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Sample records for eating disorder patients

  1. [Personality disorders in eating disorder patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín Murcia, Francisco M; Cangas, Adolfo J; Pozo, Eugenia M; Martínez Sánchez, Margarita; López Pérez, Manuel

    2009-02-01

    Personality disorders in eating disorder patients. A follow-up study was designed to analyze the relation between personality disorders (PD) and the course of eating disorders (ED) in 34 patients who required treatment over 4 years and half. 91% of the clinical sample met the criteria for PD at the initial assessment and 36% at the end of treatment, with a significant reduction in MCMI-II scores at follow-up. The outcome of the ED was significantly related to the PD outcome. There was a higher rate of improvement of PD in the bulimic group (61%) than in anorexic group (34%). The patients who presented schizoid and avoidant personality disorders were the most resistant and they adhered less to treatment. The prevalence of PD in the clinical sample and its relation to the course of ED from a person-centered model is discussed.

  2. Married patients with eating disorders in Japan.

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    Kiriike, N; Nagata, T; Matsunaga, H; Tobitani, W; Nishiura, T

    1996-12-01

    A total of 40 married and 22 unmarried female patients with eating disorders were studied in order to investigate the relationship between eating disorders and marriage. Eating disorders developed in 14 patients before marriage (premarital onset) and in 26 patients at the time of or after marriage (postmarital onset). The postmarital-onset group was characterized by a significantly higher age at onset, but was similar in age and duration of illness to the group of 22 unmarried patients. However, the various clinical features of the three groups did not differ. For premarital-onset patients showed exaggerated clinical features after marriage, but the other patients showed no change in clinical features after marriage. In the postmarital-onset group, eating disorders were triggered in 18 patients (69%) by marital problems, separation or divorce. In contrast, eating disorders were triggered by dieting in order to lose weight in 8 patients (57%) in the premarital-onset group and 12 patients (55%) in the unmarried group. These results suggest that marital conflict plays an important role in the development and continuation of eating disorders in married women.

  3. [Eating disorders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyake, Yoshie; Okamoto, Yuri; Jinnin, Ran; Shishida, Kazuhiro; Okamoto, Yasumasa

    2015-02-01

    Eating disorders are characterized by aberrant patterns of eating behavior, including such symptoms as extreme restriction of food intake or binge eating, and severe disturbances in the perception of body shape and weight, as well as a drive for thinness and obsessive fears of becoming fat. Eating disorder is an important cause for physical and psychosocial morbidity in young women. Patients with eating disorders have a deficit in the cognitive process and functional abnormalities in the brain system. Recently, brain-imaging techniques have been used to identify specific brain areas that function abnormally in patients with eating disorders. We have discussed the clinical and cognitive aspects of eating disorders and summarized neuroimaging studies of eating disorders.

  4. Personality Disorders in patients with disorders in eating behaviors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanesa Carina Góngora

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The interest for the systematic study of personality disorder in patients with eating disorders starts in 1980 with the edition of the DSM III multiaxial classification system. Since then, several publications have been focused on the prevalence and the effect on treatment of personality disorders in bulimic and anorexic patients. These researches showed inconsistent results due to conceptual and methodological divergences. In this paper, the more relevant findings of these studies are presented and the possible sources of discrepancy are analyzed. In general, there is a moderate comorbidity between personality disorders and eating disorders. The most frequent disorders are borderline, histrionic, obsessive-compulsive, dependent and avoidant personality disorders. Borderline and histrionic personality disorders are more frequently associated with bulimia, whereas avoidant and obsessive- compulsive personality disorders are more characteristic of anorexia nervosa. Nevertheless, the effect of the relationship between eating disorders and personality disorders in treatment remains uncertain, giving raise to several controversies and researches. 

  5. Gastrointestinal symptoms and disorders in patients with eating disorders.

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    Sato, Yasuhiro; Fukudo, Shin

    2015-10-01

    The two most clinically serious eating disorders are anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa. A drive for thinness and fear of fatness lead patients with anorexia nervosa either to restrict their food intake or binge-eat then purge (through self-induced vomiting and/or laxative abuse) to reduce their body weight to much less than the normal range. A drive for thinness leads patients with bulimia nervosa to binge-eat then purge but fail to reduce their body weight. Patients with eating disorders present with various gastrointestinal disturbances such as postprandial fullness, abdominal distention, abdominal pain, gastric distension, and early satiety, with altered esophageal motility sometimes seen in patients with anorexia nervosa. Other common conditions noted in patients with eating disorders are postprandial distress syndrome, superior mesenteric artery syndrome, irritable bowel syndrome, and functional constipation. Binge eating may cause acute gastric dilatation and gastric perforation, while self-induced vomiting can lead to dental caries, salivary gland enlargement, gastroesophageal reflux disease, and electrolyte imbalance. Laxative abuse can cause dehydration and electrolyte imbalance. Vomiting and/or laxative abuse can cause hypokalemia, which carries a risk of fatal arrhythmia. Careful assessment and intensive treatment of patients with eating disorders is needed because gastrointestinal symptoms/disorders can progress to a critical condition.

  6. [Lack of assertiveness in patients with eating disorders].

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    Behar A, Rosa; Manzo G, Rodrigo; Casanova Z, Dunny

    2006-03-01

    Low self-assertion has been noted as an important feature among patients with eating disorders. To verify, in a female population, if assertiveness is related or has a predictive capacity for the development of eating disorders. An structured clinical interview, the Eating Attitudes Test (EAT-40) and the Rathus Assertiveness Scale (RAS) were administered to 62 patients that fulfilled the DSM-IV diagnostic criteria for eating disorders and to 120 female students without eating problems. Patients with eating disorders ranked significantly higher on the EAT-40 and its factors (p assertiveness on the RAS (p Assertiveness measured by RAS and its factors was inversely related to EAT-40 and its items (r= -0.21). The predictive capability of the lack of self-assertion in the development of an eating disorder reached 53%, when patients with eating disorders and subjects at risk were considered together and compared to students without such disorder. Lack of assertiveness is a significant trait in patients with eating disorders; it may worsen its outcome and even perpetuate symptoms. Low self-assertion may be considered a predictive factor in the development of an eating disorder and must be managed from a preventive or therapeutic point of view.

  7. Eating disorder emergencies: understanding the medical complexities of the hospitalized eating disordered patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cartwright, Martina M

    2004-12-01

    Eating disorders are maladaptive eating behaviors that typically develop in adolescence and early adulthood. Psychiatric maladies and comorbid conditions, especially insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus, frequently co-exist with eating disorders. Serious medical complications affecting all organs and tissues can develop and result in numerous emergent hospitalizations. This article reviews the pathophysiologies of anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, and orthorexia nervosa and discusses the complexities associated with the treatment of medical complications seen in these patients.

  8. Oral health in female patients with eating disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mazurek Mateusz

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The study aimed to evaluate oral health in women with eating disorders. The clinical study covered 30 patients aged 14-36 years suffering from diagnosed eating disorders and treated in closed psychiatric institutions. The control group comprised 30 healthy women at the mean age corresponding to that of the patient group. No relationships were confirmed between eating disorders and the intensity of dental caries. Eating disorders contribute to increased loss of dental hard tissues. In women suffering from eating disorders non-specific lesions in oral cavity are more common than in healthy women.

  9. Personality Disorders in patients with disorders in eating behaviors

    OpenAIRE

    Vanesa Carina Góngora

    2016-01-01

    The interest for the systematic study of personality disorder in patients with eating disorders starts in 1980 with the edition of the DSM III multiaxial classification system. Since then, several publications have been focused on the prevalence and the effect on treatment of personality disorders in bulimic and anorexic patients. These researches showed inconsistent results due to conceptual and methodological divergences. In this paper, the more relevant findings of these studies are presen...

  10. Attempted suicide in patients with eating disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portzky, Gwendolyn; van Heeringen, Kees; Vervaet, Myriam

    2014-01-01

    Suicide is a major cause of mortality for patients with eating disorders (ED), especially for patients with anorexia nervosa. Attempted suicide is also relatively common in patients with anorexia or bulimia nervosa. This study aimed at examining associations between attempted suicide and trait- and state-dependent characteristics in a large clinical population of ED patients. The sample consisted of 1,436 in- and outpatients of the Centre for Eating Disorders of the Ghent University Hospital. Measures of ED symptoms, psychopathology, and personality traits were compared between ED patients with and ED patients without a history of attempted suicide. A history of attempted suicide was found in 11.8% of the ED patients and lifetime suicidal ideation was reported by 43.3%. Multivariate analyses showed that a history of attempted suicide was associated with higher scores on depression, purging symptomatology, early-developed cognitive schemes (impaired autonomy and increased inhibition), and social insecurity. These findings support the increased risk of suicidal behavior in ED. The presence of particular personality traits, of cognitive schemes, and of purging and depressive symptoms should increase vigilance for suicidal behavior.

  11. Eating attitudes of anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, binge eating disorder and obesity without eating disorder female patients: differences and similarities.

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    Alvarenga, M S; Koritar, P; Pisciolaro, F; Mancini, M; Cordás, T A; Scagliusi, F B

    2014-05-28

    The objective was to compare eating attitudes, conceptualized as beliefs, thoughts, feelings, behaviors and relationship with food, of anorexia nervosa (AN), bulimia nervosa (BN) and binge eating disorder (BED) patients and a group of obese (OBS) without eating disorders (ED). Female patients from an Eating Disorder (ED) Unit with AN (n=42), BN (n=52) and BED (n=53) and from an obesity service (n=37) in Brazil answered the Disordered Eating Attitude Scale (DEAS) which evaluate eating attitudes with 5 subscales: relationship with food, concerns about food and weight gain, restrictive and compensatory practices, feelings toward eating, and idea of normal eating. OBS patients were recruited among those without ED symptoms according to the Binge Eating Scale and the Questionnaire on Eating and Weight Patterns. ANOVA was used to compare body mass index and age between groups. Bonferroni test was used to analyze multiple comparisons among groups. AN and BN patients presented more dysfunctional eating attitudes and OBS patients less dysfunctional (p<0.001). For DEAS total score, AN and BN patients were similar and all other were different (p<0.001). Similarities suggested between BN and BED were true just for the "Relationship with food" and "Idea of normal eating." BED patients were worst than OBS for "Relationship with food" and as dysfunctional as AN patients - besides their behavior could be considered the opposite. Differences and similarities support a therapeutic individualized approach for ED and obese patients, call attention for the theoretical differences between obesity and ED, and suggest more research focused on eating attitudes.

  12. Multidisciplinary study: DCD method applied to patients with eating disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Conese

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Eating disorders are quite common in clinical practice and can include out-of-control behaviours and thoughts that powerfully reinforce unhealthy eating patterns. They include anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa and Binge Eating Disorder. We conducted a trial on 102 patients (89 females and 13 males to investigate the efficacy of “DCD method” (appropriate dietary education associated to New-Electrosculpture on patients with obesity and eating disorders. The study underlines the efficacy of “DCD method”, especially when supported by behavioural therapy, in obese and overweight patients.

  13. Eating Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Binge-eating, which is out-of-control eating Women are more likely than men to have eating disorders. They usually start in the teenage years and often occur along with depression, anxiety disorders, and substance abuse. Eating disorders can lead ...

  14. Eating disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kontić Olga

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Eating disorders are considered chronic diseases of civilization. The most studied and well known are anorexia and bulimia nervosa. Anorexia is considered one of the most common psychiatric problems of girls in puberty and adolescence. Due to high mortality and morbidity as well as the increasing expansion of these diseases, it is clear why the amount of research on these diseases is growing worldwide. Eating disorders lead to numerous medical complications, mostly due to late diagnosis. The main characteristic of these diseases is changed behavior in the nutrition, either as an intentional restriction of food, i.e. extreme dieting, or overeating, i.e. binge eating. Extreme dieting, skipping meals, self-induced vomiting, excessive exercise, and misuse of laxatives and diuretics for the purpose of maintaining or reducing body weight are characteristic forms of compensatory behavior of patients with eating disorder. The most appropriate course of treatment is determined by evaluating the patient’s health condition, associated with behavior and eating habits, the experience of one’s own body, character traits of personality, and consequently the development and functioning of the individual. The final treatment plan is individual. Eating disorders are a growing medical problem even in this part of the world. Prevention should be planned in cooperation with different sectors so as to stop the epidemic of these diseases.

  15. Nonnormative eating behavior and psychopathology in prebariatric patients with binge-eating disorder and night eating syndrome.

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    Baldofski, Sabrina; Tigges, Wolfgang; Herbig, Beate; Jurowich, Christian; Kaiser, Stefan; Stroh, Christine; de Zwaan, Martina; Dietrich, Arne; Rudolph, Almut; Hilbert, Anja

    2015-01-01

    Binge-eating disorder (BED) as a distinct eating disorder category and night eating syndrome (NES) as a form of Other Specified Feeding or Eating Disorders were recently included in the 5th edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5). This study sought to investigate the prevalence of BED and NES and associations with various forms of nonnormative eating behavior and psychopathology in prebariatric patients. Within a consecutive multicenter registry study, patients in 6 bariatric surgery centers in Germany were recruited. Overall, 233 prebariatric patients were assessed using the Eating Disorder Examination and self-report questionnaires. Assessment was unrelated to clinical procedures. Diagnostic criteria for full-syndrome BED and NES were currently met by 4.3% and 8.2% of prebariatric patients, respectively. In addition, 8.6% and 6.9% of patients met subsyndromal BED and NES criteria, respectively. Co-morbid BED and NES diagnoses were present in 3.9% of patients. In comparison to patients without any eating disorder symptoms, patients with BED and NES reported greater emotional eating, eating in the absence of hunger, and more symptoms of food addiction. Moreover, differences between patients with BED and NES emerged with more objective binge-eating episodes and higher levels of eating concern, weight concern, and global eating disorder psychopathology in patients with BED. BED and NES were shown to be prevalent among prebariatric patients, with some degree of overlap between diagnoses. Associations with nonnormative eating behavior and psychopathology point to their clinical significance and discriminant validity. Copyright © 2015 American Society for Bariatric Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Disordered eating behaviors in type 1 diabetic patients

    OpenAIRE

    Larrañaga, Alejandra; Docet, María F; García-Mayor, Ricardo V.

    2011-01-01

    Patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus are at high risk for disordered eating behaviors (DEB). Due to the fact that type 1 diabetes mellitus is one of the most common chronic illnesses of childhood and adolescence, the coexistence of eating disorders (ED) and diabetes often affects adolescents and young adults. Since weight management during this state of development can be especially difficult for those with type 1 diabetes, some diabetics may restrict or omit insulin, a condition known as d...

  17. [Are eating disorders addictions?].

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    Kinzl, Johann F; Biebl, Wilfried

    2010-01-01

    The various eating disorders, anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, and binge-eating disorder, are characterized by severe disturbances in eating behavior and are seen as typical "psychosomatic disorders". The subdivision of anorexia nervosa into two subtypes, namely "anorexia nervosa restricting type" and "anorexia nervosa bulimic type" has proved to be very good. It is to be assumed that eating disorders are not a homogeneous group, and that the various subtypes of eating disorders are also heterogeneous at several levels. Co-morbid psychiatric disorders, especially affective disorders, anxiety disorders, substance-related disorders, and personality disorders, are often found in eating- disordered patients. Many anorectics of the restrictive type and orthorectics show co-morbid psychiatric disorders such as anxiety disorders, obsessive-compulsive disorders, and avoidant or obsessive-compulsive personality disorders, while a co-morbidity of affective disorders, addiction, personality disorders, especially multi-impulsivity and borderline personality disorder, is frequently found in anorectics of bulimic type, bulimics, and binge eaters. Addictive behavior manifests itself in permanent preoccupation with food and eating, withdrawal symptoms, continuation of disturbed eating behavior in spite of negative consequences, loss of control, and frequent relapse. There are some indications that there is a basic psychological disturbance common to eating disorders, especially bulimia nervosa, and to substance-related disorders, namely a personality disorder with an emotional instability and multi-impulsivity. The possible associations between eating disorders and mental disorders, particularly addictions, will be discussed.

  18. Prevalence and correlates of eating disorders in 875 patients with bipolar disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    McElroy, Susan L.; Frye, Mark A.; Hellemann, Gerhard; Altshuler, Lori; Leverich, Gabriele S.; Suppes, Trisha; Keck, Paul E.; Nolen, Willem A.; Kupka, Ralph; Post, Robert M.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Relatively little is known about the co-occurrence of bipolar and eating disorders. We therefore assessed the prevalence and clinical correlates of eating disorders in 875 patients with bipolar disorder. Method: 875 outpatients with DSM-IV bipolar I or II disorder were evaluated with stru

  19. Prevalence and correlates of eating disorders in 875 patients with bipolar disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    McElroy, Susan L.; Frye, Mark A.; Hellemann, Gerhard; Altshuler, Lori; Leverich, Gabriele S.; Suppes, Trisha; Keck, Paul E.; Nolen, Willem A.; Kupka, Ralph; Post, Robert M.

    Objective: Relatively little is known about the co-occurrence of bipolar and eating disorders. We therefore assessed the prevalence and clinical correlates of eating disorders in 875 patients with bipolar disorder. Method: 875 outpatients with DSM-IV bipolar I or II disorder were evaluated with

  20. Eating disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treasure, Janet; Claudino, Angélica M; Zucker, Nancy

    2010-02-13

    This Seminar adds to the previous Lancet Seminar about eating disorders, published in 2003, with an emphasis on the biological contributions to illness onset and maintenance. The diagnostic criteria are in the process of review, and the probable four new categories are: anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, binge eating disorder, and eating disorder not otherwise specified. These categories will also be broader than they were previously, which will affect the population prevalence; the present lifetime prevalence of all eating disorders is about 5%. Eating disorders can be associated with profound and protracted physical and psychosocial morbidity. The causal factors underpinning eating disorders have been clarified by understanding about the central control of appetite. Cultural, social, and interpersonal elements can trigger onset, and changes in neural networks can sustain the illness. Overall, apart from studies reporting pharmacological treatments for binge eating disorder, advances in treatment for adults have been scarce, other than interest in new forms of treatment delivery. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Patients with eating disorders. A high-risk group for fractures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, Peter; Emborg, Charlotte; Støving, René K;

    2003-01-01

    PURPOSE: To analyze fracture risk and bone mineral density in patients with eating disorders (anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, and other eating disorders). DESIGN: Clinical overview. FINDINGS: Bone mineral density is decreased and fracture risk increased in patients with anorexia nervosa....... In patients with bulimia nervosa, bone mineral is only marginally decreased and fracture risk marginally increased. In patients with other eating disorders (eating disorders not otherwise specified), bone mineral density is decreased and fracture risk increased. CONCLUSIONS: Fracture risk is increased...... in patients with eating disorders. An eating disorder should be suspected in severely underweight young individuals (primarily girls) presenting with fractures, especially low-energy fractures....

  2. Intellectual functioning of adolescent and adult patients with eating disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schilder, Christina M T; van Elburg, Annemarie A; Snellen, Wim M; Sternheim, Lot C; Hoek, Hans W; Danner, Unna N

    2017-05-01

    Intelligence is a known vulnerability marker in various psychiatric disorders. In eating disorders (ED) intelligence has not been studied thoroughly. Small-scale studies indicate that intelligence levels might be above general population norms, but larger scale studies are lacking. The aim of this study was to determine intellectual functioning in ED patients and associations with severity of the disorder. Wechsler's Full scale IQ (FSIQ), Verbal IQ (VIQ) and Performance IQ (PIQ) of 703 adolescent and adult ED patients were compared with population norms. Exploratory analyzes were performed on associations between IQ and both somatic severity (BMI and duration of the disorder) and psychological/behavioral severity (Eating Disorder Inventory [EDI-II] ratings) of the ED. Mean IQ's were significantly higher than population means and effect-sizes were small-to-medium (d = .28, .16 and .23 for VIQ, PIQ, and FSIQ). No linear associations between IQ and BMI were found, but the most severely underweight adult anorexia nervosa (AN) patients (BMI ≤ 15) had higher VIQ (107.7) than the other adult AN patients (VIQ 102.1). In adult AN patients PIQ was associated with psychological/behavioral severity of the ED. Our findings suggest that, in contrast with other severe mental disorders where low intelligence is a risk factor, higher than average intelligence might increase the vulnerability to develop an ED. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.(Int J Eat Disord 2017; 50:481-489). © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Eating Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... This kind of research can help guide the development of new means of diagnosis and treatment of eating disorders. Treatments and Therapies Adequate nutrition, reducing excessive exercise, and stopping purging behaviors are the foundations of treatment. Treatment plans are ...

  4. Plasma homocysteine levels in female patients with eating disorders.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Levine, J.; Gur, E.; Loewenthal, R.; Vishne, T.; Dwolatzky, T.; Beijnum, I.M. van; Sela, B.A.; Vered, I.; Yosef, G.; Stein, D.

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine plasma homocysteine, vitamin B(12), and folate levels in females with restricting and bingeing/purging eating disorders (EDs). METHOD: Adolescent and adult female patients were compared to appropriate control groups with regard to plasma homocysteine levels. RESULTS: The plasma

  5. Heterogeneity Moderates Treatment Response among Patients with Binge Eating Disorder

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    Sysko, Robyn; Hildebrandt, Tom; Wilson, G. Terence; Wilfley, Denise E.; Agras, W. Stewart

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of the study was to explore heterogeneity and differential treatment outcome among a sample of patients with binge eating disorder (BED). Method: A latent class analysis was conducted with 205 treatment-seeking, overweight or obese individuals with BED randomized to interpersonal psychotherapy (IPT), behavioral weight loss…

  6. Heterogeneity Moderates Treatment Response among Patients with Binge Eating Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sysko, Robyn; Hildebrandt, Tom; Wilson, G. Terence; Wilfley, Denise E.; Agras, W. Stewart

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of the study was to explore heterogeneity and differential treatment outcome among a sample of patients with binge eating disorder (BED). Method: A latent class analysis was conducted with 205 treatment-seeking, overweight or obese individuals with BED randomized to interpersonal psychotherapy (IPT), behavioral weight loss…

  7. Predictors of eating disorders outcomes in Polish teenage patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pilecki, Maciej Wojciech

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Aim of the study. The aim of this study was to assess factors associated with the outcome of eating disorders in Polish teenage patients. Material and methods. Analyses covered the data of 47 patients diagnosed with any of the eating disorders according to DSM IV consulted for the first time in the outpatients clinic of the Child and Adolescent Psychiatry Unit between 2002/2004 in Krakow (DGN1, Poland and then followed up between 2009/2011 (DGN2. The influence of the number of variables collected at DGN1 on outcomes was analysed. Results. The outcomes of anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa are influenced by some aspects of clinical picture, patients’ objective family situation, their self-image and the perception they have of their family relations. The co-occurrence of depressive symptoms and younger age of parents proved to be the most clinically important negative outcome predictors in the whole group of eating disorders. Discussion. The small size of group in the follow-up study is the most important limitating factor. Conclusion. Outcomes in eating disorders are affected by several psycho-bio-social factors common to all patients and specific for the diagnosis type they initially present.

  8. Patients with eating disorders. A high-risk group for fractures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, Peter; Emborg, Charlotte; Støving, René K

    2003-01-01

    PURPOSE: To analyze fracture risk and bone mineral density in patients with eating disorders (anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, and other eating disorders). DESIGN: Clinical overview. FINDINGS: Bone mineral density is decreased and fracture risk increased in patients with anorexia nervosa....... In patients with bulimia nervosa, bone mineral is only marginally decreased and fracture risk marginally increased. In patients with other eating disorders (eating disorders not otherwise specified), bone mineral density is decreased and fracture risk increased. CONCLUSIONS: Fracture risk is increased...

  9. Understanding and coping with binge eating disorder: the patient's perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McElroy, Susan L; Guerdjikova, Anna I

    2015-08-01

    Binge eating disorder (BED) is the most common of the 6 feeding and eating disorders recognized by the DSM-5 and a significant public health problem that can be successfully managed with appropriate help. Many patients, however, are hesitant to discuss the symptoms of BED with their providers because of embarrassment or because they simply do not recognize the behavior as a problem behavior. Clinicians need to increase their awareness of BED, its warning signs, and how and why patients might try to hide it leading to increased BED recognition and timely diagnosis. Then, given the right tools, clinicians can help patients to not only accept the diagnosis and look into various treatment options but also to move beyond it to recognize if any comorbid disorders are present and in need of treatment.

  10. [Schizophrenia and eating disorders].

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    Foulon, C

    2003-01-01

    The comorbidity of schizophrenia and eating disorders is understudied. In the early nineteenth century, Eugen Bleuler has reported cases of schizophrenia with eating disorders that were related to delusional ideas. Potomania, merycism and pica have often been described in schizophrenic patients. Schizophrenic patients with eating disorders usually do not meet all criteria for typical eating disorders and are therefore classified as "eating disorders not otherwise specified" (EDNOS). It may even be difficult to recognize schizophrenia in patients with eating disorders associated to delusional ideas and distorted cognitions related to food or body perception. In any case, the diagnosis of schizophrenia should preferably be made and is only valid after renutrition is achieved. The prevalence of schizophrenia in samples of patients with eating disorders is generally below 10% but reaches 35% in males, the most frequent form being hebephrenia. Cognitive behavioural therapies for eating disorders need to be adapted in cases of comorbid schizophrenia. The new antipsychotic medications seem helpful in patients with eating disorders with or without schizophrenia. They reduce anxiety towards eating and bring in better adherence to treatments.

  11. Comorbidity of mood and substance use disorders in patients with binge-eating disorder: Associations with personality disorder and eating disorder pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Daniel F; Grilo, Carlos M

    2015-08-01

    Binge-eating disorder (BED) is associated with elevated rates of mood and substance use disorders, but the significance of such comorbidity is ambiguous. We compared personality disorder and eating disorder psychopathology in four subgroups of BED patients: those with mood disorders, those with substance use disorders, those with both, and those with neither. Subjects were 347 patients who met DSM-IV research criteria for BED. Semistructured interviews evaluated lifetime DSM-IV axis I disorders, DSM-IV personality disorder features, and eating disorder psychopathology. Among these patients, 129 had co-occurring mood disorder, 34 had substance use disorder, 60 had both, and 124 had neither. Groups differed on personality disorder features, with those having mood disorder and both mood and substance use disorders showing the highest frequencies. Although groups did not differ in body mass index or binge eating frequency, they did differ on eating disorder psychopathology-with the groups having mood disorder and both comorbidities demonstrating higher eating, weight, and shape concerns. No differences were observed between groups with respect to ages of onset for specific eating behaviors, but some differences were observed for ages of disorder onset. Mood and substance use disorders co-occur frequently among patients with BED. Compared with a previous work, the additional comparison group (those with both mood and substance use disorders) and the control group (those with neither) afforded better discrimination regarding the significance of these comorbidities. Our findings suggest approaches to subtyping BED based on psychiatric comorbidity, and may also have implications for treatment. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Patient- and clinician- reported outcome in eating disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winkler, Laura Vad; Frølich, Jacob Stampe; Gudex, Claire

    2017-01-01

    Patient-reported outcome is increasingly applied in health sciences. Patients with eating disorders (EDs) characteristically have a different opinion of their needs to that of the health professionals, which can lead to ambivalence towards treatment and immense compliance difficulties. This cross....... This association was not observed in bulimia nervosa (BN). We did not find a correlation between SF-36 scores and BMI in any of the diagnostic groups....

  13. Pilot study employing heart rate variability biofeedback training to decrease anxiety in patients with eating disorders

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Scolnick, Barbara; Mostofsky, David I; Keane, Robert J

    2014-01-01

    Heart rate variability (HRV) biofeedback, a technique which encourages slow meditative breathing, was offered to 25 in-patients with various eating disorder diagnoses-anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa and binge eating disorder...

  14. Eating Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Farah

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Health Issue Eating disorders are an increasing public health problem among young women. Anorexia and bulimia may give rise to serious physical conditions such as hypothermia, hypotension, electrolyte imbalance, endocrine disorders, and kidney failure. Key Issues Eating disorders are primarily a problem among women. In Ontario in 1995, over 90% of reported hospitalized cases of anorexia and bulimia were women. In addition to eating disorders, preoccupation with weight, body image and self-concept disturbances, are more prevalent among women than men. Women with eating disorders are also at risk for long-term psychological and social problems, including depression, anxiety, substance abuse and suicide. For instance, in 2000, the prevalence of depression among women who were hospitalized with a diagnosis of anorexia (11.5% or bulimia (15.4 % was more than twice the rate of depression (5.7 % among the general population of Canadian women. The highest incidence of depression was found in women aged 25 to 39 years for both anorexia and bulimia. Data Gaps and Recommendations Hospitalization data are the most recent and accessible information available. However, this data captures only the more severe cases. It does not include the individuals with eating disorders who may visit clinics or family doctors, or use hospital outpatient services or no services at all. Currently, there is no process for collecting this information systematically across Canada; consequently, the number of cases obtained from hospitalization data is underestimated. Other limitations noted during the literature review include the overuse of clinical samples, lack of longitudinal data, appropriate comparison groups, large samples, and ethnic group analysis.

  15. Eating disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    The incidence of eating disorders is increasing, and health care professionals are faced with the difficult task of treating these refractory conditions. The first clinical description of anorexia nervosa (AN) was reported in 1694 and included symptoms such as decreased appetite, amenorrhea, food av...

  16. Disordered eating behaviors in type 1 diabetic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larrañaga, Alejandra; Docet, María F; García-Mayor, Ricardo V

    2011-11-15

    Patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus are at high risk for disordered eating behaviors (DEB). Due to the fact that type 1 diabetes mellitus is one of the most common chronic illnesses of childhood and adolescence, the coexistence of eating disorders (ED) and diabetes often affects adolescents and young adults. Since weight management during this state of development can be especially difficult for those with type 1 diabetes, some diabetics may restrict or omit insulin, a condition known as diabulimia, as a form of weight control. It has been clearly shown that ED in type 1 diabetics are associated with impaired metabolic control, more frequent episodes of ketoacidosis and an earlier than expected onset of diabetes-related microvascular complications, particularly retinopathy. The management of these conditions requires a multidisciplinary team formed by an endocrinologist/diabetologist, a nurse educator, a nutritionist, a psychologist and, frequently, a psychiatrist. The treatment of type 1 diabetes patients with DEB and ED should have the following components: diabetes treatment, nutritional management and psychological therapy. A high index of suspicion of the presence of an eating disturbance, particularly among those patients with persistent poor metabolic control, repeated episodes of ketoacidosis and/or weight and shape concerns are recommended in the initial stage of diabetes treatment, especially in young women. Given the extent of the problem and the severe medical risk associated with it, more clinical and technological research aimed to improve its treatment is critical to the future health of this at-risk population.

  17. Outcome of Polish teenage patients with eating disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pilecki, Maciej Wojciech

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Aim of the study. The aim of the study was to assess outcome of patients with eating disorders in a Polish socio-cultural context. Material and methods. Re-assessed after 6.72 years (SD 0.99 years, min 4.58 years, max 8.81 years, 47 of 112 patients consulted initially in the outpatient clinic of the Child and Adolescent Psychiatry Unit between 2002/2004 in Krakow, Poland with one of the eating disorders. Results. Complete remission (absence of symptoms for three months took place in 55% of patients from the restrictive anorexia nervosa group and in 27.3% of patients from the bulimia nervosa group. A full range of symptoms was observed in 10% of patients from the restrictive anorexia nervosa group and in 36.4% of patients from the bulimia nervosa group. In both groups, the longer the follow-up study, the worse outcome observed. Discussion. Small size of group in the follow-up study caused a significant limitation. Conclusion. The remission rates indices for restrictive anorexia nervosa are similar to those presented in other follow-up studies. In the case of bulimia nervosa, they are lower than average. An analysis of diagnosis variability between the initial and the follow up assessment indicates low crossover rate from anorexia nervosa to the bulimia nervosa group.

  18. Health-Related Quality of Life in Obese Presurgery Patients with and without Binge Eating Disorder, and Subdiagnostic Binge Eating Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita Marie Sandberg

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To study health-related quality of life (HRQoL in obese presurgery patients with binge eating disorder (BED and with subdiagnostic binge eating disorder (SBED compared to patients without eating disorders or SBED. Method. Participants were patients referred to St. Olavs University Hospital, Norway, for bariatric surgery. Eating Disorders in Obesity (EDO questionnaire was used to diagnose BED and SBED. Short-Form Health Survey (SF-12 assessed health-related quality of life. Questionnaires were returned by 160 of 209 patients. The present study sample consisted of 143 patients (103 women and 40 men as 17 patients did not complete the SF-12. Results. Patients with BED and patients with SBED both had significantly lower mental HRQoL, but not physical HRQoL, compared to patients without eating disorders. Discussion. The findings indicate that obese presurgery patients with BED, and also SBED, may have special treatment needs in regard to their mental health.

  19. Kids and Eating Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Know About Puberty Train Your Temper Kids and Eating Disorders KidsHealth > For Kids > Kids and Eating Disorders Print ... withdrawing from social activities previous continue What Causes Eating Disorders? There really is no single cause for an ...

  20. Binge Eating Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Our ePublications > Binge eating disorder fact sheet ePublications Binge eating disorder fact sheet Print this fact sheet Binge eating disorder fact sheet (PDF, 211 KB) Related information Anorexia ...

  1. Nonlinear analysis of heart rate variability in patients with eating disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vigo, Daniel E.; Castro, Mariana N.; Dorpinghaus, Andrea; Weidema, Hylke; Cardinali, Daniel P.; Siri, Leonardo Nicola; Rovira, Bernardo; Fahrer, Rodolfo D.; Nogues, Martin; Leiguarda, Ramon C.; Guinjoan, Salvador M.

    2008-01-01

    Patients with anorexia nervosa or bulimia nervosa often have signs of autonomic dysfunction potentially deleterious to the heart. The aim of this study was to ascertain the nonlinear properties of heart rate variability in patients with eating disorders. A group of 33 women with eating disorders (14

  2. Body attitudes in patients with eating disorders at presentation and completion of intensive outpatient day treatment.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Exterkate, C.C.; Vriesendorp, P.F.; Jong, C.A.J. de

    2009-01-01

    Due to the importance of the distorted body experience in eating disorder diagnosis and treatment, we wanted to explore body attitudes of patients with eating disorders before and after 5 months of intensive specialized outpatient day treatment. We assessed 193 patients diagnosed with Anorexia

  3. Nonlinear analysis of heart rate variability in patients with eating disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vigo, Daniel E.; Castro, Mariana N.; Dorpinghaus, Andrea; Weidema, Hylke; Cardinali, Daniel P.; Siri, Leonardo Nicola; Rovira, Bernardo; Fahrer, Rodolfo D.; Nogues, Martin; Leiguarda, Ramon C.; Guinjoan, Salvador M.

    2008-01-01

    Patients with anorexia nervosa or bulimia nervosa often have signs of autonomic dysfunction potentially deleterious to the heart. The aim of this study was to ascertain the nonlinear properties of heart rate variability in patients with eating disorders. A group of 33 women with eating disorders (14

  4. [Affective disorders and eating disorders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fakra, Eric; Belzeaux, R; Azorin, J M; Adida, M

    2014-12-01

    Epidemiologic studies show a frequent co-occurence of affective and eating disorders. The incidence of one disorder in patients suffering from the other disorder is well over the incidence in the general population. Several causes could explain this increased comorbidity. First, the iatrogenic origin is detailed. Indeed, psychotropic drugs, and particularly mood stabilizers, often lead to modification in eating behaviors, generally inducing weight gain. These drugs can increase desire for food, reduce baseline metabolism or decrease motor activity. Also, affective and eating disorders share several characteristics in semiology. These similarities can not only obscure the differential diagnosis but may also attest of conjoint pathophysiological bases in the two conditions. However, genetic and biological findings so far are too sparse to corroborate this last hypothesis. Nonetheless, it is noteworthy that comorbidity of affective and eating disorders worsens patients'prognosis and is associated with more severe forms of affective disorders characterized by an earlier age of onset in the disease, higher number of mood episodes and a higher suicidality. Lastly, psychotropic drugs used in affective disorders (lithium, antiepileptic mood stabilizers, atypical antipsychotics, antidepressants) are reviewed in order to weigh their efficacy in eating disorders. This could help establish the best therapeutic option when confronted to comorbidity. Copyright © 2014 L’Encéphale. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.. All rights reserved.

  5. Group behavioral activation for patients with severe obesity and binge eating disorder: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfonsson, Sven; Parling, Thomas; Ghaderi, Ata

    2015-03-01

    The aim of the present study was to assess whether behavioral activation (BA) is an efficacious treatment for decreasing eating disorder symptoms in patients with obesity and binge eating disorder (BED). Ninety-six patients with severe obesity and BED were randomized to either 10 sessions of group BA or wait-list control. The study was conducted at an obesity clinic in a regular hospital setting. The treatment improved some aspects of disordered eating and had a positive effect on depressive symptoms but there was no significant difference between the groups regarding binge eating and most other symptoms. Improved mood but lack of effect on binge eating suggests that dysfunctional eating (including BED) is maintained by other mechanisms than low activation and negative mood. However, future studies need to investigate whether effects of BA on binge eating might emerge later than at post-assessment, as in interpersonal psychotherapy for bulimia nervosa.

  6. [Mealtime support for patients with eating disorders: a survey on the clinical practice in German eating disorders centers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brockmeyer, Timo; Friederich, Hans-Christoph; Jäger, Burkard; Schwab, Michael; Herzog, Wolfgang; de Zwaan, Martina

    2015-03-01

    Mealtime support is a cornerstone of eating disorders (ED) inpatient and day-care treatment but has received only little attention in research so far and no valid recommendations are available for this type of intervention. Thus, the aim of the present study was to gather a comprehensive picture of how mealtime support is currently practiced in Germany. In a nationwide survey, 97 staff members from 66 ED centers across Germany completed a survey-form that covered 4 broad topics: (a) setting, (b) general conditions, (c) specific interventions, and (d) treatment providers' perspective. For the most part, mealtime support is delivered by nurses. Two thirds of the centers provide at least one therapeutically supported meal per day. Most centers offer their patients a kitchen and/or a guided cooking group. Patient eating behavior and amount of food eaten is documented by three quarters of staff members. Most staff members offer some kind of role modeling by eating their own meals at the same table. Food exposure is provided by a minority. Whereas two thirds use sanctions when patients did not achieve their eating goals, only one third use positive reinforcement when patients achieved their goals. Less than one half offer some kind of post-meal support. The results provide important insights into the current practice of mealtime support and will thus inform future studies that examine the efficacy of different types and interventions of mealtime support.

  7. Addictive eating disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flood, M

    1989-03-01

    Addictive eating disorders have been a part of history and have only recently been recognized as psychiatric disorders. Increased publicity has enabled family and friends of eating disordered individuals to recognize the disease and seek help for them from trained medical professionals. Everyone is "at risk," but certain subpopulations have been "coming out of the closet" in epidemic proportions. An ever-increasing number of high school-aged and college-aged females have developed some form of eating disorder, from fad diets to self-induced vomiting. In these individuals, the obsession with thinness takes priority over family, friends, schoolwork, or career. Strangely enough, the eating disordered person's addiction is not to food but to the feeling of numbness her behavior brings. Over time, the need to control is desperately sought and many patients transfer their obsession to other patterns of self-abuse. Nursing intervention should include setting the appropriate example in terms of the professional's relationship with food, while providing much needed emotional support. An innovative method of intervention available to nursing professionals includes the use of creative, visual imagery to repeatedly diffuse fear and anxiety about food until a level of personal autonomy over the disorder and other emotional concerns is achieved. Therefore, a system of recovery can be designed for the anorectic or bulimic patient and the experience of recovery from the eating disorder can be a lifelong process of personal growth.

  8. Weight bias among professionals treating eating disorders: attitudes about treatment and perceived patient outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puhl, Rebecca M; Latner, Janet D; King, Kelly M; Luedicke, Joerg

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to assess weight bias among professionals who specialize in treating eating disorders and identify to what extent their weight biases are associated with attitudes about treating obese patients. Participants were 329 professionals treating eating disorders, recruited through professional organizations that specialize in eating disorders. Participants completed anonymous, online self-report questionnaires, assessing their explicit weight bias, perceived causes of obesity, attitudes toward treating obese patients, perceptions of treatment compliance and success of obese patients, and perceptions of weight bias among other practitioners. Negative weight stereotypes were present among some professionals treating eating disorders. Although professionals felt confident (289; 88%) and prepared (276; 84%) to provide treatment to obese patients, the majority (184; 56%) had observed other professionals in their field making negative comments about obese patients, 42% (138) believed that practitioners who treat eating disorders often have negative stereotypes about obese patients, 35% (115) indicated that practitioners feel uncomfortable caring for obese patients, and 29% (95) reported that their colleagues have negative attitudes toward obese patients. Compared to professionals with less weight bias, professionals with stronger weight bias were more likely to attribute obesity to behavioral causes, expressed more negative attitudes and frustrations about treating obese patients, and perceived poorer treatment outcomes for these patients. Similar to other health disciplines, professionals treating eating disorders are not immune to weight bias. This has important implications for provision of clinical treatment with obese individuals and efforts to reduce weight bias in the eating disorders field. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Eating Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... as little as possible. Others with anorexia may start binge eating and purging — eating a lot of food and then trying to get rid of the calories by making themselves throw up, using some type of medication or laxatives, or exercising excessively, or ...

  10. Psychological traits and platelet monoamine oxidase activity in eating disorder patients: their relationship and stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podar, Iris; Jaanisk, Maiken; Allik, Jüri; Harro, Jaanus

    2007-01-30

    Self-reported behavior and attitudes towards eating [Eating Disorder Inventory-2; Garner DM (1991). Eating Disorder Inventory-2: Professional Manual. Odessa, Fl.: Psychological Assessment Resources; Estonian version Podar I, Hannus A, Allik J (1999). Personality and Affectivity Characteristics Associated With Eating Disorders: a Comparison of Eating Disordered, Weight-Preoccupied, and Normal Samples. J Pers Assess; 73(1), 133-147] and the activity of platelet monoamine oxidase (MAO) was studied in 11 patients with anorexia nervosa (AN), 43 patients with bulimia nervosa (BN) and a healthy control group (n=138). Nineteen patients filled in the EDI-2 questionnaire and donated blood samples three times with three month intervals in order to determine platelet MAO activity. Eating disordered (ED) patients scored higher on all EDI-2 subscales and had lower MAO activity compared to the control group. They also scored higher than the control group on the Neuroticism domain but lower on the Extraversion, Openness, and Conscientiousness domains of the NEO-PI-R questionnaire. The average stability of MAO on different occasions (r=.56) was slightly smaller than the stability of the EDI-2 scores (r=.70). The lack of correlations between personality dispositions and MAO activity indicates that they have independent influence on eating disorders. A possible relationship between neurochemical mechanisms and psychological symptoms of eating disordered behavior is discussed.

  11. Validating the eating disorder inventory (EDI-2) in two Danish samples: a comparison between female eating disorder patients and females from the general population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clausen, Loa; Rokkedal, Kristian; Rosenvinge, Jan H

    2009-11-01

    The Eating Disorder Inventory, Version 2 (EDI-2) is a questionnaire used clinically and in research all over the world. EDI-2 is cross-culturally valid, yet normative values may depend on culture. Norms and reliability of the Danish version have to date been lacking, and will be presented in this article, comparing patients (N = 575) and controls (N = 881). Also, internal reliability of scales is tested for both groups. Differences between norms of the Danish and the North American version of EDI were small but significant for all scales except asceticism (eating disorder patients) and ineffectiveness, interpersonal distrust and maturity fears (normal controls). For both groups the internal consistency was >0.70 for all subscales except asceticism. Although differences across the eating disorder diagnostic groups were dubious, the EDI-2 is useful to screen for eating problems in the general population as well as to rate progress and outcome among eating disorder patients.

  12. Binge Eating Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Senol Turan

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Binge Eating Disorder, characterized by frequent and persistent overeating episodes that are accompanied by feeling of loss of control over eating without regular compensatory behaviors and was identified in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition as a new eating disorder category. Binge Eating Disorder is the most common eating disorder among adults. Binge Eating Disorder is associated with significant morbidity, including medical complications related to obesity, eating disorder psychopathology, psychiatric comorbidity; reduced quality of life, and impaired social functioning. Current treatments of Binge Eating Disorder include pharmacotherapy, psychotherapy and bariatric surgery. In this review, the definition, epidemiology, etiology, clinical features, and also mainly treatment of Binge Eating Disorder are discussed.

  13. [Impulsivity-focused Group Intervention to reduce Binge Eating Episodes in Patients with Binge Eating Disorder - A Group Training Program].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schag, Kathrin; Leehr, Elisabeth J; Skoda, Eva-Maria; Becker, Sandra; Zipfel, Stephan; Giel, Katrin E

    2016-11-01

    Binge Eating Disorder (BED) is an eating disorder where cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) could already show reliable efficacy. Relying on basic research, CBT interventions which especially focus on impulsivity could be effective, because binge eating episodes represent highly impulsive eating behaviour. For this reason, we developed a treatment concept about an impulsivity-focused behavioural group intervention for patients with BED, called IMPULS. The efficacy of IMPULS is currently investigated in a randomised controlled trial 1. IMPULS is drafted as a weekly group training programme with 5-6 participants per group. The essential interventions are food-related cue exposure with response prevention and the development of self-control strategies. These interventions are adapted onto the impulsivity concept from conventional treatment of addictive disorders and BED. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  14. Night Eating Disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Deniz Tuncel; Fatma Özlem Orhan

    2009-01-01

    Hunger is an awakening related biological impulse. The relationship between hunger and sleep is moderated by the control of homeostatic and circadian rhytms of the body. Abnormal eating behavior during sleep period could result from different causes. Abnormal eating during the main sleep period has been categorized as either night eating syndrome or sleep related eating disorder. Night eating syndrome (NES) is an eating disorder characterised by the clinical features of morning anorexia, even...

  15. Sleep and Eating Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allison, Kelly C; Spaeth, Andrea; Hopkins, Christina M

    2016-10-01

    Insomnia is related to an increased risk of eating disorders, while eating disorders are related to more disrupted sleep. Insomnia is also linked to poorer treatment outcomes for eating disorders. However, over the last decade, studies examining sleep and eating disorders have relied on surveys, with no objective measures of sleep for anorexia nervosa or bulimia nervosa, and only actigraphy data for binge eating disorder. Sleep disturbance is better defined for night eating syndrome, where sleep efficiency is reduced and melatonin release is delayed. Studies that include objectively measured sleep and metabolic parameters combined with psychiatric comorbidity data would help identify under what circumstances eating disorders and sleep disturbance produce an additive effect for symptom severity and for whom poor sleep would increase risk for an eating disorder. Cognitive behavior therapy for insomnia may be a helpful addition to treatment of those with both eating disorder and insomnia.

  16. Neuroimaging in eating disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jáuregui-Lobera I

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Ignacio Jáuregui-LoberaBehavioral Sciences Institute and Pablo de Olavide University, Seville, SpainAbstract: Neuroimaging techniques have been useful tools for accurate investigation of brain structure and function in eating disorders. Computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, positron emission tomography, single photon emission computed tomography, magnetic resonance spectroscopy, and voxel-based morphometry have been the most relevant technologies in this regard. The purpose of this review is to update the existing data on neuroimaging in eating disorders. The main brain changes seem to be reversible to some extent after adequate weight restoration. Brain changes in bulimia nervosa seem to be less pronounced than in anorexia nervosa and are mainly due to chronic dietary restrictions. Different subtypes of eating disorders might be correlated with specific brain functional changes. Moreover, anorectic patients who binge/purge may have different functional brain changes compared with those who do not binge/purge. Functional changes in the brain might have prognostic value, and different changes with respect to the binding potential of 5-HT1A, 5-HT2A, and D2/D3 receptors may be persistent after recovering from an eating disorder.Keywords: neuroimaging, brain changes, brain receptors, anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, eating disorders

  17. Gender identity disorder and eating disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hepp, Urs; Milos, Gabriella

    2002-12-01

    We report three cases of transsexual patients who are suffering from an eating disorder: a biological male patient diagnosed with anorexia nervosa (AN), a biological male patient with bulimia nervosa (BN), and a biological female patient with AN as well as a severe alcohol dependence. The relationship between eating behavior, gender identity, sexual orientation, and body dissatisfaction is discussed. Copyright 2002 by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Int J Eat Disord 32: 473-478, 2002.

  18. Electroencephalography in eating disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jáuregui-Lobera I

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Ignacio Jáuregui-Lobera1,21Behavioral Sciences Institute, 2Pablo de Olavide University, Seville, SpainAbstract: Clinical applications of electroencephalography (EEG are used with different objectives, EEG being a noninvasive and painless procedure. In respect of eating disorders, in the 1950s a new line of study about the neurological bases of anorexia nervosa was started and has since been developed. The purpose of this review is to update the existing literature data on the main findings in respect of EEG in eating disorders by means of a search conducted in PubMed. Despite the fact that weight gain tends to normalize some brain dysfunctions assessed by means of EEG, the specific effect of gaining weight remains controversial. Different studies have reported that cortical dysfunctions can be found in patients with anorexia nervosa even after weight gain, whereas others have reported a normalization of EEG in respect of the initial reduced alpha/increased beta power in those patients with refeeding. Findings of studies that have analyzed the possible relationship between eating disorders and depression, based on sleep EEG disturbances, do not support the idea of eating disorders as a variant of depression or affective disorders. Some EEG findings are very consistent with previous neuroimaging results on patients with anorexia nervosa, reporting neural disturbances in response to stimuli that are relevant to the pathology (eg, stimuli like food exposure, different emotional situations, or body images.Keywords: electroencephalography, event-related potentials, sleep, depression, refeeding, weight gain

  19. Males and Eating Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Males and Eating Disorders Past Issues / Spring 2008 Table of Contents For ... this page please turn Javascript on. Photo: PhotoDisc Eating disorders primarily affect girls and women, but boys and ...

  20. Binge Eating Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Events Upcoming and past meetings Follow Us Social media, RSS feeds, and more Follow Us ... and Facts for Binge Eating Disorder Symptoms and Causes of Binge Eating Disorder Diagnosis and Treatment of ...

  1. Ghrelin and eating disorders

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Fabbri, Alessandra Donzelli; Deram, Sophie; Kerr, Daniel Shikanai; Cordás, Táki Athanássios

    2015-01-01

    ...; we searched PubMed, Scientific Electronic Library Online (SciELO), and LILACS databases using the keywords "eating disorder", "ghrelin", "polymorphism", "anorexia nervosa", "bulimia nervosa", "binge eating disorder", and their combinations...

  2. Validating the EDI-2 in three Swedish female samples: eating disorders patients, psychiatric outpatients and normal controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nevonen, Lauri; Clinton, David; Norring, Claes

    2006-01-01

    The aim of the current study was to validate the Eating Disorders Inventory 2 (EDI-2) in a Swedish population by investigating how it discriminates between three female samples aged 18 to 50 years: patients with eating disorders (n = 978), psychiatric outpatients (n = 106) and normal controls (n = 602), as well as between different eating disorder diagnoses. The internal consistency of the EDI-2 was above 0.70 for most subscales. The EDI-2 discriminated well between patients with eating disorders and normal controls on all subscales. On the symptom-related subscales, eating disorder patients scored highest followed by psychiatric controls and normals. All subscales except Perfectionism, Interoceptive awareness and Asceticism discriminated eating disorder patients and psychiatric controls. Bulimia patients scored higher than anorexics on the symptom subscales. It is concluded that the EDI-2 discriminates well between eating disorder patients and both psychiatric and normal controls.

  3. Processing of pictorial food stimuli in patients with eating disorders--a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giel, Katrin Elisabeth; Teufel, Martin; Friederich, Hans-Christoph; Hautzinger, Martin; Enck, Paul; Zipfel, Stephan

    2011-03-01

    The processing of food cues in eating-disordered patients has recently been increasingly investigated. Outlined is current evidence from pictorial food stimuli studies. PubMed and PsychINFO were searched for quantitative pictorial food stimuli studies investigating healthy controls and expert-diagnosed eating-disordered patients. Patients with eating disorders (ED) demonstrated cue reactivity to food stimuli. Results from functional imaging suggest sensory disengagement and higher emotional involvement while self-reported data and facial EMG revealed that food pictures were perceived as less pleasurable. Different experimental paradigms have demonstrated an attentional bias for food cues in ED. Currently, psychophysiological data is widely inconclusive. Evidence suggests cue reactivity to food pictures in eating-disordered patients. However, the overall picture is inconclusive because methodological problems and the integration of findings from different experimental approaches pose a challenge to the research field. Copyright © 2009 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. The Association of Binge Eating Disorder with Glycemic Control in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatih Canan

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Our aim was to assess the prevalence of binge eating disorder (BED in individuals with type 2 diabetes and to investigate whether a comorbidity with BED would affect glycemic control in these patients. Materials and Methods: Eighty-two type 2 diabetic patients were enrolled. The participants were assessed for eating disorders by a psychiatrist. Blood samples were drawn and HbA1c and other biochemical parameters were measured. Results: Of the 82 subjects, 27 (34.1% met the criteria for BED. No other types of eating disorders were detected. HbA1c was significantly higher in individuals with BED (p<0.05. Conclusion: Our findings reveal that BED is highly prevalent among type 2 diabetic patients and it impairs glycemic control. Thus, patients with type 2 diabetes should be assessed carefully for eating disorders. Turk Jem 2011; 15: 26-7

  5. Advances in eating disorder therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davidsen, Annika Helgadóttir; Lau, Marianne Engelbrecht

    2014-01-01

    Researchers at the Stolpegaard Psychotherapy Centre are seeking to improve outcomes for patients with eating disorders by gathering their feedback on group psychotherapy sessions with the aim of optimising treatment.......Researchers at the Stolpegaard Psychotherapy Centre are seeking to improve outcomes for patients with eating disorders by gathering their feedback on group psychotherapy sessions with the aim of optimising treatment....

