.07, M age for men=35.79, SD=12.44) in which the woman suffered from PVD completed the spouse response scale of the Multidimensional Pain Inventory, assessing perceptions of partners' responses to the pain. Women with PVD also completed measures of pain, sexual function, sexual satisfaction, depression, and dyadic adjustment. Dependent measures were women's responses to: (i) a horizontal analog scale assessing the intensity of their pain during intercourse; (ii) the Female Sexual Function Index; and (iii) the Global Measure of Sexual Satisfaction Scale. Controlling for depression, higher solicitous partner responses were associated with higher levels of women's vulvovaginal pain intensity. This association was significant for partner-perceived responses (β=0.29, Psexual function and dyadic adjustment, woman-perceived greater solicitous partner responses (β=0.16, P=0.02) predicted greater sexual satisfaction. Partner-perceived responses did not predict women's sexual satisfaction. Partner responses were not associated with women's sexual function. Findings support the integration of dyadic processes in the conceptualization and treatment of PVD by suggesting that partner responses to pain affect pain intensity and sexual satisfaction in affected women. © 2010 International Society for Sexual Medicine.

  14. Effect of PbI2 deposition rate on two-step PVD/CVD all-vacuum prepared perovskite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ioakeimidis, Apostolos; Christodoulou, Christos; Lux-Steiner, Martha; Fostiropoulos, Konstantinos

    2016-01-01

    In this work we fabricate all-vacuum processed methyl ammonium lead halide perovskite by a sequence of physical vapour deposition of PbI 2 and chemical vapour deposition (CVD) of CH 3 NH 3 I under a static atmosphere. We demonstrate that for higher deposition rate the (001) planes of PbI 2 film show a higher degree of alignment parallel to the sample's surface. From X-ray diffraction data of the resulted perovskite film we derive that the intercalation rate of CH 3 NH 3 I is fostered for PbI 2 films with higher degree of (001) planes alignment. The stoichiometry of the produced perovskite film is also studied by Hard X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy measurements. Complete all-vacuum perovskite solar cells were fabricated on glass/ITO substrates coated by an ultra-thin (5 nm) Zn-phthalocyanine film as hole selective layer. A dependence of residual PbI 2 on the solar cells performance is displayed, while photovoltaic devices with efficiency up to η=11.6% were achieved. - Graphical abstract: A two-step PVD/CVD processed perovskite film with the CVD intercalation rate of CH 3 NCH 3 molecules been fostered by increasing the PVD rate of PbI 2 and prolonging the CVD time. - Highlights: • A simple PVD/CVD process for perovskite film production. • Increased PVD rate yields better alignment of the PbI 2 (001) crystallite planes. • CH 3 NH 3 I intercalation process fostered by increased PbI 2 PVD rate. • Stoichiometric CH 3 NH 3 PbI 3 suitable as absorber in photovoltaic applications • Reduced PbI 2 residue at the bottom of CH 3 NH 3 PbI 3 improves device performance.

  15. Practical and safe implementation of disposal with prefabricated EBS modules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawamura, Hideki; McKinley, Ian G.; Neall, Fiona B.

    2008-01-01

    The use of prefabricated EBS modules ('PEMs') to minimise the problems involved with handling compacted bentonite and ensuring that it is emplaced to established quality levels has been investigated in various national programmes for disposal of both HLW and SF. To date, however, this has tended to be decoupled from studies of related operational aspects such as assessing / minimising the consequences of use of concrete for support structures, ensuring ease of tele-operated reversal of waste packages during emplacement (e.g. in the event of operational disturbances) / retrieval at a later time, logistical optimisation (especially for programmes with large waste inventories) and cost minimisation. It is clear that specific aspects of operational safety and practicality can be considerably enhanced if designs are modified with a focus on them. It is trickier to provide optimised solutions, which simultaneously address all these critical points. Nevertheless, with a bit of lateral thinking, it appears possible to devise options that may not only ease the operational phase, but may also actually improve post-closure safety case robustness - although improved, more realistic performance assessment codes and databases will be needed to demonstrate this rigorously. To illustrate this approach, an example will be presented based of disposal of vitrified HLW in a fractured hard rock; the general principles involved are, however, also applicable to other higher activity wastes and other host rocks. Key aspects of the design are: Optimisation of PEM design for both short-term and long-term performance; Development of a rail emplacement system which eases remote handled emplacement / recovery; Large diameter, lined emplacement tunnels to ensure operational robustness; Use of multi-package overpacks (e.g. 6 HLW containers in each PEM) and short tunnels to ease emplacement logistics; and Backfilling with a non-swelling sacrificial pH buffer (eases handling and improves

  16. Towards energy efficient climate control in storage of tulip bulbs. Pilot EB-01; Naar een energiezuiniger klimaatbeheersing bij de bewaring van tulpenbollen. Praktijkproef EB-01

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gude, H.; Dijkema, M.

    2005-09-15

    The aim of this project is to enable energy conservation in the storage of tulip bulbs. To this end, it should be examined if the agent EB-01 (1-methylcycloprene, a protection agent for plants) can be used in practical cells that are not entirely leak proof and if it offers sufficient protection against ethylene damage [Dutch] Doel van dit project is om energiebesparing bij de bewaring van tulpenbollen mogelijk te maken. Om dat te realiseren wordt onderzocht of het middel EB-01 (1- methylcyclopropeen, een beschermingsmiddel voor planten) toepasbaar is in niet volledig lekdichte praktijkcellen en voldoende bescherming tegen ethyleenschade biedt.

  17. Non-classical crystallization of thin films and nanostructures in CVD and PVD processes

    CERN Document Server

    Hwang, Nong Moon

    2016-01-01

    This book provides a comprehensive introduction to a recently-developed approach to the growth mechanism of thin films and nanostructures via chemical vapour deposition (CVD). Starting from the underlying principles of the low pressure synthesis of diamond films, it is shown that diamond growth occurs not by individual atoms but by charged nanoparticles. This newly-discovered growth mechanism turns out to be general to many CVD and some physical vapor deposition (PVD) processes. This non-classical crystallization is a new paradigm of crystal growth, with active research taking place on growth in solution, especially in biomineralization processes. Established understanding of the growth of thin films and nanostructures is based around processes involving individual atoms or molecules. According to the author’s research over the last two decades, however, the generation of charged gas phase nuclei is shown to be the rule rather than the exception in the CVD process, and charged gas phase nuclei are actively ...

  18. Double Pulse LIBS of Titanium-Based PVD-Coatings with Submicron Resolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Ermalitskaia

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The possibility for double pulse LIBS in the process of a direct layer-by-layer analysis of the titanium-based PVD-coatings on polished flat blank samples of steel and silicon and also of the TiAlN/TiN-coating on a milling cutter is considered. A method is proposed to control thickness of the radiation evaporated layer by defocusing the laser beam with respect to the surface, making it possible to attain the depth resolution of 0.1 μm. The Ti and Ti-Zr-coatings produced using the ion-assisted condensation method and subjected to streams of the nitrogen plasma in a magnetic-plasma compressor are studied.

  19. Investigations on PVdF- HFP - PEMA polymer blend electrolytes doped with different lithium salts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manojkumar Ubarhande, Radha; Bhattacharya, Shreya; Usha Rani, M.; Shanker Babu, Ravi; Krishnaveni, S.

    2017-11-01

    Plasticized polymer blend electrolytes were prepared by incorporating poly (vinylidenefluoride-co-hexafluoropropylene)(PVdF-HFP) and poly(ethylmethacrylate) (PEMA) complexed with plasticizer (PC) and different lithium salts such as LiClO4, LiBF4, LiCF3SO3 and LiN (CF3SO2)2) using solution-casting technique. X-ray diffraction and Fourier transform infra-red techniques confirms the structural characters and complex formation of the polymer electrolytes respectively. AC impedance analysis was carried out for all the samples in the range303-373K. The results suggest that among the various lithium salts, LiN (CF3SO2)2) based electrolytes exhibited the highest ionic conductivity (3.17 × 10-3 Scm-1).

  20. Synthesis and electrochemical properties of composite galvanic Ni with carbon nanomaterials and PVD Mo coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drozdovich, V.B.; Chayeuski, V.V.; Zhdanok, S.A.; Barkovskaya, M.M.

    2011-01-01

    Double layer coatings Ni – Mo were obtained by electrolytic deposition of galvanic Ni and following arc PVD deposition of molybdenum. The ion plating coatings Mo on Ni foil and composition electrolytic Ni coatings with carbon nanomaterials (CNM) deposited on mild steel has been also investigated. Composite galvanic Ni coatings with CNM and ion plating coatings Mo contain separately obtained cubic α-Mo phase as well as fragmentary solid solution Mo in Ni. Such coatings exclude hydrogenation of Ni foundation in alkaline solution and possess enlarged electrocatalytic properties while emitting hydrogen and oxygen. Availability of carbon based nanomaterials in combined coatings is cause of an active absorption hydrogen after cathodic polarization. A formation on the surface layer of nanostructure solid solution (Ni, Mo) after compression plasma flows treatment with fixed parameters of patterns Mo/Ni/ mild steel take place. (authors)

  1. Structure and functionality of PVdF/PAN based, composite proton conducting membranes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinelli, A.; Navarra, M.A.; Matic, A.; Panero, S.; Jacobsson, P.; Boerjesson, L.; Scrosati, B.

    2005-01-01

    We have investigated new poly-vinylidene fluoride/poly-acrylonitrile (PVdF/PAN) based proton conducting membranes by means of vibrational spectroscopy. We find that a complete phase inversion occurs during the preparation procedure, when the gelling solvents are replaced by an acidic solution, providing the proton conducting property. The uptake of acid is promoted both by the presence of PAN and the ceramic filler, Al 2 O 3 . No particular interaction between the polymer matrix and the acidic solution could be detected, supporting the picture of an inert matrix entrapping a liquid component. However, the dissociation degree of the acid is decreased due to the spatial confinement in the membrane. By comparing the dissociation degree and the actual amount of acid in the membrane to the conductivity, we conclude that the limiting factor for the conductivity is the long-range mobility of the protons, which is governed by the morphology of the membrane

  2. Current and future market of UV/EB curing in Thailand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suda Kiatkamjornwong; Aran Hanseubsai

    1999-01-01

    Current status and future market of UV/EB curing in Thailand were presented. Included number of printing houses, export, main export market and the role of radiation curing in printing and packaging industries of Thailand

  3. Post-irradiation mechanical tests on F82H EB and TIG welds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rensman, J.; Osch, E.V. van; Horsten, M.G.; D'Hulst, D.S.

    2000-01-01

    The irradiation behaviour of electron beam (EB) and tungsten inert gas (TIG) welded joints of the reduced-activation martensitic steel IEA heat F82H-mod. was investigated by neutron irradiation experiments in the high flux reactor (HFR) in Petten. Mechanical test specimens, such as tensile specimens and KLST-type Charpy impact specimens, were neutron irradiated up to a dose level of 2-3 dpa at a temperature of 300 deg. C in the HFR reactor in Petten. The tensile results for TIG and EB welds are as expected with practically no strain hardening capacity left. Considering impact properties, there is a large variation in impact properties for the TIG weld. The irradiation tends to shift the DBTT of particularly the EB welds to very high values, some cases even above +250 deg. C. PWHT of EB-welded material gives a significant improvement of the DBTT and USE compared to the as-welded condition

  4. Application of calorimeters for 5 MeV EB and bremsstrahlung dosimetry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sato, T.; Takahashi, T.; Saito, T.

    1993-01-01

    Graphite and water calorimeters, which were developed for use a 10 MeV electron beams (EB) at Riso National Laboratory, were used for process validation and routine dosimeter calibration at a 5 MeV EB. Water calorimeters were used for reference measurements for 5 MeV EB, the response was found...... to be directly proportional to the beam current and the variation among three water calorimeters was less than +/- 2 % in the range of 10 to 40 kGy. CTA, PMMA, RCD dosimeters were calibrated by irradiating the dosimeters and water calorimeters Simultaneously. The water calorimeter was proved to be an useful tool...... at 5 MeV EB. Graphite calorimeters gave reproducible readings within 3.3 % relative errors (95 % confidence level) for X-ray measurement....

  5. Application of calorimeters for 5 MeV EB and bremsstrahlung dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Toshio; Takahashi, Toru; Saito, Toshio; Takehisa, Masaaki; Miller, A.

    1993-01-01

    Graphite and water calorimeters, which were developed for use with 10 MeV electron beams (EB) at Riso National Laboratory, were used for process validation and routine dosimeter calibration at a 5 MeV EB. Water calorimeters were used for reference measurements for 5 MeV EB, the response was found to be directly proportional to the beam current and the variation among three water calorimeters was less than ± 2% in the range of 10 to 40 kGy. CTA PMMA RCD dosimeters were calibrated by irradiating the dosimeters and water calorimeters simultaneously. The water calorimeter was proved to be an useful tool at 5 MeV EB. Graphite calorimeters gave reproducible readings within 3.3 % relative errors (95% confidence level) for X-ray measurement. (Author)

  6. Investigation of the Effect of Residual Stress Gradient on the Wear Behavior of PVD Thin Films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tlili, B.; Nouveau, C.; Guillemot, G.; Besnard, A.; Barkaoui, A.

    2018-02-01

    The control of residual stresses has been seldom investigated in multilayer coatings dedicated to improvement of wear behavior. Here, we report the preparation and characterization of superposed structures composed of Cr, CrN and CrAlN layers. Nano-multilayers CrN/CrAlN and Cr/CrN/CrAlN were deposited by Physical Vapor Deposition (PVD) onto Si (100) and AISI4140 steel substrates. The Cr, CrN and CrAlN monolayers were developed with an innovative approach in PVD coatings technologies corresponding to deposition with different residual stresses levels. Composition and wear tracks morphologies of the coatings were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy, x-ray diffraction and 3D-surface analyzer. The mechanical properties (hardness, residual stresses and wear) were investigated by nanoindentation, interferometry and micro-tribometry (fretting-wear tests). Observations suggest that multilayer coatings are composed mostly of nanocrystalline. The residual stresses level in the films has practically affected all the physicochemical and mechanical properties as well as the wear behavior. Consequently, it is demonstrated that the coating containing moderate stresses has a better wear behavior compared to the coating developed with higher residual stresses. The friction contact between coated samples and alumina balls shows also a large variety of wear mechanisms. In particular, the abrasive wear of the coatings was a combination of plastic deformation, fine microcracking and microspallation. The application of these multilayers will be wood machining of green wood.

  7. Injection moulding of optical functional micro structures using laser structured, PVD-coated mould inserts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hopmann, Ch.; Weber, M.; Schöngart, M.; Schäfer, C., E-mail: weber@ikv-aachen.de [Institute of Plastics Processing (IKV) at RWTH Aachen University (Germany); Bobzin, K.; Bagcivan, N.; Brögelmann, T.; Theiß, S.; Münstermann, T. [Surface Engineering Institute (IOT), RWTH Aachen University, Aachen (Germany); Steger, M. [Fraunhofer Institute for Laser Technology (ILT), Aachen (Germany)

    2015-05-22

    Micro structured optical plastics components are intensively used i. e. in consumer electronics, for optical sensors in metrology, innovative LED-lighting or laser technology. Injection moulding has proven to be successful for the large-scale production of those parts. However, the production of those parts still causes difficulties due to challenges in the moulding and demoulding of plastics parts created with laser structured mould inserts. A complete moulding of the structures often leads to increased demoulding forces, which then cause a breaking of the structures and a clogging of the mould. An innovative approach is to combine PVD-coated (physical vapour deposition), laser structured inserts and a variothermal moulding process to create functional mic8iüro structures in a one-step process. Therefore, a PVD-coating is applied after the laser structuring process in order to improve the wear resistance and the anti-adhesive properties against the plastics melt. In a series of moulding trials with polycarbonate (PC) and polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) using different coated moulds, the mould temperature during injection was varied in the range of the glass transition and the melt temperature of the polymers. Subsequently, the surface topography of the moulded parts is evaluated by digital 3D laser-scanning microscopy. The influence of the moulding parameters and the coating of the mould insert on the moulding accuracy and the demoulding behaviour are being analysed. It is shown that micro structures created by ultra-short pulse laser ablation can be successfully replicated in a variothermal moulding process. Due to the mould coating, significant improvements could be achieved in producing micro structured optical plastics components.

  8. Prediction of the properties of PVD/CVD coatings with the use of FEM analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Śliwa, Agata; Mikuła, Jarosław; Gołombek, Klaudiusz; Tański, Tomasz; Kwaśny, Waldemar; Bonek, Mirosław; Brytan, Zbigniew

    2016-12-01

    The aim of this paper is to present the results of the prediction of the properties of PVD/CVD coatings with the use of finite element method (FEM) analysis. The possibility of employing the FEM in the evaluation of stress distribution in multilayer Ti/Ti(C,N)/CrN, Ti/Ti(C,N)/(Ti,Al)N, Ti/(Ti,Si)N/(Ti,Si)N, and Ti/DLC/DLC coatings by taking into account their deposition conditions on magnesium alloys has been discussed in the paper. The difference in internal stresses in the zone between the coating and the substrate is caused by, first of all, the difference between the mechanical and thermal properties of the substrate and the coating, and also by the structural changes that occur in these materials during the fabrication process, especially during the cooling process following PVD and CVD treatment. The experimental values of stresses were determined based on X-ray diffraction patterns that correspond to the modelled values, which in turn can be used to confirm the correctness of the accepted mathematical model for testing the problem. An FEM model was established for the purpose of building a computer simulation of the internal stresses in the coatings. The accuracy of the FEM model was verified by comparing the results of the computer simulation of the stresses with experimental results. A computer simulation of the stresses was carried out in the ANSYS environment using the FEM method. Structure observations, chemical composition measurements, and mechanical property characterisations of the investigated materials has been carried out to give a background for the discussion of the results that were recorded during the modelling process.

  9. Tribological and Wear Performance of Nanocomposite PVD Hard Coatings Deposited on Aluminum Die Casting Tool

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose Mario Paiva

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available In the aluminum die casting process, erosion, corrosion, soldering, and die sticking have a significant influence on tool life and product quality. A number of coatings such as TiN, CrN, and (Cr,AlN deposited by physical vapor deposition (PVD have been employed to act as protective coatings due to their high hardness and chemical stability. In this study, the wear performance of two nanocomposite AlTiN and AlCrN coatings with different structures were evaluated. These coatings were deposited on aluminum die casting mold tool substrates (AISI H13 hot work steel by PVD using pulsed cathodic arc evaporation, equipped with three lateral arc-rotating cathodes (LARC and one central rotating cathode (CERC. The research was performed in two stages: in the first stage, the outlined coatings were characterized regarding their chemical composition, morphology, and structure using glow discharge optical emission spectroscopy (GDOES, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, and X-ray diffraction (XRD, respectively. Surface morphology and mechanical properties were evaluated by atomic force microscopy (AFM and nanoindentation. The coating adhesion was studied using Mersedes test and scratch testing. During the second stage, industrial tests were carried out for coated die casting molds. In parallel, tribological tests were also performed in order to determine if a correlation between laboratory and industrial tests can be drawn. All of the results were compared with a benchmark monolayer AlCrN coating. The data obtained show that the best performance was achieved for the AlCrN/Si3N4 nanocomposite coating that displays an optimum combination of hardness, adhesion, soldering behavior, oxidation resistance, and stress state. These characteristics are essential for improving the die mold service life. Therefore, this coating emerges as a novelty to be used to protect aluminum die casting molds.

  10. Tribological and Wear Performance of Nanocomposite PVD Hard Coatings Deposited on Aluminum Die Casting Tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paiva, Jose Mario; Fox-Rabinovich, German; Locks Junior, Edinei; Stolf, Pietro; Seid Ahmed, Yassmin; Matos Martins, Marcelo; Bork, Carlos; Veldhuis, Stephen

    2018-02-28

    In the aluminum die casting process, erosion, corrosion, soldering, and die sticking have a significant influence on tool life and product quality. A number of coatings such as TiN, CrN, and (Cr,Al)N deposited by physical vapor deposition (PVD) have been employed to act as protective coatings due to their high hardness and chemical stability. In this study, the wear performance of two nanocomposite AlTiN and AlCrN coatings with different structures were evaluated. These coatings were deposited on aluminum die casting mold tool substrates (AISI H13 hot work steel) by PVD using pulsed cathodic arc evaporation, equipped with three lateral arc-rotating cathodes (LARC) and one central rotating cathode (CERC). The research was performed in two stages: in the first stage, the outlined coatings were characterized regarding their chemical composition, morphology, and structure using glow discharge optical emission spectroscopy (GDOES), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and X-ray diffraction (XRD), respectively. Surface morphology and mechanical properties were evaluated by atomic force microscopy (AFM) and nanoindentation. The coating adhesion was studied using Mersedes test and scratch testing. During the second stage, industrial tests were carried out for coated die casting molds. In parallel, tribological tests were also performed in order to determine if a correlation between laboratory and industrial tests can be drawn. All of the results were compared with a benchmark monolayer AlCrN coating. The data obtained show that the best performance was achieved for the AlCrN/Si₃N₄ nanocomposite coating that displays an optimum combination of hardness, adhesion, soldering behavior, oxidation resistance, and stress state. These characteristics are essential for improving the die mold service life. Therefore, this coating emerges as a novelty to be used to protect aluminum die casting molds.

  11. Effect of Hexagonal Phase Content on Wear Behaviour of AlTiN Arc PVD Coatings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joern Kohlscheen

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the effect of increasing aluminum content and magnetic steering field strength on the structure and wear behavior of arc PVD AlTiN coatings is discussed. Deposition was done by means of an industrial-scale PVD unit for tool coating. The aluminium content in the AlTi source material was increased from 67 to 73 at.%. We applied two settings of the magnetic field that steers the arc across the cathode surface thereby evaporating the AlTi alloy differently. The resulting coating thickness ranged from 3.5 to about 7 µm. Cemented tungsten carbide was used as substrate material. Coating properties like hardness, adhesion, and crystal phases were analyzed by indentation and X-ray diffraction, respectively. The wear behaviour of the different AlTiN hard coatings were investigated in two ways. In a first idealized test, cyclic impacting was done applying a constant force. The resulting wear pattern was quantified by an Alicona multi-focus microscope. A second wear test was done by metal cutting under realistic conditions. Fly milling of ductile cast iron (EN-GJS-700 was performed with regular interruptions in order to measure the increasing wear mark. As expected, aluminium contents above 67 at.% (in the metal fraction of the coating lead to a decreased wear resistance as the soft hexagonal phase exceeds values of a few vol.%. However, it was found that the formation of the hexagonal phase can be effectively influenced and delayed by increasing the magnetic steering field at the cathode. The wear behavior observed in cyclic impact testing corresponds well to results obtained with the more complex loading situation encountered in milling.

  12. Disposal systems evaluations and tool development: Engineered Barrier System (EBS) evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rutqvist, Jonny; Liu, Hui-Hai; Steefel, Carl I.; Serrano de Caro, M.A.; Caporuscio, Florie Andre; Birkholzer, Jens T.; Blink, James A.; Sutton, Mark A.; Xu, Hongwu; Buscheck, Thomas A.; Levy, Schon S.; Tsang, Chin-Fu; Sonnenthal, Eric; Halsey, William G.; Jove-Colon, Carlos F.; Wolery, Thomas J.

    2011-01-01

    Key components of the nuclear fuel cycle are short-term storage and long-term disposal of nuclear waste. The latter encompasses the immobilization of used nuclear fuel (UNF) and radioactive waste streams generated by various phases of the nuclear fuel cycle, and the safe and permanent disposition of these waste forms in geological repository environments. The engineered barrier system (EBS) plays a very important role in the long-term isolation of nuclear waste in geological repository environments. EBS concepts and their interactions with the natural barrier are inherently important to the long-term performance assessment of the safety case where nuclear waste disposition needs to be evaluated for time periods of up to one million years. Making the safety case needed in the decision-making process for the recommendation and the eventual embracement of a disposal system concept requires a multi-faceted integration of knowledge and evidence-gathering to demonstrate the required confidence level in a deep geological disposal site and to evaluate long-term repository performance. The focus of this report is the following: (1) Evaluation of EBS in long-term disposal systems in deep geologic environments with emphasis on the multi-barrier concept; (2) Evaluation of key parameters in the characterization of EBS performance; (3) Identification of key knowledge gaps and uncertainties; and (4) Evaluation of tools and modeling approaches for EBS processes and performance. The above topics will be evaluated through the analysis of the following: (1) Overview of EBS concepts for various NW disposal systems; (2) Natural and man-made analogs, room chemistry, hydrochemistry of deep subsurface environments, and EBS material stability in near-field environments; (3) Reactive Transport and Coupled Thermal-Hydrological-Mechanical-Chemical (THMC) processes in EBS; and (4) Thermal analysis toolkit, metallic barrier degradation mode survey, and development of a Disposal Systems

  13. Disposal systems evaluations and tool development : Engineered Barrier System (EBS) evaluation.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rutqvist, Jonny (LBNL); Liu, Hui-Hai (LBNL); Steefel, Carl I. (LBNL); Serrano de Caro, M. A. (LLNL); Caporuscio, Florie Andre (LANL); Birkholzer, Jens T. (LBNL); Blink, James A. (LLNL); Sutton, Mark A. (LLNL); Xu, Hongwu (LANL); Buscheck, Thomas A. (LLNL); Levy, Schon S. (LANL); Tsang, Chin-Fu (LBNL); Sonnenthal, Eric (LBNL); Halsey, William G. (LLNL); Jove-Colon, Carlos F.; Wolery, Thomas J. (LLNL)

    2011-01-01

    Key components of the nuclear fuel cycle are short-term storage and long-term disposal of nuclear waste. The latter encompasses the immobilization of used nuclear fuel (UNF) and radioactive waste streams generated by various phases of the nuclear fuel cycle, and the safe and permanent disposition of these waste forms in geological repository environments. The engineered barrier system (EBS) plays a very important role in the long-term isolation of nuclear waste in geological repository environments. EBS concepts and their interactions with the natural barrier are inherently important to the long-term performance assessment of the safety case where nuclear waste disposition needs to be evaluated for time periods of up to one million years. Making the safety case needed in the decision-making process for the recommendation and the eventual embracement of a disposal system concept requires a multi-faceted integration of knowledge and evidence-gathering to demonstrate the required confidence level in a deep geological disposal site and to evaluate long-term repository performance. The focus of this report is the following: (1) Evaluation of EBS in long-term disposal systems in deep geologic environments with emphasis on the multi-barrier concept; (2) Evaluation of key parameters in the characterization of EBS performance; (3) Identification of key knowledge gaps and uncertainties; and (4) Evaluation of tools and modeling approaches for EBS processes and performance. The above topics will be evaluated through the analysis of the following: (1) Overview of EBS concepts for various NW disposal systems; (2) Natural and man-made analogs, room chemistry, hydrochemistry of deep subsurface environments, and EBS material stability in near-field environments; (3) Reactive Transport and Coupled Thermal-Hydrological-Mechanical-Chemical (THMC) processes in EBS; and (4) Thermal analysis toolkit, metallic barrier degradation mode survey, and development of a Disposal Systems

  14. Thermal barrier coatings of rare earth materials deposited by electron beam-physical vapor deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu Zhenhua [State Key Laboratory of Rare Earth Resource Utilization, Changchun Institute of Applied Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changchun 130022 (China); Graduate School of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100039 (China); Beijing Institute of Aeronautical Materials, Department 5, P.O. Box 81-5, Beijing 100095 (China); He Limin, E-mail: he_limin@yahoo.co [Beijing Institute of Aeronautical Materials, Department 5, P.O. Box 81-5, Beijing 100095 (China); Chen Xiaolong; Zhao Yu [State Key Laboratory of Rare Earth Resource Utilization, Changchun Institute of Applied Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changchun 130022 (China); Graduate School of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100039 (China); Cao Xueqiang, E-mail: xcao@ciac.jl.c [State Key Laboratory of Rare Earth Resource Utilization, Changchun Institute of Applied Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changchun 130022 (China)

    2010-10-15

    Thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) have very important applications in gas turbines for higher thermal efficiency and protection of components at high temperature. TBCs of rare earth materials such as lanthanum zirconate (La{sub 2}Zr{sub 2}O{sub 7}, LZ), lanthanum cerate (La{sub 2}Ce{sub 2}O{sub 7}, LC), lanthanum cerium zirconate (La{sub 2}(Zr{sub 0.7}Ce{sub 0.3}){sub 2}O{sub 7}, LZ7C3) were prepared by electron beam-physical vapor deposition (EB-PVD). The composition, crystal structure, cross-sectional morphology and cyclic oxidation behavior of these coatings were studied. These coatings have partially deviated from their original compositions due to the different evaporation rates of oxides, and the deviation could be reduced by properly controlling the deposition condition. A double ceramic layer-thermal barrier coatings (DCL-TBCs) of LZ7C3 and LC could also be deposited with a single LZ7C3 ingot by properly controlling the deposition energy. LaAlO{sub 3} is formed due to the chemical reaction between LC and Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} in the thermally grown oxide (TGO) layer. The failure of DCL-TBCs is a result of the sintering-induced of LZ7C3 coating and the chemical incompatibility of LC and TGO. Since no single material that has been studied so far satisfies all the requirements for high temperature applications, DCL-TBCs are an important development direction of TBCs.

  15. Hot corrosion behavior of YSZ, Gd2Zr2O7 and YSZ/Gd2Zr2O7 thermal barrier coatings exposed to molten sulfate and vanadate salt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozgurluk, Yasin; Doleker, Kadir Mert; Karaoglanli, Abdullah Cahit

    2018-04-01

    Thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) are mostly used in critical components of aircraft gas turbine engines. Hot corrosion is among the main deteriorating factors in TBCs which results from the effect of molten salt on the coating-gas interface. This type of corrosion is observed as a result of contamination accumulated during combustion processes. Fuels used in aviation industry generally contain impurities such as vanadium oxide (V2O5) and sodium sulfate (Na2SO4). These impurities damage turbines' inlet at elevated temperatures because of chemical reaction. Yttria stabilized zirconia (YSZ) is a conventional top coating material for TBCs while Gd2Zr2O7 is a new promising top coating material for TBCs. In this study, CoNiCrAlY metallic bond coat was deposited on Inconel 718 nickel based superalloy substrate material with a thickness about 100 μm using cold gas dynamic spray (CGDS) method. Production of TBCs were done with deposition of YSZ, Gd2Zr2O7, YSZ/Gd2Zr2O7 ceramic top coating materials using EB-PVD method, having a total thickness of 300 μm. Hot corrosion behavior of YSZ, Gd2Zr2O7, YSZ/Gd2Zr2O7 TBC systems were exposed to 45 wt.% Na2SO4 and 55 wt.% V2O5 molten salt mixtures at 1000 °C temperature. TBC samples were investigated and compared using scanning electron microscope (SEM), energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) analysis and X-ray diffractometer (XRD). The hot corrosion failure mechanisms of YSZ, Gd2Zr2O7 and YSZ/Gd2Zr2O7 TBCs in the molten salts were evaluated.

  16. The removal of VOC from air using EB, MW and catalyst - Laboratory plant results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calinescu, I.; Ighigeanu, D.; Martin, D.

    2011-01-01

    A new hybrid technique for the VOCs removal from gases, based on the combined use of EB induced NTP (non-thermal plasma), MW induced NTP and catalytic oxidation, named “EB+MW-plasma catalysis”, is presented. The main goal of our research was to combine the features of each known technique used in gas pollution control, i.e. the very high efficiency of EB in converting VOCs to intermediate products, the ability of MW to produce and sustain NTP in large electrodeless reactors, and the important role of catalysts in the complete conversion to CO 2 and H 2 O. Our experiences shown that the two means of treating the gases are complementary: the catalytic oxidation in the presence of MW is efficient for high VOC initial concentrations and low flow rates while the exclusive use of the EB irradiation determines high decomposition efficiencies only in the case of very low concentrations of VOC but for large flow rates. Real synergistic effects between NTP and catalysis were obtained by introducing the catalyst into the irradiation zone. The main conclusion of this work is that the combined treatment EB+MW+catalyst improves both decomposition efficiency and oxidation efficiency. The EB+MW+Catalysis method demonstrated good results on a wide range of concentrations and flow rates. (author)

  17. The removal of VOC from air using EB, MW and catalyst - Laboratory plant results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calinescu, I. [Polytechnic University, Bucharest (Romania); Ighigeanu, D.; Martin, D. [National Institute for Lasers, Plasma and Radiation Physics, Bucharest (Romania)

    2011-07-01

    A new hybrid technique for the VOCs removal from gases, based on the combined use of EB induced NTP (non-thermal plasma), MW induced NTP and catalytic oxidation, named “EB+MW-plasma catalysis”, is presented. The main goal of our research was to combine the features of each known technique used in gas pollution control, i.e. the very high efficiency of EB in converting VOCs to intermediate products, the ability of MW to produce and sustain NTP in large electrodeless reactors, and the important role of catalysts in the complete conversion to CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2}O. Our experiences shown that the two means of treating the gases are complementary: the catalytic oxidation in the presence of MW is efficient for high VOC initial concentrations and low flow rates while the exclusive use of the EB irradiation determines high decomposition efficiencies only in the case of very low concentrations of VOC but for large flow rates. Real synergistic effects between NTP and catalysis were obtained by introducing the catalyst into the irradiation zone. The main conclusion of this work is that the combined treatment EB+MW+catalyst improves both decomposition efficiency and oxidation efficiency. The EB+MW+Catalysis method demonstrated good results on a wide range of concentrations and flow rates. (author)

  18. Prefabricated Vertical Drain (PVD) and Deep Cement Mixing (DCM)/Stiffened DCM (SDCM) techniques for soft ground improvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergado, D. T.; Long, P. V.; Chaiyaput, S.; Balasubramaniam, A. S.

    2018-04-01

    Soft ground improvement techniques have become most practical and popular methods to increase soil strength, soil stiffness and reduce soil compressibility including the soft Bangkok clay. This paper focuses on comparative performances of prefabricated vertical drain (PVD) using surcharge, vacuum and heat preloading as well as the cement-admixed clay of Deep Cement Mixing (DCM) and Stiffened DCM (SDCM) methods. The Vacuum-PVD can increase the horizontal coefficient of consolidation, Ch, resulting in faster rate of settlement at the same magnitudes of settlement compared to Conventional PVD. Several field methods of applying vacuum preloading are also compared. Moreover, the Thermal PVD and Thermal Vacuum PVD can increase further the coefficient of horizontal consolidation, Ch, with the associated reduction of kh/ks values by reducing the drainage retardation effects in the smear zone around the PVD which resulted in faster rates of consolidation and higher magnitudes of settlements. Furthermore, the equivalent smear effect due to non-uniform consolidation is also discussed in addition to the smear due to the mechanical installation of PVDs. In addition, a new kind of reinforced deep mixing method, namely Stiffened Deep Cement Mixing (SDCM) pile is introduced to improve the flexural resistance, improve the field quality control, and prevent unexpected failures of the Deep Cement Mixing (DCM) pile. The SDCM pile consists of DCM pile reinforced with the insertion of precast reinforced concrete (RC) core. The full scale test embankment on soft clay improved by SDCM and DCM piles was also analysed. Numerical simulations using the 3D PLAXIS Foundation finite element software have been done to understand the behavior of SDCM and DCM piles. The simulation results indicated that the surface settlements decreased with increasing lengths of the RC cores, and, at lesser extent, increasing sectional areas of the RC cores in the SDCM piles. In addition, the lateral movements

  19. Single photon detection and localization accuracy with an ebCMOS camera

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cajgfinger, T. [CNRS/IN2P3, Institut de Physique Nucléaire de Lyon, Villeurbanne F-69622 (France); Dominjon, A., E-mail: agnes.dominjon@nao.ac.jp [Université de Lyon, Université de Lyon 1, Lyon 69003 France. (France); Barbier, R. [CNRS/IN2P3, Institut de Physique Nucléaire de Lyon, Villeurbanne F-69622 (France); Université de Lyon, Université de Lyon 1, Lyon 69003 France. (France)

    2015-07-01

    The CMOS sensor technologies evolve very fast and offer today very promising solutions to existing issues facing by imaging camera systems. CMOS sensors are very attractive for fast and sensitive imaging thanks to their low pixel noise (1e-) and their possibility of backside illumination. The ebCMOS group of IPNL has produced a camera system dedicated to Low Light Level detection and based on a 640 kPixels ebCMOS with its acquisition system. After reminding the principle of detection of an ebCMOS and the characteristics of our prototype, we confront our camera to other imaging systems. We compare the identification efficiency and the localization accuracy of a point source by four different photo-detection devices: the scientific CMOS (sCMOS), the Charge Coupled Device (CDD), the Electron Multiplying CCD (emCCD) and the Electron Bombarded CMOS (ebCMOS). Our ebCMOS camera is able to identify a single photon source in less than 10 ms with a localization accuracy better than 1 µm. We report as well efficiency measurement and the false positive identification of the ebCMOS camera by identifying more than hundreds of single photon sources in parallel. About 700 spots are identified with a detection efficiency higher than 90% and a false positive percentage lower than 5. With these measurements, we show that our target tracking algorithm can be implemented in real time at 500 frames per second under a photon flux of the order of 8000 photons per frame. These results demonstrate that the ebCMOS camera concept with its single photon detection and target tracking algorithm is one of the best devices for low light and fast applications such as bioluminescence imaging, quantum dots tracking or adaptive optics.

  20. PVD Silicon Carbide as a Thin Film Packaging Technology for Antennas on LCP Substrates for Harsh Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scardelletti, Maximilian C.; Stanton, John W.; Ponchak, George E.; Jordan, Jennifer L.; Zorman, Christian A.

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes an effort to develop a thin film packaging technology for microfabricated planar antennas on polymeric substrates based on silicon carbide (SiC) films deposited by physical vapor deposition (PVD). The antennas are coplanar waveguide fed dual frequency folded slot antennas fabricated on liquid crystal polymer (LCP) substrates. The PVD SiC thin films were deposited directly onto the antennas by RF sputtering at room temperature at a chamber pressure of 30 mTorr and a power level of 300 W. The SiC film thickness is 450 nm. The return loss and radiation patterns were measured before and after the SiC-coated antennas were submerged into perchloric acid for 1 hour. No degradation in RF performance or physical integrity of the antenna was observed.

  1. Industrial inline PVD metallization for silicon solar cells with laser fired contacts leading to 21.8% efficiency

    OpenAIRE

    Nekarda, J.; Reinwand, D.; Hartmann, P.; Preu, R.

    2010-01-01

    In this contribution we present the latest results of our experiments in regard to an industrially feasible inline physical vapor deposition (PVD) metallization method for the rear side of passivated solar cells. In an earlier publication, the quality of such processed layers and the feasibility of the tool was already shown and compared with a commonly used laboratory process based on electron beam evaporation. Since then a difference in the Voc potential in the range of ~ 4 mV between both ...

  2. Development of a PVD-based manufacturing process of monolithic LEU irradiation targets for {sup 99}Mo production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hollmer, Tobias

    2015-08-03

    {sup 99}Mo is the most important radioisotope in nuclear medicine. It is produced by fission of uranium in irradiation targets. The usage of cylindrical monolithic targets can ensure a safe supply of {sup 99}Mo and at the same reduce the amount of highly radioactive waste generated during production. To manufacture these targets, a novel PVD-based technique was developed. Both the feasibility and the high efficiency of this process were demonstrated in a prototype apparatus.

  3. Modelling Coupled Processes in the Evolution of Repository Engineered Barrier Systems using QPAC-EBS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maul, Philip; Benbow, Steven; Bond, Alex; Robinson, Peter (Quintessa Limited, Henley-on-Thames (United Kingdom))

    2010-08-15

    A satisfactory understanding of the evolution of repository engineered barrier systems (EBS) is an essential part of the safety case for the repository. This involves consideration of coupled Thermal (T), Hydro (H), Mechanical (M) and Chemical (C) processes. Quintessa's general-purpose modelling code QPAC is capable of representing strongly coupled non-linear processes and has been used in a wide range of applications. This code is the basis for software used by Quintessa in studies of the evolution of the EBS in a deep repository for spent nuclear fuel undertaken for SKI and then SSM since 2007. The collection of software components employed has been referred to collectively as QPAC-EBS, consisting of the core QPAC code together with relevant modules for T, H, M and C processes. QPAC-EBS employs a fundamentally different approach from dedicated codes that model such processes (although few codes can represent each type of process), enabling the specification of new processes and the associated governing equations in code input. Studies undertaken to date have demonstrated that QPAC-EBS can be used effectively to investigate both the early evolution of the EBS and important scenarios for the later evolution of the system when buffer erosion and canister corrosion may occur. A key issue for modelling EBS evolution is the satisfactory modelling of the behaviour of the bentonite buffer. Bentonite is a difficult material to model, partly because of the complex coupled mechanical, hydro and chemical processes involved in swelling during resaturation. Models employed to date have generally taken an empirical approach, but a new model developed during the EU THERESA project could be further developed to provide a better representation of these processes. QPAC-EBS could play an important role in supporting SSM.s review of the forthcoming SR-Site assessment by SKB if used by Quintessa in independent supporting calculations. To date radionuclide transport calculations

  4. Studies of steered arc motion and macroparticle production in PVD processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Craven, A.L.

    2000-03-01

    During the past decade the production industry has constantly strived to improve performance and cut costs, this has been aided by the development of high performance tools. The advancement of these tools has been accomplished by the application of hard wearing, low friction, coatings. A key process in the production of such coatings is Physical Vapour Deposition (PVD). Interest in such thin films has led to much research effort, both academic and industrial, being devoted to the area. In order that these advancements in technology continue, research into the fundamental aspects of PVD is required. This thesis describes research and experimental studies which have been performed to study the effect of 'steering' an electric arc on various aspects of its behaviour. 'Steering' of the arc is achieved by applying external magnetic fields which allow the guidance of the path of the arc. Work by earlier authors has aimed to control the arc more fully. The research presented here is based of a novel electromagnetic three coil steering array of cylindrical geometry. With such coils it is possible to vary the field profiles to a greater degree than has been previously achieved, permitting a greater range of steering arrangements/fields to be applied. The research presented is divided into two distinct areas: Firstly a number of experiments were performed to assess the effectiveness of the new steering coils on the motion of the arc. A personal computer was used here along with new arc motion monitoring electronics. This enabled the simultaneous measurement of the orbital transit times and also the degree of travel perpendicular to the steered direction of motion of the arc, as it traversed the surface of the cathode. Such information was then used to produce values for standard deviation of the arc from its steered path, velocity of the arc and a diffusion constant related to the motion of the are. Such values then allowed evaluation of the stochastic model of arc motion

  5. Optimization of hybrid polymer electrolytes with the effect of lithium salt concentration in PEO/PVdF-HFP blends

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pradeepa, P.; Edwin raj, S.; Sowmya, G.; Kalaiselvimary, J.; Ramesh Prabhu, M., E-mail: mkram83@gmail.com

    2016-03-15

    Highlights: • Polymer blends based on PVdF-HFP/PEO were prepared for Li-ion battery applications. • Structural and electrochemical studies were carried out on prepared electrolytes. • The electrolytes can be used as electrolyte in the possible device fabrications. - Abstract: Poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) 6.25 wt%/poly(vinylidene fluoride-co-hexafluoropropylene) [P(VdF-HFP)] 18.75 wt% blend based electrolyte films containing different concentrations (2–10) wt% of lithium salt were prepared. The miscibility studies have been performed by using X-ray diffraction and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The role of interaction between polymer hosts on conductivity is discussed using the results of a.c. impedance studies. A room temperature conductivity of 2.3912 × 10{sup −4} S cm{sup −1} has been obtained for PEO (6.25)–PVdF-HFP (18.75)–LiClO{sub 4} (8)–PC (67) polymer complex. The temperature dependence of the conductivity of polymer electrolyte seems to obey VTF relation. Electrochemical stability (3.3 V) was observed in the prepared polymer electrolyte. Reduction process and oxidation process of the prepared electrolyte system have also been evaluated by means of cyclic voltammetry. Thermogravimetric analysis results indicate thermal stability of PEO/PVdF-HFP lithium salt complexes. Roughness parameter of the sample having maximum ionic conductivity was studied by AFM. The morphology of the polymer complex is investigated by using SEM.

  6. Cutting Performance of Low Stress Thick TiAlN PVD Coatings during Machining of Compacted Graphite Cast Iron (CGI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenji Yamamoto

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available A new family of physical vapor deposited (PVD coatings is presented in this paper. These coatings are deposited by a superfine cathode (SFC using the arc method. They combine a smooth surface, high hardness, and low residual stresses. This allows the production of PVD coatings as thick as 15 µm. In some applications, in particular for machining of such hard to cut material as compacted graphite iron (CGI, such coatings have shown better tool life compared to the conventional PVD coatings that have a lower thickness in the range of up to 5 μm. Finite element modeling of the temperature/stress profiles was done for the SFC coatings to present the temperature/stress profiles during cutting. Comprehensive characterization of the coatings was performed using XRD, TEM, SEM/EDS studies, nano-hardness, nano-impact measurements, and residual stress measurements. Application of the coating with this set of characteristics reduces the intensity of buildup edge formation during turning of CGI, leading to longer tool life. Optimization of the TiAlN-based coatings composition (Ti/Al ratio, architecture (mono vs. multilayer, and thickness were performed. Application of the optimized coating resulted in a 40–60% improvement in the cutting tool life under finishing turning of CGI.

  7. Influence of deposition conditions on electrical and mechanical properties of Sm2O3-doped CeO2 thin films prepared by EB-PVD (+IBAD) methods. Part 1: Effective relative permittivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartmanová, Mária; Nádaždy, Vojtech; Kundracik, František; Mansilla, Catina

    2013-03-01

    Study is devoted to the effective relative permittivity ɛr of CeO2 + x. Sm2O3 thin films prepared by electron-beam physical vapour deposition and ionic beam-assisted deposition methods; ɛr was investigated by three independent ways from the bulk parallel capacitance Cp, impedance capacitance Cimp, and accumulation capacitance Cacc in dependence on the deposition conditions (deposition temperature, dopant amount x and Ar+ ion bombardment during the film deposition) used. Investigations were performed using impedance spectroscopy, capacitance-voltage and current-voltage characteristics as well as deep level transient spectroscopy. Results obtained are described and discussed.

  8. [A case with chronic active EB virus infection accompanied with pulmonary candidiasis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karino, T; Nakamura, J; Fujita, K; Kobashi, Y; Yano, T; Okimoto, N; Soejima, R

    1998-12-01

    A 44-year-old woman with a history of intermittent fever for several years was admitted because of burn on her leg. On admission, she had hepatosplenomegaly and fever. Antibiotic therapy was started for bacterial infection of the burn. She lost her appetite and IVH was started. During the treatment, high fever appeared and chest X-ray films showed multiple nodular infiltrates throughout both lung fields. Candida albicans was isolated from IVH catheter culture and pulmonary candidiasis was suspected. Her fever and lung involvements were successfully treated with fluconazole. During the course, serum anti-EB-VCA-IgG antibody persisted at a high titer and anti-EBNA antibody remained negative. EB virus DNA was detected in the peripheral blood and bone marrow. Thus, she was diagnosed as chronic active EB virus infection.