  6. Pilot study employing heart rate variability biofeedback training to decrease anxiety in patients with eating disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Heart rate variability (HRV) biofeedback, a technique which encourages slow meditative breathing, was offered to 25 in-patients with various eating disorder diagnoses-anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa and binge eating disorder. We found that this modality had no serious side effects, and was subjectively useful to most participants. An enhanced ability to generate highly coherent HRV patterns in patients with recent onset anorexia nervosa was observed. PMID:24917934

  7. Pilot study employing heart rate variability biofeedback training to decrease anxiety in patients with eating disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scolnick, Barbara; Mostofsky, David I; Keane, Robert J

    2014-01-01

    Heart rate variability (HRV) biofeedback, a technique which encourages slow meditative breathing, was offered to 25 in-patients with various eating disorder diagnoses-anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa and binge eating disorder. We found that this modality had no serious side effects, and was subjectively useful to most participants. An enhanced ability to generate highly coherent HRV patterns in patients with recent onset anorexia nervosa was observed.

  8. Web-Based Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Female Patients With Eating Disorders: Randomized Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Haan, Hein A; Postel, Marloes G; van der Palen, Job; VanDerNagel, Joanne EL; DeJong, Cornelis AJ

    2015-01-01

    Background Many patients with eating disorders do not receive help for their symptoms, even though these disorders have severe morbidity. The Internet may offer alternative low-threshold treatment interventions. Objective This study evaluated the effects of a Web-based cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) intervention using intensive asynchronous therapeutic support to improve eating disorder psychopathology, and to reduce body dissatisfaction and related health problems among patients with eating disorders. Methods A two-arm open randomized controlled trial comparing a Web-based CBT intervention to a waiting list control condition (WL) was carried out among female patients with bulimia nervosa (BN), binge eating disorder (BED), and eating disorders not otherwise specified (EDNOS). The eating disorder diagnosis was in accordance with the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th edition, and was established based on participants’ self-report. Participants were recruited from an open-access website, and the intervention consisted of a structured two-part program within a secure Web-based application. The aim of the first part was to analyze participant’s eating attitudes and behaviors, while the second part focused on behavioral change. Participants had asynchronous contact with a personal therapist twice a week, solely via the Internet. Self-report measures of eating disorder psychopathology (primary outcome), body dissatisfaction, physical health, mental health, self-esteem, quality of life, and social functioning were completed at baseline and posttest. Results A total of 214 participants were randomized to either the Web-based CBT group (n=108) or to the WL group (n=106) stratified by type of eating disorder (BN: n=44; BED: n=85; EDNOS: n=85). Study attrition was low with 94% of the participants completing the posttest assignment. Overall, Web-based CBT showed a significant improvement over time for eating disorder psychopathology (F 97

  9. Obese Patients With a Binge Eating Disorder Have an Unfavorable Metabolic and Inflammatory Profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Succurro, Elena; Segura-Garcia, Cristina; Ruffo, Mariafrancesca; Caroleo, Mariarita; Rania, Marianna; Aloi, Matteo; De Fazio, Pasquale; Sesti, Giorgio; Arturi, Franco

    2015-12-01

    To evaluate whether obese patients with a binge eating disorder (BED) have an altered metabolic and inflammatory profile related to their eating behaviors compared with non-BED obese.A total of 115 White obese patients consecutively recruited underwent biochemical, anthropometrical evaluation, and a 75-g oral glucose tolerance test. Patients answered the Binge Eating Scale and were interviewed by a psychiatrist. The patients were subsequently divided into 2 groups according to diagnosis: non-BED obese (n = 85) and BED obese (n = 30). Structural equation modeling analysis was performed to elucidate the relation between eating behaviors and metabolic and inflammatory profile.BED obese exhibited significantly higher percentages of altered eating behaviors, body mass index (P Binge eating disorder obese also had a worse metabolic and inflammatory profile, exhibiting significantly lower high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels (P Binge eating disorder obese exhibited an unfavorable metabolic and inflammatory profile, which is related to their characteristic eating habits.

  10. Similarities and differences between eating disorders and obese patients in a virtual environment for normalizing eating patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perpiñá, Conxa; Roncero, María

    2016-05-01

    Virtual reality has demonstrated promising results in the treatment of eating disorders (ED); however, few studies have examined its usefulness in treating obesity. The aim of this study was to compare ED and obese patients on their reality judgment of a virtual environment (VE) designed to normalize their eating pattern. A second objective was to study which variables predicted the reality of the experience of eating a virtual forbidden-fattening food. ED patients, obese patients, and a non-clinical group (N=62) experienced a non-immersive VE, and then completed reality judgment and presence measures. All participants rated the VE with similar scores for quality, interaction, engagement, and ecological validity; however, ED patients obtained the highest scores on emotional involvement, attention, reality judgment/presence, and negative effects. The obese group gave the lowest scores to reality judgment/presence, satisfaction and sense of physical space, and they held an intermediate position in the attribution of reality to virtually eating a "fattening" food. The palatability of a virtual food was predicted by attention capturing and belonging to the obese group, while the attribution of reality to the virtual eating was predicted by engagement and belonging to the ED group. This study offers preliminary results about the differential impact on ED and obese patients of the exposure to virtual food, and about the need to implement a VE that can be useful as a virtual lab for studying eating behavior and treating obesity.

  11. EATING DISORDERS IN INDIA

    OpenAIRE

    Srinivasan, T.N.; Suresh, T.R.; Jayaram, Vasantha; Fernandez, M. Peter

    1995-01-01

    Data on the nature and extent of major eating disorders, anorexia nervosa and bulimia is lacking in non-white, native populations of the developing world, leaving a gap in understanding the determinants of these disorders. In a study on 210 medical students examined by a two-stage survey method, 31 subjects were found to have distress relating to their eating habits and body size not amounting to criterion-based diagnosis of eating disorders. The characteristics of this eating distress syndro...

  12. Ego-syntonicity and ego-dystonicity of eating-related intrusive thoughts in patients with eating disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roncero, María; Belloch, Amparo; Perpiñá, Conxa; Treasure, Janet

    2013-06-30

    The main objective of the present study was to analyse the role of the ego-dystonicity and ego-syntonicity of eating disorder intrusive thoughts (EDITs) in the genesis and maintenance of eating disorders (EDs). Participants were 98 female patients with EDs, 56 Spanish and 42 English (27.19±9.59 years; body mass index (BMI): 18.72±2.87). All of them completed the eating attitudes test, the Eating Attitudes Test, the Eating Intrusive Thoughts Inventory, the Ego-Dystonicity Questionnaire-Reduced version, and the Ego-Syntonicity Questionnaire. Patients indicated that their EDITs were rational and also undesirable and immoral, suggesting that EDITs are not fully ego-syntonic or ego-dystonic. Multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) indicated no differences in ego-syntonicity and ego-dystonicity across ED subtypes. Path analyses were performed to investigate the mediating role of the EDITs' ego-syntonicity and ego-dystonicity in their interference, dysfunctional appraisals and control strategies. They showed, first, that the more interference an EDIT caused, the more ego-syntonic and the less ego-dystonic it was and, second, that when the EDITs were assessed as ego-syntonic, patients tried to do what they indicated, whereas when they were assessed as ego-dystonic, patients made efforts to neutralise them. Clinical implications for the conceptualisation and treatment of ED are discussed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Black patients with binge-eating disorder: Comparison of different assessment methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lydecker, Janet A; White, Marney A; Grilo, Carlos M

    2016-10-01

    The Eating Disorder Examination (EDE) is a well-established assessment instrument, but requires substantial training and administration time. The Eating Disorder Examination Questionnaire (EDE-Q) is the corresponding self-report survey, which does not have these demands. Research has shown concordance between these 2 assessment methods, but samples have lacked racial diversity. The current study examined the concordance of the EDE-Q and EDE in a sample of Black patients with binge-eating disorder (BED) and a matched sample of White patients. Participants were 238 (Black n = 119, White n = 119) treatment-seeking adults with DSM-IV-TR-defined BED. Participants completed the EDE-Q, and trained doctoral-level clinicians assessed participants for BED and eating-disorder psychopathology using the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Disorders and the Eating Disorder Examination (EDE) interview. The EDE-Q and EDE yielded significantly correlated frequencies of binge eating and eating-disorder psychopathology subscales. The EDE-Q yielded significantly lower frequencies of binge eating and higher scores on 3 of 4 subscales (not dietary restraint). Similar patterns of concordance between the EDE-Q and EDE were found for an alternative brief version of the instruments. Patterns of convergence and divergence between the EDE-Q and EDE observed in Black patients with BED are generally consistent with findings derived from the matched White sample: overall, scores are correlated but higher on the self-report compared with interview assessment methods. Clinicians assessing patients with BED should be aware of this overall pattern, and be aware that this pattern is similar in Black patients with BED with the notable exception of dietary restraint. (PsycINFO Database Record

  14. Rumination in Patients with Binge-Eating Disorder and Obesity: Associations with Eating-Disorder Psychopathology and Weight-bias Internalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shirley B; Lydecker, Janet A; Grilo, Carlos M

    2017-03-01

    Overvaluation of shape and weight in binge-eating disorder (BED) is associated with greater eating-disorder psychopathology and greater weight-bias internalization, which are-in turn-associated with poorer mental and physical health. Little is known, however, about the significance of other cognitive processes, such as rumination, in BED. This study examined rumination and overvaluation of shape/weight with eating-disorder psychopathology and weight-bias internalization among 237 treatment-seeking patients with BED and comorbid obesity. Hierarchical multiple regressions indicated that rumination was associated with eating-disorder psychopathology and weight-bias internalization above and beyond the influence of overvaluation of shape/weight. Findings suggest that, among patients with BED/obesity, rumination is an important cognitive process associated with severity of eating-disorder psychopathology even after accounting for overvaluation of shape/weight. Patients with greater rumination might be more likely to dwell on weight-based discrimination experiences and internalize these negative attitudes. Additional controlled examination could determine whether rumination represents another potential target for BED/obesity treatment. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association.

  15. Ghrelin and eating disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Donzelli Fabbri

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background Ghrelin is a potent hormone with central and peripheral action. This hormone plays an important role in the regulation of appetite, food intake, and energy balance. Studies have suggested that ghrelin is involved with eating disorders (ED, particularly bingeing and purging. Genetic variants have also been studied to explain changes in eating behavior. Methods We conducted a literature review; we searched PubMed, Scientific Electronic Library Online (SciELO, and LILACS databases using the keywords “eating disorder”, “ghrelin”, “polymorphism”, “anorexia nervosa”, “bulimia nervosa”, “binge eating disorder”, and their combinations. We found 319 articles. Thirty-nine articles met the inclusion criteria. Results High levels of ghrelin were found in patients with anorexia nervosa (AN, especially in the purging subtype (AN-P. There was also a positive correlation between fasting ghrelin level and frequency of episodes of bingeing/purging in bulimia nervosa (BN and the frequency of bingeing in periodic binge eating disorder (BED. Some polymorphisms were associated with AN and BN. Conclusion Changes in ghrelin levels and its polymorphism may be involved in the pathogenesis of EDs; however, further studies should be conducted to clarify the associations.

  16. The increased risk for autoimmune diseases in patients with eating disorders.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anu Raevuori

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Research suggests autoimmune processes to be involved in psychiatric disorders. We aimed to address the prevalence and incidence of autoimmune diseases in a large Finnish patient cohort with anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, and binge eating disorder. METHODS: Patients (N = 2342 treated at the Eating Disorder Unit of Helsinki University Central Hospital between 1995 and 2010 were compared with general population controls (N = 9368 matched for age, sex, and place of residence. Data of 30 autoimmune diseases from the Hospital Discharge Register from 1969 to 2010 were analyzed using conditional and Poisson regression models. RESULTS: Of patients, 8.9% vs. 5.4% of control individuals had been diagnosed with one or more autoimmune disease (OR 1.7, 95% CI 1.5-2.0, P<0.001. The increase in endocrinological diseases (OR 2.4, 95% CI 1.8-3.2, P<0.001 was explained by type 1 diabetes, whereas Crohn's disease contributed most to the risk of gastroenterological diseases (OR 1.8, 95% CI 1.4-2.5, P<0.001. Higher prevalence of autoimmune diseases among patients with eating disorders was not exclusively due to endocrinological and gastroenterological diseases; when the two categories were excluded, the increase in prevalence was seen in the patients both before the onset of the eating disorder treatment (OR 1.5, 95% CI 1.1-2.1, P = 0.02 and at the end of the follow-up (OR 1.4, 95% CI 1.1-1.8, P = 0.01. CONCLUSIONS: We observed an association between eating disorders and several autoimmune diseases with different genetic backgrounds. Our findings support the link between immune-mediated mechanisms and development of eating disorders. Future studies are needed to further explore the risk of autoimmune diseases and immunological mechanisms in individuals with eating disorders and their family members.

  17. Eating Disorder Examination-Questionnaire as a measure of change in patients with bulimia nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sysko, Robyn; Walsh, B Timothy; Fairburn, Christopher G

    2005-03-01

    The current study evaluated the agreement between the Eating Disorder Examination and the Eating Disorder Examination-Questionnaire in assessing eating disorder pathology in a sample of women with bulimia nervosa. Patients with broadly defined bulimia nervosa were enrolled in a double-blind, placebo-controlled treatment study of fluoxetine, with and without guided self-help. The current study presents information from 50 patients with data from both the EDE and EDE-Q at study entry and treatment termination. The EDE and EDE-Q produced more similar scores for compensatory behaviors (vomiting/laxative use) than complex eating-disordered features (binge eating/importance of shape and weight) at the pretreatment and posttreatment assessments, and for change during the study. The EDE and EDE-Q are highly correlated for many of the behavioral and attitudinal features of bulimia nervosa. There is substantial variability in agreement for individual patients, but on average, the EDE and EDE-Q will yield similar assessments of eating disorder symptoms and change in symptoms over time. (c) 2005 by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Patient with Eating Disorder, Carnitine Deficiency and Dilated Cardiomyopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fotino, A Domnica; Sherma, A

    2015-01-01

    Dilated cardiomyopathy is characterized by a dilated and poorly functioning left ventricle and can result from several different etiologies including ischemic, infectious, metabolic, toxins, autoimmune processes or nutritional deficiencies. Carnitine deficiency-induced cardiomyopathy (CDIM) is an uncommon cause of dilated cardiomyopathy that can go untreated if not considered. Here, we describe a 30-year-old woman with an eating disorder and recent percutaneous endoscopic gastrotomy (PEG) tube placement for weight loss admitted to the hospital for possible PEG tube infection. Carnitine level was found to be low. Transthoracic echocardiogram (TTE) revealed ejection fraction 15%. Her hospital course was complicated by sepsis from a peripherally inserted central catheter (PICC). She was discharged on a beta-blocker and carnitine supplementation. One month later her cardiac function had normalized. Carnitine deficiency-induced myopathy is an unusual cause of cardiomyopathy and should be considered in adults with decreased oral intake or malabsorption who present with cardiomyopathy.

  19. Early clinical manifestations and eating patterns in patients with urea cycle disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gardeitchik, T.; Humphrey, M.; Nation, J.; Boneh, A.

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To characterize dietary habits and eating patterns in patients with a urea cycle disorder (UCD), and to identify dietary habits that may serve as clues to lead to earlier diagnosis of these disorders. STUDY DESIGN: This was a retrospective study of clinical and dietary data from hospital

  20. Early clinical manifestations and eating patterns in patients with urea cycle disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gardeitchik, T.; Humphrey, M.; Nation, J.; Boneh, A.

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To characterize dietary habits and eating patterns in patients with a urea cycle disorder (UCD), and to identify dietary habits that may serve as clues to lead to earlier diagnosis of these disorders. STUDY DESIGN: This was a retrospective study of clinical and dietary data from hospital

  1. Web-Based Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Female Patients With Eating Disorders: Randomized Controlled Trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huurne, ter E.D.; Haan, de H.A.; Postel, M.G.; Palen, van der Job; VanDerNagel, Joanneke E.L.; Jong, de Cor A.J.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Many patients with eating disorders do not receive help for their symptoms, even though these disorders have severe morbidity. The Internet may offer alternative low-threshold treatment interventions. Objective: This study evaluated the effects of a Web-based cognitive behavioral therap

  2. Web-based cognitive behavioral therapy for female patients with eating disorders: Randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huurne, E.D. ter; Haan, H.A. de; Postel, M.G.; Palen, J.A.M. van der; Nagel, J.E.L. van der; Jong, C.A.J. de

    2015-01-01

    Background: Many patients with eating disorders do not receive help for their symptoms, even though these disorders have severe morbidity. The Internet may offer alternative low-threshold treatment interventions. Objective: This study evaluated the effects of a Web-based cognitive behavioral therapy

  3. Web-Based Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Female Patients With Eating Disorders: Randomized Controlled Trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ter Huurne, E.D.; de Haan, H.A.; Postel, Marloes Gerda; van der Palen, Jacobus Adrianus Maria; VanDerNagel, Joanneke E.L.; de Jong, Cor A.J.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Many patients with eating disorders do not receive help for their symptoms, even though these disorders have severe morbidity. The Internet may offer alternative low-threshold treatment interventions. Objective: This study evaluated the effects of a Web-based cognitive behavioral therapy

  4. Web-based cognitive behavioral therapy for female patients with eating disorders: Randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huurne, E.D. ter; Haan, H.A. de; Postel, M.G.; Palen, J.A.M. van der; Nagel, J.E.L. van der; Jong, C.A.J. de

    2015-01-01

    Background: Many patients with eating disorders do not receive help for their symptoms, even though these disorders have severe morbidity. The Internet may offer alternative low-threshold treatment interventions. Objective: This study evaluated the effects of a Web-based cognitive behavioral therapy

  5. Predictors of orthorexic behaviours in patients with eating disorders: a preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brytek-Matera, Anna; Rogoza, Radosław; Gramaglia, Carla; Zeppegno, Patrizia

    2015-10-15

    The construct of orthorexia in eating disorders (EDs) has received very little attention despite clinical observations of a possible overlap between the two. The aim of this study was: 1) to assess orthorexic behaviours, eating disorder pathology and attitudinal body image in ED patients; 2) to identify possible predictors of orthorexia nervosa among ED patients. Fifty-two women diagnosed with EDs were recruited. Patients' assessment included the following: the ORTO-15 test (Polish version) for orthorexic behaviours; the Eating Attitude Test-26 (EAT-26) to identify ED symptoms; the Multidimensional Body-Self Relations Questionnaire (Polish version) to assess body image. A latent class analysis was performed and differences between identified classes were assessed. The main differences concerned weight, ED pathology and orthorexic behaviours within the same group of ED patients. In order to examine predictors of orthorexia nervosa, we investigated a structural equation model, which excellently fitted to the data (χ(2)(17) = 23.05; p = .148; CFI = .962; RMSEA = .08; p = .25; SRMR = .05). In ED patients, orthorexic behaviour was negatively predicted by eating pathology, weight concern, health orientation and appearance orientation. The assessment of the orthorexia construct in EDs may add to the paucity of studies about this issue and may help to clarify the relationship between the two. Differences and similarities seem to exist between these disorders, and may benefit from specific treatment approaches. Moreover, these preliminary findings open tracks for future research in the field of the psychology of eating.

  6. The Relationship of Personality to Eating Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Ali Besharat

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper highlights a variety of personality disorders in individuals with eating disorder and also emphasizes the importance of identifying clinically meaningful eating disorders subtypes based on concurrent personality disorder. The relationship between personality disorders and eating disorders is an important issue as this association has implications for assessment and treatment. Different hypotheses concerning the relationship between personality disorders and eating disorders will be reviewed. The prevalence rates of concomitant personality disorder diagnoses in eating disorder patients is highlighted to illustrate some of the pertinent conceptual issues concerning the meaning of the co-occurrence of separately defined diagnostic entities. The literature review reveals a robust finding that patients with ersonality pathology have a poorer response to treatment of Axis I disorders than those without such pathology. It is also argued that therapeutic relationship deserves more attention in the assessment and treatment of eating disorder patients with a co morbid personality disorder.

  7. The Impeding Role of Self-Critical Perfectionism on Therapeutic Alliance During Treatment and Eating Disorder Symptoms at Follow-up in Patients with an Eating Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jolene van der Kaap-Deeder

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the impeding role of self-critical perfectionism at onset of treatment on therapeutic alliance during treatment and eating disorder symptoms at follow-up in patients with an eating disorder. Participants were 53 female patients with a mean age of 21.1 years treated for an eating disorder in a specialized inpatient treatment unit. Self-critical perfectionism was assessed at admission, therapeutic alliance was assessed during treatment (after three months of treatment, and eating disorder symptoms were assessed at admission, after three months and one year later. Self-critical perfectionism negatively related to treatment alliance with the therapist. Although self-critical perfectionism was not directly predictive of subsequent changes in eating disorder symptoms, it was indirectly related to less reduction in body dissatisfaction through the therapeutic alliance. These results point to the importance of self-critical perfectionism in the therapeutic alliance and in changes in body image problems. Treatment implications are discussed.

  8. Sudden death in eating disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jáuregui-Garrido, Beatriz; Jáuregui-Lobera, Ignacio

    2012-01-01

    Eating disorders are usually associated with an increased risk of premature death with a wide range of rates and causes of mortality. "Sudden death" has been defined as the abrupt and unexpected occurrence of fatality for which no satisfactory explanation of the cause can be ascertained. In many cases of sudden death, autopsies do not clarify the main cause. Cardiovascular complications are usually involved in these deaths. The purpose of this review was to report an update of the existing literature data on the main findings with respect to sudden death in eating disorders by means of a search conducted in PubMed. The most relevant conclusion of this review seems to be that the main causes of sudden death in eating disorders are those related to cardiovascular complications. The predictive value of the increased QT interval dispersion as a marker of sudden acute ventricular arrhythmia and death has been demonstrated. Eating disorder patients with severe cardiovascular symptoms should be hospitalized. In general, with respect to sudden death in eating disorders, some findings (eg, long-term eating disorders, chronic hypokalemia, chronically low plasma albumin, and QT intervals >600 milliseconds) must be taken into account, and it must be highlighted that during refeeding, the adverse effects of hypophosphatemia include cardiac failure. Monitoring vital signs and performing electrocardiograms and serial measurements of plasma potassium are relevant during the treatment of eating disorder patients.

  9. Night Eating Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deniz Tuncel

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Hunger is an awakening related biological impulse. The relationship between hunger and sleep is moderated by the control of homeostatic and circadian rhytms of the body. Abnormal eating behavior during sleep period could result from different causes. Abnormal eating during the main sleep period has been categorized as either night eating syndrome or sleep related eating disorder. Night eating syndrome (NES is an eating disorder characterised by the clinical features of morning anorexia, evening hyperphagia, and insomnia with awakenings followed by nocturnal food ingestion. Recently night eating syndrome, conceptualized as a delayed circadian intake of food. Sleep-related eating disorder, thought to represent a parasomnia and as such included within the revised International Classification of Sleep Disorders (ICSD-2, and characterized by nocturnal partial arousals associated with recurrent episodes of involuntary food consumption and altered levels of consciousness. Whether, however, sleep-related eating disorder and night eating syndrome represent different diseases or are part of a continuum is still debated. This review summarizes their characteristics, treatment outcomes and differences between them.

  10. Emerging Treatments in Eating Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutter, Michael

    2017-07-01

    Eating disorders (EDs), including anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, and binge-eating disorder, constitute a class of common and deadly psychiatric disorders. While numerous studies in humans highlight the important role of neurobiological alterations in the development of ED-related behaviors, the precise neural substrate that mediates this risk is unknown. Historically, pharmacological interventions have played a limited role in the treatment of eating disorders, typically providing symptomatic relief of comorbid psychiatric issues, like depression and anxiety, in support of the standard nutritional and psychological treatments. To date there are no Food and Drug Administration-approved medications or procedures for anorexia nervosa, and only one Food and Drug Administration-approved medication each for bulimia nervosa (fluoxetine) and binge-eating disorder (lisdexamfetamine). While there is little primary interest in drug development for eating disorders, postmarket monitoring of medications and procedures approved for other indications has identified several novel treatment options for patients with eating disorders. In this review, I utilize searches of the PubMed and ClinicalTrials.gov databases to highlight emerging treatments in eating disorders.

  11. Boys with Eating Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatmaker, Grace

    2005-01-01

    Although commonly associated with girls and women, eating disorders do not discriminate. School nurses need to be aware that male students also can suffer from the serious health effects of anorexia nervosa, bulimia, anorexia athletica, and eating disorders not otherwise specified. Sports that focus on leanness and weight limits can add to a…

  12. Personality and coping in patients with eating disorders and obesity / Personalidade e coping em pacientes com transtornos alimentares e obesidade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Tomaz

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This study assesses the differential use of coping and personality trait of patients with eating disorders (anorexia, bulimia, and Eating Disorders Not Otherwise Specified - EDNOS, obesity as well as in subjects from the general population. 109 subjects participated in the study (60 with eating disorder or obesity diagnostics; 49 from the general population. The instruments were Personality Trait Scale, Coping Response Inventory and Eating Attitudes Scale (EAS. It was observed significant differences on EAS according to the type of population, demonstrating this instrument's adequacy as psychopathological screening for eating disorders. Moreover, individuals presenting high neuroticism and who discharge their emotion to cope with their problems have more inadequate eating attitudes as shown by EAS (R=0.291, p=0.011. These results are discussed through theories related to the Big Five personality traits, coping, eating disorders and obesity.

  13. Web-Based Treatment Program Using Intensive Therapeutic Contact for Patients With Eating Disorders: Before-After Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huurne, E.D. ter; Postel, M.G.; Haan, H.A. de; Drossaert, C.H.C.; Jong, C.A.J. de

    2013-01-01

    Background: Although eating disorders are common in the Netherlands, only a few patients are treated by mental health care professionals. To reach and treat more patients with eating disorders, Tactus Addiction Treatment developed a web-based treatment program with asynchronous and intensive persona

  14. Competitive Memory Training (COMET) for Treating Low Self-Esteem in Patients with Eating Disorders: A Randomized Clinical Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korrelboom, Kees; de Jong, Martie; Huijbrechts, Irma; Daansen, Peter

    2009-01-01

    This study evaluates a short stepwise cognitive-behavioral intervention for the treatment of low self-esteem in patients with eating disorders. Competitive memory training (COMET) for low self-esteem is based on insights and findings from experimental psychology. A total of 52 patients with eating disorders and low self-esteem were treated with…

  15. Competitive Memory Training (COMET) for Treating Low Self-Esteem in Patients with Eating Disorders: A Randomized Clinical Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korrelboom, Kees; de Jong, Martie; Huijbrechts, Irma; Daansen, Peter

    2009-01-01

    This study evaluates a short stepwise cognitive-behavioral intervention for the treatment of low self-esteem in patients with eating disorders. Competitive memory training (COMET) for low self-esteem is based on insights and findings from experimental psychology. A total of 52 patients with eating disorders and low self-esteem were treated with…

  16. Personality subtypes in male patients with eating disorder: validation of a classification approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claes, Laurence; Fernandez-Aranda, Fernando; Jiménez-Murcia, Susana; Agüera, Zaida; Granero, Roser; Sánchez, Isabel; Menchón, Jose Manuel

    2012-10-01

    In the present study, we investigated personality subtypes and their correlates in a sample of 132 male patients with eating disorder (ED). All patients filled out the Temperament and Character Inventory-Revised, the Eating Disorder Inventory-2, and the Symptom Checklist-90-Revised. Three personality subtypes emerged. Cluster 1, the adaptive-like subtype, was characterized by a high prevalence of eating-disorder-not-otherwise-specified and low levels of ED and general psychopathology. Cluster 2, the average or socially detached subtype, showed a high prevalence of eating-disorder-not-otherwise-specified, more social problems, less motivation for treatment, and an intermediate position on the psychopathology dimension between patients of clusters 1 and 3. Finally, cluster 3, the maladaptive subtype, was characterized the highest prevalence of bulimia nervosa and the highest scores on ED and general psychopathology. Our data support the presence of the 3 personality subtypes in male patients with ED. Future studies need to address whether patients of different subtypes differ with respect to therapy outcome.

  17. Dissatisfaction with own body makes patients with eating disorders more sensitive to pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamotova, Anna; Bulant, Josef; Bocek, Vaclav; Papezova, Hana

    2017-01-01

    Body image represents a multidimensional concept including body image evaluation and perception of body appearance. Disturbances of body image perception are considered to be one of the central aspects of anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa. There is growing evidence that body image distortion can be associated with changes in pain perception. The aim of our study was to examine the associations between body image perception, body dissatisfaction, and nociception in women with eating disorders and age-matched healthy control women. We measured body dissatisfaction and pain sensitivity in 61 patients with Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-Fourth Edition diagnoses of eating disorders (31 anorexia nervosa and 30 bulimia nervosa) and in 30 healthy women. Thermal pain threshold latencies were evaluated using an analgesia meter and body image perception and body dissatisfaction were assessed using Anamorphic Micro software (digital pictures of their own body distorted into larger-body and thinner-body images). Patients with eating disorders overestimated their body size in comparison with healthy controls, but the two groups did not differ in body dissatisfaction. In anorexia and bulimia patient groups, body dissatisfaction (calculated in pixels as desired size/true image size) correlated with pain threshold latencies (r=0.55, p=0.001), while between body image perception (determined as estimation size/true image size) and pain threshold, no correlation was found. Thus, we demonstrated that in patients with eating disorders, pain perception is significantly associated with emotional contrary to sensory (visual) processing of one’s own body image. The more the patients desired to be thin, the more pain-sensitive they were. Our findings based on some shared mechanisms of body dissatisfaction and pain perception support the significance of negative emotions specific for eating disorders and contribute to better understanding of the psychosomatic

  18. Posturographic destabilization in eating disorders in female patients exposed to body image related phobic stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forghieri, M; Monzani, D; Mackinnon, A; Ferrari, S; Gherpelli, C; Galeazzi, G M

    2016-08-26

    Human postural control is dependent on the central integration of vestibular, visual and proprioceptive inputs. Psychological states can affect balance control: anxiety, in particular, has been shown to influence balance mediated by visual stimuli. We hypothesized that patients with eating disorders would show postural destabilization when exposed to their image in a mirror and to the image of a fashion model representing their body ideal in comparison to body neutral stimuli. Seventeen females patients attending a day centre for the treatment of eating disorders were administered psychometric measures of body dissatisfaction, anxiety, depression and underwent posturographic measures with their eyes closed, open, watching a neutral stimulus, while exposed to a full length mirror and to an image of a fashion model corresponding to their body image. Results were compared to those obtained by eighteen healthy subjects. Eating disordered patients showed higher levels of body dissatisfaction and higher postural destabilization than controls, but this was limited to the conditions in which they were exposed to their mirror image or a fashion model image. Postural destabilization under these conditions correlated with measures of body dissatisfaction. In eating disordered patients, body related stimuli seem to act as phobic stimuli in the posturographic paradigm used. If confirmed, this has the potential to be developed for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Stability of personality traits in patients who received intensive treatment for a severe eating disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bloks, H; Hoek, HW; Callewaert, [No Value; van Furth, E

    2004-01-01

    A longitudinal prospective design with four assessments was used to examine the stability of personality traits and their relation to recovery in patients with restrictive anorexia nervosa (N = 35), bingeing/purging anorexia nervosa (N = 37), bulimia nervosa (N = 47), and eating disorder not otherwi

  20. A Sisyphean task: experiences of perfectionism in patients with eating disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersson, Suzanne; Johnsson, Per; Perseius, Kent-Inge

    2017-01-01

    Despite the theoretical links between eating disorders and perfectionism, the definition of perfectionism in practice is complicated. The present study explored descriptions and experiences of perfectionism described by a transdiagnostic sample of patients. In-depth, semi-structured interviews were carried out with 15 patients. The interviews were analyzed by Thematic Analysis. A comparison between the patients' scorings on the Eating Disorder Inventory-Perfectionism scale was also performed. Seven themes were found: The origins of perfectionism, Top performance, Order and self-control, A perfect body, Looking good in the eyes of others, A double-edged coping strategy, and A Sisyphean task. The women in this study did not emphasize weight and body as the main perfectionistic strivings. Core descriptions were instead order, self-control and top performances. All of the participants described the awareness of reaching perfectionism as impossible. Scorings of self-oriented perfectionism was significantly higher compared to socially prescribed perfectionism. No differences in the narratives related to perfectionism scores or eating disorder diagnoses were found. The results showed that psychometric measures do not always capture the patients' definitions of perfectionism, but regarding that perfectionism serves as a means to regulate affects and may lead into an exacerbation of the eating disorder, and the development of obsessive-compulsive symptoms, it is important to investigate the personal definitions of perfectionism.

  1. Can Violence cause Eating Disorders?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juli, Maria Rosaria

    2015-09-01

    The origin and course of eating disorders and nutrition have a multifactorial etiology and should therefore take into consideration: psychological factors, evolutionary, biological and socio-cultural (Juli 2012). Among the psychological factors we will focus on violence (in any form) and in particular on the consequences that they have on women, which vary in severity. Recent studies show that women get sick more than men, both from depression and eating disorders, with a ratio of 2:1; this difference begins in adolescence and continues throughout the course of life (Niolu 2010). The cause of this difference remains unclear. Many studies agree that during adolescence girls have negative feelings more frequently and for a longer duration caused by stressful life events and difficult circumstances, such as abuse or violence. This results in an increased likelihood of developing a symptom that will be connected to eating disorders and/or depression. As far as the role of food is concerned in eating disorders, it has a symbolic significance and offers emotional comfort. Eating means to incorporate and assimilate, and even in an ideal sense, the characteristics of the foods become part of the individual. Feelings that lead to binges with food are normally a result of feelings related to abuse or violence and lead to abnormal behavior which leads to binging and the final result being that the person is left feeling guilty and ashamed. Research confirms that 30% of patients who have been diagnosed with eating disorders, especially bulimia, have a history of sexual abuse during childhood. Ignoring the significance of this factor can result in the unleashing of this disease as the patient uses the disorder as his expressive theater (Mencarelli 2008). Factors that contribute to the possibility of developing an eating disorder are both the age of the patient at the time of the abuse and the duration of the abuse. The psychological effects that follow may include dissociative

  2. Automated identification of patients with a diagnosis of binge eating disorder from narrative electronic health records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellows, Brandon K; LaFleur, Joanne; Kamauu, Aaron W C; Ginter, Thomas; Forbush, Tyler B; Agbor, Stephen; Supina, Dylan; Hodgkins, Paul; DuVall, Scott L

    2014-02-01

    Binge eating disorder (BED) does not have an International Classification of Diseases, 9th or 10th edition code, but is included under 'eating disorder not otherwise specified' (EDNOS). This historical cohort study identified patients with clinician-diagnosed BED from electronic health records (EHR) in the Department of Veterans Affairs between 2000 and 2011 using natural language processing (NLP) and compared their characteristics to patients identified by EDNOS diagnosis codes. NLP identified 1487 BED patients with classification accuracy of 91.8% and sensitivity of 96.2% compared to human review. After applying study inclusion criteria, 525 patients had NLP-identified BED only, 1354 had EDNOS only, and 68 had both BED and EDNOS. Patient characteristics were similar between the groups. This is the first study to use NLP as a method to identify BED patients from EHR data and will allow further epidemiological study of patients with BED in systems with adequate clinical notes.

  3. Are improvements in shame and self-compassion early in eating disorders treatment associated with better patient outcomes?

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    Kelly, Allison C; Carter, Jacqueline C; Borairi, Sahar

    2014-01-01

    Compassion-focused therapy (CFT; Gilbert, 2005, 2009) is a transdiagnostic treatment approach focused on building self-compassion and reducing shame. It is based on the theory that feelings of shame contribute to the maintenance of psychopathology, whereas self-compassion contributes to the alleviation of shame and psychopathology. We sought to test this theory in a transdiagnostic sample of eating disorder patients by examining whether larger improvements in shame and self-compassion early in treatment would facilitate faster eating disorder symptom remission over 12 weeks. Participants were 97 patients with an eating disorder admitted to specialized day hospital or inpatient treatment. They completed the Eating Disorder Examination-Questionnaire, Experiences of Shame Scale, and Self-Compassion Scale at intake, and again after weeks 3, 6, 9, and 12. Multilevel modeling revealed that patients who experienced greater decreases in their level of shame in the first 4 weeks of treatment had faster decreases in their eating disorder symptoms over 12 weeks of treatment. In addition, patients who had greater increases in their level of self-compassion early in treatment had faster decreases in their feelings of shame over 12 weeks, even when controlling for their early change in eating disorder symptoms. These results suggest that CFT theory may help to explain the maintenance of eating disorders. Clinically, findings suggest that intervening with shame early in treatment, perhaps by building patients' self-compassion, may promote better eating disorders treatment response.

  4. Communication between physicians and patients with suspected or diagnosed binge eating disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kornstein, Susan G; Keck, Paul E; Herman, Barry K; Puhl, Rebecca M; Wilfley, Denise E; DiMarco, Ilyse D

    2015-01-01

    Physician-patient conversations were examined to identify barriers to effective discussions about binge eating disorder (BED) arising from discrepancies in how physicians and patients communicate about BED. Conversations between suspected or diagnosed BED patients (n = 38) and psychiatrists (n = 11) were recorded and the transcripts were reviewed for BED-related lexical terms using automated conversation analysis software. Researchers disambiguated multivalent terms and combined similar terms. The results showed that psychiatrists evaluated some diagnostic criteria (e.g., the absence of compensatory behavior) but not others (e.g., eating more rapidly than normal), focused more on symptoms in relation to weight and generally discussed weight-related issues more often than did patients, and asked about the type of food consumed more often than the diagnostic criterion related to the quantity of food consumed. In contrast, patients used terminology that attempted to clarify the relationships between feelings, coping strategies, and compulsion to binge eat when discussing binge eating episodes. These findings suggest that educational materials promoting more effective physician-patient dialogues regarding eating behaviors in general, and BED specifically, may be beneficial. Conversations should highlight the BED diagnostic criteria, assessment of patients' emotions and sense of lack of control, and relationships between body weight and BED.

  5. Prevalence of eating disorders and eating attacks in narcolepsy

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    Norbert Dahmen

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Norbert Dahmen, Julia Becht, Alice Engel, Monika Thommes, Peter TonnPsychiatry Department, University of Mainz, GermanyAbstract: Narcoleptic patients suffer frequently from obesity and type II diabetes. Most patients show a deficit in the energy balance regulating orexinergic system. Nevertheless, it is not known, why narcoleptic patients tend to be obese. We examined 116 narcoleptic patients and 80 controls with the structured interview for anorectic and bulimic eating disorders (SIAB to test the hypothesis that typical or atypical eating attacks or eating disorders may be more frequent in narcoleptic patients. No difference in the current prevalence of eating disorders bulimia nervosa, binge eating disorder, or anorexia nervosa was found, nor was the frequency of eating attacks higher in the narcolepsy group. We conclude that present eating disorders and eating attacks as defined in DSM IV are not the reason for the observed differences in body composition. Additional factors, such as basal metabolic rates and lifestyle factors need to be considered.Keywords: narcolepsy, eating disorder, SIAB, bulimia, anorexia, eating attack

  6. Highly increased risk of type 2 diabetes in patients with binge eating disorder and bulimia nervosa.

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    Raevuori, Anu; Suokas, Jaana; Haukka, Jari; Gissler, Mika; Linna, Milla; Grainger, Marjut; Suvisaari, Jaana

    2015-09-01

    We aimed to examine the prevalence and incidence of type 2 diabetes (T2D) in a large patient cohort treated for binge eating disorder (BED), bulimia nervosa (BN), and anorexia nervosa. Patients (N = 2,342) treated at the Eating Disorder Unit of Helsinki University Central Hospital over the period up to 16 years were compared with matched general population controls (N = 9,368) in three stages: before entering to the treatment for an eating disorder, after the entrance until the end of the study period, and combined any time before, during, and after the treatment. The study population was linked with the oral TSD medication data of 17 years from The Medical Reimbursement Register. Data were analyzed using conditional and Poisson regression models. Before entering to the treatment for eating disorders, the risk of T2D was substantially increased in patients compared with controls (OR 6.6, 95% CI 4.0-10.7). At the end of the study period, the lifetime prevalence of T2D was 5.2% among patients, 1.7% among controls (OR 3.4, 95% CI 2.6-4.4), and in male patients, it was significantly higher compared with females. Of those treated for BED, every third had T2D by the end of the study period (OR 12.9, 95% CI 7.4-22.5), whereas the same was true for 4.4% of those with BN (OR 2.4, 95% CI 1.7-3.5). Our findings provide strong support for the association between T2D and clinically significant binge eating. Disturbed glucose metabolism may contribute to the onset and maintenance of BED and BN. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Correlation of binge eating disorder with level of depression and glycemic control in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çelik, Selime; Kayar, Yusuf; Önem Akçakaya, Rabia; Türkyılmaz Uyar, Ece; Kalkan, Kübra; Yazısız, Veli; Aydın, Çiğdem; Yücel, Başak

    2015-01-01

    It is reported that eating disorders and depression are more common in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). In this study, we aimed to determine the prevalence of binge eating disorder (BED) in T2DM patients and examine the correlation of BED with level of depression and glycemic control. One hundred fifty-two T2DM patients aged between 18 and 75 years (81 females, 71 males) were evaluated via a Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis I Disorder, Clinical Version in terms of eating disorders. Disordered eating attitudes were determined using the Eating Attitudes Test (EAT) and level of depression was determined using the Beck Depression Scale. Patients who have BED and patients who do not were compared in terms of age, gender, body mass index, glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) levels, depression and EAT scores. Eight of the patients included in the study (5.26%) were diagnosed with BED. In patients diagnosed with BED, depression and EAT scores were significantly high (PEAT scores and depression scores (r = +0.196, Peating attitudes. Psychiatric treatments should be organized for patients diagnosed with BED by taking into consideration comorbid depression. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Patients with eating disorders showed no signs of coeliac disease before and after nutritional intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaltsa, Maria; Garoufi, Anastasia; Tsitsika, Artemis; Tsirogianni, Alexandra; Papasteriades, Chryssa; Kossiva, Lydia

    2015-07-01

    This study assessed the presence of specific antibodies for coeliac disease in outpatients suffering from eating disorders before and after nutritional intervention. We also evaluated whether those patients should undergo regular screening for coeliac disease. The sample consisted of 154 patients with a mean age of 16.7 years - ranging from one to 19 years of age - suffering from eating disorders. Serology screening for coeliac disease and total immunoglobulin A (IgA) levels was evaluated in the 154 children before the nutritional intervention and in 104 patients after the intervention. The patients consumed an adequate amount of gluten in both phases. Postintervention evaluation revealed that 92 patients (88.5%) achieved a normal body weight, while the remaining 12 (11.5%) became obese. Postprandial abdominal discomfort and pain were resolved. The serology tests were negative in all patients, before and after intervention. None displayed IgA deficiency. To the best of our knowledge, this was the first prospective study where patients underwent a screening serology for coeliac disease before and after nutritional intervention. No indication of the coexistence of eating disorders and coeliac disease was documented, and the patients in our study were unlikely to require regular screening for coeliac disease. ©2015 Foundation Acta Paediatrica. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. [Eating disorders and sexual function].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kravvariti, V; Gonidakis, Fr

    2016-01-01

    Women suffering from eating disorders, present considerable retardation and difficulties in their psychosexual development during adolescence. This leads to primary or secondary insufficiencies in their adult sexual life. The cause of these difficulties seems to be a series of biological, family and psychosocial factors. The majority of the research findings indicate that eating disorders have a negative impact on the patient's sexual function. The factors related to eating disorders symptomatology that influence sexuality are various and differ among each eating disorder diagnostic categories. Considering anorexia nervosa, it has been reported that women have negative attitudes to sexual issues and their body. Their sexual motivation increases when they engage in psychotherapy and their body weight is gradually restored. Starvation and its consequences on the human physiology and especially on the brain function seem to be the main factor that leads to reduced sexual desire and scarce sexual activity. Moreover, personality traits that are common in patients suffering from anorexia nervosa such as compulsivity and rigidity are also related with difficulties initiating and retaining romantic and sexual relationships. Usually patients suffering from anorexia nervosa report impaired sexual behavior and lack of interest to engage in a sexual relationship. Considering Bulimia Nervosa, impulsivity and difficulties in emotion regulation that are common features of the individuals that suffer from bulimia nervosa are also related to impulsive and sometimes self-harming sexual behaviors. Moreover women sufferers often report repulsion, anger and shame towards their body and weight, mainly due to the distorted perception that they are fat and ugly. It is interesting that a number of research findings indicate that although patients suffering from bulimia nervosa are more sexually active and have more sexual experiences than patients suffering from anorexia nervosa, both

  10. Understanding the roles of self-esteem, self-compassion, and fear of self-compassion in eating disorder pathology: an examination of female students and eating disorder patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Allison C; Vimalakanthan, Kiruthiha; Carter, Jacqueline C

    2014-08-01

    The present study examined the relative contributions of self-compassion, fear of self-compassion, and self-esteem in eating disorder pathology. One-hundred and fifty-five female undergraduate students and 97 females entering eating disorder treatment completed the Self-Compassion Scale, Fears of Compassion Scale, Rosenberg Self-Esteem Inventory, and Eating Disorder Examination Questionnaire. T-tests revealed that the patient group had lower mean self-compassion and higher mean fear of self-compassion than the student group. When controlling for self-esteem, high fear of self-compassion emerged as the strongest predictor of eating disorder pathology in the patient group, whereas low self-compassion was the strongest predictor in the student group. These preliminary results suggest that targeting fear of self-compassion may be important when intervening with individuals suffering from an eating disorder, whereas building self-compassion may be a valuable approach for eating disorder prevention.

  11. Perfectionism in depression, obsessive-compulsive disorder and eating disorders.

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    Sassaroli, Sandra; Lauro, Leonor J Romero; Ruggiero, Giovanni Maria; Mauri, Massimo C; Vinai, Piergiuseppe; Frost, Randy

    2008-06-01

    High levels of perfectionism have been observed in major depression, anxiety disorders and eating disorders. Though few studies have compared levels of perfectionism across these disorders, there is reason to believe that different dimensions of perfectionism may be involved in eating disorders than in depression or anxiety [Bardone-Cone, A. M. et al. (2007). Perfectionism and eating disorders: Current status and future directions. Clinical Psychology Review, 27, 84-405]. The present study compared patients with major depression, obsessive-compulsive disorder, and eating disorders on dimensions of perfectionism. Concern over Mistakes was elevated in each of the patient groups while Pure Personal Standards was only elevated in the eating disorder sample. Doubts about Actions was elevated in both patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder and eating disorders, but not in depressed patients. Analyses of covariance indicated that Concern over Mistakes accounted for most of the variance in the relationship of perfectionism to these forms of psychopathology.

  12. Eating disorders in Malta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grech, Anton

    2013-09-01

    In the beginning of 2014 a new service (residential and non residential) for eating disorders is being planned to open in Malta. A telephone based survey was conducted between 30 May and 11 June 2012. A randomized sample of 6000 of the population between 15 and 50 years old was chosen. 2.9 per cent of respondents have suffered from an eating disorder at some point in time. 2.0 percent of these had suffered from an eating disorder in the past, while the remaining (0.9 per cent) were suffering from an eating disorder at the time of study. Out of these 2,008 individuals participated in the study. Binge Eating was the most common eating disorder, with 55.8 per cent of respondents having this condition, followed by Anorexia (34.3 per cent) and Bulimia (13.3 per cent). These results were comparable to those of other European countries. Awareness of these conditions in the general population was generally good, higher in females and in those with a higher educational level.

  13. Insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1), a nutritional marker in patients with eating disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caregaro, L; Favaro, A; Santonastaso, P; Alberino, F; Di Pascoli, L; Nardi, M; Favaro, S; Gatta, A

    2001-06-01

    Though low levels of insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) have been repeatedly reported in patients with eating disorders, the nutritional significance of IGF-1 has not been evaluated. The study aimed to assess the utility of IGF-1 for screening malnutrition and for monitoring nutrition intervention in patients with eating disorders. IGF-1 and nutritional status were evaluated in 82 patients, 59 with anorexia nervosa (AN), and 23 with bulimia nervosa (BN). Nutritional assessment included the evaluation of body mass index (BMI), body fat (FAT) and muscle mass (MM), assessed by skinfold anthropometry, serum albumin, transthyretin and retinol-binding protein, energy and protein intake. IGF-1 and nutritional parameters were reevaluated in the early phase of refeeding (2-4 weeks) in 20 AN patients who entered a refeeding program. Mean IGF-1 z-score was -1.74+/-0.74 in AN, and -0.74+/-0.91 in BN. Serum proteins were reduced in only a minority of patients. IGF-1 correlated with BMI (r=0.64), FAT (r=0.57), MAMC (mid-arm muscle circumference) (r=0.58) and MM (r=0.66) (Pnutritional repletion serum proteins and anthropometric parameters did not vary significantly, while a prompt and marked increase (73.9%) of IGF-1 was observed. IGF-1 represents a biochemical marker of malnutrition and a sensitive index of nutritional repletion in patients with eating disorders. Copyright 2001 Harcourt Publishers Ltd.

  14. Eating Disorders in Paraguayan Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez, Maria E.; McIntosh, David E.; Kruczek, Theresa

    2013-01-01

    Eating disorders, once thought to be exclusively a disorder of the more affluent Western countries, are now spreading around the world. Despite the wealth of information on the prevalence of eating disorders in developed countries, epidemiological data for South America is scarce. The 26-item Eating Attitude Test (EAT-26) was used to explore the…

  15. Eating Disorders in Paraguayan Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez, Maria E.; McIntosh, David E.; Kruczek, Theresa

    2013-01-01

    Eating disorders, once thought to be exclusively a disorder of the more affluent Western countries, are now spreading around the world. Despite the wealth of information on the prevalence of eating disorders in developed countries, epidemiological data for South America is scarce. The 26-item Eating Attitude Test (EAT-26) was used to explore the…

  16. The prevalence of orthorexia nervosa among eating disorder patients after treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segura-Garcia, Cristina; Ramacciotti, Carla; Rania, Marianna; Aloi, Matteo; Caroleo, Mariarita; Bruni, Antonella; Gazzarrini, Denise; Sinopoli, Flora; De Fazio, Pasquale

    2015-06-01

    The pursuit for healthy food consumption is considered a laudable habit. This attitude can turn into pathological when cognitions and worries about healthy nutrition lead to such an accurate food selection that correct diet becomes the most important part of one's own life leading to important dietary restrictions, stereotyped eating or impairment in important areas of functioning. This behaviour is coined orthorexia nervosa (ON) and can share common characteristics with anorexia nervosa (AN) and bulimia nervosa (BN). The purpose of the present study was to examine the frequency of ON among women with eating disorders (EDs) and to evaluate if it changed after treating the ED. Thirty-two patients with AN or BN were evaluated by means of the ORTO-15, the Yale-Brown-Cornell Eating Disorder Scale (YBC-EDS) and the Eating Attitude Test (EAT-26) before (t0) and 3 years after the treatment of their ED (t1), and compared to 32 female healthy controls (HC) matched by gender, age, and BMI at t1. A significantly higher percentage of patients either at t0 (28 %) or t1 (58 %) resulted positive to ORTO-15 compared to controls (6 %). YBC-EDS and EAT-26 scores were higher among ED patients than in HC, but they decreased from t0 to t1. Orthorexia nervosa symptoms are highly prevalent among patients with AN and BN, and tend to increase after treatment. ON seems associated both with the clinical improvement of AN and BN and the migration towards less severe forms of EDs. It is necessary to clarify if ON residual symptomatology can be responsible for a greater number of relapses and recurrences of EDs.

  17. [Gender identity and eating disorders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behar, R; de la Barrera, M; Michelotti, J

    2001-09-01

    A possible role of the feminine gender role in the genesis of eating disorders is possible, since most patients with these disorders are women. To compare some traits of gender identity between females with eating disorders and a control group. An structured clinical interview based on the DSM-IV diagnostic criteria for eating disorders and the Bem Sex Role Inventory (BSRI) were administered to 63 patients that fulfilled the DSM-IV criteria for anorexia nervosa or bulimia nervosa (ED group) and 63 comparison subjects (C group). Forty three percent of patients in contrast with 23.8% of controls were classified within the feminine category. Likewise 19% of patients and 31.7% of controls were qualified as Androgynous; 27% of patients and 43% of controls were qualified as Undifferentiated. There were significant differences between patients and controls in 22 items of the BSRI (p gender identity in patients suffering of eating disorders. In contrast, Androgyny showed by the control group could result in a better adaptability and flexibility to face difficult life circumstances.

  18. Sudden death in eating disorders

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    Jáuregui-Garrido B

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Beatriz Jáuregui-Garrido1, Ignacio Jáuregui-Lobera2,31Department of Cardiology, University Hospital Virgen del Rocío, 2Behavioral Sciences Institute, 3Pablo de Olavide University, Seville, SpainAbstract: Eating disorders are usually associated with an increased risk of premature death with a wide range of rates and causes of mortality. “Sudden death” has been defined as the abrupt and unexpected occurrence of fatality for which no satisfactory explanation of the cause can be ascertained. In many cases of sudden death, autopsies do not clarify the main cause. Cardiovascular complications are usually involved in these deaths. The purpose of this review was to report an update of the existing literature data on the main findings with respect to sudden death in eating disorders by means of a search conducted in PubMed. The most relevant conclusion of this review seems to be that the main causes of sudden death in eating disorders are those related to cardiovascular complications. The predictive value of the increased QT interval dispersion as a marker of sudden acute ventricular arrhythmia and death has been demonstrated. Eating disorder patients with severe cardiovascular symptoms should be hospitalized. In general, with respect to sudden death in eating disorders, some findings (eg, long-term eating disorders, chronic hypokalemia, chronically low plasma albumin, and QT intervals >600 milliseconds must be taken into account, and it must be highlighted that during refeeding, the adverse effects of hypophosphatemia include cardiac failure. Monitoring vital signs and performing electrocardiograms and serial measurements of plasma potassium are relevant during the treatment of eating disorder patients.Keywords: sudden death, cardiovascular complications, refeeding syndrome, QT interval, hypokalemia

  19. Understanding Eating Disorders, Anorexia, Bulimia, and Binge-Eating

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Javascript on. Photo: iStock Eating disorders, such as anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, and binge eating , are among ... There are three main types of eating disorders: anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, and binge-eating disorder. People ...

  20. Epigenetics and eating disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pjetri, Eneda; Schmidt, Ulrike; Kas, Martien J; Campbell, Iain C

    2012-01-01

    PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Eating disorders are complex psychiatric disorders in which genes, environment, and gene-environment interactions (G×E) have a role. Such G×E may occur in adulthood or during development. They may also be modified by factors such as (mal)nutrition or stress and this may result in

  1. Diet choice in weight-restored patients with eating disorders: progressive autonomy process by nutritional education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inmaculada Ruiz-Prieto

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Human eating behaviour is regulated by multiple factors. Anorexia nervosa patients show a restrictive eating pattern while bulimia nervosa patients present bingeing-purging episodes. Although treatments are specially successful in the normalization of body composition, maladaptive eating behaviours tend to persist being a risk factor for relapse and recurrence. Objectives: The aim of this work was to assess the quality of the nutritional choice of eating disorders patients after a year of nutritional education and to assess improvements in choice capacity. Methods: Thirty-one outpatients of an eating disorders unit planned a menu after body composition normalization and repeated this plan each three months during a one-year programme of nutritional education. Results: Patients improved the time spent on the assignment (p < 0.01, Body Mass Index (p < 0.01, their body fat mass (p < 0.01 and the content of energy (p < 0.05, carbohydrates (p < 0.01 and polyunsaturated fatty acids (p < 0.05 in their chosen menus. No differences were found on proteins, total fat or fat profile, vitamins or minerals. 12.9% and 3.2% of the patients chose their menu according to the recommendations of caloric and lipid profile, respectively, after a year of nutritional education. Discussion: Although patients improved energy and carbohydrates content of the menus they tended to reduce caloric and fat food choices, which could lead to relapse and recurrence. Specific nutritional education programmes along with the mandatory psychological and psychiatric treatment may be effective. Conclusions: One year of nutritional education combined with psychological and psychiatric treatment improved those factors usually involved in relapse and recurrence, thus contributing to a proper outcome.

  2. Anger as comorbid factor for interpersonal problems and emotional dysregulation in patients with eating disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saldaña, Eva; Quiles, Yolanda; Martín, Nuria; del Pilar Salorio, Ma

    2014-01-01

    This work was undertaken to analyze general levels of anger in patients with eating disorders (ED) compared to a normative group, diagnosis-dependent differences in expressing anger, and the relation between anger dimensions and specific items of the Eating Disorder Inventory, third revision (EDI-3) (emotional dysregulation, interpersonal deficit, low self-esteem, and asceticism) and body mass index (BMI). The study participants were 58 women with a diagnosis of ED hospitalized at the Reina Sofia General University Hospital in Murcia. The women had a mean age of 25.68 (SD=7.00) years. The distribution of ED diagnoses was 27.58% anorexia nervosa with food restriction (AN-R), 15.51% anorexia nervosa with purging (AN-P), 41.37% bulimia nervosa (BN), and 15.51% eating disorder not otherwise specified (EDNOS). ED was evaluated using the EDI-3 and anger was assessed with the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory-2 (STAXI-2). The general anger levels of the patients with ED were higher than those of the normative group compared. Patients diagnosed of AN-R had significantly higher scores than patients diagnosed of BN on the internal control of anger scale. The emotional dysregulation, interpersonal deficit, low self-esteem, and asceticism scales correlated significantly with different anger dimensions. No significant relation was found between body mass index (BMI) and anger. These results show the importance of including anger management in any therapeutic approach to EDs.

  3. [Perception of obesity in university students and in patients with eating disorders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jáuregui Lobera, I; Polo, I M López; González, M T Montaña; Millán, M T Morales

    2008-01-01

    In order to approach in a multidisciplinary way obesity and eating disorders it is necessary to know the implicit theories of personality, the stereotypes, and the current stigmatization of overweight, as well as making the obese individual guilty by attributing his/her state to a "way of being". The objective was to know the perception that students and patients with eating disorders may have about obese people and analyze the differences that might exist between both groups. Setting, population, and interventions: we selected 138 students and 50 patients with anorexia or bulimia that assigned qualifying adjectives to obese people from a given list. We analyzed the most used adjectives and the corresponding personality scales by using the c2 test to determine the differences between the adjectives used and the scales in both samples. A p value shy", "touchy", "anxious", "rejected", "insecure", and "passive", the latter being the most repeated one in both groups. The patients tend to preferentially choose some adjectives, which expresses a paradoxical fact: they seem to have a more lenient perception of obese people but they more often choose the terms "anxious", "solitary", "lazy", "lifeless", "dependent", "easily frightened", "lonely", "childish", or "impulsive". To know the perception of obesity is essential for the psycho-educative work and prevention of associated psychopathological impairments. In eating disorders obesity represents "the most feared" condition so knowing the underlying theories about obesity and overweight in these patients is essential for their management.

  4. Eating-related anxiety in individuals with eating disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, C M; Thuras, P; Peterson, C B; Lampert, J; Miller, D; Crow, S J

    2011-12-01

    Although previous research has supported the importance of anxiety as an etiological and maintenance factor for eating disorders, the specific mechanisms are not well understood. The role of anxiety in the context of eating behavior is especially unclear. The purpose of this study was to identify anxiety-eliciting eating situations and anxiety management strategies patients use to mitigate anxiety experienced in the context of eating as determined by diagnostic groups and symptom patterns. Fifty-three eating disorder outpatients were administered the Eating and Anxiety Questionnaire (EAQ) and the Eating Disorder Diagnostic Scale. Ratings indicated significant anxiety in most eating situations, whereas management strategies were more limited yet regularly employed. Factor analysis of the EAQ revealed a 6-factor solution for anxiety management strategies and a 4-factor solution for anxiety-eliciting situations. These results indicate patients with eating disorders report high levels of anxiety associated with eating behaviors but utilize limited yet consistent anxiety management strategies. Effective intervention strategies for managing eating-related anxiety should be incorporated into treatment and may need to be specified for different diagnostic subgroups.

  5. [Sleep related eating disorder].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Yuichi; Komada, Yoko

    2010-01-01

    Nighttime eating is categorized as either sleep-related eating disorder (SRED) or night eating syndrome (NES). Critical reviews of the literature on both disorders have suggested that they are situated at opposite poles of a disordered eating spectrum. The feeding behavior in SRED is characterized by recurrent episodes of eating after an arousal from nighttime sleep with amnesia. Conversely, NES could be considered as an abnormality in the circadian rhythm of meal timing with a normal circadian timing of sleep onset. Both conditions clearly concentrate to occur during young adulthood, and are often relentless and chronic. Misunderstanding and low awareness of SRED and NES have limited our ability to determine the exact prevalence of the two disorders. SRED is frequently associated with other sleep disorders, in particular parasomnias such as sleep walking. Cognitive-behavioral therapy is ineffective, but pharmacotherapy is very effective in controlling SRED. Especially, studies have shown that the anti-seizure medication topiramate may be an effective treatment for SRED.

  6. [Care continuity for patients with eating disorder during transition from childhood to adulthood].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohno, Takako

    2010-01-01

    Eating disorder is mainly seen at the younger woman. In recent years, there has been a growing population of younger or elder women. In children, most of the eating disorder is anorexia nervosa(AN), but if eating disorders are prolonged, these switched over to ANBP and bulimia nervosa(BN). When a psychological problem becomes bigger that abnormal eating behavior and psychiatric disorder stand out at ANBP and BN, we can't answer as the pediatrics, and it's taken over psychiatry and the department of psychosomatic medicine. Because ego and the women's establishment and the lifestyle are related to eating disorder, long-term follow-up is needed. It's necessary to understand the feature of the eating disorder and adjust the treatment environment (including introduction to a medical specialist) early.

  7. [Differences between female and male patients with eating disorders--results of a multicenter study on eating disorders (MZ-Ess)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grabhorn, Ralph; Köpp, Werner; Gitzinger, Inez; von Wietersheim, Jörn; Kaufhold, Johannes

    2003-01-01

    Publications about men with eating disorders are still rare. Therefore, in view of the current status of the findings, it seems worthwhile to examine the differences that are empirically verified as well as the relevant common features between the sexes. Based on a representative sample, therefore, male and female patients with eating disorders in inpatient treatment are compared in terms of demographic and clinical variables (symptoms and personality), both at the beginning of treatment and two-and-a-half years after the inpatient treatment, and the findings are discussed with regard to their "gender specificity". The study covered 1,171 patients (male and female) with the diagnosis criteria for anorexia, bulimia and double diagnosis according to DSM-III-R; 33 of them were men. Anorexia cases (342 women and 13 men) and bulimia cases (629 women and 18 men) were compared at the beginning of treatment with the following instruments: Symptom Checklist 90-R; Eating Disorder Inventory; questionnaire for the symptom diagnosis of eating disorders; Freiburger Persönlichkeitsinventar and Narzissmus-Inventar. As a measure of success in the 2.5 year catamnesis (764 women and 20 men), operationalized criteria were defined using the LIFE. The 2.8 % share of men with eating disorders in inpatient treatment again confirms the special nature of this clinical disorder for men. An interesting result is the later onset of illness in male anorexia cases. Coinciding with comparable studies, there are only minor differences in eating behavior, but the differences in body experience are much more pronounced. In bulimic men, there is a higher percentage of homosexuals and they are more satisfied with their body. Anorectic men have a greater gain from the illness, are more concerned about their health and are less performance-minded than female anorectics. The differences that were found clearly indicate that these occur especially in the area of dealing with the body and the significance

  8. Clinical normative data for eating disorder examination questionnaire and eating disorder inventory for DSM-5 feeding and eating disorder classifications: a retrospective study of patients formerly diagnosed via DSM-IV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewin, Nicola; Baggott, Jonathan; Dugard, Pat; Arcelus, Jon

    2014-07-01

    Normative data for measures of eating disorder (ED) psychopathology provide a fundamental description of a presentation and a means to establish clinically significant change following an intervention. Clinical norms for the ED population are lacking and out of date following the publication of Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Health Disorders (DSM) 5. This study aimed to show that scores from the Eating Disorder Examination Questionnaire (EDE-q) and the Eating Disorder Inventory (EDI) differ across ED diagnosis groups and provide norm data for DSM-5 ED diagnoses. Patients (n = 932) presenting to an out-patient service over 5 years were retrospectively re-diagnosed based on DSM-5 criteria. Statistical analysis showed a significant difference on most subscale scores of the EDE-q and the EDI across diagnosis. Means, standard deviations and percentile ranks are presented by diagnosis. The norms detailed contribute to improving the accuracy with which scores are interpreted when using DSM-5 and aid with the assessment of clinically significant change following treatment.

  9. Dissatisfaction with own body makes patients with eating disorders more sensitive to pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yamamotova A

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Anna Yamamotova,1 Josef Bulant,2 Vaclav Bocek,3 Hana Papezova2 1Department of Normal, Pathological and Clinical Physiology, Third Faculty of Medicine, 2Department of Psychiatry, First Faculty of Medicine, 3Department of Neurology, Third Faculty of Medicine, Charles University, Prague, Czech Republic Abstract: Body image represents a multidimensional concept including body image evaluation and perception of body appearance. Disturbances of body image perception are considered to be one of the central aspects of anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa. There is growing evidence that body image distortion can be associated with changes in pain perception. The aim of our study was to examine the associations between body image perception, body dissatisfaction, and nociception in women with eating disorders and age-matched healthy control women. We measured body dissatisfaction and pain sensitivity in 61 patients with Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-Fourth Edition diagnoses of eating disorders (31 anorexia nervosa and 30 bulimia nervosa and in 30 healthy women. Thermal pain threshold latencies were evaluated using an analgesia meter and body image perception and body dissatisfaction were assessed using Anamorphic Micro software (digital pictures of their own body distorted into larger-body and thinner-body images. Patients with eating disorders overestimated their body size in comparison with healthy controls, but the two groups did not differ in body dissatisfaction. In anorexia and bulimia patient groups, body dissatisfaction (calculated in pixels as desired size/true image size correlated with pain threshold latencies (r=0.55, p=0.001, while between body image perception (determined as estimation size/true image size and pain threshold, no correlation was found. Thus, we demonstrated that in patients with eating disorders, pain perception is significantly associated with emotional contrary to sensory (visual processing of one

  10. Temperament and emotional eating: a crucial relationship in eating disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotella, Francesco; Fioravanti, Giulia; Godini, Lucia; Mannucci, Edoardo; Faravelli, Carlo; Ricca, Valdo

    2015-02-28

    Specific personality traits are related to Eating Disorders (EDs) specific and general psychopathology. Recent studies suggested that Emotional Eating (EE) is a common dimension in all EDs, irrespective of binge eating. The present study was aimed to explore the relationship of temperamental features with EE and eating symptomatology in a sample of EDs patients, adjusting for general psychopathology. One hundred and sixty six female patients were enrolled at the Eating Disorders Outpatient Clinic of the Careggi Teaching-Hospital of Florence. Participants completed the emotional eating scale, the temperament and character inventory, the eating disorder examination questionnaire and the symptom checklist 90-revised. Novelty seeking and self directedness showed significant correlations with EE after adjustment for general psychopathology. Patients with binge eating displayed significant associations between EE and novelty seeking and self directedness. Among patients without binge eating, no significant correlation between EE and temperamental features was observed. Specific temperamental features are associated to EE in EDs. A clear, different pattern of association in patients with different eating attitudes and behavior was found. Considering that treatments of EDs are largely based on psychotherapeutic interventions, focused on emotions and cognitions, the present data provide some hints which could be helpful for the development of more appropriate psychotherapeutic strategies.

  11. [Nocturnal eating disorder--sleep or eating disorder?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tzischinski, O; Lazer, Y

    2000-02-01

    Nocturnal eating disorder (NED) is a rare syndrome that includes disorders of both eating and sleeping. It is characterized by awakening in the middle of the night, getting out of bed, and consuming large quantities of food quickly and uncontrollably, then returning to sleep. This may occur several times during the night. Some patients are fully conscious during their nocturnal eating, while some indicate total amnesia. The etiology of NED is still unclear, as research findings are contradictory. Those suffering from NED exhibit various levels of anxiety and depression, and many lead stressful life-styles. Familial conflict, loneliness and personal crises are commonly found. Recently, a connection has been discovered between NED and unclear self-definition, faulty interpersonal communication, and low frustration threshold. Several authors link it to sleepwalking, leg movements during sleep, and sleep apnea. Treatment is still unclear and there have been trials of pharmacotherapy, psychotherapy, or a combination of both. However, pharmacological treatment has generally been found to be the most effective, although each case must be considered individually. In 1998, 7 women referred to our Eating Disorders Clinic, 5% of all referrals, were subsequently diagnosed as suffering from NED. Of these, 3 suffered from concurrent binge-eating disorder and 4 also from bulimia nervosa. 2 case studies representative of NED are presented.

  12. Treatment of obese patients with binge eating disorder using topiramate: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Leombruni

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Paolo Leombruni, Luca Lavagnino, Secondo FassinoDepartment of Neurosciences, Psychiatry Section, University of Torino, Centre for Eating Disorders and Obesity, Torino, ItalyAbstract: Topiramate is an anticonvulsant drug used for the treatment of epilepsy and prophylaxis of migraine. Some authors have proposed its use as a mood stabilizer and have reported its efficacy in reducing impulsiveness and improving mood regulation, possibly via its antagonism to glutamatergic transmission in the lateral hypothalamus, although this indication is still controversial. Weight loss is a side effect consistently reported in the medical literature in patients treated with topiramate. Given its potential role in stabilizing mood and reducing impulse control problems and weight, topiramate has been proposed as a treatment for obese patients with binge eating disorder (BED. The aim of this paper is to review published data on the efficacy and safety of topiramate for the treatment of obese subjects with BED. Although the evidence is preliminary, topiramate appears to be a relatively safe and effective treatment for obese subjects with BED. Limitations of the studies and future directions for research are discussed.Keywords: topiramate, binge eating disorder, obesity

  13. Personality dimensions and treatment drop-outs among eating disorder patients treated with cognitive behavior therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalle Grave, Riccardo; Calugi, Simona; Brambilla, Francesca; Marchesini, Giulio

    2008-04-15

    Premature, unilateral interruption of inpatient treatment of eating disorders (ED) is a key factor limiting success. We evaluated the role of personality dimensions (temperament and character) in predicting drop-out in 145 consecutive ED inpatients (133 females) who entered cognitive behavior therapy. Baseline assessment included anthropometry, the Eating Disorder Examination, the Beck Depression Inventory, the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, and the Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI). Treatment was based on the new transdiagnostic cognitive behavior theory of ED, adapted for an inpatient setting; it was manual-based and lasted 20 weeks (13, inpatients; 7, residential day hospital). Thirty-four patients (23.4%) discontinued treatment. Drop-outs had a lower level of education, a higher prevalence of separation or divorce in the family, and lower scores on the TCI Persistence scale. After correction for age, gender and body-mass index, scores on the Persistence scale continued to be significantly related to drop-out, and the association was confirmed by Kaplan-Meier analysis. Eating disorder patients with low Persistence scores are significantly less likely to complete inpatient treatment.

  14. Eating disorder severity and functional impairment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davidsen, Annika Helgadóttir; Hoyt, William T.; Poulsen, Stig Bernt

    2017-01-01

    diagnosed with bulimia nervosa, binge eating disorder or eating disorder not otherwise specified. Regression analysis was applied to assess the effect of the hypothesized moderators and mediators. Eating disorder severity was measured with the Eating Disorder Examination Questionnaire, functional impairment...

  15. Cultural trends and eating disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pike, Kathleen M.; Hoek, Hans W.; Dunne, Patricia E.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose of review Culture has long been recognized as significant to the cause and expression of eating disorders. We reviewed the recent literature about recent trends in the occurrence of eating disorders in different cultures. Recent findings While historically, eating disorders were conceptualiz

  16. Cultural trends and eating disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pike, Kathleen M.; Hoek, Hans W.; Dunne, Patricia E.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose of review Culture has long been recognized as significant to the cause and expression of eating disorders. We reviewed the recent literature about recent trends in the occurrence of eating disorders in different cultures. Recent findings While historically, eating disorders were

  17. Cultural trends and eating disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pike, Kathleen M.; Hoek, Hans W.; Dunne, Patricia E.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose of review Culture has long been recognized as significant to the cause and expression of eating disorders. We reviewed the recent literature about recent trends in the occurrence of eating disorders in different cultures. Recent findings While historically, eating disorders were conceptualiz

  18. Neuronal substrate of eating disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Timofeeva, Elena; Calvez, Juliane

    2014-01-01

    Eating disorders are devastating and life-threatening psychiatric diseases. Although clinical and experimental investigations have significantly progressed in discovering the neuronal causes of eating disorders, the exact neuronal and molecular mechanisms of the development and maintenance of these pathologies are not fully understood. The complexity of the neuronal substrate of eating disorders hampers progress in revealing the precise mechanisms. The present re...

  19. Eating Disorders in Adolescent Males

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Shannon L.

    2004-01-01

    Research indicates that the primary onset of eating disorders occurs in adolescence and that there is a growing prevalence of adolescent males with eating disorders. This article describes the eating disorders of anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa as they relate to adolescent males. Diagnostic criteria, at-risk groups, and implications for…

  20. Binge eating disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schousboe, Birgitte Hartvig; Waaddegaard, Mette

    2011-01-01

    Binge eating disorder kaldes også bulimi uden opkastning eller den tredje spiseforstyrrelse. Det er en udbredt, men mindre kendt spiseforstyrrelse end anoreksi og bulimi. Patienterne er ofte overvægtige og har ikke kompenserende adfærd over for overspisningen i form af opkastning eller brug af...

  1. Eating Disorder Prevention Programming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sapia, Jennifer L.

    This paper provides information for school psychologists regarding the necessity and benefits of school-based prevention programming for students at risk for developing eating disorders (i.e., females). School-based programming is a cost-effective means of reaching the largest number of individuals at once and identifying those individuals…

  2. Are maladaptive schema domains and perfectionism related to body image concerns in eating disorder patients?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boone, Liesbet; Braet, Caroline; Vandereycken, Walter; Claes, Laurence

    2013-01-01

    Both maladaptive schemas (MS) and perfectionism have been associated with eating pathology. However, previous research has not examined these variables simultaneously and has not studied possible mediating relationships between MS and multidimensional perfectionism for body image concerns in eating disorder (ED) patients. Eighty-eight female ED patients completed the Young Schema Questionnaire, the Frost Multidimensional Perfectionism Scale, and the Body Attitude Test. Body image concerns were found to be positively related to Personal Standards (PS) and Evaluative Concerns (EC) perfectionism and all five schema domains. PS Perfectionism was positively associated with Disconnection, Other-directedness, and Overvigilance. EC Perfectionism was positively related to Disconnection, Impaired Autonomy, Other-directedness, and Overvigilance. Moreover, EC perfectionism was found to be a significant mediator in the relationship between the schema domains Impaired Autonomy and Overvigilance and body image concerns. These findings denote the importance to address both core beliefs and perfectionism in ED treatment.

  3. Eating behavior style predicts craving and anxiety experienced in food-related virtual environments by patients with eating disorders and healthy controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrer-Garcia, Marta; Pla-Sanjuanelo, Joana; Dakanalis, Antonios; Vilalta-Abella, Ferran; Riva, Giuseppe; Fernandez-Aranda, Fernando; Sánchez, Isabel; Ribas-Sabaté, Joan; Andreu-Gracia, Alexis; Escandón-Nagel, Neli; Gomez-Tricio, Osane; Tena, Virginia; Gutiérrez-Maldonado, José

    2017-10-01

    Eating behavior style (emotional, restrictive, or external) has been proposed as an explanation for the differences in response to food-related cues between people who overeat and those who do not, and has been also considered a target for the treatment of eating disorders (EDs) characterized by lack of control over eating and weight-related (overweight/obesity) conditions. The aim of this study was to analyze the relationship between eating behavior style and psychophysiological responses (self-reported food craving and anxiety) to food-related virtual reality (VR) environments in outpatients with bulimia nervosa (BN) and binge eating disorder (BED) and to compare them with healthy participants. Fifty-eight outpatients and 135 healthy participants were exposed to palatable foods in four experimental everyday real-life VR environments (kitchen, dining room, bedroom and café). During exposure, cue-elicited food craving and anxiety were assessed. Participants also completed standardized instruments for the study purposes. ED patients reported significantly higher levels of craving and anxiety when exposed to the virtual food than healthy controls. Eating behavior styles showed strong associations with cue-elicited food craving and anxiety. In the healthy group, external eating was the only predictor of cue-elicited craving and anxiety. In participants with BN and BED, external and emotional eating were the best predictors of cue-elicited craving and anxiety, respectively. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Feedback versus no feedback in improving patient outcome in group psychotherapy for eating disorders (F-EAT)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davidsen, Annika Helgadóttir; Poulsen, Stig Bernt; Waaddegaard, Mette

    2014-01-01

    , or an eating disorder not otherwise specified, according to the DSM-IV. In the experimental group feedback to the participants, based on the Outcome Rating Scale (ORS) and the Group Session Rating Scale (GSRS), is actively added to standard treatment. The ORS assesses areas of life functioning known to change...... If the results will confirm the hypothesis, this trial will support feedback as a way to improve group treatment attendance for outpatients with eating disorders. Trial registration: ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT01693237...

  5. Body Experience and Mirror Behaviour in Female Eating Disorders Patients and non Clinical Subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michel Probst

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Recently the attention for mirror exercises in therapies targeted specifically to body experience concerns has increased. This retrospective study will explore the mirror behaviour of anorexia nervosa (AN, bulimia nervosa (BN and non-clinical female subjects (CG and investigate whether mirror avoidance or checking are related to negative body experiences.The group of eating disorders consisted of 560 AN and 314 BN patients. The control group consisted of 1151 female subjects. The Body Attitude Test and the Eating Disorder Inventory subscales drive for thinness and body dissatisfaction were used. To explore the mirror behaviour, one item of the Body Attitude Test ‘I am observing my appearance in the mirror’ was used. Nonparametric analyses (Spearman rho correlations, Kruskal-Wallis and Mann Whitney test were used because of the categorical data.BN patients observed their body more often in the mirror than AN patients and the control subjects do. Age and BMI showed no significant main effect of mirror frequency. The relation between the frequency of mirror behaviour and body experience were significant but low (under .40. AN patients and control subjects with a mirror checking behaviour had a more negative body experience than those with mirror avoidance behaviour. In the BN group, no differences were found.There is support to integrate mirror exercises in a treatment of eating disorder patients. From a clinical point, mirror exercises are preferably combined with a body oriented therapy within a multidimensional cognitive behavioural approach. Recommendations for mirror exercises based on the clinical experience are given.

  6. Binge Eating Disorder and Night Eating Syndrome: A Comparative Study of Disordered Eating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allison, Kelly C.; Grilo, Carlos M.; Masheb, Robin M.; Stunkard, Albert J.

    2005-01-01

    The authors compared eating patterns, disordered eating, features of eating disorders, and depressive symptoms in persons with binge eating disorder (BED; n = 177), with night eating syndrome (NES; n = 68), and in an overweight comparison group without BED or NES (comparison; n = 45). Participants completed semistructured interviews and several…

  7. Early Maladaptive Schemas in Eating Disordered Patients With or Without Non-Suicidal Self-Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pauwels, Els; Dierckx, Eva; Schoevaerts, Katrien; Claes, Laurence

    2016-09-01

    This study investigates early maladaptive schemas (EMSs) in function of eating disorder (ED) subtypes (restrictive/bulimic) and the presence/absence of non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI). Female inpatients (N = 491) completed the Young Schema Questionnaire and the Self-Injury Questionnaire. The influence of ED subtype and the presence/absence of NSSI and their interaction on the EMS were investigated by means of a MANCOVA. The results showed main effects of ED subtype and the presence of NSSI on EMS. Patients with bulimia scored significantly higher on insufficient self-control and emotional deprivation, which are more related to cluster B compared with restrictive patients, whereas restrictive patients scored significantly higher on social undesirability, failure to achieve, subjugation and unrelenting standards compared with patients with bulimia that are more related to cluster C. Patients with ED with NSSI reported significantly higher EMS levels compared with patients without NSSI, suggesting that they could be of particular interest to benefit from schema therapy. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association.

  8. Extracting body image symptom dimensions among eating disorder patients: the Profile Analysis via Multidimensional Scaling (PAMS) approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olatunji, Bunmi O; Kim, Se-Kang; Wall, David

    2015-09-01

    The present study employs Profile Analysis via Multidimensional Scaling (PAMS), a procedure for extracting dimensions, in order to identify core eating disorder symptoms in a clinical sample. A large sample of patients with eating disorders (N=5193) presenting for treatment completed the Eating Disorders Inventory-2 (EDI-2; Garner, 1991), and PAMS was then employed to estimate individual profile weights that reflect the degree to which an individual's observed symptom profile approximates the pattern of the dimensions. The findings revealed three symptom dimensions: Body Thinness, Body Perfectionism, and Body Awareness. Subsequent analysis using individual level data illustrate that the PAMS profiles properly operate as prototypical profiles that encapsulate all individuals' response patterns. The implications of these dimensional findings for the assessment and diagnosis of eating disorders are discussed.

  9. [Integrated psychotherapy for eating disorders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomizawa, O

    1995-01-01

    The various psychotherapeutic strategies for eating disorders (EDs) include psychoanalytic, cognitive-behavioral, family oriented, arts therapy and others. In this paper, the psychodynamism of EDs and their therapy are reexamined and considered holistically from "the separate aspects of eating" point of view. That is the separation of eating regulated by biological appetite and the eating or not eating deriving from the patient's mind, unrelated to appetite. A new therapeutic technique called "formalization", which clarifies the separation of aspects of eating are invented. For integrated psychotherapy of EDs, it is necessary to combine the formalization technique of which clarifies and promotes patients' conflicts, and the integrated psychodynamic therapies that treat the promoted conflicts. The psychodynamism of EDs is the subject of much argument by many therapist. Although these arguments differ, they are similar in two points. Firstly, all of them consider EDs as distinctly separate from biological appetites. Secondly, the behavior of patients with EDs are taken as "false solution" or "substitution" of their essential problem. It is impossible to completely separate the physical action of eating mentally, however there may be a second meaning of eating separate from appetite. Seen in this light, psychotherapies are classified into two groups. One supports and sympathizes with these conflicts and the other is an educational one, telling the patients that a false solution is invalid. The former approach is employed by almost all psychodynamic therapies, such as psychoanalysis, family oriented therapy, arts therapy, self-help groups and the like. These therapies treat patients' conflicts with a non-judgemental approach, transform the psychodynamism, and consequently improve the eating behavior. The latter is applied by behavior therapy. Under strict operant conditioning, adequate behavior is reinforced by reward and inadequate behavior is eliminated by punishment

  10. Integrative Response Therapy for Binge Eating Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Athena

    2013-01-01

    Binge eating disorder (BED), a chronic condition characterized by eating disorder psychopathology and physical and social disability, represents a significant public health problem. Guided self-help (GSH) treatments for BED appear promising and may be more readily disseminable to mental health care providers, accessible to patients, and…

  11. Integrative Response Therapy for Binge Eating Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Athena

    2013-01-01

    Binge eating disorder (BED), a chronic condition characterized by eating disorder psychopathology and physical and social disability, represents a significant public health problem. Guided self-help (GSH) treatments for BED appear promising and may be more readily disseminable to mental health care providers, accessible to patients, and…

  12. Disordered eating practices in gastrointestinal disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satherley, R; Howard, R; Higgs, S

    2015-01-01

    To systematically review evidence concerning disordered eating practices in dietary-controlled gastrointestinal conditions. Three key questions were examined: a) are disordered eating practices a feature of GI disorders?; b) what abnormal eating practices are present in those with GI disorders?; and c) what factors are associated with the presence of disordered eating in those with GI disorders? By exploring these questions, we aim to develop a conceptual model of disordered eating development in GI disease. Five key databases, Web of Science with Conference Proceedings (1900-2014) and MEDLINE (1950-2014), PubMed, PsycINFO (1967-2014) and Google Scholar, were searched for papers relating to disordered eating practices in those with GI disorders. All papers were quality assessed before being included in the review. Nine papers were included in the review. The majority of papers reported that the prevalence of disordered eating behaviours is greater in populations with GI disorders than in populations of healthy controls. Disordered eating patterns in dietary-controlled GI disorders may be associated with both anxiety and GI symptoms. Evidence concerning the correlates of disordered eating was limited. The presence of disordered eating behaviours is greater in populations with GI disorders than in populations of healthy controls, but the direction of the relationship is not clear. Implications for further research are discussed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Feedback versus no feedback in improving patient outcome in group psychotherapy for eating disorders (F-EAT)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davidsen, Annika Helgadóttir; Poulsen, Stig Bernt; Waaddegaard, Mette

    2014-01-01

    or control group at a ratio of 1:1. The experimental group will receive standard treatment (systemic and narrative group psychotherapy) with feedback intervention, whereas the control group will receive standard treatment only. The participants are diagnosed with bulimia nervosa binge eating disorder...

  14. Eating Expectancies in Relation to Eating Disorder Recovery

    OpenAIRE

    Fitzsimmons-Craft, Ellen E.; Keatts, Dara A.; Bardone-Cone, Anna M.

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the relation between eating expectancies, assessed via the Eating Expectancy Inventory, and eating disorder recovery. Individuals formerly seen for an eating disorder were categorized as having an active eating disorder (n = 53), as partially recovered (n = 15), or as fully recovered (n = 20). The expectancies of these groups were compared to each other and to 67 non-eating disorder controls. Results revealed that three of the five eating expectancies differed across group...

  15. Body image among eating disorder patients with disabilities: a review of published case studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cicmil, Nela; Eli, Karin

    2014-06-01

    While individual cases of eating disorder (ED) patients with disabilities have been reported, there has been little synthesis of their experiences of body image and thin idealization. This study reviews 19 published clinical reports of ED patients with sensory, mobility-related, or intellectual disabilities and evaluates the extent to which their experiences align with or challenge current conceptions of body image in ED. ED patients with visual impairment reported a profound disturbance of body image, perceived intersubjectively and through tactile sensations. Reducing dependence in mobility was an important motivation to control body size for ED patients with mobility-related disabilities. ED as a way of coping with and compensating for the psychosocial consequences of disability was a recurrent theme for patients across a range of disabilities. These experiential accounts of ED patients with disabilities broaden current understandings of body image to include touch and kinaesthetic awareness, intersubjective dynamics, and perceptions of normalcy.

  16. Be kind to your eating disorder patients: the impact of positive and negative feedback on the explicit and implicit self-esteem of female patients with eating disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vanderlinden, J.; Kamphuis, J.H.; Slagmolen, C.; Wigboldus, D.; Pieters, G.; Probst, M.

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Lack of self-esteem may play an important role in the development of eating disorders (ED). This study investigated the differential impact of positive and negative feedback on implicit and explicit self-esteem in women with an ED (N=25) as compared to women without an ED (N=29). METHOD:

  17. Be kind to your eating disorder patients: The impact of positive and negative feedback on the explicit and implicit self-esteem of female patients with eating disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Linden, J. van der; Kamphuis, J.H.; Slagmolen, C.J.J.; Wigboldus, D.H.J.; Pieters, G.; Probst, M.

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Lack of self-esteem may play an important role in the development of eating disorders (ED). This study investigated the differential impact of positive and negative feedback on implicit and explicit self-esteem in women with an ED (N=25) as compared to women without an ED (N=29). METHOD:

  18. [Factors Associated With Suicide Attempts and Nonsuicidal Self-Injurious Behaviors in Patients With Eating Disorders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez Guarín, Maritza; Rodríguez Malagón, Nelcy; Gempeler Rueda, Juanita; Garzón, Daniel Felipe

    2013-01-01

    Suicide attempt (SA) and non-suicidal self-injurious behaviors (NSSI) have been described in patients with eating disorders (ED), and they have been associated with increased morbidity and poor prognosis. To explore the presence of SA and NSSI in patients attending an outpatient ED program, as well as to evaluate the associated variables and the correlation between both types of behaviors. A total of 908 patients of both sexes attending the Equilibrio outpatient program in Bogotá were studied. The histories of SA and NSSI were systematically examined in the development of medical history by direct and structured questions to the patient, and then validated during interviews with the family. Sociodemographic and clinical variables, as well as history of traumatic experiences, were also studied. Simple frequencies were calculated, and a bivariate analysis was performed between SA, NSSI, and the other variables of the study. Finally, two models of association were designed for the multivariate analysis, using variables of clinical importance and statistical significance. SA sometime in their lives was reported by 13% of the patients, and 26% of them reported NSSI. The variables associated with SA were bipolar disorder (OR: 3.86, 95% CI; 2.4-6.1), borderline personality, purgative subtype of ED, and self-injury. Sexual abuse was associated with NSSI (OR: 3.48, 95%CI; 2.2-5.4), as well as bipolar disorder, trichotillomania, and suicide attempt. SA and NSSI are frequent in patients with eating disorders with multiple comorbidities, increased impulsivity and emotional dysregulation, and they should be explored and treated. Copyright © 2013 Asociación Colombiana de Psiquiatría. Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  19. Mutual assessment of their marital relationship by parents of female patients with eating disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Józefik, Barbara

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The goal of this study was to assess the perception of marital relationship and its mutual connections by parents of (female patients diagnosed with eating disorders. Data from: 54 (female patients diagnosed with restrictive anorexia nervosa (ANR, 22 with binge-purge anorexia nervosa (ANBP, 36 with bulimia (BUL, and two control groups: 36 (female patients diagnosed with depressive disorders (DEP and 85 Krakow schoolgirls (NOR. Material and method: The study employed the Dyadic Relations Scale, a part of the Family Assessment Measure (Polish version. Results: Wives in the BUL group, compared to wives in the NOR group, rated their husbands worse when assessing their husbands in terms of how well they functioned in the marital relationship, their performance of duties, affective involvement, and the integrity of values and rules of conduct. Wives in the ANR group, compared to wives in the NOR group, negatively rated the affective involvement of their husbands in the marital relationship. Husbands in the DEP group, compared to husbands in the NOR group, rated their wives worse when assessing their wives’ general functioning in the marital relationship, degree of communication within it, degree of understanding, how well they performed their spousal duties, and the coherence of their system of values and rules of conduct. The image of the marital relationship held by parents of Krakow schoolgirls was characterized by a strong correlation, in contrast to the image of the relationship held by parents of (female patients, regardless of the nature of the diagnosis. Conclusions: Comparison of the results of parents of (female patients with eating disorders and parents of (female patients with a diagnosis of major depressive disorder revealed no difference in the image of the marital relationship, whether in the mutual assessment of spouses towards each other or in connection with the assessments.

  20. The relationship among compulsive buying, compulsive internet use and temperament in a sample of female patients with eating disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claes, Laurence; Müller, Astrid; Norré, Jan; Van Assche, Leen; Wonderlich, Steve; Mitchell, James E

    2012-03-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the association among compulsive buying (CB), compulsive internet use (CIU) and reactive/regulative temperament in a sample of 60 female patients with eating disorders. All patients were assessed by means of the Compulsive Buying Scale, the CIU scale, the Eating Disorder Inventory-2, the Behavioral Inhibition System/Behavioral Activation System scales, the Dimensional Assessment of Personality Pathology and the effortful control scale of the Adult Temperament Questionnaire. The results showed a positive association between CB and CIU, both categorized as impulse control disorders, not otherwise specified. Both CB and CIU showed significantly positive correlations with emotional lability, excitement seeking and lack of effortful control (more specifically lack of inhibitory and lack of activation control). The implication of these findings for the treatment of both disorders will be discussed. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association.

  1. Personalidade e coping em pacientes com transtornos alimentares e obesidade Personality and coping in patients with eating disorders and obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Tomaz

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo avalia o uso diferencial de coping e traço de personalidade em pacientes com transtornos alimentares (anorexia, bulimia e TASOE e com obesidade e em população geral. Participam deste estudo 109 indivíduos (60 com diagnóstico de transtorno alimentar ou obesidade e 49 da população geral. Os instrumentos foram uma escala de traços de personalidade, Coping Response Inventory e Escala de Atitudes Alimentares (EAT. Observou-se diferença significativa nas médias de EAT por população demonstrando boa adequação deste instrumento como screening psicopatológico de transtornos alimentares. Ademais indivíduos que apresentam alto índice em neuroticismo e em descarga emocional, ao enfrentar seus problemas, possuem mais atitudes alimentares inadequadas refletidas pelo EAT (R=0.291, p=0.011. Os dados são discutidos através das teorias relacionadas aos cinco grandes traços da personalidade, coping, transtornos alimentares e obesidade.This study assesses the differential use of coping and personality trait of patients with eating disorders (anorexia, bulimia, and Eating Disorders Not Otherwise Specified - EDNOS, obesity as well as in subjects from the general population. 109 subjects participated in the study (60 with eating disorder or obesity diagnostics; 49 from the general population. The instruments were Personality Trait Scale, Coping Response Inventory and Eating Attitudes Scale (EAS. It was observed significant differences on EAS according to the type of population, demonstrating this instrument's adequacy as psychopathological screening for eating disorders. Moreover, individuals presenting high neuroticism and who discharge their emotion to cope with their problems have more inadequate eating attitudes as shown by EAS (R=0.291, p=0.011. These results are discussed through theories related to the Big Five personality traits, coping, eating disorders and obesity.

  2. Treatment of nocturnal eating disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howell, Michael J; Schenck, Carlos H

    2009-09-01

    Identifying abnormal nocturnal eating is critically important for patient care and public health. Obesity is a global pandemic and a leading cause of preventable mortality in the United States, with more than 100,000 deaths annually. Normally, nighttime energy homeostasis is maintained, despite an absence of food intake, through appetite suppression and alterations in glucose metabolism that result in stable energy stores. Two conditions break this nighttime fast and are associated with weight gain as well as medical and neuropsychiatric comorbidities. Sleep-related eating disorder (SRED) is characterized by isolated nocturnal eating, whereas the night-eating syndrome (NES) is a circadian delay in meal timing leading to evening hyperphagia, nocturnal eating, and morning anorexia. Recently, SRED has been associated with the benzodiazepine receptor agonist zolpidem. Both SRED and NES are treatable and represent potentially reversible forms of obesity. In SRED, the antiseizure medication topiramate and dopaminergics have both demonstrated promising results. Nocturnal eating associated with NES has responded well to sertraline.

  3. Let eating disorder patients decide: Providing choice may reduce early drop-out from inpatient treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandereycken, Walter; Vansteenkiste, Maarten

    2009-05-01

    Premature drop-out from treatment is a highly prevalent phenomenon among eating disorder (ED) patients. In a specialized inpatient treatment unit a major change was made in the admission strategy in 2001, giving a maximum of personal choice to the patients. A quasi-experimental research was carried out comparing 87 patients treated till 2000 ('old' strategy) with 87 patients treated from 2001 on ('new' strategy). The results indicate that the provision of choice at the beginning of treatment significantly reduced drop-out during the first weeks of inpatient treatment. No differences between both strategies on later drop-out and weight change (in anorexia nervosa patients) during inpatient treatment were found. The results are discussed in the light of the importance placed on dynamics of personal choice, autonomy and volition within the framework of the self-determination theory (SDT).

  4. Impulsive behaviors in female patients with eating disorders in a university hospital in northern Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuei-Yu Liang

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Eating disorders (EDs are often associated with various impulsive behaviors. This study investigated the prevalence of impulsive behaviors in ED patients in Taiwan. Three hundred sixteen female outpatients with ED and 142 psychiatric controls were recruited. All participants completed self-administered questionnaires assessing lifetime presence of impulsive behaviors, including suicide, self-injury, stealing, alcohol use, illicit drug use, excessive spending, sexual promiscuity, and general psychopathology. More than 60% of the ED patients had at least one impulsive behavior. The most common impulsive behaviors among ED patients were excessive spending (34.9%, deliberate self-harm (32.7%, and stealing (26.3%. However, there were no significant differences in prevalences of any impulsive behaviors between ED patients and psychiatric controls. Clinicians should routinely assess and treat impulsive behaviors in female psychiatric patients with negative affectivity, regardless of the presence of ED, to help prevent potential adverse outcomes related to impulsive behaviors.

  5. Detection of eating disorders in patients: validity and reliability of the French version of the SCOFF questionnaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Frederico Duarte; Grigioni, Sébastien; Allais, Elodie; Houy-Durand, Emmanuelle; Thibaut, Florence; Déchelotte, Pierre

    2011-04-01

    Although eating disorders prevalence is increasing, they are often under diagnosed in cases of unspecific signs of malnutrition. Screening scales may allow earlier diagnosis and nutritional intervention. This study aimed to evaluate the validity of the French version (SCOFF-F) of the SCOFF questionnaire for the detection of eating disorders among a female patient population referred to a clinical nutrition unit. After answering the 5 dichotomous questions of the paper version of SCOFF-F, patients were evaluated by one eating disorders specialist blinded to questionnaire results, using the MINI and Diagnosis and Statistical Manual for Mental diseases (DSM-IV) criteria as a gold standard. Patients with anorexia nervosa (n = 67) and with bulimia nervosa (n = 45) were assessed. Age-matched healthy female students (n = 114) served as control group. At a cut-off of two positive responses, the sensibility, specificity and the area under the curve of SCOFF-F were 94.6%, 94.7% and 97.9% respectively. Cohen's kappa coefficient between SCOFF-F and MINI results was 89%. The results of this study confirm the reliability of SCOFF-F as a screening and diagnostic-facilitating test for eating disorders in a French-speaking female patient population. SCOFF-F should help professionals in clinical nutrition to achieve earlier diagnosis and care of eating disorder patients. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.

  6. Restless Eating, Restless Legs, and Sleep Related Eating Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howell, Michael J

    2014-03-01

    Restless legs syndrome (RLS) often presents with a primary complaint of sleep initiation difficulty with only ambiguous allusions to motor symptoms. This may result in the condition being misdiagnosed as a psychophysiological insomnia. Further, nocturnal eating is common in RLS and like the classic motor symptoms, patients will describe an inability to initiate sleep until their urge (to eat) is addressed. Restless nocturnal eating arises, intensifies, and subsides in parallel to motor symptoms. Once misdiagnosed as psychophysiological insomnia, RLS patients are frequently treated with benzodiazepine receptor agonists. The CNS actions of these sedating agents, suppression of memory and executive function, unleash predisposed amnestic behaviors. In the case of RLS this would be expected to include the inappropriate ambulatory and eating behaviors of sleep related eating disorder (SRED). The evidence and implications of a link between the restless eating of RLS and SRED is presented here.

  7. Perception of obesity in university students and in patients with eating disorders

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jáuregui Lobera, I; Polo, I M López; González, M T Montaña; Millán, M T Morales

    2008-01-01

    In order to approach in a multidisciplinary way obesity and eating disorders it is necessary to know the implicit theories of personality, the stereotypes, and the current stigmatization of overweight...

  8. Binge eating disorder and night eating syndrome in adults with type 2 diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    To determine the prevalence of binge eating disorder (BED) and night eating syndrome (NES) among applicants to the Look AHEAD (Action for Health in Diabetes) study. The Eating Disorders Examination-Questionnaire (EDE-Q) and the Night Eating Questionnaire (NEQ) were used to screen patients. Phone int...

  9. Comparison of associated features and drug treatment between co-occurring unipolar and bipolar disorders in depressed eating disorder patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseng, Mei-Chih Meg; Chang, Chin-Hao; Liao, Shih-Cheng; Chen, Hsi-Chung

    2017-02-27

    To examine the differences of associated characteristics and prescription drug use between co-occurring unipolar and bipolar disorders in patients with eating disorders (EDs). Patients with EDs and major depressive episode (MDE) were recruited from psychiatric outpatient clinics. They were interviewed and completed self-administered measures assessing eating and general psychopathology. The prescribed drugs at the index outpatient visit were recorded. Clinical characteristics and prescription drugs of groups with major depressive disorder (ED-MDD), MDE with lifetime mania (ED-BP I), and MDE with lifetime hypomania (ED-BP II) were compared. Continuous variables between groups were compared using generalized linear regression with adjustments of age, gender, and ED subtype for pair-wise comparisons. Multivariate logistic regression with adjustments of age, gender, and ED subtype was employed to estimate adjusted odds ratios with 95% confidence intervals between groups. Two hundred and twenty-seven patients with EDs had a current MDE. Among them, 17.2% and 24.2% experienced associated manic and hypomanic episodes, respectively. Bipolar I and II patients displayed significantly poorer weight regulation, more severe impulsivity and emotional lability, and higher rates of co-occurring alcohol use disorders than ED-MDD patients. ED-BP I patients were found to have the lowest IQ, poorest working memory, and the most severe depression, suicidality and functional impairment among all patients. Patients with ED-BP II shared affect and behavioral dysregulations with ED-BP I, but had less severe degrees of cognitive and functional impairments than ED-BP I. Patients with ED-BP I were significantly less likely than those in the ED-MDD and ED-BP II groups to be on antidepressant monotherapy, but a great rate (27%) of ED-BP I individuals taking antidepressant monotherapy had potential risk of mood switch during the course of treatment. Our study identified discriminative features

  10. Eating disorders in midlife women: A perimenopausal eating disorder?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Jessica H; Runfola, Cristin D

    2016-03-01

    Eating disorders afflict women across the lifespan with peak onset during critical or sensitive developmental periods of reproductive hormone change, such as puberty. A growing body of research supports the role of reproductive hormones, specifically estrogen, in the risk for eating disorders and related symptomatology in adolescence and young adulthood. Like puberty, perimenopause is characterized by estrogen change and may also present a window of vulnerability to eating disorder development. Here, we discuss the evidence that suggests perimenopause indeed may be a vulnerable period for the development or redevelopment of an eating disorder for midlife women. Drawing from what is known about the influence of estrogen on eating disorders at younger ages and from other psychiatric disorders with similar risk trajectories (i.e., perimenopausal depression), we describe a potential mechanism of risk for a perimenopausal eating disorder and how this can be explored in future research. Investigating vulnerability to perimenopausal eating disorders will clarify eating disorder etiology, identify reproductive stage-specific risk profiles, and guide future treatment directions.

  11. Peer harassment and disordered eating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenberg, Marla; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, we review existing literature regarding peer harassment and its association with a range of weight-related attitudes and behaviors. We conceptualize peer harassment to include traditionally defined bullying behavior, other social and relational forms of bullying, as well as teasing and other verbal harassment. Weight-based teasing is particularly relevant to weight-related issues and has been associated with clinical eating disorders, unhealthy weight control behaviors, and weight-related attitudes, such as body dissatisfaction. Studies using both clinical samples of eating disorder patients and general samples of college students or adolescents have demonstrated these relations. Emerging issues in this field, including teasing by family members, research with males, teasing and weight-related issues in developing countries, and the measurement of teasing experience are also discussed. Interventions with healthcare providers, parents, school personnel, and policy can contribute to the prevention of teasing and its associated weight-related attitudes and behaviors.

  12. Fractures in patients with anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, and other eating disorders--a nationwide register study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, Peter; Emborg, Charlotte; Støving, René K

    2002-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To study fracture risk in patients with anorexia nervosa (AN), bulimia nervosa (BN), or eating disorders not otherwise specified (EDNOS). METHOD: Cohort study including all Danes diagnosed with AN (n = 2,149), BN (n = 1,294), or EDNOS (n = 942) between 1977 and 1998. Each patient...

  13. The prevalence and impact of trauma history in eating disorder patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klas Backholm

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Early experiences of traumatic events (TEs may be associated with subsequent eating disturbance. However, few studies have investigated overall exposure and trauma-type frequency in various types of eating disorders (EDs. Objective: This study aimed to investigate the prevalence and type of TEs in a nationally representative sample of Swedish ED patients. Method: Data from a database (Stepwise for specialized ED care were used. Trauma history was assessed as a part of the routine, initial assessment. Participants over the age of 18 with a diagnosed DSM-IV ED were included (N=4,524. Results: The number of patients having experienced at least one TE was 843 (18.6%, and 204 (24.2% reported at least one additional trauma. Sexual trauma was the most common form of TE (6.3%. There was no difference in overall traumatic exposure or in type of experienced trauma between the ED diagnostic subgroups (AN, BN, EDNOS, and BED. Overall traumatic exposure was linked to self-reported severity of ED symptoms, more secondary psychosocial impairment, psychiatric comorbidity, and negative self-image. Conclusions: Trauma history in ED patients merits attention. Results are partly in line with and partly in contrast to previous research. Measurement of trauma history has varied substantially in research on EDs, and this study adds to the indistinct literature on trauma history in ED.

  14. Animal models of eating disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Sangwon F Kim

    2012-01-01

    Feeding is a fundamental process for basic survival, and is influenced by genetics and environmental stressors. Recent advances in our understanding of behavioral genetics have provided a profound insight on several components regulating eating patterns. However, our understanding of eating disorders such as anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, and binge eating is still poor. The animal model is an essential tool in the investigation of eating behaviors and their pathological forms, yet develop...

  15. Neuropsychology of eating disorders: 1995-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jáuregui-Lobera, Ignacio

    2013-01-01

    Eating disorders are considered psychiatric pathologies that are characterized by pathological worry related to body shape and weight. The lack of progress in treatment development, at least in part, reflects the fact that little is known about the pathophysiologic mechanisms that account for the development and persistence of eating disorders. The possibility that patients with eating disorders have a dysfunction of the central nervous system has been previously explored; several studies assessing the relationship between cognitive processing and certain eating behaviors have been conducted. These studies aim to achieve a better understanding of the pathophysiology of such diseases. The aim of this study was to review the current state of neuropsychological studies focused on eating disorders. This was done by means of a search process covering three relevant electronic databases, as well as an additional search on references included in the analyzed papers; we also mention other published reviews obtained by handsearching.