  9. End-Binding Protein 1 (EB1) Up-regulation is an Early Event in Colorectal Carcinogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stypula-Cyrus, Yolanda; Mutyal, Nikhil N.; Cruz, Mart Angelo Dela; Kunte, Dhananjay P.; Radosevich, Andrew J.; Wali, Ramesh; Roy, Hemant K.; Backman, Vadim

    2014-01-01

    End-binding protein (EB1) is a microtubule protein that binds to the tumor suppressor adenomatous polyposis coli (APC). While EB1 is implicated as a potential oncogene, its role in cancer progression is unknown. Therefore, we analyzed EB1/APC expression at the earliest stages of colorectal carcinogenesis and in the uninvolved mucosa ("field effect") of human and animal tissue. We also performed siRNA-knockdown in colon cancer cell lines. EB1 is up-regulated in early and field carcinogenesis in the colon, and the cellular/nano-architectural effect of EB1 knockdown depended on the genetic context. Thus, dysregulation of EB1 is an important early event in colon carcinogenesis. PMID:24492008

  10. Investigations on Wear Mechanisms of PVD Coatings on Carbides and Sialons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Staszuk M.

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results on the wear resistance of PVD coatings on cutting inserts made from sintered carbide and sialon ceramics. The exploitative properties of coatings in technological cutting trials were defined in the paper, which also examined the adhesion of coatings to the substrate, the thickness of the coating, and the microhardness. As a result, it was found that isomorphic coating with AlN-h phase of covalent interatomic bonds exhibits much better adhesion to the sialon substrate than isomorphic coating with titanium nitride TiN. These coatings assure the high wear resistance of the coated tools, and the high adhesion combined with the high microhardness and fine-grained structure assure an increase in the exploitative life of the coated tools. In the case of coatings on substrate made from sintered carbide, there was a significant influence on the properties of the tools coated with them as concerns the existence of the diffusion zone between the substrate and the coating.

  11. Evaluation of Osseous Integration of PVD-Silver-Coated Hip Prostheses in a Canine Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregor Hauschild

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Infection associated with biomaterials used for orthopedic prostheses remains a serious complication in orthopedics, especially tumor surgery. Silver-coating of orthopedic (megaprostheses proved its efficiency in reducing infections but has been limited to surface areas exposed to soft tissues due to concerns of silver inhibiting osseous integration of cementless stems. To close this gap in the bactericidal capacity of silver-coated orthopedic prostheses extension of the silver-coating on surface areas intended for osseous integration seems to be inevitable. Our study reports about a PVD- (physical-vapor-deposition- silver-coated cementless stem in a canine model for the first time and showed osseous integration of a silver-coated titanium surface in vivo. Radiological, histological, and biomechanical analysis revealed a stable osseous integration of four of nine stems implanted. Silver trace elemental concentrations in serum did not exceed 1.82 parts per billion (ppb and can be considered as nontoxic. Changes in liver and kidney functions associated with the silver-coating could be excluded by blood chemistry analysis. This was in accordance with very limited metal displacement from coated surfaces observed by laser ablation inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS 12 months after implantation. In conclusion our results represent a step towards complete bactericidal silver-coating of orthopedic prostheses.

  12. Wear of different PVD coatings at industrial fine-blanking field tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liina Lind

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Thin hard physical vapor deposited (PVD coatings play significant role on wear performance of fine-blanking punches in the presence of extremely high contact stresses. Nevertheless it seems that in blanking or fine-blanking the coatings are selected based on coincidence, trial-error-method or latest trends. There is limited information about planning and conducting the fine-blanking industrial field tests and measuring the wear of different coatings. In the present study a set of fine-blanking punches and laboratory specimens were prepared with three coatings – TiCN, nACRo and nACo. As substrate material Böhler S390 Microclean high speed steel was used. Coating mechanical properties (modulus of elasticity and nanohardness were measured and wear rate with alumina ball was determined using the reciprocating sliding test. Wear of coatings was measured from punches after industrial use. All of the tested coatings showed high variance of wear. However coatings nACo and nACRo have better average wear resistance in fine-blanking compared with the well-known TiCN. Industrial field tests show correlation to the ratio elastic strain to failure H/E.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.ms.21.3.7249

  13. The effect of MEVVA ion implantation on the tribological properties of PVD-TiN films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manory, R.; Mollica, S.

    1998-01-01

    The present work is the first study in which the effects of metal evaporation vacuum (MEVVA) implantation are studied on TiN of the PVD type which is commercially available in Australia. The MEVVA ion implanter differs from the 'conventional' type of ion implanter in the fact that it has a high throughput of metal ions which are not mass analysed and therefore has more potential for industrial non-electronic applications. TiN-coated steel samples have been implanted with two types of species - one light and one heavy - C + and W + respectively. The samples were analysed by Rutherford backscattering (RBS) and x-ray diffraction (XRD). The tribological performance was assessed by pin-on-disc and microhardness. The results show that carbon implantation was very effective in improving the friction coefficient by the formation of a carbonaceous layer on the surface. XRD also shows formation of TiC in the near surface region. W implantation does not improve the friction coefficient but improves the lifetime of the coating. Unimplanted films fail in the pin-on-disk test after 7000 cycles, whereas implanted films are still well adhered after 18000 cycles

  14. Computer Simulation of the Relationship between Selected Properties of PVD Coatings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Śliwa A.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The possibility to apply the Finite Element Method to calculate internal stresses which occur in Ti+TiN, Ti+Ti(CxN1-x and Ti+TiC coatings obtained in the magnetron PVD process on the sintered high-speed steel of the PM HS6-5-3-8 type. For the purpose of computer simulation of internal stresses in coatings with the use of MES, the correct model of analyzed specimens was worked out and then it was experimentally verified by comparison of calculation results with the results of computer simulation. Accurate analysis of correlations indicated especially strong dependence between internal stresses and microhardness and between microhardness and erosion resistance what created conditions for establishing the dependence between internal stresses obtained in the result of computer simulation and erosion resistance as basic functional quality of coating. It has essential practical meaning because it allows to estimate predictable erosion resistance of coating exclusively on the base of the results of computer simulation for used parameters in the process of coating manufacturing.

  15. Performance of PVD-Coated Carbide Tools When Turning Inconel 718 in Dry Machining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gusri Akhyar Ibrahim

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Inconel 718 has found its niche in many industries, owing to its unique properties such as high oxidation resistance and corrosion resistance even at very high temperatures. Coated carbide tool with hard layer of PVD TiAlN is used to turn Inconel 718. Taguchi method with the orthogonal array L9 is applied in this experiment with the parameter cutting speed of 60–80 m/min, feed rate of 0.2–0.3 mm/rev, and depth of cut of 0.3–0.5 mm. The results show that depth of cut is a significant influence to the tool life. Cutting speed of 60 m/min, feed rate of 0.2 mm/rev, and depth of cut of 0.3 mm are the optimum parameters. The flank wear, crater wear, notch wear, and nose wear are the wear mechanisms on the carbide tool. Through the SEM, abrasion, attrition, and adhesion are the wear mechanisms which can be seen on the cutting tool.

  16. Tweedracht maakt macht. De PvdA, de doorbraak en de ontluikende polarisatiestrategie (1946-1966

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Mellink

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Divide and Rule: The Dutch Labour Party (PvdA, the Breakthrough and the Emerging Polarisation Strategy (1946-1966In 1966, after a lengthy debate in the Dutch parliament, the Cals cabinet came to a sudden end. As a motion proposed by Norbert Schmelzer, the parliamentary leader of the prime minister’s own Catholic party precipitated the cabinet’s fall, ‘Schmelzer’s Night’ received an iconic status in Dutch political history. Many historians have interpreted Schmelzer’s Night as the birth of a Social Democratic ‘polarisation strategy’: differences between Left and Right were exaggerated in order to divide the confessional parties along ideological lines. Established analyses ascribe the development of this polarisation strategy to the ascendancy of a younger generation in Dutch politics. This article argues instead that the polarisation strategy of the late 1960s was not so much caused by a new generation, but rather emerged as a consequence of postwar Social Democrats’ efforts to abolish pillarisation (verzuiling in Dutch society.

  17. Evaluation of osseous integration of PVD-silver-coated hip prostheses in a canine model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauschild, Gregor; Hardes, Jendrik; Gosheger, Georg; Stoeppeler, Sandra; Ahrens, Helmut; Blaske, Franziska; Wehe, Christoph; Karst, Uwe; Höll, Steffen

    2015-01-01

    Infection associated with biomaterials used for orthopedic prostheses remains a serious complication in orthopedics, especially tumor surgery. Silver-coating of orthopedic (mega)prostheses proved its efficiency in reducing infections but has been limited to surface areas exposed to soft tissues due to concerns of silver inhibiting osseous integration of cementless stems. To close this gap in the bactericidal capacity of silver-coated orthopedic prostheses extension of the silver-coating on surface areas intended for osseous integration seems to be inevitable. Our study reports about a PVD- (physical-vapor-deposition-) silver-coated cementless stem in a canine model for the first time and showed osseous integration of a silver-coated titanium surface in vivo. Radiological, histological, and biomechanical analysis revealed a stable osseous integration of four of nine stems implanted. Silver trace elemental concentrations in serum did not exceed 1.82 parts per billion (ppb) and can be considered as nontoxic. Changes in liver and kidney functions associated with the silver-coating could be excluded by blood chemistry analysis. This was in accordance with very limited metal displacement from coated surfaces observed by laser ablation inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) 12 months after implantation. In conclusion our results represent a step towards complete bactericidal silver-coating of orthopedic prostheses.

  18. Impedance study on the corrosion of PVD and CVD titanium nitride coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elsener, B.; Rota, A.; Boehni, H.

    1989-01-01

    Titanium nitride (TiN) coatings, produced by physical (PVD) or chemical (CVD) vapor deposition techniques are used routinely to improve the wear and corrosion resistance of a surface. The main problem in using TiN as a protective coating in aggressive environements are pores and pinholes in the coating where the substrate is exposed to the electrolyte. In this work, the electrochemical and corrosion behaviour of TiN films on quartz glass, carbon steel, 304 and 316 stainless steel is studied by polarization curves and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) in hydrochloric acid. It is shown that the TiN coating can be used successfully only on substrates that passivate easily. On mild steel rapid corrosion takes place at pores in the coating due to the very noble steady state potential of the TiN coating. The interaction of the metallic substrate with the TiN coating is discussed for the two limiting cases mild steel (active) and 316SS (passive). It is shown that the determination of the coating porosity is possible for the active substrate only. On the passive substrate the occurence of an additional time constant in the high frequency region of the spectrum qualitatively indicates the presence of pores. A quality control of the coatings based on this fact might be possible. (author) 15 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs

  19. Enhanced Corrosion Resistance of PVD-CrN Coatings by ALD Sealing Layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan; Zhang, Teng Fei; Ding, Ji Cheng; Kim, Chang-Min; Park, So-Won; Yang, Yang; Kim, Kwang-Ho; Kwon, Se-Hun

    2017-04-01

    Multilayered hard coatings with a CrN matrix and an Al2O3, TiO2, or nanolaminate-Al2O3/TiO2 sealing layer were designed by a hybrid deposition process combined with physical vapor deposition (PVD) and atomic layer deposition (ALD). The strategy was to utilize ALD thin films as pinhole-free barriers to seal the intrinsic defects to protect the CrN matrix. The influences of the different sealing layers added in the coatings on the microstructure, surface roughness, and corrosion behaviors were investigated. The results indicated that the sealing layer added by ALD significantly decreased the average grain size and improved the corrosion resistance of the CrN coatings. The insertion of the nanolaminate-Al2O3/TiO2 sealing layers resulted in a further increase in corrosion resistance, which was attributed to the synergistic effect of Al2O3 and TiO2, both acting as excellent passivation barriers to the diffusion of corrosive substances.

  20. Three New Pierce's Disease Pathogenicity Effectors Identified Using Xylella fastidiosa Biocontrol Strain EB92-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shujian; Chakrabarty, Pranjib K; Fleites, Laura A; Rayside, Patricia A; Hopkins, Donald L; Gabriel, Dean W

    2015-01-01

    Xylella fastidiosa (X. fastidiosa) infects a wide range of plant hosts and causes economically serious diseases, including Pierce's Disease (PD) of grapevines. X. fastidiosa biocontrol strain EB92-1 was isolated from elderberry and is infectious and persistent in grapevines but causes only very slight symptoms under ideal conditions. The draft genome of EB92-1 revealed that it appeared to be missing genes encoding 10 potential PD pathogenicity effectors found in Temecula1. Subsequent PCR and sequencing analyses confirmed that EB92-1 was missing the following predicted effectors found in Temecula1: two type II secreted enzymes, including a lipase (LipA; PD1703) and a serine protease (PD0956); two identical genes encoding proteins similar to Zonula occludens toxins (Zot; PD0915 and PD0928), and at least one relatively short, hemagglutinin-like protein (PD0986). Leaves of tobacco and citrus inoculated with cell-free, crude protein extracts of E. coli BL21(DE3) overexpressing PD1703 exhibited a hypersensitive response (HR) in less than 24 hours. When cloned into shuttle vector pBBR1MCS-5, PD1703 conferred strong secreted lipase activity to Xanthomonas citri, E. coli and X. fastidiosa EB92-1 in plate assays. EB92-1/PD1703 transformants also showed significantly increased disease symptoms on grapevines, characteristic of PD. Genes predicted to encode PD0928 (Zot) and a PD0986 (hemagglutinin) were also cloned into pBBR1MCS-5 and moved into EB92-1; both transformants also showed significantly increased symptoms on V. vinifera vines, characteristic of PD. Together, these results reveal that PD effectors include at least a lipase, two Zot-like toxins and a possibly redundant hemagglutinin, none of which are necessary for parasitic survival of X. fastidiosa populations in grapevines or elderberry.

  1. Three New Pierce's Disease Pathogenicity Effectors Identified Using Xylella fastidiosa Biocontrol Strain EB92-1.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shujian Zhang

    Full Text Available Xylella fastidiosa (X. fastidiosa infects a wide range of plant hosts and causes economically serious diseases, including Pierce's Disease (PD of grapevines. X. fastidiosa biocontrol strain EB92-1 was isolated from elderberry and is infectious and persistent in grapevines but causes only very slight symptoms under ideal conditions. The draft genome of EB92-1 revealed that it appeared to be missing genes encoding 10 potential PD pathogenicity effectors found in Temecula1. Subsequent PCR and sequencing analyses confirmed that EB92-1 was missing the following predicted effectors found in Temecula1: two type II secreted enzymes, including a lipase (LipA; PD1703 and a serine protease (PD0956; two identical genes encoding proteins similar to Zonula occludens toxins (Zot; PD0915 and PD0928, and at least one relatively short, hemagglutinin-like protein (PD0986. Leaves of tobacco and citrus inoculated with cell-free, crude protein extracts of E. coli BL21(DE3 overexpressing PD1703 exhibited a hypersensitive response (HR in less than 24 hours. When cloned into shuttle vector pBBR1MCS-5, PD1703 conferred strong secreted lipase activity to Xanthomonas citri, E. coli and X. fastidiosa EB92-1 in plate assays. EB92-1/PD1703 transformants also showed significantly increased disease symptoms on grapevines, characteristic of PD. Genes predicted to encode PD0928 (Zot and a PD0986 (hemagglutinin were also cloned into pBBR1MCS-5 and moved into EB92-1; both transformants also showed significantly increased symptoms on V. vinifera vines, characteristic of PD. Together, these results reveal that PD effectors include at least a lipase, two Zot-like toxins and a possibly redundant hemagglutinin, none of which are necessary for parasitic survival of X. fastidiosa populations in grapevines or elderberry.

  2. A Application of WD Model to EB Type Contact Binary System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Su-Yeon Oh

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available The EB type contact binaries show large temperature difference ( T 1,000K between two components. Thus we have modified the mode 3 of the WD program to adjust albedos, limb darkening coefficients and gravity darkening exponents for both components of such binaries, while the values for those parameters should be same for both components in the original WD program. Both of the modified and the original versions have been applied to the EB type contact binaries such as DO Cas, GO Cyg, and FS Lup. The computed light curves with modified version fit better to the observations.

  3. Engineered barrier systems (EBS) in the context of the entire safety case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    A joint NEA-EC workshop entitled 'Engineered Barrier Systems (EBS) in the Context of the Entire Safety Case' was organised in Oxford on 25-27 September 2002 and hosted by United Kingdom Nirex Limited. The main objectives of the workshop were to provide a status report on engineered barrier systems in various national radioactive waste management programmes considering deep geological disposal; to establish the value to member countries of a project on EBS; and to define such a project's scope, timetable and modus operandi. This report presents the outcomes of this workshop. (author)

  4. Engineered Barrier Systems (EBS) in the Context of the Entire Safety Case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    A joint NEA-EC workshop entitled ''Engineered Barrier Systems (EBS) in the Context of the Entire Safety Case'' was organised in Oxford on 25-27 September 2002 and hosted by United Kingdom Nirex Limited. The main objectives of the workshop were to provide a status report on engineered barrier systems in various national radioactive waste management programmes considering deep geological disposal; to establish the value to member countries of a project on EBS; and to define such a project scope, timetable and modus operandi. This report presents the outcomes of this workshop. (author)

  5. Plasma thermal performance of a dual-process PVD/PS tungsten coating on carbon-based panels for nuclear fusion application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hyunmyung; Lee, Ho Jung; Kim, Sung Hwan; Jang, Changheui

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Plasma thermal performance of a dual-process PVD/PS W coating was evaluated. • Steady-state heat fluxes of 1–3 MW/m 2 were applied to the W coated specimens. • Less micro-pores and grain growth were observed for the dual-process coating. • Loss of coating thickness was observed for the simple PS W coating. • Dual-process PVD/PS W coating was resistant to erosion due to the surface PVD layer. - Abstract: Various tungsten (W) coating techniques have been used for the application of plasma facing material in nuclear fusion devices, which resulted in limited success. In this study, a dual-process W coating structure was developed on a graphite substrate to improve the thermal performance of the coating structure. The dual-process coating structure consisted of a thin (∼7 μm) multilayer W/Mo physical vapor deposition (PVD) coating layer deposited on top of the relatively thick (∼160 μm) plasma spray (PS) W coating on a graphite substrate panel. Then the coated sample was exposed to plasma heat flux of 1–3 MW/m 2 for 300 s. With addition of a thin surface PVD coating layer, the microstructure change in underlying PS W coating was substantially reduced compared to the simple PS W coating structure. The thickness of overall coating structure was maintained for the dual-process PVD/PS coated samples after the thermal loading tests, while a significant reduction in thickness due to surface erosion was observed for the simple PS W coated samples. The improvement in surface erosion resistance in the dual-process coating structure was discussed in view of the characteristics of PVD and PS coating layers.

  6. Plasma thermal performance of a dual-process PVD/PS tungsten coating on carbon-based panels for nuclear fusion application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hyunmyung; Lee, Ho Jung; Kim, Sung Hwan; Jang, Changheui, E-mail: chjang@kaist.ac.kr

    2016-11-01

    Highlights: • Plasma thermal performance of a dual-process PVD/PS W coating was evaluated. • Steady-state heat fluxes of 1–3 MW/m{sup 2} were applied to the W coated specimens. • Less micro-pores and grain growth were observed for the dual-process coating. • Loss of coating thickness was observed for the simple PS W coating. • Dual-process PVD/PS W coating was resistant to erosion due to the surface PVD layer. - Abstract: Various tungsten (W) coating techniques have been used for the application of plasma facing material in nuclear fusion devices, which resulted in limited success. In this study, a dual-process W coating structure was developed on a graphite substrate to improve the thermal performance of the coating structure. The dual-process coating structure consisted of a thin (∼7 μm) multilayer W/Mo physical vapor deposition (PVD) coating layer deposited on top of the relatively thick (∼160 μm) plasma spray (PS) W coating on a graphite substrate panel. Then the coated sample was exposed to plasma heat flux of 1–3 MW/m{sup 2} for 300 s. With addition of a thin surface PVD coating layer, the microstructure change in underlying PS W coating was substantially reduced compared to the simple PS W coating structure. The thickness of overall coating structure was maintained for the dual-process PVD/PS coated samples after the thermal loading tests, while a significant reduction in thickness due to surface erosion was observed for the simple PS W coated samples. The improvement in surface erosion resistance in the dual-process coating structure was discussed in view of the characteristics of PVD and PS coating layers.

  7. 76 FR 59927 - Treatment of Aliens Whose Employment Creation Immigrant (EB-5) Petitions Were Approved After...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-28

    ...-0029] RIN 1615-AA90 Treatment of Aliens Whose Employment Creation Immigrant (EB-5) Petitions Were... qualifying aliens whose employment-creation immigrant petitions were approved by the former Immigration and...-273 Provisions C. Summary of the Adjudications Required by Public Law 107-273 III. Aliens Eligible To...

  8. 76 FR 61288 - Treatment of Aliens Whose Employment Creation Immigrant (EB-5) Petitions Were Approved After...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-04

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY 8 CFR Parts 216 and 245 [CIS No. 2484-09; Docket No. USCIS-2009-0029] RIN 1615-AA90 Treatment of Aliens Whose Employment Creation Immigrant (EB-5) Petitions Were... corrects an inadvertent error contained in the proposed rule titled Treatment of Aliens Whose Employment...

  9. EB and EUV lithography using inedible cellulose-based biomass resist material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takei, Satoshi; Hanabata, Makoto; Oshima, Akihiro; Kashiwakura, Miki; Kozawa, Takahiro; Tagawa, Seiichi

    2016-03-01

    The validity of our approach of inedible cellulose-based resist material derived from woody biomass has been confirmed experimentally for the use of pure water in organic solvent-free water spin-coating and tetramethylammonium hydroxide(TMAH)-free water-developable techniques of eco-conscious electron beam (EB) and extreme-ultraviolet (EUV) lithography. The water developable, non-chemically amplified, high sensitive, and negative tone resist material in EB and EUV lithography was developed for environmental affair, safety, easiness of handling, and health of the working people. The inedible cellulose-based biomass resist material was developed by replacing the hydroxyl groups in the beta-linked disaccharides with EB and EUV sensitive groups. The 50-100 nm line and space width, and little footing profiles of cellulose-based biomass resist material on hardmask and layer were resolved at the doses of 10-30 μC/cm2. The eco-conscious lithography techniques was referred to as green EB and EUV lithography using inedible cellulose-based biomass resist material.

  10. Narvas näeb Eesti tantsuauhinna võitnud tantsulavastust / Rene Nõmmik ; intervjueerinud Tiia Linnart

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Nõmmik, Rene, 1962-

    2015-01-01

    Narva kultuurimajas Rugodiv näeb Fine5 tantsuteatri lavastust "...and blue", mis võitis tänavu Eesti teatriauhinna. Etenduse koreograafideks ja lavastajateks on Tiina Ollesk ja Rene Nõmmik, keda on palutud lavastama ka Venemaale. Intervjuu Rene Nõmmikuga

  11. Residual stress investigation of copper plate and canister EB-Welds Complementary Results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gripenberg, H.

    2009-03-01

    The residual stresses in copper as induced by EB-welding were studied by specimens where the weld had two configurations: either a linear or a circumferential weld. This report contains the residual stress measurements of two plates, containing linear welds, and the full-scale copper lid specimen to which a hollow cylinder section had been joined by a circumferential EB-weld. The residual stress state of the EB-welded copper specimens was investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), hole drilling (HD) ring core (RC) and contour method (CM). Three specimens, canister XK010 and plates X251 and X252, were subjected to a thorough study aiming at quantitative determination of the residual stress state in and around the EB-welds using XRD for surface and HD and RC for spatial stress analysis. The CM maps one stress component over a whole cross section. The surface residual stresses measured by XRD represent the machined condition of the copper material. The XRD study showed that the stress changes towards compression close to the weld in the hollow cylinder, which indicates shrinkage in the hoop direction. According to the same analogy, the shrinkage in the axial direction is much smaller. The HD measurements showed that the stress state in the base material is bi-axial and, in terms of von Mises stress, 50 MPa for the plates and 20 MPa for the cylinder part of the canister. The stress state in the EB-welds of all specimens differs clearly from the stress state in the base material being more tensile, with higher magnitudes of von Mises stress in the plate than in the canister welds. The HD and RC results were obtained using linear elastic theory. The RC measurements showed that the maximum principal stress in the BM is close to zero near the surface and it becomes slightly tensile, 10 MPa, deeper under the surface. Welding pushed the general stress state towards tension with the maximum principal stress reaching 50 MPa, deeper than 5 mm below the surface in the weld. The

  12. Evaluation of parameters associated with UV/EB cured clearcoats degradation used in outdoor environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruiz, Carmen Silvia Bentivoglio

    2003-01-01

    The materials curable by ultraviolet (UV) or electron beam (EB) radiation such as inks, adhesives and coatings are reactive compounds made up of resin, monomer, photoinitiator and additives which undergo polymerization and crosslinking under irradiation producing thermoset products. This technology has been used in a great variety of industrial applications, replacing the conventional curing process in the development of new products. One of the challenging applications has been to design weatherable radiation cured coating which maintain their desirable physical properties and aesthetic appearance. This research reports information about the behavior of four UV and EB curable clear coatings -with or without light stabilizer additives- under accelerated weathering. Thermogravimetry, differential scanning calorimetry, differential photo calorimetry, infrared and ultraviolet spectroscopy and tensile properties were used to evaluate these formulations. Clear coating 50 mum thick films were cured with UV and EB radiation at different doses. The UV curing process was carried out at room temperature using an UV tunnel, with a medium pressure mercury lamp and a transport belt with variable speed. The ultraviolet radiation doses were in the range of 50 to 1500 mJ cm -2 . The EB curing process was performed under N 2 atmosphere, with doses in the range from 1,6 to 300 kGy using the IPEN-CNEN/SP Dynamitron electron beam accelerator with energy of 1.5 MeV. The cure degree was determined by means of the residual reaction heat of the under cured samples obtained from photo-DSC or DSC measurements. The accelerated aging tests were carried out using a Weather-Ometer chamber with exposition times in the range of 100 to 3000 hours. The experimental data obtained from the photo-aged samples were evaluated and correlated to the formulation composition, type of radiation - UV or EB, radiation dose and residence time in the aging chamber. The results have shown that the EB cured films

  13. Effect of Annealing Temperature on the Water Contact Angle of PVD Hard Coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yu-Sen; Cho, Ting-Pin

    2013-01-01

    Various PVD (physical vapor deposition) hard coatings including nitrides and metal-doped diamond-like carbons (Me-DLC) were applied in plastic injection and die-casting molds to improve wear resistance and reduce sticking. In this study, nitrides hcp-AlN (hexagonal close-packed AlN), Cr2N, (CrAl)2N) and Me-DLC (Si-DLC and Cr-DLC) coatings were prepared using a closed field unbalanced magnetron reactive sputtering system. The coatings were annealed in air for 2 h at various temperatures, after which the anti-sticking properties were assessed using water contact angle (WCA) measurements. The as-deposited hcp-AlN, Cr2N and (CrAl)2N coatings exhibit hydrophobic behavior and exhibit respective WCAs of 119°, 106° and 101°. The as-deposited Si-DLC and Cr-DLC coatings exhibit hydrophilic behavior and exhibit respective WCAs of 74° and 88°. The annealed Cr2N and (CrAl)2N coatings exhibit hydrophobic behavior with higher WCAs, while the annealed hcp-AlN, Si-DLC and Cr-DLC coatings are hydrophilic. The increased WCA of the annealed Cr2N and (CrAl)2N coatings is related to their crystal structure and increased roughness. The decreased WCA of the annealed hcp-AlN, Si-DLC and Cr-DLC coatings is related to their crystal structures and has little correlation with roughness. PMID:28811440

  14. Effect of Annealing Temperature on the Water Contact Angle of PVD Hard Coatings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yu-Sen; Cho, Ting-Pin

    2013-08-07

    Various PVD (physical vapor deposition) hard coatings including nitrides and metal-doped diamond-like carbons (Me-DLC) were applied in plastic injection and die-casting molds to improve wear resistance and reduce sticking. In this study, nitrides hcp-AlN (hexagonal close-packed AlN), Cr₂N, (CrAl)₂N) and Me-DLC (Si-DLC and Cr-DLC) coatings were prepared using a closed field unbalanced magnetron reactive sputtering system. The coatings were annealed in air for 2 h at various temperatures, after which the anti-sticking properties were assessed using water contact angle (WCA) measurements. The as-deposited hcp-AlN, Cr₂N and (CrAl)₂N coatings exhibit hydrophobic behavior and exhibit respective WCAs of 119°, 106° and 101°. The as-deposited Si-DLC and Cr-DLC coatings exhibit hydrophilic behavior and exhibit respective WCAs of 74° and 88°. The annealed Cr₂N and (CrAl)₂N coatings exhibit hydrophobic behavior with higher WCAs, while the annealed hcp-AlN, Si-DLC and Cr-DLC coatings are hydrophilic. The increased WCA of the annealed Cr₂N and (CrAl)₂N coatings is related to their crystal structure and increased roughness. The decreased WCA of the annealed hcp-AlN, Si-DLC and Cr-DLC coatings is related to their crystal structures and has little correlation with roughness.

  15. Polyurethane acrylate networks including cellulose nanocrystals: a comparison between UV and EB- curing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furtak-Wrona, K.; Kozik-Ostrówka, P.; Jadwiszczak, K.; Maigret, J.E.; Aguié-Béghin, V.; Coqueret, X.

    2018-01-01

    A water-based polyurethane (PUR) acrylate water emulsion was selected as a radiation curable matrix for preparing nanocomposites including cellulose nanocrystals (CNC) prepared by controlled hydrolysis of Ramie fibers. Cross-linking polymerization of samples prepared in the form of films or of 1 mm-thick bars was either initiated by exposure to the 395 nm light of a high intensity LED lamp or by treatment with low energy electron beam (EB). The conversion level of acrylate functions in samples submitted to increasing radiation doses was monitored by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR). Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) and Dynamic Mechanical Analysis (DMA) were used to characterize changes in the glass transition temperature of the PUR-CNC nanocomposites as a function of acrylate conversion and of CNC content. Micromechanical testing indicates the positive effect of 1 wt% CNC on Young's modulus and on the tensile strength at break (σ) of cured nanocomposites. The presence of CNC in the PUR acrylate matrix was shown to double the σ value of the nanocomposite cured to an acrylate conversion level of 85% by treatment with a 25 kGy dose under EB, whereas no increase of σ was observed in UV-cured samples exhibiting the same acrylate conversion level. The occurrence of grafting reactions inducing covalent linkages between the polysaccharide nanofiller and the PUR acrylate matrix during the EB treatment is advanced as an explanation to account for the improvement observed in samples cured under ionizing radiation. - Highlights: • Nanocomposites were prepared from o/w PUR acrylate emulsion and CNC suspension. • Nanocomposite and reference materials were cured to the same conversion by UV or EB. • Introducing 1 wt% CNC in EB-cured composites doubles the tensile strength. • UV-cured nanocomposites did not show significant improvement in tensile strength.

  16. Primary study on synthesis and characterization of the new type EB curable resins. Pt.2: Alkyd resins modified by LFA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yi Min; Wei Jinshan; Li Jun; Wang Ruiyu; Ha Hongfei

    1995-01-01

    The authors have synthesized a new type of EB curable resin by using oil fatty acid. The preparation method of coating and the performance of EB curing coating film were described. The synthesis process has been simplified and the price of the raw materials was lower

  17. 76 FR 1192 - Notice of a Change in Status of an Extended Benefit (EB) Period for Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-07

    ... Extended Benefit (EB) Period for Puerto Rico AGENCY: Employment and Training Administration, Labor. ACTION... Puerto Rico. The following change has occurred since the publication of the last notice regarding the State's EB status: Puerto Rico's 13-week IUR has fallen below the 6% threshold and does not equal or...

  18. Resistencia a la corrosión y desgaste de recubrinnientos deTiN obtenidos por PVD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Conde, A.

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Surface hardening techniques for metallic alloys are widely used to achieve layers of very high hardness and corrosion and wear resistance. In the present paper TiN coatings are obtained by PVD on a tool steel. The films are characterized by SEM, X-ray diffraction and XPS. Corrosion behaviour in NaCl solution showed the importance of the presence of defects on the PVD coating due to the different electrochemical behaviour of the steel base. Pin-on-disk measurements at approximately 40% RH against a corundum (Al2O3 ball showed a significant decrease in the wear rate compared with the results for the standard tool steel.

    Los tratamientos de endurecimiento superficial de aleaciones metálicas se utilizan para lograr capas de muy elevada dureza, resistencia a la corrosión y desgaste. En este trabajo, se estudia el comportamiento de recubrimientos de TiN obtenidos mediante PVD sobre aceros de herramientas. Las capas obtenidas se caracterizan mediante microscopía electrónica de barrido, difracción de rayos X y XPS. Se analiza el comportamiento frente a la corrosión de las capas protectoras, así como la influencia del substrato en su comportamiento en soluciones de NaCl. Finalmente, se realizan ensayos de desgaste por deslizamiento en seco mediante la técnica de pin-on-disk, comprobándose la mayor resistencia de estas capas.

  19. Full Scale Model Test of Consolidation Acceleration on Soft Soil deposition with Combination of Timber Pile and PVD (Hybrid Pile)

    OpenAIRE

    Sandyutama, Y.; Samang, L.; Imran, A. M.; Harianto4, T.

    2015-01-01

    This research aims to analyze the effect of composite pile-PVD (hybrid pile) as the reinforcement in embankment on soft soil by the means of numerical simulation and Full-Scale Trial Embankment. The first phase cunducted by numerical analysis and obtained 6-8 meters hybrid pile length effective. Full-Scale trial embankment. was installed hybrid pile of 6 m and preloading of 4,50 height. Full-scale tests were performed to investigate the performances of Hybrid pile reinforcement. This research...

  20. Evaluación ergonómica de usuarios de PVD en la empresa: Construmer, SL

    OpenAIRE

    Martín, María Consuelo

    2012-01-01

    El objetivo de este informe es el de la evaluación ergonómica de los trabajadores como usuarios de PVD, y la estimación del nivel de riesgo que las condiciones de trabajo concretas respecto a éste, en el centro de trabajo referenciado arriba, pudieran provocar sobre los trabajadores que posean tal condición. El objeto proviene de la necesidad de dar cumplimiento a la exigencia legal impuesta por la ley 31/95, de 8 de Noviembre, sobre Prevención de Riesgos Laborales.

  1. Development of Production PVD-AIN Buffer Layer System and Processes to Reduce Epitaxy Costs and Increase LED Efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cerio, Frank

    2013-09-14

    was analyzed and improvements implemented to the Veeco PVD-AlN prototype system to establish a specification and baseline PVD-AlN films on sapphire and in parallel the evaluation of PVD AlN on silicon substrates began. In Phase II of the project a Beta tool based on a scaled-up process module capable of depositing uniform films on batches of 4”or 6” diameter substrates in a production worthy operation was developed and qualified. In Phase III, the means to increase the throughput of the PVD-AlN system was evaluated and focused primarily on minimizing the impact of the substrate heating and cooling times that dominated the overall cycle time.

  2. The EB factory project. II. Validation with the Kepler field in preparation for K2 and TESS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parvizi, Mahmoud; Paegert, Martin; Stassun, Keivan G., E-mail: mahmoud.parvizi@vanderbilt.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Vanderbilt University, VU Station B 1807, Nashville, TN 37235 (United States)

    2014-12-01

    Large repositories of high precision light curve data, such as the Kepler data set, provide the opportunity to identify astrophysically important eclipsing binary (EB) systems in large quantities. However, the rate of classical “by eye” human analysis restricts complete and efficient mining of EBs from these data using classical techniques. To prepare for mining EBs from the upcoming K2 mission as well as other current missions, we developed an automated end-to-end computational pipeline—the Eclipsing Binary Factory (EBF)—that automatically identifies EBs and classifies them into morphological types. The EBF has been previously tested on ground-based light curves. To assess the performance of the EBF in the context of space-based data, we apply the EBF to the full set of light curves in the Kepler “Q3” Data Release. We compare the EBs identified from this automated approach against the human generated Kepler EB Catalog of ∼2600 EBs. When we require EB classification with ⩾90% confidence, we find that the EBF correctly identifies and classifies eclipsing contact (EC), eclipsing semi-detached (ESD), and eclipsing detached (ED) systems with a false positive rate of only 4%, 4%, and 8%, while complete to 64%, 46%, and 32%, respectively. When classification confidence is relaxed, the EBF identifies and classifies ECs, ESDs, and EDs with a slightly higher false positive rate of 6%, 16%, and 8%, while much more complete to 86%, 74%, and 62%, respectively. Through our processing of the entire Kepler “Q3” data set, we also identify 68 new candidate EBs that may have been missed by the human generated Kepler EB Catalog. We discuss the EBF's potential application to light curve classification for periodic variable stars more generally for current and upcoming surveys like K2 and the Transiting Exoplanet Survey Satellite.

  3. The Integration and Abstraction of EBS Models in Yucca Mountain Performance Assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    S.D. Sevougian; V. Jain; A.V. Luik

    2006-01-01

    The safety strategy for geological disposal of radioactive waste at Yucca Mountain relies on a multi-barrier system to contain the waste and isolate it from the biosphere. The multi-barrier system consists of the natural barrier provided by the geological setting and the engineered barrier system (EBS). In the case of Yucca Mountain (YM) the geologic setting is the unsaturated-zone host rock, consisting of about 600 meters of layered ash-flow volcanic tuffs above the water table, and the saturated zone beneath the water table. Both the unsaturated and saturated rocks are part of a closed hydrologic basin in a desert surface environment. The waste is to be buried about halfway between the desert surface and the water table. The primary engineered barriers at YM consist of metal components that are highly durable in an oxidizing environment. The two primary components of the engineered barrier system are highly corrosion-resistant metal waste packages, made from a nickel-chromium-molybdenum alloy, Alloy 22, and titanium drip shields that protect the waste packages from corrosive dripping water and falling rocks. Design and performance assessment of the EBS requires models that describe how the EBS and near field behave under anticipated repository-relevant conditions. These models must describe coupled hydrologic, thermal, chemical, and mechanical (THCM) processes that drive radionuclide transport in a highly fractured host rock, consisting of a relatively permeable network of conductive fractures in a setting of highly impermeable tuff rock matrix. An integrated performance assessment of the EBS must include a quantification of the uncertainties that arise from (1) incomplete understanding of processes and (2) from lack of data representative of the large spatial scales and long time scales relevant to radioactive waste disposal (e.g., long-term metal corrosion rates and heterogeneities in rock properties over the large 5 km 2 emplacement area of the repository). A

  4. The Integration and Abstracyion of EBS Models in Yucca Mountain Performance Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    S.D. Sevougian; V. Jain; A.V. Luik

    2006-01-11

    The safety strategy for geological disposal of radioactive waste at Yucca Mountain relies on a multi-barrier system to contain the waste and isolate it from the biosphere. The multi-barrier system consists of the natural barrier provided by the geological setting and the engineered barrier system (EBS). In the case of Yucca Mountain (YM) the geologic setting is the unsaturated-zone host rock, consisting of about 600 meters of layered ash-flow volcanic tuffs above the water table, and the saturated zone beneath the water table. Both the unsaturated and saturated rocks are part of a closed hydrologic basin in a desert surface environment. The waste is to be buried about halfway between the desert surface and the water table. The primary engineered barriers at YM consist of metal components that are highly durable in an oxidizing environment. The two primary components of the engineered barrier system are highly corrosion-resistant metal waste packages, made from a nickel-chromium-molybdenum alloy, Alloy 22, and titanium drip shields that protect the waste packages from corrosive dripping water and falling rocks. Design and performance assessment of the EBS requires models that describe how the EBS and near field behave under anticipated repository-relevant conditions. These models must describe coupled hydrologic, thermal, chemical, and mechanical (THCM) processes that drive radionuclide transport in a highly fractured host rock, consisting of a relatively permeable network of conductive fractures in a setting of highly impermeable tuff rock matrix. An integrated performance assessment of the EBS must include a quantification of the uncertainties that arise from (1) incomplete understanding of processes and (2) from lack of data representative of the large spatial scales and long time scales relevant to radioactive waste disposal (e.g., long-term metal corrosion rates and heterogeneities in rock properties over the large 5 km{sup 2} emplacement area of the repository

  5. Nanocomposite metal amorphous-carbon thin films deposited by hybrid PVD and PECVD technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira, V; Soares, P; Martins, A J; Carneiro, J; Cerqueira, F

    2009-07-01

    Carbon based films can combine the properties of solid lubricating graphite structure and hard diamond crystal structure, i.e., high hardness, chemical inertness, high thermal conductivity and optical transparency without the crystalline structure of diamond. Issues of fundamental importance associated with nanocarbon coatings are reducing stress, improving adhesion and compatibility with substrates. In this work new nanocomposite coatings with improved toughness based in nanocrystalline phases of metals and ceramics embedded in amorphous carbon matrix are being developed within the frame of a research project: nc-MeNxCy/a-C(Me) with Me = Mo, Si, Al, Ti, etc. Carbide forming metal/carbon (Me/C) composite films with Me = Mo, W or Ti possess appropriate properties to overcome the limitation of pure DLC films. These novel coating architectures will be adopted with the objective to decrease residual stress, improve adherence and fracture toughness, obtain low friction coefficient and high wear-resistance. Nanocomposite DLC's films were deposited by hybrid technique using a PVD-Physically Vapor Deposition (magnetron sputtering) and Plasma Enhanced Chemical Vapor Deposition (PECVD), by the use of CH4 gas. The parameters varied were: deposition time, substrate temperature (180 degrees C) and dopant (Si + Mo) of the amorphous carbon matrix. All the depositions were made on silicon wafers and steel substrates precoated with a silicon inter-layer. The characterisation of the film's physico-mechanical properties will be presented in order to understand the influence of the deposition parameters and metal content used within the a-C matrix in the thin film properties. Film microstructure and film hybridization state was characterized by Raman Spectroscopy. In order to characterize morphology SEM and AFM will be used. Film composition was measured by Energy-Dispersive X-ray analysis (EDS) and by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The contact angle for the produced DLC's on

  6. Superhard PVD carbon films deposited with different gradients with and without additions of titanium and silicon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bauer, C.

    2003-10-01

    This work focusses on thin carbon-based films, deposited by magnetron sputtering with additional argon ion bombardment (0 eV to 800 eV) without extra adhesive layer on hard metal inserts. As one possibility of increasing the reduced adherence of hard carbon films the deposition of films with additions of titanium and silicon is studied. The aim of this work is to examine the influence of a modification of the transition between substrate and film by realizing three different types of deposition gradients. The pure carbon films are amorphous, the dominant network of atoms is formed by sp 2 bonded atoms. The amount of sp 3 bonded atoms is up to 30% and is influenced by the bombarding argon ion energy. Carbon films with additions of silicon are amorphous, only in films with a high amount of titanium (approx. 20 at%) nanocomposites of titanium carbide crystals with diameters of less than 5 nm in an amorphous carbon matrix were found. The mechanical properties and the behavior of single layer carbon films strongly depend on the argon ion energy. An increase of this energy leads to higher film hardness and higher residual stress and results in the delamination of superhard carbon films on hard metal substrates. The adhesion of single layer films for ion energies of more than 200 eV is significantly improved by additions of titanium and silicon, respectively. The addition of 23 at% silicon and titanium, respectively leads to a high reduction of the residual stress. In a non-reactive PVD process thin films were deposited with a continuously gradient in chemical composition. The results of the investigations of the films with two different concentrations of titanium and silicon, respectively show that carbon-based films with a good adhesion could be deposited. The combination of the two gradients in structure and properties and in chemical composition leads in the system with carbon and silicon carbide to hard and very adhesive films. Especially for carbon films with a high

  7. Collection and application of by-product formed in e-b flue gas treatment process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chmielewski, A.G.; Tyminski, B.; Zakrzewska-Trznadel, G.; Tokunaga, O.; Machi, S.

    1998-01-01

    In the e-b process SO 2 and NO x are converted into ammonium sulphate and ammonium nitrate, which condenses from gas phase in the form of submicrone particles. These salts are a valuable fertilizer and should be removed from cleaned gas. Bag filter, ESP and wet gravel bed filter were applied for collecting of salt particles in pilot plant facilities. Up to now ESP is considered to be the best filtration method of aerosols formed after irradiation of flue gas. Collected salts after granulation may be used as a fertilizer enriching soil in nitrogen and sulphur or as a component of mixed fertilizer. Analysis of by-products from different e-b pilot plants confirms that it does not contain any harmful substances like heavy metals and fulfill all standards for commercial fertilizers. Also field experiments show that the by-products have the same properties as a commercial fertilizer

  8. MeCrAl coatings obtained by arc PVD and pack cementation processes on nickel base superalloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swadzba, L.; Maciejny, A.; Formanek, B.; Mendala, B.

    1997-01-01

    The paper presents the results of researches on obtaining and structure of high temperature resistance coatings on superalloys. The coatings were deposited on nickel and nickel base superalloys in two stages. During the first stage, the NiCr and NiCrHf coatings were obtained by arc-PVD method. Basic technology, bias, arc current, rotation, parameters of deposition of NiCr and MeCrHf coatings were defined. The high efficiency of deposition of both single and two sources was observed. The targets were made by vacuum melting and machining. An influence of targets chemical composition on coating structure and chemical coatings composition was described. The second stage was made by pack cementation HTLA (high temperature low activity) on 1323 K chromoaluminizing process. These arc-PVD and diffusion (pack cementation) connected processes permitted to obtain MeCrAl and MeCrAlHf type of coatings. The morphology, structure and microchemical composition were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, X-ray microanalysis, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction methods. (orig.)

  9. Reinforced PEI/PVdF Multicore-Shell Structure Composite Membranes by Phase Prediction on a Ternary Solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jihye Chae

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available To construct a polyetherimide (PEI-reinforced polyvinylidene fluoride (PVdF composite membrane with multicore-shell structure, a ternary solution was prepared and electrospun by single-nozzle electrospinning. A theoretical prediction was made for the feasibility of complete distinction of two phases. The diameters of the membrane fibers and the PEI multi-core fibrils varied with the PEI ratio and the spinning time, respectively. The tensile strength and modulus were improved to 48 MPa and 1.5 GPa, respectively. The shrinkage of the membrane was only 6.6% at 180 °C, at which temperature the commercial PE separator melted down. The reinforcement in mechanical and thermal properties is associated with multiple PEI nanofibrils oriented along the fiber axis. Indeed, the unique morphology of self-assembled multicore-shell fibers plays an important role in their properties. All in all, PEI/PVdF membranes are appropriate for a lithium-ion battery application due to their high mechanical strength, excellent thermal stability, and controllable textural properties.

  10. Synthesis and electrochemical properties of Ti-doped DLC films by a hybrid PVD/PECVD process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jo, Yeong Ju; Zhang, Teng Fei; Son, Myoung Jun; Kim, Kwang Ho

    2018-03-01

    Low electrical conductivity and poor adhesion to metallic substrates are the main drawbacks of diamond-like carbon (DLC) films when used in electrode applications. In this study, Ti-doped DLC films with various Ti contents were synthesized on metal Ti substrates by a hybrid PVD/PECVD process, where PECVD was used for deposition of DLC films and PVD was used for Ti doping. The effects of the Ti doping ratio on the microstructure, adhesion strength, and electrical and electrochemical properties of the DLC films were systematically investigated. An increase in the Ti content led to increased surface roughness and a higher sp2/sp3 ratio of the Ti-DLC films. Ti atoms existed as amorphous-phase Ti carbide when the Ti doping ratio was less than 2.8 at.%, while the nanocrystalline TiC phase was formed in DLC films when the Ti doping ratio was exceeded 4.0 at.%. The adhesion strength, electrical resistivity, electrochemical activity and reversibility of the DLC films were greatly improved by Ti doping. The influence of Ti doping ratio on the electrical and electrochemical properties of the DLC films were also investigated and the best performance was obtained at a Ti content of 2.8 at.%.