  16. Neuropsychology of eating disorders: 1995–2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jáuregui-Lobera, Ignacio

    2013-01-01

    Eating disorders are considered psychiatric pathologies that are characterized by pathological worry related to body shape and weight. The lack of progress in treatment development, at least in part, reflects the fact that little is known about the pathophysiologic mechanisms that account for the development and persistence of eating disorders. The possibility that patients with eating disorders have a dysfunction of the central nervous system has been previously explored; several studies assessing the relationship between cognitive processing and certain eating behaviors have been conducted. These studies aim to achieve a better understanding of the pathophysiology of such diseases. The aim of this study was to review the current state of neuropsychological studies focused on eating disorders. This was done by means of a search process covering three relevant electronic databases, as well as an additional search on references included in the analyzed papers; we also mention other published reviews obtained by handsearching. PMID:23580091

  17. Treatment of binge eating disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, G Terence

    2011-12-01

    The two specialty psychological therapies of CBT and IPT remain the treatments of choice for the full range of BED patients, particularly those with high levels of specific eating disorder psychopathology such as overvaluation of body shape and weight. They produce the greatest degree of remission from binge eating as well as improvement in specific eating disorder psychopathology and associated general psychopathology such as depression. The CBT protocol evaluated in the research summarized above was the original manual from Fairburn and colleagues. Fairburn has subsequently developed a more elaborate and sophisticated form of treatment, namely, enhanced CBT (CBT-E) for eating disorders. Initial research suggests that CBT-E may be more effective than the earlier version with bulimia nervosa and Eating Disorder Not Otherwise Specified patients. CBT-E has yet to be evaluated for the treatment of BED, although it would currently be the recommended form of CBT. Of relevance in this regard is that the so-called broad form of the new protocol includes 3 optional treatment modules that could be used to address more complex psychopathology in BED patients. One of the modules targeted at interpersonal difficulties is IPT, as described earlier in this chapter. Thus, the broader protocol could represent a combination of the two currently most effective therapies for BED. Whether this combined treatment proves more effective than either of the components alone, particularly for a subset of BED patients with more complex psychopathology, remains to be tested. CBT-E also includes a module designed to address what Fairburn terms “mood intolerance” (problems in coping with negative affect) that can trigger binge eating and purging. The content and strategies of this mood intolerance module overlap with the emotional regulation and distress tolerance skills training of Linehan's dialectical behavior therapy (DBT). Two randomized controlled trials have tested the efficacy of an

  18. Evolutionary Explanations of Eating Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor Kardum

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available This article reviews several most important evolutionary mechanisms that underlie eating disorders. The first part clarifies evolutionary foundations of mental disorders and various mechanisms leading to their development. In the second part selective pressures and evolved adaptations causing contemporary epidemic of obesity as well as differences in dietary regimes and life-style between modern humans and their ancestors are described. Concerning eating disorders, a number of current evolutionary explanations of anorexia nervosa are presented together with their main weaknesses. Evolutionary explanations of eating disorders based on the reproductive suppression hypothesis and its variants derived from kin selection theory and the model of parental manipulation were elaborated. The sexual competition hypothesis of eating disorder, adapted to flee famine hypothesis as well as explanation based on the concept of social attention holding power and the need to belonging were also explained. The importance of evolutionary theory in modern conceptualization and research of eating disorders is emphasized.

  19. Eating Disorder Not Otherwise Specified in Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eddy, Kamryn T.; Doyle, Angela Celio; Hoste, Renee Rienecke; Herzog, David B.; Le Grange, Daniel

    2008-01-01

    A study to examine the kind of eating disorders not otherwise specified (EDNOS) among adolescents encountered during treatment at an outpatient eating disorder clinic is conducted. Results indicate that EDNOS is more predominant among adolescents seeking treatment for eating disorders.

  20. Eating Disorder Not Otherwise Specified in Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eddy, Kamryn T.; Doyle, Angela Celio; Hoste, Renee Rienecke; Herzog, David B.; Le Grange, Daniel

    2008-01-01

    A study to examine the kind of eating disorders not otherwise specified (EDNOS) among adolescents encountered during treatment at an outpatient eating disorder clinic is conducted. Results indicate that EDNOS is more predominant among adolescents seeking treatment for eating disorders.

  1. Body image disturbance in binge eating disorder: a comparison of obese patients with and without binge eating disorder regarding the cognitive, behavioral and perceptual component of body image.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewer, Merle; Nasrawi, Nadia; Schroeder, Dorothea; Vocks, Silja

    2016-03-01

    Whereas the manifestation of body image disturbance in binge eating disorder (BED) has been intensively investigated concerning the cognitive-affective component, with regard to the behavioral and the perceptual components of body image disturbance in BED, research is limited and results are inconsistent. Therefore, the present study assessed body image disturbance in BED with respect to the different components of body image in a sample of obese females (n = 31) with BED compared to obese females without an eating disorder (n = 28). The Eating Disorder Inventory-2, the Eating Disorder Examination-Questionnaire, the Body Image Avoidance Questionnaire and the Body Checking Questionnaire as well as a Digital Photo Distortion Technique based on a picture of each participant taken under standardized conditions were employed. Using two-sample t tests, we found that the participants with BED displayed significantly greater impairments concerning the cognitive-affective component of body image than the control group. Concerning the behavioral component, participants with BED reported more body checking and avoidance behavior than the controls, but group differences failed to reach significance after the Bonferroni corrections. Regarding the perceptual component, a significant group difference was found for the perceived "ideal" figure, with the individuals suffering from BED displaying a greater wish for a slimmer ideal figure than the control group. These results support the assumption that body image disturbance is a relevant factor in BED, similar to other eating disorders.

  2. Perfectionism and Eating Disorders Reconsidered.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashby, Jeffrey S.; Kottman, Terry; Schoen, Eva

    1998-01-01

    Examines differences between college women being treated for eating disorders and a comparison group on measures of adaptive and maladaptive perfectionism. Results show that individuals with eating disorders had significantly higher scores on a factor representing perfectionism; however, there were no significant differences between the two groups…

  3. Genetic determinants of eating disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slof-Op 't Landt, Margarita Cornelia Theodora

    2011-01-01

    In this thesis, a series of studies on different aspects of the genetics of eating disorders is presented. The heritability of disordered eating behavior and attitudes in relation with body mass index (BMI) was evaluated in a large adolescent twin-family sample ascertained through the Netherlands Tw

  4. Eating Disorders as Coping Mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagener, Amy M.; Much, Kari

    2010-01-01

    This article focuses on the complex nature of eating disorders, specifically highlighting their use as coping mechanisms for underlying emotional and psychological concerns. Case examples of college counseling center clients are discussed in order to illustrate common ways in which eating disorders are utilized by clients with varying…

  5. Genetic determinants of eating disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slof-Op 't Landt, Margarita Cornelia Theodora

    2011-01-01

    In this thesis, a series of studies on different aspects of the genetics of eating disorders is presented. The heritability of disordered eating behavior and attitudes in relation with body mass index (BMI) was evaluated in a large adolescent twin-family sample ascertained through the Netherlands

  6. Eating Disorders as Coping Mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagener, Amy M.; Much, Kari

    2010-01-01

    This article focuses on the complex nature of eating disorders, specifically highlighting their use as coping mechanisms for underlying emotional and psychological concerns. Case examples of college counseling center clients are discussed in order to illustrate common ways in which eating disorders are utilized by clients with varying…

  7. Parenting styles and eating disorder pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enten, Roni S; Golan, Moria

    2009-06-01

    Our objective was to investigate the association between parenting style and eating disorder symptoms in patients treated in an intensive outpatient center for eating disorders. The study design is a cross-sectional survey set in a community-based facility for eating disorders. Participants included 53 families, including 32 with a child meeting the DSM-IV criteria for anorexia nervosa, 18 for bulimia nervosa, and 3 diagnosed ED-NOS. Data was collected using the Parental Authority Questionnaire (PAQ), the Eating Disorders Inventory-2 (EDI-2) and the Eating Attitudes Test (EAT-26). Significant, negative correlations were found between drive for thinness scores and body dissatisfaction scores and the patient's perception of the father as authoritative. Total patient EDI score was significantly and positively correlated with patient's perception of the father as authoritarian and inversely correlated with her perception of him as authoritative. These results emphasize the importance of fathers' role in the eating disorder pathology, a relatively untapped area of research.

  8. Sexuality in eating disorders patients: etiological factors, sexual dysfunction and identity issues. A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castellini, Giovanni; Lelli, Lorenzo; Ricca, Valdo; Maggi, Mario

    2016-02-01

    The scientific community appears to be less interested in sexuality of eating disorders (EDs) as compared to other psychiatric or medical comorbidities. However, a clear association between sexual problems and ED psychopathology was reported from different perspectives. The overarching goal of this systematic review was to evaluate the general approach of the scientific literature toward the topic of sexuality and EDs. In particular, four different categories of research have been individuated, encompassing the role of puberty, and sexual abuse in the pathogenesis of the disorders, sexual dysfunctions, and the association between sexual orientation and EDs psychopathology. Timing of puberty with its hormonal consequences and the changes in the way persons perceive their own body represent a crucial period of life for the onset of the disorder. Sexual abuse, and especially childhood sexual abuse are well-recognized risk factors for the development of ED, determining a worse long-term outcome. Recent research overcome the approach that considers sexual activity of EDs patients, in terms of hypersexuality and dangerous sexual behaviors, considering the sexuality of EDs persons in terms of sexual desire, satisfaction, orgasm and pain. Results from this line of research are promising, and describe a clear relationship between sexual dysfunction and the core psychopathological features of EDs, such as body image disturbances. Finally, the analysis of the literature showed an association between sexual orientation and gender dysphoria with EDs psychopathology and pathological eating behaviors, confirming the validity of research developing new models of maintaining factors of EDs related to the topic of self-identity.

  9. Impairment in psychosocial functioning in patients with different subtypes of eating disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Meira Moser

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To examine psychosocial functioning in eating disorder (ED patients with restrictive and purgative subtypes. METHOD: Forty-four adult female patients with a diagnosis of ED were divided into restrictive (RP and purgative (PP groups according the presence of purgative symptoms. Functioning was assessed using the Functioning Assessment Short Test (FAST and the Global Assessment of Functioning Scale (GAF. RESULTS: No differences were found in total FAST scores or in specific domains between the RP (39.58±11.92 and PP (45.75±11.75 groups (p = 0.19. However, PP showed more severe functional impairment than RP in the financial domain (p < 0.01. There were no differences in comorbidity with mood disorders, depressive symptoms, or general psychiatric symptoms between the two ED subtypes. CONCLUSIONS: The similarities found between PP and PR in overall functioning and in autonomy, cognition, work, interpersonal relationships, and leisure seem to reflect the use of an objective scale that corresponds to the clinical impression. In fact, the assessment of psychosocial functioning in ED patients using self-report instruments requires careful consideration because results may reflect the egosyntonic nature of symptoms commonly observed in these patients, particularly in the restrictive subtype.

  10. Validating the Eating Disorder Inventory-3 (EDI-3): A Comparison Between 561 Female Eating Disorders Patients and 878 Females from the General Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clausen, Loa; Rosenvinge, Jan H; Friborg, Oddgeir; Rokkedal, Kristian

    2011-03-01

    The Eating Disorder Inventory (EDI) is used worldwide in research and clinical work. The 3(rd) version (EDI-3) has been used in recent research, yet without any independent testing of its psychometric properties. The aim of the present study was twofold: 1) to establish national norms and to compare them with the US and international norms, and 2) to examine the factor structure, the internal consistency, the sensitivity and the specificity of subscale scores. Participants were Danish adult female patients (N = 561) from a specialist treatment centre and a control group (N = 878) was women selected from the Danish Civil Registration system. Small but significant differences were found between Danish and international, as well as US norms. Overall, the factor structure was confirmed, the internal consistency of the subscales was satisfactory, the discriminative validity was good, and sensitivity and specificity were excellent. The implications from these results are discussed.

  11. [Eating disorders and mass media].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peroutsi, A; Gonidakis, F

    2011-01-01

    During the last 50 years, eating disorders have developed to a complicated and widespread medical and social issue. The latest research results indicate that eating disorders have a quite complicated and multifactorial etiology. According to the multifactorial etiological model, the impact of mass media can be regarded mainly as a precipitating factor. The literature review showed that mass media have a considerable impact on the development and perpetuation of eating disorders. Mass media contribute to the promotion of the thinness ideal as a way to achieve social approval, recognition and success. Mass media also promote dieting and food deprivation, as a successful way of life or as a socially agreeable practice. Furthermore, the literature review showed that mass media remain the main source of information about eating disorders. Considering the above result, mass media could play a major role in the promotion of prevention practices and early diagnosis and treatment of eating disorders.

  12. Effect of mood states on QT interval and QT dispersion in eating disorder patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takimoto, Yoshiyuki; Yoshiuchi, Kazuhiro; Akabayashi, Akira

    2008-04-01

    Prolonged QT interval and QT dispersion have been reported in patients with eating disorders. Although the factors that cause prolongation remain unclear, mood states such as anxiety have been reported to influence QT interval and dispersion, probably via the autonomic nervous system. Therefore the aim of the present paper was to investigate mood effect on prolonged QT interval and QT dispersion. The subjects were 47 female anorexia nervosa (AN) and 48 female bulimia nervosa (BN) patients. In all of the patients, serum electrolyte levels were normal. QT interval and QT dispersion were measured from 12-lead electrocardiographic recordings. Mood states in each patient were measured using a Profile of Mood States (POMS) evaluation, and the patients were divided into high- and low-score groups for each POMS subscale. The differences in QT variables were compared between the two groups for each subscale. In the BN group, QT interval and QT dispersion in the high depression score group were significantly longer than those in the low depression score group, and QT dispersion was significantly greater in the high anxiety score group than in the low anxiety score group. In addition, QT interval and QT dispersion were significantly correlated with depression scores. In the AN group there were no significant differences in QT interval or QT dispersion between the high- and low-score groups for any POMS subscale. BN patients with worse states of depression or anxiety had longer QT intervals and larger QT dispersion. In BN patients, mood disturbance might increase the risk of arrhythmias.

  13. Race, Ethnicity, and Eating Disorder Recognition by Peers

    OpenAIRE

    Sala, Margarita; Reyes-Rodríguez, Mae Lynn; Bulik, Cynthia M.; Bardone-Cone, Anna

    2013-01-01

    We investigated racial/ethnic stereotyping in the recognition and referral of eating disorders with 663 university students. We explored responses to problem and eating disorder recognition, and health care referral after reading a vignette concerning a patient of different race/ethnic background presenting with eating disorders. A series of three 4 × 3 ANOVAs revealed significant main effects for eating disorder across all three outcome variables. There were no significant main effects acros...

  14. Validation of the exercise and eating disorders questionnaire

    OpenAIRE

    Danielsen, Marit; Bjørnelv, Sigrid; Rø, Øyvind

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Compulsive exercise is a well-known feature in eating disorders. The Exercise and Eating Disorder (EED) self-report questionnaire was developed to assess aspects of compulsive exercise not adequately captured by existing instruments. This study aimed to test psychometric properties and the factor structure of the EED among women with eating disorders and a control group. Method: The study included 449 female participants, including 244 eating disorders patients and...

  15. Eating Disorder Examination – Differences in eating disorder pathology between men and women with eating disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koefoed, Maja Schølarth; Clausen, Loa; Rokkedal, Kristian

    2014-01-01

    Objective In general eating disorder pathology in men shows more similarities than differences compared to women though with an overall lower level of pathology. In community studies men have been found to have more excessive exercise and more binge eating and in clinical populations men have been...... found to have more vomiting. Eating Disorder Examination (EDE) is “the golden standard” of diagnostic interviewing in eating disorder but analysis of gender differences in scores on the EDE have never been reported. The present study aim to explore gender differences on the EDE among adolescents...

  16. Integrating Motivational Interviewing and Cognitive Behavioral Therapy in the Treatment of Eating Disorders: Tailoring Interventions to Patient Readiness for Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geller, Josie; Dunn, Erin C.

    2011-01-01

    This paper focuses on the integration of Motivational Interviewing (MI) and cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) in the treatment of eating disorders. Although CBT is regarded as the treatment of choice in this population, it nevertheless has limitations: some patients fail to engage, drop out from treatment prematurely, or simply do not improve.…

  17. Prevalence of functional dyspepsia and its subgroups in patients with eating disorders

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Antonella Santonicola; Monica Siniscalchi; Pietro Capone; Serena Gallotta; Carolina Ciacci; Paola Iovino

    2012-01-01

    AIM:To study the prevalence of functional dyspepsia (FD) (Rome Ⅲ criteria) across eating disorders (ED),obese patients,constitutional thinner and healthy volunteers.METHODS:Twenty patients affected by anorexia nervosa,6 affected by bulimia nervosa,10 affected by ED not otherwise specified according to diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders,4th edition,nine constitutional thinner subjects and,thirtytwo obese patients were recruited from an outpatients clinic devoted to eating behavior disorders.Twentytwo healthy volunteers matched for age and gender were enrolled as healthy controls.All participants underwent a careful clinical examination.Demographic and anthropometric characteristics were obtained from a structured questionnaires.The presence of FD and,its subgroups,epigastric pain syndrome and postprandial distress syndrome (PDS) were diagnosed according to Rome Ⅲ criteria.The intensity-frequency score of broader dyspeptic symptoms such as early satiety,epigastric fullness,epigastric pain,epigastric burning,epigastric pressure,belching,nausea and vomiting were studied by a standardized questionnaire (0-6).Analysis of variance and post-hoc Sheffè tests were used for comparisons.RESULTS:90% of patients affected by anorexia nervosa,83.3% of patients affected by bulimia nervosa,90% of patients affected by ED not otherwise specified,55.6% of constitutionally thin subjects and 18.2% healthy volunteers met the Postprandial Distress Syndrome Criteria (x2,P < 0.001).Only one bulimic patient met the epigastric pain syndrome diagnosis.Postprandial fullness intensity-frequency score was significantly higher in anorexia nervosa,bulimia nervosa and ED not otherwise specified groups compared to the score calculated in the constitutional thinner group (4.15 ± 2.08 vs 1.44 ± 2.35,P =0.003; 5.00 ±2.45 vs 1.44 ± 2.35,P =0.003; 4.10 ± 2.23 vs 1.44 ±2.35,P =0.002,respectively),the obese group (4.15 ± 2.08 vs 0.00 ± 0.00,P < 0.001; 5.00 ± 2

  18. Impact of obesity and binge eating disorder on patients with idiopathic intracranial hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raggi, Alberto; Curone, Marcella; Bianchi Marzoli, Stefania; Chiapparini, Luisa; Ciasca, Paola; Ciceri, Elisa Fm; Erbetta, Alessandra; Faragò, Giuseppe; Leonardi, Matilde; D'Amico, Domenico

    2017-03-01

    Background Idiopathic intracranial hypertension (IIH) is associated with obesity, and obesity is associated with binge eating disorder (BED). The aim of this paper is to address the presence and impact of BED in patients undergoing an IIH diagnostic protocol. Methods This was a cross-sectional study. Consecutive patients suspected of IIH underwent neurological, neuro-ophthalmologic and psychological examinations, neuroimaging studies and intracranial pressure (ICP) measurements through lumbar puncture in the recumbent position. IIH diagnosis was based on International Classification of Headache Disorders, 2nd Edition criteria; BED diagnosis was based on Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 5th Edition criteria. The presence of oligoclonal bands (OCBs) in the cerebrospinal fluid was also assessed. Results Forty-five patients were enrolled: 33 were diagnosed with IIH and five of them (15%) were obese with BED. Compared to non-obese patients, those who were obese, and particularly those who were obese with BED, were more likely to have an IIH diagnosis (χ(2 )= 14.3; p = 0.001), ICP > 200 mmH2O (χ(2 )= 12.7; p = 0.002) and history of abuse or neglect (χ(2 )= 11.2; p = 0.004). No association with OCBs was found. Conclusions We reported for the first time the presence of BED among patients with IIH and showed that BED is associated to IIH, ICP and history of abuse or neglect.

  19. Neuropsychology of eating disorders: 1995–2012

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Ignacio Jáuregui-LoberaNutrition and Bromatology, Pablo de Olavide University, Seville, SpainAbstract: Eating disorders are considered psychiatric pathologies that are characterized by pathological worry related to body shape and weight. The lack of progress in treatment development, at least in part, reflects the fact that little is known about the pathophysiologic mechanisms that account for the development and persistence of eating disorders. The possibility that patients with e...

  20. Neuropsychology of eating disorders: 1995–2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jáuregui-Lobera I

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Ignacio Jáuregui-LoberaNutrition and Bromatology, Pablo de Olavide University, Seville, SpainAbstract: Eating disorders are considered psychiatric pathologies that are characterized by pathological worry related to body shape and weight. The lack of progress in treatment development, at least in part, reflects the fact that little is known about the pathophysiologic mechanisms that account for the development and persistence of eating disorders. The possibility that patients with eating disorders have a dysfunction of the central nervous system has been previously explored; several studies assessing the relationship between cognitive processing and certain eating behaviors have been conducted. These studies aim to achieve a better understanding of the pathophysiology of such diseases. The aim of this study was to review the current state of neuropsychological studies focused on eating disorders. This was done by means of a search process covering three relevant electronic databases, as well as an additional search on references included in the analyzed papers; we also mention other published reviews obtained by handsearching.Keywords: eating disorders, anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, binge-eating disorder, neuropsychology, cognitive performance

  1. Binge Abstinence is Associated with Reduced Energy Intake After Treatment in Patients with Binge Eating Disorder and Obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masheb, Robin M.; Dorflinger, Lindsey M.; Rolls, Barbara J.; Mitchell, Diane C.; Grilo, Carlos M.

    2016-01-01

    Objective Binge eating disorder (BED) is strongly associated with obesity and related medical and psychiatric morbidities. Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) has consistently been shown to reduce binge eating frequency and improve psychological functioning, as well as to produce abstinence rates of roughly 50%. This study examined the relationship between binge abstinence and dietary and psychological outcomes after CBT for BED. Methods Fifty adult patients with BED received 6-month treatments using a combination of CBT and dietary counseling. Trained interviewers conducted two 24-hour dietary recall interviews on randomly selected days at baseline and at 6 months. Results Participants had significant reductions in energy, macronutrient, and sugar intake and an increase in fruit intake. They reported significant reductions in BMI and binge eating frequency (from mean = 14.24 to mean = 1.90 binge eating episodes during the previous 28 days), as well as improvements in psychological functioning. Those who became binge abstinent reported eating roughly 400 fewer calories per day and experienced greater improvements in psychological functioning than those who did not. Conclusions Findings from this study suggest that individuals who achieve complete cessation from binge eating have significantly improved dietary and psychological outcomes that could potentially improve weight status, compared with those who continue to binge eat post-treatment. PMID:27797154

  2. Binge abstinence is associated with reduced energy intake after treatment in patients with binge eating disorder and obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masheb, Robin M; Dorflinger, Lindsey M; Rolls, Barbara J; Mitchell, Diane C; Grilo, Carlos M

    2016-12-01

    Binge eating disorder (BED) is strongly associated with obesity and related medical and psychiatric morbidities. Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) has consistently been shown to reduce binge eating frequency and improve psychological functioning, as well as to produce abstinence rates of roughly 50%. This study examined the relationship between binge abstinence and dietary and psychological outcomes after CBT for BED. Fifty adult patients with BED received 6-month treatments using a combination of CBT and dietary counseling. Trained interviewers conducted two 24-hour dietary recall interviews on randomly selected days at baseline and at 6 months. Participants had significant reductions in energy, macronutrient, and sugar intake and an increase in fruit intake. They reported significant reductions in BMI and binge eating frequency (from mean = 14.24 to mean = 1.90 binge eating episodes during the previous 28 days), as well as improvements in psychological functioning. Those who became binge abstinent reported eating roughly 400 fewer calories per day and experienced greater improvements in psychological functioning than those who did not. Findings from this study suggest that individuals who achieve complete cessation from binge eating have significantly improved dietary and psychological outcomes that could potentially improve weight status, compared with those who continue to binge eat post-treatment. © 2016 The Obesity Society.

  3. Parenting styles and eating disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jáuregui Lobera, I; Bolaños Ríos, P; Garrido Casals, O

    2011-10-01

    The aim of the study was to analyse the parental bonding profiles in patients with eating disorders (ED), as well as the relationship among the different styles of parenting and some psychological and psychopathological variables. In addition, the association between the perceived parental bonding and different coping strategies was analysed. Perception of parenting styles was analysed in a sample of 70 ED patients. The Parental Bonding Instrument, Self-Esteem Scale of Rosenberg, Coping Strategies Inventory, State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, Beck Depression Inventory and Eating Disorders Inventory-2 were used. Kruskal-Wallis test (comparisons), Spearman correlation coefficients (association among different variables) and χ(2)-test (parental bonding profiles differences) were applied. The stereotyped style among ED patients is low care-high control during the first 16 years, and the same can be said about current styles of the mothers. Between 8.6% and 12.9% of the patients perceive their parents' styles as neglectful. The neglectful parenting is the style mainly involved in the specific ED symptoms as drive for thinness, body dissatisfaction and bulimia. In order to achieve a better balanced parents' role during the treatment, it would be necessary to improve the role of the mothers as caregivers, decreasing their role mainly based on the overprotection. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing.

  4. Effectiveness of self-esteem and social skills group therapy in adolescent eating disorder patients attending a day hospital treatment programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lázaro, L; Font, E; Moreno, E; Calvo, R; Vila, M; Andrés-Perpiñá, S; Canalda, G; Martínez, E; Castro-Fornieles, J

    2011-01-01

    To evaluate self-esteem and social skills in adolescent eating disorder patients before and after specific group therapy as part of a Day Hospital Programme. One hundred and sixty adolescent eating disorder patients, classified as anorexia nervosa and related disorders (AN-rd) (N = 116) or bulimia nervosa and related disorders (BN-rd) (N = 44) received structured group therapy for developing self-esteem and social skills. BN-rd patients had poorer perceptions of some self-esteem and social skills variables. After group therapy, both groups presented significant improvements in their perceptions of physical appearance, their self-concept related to weight and shape and to others, happiness and satisfaction, social withdrawal and leadership. BN-rd patients presented more changes on many of the variables. Specific self-esteem and social skills group therapy in patients with eating disorders can be useful in improving certain core features. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association.

  5. Age and gender changes in children and adolescent patients of a Brazilian eating disorder program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Alckmin-Carvalho

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Background International studies have demonstrated an increase in the prevalence of boys and a decrease of patients’ age at the beginning of outpatient treatment for eating disorders (ED. Objective To evaluate if these changes are also present in the Brazilian population participating in the PROTAD, a Brazilian ED program, and to discuss its clinical implication for treatment. Methods Cross-sectional study. We evaluated 150 medical records of patients under 18 years diagnosed with ED (DSM IV-TR. Patients were divided into two groups: G1 (2001-2007 (n = 77 and G2 (2008-2014 (n = 73. The girl/boy proportion and the mean age of patients were compared. Results In G1, six boys (7.8% were admitted (girl/boy proportion: 11.8:1, while in G2, 16 (22% boys were admitted (girl/boy proportion: 3.5:1 (p 0.05. Discussion The increase in the number of boys treated for EDs reported in international studies was also found at the PROTAD. Contrary to what has been reported in international studies, the mean age of patients at the PROTAD did not decrease significantly. Gender and sexual orientation issues, clinical presentation, prior overweight history and culture/media impact on boys should be addressed by the healthcare team to increase the therapeutic efficacy.

  6. Binge Eating Disorder and Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipsky, Rachele K; McGuinness, Teena M

    2015-08-01

    Children and adolescents who eat unusually large amounts of food, feel guilty about it, and try to hide their overeating may be struggling with binge eating disorder (BED), a condition associated with suicidal ideation and other eating disorders. Although BED is new to the fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, the syndrome is becoming increasingly recognized. The study of BED in children and adolescents is in its natal phase, but the importance of recognition and possible treatment strategies are discussed in the current article along with psychiatric nursing implications.

  7. Early improvement in eating attitudes during cognitive behavioural therapy for eating disorders: the impact of personality disorder cognitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Emma C; Waller, Glenn; Gannon, Kenneth

    2014-03-01

    The personality disorders are commonly comorbid with the eating disorders. Personality disorder pathology is often suggested to impair the treatment of axis 1 disorders, including the eating disorders. This study examined whether personality disorder cognitions reduce the impact of cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) for eating disorders, in terms of treatment dropout and change in eating disorder attitudes in the early stages of treatment. Participants were individuals with a diagnosed eating disorder, presenting for individual outpatient CBT. They completed measures of personality disorder cognitions and eating disorder attitudes at sessions one and six of CBT. Drop-out rates prior to session six were recorded. CBT had a relatively rapid onset of action, with a significant reduction in eating disorder attitudes over the first six sessions. Eating disorder attitudes were most strongly associated with cognitions related to anxiety-based personality disorders (avoidant, obsessive-compulsive and dependent). Individuals who dropped out of treatment prematurely had significantly higher levels of dependent personality disorder cognitions than those who remained in treatment. For those who remained in treatment, higher levels of avoidant, histrionic and borderline personality disorder cognitions were associated with a greater change in global eating disorder attitudes. CBT's action and retention of patients might be improved by consideration of such personality disorder cognitions when formulating and treating the eating disorders.

  8. Alterations of EEG functional connectivity in resting state obese and overweight patients with binge eating disorder: A preliminary report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imperatori, Claudio; Fabbricatore, Mariantonietta; Farina, Benedetto; Innamorati, Marco; Quintiliani, Maria Isabella; Lamis, Dorian A; Contardi, Anna; Della Marca, Giacomo; Speranza, Anna Maria

    2015-10-21

    Alterations in brain functional connectivity have been detected in patients with eating disorders, but have not been studied in binge eating disorder (BED). We have investigated electroencephalographic (EEG) functional connectivity in thirteen overweight and obese patients with BED and thirteen overweight and obese patients without BED during RS condition. EEG analyzes were conducted by means of the exact Low Resolution Electric Tomography software (eLORETA). Compared to patients without BED, patients with BED demonstrated an increase of lagged phase synchronization in the beta frequency band among the cortical areas explored by FC1-T3 (left superior frontal gyrus-left middle temporal gyrus), T5-O1 (left inferior temporal gyrus-left middle occipital gyrus), and C4-O1 (right postcentral gyrus-left middle occipital gyrus) electrodes (T=4.861, p<0.05). EEG connectivity values were also significantly related to binge eating symptomatology after controlling for depressive symptoms. Our results may reflect the impairment of frontal control network and visual processing networks, which lead patients with BED to be more vulnerable to food cues and lack of control with regards to over eating.

  9. Disordered eating and eating disorders in aquatic sports

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Melin, Anna; Torstveit, Monica Klungland; Burke, Louise

    2014-01-01

    judgements of performance. The reported prevalence of DE and EDs in athletic populations including athletes from aquatic sports ranges from 18-45 % in female athletes and 0-28 % in male athletes. To prevent EDs, aquatic athletes should practice healthy eating behaviour at all periods of development pathway......Disordered eating behaviour (DE) and eating disorders (EDs) are of great concern due to their associations with physical and mental health risks and, in the case of athletes, impaired performance. The syndrome originally known as the Female Athlete Triad, which focused on the interaction of energy...

  10. Eating disorders today--not just a girl thing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hepworth, Kimberly

    2010-01-01

    Most people envision eating disorders occurring in young women with anorexia or bulimia. Today, disordered eating is increasingly prevalent in males and in every age group, along with new terms: binge eating, bigorexia, orthorexia, and diabulimia. Healthcare providers aware of and knowledgeable about eating disorders, signs and symptoms, risk factors, and treatment are better able to screen patients, assist them in receiving help earlier, and increase the likelihood of successful outcomes.

  11. Higher Caloric Refeeding Is Safe in Hospitalised Adolescent Patients with Restrictive Eating Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Elizabeth K.; Faruquie, Sahrish S.; Anderson, Gail; Gomes, Linette; Kennedy, Andrew; Wearne, Christine M.; Kohn, Michael R.; Clarke, Simon D.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. This study examines weight gain and assesses complications associated with refeeding hospitalised adolescents with restrictive eating disorders (EDs) prescribed initial calories above current recommendations. Methods. Patients admitted to an adolescent ED structured “rapid refeeding” program for >48 hours and receiving ≥2400 kcal/day were included in a 3-year retrospective chart review. Results. The mean (SD) age of the 162 adolescents was 16.7 years (0.9), admission % median BMI was 80.1% (10.2), and discharge % median BMI was 93.1% (7.0). The mean (SD) starting caloric intake was 2611.7 kcal/day (261.5) equating to 58.4 kcal/kg (10.2). Most patients (92.6%) were treated with nasogastric tube feeding. The mean (SD) length of stay was 3.6 weeks (1.9), and average weekly weight gain was 2.1 kg (0.8). No patients developed cardiac signs of RFS or delirium; complications included 4% peripheral oedema, 1% hypophosphatemia (refeeding syndrome. PMID:27293884

  12. Comparative study of cognitive-behavioral psychotherapy and nutritional support in patients with different types of eating disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larrañaga, Alejandra; Fluiters, Enrique; Docet, María F; Fernández Sastre, José Luis; García-Mayor, Ricardo V

    2014-09-09

    There are several psychological approaches to treat ED with efficacy being revealed by empirical research; however none of them are universally accepted. The objective was to compare response to Cognitive Behavioral Therapy in patients with different clinical forms of Eating Disorders. Seventy-four patients diagnosed with eating disorders, 32 with Anorexia nervosa (AN), 19 with Bulimia nervosa (BN) and 23 with Eating disorders not otherwise specified (EDNOS) were included. This is a prospective and comparative study. Patients were treated by psychotherapy, nutritional treatment and pharmacotherapy. The recovery rates in the groups of patients with AN, BN and EDNOS were 14 (43.7%), 8 (42.1%), 10 (43.4%), respectively, p>0.05. The rates of improvement were 14 (43.7%), 10 (52.6%), 12 (52.1%) for AN, BN and EDNOS, respectively, p>0.05. Finally, the rate of patients who had poor outcome were 3 (9.3%), 1 (5.2%), and 1 (4.3%), p>0.05, for AN, BN, and EDNOS, respectively. Cox regression analysis showed that the age of disease onset and no use of psychotropic drugs predicted a good response in patients with ED. The treatment response to Cognitive Behavioral Therapy, nutritional support and psychotropic drugs in the majority of patients was favorable and similar in most patients with different types of Eating Disorders. Furthermore, a young age and no use of psychotropic drugs predict a favorable outcome in patients with ED. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  13. Prevalence of eating disorders and eating attacks in narcolepsy

    OpenAIRE

    Norbert Dahmen; Julia Becht; Alice Engel; Monika Thommes; Peter Tonn

    2008-01-01

    Norbert Dahmen, Julia Becht, Alice Engel, Monika Thommes, Peter TonnPsychiatry Department, University of Mainz, GermanyAbstract: Narcoleptic patients suffer frequently from obesity and type II diabetes. Most patients show a deficit in the energy balance regulating orexinergic system. Nevertheless, it is not known, why narcoleptic patients tend to be obese. We examined 116 narcoleptic patients and 80 controls with the structured interview for anorectic and bulimic eating disorders (SIAB) to te...

  14. General practitioner attitudes towards referral of eating-disordered patients: a vignette study based on the theory of planned behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Helen; Johnston, Olwyn; Cabrini, Sara; Fornai, Gemma; Kendrick, Tony

    2008-12-01

    Objective The study examined individual differences between general practitioners (GPs) to determine their impact on variations in intention to refer a hypothetical patient with disordered eating to specialist eating disorder services. The study also examined the impact of patient weight on intention to refer.Method GPs within three primary care trusts (PCTs) were posted a vignette depicting a patient with disordered eating, described as either normal weight or underweight. A questionnaire was developed from the theory of planned behaviour to assess the GPs' attitudes, perception of subjective norms, perceived behavioural control, and intention to refer the patient. Demographic details were also collected.Results Responses were received from 88 GPs (33%). Intention to refer the patient was significantly related to subjective norms and cognitive attitudes. Together these predictors explained 86% of the variance in the intention to refer. GP or practice characteristics did not have a significant effect on the GPs' intention to refer, and nor did the patient's weight.Conclusion Despite National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence current guidance, patient weight did not influence GPs' decisions to refer. Much of the variance in actual referral behaviour may be explained by cognitive attitudes and subjective norms. Interventions to reduce this variation should be focused on informing GPs about actual norms, and best practice guidelines.

  15. Risk of eating disorders in immigrant populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mustelin, L; Hedman, A M; Thornton, L M; Kuja-Halkola, R; Keski-Rahkonen, A; Cantor-Graae, E; Almqvist, C; Birgegård, A; Lichtenstein, P; Mortensen, P B; Pedersen, C B; Bulik, C M

    2017-08-01

    The risk of certain psychiatric disorders is elevated among immigrants. To date, no population studies on immigrant health have addressed eating disorders. We examined whether risk of eating disorders in first- and second-generation immigrants differs from native-born Danes and Swedes. All individuals born 1984-2002 (Danish cohort) and 1989-1999 (Swedish cohort) and residing in the respective country on their 10th birthday were included. They were followed up for the development of eating disorders based on out-patient and in-patient data. The risks of all eating disorder types were lower among first-generation immigrants compared to the native populations: Incidence-rate ratio (95% confidence interval) was 0.39 (0.29, 0.51) for anorexia nervosa, 0.60 (0.42, 0.83) for bulimia nervosa, and 0.62 (0.47, 0.79) for other eating disorders in Denmark and 0.27 (0.21, 0.34) for anorexia nervosa, 0.30 (0.18, 0.51) for bulimia nervosa, and 0.39 (0.32, 0.47) for other eating disorders in Sweden. Likewise, second-generation immigrants by both parents were at lower risk, whereas those with only one foreign-born parent were not. The decreased risk of eating disorders among immigrants is opposite to what has been observed for other psychiatric disorders, particularly schizophrenia. Possible explanations include buffering sociocultural factors and underdetection in health care. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Evidence-Based Practices in Outpatient Treatment for Eating Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaffner, Angela D.; Buchanan, Linda Paulk

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the current issues relevant to implementing evidence-based practices in the context of outpatient treatment for eating disorders. The study also examined the effectiveness of an outpatient treatment program for eating disorders among a group of 196 patients presenting with anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, or eating disorder…

  17. Feedback versus no feedback to improve patient outcome in group psychotherapy for eating disorders (F-EAT): A randomized clinical trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davidsen, Annika Helgadóttir; Waaddegaard, Mette; Poulsen, Stig Bernt

    of continuous feedback on adherence and outcome in group psychotherapy. Methods/design: The trial is set up in a randomized design for outpatients diagnosed with bulimia nervosa, binge eating disorder, or eating disorder not otherwise specified (DSM-IV). They are allocated 1:1 to the experimental group...

  18. Factor structure and clinical utility of the Beck depression inventory in patients with binge eating disorder and obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udo, Tomoko; McKee, Sherry A; Grilo, Carlos M

    2015-01-01

    The Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) is often used to assess depression symptoms, but its factor structure and its clinical utility have not been evaluated in patients with binge eating disorder (BED) and obesity. A total of 882 treatment-seeking obese patients with BED were administered structured interviews (Structured Clinical Interview for Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition Axis I Disorders) and completed self-report questionnaires. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses supported a brief 16-item BDI version with a three-factor structure (affective, attitudinal and somatic). Both 21- and 16-item versions showed excellent internal consistency (both α=0.89) and had significant correlation patterns with different aspects of eating disorder psychopathology; three factors showed significant but variable associations with eating disorder psychopathology. Area under the curves (AUC) for both BDI versions were significant in predicting major depressive disorder (MDD; AUC=0.773 [16-item], 73.5% sensitivity/70.2% specificity, AUC=0.769 [21-item], 79.5% sensitivity/64.1% specificity) and mood disorders (AUC=0.763 [16-item], 67.1% sensitivity/71.5% specificity, AUC=0.769 [21-item], 84.2% sensitivity/55.7% specificity). The 21-item BDI (cutoff score ≥16) showed higher negative predictive values (94.0% vs. 93.0% [MDD]; 92.4% vs. 88.3% [mood disorders]) than the brief 16-item BDI (cutoff score ≥13). Both BDI versions demonstrated moderate performance as a screening instrument for MDD/mood disorders in obese patients with BED. Advantages and disadvantages for both versions are discussed. A three-factor structure has potential to inform the conceptualization of depression features. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Comorbidity of bipolar disorder and eating disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Álvarez Ruiz, Eva M; Gutiérrez-Rojas, Luis

    2015-01-01

    The comorbidity of bipolar disorder and eating disorders has not been studied in depth. In addition, clinical implications involved in the appearance of both disorders are very important. A systematic literature review of MEDLINE published up to September 2013 was performed, analyzing all the articles that studied the comorbidity of both conditions (bipolar disorder and eating disorders) and others research that studied the efficacy of pharmacological treatment and psychotherapy to improve these illnesses. In this review we found a high comorbidity of bipolar disorder and eating disorders, especially of bulimia nervosa and binge eating disorder. Studies show that lithium and topiramate are 2 of the more effective pharmacological agents in the treatment of both disorders. There are a lot of studies that show evidence of comorbidity of bipolar disorder and eating disorders. However, further research is needed on assessment and treatment when these conditions co-exist, as well as study into the biopsychological aspects to determine the comorbid aetiology. Copyright © 2014 SEP y SEPB. Published by Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  20. Body Image and Eating Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janete Maximiano

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Eating disorders should be understood in a multidimensional perspective, emphasizing a biopsicossocial context. In these pathologies it`s the body, in the first instance, that reveals the disease, being in this way the target of the conflict, revealing a disturbed body experience and as a consequence a weak conception of their personal body image. The body image is conceptualised as a subjective image that the individuals form in their own mind, about their body, in relation with differ- ent contexts of life. The intent of the studies is to comprehend the level of body image disturbance, which have concluded that in the majority of the cases, significant changes on perceptive capacity of the patients do not exist. In this way it`s important to study in a more effective and qualitative way the affective and personal factors. The authors pretend with this bibliographic revision, make a research of body image assessment to the Eating Disorders (Anorexia Nervosa and Bulimia Nervosa, and to reflect which are the best ones to adapt for Portuguese reality.

  1. Caring for Patients With Severe and Enduring Eating Disorders (SEED): Certification, Harm Reduction, Palliative Care, and the Question of Futility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westmoreland, Patricia; Mehler, Phillip S

    2016-07-01

    Anorexia nervosa is a serious mental illness with a high mortality rate. The body image distortion inherent to this disorder and the impaired judgment and cognition due to malnutrition frequently result in patients refusing treatment. Treatment is most effective if patients are treated early in the course of their illness and undergo a full course of treatment. Involuntary treatment may therefore be both life-saving and critical to recovery. Between April 2012 and March 2016, 109 patients (5.2% of patients admitted to the Eating Recovery Center in Denver, CO) were certified, 39% of whom were transferred from the ACUTE Center for Eating Disorders at Denver Health Medical Center. Of these 109 certified patients, 31% successfully completed treatment, and 42% returned for a further episode of care; 24% of the certifications were terminated as involuntary treatment was not found to be helpful. Conclusions supported by these data are that patients with anorexia nervosa who are the most medically ill often require involuntary treatment. In addition, although many patients who are certified successfully complete treatment, involuntary treatment is not helpful approximately 25% of the time. Many of the patients for whom certification is ineffective are those who suffer from a lifetime of illness that is severe and enduring. Patients with severe and enduring eating disorders (SEED) typically undergo cyclical weight restoration and weight loss. Many of these patients question the value of serial treatments, especially when they have few (if any) illness-free intervals. Patients, families, and treating physicians often wish to explore other models of care, including harm reduction and palliative care. In addition, patients with SEED may also contemplate whether a compassionate death would be better than an ongoing lifetime of suffering. In this review, we outline arguments for and against the concept of futility in SEED, and explore whether (or when) patients are competent to

  2. Effectiveness of a web-based treatment program using intensive therapeutic support for female patients with bulimia nervosa, binge eating disorder and eating disorders not otherwise specified: Study protocol of a randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huurne, E.D. ter; Postel, M.G.; Haan, H.A. de; Jong, C.A.J. de

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Disordered eating behavior and body dissatisfaction affect a large proportion of the Dutch population and account for severe psychological, physical and social morbidity. Yet, the threshold for seeking professional care is still high. In the Netherlands, only 7.5% of patients with bulimi

  3. Effectiveness of a web-based treatment program using intensive therapeutic support for female patients with bulimia nervosa, binge eating disorder and eating disorders not otherwise specified: study protocol of a randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huurne, ter E.D.; Postel, M.G.; Haan, de H.A.; Jong, C.A.J.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Disordered eating behavior and body dissatisfaction affect a large proportion of the Dutch population and account for severe psychological, physical and social morbidity. Yet, the threshold for seeking professional care is still high. In the Netherlands, only 7.5% of patients with bulimi

  4. Effectiveness of a web-based treatment program using intensive therapeutic support for female patients with bulimia nervosa, binge eating disorder and eating disorders not otherwise specified: study protocol of a randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ter Huurne, E.D.; Postel, Marloes Gerda; de Haan, H.A.; Jong, C.A.J.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Disordered eating behavior and body dissatisfaction affect a large proportion of the Dutch population and account for severe psychological, physical and social morbidity. Yet, the threshold for seeking professional care is still high. In the Netherlands, only 7.5% of patients with bulimi

  5. Effectiveness of a web-based treatment program using intensive therapeutic support for female patients with bulimia nervosa, binge eating disorder and eating disorders not otherwise specified: Study protocol of a randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huurne, E.D. ter; Postel, M.G.; Haan, H.A. de; Jong, C.A.J. de

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Disordered eating behavior and body dissatisfaction affect a large proportion of the Dutch population and account for severe psychological, physical and social morbidity. Yet, the threshold for seeking professional care is still high. In the Netherlands, only 7.5% of patients with bulimi

  6. Treatment of avoidant/restrictive food intake disorder in a cohort of young patients in a partial hospitalization program for eating disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ornstein, Rollyn M; Essayli, Jamal H; Nicely, Terri A; Masciulli, Emily; Lane-Loney, Susan

    2017-09-01

    Avoidant/restrictive food intake disorder (ARFID) is a recently named condition to classify patients who present with restricted nutritional intake without body image distortion or fear of weight gain. We sought to compare treatment outcomes of patients with ARFID in a family-centered partial hospital program (PHP) to those with other eating disorders (ED). A retrospective chart review of 130 patients 7-17 years of age admitted to the program from 2008 to 2012 was performed. Intake and discharge data included: length of stay; percentage median body mass index (%MBMI); and scores on the Children's Eating Attitudes Test (ChEAT) and Revised Children's Manifest Anxiety Scale (RCMAS). Between and within group effects were measured for intake and discharge data. Patients with ARFID spent significantly fewer weeks in program than those with anorexia nervosa (AN) and experienced a similar increase in %MBMI as patients with AN and other specified/unspecified feeding and eating disorders. All patients exhibited significant improvements in psychopathology over the course of treatment as measured by scores on the ChEAT and RCMAS. Our findings suggest that patients with ARFID can be successfully treated in the same PHP as patients with other ED, with comparable improvements in weight and psychopathology over a shorter time period. Results are limited to patients with ARFID who exhibit an acute onset of severe food restriction. Future research should incorporate measures relevant to the diagnosis of ARFID and explore how patients with different ARFID subtypes may respond to various treatments. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Binge Eating Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... himself. Understanding Binge Eating If you gorged on chocolate during Halloween or ate so much pumpkin pie ... that seem beyond someone's control. Doctors, counselors, and nutrition experts often work together to help those with ...

  8. Binge Eating Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... more chips to eat while he does his math. He hates that he's overweight, but he can' ... to have a healthy relationship with food. Nutrition specialists or dietitians can help teens and their families ...

  9. Higher Caloric Refeeding Is Safe in Hospitalised Adolescent Patients with Restrictive Eating Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth K. Parker

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. This study examines weight gain and assesses complications associated with refeeding hospitalised adolescents with restrictive eating disorders (EDs prescribed initial calories above current recommendations. Methods. Patients admitted to an adolescent ED structured “rapid refeeding” program for >48 hours and receiving ≥2400 kcal/day were included in a 3-year retrospective chart review. Results. The mean (SD age of the 162 adolescents was 16.7 years (0.9, admission % median BMI was 80.1% (10.2, and discharge % median BMI was 93.1% (7.0. The mean (SD starting caloric intake was 2611.7 kcal/day (261.5 equating to 58.4 kcal/kg (10.2. Most patients (92.6% were treated with nasogastric tube feeding. The mean (SD length of stay was 3.6 weeks (1.9, and average weekly weight gain was 2.1 kg (0.8. No patients developed cardiac signs of RFS or delirium; complications included 4% peripheral oedema, 1% hypophosphatemia (<0.75 mmol/L, 7% hypomagnesaemia (<0.70 mmol/L, and 2% hypokalaemia (<3.2 mmol/L. Caloric prescription on admission was associated with developing oedema (95% CI 1.001 to 1.047; p=0.039. No statistical significance was found between electrolytes and calories provided during refeeding. Conclusion. A rapid refeeding protocol with the inclusion of phosphate supplementation can safely achieve rapid weight restoration without increased complications associated with refeeding syndrome.

  10. Metacognition in eating disorders: comparison of women with eating disorders, self-reported history of eating disorders or psychiatric problems, and healthy controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olstad, Siri; Solem, Stian; Hjemdal, Odin; Hagen, Roger

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study was to compare a clinical sample with eating disorders to different control samples on self-report measures of metacognition and eating disorder symptoms, in order to investigate the role of metacognition in eating disorders. The clinical group consisted of 53 female patients with eating disorders who completed the Metacognitions Questionnaire-30 and the Eating Disorder Examination Questionnaire 6.0. One-hundred and fifty women who served as a control group completed the questionnaires as an Internet survey. This control group was divided into three groups based on self-reported history of eating and psychiatric problems (N=47), other psychiatric problems (N=37), or no such problems (healthy controls: N=66). The clinical group scored significantly higher on dysfunctional metacognition than healthy controls, especially on "negative beliefs about uncontrollability and danger", "need to control thoughts", and total MCQ-30 score. Eating disorder symptomatology was positively correlated with metacognition. Metacognition explained 51% of the variance in eating disorder symptoms after controlling for age and BMI, with "need to control thoughts" as the most important factor. Metacognitive beliefs may be central in understanding eating disorders, and metacognitive treatment strategies could be a promising approach in developing new psychological treatments for eating disorders. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Effectiveness of Parent Counselling in Eating Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbate-Daga, Giovanni; Quaranta, Michela; Marzola, Enrica; Cazzaniga, Giovanna; Amianto, Federico; Fassino, Secondo

    2013-01-01

    Eating Disorders (ED) are often severe illnesses entailing a heavy burden for families. Family therapy is recommended for young patients, but only a few studies have investigated therapeutic interventions with families tailored also to adult and longstanding patients. We recruited 87 families with daughters affected by an ED, aiming to assess the…

  12. Effectiveness of Parent Counselling in Eating Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbate-Daga, Giovanni; Quaranta, Michela; Marzola, Enrica; Cazzaniga, Giovanna; Amianto, Federico; Fassino, Secondo

    2013-01-01

    Eating Disorders (ED) are often severe illnesses entailing a heavy burden for families. Family therapy is recommended for young patients, but only a few studies have investigated therapeutic interventions with families tailored also to adult and longstanding patients. We recruited 87 families with daughters affected by an ED, aiming to assess the…

  13. Self-Mutilation and Eating Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Favazza, Armando R.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Presents evidence from literature review, patient interviews, responses to Self-Harm Behavior Survey, and case reports that patients with eating disorders are at high risk for self-mutilation. In lieu of dual diagnosis, postulates that combination of self-mutilation, anorexia, bulimia, and other symptoms may be manifestations of impulse control…

  14. Functional gastrointestinal disorders in eating disorder patients: altered distribution and predictors using ROME III compared to ROME II criteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaojie; Luscombe, Georgina M; Boyd, Catherine; Kellow, John; Abraham, Suzanne

    2014-11-21

    To compare the prevalence of Functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGIDs) using ROME III and ROME II and to describe predictors of FGIDs among eating disorder (ED) patients. Two similar cohorts of female ED inpatients, aged 17-50 years, with no organic gastrointestinal or systemic disorders, completed either the ROME III (n = 100) or the ROME II (n = 160) questionnaire on admission for ED treatment. The two ROME cohorts were compared on continuous demographic variables (e.g., age, BMI) using Student's t-tests, and on categorical variables (e.g., ED diagnosis) using χ(2)-tests. The relationship between ED diagnostic subtypes and FGID categories was explored using χ(2)-tests. Age, BMI, and psychological and behavioural predictors of the common (prevalence greater than 20%) ROME III FGIDs were tested using logistic regression analyses. The criteria for at least one FGID were fulfilled by 83% of the ROME III cohort, and 94% of the ROME II cohort. There were no significant differences in age, BMI, lowest ever BMI, ED diagnostic subtypes or ED-related quality of life (QOL) scores between ROME II and ROME III cohorts. The most prevalent FGIDs using ROME III were postprandial distress syndrome (PDS) (45%) and irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) (41%), followed by unspecified functional bowel disorders (U-FBD) (24%), and functional heartburn (FH) (22%). There was a 29% or 46% increase (depending on presence or absence of cyclic vomiting) in functional gastroduodenal disorders because of the introduction of PDS in ROME III compared to ROME II. There was a 35% decrease in functional bowel disorders (FBD) in Rome III (excluding U-FBD) compared to ROME II. The most significant predictor of PDS was starvation (P = 0.008). The predictor of FH (P = 0.021) and U-FBD (P = 0.007) was somatisation, and of IBS laxative use (P = 0.025). Age and BMI were not significant predictors. The addition of the 6-mo duration of symptoms requirement for a diagnosis in ROME III added precision to many

  15. Existential interventions in eating disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas, Michael

    2001-01-01

    This study provides the result of a doctorate research into the impact of existential psychotherapeutic interventions with people experiencing chronic eating disorders. The results indicate that positive outcomes are correlated to therapeutic interventions which concentrate on the clients own perception of control and choice over their own eating habits. The research aim was to explore both the effects and the effectiveness of existential therapy in altering the individuals subjective int...

  16. "Food addiction" in patients with eating disorders is associated with negative urgency and difficulties to focus on long-term goals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ines eWolz

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The present study aimed to investigate if eating disorder patients differ in specific personality traits depending on a positive screening of food addiction and to find a model to predict food addiction in eating disorder patients using measures of personality and impulsivity. Methods: 278 patients having an eating disorder self-reported on food addiction, impulsivity, personality, eating and general psychopathology. Patients were then split into two groups, depending on a positive or negative result on the food addiction screening. Analysis of variance was used to compare means between the two groups. Stepwise binary logistic regression was used to obtain a predictive model for the presence of food addiction. Results: Patients with food addiction had lower self-directedness, and more negative urgency and lack of perseverance than patients not reporting addictive eating. The probability of food addiction can be predicted by high negative urgency, high reward dependence, and low lack of premeditation. Conclusions: Eating disorder patients who have more problems to pursue tasks to the end and to focus on long-term goals seem to be more likely to develop addictive eating patterns.

  17. “Food Addiction” in Patients with Eating Disorders is Associated with Negative Urgency and Difficulties to Focus on Long-Term Goals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolz, Ines; Hilker, Ines; Granero, Roser; Jiménez-Murcia, Susana; Gearhardt, Ashley N.; Dieguez, Carlos; Casanueva, Felipe F.; Crujeiras, Ana B.; Menchón, José M.; Fernández-Aranda, Fernando

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: The present study aimed to investigate if eating disorder patients differ in specific personality traits depending on a positive screening of food addiction (FA) and to find a model to predict FA in eating disorder patients using measures of personality and impulsivity. Methods: Two hundred seventy eight patients, having an eating disorder, self-reported on FA, impulsivity, personality, eating and general psychopathology. Patients were then split into two groups, depending on a positive or negative result on the FA screening. Analysis of variance was used to compare means between the two groups. Stepwise binary logistic regression was used to obtain a predictive model for the presence of FA. Results: Patients with FA had lower self-directedness, and more negative urgency and lack of perseverance than patients not reporting addictive eating. The probability of FA can be predicted by high negative urgency, high reward dependence, and low lack of premeditation. Conclusion: Eating disorder patients who have more problems to pursue tasks to the end and to focus on long-term goals seem to be more likely to develop addictive eating patterns. PMID:26869963

  18. "Food Addiction" in Patients with Eating Disorders is Associated with Negative Urgency and Difficulties to Focus on Long-Term Goals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolz, Ines; Hilker, Ines; Granero, Roser; Jiménez-Murcia, Susana; Gearhardt, Ashley N; Dieguez, Carlos; Casanueva, Felipe F; Crujeiras, Ana B; Menchón, José M; Fernández-Aranda, Fernando

    2016-01-01

    The present study aimed to investigate if eating disorder patients differ in specific personality traits depending on a positive screening of food addiction (FA) and to find a model to predict FA in eating disorder patients using measures of personality and impulsivity. Two hundred seventy eight patients, having an eating disorder, self-reported on FA, impulsivity, personality, eating and general psychopathology. Patients were then split into two groups, depending on a positive or negative result on the FA screening. Analysis of variance was used to compare means between the two groups. Stepwise binary logistic regression was used to obtain a predictive model for the presence of FA. Patients with FA had lower self-directedness, and more negative urgency and lack of perseverance than patients not reporting addictive eating. The probability of FA can be predicted by high negative urgency, high reward dependence, and low lack of premeditation. Eating disorder patients who have more problems to pursue tasks to the end and to focus on long-term goals seem to be more likely to develop addictive eating patterns.

  19. Eating disorder symptoms and parenting styles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haycraft, Emma; Blissett, Jackie

    2010-02-01

    This study aimed to examine associations between symptoms of eating disorders and parenting style, in a non-clinical sample. One hundred and five mothers completed self-report measures of eating disorder symptoms and parenting style. Higher levels of eating disorder symptoms were associated with more authoritarian and permissive parenting styles. Authoritative parenting was not significantly related to eating disorder symptoms. The findings demonstrate that eating disorder symptoms in non-clinical individuals are related to less adaptive parenting styles. These findings have potential implications for clinicians working with mothers with eating disorders.

  20. Sex differences in the effects of residential treatment on the quality of life of eating disorder patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weltzin, Theodore; Bean, Pamela; Klosterman, Eric; Lee, Han-Joo; Welk-Richards, Robyn

    2015-09-01

    This study compared the effects of residential treatment on improving health-related quality of life (HRQOL) between males and females diagnosed with eating disorders (EDs) from admission to discharge and at follow-up. This study also analyzed the association between changes in HRQOL and changes in the severity of ED pathology, depression, and trait anxiety. 145 consecutive patients (34 males and 111 females) admitted to a residential ED unit completed a panel of surveys at admission and discharge. The survey panel included the Eating Disorders Quality of Life Survey (EDQLS), the Eating Disorder Examination Questionnaire, the Quick Inventory of Depressive Symptomatology and the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory. An online follow-up survey was also conducted for the EDQLS. Mixed-factorial ANOVA was used to examine sex differences and changes in HRQOL between admission, discharge and post-treatment follow-up. Multiple regression analysis was used to investigate the relationship between sex, change in HRQOL, and changes in all other variables studied. By the end of residential treatment, both males and females had made similar statistically significant improvements in HRQOL from admission to discharge, which persisted after treatment. Greater decreases in ED pathology and trait anxiety significantly predicted greater increases in HRQOL during residential treatment while sex and changes in depression did not. The data show that residential treatment is an effective approach to improving HRQOL in both males and females with EDs. Greater improvements in trait anxiety and ED pathology contributed to greater improvement in HRQOL in these patients.

  1. Identification and management of eating disorders in children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosen, David S

    2010-12-01

    The incidence and prevalence of eating disorders in children and adolescents has increased significantly in recent decades, making it essential for pediatricians to consider these disorders in appropriate clinical settings, to evaluate patients suspected of having these disorders, and to manage (or refer) patients in whom eating disorders are diagnosed. This clinical report includes a discussion of diagnostic criteria and outlines the initial evaluation of the patient with disordered eating. Medical complications of eating disorders may affect any organ system, and careful monitoring for these complications is required. The range of treatment options, including pharmacotherapy, is described in this report. Pediatricians are encouraged to advocate for legislation and policies that ensure appropriate services for patients with eating disorders, including medical care, nutritional intervention, mental health treatment, and care coordination.

  2. The prevalence of binge eating disorder and borderline personality symptomatology among gastric surgery patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sansone, Randy A; Schumacher, David; Wiederman, Michael W; Routsong-Weichers, Lynn

    2008-04-01

    In this study, we examined the prevalence of binge eating disorder (BED) and borderline personality disorder (BPD) in a sample of 121 candidates seeking surgery for obesity. In this predominantly female sample (85.9%), according to the Questionnaire on Eating and Weight Patterns-Revised (QEWP-R), the prevalence of BED was 6.5%. As for the prevalence of BPD, 14.0% exceeded the clinical cut-off score on the Self-Harm Inventory (SHI), 14.0% exceeded the clinical cut-off score on the borderline personality scale of the Personality Diagnostic Questionnaire-4 (PDQ-4), and 7.4% exceeded the clinical cut-off score on the McLean Screening Inventory for Borderline Personality Disorder (MSI-BPD). Overall, 24.8% of the sample exceeded the clinical cut-off on at least one measure of BPD whereas only 3.3% exceeded the clinical cut-off on all three measures. In addition, there was a significant inverse relationship between the discrepancy between highest and lowest adult body mass index, and scores on the PDQ-4 and the MSI-BPD. The authors discuss the implications of these findings.

  3. Development and validity of the Disordered Eating Attitude Scale (DEAS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarenga, Marle dos Santos; Scagliusi, Fernanda Baeza; Philippi, Sonia Tucunduva

    2010-04-01

    The aim of this study was to develop and validate the Disordered Eating Attitude Scale to measure disordered eating attitudes, defined as abnormal beliefs, thoughts, feelings, behaviors, and relationship regarding food. Exploratory factor analysis was performed and internal consistency assessed in a sample of female university students (N=196). Convergent validity was acceptable based on statistically significant correlations with the Eating Attitude Test-26 and Restraint Scale. Known-groups validity was determined by comparing the student sample's mean scores against scores of an eating disorder group (N=51). The Disordered Eating Attitude Scale comprises 25 questions and five subscales explaining 54.3% of total variance. The total scores differentiated student, bulimia, and anorexia groups. The scale should prove useful for evaluating eating attitudes in various population groups and eating disordered patients.

  4. Eating disorders in older women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podfigurna-Stopa, Agnieszka; Czyzyk, Adam; Katulski, Krzysztof; Smolarczyk, Roman; Grymowicz, Monika; Maciejewska-Jeske, Marzena; Meczekalski, Blazej

    2015-10-01

    Eating disorders (EDs) are disturbances that seriously endanger the physical health and often the lives of sufferers and affect their psychosocial functioning. EDs are usually thought of as problems afflicting teenagers. However, the incidence in older women has increased in recent decades. These cases may represent either late-onset disease or, more likely, a continuation of a lifelong disorder. The DSM-5 classification differentiates 4 categories of eating disorder: anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, binge-eating disorders and other specified feeding and eating disorders. The weight loss and malnutrition resulting from EDs have widespread negative consequences for physical, mental and social health. The main risk factors for developing long-term consequences are the degree of weight loss and the chronicity of the illness. Most of the cardiac, neurological, pulmonary, gastric, haematological and dermatological complications of EDs are reversible with weight restoration. EDs are serious illnesses and they should never be neglected or treated only as a manifestation of the fashion for dieting or a woman's wish to achieve an imposed standard feminine figure. Additionally, EDs are associated with high risk of morbidity and mortality. The literature concerning EDs in older, postmenopausal women is very limited. The main aim of this paper is to ascertain the epidemiology and prognosis of EDs in older women, and to review their diagnosis and management. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Food choices coping strategies of eating disorder patients´ parents: what happens when both mother and father work?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Jáuregui-Lobera

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Recently, it has been reported that food choices of relatives of eating disorder (ED patients are not adequate having in mind a healthy model of eating habits. The aim of this study was to analyse how work conditions relate to parents' food choice coping strategies in both families with a member suffering from an ED and families with no sick members. In addition, the differences in those strategies between the two types of working parents were studied. Methods: A total of 80 employed fathers (n = 27 and mothers (n = 53 of patients with an ED (n = 50 and healthy offsprings (n = 30 were interviewed. The mean age was 43.57 ± 5.69 and they had moderate incomes. Food choice coping strategies, used by working parents to integrate work and family demands, were measured by means of 22 items included in five categories. Results: Considering the food choice coping strategies, ED patients' relatives show better skills than relatives of healthy offsprings do. The fact of preparing more meals at home and less fast food as main meal are good examples of those better strategies as well as to miss less number of breakfasts and lunches because of work-family conflict, grabbing less frequently and overeat less after missing a meal. Discussion: The therapeutic effort to improve the food choices of ED patients' relatives, especially when both father and mother work, are a key point to improve the eating habits of ED patients, thus contributing to a better outcome.

  6. Significance of Overvaluation of Shape and Weight in an Ethnically Diverse Sample of Obese Patients with Binge Eating Disorder in Primary Care Settings

    OpenAIRE

    Grilo, Carlos M.; White, Marney A.; Masheb, Robin M.

    2012-01-01

    Undue influence of shape or weight on self-evaluation — referred to as overvaluation — is a core feature across eating disorders, but is not a diagnostic requirement for binge-eating disorder (BED). This study examined overvaluation of shape/weight in ethnically diverse obese patients with BED seeking treatment in primary care. Participants were a consecutive series of 142 (105 female and 37 male) participants with BED; 43% were Caucasian, 37% were African-American, 13% were Hispanic-American...

  7. Prevention of Disordered Eating among Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massey-Stokes, Marilyn S.

    2000-01-01

    Discusses unhealthy dieting behaviors that can lead to eating disorders during adolescence. Outlines ways middle school and high school teachers and administrators can aid in the prevention of disordered eating among adolescents. Lists resources for eating disorders awareness and prevention. (SR)

  8. Disordered Eating and Psychological Distress among Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrick, Julie Hicks; Stahl, Sarah T.; Sundaram, Murali

    2011-01-01

    The majority of our knowledge about eating disorders derives from adolescent and young adult samples; knowledge regarding disordered eating in middle and later adulthood is limited. We examined the associations among known predictors of eating disorders for younger adults in an age-diverse sample and within the context of psychological distress.…

  9. Disordered Eating and Psychological Distress among Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrick, Julie Hicks; Stahl, Sarah T.; Sundaram, Murali

    2011-01-01

    The majority of our knowledge about eating disorders derives from adolescent and young adult samples; knowledge regarding disordered eating in middle and later adulthood is limited. We examined the associations among known predictors of eating disorders for younger adults in an age-diverse sample and within the context of psychological distress.…

  10. Prevention of Disordered Eating among Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massey-Stokes, Marilyn S.

    2000-01-01

    Discusses unhealthy dieting behaviors that can lead to eating disorders during adolescence. Outlines ways middle school and high school teachers and administrators can aid in the prevention of disordered eating among adolescents. Lists resources for eating disorders awareness and prevention. (SR)

  11. Recovery from Binge Eating Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krentz, Adrienne; Chew, Judy; Arthur, Nancy

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to characterize the psychological processes of recovery from binge eating disorder (BED). A model was developed by asking the research question, "What is the experience of recovery for women with BED?" Unstructured interviews were conducted with six women who met the DSM-IV criteria for BED, and who were recovered…

  12. Adolescent Eating Disorder: Anorexia Nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muuss, Rolf E.

    1985-01-01

    Examines anorexia nervosa, an eating disorder seen with increasing frequency, especially among adolescent girls. Presents five theories about causation, discusses early characteristics, typical family patterns, physical and medical characteristics, social adjustment problems, and society's contribution to anorexia. Describes course of the…

  13. Eating Disorders: Prevention through Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagel, K. L.; Jones, Karen H.

    1993-01-01

    School prevention programs for teenage eating disorders should emphasize nutrition education (knowledge, attitudes, behavior) and living skills (self-concept, coping). Secondary prevention involves identifying early warning signs and places for referral; tertiary prevention creates a supportive school environment for recoverers with teachers as…

  14. Race, ethnicity, and eating disorder recognition by peers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sala, Margarita; Reyes-Rodríguez, Mae Lynn; Bulik, Cynthia M; Bardone-Cone, Anna

    2013-01-01

    We investigated racial/ethnic stereotyping in the recognition and referral of eating disorders with 663 university students. We explored responses to problem and eating disorder recognition and health care referrals after subjects read a vignette concerning a patient of a different race/ethnic background presenting with eating disorders. A series of three 4 × 3 ANOVAs revealed significant main effects for eating disorders across all three outcome variables. There were no significant main effects across the four different race/ethnicity conditions and no significant race by condition interactions. Lack of general eating disorder recognition and health care referrals by student participants were found. [Supplemental files are available for this article. Go to the publishers's online edition of Eating Disorders for the following free supplemental resource: online appendix containing vignettes 1-3, as described in the "Methods" section].

  15. Eating disorders in adolescence

    OpenAIRE

    JÁGLOVÁ, Štěpánka

    2013-01-01

    The bachelor degree work deals with disorders food intake, in particular, mental anorexia and mental bulimia in maturing period. The theoretical part is aimed at maturing problems and food intake disorders generally. There is characteristics and division of maturing period into early and late adolescence including psychological and physical changes which are typical for this period. Then food intake disorders, their causes, effects and their possible treatment are specified. The aim of the pr...

  16. Eating Disorders and Disordered Eating Symptoms in Adolescents with Type 1 Diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toni, Giada; Berioli, Maria Giulia; Cerquiglini, Laura; Ceccarini, Giulia; Grohmann, Ursula; Principi, Nicola; Esposito, Susanna

    2017-08-19

    Eating problems in adolescents with type 1 diabetes (T1D) can be divided into two groups. The first includes the diagnosed eating disorders (EDs), i.e., diseases specifically identified by defined signs and symptoms for which a degree of severity has been established, such as anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, binge-eating disorder, pica, and rumination. The second is the group of disordered eating symptoms (DES), which include behaviors such as dieting for weight loss, binge eating, self-induced vomiting, excessive exercise, and laxative or diuretic use; these behaviors cannot be categorized as complete diseases, and, although apparently mild, they must be closely evaluated because they can evolve into true EDs. In this review, present knowledge about the clinical relevance of EDs and DES and the possible preventive and therapeutic measures used to reduce their impact on the course of T1D will be discussed. As adolescents with diabetes are at higher risk of eating disturbances and consequently for higher rates of disease complications, care providers should pay attention to clinical warning signs that raise suspicion of disturbed eating to refer these patients early to an expert in nutrition and mental health disorders. To ensure the best care for adolescents with T1D, diabetes teams should be multidisciplinary and include a pediatric diabetologist, a skilled nurse, a dietician, and a psychologist.

  17. An exploratory study of clinical measures associated with subsyndromal pathological gambling in patients with binge eating disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yip, Sarah W; White, Marney A; Grilo, Carlos M; Potenza, Marc N

    2011-06-01

    Both binge eating disorder (BED) and pathological gambling (PG) are characterized by impairments in impulse control. Subsyndromal levels of PG have been associated with measures of adverse health. The nature and significance of PG features in individuals with BED is unknown. Ninety-four patients with BED (28 men and 66 women) were classified by gambling group based on inclusionary criteria for Diagnostic and Statistical Manual-IV (DSM-IV) PG and compared on a range of behavioral, psychological and eating disorder (ED) psychopathology variables. One individual (1.1% of the sample) met criteria for PG, although 18.7% of patients with BED displayed one or more DSM-IV criteria for PG, hereafter referred to as problem gambling features. Men were more likely than women to have problem gambling features. BED patients with problem gambling features were distinguished by lower self-esteem and greater substance problem use. After controlling for gender, findings of reduced self-esteem and increased substance problem use among patients with problem gambling features remained significant. In patients with BED, problem gambling features are associated with a number of heightened clinical problems.

  18. Pharmacologic Treatments for Binge-Eating Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McElroy, Susan L

    2017-01-01

    Binge-eating disorder (BED) is the most common eating disorder and is associated with poor physical and mental health outcomes. Psychological and behavioral interventions have been a mainstay of treatment for BED, but as understanding of this disorder has grown, pharmacologic agents have become promising treatment options for some patients. At this time, only one drug-the stimulant prodrug lisdexamfetamine-is approved for the treatment of BED. Numerous classes of medications including antidepressants, anticonvulsants, and antiobesity drugs have been explored as off-label treatments for BED with variable success. Although not all patients with BED may be suitable candidates for pharmacotherapy, all patients should be considered for and educated about pharmacologic treatment options. © Copyright 2017 Physicians Postgraduate Press, Inc.

  19. The NOURISHED randomised controlled trial comparing mentalisation-based treatment for eating disorders (MBT-ED) with specialist supportive clinical management (SSCM-ED) for patients with eating disorders and symptoms of borderline personality disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Paul; Hellier, Jennifer; Barrett, Barbara; Barzdaitiene, Daiva; Bateman, Anthony; Bogaardt, Alexandra; Clare, Ajay; Somers, Nadia; O'Callaghan, Aine; Goldsmith, Kimberley; Kern, Nikola; Schmidt, Ulrike; Morando, Sara; Ouellet-Courtois, Catherine; Roberts, Alice; Skårderud, Finn; Fonagy, Peter

    2016-11-17

    In this multi-centre randomized controlled trial (RCT) we compared modified mentalisation-based treatment (MBT-ED) to specialist supportive clinical management (SSCM-ED) in patients with eating disorders (EDs) and borderline personality disorder symptoms (BPD). This group of patients presents complex challenges to clinical services, and a treatment which addresses their multiple problems has the potential to improve outcome. MBT has been shown to be effective in improving outcome in patients with BPD, but its use has not been reported in ED. Sixty-eight eligible participants were randomised to MBT-ED or SSCM-ED. The primary outcome measure was the global score on the Eating Disorder Examination. Secondary outcomes included measures of BPD symptoms (the Zanarini Rating Scale for Borderline Personality Disorder), general psychiatric state, quality of life and service utilisation. Participants were assessed at baseline and at 6, 12 and 18 months after randomisation. Analysis was performed using linear mixed models. Only 15 participants (22 %) completed the 18 month follow-up. Early drop-out occurred significantly more in the SSCM-ED group. Drop-out did not vary with treatment model later in therapy and was sometimes attributed to participants moving away. There was higher drop--out amongst smokers and those with higher neuroticism scores. 47.1 % of participants in the MBT-ED arm and 37.1 % in the SSCM-ED arm attended at least 50 % of therapy sessions offered. Amongst those remaining in the trial, at 12 and 18 months MBT-ED was associated with a greater reduction in Shape Concern and Weight Concern in the Eating Disorder Examination compared to SSCM-ED. At 6, 12 and 18 months there was a decline of ED and BPD symptoms in both groups combined. Ten participants were reported as having had adverse events during the trial, mostly self-harm, and there was one death, attributed as 'unexplained' by the coroner. The high drop-out rate made interpretation of the results

  20. Substantial weight gains are common prior to treatment-seeking in obese patients with binge eating disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masheb, Robin M; White, Marney A; Grilo, Carlos M

    2013-10-01

    This study examined weight trajectories in obese patients with binge eating disorder (BED) during the year prior to treatment initiation and explored potential correlates of these weight changes. One hundred thirty (N=130) consecutive, treatment-seeking, obese patients with BED were assessed with structured interviews and self-report questionnaires. Eighty-three percent (83%; n=108) of treatment seeking obese BED patients gained weight, and 65% (n=84) gained a clinically significant amount of weight (greater than or equal to 5% body weight), in the year preceding treatment. Overall, participants reported a mean percent weight gain of 8% (16.6 pounds) during the 12months prior to treatment with a wide range of weight changes across participants (from a 52% weight gain to a 13% weight loss). A substantial proportion of patients (35%), categorized as High Weight Gainers (defined as gaining more than 10% of body weight during previous year), reported gaining an average of 16.7% of body weight. Low Weight Gainers (defined as gaining greater than 5%, but less than 10%) comprised 29% of the sample and were characterized by a mean gain of 6.9% of body weight. Weight Maintainers/Losers (defined as having maintained or lost weight during the 12months prior to treatment) comprised 17% of the sample and reported losing on average 2.8% of body weight. These three groups did not differ significantly in their current weight and eating behaviors or eating disorder psychopathology. The majority of treatment-seeking obese patients with BED reported having gained substantial amounts of weight during the previous year. These findings provide an important context for interpreting the modest weight losses typically reported in treatment studies of BED. Failure to produce weight loss in these studies may be reinterpreted as stabilization of weight and prevention of further weight gain.

  1. Differences in Emotion Regulation along the Eating Disorder Spectrum: Cross Sectional Study in Adolescents out Patient Care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alina Segal

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Emotion-regulation (ER difficulties among individuals with eating disorders (EDs are thought to contribute to the development and maintenance of eating disorders. Aims: The present study explores the differences in ER difficulties along the eating disorders spectrum, to reveal the basing emotional mechanism in each subtype. Method: In this case-control study, 91 girls, aged 11–18, diagnosed with eating disorders (EDs according to DSM-V (35 ANRT, 29 ANBP, and 27 BN were compared to 41 age-matched healthy controls (HC. Comparisons between the following ER dimensions were performed: alexithymia, anxiety, depression, DERS’s components (awareness and clarity of emotional states, acceptance of emotional distress; ability to engage in goal-directed behavior and refrain from impulsive behavior as well as access to appropriate strategies that are perceived as effective to modulate the duration and/or intensity of emotional responses. Results: The overall level of eating pathology was similar in BN and ANBP and higher than the ANRT group (p<0.001. The ANBP group reported significant higher level of alexithymia and depressive symptoms than the ANRT group and similar to the BN group (p<0.001. The anxiety levels of all patient groups were similar and higher in comparison to the HC (p<0.001. ANRT group presented significantly higher levels of alexithymia, depressive symptoms, anxiety and impulse control in comparison to HC (p<0.001 and significantly lower levels of alexithymia, depressive symptoms, and impulse control in comparison to ANBP (p<0.001. ANBP reported greater ER significant difficulties than ANRT (p<0.001 indicated by greater DERS total scores and DERS subscale scores non-acceptance, clarity and impulse control. ANBP and BN did not differ from each other on the DERS total score. Conclusion: ANBP and BN seem to be originated from combination of defects in the emotional regulation as well as the impulse regulation system and both

  2. Eating Disorders: Facts about Eating Disorders and the Search for Solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spearing, Melissa

    Eating disorders involve serious disturbances in eating behavior, such as extreme and unhealthy reduction of food intake or severe overeating, as well as feelings of distress or extreme concern about body shape or weight. Anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa are the two main types of eating disorders. Eating disorders frequently co-occur with…

  3. Comparative Prevalence of Eating Disorders in Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder and Other Anxiety Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Himanshu Tyagi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The purpose of this study was to compare the prevalence of comorbid eating disorders in Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD and other common anxiety disorders. Method. 179 patients from the same geographical area with a diagnosis of OCD or an anxiety disorder were divided into two groups based on their primary diagnosis. The prevalence of a comorbid eating disorder was calculated in both groups. Results. There was no statistically significant difference in the prevalence of comorbid eating disorders between the OCD and other anxiety disorders group. Conclusions. These results suggest that the prevalence of comorbid eating disorders does not differ in anxiety disorders when compared with OCD. However, in both groups, it remains statistically higher than that of the general population.

  4. Nonspecific eating disorders - a subjective review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aneta Michalska

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Aim. The aim of this paper was to characterise nonspecific eating disorders (other than anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa. Method. The Medline database was searched for articles on nonspecific eating disorders. The following disorders were described: binge eating disorder (BED, pica, rumination disorder, avoidant/restrictive food intake disorder, night eating syndrome (NES, sleep-related eating disorder (SRED, bigorexia, orthorexia, focusing on diagnosis, symptoms, assessment, comorbidities, clinical implications and treatment. Results. All of the included disorders may have dangerous consequences, both somatic and psychological. They are often comorbid with other psychiatric disorders. Approximately a few percent of general population can be diagnosed with each disorder, from 0.5–4.7% (SRED to about 7% (orthorexia. With the growing literature on the subject and changes in DSM-5, clinicians recognise and treat those disorders more often. Conclusions. More studies have to be conducted in order to differentiate disorders and treat or prevent them appropriately.

  5. Nonspecific eating disorders - a subjective review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michalska, Aneta; Szejko, Natalia; Jakubczyk, Andrzej; Wojnar, Marcin

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this paper was to characterise nonspecific eating disorders (other than anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa). The Medline database was searched for articles on nonspecific eating disorders. The following disorders were described: binge eating disorder (BED), pica, rumination disorder, avoidant/restrictive food intake disorder, night eating syndrome (NES), sleep-related eating disorder (SRED), bigorexia, orthorexia, focusing on diagnosis, symptoms, assessment, comorbidities, clinical implications and treatment. All of the included disorders may have dangerous consequences, both somatic and psychological. They are often comorbid with other psychiatric disorders. Approximately a few percent of general population can be diagnosed with each disorder, from 0.5-4.7% (SRED) to about 7% (orthorexia). With the growing literature on the subject and changes in DSM-5, clinicians recognise and treat those disorders more often. More studies have to be conducted in order to differentiate disorders and treat or prevent them appropriately.

  6. Overvaluation of Shape and Weight in Binge Eating Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hrabosky, Joshua I.; Masheb, Robin M.; White, Marney A.; Grilo, Carlos M.

    2007-01-01

    The excessive influence of shape or weight on self-evaluation--referred to as overvaluation--is considered by some a central feature across eating disorders but is not a diagnostic requirement for binge eating disorder (BED). This study examined shape/weight overvaluation in 399 consecutive patients with BED. Participants completed semistructured…

  7. One-year outcome and incidence of anorexia nervosa and restrictive eating disorders among adolescent girls treated as out-patients in a family-based setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosling, Agneta; Salonen Ros, Helena; Swenne, Ingemar

    2016-01-01

    Aims To study the 1-year outcome and to analyse predictors of outcome of a cohort of adolescent girls with anorexia nervosa (AN) or restrictive eating disorders not otherwise specified (EDNOSr) treated as out-patients in a family-based programme at a specialized eating disorder service. To calculate the incidence of anorexia nervosa among treatment-seeking girls younger than 18 in Uppsala County from 2004 to 2006. Methods A total of 168 female patients were offered treatment, and 141 were followed-up 1 year after starting treatment, 29 with AN and 112 with EDNOSr. Results Of the 29 girls who initially had AN, 6 (20%) had a good outcome and were free of any form of eating disorder at follow-up; only 1 (3%) had AN. Of the patients with EDNOSr, 54 (48%) had a good outcome and were free of eating disorders. Three (3%) had a poor outcome and had developed AN. The incidence of AN was 18/100,000 person-years in girls younger than 12 and 63/100,000 in girls younger than 18. Conclusion Restrictive eating disorders, including AN, in children and adolescents can be successfully treated in a family-based specialized out-patient service without in-patient care.

  8. Examining Duration of Binge Eating Episodes in Binge Eating Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreiber-Gregory, Deanna N.; Lavender, Jason M.; Engel, Scott G.; Wonderlich, Steve A.; Crosby, Ross D.; Peterson, Carol B.; Simonich, Heather; Crow, Scott; Durkin, Nora; Mitchell, James E.

    2013-01-01

    Objective The primary goal of this paper is to examine and clarify characteristics of binge eating in individuals with binge eating disorder (BED), particularly the duration of binge eating episodes, as well as potential differences between individuals with shorter compared to longer binge eating episodes. Method Two studies exploring binge eating characteristics in BED were conducted. Study 1 examined differences in clinical variables among individuals (N = 139) with BED who reported a short (binge duration. Study 2 utilized an ecological momentary assessment (EMA) design to examine the duration and temporal pattern of binge eating episodes in the natural environment in a separate sample of nine women with BED. Results Participants in Study 1 who were classified as having long duration binge eating episodes displayed greater symptoms of depression and lower self-esteem, but did not differ on other measures of eating disorder symptoms, compared to those with short duration binge eating episodes. In Study 2, the average binge episode duration was approximately 42 minutes, and binge eating episodes were most common during the early afternoon and evening hours, as well as more common on weekdays versus weekends. Discussion Past research on binge episode characteristics, particularly duration, has been limited to studies of binge eating episodes in BN. This study contributes to the existing literature on characteristics of binge eating in BED. PMID:23881639

  9. Sudden death in eating disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Jáuregui-Garrido B; Jáuregui-Lobera I

    2012-01-01

    Beatriz Jáuregui-Garrido1, Ignacio Jáuregui-Lobera2,31Department of Cardiology, University Hospital Virgen del Rocío, 2Behavioral Sciences Institute, 3Pablo de Olavide University, Seville, SpainAbstract: Eating disorders are usually associated with an increased risk of premature death with a wide range of rates and causes of mortality. “Sudden death” has been defined as the abrupt and unexpected occurrence of fatality for which no satisfact...

  10. Disordered eating and eating disorders in aquatic sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melin, Anna; Torstveit, Monica Klungland; Burke, Louise; Marks, Saul; Sundgot-Borgen, Jorunn

    2014-08-01

    Disordered eating behavior (DE) and eating disorders (EDs) are of great concern because of their associations with physical and mental health risks and, in the case of athletes, impaired performance. The syndrome originally known as the Female Athlete Triad, which focused on the interaction of energy availability, reproductive function, and bone health in female athletes, has recently been expanded to recognize that Relative Energy Deficiency in Sport (RED-S) has a broader range of negative effects on body systems with functional impairments in both male and female athletes. Athletes in leanness-demanding sports have an increased risk for RED-S and for developing EDs/DE. Special risk factors in aquatic sports related to weight and body composition management include the wearing of skimpy and tight-fitting bathing suits, and in the case of diving and synchronized swimming, the involvement of subjective judgments of performance. The reported prevalence of DE and EDs in athletic populations, including athletes from aquatic sports, ranges from 18 to 45% in female athletes and from 0 to 28% in male athletes. To prevent EDs, aquatic athletes should practice healthy eating behavior at all periods of development pathway, and coaches and members of the athletes' health care team should be able to recognize early symptoms indicating risk for energy deficiency, DE, and EDs. Coaches and leaders must accept that DE/EDs can be a problem in aquatic disciplines and that openness regarding this challenge is important.

  11. Endocrine manifestations of eating disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, Michelle P

    2011-02-01

    The endocrinopathies associated with eating disorders involve multiple systems and mechanisms designed to preserve energy and protect essential organs. Those systems that are most affected are in need of significant energy, such as the reproductive and skeletal systems. The changes in neuropeptides and in the hypothalamic axis that mediate these changes also receive input from neuroendocrine signals sensitive to satiety and food intake and in turn may be poised to provide significant energy conservation. These adaptive changes are described, including the thyroid, GH, and cortisol axes, as well as the gastrointestinal tract. Articles were found via PubMed search for both original articles and reviews summarizing current understanding of the endocrine changes of eating disorders based on peer review publications on the topic between 1974 and 2009. The signals that control weight and food intake are complex and probably involve multiple pathways that appear to have as a central control the hypothalamus, in particular the medial central area. The hypothalamic dysfunction of eating disorders provides a reversible experiment of nature that gives insight into understanding the role of various neuropeptides signaling nutritional status, feeding behavior, skeletal repair, and reproductive function.

  12. Food choices coping strategies of eating disorder patients' parents: what happens when both mother and father work?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jáuregui-Lobera, I; Ruiz-Prieto, I; Bolaños-Ríos, P; Garrido-Casals, O

    2013-11-01

    Recently, it has been reported that food choices of relatives of eating disorder (ED) patients are not adequate having in mind a healthy model of eating habits. The aim of this study was to analyse how work conditions relate to parents' food choice coping strategies in both families with a member suffering from an ED and families with no sick members. In addition, the differences in those strategies between the two types of working parents were studied. A total of 80 employed fathers (n = 27) and mothers (n = 53) of patients with an ED (n =50) and healthy offsprings (n = 30) were interviewed. The mean age was 43.57 ± 5.69 and they had moderate incomes. Food choice coping strategies, used by working parents to integrate work and family demands, were measured by means of 22 items included in five categories. Considering the food choice coping strategies, ED patients' relatives show better skills than relatives of healthy offsprings do. The fact of preparing more meals at home and less fast food as main meal are good examples of those better strategies as well as to miss less number of breakfasts and lunches because of work-family conflict, grabbing less frequently and overeat less after missing a meal. The therapeutic effort to improve the food choices of ED patients' relatives, especially when both father and mother work, are a key point to improve the eating habits of ED patients, thus contributing to a better outcome. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2013. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  13. Eating disorders need more experimental psychopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansen, Anita

    2016-11-01

    Eating disorders are severe and disabling mental disorders. The scientific study of eating disorders has expanded dramatically over the past few decades, and provided significant understanding of eating disorders and their treatments. Those significant advances notwithstanding, there is scant knowledge about key processes that are crucial to clinical improvement. The lack of understanding mechanisms that cause, maintain and change eating disorders, currently is the biggest problem facing the science of eating disorders. It hampers the development of really effective interventions that could be fine-tuned to target the mechanisms of change and, therefore, the development of more effective treatments. It is argued here that the science of eating disorders and eating disorder treatment could benefit tremendously from pure experimental studies into its mechanisms of change, that is, experimental psychopathology (EPP). To illustrate why eating disorders need more EPP research, some key symptoms - restriction of intake, binge eating and body overvaluation - will be discussed. EPP studies challenge some generally accepted views and offer a fresh new look at key symptoms. This will, consequently, better inform eating disorder treatments. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  14. Childhood Maltreatment, Depressive Symptoms, and Body Dissatisfaction in Patients with Binge Eating Disorder: The Mediating Role of Self-Criticism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunkley, David M.; Masheb, Robin M.; Grilo, Carlos M.

    2010-01-01

    Objective We examined the mediating role of self-criticism in the relation between childhood maltreatment and both depressive symptoms and body dissatisfaction in patients with binge eating disorder (BED). Method Participants were 170 BED patients who completed measures of childhood maltreatment, self-criticism, self-esteem, depressive symptoms, and body dissatisfaction. Results Specific forms of childhood maltreatment (emotional abuse, sexual abuse) were significantly associated with body dissatisfaction. Path analyses demonstrated that self-criticism fully mediated the relation between emotional abuse and both depressive symptoms and body dissatisfaction. Specificity for the mediating role of self-criticism was demonstrated in comparison to other potential mediators (low self-esteem) and alternative competing mediation models. Conclusion These results highlight self-criticism as a potential mechanism through which certain forms of childhood maltreatment may be associated with depressive symptoms and body dissatisfaction in BED patients. PMID:20119938

  15. Neural correlates of eating disorders: translational potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McAdams CJ

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Carrie J McAdams,1,2 Whitney Smith1 1University of Texas at Southwestern Medical Center, 2Department of Psychiatry, Texas Health Presbyterian Hospital of Dallas, Dallas, TX, USA Abstract: Eating disorders are complex and serious psychiatric illnesses whose etiology includes psychological, biological, and social factors. Treatment of eating disorders is challenging as there are few evidence-based treatments and limited understanding of the mechanisms that result in sustained recovery. In the last 20 years, we have begun to identify neural pathways that are altered in eating disorders. Consideration of how these pathways may contribute to an eating disorder can provide an understanding of expected responses to treatments. Eating disorder behaviors include restrictive eating, compulsive overeating, and purging behaviors after eating. Eating disorders are associated with changes in many neural systems. In this targeted review, we focus on three cognitive processes associated with neurocircuitry differences in subjects with eating disorders such as reward, decision-making, and social behavior. We briefly examine how each of these systems function in healthy people, using Neurosynth meta-analysis to identify key regions commonly implicated in these circuits. We review the evidence for disruptions of these regions and systems in eating disorders. Finally, we describe psychiatric and psychological treatments that are likely to function by impacting these regions. Keywords: anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, social cognition, reward processing, decision-making

  16. Epidemiology, course, and outcome of eating disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smink, Frederique R. E.; van Hoeken, Daphne; Hoek, Hans W.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose of reviewTo review the recent literature about the epidemiology, course, and outcome of eating disorders in accordance with the fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5).Recent findingsThe residual category eating disorder not otherwise specified' (ED

  17. A review of eating disorders in males

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Raevuori, Anu; Keski-Rahkonen, Anna; Hoek, Hans W.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose of review Research in eating disorders in males has been active lately compared to the past. This review aims to provide an overview of the recently published studies of eating disorders in males. Recent findings Publication of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 5th e

  18. A review of eating disorders in males

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Raevuori, Anu; Keski-Rahkonen, Anna; Hoek, Hans W.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose of review Research in eating disorders in males has been active lately compared to the past. This review aims to provide an overview of the recently published studies of eating disorders in males. Recent findings Publication of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 5th

  19. Eating Disorder Diagnoses: Empirical Approaches to Classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wonderlich, Stephen A.; Joiner, Thomas E., Jr.; Keel, Pamela K.; Williamson, Donald A.; Crosby, Ross D.

    2007-01-01

    Decisions about the classification of eating disorders have significant scientific and clinical implications. The eating disorder diagnoses in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed.; DSM-IV; American Psychiatric Association, 1994) reflect the collective wisdom of experts in the field but are frequently not supported in…

  20. Epidemiology, course, and outcome of eating disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smink, Frederique R. E.; van Hoeken, Daphne; Hoek, Hans W.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose of reviewTo review the recent literature about the epidemiology, course, and outcome of eating disorders in accordance with the fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5).Recent findingsThe residual category eating disorder not otherwise specified' (ED

  1. Animal models of eating disorder traits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kas, Martien J H; Adan, Roger A H

    2011-01-01

    Eating disorders, such as anorexia and bulimia nervosa, are psychiatric disorders that are likely determined by a complex interaction between genetic variations, developmental processes, and certain life events. Cross-species analysis of traits related to eating disorders may provide a way to functi

  2. Epidemiology, course, and outcome of eating disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smink, Frederique R. E.; van Hoeken, Daphne; Hoek, Hans W.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose of reviewTo review the recent literature about the epidemiology, course, and outcome of eating disorders in accordance with the fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5).Recent findingsThe residual category eating disorder not otherwise specified'

  3. Educators' views of eating disorder prevention programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varnado-Sullivan, Paula J; Parr, Francoise; O'Grady, Megan A; Savoy, Sarah

    2013-06-01

    Further understanding of educators' views of eating disorder prevention can further engage them in this effort. No previous studies of educators have used acceptability methodology or compared eating disorder prevention to other prevention efforts. Educators (n = 135) rated the acceptability of five sample programs and provided their opinions about eating disorder and other prevention programs. The results indicated primarily psychoeducational and general well-being programs were most acceptable. Educators-specified trained professionals should implement programs during school hours to male and female junior high students. Although eating disorder prevention was perceived as important, it was not rated as vital as other programs, such as substance abuse prevention.

  4. Perceptions of the causes of eating disorders: a comparison of individuals with and without eating disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Blodgett Salafia, Elizabeth H.; Jones, Maegan E.; Haugen, Emily C.; Schaefer, Mallary K.

    2015-01-01

    Background In this study, we examined perceptions regarding the causes of eating disorders, both among those with eating disorders as well as those without. By understanding the differences in perceived causes between the two groups, better educational programs for lay people and those suffering from eating disorders can be developed. Method This study used open-ended questions to assess the beliefs of 57 individuals with self-reported eating disorders and 220 without. Participants responded ...

  5. Perceptions of the causes of eating disorders: a comparison of individuals with and without eating disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Blodgett Salafia, Elizabeth H.; Jones, Maegan E.; Haugen, Emily C.; Schaefer, Mallary K.

    2015-01-01

    Background In this study, we examined perceptions regarding the causes of eating disorders, both among those with eating disorders as well as those without. By understanding the differences in perceived causes between the two groups, better educational programs for lay people and those suffering from eating disorders can be developed. Method This study used open-ended questions to assess the beliefs of 57 individuals with self-reported eating disorders and 220 without. Participants responded ...

  6. Practice parameter for the assessment and treatment of children and adolescents with eating disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lock, James; La Via, Maria C

    2015-05-01

    This Practice Parameter reviews evidence-based practices for the evaluation and treatment of eating disorders in children and adolescents. Where empirical support is limited, clinical consensus opinion is used to supplement systematic data review. The Parameter focuses on the phenomenology of eating disorders, comorbidity of eating disorders with other psychiatric and medical disorders, and treatment in children and adolescents. Because the database related to eating disorders in younger patients is limited, relevant literature drawn from adult studies is included in the discussion.

  7. [Training model for integral treatment of patients with eating disorders resistant to change].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvo Sagardoy, R; Gallego Morales, L T; García de Lorenzo y Mateos, A

    2012-01-01

    The need to find effective treatments for patients with Anorexia or Bulimia nervosa has led to the professionals who care for them to develop new forms of treatment that take into account the variables that cause resistance to change. Patients in this study (2006-2009) have the following characteristics: 340 patients who have 7 or more years of evolution and/or have tried numerous previous treatments without having succeeded in starting and / or maintaining the desired changes, that allowed them to recover steadily. As the proposed treatment, the patient-treatment team is based on the principles of the training model. It considers the patient holistically, it informs and provides him with resources to increase its commitment to change. Teaches the patient to take care physically and mentally as a way to regain their health and leave the disorder in a stable way. Includes family members as essential support in the recovery of their closest. Therapists require extensive experience in the treatment of ED, flexibility, ability to integrate with other team members even if they use different theoretical models, skills for group sessions, ability to handle negative emotions and frustration tolerance. Finally, the model presented below has been implemented, recovered patients whose stay in the disorder exceeded 15 years of development and led to permanent occupational disability.

  8. Successful Treatment with Clonazepam and Pramipexole of a Patient with Sleep-Related Eating Disorder Associated with Restless Legs Syndrome: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nobuyuki Kobayashi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Sleep-related eating disorder (SRED is characterized by recurrent episodes of involuntary eating during sleep period and is often associated with restless legs syndrome (RLS. Although pharmacotherapy is recommended for SRED patients, no drug have shown promising effects so far. The patient, a 48-year-old Japanese housewife, first visited our clinic and complained about nighttime eating. She had a history of hypertension, diabetes mellitus, sleep apnea syndrome, and depression. Insomnia appeared 10 years before the first visit and she often received hypnosedatives; at the same time, she developed nocturnal eating episodes. She had amnesia for these episodes, and she felt urge to move her legs while sleeping. The patient was diagnosed with SRED and RLS. Reduction in the doses of triazolam decreased her nighttime eating frequency, and her complete amnesia changed to vague recall of eating during night. Clonazepam 1.0 mg at bedtime decreased nocturnal eating frequency from 1 to 2 times per month, though sleepwalking remained. Administration of pramipexole 0.125 mg relieved all symptoms including SRED, RLS, and sleepwalking. This is the first paper to report that the combination of clonazepam and pramipexole therapy-reduced SRED episodes and RLS symptoms.

  9. Successful treatment with clonazepam and pramipexole of a patient with sleep-related eating disorder associated with restless legs syndrome: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Nobuyuki; Yoshimura, Ryohei; Takano, Masahiro

    2012-01-01

    Sleep-related eating disorder (SRED) is characterized by recurrent episodes of involuntary eating during sleep period and is often associated with restless legs syndrome (RLS). Although pharmacotherapy is recommended for SRED patients, no drug have shown promising effects so far. The patient, a 48-year-old Japanese housewife, first visited our clinic and complained about nighttime eating. She had a history of hypertension, diabetes mellitus, sleep apnea syndrome, and depression. Insomnia appeared 10 years before the first visit and she often received hypnosedatives; at the same time, she developed nocturnal eating episodes. She had amnesia for these episodes, and she felt urge to move her legs while sleeping. The patient was diagnosed with SRED and RLS. Reduction in the doses of triazolam decreased her nighttime eating frequency, and her complete amnesia changed to vague recall of eating during night. Clonazepam 1.0 mg at bedtime decreased nocturnal eating frequency from 1 to 2 times per month, though sleepwalking remained. Administration of pramipexole 0.125 mg relieved all symptoms including SRED, RLS, and sleepwalking. This is the first paper to report that the combination of clonazepam and pramipexole therapy-reduced SRED episodes and RLS symptoms.

  10. Binge eating disorder should be included in DSM-IV: a reply to Fairburn et al.'s "the classification of recurrent overeating: the binge eating disorder proposal".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spitzer, R L; Stunkard, A; Yanovski, S; Marcus, M D; Wadden, T; Wing, R; Mitchell, J; Hasin, D

    1993-03-01

    Extensive recent research supports a proposal that a new eating disorder, binge eating disorder (BED), be included in DSM-IV. BED criteria define a relatively pure group of individuals who are distressed by recurrent binge eating who do not exhibit the compensatory features of bulimia nervosa. This large number of patients currently can only be diagnosed as eating disorder not otherwise specified (EDNOS). Recognizing this new disorder will help stimulate research and clinical programs for these patients. Fairburn et al.'s critique of BED fails to acknowledge the large body of knowledge that indicates that BED represents a distinct and definable subgroup of eating disordered patients and that the diagnosis provides useful information about psychopathology, prognosis, and outcome (Fairburn, Welch, & Hay [in press]. The classification of recurrent overeating: The "binge eating disorder" proposal. International Journal of Eating Disorders.) Against any reasonable standard for adding a new diagnosis to DSM-IV, BED meets the test.

  11. Individual and family eating patterns during childhood and early adolescence: an analysis of associated eating disorder factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Aranda, Fernando; Krug, Isabel; Granero, Roser; Ramón, Jose M; Badia, Anna; Giménez, Laura; Solano, Raquel; Collier, David; Karwautz, Andreas; Treasure, Janet

    2007-09-01

    To examine whether there is an association between individual and family eating patterns during childhood and the likelihood of developing an eating disorder (ED) later in life. The sample comprised 261 eating disorder patients [33.5% [N=88] anorexia nervosa (AN), 47.2% [N=123] with bulimia nervosa (BN) and 19.3% [N=50] with Eating Disorders Not Otherwise Specified (EDNOS)] and 160 healthy controls from the Province of Catalonia, Spain, who were matched for age and education. All patients were consecutively admitted to our Psychiatry Department and were diagnosed according to DSM-IV criteria. Participants completed the Early Eating Environmental Subscale of the Cross-Cultural (Environmental) Questionnaire (CCQ), a retrospective measure of childhood eating attitudes and behaviours. In the control group, also the General Health Questionnaire-28 (GHQ-28) was used. During childhood and early adolescence, the following main factors were identified to be linked to eating disorders: eating excessive sweets and snacks and consuming food specially prepared for the respondent. Conversely, regular breakfast consumption was negatively associated with an eating disorder. Compared to healthy controls, eating disorder patients report unfavourable eating patterns early in life, which in conjunction with an excessive importance given to food by the individual and the family may increase the likelihood for developing a subsequent eating disorder.

  12. Non-suicidal Self-Injury in Eating Disordered Patients: Associations with Heart Rate Variability and State-Trait Anxiety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Giner-Bartolome

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI is commonly present in individuals with eating disorders (EDs and is often employed as a maladaptive emotion regulation strategy to avoid or abate negative emotions. One of the most prevalent negative emotions experienced by self-injurers is anxiety; however, this emotion has not been extensively studied in this population. Thus, the aim of our study was to investigate the influence of anxiety on NSSI in patients with ED from two different dimensions: state anxiety and trait anxiety.Methods: The study comprised a total of 66 females: 12 ED patients with NSSI, 32 ED patients without a history of NSSI, and 22 healthy controls. State and trait anxiety were assessed by means of State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI-S-T and physiological data [i.e., heart rate variability (HRV] were collected.Results: STAI-trait scores were significantly higher in ED patients with NSSI than ED patients without NSSI. Furthermore, when conducting logistic regression analyses higher STAI-trait scores were associated with NSSI in ED patients. However, no differences in STAI-state scores and HRV were found between ED patients with and without NSSI.Discussion: The present findings suggest that anxiety as a trait is associated with the use of maladaptive strategies (i.e., NSSI in ED patients. These results uphold the need to target trait anxiety in ED treatment in order to prevent possible NSSI behaviors.

  13. Non-suicidal Self-Injury in Eating Disordered Patients: Associations with Heart Rate Variability and State-Trait Anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giner-Bartolome, Cristina; Mallorquí-Bagué, Núria; Tolosa-Sola, Iris; Steward, Trevor; Jimenez-Murcia, Susana; Granero, Roser; Fernandez-Aranda, Fernando

    2017-01-01

    Background: Non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) is commonly present in individuals with eating disorders (EDs) and is often employed as a maladaptive emotion regulation strategy to avoid or abate negative emotions. One of the most prevalent negative emotions experienced by self-injurers is anxiety; however, this emotion has not been extensively studied in this population. Thus, the aim of our study was to investigate the influence of anxiety on NSSI in patients with ED from two different dimensions: state anxiety and trait anxiety. Methods: The study comprised a total of 66 females: 12 ED patients with NSSI, 32 ED patients without a history of NSSI, and 22 healthy controls. State and trait anxiety were assessed by means of State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI-S-T) and physiological data [i.e., heart rate variability (HRV)] were collected. Results: STAI-trait scores were significantly higher in ED patients with NSSI than ED patients without NSSI. Furthermore, when conducting logistic regression analyses higher STAI-trait scores were associated with NSSI in ED patients. However, no differences in STAI-state scores and HRV were found between ED patients with and without NSSI. Discussion: The present findings suggest that anxiety as a trait is associated with the use of maladaptive strategies (i.e., NSSI) in ED patients. These results uphold the need to target trait anxiety in ED treatment in order to prevent possible NSSI behaviors.

  14. Rapid Response to Treatment for Binge Eating Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grilo, Carlos M.; Masheb, Robin M.; Wilson, Terence G.