  11. Fiber damage during the consolidation of PVD Ti-6Al-4V coated NEXTEL 610 trademark alumina fibers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warren, J.; Elzey, D.M.; Wadley, H.N.G.

    1995-01-01

    Titanium matrix composites reinforced with sol-gel synthesized α-alumina fiber tows have attracted interest as a potentially low cost continuous fiber reinforced metal matrix composite system. The authors have conducted a detailed investigation of fiber damage during high temperature consolidation of PVD Ti-6Al-4V metallized sol-gel alumina fiber tows. Using both hot isostatic pressing and interrupted vacuum hot press consolidation cycles, the two principal mechanisms of fiber damage have been experimentally identified to be microbending/fracture and fiber matrix reaction. A time dependent micromechanics model incorporating the evolving geometry and mechanical properties of both the fibers and matrix has been formulated to simulate the fiber bending/failure mechanism in a representative unit cell and explore the effect of fiber strength loss due to reaction with the matrix. This model has been used to design a process cycle that minimizes damage by exploiting the enhanced superplastic deformation of the initially nanocrystalline PVD Ti-6Al-4V matrix

  12. Analysis of the photo voltage decay /PVD/ method for measuring minority carrier lifetimes in P-N junction solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Von Roos, O.

    1981-01-01

    The photo voltage decay (PVD) method for the measurement of minority carrier lifetimes in P-N junction solar cells with cell thickness comparable to or even less than the minority carrier diffusion length is examined. The method involves the generation of free carriers in the quasi-neutral bulk material by flashes of light and the monitoring of the subsequent decay of the induced open-circuit voltages as the carriers recombine, which is dependent on minority carrier recombination lifetime. It is shown that the voltage versus time curve for an ordinary solar cell (N(+)-P junction) is proportional to the inverse minority carrier lifetime plus a factor expressing the ratio of diffusion length to cell thickness. In the case of an ideal back-surface-field cell (N(+)-P-P(+) junction) however, the slope is directly proportional to the inverse minority carrier lifetime. It is noted that since most BSF cells are not ideal, possessing a sizable back surface recombination velocity, the PVD measurements must be treated with caution and supplemented with other nonstationary methods.

  13. Development and evaluation of two PVD-coated β-titanium orthodontic archwires for fluoride-induced corrosion protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnan, Vinod; Krishnan, Anand; Remya, R; Ravikumar, K K; Nair, S Asha; Shibli, S M A; Varma, H K; Sukumaran, K; Kumar, K Jyothindra

    2011-04-01

    The present research was aimed at developing surface coatings on β titanium orthodontic archwires capable of protection against fluoride-induced corrosion. Cathodic arc physical vapor deposition PVD (CA-PVD) and magnetron sputtering were utilized to deposit thin films of titanium aluminium nitride (TiAlN) and tungsten carbide/carbon (WC/C) coatings on β titanium orthodontic archwires. Uncoated and coated specimens were immersed in a high fluoride ion concentration mouth rinse, following a specially designed cycle simulating daily use. All specimens thus obtained were subjected to critical evaluation of parameters such as electrochemical corrosion behaviour, surface analysis, mechanical testing, microstructure, element release, and toxicology. The results confirm previous research that β titanium archwires undergo a degradation process when in contact with fluoride mouth rinses. The study confirmed the superior nature of the TiAlN coating, evident as many fewer changes in properties after fluoride treatment when compared with the WC/C coating. Thus, coating with TiAlN is recommended in order to reduce the corrosive effects of fluorides on β titanium orthodontic archwires. Copyright © 2010 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Studies on curing effect of phosphite monomer by EB radiation in the air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiao, B.; Zhou, Y.; Li, S.; Luo, M.; Wang, X.; Zhao, P.

    2000-01-01

    A new type phosphite active monomer was synthesized. The resisting oxygen inhibition effect of this monomer and the effects of irradiation dose and concentration of phosphite active monomer on curing were studied. At the same time, curing results were analysed, through gel content and IR spectrum. The excellent resisting oxygen inhibition result of this phosphite active monomer was shown by experiments. EB radiation curing in the air was successfully carried out by the phosphite active monomer. (author)

  15. Mainstreaming Ecosystem Services Based Climate Change Adaptation (EbA in Bangladesh: Status, Challenges and Opportunities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nazmul Huq

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper aims to analyze the extent of Ecosystem Service (ESS based Adaptation (EbA to climate change in the policy-making process of Bangladesh. The paper is based on a three stage hybrid policy-making cycle: (i agenda setting; (ii policy formulation; and (iii policy implementation stage, where the contributions of EbA can horizontally (on the ground or vertically (strategic stage be mainstreamed and integrated. A total of nine national and sectoral development and climate change policies, and 329 climate change adaptation projects are examined belonging to different policy-making stages. The major findings include that the role of ESS is marginally considered as an adaptation component in most of the reviewed policies, especially at the top strategic level (vertical mainstreaming. However, at the policy formulation and implementation stage (horizontal mainstreaming, they are largely ignored and priority is given to structural adaptation policies and projects, e.g., large scale concrete dams and embankments. For example, ESS’s roles to adapt sectors such as urban planning, biodiversity management and disaster risk reduction are left unchecked, and the implementation stage receives overwhelming priorities and investments to undertake hard adaptation measures such that only 38 projects are related to EbA. The paper argues that: (i dominant structural adaptation ideologies; (ii the expert and bureaucracy dependent policy making process; and (iii the lack of adaptive and integration capacities at institutional level are considerably offsetting the EbA mainstreaming process that need to be adequately addressed for climate change adaptation.

  16. Welding of cold worked austenitic steels - comparison of TIG, EB and laser processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richard, A.; Prunele, D. de; Castilan, F.

    1993-01-01

    Effect of welding on cold worked components is a local falling of their properties. Modifications induced by such an operation depend on the thermal cycle and consequently on the welding process. An experimental study aim of which is to compare respective effects of different welding processes (TIG, EB, laser) has been realized. This publication presents results related to 316L and 316Ti steels. (author). 2 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab

  17. EB treatment of wastewater and progress of on-going project in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Zhiguang

    2006-01-01

    Electron beam processing has been widely used in China in the fields of radiation crosslinking cables and wires, heat shrinkable material, foam materials, irradiated latex and polymers, sterilization, removal SOx and NOx of flue gas, chemical industry, industrial CT, electron instrument, and so on. However, EB treatment of wastewater is mostly under study in laboratory. The manufacture of electron accelerators has also become a comparatively independent industry in China. (author)

  18. Polyurethane acrylate networks including cellulose nanocrystals: a comparison between UV and EB- curing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furtak-Wrona, K.; Kozik-Ostrówka, P.; Jadwiszczak, K.; Maigret, J. E.; Aguié-Béghin, V.; Coqueret, X.

    2018-01-01

    A water-based polyurethane (PUR) acrylate water emulsion was selected as a radiation curable matrix for preparing nanocomposites including cellulose nanocrystals (CNC) prepared by controlled hydrolysis of Ramie fibers. Cross-linking polymerization of samples prepared in the form of films or of 1 mm-thick bars was either initiated by exposure to the 395 nm light of a high intensity LED lamp or by treatment with low energy electron beam (EB). The conversion level of acrylate functions in samples submitted to increasing radiation doses was monitored by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR). Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) and Dynamic Mechanical Analysis (DMA) were used to characterize changes in the glass transition temperature of the PUR-CNC nanocomposites as a function of acrylate conversion and of CNC content. Micromechanical testing indicates the positive effect of 1 wt% CNC on Young's modulus and on the tensile strength at break (σ) of cured nanocomposites. The presence of CNC in the PUR acrylate matrix was shown to double the σ value of the nanocomposite cured to an acrylate conversion level of 85% by treatment with a 25 kGy dose under EB, whereas no increase of σ was observed in UV-cured samples exhibiting the same acrylate conversion level. The occurrence of grafting reactions inducing covalent linkages between the polysaccharide nanofiller and the PUR acrylate matrix during the EB treatment is advanced as an explanation to account for the improvement observed in samples cured under ionizing radiation.

  19. Implementation of KoHLT-EB DAQ System using compact RIO with EPICS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Dae-Sik; Kim, Suk-Kwon; Lee, Dong Won [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Seungyon [National Fusion Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    EPICS (Experimental Physics and Industrial Control System) is a collection of software tools collaboratively developed which can be integrated to provide a comprehensive and scalable control system. Currently there is an increase in use of such systems in large Physics experiments like KSTAR, ITER and DAIC (Daejeon Accelerator Ion Complex). The Korean heat load test facility (KoHLT-EB) was installed at KAERI. This facility is utilized for a qualification test of the plasma facing component (PFC) for the ITER first wall and DEMO divertor, and the thermo-hydraulic experiments. The existing data acquisition device was Agilent 34980A multifunction switch and measurement unit and controlled by Agilent VEE. In the present paper, we report the EPICS based newly upgraded KoHLT-EB DAQ system which is the advanced data acquisition system using FPGA-based reconfigurable DAQ devices like compact RIO. The operator interface of KoHLT-EB DAQ system is composed of Control-System Studio (CSS) and another server is able to archive the related data using the standalone archive tool and the archiveviewer can retrieve that data at any time in the infra-network.

  20. Tailoring the structure and properties of amorphous starch blending and EB-radiation processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khandal, D.; Bliard, C.; Coqueret, X.; Mikus, P.Y.; Dole, P.; Baumberger, S.

    2011-01-01

    Complete text of publication follows. Starch can be used alone and in combination with other compounds to make biodegradable articles from renewable resources. Lignins and their derivatives are good candidates for limiting the water sensitivity of starch-based materials, but they exhibit poor compatibility in blends with polysaccharides. Electron beam (EB) processing is proposed as an efficient method for inducing covalent linkages between the two constituents. Compared to unirradiated starting materials, the surface and bulk properties of EB-irradiated starch - lignin blends submitted to EB irradiation showed an interesting reduction in hydrophilicity. Radiation induced grafting of lignin models onto starch was shown to impede long-term retrogradation, with limited loss of mechanical properties. The reactivity under radiation of model blends was examined by several analytical methods. Maldi-T of mass spectrometry allowed us to propose reasonable free radical mechanisms that account for the grafting of various benzyl and cinnamyl alcohols onto maltodextrins. The presence of cinnamyl derivatives was found not only to limit degradation, but also modify the properties of the formulations (improved hydrophobicity, mechanical properties). Size exclusion chromatography and gel fraction measurements confirmed unambiguously the attachment of UV-absorbing chromophores onto the maltodextrin main chain. The combination of the obtained results demonstrates the possibility of altering in a favourable way the tensile properties of plasticized starch by applying high energy radiation to properly formulated blends including aromatic compounds like cinnamyl alcohol.

  1. High performance a-IGZO thin-film transistors with mf-PVD SiO2 as an etch-stop-layer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nag, M.; Steudel, S.; Bhoolokam, A.; Chasin, A.; Rockele, M.; Myny, K.; Maas, J.; Fritz, T.; Trube, J.; Groeseneken, G.; Heremans, P.

    2014-01-01

    In this work, we report on high-performance bottom-gate top-contact (BGTC) amorphous-Indium-Gallium-Zinc-Oxide (a-IGZO) thin-film transistor (TFT) with SiO2 as an etch-stop-layer (ESL) deposited by medium frequency physical vapor deposition (mf-PVD). The TFTs show field-effect mobility (μFE) of

  2. Laveren tussen ontspanning en solidariteit: de PvdA en de FNV ten tijde van de Poolse crisis (1980-1982)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Miedema, C.

    2013-01-01

    The Polish independent trade union Solidarność appeared in a time of rising tension between East and West. This created a dilemma for Western left-wing movements: maintain solidarity with the Polish workers or continue the détente policy of the 1970s? The Dutch social democratic party PvdA and the

  3. Reducing virulence of the human pathogen Burkholderia by altering the substrate specificity of the quorum-quenching acylase PvdQ

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koch, Gudrun; Nadal-Jimenez, Pol; Reis, Carlos R.; Muntendam, Remco; Bokhove, Marcel; Melillo, Elena; Dijkstra, Bauke W.; Cool, Robbert H.; Quax, Wim J.

    2014-01-01

    The use of enzymes to interfere with quorum sensing represents an attractive strategy to fight bacterial infections. We used PvdQ, an effective quorum-quenching enzyme from Pseudomonas aeruginosa, as a template to generate an acylase able to effectively hydrolyze C8-HSL, the major communication

  4. TBCS/Chameleon Utility Trial Report

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Matthews, Michael L; Brooks, Jeremy E; Angel, Harold A

    2005-01-01

    ...)/Chameleon using participants representing command elements of a combat team. Seven participants role-played an advance to contact scenario developed by Joint Command Staff Training Centre (JCSTC) in 13 segments...

  5. CrCuAgN PVD nanocomposite coatings: Effects of annealing on coating morphology and nanostructure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Xingguang, E-mail: xingguangliu1@gmail.com [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Sir Robert Hadfield Building, The University of Sheffield, Mappin Street, Sheffield, S1 3JD (United Kingdom); Iamvasant, Chanon, E-mail: ciamvasant1@sheffield.ac.uk [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Sir Robert Hadfield Building, The University of Sheffield, Mappin Street, Sheffield, S1 3JD (United Kingdom); Liu, Chang, E-mail: chang.liu@sheffield.ac.uk [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Sir Robert Hadfield Building, The University of Sheffield, Mappin Street, Sheffield, S1 3JD (United Kingdom); Matthews, Allan, E-mail: allan.matthews@manchester.ac.uk [Pariser Building - B24 ICAM, School of Materials, The University of Manchester, Manchester, M13 9PL (United Kingdom); Leyland, Adrian, E-mail: a.leyland@sheffield.ac.uk [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Sir Robert Hadfield Building, The University of Sheffield, Mappin Street, Sheffield, S1 3JD (United Kingdom)

    2017-01-15

    Highlights: • Coatings with nitrogen content up to 16 at.% exhibit a metallic Cr solid solution, even after post-coat annealing at 300 °C and 500 °C. • At higher N/Cr atomic ratios (approaching Cr{sub 2}N stoichiometry), chromium was still inclined to exist in solid solution with nitrogen, rather than as a ceramic nitride phase, even after annealing at 500 °C. • Transportation of Cu and Ag to the surface depends on annealing temperature, annealing duration, nitrogen concentration and ‘global’ Cu + Ag concentration. • Incorporation of copper appears to be a powerful strategy to enhance Ag mobility at low concentration (∼3 at.% Ag in this study) under moderately high service temperature. • A significant decrease in friction coefficient was obtained at room temperature after annealing, or during sliding wear testing at elevated temperature. - Abstract: CrCuAgN PVD nanocomposite coatings were produced using pulsed DC unbalanced magnetron sputtering. This investigation focuses on the effects of post-coat annealing on the surface morphology, phase composition and nanostructure of such coatings. In coatings with nitrogen contents up to 16 at.%, chromium exists as metallic Cr with N in supersaturated solid solution, even after 300 °C and 500 °C post-coat annealing. Annealing at 300 °C did not obviously change the phase composition of both nitrogen-free and nitrogen-containing coatings; however, 500 °C annealing resulted in significant transformation of the nitrogen-containing coatings. The formation of Ag aggregates relates to the (Cu + Ag)/Cr atomic ratio (threshold around 0.2), whereas the formation of Cu aggregates relates to the (Cu + Ag + N)/Cr atomic ratio (threshold around 0.5). The primary annealing-induced changes were reduced solubility of Cu, Ag and N in Cr, and the composition altering from a mixed ultra-fine nanocrystalline and partly amorphous phase constitution to a coarser, but still largely nanocrystalline structure. It was also

  6. Evolution of self-organization in nano-structured PVD coatings under extreme tribological conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fox-Rabinovich, G., E-mail: gfox@mcmaster.ca [Department of Mechanical Engineering, McMaster University, 1280 Main St. W., Hamilton, ON, Canada L8S 4L7 (Canada); Kovalev, A. [Surface Phenomena Researches Group, CNIICHERMET, 9/23, 2-nd Baumanskaya Street, Moscow 105005 (Russian Federation); Aguirre, M.H. [Laboratory of Advanced Microscopy, Institute of Nanoscience of Aragón, University of Zaragoza, 50018 Zaragoza (Spain); Yamamoto, K. [Materials Research Laboratory, Kobe Steel Ltd, 1-5-5 Takatsuda-dai, Nishi-ku, Kobe 651-2271, Hyogo (Japan); Veldhuis, S. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, McMaster University, 1280 Main St. W., Hamilton, ON, Canada L8S 4L7 (Canada); Gershman, I. [All-Russian Railway Research Institute, 10 Third Mytishchinskaya Street, Moscow 29851 (Russian Federation); Rashkovskiy, A. [Surface Phenomena Researches Group, CNIICHERMET, 9/23, 2-nd Baumanskaya Street, Moscow 105005 (Russian Federation); Endrino, J.L. [Albengoa Research, Energia Solar 1, Palmas Altas, Seville 41014 (Spain); Beake, B. [Micro Materials Limited, Willow House, Yale Business Village, Ellice Way, Wrexham LL13 7YL (United Kingdom); Dosbaeva, G. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, McMaster University, 1280 Main St. W., Hamilton, ON, Canada L8S 4L7 (Canada); Wainstein, D. [Surface Phenomena Researches Group, CNIICHERMET, 9/23, 2-nd Baumanskaya Street, Moscow 105005 (Russian Federation); Yuan, Junifeng; Bunting, J.W. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, McMaster University, 1280 Main St. W., Hamilton, ON, Canada L8S 4L7 (Canada)

    2014-04-01

    Highlights: • The evolution of self-organization under extreme frictional conditions has been studied. • Comprehensive characterization of the tribo-films was made using various surface analytical techniques. • During the running-in stage, mullite tribo-ceramics predominate on the surface of the nano-multilayer coating, establishing a functional hierarchy within the layer of tribo-films. • It is possible to control tribo-film evolution during self-organization by means of an increase in structural complexity and the non-equilibrium state of the surface engineered layer. - Abstract: The evolution of the self-organization process where dissipative structures are formed under the extreme frictional conditions associated with high performance dry machining of hardened steels has been studied in detail. The emphasis was on the progressive studies of surface transformations within multilayer and monolayer TiAlCrSiYN-based PVD coatings during the running-in stage of wear when self-organization process occurs. The coating layer was characterized by high resolution electron energy-loss spectroscopy (HREELS). It is shown that the nano-multilayer coating possesses higher non-equilibrium structure in comparison to the monolayer. Comprehensive studies of the tribo-films (dissipative structures) formed on the friction surface were made using a number of advanced surface characterization techniques such as X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES). The data obtained for the tribo-films was combined with the detailed TEM studies of the structural and phase transformations within the underlying coating layer. This data was related to the micro-mechanical characteristics of the coating layer and its wear resistance. It was demonstrated that the evolution of the self-organization process is strongly controlled by the characteristics of the tribo-films formed at different stages of the wear process. Within running-in stage (after

  7. Protective effects of ebselen (Ebs) and para-aminosalicylic acid (PAS) against manganese (Mn)-induced neurotoxicity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marreilha dos Santos, A.P., E-mail: apsantos@ff.ul.pt [I-Med.UL, Department of Toxicology and Food Sciences, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Lisbon, Lisbon (Portugal); Lucas, Rui L.; Andrade, Vanda; Mateus, M. Luísa [I-Med.UL, Department of Toxicology and Food Sciences, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Lisbon, Lisbon (Portugal); Milatovic, Dejan; Aschner, Michael [Department of Pediatrics, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, TN 37232 (United States); Batoreu, M. Camila [I-Med.UL, Department of Toxicology and Food Sciences, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Lisbon, Lisbon (Portugal)

    2012-02-01

    Chronic, excessive exposure to manganese (Mn) may induce neurotoxicity and cause an irreversible brain disease, referred to as manganism. Efficacious therapies for the treatment of Mn are lacking, mandating the development of new interventions. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the efficacy of ebselen (Ebs) and para-aminosalicylic acid (PAS) in attenuating the neurotoxic effects of Mn in an in vivo rat model. Exposure biomarkers, inflammatory and oxidative stress biomarkers, as well as behavioral parameters were evaluated. Co-treatment with Mn plus Ebs or Mn plus PAS caused a significant decrease in blood and brain Mn concentrations (compared to rats treated with Mn alone), concomitant with reduced brain E{sub 2} prostaglandin (PGE{sub 2}) and enhanced brain glutathione (GSH) levels, decreased serum prolactin (PRL) levels, and increased ambulation and rearing activities. Taken together, these results establish that both PAS and Ebs are efficacious in reducing Mn body burden, neuroinflammation, oxidative stress and locomotor activity impairments in a rat model of Mn-induced toxicity. -- Highlights: ► The manuscript is unique in its approach to the neurotoxicity of Mn. ► The manuscript incorporates molecular, cellular and functional (behavioral) analyses. ► Both PAS and Ebs are effective in restoring Mn behavioral function. ► Both PAS and Ebs are effective in reducing Mn-induced oxidative stress. ► Both PAS and Ebs led to a decrease in Mn-induced neuro-inflammation.

  8. Protective effects of ebselen (Ebs) and para-aminosalicylic acid (PAS) against manganese (Mn)-induced neurotoxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marreilha dos Santos, A.P.; Lucas, Rui L.; Andrade, Vanda; Mateus, M. Luísa; Milatovic, Dejan; Aschner, Michael; Batoreu, M. Camila

    2012-01-01

    Chronic, excessive exposure to manganese (Mn) may induce neurotoxicity and cause an irreversible brain disease, referred to as manganism. Efficacious therapies for the treatment of Mn are lacking, mandating the development of new interventions. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the efficacy of ebselen (Ebs) and para-aminosalicylic acid (PAS) in attenuating the neurotoxic effects of Mn in an in vivo rat model. Exposure biomarkers, inflammatory and oxidative stress biomarkers, as well as behavioral parameters were evaluated. Co-treatment with Mn plus Ebs or Mn plus PAS caused a significant decrease in blood and brain Mn concentrations (compared to rats treated with Mn alone), concomitant with reduced brain E 2 prostaglandin (PGE 2 ) and enhanced brain glutathione (GSH) levels, decreased serum prolactin (PRL) levels, and increased ambulation and rearing activities. Taken together, these results establish that both PAS and Ebs are efficacious in reducing Mn body burden, neuroinflammation, oxidative stress and locomotor activity impairments in a rat model of Mn-induced toxicity. -- Highlights: ► The manuscript is unique in its approach to the neurotoxicity of Mn. ► The manuscript incorporates molecular, cellular and functional (behavioral) analyses. ► Both PAS and Ebs are effective in restoring Mn behavioral function. ► Both PAS and Ebs are effective in reducing Mn-induced oxidative stress. ► Both PAS and Ebs led to a decrease in Mn-induced neuro-inflammation.

  9. Formation and investigation of multilayer nanostructured coatings TiN/MoN for different layers thicknesses with c-pvd

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pogrebnyak, A.D.; Bondar, O.V.; Postol'nyj, B.A.; Andreev, A.A.; Abadias, G.; Beresnev, V.M.; Sobol', O.B.

    2013-01-01

    Multilayer coatings based on TiN/MoN were obtained using the vacuum arc evaporation cathode method (C-PVD). Multilayers thickness was in the range 6,7 ÷ 8,7 μm and monolayers thickness was 2, 10, 20 and 40 nm. Vacuum-arc unit Bulat 6 was used for depositions. For the analysis of multilayer structures and properties of nanostructured coatings XRD analysis method was used (D8 ADVANCE, Bruker). For elemental composition and morphology investigation of the surface layers and multilayered coatings SEM (JEOL-7001F) with EDX attachment was used. Also HRTEM method was used to analyze the phase composition. In addition, this article provides investigation of hardness by Micro-Hardness Tester CSM (Switzerland). AFM was used for additional analysis of the topography and surface roughness of these coatings. This investigation have revealed the relationship between the layers thicknesses, substrate potential, the annealing process, physical and mechanical properties of samples. (authors)

  10. PVD-Alumina Coatings on Cemented Carbide Cutting Tools: A Study About the Effect on Friction and Adhesion Mechanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.E. Cordes

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Crystalline PVD γ-alumina coatings are interesting for machining operations due to their outstanding characteristics, such as high hot hardness, high thermal stability and low tendency to adhesion. In the present work (Ti,AlN/γ-Al2O3-coatings are deposited on cemented carbide by means of MSIP. Objectives of this work are to study the effects of coating and cutting fluid regarding friction in tribological tests and to study the wear mechanisms and cutting performance of γ-Al2O3-based coated cemented carbide cutting tools in machining operations of austenitic stainless steels. Based on the remarkable properties of the coating system the performance of the cutting tools is increasing significantly.

  11. A mutation of the fission yeast EB1 overcomes negative regulation by phosphorylation and stabilizes microtubules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iimori, Makoto; Ozaki, Kanako; Chikashige, Yuji; Habu, Toshiyuki; Hiraoka, Yasushi; Maki, Takahisa; Hayashi, Ikuko; Obuse, Chikashi; Matsumoto, Tomohiro

    2012-01-01

    Mal3 is a fission yeast homolog of EB1, a plus-end tracking protein (+ TIP). We have generated a mutation (89R) replacing glutamine with arginine in the calponin homology (CH) domain of Mal3. Analysis of the 89R mutant in vitro has revealed that the mutation confers a higher affinity to microtubules and enhances the intrinsic activity to promote the microtubule-assembly. The mutant Mal3 is no longer a + TIP, but binds strongly the microtubule lattice. Live cell imaging has revealed that while the wild type Mal3 proteins dissociate from the tip of the growing microtubules before the onset of shrinkage, the mutant Mal3 proteins persist on microtubules and reduces a rate of shrinkage after a longer pausing period. Consequently, the mutant Mal3 proteins cause abnormal elongation of microtubules composing the spindle and aster. Mal3 is phosphorylated at a cluster of serine/threonine residues in the linker connecting the CH and EB1-like C-terminal motif domains. The phosphorylation occurs in a microtubule-dependent manner and reduces the affinity of Mal3 to microtubules. We propose that because the 89R mutation is resistant to the effect of phosphorylation, it can associate persistently with microtubules and confers a stronger stability of microtubules likely by reinforcing the cylindrical structure. -- Highlights: ► We characterize a mutation (mal3-89R) in fission yeast homolog of EB1. ► The mutation enhances the activity to assemble microtubules. ► Mal3 is phosphorylated in a microtubule-dependent manner. ► The phosphorylation negatively regulates the Mal3 activity.

  12. A mutation of the fission yeast EB1 overcomes negative regulation by phosphorylation and stabilizes microtubules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iimori, Makoto; Ozaki, Kanako [Graduate School of Biostudies, Kyoto University, Kitashirakawa-Oiwake cho, Sakyo ku, Kyoto, 606-8502 (Japan); Chikashige, Yuji [Kobe Advanced ICT Research Center, National Institute of Information and Communications Technology, Kobe, 651-2492 (Japan); Habu, Toshiyuki [Graduate School of Biostudies, Kyoto University, Kitashirakawa-Oiwake cho, Sakyo ku, Kyoto, 606-8502 (Japan); Radiation Biology Center, Kyoto University, Yoshida-Konoe cho, Sakyo ku, Kyoto, 606-8501 (Japan); Hiraoka, Yasushi [Kobe Advanced ICT Research Center, National Institute of Information and Communications Technology, Kobe, 651-2492 (Japan); Graduate School of Frontier Biosciences, Osaka University, 1-3 Yamadaoka, Suita, 565-0871 (Japan); Maki, Takahisa; Hayashi, Ikuko [Graduate School of Nanobioscience, Yokohama City University, Tsurumi, Yokohama, 230-0045 (Japan); Obuse, Chikashi [Graduate School of Life Science, Hokkaido University, Sapporo 001-0021 (Japan); Matsumoto, Tomohiro, E-mail: tmatsumo@house.rbc.kyoto-u.ac.jp [Graduate School of Biostudies, Kyoto University, Kitashirakawa-Oiwake cho, Sakyo ku, Kyoto, 606-8502 (Japan); Radiation Biology Center, Kyoto University, Yoshida-Konoe cho, Sakyo ku, Kyoto, 606-8501 (Japan)

    2012-02-01

    Mal3 is a fission yeast homolog of EB1, a plus-end tracking protein (+ TIP). We have generated a mutation (89R) replacing glutamine with arginine in the calponin homology (CH) domain of Mal3. Analysis of the 89R mutant in vitro has revealed that the mutation confers a higher affinity to microtubules and enhances the intrinsic activity to promote the microtubule-assembly. The mutant Mal3 is no longer a + TIP, but binds strongly the microtubule lattice. Live cell imaging has revealed that while the wild type Mal3 proteins dissociate from the tip of the growing microtubules before the onset of shrinkage, the mutant Mal3 proteins persist on microtubules and reduces a rate of shrinkage after a longer pausing period. Consequently, the mutant Mal3 proteins cause abnormal elongation of microtubules composing the spindle and aster. Mal3 is phosphorylated at a cluster of serine/threonine residues in the linker connecting the CH and EB1-like C-terminal motif domains. The phosphorylation occurs in a microtubule-dependent manner and reduces the affinity of Mal3 to microtubules. We propose that because the 89R mutation is resistant to the effect of phosphorylation, it can associate persistently with microtubules and confers a stronger stability of microtubules likely by reinforcing the cylindrical structure. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We characterize a mutation (mal3-89R) in fission yeast homolog of EB1. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The mutation enhances the activity to assemble microtubules. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Mal3 is phosphorylated in a microtubule-dependent manner. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The phosphorylation negatively regulates the Mal3 activity.

  13. optical properties and morphological structure of Eb-Irradiated LDPE / P P Blends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, Z.I.; Said, H.M.; Youssef, H.A.; Saleh, H.H.; Abdel Monem, N.M.

    2004-01-01

    Blending is an effective method for improving the physical and chemical properties of homopolymers. however, the problem of phase separation often in some polymer blends occurs due to incompatibility of homopolymer which impairs the expected physico- chemical properties of blends. in this study , isotactic polypropylene, (P P), was blended with low density polyethylene, (LDPE), in the presence of various ratios of polyfunctional monomer, (PFM), namely trimethylol propane trimethacrylate, (TMPTMA), as a crosslinking and/or compatibilizing agents. the electron beam irradiation of the investigated LDPE/PP blends was carried out at different irradiation doses up to 50 kGy to improve the compatibility of LDPE/PP blends. the dye affinity of disperse and basic dyes in LDPE, PP and LDPE/PP blends was investigated in terms of color strength and visible absorbance intensities. in addition, the microstructures of the investigated samples have been studied and it is considered as an indication of the compatibility of LDPE/PP blend. the results show that the unmodified and modified LDPE samples exhibit the highest values of both color strength and visible absorbance intensities compared with unmodified and modified PP samples. also the intensities of these values in the LDPE/PP blends decrease as the PP content increases in the blend . in addition, the increase of EB irradiation dose and PFM ratios leads to an increase in the values of color strength and visible absorbance intensities. moreover, the affinity of all investigated samples towards disperse dye is being more pronounced than the basic dye. the interfacial adhesion of LDPE/PP blend could be enhanced by adding crosslinking agent, (TMPTMA), and EB irradiation process with different irradiation doses. the obtained data for the microstructures of all the investigated samples support that the EB irradiation beside the incorporation of PEM into the homopolymer matrix remarkably improve the compatibility of the polymer blend

  14. Evidence for the characterization of heavy-ion reactions by the ratio E/B

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mathews, G.J.; Wozniak, G.J.; Schmitt, R.P.; Moretto, L.G.

    1977-01-01

    The connection between the characteristic features of reactions involving very heavy target-projectile combinations (e.g. 86 Kr + 197 Au) and lighter systems (e.g. 40 Ar + sup(nat)Ag) is discussed. Evidence for an impirical scaling law based upon the ratio E/B (center-of-mass kinetic energy to Coulomb barrier) is presented. This scaling is justified in terms of semiquantitative arguments whereby the different charge and angular distribution patterns from light and heavy target-projectile combinations are correlated with different lifetime regimes for the 'intermediate complex' as it diffuses along the mass-asymmetry coordinate. (orig.) [de

  15. The status of UV/EB curable product in North America: 1998-1999

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lawson, K.

    1999-01-01

    This author has previously reported survey results showing that the use of UV/EB materials has grown at a compound rate of about 10% per annum over the last decade. Together, with about 130 members of RadTech International North America, representing 90 organizations, we have updated and assessed the growth and activities of the industry. The panelists represent a cross section of end users, raw material and equipment suppliers, as well as formulators and consultants. Using a modified Delphi process with five separate survey rounds, a reasonable assessment was made of the advantages, disadvantages, growth rate and growth opportunities of this exciting technology

  16. Creep properties of EB welded copper overpack at 125-175 deg C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holmstroem, S.; Salonen, J.; Kinnunen, T.

    2012-01-01

    Electron Beam welds (EBW) chosen as primary sealing method by Posiva welding the over-pack canister lids of oxygen-free phosphorus micro-alloyed copper (OFP) have been tested for material properties relevant to long term creep life prediction. Creep rupture results are presented for the ruptured 175 deg C tests and for the ongoing long term tests at 150 deg C and 125 deg C. The current status (test time, creep strain and strain rate) of the ongoing tests are reported. The initial (175 deg C) results indicate that the EB welds are weaker than the parent material and that both round bar and spark eroded square test specimens produce weld strengths of about 0.75 at tests durations of 5000 h. The downward trend is however expected to continue for the longer test durations. The creep ductility shows decrease for the longer tests. Life estimates for the EB weld have been calculated at 100 deg C for both 50 and 80 MPa with the so far lowest measured EB weld strength factor (WSF=0.77). The state-of-the-art model on the available data give estimated lives of 21000 and 3000 years correspondingly. However, simulated to the expected temperature profile of the repository service the life fraction reached after 10000 years of service is 1 % and 7 % for the same stress levels. It is though important to remembered that the 80 MPa assumption is very conservative in nature and that the predictions do not take into account relaxation of stresses, further decline of the WSF or anisotropy of the weld and are therefore still to be considered indicative only. It is also to be remembered that there is only limited data in the long term regime for the weldments and that the estimates are based on the few EB data available in the public domain added with the Posiva data of this project. Improvement of the models and predictions are expected from the ongoing 125 deg C and 150 deg C long term tests. (orig.)

  17. Proceedings of the FNCA 2004 workshop on application of electron accelerator. EB treatment of flue gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshii, Fumio; Kume, Tamikazu

    2005-06-01

    'Forum for Nuclear Cooperation in Asia (FNCA) Workshop on Application of Electron Accelerator' was sponsored by the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology (MEXT). The 2004 workshop was jointly organized by China Atomic Energy Authority (CAEA), Institute of Modern Physics/Chinese Academy of Sciences(IMP-CAS) and Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI). It was held at Prime Hotel, Beijing, China from 6 to 10 September 2004. The Workshop was attended by 28 experts on application of electron accelerator from each of the participating countries, i.e., China, Indonesia, Korea, Malaysia, The Philippines, Thailand and Vietnam, and 10 participants from Japan. On the first day, a National Executive Management Seminar on Application of Electron Accelerator was held and attended by 67 participants. Total of 20 papers including Seminar lectures, invited papers on flue gas treatment by electron beam, and country reports on EB irradiation system were presented. The major areas of interest of FNCA member states for cooperation were identified for application of low energy electron accelerator as liquid (natural polymer, wastewater), solid (hydrogel, thin film) and gases (flue gas). Based on the proposal from the participating countries, discussions were carried out to re-formulate the work plan of the project for three years until FY 2005. It was agreed the FNCA 2005 workshop on EB treatment of wastewater will be held in Korea. All manuscripts submitted by every speaker were included in the proceedings. The 20 of the presented papers are indexed individually. (J.P.N.)

  18. EBS modelling for the development of repository concepts tailored to siting environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishiguro, K.; Ueda, H.; Wakasugi, K.; Sakabe, Y.; Kitayama, K.; Umeki, H.; Takase, H.

    2007-01-01

    The Japanese siting approach for a HLW repository calls for volunteer host municipalities and thereby places particular emphasis on design flexibility. In particular, the repository concept needs to be tailored to the specific site characteristics. Starting from the H12 repository concept, NUMO has been examining a range of possible repository design options, including the EBS. In this paper. the requirements and strategy for the development of models for performance assessment and process understanding are discussed, taking into account the step-wise, iterative process of developing repository concepts. The areas requiring further development of models and databases in the long-term R and D programme have been identified as a 'wish list' that relates to the evaluation of a range of potential repository concepts, focusing on the near-field for the early stages of the development process. Among the issues on the list, NUMO has started the development of a flexible computer code for modelling three-dimensional mass transport to evaluate the impacts of various design options and components of the EBS. This tool has been applied to the analysis of the barrier effects of the tunnel plugs located in fractured rock. (authors)

  19. Radiosynoviorthesis in the reflection of Evidence-based Medicine (EbM)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kampen, W.U.

    2006-01-01

    This paper summarizes the literature on clinical efficacy of radiosynoviorthesis with respect to the criteria of evidence-based medicine (EbM). Each therapy has to face up to the success and the costs of other treatment modalities, especially in times of scarce financial resources of our health care system. For many physicians and scientists, evidence-based medicine, which means weighting clinical trials by several quality factors like randomization, blinding or comparison with a placebo seems to be the ''philosophers'stone'' to some extent. Concerning radiosynoviorthesis, the existence of clinical studies with a high quality according to the EbM is sometimes negated. However, this statement cannot be abided after extensive revision of the literature. The nuclear medicine physician practising radiosynoviorthesis should be provided with arguments from the literature supporting his personal experience for successful discussions with referring colleques. This is achieved by listing the respective papers especially of evidence classes Ib and IIa with a short summary of each of them. Some critical remarks on evidence-based medicine if used as the only basis of therapeutic practise complete this paper. (orig.)

  20. Anti-migratory effect of vinflunine in endothelial and glioblastoma cells is associated with changes in EB1 C-terminal detyrosinated/tyrosinated status.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amandine Rovini

    Full Text Available We previously showed that vinflunine, a microtubule-targeting drug of the Vinca-alkaloid family exerted its anti-angiogenic/anti-migratory activities through an increase in microtubule dynamics and an inhibition of microtubule targeting to adhesion sites. Such effect was associated with a reduction of EB1 comet length at microtubule (+ ends. In this work we first showed that the pro-angiogenic vascular endothelial growth factor VEGF suppressed microtubule dynamics in living Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells (HUVECs, increased EB1 comet length by 40%, and induced EB1 to bind all along the microtubules, without modifying its expression level. Such microtubule (+ end stabilization occurred close to the plasma membrane in the vicinity of focal adhesion as shown by TIRF microscopy experiments. Vinflunine completely abolished the effect of VEGF on EB1 comets. Interestingly, we found a correlation between the reduction of EB1 comet length by vinflunine and the inhibition of cell migration. By using 2D gel electrophoresis we demonstrated for the first time that EB1 underwent several post-translational modifications in endothelial and tumor cells. Particularly, the C-terminal EEY sequence was poorly detectable in control and VEGF-treated HUVECs suggesting the existence of a non-tyrosinated form of EB1. By using specific antibodies that specifically recognized and discriminated the native tyrosinated form of EB1 and a putative C-terminal detyrosinated form, we showed that a detyrosinated form of EB1 exists in HUVECs and tumor cells. Interestingly, vinflunine decreased the level of the detyrosinated form and increased the native tyrosinated form of EB1. Using 3-L-Nitrotyrosine incorporation experiments, we concluded that the EB1 C-terminal modifications result from a detyrosination/retyrosination cycle as described for tubulin. Altogether, our results show that vinflunine inhibits endothelial cell migration through an alteration of EB1 comet length

  1. Bond strength and stress measurements in thermal barrier coatings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gell, M.; Jordan, E. [Univ. of Connecticut, Storrs, CT (United States)

    1995-10-01

    Thermal barrier coatings have been used extensively in aircraft gas turbines for more than 15 years to insulate combustors and turbine vanes from the hot gas stream. Plasma sprayed thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) provide metal temperature reductions as much as 300{degrees}F, with improvements in durability of two times or more being achieved. The introduction of TBCs deposited by electron beam physical vapor deposition (EB-PVD) processes in the last five years has provided a major improvement in durability and also enabled TBCs to be applied to turbine blades for improved engine performance. To meet the aggressive Advanced Turbine Systems goals for efficiency, durability and the environment, it will be necessary to employ thermal barrier coatings on turbine airfoils and other hot section components. For The successful application of TBCs to ATS engines with 2600{degrees}F turbine inlet temperatures and required component lives 10 times greater than those for aircraft gas turbine engines, it is necessary to develop quantitative assessment techniques for TBC coating integrity with time and cycles in ATS engines. Thermal barrier coatings in production today consist of a metallic bond coat, such as an MCrAlY overlay coating or a platinum aluminide (Pt-Al) diffusion coating. During heat treatment, both these coatings form a thin, tightly adherent alumina (Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}) film. Failure of TBC coatings in engine service occurs by spallation of the ceramic coating at or near the bond coat to alumina or the alumina to zirconia bonds. Thus, it is the initial strength of these bonds and the stresses at the bond plane, and their changes with engine exposure, that determines coating durability. The purpose of this program is to provide, for the first time, a quantitative assessment of TBC bond strength and bond plane stresses as a function of engine time and cycles.

  2. Enriquecimiento en Si mediante PVD de chapas magnéticas convencionales para aplicaciones a altas frecuencias

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Molina Aldareguía, J.

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available The present work deals with the viability of a method for Si enrichment of conventional Fe-3%Si sheets, by means of physical vapour deposition of Si at its surface and subsequent diffusion heating. The aim is to obtain magnetic sheets with a Si content of 6.5wt%, for they show higher resistivity and null magnetostriction, leading to lower energy losses and solving the noise problems at high frequencies. The PVD deposited films, with ~5 μm thickness, show good adhesion to the substrate. Concerning the heat treatment, there is a critical heating rate between 5 and 15°/min, above which delamination of the film is observed without formation of intermetallics at the interface. At 3°/min the conditions for the formation of intermetallics are given. Direct heating up to 800°C leads to the formation of a Fe3Si(α1 surface layer, which, being brittle, does not delaminate during the heating process. Subsequent heating up to temperatures around 1200°C allows the homogenisation of the sheet composition. There is evidence of Kirkendall effect in the diffusion couple Fe3Si(α1/Fe(α, due to the fact that the diffusion of Fe in Fe3Si(α1 is faster than the diffusion of Si in Fe(α.

    El presente trabajo estudia la viabilidad de un método para enriquecer en Si chapas de Fe-3%Si convencionales, depositando Si en su superficie mediante PVD y sometiéndolas a un tratamiento térmico de difusión. Se trata de obtener chapas magnéticas con un contenido en Si de un 6,5% en peso, ya que éstas presentan mayor resistividad y magnetoestricción nula, reduciendo las pérdidas y solucionando los problemas de ruido a altas frecuencias. Las capas depositadas por PVD, de espesores ~5 μm, presentan buena adherencia al substrato. En cuanto al tratamiento térmico, se observa que hay una velocidad de calentamiento crítica entre 5 y 15°/min, por encima de la cual la película se despega sin llegarse a formar intermetálicos en la intercara. A 3°/min se dan las

  3. The limits of application of variable-energy slow positron beams for investigating TiN hard coatings prepared by PVD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marek, T.; Suevegh, K.; Vertes, A.; Szeles, Cs.; Lynn, K.G.

    2000-01-01

    Samples of TiN hard coatings prepared by physical vapour deposition (PVD) were investigated by means of depth-sensitive positron annihilation spectroscopy. The results indicate that the samples are at the limits of the applicability of this method presumably due to the high defect concentration. Though the samples are thoroughly characterized by other independent methods, they might not be sufficient to explain all aspects of positron-solid interactions in these cases. (author)

  4. High-temperature resistant MeCrAlY+Al coatings obtained by ARC-PVD method on Ni Base superalloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swadzba, L.; Maciejny, A.; Mendala, B.; Supernak, W.

    1999-01-01

    Investigations of obtaining high temperature coatings on the Ni base superalloys by the ARC-PVD method, using exothermic reaction processes between Ni and Al with NiAl intermetallic formation are presented in the article. By the diffusion heating at 1050 o C NiAl high temperature diffusion coating containing 21% at. Al and 50 μm thick was obtained. In the next stage coatings with more complex chemical composition NiCoCrAlY were formed. The two targets were applied for formation of complex NiCoCrAlY coatings. The good consistence between the chemical composition of the targets and the coatings and an uniform distribution of elements in the coatings were shown. Then the surface was covered with aluminium also by the ARC-PVD method. In the vacuum chamber of the equipment a synthesis reaction between NiCoCrAlY and Al with the formation NiAl intermetallics of high Co, Cr, Y content was initiated by the changes in process parameters. The final heat treatment of coatings was conducted in the air and vacuum at 1050 o C. The strong segregation of yttrium in to the oxide scale in the specimens heated in the air was shown. It was possible to obtain NiAl intermetallic phase coatings modified by Co, Cr and Y by the ARC-PVD method. An example of the application of this method for the aircraft engine turbine blades was presented. Method of ARC-PVD gives the possibility chemical composition and high resistance to oxidizing and hot corrosion. (author)

  5. Sensitivity of the engineered barrier system (EBS) release rate to alternative conceptual models of advective release from waste packages under dripping fractures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, J.H.; Atkins, J.E.; McNeish, J.A.; Vallikat, V.

    1996-01-01

    The first model assumed that dripping water directly contacts the waste form inside the ''failed'' waste package and radionuclides are released from the EBS by advection. The second model assumed that dripping water is diverted around the package (because of corrosion products plugging the perforations), thereby being prevented from directly contacting the waste form. In the second model, radionuclides were assumed to diffuse through the perforations, and, once outside the waste package, to be released from the EBS by advection. For the case with the second EBS release model, most radionuclides had lower peak EBS release rates than with the first model. Impacts of the alternative EBS release models were greater for the radionuclides with low solubility. The analysis indicated that the EBS release model representing advection through a ''failed'' waste package (the first model) may be too conservative; thus a ''failed'' waste package container with multiple perforations may still be an important barrier to radionuclide release

  6. Extractable proteins from electron beam (EB) irradiated natural rubber (NR) latex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feroza Akhtar; Fumio Yoshii; Keizo Makuuchi

    1996-01-01

    The protein assay of natural rubber latex (NRL) vulcanized by low energy electron beam (EB, 300 keV, 30 mA) has been carried out using Bicinchoninic acid (BCA) reagent. Extractable protein in irradiated latex film was determined by measuring the absorption of colored solution at 562 nm using UV spectrometer. The effect of various radiation doses on the extractable protein content of NRL was investigated. It was ,found that the quantities of extractable protein increases with radiation dose. When compared with ,gamma-ray irradiated samples the same trend was observed. Electron beam irradiated latex films are leached in 1% (ammonia water for various lengths of time. From the results it was established that within 2 hours of leaching in ammonia water most of the extractable protein (96%) were removed from rubber film

  7. The Format Converting/Transfer Agent and Repository System based on ebXML

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KyeongRim Ahn

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available As introducing XML in EC-environment, various document formats have been used due to XML characteristic. Also, other document format except XML have been used to exchange EC-related information. That is, as increasing trading partner, as increasing exchanged document format and business processing being complex. So, management difficulty and duplication problem happened as trading partners increasing. And, they want to change plural business workflow to general and uniform form as defining and arranging BP(Business Process. Therefore, in this paper, we define XML as future document standard agreement and discuss about service system architecture and Repository. Repository stores and manages document standard, information related to Business Processing, Messaging Profile, and so on. Repository structure is designed to cover various XML standards. Also, we design system to support ebXML communication protocol, MSH, as well as traditional communication protocol, such as X.25, X.400, etc. and implement to exchange information via FTP.

  8. High efficiency turbine blade coatings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Youchison, Dennis L. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Gallis, Michail A. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2014-06-01

    The development of advanced thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) of yttria stabilized zirconia (YSZ) that exhibit lower thermal conductivity through better control of electron beam - physical vapor deposition (EB-PVD) processing is of prime interest to both the aerospace and power industries. This report summarizes the work performed under a two-year Lab-Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project (38664) to produce lower thermal conductivity, graded-layer thermal barrier coatings for turbine blades in an effort to increase the efficiency of high temperature gas turbines. This project was sponsored by the Nuclear Fuel Cycle Investment Area. Therefore, particular importance was given to the processing of the large blades required for industrial gas turbines proposed for use in the Brayton cycle of nuclear plants powered by high temperature gas-cooled reactors (HTGRs). During this modest (~1 full-time equivalent (FTE)) project, the processing technology was developed to create graded TBCs by coupling ion beam-assisted deposition (IBAD) with substrate pivoting in the alumina-YSZ system. The Electron Beam - 1200 kW (EB-1200) PVD system was used to deposit a variety of TBC coatings with micron layered microstructures and reduced thermal conductivity below 1.5 W/m.K. The use of IBAD produced fully stoichiometric coatings at a reduced substrate temperature of 600°C and a reduced oxygen background pressure of 0.1 Pa. IBAD was also used to successfully demonstrate the transitioning of amorphous PVD-deposited alumina to the -phase alumina required as an oxygen diffusion barrier and for good adhesion to the substrate Ni2Al3 bondcoat. This process replaces the time consuming thermally grown oxide formation required before the YSZ deposition. In addition to the process technology, Direct Simulation Monte Carlo plume modeling and spectroscopic characterization of the PVD plumes were performed. The project consisted of five tasks. These included the

  9. Study the effect of ion-complex on the properties of composite gel polymer electrolyte based on Electrospun PVdF nanofibrous membrane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Weili; Xing, Yujin; Wu, Yuhui; Wang, Jiawei; Chen, Lizhuang; Yang, Gang; Tang, Benzhong

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, nanofibrous membranes based on poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVdF) doped with ion-complex (SiO 2 -PAALi) were prepared by electrospinning technique and the corresponding composite gel-polymer electrolytes (CGPEs) were obtained after being activated in liquid electrolyte. The microstructure, physical and electrochemical performances of the nanofibrous membranes and the corresponding CGPEs were studied by various measurements such as Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy(FTIR), Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM), Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC), Thermal Gravimetric Analysis (TGA), Stress-strain test, Linear Sweep Voltammetry (LSV), AC impedance measurement and Charge/discharge cycle test. As to the ion-complex doped nanofibrous membranes, PVdF can provide mechanical support with network structure composed of fully interconnection; while the ion-complexes are absorbed onto the surface of the PVdF nanofibers evenly instead of being aggregated. With the help of doped ion-complex, the prepared nanofibrous membranes present good liquid electrolyte absorbability, excellent mechanical performance, and high decomposition temperature. For the corresponding CGPEs, they possess high ionic conductivity, wide electrochemical window, and good charge/discharge cycle performance

  10. Structure of MeCrAlY + AlSi coatings deposited by Arc-PVD method on CMSX4 single crystal alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swadzba, L.; Hetmanczyk, M.; Mendala, B.; Saunders, S.R.J.

    2002-01-01

    Investigations of depositing high temperature resistant coatings on the Ni base superalloys by Arc-PVD method using exothermic reaction processes between Ni and Al with NiAl intermetallic formation are presented in the article. By the diffusion heating at 1050 o C in vacuum, NiAl diffusion coating containing 21% at. Al and 50 μm thick were obtained. In the next stage coatings with more complex chemical composition - MeCrAlY were formed. The MeCrAlY coatings were made from two targets. Good correlation between the chemical composition of the targets and a uniform distribution of elements in the coatings was shown. Then the surface was also covered with aluminium by the Arc-PVD method . In the vacuum chamber of the equipment a synthesis reaction between NiCoCrAlY and Al with the formation of NiAl intermetallics of high Co, Cr, Y content was initiated. The final heat treatment of coatings was conducted in vacuum at 1323 K. Strong segregation of yttrium into the oxide scale in the specimens heated in the air was shown. It was possible to form NiAl and intermetallics phase coatings modified by Co, Cr and Y by the Arc-PVD method. The coatings were formed on a single crystal CMSX-4. The structure, morphology and phase composition of coatings was carried out. (author)

  11. Cooperative Interactions between 480 kDa Ankyrin-G and EB Proteins Assemble the Axon Initial Segment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fréal, Amélie; Fassier, Coralie; Le Bras, Barbara; Bullier, Erika; De Gois, Stéphanie; Hazan, Jamilé; Hoogenraad, Casper C; Couraud, François

    2016-04-20

    The axon initial segment (AIS) is required for generating action potentials and maintaining neuronal polarity. Significant progress has been made in deciphering the basic building blocks composing the AIS, but the underlying mechanisms required for AIS formation remains unclear. The scaffolding protein ankyrin-G is the master-organizer of the AIS. Microtubules and their interactors, particularly end-binding proteins (EBs), have emerged as potential key players in AIS formation. Here, we show that the longest isoform of ankyrin-G (480AnkG) selectively associates with EBs via its specific tail domain and that this interaction is crucial for AIS formation and neuronal polarity in cultured rodent hippocampal neurons. EBs are essential for 480AnkG localization and stabilization at the AIS, whereas 480AnkG is required for the specific accumulation of EBs in the proximal axon. Our findings thus provide a conceptual framework for understanding how the cooperative relationship between 480AnkG and EBs induces the assembly of microtubule-AIS structures in the proximal axon. Neuronal polarity is crucial for the proper function of neurons. The assembly of the axon initial segment (AIS), which is the hallmark of early neuronal polarization, relies on the longest 480 kDa ankyrin-G isoform. The microtubule cytoskeleton and its interacting proteins were suggested to be early key players in the process of AIS formation. In this study, we show that the crosstalk between 480 kDa ankyrin-G and the microtubule plus-end tracking proteins, EBs, at the proximal axon is decisive for AIS assembly and neuronal polarity. Our work thus provides insight into the functional mechanisms used by 480 kDa ankyrin-G to drive the AIS formation and thereby to establish neuronal polarity. Copyright © 2016 the authors 0270-6474/16/364421-13$15.00/0.

  12. Proceedings of the FNCA 2005 workshop on application of electron accelerator. EB treatment of wastewater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshii, Fumio; Kume, Tamikazu

    2006-08-01

    'Forum for Nuclear Cooperation in Asia (FNCA) Workshop on Application of Electron Accelerator' was sponsored by the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology (MEXT), Japan. The 2005 workshop was jointly organized by the Ministry of Science and Technology (MOST), Korea, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute and Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA). It was held at the International Nuclear Technology and Education Center (INTEC/KAERI), Daejeon, Korea from 14 to 18 November 2005. The Workshop was attended by 32 experts on application of electron accelerator from each of the participating countries, i.e., China (1), Indonesia (1), Korea (18), Malaysia (2), Philippines (1), Thailand (1) and Vietnam (1), and 7 participants from Japan. On the first day, a National Executive Management Seminar on Application of Electron Accelerator was held and attended by 45 participants. Total of 20 papers including Seminar lectures, invited papers on wastewater treatment by electron beam, and country reports on EB irradiation system were presented. The major areas of interest of FNCA member states for cooperation were identified for application of low energy electron accelerator to liquids (natural polymer, wastewater), solids (hydrogel, thin film) and gases (flue gas). Based on the evaluation and proposal from the participating countries, discussions were carried out to re-formulate the work plan of the project on natural polymers and wastewater for three years until FY 2008. It was agreed the FNCA 2006 workshop on EB crosslinking of natural polymers would be held in Malaysia. All manuscripts submitted by every speaker were included in the proceedings. The 18 presented papers are indexed individually. (J.P.N.)

  13. Evaluation of Factors Affecting Polyhydroxyalkanoates Production by Comamonas sp. EB172 Using Central Composite Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noor Azman Mohd Johar

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Aims: Statistical approach, central composite design (CCD was used to investigate the complex interaction among temperature (25-37 °C, initial medium pH (5-9, inoculum size (4-10 % (v/v, concentration of (NH42SO4 (0-1 g/L and concentration of mixed organic acids (5-10 g/L in the production of polyhydroxyalkanoates by Comamonas sp. EB172.Methodology and Results: Mixed organic acids derived from anaerobically treated palm oil mill effluent (POME containing acetic:propionic:butyric (ratio of 3:1:1 were used as carbon source in the batch culture of Comamonas sp. EB172 to produce polyhydoxyalkanoates (PHAs. The analysis of variance (ANOVA showed that all five factors were significantly important in the batch fermentation by shake flask with a P value of less than 0.001. The optimal temperature, initial medium pH, inoculum size, concentration of (NH42SO4 and concentration of mixed organic acids were 30 °C, 7.04, 4.0 % (v/v, 0.01 g/L and 5.05 g/L respectively.Conclusion, significance and impact of study: Optimization of the production medium containing mixed organic acids has improved the PHA production for more than 2 folds. Under optimal condition in the shake flask fermentation, the predicted growth is 2.98 g/L of dry cell weight (DCW with 47.07 wt % of PHA content. The highest yield of PHA was 0.28 g of PHA per g mixed organic acids.

  14. Primary study on synthesis and characterization of the new type EB curable resins. Pt.1: Acrylic resins modified by light-oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei Jinshan; Yi Min; Wang Ruiyu; Li Jun; Ha Hongfei

    1995-01-01

    An acrylic resin modified by vegetable oil with high degree of unsaturation level has been synthesized. The characterization of coating film EB cured by the modified acrylic resin was studied primarily. The new type of EB curable acrylic resin is possessed of many merits such as cheap raw materials, simple synthesis technique and pretty characteristics of coating film. It is especially fit for timber surface coatings cured by EB radiation

  15. Effect of PbI{sub 2} deposition rate on two-step PVD/CVD all-vacuum prepared perovskite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ioakeimidis, Apostolos; Christodoulou, Christos; Lux-Steiner, Martha; Fostiropoulos, Konstantinos, E-mail: fostiropoulos@helmholtz-berlin.de

    2016-12-15

    In this work we fabricate all-vacuum processed methyl ammonium lead halide perovskite by a sequence of physical vapour deposition of PbI{sub 2} and chemical vapour deposition (CVD) of CH{sub 3}NH{sub 3}I under a static atmosphere. We demonstrate that for higher deposition rate the (001) planes of PbI{sub 2} film show a higher degree of alignment parallel to the sample's surface. From X-ray diffraction data of the resulted perovskite film we derive that the intercalation rate of CH{sub 3}NH{sub 3}I is fostered for PbI{sub 2} films with higher degree of (001) planes alignment. The stoichiometry of the produced perovskite film is also studied by Hard X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy measurements. Complete all-vacuum perovskite solar cells were fabricated on glass/ITO substrates coated by an ultra-thin (5 nm) Zn-phthalocyanine film as hole selective layer. A dependence of residual PbI{sub 2} on the solar cells performance is displayed, while photovoltaic devices with efficiency up to η=11.6% were achieved. - Graphical abstract: A two-step PVD/CVD processed perovskite film with the CVD intercalation rate of CH{sub 3}NCH{sub 3} molecules been fostered by increasing the PVD rate of PbI{sub 2} and prolonging the CVD time. - Highlights: • A simple PVD/CVD process for perovskite film production. • Increased PVD rate yields better alignment of the PbI{sub 2} (001) crystallite planes. • CH{sub 3}NH{sub 3}I intercalation process fostered by increased PbI{sub 2} PVD rate. • Stoichiometric CH{sub 3}NH{sub 3}PbI{sub 3} suitable as absorber in photovoltaic applications • Reduced PbI{sub 2} residue at the bottom of CH{sub 3}NH{sub 3}PbI{sub 3} improves device performance.

  16. Effect of nitrogen gas flow rate on the tribological properties of TiN coated HSS using CAE PVD technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mubarak, A.; Hamzah, E.; Toff, M.R.M.

    2005-01-01

    High-Speed Steel (HSS) is a material that used in various Hi-Tech industries for many reasons. The aim of this study is to investigate the tribological properties of TiN (Titanium Nitride)-coated HSS. Using Physical Vapour Deposition (PVD) Cathodic Arc Evaporation (CAE) technique coated samples. The goal of this work is to determine usefulness of TiN coatings in order to improve tribological properties of HSS, as vastly use in cutting tool industry for various applications. A Pin-on-Disc test showed that the minimum value recorded for friction coefficient was reduced from 0.294 to 0.239 when the nitrogen gas flow rate was increased from 100 sccm to 200 sccm. The decrease in friction coefficient resulted from the reduction in macrodroplets by increasing the nitrogen gas flow rate during deposition. The worn surface morphology of the TiN coated HSS was observed on a Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscope (FE-SEM), and the elemental composition on the wear scar were investigated by means of EDXS. (Author)

  17. A novel monolithic LEU foil target based on a PVD manufacturing process for 99Mo production via fission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollmer, Tobias; Petry, Winfried

    2016-12-01

    99 Mo is the most widely used radioactive isotope in nuclear medicine. Its main production route is the fission of uranium. A major challenge for a reliable supply is the conversion from highly enriched uranium (HEU) to low enriched uranium (LEU). A promising candidate to realize this conversion is the cylindrical LEU irradiation target. The target consists of a uranium foil encapsulated between two coaxial aluminum cladding cylinders. This target allows a separate processing of the irradiated uranium foil and the cladding when recovering the 99 Mo. Thereby, both the costs and the volume of highly radioactive liquid waste are significantly reduced compared to conventional targets. The presented manufacturing process is based on the direct coating of the uranium on the inside of the outer cladding cylinder. This process was realized by a cylindrical magnetron enhanced physical vapor deposition (PVD) technique. The method features a highly automated process, a good quality of the resulting uranium foils and a high material utilization. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Controllable synthesis and defect-dependent photoluminescence properties of In2O3 nanostructures prepared by PVD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Changqing; Wei, Yongxing; Peterson, George; Zhu, Kexin; Jian, Zengyun

    2017-05-01

    In2O3 nanostructures were successfully synthesized via physical vapor deposition (PVD). It was found that the morphology of nanostuctures could be controlled by manipulation of the synthesis temperature, growth time, use of a Au-catalyst, selection of substrate material, and vapor pressure. A higher synthesis temperature is more favorable for the formation of 1D nanostructures. An increased growth time increased the width and length of the 1D nanostructures. Through the use of a Au-catalyst coated Si (1 0 0) substrate, we were able to preferentially synthesize (1 0 0) In2O3 nanostructures, even at lower growth temperatures. This research shows that a Au-catalyst is necessary for the formation of one-dimensional (1D) In2O3 nanostructures. Three dimensional (3D) octahedral nanoparticles are resultant from a Au-free Si (1 0 0) substrate. Al2O3 (1 0 0) substrates were found to be energetically favorable for the synthesis of nanofilms, not 1D nanostructures, regardless of the presence of Au-catalyst. The photoluminescence curves indicate that the defect related luminescence is not a function of morphology, but rather the ratio of the partial vapor pressures of the constituent elements (In and O), which were controlled by the growth pressure.

  19. Karakteristik Morfologi Permukaan Pada Polimer PVdF-LiBOB-ZrO2 dan Potensinya untuk Elektrolit Baterai Litium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Etty Marti Wigayati

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Membran elektrolit polimer pada baterai litium ion berfungsi sebagai media transport ion dan sebagai separator antara anoda dan katoda. Dalam penelitian ini, telah dilakukan sintesis membran elektrolit polimer LiBOB (Lithium Bis Oksalato Borate dengan rumus kimia LiB(C2O42 dengan menggunakan Polyvilinidine fluoride (PVdF sebagai matriks dan bahan aditif  Zirkonium Oksida (ZrO2. Metoda yang dipergunakan adalah solution cast. Konsentrasi bahan aditif dibuat bervariasi. Membran yang terbentuk dikarakterisasi morfologi permukaan menggunakan Scanning Electrone Microscope (SEM, sifat elektrokimia dengan Cyclic Voltametric (CV dan kapasitas baterai dengan kurva charge discharge. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa morfologi permukaan rantai polimer saling berikatan dan tersusun dengan bagus. Pori tertutup oleh rantai polimer secara rata yang berikatan membentuk jaring dan saling bertumpukan pada keadaan amorf. Terjadi reaksi oksidasi dan reduksi pada sel baterai dengan kapasitas charge sekitar 24 mAh pada tegangan 4 volt, sedangkan kapasitas discharge bernilai sama sekitar 24 mAh pada tegangan 4 volt dengan penambahan 10% ZrO2.

  20. Potential for radionuclide immobilization in the EBS/NFE: solubility limiting phases for neptunium, plutonium, and uranium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rard, J. A., LLNL

    1997-10-01

    Retardation and dispersion in the far field of radionuclides released from the engineered barrier system/near field environment (EBS/NFE) may not be sufficient to prevent regulatory limits being exceeded at the accessible environment. Hence, a greater emphasis must be placed on retardation and/or immobilization of radionuclides in the EBS/NFE. The present document represents a survey of radionuclide-bearing solid phases that could potentially form in the EBS/NFE and immobilize radionuclides released from the waste package and significantly reduce the source term. A detailed literature search was undertaken for experimental solubilities of the oxides, hydroxides, and various salts of neptunium, plutonium, and uranium in aqueous solutions as functions of pH, temperature, and the concentrations of added electrolytes. Numerous solubility studies and reviews were identified and copies of most of the articles were acquired. However, this project was only two months in duration, and copies of some the identified solubility studies could not be obtained at short notice. The results of this survey are intended to be used to assess whether a more detailed study of identified low- solubility phase(s) is warranted, and not as a data base suitable for predicting radionuclide solubility. The results of this survey may also prove useful in a preliminary evaluation of the efficacy of incorporating chemical additives to the EBS/NFE that will enhance radionuclide immobilization.

  1. 76 FR 75562 - Notice of a Change in Status of an Extended Benefit (EB) Period for Pennsylvania

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-02

    ... Extended Benefit (EB) Period for Pennsylvania AGENCY: Employment and Training Administration, Labor. ACTION... Pennsylvania. The following changes have occurred since the publication of the last notice regarding the State... three month average, seasonally- adjusted total unemployment rate for Pennsylvania rose to exceed the 8...

  2. Sensitivity of the engineered barrier system (EBS) release rate to alternative conceptual models of advective release from waste packages under dripping fractures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, J.H.; Atkins, J.E.; McNeish, J.A.; Vallikat, V.

    1996-01-01

    Simulations were conducted to analyze the sensitivity of the engineered barrier system (EBS) release rate to alternative conceptual models of the advective release from waste packages under dripping fractures. The first conceptual model assumed that dripping water directly contacts the waste form inside the 'failed' waste package, and radionuclides are released from the EBS by advection. The second conceptual model assumed that dripping water is diverted around the 'failed' waste package (because of the presence of corrosion products plugging the perforations) and dripping water is prevented from directly contacting the waste form. In the second model, radionuclides were assumed to transport through the perforations by diffusion, and, once outside the waste package, to be released from the EBS by advection. The second model was to incorporate more realism into the EBS release calculations. For the case with the second EBS release model, most radionuclides had significantly lower peak EBS release rates (from at least one to several orders of magnitude) than with the first EBS release model. The impacts of the alternative EBS release models were greater for the radionuclides with a low solubility (or solubility-limited radionuclides) than for the radionuclides with a high solubility (or waste form dissolution-limited radionuclides). The analyses indicated that the EBS release model representing advection through a 'failed' waste package (the first EBS release model) may be too conservative in predicting the EBS performance. One major implication from this sensitivity study was that a 'failed' waste package container with multiple perforations may still be able to perform effectively as an important barrier to radionuclide release. (author)

  3. Dismantling of the EB experiment: Experimental research on the retrieved GBM and bentonite blocks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Jiang-Feng, E-mail: jeafliu@hotmail.com [State Key Laboratory for Geomchanics & Deep Underground Engineering, and School of Mechanics and Civil Engineering, China University of Mining & Technology, Xuzhou, Jiangsu 221116 (China); Laboratoire de Méchanique de Lille (LML), and École Centrale de Lille, BP 48, F-59651 Villeneuve d’Ascq Cedex (France); Skoczylas, Frédéric [Laboratoire de Méchanique de Lille (LML), and École Centrale de Lille, BP 48, F-59651 Villeneuve d’Ascq Cedex (France); Talandier, Jean [ANDRA, 1-7 rue Jean Monnet, 92298 Châtenay-Malabry Cedex (France); Pu, Hai [State Key Laboratory for Geomchanics & Deep Underground Engineering, and School of Mechanics and Civil Engineering, China University of Mining & Technology, Xuzhou, Jiangsu 221116 (China)

    2016-04-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • We present a demonstration of a new concept of HLW (high-level waste) repositories. • The hydro-mechanical characteristics of GBM and blocks were determined. • The water retention curves (WRCs) of GBM and blocks were presented. • The effective gas permeability of the GBM and blocks were measured. • The homogeneity of the GBM and blocks were investigated. - Abstract: The Engineered Barrier Emplacement Experiment in Opalinus Clay (EB experiment) was a full-scale test for the demonstration of a new concept of high-level waste (HLW) repositories in horizontal drifts in the Opalinus Clay formation. After 10.5 years of hydration, the EB experiment was dismantled in autumn 2012. Samples obtained from the granular bentonite material (GBM), and bentonite blocks were sent to a laboratory for further analysis. The bentonite samples analyzed at the Laboratory of Mechanic of Lille (LML) were obtained from the CMT1, CMT2, CMT3 and RW sections. Their physical states were determined, as were their effective gas permeability and swelling capacity at different relative humidity (RH) levels. The results indicate that the water contents of the GBM determined in the laboratory ranged between 25.63% and 44.88% and that the dry densities ranged between 1.13 and 1.44 g/cm{sup 3}. The blocks had water contents similar to (or slightly higher than) those of the GBM, and their dry densities had decreased from an initial value of 1.69 g/cm{sup 3} to values close to 1.30 g/cm{sup 3}, which were similar to the average values found in the GBM. The effective gas permeabilities of the GBM samples were within the range of 1.50 × 10{sup −22} m{sup 2} and 1.03 × 10{sup −17} m{sup 2}, whereas, the corresponding values of the samples obtained from the blocks were between 2.20 × 10{sup −21} m{sup 2} and 5.12 × 10{sup −21} m{sup 2}. The permeability values are primarily related to the dry densities and water contents of the samples. Contact with

  4. Recruitment of EB1, a Master Regulator of Microtubule Dynamics, to the Surface of the Theileria annulata Schizont

    KAUST Repository

    Woods, Kerry L.

    2013-05-09

    The apicomplexan parasite Theileria annulata transforms infected host cells, inducing uncontrolled proliferation and clonal expansion of the parasitized cell population. Shortly after sporozoite entry into the target cell, the surrounding host cell membrane is dissolved and an array of host cell microtubules (MTs) surrounds the parasite, which develops into the transforming schizont. The latter does not egress to invade and transform other cells. Instead, it remains tethered to host cell MTs and, during mitosis and cytokinesis, engages the cell\\'s astral and central spindle MTs to secure its distribution between the two daughter cells. The molecular mechanism by which the schizont recruits and stabilizes host cell MTs is not known. MT minus ends are mostly anchored in the MT organizing center, while the plus ends explore the cellular space, switching constantly between phases of growth and shrinkage (called dynamic instability). Assuming the plus ends of growing MTs provide the first point of contact with the parasite, we focused on the complex protein machinery associated with these structures. We now report how the schizont recruits end-binding protein 1 (EB1), a central component of the MT plus end protein interaction network and key regulator of host cell MT dynamics. Using a range of in vitro experiments, we demonstrate that T. annulata p104, a polymorphic antigen expressed on the schizont surface, functions as a genuine EB1-binding protein and can recruit EB1 in the absence of any other parasite proteins. Binding strictly depends on a consensus SxIP motif located in a highly disordered C-terminal region of p104. We further show that parasite interaction with host cell EB1 is cell cycle regulated. This is the first description of a pathogen-encoded protein to interact with EB1 via a bona-fide SxIP motif. Our findings provide important new insight into the mode of interaction between Theileria and the host cell cytoskeleton. 2013 Woods et al.

  5. Recruitment of EB1, a master regulator of microtubule dynamics, to the surface of the Theileria annulata schizont.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kerry L Woods

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The apicomplexan parasite Theileria annulata transforms infected host cells, inducing uncontrolled proliferation and clonal expansion of the parasitized cell population. Shortly after sporozoite entry into the target cell, the surrounding host cell membrane is dissolved and an array of host cell microtubules (MTs surrounds the parasite, which develops into the transforming schizont. The latter does not egress to invade and transform other cells. Instead, it remains tethered to host cell MTs and, during mitosis and cytokinesis, engages the cell's astral and central spindle MTs to secure its distribution between the two daughter cells. The molecular mechanism by which the schizont recruits and stabilizes host cell MTs is not known. MT minus ends are mostly anchored in the MT organizing center, while the plus ends explore the cellular space, switching constantly between phases of growth and shrinkage (called dynamic instability. Assuming the plus ends of growing MTs provide the first point of contact with the parasite, we focused on the complex protein machinery associated with these structures. We now report how the schizont recruits end-binding protein 1 (EB1, a central component of the MT plus end protein interaction network and key regulator of host cell MT dynamics. Using a range of in vitro experiments, we demonstrate that T. annulata p104, a polymorphic antigen expressed on the schizont surface, functions as a genuine EB1-binding protein and can recruit EB1 in the absence of any other parasite proteins. Binding strictly depends on a consensus SxIP motif located in a highly disordered C-terminal region of p104. We further show that parasite interaction with host cell EB1 is cell cycle regulated. This is the first description of a pathogen-encoded protein to interact with EB1 via a bona-fide SxIP motif. Our findings provide important new insight into the mode of interaction between Theileria and the host cell cytoskeleton.

  6. Thermal Conductivity Analysis and Lifetime Testing of Suspension Plasma-Sprayed Thermal Barrier Coatings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas Curry

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Suspension plasma spraying (SPS has become an interesting method for the production of thermal barrier coatings for gas turbine components. The development of the SPS process has led to structures with segmented vertical cracks or column-like structures that can imitate strain-tolerant air plasma spraying (APS or electron beam physical vapor deposition (EB-PVD coatings. Additionally, SPS coatings can have lower thermal conductivity than EB-PVD coatings, while also being easier to produce. The combination of similar or improved properties with a potential for lower production costs makes SPS of great interest to the gas turbine industry. This study compares a number of SPS thermal barrier coatings (TBCs with vertical cracks or column-like structures with the reference of segmented APS coatings. The primary focus has been on lifetime testing of these new coating systems. Samples were tested in thermo-cyclic fatigue at temperatures of 1100 °C for 1 h cycles. Additional testing was performed to assess thermal shock performance and erosion resistance. Thermal conductivity was also assessed for samples in their as-sprayed state, and the microstructures were investigated using SEM.

  7. Ice bridges and ridges in the Maxwell-EB sea ice rheology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Dansereau

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a first implementation of a new rheological model for sea ice on geophysical scales. This continuum model, called Maxwell elasto-brittle (Maxwell-EB, is based on a Maxwell constitutive law, a progressive damage mechanism that is coupled to both the elastic modulus and apparent viscosity of the ice cover and a Mohr–Coulomb damage criterion that allows for pure (uniaxial and biaxial tensile strength. The model is tested on the basis of its capability to reproduce the complex mechanical and dynamical behaviour of sea ice drifting through a narrow passage. Idealized as well as realistic simulations of the flow of ice through Nares Strait are presented. These demonstrate that the model reproduces the formation of stable ice bridges as well as the stoppage of the flow, a phenomenon occurring within numerous channels of the Arctic. In agreement with observations, the model captures the propagation of damage along narrow arch-like kinematic features, the discontinuities in the velocity field across these features dividing the ice cover into floes, the strong spatial localization of the thickest, ridged ice, the presence of landfast ice in bays and fjords and the opening of polynyas downstream of the strait. The model represents various dynamical behaviours linked to an overall weakening of the ice cover and to the shorter lifespan of ice bridges, with implications in terms of increased ice export through narrow outflow pathways of the Arctic.

  8. Ice bridges and ridges in the Maxwell-EB sea ice rheology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dansereau, Véronique; Weiss, Jérôme; Saramito, Pierre; Lattes, Philippe; Coche, Edmond

    2017-09-01

    This paper presents a first implementation of a new rheological model for sea ice on geophysical scales. This continuum model, called Maxwell elasto-brittle (Maxwell-EB), is based on a Maxwell constitutive law, a progressive damage mechanism that is coupled to both the elastic modulus and apparent viscosity of the ice cover and a Mohr-Coulomb damage criterion that allows for pure (uniaxial and biaxial) tensile strength. The model is tested on the basis of its capability to reproduce the complex mechanical and dynamical behaviour of sea ice drifting through a narrow passage. Idealized as well as realistic simulations of the flow of ice through Nares Strait are presented. These demonstrate that the model reproduces the formation of stable ice bridges as well as the stoppage of the flow, a phenomenon occurring within numerous channels of the Arctic. In agreement with observations, the model captures the propagation of damage along narrow arch-like kinematic features, the discontinuities in the velocity field across these features dividing the ice cover into floes, the strong spatial localization of the thickest, ridged ice, the presence of landfast ice in bays and fjords and the opening of polynyas downstream of the strait. The model represents various dynamical behaviours linked to an overall weakening of the ice cover and to the shorter lifespan of ice bridges, with implications in terms of increased ice export through narrow outflow pathways of the Arctic.

  9. An ebCMOS camera system for marine bioluminescence observation: The LuSEApher prototype

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dominjon, A., E-mail: a.dominjon@ipnl.in2p3.fr [CNRS/IN2P3, Institut de Physique Nucleaire de Lyon, Villeurbanne F-69622 (France); Ageron, M. [CNRS/IN2P3, Centre de Physique des Particules de Marseille, Marseille, F-13288 (France); Barbier, R. [CNRS/IN2P3, Institut de Physique Nucleaire de Lyon, Villeurbanne F-69622 (France); Universite de Lyon, Universite Lyon 1, Lyon F-69003 (France); Billault, M.; Brunner, J. [CNRS/IN2P3, Centre de Physique des Particules de Marseille, Marseille, F-13288 (France); Cajgfinger, T. [CNRS/IN2P3, Institut de Physique Nucleaire de Lyon, Villeurbanne F-69622 (France); Universite de Lyon, Universite Lyon 1, Lyon F-69003 (France); Calabria, P. [CNRS/IN2P3, Institut de Physique Nucleaire de Lyon, Villeurbanne F-69622 (France); Chabanat, E. [CNRS/IN2P3, Institut de Physique Nucleaire de Lyon, Villeurbanne F-69622 (France); Universite de Lyon, Universite Lyon 1, Lyon F-69003 (France); Chaize, D.; Doan, Q.T.; Guerin, C.; Houles, J.; Vagneron, L. [CNRS/IN2P3, Institut de Physique Nucleaire de Lyon, Villeurbanne F-69622 (France)

    2012-12-11

    The ebCMOS camera, called LuSEApher, is a marine bioluminescence recorder device adapted to extreme low light level. This prototype is based on the skeleton of the LUSIPHER camera system originally developed for fluorescence imaging. It has been installed at 2500 m depth off the Mediterranean shore on the site of the ANTARES neutrino telescope. The LuSEApher camera is mounted on the Instrumented Interface Module connected to the ANTARES network for environmental science purposes (European Seas Observatory Network). The LuSEApher is a self-triggered photo detection system with photon counting ability. The presentation of the device is given and its performances such as the single photon reconstruction, noise performances and trigger strategy are presented. The first recorded movies of bioluminescence are analyzed. To our knowledge, those types of events have never been obtained with such a sensitivity and such a frame rate. We believe that this camera concept could open a new window on bioluminescence studies in the deep sea.

  10. Current Status and Performance Tests of Korea Heat Load Test Facility KoHLT-EB

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Sukkwon; Jin, Hyunggon; Shin, Kyuin; Choi, Boguen; Lee, Eohwak; Yoon, Jaesung; Lee, Dongwon [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Duckhoi; Cho, Seungyon [National Fusion Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-05-15

    A commissioning test has been scheduled to establish the installation and preliminary performance experiments of the copper hypervapotron mockups. And a qualification test will be performed to evaluate the CuCrZr duct liner in the ITER neutral beam injection facility and the ITER first wall small-scale mockups of the semi-prototype, at up to 1.5 and 5 MW/m{sup 2} high heat flux. Also, this system will be used to test other PFCs for ITER and materials for tokamak reactors. Korean high heat flux test facility(KoHLT-EB; Korea Heat Load Test facility - Electron Beam) by using an electron beam system has been constructed in KAERI to perform the qualification test for ITER blanket FW semi-prototype mockups, hypervapotron cooling devices in fusion devices, and other ITER plasma facing components. The commissioning and performance tests with the supplier of e-gun system have been performed on November 2012. The high heat flux test for hypervapotron cooling device and calorimetry were performed to measure the surface heat flux, the temperature profile and cooling performance. Korean high heat flux test facility for the plasma facing components of nuclear fusion machines will be constructed to evaluate the performance of each component. This facility for the plasma facing materials will be equipped with an electron beam system with a 60 kV acceleration gun.

  11. Tumor Suppressor RARRES1 Regulates DLG2, PP2A, VCP, EB1, and Ankrd26

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ziad J. Sahab, Michael D. Hall, Lihua Zhang, Amrita K. Cheema, Stephen W. Byers

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Retinoic Acid Receptor Responder (RARRES1 initially identified as a novel retinoic acid receptor regulated gene in the skin is a putative tumor suppressor of unknown function. RARRES1 was knocked down in immortalized human prostatic epithelial cell line PWR-1E cells and differential protein expression was identified using differential in-gel electrophoresis (DIGE followed by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization (MALDI mass spectrometry and western Blot analysis excluding highly abundant proteins routinely identified in almost all proteomics projects. Knock-down of RARRES1: 1- down-regulates PP2A, an enzyme involved in the negative regulation of the growth hormone-stimulated signal transduction pathways; 2- down-regulates Valosin-containing protein causing impaired autophagy; 3- up-regulates the tumor suppressor disks large 2; 4- up-regulates Ankrd26 that belongs to the POTE family of genes that are highly expressed in cancer patients with poor outcome; and 5- down-regulates EB1, a protein that is involved in spindle dynamics and chromosome alignment during mitosis.

  12. Decision making models and human factors: TOPSIS and Ergonomic Behaviors (TOPSIS-EB

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available An effective safety management requires attention to human factors as well as system compo-nents which make risky or safe situations at technical components. This study evaluates and ana-lyze ergonomic behaviors in order to select the best work shift group in an Iranian process in-dustry, in 2010.The methodology was based on the Ergonomic Behavior Sampling (EBS, and TOPSIS method. After specifying the unergonomic behaviors and with reference to the results of a pilot study, a sample of 1755 was determined, with a sampling accuracy of 5% and confi-dence level of 95%. However, in order to gain more confidence, 2631 observations were collect-ed. The results indicate that 43.6% of workers’ behaviors were unergonomic. The most frequent unergonomic behavior was amusing of legs while load lifting with 83.01% of total unergonomic behaviors observations. Using TOPSIS method, the most effective shift group and the least at-tractive alternatives for intervention were selected in this company. Findings declare high number of unergonomic behaviors. Catastrophic consequences of accidents in petrochemical industry ne-cessitate attention to workers’ ergonomic behaviors in the workplace and promotion of them.

  13. Mechanical properties of TIG and EB weld joints of F82H

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirose, Takanori, E-mail: hirose.takanori@jaea.go.jp; Sakasegawa, Hideo; Nakajima, Motoki; Tanigawa, Hiroyasu

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • Narrow groove TIG minimized volume of F82H weld. • Mechanical properties of TIG and EB welds of F82H have been characterized. • Post weld heat treatment successfully moderate the toughness of weld metal without softening the base metal. - Abstract: This work investigates mechanical properties of weld joints of a reduced activation ferritic/martensitic steel, F82H and effects of post weld heat treatment on the welds. Vickers hardness, tensile and Charpy impact tests were conducted on F82H weld joints prepared using tungsten-inert-gas and electron beam after various heat treatments. Although narrow groove tungsten-inert-gas welding reduced volume of weld bead, significant embrittlement was observed in a heat affected zone transformed due to heat input. Post weld heat treatment above 993 K successfully moderated the brittle transformed region. The hardness of the brittle region strongly depends on the heat treatment temperature. Meanwhile, strength of base metal was slightly reduced by the treatment at temperature ranging from 993 to 1053 K. Moreover, softening due to double welding was observed only in the weld metal, but negligible in base metal.

  14. Material design of negative-tone polyphenol resist for EUV and EB lithography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kojima, Kyoko; Mori, Shigeki; Shiono, Daiju; Hada, Hideo; Onodera, Junichi

    2007-03-01

    In order to enable design of a negative-tone polyphenol resist using polarity-change reaction, five resist compounds (3M6C-MBSA-BLs) with different number of functional group of γ-hydroxycarboxyl acid were prepared and evaluated by EB lithography. The resist using mono-protected compound (3M6C-MBSA-BL1a) showed 40-nm hp resolution at an improved dose of 52 μC/cm2 probably due to removal of a non-protected polyphenol while the sensitivity of the resist using a compound of protected ratio of 1.1 on average with distribution of different protected ratio was 72 μC/cm2. For evaluation of the di-protected compound based resist, a di-protected polyphenol was synthesized by a newly developed synthetic route of 3-steps reaction, which is well-suited for mass production. The resist using di-protected compound (3M6C-MBSA-BL2b) also showed 40-nm hp resolution at a dose of 40 μC/cm2, which was faster than that of mono-protected resist. Fundamental EUV lithographic evaluation of the resist using 3M6C-MBSA-BL2b by an EUV open frame exposure tool (EUVES-7000) gave its estimated optimum sensitivity of 7 mJ/cm2 and a proof of fine development behavior without any swelling.

  15. Hierarchical adaptive nanostructured PVD coatings for extreme tribological applications: the quest for nonequilibrium states and emergent behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    German S Fox-Rabinovich, Kenji Yamamoto, Ben D Beake, Iosif S Gershman, Anatoly I Kovalev, Stephen C Veldhuis, Myram H Aguirre, Goulnara Dosbaeva and Jose L Endrino

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Adaptive wear-resistant coatings produced by physical vapor deposition (PVD are a relatively new generation of coatings which are attracting attention in the development of nanostructured materials for extreme tribological applications. An excellent example of such extreme operating conditions is high performance machining of hard-to-cut materials. The adaptive characteristics of such coatings develop fully during interaction with the severe environment. Modern adaptive coatings could be regarded as hierarchical surface-engineered nanostructural materials. They exhibit dynamic hierarchy on two major structural scales: (a nanoscale surface layers of protective tribofilms generated during friction and (b an underlying nano/microscaled layer. The tribofilms are responsible for some critical nanoscale effects that strongly impact the wear resistance of adaptive coatings. A new direction in nanomaterial research is discussed: compositional and microstructural optimization of the dynamically regenerating nanoscaled tribofilms on the surface of the adaptive coatings during friction. In this review we demonstrate the correlation between the microstructure, physical, chemical and micromechanical properties of hard coatings in their dynamic interaction (adaptation with environment and the involvement of complex natural processes associated with self-organization during friction. Major physical, chemical and mechanical characteristics of the adaptive coating, which play a significant role in its operating properties, such as enhanced mass transfer, and the ability of the layer to provide dissipation and accumulation of frictional energy during operation are presented as well. Strategies for adaptive nanostructural coating design that enhance beneficial natural processes are outlined. The coatings exhibit emergent behavior during operation when their improved features work as a whole. In this way, as higher-ordered systems, they achieve multifunctionality

  16. Hierarchical adaptive nanostructured PVD coatings for extreme tribological applications: the quest for nonequilibrium states and emergent behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox-Rabinovich, German S; Yamamoto, Kenji; Beake, Ben D; Gershman, Iosif S; Kovalev, Anatoly I; Veldhuis, Stephen C; Aguirre, Myriam H; Dosbaeva, Goulnara; Endrino, Jose L

    2012-08-01

    Adaptive wear-resistant coatings produced by physical vapor deposition (PVD) are a relatively new generation of coatings which are attracting attention in the development of nanostructured materials for extreme tribological applications. An excellent example of such extreme operating conditions is high performance machining of hard-to-cut materials. The adaptive characteristics of such coatings develop fully during interaction with the severe environment. Modern adaptive coatings could be regarded as hierarchical surface-engineered nanostructural materials. They exhibit dynamic hierarchy on two major structural scales: (a) nanoscale surface layers of protective tribofilms generated during friction and (b) an underlying nano/microscaled layer. The tribofilms are responsible for some critical nanoscale effects that strongly impact the wear resistance of adaptive coatings. A new direction in nanomaterial research is discussed: compositional and microstructural optimization of the dynamically regenerating nanoscaled tribofilms on the surface of the adaptive coatings during friction. In this review we demonstrate the correlation between the microstructure, physical, chemical and micromechanical properties of hard coatings in their dynamic interaction (adaptation) with environment and the involvement of complex natural processes associated with self-organization during friction. Major physical, chemical and mechanical characteristics of the adaptive coating, which play a significant role in its operating properties, such as enhanced mass transfer, and the ability of the layer to provide dissipation and accumulation of frictional energy during operation are presented as well. Strategies for adaptive nanostructural coating design that enhance beneficial natural processes are outlined. The coatings exhibit emergent behavior during operation when their improved features work as a whole. In this way, as higher-ordered systems, they achieve multifunctionality and high wear

  17. Analysis of the environmental and nature impacts of 'Building Bridges'. Coalition VVD-PvdA, October 29, 2012. A quick scan; Analyse van de milieu- en natuureffecten van 'Bruggen slaan'. Regeerakkoord VVD-PvdA d.d. 29 oktober 2012. Een quick-scan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dietz, F. (ed.)

    2012-11-15

    The coalition between the political parties VVD (liberals) and PvdA (socialists) connects the transition to a sustainable economy and green growth to strengthening the competitive capacity of the Dutch economy. The role of the Dutch government in the coalition aims at creating a framework and to provide facilities to realize the transition. In this memo the results of an analysis of the impacts of the coalition are given for the themes Energy and Climate, Nature, Transport and Traffic, and Green Growth [Dutch] Het Regeerakkoord VVD-PvdA koppelt de transitie naar een duurzame economie en groene groei aan het versterken van het concurrentievermogen van de Nederlandse economie. De rol van de rijksoverheid wordt in het regeerakkoord met name ingevuld als kaderstellend en faciliterend. De PBL-notitie analyseert de effecten van het regeringsakkoord voor de thema's Energie en Klimaat, Natuur, Verkeer en Vervoer, en Groene groei.

  18. A microstructural study of F82H-MOD. Plate, powder HIP and EB and TIG weldments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schuring, E.W.

    1998-06-01

    F82H is the heat identification number of a ferritic/martensitic steel. The steel has a chemical composition resulting in low activation after neutron irradiation. At ECN a microstructural study was conducted on plates of F82H (73, 15 and 25mm thick), a bar of HIPped F82H and EB and TIG welds in F82H plates. The investigation was aimed to characterise the microstructures for reference in irradiation experiments. The F82H mod. plates have a martensitic matrix with carbide precipitation on the prior austenite grain boundaries and the martensite laths. The carbide precipitation is most pronounced on the prior austenite grain boundaries. The PAG is comparable for the three plate thicknesses investigated. In two plates faint segregation bands were found with a denser carbide precipitation and 8-ferrite. Further Ta, Ti and Zr containing oxides are present. Hardness measurements show a higher overall hardness in the 25mm plate investigated compared to the 7.5 and 15mm plates. The F82H HIP bar shows a homogeneous PAG throughout the diameter. The microstructure shows a zone starting at about 1 mm below the surface with a width of 14mm, with a relatively high concentration of low precipitation density ferritic like fields, which corresponds to a zone with a 15HV5 lower hardness with respect to the rest of the bar. This zone is expected to be related to the HIP process. Further in the microstructure a circular pattern of W and Ta enriched inclusions is found, which mark the original HIP-powder grain boundaries. The EB-welds were manufactured by two manufactures and differ mostly in the heat input, resulting in differences in HAZ-width and the width of the weld cap. The F82H EB welds show comparable microstructures in the weld pool, with a martensitic microstructure free of carbides. All EB-welds contain 8-ferrite in concentrations of 0.1-1%. In the heat affected zone (HAZ), the coarse grained HAZ (CGHAZ) is free of carbide precipitation, whereas the fine grained HAZ (FGHAZ

  19. C. elegans bicd-1, homolog of the Drosophila dynein accessory factor Bicaudal D, regulates the branching of PVD sensory neuron dendrites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguirre-Chen, Cristina; Bülow, Hannes E; Kaprielian, Zaven

    2011-02-01

    The establishment of cell type-specific dendritic arborization patterns is a key phase in the assembly of neuronal circuitry that facilitates the integration and processing of synaptic and sensory input. Although studies in Drosophila and vertebrate systems have identified a variety of factors that regulate dendrite branch formation, the molecular mechanisms that control this process remain poorly defined. Here, we introduce the use of the Caenorhabditis elegans PVD neurons, a pair of putative nociceptors that elaborate complex dendritic arbors, as a tractable model for conducting high-throughput RNAi screens aimed at identifying key regulators of dendritic branch formation. By carrying out two separate RNAi screens, a small-scale candidate-based screen and a large-scale screen of the ~3000 genes on chromosome IV, we retrieved 11 genes that either promote or suppress the formation of PVD-associated dendrites. We present a detailed functional characterization of one of the genes, bicd-1, which encodes a microtubule-associated protein previously shown to modulate the transport of mRNAs and organelles in a variety of organisms. Specifically, we describe a novel role for bicd-1 in regulating dendrite branch formation and show that bicd-1 is likely to be expressed, and primarily required, in PVD neurons to control dendritic branching. We also present evidence that bicd-1 operates in a conserved pathway with dhc-1 and unc-116, components of the dynein minus-end-directed and kinesin-1 plus-end-directed microtubule-based motor complexes, respectively, and interacts genetically with the repulsive guidance receptor unc-5.

  20. Electron-beam and combined e-b and microwave processing of dried food ingredients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferdes, O.; Minea, R.; Martin, D.; Tirlea, A.; Badea, M.; Oproiu, C.