    2006-01-01

    The authors examined rapid response among 108 patients with binge eating disorder (BED) who were randomly assigned to 1 of 4 16-week treatments: fluoxetine, placebo, cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) plus fluoxetine, or CBT plus placebo. Rapid response, defined as 65% or greater reduction in binge eating by the 4th treatment week, was determined…

  15. Prevention of eating disorders in female athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coelho, Gabriela Morgado de Oliveira; Gomes, Ainá Innocencio da Silva; Ribeiro, Beatriz Gonçalves; Soares, Eliane de Abreu

    2014-01-01

    Eating disorders are serious mental diseases that frequently appear in female athletes. They are abnormal eating behaviors that can be diagnosed only by strict criteria. Disordered eating, although also characterized as abnormal eating behavior, does not include all the criteria for diagnosing eating disorders and is therefore a way to recognize the problem in its early stages. It is important to identify factors to avoid clinical progression in this high-risk population. Therefore, the purpose of this review is to discuss critical information for the prevention of eating disorders in female athletes. This review discusses the major correlates for the development of an eating disorder. We also discuss which athletes are possibly at highest risk for eating disorders, including those from lean sports and female adolescent athletes. There is an urgent need for the demystification of myths surrounding body weight and performance in sports. This review includes studies that tested different prevention programs' effectiveness, and the majority showed positive results. Educational programs are the best method for primary prevention of eating disorders. For secondary prevention, early identification is essential and should be performed by preparticipation exams, the recognition of dietary markers, and the use of validated self-report questionnaires or clinical interviews. In addition, more randomized clinical trials are needed with athletes from multiple sports in order for the most reliable recommendations to be made and for some sporting regulations to be changed.

  16. Intensive Outpatient Cognitive Behaviour Therapy for Eating Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riccardo Dalle Grave

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to describe a novel model of intensive outpatient cognitive-behaviour therapy (CBT indicated for eating disorder patients who are having difficulty modifying their eating habits in response to conventional outpatient CBT. Intensive outpatient CBT is a manual based treatment derived by the CBT-Enhanced (CBT-E for eating disorders. The treatment has four features that distinguish it from the conventional outpatient CBT-E: (1 it is designed to be suitable for both adult and adolescent patients, (2 it is delivered by a multidisciplinary non-eclectic team trained in CBT, (3 there is assistance with eating, (4 there is a family therapy module for patients under the age of 18 years. Preliminary outcome of intensive outpatient CBT-E are encouraging. The treatment has been applied to 20 consecutive underweight eating disorder patients (age 18.2 ± 6.5 years; BMI 14.6 ± 1.5 kg/m2. Thirteen patients (65% concluded the treatment, five (25% were admitted at an eating disorder inpatient unit, and two (10% prematurely interrupted the treatment. Completers obtained significant weight regain and improvement of eating disorder and general psychopathology. Most of the improvements were maintained at six-month follow-up.

  17. Eating disorders – compulsive overeating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anita Ogris

    2000-09-01

    Full Text Available The research aims to establish the main characteristics of subjects prone to compulsive overeating (experimental group, EG, and the differences between them and the girls who are not prone to any kind of eating disorders (control group, CG. The results of the research are in accordance with the expectations. Girls from the EG exhibit personality characteristics which are signifficantly different from the girls in the CG. These characteristics may be either possible predispositions for development of overeating, or they may already be the consequences of the girls' struggles with overeating and their perception of being overweight. The responses given by the girls from the EG confirm the generaly accepted characteristics of overeating individuals. It can be said that the girls from the ES show the pre-clinical picture of overeating, while some of them have already developed the clinical picture. The results of the research strongly support the view that overeating must be defined as a form of eating disorder just as important as anorexia and bulimia nervosa.

  18. Binge Eating Disorder and Body Uneasiness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimo Cuzzolaro

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Debate continues regarding the nosological status of binge eating disorder (BED and the specific diagnostic criteria, including whether, like anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa, it should be characterized by body image disturbances in addition to abnormal eating behaviour. The aims of this article are: a to concisely review the main points of the literature that has developed on diagnosis and treatment (especially pharmacological of BED and b to present the results of an original research on body image in obese patients with BED. The study was aimed to verify the following hypothesis: in persons with obesity, BED is associated with greater body uneasiness independently of some possible modulating factors. We studied a clinical sample of 159 (89 females and 70 males adult obese patients who fulfilled DSM-IV-TR diagnostic criteria for BED matched to 159 non-BED obese patients for gender, ethnicity, BMI class, age, weight, stature, onset age of obesity, education level, and marital status. We used the Body Uneasiness Test (BUT, a valuable multidimensional tool for the clinical assessment of body uneasiness in subjects suffering from eating disorders and/or obesity. Obese patients with BED reported higher scores than non-BED patients in the General Severity Index (BUT-A GSI and in every BUT-A subscale. All differences were statistically significant in both sexes. As expected women obtained higher scores than men. According to some other studies, our findings suggest that a negative body image should be included among diagnostic criteria for BED. Consequently, treatment should be focused not simply on eating behaviour and outcome studies should evaluate changes of body image as well.

  19. A Cognitive- Behavioral Therapeutic Program for Patients with Obesity and Binge Eating Disorder: Short- and Long- Term Follow-Up Data of a Prospective Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanderlinden, Johan; Adriaensen, An; Vancampfort, Davy; Pieters, Guido; Probst, Michel; Vansteelandt, Kristof

    2012-01-01

    The goal of this study is to investigate the efficacy of a manualized cognitive-behavioral therapeutic (CBT) approach for patients with obesity and binge eating disorder (BED) on the short and longer term. A prospective study without a control group consisting of three measurements (a baseline measurement and two follow-up assessments up to 5…

  20. Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy, Behavioral Weight Loss, and Sequential Treatment for Obese Patients with Binge-Eating Disorder: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grilo, Carlos M.; Masheb, Robin M.; Wilson, G. Terence; Gueorguieva, Ralitza; White, Marney A.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) is the best established treatment for binge-eating disorder (BED) but does not produce weight loss. The efficacy of behavioral weight loss (BWL) in obese patients with BED is uncertain. This study compared CBT, BWL, and a sequential approach in which CBT is delivered first, followed by BWL (CBT + BWL).…

  1. Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy, Behavioral Weight Loss, and Sequential Treatment for Obese Patients with Binge-Eating Disorder: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grilo, Carlos M.; Masheb, Robin M.; Wilson, G. Terence; Gueorguieva, Ralitza; White, Marney A.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) is the best established treatment for binge-eating disorder (BED) but does not produce weight loss. The efficacy of behavioral weight loss (BWL) in obese patients with BED is uncertain. This study compared CBT, BWL, and a sequential approach in which CBT is delivered first, followed by BWL (CBT + BWL).…

  2. A Cognitive- Behavioral Therapeutic Program for Patients with Obesity and Binge Eating Disorder: Short- and Long- Term Follow-Up Data of a Prospective Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanderlinden, Johan; Adriaensen, An; Vancampfort, Davy; Pieters, Guido; Probst, Michel; Vansteelandt, Kristof

    2012-01-01

    The goal of this study is to investigate the efficacy of a manualized cognitive-behavioral therapeutic (CBT) approach for patients with obesity and binge eating disorder (BED) on the short and longer term. A prospective study without a control group consisting of three measurements (a baseline measurement and two follow-up assessments up to 5…

  3. [Eating disorders as risk factors for osteoporosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera-Gallardo, Ma Teresa; Ma del Socorro, Parra-Cabrera; Barriguete-Meléndez, Jorge Armando

    2005-01-01

    Eating disorders (TCA per its abbreviation in Spanish) are common in young women, with an estimated prevalence of 4-5%. One of the physical complications of eating disorders, especially anorexia nervosa (AN) and eating disorder not otherwise specified (TANE) is bone mass loss, which affects both cortical and trabecular bone. The synergistic effect of malnutrition and estrogen deficiency produces significant bone mass loss, resulting from the uncoupling of bone turnover characterized by a decrease in osteoblastic bone formation and an increase in osteclastic bone resorption. The mechanisms implied in the pathogenesis of bone loss are the hypoestrogenism, hypercortisolism, serum leptin levels and insulin-like growth factor decrease. Severity of bone loss in anorexia nervosa varies depending on duration of illness, the minimal weight ever and sedentarism or strenuous exercise. Long term consequences occur, such as a fracture risk increase in patients who have suffered anorexia nervosa, compared with the general population. The first treatment line to recover bone mass is nutritional rehabilitation together with weight gain. Hormonal replacement therapy may be effective if combined with an anabolic method. Osteopenia and osteoporosis are terms adopted to define the deficiency of bone mass in adults. Authors have used these terms to define densitometric data in young subjects who have not reached their peak bone mass. We suggest the term "hypo-osteogenesia" to define the deficiency in the development of bone mass in adolescents or children.

  4. Emotional Eating among Individuals with Concurrent Eating and Substance Use Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Courbasson, Christine Marie; Rizea, Christian; Weiskopf, Nicole

    2008-01-01

    Emotional eating occurs frequently in individuals with eating disorders and is an overlooked factor within addictions research. The present study identified the relationship between emotional eating, substance use, and eating disorders, and assessed the usefulness of the Emotional Eating Scale (EES) for individuals with concurrent eating disorders…

  5. Sleep, eating disorder symptoms, and daytime functioning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tromp, Marilou Dp; Donners, Anouk Amt; Garssen, Johan; Verster, Joris C

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the relationship between eating disorders, body mass index (BMI), sleep disorders, and daytime functioning. DESIGN: Survey. SETTING: The Netherlands. PARTICIPANTS: N=574 Dutch young adults (18-35 years old). MEASUREMENTS: Participants completed a survey on eating and sleep

  6. Body Image, Media, and Eating Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derenne, Jennifer L.; Beresin, Eugene V.

    2006-01-01

    Objective: Eating disorders, including obesity, are a major public health problem today. Throughout history, body image has been determined by various factors, including politics and media. Exposure to mass media (television, movies, magazines, Internet) is correlated with obesity and negative body image, which may lead to disordered eating. The…

  7. Feedback in Group Psychotherapy for Eating disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davidsen, Annika Helgadóttir; Poulsen, Stig; Lindschou, Jane

    2017-01-01

    -generated allocation sequence concealed to the investigators. One-hundred and 59 adult participants, diagnosed with bulimia nervosa, binge eating disorder, or eating disorder not otherwise specified according to DSM-IV, were included. Eighty participants were allocated to the experimental group, and 79 participants...

  8. Remission of eating disorder during pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Ida Ringsborg; Hørder, Kirsten; Støving, René Klinkby

    2009-01-01

    Eating disorder during pregnancy is associated with a diversity of adverse outcomes and is of potential danger to both mother and child. There is, however, a tendency for remission of the eating disorder during pregnancy with improvement of symptoms such as restrictive dieting, binging and purgin...

  9. Worry or craving? A selective review of evidence for food-related attention biases in obese individuals, eating-disorder patients, restrained eaters and healthy samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werthmann, Jessica; Jansen, Anita; Roefs, Anne

    2015-05-01

    Living in an 'obesogenic' environment poses a serious challenge for weight maintenance. However, many people are able to maintain a healthy weight indicating that not everybody is equally susceptible to the temptations of this food environment. The way in which someone perceives and reacts to food cues, that is, cognitive processes, could underlie differences in susceptibility. An attention bias for food could be such a cognitive factor that contributes to overeating. However, an attention bias for food has also been implicated with restrained eating and eating-disorder symptomatology. The primary aim of the present review was to determine whether an attention bias for food is specifically related to obesity while also reviewing evidence for attention biases in eating-disorder patients, restrained eaters and healthy-weight individuals. Another aim was to systematically examine how selective attention for food relates (causally) to eating behaviour. Current empirical evidence on attention bias for food within obese samples, eating-disorder patients, and, even though to a lesser extent, in restrained eaters is contradictory. However, present experimental studies provide relatively consistent evidence that an attention bias for food contributes to subsequent food intake. This review highlights the need to distinguish not only between different (temporal) attention bias components, but also to take different motivations (craving v. worry) and their impact on attentional processing into account. Overall, the current state of research suggests that biased attention could be one important cognitive mechanism by which the food environment tempts us into overeating.

  10. [Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus, Depression and Eating Disorders in Patients Submitted to Bariatric Surgery].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandão, Isabel; Marques Pinho, Ana; Arrojado, Filipa; Pinto-Bastos, Ana; Maia da Costa, José; Coelho, Rui; Calhau, Conceição; Conceição, Eva

    2016-03-01

    Introdução: A obesidade associa-se a um elevado número de comorbilidades, entre as quais a diabetes mellitus tipo 2 e a patologia psiquiátrica. A cirurgia bariátrica tem demonstrado ser a melhor solução para a perda de peso e a melhoria das complicações nos casos de obesidade mórbida. O objetivo deste estudo é o de analisar a evolução da diabetes mellitus tipo 2 e de variáveis psicopatológicas antes e depois da cirurgia bariátrica e verificar o seu impacto na perda de peso. Material e Métodos: É um estudo longitudinal, que avalia 75 indivíduos antes e depois de serem submetidos a cirurgia bariátrica (47 - banda gástrica; 19 - bypass Roux-en-Y gástrico; 9 - sleeve gástrico), com tempo de follow-up entre 18 e 46 meses. Os instrumentos de avaliação foram a entrevista clínica e os questionários Eating Disorder Examination questionnaire - EDE-Q e Beck Depression Inventory - BDI. Resultados: Verificou-se melhoria relativamente à variável dicotómica diabetes mellitus tipo 2 após a cirurgia (X(1) = 26,132, p sentido esta relação é estabelecida, nem a relação que estas variáveis metabólicas e psicológicas possam ter entre si ao longo do período pós cirurgia bariátrica. Conclusão: A diabetes mellitus tipo 2 evoluiu favoravelmente após a cirurgia. Diabetes mellitus tipo 2, depressão e patologia alimentar no período pós-cirúrgico associaram-se a menor perda de peso. As variáveis estudadas no período pré cirúrgico não contribuíram de forma significativa para a perda de peso.

  11. Disordered eating, perfectionism, and food rules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Amanda Joelle; Parman, Kortney M; Rudat, Deirdre A; Craighead, Linda W

    2012-12-01

    Clinically significant trait perfectionism is often characteristic of individuals exhibiting symptoms of eating disorders. The present study reports on a measure developed to assess the use of food rules and evaluates the hypothesis that adherence to food rules may be one mechanism through which trait perfectionism exacerbates risk for developing eating disorder symptoms. Forty-eight female college students completed a battery of questionnaires, and multiple regression analyses were used to test a mediational model. Results indicated that adherence to food rules mediated the relationship between self-oriented perfectionism and three indices of disordered eating in this sample. This relationship was specific to self-oriented perfectionism and did not hold for other-oriented or socially prescribed perfectionism. These findings may have implications for designing early interventions for disordered eating and may be useful in tailoring treatment for individuals with disordered eating who also report high levels of perfectionism.

  12. Validity and reliability of the Spanish version of the Involvement Evaluation Questionnaire among caregivers of patients with eating disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, Nerea; Bilbao, Amaia; Padierna, Angel; Martín, Josune; Orive, Miren; Quintana, José M

    2012-12-30

    The Involvement Evaluation Questionnaire (IEQ) was developed to evaluate burden among caregivers of patients with schizophrenia. We aimed to examine its psychometric properties among caregivers of patients with eating disorders (ED). A prospective study was carried out, recruiting caregivers of patients with an ED attending two outpatient clinics in Bizkaia, Spain. Caregivers provided sociodemographic information and completed the Involvement Evaluation Questionnaire (IEQ), the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS), the Short-Form 12 (SF-12) and the Anorectic Behaviour Observation Scale (ABOS). The same information was requested one year later. The confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) provided satisfactory fit indexes. Almost all of the factor loadings were above 0.40. Cronbach's alpha coefficients were mostly superior to 0.70. The correlation coefficients between the IEQ domains and the other questionnaires were lower than the Cronbach's alpha coefficients. Known-groups validity was supported by significant differences in the IEQ mean scores according to certain variables, as contact hours, living with the patient, type of caregiver and gender. The indexes employed for the evaluation of responsiveness were between 0.13 and 0.99. The IEQ has good psychometric properties and can be used to evaluate burden among caregivers of patients with ED.

  13. Eating Behavior and Eating Disorders in Adults Prior to Bariatric Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, James E.; King, Wendy C.; Courcoulas, Anita; Dakin, George; Elder, Katherine; Engel, Scott; Flum, David; Kalarchian, Melissa; Khandelwal, Saurabh; Pender, John; Pories, Walter; Wolfe, Bruce

    2014-01-01

    Objective To describe eating patterns, prevalence of problematic eating behaviors, and determine factors associated with binge eating disorder (BED), prior to bariatric surgery. Method Prior to surgery, 2,266 participants (median age 46 years; 78.6% female; 86.9% white; median body mass index 45.9 kg/m2) of the Longitudinal Assessment of Bariatric Surgery-2 (LABS-2) study completed eating behavior survey items in the self-administered LABS-2 Behavior form. Other measures included the Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test, the LABS-2 Psychiatric and Emotional Test Survey, the Beck Depression Inventory, the Interpersonal Support Evaluation List-12, the Short Form-36 Health Survey and Impact of Weight Quality of Life-Lite Survey. Results The vast majority (92.1%) of participants reported eating dinner regularly, while just over half (54.0%) reported eating breakfast regularly. Half of the participants reported eating at least 4 meals/week at restaurants; two meals/week were fast food. Loss of control eating was reported by 43.4%, night eating syndrome by 17.7%; 15.7% satisfied criteria for binge eating disorder (BED), 2% for bulimia nervosa. Factors that independently increased the odds of BED were being a college graduate, eating more times per day, taking medication for psychiatric or emotional problems, and having symptoms of alcohol use disorder, lower self-esteem and greater depressive symptoms. Discussion Prior to undergoing bariatric surgery a substantial proportion of patients report problematic eating behaviors. Several factors associated with BED were identified, most suggesting other mental health problems, including higher levels of depressive symptomotology. The strengths of this study include the large sample size, the multi-center design and use of standardized assessment practices. PMID:24719222

  14. Pathological organizations and psychic retreats in eating disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadish, Yael Adira

    2012-04-01

    A set of characteristic symptoms allow for the relatively straightforward diagnosis of eating disorders. Simultaneously and paradoxically, underlying the eating disorders are a wide variety of personality organizations/disorders, stretching from the neurotic to the borderline and narcissistic, and even to conditions approaching psychosis. This paper will argue that the inherent commonalities can be ascribed to pathological organizations of a similar nature and quality, operational across the spectrum of eating disorders and functioning in a particular, sadomasochistic way. The typical forms that eating disorders take are based on the specific ways that food and the body are used, that is, symptom manifestation. These distinctive symptom manifestations appear to be related to Steiner's (1982, 1993) notion of a psychic retreat. Pathological organizations and psychic retreats are latent until called upon either sporadically or continuously. When activated, these defensive structures operate like a complex psychic skeleton around which the unique psychodynamics of each patient become rearranged and thereby transformed.

  15. Perceptions of the causes of eating disorders: a comparison of individuals with and without eating disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blodgett Salafia, Elizabeth H; Jones, Maegan E; Haugen, Emily C; Schaefer, Mallary K

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we examined perceptions regarding the causes of eating disorders, both among those with eating disorders as well as those without. By understanding the differences in perceived causes between the two groups, better educational programs for lay people and those suffering from eating disorders can be developed. This study used open-ended questions to assess the beliefs of 57 individuals with self-reported eating disorders and 220 without. Participants responded to the questions, "What do you think was (were) the cause(s) of your eating disorder?" and "What do you think is (are) the cause(s) of eating disorders?". A list of possible codes for the causes of eating disorders was created based on a thorough review of the literature. A manually-generated set of eight codes was then created from individuals' actual responses. Frequencies and chi square analyses demonstrated differences in rates of endorsement between those with eating disorders and those without. Participants with eating disorders most frequently endorsed psychological/emotional and social problems, with genetics/biology and media/culture ideals least endorsed. Participants without eating disorders most frequently endorsed psychological/emotional problems and media/culture ideals, with traumatic life events and sports/health least endorsed. There was a difference between groups in the endorsement of the media as a cause of eating disorders, suggesting that those without eating disorders may overly attribute the media as the main cause while those with eating disorders may not be fully aware of the media's impact. Additionally, while both groups highly endorsed psychological/emotional problems, there was a noticeable stigma about eating disorders among those without eating disorders. There were noteworthy differences between samples; such differences suggest that there is a need for more education on the topic of eating disorders. Furthermore, despite empirical support for the effects of

  16. Systemisk/Narrativ gruppebehandling af Binge Eating Disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schousboe, Birgitte Hartvig

    2010-01-01

    Artiklen beskriver gruppeterapi på systemisk/narrativt grundlag til patienter med Binge Eating Disorder (BED). Den beskriver, hvordan en problemmættet historie omkring BED-gruppen blev dekonstrueret ved at ændre behandlingens udformning og eksperimentere med socialkonstruktionistiske ideer og......, hvilket har fremmet konsolideringen af foretrukne historier i gruppens refleksioner og styrket terapeuternes evne til at facilitere processen. Nøgleord: Binge Eating Disorder, systemisk narrativ terapi, grupppe...

  17. Systemisk/Narrativ gruppebehandling af Binge Eating Disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schousboe, Birgitte Hartvig

    2010-01-01

    Artiklen beskriver gruppeterapi på systemisk/narrativt grundlag til patienter med Binge Eating Disorder (BED). Den beskriver, hvordan en problemmættet historie omkring BED-gruppen blev dekonstrueret ved at ændre behandlingens udformning og eksperimentere med socialkonstruktionistiske ideer og......, hvilket har fremmet konsolideringen af foretrukne historier i gruppens refleksioner og styrket terapeuternes evne til at facilitere processen. Nøgleord: Binge Eating Disorder, systemisk narrativ terapi, grupppe...

  18. Eating disorders and food addiction in men with heroin use disorder: a controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canan, Fatih; Karaca, Servet; Sogucak, Suna; Gecici, Omer; Kuloglu, Murat

    2017-06-01

    We aimed to determine the prevalence estimates of binge eating disorder, bulimia nervosa, anorexia nervosa, and food addiction in men with heroin use disorder and a matched sample of control participants. A group of 100 men with heroin use disorder, consecutively admitted to a detoxification and therapy unit, were screened for DSM-5 eating disorders, along with a group of 100 male controls of similar age, education, and body mass index. The Yale Food Addiction Scale (YFAS), the Barratt Impulsivity Scale-version 11, and the Eating Attitudes Test were used for data collection. Patients were also evaluated for various aspects of heroin use disorder (e.g., craving) using the Addiction Profile Index. Binge eating disorder that met DSM-5 criteria was more prevalent in patients with heroin use disorder (21%) than in control subjects (8%) (odds ratio 3.1, 95% confidence interval 1.3-7.3; p Food addiction based on the YFAS was also more common among men with heroin use disorder (28%) than among control participants (12%) (odds ratio 2.9, 95% confidence interval 1.4-6.1; p food addiction was associated with more severe craving and having a history of suicide attempts in the patients. Co-occurring binge eating disorder and food addiction are highly frequent in men with heroin use disorder. Screening for binge eating disorder and food addiction in patients with substance use disorder is important, as interventions may improve treatment outcome in this patient group.

  19. Prevalence of Eating Disorders in Adults with Celiac Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Passananti

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Symptoms of celiac disease negatively impact social activities and emotional state. Aim was to investigate the prevalence of altered eating behaviour in celiac patients. Methods. Celiac patients and controls completed a dietary interview and the Binge Eating Staircases, Eating Disorder Inventory (EDI-2, Eating Attitudes Test, Zung Self-Rating Depression Scale, State Trait Anxiety Inventory Forma Y (STAI-Y1 and STAI-Y2, and Symptom Check List (SCL-90. Results. One hundred celiac adults and 100 controls were not statistically different for gender, age, and physical activity. STAI-Y1 and STAI-Y2, Somatization, Interpersonal, Sensitivity, and Anxiety scores of the SLC-90 were higher in CD patients than controls. EDI-2 was different in pulse thinness, social insecurity, perfectionism, inadequacy, ascetisms, and interpersonal diffidence between CD and HC women, whilst only in interceptive awareness between CD and HC men. A higher EAT-26 score was associated with the CD group dependently with gastrointestinal symptoms. The EAT26 demonstrated association between indices of diet-related disorders in both CD and the feminine gender after controlling for anxiety and depression. Conclusion. CD itself and not gastrointestinal related symptoms or psychological factors may contribute pathological eating behavior in celiac adults. Eating disorders appear to be more frequent in young celiac women than in CD men and in HC.

  20. Prevalence of Eating Disorders in Adults with Celiac Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passananti, V.; Siniscalchi, M.; Zingone, F.; Bucci, C.; Tortora, R.; Iovino, P.; Ciacci, C.

    2013-01-01

    Background. Symptoms of celiac disease negatively impact social activities and emotional state. Aim was to investigate the prevalence of altered eating behaviour in celiac patients. Methods. Celiac patients and controls completed a dietary interview and the Binge Eating Staircases, Eating Disorder Inventory (EDI-2), Eating Attitudes Test, Zung Self-Rating Depression Scale, State Trait Anxiety Inventory Forma Y (STAI-Y1 and STAI-Y2), and Symptom Check List (SCL-90). Results. One hundred celiac adults and 100 controls were not statistically different for gender, age, and physical activity. STAI-Y1 and STAI-Y2, Somatization, Interpersonal, Sensitivity, and Anxiety scores of the SLC-90 were higher in CD patients than controls. EDI-2 was different in pulse thinness, social insecurity, perfectionism, inadequacy, ascetisms, and interpersonal diffidence between CD and HC women, whilst only in interceptive awareness between CD and HC men. A higher EAT-26 score was associated with the CD group dependently with gastrointestinal symptoms. The EAT26 demonstrated association between indices of diet-related disorders in both CD and the feminine gender after controlling for anxiety and depression. Conclusion. CD itself and not gastrointestinal related symptoms or psychological factors may contribute pathological eating behavior in celiac adults. Eating disorders appear to be more frequent in young celiac women than in CD men and in HC. PMID:24369457

  1. Neuroendocrine and Molecular Interactions in Eating Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selma Bozkurt Zincir

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available There are three basic pillars for the development of eating disorders: genetic predisposition, neuro-endocrine-molecular changes in the brain and metabolic response to it. As a result of neuroendocrine research, a close relationship has been found between neuroendocrine functions and symptom domains of psychiatric disorders such as eating disorders and mood disorders. Certain hormones, neurotransmitters and other molecules which might have effect on the basis of eating disorders can be listed as estrogen, serotonin, leptin, ghreline, alpha-melanocyte stimulating hormone, cholecystokinin, dopamine, noradrenaline, brain-derived neurotropic factor, agouti-related protein, neuropeptide-Y, opioids and their receptors, thiamine, zinc, omega-3 acids. In this review, main neuroendocrine-molecular changes and interactions that occur in the eating disorders have been discussed. [Psikiyatride Guncel Yaklasimlar - Current Approaches in Psychiatry 2014; 6(4.000: 389-400

  2. O grupo multifamiliar como recurso no tratamento dos transtornos alimentares Multifamily group therapy for patients diagnosed with eating disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Amelia da Silva Jaeger

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: O presente artigo é resultado do trabalho sistemático dos autores com grupos multifamiliares de pacientes com diagnóstico de transtorno alimentar (anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa e transtorno alimentar não especificado, conjuntamente com seus familiares. As sessões são oferecidas em um hospital público na cidade de Porto Alegre (RS. MÉTODO: Os registros em vídeo de quatro sessões de terapia de grupo multifamiliar foram analisados qualitativamente utilizando-se a técnica de análise de conteúdo. RESULTADOS: Grupos multifamiliares assim constituídos não foram encontrados na revisão da literatura, e sim apenas relatos de grupos multifamiliares com finalidades exclusivamente psicoeducativas, sem a participação dos pacientes identificados. Na avaliação final, a modalidade de atendimento multifamiliar revelou-se como positiva para o atendimento dos casos avaliados. CONCLUSÕES: A pesquisa demonstrou que esse tipo de abordagem, associado ao tratamento unifamiliar e individual, pode tornar-se uma ferramenta eficaz de tratamento para esses pacientes e suas famílias.INTRODUCTION: This article is the result of the systematic experience of the authors with multifamily group therapy for patients with a diagnosis of eating disorders (anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa and not otherwise specified eating disorders and their families. Sessions are held at a public hospital in the municipality of Porto Alegre, southern Brazil. METHOD: Video recordings of four multifamily group therapy sessions were qualitatively assessed using the content analysis technique. RESULTS: References to similar multifamily group therapy programs were not found in the literature review; rather, only some reports of multifamily group sessions with exclusively psychoeducational purposes were retrieved, however not including direct patient participation. At the final evaluation, multifamily group therapy was considered to have positive therapeutic

  3. Prevention of eating disorders in female athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coelho GMO

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Gabriela Morgado de Oliveira Coelho,1 Ainá Innocencio da Silva Gomes,2 Beatriz Gonçalves Ribeiro,2 Eliane de Abreu Soares11Nutrition Institute, Rio de Janeiro State University, Maracanã, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil; 2Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, Macaé Campus, Granja dos Cavaleiros, Macaé, BrazilAbstract: Eating disorders are serious mental diseases that frequently appear in female athletes. They are abnormal eating behaviors that can be diagnosed only by strict criteria. Disordered eating, although also characterized as abnormal eating behavior, does not include all the criteria for diagnosing eating disorders and is therefore a way to recognize the problem in its early stages. It is important to identify factors to avoid clinical progression in this high-risk population. Therefore, the purpose of this review is to discuss critical information for the prevention of eating disorders in female athletes. This review discusses the major correlates for the development of an eating disorder. We also discuss which athletes are possibly at highest risk for eating disorders, including those from lean sports and female adolescent athletes. There is an urgent need for the demystification of myths surrounding body weight and performance in sports. This review includes studies that tested different prevention programs' effectiveness, and the majority showed positive results. Educational programs are the best method for primary prevention of eating disorders. For secondary prevention, early identification is essential and should be performed by preparticipation exams, the recognition of dietary markers, and the use of validated self-report questionnaires or clinical interviews. In addition, more randomized clinical trials are needed with athletes from multiple sports in order for the most reliable recommendations to be made and for some sporting regulations to be changed.Keywords: nutrition, disordered eating, sport, anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa

  4. Testing virtual reality-based cue-exposure software: Which cue-elicited responses best discriminate between patients with eating disorders and healthy controls?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pla-Sanjuanelo, Joana; Ferrer-García, Marta; Vilalta-Abella, Ferran; Riva, Giuseppe; Dakanalis, Antonios; Ribas-Sabaté, Joan; Andreu-Gracia, Alexis; Fernandez-Aranda, Fernando; Sanchez-Diaz, Isabel; Escandón-Nagel, Neli; Gomez-Tricio, Osane; Tena, Virgínia; Gutiérrez-Maldonado, José

    2017-07-27

    Virtual reality (VR) technologies have been proposed as a new tool able to improve on in vivo exposure in patients with eating disorders. This study assessed the validity of a VR-based software for cue exposure therapy (CET) in people with bulimia nervosa (BN) and binge eating disorder (BED). Fifty eight outpatients (33 BN and 25 BED) and 135 healthy participants were exposed to 10 craved virtual foods and a neutral cue in four experimental virtual environments (kitchen, dining room, bedroom, and cafeteria). After exposure to each VR scenario, food craving and anxiety were assessed. The frequency/severity of episodes of uncontrollable overeating was also assessed and body mass index was measured prior to the exposure. In both groups, craving and anxiety responses when exposed to the food-related virtual environments were significantly higher than in the neutral-cue virtual environment. However, craving and anxiety levels were higher in the clinical group. Furthermore, cue-elicited anxiety was better at discriminating between clinical and healthy groups than cue-elicited craving. This study provides evidence of the ability of food-related VR environments to provoke food craving and anxiety responses in BN and BED patients and highlights the need to consider both responses during treatment. The results support the use of VR-CET in the treatment of eating disorder patients characterized by binge-eating and people with high bulimic symptoms.

  5. Eating Disorders in Child and Adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arzu Onal Sonmez

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Eating disorders are relatively common and serious disorders in adolescent and pre-adolescent age. The aim of this review is to update new findings related with mostly seen feeding and eating disorders in child and adolescents. The article focuses specifically on anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa. [Psikiyatride Guncel Yaklasimlar - Current Approaches in Psychiatry 2017; 9(3.000: 301-316

  6. POSTTRAUMATIC STRESS DISORDER IN WOMEN WITH BINGE EATING DISORDER IN PRIMARY CARE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grilo, Carlos M.; White, Marney A.; Barnes, Rachel D.; Masheb, Robin M.

    2012-01-01

    Background To examine the frequency and significance of comorbid posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in ethnically diverse obese patients with binge eating disorder (BED) seeking treatment for obesity and binge eating in primary care. Methods Participants were a consecutive series of 105 obese women with BED; 43% were African-American, 36% were Caucasian, and 21% were Hispanic-American/other. Participants were evaluated with reliable semi-structured interviews and established measures. Results Of the 105 women, 25 (24%) met criteria for PTSD. PTSD was associated with significantly elevated rates of mood, anxiety, and drug use disorders, significantly elevated eating disorder psychopathology (Eating Disorder Examination global score and scales), greater depressive affect, and lower self-esteem, even though the patients with comorbid PTSD did not have higher body mass indexes (BMIs) or greater frequency of binge eating. The heightened eating disorder psychopathology and depression and the lower self-esteem among patients with comorbid PTSD persisted even after controlling for anxiety disorder comorbidity. Conclusions Our findings suggest that among ethnically/racially diverse obese women with BED who present for obesity and binge eating treatment in primary care settings, PTSD is common and is associated with heightened psychiatric comorbidity, greater eating disorder psychopathology, and poorer psychological functioning. PMID:23160245

  7. Salient components of a comprehensive service for eating disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halmi, Katherine A

    2009-10-01

    Eating disorders are challenging and difficult to treat, because of the necessity of a multidisciplinary treatment team for effective outcomes and the high mortality rate of anorexia nervosa. An adequate initial assessment and evaluation requires a psychiatric assessment, a medical history and medical examination, a social history and an interview of family members or collateral informants. A comprehensive eating disorder treatment team includes a psychiatrist coordinating the treatment and appropriate medical physician specialists, nutritionists, and psychotherapists. An adequate outpatient eating disorder clinic needs to provide individual psychotherapy with cognitive behavioral techniques specific for anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa, family therapy, pharmacological treatment and the resources to obtain appropriate laboratory tests. Eating disorder patients requiring inpatient care are best treated in a specialized eating disorder inpatient unit. A cognitive behavioral framework is most useful for the overall unit milieu. Medical management and nutritional rehabilitation are the primary goals for inpatient treatment. Various group therapies can cover common core eating disorder psychopathology problems and dialectical behavior therapy groups can be useful for managing emotional dysregulation. Residential, partial hospitalization and day treatment programs are useful for transitioning patients from an inpatient program or for patients needing some monitoring. In these programs, at least one structured meal is advisable as well as nutritional counseling, group therapy or individual counseling sessions. Group therapies usually address issues such as social skills training, social anxiety, body image distortion or maturity fears. Unfortunately there is s paucity of evidence based randomized control trials to recommend the salient components for a comprehensive service for eating disorders. Experienced eating disorder clinicians have come to the conclusion that a

  8. Neuromodulation for eating disorders: obesity and anorexia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorgulho, Alessandra A; Pereira, Julio L B; Krahl, Scott; Lemaire, Jean-Jacques; De Salles, Antonio

    2014-01-01

    Extremes of eating disorders (ED) have become prevalent in both developed and developing countries. Available therapies, though largely effective, fail in a substantial number of patients and carry considerable side effects. Morbid obesity and anorexia nervosa (AN) represent important causes of morbidity and mortality among young adults. Morbid obesity affects disproportionate numbers of children. AN is also important for its high mortality in young adults. The challenges of effectively treating AN are well recognized. In this article, important aspects of ED are reviewed in detail and novel approaches to the treatment of ED are proposed.

  9. Eating Disorders in Schizophrenia: Implications for Research and Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youssef Kouidrat

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Despite evidence from case series, the comorbidity of eating disorders (EDs with schizophrenia is poorly understood. This review aimed to assess the epidemiological and clinical characteristics of EDs in schizophrenia patients and to examine whether the management of EDs can be improved. Methods. A qualitative review of the published literature was performed using the following terms: “schizophrenia” in association with “eating disorders,” “anorexia nervosa,” “bulimia nervosa,” “binge eating disorder,” or “night eating syndrome.” Results. According to our literature review, there is a high prevalence of comorbidity between schizophrenia and EDs. EDs may occur together with or independent of psychotic symptoms in these patients. Binge eating disorders and night eating syndromes are frequently found in patients with schizophrenia, with a prevalence of approximately 10%. Anorexia nervosa seems to affect between 1 and 4% of schizophrenia patients. Psychopathological and neurobiological mechanisms, including effects of antipsychotic drugs, should be more extensively explored. Conclusions. The comorbidity of EDs in schizophrenia remains relatively unexplored. The clearest message of this review is the importance of screening for and assessment of comorbid EDs in schizophrenia patients. The management of EDs in schizophrenia requires a multidisciplinary approach to attain maximized health outcomes. For clinical practice, we propose some recommendations regarding patient-centered care.

  10. Family meal frequency among children and adolescents with eating disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elran-Barak, Roni; Sztainer, Maya; Goldschmidt, Andrea B; Le Grange, Daniel

    2014-07-01

    Previous studies on family meals and disordered eating have mainly drawn their samples from the general population. The goal of the current study is to determine family meal frequency among children and adolescents with anorexia nervosa (AN), bulimia nervosa (BN), and feeding or eating disorder not elsewhere classified (FED-NEC) and to examine whether family meal frequency is associated with eating disorder psychopathology. Participants included 154 children and adolescents (M = 14.92 ± 2.62), who met criteria for AN (n = 60), BN (n = 32), or FED-NEC (n = 62). All participants completed the Eating Disorder Examination and the Family Meal Questionnaire prior to treatment at the University of Chicago Eating Disorders Program. AN and BN participants significantly differed in terms of family meal frequency. A majority of participants with AN (71.7%), compared with less than half (43.7%) of participants with BN, reported eating dinner with their family frequently (five or more times per week). Family meal frequency during dinner was significantly and negatively correlated with dietary restraints and eating concerns among participants with BN (r = -.381, r = -.366, p family meal frequency may be explained by their parents' relatively greater vigilance over eating, whereas families of BN patients may be less aware of eating disorder behaviors and hence less insistent upon family meals. Additionally, children and adolescents with AN may be more inhibited and withdrawn and therefore are perhaps more likely to stay at home and eat together with their families. Copyright © 2014 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. [Self-esteem: a comparison study between eating disorders and social phobia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eiber, R; Vera, L; Mirabel-Sarron, C; Guelfi, J-D

    2003-01-01

    Eating disorder patients evidenced very often a low self-esteem. Self-esteem in eating disorder patients is excessively based on body dissatisfaction. In eating disorders there seems to be a link between body image dissatisfaction and social anxiety. We hypothesised: self-esteem would be as low in eating disorder patients as in social phobia patients; self-esteem would be lower in eating disorder patients with social phobia than in patients with social phobia alone; self-esteem would be lower in eating disorder patients with depressive cognitions than in social phobia patients with depressive cognitions; self-esteem could have different characteristics in the two disorders; self-esteem would be as low in anorexia as in bulimia; 103 eating disorder patients (33 restrictive anorectics, 34 anorectics-bulimics, 36 bulimics) and 26 social phobia patients diagnosed according to DSM IV and ICD-10 criteria have been investigated by the Self-Esteem Inventory of Coopersmith, the Assertiveness Schedule of Rathus, the Fear Survey Schedule of Wolpe (FSS III) and the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI). Patients were free of medication and presented no episode of major depression according to DSM IV criteria. Evaluations took place before any psychotherapy. Self-esteem in eating disorder patients is reduced at the same level as in social phobia patients; 86.1% of the total sample and 84.5% of the eating disorder patients have a very low self-esteem (score 33 in the SEI). Eating disorder patients have significantly higher scores in the Social (p=0.016) and Professional (p=0.0225) sub-scales of the SEI than social phobia patients. Eating disorder patients show higher scores on the Assertiveness Schedule of Rathus (p=0.0013) than social phobia patients. Eating disorder patients disclose higher scores on the BDI (p=0.0003) but eating disorder patients with depressive cognitions do not differ from social phobia patients with depressive cognitions in the level of self-esteem. The FSS III

  12. Neurocognitive Treatments for Eating Disorders and Obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichen, Dawn M; Matheson, Brittany E; Appleton-Knapp, Sara L; Boutelle, Kerri N

    2017-09-01

    Recent research has highlighted executive function and neurocognitive deficits among individuals with eating and weight disorders, identifying a potential target for treatment. Treatments targeting executive function for eating and weight disorders are emerging. This review aims to summarize the recent literature evaluating neurocognitive/executive function-oriented treatments for eating and weight disorders and highlights additional work needed in this area. Cognitive remediation therapy (CRT) for anorexia nervosa has been the most extensively studied neurocognitive treatment for eating disorders. Results demonstrate that CRT improves executive function and may aid in the reduction of eating disorder symptomatology. Computer training programs targeting modifying attention and increasing inhibition are targeting reduction of binge eating and weight loss with modest success. Neurocognitive treatments are emerging and show initial promise for eating and weight disorders. Further research is necessary to determine whether these treatments can be used as stand-alone treatments or whether they need to be used as an adjunct to or in conjunction with other evidence-based treatments to improve outcomes.

  13. Eating Disorders in College Students in Iceland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gudlaug Thorsteinsdottir

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: The prevalence of eating disorders in Iceland is unknown. The purpose of this study was to estimate the prevalence of eating disorders in a large sample of college students in Iceland. Methods: A sample of 3.052 students from around the country aged 15-20 years was used to determine prevalence of eating disorders. The Eating Disorders Diagnostic Scale (EDDS and Eating disorder Screen for Primary care (ESP were employed. Results: On the ESP, 51.3% of females and 22.9% of males report discontent with their eating patterns and 63% of the females and 30.9% of the males report that they are emotionally affected by their weight. The ESP returned 10.5% prevalence when cut off level of 3 responses in the direction of an eating disorder was used, and 20.3% when cut off level of 2 was applied. A total of 9.8% of participants received diagnosis with EDDS, 15.2 % of females and 1.9% of males. For anorexia nervosa 1.1% of females received a diagnosis but no male. For bulimia nervosa 5.6% of females and 0.8% of males received a diagnosis and for binge eating disorder 0.6% of females and 0.2% of males. Prevalence of all subthreshold diagnoses combined was 5%. Conclusions: The prevalence of eating disorders is high in college students in Iceland, bulimia nervosa being the most common diagnosis for both males and females.

  14. Epidemiology of eating disorders in Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Hoeken, Daphne; Burns, Jonathan K.; Hoek, Hans W.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose of reviewThis is the first review of studies on the epidemiology of eating disorders on the African continent.Recent findingsThe majority of articles found through our search did not assess formal diagnoses, but only screened for eating attitudes and behaviors. Only four studies - including

  15. Epidemiology of eating disorders in Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Hoeken, Daphne; Burns, Jonathan K.; Hoek, Hans W.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose of reviewThis is the first review of studies on the epidemiology of eating disorders on the African continent.Recent findingsThe majority of articles found through our search did not assess formal diagnoses, but only screened for eating attitudes and behaviors. Only four studies - including

  16. Eating Disorder Treatment: Know Your Options

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... review in therapy sessions and identify triggers that cause you to binge, purge or do other unhealthy eating behaviors. Registered dietitians and other professionals involved in your treatment can help you better understand your eating disorder and help you develop a plan to achieve ...

  17. Compulsive buying and binge eating disorder--a case vignettes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcinko, Darko; Bolanca, Marina; Rudan, Vlasta

    2006-12-30

    Compulsive buying behaviour has recently received long overdue attention as a clinical issue. Aim of this report is to describe treatment of two female patients diagnosed with compulsive buying disorder in comorbidity with binge eating disorder. In both cases, criteria for diagnosing of other axis I or axis II disorder were not present. Fluvoxamine was used in pharmacotherapy, and psychodynamic psychotherapy as a psychotherapeutical approach. We conclude that fluvoxamine and psychodynamic psychotherapy may be effective in treatment of compulsive buyers in comorbidity with binge eating disorder.

  18. Family Functioning in the Risk and Protection of Eating Disorders

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    Objective: We analyzed the elements of the family functioning that explain the risk and protection of the ED: Anorexia Nervosa (AN), Bulimia Nervosa (BN) and Eating Disorder Non-Specific (EDNOS). Method: Seventy patients with ED (16 AN, 24 BN and 30 EDNOS) and 30 female students were interviewed and completed three questionnaires: FES, EAT and BULIT. Results: The ED patients (AN, BN and EDNOS) perceived the expression was a risk factor and the intellectual-cultural activities were protection ...

  19. Validation of the Disordered Eating Attitude Scale for adolescents

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    Marle S. Alvarenga

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective To perform the psychometric evaluation of the Disordered Eating Attitude Scale (DEAS for adolescents. Methods Sample consisted of 1,119 Brazilian adolescents (12-18 years old; 59.6% female studying at technical schools in São Paulo state-Brazil, who answered an online survey with the DEAS, the Eating Attitude Test (EAT-26, and the Restraint Scale (RS. The internal consistency of the DEAS was assessed using Cronbach’s alpha. The convergent validity of DEAS was evaluated by means of Pearson’s coefficient correlation with EAT-26 and RS. The test-retest reliability was evaluated using a sub-sample of 61 adolescents. Known-groups validity was determined by comparing female student mean scores with scores of 33 female adolescents with eating disorders. Results The reliability of the DEAS was 0.79. EAT-26 and RS scores were positively correlated with DEAS scores (EAT: 0.78 for females and 0.59 for males, p < 0.001; RS: 0.63 for females and 0.48 for males, p < 0.001. The DEAS total and subscale scores differentiated students and patients with eating disorders (p < 0.001. The intra-class correlation coefficient for test-retest reliability was 0.87. Conclusion Results indicate that the DEAS adolescent version showed good internal consistency, convergent validity, known-groups validity, and test-retest reliability, suggesting its potential in identifying disordered eating attitudes among adolescents. It could also be helpful in identifying adolescents at risk from eating disorders, assisting in prevention programs.

  20. Den tredje spiseforstyrrelse - Binge Eating Disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schousboe, Birgitte Hartvig

    2010-01-01

    Mennesker med Binge Eating Disorder indtager større mængder mad uden at være sultne. Overspisningen kan dulme svære følelser, men medfører typisk ekstremt ubehag og skam. Mennesker, der lider af spiseforstyrrelsen Binge Eating Disorder (i daglig tale kaldet BED), har ofte problemer med overvægt, og...

  1. Media image eating disorders – Literature review

    OpenAIRE

    Gordon, Kimberly

    2010-01-01

    Abstract This review aims to critically analyse the literature which considers the relationship between the media’s portrayal of the ‘ideal body image’ and adolescent eating disorders. Currently within Western society, the media endorses a thin-ideal for females and a lean, muscular-ideal for males. A critical review was chosen to deconstruct the evident debate within the literature as to whether the media is solely to blame for eating disorder development or whether other risk fact...

  2. Den tredje spiseforstyrrelse - Binge Eating Disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schousboe, Birgitte Hartvig

    2010-01-01

    Mennesker med Binge Eating Disorder indtager større mængder mad uden at være sultne. Overspisningen kan dulme svære følelser, men medfører typisk ekstremt ubehag og skam. Mennesker, der lider af spiseforstyrrelsen Binge Eating Disorder (i daglig tale kaldet BED), har ofte problemer med overvægt, og...

  3. Eating Disorders in a Nonclinical Adolescent Population: Implications for Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lachenmeyer, Juliana Rasic; Muni-Brander, Paulette

    1988-01-01

    Investigated prevalence of adolescent eating disorders across gender, cultural groupings, and socioeconomic status. Administered Eating Attitudes Test, Binge-Eating Questionnaire, and demographic questionnaire to 1,261 high school students. Results indicated high rate of eating disorders in nonclinical adolescent population. Eating disorders…

  4. Applications of the Dot Probe Task in Attentional Bias Research in Eating Disorders: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starzomska, Malgorzata

    2017-01-01

    Recent years have seen an increasing interest in the cognitive approach to eating disorders, which postulates that patients selectively attend to information associated with eating, body shape, and body weight. The unreliability of self-report measures in eating disorders due to strong denial of illness gave rise to experimental studies inspired…

  5. A critique of the literature on etiology of eating disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Rikani, Azadeh A.; Choudhry, Zia; Choudhry, Adnan M.; Ikram, Huma; Asghar, Muhammad W; Kajal, Dilkash; WAHEED, Abdul; Mobassarah, Nusrat J

    2013-01-01

    The development of eating disorders including anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, binge eating disorder, and atypical eating disorders that affect many young women and even men in the productive period of their lives is complex and varied. While numbers of presumed risk factors contributing to the development of eating disorders are increasing, previous evidence for biological, psychological, developmental, and sociocultural effects on the development of eating disorders have not been conclusi...

  6. University of South Bohemia students' awareness about eating disorders

    OpenAIRE

    PEKÁRKOVÁ, Petra

    2016-01-01

    The thesis focuses on knowledge of eating disorders by students of University of South Bohemia. The theoretical part defines particular types of eating disorders and the causes related with this problems. There are possible treatment methods for eating disorders mentioned at the end of this part. The practical part deals with students? awareness of eating disorders. It focuses on students? knowledge of eating disorders and orthorexia nerovosa. The research is based on questionnaire constructi...

  7. University of South Bohemia students' awareness about eating disorders

    OpenAIRE

    PEKÁRKOVÁ, Petra

    2016-01-01

    The thesis focuses on knowledge of eating disorders by students of University of South Bohemia. The theoretical part defines particular types of eating disorders and the causes related with this problems. There are possible treatment methods for eating disorders mentioned at the end of this part. The practical part deals with students? awareness of eating disorders. It focuses on students? knowledge of eating disorders and orthorexia nerovosa. The research is based on questionnaire constructi...

  8. [Eating Disorders and drug use in adolescents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bisetto Pons, David; Botella Guijarro, Álvaro; Sancho Muñoz, Alberto

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the study was to show whether there was a connection between drug use and Eating Disorders, as well as to identify the type of drugs most widely used and to ascertain whether they are used to suppress appetite. An "ad hoc" scale was developed using the items of the Eating Disorder Diagnostic Scale, whose aim is to detect cases at risk of certain types of eating disorder, and items for assessing drug use. This scale was applied to samples of teenagers (n=446) aged 13-18 from various secondary schools in the Valencia Region (Comunidad Valenciana) in Spain. An association was found between teenagers that use drugs, and particularly between the variable "use of some kind of drug as an appetite suppressant", and being at risk of having an eating disorder. Tobacco was the drug most commonly used (accounting for 66% of those within the risk threshold of the Eating Disorder Diagnostic Scale). We conclude that those teenagers from the sample who fall within any of the risk thresholds consume more drugs than those who do not fall within the risk threshold of the Eating Disorder Diagnostic Scale. Stimulant-type drugs are those most widely used by these teenagers with the aim of suppressing appetite.

  9. Analysis the characteristics of eating disorder patients psychology and personalty%进食障碍患者心理及人格特征分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢贞; 时忠丽; 李绍敏

    2008-01-01

    目的 探讨进食障碍患者心理及人格障碍的临床特征,为临床治疗及护理提供心理学依据.方法 采用症状自评量表(SCL-90)及艾森克个性问卷(EPQ),对36例符合CCMD-3进食障碍诊断标准的患者(研究组)与按1:1配对原则挑选的36例正常健康者(对照组)进行测试.结果 进食障碍患者除精神病性外,其余各症状因子平均分显著高于对照组(P<0.01);进食障碍患者的神经过敏症评分也显著高于对照组(P<0.01).结论 进食障碍患者存在较明显的心理障碍,特别表现在抑郁、焦虑等方面,对环境压力调节能力较差,应通过合适的心理治疗提高临床治疗效果.%Objective To explore the clinical characteristics of eating disorder patients' psychology and personality disorder,afford the psychology gist to clinical treatment and nursing.Methods 36 patients according with CCMD-3 diagnose standard of eating disorder(seminar group)and 30 normal health person were selected according to 1:1 coupIe principle(control group),were tested by using SCL-90 EPQ.Results①Eating disorder patients besides psychiatry,the rest each average of symptom gcne prominence WaS much higher than control group(P<0.01),especially depression anxiety compel interpersonal sensitivity;②the eating disorder patients' nervous hypenlensitive scores also significantly higher than control group(P<0.01).Conclusion Eating disorder patients exist significantly psychology disorder,especially reflect depression anxiety etc,the ability of adjust environment pressure less.They could take out better clinical treatment effectives by using proper psychology treatment.

  10. Residents' and Fellows' Knowledge and Attitudes About Eating Disorders at an Academic Medical Center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Kristen; Accurso, Erin C; Kinasz, Kathryn R; Le Grange, Daniel

    2017-06-01

    This study examined physician residents' and fellows' knowledge of eating disorders and their attitudes toward patients with eating disorders. Eighty physicians across disciplines completed a survey. The response rate for this survey across disciplines was 64.5 %. Participants demonstrated limited knowledge of eating disorders and reported minimal comfort levels treating patients with eating disorders. Psychiatry discipline (p = 0.002), eating disorder experience (p = 0.010), and having ≥4 eating disorder-continuing medical education credits (p = 0.037) predicted better knowledge of anorexia nervosa but not bulimia nervosa. Psychiatry residents (p = 0.041), and those who had treated at least one eating disorder patient (p = 0.006), reported significantly greater comfort treating patients with eating disorders. These results suggest that residents and fellows from this sample may benefit from training to increase awareness and confidence necessary to treat patients with eating disorders. Sufficient knowledge and comfort are critical since physicians are often the first health care provider to have contact with patients who have undiagnosed eating disorders.

  11. Attachment in eating-disordered outpatients with and without borderline personality disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pace, Cecilia Serena; Guiducci, Valentina; Cavanna, Donatella

    2016-03-18

    This study aims at examining the attachment states of mind in 50 female outpatients with eating disorders compared with 50 matched control participants using the Adult Attachment Interview. Moreover, the differences in attachment states of mind among eating-disordered women with and without borderline personality disorders' diagnosis were explored. The results showed an over-representation of insecure-dismissing and unresolved states of mind in clinical group compared to controls. Patients with both diagnosis showed higher scores on involving anger and unresolved loss compared with those with only eating disorder. Implications for further research and clinical practice are discussed.

  12. Globalization and eating disorder risk: Peer influence, perceived social norms, and adolescent disordered eating in Fiji

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerbasi, Margaret E.; Richards, Lauren K.; Thomas, Jennifer J.; Agnew-Blais, Jessica C.; Thompson-Brenner, Heather; Gilman, Stephen E.; Becker, Anne E.

    2014-01-01

    Objective The increasing global health burden imposed by eating disorders warrants close examination of social exposures associated with globalization that potentially elevate risk during the critical developmental period of adolescence in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). The study aim was to investigate the association of peer influence and perceived social norms with adolescent eating pathology in Fiji, a LMIC undergoing rapid social change. Method We measured peer influence on eating concerns (with the Inventory of Peer Influence on Eating Concerns; IPIEC), perceived peer norms associated with disordered eating and body concerns, perceived community cultural norms, and individual cultural orientations in a representative sample of school-going ethnic Fijian adolescent girls (n=523). We then developed a multivariable linear regression model to examine their relation to eating pathology (measured by the Eating Disorder Examination-Questionnaire; EDE-Q). Results We found independent and statistically significant associations between both IPIEC scores and our proxy for perceived social norms specific to disordered eating (both p <.001) and EDE-Q global scores in a fully adjusted linear regression model. Discussion Study findings support the possibility that peer influence as well as perceived social norms relevant to disordered eating may elevate risk for disordered eating in Fiji, during the critical developmental period of adolescence. Replication and extension of these research findings in other populations undergoing rapid social transition—and where globalization is also influencing local social norms—may enrich etiologic models and inform strategies to mitigate risk. PMID:25139374

  13. Globalization and eating disorder risk: peer influence, perceived social norms, and adolescent disordered eating in Fiji.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerbasi, Margaret E; Richards, Lauren K; Thomas, Jennifer J; Agnew-Blais, Jessica C; Thompson-Brenner, Heather; Gilman, Stephen E; Becker, Anne E

    2014-11-01

    The increasing global health burden imposed by eating disorders warrants close examination of social exposures associated with globalization that potentially elevate risk during the critical developmental period of adolescence in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). The study aim was to investigate the association of peer influence and perceived social norms with adolescent eating pathology in Fiji, a LMIC undergoing rapid social change. We measured peer influence on eating concerns (with the Inventory of Peer Influence on Eating Concerns; IPIEC), perceived peer norms associated with disordered eating and body concerns, perceived community cultural norms, and individual cultural orientations in a representative sample of school-going ethnic Fijian adolescent girls (n = 523). We then developed a multivariable linear regression model to examine their relation to eating pathology (measured by the Eating Disorder Examination-Questionnaire; EDE-Q). We found independent and statistically significant associations between both IPIEC scores and our proxy for perceived social norms specific to disordered eating (both p global scores in a fully adjusted linear regression model. Study findings support the possibility that peer influence as well as perceived social norms relevant to disordered eating may elevate risk for disordered eating in Fiji, during the critical developmental period of adolescence. Replication and extension of these research findings in other populations undergoing rapid social transition--and where globalization is also influencing local social norms--may enrich etiologic models and inform strategies to mitigate risk. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Fostering self-endorsed motivation to change in patients with an eating disorder: the role of perceived autonomy support and psychological need satisfaction

    OpenAIRE

    Deeder, Jolene; Vansteenkiste, Maarten; Soenens, Bart; Verstuyf, J; Boone, Liesbet; Smets, J

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Although several studies have established the beneficial effects of self-endorsed forms of motivation for lasting therapeutic change, the way patients with an eating disorder can be encouraged to volitionally pursue change has received less attention. On the basis of Self-Determination Theory, this longitudinal study addressed the role of an autonomy-supportive environment and psychological need satisfaction in fostering self-endorsed motivation for change and subsequent weight gai...

  15. Anorexia Nervosa, Bulimia Nervosa, and Binge Eating Disorder in Midlife and Beyond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elran-Barak, Roni; Fitzsimmons-Craft, Ellen E; Benyamini, Yael; Crow, Scott J; Peterson, Carol B; Hill, Laura L; Crosby, Ross D; Mitchell, James E; Le Grange, Daniel

    2015-08-01

    We examined eating disorders in midlife and beyond by comparing frequency of anorexia nervosa (AN), bulimia nervosa (BN), binge eating disorder (BED), and other specified feeding or eating disorder (OSFED) among midlife eating disorder treatment-seeking individuals and younger controls. We also compared demographic and eating disorder-related characteristics across diagnoses and age groups. Participants included 2,118 treatment-seeking adults who self-reported their eating-related symptoms on the Eating Disorder Questionnaire. Results showed that percent of patients with BN was significantly lower whereas percent of patients with BED and OSFED was significantly higher among midlife relative to younger patients. Percent of patients with AN did not differ between midlife and younger patients. Additionally, midlife and younger patients with BED and OSFED differed on several demographic (e.g., marital status) and eating disorder-related characteristics (e.g., BMI, compulsive exercising). This study suggests that BN is less common whereas BED and OSFED are more common among midlife eating disorder treatment-seeking individuals relative to younger controls. In addition, AN and BN present fairly similarly whereas BED and OSFED present fairly differently among midlife patients relative to younger controls. Attention to these differences and similarities is necessary to understand eating disorders in midlife.

  16. Does Interpersonal Therapy Help Patients with Binge Eating Disorder Who Fail to Respond to Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agras, W. Stewart; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Examines the effectiveness of group interpersonal therapy (IPT) in treating overweight, binge-eating patients. Participants were randomly allocated to cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) or to an assessment-only group. After 12 weeks, those who did not respond to CBT were assigned 12 weeks of IPT. IPT led to no further improvement. (JPS)

  17. Tooth erosion and eating disorders: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula Hermont

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Eating disorders are associated with the highest rates of morbidity and mortality of any mental disorders among adolescents. The failure to recognize their early signs can compromise a patient's recovery and long-term prognosis. Tooth erosion has been reported as an oral manifestation that might help in the early detection of eating disorders. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to search for scientific evidence regarding the following clinical question: Do eating disorders increase the risk of tooth erosion? METHODS: An electronic search addressing eating disorders and tooth erosion was conducted in eight databases. Two independent reviewers selected studies, abstracted information and assessed its quality. Data were abstracted for meta-analysis comparing tooth erosion in control patients (without eating disorders vs. patients with eating disorders; and patients with eating disorder risk behavior vs. patients without such risk behavior. Combined odds ratios (ORs and a 95% confidence interval (CI were obtained. RESULTS: Twenty-three papers were included in the qualitative synthesis and assessed by a modified version of the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale. Fourteen papers were included in the meta-analysis. Patients with eating disorders had more risk of tooth erosion (OR = 12.4, 95%CI = 4.1-37.5. Patients with eating disorders who self-induced vomiting had more risk of tooth erosion than those patients who did not self-induce vomiting (OR = 19.6, 95%CI = 5.6-68.8. Patients with risk behavior of eating disorder had more risk of tooth erosion than patients without such risk behavior (Summary OR = 11.6, 95%CI = 3.2-41.7. CONCLUSION: The scientific evidence suggests a causal relationship between tooth erosion and eating disorders and purging practices. Nevertheless, there is a lack of scientific evidence to fulfill the basic criteria of causation between the risk behavior for eating disorders and tooth erosion.

  18. [Eating disorders, body image and sexuality].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alba, Patricio; Kes, Mariana Gabriela

    2013-01-01

    Eating disorders are a growing problem in healthcare. Altered eating behaviors are a consequence of cognitions and emotions generated by low self-esteem and dissatisfaction with body image and schema. It is possible, that a negative body image, and in many cases, distorted, may be the most difficult feature to approach and improve in this disorders. But the dissatisfaction to one's own body would not be related only to altered eating behaviors. Several studies show that body image and one's own body perception are an essential feature in sexual experiences, especially in women's sexuality. This article describes the relation and influences between body image and women's sexuality, and the sexuality in women with eating disorders.

  19. Pro-eating disorder search patterns: the possible influence of celebrity eating disorder stories in the media

    OpenAIRE

    Lewis, Stephen P; Klauninger, Laura; Marcincinova, Ivana

    2016-01-01

    Pro eating disorder websites often contain celebrity-focused content (e.g., images) used as thinspiration to engage in unhealthy eating disorder behaviours. The current study was conducted to examine whether news media stories covering eating disorder disclosures of celebrities corresponded with increases in Internet searches for pro eating disorder material. Results indicated that search volumes for pro eating disorder terms spiked in the month immediately following such news coverage but on...

  20. Examining the relationship between food thought suppression and binge eating disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Rachel D; Masheb, Robin M; White, Marney A; Grilo, Carlos M

    2013-10-01

    Food thought suppression, or purposely attempting to avoid thoughts of food, is related to a number of unwanted eating- and weight-related consequences, particularly in dieting and obese individuals. Little is known about the possible significance of food thought suppression in clinical samples, particularly obese patients who binge eat. This study examined food thought suppression in 150 obese patients seeking treatment for binge eating disorder (BED). Food thought suppression was not associated with binge eating frequency or body mass index but was significantly associated with higher current levels of eating disorder psychopathology and variables pertaining to obesity, dieting, and binge eating.

  1. The Role of Ghrelin, Salivary Secretions, and Dental Care in Eating Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akio Inui

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Eating disorders, including anorexia and bulimia nervosa, are potentially life-threatening syndromes characterized by severe disturbances in eating behavior. An effective treatment strategy for these conditions remains to be established, as patients with eating disorders tend to suffer from multiple relapses. Because ghrelin was originally discovered in the stomach mucosa, it has been widely studied over the past decade in an effort to uncover its potential roles; these studies have shed light on the mechanism by which ghrelin regulates food intake. Thus, studying ghrelin in the context of eating disorders could improve our understanding of the pathogenesis of eating disorders, possibly resulting in a promising new pharmacological treatment strategy for these patients. In addition, early detection and treatment of eating disorders are critical for ensuring recovery of young patients. Oral symptoms, including mucosal, dental, and saliva abnormalities, are typically observed in the early stages of eating disorders. Although oral care is not directly related to the treatment of eating disorders, knowledge of the oral manifestations of eating disorder patients may aid in early detection, resulting in earlier treatment; thus, oral care might contribute to overall patient management and prognosis. Moreover, ghrelin has also been found in saliva, which may be responsible for oral hygiene and digestion-related functions. This review discusses the pharmacological potential of ghrelin in regulating food-intake and the role of saliva and oral care in young patients with eating disorders.

  2. Perception of parental acceptance in women with binge eating disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dominy, N L; Johnson, W B; Koch, C

    2000-01-01

    The authors contribute to the validating literature for binge eating disorder (BED) by examining perceptions of parents and satisfaction with life among obese women with and without BED. Participants were female patients, recruited through a private medical clinic, who were assigned to groups on the basis of body mass index (BMI) and scores on the Questionnaire on Eating and Weight Patterns (QEWP; R. L. Spitzer et al., 1992). Groups consisted of (a) obese women with BED (n = 32), (b) obese women who had no eating disorders (n = 51), and (c) nonobese women with no eating disorders (n = 30). All participants completed the Parental Acceptance/Rejection Questionnaire (PARQ; R. P. Rohner, 1986), the Satisfaction with Life Scale (SWLS; J. Fischer & K. Corcoran, 1994), and the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI; A. T. Beck & R. A. Steer, 1987). Obese women with BED perceived their fathers as more rejecting than did women in the other groups. Moreover, obese women with BED perceived their fathers as significantly more rejecting than their mothers. The BED group indicated lower satisfaction with life and higher levels of depression than the groups without eating disorders. These findings further validate the diagnostic category of BED. Obese women with BED appear to be a distinct subgroup of the obese population. The results indicate a need for further assessment of the father-daughter relationship in connection to BED and other eating disorders.

  3. [Orthorexia nervosa. A new eating behavior disorder?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catalina Zamora, M L; Bote Bonaechea, B; García Sánchez, F; Ríos Rial, B

    2005-01-01

    New eating behavior disorders such as bigorexia (muscle dysmorphia) and orthorexia are appearing in developed countries. These disorders have not been officially recognized so that they are not classified as independent entities. The term orthorexia comes from the Greek word orthos (straight, proper) and orexia (appetite). It is characterized by the pathological obsession for biologically pure food, which leads to important dietary restrictions. Orthorexic patients exclude foods from their diets that they consider to be impure because they have herbicides, pesticides or artificial substances and they worry in excess about the techniques and materials used in the food elaboration. This obsession leads to loss of social relationships and affective dissatisfactions which, in turn, favors obsessive concern about food. In orthorexia, that patient initially wants to improve his/her health, treat a disease or lose weight. Finally, the diet becomes the most important part of their lives. We present a clinical case that responds to the characteristics of orthorexia. The differential diagnosis with chronic delusional disorder, anorexia nervosa and obsessive-compulsive disorder is carried out.

  4. The relationship between perfectionism, eating disorders and athletes: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forsberg, S; Lock, J

    2006-12-01

    Perfectionism is a potentially maladaptive personality trait implicated in a number of psychopathologies. As our understanding of the construct perfectionism has shifted from more unidimensionally focused conceptualizations to multidimensional ones, our ability to assess its bearing on various disorders has grown. One particular area in which perfectionism appears to play an important role is among eating disorder patients. The personalities of both those with anorexia nervosa (AN) and bulimia nervosa (BN) are thought to be intrinsically perfectionistic, which suggests a need to understand the role perfectionism plays in the development, course and outcome of these disorders. There is also an increased focus on perfectionism among athletes and its relationship to the higher prevalence of eating disorders in this group. With the institution of Title IX in the United States (which prohibited sex discrimination in higher educational settings) the participation of women in various sports has increased exponentially and with it concerns about their well-being in a milieu where a risk for menstrual irregularities, osteoporosis and eating disorders (the female athlete triad) are common. However, conflicting data suggests that athletics may be a protective factor in the development of eating disorders on the one hand, or it may be a risk factor on the other. Thus, it has become important to examine other variables, such as perfectionism, that may influence the outcome, one way or another. This review examines the current evidence about the relations between perfectionism, athletics and eating disorders.

  5. Hormonal Factors and Disturbances in Eating Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culbert, Kristen M; Racine, Sarah E; Klump, Kelly L

    2016-07-01

    This review summarizes the current state of the literature regarding hormonal correlates of, and etiologic influences on, eating pathology. Several hormones (e.g., ghrelin, CCK, GLP-1, PYY, leptin, oxytocin, cortisol) are disrupted during the ill state of eating disorders and likely contribute to the maintenance of core symptoms (e.g., dietary restriction, binge eating) and/or co-occurring features (e.g., mood symptoms, attentional biases). Some of these hormones (e.g., ghrelin, cortisol) may also be related to eating pathology via links with psychological stress. Despite these effects, the role of hormonal factors in the etiology of eating disorders remains unknown. The strongest evidence for etiologic effects has emerged for ovarian hormones, as changes in ovarian hormones predict changes in phenotypic and genetic influences on disordered eating. Future studies would benefit from utilizing etiologically informative designs (e.g., high risk, behavioral genetic) and continuing to explore factors (e.g., psychological, neural responsivity) that may impact hormonal influences on eating pathology.

  6. Disordered eating among Brazilian female college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarenga, Marle Dos Santos; Lourenço, Bárbara Hatzlhoffer; Philippi, Sonia Tucunduva; Scagliusi, Fernanda Baeza

    2013-05-01

    This study aimed to investigate the socioeconomic and nutritional factors associated with disordered eating among Brazilian female college students (n = 2,489). Prevalence ratios of risk factors were calculated using Poisson regression models with robust variance based on responses to selected questions from the Eating Attitude Test and Disordered Eating Attitude Scale. It was found that 40.7% of students were dieting, 35.6% were using diet or compensatory methods, 23.9% skipping meals, 12.6% not eating or just drinking liquids, and 3.3%, vomiting to lose weight. A positive association was found between not eating or just drinking liquids and skipping meals and nutritional status after adjustment for age and region. A positive association was found between compensatory methods and dieting and education level of the head of the family. Disordered eating behaviors were frequent, and not eating and skipping meals were more prevalent among overweight/obese students; compensatory methods and dieting were less prevalent among students from families whose head had up to only four years of education. Prevention strategies and food education are necessary in order to decrease the prevalence of these behaviors.

  7. Review of the Literature Regarding Female Collegiate Athletes with Eating Disorders and Disordered Eating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klasey, Nicole

    2009-01-01

    The primary objective of this review of literature was to examine the relationship of eating disorders and disordered eating among female collegiate athletes. Since the institution of Title IX in 1972, the Educational Amendment to the Civil Rights Act of 1964, female participation in sports has been consistently rising at all levels of…

  8. Are there more personality disorders in treatment-seeking patients with eating disorders than in other kind of psychiatric patients? A two control groups comparative study using the IPDE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Izaskun Marañón

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The aims of this ex post facto study were to determine the comorbidity of personality disorders (PD with eating disorders (ED, to establish the prominent characteristics of eating disorders subtypes and to compare PDs appeared in patients with EDs with those in other clinical and normal samples. Using the International Personality Disorders Examination (IPDE, 84 outpatients with EDs were compared with 23 mentally disordered women and with 23 normative women. All the statistical analyses have been carried out using non-parametric analyses. 54.8% of ED sample met criteria for at least one PD compared to 21.7% of non-ED patients and to 8.7% of normative control group. The most common PDs in the ED group were the obsessivecompulsive, borderline and avoidant, without any differences among the EDs groups. More than a half of the subjects with anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa met the criteria for at least one PD and this was a specific characteristic of patients with an ED.

  9. Behavioral management of night eating disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berner LA

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Laura A Berner,1 Kelly C Allison2 1Department of Psychology, Drexel University, 2Department of Psychiatry, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA, USA Abstract: Night eating syndrome (NES is a form of disordered eating associated with evening hyperphagia (overeating at night and nocturnal ingestions (waking at night to eat. As with other forms of disordered eating, cognitive and behavioral treatment modalities may be effective in reducing NES symptoms. This review presents evidence for a variety of behavioral treatment approaches, including behavioral therapy, phototherapy, behavioral weight loss treatment, and cognitive-behavioral therapy. A more detailed overview of cognitive-behavioral therapy for NES is provided. All of these studies have been case studies or included small samples, and all but one have been uncontrolled, but the outcomes of many of these approaches are promising. Larger randomized controlled trials are warranted to advance NES treatment literature. With the inclusion of NES in the fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5 as a “Feeding or Eating Disorder Not Elsewhere Classified,” more sophisticated, empirically-supported, behaviorally-based treatment approaches are much needed. Keywords: night eating syndrome, cognitive-behavioral treatment, phototherapy, behavioral weight loss, behavior therapy

  10. Olfaction in eating disorders and abnormal eating behavior: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Mohammed A; Fagundo, Ana B; Arcelus, Jon; Agüera, Zaida; Jiménez-Murcia, Susana; Fernández-Real, José M; Tinahones, Francisco J; de la Torre, Rafael; Botella, Cristina; Frühbeck, Gema; Casanueva, Felipe F; Menchón, José M; Fernandez-Aranda, Fernando

    2015-01-01

    The study provides a systematic review that explores the current literature on olfactory capacity in abnormal eating behavior. The objective is to present a basis for discussion on whether research in olfaction in eating disorders may offer additional insight with regard to the complex etiopathology of eating disorders (ED) and abnormal eating behaviors. Electronic databases (Medline, PsycINFO, PubMed, Science Direct, and Web of Science) were searched using the components in relation to olfaction and combining them with the components related to abnormal eating behavior. Out of 1352 articles, titles were first excluded by title (n = 64) and then by abstract and fulltext resulting in a final selection of 14 articles (820 patients and 385 control participants) for this review. The highest number of existing literature on olfaction in ED were carried out with AN patients (78.6%) followed by BN patients (35.7%) and obese individuals (14.3%). Most studies were only conducted on females. The general findings support that olfaction is altered in AN and in obesity and indicates toward there being little to no difference in olfactory capacity between BN patients and the general population. Due to the limited number of studies and heterogeneity this review stresses on the importance of more research on olfaction and abnormal eating behavior.

  11. A critique of the literature on etiology of eating disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rikani, Azadeh A; Choudhry, Zia; Choudhry, Adnan M; Ikram, Huma; Asghar, Muhammad W; Kajal, Dilkash; Waheed, Abdul; Mobassarah, Nusrat J

    2013-10-01

    The development of eating disorders including anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, binge eating disorder, and atypical eating disorders that affect many young women and even men in the productive period of their lives is complex and varied. While numbers of presumed risk factors contributing to the development of eating disorders are increasing, previous evidence for biological, psychological, developmental, and sociocultural effects on the development of eating disorders have not been conclusive. Despite the fact that a huge body of research has carefully examined the possible risk factors associated with the eating disorders, they have failed not only to uncover the exact etiology of eating disorders, but also to understand the interaction between different causes of eating disorders. This failure may be due complexities of eating disorders, limitations of the studies or combination of two factors. In this review, some risk factors including biological, psychological, developmental, and sociocultural are discussed.

  12. Eating behaviour and eating disorders in students of nutrition sciences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korinth, Anne; Schiess, Sonja; Westenhoefer, Joachim

    2010-01-01

    Sometimes the suspicion is put forward that nutrition students show more disordered eating patterns, which may be among the motivating factors to study nutrition. At the same time, it is not clear whether the students' increasing knowledge about diet and nutrition is associated with a more healthy eating behaviour or with an unhealthy obsession with food choices. Cross-sectional comparison of nutrition students from German universities during the first year of their studies (n 123) and during higher semesters (n 96), with a control group from other study programmes (n 68 and n 46, respectively). Dietary restraint, disinhibition, the tendency towards orthorexia nervosa and healthy food choices were assessed using a questionnaire. Nutrition students showed higher levels of dietary restraint than the control group. Disinhibition and orthorexia nervosa did not differ between nutrition students and controls. Orthorexic tendencies were lower in the more advanced nutrition students. Healthy food choices did not differ among students in the first year. More advanced nutrition students showed healthier food choices, whereas the corresponding controls showed slightly more unhealthy food choices. Nutrition students, more than other students, tend to restrict their food intake in order to control their weight, but they do not have more disturbed or disordered eating patterns than other students. Moreover, during the course of their studies, they adopt slightly more healthy food choices and decrease their tendency to be obsessive in their eating behaviour.

  13. Sleep, eating disorder symptoms, and daytime functioning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tromp MD

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Marilou DP Tromp,1 Anouk AMT Donners,1 Johan Garssen,1,2 Joris C Verster1,31Division of Pharmacology, Utrecht Institute for Pharmaceutical Sciences, Utrecht University, Utrecht, the Netherlands; 2Nutricia Research, Utrecht, the Netherlands; 3Center for Human Psychopharmacology, Swinburne University, Melbourne, VIC, AustraliaObjective: To investigate the relationship between eating disorders, body mass index (BMI, sleep disorders, and daytime functioning.Design: Survey.Setting: The Netherlands.Participants: N=574 Dutch young adults (18–35 years old.Measurements: Participants completed a survey on eating and sleep habits including the Eating Disorder Screen for Primary care (ESP and SLEEP-50 questionnaire subscales for sleep apnea, insomnia, circadian rhythm disorder (CRD, and daytime functioning. SLEEP-50 outcomes of participants who screened negative (≤2 and positive (>2 on the ESP were compared. In addition, SLEEP-50 scores of groups of participants with different ESP scores (0–4 and different BMI groups (ie, underweight, healthy weight, overweight, and obese were compared using nonparametric statistics.Results: Almost 12% (n=67 of participants screened positive for having an eating disorder. Relative to participants without eating disorders, participants who screened positive for eating disorders reported significantly higher scores on sleep apnea (3.7 versus 2.9, P=0.012, insomnia (7.7 versus 5.5, P<0.0001, CRD (2.9 versus 2.3, P=0.011, and impairment of daytime functioning (8.8 versus 5.8, P=0.0001. ESP scores were associated with insomnia (r=0.117, P=0.005, sleep apnea (r=0.118, P=0.004, sleep quality (r=−0.104, P=0.012, and daytime functioning (r=0.225, P<0.0001, but not with CRD (r=0.066, P=0.112. BMI correlated significantly with ESP scores (r=0.172, P<0.0001 and scores on sleep apnea (r=0.171, P<0.0001. When controlling for BMI, the partial correlation between ESP and sleep apnea remained significant (r=0.10, P=0.015.Conclusion

  14. A mindful eating group as an adjunct to individual treatment for eating disorders: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hepworth, Natasha S

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate potential benefits of a Mindful Eating Group as an adjunct to long-term treatment for a variety of eating disorders. Individuals (N = 33) attending treatment at an outpatient treatment facility participated in the 10-week intervention designed to enhance awareness around hunger and satiety cues. Disordered eating symptoms were assessed pre- and post-intervention using the EAT-26. Significant reductions were found on all subscales of the EAT-26 with large effect sizes. No significant differences were identified between eating disorder diagnoses. Results suggest potential benefits of an adjunct mindfulness group intervention when treating a variety of eating disorders. Limitations are discussed.

  15. Urbanisation and the incidence of eating disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Son, Gabrielle E.; Van Hoeken, Daphne; Bartelds, Aad I. M.; Van Furth, Eric F.; Hoek, Hans W.

    2006-01-01

    The link between degree of urbanisation and a number of mental disorders is well established. Schizophrenia, psychosis and depression are known to occur more frequently in urban areas. In our primary care-based study of eating disorders, the incidence of bulimia nervosa showed a dose-response relati

  16. Urbanisation and the incidence of eating disorders.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Son, G.E. van; Hoeken, D. van; Bartelds, A.I.M.; Furth, E.F. van; Hoek, H.W.

    2006-01-01

    The link between degree of urbanisation and a number of mental disorders is well established. Schizophrenia, psychosis and depression are known to occur more frequently in urban areas. In our primary care-based study of eating disorders, the incidence of bulimia nervosa showed a dose response

  17. Urbanisation and the incidence of eating disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Son, Gabrielle E.; Van Hoeken, Daphne; Bartelds, Aad I. M.; Van Furth, Eric F.; Hoek, Hans W.

    2006-01-01

    The link between degree of urbanisation and a number of mental disorders is well established. Schizophrenia, psychosis and depression are known to occur more frequently in urban areas. In our primary care-based study of eating disorders, the incidence of bulimia nervosa showed a dose-response

  18. Urbanisation and the incidence of eating disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Son, Gabrielle E.; Van Hoeken, Daphne; Bartelds, Aad I. M.; Van Furth, Eric F.; Hoek, Hans W.

    2006-01-01

    The link between degree of urbanisation and a number of mental disorders is well established. Schizophrenia, psychosis and depression are known to occur more frequently in urban areas. In our primary care-based study of eating disorders, the incidence of bulimia nervosa showed a dose-response relati

  19. Urbanisation and the incidence of eating disorders.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Son, G.E. van; Hoeken, D. van; Bartelds, A.I.M.; Furth, E.F. van; Hoek, H.W.

    2006-01-01

    The link between degree of urbanisation and a number of mental disorders is well established. Schizophrenia, psychosis and depression are known to occur more frequently in urban areas. In our primary care-based study of eating disorders, the incidence of bulimia nervosa showed a dose response relati

  20. [The treatment of binge eating disorder - a review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papp, Ildikó; Szumska, Irena; Túry, Ferenc

    2015-01-01

    The binge eating disorder is a relatively new type of eating disorders, which was first described in 1992, and became a distinct nosological entity in the system of DSM-5 in 2013. Its central symptom is the binge, which is not followed by compensatory behaviours as in bulimia nervosa. Therefore, the patients are generally obese. The prevalence of the disorder is 1-3% in the general population, but much higher in help-seeking obese subjects. The two main goals of the therapy is body weight reduction, and the cessation of binges. In the pharmacotherapy of binge eating disorder the antidepressants are recommended mainly in the case of unsuccessful psychotherapy, and in treating comorbid depression. In the field of psychotherapy data are available mainly on the effectiveness of cognitive behavioural therapy, dialectic behaviour therapy, behavioural weight loss, and interpersonal therapy. Effectivity studies on new therapeutic methods and treatment combinations are needed as well as long term follow-up studies.

  1. [Nighttime eating disorders--clinical symptoms and treatment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zawilska, Jolanta B; Santorek-Strumiłło, Edyta J; Kuna, Paulina

    2010-01-01

    Nighttime eating is categorized as either night eating syndrome (NES) or the sleep-related eating disorder (SRED). Both diseases are often connected with an increase of the body mass, obesity, and with psychiatric disturbances. NES is characterized by evening hyperphagia, abnormally increased food intake after the evening meal, nocturnal awakings with ingestions, morning anorexia, and insomnia. Patients suffering from NES are aware of their nocturnal ingestions. It is suggested that NES is an abnormality in the circadian rhythm of meal timing that occurs in people with normal circadian rhythm of sleep. Other factors underlying NES include genetic predispositions, hormonal and neurochemical disturbances, and mood disorders. SRED is characterized by recurrent episodes of eating or drinking after arousal from nighttime sleep, unaware in tight the most cases, with adverse consequences. The distinctive features of SRED are amnesia of night eating episodes and consumption of non-typical food or dangerous articles. SRED is frequently associated with other sleep disorders, e.g., restless leg syndrome, periodic limb movement disorder, obstructive sleep apnea, and somnambulism. It can be also induced by medicines applied by a patient (e.g. zolpidem). It is hypothesized that the syndrome represents a variation of somnambulism. In the treatment of NES both non-pharmacological methods (psychotherapy, phototherapy) as well as the pharmacotherapy (aimed to increase serotoninergic neurotransmission in the brain, predominantly by sertraline, a selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitor) are used. SRED can be treated by controlling comorbid sleep disorders and eliminating provocative sedative hypnotics.

  2. Delayed Diagnoses: Nonspecific Findings and Diagnostic Challenges in Eating Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan Schwarz

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Eating disorders commonly present with nonspecific findings, masquerading as other, more common etiologies of malnutrition and wasting. In low-prevalence populations, these ambiguities can complicate clinicians’ diagnostic reasoning, resulting in delayed or missed diagnoses. Method. We report the atypical case of a 51-year-old male with a five-year history of unexplained weight loss despite extensive past medical evaluation. Previous documentation of profound lymphopenia and bone marrow atrophy had not been linked to a known association with eating disorders. Results. Evaluation for medical etiologies of wasting was negative. Following psychiatric evaluation, the patient was diagnosed with an eating disorder, not otherwise specified, and admitted to a specialized nutritional rehabilitation program. Conclusion. The nonspecific clinical history, physical exam, and laboratory abnormalities of eating disorders can make these diagnoses challenging and delay appropriate treatment. Clinicians should consider eating disorders in patients with malnutrition, severe lymphopenias, and gelatinous marrow transformation early in their workup, so as to avoid potentially negative outcomes.

  3. Validation of the exercise and eating disorders questionnaire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjørnelv, Sigrid; Rø, Øyvind

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective Compulsive exercise is a well‐known feature in eating disorders. The Exercise and Eating Disorder (EED) self‐report questionnaire was developed to assess aspects of compulsive exercise not adequately captured by existing instruments. This study aimed to test psychometric properties and the factor structure of the EED among women with eating disorders and a control group. Method The study included 449 female participants, including 244 eating disorders patients and 205 healthy controls. The patient group consisted of 32.4% (n = 79) AN patients, 23.4% (n = 57) BN, 34.4% (n = 84) EDNOS and 9.8% (n = 24) with BED diagnosis. Results The analyses confirmed adequate psychometric properties of the EED, with a four‐factor solution: (1) compulsive exercise, (2) positive and healthy exercise, (3) awareness of bodily signals, and (4) weight and shape exercise. The EED discriminated significantly (p < .001) between patients and controls on the global score, subscales, and individual items. Test‐retest reliability was satisfactory (r = 0.86). Convergent validity was demonstrated by high correlations between the EED and the Eating Disorder Examination Questionnaire (EDE‐Q; r = 0.79). Discussion The EED is the first clinically derived, self‐report questionnaire to assess compulsive exercise among ED patients. The EED offers assessment that has broader clinical utility than existing instruments because it identifies treatment targets and treatment priorities. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. (Int J Eat Disord 2015; 48:983–993). PMID:25639668

  4. When parenting fails: alexithymia and attachment states of mind in mothers of female patients with eating disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecilia Serena ePace

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. In recent years alexithymia and attachment theory have been recognized as two parallel research lines trying to improve the information on the development and maintenance of eating disorders (EDs. However no research has analyzed these constructs among patients’ families. In this study we compared alexithymia and attachment in mothers of patients with EDs and a control group. Further, we hypothesized that mothers of daughters with EDs with insecure and unresolved states of mind will reported high levels of alexithymia. Lastly, we explored the daughters’ evaluations of maternal alexithymia.Method. 45 mothers of ED women and 48 mothers of healthy controls (N= 93 matched for age and socio-demographic variables were administered by the Toronto Alexithymia Scale-20 (TAS-20 S, while two sub-groups of ED mothers (n = 20 and non-ED ones (n = 22 were assessed by the Adult Attachment Interview (AAI. Moreover, the Observer Alexithymia Scale (OAS was administered to the daughters for evaluating maternal alexithymia.Results. Regarding alexithymia, no differences were found between ED and non-ED mothers according to the TAS-20, while ED mothers showed more unresolved AAI classifications than non-ED mothers. No correlations were found between the TAS-20 and the AAI. Lastly, ED mothers were evaluated more alexithymic by their daughters with the OAS than those in the control group, and their alexithymic traits were significantly correlated with dismissing states of mind (idealization and lack of memory in the AAIs. Discussion. Our results highlighted an interesting discrepancy among mothers with ED daughters between the low level of alexithymia provided by their self-reports and the high level of alexithymia observed by their daughters, although the OAS showed severe methodological limitations. Maternal attachment states of mind characterized by the lack of resolution of past losses could be connected to a confusing and incoherent quality of

  5. Binge Eating Disorder and Body Uneasiness

    OpenAIRE

    Massimo Cuzzolaro; Maurizio Bellini; Lorenzo Donini; Chiara Santomassimo

    2008-01-01

    Debate continues regarding the nosological status of binge eating disorder (BED) and the specific diagnostic criteria, including whether, like anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa, it should be characterized by body image disturbances in addition to abnormal eating behaviour. The aims of this article are: a) to concisely review the main points of the literature that has developed on diagnosis and treatment (especially pharmacological) of BED and b) to present the results of an original resear...

  6. Eating disorders among classic ballet dancers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayara Freitas Monteiro

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To describe the prevalence of eating disorders symptoms among classical ballet dancers. Methods: This is an analytical, observational, cross-sectional study, conducted in 2009, that investigated eating disorder symptoms using the Eating Attitudes Test (EAT-26 and Bulimic Investigatory Test, Edinburgh (BITE. The body image of the study population was assessed by the Body Shape Questionnaire (BSQ. In addition, the anthropometric assessment was performed – measurement of weight, height and skin folds, calculation of body mass index (BMI and body fat percentage. Results: Of all the 139 emale adolescents assessed, 4.4% (n=6 had nutrition problems and 23% (n=23 presented abnormal values of body fat. The analysis of the EAT concluded that 12.3% (n=17 of the girls presented positive results for anorexia nervosa (AN. The BITE results showed that 13.7% (n=19 ofthe girls had unusual eating habits and 6.5% (n=9 presented subclinical bulimia nervosa (BN. As for severity, 3.6% (n=5 of the girls presented clinically significant results and 1.4% (n=2 were diagnosed with high severity. Concerning the results of the BSQ, 15.7% (n=21 of the girls were slightly concerned about body image; 5.2% (n=7 were moderately worried, and 6.7% (n=9 were severely concerned about it. Conclusion: This study did not diagnose the occurrence of eating disorders but found symptoms of AN (Anorexia Nervosa and BN (Bulimia Nervosa. Its main purpose was to alert about the prevalence of the possible development of eating disorders due to the influences of the environment where the teenagers are inserted – under a model defined by the classic ballet dance and the psychological turmoil of adolescence. doi:10.5020/18061230.2013.p396

  7. Prevention of eating disorders in female athletes

    OpenAIRE

    Coelho GMO; Gomes AIS; Ribeiro BG; EA. Soares

    2014-01-01

    Gabriela Morgado de Oliveira Coelho,1 Ainá Innocencio da Silva Gomes,2 Beatriz Gonçalves Ribeiro,2 Eliane de Abreu Soares11Nutrition Institute, Rio de Janeiro State University, Maracanã, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil; 2Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, Macaé Campus, Granja dos Cavaleiros, Macaé, BrazilAbstract: Eating disorders are serious mental diseases that frequently appear in female athletes. They are abnormal eating behaviors that can ...

  8. [Internet-based approaches in the therapy of eating disorders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fichter, M M; Quadflieg, N; Nisslmüller, K; Lindner, S; Voderholzer, U; Wünsch-Leiteritz, W; Osen, B; Huber, T; Zahn, S; Meermann, R; Irrgang, V; Bleichner, F

    2011-09-01

    Recent technological developments of communication media offer new approaches to diagnostic and therapeutic interactions with patients. One major development is Internet-based primary prevention in vulnerable individuals not yet suffering as well as the development of new therapeutic approaches for affected individuals based on the experiences of guided self-help through CD, DVD or bibliotherapy. The eating disorder literature shows several interesting, partly controlled and randomized, studies on bulimia nervosa, a few studies on binge eating disorder and no studies on anorexia nervosa. As part of the German Eating Disorder Network on Psychotherapy (EDNET) a 9-month Internet-based relapse prevention program for patients with anorexia nervosa after inpatient treatment was evaluated. Conception, first experiences and first results of the Internet-based relapse prevention program for anorexia nervosa are reported.

  9. Life History Strategy and Disordered Eating Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine Salmon

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available A sample of female undergraduates completed a packet of questionnaires consisting of the Arizona Life History Battery, a modified version of the Eating Disorders Inventory, the Behavioral Regulation scales from the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function, and two measures of Female Intrasexual Competitiveness that distinguished between competition for mates and competition for status. As predicted, Executive Functions completely mediated the relation between Slow Life History Strategy and Disordered Eating Behavior. Surprisingly, however, the relation between Female Intrasexual Competitiveness (competition for mates and competition for status and Disordered Eating Behavior was completely spurious, with executive functions serving as a common cause underlying the inhibition of both Disordered Eating Behavior and Female Intrasexual Competitiveness. The protective function of Slow Life History Strategy with respect to Disordered Eating Behavior apparently resides in a higher degree of Behavioral Regulation, a type of Executive Function. The enhanced Behavioral Regulation or self-control, of individuals with a Slow Life History Strategy is also protective against hazardously escalated levels of Female Intrasexual Competitiveness.

  10. Alexithymia in Eating Disorders: a transcultural perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefania Roma

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The role of alexithymia in eating disorders has been exstensively studied in Western cultures. On the contrary, studies on alexithymia in the Far East are rare, and its possible role in eating disorders is yet unstudied. After discussing the history and the meaning of the concept of alexithymia in Western cultures, the present paper poses the anthropological question whether alexithymia has a different meaning in Western and Eastern cultures. The sinologist literature on the topic of emotions in China is fi rstly addressed, followed by a review of empirical studies on eating disorders in China. Finally, the results of a preliminary study that compared the role of alexithymia in Italian and Chinese eating disorders are discussed, stressing that the signifi cantly lower alexithymia scores in Chinese eating disorders might be interpreted as strictly connected with the native culture, that is the tendency of Chinese girls to give socially desirable answers. Accordingly, a relevant pathoplastic role of the native culture not only on symptoms, but even on basic traits like alexithymia is suggested.

  11. Overvaluation of shape and weight as a mediator between self-esteem and weight bias internalization among patients with binge eating disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearl, Rebecca L; White, Marney A; Grilo, Carlos M

    2014-04-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the roles of self-esteem and overvaluation of shape and weight in accounting for the internalization of weight bias among patients with binge eating disorder (BED) and obesity. Two hundred forty-five treatment-seeking individuals with BED and obesity were evaluated with diagnostic and semi-structured interviews and completed the Weight Bias Internalization Scale (WBIS) and the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (RSE). Correlations and bootstrapping mediation analyses were computed to evaluate the relationships among self-esteem, overvaluation of shape/weight, and weight bias internalization. The effects of body mass index (BMI) and binge-eating frequency were also tested. Significant correlations emerged between WBIS, RSE, and overvaluation of shape and weight. BMI did not correlate with any measure, and binge-eating frequency only correlated with overvaluation. Mediation analyses provided support for the hypothesis that overvaluation of shape and weight mediates the relationship between self-esteem and weight bias internalization. These findings provide support to the proposed model that self-esteem and overvaluation of shape and weight contribute to weight bias internalization among patients with BED, which holds implications for clinical efforts to address weight bias and associated eating and weight-related psychopathology. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. A review of nighttime eating disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howell, Michael J; Schenck, Carlos H; Crow, Scott J

    2009-02-01

    Nighttime eating is categorized as either night eating syndrome (NES) or sleep-related eating disorder (SRED). These conditions represent an interruption in the overnight fast that characterizes human sleep. A critical review of the literature on NES and SRED will suggest that they are situated at opposite poles of a disordered eating spectrum. NES could be considered an abnormality in the circadian rhythm of meal timing with a normal circadian timing of sleep onset. Conversely, the feeding behavior in SRED is characterized by recurrent episodes of eating after an arousal from nighttime sleep with or without amnesia. Both conditions are often relentless and chronic. Multiple definitions of night eating have limited our ability to determine the exact prevalence of NES. Studies have suggested that central nervous system (CNS) serotonin modulation may lead to an effective treatment of NES. SRED is frequently associated with other sleep disorders, in particular parasomnias. Early studies have shown that the anti-seizure medication topiramate may be an effective treatment for SRED.

  13. Is "drunkorexia" an eating disorder, substance use disorder, or both?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Tyler K; Forbush, Kelsie T

    2016-08-01

    Researchers have identified a specific behavior pattern labeled "drunkorexia" to describe recurrent inappropriate compensatory behaviors (e.g., fasting and self-induced vomiting) to avoid weight gain from consuming alcohol (referred to as ICB-WGA). Several studies have investigated the prevalence of these behaviors among college students, but few have tested whether this behavior pattern is more strongly related to substance use or disordered eating, which may have future implications for eating disorder and substance abuse research fields. The aim of this project was to test: (1) whether disordered eating or alcohol use adds incremental validity to the prediction of ICB-WGA when controlling for the other variable and (2) the effect of sex on ICB-WGA. College participants (N=579; 53% female) completed the Eating Pathology Symptoms Inventory (EPSI), the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT), and several questions designed to measure ICB-WGA. Results indicated that EPSI Restricting and Body Dissatisfaction scales were not significant predictors of ICB-WGA, whereas the AUDIT and EPSI Cognitive Restraint, Excessive Exercise, Purging, and Binge Eating scales significantly predicted ICB-WGAs. Results indicated that disordered eating and alcohol use both added incremental validity to the prediction of ICB-WGA; however, ICB-WGA was more strongly related to disordered eating, and this was particularly true for women. Our findings suggest that individuals engaging in ICB-WGA may be at-risk for future development of both eating and substance disorders. Notably, our findings highlight the need for future research to focus on trans-diagnostic prevention programs that target mechanisms that underlie both disordered eating and substance misuse.

  14. Male or Female Therapists for Eating-Disordered Adolescents: Guidelines Suggested by Research and Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilker, Larry

    1993-01-01

    Explores which therapist-patient gender matches facilitate most patient growth and avoid detriment to female patients with eating disorders. Distills relevant variables from literature on eating disorders, adolescence, transference and countertransference, and psychotherapy to suggest guidelines for effective matches. Sees therapist and patient…

  15. Male or Female Therapists for Eating-Disordered Adolescents: Guidelines Suggested by Research and Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilker, Larry

    1993-01-01

    Explores which therapist-patient gender matches facilitate most patient growth and avoid detriment to female patients with eating disorders. Distills relevant variables from literature on eating disorders, adolescence, transference and countertransference, and psychotherapy to suggest guidelines for effective matches. Sees therapist and patient…

  16. Defining Features of Unhealthy Exercise Associated with Disordered Eating and Eating Disorder Diagnoses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holland, Lauren A; Brown, Tiffany A; Keel, Pamela K

    2014-01-01

    The current study sought to compare different features of unhealthy exercise on associations with disordered eating and their ability to identify individuals with eating disorders. A secondary aim of the study was to compare prevalence and overlap of different aspects of unhealthy exercise and potential differences in their gender distribution. Cross-sectional epidemiological study. A community-based sample of men (n=592) and women (n=1468) completed surveys of health and eating patterns, including questions regarding exercise habits and eating disorder symptoms. Compulsive and compensatory features of exercise were the best predictors of disordered eating and eating disorder diagnoses compared to exercise that was excessive in quantity. Further, compulsive and compensatory aspects of unhealthy exercise represented overlapping, yet distinct qualities in both men and women. Including the compulsive quality among the defining features of unhealthy exercise may improve identification of eating disorders, particularly in men. Results suggest that the compensatory aspect of unhealthy exercise is not adequately captured by the compulsive aspect of unhealthy exercise. Thus, interventions that target unhealthy exercise behaviors among high-risk individuals, such as athletes, may benefit from addressing both the compulsive and compensatory aspects of unhealthy exercise. Future prospective longitudinal studies will aid in determining the direction of the association between these features of unhealthy exercise and the onset of eating pathology.

  17. SOCIOTROPY AND AUTONOMY IN EATING DISORDERS

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    Radziwiłłowicz, Wioletta

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Studies of development psychopathology and psychia try have shown that personality variables are greatly associated with eating disorders. Sociotropy and autonomy may be features that facilitate the occurrence and persistence of the eating disturbances. Theoretical framework for own research was mainly the A. Beck’s concept of autonomy and sociotropy. The aim of the study was to answer the research question whether a person suffering from an eating disorder is characterized by a higher level of sociotropy and autonomy than those in risk and the control groups, as well as to emergence the relationship between the severity, sociotropy and autonomy in each group. Methods: The study was conducted within three groups: clini cal (23 girls diagnosed with eating disorders, risk (15 girls, who suffered of binge eating episodes, control (15 girls. The mean age of girls was 17,9 years. A structured clinical interview and Sociotropy - Autonomy Scale (T. Sato were used. Results: Emphasison the autonomous functioning and relationships problems are elevated among girls with eating disorders when compared to girls at risk and the control groups. They are characterized by greater difficulties in experiencing intimacy and trust, emotional distancing and low sensitivity to others, and a high fear of being controlled by the others. The sociotropy scores did not show differences between groups. Correlation analysis endorse no relationship between the intensity of sociotropy and autonomy. Conclusions: Sociotropy and autonomy are independent psychological constructs. Emphasis on the autonomous functioning and interpersonal difficulties may play a more important role in the origin and persistence of eating disorders symptomatology than sociotropy features.

  18. The perception of relations in the family of origin of patients with eating disorders and the perception of relations in families of origin of their parents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maciej Pilecki

    2015-08-01

    No specific correlations were found between the perception of the transgenerational experience of parents and evaluation of current relations in the nuclear family of their children with eating disorders. The results in the group with eating disorders suggest that the relations between parents and daughters are more intense than marital relations.

  19. The Eating Disorder Diagnostic Scale: psychometric features within a clinical population and a cut-off point to differentiate clinical patients from healthy controls

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krabbenborg, M.A.M.; Danner, U.N.; Larsen, J.K.; Veer, N. van der; Elburg, A.A. van; Ridder, D.T. de; Evers, C.; Stice, E.; Engels, R.C.E.M.

    2012-01-01

    The Eating Disorder Diagnostic Scale (EDDS) is a brief self-report measure for diagnosing anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa and binge eating disorder. Research has provided evidence of the reliability and validity of this scale in non-clinical populations. Our study is the first to examine the

  20. The Eating Disorder Diagnostic Scale: psychometric features within a clinical population and a cut-off point to differentiate clinical patients from healthy controls

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krabbenborg, M.A.M.; Danner, U.N.; Larsen, J.K.; Veer, N. van der; Elburg, A.A. van; Ridder, D.T. de; Evers, C.; Stice, E.; Engels, R.C.E.M.

    2012-01-01

    The Eating Disorder Diagnostic Scale (EDDS) is a brief self-report measure for diagnosing anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa and binge eating disorder. Research has provided evidence of the reliability and validity of this scale in non-clinical populations. Our study is the first to examine the psych

  1. Generic and eating disorder-specific impairment in binge eating disorder with and without overvaluation of weight or shape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Carmel; Mond, Jonathan; Rieger, Elizabeth; Rodgers, Bryan

    2015-09-01

    We sought to elucidate the nature and extent of impairment in quality of life among individuals with binge eating disorder (BED) with and without the overvaluation of weight or shape ("overvaluation"). Subgroups of women - probable BED with overvaluation (n = 102), probable BED without overvaluation (n = 72), obese individuals reporting no binge eating ("obese control", n = 40), and "normal weight" individuals reporting no binge eating ("healthy control," n = 40) - were recruited from a community-based sample in which individuals with eating disorder symptoms were over-represented. They were compared on measures of eating disorder psychopathology and generic and disease-specific measures of quality of life. Scores on these measures among individuals with BED receiving specialist treatment were also considered. Participants with BED and overvaluation had high levels of eating disorder psychopathology and impairment in both generic and disease-specific quality of life, comparable to those of BED patients receiving specialist treatment, and significantly higher than all other subgroups, whereas participants with BED in the absence of overvaluation did not differ from obese controls on any of these measures. The findings provide further evidence for the need to consider reference to overvaluation among the diagnostic criteria for BED. The relative merits of the inclusion of overvaluation as a diagnostic criterion or as a diagnostic specifier for BED warrant greater consideration. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Processing art sculptures relative to the issue of eating disorders

    OpenAIRE

    KONEČNÁ, Monika

    2016-01-01

    This thesis deals with the problems of eating disorders. Objective of the thesis is definition of eating disorder, a description of the individual faults an as a practical part there is an artistic creation of specific disorders. Theoretical part includes characteristics, division and insight into history. There are described four forms of eating disorders: anorexia, bulimia, obesity and bigorexia. In the practical part is the visual processing of transformation of two excessive eating disord...