    1998-01-01

    Complete text of publication follows. There are summarized and presented the results on the irradiated dried food ingredients, as starches, flour, spices, enzymes, pigments. It has investigated the electron-beam and microwave processing to achieve the hygienic and microbiological quality requirements for these materials. There are presented the results regarding the e-b and microwave effects on the main specific parameters (nutritional; microbiological; physical and chemical) for each item. Irradiation has carried out to different electron accelerators, mainly to ALIN-7 linac (W e ∼6 MeV) and using a special designed microwave equipment (2.45 GHz magnetron of 850 W maximum output power). The samples have been irradiated up to 25 kGy (dose rate ∼ 2.0 kGy/min) and there were treated by microwaves (250 W-550 W) for different exposure time. There have analyzed and presented the influence of these two physical fields on some common physical, biochemical and microbiological properties (mainly the total germ count, CFU/g) of these food materials. The main technological and physical characteristics of the materials are preserved, under irradiation up to 10 kGy and microwave treatment in the case of satisfying the national requirements for food and food grade additives microbiological load. The combined treatment seems to be present a synergistic effect arising on non-thermal basis. From these results it could be pointed out that electron-beam and microwave treatment is feasible and represents an alternative to other hygienization techniques for the dried food ingredients. It should be considered that combined treatments lead to reducing irradiation dose without losing the microbicidal effects

  1. Transcription Factor EB Expression in Early Breast Cancer Relates to Lysosomal/Autophagosomal Markers and Prognosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giatromanolaki, Alexandra; Sivridis, Efthimios; Kalamida, Dimitra; Koukourakis, Michael I

    2017-06-01

    Disrupting the autophagic balance to trigger autophagic death may open new strategies for cancer therapy. Transcription factor EB (TFEB) is a master regulator of lysosomal biogenesis and may play a role in cancer biology and clinical behavior. The expression of TFEB and the lysosomal cancer cell content (expression of lysosomal associated membrane protein 2a [LAMP2a] and cathepsin D) was studied in a series of 100 T1-stage breast carcinomas. Expression patterns were correlated with autophagy/hypoxia-related proteins, angiogenesis, and clinical outcome. The effect of hypoxic/acidic conditions on TFEB kinetics was studied in the MCF-7 cancer cell line. Overexpression of TFEB in cancer cell cytoplasm and the perinuclear/nuclear area was noted in 23 (23%) of 100 cases. High LAMP2a and cathepsin D expression was noted in 30 (30%) of 100 and 28 (28%) of 100 cases, respectively. TFEB expression was directly linked with LAMP2a (P factor 2-alpha (HIF-2α) (P = .01, r = 0.25) expression and inversely with progesterone receptor (P = .01, r = 0.22). High vascular density was directly linked with LAMP2a (P = .05, r = 0.18) and cathepsin D (P = .005, r = 0.28). In Kaplan-Meier survival analysis, TFEB and cathepsin D expression were related to an ominous prognosis (P = .001 and P = .03, respectively). In multivariate analysis, TFEB expression sustained its independent prognostic significance (P = .05, hazard ratio 2.1). In in vitro experiments, acidity triggered overexpression of TFEB and nuclear translocation. Intense TFEB expression and lysosomal biogenesis, evident in one fourth of early breast carcinomas, define poor prognosis. Tumor acidity is among the microenvironmental conditions that trigger TFEB overactivity. TFEB is a sound target for the development of lysosomal targeting therapies. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Application of EB welding to fabrication of vacuum chamber of heliotron E

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kita, Hisanao; Wada, Tatsuji; Nakazaki, Takamitsu; Akutsu, Yoji; Kazawa, Yoshiaki

    1981-01-01

    Heliotron E, which is a large-scaled device of Heliotron series, is in operation in Kyoto University. Target plasma parameters of this machine are as follows; plasma density 1 x 10 20 m -3 , electron temperature 1 keV, ion temperature 0.8 keV and n tau 10 18 -- 10 19 sec/m 3 . Plasma confining magnetic fields are produced by the helical coil current. To assure the accuracy of the helical coils, the high level of accuracy was required to the profile of the vacuum chamber. The vacuum chamber twists around the torus by 9.5 times and its poloidal cross section shows a race-track shape in any toroidal position. Major radius is 2200 mm and minor radius is 215.5 mm. The material is the high-strength non-magnetic steel which has low permeability (μ = 40 kgf/mm 2 ) and special chemical composition (25Cr-12Ni-0.3N). The thickness of the wall is from 20 to 33 mm. To make the vacuum chamber, 190 pieces were joined together by EB welding after the hot press forming. A giant apparatus (6.5 m x 6.5 m x 3.5 m) was prepared and applied and a special re-focusing coil was used for the long beam welding. The profile accuracy of the vacuum chamber has been controlled as follows; major radius +-3 mm, minor radius sub(-1.5)sup(+4.5)mm, where minus means the inner side. X-ray and dye-penetrant quality of all welds was acceptable for ASME pressure vessel code and JIS. The laekage was less than 1.3 x 10 -8 Torr. 1/sec. The final pressure is 2 x 10 -8 Torr. (author)

  3. Residual stress measurement of EB-welded plates with contour method. Part 2: FEM analysis of contour profiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romppanen, A.-J.; Immonen, E.

    2013-12-01

    The residual stresses formed as a result of Electronic Beam welding (EB-welding) in copper are investigated by Posiva. In the present study, residual stresses of EB-welded copper plates were studied with contour method. In the method eleven copper plates (X436 - X440 and X453 - X458) were cut in half with wire electric discharge machining (EDM) after which the deformation due to stress relaxation was measured with coordinate measurement system. The measured data was then used as boundary displacement data for the FEM analyses, in which the corresponding residual stresses were calculated. Before giving the corresponding displacement boundary conditions to the FE models, the deformation data was processed and smoothed appropriately. The residual stress levels of the copper plates were found to be around 40 - 55 MPa at maximum. This corresponds to other reported residual stress measurements and current state of knowledge with this material in Posiva. (orig.)

  4. Recent geodynamic and geomorphological analyses of the Diendorf–Čebín Tectonic Zone, Czech Republic

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Roštínský, Pavel; Pospíšil, L.; Švábenský, O.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 599, 25. červen 2013 (2013), s. 45-66 ISSN 0040-1951 Grant - others:GA MŠk(CZ) ED2.1.00/03.0097 Institutional support: RVO:68145535 Keywords : Diendorf – Čebín Tectonic Zone * Bohemian Massif * recent movement Subject RIV: DE - Earth Magnetism, Geodesy, Geography Impact factor: 2.866, year: 2013 http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tecto.2013.04.008

  5. Dissecting the nanoscale distributions and functions of microtubule-end-binding proteins EB1 and ch-TOG in interphase HeLa cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satoko Nakamura

    Full Text Available Recently, the EB1 and XMAP215/TOG families of microtubule binding proteins have been demonstrated to bind autonomously to the growing plus ends of microtubules and regulate their behaviour in in vitro systems. However, their functional redundancy or difference in cells remains obscure. Here, we compared the nanoscale distributions of EB1 and ch-TOG along microtubules using high-resolution microscopy techniques, and also their roles in microtubule organisation in interphase HeLa cells. The ch-TOG accumulation sites protruded ∼100 nm from the EB1 comets. Overexpression experiments showed that ch-TOG and EB1 did not interfere with each other's localisation, confirming that they recognise distinct regions at the ends of microtubules. While both EB1 and ch-TOG showed similar effects on microtubule plus end dynamics and additively increased microtubule dynamicity, only EB1 exhibited microtubule-cell cortex attachment activity. These observations indicate that EB1 and ch-TOG regulate microtubule organisation differently via distinct regions in the plus ends of microtubules.

  6. Akap350 Recruits Eb1 to The Spindle Poles, Ensuring Proper Spindle Orientation and Lumen Formation in 3d Epithelial Cell Cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almada, Evangelina; Tonucci, Facundo M; Hidalgo, Florencia; Ferretti, Anabela; Ibarra, Solange; Pariani, Alejandro; Vena, Rodrigo; Favre, Cristián; Girardini, Javier; Kierbel, Arlinet; Larocca, M Cecilia

    2017-11-02

    The organization of epithelial cells to form hollow organs with a single lumen requires the accurate three-dimensional arrangement of cell divisions. Mitotic spindle orientation is defined by signaling pathways that provide molecular links between specific spots at the cell cortex and astral microtubules, which have not been fully elucidated. AKAP350 is a centrosomal/Golgi scaffold protein, implicated in the regulation of microtubule dynamics. Using 3D epithelial cell cultures, we found that cells with decreased AKAP350 expression (AKAP350KD) formed polarized cysts with abnormal lumen morphology. Analysis of mitotic cells in AKAP350KD cysts indicated defective spindle alignment. We established that AKAP350 interacts with EB1, a microtubule associated protein that regulates spindle orientation, at the spindle poles. Decrease of AKAP350 expression lead to a significant reduction of EB1 levels at spindle poles and astral microtubules. Conversely, overexpression of EB1 rescued the defective spindle orientation induced by deficient AKAP350 expression. The specific delocalization of the AKAP350/EB1complex from the centrosome decreased EB1 levels at astral microtubules and lead to the formation of 3D-organotypic structures which resembled AKAP350KD cysts. We conclude that AKAP350 recruits EB1 to the spindle poles, ensuring EB1 presence at astral microtubules and proper spindle orientation during epithelial morphogenesis.

  7. Elemental imaging of organic matter and associated metals in ore deposits using micro PIXE and micro-EBS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuchs, S., E-mail: fuchs@geomin.eu [Department of Earth and Planetary Science, McGill University, 3450 University Street, Montreal H3A 0E8 (Canada); Przybylowicz, W.J., E-mail: przybylowicz@tlabs.ac.za [Materials Research Department, iThemba LABS, National Research Foundation, P.O. Box 722, Somerset West 7129 (South Africa); AGH University of Science and Technology, Faculty of Physics and Applied Computer Science, Al. A. Mickiewicza 30, 30-059 Krakow (Poland); Williams-Jones, A.E., E-mail: anthony.williams-jones@mcgill.ca [Department of Earth and Planetary Science, McGill University, 3450 University Street, Montreal H3A 0E8 (Canada)

    2014-01-01

    Micro-PIXE and micro-EBS analyses were carried out on samples from the Au–U-bearing Carbon Leader Reef of the Witwatersrand in South Africa to investigate the role of organic matter in the formation of this deposit. Micro-PIXE and Micro-EBS shows a very complex metal distribution within the bitumen nodules and their interstitial spaces. The style of the gold distribution and its association with epigenetic minerals (REE phosphates, phyllosilicates) indicates that all observed gold migrated in aqueous solution and precipitated by reduction on the surfaces of the bitumen nodules. Uraninite occurrences are confined to the bitumen nodules, which supports the argument of a uraninite paleo-placer; however the pervasive distribution of uranium also supports the argument that uraninite is derived from organo-metallic complexes. This study shows that micro-PIXE is a powerful tool to characterize metals associated with hydrocarbons. However, the organic matrix, the complexity of the obtained spectra and the small size of the minerals have significant influence on the reliability of the quantitative data. Due to highly variable amounts of heavy metals (U, Au, Pb) the obtained micro-EBS results are of questionable quality.

  8. Characteristics of CrAlSiN + DLC coating deposited by lateral rotating cathode arc PVD and PACVD process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lukaszkowicz, Krzysztof, E-mail: krzysztof.lukaszkowicz@polsl.pl [Institute of Engineering Materials and Biomaterials, Silesian University of Technology, Konarskiego St. 18A, 44-100 Gliwice (Poland); Sondor, Jozef, E-mail: j.sondor@liss.cz [LISS, a.s., Dopravni 2603, 756 61 Roznov p.R. (Czech Republic); Balin, Katarzyna, E-mail: katarzyna.balin@us.edu.pl [A. Chełkowski Institute of Physic, University of Silesia, Uniwersytecka 4, 40-007 Katowice (Poland); Kubacki, Jerzy, E-mail: jerzy.kubacki@us.edu.pl [A. Chełkowski Institute of Physic, University of Silesia, Uniwersytecka 4, 40-007 Katowice (Poland)

    2014-09-01

    Highlights: • The chemical composition of the CrAlSiN + DLC coatings was studied. • The coatings have nanostructural character with fine crystallites. • Their average size grain is less than 10 nm. • The coatings demonstrate friction coefficient within the range 0.05–0.07. • The coating demonstrated a dense cross-sectional morphology as well as good adhesion to the substrate. - Abstract: Coating system composed of CrAlSiN film covered by diamond-like carbon (DLC)-based lubricant, deposited on hot work tool steel substrate was the subject of the research. The CrAlSiN and DLC layers were deposited by PVD lateral rotating ARC-cathodes (LARC) and PACVD technology on the X40CrMoV5-1 respectively. HRTEM investigation shows an amorphous character of DLC layer. It was found that the tested CrAlSiN layer has a nanostructural character with fine crystallites while their average size is less than 10 nm. Based on the XRD pattern of the CrAlSiN, the occurrence of fcc phase was only observed in the coating, the texture direction 〈3 1 1〉 is perpendicular to the sample surface. Combined SEM, AES and ToF-SIMS studies confirmed assumed chemical composition and layered structure of the coating. The chemical distribution of the elements inside the layers and at the interfaces was analyzed by SEM and AES methods. It was shown that additional CrN layer is present between substrate and CrAlSiN coating. The atomic concentration of the particular elements of DLC and CrAlSiN layer was calculated from the XPS measurements. In sliding dry friction conditions the friction coefficient for the investigated elements is set in the range between 0.05 and 0.07. The investigated coating reveals high wear resistance. The coating demonstrated a dense cross-sectional morphology as well as good adhesion to the substrate.

  9. Lithium ion conducting PVA:PVdF polymer electrolytes doped with nano SiO2 and TiO2 filler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hema, M.; Tamilselvi, P.

    2016-09-01

    The effect of nano SiO2 and TiO2 fillers on the thermal, mechanical and electrochemical properties of PVA:PVdF:LiCF3SO3 have been investigated by three optimized systems of SPE (80PVA:20PVdF:15LiCF3SO3), CPE-I (SPE:8SiO2) and CPE-II (SPE:4TiO2). From the TGA curve least weight loss has been observed for CPE-II indicating high thermal stability compared to other systems. Stress-strain curve of the prepared samples confirm the enhancement of tensile strength in CPE-II compared to CPE-I and SPE. Conductivity studies show that addition of TiO2 filler slightly enhances ionic conductivity 3.7×10-3 S cm-1 compared to filler free system at 303 K. Dielectric plots have been analyzed and CPE-II possesses higher dielectric constant compared to CPE-I and filler free system. Temperature dependence of modulus plots has been studied for highest conductivity possessing sample. Wider electrochemical stability has been obtained for nano-composite polymer electrolytes. The results conclude that the prepared CPE-II shows the best performance and it will be well suited for lithium ion batteries.

  10. Morphology and inhibition performance of Ag thin film as antimicrobial coating deposited by RF-PVD on 316 L stainless steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purniawan, A.; Khrisna, Y. S. A.; Rasyida, A.; Atmono, T. M.

    2018-04-01

    Foreign body related infection (FBRIs) is caused by forming biofilm of bacterial colony of medical equipment surfaces. In many cases, the FBRIs is still happened on the surface after medical sterilization process has been performed. In order to avoid the case, surface modification by antimicrobial coating was used. In this work, we present silver (Ag) thin film on 316 L stainless steel substrate surface was deposited using Radio Frequency Sputtering PVD (RF-PVD). The morphology of Ag thin film were characterized using SEM-EDX. Surface roughness of the thin film was measured by AFM. In addition, Kirby Bauer Test in Escherichia coli (E. coli) was conducted in order to evaluate the inhibition performance of the Ag thin film antimicrobial coating. Based on SEM and AFM results show that the particle size is increased from 523 nm to 708 nm and surface roughness from 9 to 20 nm for deposition time 10 minutes to 20 minutes, respectively. In addition, the inhibition layer of the coating is about 29 mm.

  11. Improving the Wear Resistance of Moulds for the Injection of Glass Fibre–Reinforced Plastics Using PVD Coatings: A Comparative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Silva

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available It is well known that injection of glass fibre–reinforced plastics (GFRP causes abrasive wear in moulds’ cavities and runners. Physical vapour deposition (PVD coatings are intensively used to improve the wear resistance of different tools, also being one of the most promising ways to increase the moulds’ lifespan, mainly when used with plastics strongly reinforced with glass fibres. This work compares four different thin, hard coatings obtained using the PVD magnetron sputtering process: TiAlN, TiAlSiN, CrN/TiAlCrSiN and CrN/CrCN/DLC. The first two are monolayer coatings while the last ones are nanostructured and consist of multilayer systems. In order to carry out the corresponding tribological characterization, two different approaches were selected: A laboratorial method, using micro-abrasion wear tests based on a ball-cratering configuration, and an industrial mode, analysing the wear resistance of the coated samples when inserted in a plastic injection mould. As expected, the wear phenomena are not equivalent and the results between micro-abrasion and industrial tests are not similar due to the different means used to promote the abrasion. The best wear resistance performance in the laboratorial wear tests was attained by the TiAlN monolayer coating while the best performance in the industrial wear tests was obtained by the CrN/TiAlCrSiN nanostructured multilayer coating.

  12. GEP-based method to formulate adhesion strength and hardness of Nb PVD coated on Ti-6Al-7Nb aimed at developing mixed oxide nanotubular arrays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafieerad, A R; Bushroa, A R; Nasiri-Tabrizi, B; Fallahpour, A; Vadivelu, J; Musa, S N; Kaboli, S H A

    2016-08-01

    PVD process as a thin film coating method is highly applicable for both metallic and ceramic materials, which is faced with the necessity of choosing the correct parameters to achieve optimal results. In the present study, a GEP-based model for the first time was proposed as a safe and accurate method to predict the adhesion strength and hardness of the Nb PVD coated aimed at growing the mixed oxide nanotubular arrays on Ti67. Here, the training and testing analysis were executed for both adhesion strength and hardness. The optimum parameter combination for the scratch adhesion strength and micro hardness was determined by the maximum mean S/N ratio, which was 350W, 20 sccm, and a DC bias of 90V. Results showed that the values calculated in the training and testing in GEP model were very close to the actual experiments designed by Taguchi. The as-sputtered Nb coating with highest adhesion strength and microhardness was electrochemically anodized at 20V for 4h. From the FESEM images and EDS results of the annealed sample, a thick layer of bone-like apatite was formed on the sample surface after soaking in SBF for 10 days, which can be connected to the development of a highly ordered nanotube arrays. This novel approach provides an outline for the future design of nanostructured coatings for a wide range of applications. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Tribological properties of anti-wear PVD coatings for elevated temperatures application deposited onto X37CrMoV5-1 type hot work steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dobrzanski, L.A.; Polok, M.; Adamiak, M.

    2003-01-01

    The paper presents results of tribological and adhesion investigations of anti-wear PVD coatings TiN, TiN/(Ti,Al)N and CrN types deposited in ion plating PVD process onto X37CrMoV5-1 type hot work tool steel. It was found that damage mechanism during scratch test in all investigated coatings begins with multiple spallings located on the scratch edges followed by cracking and tool coatings delamination. Regarding to the coating types it can be seen different location of such damages and loads typical for them. According to this observations it can be stated that highest adhesion among investigated coating present, CrN monolayer coating and the lowest one multilayers Ti/(Ti,Al)N coating. The wear resistance was investigated by pin-on-disc method performed in room and elevated to 500 o C temperatures. It was found that the lowest wear in to fixed investigation conditions in both room and elevated temperatures shows TiN monolayer coating. Additionally one can see that TiN coatings application improve wear resistance some five times. (author)

  14. ac impedance, DSC and FT-IR investigations on (x)PVAc-(1 - x)PVdF blends with LiClO4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baskaran, R.; Selvasekarapandian, S.; Kuwata, N.; Kawamura, J.; Hattori, T.

    2006-01-01

    The blended polymer electrolytes comprising poly(vinyl acetate) (PVAc)-poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVdF) have been prepared for different blend composition with constant lithium perchlorate (LiClO 4 ) ratio by solution casting technique. The formation of the blend polymer electrolyte complex has been confirmed by FT-IR spectroscopy analysis. DSC analysis has been performed in order to observe the change in transition temperature that is caused by the blending of polymers and addition of LiClO 4 . The ac impedance and dielectric spectroscopy studies are carried out on the blended matrix to identify the optimized blend composition, which is having high ionic conductivity. The temperature dependence of conductivity of the polymer electrolytes is found to follow VTF type equation. The high ionic conductivity of 6.4 x 10 -4 S cm -1 at 343 K has been observed for blended polymer electrolyte having blend ratio 75:25 (PVAc:PVdF). The ionic transference number of mobile ions has been estimated by Wagner's polarization method and the value is reported to be t ion is 0.95-0.98 for all the blended samples. The modulus spectra reveal the non-Debye nature and distribution of relaxation times of the samples. The dielectric spectra show the low frequency dispersion, which implies the space charge effects arising from the electrodes

  15. corrosion and wear resistant ternary Cr-C-N coatings deposited by the ARC PVD process for machining tools and machining parts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knotek, O.; Lugscheider, E.; Zimmermann, H.; Bobzin, K.

    1997-01-01

    With the deposition of PVD hard coatings on the tools applied in machining operations it is possible to achieve significant improvements in the performance and quality of the machining processes. Depending on the machined material and the operating principle, e.g. turning, milling or drilling, not only different machining parameters but also different coating materials are necessary. In interrupted cut machining of tempered steel, for example, the life time of Ti-C-N coated inserts is several times greater than the Ti-C-N coated ones. This is a result of the favourable thermophysical and tribological properties of Ti-N-C. The potential for tool protection by CrN coatings is a result of the high ductility and low internal stress of this coating materials. CrN films can be deposited with greater film thickness, still maintaining very good adhesion. This paper presents the development of new arc PVD coatings in the system Cr-C-N. Owing to the carbon content in the coating an increased hardness and a better wear behavior in comparison to CrN was expected. The effects of various carbon carrier gases on the coating properties were examined. The coating properties were investigated by mechanical tests. X-ray diffraction, SEM analysis and corrosion tests. Some of the coatings were tested in machining tests. The results of these tests are presented in this paper. (author)

  16. Flexible free-standing TiO2/graphene/PVdF films as anode materials for lithium-ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ren, H.M.; Ding, Y.H.; Chang, F.H.; He, X.; Feng, J.Q.; Wang, C.F.; Jiang, Y.; Zhang, P.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Flexible TiO 2 /graphene electrode was prepared by a solvent evaporation technique. ► PVdF was used as substance to support the TiO 2 /graphene active materials. ► The flexible films can be employed as anode materials for Li-ion battery. - Abstract: Graphene composites were prepared by hydrothermal method using titanium dioxide (TiO 2 ) adsorbed graphene oxide (GO) sheets as precursors. Free-standing hybrid films for lithium-ion batteries were prepared by adding TiO 2 /graphene composites to the polyvinylidene fluoride (PVdF)/N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone (NMP) solution, followed by a solvent evaporation technique. These films were characterized by atomic force microscopy (AFM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and various electrochemical techniques. Flexible films show an excellent cycling performance, which was attributed to the interconnected graphene conducting network, which depressed the increasing of electric resistance during the cycling.

  17. Surface and near surface defect detection in thick copper EB-welds using eddy current testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pitkaenen, J.; Lipponen, A.

    2010-01-01

    The surface inspection of thick copper electron beam (EB) welds plays an important role in the acceptance of nuclear fuel disposal. The main reasons to inspect these components are related to potential manufacturing and handling defects. In this work the data acquisition software, visualising tools for eddy current (EC) measurements and eddy current sensors were developed for detection of unwanted defects. The eddy current equipment was manufactured by IZFP and the visualising software in active co-operation with Posiva and IZFP for the inspections. The inspection procedure was produced during the development of the inspection techniques. The inspection method development aims to qualify the method for surface and near surface defect detection and sizing according to ENIQ. The study includes technical justification to be carried out, and compilation of a defect catalogue and experience from measurements within the Posiva's research on issues related to manufacturing. The depth of penetration in copper components in eddy current testing is rather small. To detect surface breaking defects the eddy current inspection is a good solution. A simple approach was adopted using two techniques: higher frequency was used to detect surface defects and to determine the dimensions of the defects except depth, lower frequency was used to detect defects having a ligament and for sizing of deeper surface breaking defects. The higher frequency was 30 kHz and the lower frequency was 200 Hz. The higher frequency probes were absolute bobbing coils and lower frequency probes combined transmitter - several receiver coils. To evaluate both methods, calibration blocks were manufactured by FNS for weld inspections. These calibration specimens mainly consisted of electron discharge machined notches and holes of varying shapes, lengths and diameters in the range of 1 mm to 20 mm of depth. Also one copper lid specimen with 152 defects was manufactured and used for evaluation of weld inspection

  18. Evaluation of Tc-99M labeled ethylene diamine tetra acetic acid biotin monomer (EB1) as an inflammation imaging agent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imran, M.B.; Qaiser, I.; Jehangir, M.; Irfan, J.

    2004-01-01

    Objective:This study was aimed at the evaluation of EB1 as an inflammation-imaging agent in animal models after ascertaining its normal biodistribution. Methods: Kit was formulated by adding SnC12 as reducing agent in EB 1 compound. EDTA was used as chelating agent. Buffer was added to lower the pH of solution to 5. Freeze dried kits were prepared for later use in experiments. Kits were reconstituted with 0.5 ml of fresh eluate of 99m-TcO4 containing total activity of about 370 MBq. Radiochemical quality control was checked by conventional strip method using double solvent technique.Biodistribution was assessed in 15 Sprague Dawley rats. An injection of 10 MBq was given in tail vein in each animal. Animals were killed at pre-specified time intervals; organs were separated, weighed and counted. Counts recovered were corrected for decay. Inflammation models were prepared by injecting turpentine oil in the thigh muscles of 14 rabbits. In one rabbit inflammation was not induced and was used as control for EB 1. In 3 of inflammation models plain 99m-TcO4 was injected (control II). In another group of 3 animals 99m-TC-EDTA was injected (control II). In the last group of 8 animals 99m-TcO4-EB 1 was injected (experimental gp). Animals were serially imaged under Seimens' E-Cam gamma camera for the distribution of activity in different organs and at the site of inflammation. Results: Kit labeling efficiency was 90.5 + 2.5% with 2.5 + 0.8% free activity and 7 + 1.1% hydrolyzed form. Animal study on rats showed that pharmaceutical is mainly excreted by kidneys (51.57 + 9.2% at 15 minutes and 81.73 + 7.9% at 4 hours). Uptake in liver was 7.52 + 2.2% at 15 minutes that decreased to 2.3 + 0.5% at 4 hours. Activity in intestine increased from 5.48 + 2.9% to 7.05 + 1.6% at 15 minutes to 4 hours. Activity in background (=blood) decreased from 0.13% (at 15 minutes) to 0.04% at 4 hrs. In bones EB1 uptake decreased from 0.68% to 0.15% at 15 minutes to 4 hours. In inflammation models

  19. Double-ceramic-layer thermal barrier coatings based on La{sub 2}(Zr{sub 0.7}Ce{sub 0.3}){sub 2}O{sub 7}/La{sub 2}Ce{sub 2}O{sub 7} deposited by electron beam-physical vapor deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Z.H. [Beijing Institute of Aeronautical Materials, Department 5, P.O. Box 81-5, Beijing 100095 (China); State Key Laboratory of Rare Earth Resource Utilization, Changchun Institute of Applied Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changchun 130022 (China); Graduate School of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100039 (China); He, L.M., E-mail: he_limin@yahoo.com [Beijing Institute of Aeronautical Materials, Department 5, P.O. Box 81-5, Beijing 100095 (China); Mu, R.D.; He, S.M.; Huang, G.H. [Beijing Institute of Aeronautical Materials, Department 5, P.O. Box 81-5, Beijing 100095 (China); Cao, X.Q., E-mail: xcao@ciac.jl.cn [State Key Laboratory of Rare Earth Resource Utilization, Changchun Institute of Applied Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changchun 130022 (China)

    2010-03-15

    Double-ceramic-layer (DCL) thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) of La{sub 2}(Zr{sub 0.7}Ce{sub 0.3}){sub 2}O{sub 7} (LZ7C3) and La{sub 2}Ce{sub 2}O{sub 7} (LC) were deposited by electron beam-physical vapor deposition (EB-PVD). The composition, interdiffusion, surface and cross-sectional morphologies, cyclic oxidation behavior of DCL coating were studied. Energy dispersive spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction analyses indicate that both LZ7C3 and LC coatings are effectively fabricated by a single LZ7C3 ingot with properly controlling the deposition energy. The chemical compatibility of LC coating and thermally grown oxide (TGO) layer is unstable. LaAlO{sub 3} is formed due to the chemical reaction between LC and Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} which is the main composition of TGO layer. Additionally, the thermal cycling behavior of DCL coating is influenced by the interdiffusion of Zr and Ce between LZ7C3 and LC coatings. The failure of DCL coating is a result of the sintering of LZ7C3 coating surface, the chemical incompatibility of LC coating and TGO layer and the abnormal oxidation of bond coat. Since no single material that has been studied so far satisfies all the requirements for high temperature applications, DCL coating is an important development direction of TBCs.

  20. High-sensitivity green resist material with organic solvent-free spin-coating and tetramethylammonium hydroxide-free water-developable processes for EB and EUV lithography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takei, Satoshi; Hanabata, Makoto; Oshima, Akihiro; Kashiwakura, Miki; Kozawa, Takahiro; Tagawa, Seiichi

    2015-03-01

    We investigated the eco-friendly electron beam (EB) and extreme-ultraviolet (EUV) lithography using a high-sensitive negative type of green resist material derived from biomass to take advantage of organic solvent-free water spin-coating and tetramethylammonium hydroxide(TMAH)-free water-developable techniques. A water developable, non-chemically amplified, high sensitive, and negative tone resist material in EB lithography was developed for environmental affair, safety, easiness of handling, and health of the working people, instead of the common developable process of TMAH. The material design concept to use the water-soluble resist material with acceptable properties such as pillar patterns with less than 100 nm in high EB sensitivity of 10 μC/cm2 and etch selectivity with a silicon-based middle layer in CF4 plasma treatment was demonstrated for EB and EUV lithography.

  1. Nové sídliště lidu kultury s vypíchanou keramikou v Rouchovanech na Třebíčsku

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Holub, M.; Kaiser, L.; Kočár, Petr; Kočárová, R.; Vokáč, M.; Vokáčová, J.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 2013, č. 6 (2013), s. 7-15 ISSN 1804-2953 Institutional support: RVO:67985912 Keywords : Rouchovany * Třebíč region * archaeology * archaeobotany * archaeozoology * Neolithic * Stroked Pottery Culture Subject RIV: AC - Archeology, Anthropology, Ethnology

  2. [Heinike Heinsoo. Mā ja pūd lēväd, meid eb lē] / Fedor Rozhanskiy

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Rozhanskiy, Fedor

    2013-01-01

    Arvustus: Heinike Heinsoo. Mā ja pūd lēväd, meid eb lē : the subject and the predicate in Votic. Tallinn : Teaduste Akadeemia Kirjastus, 2010. (Linguistica Uralica. Supplementary series ; vol. 4)

  3. [Heinike Heinsoo. Mā ja pūd lēväd, meid eb lē : the subject and the predicate in Votic] / Johanna Laakso

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Laakso, Johanna, 1962-

    2012-01-01

    Arvustus: Heinike Heinsoo. Mā ja pūd lēväd, meid eb lē : the subject and the predicate in Votic. Tallinn : Teaduste Akadeemia Kirjastus, 2010. (Linguistica Uralica. Supplementary series ; vol. 4)

  4. Development of nondestructive evaluation methods for ceramic coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ellingson, W. A.; Deemer, C.; Sun, J. G.; Erdman, S.; Muliere, D.; Wheeler, B.

    2002-01-01

    Various nondestructive evaluation (NDE) technologies are being developed to study the use of ceramic coatings on components in the hot-gas path of advanced low-emission gas-fired turbines. The types of ceramic coatings include thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) and environmental barrier coatings (EBCs). TBCs are under development for vanes, blades, and combustor liners to allow hotter gas-path temperatures, and EBCs are under development to reduce environmental damage to high-temperature components made of ceramic matrix composites. The NDE methods will be used to (a) provide data to assess the reliability of new coating application processes, (b) identify defective components that could cause unscheduled outages, (c) track growth rates of defects during component use in engines, and (d) allow rational judgment for replace/repair/re-use decisions regarding components. Advances in TBC application, both electron beam-physical vapor deposition (EB-PVD) and air plasma spraying (APS), are allowing higher temperatures in the hot-gas path. However, as TBCs become ''prime reliant,'' their condition at scheduled or unscheduled outages must be known. NDE methods are under development to assess the condition of the TBC for pre-spall conditions. EB-PVD test samples with up to 70 thermal cycles have been studied by a newly developed method involving polarized laser back-scatter NDE. Results suggest a correlation between the NDE laser data and the TBC/bond-coat topography. This finding is important because several theories directed toward understanding the pre-spall condition suggest that the topography in the thermally grown oxide layer changes significantly as a function of the number of thermal cycles. Tests have also been conducted with this NDE method on APS TBCs. Results suggest that the pre-spall condition is detected for these coatings. One-sided, high-speed thermal imaging also has shown promise for NDE of APS coatings. Testing of SiC/SiC composites for combustor liners

  5. Characterization of the corrosion behavior of an austenitic stainless steel for biomedical applications coated with Ti N, Ti CN And DLC PVD coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antunes, Renato Altobelli

    2006-01-01

    Metallic biomaterials must present a combination of properties such as corrosion resistance, biocompatibility and mechanical resistance. Austenitic stainless steels, especially AISI 316L combine these properties with the easy of fabrication at low cost. However, they are prone to corrosion in physiological solutions. Furthermore, their corrosion products may lead to infectious ou allergenic reactions in the tissues around the implant device. In the present work, coatings produced by physical vapour deposition (PVD) methods have been applied on the surface of a 316L stainless steel to increase its corrosion resistance and biocompatibility. Three thin films were tested: titanium nitride (TiN), titanium carbonitride (TiCN) and diamond-like carbon (DLC). These materials present high hardness, wear resistance and intrinsic biocompatibility that are key features when considering biomedical applications. The characterization of the electrochemical behavior of the stainless steel coated with the three different films showed that the presence of surface defects are deleterious to the corrosion resistance of the substrate. These defects were observed using scanning electron microscopy. The evolution of the electrochemical behavior of the coated steel was explained through a mechanism based on the experimental results obtained using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. Two different passivation treatments were carried out on the stainless steel surface, either in sulfuric or nitric acid solutions, to increase its corrosion resistance. The results suggested que these treatments were not efficient, but may be modified to improve its performance. The electronic properties of the passive films of the non-passivated and passivated stainless steel were studied using the Mott-Schottky approach. The films presented a duplex character. Below the flat band potential the behavior is typical of a highly doped type-p semiconductor. Above the flat band potential is typical of a highly

  6. Monitoring thermally grown oxides under thermal barrier coatings using photoluminescence piezospectroscopy (PLPS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Del Corno, A.; De Maria, L.; Rinaldi, C. [ERSE, Milan (Italy); Nalin, L.; Simms, N.J. [Cranfield Univ., Bedford (United Kingdom). Energy Technology Centre

    2010-07-01

    The use of thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) on cooled components in industrial gas turbine has enabled higher inlet gas temperatures to be used and hence higher efficiencies to be achieved, without increasing component metal temperatures. However TBCs have a complex coating structure that during high temperature exposure and thermal cycling modifies until TBC spalling which can result in dangerous over-heating of components. This paper reports the results of a TBC exposure programme planned to monitor TGOs development in an example TBC system in terms of both stress evolution within the TGOs and TGO growth. The COST538 reference TBC system was used: an yttria stabilised zirconia TBC applied to an Amdry 995 bond coat on an CMSX-4 substrate. Samples were in the form of 10 mm diameter bars, with the TBC applied to their curved surface. Coated samples were exposed in simulated combustion gases at temperatures 850, 900 and 950 C for periods of up to 10,000 hours. Every 1000 hours samples were cooled and weighed to monitor the progression of the oxidation: selected samples NDT inspected using PLPS and/or destructive examination. Cross-sections were prepared and examined in a scanning electron microscope (SEM) at multiple locations to determine TGO thickness distributions. PLPS spectra were measured and elaborated with a system self developed in ERSE, able to calculate and map the TGO residual stress values under columnar TBCs. So the positions could be evidenced where the damage of the TBC /TGO/BC interface is higher on the exposed bars. The data of TGO thickness distributions and PLPS stress measurement distributions were compared to the exposures carried out on samples to identify and quantify trends in their development. Metallography confirmed that the PLPs technique can reliably detect interface cracking before visible EB-PVD TBC spalling. (orig.)

  7. GTSE1 is a microtubule plus-end tracking protein that regulates EB1-dependent cell migration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimilano Scolz

    Full Text Available The regulation of cell migration is a highly complex process that is often compromised when cancer cells become metastatic. The microtubule cytoskeleton is necessary for cell migration, but how microtubules and microtubule-associated proteins regulate multiple pathways promoting cell migration remains unclear. Microtubule plus-end binding proteins (+TIPs are emerging as important players in many cellular functions, including cell migration. Here we identify a +TIP, GTSE1, that promotes cell migration. GTSE1 accumulates at growing microtubule plus ends through interaction with the EB1+TIP. The EB1-dependent +TIP activity of GTSE1 is required for cell migration, as well as for microtubule-dependent disassembly of focal adhesions. GTSE1 protein levels determine the migratory capacity of both nontransformed and breast cancer cell lines. In breast cancers, increased GTSE1 expression correlates with invasive potential, tumor stage, and time to distant metastasis, suggesting that misregulation of GTSE1 expression could be associated with increased invasive potential.

  8. Investigating the Potential Barrier Function of Nanostructured Materials Formed in Engineered Barrier Systems (EBS) Designed for Nuclear Waste Isolation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuevas, Jaime; Ruiz, Ana Isabel; Fernández, Raúl

    2018-02-21

    Clay and cement are known nano-colloids originating from natural processes or traditional materials technology. Currently, they are used together as part of the engineered barrier system (EBS) to isolate high-level nuclear waste (HLW) metallic containers in deep geological repositories (DGR). The EBS should prevent radionuclide (RN) migration into the biosphere until the canisters fail, which is not expected for approximately 10 3  years. The interactions of cementitious materials with bentonite swelling clay have been the scope of our research team at the Autonomous University of Madrid (UAM) with participation in several European Union (EU) projects from 1998 up to now. Here, we describe the mineral and chemical nature and microstructure of the alteration rim generated by the contact between concrete and bentonite. Its ability to buffer the surrounding chemical environment may have potential for further protection against RN migration. © 2018 The Chemical Society of Japan & Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. EB-welding of the copper canister for the nuclear waste disposal. Final report of the development programme 1994-1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aalto, H. [Outokumpu Oy Poricopper, Pori (Finland)

    1998-10-01

    During 1994-1997 Posiva Oy and Outokumpu Poricopper Oy had a joint project Development of EB-welding method for massive copper canister manufacturing. The project was part of the national technology program `Weld 2000` and it was supported financially by Technology Development Centre (TEKES). The spent fuel from Finnish nuclear reactors is planned to be encapsulated in thick-walled copper canisters and placed deep into the bedrock. The thick copper layer of the canister provides a long time corrosion resistance and prevents deposited nuclear fuel from contact with water. The quality requirements of the copper components are high because of the designed long lifetime of the canister. The EB-welding technology has proved to be applicable method for the production of the copper canisters and the EB-welding technique is needed at least when the lids of the copper canister will be closed. There are a number of parameters in EB-welding which affect weldability. However, the effect of the welding parameters and their optimization has not been extensively studied in welding of thick copper sections using conventional high vacuum EB-welding. One aim of this development work was to extensively study effect of welding parameters on weld quality. The final objective was to minimise welding defects in the main weld and optimize slope out procedure in thick copper EB-welding. Welding of 50 mm thick copper sections was optimized using vertical and horizontal EB-welding techniques. As a result two full scale copper lids were welded to a short cylinder successfully. The resulting weld quality with optimised welding parameters was reasonable good. The optimised welding parameters for horizontal and vertical beam can be applied to the longitudinal body welds of the canister. The optimal slope out procedure for the lid closure needs some additional development work. In addition of extensive EB-welding program ultrasonic inspection and creep strength of the weld were studied. According

  10. EB-welding of the copper canister for the nuclear waste disposal. Final report of the development programme 1994-1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aalto, H.

    1998-10-01

    During 1994-1997 Posiva Oy and Outokumpu Poricopper Oy had a joint project Development of EB-welding method for massive copper canister manufacturing. The project was part of the national technology program 'Weld 2000' and it was supported financially by Technology Development Centre (TEKES). The spent fuel from Finnish nuclear reactors is planned to be encapsulated in thick-walled copper canisters and placed deep into the bedrock. The thick copper layer of the canister provides a long time corrosion resistance and prevents deposited nuclear fuel from contact with water. The quality requirements of the copper components are high because of the designed long lifetime of the canister. The EB-welding technology has proved to be applicable method for the production of the copper canisters and the EB-welding technique is needed at least when the lids of the copper canister will be closed. There are a number of parameters in EB-welding which affect weldability. However, the effect of the welding parameters and their optimization has not been extensively studied in welding of thick copper sections using conventional high vacuum EB-welding. One aim of this development work was to extensively study effect of welding parameters on weld quality. The final objective was to minimise welding defects in the main weld and optimize slope out procedure in thick copper EB-welding. Welding of 50 mm thick copper sections was optimized using vertical and horizontal EB-welding techniques. As a result two full scale copper lids were welded to a short cylinder successfully. The resulting weld quality with optimised welding parameters was reasonable good. The optimised welding parameters for horizontal and vertical beam can be applied to the longitudinal body welds of the canister. The optimal slope out procedure for the lid closure needs some additional development work. In addition of extensive EB-welding program ultrasonic inspection and creep strength of the weld were studied. According

  11. Adopting a Sustainable Community of Practice Model when Developing a Service to Support Patients with Epidermolysis Bullosa (EB): A Stakeholder-Centered Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gowran, Rosemary Joan; Kennan, Avril; Marshall, Siobhán; Mulcahy, Irene; Ní Mhaille, Sile; Beasley, Sarah; Devlin, Mark

    2015-02-01

    Epidermolysis bullosa (EB) is a rare, genetic skin condition that is complicated, distressing, and painful and permeates every aspect of patients' lives. Support services are essential for meeting the primary needs of patients and families living with EB; however, provision is challenged by many complex issues. In collaboration with the patient organization DEBRA Ireland, this research conducted an in-depth analysis of Irish healthcare support services for EB, with a view to moving towards an improved and sustainable care pathway. A sustainable community of practice model (SCOP), as a core construct provided a simplified framework when studying this complex system. The research utilized mixed methods, comprising individual interviews, questionnaires, and a participatory action research workshop based on a soft systems approach. The study engaged patients, family members, service providers, and policy developers. Findings emphasized that the complexities of life with EB are more than 'skin deep'. The lived experience of stakeholders revealed many levels of emotion, both positive and heart-rending. Despite the positive efforts of specialists in this field, inadequacies to meet the primary needs of people with EB, such as bandages-fundamental for survival-were highlighted. Participants reported challenges relating to understanding patients' needs, access to consistent services within hospitals and the community, time constraints, and the strong emotions evoked by this severe and rare disease. The study identified several areas that can be targeted to bring about improvements in meeting primary needs. Education and research at public, policy, and practice levels need to be prioritized. It is imperative that citizens move beyond an awareness that EB exists and demonstrate a consciousness about the importance of advocating and enabling seamless and sustainable support services through collective action.

  12. Synthesis and characterization of PEFC membranes based on fluorinated-polymer-alloy using pre-soft-EB grafting method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muto, Fumihiro; Oshima, Akihiro; Kakigi, Tomoyuki; Mitani, Naohiro; Matsuura, Akio; Fujii, Kazuki; Sato, Yukiko; Li Jingye; Washio, Masakazu

    2007-01-01

    Polymer electrolyte fuel cell (PEFC) membranes based on thin film of crosslinked perfluorinated polymer-alloys (RX-FA) have been fabricated by soft electron beam (soft-EB) grafting with styrene monomers using soft-EB irradiation under nitrogen atmosphere at room temperature (RT). The characteristic properties of styrene-grafted materials (GRX-FA) and sulfonated materials (SRX-FA) have been measured by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and FT-IR spectroscopy, ionic conductivity and so on. The glass transition temperatures (dry state) of all obtained SRX-FA were about 105 ± 1 deg. C, which are higher than Nafion. The ion exchange capacities of SRX-FA have been achieved about 3.3 meq/g (dry). The ionic conductivity of obtained SRX-FA has showed about 0.17 S/cm at 60 deg. C with relative humidity (RH) of ∼95%. The ionic conductivities of the obtained SRX-FA were higher than that of conventional perfluoro-sulfonic acid membranes (PFSA). Fabricated membrane electrode assemblies (MEAs) based on the obtained SRX-FA have shown encouraging performance in the PEFC, compared with the conventional PFSA. The power density of obtained MEAs based on the SRX-FA was about 330-340 mW/cm 2 under 500 mA/cm 2 at 60 deg. C operation. Moreover, the maximum power densities of obtained MEAs based on the SRX-FA shows about 630 mW/cm 2 at 60 deg. C. On the other hand, the power density at 500 mA/cm 2 and maximum power density of MEA based on Nafion 112 were about 320 and 590 mW/cm 2 at 60 deg. C. Thus, the power density of the obtained SRX-FA was higher than that of conventional PFSA

  13. Analysis of VIA and EbA in a River Bank Erosion Prone Area of Bangladesh Applying DPSIR Framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syed Hafizur Rahman

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to set up a comprehensive approach to the Vulnerability and Impact Assessment (VIA of river erosion and to suggest Ecosystem-based Adaptation (EbA practices. Based on the analysis of vulnerability using the Driver-Pressure-State-Impact-Response (DPSIR framework, this paper discusses some of the significant climatic (rainfall pattern, temperature, seasonal drift, cold wave and heat wave and non-climatic (river erosion, repetitive death of field crops and agrochemicals forces in the Kazipur Upazila (Sirajganj District—a river erosion-prone area of Bangladesh. Both primary (Key Informants Interview, Household Survey, and Focus Group Discussion and secondary (climatic, literature review data have been used in revealing the scenario of climatic stress. The analysis revealed a slightly increasing trend of mean annual temperature, and a decreasing trend of total annual rainfall from 1981 to 2015, which have been supported by people’s perception. This study found that river erosion, the increase of temperature and the late arrival of monsoon rain, excessive monsoon rainfall, high use of agrochemicals, and flow alterations are major drivers in the riverine ecosystem. These drivers are creating pressures on agricultural land, soil fertility, water availability and livelihood patterns of affected communities. Hence, floating bed cultivation, integrated pest management, use of cover crops, reforestation, the introduction of an agro-weather forecasting system, and a new variety of flood tolerant species have been suggested as potential EbA to cope with river bank erosion and to increase the capacity of the affected ecosystem.

  14. Plasma-Enhanced Chemical Vapor Deposition (PE-CVD) yields better Hydrolytical Stability of Biocompatible SiOx Thin Films on Implant Alumina Ceramics compared to Rapid Thermal Evaporation Physical Vapor Deposition (PVD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Böke, Frederik; Giner, Ignacio; Keller, Adrian; Grundmeier, Guido; Fischer, Horst

    2016-07-20

    Densely sintered aluminum oxide (α-Al2O3) is chemically and biologically inert. To improve the interaction with biomolecules and cells, its surface has to be modified prior to use in biomedical applications. In this study, we compared two deposition techniques for adhesion promoting SiOx films to facilitate the coupling of stable organosilane monolayers on monolithic α-alumina; physical vapor deposition (PVD) by thermal evaporation and plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PE-CVD). We also investigated the influence of etching on the formation of silanol surface groups using hydrogen peroxide and sulfuric acid solutions. The film characteristics, that is, surface morphology and surface chemistry, as well as the film stability and its adhesion properties under accelerated aging conditions were characterized by means of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES), and tensile strength tests. Differences in surface functionalization were investigated via two model organosilanes as well as the cell-cytotoxicity and viability on murine fibroblasts and human mesenchymal stromal cells (hMSC). We found that both SiOx interfaces did not affect the cell viability of both cell types. No significant differences between both films with regard to their interfacial tensile strength were detected, although failure mode analyses revealed a higher interfacial stability of the PE-CVD films compared to the PVD films. Twenty-eight day exposure to simulated body fluid (SBF) at 37 °C revealed a partial delamination of the thermally deposited PVD films whereas the PE-CVD films stayed largely intact. SiOx layers deposited by both PVD and PE-CVD may thus serve as viable adhesion-promoters for subsequent organosilane coupling agent binding to α-alumina. However, PE-CVD appears to be favorable for long-term direct film exposure to aqueous

  15. pKWmEB: integration of Kruskal-Wallis test with empirical Bayes under polygenic background control for multi-locus genome-wide association study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Wen-Long; Wen, Yang-Jun; Dunwell, Jim M; Zhang, Yuan-Ming

    2018-03-01

    Although nonparametric methods in genome-wide association studies (GWAS) are robust in quantitative trait nucleotide (QTN) detection, the absence of polygenic background control in single-marker association in genome-wide scans results in a high false positive rate. To overcome this issue, we proposed an integrated nonparametric method for multi-locus GWAS. First, a new model transformation was used to whiten the covariance matrix of polygenic matrix K and environmental noise. Using the transferred model, Kruskal-Wallis test along with least angle regression was then used to select all the markers that were potentially associated with the trait. Finally, all the selected markers were placed into multi-locus model, these effects were estimated by empirical Bayes, and all the nonzero effects were further identified by a likelihood ratio test for true QTN detection. This method, named pKWmEB, was validated by a series of Monte Carlo simulation studies. As a result, pKWmEB effectively controlled false positive rate, although a less stringent significance criterion was adopted. More importantly, pKWmEB retained the high power of Kruskal-Wallis test, and provided QTN effect estimates. To further validate pKWmEB, we re-analyzed four flowering time related traits in Arabidopsis thaliana, and detected some previously reported genes that were not identified by the other methods.

  16. The Arabidopsis mitogen-activated protein kinase 6 is associated with γ-tubulin on microtubules, phosphorylates EB1c and maintains spindle orientation under nitrosative stress

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kohoutová, Lucie; Kourová, Hana; Nagy, S. K.; Volc, Jindřich; Halada, Petr; Mészáros, T.; Meskiene, I.; Bögre, L.; Binarová, Pavla

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 207, č. 4 (2015), s. 1061-1074 ISSN 0028-646X R&D Projects: GA MŠk 7AMB13AT013; GA ČR GAP501/12/2333 Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : Arabidopsis * cell division * EB1c Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 7.210, year: 2015

  17. The addition of calcitriol or its synthetic analog EB1089 to lapatinib and neratinib treatment inhibits cell growth and promotes apoptosis in breast cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segovia-Mendoza, Mariana; Díaz, Lorenza; Prado-Garcia, Heriberto; Reginato, Mauricio J; Larrea, Fernando; García-Becerra, Rocío

    2017-01-01

    In breast cancer the use of small molecule inhibitors of tyrosine kinase activity of the ERBB family members improves survival thus represents a valuable therapeutic strategy. The addition of calcitriol, the most active metabolite of vitamin D, or some of its analogs, to conventional anticancer drugs, including tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs), has shown an increased effect on the inhibition of cancer cell growth. In this work, we have evaluated the effects and the mechanism of action of the combination of calcitriol or its analog EB1089 with lapatinib or neratinib on EGFR and/or HER2 positive breast cancer cell lines. Lapatinib, neratinib, calcitriol and EB1089 inhibited breast cancer cell proliferation in a concentration-dependent manner. Addition of calcitriol or EB1089 to TKIs treatment induced more effective inhibiting effect on cell growth and AKT and MAPK phosphorylation than all compounds alone. The combined treatments incremented also the expression of active caspase 3 and induced cell death in two and three-dimensional cell culture and significantly inhibited anchorage-independent colony formation. Our results suggest that the addition of calcitriol or its analog EB1089 to conventional targeted therapies, including lapatinib or neratinib might be of benefit to patients with breast cancer, particularly those with an EGFR and/or HER2 positive phenotype.

  18. Sequencing of the Chlamydophila psittaci ompA Gene Reveals a New Genotype, E/B, and the Need for a Rapid Discriminatory Genotyping Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geens, Tom; Desplanques, Ann; Van Loock, Marnix; Bönner, Brigitte M.; Kaleta, Erhard F.; Magnino, Simone; Andersen, Arthur A.; Everett, Karin D. E.; Vanrompay, Daisy

    2005-01-01

    Twenty-one avian Chlamydophila psittaci isolates from different European countries were characterized using ompA restriction fragment length polymorphism, ompA sequencing, and major outer membrane protein serotyping. Results reveal the presence of a new genotype, E/B, in several European countries and stress the need for a discriminatory rapid genotyping method. PMID:15872282

  19. Skalní řícení na hradě Jestřebí a jeho příčiny

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Adamovič, Jiří; Kaňková, H.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 19, - (2010), s. 137-162 ISSN 1211-9172 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA300130806 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30130516 Keywords : rockfall * Bohemian Cretaceous Basin * sandstone * Jestřebí Castle (Czech Republic) Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy

  20. Safety, Pharmacokinetics and Dosimetry of a Long-Acting Radiolabeled Somatostatin Analogue 177Lu-DOTA-EB-TATE in Patients with Advanced Metastatic Neuroendocrine Tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jingjing; Wang, Hao; Jacobson Weiss, Orit; Cheng, Yuejuan; Niu, Gang; Li, Fang; Bai, Chunmei; Zhu, Zhaohui; Chen, Xiaoyuan

    2018-04-13

    Radiolabeled somatostatin analogue therapy has become an established treatment method for patients with well to moderately differentiated unresectable or metastatic neuroendocrine tumors (NETs). The most frequently used somatostatin analogues in clinical practice are octreotide and octreotate. However, both peptides showed suboptimal retention within tumors. The aim of this first-in-human study is to explore the safety and dosimetry of a long-acting radiolabeled somatostatin analogue, lutetium-177-1, 4, 7, 10-tetra-azacyclododecane-1, 4, 7, 10-tetraacetic acid-Evans blue-octreotate ( 177 Lu-DOTA-EB-TATE). Methods: Eight patients (6 males and 2 females; age range, 27-61 y) with advanced metastatic neuroendocrine tumors were recruited. Five patients received a single dose 0.35-0.70 GBq (9.5-18.9 mCi) of 177 Lu-DOTA-EB-TATE and underwent serial whole body planar and single-photon emission computed tomography-computed tomography (SPECT-CT) scans at 2, 24, 72, 120 and 168 h after injection. The other 3 patients received intravenous injection of 0.28-0.41 GBq (7.5-11.1 mCi) of 177 Lu-DOTATATE for the same imaging acquisition procedures at 1, 3, 4, 24 and 72 h after injection. The dosimetry was calculated using the OLINDA/EXM 1.1 software. Results: Administration of 177 Lu-DOTA-EB-TATE was well tolerated, with no adverse symptoms being noticed or reported in any of the patients. Compared with 177 Lu-DOTATATE, 177 Lu-DOTA-EB-TATE showed extended circulation in the blood and achieved 7.9-fold increase of tumor dose delivery. The total body effective doses were 0.205 ± 0.161 mSv/MBq for 177 Lu-DOTA-EB-TATE and 0.174 ± 0.072 mSv/MBq for 177 Lu-DOTATATE. Significant dose delivery increases to the kidneys and bone marrow were also observed in patients receiving 177 Lu-DOTA-EB-TATE than those receiving 177 Lu-DOTATATE (3.2 and 18.2-fold, respectively). Conclusion: By introducing an albumin binding moiety, 177 Lu-DOTA-EB-TATE showed remarkably higher uptake and retention in NET

  1. LiFAP-based PVdF-HFP microporous membranes by phase-inversion technique with Li/LiFePO{sub 4} cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aravindan, V.; Vickraman, P. [Gandhigram Rural University, Department of Physics, Gandhigram (India); Sivashanmugam, A.; Thirunakaran, R.; Gopukumar, S. [Central Electrochemical Research Institute, Electrochemical Energy Systems Division, Karaikudi (India)

    2009-12-15

    Polyvinylidenefluoride-hexafluoropropylene-based (PVdF-HFP-based) gel and composite microporous membranes (GPMs and CPMs) were prepared by phase-inversion technique in the presence 10 wt% of AlO(OH){sub n} nanoparticles. The prepared membranes were gelled with 0.5-M LiPF{sub 3}(CF{sub 2}CF{sub 3}){sub 3} (lithium fluoroalkylphosphate, LiFAP) in EC:DEC (1:1 v/v) and subjected to various characterizations; the AC impedance study shows that CPMs exhibit higher conductivity than GPMs. Mechanical stability measurements on these systems reveal that CPMs exhibit Young's modulus higher than that of bare and GPMs and addition of nanoparticles drastically improves the elongation break was also noted. Transition of the host from {alpha} to {beta} phase after the loading of nanosized filler was confirmed by XRD and Raman studies. Physico-chemical properties, like liquid uptake, porosity, surface area, and activation energy, of the membranes were calculated and results are summarized. Cycling performance of Li/CPM/LiFePO{sub 4} coin cell was fabricated and evaluated at C/10 rate and delivered a discharge capacity of 157 and 148 mAh g {sup -1} respectively for first and tenth cycles. (orig.)

  2. Determination of the fatigue properties of multilayer PVD coatings on various substrates, based on the impact test and its FEM simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bouzakis, K.D.; Vidakis, N. [Aristotle Univ., Thessaloniki (Greece). Dept. of Mech. Eng.; Leyendecker, T.; Erkens, G.; Wenke, R.

    1997-10-31

    The coating impact test, in combination with its finite elements method (FEM) simulation, is used to quantitatively characterize the fatigue behaviour of thin hard physical vapour deposited (PVD) coatings as well as of multilayer ones. Successive impacts of a cemented carbide ball onto a plane coated specimen induce severe contact loads and strain superficially the layered compound. The fatigue failure mode of each specimen is classified by means of scanning electron microscope (SEM) observations, microspectral analyses and profilometry. FEM simulating models of the impact test are used to determine the critical stress components, which introduce coating fatigue failure. The FEM computational results are correlated to the experimental ones and used to interpret them quantitatively. Herewith, critical values for stress components, responsible for distinctive fatigue failure modes of the coating substrate compounds are obtained and the fatigue limits of the examined multilayer coatings are inserted in general applicable Smith diagrams. Furthermore, the derived critical stresses are verified by investigating the same multilayer coatings on different substrates. (orig.) 14 refs.

  3. Application of response surface methodology on investigating flank wear in machining hardened steel using PVD TiN coated mixed ceramic insert

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashok Kumar Sahoo

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the development of flank wear model in turning hardened EN 24 steel with PVD TiN coated mixed ceramic insert under dry environment. The paper also investigates the effect of process parameter on flank wear (VBc. The experiments have been conducted using three level full factorial design techniques. The machinability model has been developed in terms of cutting speed (v, feed (f and machining time (t as input variable using response surface methodology. The adequacy of model has been checked using correlation coefficients. As the determination coefficient, R2 (98% is higher for the model developed; the better is the response model fits the actual data. In addition, residuals of the normal probability plot lie reasonably close to a straight line showing that the terms mentioned in the model are statistically significant. The predicted flank wear has been found to lie close to the experimental value. This indicates that the developed model can be effectively used to predict the flank wear in the hard turning. Abrasion and diffusion has been found to be the dominant wear mechanism in machining hardened steel from SEM micrographs at highest parametric range. Machining time has been found to be the most significant parameter on flank wear followed by cutting speed and feed as observed from main effect plot and ANOVA study.

  4. Improvement of Wear Performance of Nano-Multilayer PVD Coatings under Dry Hard End Milling Conditions Based on Their Architectural Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahereen Chowdhury

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The TiAlCrSiYN-based family of PVD (physical vapor deposition hard coatings was specially designed for extreme conditions involving the dry ultra-performance machining of hardened tool steels. However, there is a strong potential for further advances in the wear performance of the coatings through improvements in their architecture. A few different coating architectures (monolayer, multilayer, bi-multilayer, bi-multilayer with increased number of alternating nano-layers were studied in relation to cutting-tool life. Comprehensive characterization of the structure and properties of the coatings has been performed using XRD, SEM, TEM, micro-mechanical studies and tool-life evaluation. The wear performance was then related to the ability of the coating layer to exhibit minimal surface damage under operation, which is directly associated with the various micro-mechanical characteristics (such as hardness, elastic modulus and related characteristics; nano-impact; scratch test-based characteristics. The results presented exhibited that a substantial increase in tool life as well as improvement of the mechanical properties could be achieved through the architectural development of the coatings.

  5. Structural and Mechanical Properties of the ZrC/Ni-Nanodiamond Coating Synthesized by the PVD and Electroplating Processes for the Cutting Knifes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chayeuski, V.; Zhylinski, V.; Cernashejus, O.; Visniakov, N.; Mikalauskas, G.

    2018-04-01

    In this work, combined gradient ZrC/Ni-nanodiamond ultradispersed diamonds (UDD) coatings were synthesized on the surface of knife blades made of hard alloy WC-2 wt.% Co by electroplating and cathode arc evaporation PVD techniques to increase the durability period of a wood-cutting milling tool. The microstructure, phase and elemental composition, microhardness, and adhesion strength of the coatings were investigated. Ni-UDD layer is not mixed with the ZrC coating and hard alloy substrate. Cobalt is present in Ni-UDD layer after deposition of ZrC. The ZrC/Ni-nanodiamond coating consists of separate phases of zirconium carbide (ZrC), α-Ni, and Ni-UDD. The maximum value of microhardness of the Ni-nanodiamond coating is 5.9 GPa. The microhardness value of the ZrC/Ni-nanodiamond coatings is 25 ± 6 GPa, which corresponds to the microhardness of the hard alloy substrate and ZrC coating. The obtained high values of the critical loads on the scratch track of the ZrC/Ni-nanodiamond coating in 24 N prove a sufficiently high value of the adhesion strength of the bottom Ni-UDD layer with WC-Co substrate. Pilot testing of ZrC/Ni-nanodiamond-coated cutting tools proved their increasing durability period to be 1.5-1.6 times higher than that of bare tools, when milling laminated chipboard.

  6. The Study of Deposition Parameters, Properties for PVD TixN and CrxN Coatings Using a Closed Field Unbalanced Magnetron Sputter Ion Plating System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hailin Sun; Susan Field; Jian Chen; Dennis. G. Teer

    2004-01-01

    Closed Field Unbalanced Magnetron Sputter Ion Plating (CFUBMSIP) systems have been used increasingly for PVD coating in recent years. TiN and CrN coatings, commonly used as the basic coating for a number of different hard coatings, have been chosen to study the coating process parameters for the CFUBMSIP system. In this paper, the process parameters, such as substrate temperature, substrate bias and OEM control, have been carefully examined to achieve hard and wear-resistance coatings with good adhesion. The coating structure and orientation were found to change according to the coating parameters. The Rockwell test and Scratch test were carried out to examine the coating adhesion; pin-on-disc testing was used to estimate the wear-resistant; micro-hardness was also used to determine coating hardness. HSS drill testing has been carried out to study the general properties of the coating for cutting tool application. A combination of process parameters can be selected to achieve good performance for the TiN and CrN coatings.

  7. On the application of response surface methodology for predicting and optimizing surface roughness and cutting forces in hard turning by PVD coated insert

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hessainia Zahia

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on the exploitation of the response surface methodology (RSM to determine optimum cutting conditions leading to minimum surface roughness and cutting force components. The technique of RSM helps to create an efficient statistical model for studying the evolution of surface roughness and cutting forces according to cutting parameters: cutting speed, feed rate and depth of cut. For this purpose, turning tests of hardened steel alloy (AISI 4140 (56 HRC were carried out using PVD – coated ceramic insert under different cutting conditions. The equations of surface roughness and cutting forces were achieved by using the experimental data and the technique of the analysis of variance (ANOVA. The obtained results are presented in terms of mean values and confidence levels. It is shown that feed rate and depth of cut are the most influential factors on surface roughness and cutting forces, respectively. In addition, it is underlined that the surface roughness is mainly related to the cutting speed, whereas depth of cut has the greatest effect on the evolution of cutting forces. The optimal machining parameters obtained in this study represent reductions about 6.88%, 3.65%, 19.05% in cutting force components (Fa, Fr, Ft, respectively. The latters are compared with the results of initial cutting parameters for machining AISI 4140 steel in the hard turning process.

  8. Embedded layer of Ag nanoparticles prepared by a combined PECVD/PVD process producing SiOxCy-Ag nanocomposite thin films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedel, Laurent; Cayron, Cyril; Jouve, Michel; Maury, Francis

    2012-01-13

    Structural properties of SiO(x)C(y)-Ag nanocomposite thin films prepared by a dual process PVD-PECVD in the same reactor have been investigated. The experimental results have demonstrated the influence of a PECVD process carried out at room temperature for the growth of a dielectric matrix on the size and the distribution density of Ag nanoparticles (NPs) deposited beforehand by magnetron sputtering. The plasma during the growth of the encapsulation SiO(x)C(y) layer caused a diffusion of silver from NPs through the SiO(x)C(y) matrix associated with a decrease in the average size of nanoparticles and an increase of their distribution density. Silver diffusion is blocked at a barrier interface to form a buried layer of individual Ag NPs which, for instance, can find plasmonic applications. Silver also diffuses toward the outer surface inducing antibacterial properties. In both cases initial Ag NPs act as reservoirs for multifunctional properties of advanced nanostructured films.

  9. Metal (Ag/Ti)-Containing Hydrogenated Amorphous Carbon Nanocomposite Films with Enhanced Nanoscratch Resistance: Hybrid PECVD/PVD System and Microstructural Characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Constantinou, Marios; Nikolaou, Petros; Koutsokeras, Loukas; Avgeropoulos, Apostolos; Moschovas, Dimitrios; Varotsis, Constantinos; Patsalas, Panos; Kelires, Pantelis; Constantinides, Georgios

    2018-03-30

    This study aimed to develop hydrogenated amorphous carbon thin films with embedded metallic nanoparticles (a-C:H:Me) of controlled size and concentration. Towards this end, a novel hybrid deposition system is presented that uses a combination of Plasma Enhanced Chemical Vapor Deposition (PECVD) and Physical Vapor Deposition (PVD) technologies. The a-C:H matrix was deposited through the acceleration of carbon ions generated through a radio-frequency (RF) plasma source by cracking methane, whereas metallic nanoparticles were generated and deposited using terminated gas condensation (TGC) technology. The resulting material was a hydrogenated amorphous carbon film with controlled physical properties and evenly dispersed metallic nanoparticles (here Ag or Ti). The physical, chemical, morphological and mechanical characteristics of the films were investigated through X-ray reflectivity (XRR), Raman spectroscopy, Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM), Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) and nanoscratch testing. The resulting amorphous carbon metal nanocomposite films (a-C:H:Ag and a-C:H:Ti) exhibited enhanced nanoscratch resistance (up to +50%) and low values of friction coefficient (<0.05), properties desirable for protective coatings and/or solid lubricant applications. The ability to form nanocomposite structures with tunable coating performance by potentially controlling the carbon bonding, hydrogen content, and the type/size/percent of metallic nanoparticles opens new avenues for a broad range of applications in which mechanical, physical, biological and/or combinatorial properties are required.

  10. Metal (Ag/Ti-Containing Hydrogenated Amorphous Carbon Nanocomposite Films with Enhanced Nanoscratch Resistance: Hybrid PECVD/PVD System and Microstructural Characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marios Constantinou

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to develop hydrogenated amorphous carbon thin films with embedded metallic nanoparticles (a–C:H:Me of controlled size and concentration. Towards this end, a novel hybrid deposition system is presented that uses a combination of Plasma Enhanced Chemical Vapor Deposition (PECVD and Physical Vapor Deposition (PVD technologies. The a–C:H matrix was deposited through the acceleration of carbon ions generated through a radio-frequency (RF plasma source by cracking methane, whereas metallic nanoparticles were generated and deposited using terminated gas condensation (TGC technology. The resulting material was a hydrogenated amorphous carbon film with controlled physical properties and evenly dispersed metallic nanoparticles (here Ag or Ti. The physical, chemical, morphological and mechanical characteristics of the films were investigated through X-ray reflectivity (XRR, Raman spectroscopy, Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM, Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM, Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM and nanoscratch testing. The resulting amorphous carbon metal nanocomposite films (a–C:H:Ag and a–C:H:Ti exhibited enhanced nanoscratch resistance (up to +50% and low values of friction coefficient (<0.05, properties desirable for protective coatings and/or solid lubricant applications. The ability to form nanocomposite structures with tunable coating performance by potentially controlling the carbon bonding, hydrogen content, and the type/size/percent of metallic nanoparticles opens new avenues for a broad range of applications in which mechanical, physical, biological and/or combinatorial properties are required.

  11. [Conception and implementation of a novel E-learning module with EbM learning contents in operative dentistry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerhardt-Szép, Susanne; Dreher, Stefanie; Rüttermann, Stefan; Weberschock, Tobias

    2017-11-01

    Computer-assisted learning (CAL) programs are becoming more widely used in medical and dental training. However, the combination of CAL programs and evidence-based education in dentistry has not been described previously. The aim was to determine the acceptance and user-friendliness of a CAL program combined with evidence-based training. The didactic concept of the module includes the case-oriented, problem-based embedding of a total of 32 EbM learning assignments, which can be completed interactively and self-determinedly in an interdisciplinary context using focus patients with different diseases. The present study was conducted at the Dental School of the Goethe University in Frankfurt/Main. Data on acceptance and user-friendliness were collected from three consecutive cohorts of 114 dental students attending their first clinical semester. They used the "Toothache Walk-in Clinic: FOCUS" CAL, which can be downloaded via the Internet. The instrument consisted of 64 statements. The first part addressed general information about the user. The second part contained 43 specific statements on the CAL program. These included factors A (handling and technical aspects), B (content and functional range), and C (didactics and suitability for education). Possible responses ranged from 0 to 3 (0 = strongly disagree, 3 = strongly agree). All of the 114 questionnaires distributed were returned (response rate 100%). Most users (90.1%) considered the topics of evidence-based dentistry important for their training. They rated the program by using German school grades, and the overall rating was 2.26 (SD = 0.64). Most students (88.6%) considered the program useful for their clinical training in the treatment of patients. The mean scores for the 43 specific items amounted to 1.90 (factor A, SD = 0.63), 1.55 (factor B, SD = 1.93), and 2.23 (factor C, SD = 0.79). The CAL program with dental medicine vignettes and learning elements for evidence-based medicine received a primarily

  12. Comparative Studies on Microstructure, Mechanical and Pitting Corrosion of Post Weld Heat Treated IN718 Superalloy GTA and EB Welds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dilkush; Mohammed, Raffi; Madhusudhan Reddy, G.; Srinivasa Rao, K.

    2018-03-01

    In the present study, an attempt has been made to weld Inconel 718 nickel-base superalloy (IN718 alloy) using gas tungsten arc welding (GTAW) and electron beam welding (EBW) processes. Both the weldments were subjected to post-weld heat treatment condition as follows -980°C / 20 min followed by direct aging condition (DA) as 720°C/8 h/FC followed by 620°C/8 h/AC. The GTA and EB welds of IN718 alloy were compared in two conditions as-received and 980STA conditions. Welds were characterized to observe mechanical properties, pitting corrosion resistance by correlating with observed microstructures. The rate of higher cooling ranges, the fusion zone of EBW exhibited discrete and relative finer lave phases whereas the higher niobium existed laves with coarser structure were observed in GTAW. The significant dissolution of laves were observed at 980STA of EBW. Due to these effects, the EBW of IN718 alloy showed the higher mechanical properties than GTAW. The electrochemical potentiostatic etch test was carried out in 3.5wt% sodium chloride (NaCl) solution to study the pitting corrosion behaviour of the welds. Results of the present investigation established that mechanical properties and pitting corrosion behaviour are significantly better in post weld heat treated condition. The comparative studies showed that the better combination of mechanical properties and pitting corrosion resistance were obtained in 980STA condition of EBW than GTAW.

  13. Benchmarking the evaluated proton differential cross sections suitable for the EBS analysis of natSi and 16O

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokkoris, M.; Dede, S.; Kantre, K.; Lagoyannis, A.; Ntemou, E.; Paneta, V.; Preketes-Sigalas, K.; Provatas, G.; Vlastou, R.; Bogdanović-Radović, I.; Siketić, Z.; Obajdin, N.

    2017-08-01

    The evaluated proton differential cross sections suitable for the Elastic Backscattering Spectroscopy (EBS) analysis of natSi and 16O, as obtained from SigmaCalc 2.0, have been benchmarked over a wide energy and angular range at two different accelerator laboratories, namely at N.C.S.R. 'Demokritos', Athens, Greece and at Ruđer Bošković Institute (RBI), Zagreb, Croatia, using a variety of high-purity thick targets of known stoichiometry. The results are presented in graphical and tabular forms, while the observed discrepancies, as well as, the limits in accuracy of the benchmarking procedure, along with target related effects, are thoroughly discussed and analysed. In the case of oxygen the agreement between simulated and experimental spectra was generally good, while for silicon serious discrepancies were observed above Ep,lab = 2.5 MeV, suggesting that a further tuning of the appropriate nuclear model parameters in the evaluated differential cross-section datasets is required.

  14. Radiation absorbed doses in the event of balloon rupture (BR) during endovascular brachytherapy (EB) using 188Re-perrhenate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Angelides, S.; Hetherington, E.; Karolis, C.; Walker, B.; Jackson, T.; Knittel, T.; Friend, C.; Pitney, M.; Jepson, N.; Milross, C.; Lonergan, D.

    2000-01-01

    Full text: endovascular brachytherapy (EB) using liquid or solid radiation sources, is an effective emerging therapy for coronary artery disease. Liquid sources provide uniform radiation dose to the vessel wall. However the radiation burden in the unlikely event of BR is not insignificant. The aims of this study were to determine i) absorbed dose for various 188 Re radiopharmaceuticals in the event of BR, and ii) effects of thyroid uptake blocking agent, Lugol's iodine (Ll) and/or bladder catheterisation (BC). Dose calculations were based on MIRDOSE 3.1 with dynamic bladder model and MIRD Dose Estimate Report No.8 for 99 Tc m -pertechnetate, which has similar biokinetic properties to 188 Re-perrhenate. Normal renal function and a bladder voiding interval of 4.8h (1 minute with catheter) were assumed. BR was simulated ex-vivo by puncturing a Solaris angioplasty balloon filled with normal saline at 4 atm. LI, MAG3 and DTPA substantially reduces the radiation dose following BR, particularly to the thyroid, and BC reduces the bladder wall dose. Only the contents of the balloon leaked; 0.4 ml of the total volume of 1.8ml. As binding of 188 Re to ligands is cumbersome, we opted to use LI. Twenty five patients with in-stent re-stenosis have been treated using 188 Re-perrhenate (8 GBq/ml), with no BR. Copyright (2000) The Australian and New Zealand Society of Nuclear Medicine Inc

  15. Transcription factor EB: from master coordinator of lysosomal pathways to candidate therapeutic target in degenerative storage diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sardiello, Marco

    2016-05-01

    The lysosome is the main catabolic hub of the cell. Owing to its role in fundamental processes such as autophagy, plasma membrane repair, mTOR signaling, and maintenance of cellular homeostasis, the lysosome has a profound influence on cellular metabolism and human health. Indeed, inefficient or impaired lysosomal function has been implicated in the pathogenesis of a number of degenerative diseases affecting various organs and tissues, most notably the brain, liver, and muscle. The discovery of the coordinated lysosomal expression and regulation (CLEAR) genetic program and its master controller, transcription factor EB (TFEB), has provided an unprecedented tool to study and manipulate lysosomal function. Most lysosome-based processes-including macromolecule degradation, autophagy, lysosomal exocytosis, and proteostasis-are under the transcriptional control of TFEB. Interestingly, impaired TFEB signaling has been suggested to be a contributing factor in the pathogenesis of several degenerative storage diseases. Preclinical studies based on TFEB exogenous expression to reinstate TFEB activity or promote CLEAR network-based lysosomal enhancement have highlighted TFEB as a candidate therapeutic target for the treatment of various degenerative storage diseases. © 2016 The Authors. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of New York Academy of Sciences.

  16. Influence of material and testing parameters on the lifetime of TBC systems with MCrAlY and NiPtAl bondcoats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Peng

    2012-08-31

    The oxidation behavior of the bond coat is an important factor determining the lifetime of thermal barrier coatings (TBC) in the advanced gas turbine components. In the present work, the effect of various testing parameters, such as hot/cold dwell time, heating/cooling rate, atmosphere composition on the bondcoat oxidation and associated TBC lifetime has been investigated. The range of coating systems included Electron Beam - Physical Vapor Deposited (EB-PVD) and Air Plasma Sprayed (APS) TBC's with MCrAlY (M = Ni, Co) and NiPtAl-bondcoats of various compositions. The effect of the testing parameters strongly depended on the type and properties of the studied system. The lifetime of EB-PVD TBC systems with conventional MCrAlY and NiPtAl bondcoats forming uniform, flat alumina scales was found to be limited by critical scale thickness, upon which a rapid crack propagation at the scale/bondcoat interface results in macroscopic failure. The lifetime of such systems was found to be affected by factors, which influence the scale growth rate and adherence (in particular by oxygen partial pressure (pO{sub 2}) and water vapor content in the test gas in the case of MCrAlY), whereas the temperature cyclic frequency showed no significant effect. NiPtAl bondcoats showed a superior behavior than the conventional MCrAlY-bondcoats due to slower scale growth rate and better scale adherence. For EB-PVD TBC systems with Zr-doped MCrAlYbondcoats the lifetime is mainly determined by the crack growth rate in the inhomogeneous inwardly growing oxide scales, whereas the lifetime is not dependent on the pO{sub 2} but rather on the cyclic frequency. For APS TBC systems the bondcoat oxidation is only one of several factors determining the ceramic topcoat lifetime. Therefore the oxide scale adherence is of less importance for lifetime of APS TBCs as compared to EBPVD TBCs. For the former systems, the cracks initiated at the convex asperities of the rough oxide scale / bondcoat interface

  17. CODE: EB10

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Philippe

    the field of education including non-formal education, it sounds a wakeup call .... Specifically, Bantu languages use noun classes which go by pairs marked by .... there is a need for one‟s energy conservation which characterizes humanity in ...

  18. CODE: EB10

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Philippe

    2011-08-31

    Aug 31, 2011 ... ... requirements were quickly established, schedules (for submission, peer ... and organizational culture. ... He probes the use of the three languages in both teaching and regular communications, questioning ... Eugene Nsanzabiga seems to share the same school of thoughts with his colleague Cyprien.

  19. Formation of semi-IPN membrane composed of crosslinked SPS-[PVdF-co-HFP/Nafion] for application in DMFC: A fine tuning between crosslinker and initiator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, Piyush; Kundu, Patit Paban, E-mail: ppk923@yahoo.com

    2015-08-15

    The semi-interpenetrating (semi-IPN) membrane composed of crosslinked sulfonated polystyrene (SPS) within the host blend of PVdF-co-HFP (Polyvinylidenefluoride-co-hexafluoropropylene) and Nafion has already been tested as a promising polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) in terms of improved water uptake, proton conductivity and electrical efficiency for application in the direct methanol fuel cell (DMFC). These desired results have generated further curiosity about a fine tuning between the contents of divinyl benzene (DVB) as a crosslinker and azobisisobutyronitrile (AIBN) as an initiator for the optimization of PEM characteristics. It has been observed that an increase in AIBN content leads to an acceptable degree of water uptake, swelling ratio and proton conductivity in PEM, while higher DVB content causes declined methanol crossover, leading to higher membrane selectivity. These two opposing effects are optimized in terms of proton conductivity, tensile strength and membrane selectivity for the membrane consisting of 0.4 wt% of AIBN and 1.2 wt% of DVB. Moreover, the maximum power density obtained for the membrane having optimum selectivity is 56 mW cm{sup −2}, when analyzed at 90 °C. These results indicate that one can achieve a high power density in comparison to Nafion by fine tuning the contents of initiator and cross-linker during the synthesis of the semi-IPN membrane. - Graphical abstract: Display Omitted - Highlights: • PEM composed of 0.4/1.2 wt% of AIBN/DVB produced best result. • Lower methanol crossover (1.02 × 10{sup −6} cm{sup 2} s{sup −1}) compare to Nafion-117. • Higher membrane selectivity i.e 3.05 × 10{sup 4} Ss cm{sup −3} was obtained. • A maximum power density of 56 mW cm{sup −2} was obtained at 90 °C.

  20. Production and characterization of multilayer coatings of Ti/TiN on AISI 316L stainless steel by the PVD technique of cathodic arc ion plating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forlerer, Elena; Rodriguez, Fernando; Mingolo, Norma

    2006-01-01

    Multilayer coatings were produced from bi-layers (compound layers) of Ti/TiN in a PVD reactor of cathodic arc ion plating. The process was carried out at an Argon gas pressure of 5x10 -3 Torr for the interlayer of Ti and a nitrogen + argon pressure of 2x10 -2 Torr for the deposit of TiN and a Bias voltage of -500V for the Ti layer and -100V for the TiN layer. The arc current held constant at 80 amp. The samples were kept at high temperatures ≥ 300 o C, mounted on a rotating system that held the test piece 15-25 cm from the Ti electrode. Certified composition AISI 316L and AISI 410 stainless steel were used for the substrate. Coatings with one or two compound layers with similar thicknesses were made. The coatings were characterized mechanically by adherence, thickness and microhardness by Vickers indentation with 25g loads. The texture was studied by X-ray diffraction and present phases and residual tensions were determined. The results of the X-ray diffraction show the presence of the mostly TiN phase, with fcc structure in the mono-layer and the bi-layer. Residual tensions are compressive and elevated due to the expansion of the TiN network during the deposition process. Measurements of the bi-layers at different angles showed a relaxing of the tensions close to the surface, which could be due to the effect of the second interlayer of Ti. Preferential orientations associated with the growth process of the layers and the developed microstructure were detected in the TiN (CW)

  1. Formation of semi-IPN membrane composed of crosslinked SPS-[PVdF-co-HFP/Nafion] for application in DMFC: A fine tuning between crosslinker and initiator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, Piyush; Kundu, Patit Paban

    2015-01-01

    The semi-interpenetrating (semi-IPN) membrane composed of crosslinked sulfonated polystyrene (SPS) within the host blend of PVdF-co-HFP (Polyvinylidenefluoride-co-hexafluoropropylene) and Nafion has already been tested as a promising polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) in terms of improved water uptake, proton conductivity and electrical efficiency for application in the direct methanol fuel cell (DMFC). These desired results have generated further curiosity about a fine tuning between the contents of divinyl benzene (DVB) as a crosslinker and azobisisobutyronitrile (AIBN) as an initiator for the optimization of PEM characteristics. It has been observed that an increase in AIBN content leads to an acceptable degree of water uptake, swelling ratio and proton conductivity in PEM, while higher DVB content causes declined methanol crossover, leading to higher membrane selectivity. These two opposing effects are optimized in terms of proton conductivity, tensile strength and membrane selectivity for the membrane consisting of 0.4 wt% of AIBN and 1.2 wt% of DVB. Moreover, the maximum power density obtained for the membrane having optimum selectivity is 56 mW cm −2 , when analyzed at 90 °C. These results indicate that one can achieve a high power density in comparison to Nafion by fine tuning the contents of initiator and cross-linker during the synthesis of the semi-IPN membrane. - Graphical abstract: Display Omitted - Highlights: • PEM composed of 0.4/1.2 wt% of AIBN/DVB produced best result. • Lower methanol crossover (1.02 × 10 −6 cm 2 s −1 ) compare to Nafion-117. • Higher membrane selectivity i.e 3.05 × 10 4 Ss cm −3 was obtained. • A maximum power density of 56 mW cm −2 was obtained at 90 °C

  2. ZZ BOREHOLE-EB6.8-MG, multi group cross-section library for deterministic and Monte Carlo codes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kodeli, Ivo; Aldama, Daniel L.; Leege, Piet F.A. de; Legrady, David; Hoogenboom, J. Eduard

    2007-01-01

    1 - Description: Format: MATXS and ACE; Number of groups: 175 neutron, 45 gamma-ray; Nuclides: H-1, C-12, O-16, Na-23, Mg-nat, Al-27, Si-28, -29, -30, S-nat, Cl-35, -37, K-nat, Ca-nat, Mn-55, Fe-54, -56, -57, -58, I-127, W-nat. Origin: ENDF/B-VI.8; Weighting spectrum: Fission and fusion peak at high energies and a 1/E + thermal Maxwellian extension at low energies. The following materials/nuclides are included in the library: H-1, C-12, O-16, Na-23, Mg-nat, Al-27, Si-28, -29, -30, S-nat, Cl-35, -37, K-nat, Ca-nat, Fe-54, -56, -57, -58, Mn-55, I-127, W-nat. ZZ-BOREHOLE-EB6.8-MG is a multigroup cross section library for deterministic (DOORS, DANTSYS) and Monte Carlo (MCNP) transport codes developed for the oil well logging applications. The library is based on the ENDF/B-VI.8 evaluation and was processed by the NJOY-99 code. The cross sections are given in the 175 neutron and 45 gamma ray group structure. The MATXS format library can be directly used in TRANSX code to prepare the multigroup self-shielded cross sections for deterministic discrete ordinates codes like DOORS and DANTSYS. The data provided in the GROUPR and GAMINR format were converted to the MCNP ACE format by the NSLINK, SCALE and CRSRD codes. IAEA1398/03: Multigroup cross section data for Mn-55 were added in TRANSX format

  3. Microstructural characterization of laser and electron beam (EB) welds of Nb-1Zr-0.1C alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Badgujar, B.P.; Tewari, R.; Dey, G.K.; Samajdar, I.

    2015-01-01

    Nb-1wt%Zr-0.1wt%C alloy is being considered for the structural applications in proposed Compact High Temperature Reactor (CHTR) on account of its excellent combination of high temperature properties. The applications of this alloy calls for welding, which is a difficult task due to its reactive nature, higher thermal conductivity and melting point. The high energy density techniques like laser and electron beam were employed to produce the welds on sheets of Nb-alloy at various processing parameters in bead-on-plate and square butt joint configurations. The weld joints produced were characterized by studying their optical, Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Electron Back Scattering Diffraction (EBSD) micro-graphs. The SEM micrograph of EB fusion zone along with the heat affected zone (HAZ) and the base region were studied and abrupt changes in the grain morphology were found in each zone. The fusion zone shows larger grains indicating the rapid grain growth after solidification, whereas the HAZ shows relatively smaller size of the grains but still much larger than the base zone. The SEM micrograph of central part of the same butt weld shows clear grain boundaries with a large variation in the grain size (45-82 micrometer) in the weld region. The heat affected zone (HAZ) and base metal showed fine carbide precipitates along the grain boundaries, whereas carbides were found dissolved in the weld zone. The EBSD micrograph of electron beam fusion zone describing the grain orientation in the weld region are described. The micro-hardness profile across the width of welds was also studied. The detailed results of all these studies are described in this paper. (author)

  4. Performance Test of Korea Heat Load Test Facility (KoHLT-EB) for the Plasma Facing Components of Fusion Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Suk-Kwon; Jin, Hyung Gon; Lee, Eo Hwak; Yoon, Jae-Sung; Lee, Dong Won; Cho, Seungyon

    2014-01-01

    The main components of the plasma facing components (PFCs) in the tokamak are the blanket first wall and divertor, which include the armour materials, the heat sink with the cooling mechanism, and the diagnostics devices for the temperature measurement. The Korea Heat Load Test facility by using electron beam (KoHLT-EB) has been operating for the plasma facing components to develop fusion engineering. This electron beam facility was constructed using a 300 kW electron gun and a cylindrical vacuum chamber. Performance tests were carried out for the calorimetric calibrations with Cu dummy mockup and for the heat load test of large Cu module. For the simulation of the heat load test of each mockup, the preliminary thermal-hydraulic analyses with ANSYS-CFX were performed. For the development of the plasma facing components in the fusion reactors, test mockups were fabricated and tested in the high heat flux test facility. To perform a beam profile test, an assessment of the possibility of electron beam Gaussian power density profile and the results of the absorbed power for that profile before the test starts are needed. To assess the possibility of a Gaussian profile, for the qualification test of the Gaussian heat load profile, a calorimeter mockup and large Cu module were manufactured to simulate real heat. For this high-heat flux test, the Korean high-heat flux test facility using an electron beam system was constructed. In this facility, a cyclic heat flux test will be performed to measure the surface heat flux, surface temperature profile, and cooling capacity

  5. Performance Test of Korea Heat Load Test Facility (KoHLT-EB) for the Plasma Facing Components of Fusion Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Suk-Kwon; Jin, Hyung Gon; Lee, Eo Hwak; Yoon, Jae-Sung; Lee, Dong Won [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Seungyon [National Fusion Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-10-15

    The main components of the plasma facing components (PFCs) in the tokamak are the blanket first wall and divertor, which include the armour materials, the heat sink with the cooling mechanism, and the diagnostics devices for the temperature measurement. The Korea Heat Load Test facility by using electron beam (KoHLT-EB) has been operating for the plasma facing components to develop fusion engineering. This electron beam facility was constructed using a 300 kW electron gun and a cylindrical vacuum chamber. Performance tests were carried out for the calorimetric calibrations with Cu dummy mockup and for the heat load test of large Cu module. For the simulation of the heat load test of each mockup, the preliminary thermal-hydraulic analyses with ANSYS-CFX were performed. For the development of the plasma facing components in the fusion reactors, test mockups were fabricated and tested in the high heat flux test facility. To perform a beam profile test, an assessment of the possibility of electron beam Gaussian power density profile and the results of the absorbed power for that profile before the test starts are needed. To assess the possibility of a Gaussian profile, for the qualification test of the Gaussian heat load profile, a calorimeter mockup and large Cu module were manufactured to simulate real heat. For this high-heat flux test, the Korean high-heat flux test facility using an electron beam system was constructed. In this facility, a cyclic heat flux test will be performed to measure the surface heat flux, surface temperature profile, and cooling capacity.

  6. Applied socio-hydrology using volunteer geographic information (VGI) to integrate ecosystem-based adaptation (EbA) and disaster risk reduction (DRR)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendiondo, Eduardo; Taffarello, Denise; Mohor, Guilherme; Guzmán, Diego; Câmara de Freitas, Clarissa; Fava, Maria Clara; Restrepo, Camilo; Abreu, Fernando; Batalini, Marina; Lago, Cesar; Abe, Narumi; Rosa, Altair

    2017-04-01

    Socio-hydrology proposes to understand coupled human-water systems by conceptualizing its components to be dynamically connected by bi-directional feedbacks. For practical purposes, especially in developing countries of South America, socio-hydrology does integrate practical, empirical and theoretical fundamentals from citizens' knowledge and culture. This contribution shows South American examples of how volunteer geographic information (VGI) can help socio-hydrology to integrate emerging aspects with heavy feedbacks, exploding uncertainties and relevant scales of socio-hydrological scales. Here we select examples at different scales of using VGI to link aspects of ecosystem-based adaptation (EbA) and disaster risk reduction (DRR). On the one hand, we show some learning cases of EbA/VGI linked to socio-hydrology also related with water valuation, both monetary and non-monetary, under scenarios of changing conditions of land-use and land cover changes of strategic water supply systems in subtropical biomes. This example brings a bridge of VGI and EbA towards Disaster Risk Reduction (DRR) through water topics of securitization, insurance, smart cities and sustainable urban drainage systems (SUDS). Thus, on the other hand, we also depict how VGI support applied elements for socio-hydrology on South American urban areas, capable of policy actions for DRR through SUDS at human-impacted biomes under extremes of droughts, floods and pollution. We here recommend yardsticks of learning conditions from these real examples of using VGI's knowledge and culture biases for a more resilient socio-hydrology, in order to create opportunities for theoretical, conceptual and applied nature of EbA and DRR with viable alliances from IAHS/Panta Rhei with UN/Sendai/DRR Framework and UN/Sustainable Development Goals. From these examples, however, seem plausible co-evolutionary dynamics with stakeholders if local-scale constraints, from sociopolitical nature, institutions' policies and

  7. Al_2O_3/PVdF-HFP-CMC/PE separator prepared using aqueous slurry and post-hot-pressing method for polymer lithium-ion batteries with enhanced safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deng, Yaoming; Song, Xiaona; Ma, Zhen; Zhang, Xinhe; Shu, Dong; Nan, Junmin

    2016-01-01

    A composite separator is prepared to improve the safety of lithium ion batteries (LIBs) based on a gravure coating aqueous slurry and post-hot-pressing method. An environmentally friendly aqueous slurry with an Al_2O_3 ceramic holder and polyvinylidene difluoride-hexafluoropropylene (PVdF-HFP) and carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) dual-binders is coated on a polyolefin (PE) substrate to form a prototype Al-PHC/PE separator. Then, after assembling the separator in the batteries and hot-pressing at 70 °C and 0.8 MPa for 3 h, the granular PVdF-HFP is transformed into a colloidal structure containing an electrolyte, which can binds the Al_2O_3 nanoparticles together and increases the battery hardness. Compared with a PE separator (9 μm), the Al-PHC/PE-2 separator (12 μm, with a Al_2O_3/PVdF-HFP weight ratio of 7/3) displays a comparative ionic conductivity of 9.3 × 10"−"4 S cm"−"2 and exhibits no obvious thermal deformation at 110 °C for 60 min. All of the batteries assembled with Al-PHC/PE-2 separators passed nail penetration and impact tests. In addition, the capacity retention increases from 83.4% to 87.6% when the battery is assembled with Al-PHC/PE-2 instead of a PE separator and charge-discharged at 0.7C/1.0C for 350 cycles. The enhanced safety and cycle performance indicate the promising prospect of Al-PHC/PE separators in LIBs.

  8. Late effects of atomic bomb radiation on human immune responses, (10); Results on studies of immune responses to EB-virus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kusunoki, Yoichiro; Kyoizumi, Seishi; Ozaki, Kyoko; Saito, Mayumi; Cologne, J.B.; Akiyama, Mitoshi (Radiation Effects Research Foundation, Hiroshima (Japan))

    1992-12-01

    Anti-Epstein-Barr (EV) virus antibody titers were measured in age- and sex-matched three groups of each 124 A-bomb survivors who had exposed to <0.01 Gy, 0.01-1 Gy, or >1 Gy. These serum samples showed positive antibodies against viral capsid antigens (VCA). Antibody titers to anti-VCA-IgM or anti-EA-IgG were significantly higher in the groups of 0.01-1 Gy and >1 Gy than in the group of <0.01 Gy, reflecting decreased immune response ability for EV virus. When precursor frequency of cytotoxic cells against autologous EB virus LCL was determined in 68 other A-bomb survivors, no definitive influence of A-bombing was observed. However, serological study revealed that there was inverse correlation between precursor frequency and anti-EA-IgG antibody titer. These findings suggest that the immune response ability for EB virus may have been damaged and that biological reactivity of EB virus may occur frequently in A-bomb survivors. (N.K.).

  9. Comparison between Duncan and Chang’s EB Model and the Generalized Plasticity Model in the Analysis of a High Earth-Rockfill Dam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weixin Dong

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Nonlinear elastic model and elastoplastic model are two main kinds of constitutive models of soil, which are widely used in the numerical analyses of soil structure. In this study, Duncan and Chang's EB model and the generalized plasticity model proposed by Pastor, Zienkiewicz, and Chan was discussed and applied to describe the stress-strain relationship of rockfill materials. The two models were validated using the results of triaxial shear tests under different confining pressures. The comparisons between the fittings of models and test data showed that the modified generalized plasticity model is capable of simulating the mechanical behaviours of rockfill materials. The modified generalized plasticity model was implemented into a finite element code to carry out static analyses of a high earth-rockfill dam in China. Nonlinear elastic analyses were also performed with Duncan and Chang's EB model in the same program framework. The comparisons of FEM results and in situ monitoring data showed that the modified PZ-III model can give a better description of deformation of the earth-rockfill dam than Duncan and Chang’s EB model.

  10. S. pombe CLASP needs dynein, not EB1 or CLIP170, to induce microtubule instability and slows polymerization rates at cell tips in a dynein-dependent manner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grallert, Agnes; Beuter, Christoph; Craven, Rachel A.; Bagley, Steve; Wilks, Deepti; Fleig, Ursula; Hagan, Iain M.

    2006-01-01

    The Schizosaccharomyces pombe CLIP170-associated protein (CLASP) Peg1 was identified in a screen for mutants with spindle formation defects and a screen for molecules that antagonized EB1 function. The conditional peg1.1 mutant enabled us to identify key features of Peg1 function. First, Peg1 was required to form a spindle and astral microtubules, yet destabilized interphase microtubules. Second, Peg1 was required to slow the polymerization rate of interphase microtubules that establish end-on contact with the cortex at cell tips. Third, Peg1 antagonized the action of S. pombe CLIP170 (Tip1) and EB1 (Mal3). Fourth, although Peg1 resembled higher eukaryotic CLASPs by physically associating with both Mal3 and Tip1, neither Tip1 nor Mal3 was required for Peg1 to destabilize interphase microtubules or for it to associate with microtubules. Conversely, neither Mal3 nor Tip1 required Peg1 to associate with microtubules or cell tips. Consistently, while mal3.Δ and tip1.Δ disrupted linear growth, corrupting peg1 + did not. Fifth, peg1.1 phenotypes resembled those arising from deletion of the single heavy or both light chains of fission yeast dynein. Furthermore, all interphase phenotypes arising from peg1 + manipulation relied on dynein function. Thus, the impact of S. pombe CLASP on interphase microtubule behavior is more closely aligned to dynein than EB1 or CLIP170. PMID:16951255

  11. Surface and interface analysis of PVD Al-O-N and {gamma}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} diffusion barriers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cremer, R.; Witthaut, M.; Reichert, K.; Neuschuetz, D. [Technische Hochschule Aachen (Germany). Lehrstuhl fuer Metallurgie der Kernbrennstoffe und Theoretische Huettenkunde

    1999-10-01

    The suitability of PVD films of {gamma}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and of ternary Al-O-N as diffusion barriers between a nickel based superalloy CMSX-4 and NiCoCrAlY for a possible application in gas turbines was investigated. Therefore, an Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} film and, alternatively, an Al-O-N film were deposited on CMSX-4 at 100 C substrate temperature by means of reactive magnetron sputtering ion plating (MSIP). After characterization of composition and structure of the films by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and grazing incidence X-ray diffraction (XRD), a NiCoCrAlY coating was deposited onto the diffusion barriers and, for comparison, directly onto CMSX-4 by MSIP as well. The composites were annealed for 4 h at 1100 C under inert atmosphere. Wavelength dispersive X-ray (WDX) element mappings and line-scans of the cross-sectional cut served to evaluate the suitability of the films as diffusion barriers. After detachment of the coatings from the substrate, the phase stabilities of the two metastable phases {gamma}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and Al-O-N were determined by means of grazing incidence XRD. Without a diffusion barrier, enhanced interdiffusion was observed. Analyses of the composite with the {gamma}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} interlayer revealed diffusion of Ti and Ta from the substrate into the NiCoCrAlY coating. No interdiffusion of Ni, Ti, Ta, and Cr could be detected in case of the ternary Al-O-N film. Whereas the ternary Al-O-N film remained in the as-deposited X-ray amorphous structure after annealing, a phase change from the {gamma} to the {alpha} modification could be observed in case of the Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} film, presumably responsible for its lower efficiency as a diffusion barrier. (orig.)

  12. Corrosion Resistance Behavior of Single-Layer Cathodic Arc PVD Nitride-Base Coatings in 1M HCl and 3.5 pct NaCl Solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adesina, Akeem Yusuf; Gasem, Zuhair M.; Madhan Kumar, Arumugam

    2017-04-01

    The electrochemical behavior of single-layer TiN, CrN, CrAlN, and TiAlN coatings on 304 stainless steel substrate, deposited using state-of-the-art and industrial size cathodic arc PVD machine, were evaluated in 1M HCl and 3.5 pct NaCl solutions. The corrosion behavior of the blank and coated substrates was analyzed by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), linear polarization resistance, and potentiodynamic polarization. Bond-coat layers of pure-Ti, pure-Cr, alloyed-CrAl, and alloyed-TiAl for TiN, CrN, CrAlN, and TiAlN coatings were, respectively, first deposited for improved coating adhesion before the actual coating. The average coating thickness was about 1.80 µm. Results showed that the corrosion potentials ( E corr) of the coated substrates were shifted to more noble values which indicated improvement of the coated substrate resistance to corrosion susceptibility. The corrosion current densities were lower for all coated substrates as compared to the blank substrate. Similarly, EIS parameters showed that these coatings possessed improved resistance to defects and pores in similar solution compared to the same nitride coatings developed by magnetron sputtering. The charge transfer resistance ( R ct) can be ranked in the following order: TiAlN > CrN > TiN > CrAlN in both media except in NaCl solution where R ct of TiN is lowest. While the pore resistance ( R po) followed the order: CrAlN > CrN > TiAlN > TiN in HCl solution and TiAlN > CrN > CrAlN > TiN in NaCl solution. It is found that TiAlN coating has the highest protective efficiencies of 79 and 99 pct in 1M HCl and 3.5 pct NaCl, respectively. SEM analysis of the corroded substrates in both media was also presented.

  13. Experimental and numerical investigations on the temperature distribution in PVD AlTiN coated and uncoated Al2O3/TiCN mixed ceramic cutting tools in hard turning of AISI 52100 steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sateesh Kumar, Ch; Patel, Saroj Kumar; Das, Anshuman

    2018-03-01

    Temperature generation in cutting tools is one of the major causes of tool failure especially during hard machining where machining forces are quite high resulting in elevated temperatures. Thus, the present work investigates the temperature generation during hard machining of AISI 52100 steel (62 HRC hardness) with uncoated and PVD AlTiN coated Al2O3/TiCN mixed ceramic cutting tools. The experiments were performed on a heavy duty lathe machine with both coated and uncoated cutting tools under dry cutting environment. The temperature of the cutting zone was measured using an infrared thermometer and a finite element model has been adopted to predict the temperature distribution in cutting tools during machining for comparative assessment with the measured temperature. The experimental and numerical results revealed a significant reduction of cutting zone temperature during machining with PVD AlTiN coated cutting tools when compared to uncoated cutting tools during each experimental run. The main reason for decrease in temperature for AlTiN coated tools is the lower coefficient of friction offered by the coating material which allows the free flow of the chips on the rake surface when compared with uncoated cutting tools. Further, the superior wear behaviour of AlTiN coating resulted in reduction of cutting temperature.

  14. Biomimetic thermal barrier coating in jet engine to resist volcanic ash deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Wenjia; Major, Zsuzsanna; Schulz, Uwe; Muth, Tobias; Lavallée, Yan; Hess, Kai-Uwe; Dingwell, Donald B.

    2017-04-01

    The threat of volcanic ash to aviation safety is attracting extensive attention when several commercial jet aircraft were damaged after flying through volcanic ash clouds from the May 1980 eruptions of Mount St. Helen in Washington, U.S. and especially after the air traffic disruption in 2010 Eyjafjallajökull eruption. A major hazard presented by volcanic ash to aircraft is linked to the wetting and spreading of molten ash droplets on engine component surfaces. Due to the fact ash has a lower melting point, around 1100 °C, than the gas temperature in the hot section (between 1400 to 2000 °C), this cause the ash to melt and potentially stick to the internal components (e.g., combustor and turbine blades), this cause the ash to melt and potentially stick to the internal components of the engine creating, substantial damage or even engine failure after ingestion. Here, inspiring form the natural surface of lotus leaf (exhibiting extreme water repellency, known as 'lotus effect'), we firstly create the multifunctional surface thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) by producing a hierarchical structure with femtosecond laser pulses. In detail, we investigate the effect of one of primary femtosecond laser irradiation process parameter (scanning speed) on the hydrophobicity of water droplets onto the two kinds of TBCs fabricated by electron-beam physical vapor deposition (EB-PVD) and air plasma spray (APS), respectively as well as their corresponding to morphology. It is found that, comparison with the original surface (without femtosecond laser ablation), all of the irradiated samples demonstrate more significant hydrophobic properties due to nanostructuring. On the basis of these preliminary room-temperature results, the wettability of volcanic ash droplets will be analysed at the high temperature to constrain the potential impact of volcanic ash on the jet engines.

  15. Comparison of orthogonal kilovolt X-ray images and cone-beam CT matching results in setup error assessment and correction for EB-PBI during free breathing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Wei; Li Jianbin; Hu Hongguang; Ma Zhifang; Xu Min; Fan Tingyong; Shao Qian; Ding Yun

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To compare the differences in setup error (SE) assessment and correction between the orthogonal kilovolt X-ray images and CBCT in EB-PBI patients during free breathing. Methods: Nineteen patients after breast conserving surgery EB-PBI were recruited. Interfraction SE was acquired using orthogonal kilovolt X-ray setup images and CBCT, after on-line setup correction,calculate the residual error and compare the SE, residual error and setup margin (SM) quantified for orthogonal kilovolt X-ray images and CBCT. Wilcoxon sign-rank test was used to evaluate the differences. Results: The CBCT based SE (systematic error, ∑) was smaller than the orthogonal kilovolt X-ray images based ∑ in AP direction (-1.2 mm vs 2.00 mm; P=0.005), and there was no statistically significant differences for three dimensional directions in random error (σ) (P=0.948, 0.376, 0.314). After on-line setup correction,CBCT decreases setup residual error than the orthogonal kilovolt X-ray images in AP direction (Σ: -0.20 mm vs 0.50 mm, P=0.008; σ: 0.45 mm vs 1.34 mm, P=0.002). And also the CBCT based SM was smaller than orthogonal kilovolt X-ray images based SM in AP direction (Σ: -1.39 mm vs 5.57 mm, P=0.003; σ: 0.00 mm vs 3.2 mm, P=0.003). Conclusions: Compared with kilovolt X-ray images, CBCT underestimate the setup error in the AP direction, but decreases setup residual error significantly.An image-guided radiotherapy and setup error assessment using kilovolt X-ray images for EB-PBI plans was feasible. (authors)

  16. Characterization and application of automated in-vacuum PIXE/EBS system for direct analysis of chloride and sulfate ions attack in cementitious materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rihawy, M. S.; Alwazzeh, M.; Abbas, K.

    2018-01-01

    Ion beam analysis (IBA) techniques (Particle Induced X-ray Emission, PIXE and Elastic Backscattering Spectrometry, EBS), were applied to investigate chloride and sulfate ions diffusion into laboratory prepared mortar samples. Development and characterization of an automated in-vacuum macro PIXE/EBS system is thoroughly discussed. Depth profile information of both chloride and sulfate ions in laboratory prepared mortar samples, after immersion in sea water for nine months, was rapidly and easily obtained at fairly low cost and with standardless analysis, demonstrating the value of the application of IBA to elemental depth profiling in cementitious materials. Chloride and sulfate depth profiles were obtained for two sets of mortar samples, one prepared with different water/cement (W/C) ratios and the other with different sand/cement (S/C) ratios. Results showed higher diffusion rates of both chloride and sulfate ions when both ratios are increased. Additionally, the W/C ratio has a stronger influence in both sulfate and chloride penetration than the S/C ratio, and chloride ions penetrate faster than sulfates. Advantages and limitations of applying IBA techniques in this investigation are discussed. The comparison between PIXE and other X-ray based analytical techniques, namely X-ray fluorescence (XRF) and energy and wavelength dispersive X-rays (EDX/WDX), as well as other traditional wet chemical methods is reviewed, and industrial applications are discussed.

  17. Single-photon sensitive fast ebCMOS camera system for multiple-target tracking of single fluorophores: application to nano-biophotonics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cajgfinger, Thomas; Chabanat, Eric; Dominjon, Agnes; Doan, Quang T.; Guerin, Cyrille; Houles, Julien; Barbier, Remi

    2011-03-01

    Nano-biophotonics applications will benefit from new fluorescent microscopy methods based essentially on super-resolution techniques (beyond the diffraction limit) on large biological structures (membranes) with fast frame rate (1000 Hz). This trend tends to push the photon detectors to the single-photon counting regime and the camera acquisition system to real time dynamic multiple-target tracing. The LUSIPHER prototype presented in this paper aims to give a different approach than those of Electron Multiplied CCD (EMCCD) technology and try to answer to the stringent demands of the new nano-biophotonics imaging techniques. The electron bombarded CMOS (ebCMOS) device has the potential to respond to this challenge, thanks to the linear gain of the accelerating high voltage of the photo-cathode, to the possible ultra fast frame rate of CMOS sensors and to the single-photon sensitivity. We produced a camera system based on a 640 kPixels ebCMOS with its acquisition system. The proof of concept for single-photon based tracking for multiple single-emitters is the main result of this paper.

  18. Structural Properties of EB-Welded AlSi10Mg Thin-Walled Pressure Vessels Produced by AM-SLM Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nahmany, Moshe; Stern, Adin; Aghion, Eli; Frage, Nachum

    2017-10-01

    Additive manufacturing of metals by selective laser melting (AM-SLM) is hampered by significant limitations in product size due to the limited dimensions of printing trays. Electron beam welding (EBW) is a well-established process that results in relatively minor metallurgical modifications in workpieces due to the ability of EBW to pass high-density energy to the related substance. The present study aims to evaluate structural properties of EB-welded AlSi10Mg thin-walled pressure vessels produced from components prepared by SLM technology. Following the EB welding process, leak and burst tests were conducted, as was fractography analysis. The welded vessels showed an acceptable holding pressure of 30 MPa, with a reasonable residual deformation up to 2.3% and a leak rate better than 1 × 10-8 std-cc s-1 helium. The failures that occurred under longitudinal stresses reflected the presence of two weak locations in the vessels, i.e., the welded joint region and the transition zone between the vessel base and wall. Fractographic analysis of the fracture surfaces of broken vessels displayed the ductile mode of the rupture, with dimples of various sizes, depending on the failure location.

  19. Corrosion behaviour in saline environments of single-layer titanium and aluminium coatings, and of Ti/Al alternated multi-layers elaborated by a multi-beam PVD technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merati, Abdenacer

    1994-01-01

    This research thesis reports the characterization of anti-corrosion titanium and aluminium coatings deposited on a 35CD4 steel under the form of mono-metallic layers or alternated Ti/Al multi-layers, and obtained by a multibeam PVD technique. The influence of different parameters is studied: single-layer thickness (5, 15 or 30 micro-metres), multi-layer distribution (5 to 6) and substrate (smooth or threaded). Layer nature and microstructure are studied by optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM), as well as corrosion toughness in aqueous saline environments. Coated threaded samples have been studied after tightening tests. It appears that titanium layers are denser and more uniform than aluminium layers, and that multi-layer coatings provide a better protection than single-layer coatings. The best behaviour is obtained when titanium is in contact with steel, and aluminium is the outer layer in contact with the corroding environment [fr

  20. DEFORMACIÓN ELÁSTICA RESIDUAL EN LÁMINAS DE ACERO AISI 304 RECUBIERTAS CON UNA PELÍCULA DE NITRURO DE TITANIO DEPOSITADA POR PVD-MAGNETRON SPUTTERING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. A. COLORADO

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó una caracterización mediante difracción de rayos x (DRX en láminas de acero inoxidable AISI 304 recubierto con una capa de nitruro de titanio de 3 um de espesor, obtenida mediante deposición física de vapor (PVD-MAGNETRON SPUTTERING a una temperatura de 200 °C. se tomaron imágenes de microscopía electrónica de barrido (MEB, microscopía óptica (MO y microscopía de fuerza atómica (MFA para caracterizar el sustrato, la capa y la zona cercana a la intercara. adicionalmente se determinó la deformación elástica residual asociada con el ensanchamiento de los picos de DRX.

  1. Development of radiation curable surface coating based on soybean oil. part II: Evaluation of the prepared acrylated resin as surface coatings by using EB or UV sources for radiation curing applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ibrahim, M.S.; Said, H.M.; Moussa, I.M.

    2005-01-01

    In recent years, there has been a growing trend in using vegetable oils as raw materials in acylation production that can be cured by UV/EB systems. The acrylated resin formulates by using individually different functional acrylate monomers were prepared and cured by EB or UV sources. The characterization properties of the cured films were investigated in terms of pendulum hardness, bending, impact, gloss, adhesion and chemical tests. Other formulations were prepared by mixing a constant ratio of different functional acrylate monomers and exposed to UV or EB irradiation. The results showed that the hardness of cured films were increased by increasing the functionality of monomers with excellent adhesion for all formulations but at expense of other properties involving bending and impact tests. Therefore, it can be deduce that the hardness of the curing surface coating by using EB was found to be nearly twice the hardness of the curing surface coating by using UV irradiation. Also, the best formulations which have given good chemical and mechanical properties are (mono-di) functional acrylate monomer resin under EB and (mono-tri) functional acrylate monomer resin under UV irradiation

  2. DEVELOPMENT OF PROTECTIVE COATINGS FOR SINGLE CRYSTAL TURBINE BLADES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amarendra K. Rai

    2006-12-04

    Turbine blades in coal derived syngas systems are subject to oxidation and corrosion due to high steam temperature and pressure. Thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) are developed to address these problems. The emphasis is on prime-reliant design and a better coating architecture, having high temperature and corrosion resistance properties for turbine blades. In Phase I, UES Inc. proposed to develop, characterize and optimize a prime reliant TBC system, having smooth and defect-free NiCoCrAlY bond layer and a defect free oxide sublayer, using a filtered arc technology. Phase I work demonstrated the deposition of highly dense, smooth and defect free NiCoCrAlY bond coat on a single crystal CMSX-4 substrate and the deposition of alpha-alumina and yttrium aluminum garnet (YAG) sublayer on top of the bond coat. Isothermal and cyclic oxidation test and pre- and post-characterization of these layers, in Phase I work, (with and without top TBC layer of commercial EB PVD YSZ) revealed significant performance enhancement.

  3. Weld defects analysis of 60 mm thick SS316L mock-ups of TIG and EB welds by ultrasonic inspection for fusion reactor vacuum vessel applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buddu, Ramesh Kumar; Shaikh, Shamsuddin; Raole, P.M.; Sarkar, B.

    2015-01-01

    The present paper reports the weld quality inspections carried with 60 mm thick AISI welds of SS316L. The high thickness steel plates requirement is due to the specific applications in case of advanced fusion reactor structural components like vacuum vessel and others. Different kind welds are proposed for the thick plate joints like Tungsten Inert Gas (TIG) welding, Electron beam welding as per stringent conditions (like very low distortions and residual stresses) for the vacuum vessel fabrication. Mock-ups of laboratory scale welds are fabricated by TIG (multi-pass) and EB (double pass) process techniques and different weld quality inspections are carried by different NDT tests. The welds are examined with Liquid penetrant examination to check sub surface cracks/discontinuities towards the defects observation

  4. Standard practice for prediction of the long-term behavior of materials, including waste forms, used in engineered barrier systems (EBS) for geological disposal of high-level radioactive waste

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2007-01-01

    1.1 This practice describes test methods and data analyses used to develop models for the prediction of the long-term behavior of materials, such as engineered barrier system (EBS) materials and waste forms, used in the geologic disposal of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) and other high-level nuclear waste in a geologic repository. The alteration behavior of waste form and EBS materials is important because it affects the retention of radionuclides by the disposal system. The waste form and EBS materials provide a barrier to release either directly (as in the case of waste forms in which the radionuclides are initially immobilized), or indirectly (as in the case of containment materials that restrict the ingress of groundwater or the egress of radionuclides that are released as the waste forms and EBS materials degrade). 1.1.1 Steps involved in making such predictions include problem definition, testing, modeling, and model confirmation. 1.1.2 The predictions are based on models derived from theoretical considerat...

  5. Inspection of copper canisters for spent nuclear fuel by means of ultrasound. Ultrasonic imaging of EB weld, theory of harmonic imaging of welds, NDE of cast iron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stepinski, T.; Lingvall, F.; Ping Wu

    2001-07-01

    The objective of task presented in the first chapter, ultrasonic imaging of EB weld is to investigate imaging methods capable of improving ultrasonic imaging of defects in EB-welds. Algorithms based on ideas from ultrasonic tomography were examined as the first step. After a concise review of literature in the field of tomography the attention is focused on synthetic focusing and particularly on using linear phased array systems for imaging. Synthetic focusing is a technique where the focusing is performed by software after gathering the ultrasonic data. General principles of synthetic aperture focusing technique (SAFT) - a synthetic focusing technique especially suitable for linear ultrasonic arrays are presented. Problems related to the application of SAFT to ultrasonic transducers with large apertures are identified and the solution is proposed. It appears that when the probe becomes larger (i.e., cannot be regarded as a point source) the ultrasonic pulses that it generates will be smeared by its spatial impulse response (SIR). This impairs the spatial resolution achieved for the finite aperture probes comparing to the point source. Thus, a proper application of synthetic focusing requires taking into account the spatially varying probe's SIR. The SIR has to be calculated (measured) in the interesting points of space and than deconvoluted. A technique for deconvoluting the SIR based on Wiener filter is proposed and illustrated by experimental results. Some preliminary results from immersion testing of copper blocks using the ALLIN system in our lab facility are presented. Nonlinear propagation of plane waves in fluids based on the Burgers equation is investigated in the second chapter. The presented method is basically adopted from the existing literature although some modification has been made to adapt to our situation. The solution has been re-derived and two alternative forms feasible for computer calculation are given and some numerical results are

  6. Inspection of copper canisters for spent nuclear fuel by means of ultrasound. Ultrasonic imaging of EB weld, theory of harmonic imaging of welds, NDE of cast iron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stepinski, T.; Lingvall, F.; Ping Wu [Uppsala Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Materials Science

    2001-07-01

    The objective of task presented in the first chapter, ultrasonic imaging of EB weld is to investigate imaging methods capable of improving ultrasonic imaging of defects in EB-welds. Algorithms based on ideas from ultrasonic tomography were examined as the first step. After a concise review of literature in the field of tomography the attention is focused on synthetic focusing and particularly on using linear phased array systems for imaging. Synthetic focusing is a technique where the focusing is performed by software after gathering the ultrasonic data. General principles of synthetic aperture focusing technique (SAFT) - a synthetic focusing technique especially suitable for linear ultrasonic arrays are presented. Problems related to the application of SAFT to ultrasonic transducers with large apertures are identified and the solution is proposed. It appears that when the probe becomes larger (i.e., cannot be regarded as a point source) the ultrasonic pulses that it generates will be smeared by its spatial impulse response (SIR). This impairs the spatial resolution achieved for the finite aperture probes comparing to the point source. Thus, a proper application of synthetic focusing requires taking into account the spatially varying probe's SIR. The SIR has to be calculated (measured) in the interesting points of space and than deconvoluted. A technique for deconvoluting the SIR based on Wiener filter is proposed and illustrated by experimental results. Some preliminary results from immersion testing of copper blocks using the ALLIN system in our lab facility are presented. Nonlinear propagation of plane waves in fluids based on the Burgers equation is investigated in the second chapter. The presented method is basically adopted from the existing literature although some modification has been made to adapt to our situation. The solution has been re-derived and two alternative forms feasible for computer calculation are given and some numerical results are

  7. Prospects of utilization of EB irradiation technology to augment control of SO2 and other emissions from Chilean copper smelting plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Villanueva, L.; Ahumada, L.; Ellison, W.; Chmielewski, A.G.; Zimek, Z.

    1997-01-01

    A technical study including testing and cost analysis for commercial use of selected processes has been conducted. Analysis, affirmation and evaluation of potential utilization of applicable SO 2 -removal process for off-gases, including electron-beam irradiation, for incrementally improving abatement of SO 2 /SO 3 emissions from existing copper smelting facilities in Chile has been carried out. Off-gases are characterized by SO 2 content higher than 3,000 ppm, a complex chemical composition and highly oxidizing conditions, along with cyclical and fluctuating generation. Laboratory tests with simulated high-SO 2 -content process were performed at Institute of Nuclear Chemistry and Technology. Test work proved the technical feasibility of removing SO 2 from (ultra-high SO 2 contents) gases by E-beam irradiation with ammonia injection. A laboratory unit with flow rate of 20 Nm 3 /h equiped with electron accelerator of 800 keV beam energy was used. Influence of different parameters on SO 2 removal efficiency, like temperature, irradiation dose, ammonia stoichiometry and water vapor content, has been established. Tests covered a high SO 2 content range, 2,000 to 10,000 ppm. A generic schematic design has been devised to system arrangement, performance and control requirements. It encompasses upgrading of in-plant ventilation to the extent required by health standards, together with gas cleaning system incorporating the EB Process. The arrangement of the facilities provides for gathering and treating off-gas from selected fugitive emission sources on a continuos basis, at the same time in-drafting a minimum amount of tramp air. An introductory dry dedusting stage, when required, uses condictioned activated carbon injection in conjunction with a fabric filter to efficiently treat raw gas and remove heavy metals, including arsenic, along with particulate matter. Main conclusion of stages of this work is that the EB Process is a simple and appropriate, cost

  8. Marketingový výzkum spokojenosti zákazníka v oblasti služeb B2B

    OpenAIRE

    Vlčková, Michaela

    2014-01-01

    Diplomová práce se zaměřuje na problematiku nového marketingového odvětví zákaznické zkušenosti, a to v oblasti telekomunikačních služeb B2B. Teoretická část mapuje, zpracovává a shrnuje základní pojmy a informace z literárních zdrojů týkajících se téma spokojenosti zákazníků. V analytické části práce jsou obecná teoretická východiska na základě zmapování teoretických poznatků a také interních údajů společnosti Vodafone Czech Republic použita pro přípravu marketingového výzkumu, doporučení a ...

  9. ESONANCE--IF-eb-rua

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    would undertake to defeat any definition of chair or chairishness ... red light, you must advise a driving student to apply the brakes. ... uncertainty because of their ability to put together uncertain .... Coordinate (1, I) is interpreted as All + BII, where both A and ... represents a fuzzy set S = AIO.75 +BIO.3 with the connotation:.

  10. EB radiation crosslinking of elastomers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bik, J.; Rzymski, M.; Gluszewski, W.; Zagorski, Z.P.

    2002-01-01

    Complete text of publication follows. The first paper in the series described by the general title, starts with radiation crosslinking of hydrogenated butadiene-nitrile rubber (HBNR). This high-tech elastomer is obtained by catalytic hydrogenation of >C=C 99.5 and 94.5% of starting double bonds. Samples were irradiated with 10 MeV electrons, monoenergetical, 6 kW power, used as scanned beam over the conveyor, securing homogeneity of dose distribution. The doses were up to 300 kGy, applied in 20 kGy increments to avoid radiation generated heating of the material. The influence of presence or absence of oxygen was considered. Irradiated samples were investigated for the extend of crosslinking in the function of dose and for properties important for understanding of mechanisms. Samples are transparent, what allowed conventional absorption spectrophotometry, also time resolved. The quantitative interpretation of results shows that for 100 crosslinks there are 6-9 acts of chain-scission. It is less, than expected from the participation of multi-ionization spurs, also in the solid state, as announced during the previous, 9th Tihany Conference. However, the apparent lower yield of multi-ionization spurs is explained by partial conversion of products into crosslinks of specific type. Our investigations confirm the usefulness of consideration of radiation spurs in polymers as well as in all, low LET irradiated media

  11. An optimally tuned ensemble of the "eb_go_gs" configuration of GENIE: parameter sensitivity and bifurcations in the Atlantic overturning circulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Marsh

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The key physical parameters for the "eb_go_gs" configuration of version 2.7.4 of GENIE, an Earth system model of intermediate complexity (EMIC, are tuned using a multi-objective genetic algorithm. An ensemble of 90 parameter sets is tuned using two ocean and two atmospheric state variables as targets. These are "Pareto-optimal", representing a range of trade-offs between the four tuning targets. For the leading five parameter sets, simulations are evaluated alongside a simulation with untuned "default" parameters, comparing selected variables and diagnostics that describe the state of the atmosphere, ocean and sea ice. Further experiments are undertaken with these selected parameter sets to compare equilibrium climate sensitivities and transient climate responses. The pattern of warming under doubled CO2 is strongly shaped by changes in the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation (AMOC, while the pattern and rate of warming under rising CO2 is closely linked to changing sea ice extent. One of the five tuned parameter sets is identified as marginally optimal, and the objective function (error landscape is further analysed in the vicinity of the tuned values of this parameter set. "Cliffs" along some dimensions motivate closer inspection of corresponding variations in the AMOC. This reveals that bifurcations in the AMOC are highly sensitive to parameters that are not typically associated with MOC stability. Specifically, the state of the AMOC is sensitive to parameters governing the wind-driven circulation and atmospheric heat transport. For the GENIE configuration presented here, the marginally optimal parameter set is recommended for single simulations, although the leading five parameter sets may be used in ensemble mode to admit a constrained degree of parametric uncertainty in climate prediction.

  12. Increase of transcription factor EB (TFEB) and lysosomes in rat DRG neurons and their transportation to the central nerve terminal in dorsal horn after nerve injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, J; Uesugi, N; Jeong, N Y; Park, B S; Konishi, H; Kiyama, H

    2016-01-28

    In the spinal dorsal horn (DH), nerve injury activates microglia and induces neuropathic pain. Several studies clarified an involvement of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) in the microglial activation. However, the origin of ATP together with the release mechanism is unclear. Recent in vitro study revealed that an ATP marker, quinacrine, in lysosomes was released from neurite terminal of dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons to extracellular space via lysosomal exocytosis. Here, we demonstrate a possibility that the lysosomal ingredient including ATP released from DRG neurons by lysosomal-exocytosis is an additional source of the glial activation in DH after nerve injury. After rat L5 spinal nerve ligation (SNL), mRNA for transcription factor EB (TFEB), a transcription factor controlling lysosomal activation and exocytosis, was induced in the DRG. Simultaneously both lysosomal protein, LAMP1- and vesicular nuclear transporter (VNUT)-positive vesicles were increased in L5 DRG neurons and ipsilateral DH. The quinacrine staining in DH was increased and co-localized with LAMP1 immunoreactivity after nerve injury. In DH, LAMP1-positive vesicles were also co-localized with a peripheral nerve marker, Isolectin B4 (IB4) lectin. Injection of the adenovirus encoding mCherry-LAMP1 into DRG showed that mCherry-positive lysosomes are transported to the central nerve terminal in DH. These findings suggest that activation of lysosome synthesis including ATP packaging in DRG, the central transportation of the lysosome, and subsequent its exocytosis from the central nerve terminal of DRG neurons in response to nerve injury could be a partial mechanism for activation of microglia in DH. This lysosome-mediated microglia activation mechanism may provide another clue to control nociception and pain. Copyright © 2015 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. iMAST Quarterly, Number 2, 2003

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Singh, Jogender; Wolfe, Douglas E

    2003-01-01

    .... This issue features an article on: Tailored Microstructure of Zirconia and Hafnia-Based Thermal Barrier Coatings with Low Thermal Conductivity and High Hemispherical Reflectance by EB-PVD, as well as Institute Notes, personnel changes...

  14. Guides d’onde en verres et vitrocéramiques fluorés dopés terre rare élaborés par PVD pour l’émission dans le visible et la conversion de fréquence

    OpenAIRE

    Dieudonné , Belto

    2012-01-01

    The project joins in the development of miniaturized laser sources RGB for display and videoprojection, frequency conversion in solar cells.Fluoride glasses ZLAG ( ZrF4-LaF3-AlF3-GaF3) co-doped with rare earths were studied. This glass has a low phonon energy, a strong solubility of the rare earth ions and can be fabricated as thin films by PVD. It is also the precursor of transparent glass-ceramics. Similar emissions in both co-doped bulk and waveguides have been observed ; blue, orange, red...

  15. Microtexture of the thermally grown alumina in commercial thermal barrier coatings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karadge, M. [School of Materials, University of Manchester, Grosvenor St., Manchester M1 7HS (United Kingdom); Zhao, X. [School of Materials, University of Manchester, Grosvenor St., Manchester M1 7HS (United Kingdom); Preuss, M. [School of Materials, University of Manchester, Grosvenor St., Manchester M1 7HS (United Kingdom); Xiao, P. [School of Materials, University of Manchester, Grosvenor St., Manchester M1 7HS (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: Ping.Xiao@manchester.ac.uk

    2006-02-15

    otextures of the thermally grown {alpha}-alumina (TGO) in isothermally treated and thermal cycled electron beam physical vapor deposited thermal barrier coatings (EB-PVD-TBC) and isothermally treated air plasma sprayed (APS-TBC) specimens were studied by high resolution electron back-scattered diffraction. The TGO in EB-PVD specimens exhibited a basal microtexture. The TGO in APS specimens, however, did not show any significant microtexture development.

  16. Advanced Nuclear Fuel Cycle Effects on the Treatment of Uncertainty in the Long-Term Assessment of Geologic Disposal Systems - EBS Input

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sutton, M.; Blink, J.A.; Greenberg, H.R.; Sharma, M.

    2012-01-01

    The Used Fuel Disposition (UFD) Campaign within the Department of Energy's Office of Nuclear Energy (DOE-NE) Fuel Cycle Technology (FCT) program has been tasked with investigating the disposal of the nation's spent nuclear fuel (SNF) and high-level nuclear waste (HLW) for a range of potential waste forms and geologic environments. The planning, construction, and operation of a nuclear disposal facility is a long-term process that involves engineered barriers that are tailored to both the geologic environment and the waste forms being emplaced. The UFD Campaign is considering a range of fuel cycles that in turn produce a range of waste forms. The UFD Campaign is also considering a range of geologic media. These ranges could be thought of as adding uncertainty to what the disposal facility design will ultimately be; however, it may be preferable to thinking about the ranges as adding flexibility to design of a disposal facility. For example, as the overall DOE-NE program and industrial actions result in the fuel cycles that will produce waste to be disposed, and the characteristics of those wastes become clear, the disposal program retains flexibility in both the choice of geologic environment and the specific repository design. Of course, other factors also play a major role, including local and State-level acceptance of the specific site that provides the geologic environment. In contrast, the Yucca Mountain Project (YMP) repository license application (LA) is based on waste forms from an open fuel cycle (PWR and BWR assemblies from an open fuel cycle). These waste forms were about 90% of the total waste, and they were the determining waste form in developing the engineered barrier system (EBS) design for the Yucca Mountain Repository design. About 10% of the repository capacity was reserved for waste from a full recycle fuel cycle in which some actinides were extracted for weapons use, and the remaining fission products and some minor actinides were encapsulated

  17. ADVANCED NUCLEAR FUEL CYCLE EFFECTS ON THE TREATMENT OF UNCERTAINTY IN THE LONG-TERM ASSESSMENT OF GEOLOGIC DISPOSAL SYSTEMS - EBS INPUT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sutton, M; Blink, J A; Greenberg, H R; Sharma, M

    2012-04-25

    The Used Fuel Disposition (UFD) Campaign within the Department of Energy's Office of Nuclear Energy (DOE-NE) Fuel Cycle Technology (FCT) program has been tasked with investigating the disposal of the nation's spent nuclear fuel (SNF) and high-level nuclear waste (HLW) for a range of potential waste forms and geologic environments. The planning, construction, and operation of a nuclear disposal facility is a long-term process that involves engineered barriers that are tailored to both the geologic environment and the waste forms being emplaced. The UFD Campaign is considering a range of fuel cycles that in turn produce a range of waste forms. The UFD Campaign is also considering a range of geologic media. These ranges could be thought of as adding uncertainty to what the disposal facility design will ultimately be; however, it may be preferable to thinking about the ranges as adding flexibility to design of a disposal facility. For example, as the overall DOE-NE program and industrial actions result in the fuel cycles that will produce waste to be disposed, and the characteristics of those wastes become clear, the disposal program retains flexibility in both the choice of geologic environment and the specific repository design. Of course, other factors also play a major role, including local and State-level acceptance of the specific site that provides the geologic environment. In contrast, the Yucca Mountain Project (YMP) repository license application (LA) is based on waste forms from an open fuel cycle (PWR and BWR assemblies from an open fuel cycle). These waste forms were about 90% of the total waste, and they were the determining waste form in developing the engineered barrier system (EBS) design for the Yucca Mountain Repository design. About 10% of the repository capacity was reserved for waste from a full recycle fuel cycle in which some actinides were extracted for weapons use, and the remaining fission products and some minor actinides were

  18. Significance of a Noble Metal Nanolayer on the UV and Visible Light Photocatalytic Activity of Anatase TiO2 Thin Films Grown from a Scalable PECVD/PVD Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baba, Kamal; Bulou, Simon; Quesada-Gonzalez, Miguel; Bonot, Sébastien; Collard, Delphine; Boscher, Nicolas D; Choquet, Patrick

    2017-11-29

    UV and visible light photocatalytic composite Pt and Au-TiO 2 coatings have been deposited on silicon and glass substrates at low temperature using a hybrid ECWR-PECVD/MS-PVD process. Methylene blue, stearic acid, and sulfamethoxazole were used as dye, organic, and antibiotic model pollutants, respectively, to demonstrate the efficiency of these nanocomposite coatings for water decontamination or self-cleaning surfaces applications. Raman investigations revealed the formation of anatase polymorph of TiO 2 in all synthesized coatings with a shifting of the main vibrational mode peak to higher wavenumber in the case of Au-TiO 2 coating, indicating an increase number of crystalline defects within this coating. Because of the difference of the chemical potentials of each of the investigated noble metals, the sputtered metal layers exhibit different morphology. Pt sputtered atoms, with high surface adhesion, promote formation of a smooth 2D layer. On the other hand, Au sputtered atoms with higher cohesive forces promote the formation of 5-10 nm nanoparticles. As a result, the surface plasmon resonance phenomenon was observed in the Au-TiO 2 coatings. UV photoactivity of the nanocomposite coatings was enhanced 1.5-3 times and 1.3 times for methylene blue and stearic acid, respectively, thanks to the enhancement of electron trapping in the noble metal layer. This electron trapping phenomenon is higher in the Pt-TiO 2 coating because of its larger work function. On the other hand, the enhancement of the visible photoactivity was more pronounced (3 and 7 times for methylene blue and stearic acid, respectively) in the case of Au-TiO 2 thanks to the surface plasmon resonance. Finally, these nanocomposite TiO 2 coatings exhibited also a good ability for the degradation of antibiotics usually found in wastewater such as sulfamethoxazole. However, a complementary test have showed an increase of the toxicity of the liquid medium after photocatalysis, which could be due the

  19. Dependence of surface-enhanced infrared absorption (SEIRA) enhancement and spectral quality on the choice of underlying substrate: a closer look at silver (Ag) films prepared by physical vapor deposition (PVD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Killian, Michelle M; Villa-Aleman, Eliel; Sun, Zhelin; Crittenden, Scott; Leverette, Chad L

    2011-03-01

    Silver (Ag) films of varying thickness were simultaneously deposited using physical vapor deposition (PVD) onto six infrared (IR) substrates (BaF(2), CaF(2), Ge, AMTIR, KRS-5, and ZnSe) in order to correlate the morphology of the deposited film with optimal SEIRA response and spectral band symmetry and quality. Significant differences were observed in the surface morphology of the deposited silver films, the degree of enhancement provided, and the spectral appearance of para-nitrobenzoic acid (PNBA) cast films for each silver-coated substrate. These differences were attributed to each substrate's chemical properties, which dictate the morphology of the Ag film and ultimately determine the spectral appearance of the adsorbed analyte and the magnitude of SEIRA enhancement. Routine SEIRA enhancement factors (EFs) for all substrates were between 5 and 150. For single-step Ag depositions, the following ranking identifies the greatest SEIRA enhancement factor and the maximum absorption of the 1345 cm(-1) spectral marker of PNBA at the optimal silver thickness for each substrate: BaF(2) (EF = 85 ± 19, 0.059 A, 10 nm Ag) > CaF(2) (EF = 75 ± 30, 0.052 A, 10 nm Ag) > Ge (EF = 45 ± 8, 0.019 A, 5 nm Ag) > AMTIR (EF = 38 ± 8, 0.024 A, 15 nm Ag) > KRS-5 (EF = 24 ± 1, 0.015 A, 12 nm Ag) > ZnSe (EF = 9 ± 5, 0.008 A, 8 nm Ag). A two-step deposition provides 59% larger EFs than single-step depositions of Ag on CaF(2). A maximum EF of 147 was calculated for a cast film of PNBA (surface coverage = 341 ng/cm(2)) on a 10 nm two-step Ag film on CaF(2) (0.102 A, 1345 cm(-1) symmetric NO(2) stretching band). The morphology of the two-step Ag film has smaller particles and greater particle density than the single-step Ag film.

  20. Identification of the IGF-1 processing product human Ec/rodent Eb peptide in various tissues: Evidence for its differential regulation after exercise-induced muscle damage in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vassilakos, George; Philippou, Anastassios; Koutsilieris, Michael

    2017-02-01

    Insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) is a pleiotropic factor expressed in various tissues and plays a critical role in skeletal muscle physiology. Alternative splicing of the IGF-1 gene gives rise to different precursor polypeptides (isoforms) which could undergo post-translational cleavage, generating the common mature IGF-1 peptide and different carboxyl terminal extension (E-) peptides, with the fate of the latter being, so far, unknown. The objective if this study was to identify the IGF-1Ec forms or processing product(s), other than mature IGF-1, generated in different human and rodent tissues and particularly in human skeletal muscle after exercise-induced damage. Protein lysates from a wide range of human and rodent tissues were immunoblotted with a rabbit anti-human Ec polyclonal antibody raised against the last 24 amino acids of the C-terminal of the Ec peptide. This antibody can recognize the Ec peptide, both as part of IGF-1Ec and alone, and also the corresponding rodent forms, due to the high homology that the human Ec shares with the rodent Eb. We were able to confirm, for the first time, that the human Ec peptide and its rodent homologous Eb peptide are produced simultaneously with their precursor protein (pro-IGF-1Ec/Eb) in vivo, in a wide range of tissues (e.g. muscle, liver, heart). Proprotein convertase furin digestion of human muscle and liver protein lysates confirmed that the higher molecular form, pro-IGF-1Ec, can be cleaved to produce the free Ec peptide. Furthermore, initial evidence is provided that Ec peptide is differentially regulated during the process of muscle regeneration after exercise-induced damage in humans. The findings of this study possibly imply that the post-translational modification of the IGF-1Ec pro-peptide may regulate the bioavailability and activity of the processing product(s). Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  1. Projekt v prostředí sportovních a tělovýchovných služeb - Rekondiční centrum Brno

    OpenAIRE

    Musilová, Erika

    2015-01-01

    Bakalářská práce řeší projekt v prostředí sportovních a tělovýchovných služeb.práce je zpracovat projekt rekondičního centra. Bakalářská práce vychází z analýzy zařízení a z porovnání center stejného typu v jiných městech České republiky. Práce uvádí vlastní návrhy na zlepšení služeb rekondičního centra v Brně a celé sítě rekondičních center formou franchisingu. This bachelor's thesis deals with a project in the sports and physical education environment. The target is to develop a project ...

  2. Fatigue performance of TBCs on Hastelloy X substrate during cyclic bending

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mušálek, Radek; Kovářík, O.; Tomek, L.; Medřický, Jan; Pala, Zdeněk; Haušild, P.; Čapek, J.; Kolařík, K.; Curry, N.; Bjorklund, S.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 25, 1-2 (2016), s. 231-243 ISSN 1059-9630. [ITSC 2015: International Thermal Spray Conference and Exposition. Long Beach, California, 11.05.2015-14.05.2015] R&D Projects: GA ČR GB14-36566G Institutional support: RVO:61389021 Keywords : atmospheric plasma spray * failure mechanism * fatigue * HVAF * NiCoCrAlY * thermal barrier coatings * yttria-stabilized zirconia Subject RIV: JK - Corrosion ; Surface Treatment of Materials Impact factor: 1.488, year: 2016 http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs11666-015-0321-4

  3. Novel thermal barrier coatings based on La{sub 2}(Zr{sub 0.7}Ce{sub 0.3}){sub 2}O{sub 7}/8YSZ double-ceramic-layer systems deposited by electron beam physical vapor deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu Zhenhua, E-mail: zhxuciac@yahoo.com.cn [Beijing Institute of Aeronautical Materials, Department 5, P.O. Box 81-5, Beijing 100095 (China); He Shimei; He Limin; Mu Rende; Huang Guanghong [Beijing Institute of Aeronautical Materials, Department 5, P.O. Box 81-5, Beijing 100095 (China); Cao Xueqiang [State Key Laboratory of Rare Earth Resource Utilization, Changchun Institute of Applied Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changchun 130022 (China)

    2011-03-17

    Research highlights: > LZ7C3 and YSZ have good chemical compatibility for the formation of DCL coating. > DCL coating has a longer lifetime than that of single layer coating of LZ7C3 or YSZ. > Similar TECs of LZ7C3 with YSZ coatings and YSZ coating with TGO layer. > Unique growth modes of columns within DCL coating. > Outward diffusion of Cr element (bond coat) into LZ7C3 layer. - Abstract: Double-ceramic-layer (DCL) thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) of La{sub 2}(Zr{sub 0.7}Ce{sub 0.3}){sub 2}O{sub 7} (LZ7C3) and yttria stabilized zirconia (YSZ) were deposited by electron beam-physical vapor deposition (EB-PVD). The thermal cycling test at 1373 K in an air furnace indicates the DCL coating has a much longer lifetime than the single layer LZ7C3 coating, and even longer than that of the single layer YSZ coating. The superior sintering-resistance of LZ7C3 coating, the similar thermal expansion behaviors of YSZ interlayer with LZ7C3 coating and thermally grown oxide (TGO) layer, and the unique growth modes of columns within DCL coating are all very helpful to the prolongation of thermal cycling life of DCL coating. The failure of DCL coating is mainly a result of the reduction-oxidation of cerium oxide, the crack initiation, propagation and extension, the abnormal oxidation of bond coat, the degradation of t'-phase in YSZ coating and the outward diffusion of Cr alloying element into LZ7C3 coating.

  4. Moisture-Induced TBC Spallation on Turbine Blade Samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smialek, James

    2011-01-01

    Delayed failure of TBCs is a widely observed laboratory phenomenon, although many of the early observations went unreported. The weekend effect or DeskTop Spallation (DTS) is characterized by initial survival of a TBC after accelerated laboratory thermal cycling, then failure by exposure to ambient humidity or water. Once initiated, failure can occur quite dramatically in less than a second. To this end, the water drop test and digital video recordings have become useful techniques in studies at NASA (Smialek, Zhu, Cuy), DECHMA (Rudolphi, Renusch, Schuetze), and CNRS Toulouse/SNECMA (Deneux, Cadoret, Hervier, Monceau). In the present study the results for a commercial turbine blade, with a standard EB-PVD 7YSZ TBC top coat and Pt-aluminide diffusion bond coat are reported. Cut sections were intermittently oxidized at 1100, 1150, and 1200 C and monitored by weight change and visual appearance. Failures were distributed widely over a 5-100 hr time range, depending on temperature. At some opportune times, failure was captured by video recording, documenting the appearance and speed of the moisture-induced spallation process. Failure interfaces exhibited alumina scale grains, decorated with Ta-rich oxide particles, and alumina inclusions as islands and streamers. The phenomenon is thus rooted in moisture-induced delayed spallation (MIDS) of the alumina scale formed on the bond coat. In that regard, many studies show the susceptibility of alumina scales to moisture, as long as high strain energy and a partially exposed interface exist. The latter conditions result from severe cyclic oxidation conditions, which produce a highly stressed and partially damaged scale. In one model, it has been proposed that moisture reacts with aluminum in the bond coat to release hydrogen atoms that embrittle the interface. A negative synergistic effect with interfacial sulfur is also invoked.

  5. A.C. impedance, XRD, DSC, SEM and charge/discharge studies on Al2O3, TiO2, SiO2 dispersoid LiPF6/PVC/PVdF-co-HFP composite polymer electrolytes by phase inversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vickraman, P.; Gopukumar, S.

    2017-07-01

    The PVC/PVdF-co-HFP composite polymer electrolyte membranes (CPEMs) by varying blend ratios 1:1, 1:2, and 2:1 with fixed content of Al2O3, TiO2 and SiO2 having soaked in 0.5 M LiPF6 in EC/DEC (1:1) v/v) have been prepared by phase inversion. CPEMs of higher ionic conductivity (not dependent on electrolyte uptake as observed in our study) ASA4 (3.61×10-4 Scm-1), TSA3 (1.53×10-4 Scm-1), and SSA3 (4.81×10-4 Scm-1) have been only chosen for XRD, DSC, SEM and electrochemical studies. In XRD, crystalline peaks (phases) of PVdF have been noted with/without change in intensity as well as FWHM which correspond to type of filler interaction with host matrix. In DSC, it is observed that shifts in baseline, melting endotherms, and area under the endotherms indicating the thermal hist ory of PVC (Tg = 82 ° C) and melting of VdF crystallites varied with nature of the filler dispersoid. In SEM, the coagulated fibrils of the polymer coiled with the sponge like structure has been mapped. The charge/discharge studies are carried out on these CPEMs at C/10 rate in the voltage range 2.8 V - 4.2 V, and it is noted that the TSA3 showed better cycling performance with good capacity retention i.e., 50 cycles with 66% capacity retention than ASA4 of 28 cycles with 65% and SSA3 of 5 cycles with 56%. In the present study Coulombic efficiency is concerned only for first cycle and it is noted that the TSA3 showed 71% than 66% and 62% respectively for SSA3 and ASA4.

  6. Status and perspectives of waste product utilisation in the T2C plant at Hoechst; Stand und Perspektiven in der EBS-Verwertung in der T2C-Anlage Hoechst

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lorbach, Dirk [Infraserv GmbH und Co. Hoechst KG, Frankfurt am Main (Germany). Geschaeftsfeld Energien

    2012-11-01

    The plant concept is based on combustion of a multitude of substitute fuels. According to the substitute fuel specifications for general entrepreneur EBARA, comminution of waste materials in a slow shredder should be sufficient, and experience so far has shown that this is indeed the case. The plant was commissioned in 2011, and the envisaged performance parameters were achieved after some initial difficulties, i.e. the envisaged volumes of waste could be combusted. The efficiency of heat generation was below expectations, however, as the integrated heat exchangers did not run at full capacity. Reconstruction of the plant is now planned with a view to optimizing the energy yield. It is expected that the energy efficiency goals will be reached in 2013. Modernisation will comprise retrofitting of a flue gas circulation system for better temperature control in the fluidized bed and for optimum energy yield. All other plant components - off-gas filters, water/steam cycle and turbine - work satisfactorily according to the planned parameters. (orig.) [German] Das Konzept der Anlage basiert auf der thermischen Verwertung einer Vielzahl von Ersatzbrennstoffen. Entsprechend der EBS-Spezifikation fuer den Generalunternehmer EBARA sollte fuer eine ausreichende Stueckgroesse eine Zerkleinerung der Abfaelle mit einem langsam laufenden Shredder ausreichen. In der bisherigen Inbetriebnahme hat sich gezeigt, dass dies grundsaetzlich von der Anlagentechnik, bis auf eine Einschraenkung, auch erreicht wird. Die Inbetriebnahme der Anlage wurde 2011 fuer den Dauerbetrieb abgeschlossen. Nach anfaenglichen Schwierigkeiten hat die Firma EBARA die vertraglichen Leistungsparameter im Bereich der Verbrennung erreicht. Die vorgesehenen EBS-Mengen koennen verbrannt werden. Bisher is allerdings die Waermeausbeute hinter den Erwartungen zurueckgeblieben, da die Einbauten in der Wirbelschicht, das sind integrierte Waermetauscher (HRC's), bisher ihre vollstaendige Leistung nicht erbracht

  7. Radiation sources EB and UV curing machines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takashi Sasaki

    1993-01-01

    This paper describes electron beam processors and related technologies for curing applications to facilitate those industrial personals who are trying to understand and evaluate the applicability and benefits of radiation curing to their products. 4 tabs., 10 figs

  8. EB/UV curing market in Malaysia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dahlan, Khairul Zaman; Nik Salleh, Nik Ghazali; Mahmood, Mohd Hilmi [Malaysian Inst. for Nuclear Technology Res. (MINT), Bangi (Malaysia)

    1999-07-01

    Radiation curing of coatings of wood based products is expanding and being used for curing of coatings of table tops, parquet, wood panel, furniture, curtain railing, etc. UV curing of over print varnish is still the main application of UV curing in printing industry. However, curing ofprinting ink has also been extended in the printing of CD and VCD in addition to other printing such as paper, magazine, label on bottles, metal-can, etc. In the electronic industry, the manufacturer of printed circuit board is still the main consumer of UV curable resins. On the other hand, low energy electron beam machine is used mainly for cross-linking of heat shrink films.

  9. EB/UV curing market in Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khairul Zaman Dahlan; Nik Ghazali Nik Salleh; Mohd Hilmi Mahmood

    1999-01-01

    Radiation curing of coatings of wood based products is expanding and being used for curing of coatings of table tops, parquet, wood panel, furniture, curtain railing, etc. UV curing of over print varnish is still the main application of UV curing in printing industry. However, curing of printing ink has also been extended in the printing of CD and VCD in addition to other printing such as paper, magazine, label on bottles, metal-can, etc. In the electronic industry, the manufacturer of printed circuit board is still the main consumer of UV curable resins. On the other hand, low energy electron beam machine is used mainly for cross-linking of heat shrink films

  10. The new AEA EB plant at Harwell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bailey, M.; Coates, M.S.; Down, J.; Findlay, D.J.S.; Leatham, A.M.; Sene, M.R.; Venard, R.E.; Webb, D.A.

    1995-01-01

    A new electron beam irradiation plant is at present being commissioned at AEA Technology's Harwell site. The principal components of the plant are a single-section travelling wave L-band linac, an energy analysis and beam scanning system, a product conveyor system and a large warehouse. The design of the new linac is based on the first section of the Harwell electron linear accelerator HELIOS originally used for nuclear research. The beam transport system on the new linac incorporates energy analysis, beam focusing and a dual magnet scanning system which ensures that the electron beam is always normal to the surface of the product under irradiation as it passes directly beneath the beam exit windows. The product conveyor system is based on an inverted ''power and free'' chain conveyor. The speed of the section of conveyor beneath the scanned beam is servo-controlled by the linac output, which is measured with a non-intercepting toroidal beam monitor. Dosimetry is based on Far West film for product validation, Harwell 4034 red perspex for routine dosimetry and Riso polystyrene calorimeters for direct electron beam monitoring. The design and first stages of plant commissioning are described. (author)

  11. The Beaverdam Group: Archaeological Investigations at 9EB92, 9EB207, 9EB208 and 9EB219 Richard B. Russell Multiple Resource Area, Elbert County, Georgia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-01-01

    emerging to suggest that the origin of domestication lies not locally but in Mesoamerica . Recent C-14 dated plant remains from 7 the Carlston-Annis site in...concept of horticulture that originated in Mesoamerica (Chomko and Crawford 1978:405). Whatever the source or inspiration of the appearance of food pro...historic period. Land-Use and Modification The records search on land-use and ownership primarily centered upon the available information in the Elbert

  12. Crosslinked polyethylene foams, via eb radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cardoso, E.C.L.; Lugao, A. B.; Andrade e Silva, L. G.

    1998-01-01

    Polyethylene foams, produced by radio-induced crosslinking, show a smooth and homogeneous surface, when compared to chemical crosslinking method using peroxide as crosslinking agent. This process fosters excellent adhesive and printability properties. Besides that, closed cells, intrinsic to these foams, imparts optimum mechanical, shocks and insulation resistance, indicating these foams to some markets segments as: automotive and transport; buoyancy, flotation and marine; building and insulation; packaging; domestic sports and leisure goods. We were in search of an ideal foam, by adding 5 to 15% of blowing agent in LDPE. A series of preliminary trials defined 203 degree sign C as the right blowing agent decomposition temperature. At a 22.7 kGys/dose ratio, the lowest dose for providing an efficient foam was 30 kGy, for a formulation comprising 10% of azodicarbonamide in LDPE, within a 10 minutes foaming time

  13. Radiation sources EB and UV curing machines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sasaki, Takashi [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Takasaki, Gunma (Japan). Takasaki Radiation Chemistry Research Establishment

    1994-12-31

    This paper describes electron beam processors and related technologies for curing applications to facilitate those industrial personals who are trying to understand and evaluate the applicability and benefits of radiation curing to their products. 4 tabs., 10 figs.

  14. RESONANCE--IF-eb-rua-rY

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The cell loses its ionic balance, which disables the conduction of nerve impulses, and also is not able to keep the nutrients in or wastes out, leading to the eventual death of the cell. When enough cells are killed, the patient begins to notice various neurological difficulties. Injury due to electroporation remains a very diffi-.

  15. EB surface sterilization of food material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaneko, H.; Mizutani, A.; Kato, K.; Nishikimi, T.; Taniguchi, S.

    2001-01-01

    In this paper, we introduce a food irradiation with low energetic, lower than 300keV, electrons (so-called SOFT ELECTRON) as a rather new method of food sterilization. It is also a physical sterilization method, and free from the problems mentioned above. Low energetic electrons have small penetration power (50-200micron) through raw materials, and by selecting a proper energy of electrons we can sterilize only the surfaces or skins of target materials

  16. Rakveres näeb uut teatrit

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2003-01-01

    Rakvere Teatris esineb 8. ja 9. aug. rahvusvaheline performance'i trupp Insightout Company, kus teeb kaasa ka Mari Mägi. Lavastus kannab pealkirja "Ära anda tulevik" ja see on inspireeritud trupi liikmete mälupiltidest ja I. Allende romaanist "Paula"

  17. 47 CFR 27.1201 - EBS eligibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ..., scheduling and production of programming. If other levels of authority must be obtained before a firm... production of the programming received over the system. (b) No numerical limit is placed on the number of... and that such programming will be incorporated in the site's curriculum. Where educational or...

  18. ETVs näeb uusi dokfilme

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2006-01-01

    ETVs täna kolm noore autori 2005.a. valminud dokumentaalfilmi : Kullar Viimse "Jumalaga", Kristin Raubi "O.M.V.K." ja Riin Kranna ja shveitslase Enrico Pizzolato "Vaimu võsuke". Viimase filmi meeskond koosneb India filmitudengitest, tegevus toimub Indias

  19. Limonaadikinos näeb teatrit

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2009-01-01

    25. juunil stardib Forum Cinemas keti suuremates kinodes pilootprojekt, kus linale jõuab otseülekanne London National Theatre etendusest "Phềdre", lavastaja Nicholas Hytner (Ted Hughes' versioon Jean Racine tragöödiast)

  20. Metallographic techniques for evaluation of Thermal Barrier Coatings produced by Electron Beam Physical Vapor Deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelly, Matthew; Singh, Jogender; Todd, Judith; Copley, Steven; Wolfe, Douglas

    2008-01-01

    Thermal Barrier Coatings (TBC) produced by Electron Beam Physical Vapor Deposition (EB-PVD) are primarily applied to critical hot section turbine components. EB-PVD TBC for turbine applications exhibit a complicated structure of porous ceramic columns separated by voids that offers mechanical compliance. Currently there are no standard evaluation methods for evaluating EB-PVD TBC structure quantitatively. This paper proposes a metallographic method for preparing samples and evaluating techniques to quantitatively measure structure. TBC samples were produced and evaluated with the proposed metallographic technique and digital image analysis for columnar grain size and relative intercolumnar porosity. Incorporation of the proposed evaluation technique will increase knowledge of the relation between processing parameters and material properties by incorporating a structural link. Application of this evaluation method will directly benefit areas of quality control, microstructural model development, and reduced development time for process scaling

  1. "EB, or Not EB?" Neonatal Desquamative Impetigo in a Degloving Pattern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Tuyet A; Wang, Audrey S; Eichenfield, Lawrence F; Barrio, Victoria

    2016-01-01

    We present the case of a 7-day-old boy with significant, rapidly spreading blistering and desquamation in a "degloving" pattern on the hands that mimicked epidermolysis bullosa but was ultimately diagnosed as bullous impetigo caused by a clinically aggressive strain of Staphylococcus aureus. Bullous impetigo is a desquamating condition caused by local release of S. aureus exfoliative toxin A and is more commonly seen in children. This case highlights the fragility of newborn skin and reviews the major diagnoses that should be considered in an infant with significant blistering. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. PVD and gas production: consider local resource access requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delafosse, E.

    1993-01-01

    The history of the natural gas industry worldwide teaches us that its development has sprung mainly from two sources: favorable contingent conditions, such as in the United States, where the discovery of large gas fields coincided favorably with technological progress and the already existing city gas distribution networks, as also happened in Italy and France; and political prodding, as in the Eastern European countries, in Japan, and certain countries of Western Europe too. Today, while natural gas is winning over more and more consumers and the infrastructures now exist, the rise in consumption is being held back by supply-related constraints, and namely the problem of adjusting to the rise in gas prices in the United States, and the distancing of the resources from Europe. In this context, the development of new gas markets in the developing countries could contribute to the continuous growth of the world natural gas industry. The resources do exist, and the possibility of generating electricity with them opens the way to creating or developing this industry in some twenty developing countries, to begin with, and a greater number later. For these countries, this perspective is highly enticing, economically; but development is slow, partly due to the fact that the specific requirements of gas production projects are not satisfied. The contractual and tax structure governing their implementation does not reflect the fact that, in contrast to the petroleum industry, the producer does not have access to a true market, and he is in fact only one of the wheels in an integrated production mechanism bent specifically on putting electrical power on the market. It is easy to see the difficulties that arise from such a situation, since the indispensable steps in the process, performed successively by producer, transporter, and electric company, use two interfaces with fields of business that are in close bilateral dependency. This leads to upstream inefficiency in investments and downstream inefficiency in trade. (author). 17 refs

  3. Evaluación de un puesto de PVD

    OpenAIRE

    Iturbe, Leire

    2012-01-01

    Actualmente, está fuera de duda que la ergonomía de los puestos con pantallas de visualización de datos constituye un requisito imprescindible para prevenir los problemas derivados del trabajo habitual y prolongado con este tipo de equipos: trastornos oculares, fatiga mental y problemas musculoesqueléticos. A estos problemas se encuentran expuestos actualmente extensos colectivos de trabajadores, colectivos cuyo crecimiento corre paralelo a la incesante expansión de la informática en las o...

  4. Industrial PVD metallization for high efficiency crystalline silicon solar cells

    OpenAIRE

    Nekarda, J.; Reinwand, D.; Grohe, A.; Hartmann, P.; Preu, R.; Trassl, R.; Wieder, S.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we present first results concerning different thermal evaporation processes for thin aluminum layers, which are carried out on a pilot system with a throughput of up to 540 wafers/h (156x156 mm2). To qualify the processes the deposited aluminum layers were evaluated with respect to homogeneity and conductivity. Additionally the effect of the different processes on the passivation quality of a thermally grown 100 nm thick SiO 2 was analyzed by means of lifetime measurements, indi...

  5. Software Design Document PVD CSCI (3). Volume 2, Appendices

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-06-01

    FUNCTION: Igeneric -type(Type, Overline) called~y: show Ioverline in overlineif.c, (null) boundary-action in ovline-func.c, (null) Ideparture-action in...2.8.2.2-22 Ideparture-action 2.8.2.2-28 ldeparturejabel 2.8.2.2-27 idone__create_action 2.8.2.2-39 igeneric -size 2.8.2.2-17 lgeneric-type, 2.8.2.2-24

  6. Tribological Properties of PVD Ti/C-N Nanocoatnigs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leitans, A.; Lungevics, J.; Rudzitis, J.; Filipovs, A.

    2017-04-01

    The present paper discusses and analyses tribological properties of various coatings that increase surface wear resistance. Four Ti/C-N nanocoatings with different coating deposition settings are analysed. Tribological and metrological tests on the samples are performed: 2D and 3D parameters of the surface roughness are measured with modern profilometer, and friction coefficient is measured with CSM Instruments equipment. Roughness parameters Ra, Sa, Sz, Str, Sds, Vmp, Vmc and friction coefficient at 6N load are determined during the experiment. The examined samples have many pores, which is the main reason for relatively large values of roughness parameter. A slight wear is identified in all four samples as well; its friction coefficient values range from 0,.21 to 0.29. Wear rate values are not calculated for the investigated coatings, as no expressed tribotracks are detected on the coating surface.

  7. Investigation of PVdF active diaphragms for synthetic jets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailo, Kelly C.; Brei, Diann E.; Calkins, Frederick T.

    2000-06-01

    Current research has shown that aircraft can gain significant aerodynamic performance benefits by employing active flow control (AFC). One of the enabling technologies of AFC is the synthetic jet. Synthetic jets, also known as zero-net-mass flux actuators, act as bi-directional pumps injecting high momentum air into the local aerodynamic flow. Previous work has concentrated on high frequency synthetic jets based on piezoelectric active diaphragms such as Thunder actuators. Low frequency synthetic jets present a unique challenge requiring large displacements, which current technology has difficulty meeting. Boeing is investigating novel shaped low frequency synthetic jets that can modify the flow over fixed aircraft wings. This paper present the initial study of two promising active diaphragm concepts: a crescent shape and an opposing bender shape. These active diaphragms were numerically modeled utilizing the general-purpose finite element code ABAQUS. Using the ABAQUS results, the dynamic volume change within each jet was calculated and incorporated into an analytical linear Bernoulli model to predict the velocities and pressures at the nozzle. Simulations were performed to determine trends to assist in selection of prototype configurations. Prototypes of both diaphragm concepts were constructed from polyvinylidene fluoride and experimentally tested at Boeing with promising results.

  8. Enhancing the oxidation resistance of graphite by applying an SiC coat with crack healing at an elevated temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jae-Won; Kim, Eung-Seon; Kim, Jae-Un; Kim, Yootaek; Windes, William E.

    2016-08-01

    The potential of reducing the oxidation of the supporting graphite components during normal and/or accident conditions in the Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) design has been studied. In this work efforts have been made to slow the oxidation process of the graphite with a thin SiC coating (∼ 10 μm). Upon heating at ≥ 1173 K in air, the spallations and cracks were formed in the dense columnar structured SiC coating layer grown on the graphite with a functionally gradient electron beam physical vapor deposition (EB-PVD. In accordance with the formations of these defects, the sample was vigorously oxidized, leaving only the SiC coating layer. Then, efforts were made to heal the surface defects using additional EB-PVD with ion beam bombardment and chemical vapor deposition (CVD). The EB-PVD did not effectively heal the cracks. But, the CVD was more appropriate for crack healing, likely due to its excellent crack line filling capability with a high density and high aspect ratio. It took ∼ 34 min for the 20% weight loss of the CVD crack healed sample in the oxidation test with annealing at 1173 K, while it took ∼ 8 min for the EB-PVD coated sample, which means it took ∼4 times longer at 1173 K for the same weight reduction in this experimental set-up.

  9. Effect of Suspension Plasma-Sprayed YSZ Columnar Microstructure and Bond Coat Surface Preparation on Thermal Barrier Coating Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernard, Benjamin; Quet, Aurélie; Bianchi, Luc; Schick, Vincent; Joulia, Aurélien; Malié, André; Rémy, Benjamin

    2017-08-01

    Suspension plasma spraying (SPS) is identified as promising for the enhancement of thermal barrier coating (TBC) systems used in gas turbines. Particularly, the emerging columnar microstructure enabled by the SPS process is likely to bring about an interesting TBC lifetime. At the same time, the SPS process opens the way to a decrease in thermal conductivity, one of the main issues for the next generation of gas turbines, compared to the state-of-the-art deposition technique, so-called electron beam physical vapor deposition (EB-PVD). In this paper, yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) coatings presenting columnar structures, performed using both SPS and EB-PVD processes, were studied. Depending on the columnar microstructure readily adaptable in the SPS process, low thermal conductivities can be obtained. At 1100 °C, a decrease from 1.3 W m-1 K-1 for EB-PVD YSZ coatings to about 0.7 W m-1 K-1 for SPS coatings was shown. The higher content of porosity in the case of SPS coatings increases the thermal resistance through the thickness and decreases thermal conductivity. The lifetime of SPS YSZ coatings was studied by isothermal cyclic tests, showing equivalent or even higher performances compared to EB-PVD ones. Tests were performed using classical bond coats used for EB-PVD TBC coatings. Thermal cyclic fatigue performance of the best SPS coating reached 1000 cycles to failure on AM1 substrates with a β-(Ni,Pt)Al bond coat. Tests were also performed on AM1 substrates with a Pt-diffused γ-Ni/γ'-Ni3Al bond coat for which more than 2000 cycles to failure were observed for columnar SPS YSZ coatings. The high thermal compliance offered by both the columnar structure and the porosity allowed the reaching of a high lifetime, promising for a TBC application.

  10. High-rate deposition of SI absorber layers by electron beam evaporation and first electron beam crystallization tests

    OpenAIRE

    Saager, Stefan; Ben Yaala, Marwa; Heinß, Jens-Peter; Temmler, Dietmar; Pfefferling, Bert; Metzner, Christoph

    2014-01-01

    In earlier electron beam physical vapor deposition tests (EB-PVD), using a conventional copper crucible (A), high Si deposition rates at relatively high EB power together with a contamination level of 1016 cm-3 are demonstrated. To improve the rate vs. EB power relation as well as the Si layer purity, two alternative high rate EBPVD methods are investigated and reported here - a contact-less crucible setup (B) and a crucible-free setup (C).In these experiments comparable deposition rates of ~...

  11. Enhancing the oxidation resistance of graphite by applying an SiC coat with crack healing at an elevated temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Jae-Won, E-mail: pjw@kaeri.re.kr [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, 1045 Daedeok-Daero, Yuseong-Gu, Daejeon-City (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Eung-Seon; Kim, Jae-Un [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, 1045 Daedeok-Daero, Yuseong-Gu, Daejeon-City (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Yootaek [Dept. of Materials Engineering, Kyonggi Universtiy, Suwon (Korea, Republic of); Windes, William E. [Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho Falls, ID 83415 (United States)

    2016-08-15

    Highlights: • Ion beam mixed SiC coating was performed on the graphite for the enhanced adhesion. • The SiC coated was cracked at the elevated temperature, confirming the strong bonding, and then was vigorously oxidized leaving only the SiC layer. • For crack healing, CVD crack healing increased by ∼4 times in 20% weight reduction in air at 900 °C as compared to PVD crack healing. - Abstract: The potential of reducing the oxidation of the supporting graphite components during normal and/or accident conditions in the Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) design has been studied. In this work efforts have been made to slow the oxidation process of the graphite with a thin SiC coating (∼ 10 μm). Upon heating at ≥ 1173 K in air, the spallations and cracks were formed in the dense columnar structured SiC coating layer grown on the graphite with a functionally gradient electron beam physical vapor deposition (EB-PVD. In accordance with the formations of these defects, the sample was vigorously oxidized, leaving only the SiC coating layer. Then, efforts were made to heal the surface defects using additional EB-PVD with ion beam bombardment and chemical vapor deposition (CVD). The EB-PVD did not effectively heal the cracks. But, the CVD was more appropriate for crack healing, likely due to its excellent crack line filling capability with a high density and high aspect ratio. It took ∼ 34 min for the 20% weight loss of the CVD crack healed sample in the oxidation test with annealing at 1173 K, while it took ∼ 8 min for the EB-PVD coated sample, which means it took ∼4 times longer at 1173 K for the same weight reduction in this experimental set-up.

  12. Enhancing the oxidation resistance of graphite by applying an SiC coat with crack healing at an elevated temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Jae-Won; Kim, Eung-Seon; Kim, Jae-Un; Kim, Yootaek; Windes, William E.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Ion beam mixed SiC coating was performed on the graphite for the enhanced adhesion. • The SiC coated was cracked at the elevated temperature, confirming the strong bonding, and then was vigorously oxidized leaving only the SiC layer. • For crack healing, CVD crack healing increased by ∼4 times in 20% weight reduction in air at 900 °C as compared to PVD crack healing. - Abstract: The potential of reducing the oxidation of the supporting graphite components during normal and/or accident conditions in the Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) design has been studied. In this work efforts have been made to slow the oxidation process of the graphite with a thin SiC coating (∼ 10 μm). Upon heating at ≥ 1173 K in air, the spallations and cracks were formed in the dense columnar structured SiC coating layer grown on the graphite with a functionally gradient electron beam physical vapor deposition (EB-PVD. In accordance with the formations of these defects, the sample was vigorously oxidized, leaving only the SiC coating layer. Then, efforts were made to heal the surface defects using additional EB-PVD with ion beam bombardment and chemical vapor deposition (CVD). The EB-PVD did not effectively heal the cracks. But, the CVD was more appropriate for crack healing, likely due to its excellent crack line filling capability with a high density and high aspect ratio. It took ∼ 34 min for the 20% weight loss of the CVD crack healed sample in the oxidation test with annealing at 1173 K, while it took ∼ 8 min for the EB-PVD coated sample, which means it took ∼4 times longer at 1173 K for the same weight reduction in this experimental set-up.

  13. EB technology for the purification of flue gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kojima, Takuji

    2003-01-01

    Sulfur oxides and nitrogen oxides in flue gas from coal-combustion boilers in power plants, dioxins in flue gas from municipal waste incineration facilities and toxic volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in off-gas from painting or cleaning factories are among air pollutants for which emission is regulated by a law in Japan. Electron beam is the effective and easy controllable radiation source for treatment of these flue gases. This report describes outline of the results so far obtained at JAERI on electron beam treatment of flue gas. The removal performance higher than 90% at 10 kGy for flue gas containing 800 ppm SOx and 225 ppm NOx were achieved and being applied to real-scale power plants in Poland and China with expectation of cost reduction of 20% compared to conventional plants. Decomposition of dioxins in flue gas from solid waste incinerators is another project. Using an accelerator of 300 keV and 40 mA for treatment of real incineration gas at 200degC, we obtain 90% decomposition of dioxins at 15 kGy irradiation. Expansion of these flue gas purification technologies combined with low-energy electron accelerators is expected. (S. Ohno)

  14. Úloha franchisingu na trhu služeb

    OpenAIRE

    PEJSAROVÁ, Lenka

    2012-01-01

    This thesis is focused on the analysis of provided tourism services and supplementary services on the examples of franchise chains. Thesis is applied to the branches of the franchise companies McDonald´s, Fruitisimo Café and Bushman in České Budějovice. The target is to evaluate actual services and perception of offers by guests, clients or potential guests, to make some new services suggestion for the future given to the current market situation and to design a new product for supply diversi...

  15. Põlvas näeb Ove Mustingu filmi / Tiia Allas

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Allas, Tiia

    2006-01-01

    8. jaan. linastub Põlva kultuurikeskuses lühimängufilm "Vanameeste paradiis" : stsenaristid Ove Musting (ka idee autor), Urmas Lennuk : režissöör Ove Musting : operaator Mait Mäekivi : helilooja Arian Levin : kunstnik Eva-Marina Gramanovski : näitlejad Tõnu Aav, Aleksander Eelmaa, Tõnu Oja, Ants Ander, Henry Kõrvits : Downtown Pictures 2005

  16. General solution to the E-B mixing problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, Kendrick M.; Zaldarriaga, Matias

    2007-01-01

    We derive a general ansatz for optimizing pseudo-C l estimators used to measure cosmic microwave background anisotropy power spectra, and apply it to the recently proposed pure pseudo-C l formalism, to obtain an estimator which achieves near-optimal B-mode power spectrum errors for any specified noise distribution while minimizing leakage from ambiguous modes. Our technique should be relevant for upcoming cosmic microwave background polarization experiments searching for B-mode polarization. We compare our technique both to the theoretical limits based on a full Fisher matrix calculation and to the standard pseudo-C l technique. We demonstrate it by applying it to a fiducial survey with realistic inhomogeneous noise, complex boundaries, point source masking, and a noise level comparable to what is expected for next-generation experiments (∼5.75 μK-arcmin). For such an experiment our technique could improve the constraints on the amplitude of a gravity wave background by over a factor of 10 compared to what could be obtained using ordinary pseudo-C l , coming quite close to saturating the theoretical limit. Constraints on the amplitude of the lensing B-modes are improved by about a factor of 3

  17. Vaatab ja näeb teistmoodi / Aavo Kokk

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kokk, Aavo, 1964-

    2002-01-01

    Kui varem oli strateegilise planeerimise alus ettevõtetes see, kuidas tulevikku paremini ette näha, siis nüüd arutavad ettevõtted selle üle, kuidas tekitada uus turg ja uus nõudlus. Lennukifirmade Airbus ja Boeing erinev ettekujutus lennunduse arengust

  18. Kumus näeb maailmamuutjaid / Helen Teesalu

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Teesalu, Helen

    2008-01-01

    Maailmamuutjate filmifestival näitab neljal järjestikusel kolmapäeval dokfilme eriliste inimeste erilistest ettevõtmistest. Täna on Kumus Chema Rodrigueze "Raudtee tähed", mida kommenteerivad Eda Mölder ja Artur Taevere

  19. Broadband Radio Service (BRS) and Educational Broadband Service (EBS) Transmitters

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — The Broadband Radio Service (BRS), formerly known as the Multipoint Distribution Service (MDS)/Multichannel Multipoint Distribution Service (MMDS), is a commercial...

  20. Experiments on high power EB evaporation of niobium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kandaswamy, E.; Bhardwaj, R.L.; Ram Gopal; Ray, A.K.; Kulgod, S.V.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: The versatility of electron beam evaporation makes the deposition of many new and unusual materials possible. This technique offers freedom from contamination and precise control. High power electron guns are especially used for obtaining high evaporation rates for large area coatings. This paper deals with the coating experiments carried out on an indigenously developed high power strip electron gun with niobium as evaporant at 40 kW on S.S. substrate. The practical problems of conditioning the gun and venting the vacuum system after the high power operation are also discussed. The coating rate was calculated by weight difference method

  1. "Georgicat" näeb USA-s Californias

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2000-01-01

    Sulev Keeduse mängufilm "Georgica" linastub Berkeley kinos Fine Arts Cinema. Edasi läheb film Poola eesti filmi päevadele 6.-10. novembrini. Seal näidatakse ka V. Kuigi lühimängufilmi "Lurjus" ja R. Heidmetsa lastefilmi "Kallis härra Q"

  2. Kinos näeb Dostojevski "Idiooti" / Andres Laasik

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Laasik, Andres, 1960-2016

    2011-01-01

    12. oktoobril esilinastub Fjodor Dostojevski romaanil põhinev Rainer Sarneti mängufilm "Idioot". Peaosas Risto Kübar. Film valiti 6. oktoobril alanud Lõuna-Korea Busani rahvusvahelise filmifestivali programmi Flash Forward

  3. Kas inimkond näeb aastat 2106? / Stephen Hawking

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Hawking, Stephen W., 1942-

    2006-01-01

    Briti füüsik Stephen Hawking avas Yahoo! internetifoorumis debati, küsides foorumikasutajatelt: "Maailmas valitseb poliitiline, sotsiaalne ja ökoloogiline kaos - kuidas suudab inimkond järgmised sada aastat üle elada?". Kommenteerivad julgeolekuekspert Eerik-Niiles Kross, meditsiiniteaduste doktor Mari Järvelaid ja keskkonnaekspert Marek Strandberg

  4. Formulation of eb-curable epoxy resin : some important parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dahlan bin Haji Mohd; Hosoi, Fumio; Sasaki, Takashi

    1989-01-01

    The works on the electron-beam curing of surface coatings using epoxy acrylic-based resins were discussed. The works covered among other things the effect of molecular weights of the resins on the physical properties of coatings and their physical and chemical characterizations. The emphasis was given to formulating the resins applicable to surface coatings. Curings were done on a low-energy electron beam accelerator operating at 250 kV. A number of parameters deemed important to formulations, such as the molecular weights of the oligomers and monomers, monomer ratios, and HEA additions were explored. It was found that one could modify the physical properties of the coatings by changing or adjusting those parameters. (author)

  5. Muuseumis näeb puupõletusprotsessi / Lea Pruuli

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Pruuli, Lea

    2001-01-01

    Tarbekunstimuuseumis keraamikanäitusel "Läbipaistev põletus" on asuurkeraamika ateljee kunstnikud Urmas Puhkan, Kärt Seppel, Külli Kõiv, Kadri Pärnamets, Aigi Orav ja ameerika keraamik Kenneth Jarvis rekonstrueerinud unikaalse keraamika põletusprotsessi.

  6. Jõgeval näeb taas kino / Silja Paavle

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Paavle, Silja, 1976-

    2008-01-01

    Kultuuriministeeriumi programmi "Kino tuleb tagasi" ja linna enda rahadega on Jõgeva linna kultuurikeskuses taas võimalik kvaliteetselt kino näidata. Vastava esmaklassilise tehnika tõi kohale Music Center OÜ. Osteti see Itaaliast

  7. Vallitornis näeb lasteraamatute illustratsioone / Andrus Eesmaa

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Eesmaa, Andrus, 1971-

    2000-01-01

    Paide Vallitornis on 12.-31. juulini avatud lasteraamatute illustratsioonide näitus; torni kahel esimesel korrusel saab 8. juulini vaadata Ülo Tederi õlis ja pastellis teostatud loodusmaale ja vaikelusid

  8. Continuous EB welding of the reinforcement of the CMS conductor

    CERN Document Server

    Folch, R; Campi, D; Christin, R; Creton, J P; Curé, B; Hervé, A; Horváth, I L; Neuenschwander, J; Riboni, P; Sequeira-Lopes-Tavares, S; Sgobba, Stefano

    2002-01-01

    The Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) is one of the general-purpose detectors to be provided for the LHC project at CERN. The design field of the CMS superconducting magnet is 4 T, the magnetic length is 12.5 m and the free bore is 6 m. In order to withstand the electro-mechanical forces during the operation of the CMS magnet, the superconducting cable embedded in a 99.998% pure aluminum matrix is reinforced with two sections of aluminum alloy EN AW-6082 assembled by continuous Electron Beam Welding (EBW). A dedicated production line has been designed by Techmeta, a leading company in the field of EBW. The production line has a total length of 70 m. Non-stop welding of each of the 20 lengths of 2.5 km, required to build the coil, will last 22 hours. EBW is the most critical process involved in the production line. The main advantage of the EBW process is to minimize the Heat Affected Zone; this is particularly important for avoiding damage to the superconducting cable located only 4.7 mm from the welded joints. Two...

  9. Marketing v sektoru služeb

    OpenAIRE

    Šantrůčková, Jana

    2013-01-01

    The issue of my bachelor's thesis Marketing in the service sector is an analysis of the current status using each tools of the marketing mix in the selected segment of services and its evaluation. In the theoretic part there is an analysis of each tools of the marketing mix and specifics of marketing in the sector of services. The practical part valorizes the marketing mix and analysis of Starbucks coffee company and Mefisto café and Music bar is made SWOT. Finaly, there is a comparison with ...

  10. EB treatment of carbon nanotube-reinforced polymer composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szebényi, G.; Romhány, G.; Vajna, B.; Czvikovszky, T.

    2012-01-01

    A small amount — less than 0.5% — carbon nanotube reinforcement may improve the mechanical properties of epoxy based composite materials significantly. The basic technical problem on one side is the dispersion of the nanotubes into the viscous matrix resin, namely, the fine powder-like — less than 100 nanometer diameter — nanotubes are prone to form aggregates. On the other side, the good connection between the nanofiber and matrix, which is determining the success of the reinforcement, requires some efficient adhesion promoting treatment. The goal of our research was to give one such treatment capable of industrial size application. A two step curing epoxy/vinylester resin process technology has been developed where the epoxy component has been cured conventionally, while the vinylester has been cured by electron treatment afterwards. The sufficient irradiation dose has been selected according to Raman spectroscopy characterization. Using the developed hybrid resin system hybrid composites containing carbon fibers and multiwalled carbon nanotubes have been prepared. The effect of the electron beam induced curing of the vinylester resin on the mechanical properties of the composites has been characterized by three point bending and interlaminar shear tests, which showed clearly the superiority of the developed resin system. The results of the mechanical tests have been supported by AFM studies of the samples, which showed that the difference in the viscoelastic properties of the matrix constituents decreased significantly by the electron beam treatment.

  11. EB-promoted recycling of waste tire rubber with polyolefins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meszaros, L.; Barany, T.; Czvikovszky, T.

    2011-01-01

    Complete text of publication follows. One of the principal problems of common recycling of technical polymers is the thermodynamical incompatibility. The change of the Gibbs 'free energy' during the mixing - determined by the changes of enthalpy and entropy - should be directed towards the miscibility. In most of cases, even between closely related polymers, the compatibility is on low level which leads to phase separation and weak adhesion between the phases. Radiation treatment may help in this problem making the polymers more compatible by creating covalent bonds between the polymer phases. Such problem arises at the recycling of ground tire rubbers (GTR). The rubber properties of GTR could be utilized by mixing the GTR with thermoplastic olefins. With the aid of radiation treatment the rubber-like properties of these types of thermoplastic elastomers can be increased. In this study polyethylene (PE) (50-70 wt%) as thermoplastic olefin, 30 wt% of GTR and ethylene vinyl acetate (EVA) (0-20 wt%) as rubber-like compatibilizing material were used for preparation of a recycled rubber containing blend, processable by thermoplastic processes. The melt-mixing of the samples was made by extrusion and then the test specimens were injection molded. The injection molded samples were than treated by high energy electron beam. On the specimens tensile tests, hysteresis, falling weight impact tests, hardness measurements, and dynamic mechanical thermal analysis (DMA) were carried out. The results proved the benefit of the electron beam treatment.

  12. Data of evolutionary structure change: 1PVDA-2NXWB [Confc[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 1PVDA-2NXWB 1PVD 2NXW A B SEITLGKYLFERLKQVNVNTVFGLPGDFNLSLLDKIYEV...STLGVAAVTYGAGAFNMVNAVAGAYAEKSPVVVISGAPGTTEL------LDTQFQVFKEITVAQARLDDPAKAPAEIARVLGAARAQSRPVYLEIPRNMVNAEVEP--VGDDPA---WPVD...0 1PVD A 1PVDA ...CA 231 1PVD A 1PVD...> 1 1PVD A 1PVD

  13. Compatibilization of low-density polyethylene/polystyrene blends by segmented EB(PS-block-EB)(n) block copolymers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kroeze, E; ten Brinke, G.; Hadziioannou, G

    Hydrogenated segmented poly[butadiene-block-(styrene-block-butadiene)(n)] block copolymers, which were developed by use of a polymeric iniferter technique, were tested on their compatibilizing effectiveness for (10/90) LDPE/PS blends. They were found to be effective compatibilizers for this mixture,

  14. A Comparative Study for Modeling Displacement Instabilities due to TGO Formation in TBCs of High-Temperature Components in Nuclear Power Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xia Huang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports two numerical simulation methods for modeling displacement instabilities around a surface groove in a metal substrate used in nuclear power plant. The amplitude change in the groove, the downward displacement at the base node, and the groove displacement at the periphery were simulated using ABAQUS to compare the results from two methods, as well as the tangential stress in the elements at the groove base and periphery. The comparison showed that for the tangential stress two methods were in close agreement for all thermal cycles. For the amplitude change, the downward displacement, the groove displacement, and the stress distribution, the two methods were in close agreement for the first 3 to 6 thermal cycles. After that, inconsistency increased with the number of thermal cycles. It is interesting that the thermal cycle at which the discrepancy between the two methods began to occur corresponded to a thermally grown oxide (TGO thickness of 1 μm, which showed the accuracy of the present work over the classic method. It is concluded that the present work’s numerical simulation scheme worked better with a thinner TGO layer than the classic method and could overcome the limitation of TGO thickness by simulating any thickness.

  15. Acoustic Emission Analysis of Damage Progression in Thermal Barrier Coatings Under Thermal Cyclic Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appleby, Matthew; Zhu, Dongming; Morscher, Gregory

    2015-01-01

    Damage evolution of electron beam-physical vapor deposited (EBVD-PVD) ZrO2-7 wt.% Y2O3 thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) under thermal cyclic conditions was monitored using an acoustic emission (AE) technique. The coatings were heated using a laser heat flux technique that yields a high reproducibility in thermal loading. Along with AE, real-time thermal conductivity measurements were also taken using infrared thermography. Tests were performed on samples with induced stress concentrations, as well as calcium-magnesium-alumino-silicate (CMAS) exposure, for comparison of damage mechanisms and AE response to the baseline (as-produced) coating. Analysis of acoustic waveforms was used to investigate damage development by comparing when events occurred, AE event frequency, energy content and location. The test results have shown that AE accumulation correlates well with thermal conductivity changes and that AE waveform analysis could be a valuable tool for monitoring coating degradation and provide insight on specific damage mechanisms.

  16. Morphology, optical and ionic conductivity studies of electron beam irradiated polymer electrolyte film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devendrappa, H.; Yesappa, L.; Niranjana, M.; Ashokkumar, S. P.; Vijeth, H.; Ganesh, S.

    2018-04-01

    The effects of electron beam (EB) irradiation on morphology, optical properties and ionic conductivity of (PVdF-co-HFP: LiClO4=90:10, PHL10) electrolyte films. The FESEM image reveal increasing porous morphology with increasing EB dose confirms the polymer degradation as result more amorphousity. The optical absorbance was found to be increase with red shift in UV region and direct optical band gaps was found decreased upon EB dose from 3.70 eV to 2.65 eV. The ionic conductivity increases slowly in lower frequency, whereas rapidly increases at the high frequency and found about 8.28×10-4 S/cm at 120 kGy dose. The obtained results suggest that the physical properties of polymer electrolytes can be changed using EB irradiation as requirement.

  17. Erosion and foreign object damage of thermal barrier coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nicholls, J.R.; Jaslier, Y.; Rickerby, D.S.

    1997-01-01

    Thermal barrier coating technology is used in the hot sections of gas turbines to extend component life. To maximise these benefits, the thermal barrier coating has to remain intact throughout the life of the turbine. High velocity ballistic damage can lead to total thermal barrier removal, while erosion may lead to progressive loss of thickness during operation. This paper particularly addresses the erosion resistance and resistance to foreign object damage of thermal barrier coatings. It was found that EB-PVD thermal barriers are significantly more erosion resistant when impacted with alumina or silica, than the equivalent plasma spray coating, both at room temperature and 910 C. Examination of tested hardware, reveals that cracking occurs within the near surface region of the columns for EB-PVD ceramic and that erosion occurs by removal of these small blocks of material. In stark contrast, removal of material for plasma sprayed ceramic occurs through poorly bonded splat boundaries. Large particle impact results in severe damage to the EB-PVD thermal barrier, with cracks penetrating through the ceramic coating to the ceramic/bond coat interface. Material removal, per particle impact, increases with increased particle size. (orig.)

  18. Prevalencia del consumo de tabaco en una muestra de adolescentes escolarizados del municipio de Ebéjico, departamento de Antioquia, Colombia (Prevalence of tobacco use in a sample of adolescents attending school in the municipality of Ebejico, department of Antioquia, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arnaldo Betancur Girón

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN: Objetivo: Establecer la prevalencia del consumo de tabaco en escolares del Municipio de Ebéjico, Departamento de Antioquia. Métodos: Estudio descriptivo-transversal en el que se utilizó la Encuesta Mundial de Tabaquismo en Jóvenes (EMTAJOVEN y se analizaron las frecuencias y las diferencias estadísticamente significativas en una muestra de 314 estudiantes de secundaria del sector urbano y rural del municipio. Resultados: El 22.6% de los encuestados ya ha fumado; el 6.7% lo hizo entre los 10 y 11 años; el consumo actual fue del 10.8%; el 7% compró cigarrillos en tiendas y el 9.2% los compró por unidades; el 9.2% no tuvo impedimentos para comprar a pesar de la edad; el 20.1% de los padres hombres y el 33.4% de los tíos fuma; el 22.6% vio fumar en el colegio a los profesores; el 13.1% fumaría ante el ofrecimiento de amigos; el 39.2% tiene algún amigo fumador; el 17.2% vio fumar a otros en la propia casa; y, el 10.2% recibió cigarrillos gratis de las vendedoras. Discusión: Factores sociales como la escuela, los pares y el ambiente familiar, fueron elementos de identificación para que los jóvenes de edad temprana decidieran o no fumar. ABSTRACT:Objective: To establish the prevalence of tobacco use in school children of the Municipality of Ebejico, Department of Antioquia. Methods: Descriptive-transversal study that used the Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS in which frequencies and statistically significant differences were analyzed in a sample of 314 high school students from the rural and urban Municipality of Ebejico. Results: 22.6% of the survey respondents has already smoked; 6.7% did so between 10-11 years; current consumption was 10.8%; 7% bought cigarettes at stores and the 9.2% bought them by units; 9.2% had no impediments to buy despite their ages; the 20.1% of their fathers and the 33.4% of their uncles smoke; 22.6% saw the teachers smoking at the school; 13.1% will smoke if a friend ask them to; 39.2% have a friend

  19. Data of evolutionary structure change: 1PVDB-2VBIG [Confc[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 1PVDB-2VBIG 1PVD 2VBI B G SEITLGKYLFERLKQVNVNTVFGLPGDFNLSLLDKIYEVEGMRWAGNANELNAAYAADGYARIKGMSCIITTFGVGELSALNGIAGSYAEHVG...HHHHHHHHHH 0 1PVD B 1PVDB SFNDN-SKIRM 1PVD B 1PVDB 1PVD B 1PVD

  20. Antioxidant Enzymes Activity in Patients with Peripheral Vascular Disease, with and without Presence of Diabetes Mellitus

    OpenAIRE

    Jandrić-Balen, Marica; Božikov, Veljko; Bistrović, Dragica; Jandrić, Ivan; Božikov, Jadranka; Romić, Željo; Balen, Ivan

    2003-01-01

    The study evaluated antioxidant status in patients with peripheral vascular disease (PVD), with and without concomitant diabetes mellitus (DM). 211 participants were divided into standardized 4 groups: patients with PVD and DM (PVD+DM+), patients with PVD without DM (PVD+DM-), patients without PVD with DM (PVD-DM+) and patients without PVD and DM (PVD-DM-). The diagnosis of PVD was established by Doppler sonography analysis, including determination of the ankle brachial index (...