  3. Psychopathological characteristics of patients seeking for bariatric surgery, either affected or not by binge eating disorder following the criteria of the DSM IV TR and of the DSM 5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinai, Piergiuseppe; Da Ros, Annalisa; Speciale, Maurizio; Gentile, Nicola; Tagliabue, Anna; Vinai, Paolo; Bruno, Cecilia; Vinai, Luisa; Studt, Stacia; Cardetti, Silvia

    2015-01-01

    We evaluate whether there are any significant differences in psychopathology between severe obese patients affected by Binge Eating Disorder diagnosed following both the DSM IV TR and the DSM5 criteria, and severe obese patients not having an eating disorder. 118 severe obese patients seeking treatment at a center for bariatric surgery in northern Italy were asked to take part in the current study for a period of six months. Average participant age was 44.27 years, SD 12.42. Age ranged from 18 to 67 years. Average patient BMI was 45.03, SD 7.11, ranging from 32.14 to 66.16 kg/m(2). Seventy seven of the patients (65.3%) were females and 41 (34.7%) were males. BED diagnosis was determined following the diagnostic criteria of both the DSM IV TR and the DSM 5. The presence of other eating disorders was excluded through a clinical screening using the Eating Disorder Inventory (EDI). Patient eating habits and the presence of emotional eating were appraised using the Three-Factor Eating Questionnaire. Levels of depression and anxiety were evaluated using the Beck Depression Inventory and the State Trait Anxiety Inventory. 57 out of 118 patients were found to be affected by BED following the DSM 5 criteria; among them 24 followed those of the DSM IV TR. BED patients scored higher on four subscales of the Eating Disorders Inventory: Drive for thinness (DT), Bulimia (B), Body dissatisfaction (BD) and Interoceptive awareness (IA) on the STAI and on the Disinhibition and Hunger subscales of the TFEQ. The results confirm the presence of high levels of psychopathology among patients diagnosed with BED, even if they have been diagnosed following the criteria of the DSM 5. There is a great overlap in psychopathology between BED patients diagnosed following the DSM IV TR and the DSM 5 criteria. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Disulfiram for binge eating disorder: an open trail.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farci, Anna Maria Giulia; Piras, Simona; Murgia, Magnolia; Chessa, Alessandra; Restivo, Angelo; Gessa, Gian Luigi; Agabio, Roberta

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the efficacy and safety of disulfiram for treatment of binge eating disorder. Two hundred and fifty milligrams per day of disulfiram was administered to 12 patients affected by binge eating disorder for 16 weeks; the number of binge eating episodes per week and the number of participants who reported side effects were evaluated. Nine participants (75.0%) completed the trial, while the other 3 (25.0%) discontinued prematurely. Disulfiram significantly decreased the mean frequency of binge eating episodes per week from 7.9±1.2 to 0.9±0.6 (pbinge eating episodes, and 7 participants (58.3%) achieved remission of binge eating. Eleven participants (91.7%) reported side effects [drowsiness (N=9), headache (N=7), dysgeusia (N=3), tachycardia (N=3), dizziness (N=2), and nausea (N=2)]. While disulfiram reduced the frequency of binge eating episodes, side effects were observed in the majority of participants. Longer-term placebo-controlled studies are warranted to exclude the contribution of a placebo response from these results and to evaluate drugs with similar pharmacological activity but improved tolerability. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Integrating Eating Disorder and Obesity Prevention Programs for Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Heather; Ng, Janet; Stice, Eric

    2007-01-01

    Increasingly, researchers in the areas of eating disorders and obesity prevention are recognizing the benefits of collaborative efforts aimed at curbing the spectrum of eating-related disturbances. Research suggests that eating disorders and overweight tend to co-occur, and that individuals cross over from one eating-related disturbance to…

  6. Apps and eating disorders: A systematic clinical appraisal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothwell, Emily R.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective Smartphone applications (apps) are proliferating and health‐related apps are particularly popular. The aim of this study was to identify, characterize, and evaluate the clinical utility of apps designed either for people with eating disorders or for eating disorder professionals. Method A search of the major app stores identified 805 potentially relevant apps, of which 39 were primarily designed for people with eating disorders and five for professionals. Results The apps for people with eating disorders had four main functions. Most common was the provision of advice, the quality of which ranged from sound to potentially harmful. Five apps included self‐assessment tools but only two used methods that would generally be viewed as reliable. Four apps had the self‐monitoring of eating habits as a major feature. Entering information into these apps could be accomplished with varying degrees of ease, but viewing it was more difficult. One app allowed the transfer of information between patients and clinicians. Discussion The enthusiasm for apps outstrips the evidence supporting their use. Given their popularity, it is suggested that clinicians evaluate app use as part of routine assessment. The clinical utility of the existing apps is not clear. Some are capable of tracking key features over time, but none has the functions required for analytic self‐monitoring as in cognitive behavioral treatments. The full potential of apps has yet to be realized. Specialized apps could be designed to augment various forms of treatment, and there is the possibility that they could deliver an entire personalized intervention. © 2015 The Authors. International Journal of Eating Disorders published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. (Int J Eat Disord 2015; 48:1038–1046) PMID:25728705

  7. Sleep-related eating disorder secondary to zolpidem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nzwalo, Hipólito; Ferreira, Ligia; Peralta, Rita; Bentes, Carla

    2013-02-21

    Sleep-related eating disorder (SRED) is characterised by eating episodes during the first period of the night sleep with partial loss consciousness, and amnesia. It can rarely be induced by some drugs, including zolpidem. We present a video report of a patient with a 1-year history of SRED caused by zolpidem causing important repercussions in the sleep structure and life quality. The night eating episodes ceased promptly with discontinuation of zolpidem. Upon the follow-up, the sleep structure improved and the daily consequences disappeared. As in few reported cases of zolpidem-induced SRED, our patient was suffering from the parasomnia for a long time before the diagnosis. Active exclusion of symptoms suggestive of SRED in patients under zolpidem treatment can avoid the deleterious effect of the sleep disorder.

  8. [Changes to the classification of Eating Disorders in DSM-5].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knoll, Susanne; Föcker, Manuel; Hebebrand, Johannes

    2014-09-01

    The fifth revision of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5) resulted in substantial changes with regard to the classification of Eating Disorders. In DSM-5, Feeding and Eating Disorders are for the first time subsumed in a single category. The Binge Eating Disorder (BED) was established as the third classical eating disorder in addition to Anorexia Nervosa (AN) and Bulimia Nervosa (BN). The criteria for AN changed remarkably, whereas there were only minor changes to the BN criteria. The criteria for BED differ only marginally from the DSM-IV research criteria. There are now subtypes of AN, BN, and BED in the new category "Other Specific Feeding and Eating Disorders." The rest category "Eating Disorders Not Otherwise Specified" has been renamed to "Unspecified Feeding or Eating Disorders." The practicability of the DSM-5 criteria for Eating Disorders, and for AN in particular, for both clinical practice and research remains to be seen.

  9. Pro-eating disorder search patterns: the possible influence of celebrity eating disorder stories in the media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Stephen P; Klauninger, Laura; Marcincinova, Ivana

    2016-01-01

    Pro eating disorder websites often contain celebrity-focused content (e.g., images) used as thinspiration to engage in unhealthy eating disorder behaviours. The current study was conducted to examine whether news media stories covering eating disorder disclosures of celebrities corresponded with increases in Internet searches for pro eating disorder material. Results indicated that search volumes for pro eating disorder terms spiked in the month immediately following such news coverage but only for particularly high-profile celebrities. Hence, there may be utility in providing recovery-oriented resources within the search results for pro-eating disorder Internet searches and within news stories of this nature.

  10. Implantable cardioverter-defibrillator therapy in a 34-year-old patient with eating disorders and after the third sudden cardiac arrest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piotrowicz, Ewa; Orzechowski, Piotr; Bilinska, Maria; Przybylski, Andrzej; Szumowski, Lukasz; Piotrowicz, Ryszard

    2015-03-01

    Eating disorders (ED) such as anorexia nervosa and bulimia are psychiatric diseases associated with the highest mortality rate of any other psychiatric disorders. More recently, long-term outcome studies with follow-up of over 20 years report a mortality of between 15% and 18% (Casiero and Frishman, Cardiol Rev 14(5), 227, 2006). The sudden death secondary to arrhythmias is often the cause of death in these patients (Casiero and Frishman, Cardiol Rev 14(5), 227, 2006). A case of life-threatening ventricular arrhythmia (VA) in a patient with ED is presented. Clinical records (cardiologic, psychiatric), electrocardiograms, echocardiogram, coronary angiogram, cardiac magnetic resonance, and endocrine diagnostics were performed. Finally a cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) was implanted in the patient after her third cardiac arrest. An optimal approach to antiarrhythmic therapy in such patients is a real challenge for a cardiologist.

  11. Self-change in eating disorders: is "spontaneous recovery" possible?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandereycken, Walter

    2012-01-01

    A limited series of community studies including non-treatment-seekers has shown that a considerable number of eating disorder patients do not enter the health care system but can be considered "clinically recovered" (remission of major symptoms) if followed up long enough. The possibility of "spontaneous recovery" (overcoming an eating disorder without professional treatment or formal help) often faces scepticism on the part of professionals. Clearly, self-change is an underestimated pathway to recovery from an eating disorder, but open-minded clinicians can learn a lot from it. Active coping and making use of one's "recovery capital" are key features of self-change even if maintenance of change is associated with social support and positive life changes.

  12. Using text messaging in the treatment of eating disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazelwood, Amanda-Jane

    New technologies for communicating with patients can open up new treatment possibilities. This article describes the use of mobile phone text messaging as a therapeutic intervention in the treatment of eating disorders. In text messaging a person can conceal themselves and--very significantly in the context of eating disorders--the body does not show. The exchange does not have to be instantaneous and is not face to face. This article outlines the use of mobile phone texting, alongside therapy and other nursing interventions, as an effective tool to help clients communicate their thoughts and feelings in a safer and freer way.

  13. [Eating disorders in childhood and adolescence. Anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, binge eating disorder].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerlinghoff, M; Backmund, H

    2004-03-01

    The most important eating disorders are anorexia and bulimia, which most frequently occur for the first time during adolescence and continue into adulthood. Medical complications and accompanying psychological disturbances cause a significant mortality rate of up to 6% in anorexia and up to 3% in bulimia. The pathogenesis of eating disorders is still unclear. Current etiological concepts are multidimensional including biological, individual, familial, and sociocultural factors. In spite of a great variety of therapeutic possibilities, the prognosis for eating disorders is quite poor. In the long term, only about 50% of the persons affected overcome their illness. Preventive measures are therefore indispensable.

  14. Correlations between the perception of family functioning by patients with eating disorders and their parents and the perception of relations in the parents’ families of origin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pilecki, Maciej W.

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Aim of the study: To assess the correlations between the perception of relations in parents’ families of origin and the assessment of the current family by the parents and their daughters suffering from eating disorders. Studied group: Statistical analyses were applied to the results obtained from 54 patients diagnosed with restrictive anorexia nervosa, from 22 with binge-purge anorexia, from 36 with bulimia and from two control groups: 36 patients diagnosed with depressive disorders and 85 Krakow schoolgirls. The study also covered the parents of the investigated girls. Method: Family of Origin Scale and Family Assessment Questionnaire (FAM Polish version were used in the study. Results: The procreative family assessment made by the mothers was correlated with the assessment of their own generational family and the assessment of own generational family made by their husbands. Procreative family assessment made by the fathers was correlated only with their assessment of their family of origin. Family of origin assessment made by patients with diagnosed eating disorders, particularly bulimia, was correlated only with the family of origin assessment made by their fathers. The last correlation did not occur in the control groups.

  15. Keep an Eye Out for Eating Disorders in Loved Ones

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... fullstory_163877.html Keep an Eye Out for Eating Disorders in Loved Ones If you suspect someone has ... problem, be careful not to shame or criticize, eating disorder expert says To use the sharing features on ...

  16. A qualitative study of males' perceptions about causes of eating disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Wallin, Karin; Pettersen, Gunn; Björk, Tabita; Råstam, Maria

    2014-01-01

    Our knowledge about males’ perceptions about causes of eating disorder is very limited, but can be useful in the treatment planning for males. The aim of this study was to describe how male former patients perceived causes of onset of their eating disorder. Fifteen males previously treated for eating disorders and now considering themselves as recovered where interviewed at ages 19 - 52. All interviews were recorded and analyzed qualitatively using a phenomenographic approach. Three categorie...

  17. A qualitative study of males' perceptions about causes of eating disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Wallin, Karin; Pettersen, Gunn; Björk, Tabita; Råstam, Maria

    2014-01-01

    Our knowledge about males’ perceptions about causes of eating disorder is very limited, but can be useful in the treatment planning for males. The aim of this study was to describe how male former patients perceived causes of onset of their eating disorder. Fifteen males previously treated for eating disorders and now considering themselves as recovered where interviewed at ages 19 - 52. All interviews were recorded and analyzed qualitatively using a phenomenographic approach. Three catego...

  18. The mother-daughter relationship in eating disorders: the psychotherapy group of mothers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alicia Weisz Cobelo

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Psychotherapeutic interventions that bring about differentiation, separation, individuation and autonomy in the mother-daughter relationship are recommended as treatment for eating disorders. With this goal in mind, a psychotherapy group for mothers was organized in an outpatient program for adolescents with eating disorders at a public institution, as one of the psychotherapeutic approaches in the multidisciplinary treatment of adolescent patients. Evidence suggests that this approach can be relevant and effective in the treatment of eating disorders.

  19. Increased use of antimicrobial medication in bulimia nervosa and binge-eating disorder prior to the eating disorder treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raevuori, Anu; Lukkariniemi, Laura; Suokas, Jaana T; Gissler, Mika; Suvisaari, Jaana M; Haukka, Jari

    2016-06-01

    We examined the use of antimicrobial medication as a proxy for infections in large patient cohort treated for binge-eating disorder (BED), bulimia nervosa (BN), and anorexia nervosa (AN) over the five-year period preceding eating disorder treatment. Patients (N = 1592) at the Eating Disorder Unit of Helsinki University Central Hospital between 2000 and 2010 were compared with matched general population controls (N = 6368). The study population was linked to the prescription data of antibacterial, antifungal and antiviral medication from the Register on Reimbursed Prescription Medicine. Data were analyzed using regression models. Individuals with BN and BED had received more often antimicrobial medication prescriptions compared to their controls (OR: 1.7, 95% CI: 1.3-2.1; OR: 2.6, 95% CI: 1.4-4.6, respectively), while no significant difference emerged in AN (OR: 0.9, 95% CI: 0.7-1.0, p = 0.10). Of the main drug categories, the respective pattern was seen in antibacterial and antifungal medication, while increased use for antivirals appeared only in BN (OR: 1.6, 95% CI: 1.1-2.3). Measured with the mean number of prescriptions or mean Defined Daily Doses per individual, patients with BN, BED and males with AN had also higher total antimicrobial medication use. Indicating increased infections, we found elevated use of antimicrobial medication in BN, BED and in males with AN. Infections may be consequence of hyperglycemia, weight gain, or dysregulation of intestinal microbiota associated with core eating disorder behaviors. Or the other way round; changes in intestinal microbiota due to infections, inflammation, or antibacterial medications might contribute to eating disorders in multiple ways. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. (Int J Eat Disord 2016; 49:542-552). © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Screening for eating disorders: false negatives and eating disorders not otherwise specified

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Vetrone

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To study the problem of false negatives in the screening for eating disorders. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: We administered the Eating Attitudes Test (EAT40 and the Eating Disorder Inventory (EDI to 186 Italian female students (age 17.68 ± 0.9; BMI 20.84 ± 2.69. Then we submitted not only high-scorers but also all the subjects to a semi-structured diagnostic interview (Eating Disorder Examination - EDE 12.0D. The diagnosis of eating disorders not otherwise specified (EDNOS was applied to cases which met all the DSM-IV criteria for AN and/or BN with one exception. RESULTS: 17 girls (9.1% fulfilled diagnostic criteria for eating disorders: 1 bulimia nervosa full-syndrome and 16 EDNOS. Of the 17 girls 11 were EAT low-scorers (< 30 and 8 were EDI low-scorers (< 50; 5 subjects scored below the cutoff on both instruments. We calculated sensitivity (35.3%, specificity (88.8%, positive predictive value (PPV, 24.0% and negative predictive value (NPV, 93.2% of the EAT40; the respective values for the EDI were 52.9% (sensitivity, 85.2% (specificity, 26.4% (PPV and 94.7% (NPV. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION: Our data show that the introduction of the EDNOS diagnoses increases the PPV of the two questionnaires but lowers their sensitivity. We conclude that using a two stage screening approach leads to a very high rate of false negatives with a significant underestimation of the prevalence of eating disorders, particularly of EDNOS.

  1. Pharmacotherapy of binge-eating disorder: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goracci, Arianna; di Volo, Silvia; Casamassima, Francesco; Bolognesi, Simone; Benbow, Jim; Fagiolini, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to provide a comprehensive review of pharmacotherapy for binge eating disorder, including new therapeutic approaches such as centrally acting sympathomimetics, nootropics, lisdexamfetamine, and substance abuse treatment agents such as acamprosate, sodium oxybate, baclofen, and naltrexone. The study was conducted by searching the MEDLINE database using the keywords "binge eating disorder," "obesity," and "pharmacological therapy."All available studies on each drug dating from 1988 to the present were considered, focusing mainly on randomized controlled trials (RCTs). Other types of studies were considered when no RCTs were found. We drafted separate tables for open-label studies (), RCT (), and retrospective studies (). Each study is detailed by the number of subjects, additional design considerations, doses, results, additional main comparators, and study limitations. The data emerging from this study seem to show that, at least in the short term, some specific medications within the classes of antidepressants, anticonvulsants, and antiobesity agents may prove promising in achieving the main objectives in the treatment of binge eating disorder: reducing the frequency of binge eating, reducing weight, and improving the associated psychopathology. The major limitation in interpreting these results is the short duration of the studies and the lack of adequately sized trials, or trials including patients with medical comorbidities.Good results are being obtained with new combinations of drugs and with substance abuse treatment agents. Although the precise nature of the relationship between substance use disorders and binge eating disorder remains to be clarified, the evidence suggests that treatments recognized as effective for substance use disorders may be useful as novel treatments for binge eating disorder. This field of research remains open to future studies with more precise methodological approaches and more detailed parameter

  2. SCREENING FOR EARLY DETECTION OF EATING DISORDERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisaveta Pavlova

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Eating Disorders (EDs are characterized by a persistent disturbance of eating or eating-related behavior that significantly impairs physical health or psychosocial functioning. EDs are caused by a complex interaction of genetic, biological, behavioral, psychological, and social factors. Their epidemiology is rising for the past decades, and EDs affect all races, social levels and both genders. Due to the long and expensive treatment, chronic course, and the fact that most of the sufferers do not realize the need for therapy or do not seek treatment, the demand on developing prevention programs, early detection and assessment is essential. Despite the fact, that many new EDs screening tools were developed already, there is a great lack of validated screening instruments, adapted to the Bulgarian conditions. Objects and methods: Our study aimed at eliciting a comprehensive battery for screening of not only specific ED pathology, but also some risk factors, such as negative body image, weight and depressive symptoms. The object of our study consisted of 201 females, aged 18 to 45 (mean 24.65. SCOOF- questionnaire, Eating Disorder Diagnostic Scale (EDDS-5, Body Image Questionnaire-34 and Beck Depression Inventory (BDI were applied. Results: Our preliminary results show that approximately 45% of the tested subjects show some of the: negative body image, eating disorders’ clinical pathology, distorted eating patterns, subclinical eating disorders pathology, overweight/obesity, or depressive symptoms. Conclusion: Our ongoing efforts in area of research also are aimed at developing and refining strategies for preventing and treating ED among adolescents and adults.

  3. Placebo cessation in binge eating disorder: effect on anthropometric, cardiovascular, and metabolic variables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blom, Thomas J; Guerdjikova, Anna I; Mori, Nicole; Casuto, Leah S; McElroy, Susan L

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of cessation of binge eating in response to placebo treatment in binge eating disorder (BED) on anthropometric, cardiovascular, and metabolic variables. We pooled participant-level data from 10 randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trials of medication for BED. We then compared patients who stopped binge eating with those who did not on changes in weight, body mass index (BMI), systolic and diastolic blood pressure, pulse, and fasting lipids and glucose. Of 234 participants receiving placebo, 60 (26%) attained cessation from binge eating. Patients attaining cessation showed modestly decreased diastolic blood pressure compared with patients who continued to binge eat. Weight and BMI remained stable in patients who stopped binge eating, but increased somewhat in those who continued to binge eat. Patients who stopped binge eating with placebo had greater reductions in diastolic blood pressure and gained less weight than patients who continued to binge eat. Self-report of eating pathology in BED may predict physiologic variables. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association.

  4. Is decision making really impaired in eating disorders?

    OpenAIRE

    Guillaume, Sébastien; Sang, Caroline Ngo Ton; Jaussent, Isabelle; Raingeard, Isabelle; Bringer, Jacques; Jollant, Fabrice; Courtet, Philippe

    2010-01-01

    'This article may not exactly replicate the final version published in the APA journal. It is not the copy of record.'; International audience; These results do not support reduced decision making in patients with eating disorders, and suggest that previously reported alterations could be related to other clinical characteristics. This should stimulate new topic-related studies designed to reach a firm conclusion.

  5. Virtual reality jogging as a novel exposure paradigm for the acute urge to be physically active in patients with eating disorders: Implications for treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paslakis, Georgios; Fauck, Vanessa; Röder, Kathrin; Rauh, Elisabeth; Rauh, Manfred; Erim, Yesim

    2017-08-11

    The acute urge to be physically active is a relevant clinical phenomenon in patients suffering from eating disorders. In this study with n = 20 female patients with anorexia nervosa and n = 10 female patients with bulimia nervosa, a virtual reality (VR) jogging paradigm was applied as a novel highly immersive 3-D exposure paradigm. Patients were asked to rate their acute urge to be physically active during the exposure procedure. A 10-item self-report questionnaire (smQ) was developed to capture the cognitive, emotional, and behavioral aspects of the acute urge to move. We hypothesized that exposure would lead to habituation of the urge to be physically active. We also hypothesized that leptin levels would be associated with the degree of the subjective urge to be physically active, while habituation would be associated with a decrease in stress hormones (α-amylase, cortisol, and cortisone in saliva). A statistically significant change in subjective scores in the smQ from baseline to postexposure was seen. Our novel VR paradigm may serve as a therapeutic tool for exposure and habituation of the urge of acutely engaging in physical activity in patients with eating disorders. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Analyses of the role of the glucocorticoid receptor gene polymorphism (rs41423247) as a potential moderator in the association between childhood overweight, psychopathology, and clinical outcomes in Eating Disorders patients: A 6 years follow up study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castellini, Giovanni; Lelli, Lorenzo; Tedde, Andrea; Piaceri, Irene; Bagnoli, Silvia; Lucenteforte, Ersilia; Sorbi, Sandro; Monteleone, Alessio Maria; Hudziak, James J; Nacmias, Benedetta; Ricca, Valdo

    2016-09-30

    Childhood overweight and the SNP rs41423247 of the glucocorticoid receptor gene (GR) were reported to represent predisposing factors for Eating Disorders (EDs). The distribution of the polymorphism was evaluated in 202 EDs patients, and in 116 healthy subjects. The Structured Clinical Interview for the DSM-IV and self-reported questionnaires were administered at the admission to the clinic and at 3 time points (end of a cognitive behavioral therapy, 3 and 6 years follow up). G-allele was associated with childhood overweight, depressive disorder comorbidity, and diagnostic instability. G-allele carriers reporting childhood overweight showed greater frequency of subjective binge eating and emotional eating.

  7. Course and outcome of eating disorders in a primary care-based cohort.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Son, G.E. van; Hoeken, D. van; Furth, E.F. van; Donker, G.A.; Hoek, H.W.

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To study the course and outcome of patients with eating disorder detected in primary care. METHOD: General practitioners (GP's) provided information on the course and outcome of eating disorders in patients (n = 147) diagnosed with anorexia nervosa (AN) or bulimia nervosa (BN) identified

  8. High prevalence of eating disorders in narcolepsy with cataplexy: a case-control study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fortuyn, H.A.; Swinkels, S.; Buitelaar, J.K.; Renier, W.O.; Furer, J.W.; Rijnders, C.A.; Hodiamont, P.P.; Overeem, S.

    2008-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVES: To study the prevalence of and symptoms of eating disorders in patients with narcolepsy. DESIGN: We performed a case-control study comparing symptoms of eating disorders in patients with narcolepsy versus healthy population controls, using the Schedules for Clinical Assessment in N

  9. High prevalence of eating disorders in narcolepsy with cataplexy: a case-control study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Droogleever Fortuyn, H.A.; Swinkels, S.H.N.; Buitelaar, J.K.; Renier, W.O.; Furer, J.W.; Rijnders, C.A.T.H.; Hodiamont, P.P.G.; Overeem, S.

    2008-01-01

    Study Objectives: To study the prevalence of and symptoms of eating disorders in patients with narcolepsy. Design: We performed a case-control study comparing symptoms of eating disorders in patients with narcolepsy versus healthy population controls, using the Schedules for Clinical Assessment i

  10. Parents' personality clusters and eating disordered daughters' personality and psychopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amianto, Federico; Ercole, Roberta; Marzola, Enrica; Abbate Daga, Giovanni; Fassino, Secondo

    2015-11-30

    The present study explores how parents' personality clusters relate to their eating disordered daughters' personality and psychopathology. Mothers and fathers were tested with the Temperament Character Inventory. Their daughters were assessed with the following: Temperament and Character Inventory, Eating Disorder Inventory-2, Symptom Checklist-90, Parental Bonding Instrument, Attachment Style Questionnaire, and Family Assessment Device. Daughters' personality traits and psychopathology scores were compared between clusters. Daughters' features were related to those of their parents. Explosive/adventurous mothers were found to relate to their daughters' borderline personality profile and more severe interoceptive awareness. Mothers' immaturity was correlated to their daughters' higher character immaturity, inadequacy, and depressive feelings. Fathers who were explosive/methodic correlated with their daughters' character immaturity, severe eating, and general psychopathology. Fathers' character immaturity only marginally related to their daughters' specific features. Both parents' temperament clusters and mothers' character clusters related to patients' personality and eating psychopathology. The cluster approach to personality-related dynamics of families with an individual affected by an eating disorder expands the knowledge on the relationship between parents' characteristics and daughters' illness, suggesting complex and unique relationships correlating parents' personality traits to their daughters' disorder.

  11. Do the IPDE and the MCMI-II assess the same personality disorders in patients with eating disorders?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Izaskun Marañón

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available El presente estudio ex post facto persigue conocer la prevalencia de los trastornos de personalidad (TP en los trastornos de la conducta alimentaria (TCA y determinar la concordancia entre el IPDE y el MCMI-II a la hora de medir TP en pacientes con un TCA. Se compararon los perfiles de personalidad en 84 pacientes con un TCA utilizando como instrumentos de medida el International Personality Disorders Examination (IPDE y el Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory-II (MCMI-II. Para los análisis estadísticos se recurrió al estadístico Kappa, así como a las medidas de sensibilidad, especificidad, valor predictivo positivo y valor predictivo negativo. El 54,8% de la muestra total cumplía criterios para al menos un TP en el IPDE, mientras que el 77,4% lo hacía en el MCMI-II. La concordancia entre ambos instrumentos fue marginal. El MCMI-II tiende a sobrediagnosticar TP específicos, por lo que no es un buen instrumento de evaluación para realizar diagnósticos de TP. Estos resultados constituyen un desafío para la evaluación clínica y se comentan, por ello, las implicaciones para futuros trabajos de investigación.

  12. Serotonergic dysfunction across the eating disorders: relationship to eating behaviour, purging behaviour, nutritional status and general psychopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteleone, P; Brambilla, F; Bortolotti, F; Maj, M

    2000-09-01

    Several recent studies have pointed to a dysfunction of serotonin transmission in patients with eating disorders. Notwithstanding, it is not known whether serotonergic abnormalities are related primarily to eating and/or purging behaviour, nutritional status or general psychopathological dimensions. Therefore, by using a validated neuroendocrine strategy, we investigated central serotonergic function in patients with anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa or binge-eating disorder who differ on the above parameters. Plasma prolactin response to D-fenfluramine (30 mg p.o.) or placebo was measured in 58 drug-free female volunteers, comprising 15 underweight anorexic women, 18 bulimic women, 10 women with binge-eating disorder and 15 female healthy controls. Behavioural assessment included ratings of eating disorder symptoms, depression, aggression and food-related obsessions and compulsions. A significantly decreased prolactin response to D-fenfluramine was found in underweight anorexic women and in bulimics with high frequency bingeing ( > 2 binge episodes/day), but not in patients with binge-eating disorder or in bulimics with low frequency bingeing (nervosa. Moreover, they show, for the first time, that the hypothalamic serotonergic system is not altered in women with binge-eating disorder.

  13. VREPAR 2: VR in eating disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riva, G; Bacchetta, M; Baruffi, M; Defrance, C; Gatti, F; Galimberti, C; Nugues, P; Ferretti, G S; Tonci, A

    1999-01-01

    Virtual Reality Environments for Psychoneurophysiological Assessment and Rehabilitation (VREPAR) are two European Community funded projects (Telematics for health-HC 1053/HC 1055-http://www.psicologia.net) whose aim is (a) to develop a PC based virtual reality system (PC-VRS) for the medical market that can be marketed at a price that is accessible to its possible endusers (hospitals, universities, and research centres) and that would have the modular, connectability and interoperability characteristics that the existing systems lack; and (b) to develop three hardware/software modules for the application of the PC-VRS in psychoneurophysiological assessment and rehabilitation. The chosen development areas are eating disorders (bulimia, anorexia, and obesity), movement disorders (Parkinson's disease and torsion dystonia), and stroke disorders (unilateral neglect and hemiparesis). In particular, the VREPAR 2 project is now testing the eating disorders module on a clinical sample.

  14. The Eating Disorders Continuum, Self-Esteem, and Perfectionism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peck, Lisa D.; Lightsey, Owen Richard

    2008-01-01

    Among 261 undergraduate women, increased severity of eating disorders along a continuum was associated with decreased self-esteem, increased perfectionism, and increased scores on 7 subscales of the Eating Disorders Inventory-2. Women with eating disorders differed from both symptomatic women and asymptomatic women on all variables, whereas…

  15. Disordered Eating in Women of Color: Some Counseling Considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talleyrand, Regine M.

    2012-01-01

    There is little attention devoted to studying eating disorder symptoms in racially and ethnically diverse groups despite the fact that the prevalence rates among women of color for eating disorder symptoms are similar to those of European American women. This article reviews research related to eating disorders in women of color, including a…

  16. Adult Attachment and Disordered Eating in Undergraduate Men and Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elgin, Jenna; Pritchard, Mary

    2006-01-01

    Previous research on gender differences between males and females on the risk factors leading to disordered eating is sparse, especially on males and eating disorders using attachment theory. This study examined the relationship between adult attachment style and disordered eating in men and women. Secure attachment scores were significantly…

  17. College Student Stress: A Predictor of Eating Disorder Precursor Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelton, Virginia L.; Valkyrie, Karena T.

    2010-01-01

    Eating disorders are compulsive behaviors that can consume a person's life to the point of becoming life threatening. Previous research found stress associated with eating disorders. College can be a stressful time. If stress predicted precursor behaviors to eating disorders, then counselors would have a better chance to help students sooner. This…

  18. The Eating Disorders Continuum, Self-Esteem, and Perfectionism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peck, Lisa D.; Lightsey, Owen Richard

    2008-01-01

    Among 261 undergraduate women, increased severity of eating disorders along a continuum was associated with decreased self-esteem, increased perfectionism, and increased scores on 7 subscales of the Eating Disorders Inventory-2. Women with eating disorders differed from both symptomatic women and asymptomatic women on all variables, whereas…

  19. Disordered Eating in Women of Color: Some Counseling Considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talleyrand, Regine M.

    2012-01-01

    There is little attention devoted to studying eating disorder symptoms in racially and ethnically diverse groups despite the fact that the prevalence rates among women of color for eating disorder symptoms are similar to those of European American women. This article reviews research related to eating disorders in women of color, including a…

  20. General practitioner knowledge, skills and attitudes to eating disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Doherty, Sally; McNamee, Lisa

    2015-01-01

    Given that general practitioners are perfectly placed to detect eating disorders this summer research study aimed to examine general practitioners’ knowledge, skills and attitudes towards eating disorders. The study aimed to compile a national picture of the diagnosis, referral practices, and management of eating disorders in primary care in Ireland.

  1. Preventing a Continuum of Disordered Eating: Going beyond the Individual

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell-Mayhew, Shelly

    2007-01-01

    Efforts aimed at the prevention of eating disorders need to consider the context within which these disorders develop and aim to promote not only healthy eating and physical activity but also address mental health factors, such as body image. Exploring the relationship between body image and eating disorders will provide a foundation and further…

  2. Perplexities and Provocations of Eating Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halmi, Katherine A.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Etiological hypotheses of eating disorders, anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa have not produced informative research for predictably effective treatment. Methods: The rationale for applying a model of allostasis, a dysregulation of reward circuits with activation of brain and hormonal stress responses to maintain apparent stability,…

  3. Perplexities and Provocations of Eating Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halmi, Katherine A.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Etiological hypotheses of eating disorders, anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa have not produced informative research for predictably effective treatment. Methods: The rationale for applying a model of allostasis, a dysregulation of reward circuits with activation of brain and hormonal stress responses to maintain apparent stability,…

  4. Treatment and Counseling Approaches for Eating Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Kristin L.

    Maladaptive eating behaviors are a growing phenomenon which has captured the interest of not only health and psychology professionals, but also the general public. This paper examines the various types of treatment and counseling approaches for treating anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa. Definitions for both disorders are provided, followed by…

  5. An Empirically Supported Eating Disorder Prevention Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phelps, LeAdelle; Sapia, Jennifer; Nathanson, David; Nelson, Linda

    2000-01-01

    An eating disorder prevention program was completed with middle school, high school, and college females. Some successful outcomes included: (1) facilitating an acknowledgement of pressures to attain a model skeletal look; (2) changing attitudes about standards of beauty; and (3) altering the participants' current and future intentional use of…

  6. Interspecies genetics of eating disorder traits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kas, Martien J H; Kaye, Walter H; Foulds Mathes, Wendy; Bulik, Cynthia M

    2009-01-01

    Family and twin studies have indicated that genetic factors play a role in the development of eating disorders, such as anorexia and bulimia nervosa, but novel views and tools may enhance the identification of neurobiological mechanisms underlying these conditions. Here we propose an integrative gen

  7. Diagnosis and Treatment of Eating Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuman, Patricia; And Others

    This paper was designed to provide professional counselors with a comprehensive but concise method of accurately evaluting, interviewing, and planning for treatment of eating disorder clients. The paper is organized in five sections. The first section, Diagnosis, compares, contrasts, and offers clear explanations of the diagnostic criteria for…

  8. Psychological Treatments for Binge Eating Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gredysa, Dana M.; Altman, Myra; Wilfley, Denise E.

    2012-01-01

    Binge eating disorder (BED) is the most prevalent eating disorder in adults, and individuals with BED report greater general and specific psychopathology than non-eating disordered individuals. The current paper reviews research on psychological treatments for BED, including the rationale and empirical support for cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT), interpersonal psychotherapy (IPT), dialectical behavior therapy (DBT), behavioral weight loss (BWL), and other treatments warranting further study. Research supports the effectiveness of CBT and IPT for the treatment of BED, particularly for those with higher eating disorder and general psychopathology. Guided self-help CBT has shown efficacy for BED without additional pathology. DBT has shown some promise as a treatment for BED, but requires further study to determine its long-term efficacy. Predictors and moderators of treatment response, such as weight and shape concerns, are highlighted and a stepped-care model proposed. Future directions include expanding the adoption of efficacious treatments in clinical practice, testing adapted treatments in diverse samples (e.g., minorities and youth), improving treatment outcomes for nonresponders, and developing efficient and cost-effective stepped-care models. PMID:22707016

  9. Genetics and epigenetics of eating disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yilmaz Z

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Zeynep Yilmaz,1 J Andrew Hardaway,1 Cynthia M Bulik1–3 1Department of Psychiatry, 2Department of Nutrition, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC, USA; 3Department of Medical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden Abstract: Eating disorders (EDs are serious psychiatric conditions influenced by biological, psychological, and sociocultural factors. A better understanding of the genetics of these complex traits and the development of more sophisticated molecular biology tools have advanced our understanding of the etiology of EDs. The aim of this review is to critically evaluate the literature on the genetic research conducted on three major EDs: anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, and binge eating disorder. We will first review the diagnostic criteria, clinical features, prevalence, and prognosis of anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, and binge eating disorder, followed by a review of family, twin, and adoption studies. We then review the history of genetic studies of EDs covering linkage analysis, candidate-gene association studies, genome-wide association studies, and the study of rare variants in EDs. Our review also incorporates a translational perspective by covering animal models of ED-related phenotypes. Finally, we review the nascent field of epigenetics of EDs and a look forward to future directions for ED genetic research. Keywords: anorexia nervosa, binge eating disorder, bulimia nervosa, animal models, genome-wide association studies, high-throughput sequencing

  10. Quality of life in eating disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winkler, Laura Vad; Christiansen, Erik; Lichtenstein, Mia Beck

    2014-01-01

    to general population norm data and to investigate potential differences between ED diagnostic groups. A systematic review of the current literature was conducted using a keyword-based search in PubMed and PsychInfo. The search covered anorexia nervosa (AN), bulimia nervosa (BN), eating disorders...

  11. Restrictive eating disorders among adolescent inpatients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitelaw, Melissa; Gilbertson, Heather; Lee, Katherine J; Sawyer, Susan M

    2014-09-01

    Clinicians are increasingly observing adolescents who have lost large amounts of weight, experience typical cognitions and acute medical complications of anorexia nervosa (AN), yet do not meet diagnostic criteria for AN owing to weight. We refer to this category of Eating Disorder Not Otherwise Specified as EDNOS-Wt. We set out to describe the changing incidence of EDNOS-Wt compared with AN, and to compare the characteristics of these 2 groups in a cohort that required hospitalization after weight loss. A 6-year retrospective cohort study (2005 to 2010) was undertaken of first admissions of 12- to 19-year-old patients to a tertiary children's hospital using Diagnostic Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition (DSM IV) AN or EDNOS-Wt. Clinical, biochemical, and nutritional data were collected up to day 28 of admission. Ninety-nine adolescents were admitted; 73 had AN and 26 had EDNOS-Wt. Mean (SD) age at admission was 15.2 years (1.3) and 87% were female. In 2005, EDNOS-Wt represented 8% of admissions; by 2009 this proportion had increased to 47%. Hypophosphatemia developed in 41% of AN and in 39% of EDNOS-Wt patients. The lowest mean pulse rate in AN was 45.1 bpm compared with 47.1 bpm in EDNOS-Wt patients. We have experienced more than a fivefold increase in the proportion of adolescents who have EDNOS-Wt admitted over this 6-year period. Despite not being underweight, EDNOS-Wt patients experienced a similar profile of life-threatening complications of weight loss as patients who have AN. Higher-weight adolescents who have extensively lost weight require careful medical assessment. Copyright © 2014 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  12. Adversity, emotion regulation, and non-suicidal self-injury in eating disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, Ana Isabel; Ramalho, Sofia; Brandão, Isabel; Saraiva, Joana; Gonçalves, Sónia

    2016-01-01

    The comorbidity between non-suicidal self-injury and eating disorder behaviors suggests that psychosocial factors may play a role in both types of behaviors. This study aimed to assess the presence of non-suicidal self-injury in 66 eating disorder patients and to analyze the associations among adversity, emotion regulation, non-suicidal self-injury, and disordered eating behavior. A total of 24 participants (36.4%) reported non-suicidal self-injury. Patients endorsing self-injury had a higher severity of disordered eating behavior. More difficulties in emotion regulation and a greater number of methods of non-suicidal self-injury were associated with a higher severity of eating pathology. Clinicians should consider these relationships in the assessment and treatment of eating disorders.

  13. Thought–shape fusion and body image in eating disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jáuregui-Lobera I

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Ignacio Jáuregui-Lobera,1 Patricia Bolaños-Ríos,2 Inmaculada Ruiz-Prieto21Department of Nutrition and Bromatology, Pablo de Olavide University, Seville, Spain; 2Behavioral Sciences Institute, Seville, SpainPurpose: The aim of this study was to analyze the relationships among thought–shape fusion (TSF, specific instruments to assess body image disturbances, and body image quality of life in eating disorder patients in order to improve the understanding of the links between body image concerns and a specific bias consisting of beliefs about the consequences of thinking about forbidden foods.Patients and methods: The final sample included 76 eating disorder patients (mean age 20.13 ± 2.28 years; 59 women and seven men. After having obtained informed consent, the following questionnaires were administered: Body Appreciation Scale (BAS, Body Image Quality of Life Inventory (BIQLI-SP, Body Shape Questionnaire (BSQ, Eating Disorders Inventory-2 (EDI-2, State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI, Symptom Checklist-90-Revised (SCL-90-R and Thought-Shape Fusion Questionnaire (TSF-Q.Results: Significant correlations were found between TSF-Q and body image-related variables. Those with higher scores in TSF showed higher scores in the BSQ (P < 0.0001, Eating Disorder Inventory – Drive for Thinness (EDI-DT (P < 0.0001, and Eating Disorder Inventory – Body Dissatisfaction (EDI-BD (P < 0.0001. The same patients showed lower scores in the BAS (P < 0.0001. With respect to the psychopathological variables, patients with high TSF obtained higher scores in all SCL-90-R subscales as well as in the STAI.Conclusion: The current study shows the interrelations among different body image-related variables, TSF, and body image quality of life.Keywords: cognitive distortions, quality of life, body appreciation, psychopathology, anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa

  14. A review on eating disorders and adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkcaldy, B D; Siefen, G R; Kandel, I; Merrick, J

    2007-06-01

    Eating disorders in adolescence are a public health concern with both personal costs and a financial burden for the community health services. This paper is a review of incidence and gender differences of eating disorders; comorbid psychopathology, including substance abuse, mood disorders, anxiety disorders and personality disorders; developmental and intellectual factors; family, socio-cultural functioning and birth order; self-injury and suicidal behaviour with health outcome and therapy success rate. We have also asked several questions from our clinical experience and tried to answer them with our clinical knowledge and based on literature review. Overall, there is an indication that therapy success is significantly correlated with (low) manifestation, specifically for social problems and aggressivity. Due to the complexity of factors involved in the manifestation of eating disorders, the inclusion of cognitive-behavioural therapy as well as family-oriented therapeutic concepts coupled with medical treatment would appear to offer an intervention inventory, which would be most effective in offering adolescents optimal treatment programmes. The implications of our review is discussed in terms of psychotherapeutic treatment plans for adolescents in clinical care.

  15. Case report of comorbid schizophrenia and obsessive compulsive disorder in a patient who was tube-fed for four years by family members because of his refusal to eat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sachdeva, Ankur; Chandra, Mina; Saxena, Ankit; Beniwal, R P; Kandpal, Manish; Kumar, Arvind

    2015-08-25

    Refusal to eat is a common presentation in many psychiatric disorders including obsessive compulsive disorder and schizophrenia. In the acute situation it may be a medical emergency; when it becomes chronic it can become an ingrained behavior that is difficult to change. The diagnosis of individuals who refuse to eat may be difficult, particularly in persons with comorbid medical problems, impaired intelligence, or lack of insight into their condition. Tube-feeding is an effective short-term intervention that can be discontinued when the patient re-starts oral intake. However, in some situations patients may become dependent on the use of tube-feeding. We present a case report of a patient with schizophrenia, obsessive compulsive disorder, borderline intelligence, and seizure disorder who was tube-fed by his family members for more than three years because he refused to eat orally.

  16. Eating attitudes, weight control behaviors and risk factors for eating disorders among Chinese female dance students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhuoli Tao

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Along with the economic development, eating disorders begin to appear in China. In this context, we study potential risks for eating disorders. Methods: 1,199 Chinese students, aged 12-25 years, were randomly selected in spring 2006 from a survey with a series of scales (EAT-26, EDI that were used as a screening examination for eating attitudes, weight control behaviors and risk factors. Among them were 31 female Chinese dance students. The dancer students were compared with the female high risk group of eating disorders (EAT ≥ 20 and the female low risk group (EAT 0-9 according to their scores on EAT-26 and EDI. Results: There were just 3 dancers (10% with scores on the EAT-26 who were over the cut-off point of 20 for high risk of an eating disorder. The dance group also showed significantly higher scores than the low risk group (EAT 0-9 not only on the subscales Dieting, and EAT-26 total scores on the EAT-26, but also on the subscales Perfectionism and Maturity Fears on the EDI. Conclusions: Among the group of female Chinese dance students, most participants did not show a high risk for eating disorders and their high scores on some subscales on the EAT-26 and EDI could be caused by their occupation.

  17. A Cognitive-Behavioural Program (One Day a Week for Patients With Obesity and Binge Eating Disorder: Short-Term Follow-up Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    An Adriaens

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes an innovative cognitive behavioural program for the treatment of patients with binge eating disorder in the University Psychiatric Center K.U. Leuven Campus Kortenberg in Belgium. The program runs one day a week during 6 months and consists of 24 sessions. The most important therapeutic goals are: (1 normalization of eating habits and stopping the binge eating episodes; (2 promoting physical activity and a positive body experience; (3 learning specific skills such as assertivity, installing a functional self-evaluation system; learning to identify, tolerate and express negative emotions, promoting self-esteem and prevention of relapse. Overall, the goal is to promote both physical and psychological well-being and quality of life. Some preliminary research data on the effectiveness of this program are described. Despite a rather limited weight loss, the number of binges per week decreased significantly, which was the main therapeutic goal of the treatment. Furthermore, the results show some promising improvements on different psychological parameters in BED patients.

  18. Adherence to the Mediterranean diet is inversely related to binge eating disorder in patients seeking a weight loss program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertoli, Simona; Spadafranca, Angela; Bes-Rastrollo, Maira; Martinez-Gonzalez, Miguel Angel; Ponissi, Veronica; Beggio, Valentina; Leone, Alessandro; Battezzati, Alberto

    2015-02-01

    The key factors influencing the development of Binge Eating Disorder (BED) are not well known. Adherence to the Mediterranean diet (MD) has been suspected to reduce the risk of several mental illnesses such as depression and anxiety. There are no existing studies that have examined the relationships between BED and MD. Cross-sectional study of 1472 participants (71.3% women; mean age: 44.8 ± 12.7) at high risk of BED. A MD score (MED-score) was derived from a validated food frequency questionnaire and BED by Binge Eating Scale questionnaire (BES). Body mass index, waist circumference and total body fat (%) were assessed by anthropometric measurements. 376 (25.5%) cases of self reported BED were identified. 11.1% of participants had a good adherence to MD (MED-score ≥ 9). After adjustments for age, gender, nutritional status, education, and physical activity level, high MED-score was associated with lower odds for BED (odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals of a BED disorder for successive levels of MED-score were 1 (reference), 0.77 (0.44, 1.36), 0.66 (0.37, 1.15), 0.50 (0.26, 0.96), and 0.45 (0.22, 0.55) (P for trend: binge eaters. These results demonstrate an inverse association between MD and the development of BED in a clinical setting among subjects at risk of BED. Therefore, we should be cautious about generalizing the results to the whole population, although reverse causality and confounding cannot be excluded as explanation. Further prospective studies are warranted. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.

  19. Position of the American Dietetic Association: Nutrition intervention in the treatment of anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, and other eating disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-12-01

    It is the position of the American Dietetic Association that nutrition intervention, including nutritional counseling, by a registered dietitian (RD) is an essential component of the team treatment of patients with anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, and other eating disorders during assessment and treatment across the continuum of care. Diagnostic criteria for eating disorders provide important guidelines for identification and treatment. However, it is thought that a continuum of disordered eating may exist that ranges from persistent dieting to subthreshold conditions and then to defined eating disorders, which include anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, and binge eating disorder. Understanding the complexities of eating disorders, such as influencing factors, comorbid illness, medical and psychological complications, and boundary issues, is critical in the effective treatment of eating disorders. The nature of eating disorders requires a collaborative approach by an interdisciplinary team of psychological, nutritional, and medical specialists. The RD is an integral member of the treatment team and is uniquely qualified to provide medical nutrition therapy for the normalization of eating patterns and nutritional status. RDs provide nutritional counseling, recognize clinical signs related to eating disorders, and assist with medical monitoring while cognizant of psychotherapy and pharmacotherapy that are cornerstones of eating disorder treatment. Specialized resources are available for RDs to advance their level of expertise in the field of eating disorders. Further efforts with evidenced-based research must continue for improved treatment outcomes related to eating disorders along with identification of effective primary and secondary interventions.

  20. INTERBED: internet-based guided self-help for overweight and obese patients with full or subsyndromal binge eating disorder. A multicenter randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Zwaan Martina

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Binge eating disorder (BED is a prevalent clinical eating disorder associated with increased psychopathology, psychiatric comorbidity, overweight and obesity, and increased health care costs. Since its inclusion in the DSM-IV, a few randomized controlled trials (RCTs have suggested efficacy of book-based self-help interventions in the treatment of this disorder. However, evidence from larger RCTs is needed. Delivery of self-help through new technologies such as the internet should be investigated in particular, as these approaches have the potential to be more interactive and thus more attractive to patients than book-based approaches. This study will evaluate the efficacy of an internet-based guided self-help program (GSH-I and cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT, which has been proven in several studies to be the gold standard treatment for BED, in a prospective multicenter randomized trial. Methods The study assumes the noninferiority of GSH-I compared to CBT. Both treatments lasted 4 months, and maintenance of outcome will be assessed 6 and 18 months after the end of treatment. A total of 175 patients with BED and a body mass index between 27 and 40 kg/m2 were randomized at 7 centers in Germany and Switzerland. A 20% attrition rate was assumed. As in most BED treatment trials, the difference in the number of binge eating days over the past 28 days is the primary outcome variable. Secondary outcome measures include the specific eating disorder psychopathology, general psychopathology, body weight, quality of life, and self-esteem. Predictors and moderators of treatment outcome will be determined, and the cost-effectiveness of both treatment conditions will be evaluated. Results The methodology for the INTERBED study has been detailed. Conclusions Although there is evidence that CBT is the first-line treatment for BED, it is not widely available. As BED is still a recent diagnostic category, many cases likely remain

  1. Alexithymia in eating disorders: therapeutic implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinna, Federica; Sanna, Lucia; Carpiniello, Bernardo

    2015-01-01

    A high percentage of individuals affected by eating disorders (ED) achieve incomplete recovery following treatment. In an attempt to improve treatment outcome, it is crucial that predictors of outcome are identified, and personalized care approaches established in line with new treatment targets, thus facilitating patient access to evidence-based treatments. Among the psychological factors proposed as predictors of outcome in ED, alexithymia is of outstanding interest. The objective of this paper is to undertake a systematic review of the literature relating to alexithymia, specifically in terms of the implications for treatment of ED. In particular, issues concerning the role of alexithymia as a predictor of outcome and as a factor to be taken into account in the choice of treatment will be addressed. The effect of treatments on alexithymia will also be considered. A search of all relevant literature published in English using PubMed, PsycINFO, and Scopus databases was carried out on the basis of the following keywords: alexithymia, anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, eating disorders, and treatment; no time limits were imposed. Despite the clinical relevance of alexithymia, the number of studies published on the above cited aspects is somewhat limited, and these studies are largely heterogeneous and feature significant methodological weaknesses. Overall, data currently available mostly correlate higher levels of alexithymia with a less favorable outcome in ED. Accordingly, alexithymia is seen as a relevant treatment target with the aim of achieving recovery of these patients. Treatments focusing on improving alexithymic traits, and specifically those targeting emotions, seem to show greater efficacy, although alexithymia levels often remain high even after specific treatment. Further investigations are needed to overcome the methodological limitations of previous studies, to understand the actual impact of alexithymia on ED outcome, and to allow more precise

  2. Alexithymia in eating disorders: therapeutic implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pinna F

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Federica Pinna, Lucia Sanna, Bernardo Carpiniello Department of Public Health, Clinical and Molecular Medicine - Unit of Psychiatry, University of Cagliari, Cagliari, Italy Abstract: A high percentage of individuals affected by eating disorders (ED achieve incomplete recovery following treatment. In an attempt to improve treatment outcome, it is crucial that predictors of outcome are identified, and personalized care approaches established in line with new treatment targets, thus facilitating patient access to evidence-based treatments. Among the psychological factors proposed as predictors of outcome in ED, alexithymia is of outstanding interest. The objective of this paper is to undertake a systematic review of the literature relating to alexithymia, specifically in terms of the implications for treatment of ED. In particular, issues concerning the role of alexithymia as a predictor of outcome and as a factor to be taken into account in the choice of treatment will be addressed. The effect of treatments on alexithymia will also be considered. A search of all relevant literature published in English using PubMed, PsycINFO, and Scopus databases was carried out on the basis of the following keywords: alexithymia, anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, eating disorders, and treatment; no time limits were imposed. Despite the clinical relevance of alexithymia, the number of studies published on the above cited aspects is somewhat limited, and these studies are largely heterogeneous and feature significant methodological weaknesses. Overall, data currently available mostly correlate higher levels of alexithymia with a less favorable outcome in ED. Accordingly, alexithymia is seen as a relevant treatment target with the aim of achieving recovery of these patients. Treatments focusing on improving alexithymic traits, and specifically those targeting emotions, seem to show greater efficacy, although alexithymia levels often remain high even after specific

  3. 'Dar Kenn Ghal Sahhtek'--an eating disorder and obesity service in Malta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aquilina, Francesca Falzon; Grech, Anton; Zerafa, Darleen; Agius, Mark; Voon, Valerie

    2015-09-01

    This paper will describe the incidence of eating disorders, with particular focus on obesity and binge eating, within the Island of Malta. The development of and 'Dar Kenn Ghal Sahhtek', the first centre for eating disorders in Malta will then be recounted, and the effective therapeutic interventions provided in it will be described. One important function of this unit is the treatment of excessive obesity. Some epidemiological data on the Obese Patients in DKS, relating to the incidence of Binge Eating Disorder in the DKS patient group will be given. This data was collected during a collaboritive research project between the Psychiatry Department of Cambridge University and 'Dar Kenn Ghal Sahhtek'.

  4. The overlap between binge eating disorder and substance use disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schreiber, Liana R N; Odlaug, Brian Lawrence; Grant, Jon E

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Binge eating disorder (BED) is a relatively common condition, especially in young adult females, and is characterized by chronic over-consumption of food resulting in embarrassment, distress, and potential health problems. It is formally included as a disorder in DSM-5...

  5. Sleep-related eating disorder and its associated conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Yuichi

    2015-06-01

    Sleep-related eating disorder (SRED) is a condition characterized by recurrent episodes of eating at the transition from night-time sleep to arousal. SRED patients describe eating in an out-of-control manner with preference for high-caloric foods and sometimes with inedible or toxic items. Level of consciousness during SRED episodes ranges from partial consciousness to dense unawareness typical of somnambulistic episodes. SRED is sometimes associated with psychotropic medication, in particular sedative hypnotics, and other sleep disorders, including parasomnias, narcolepsy, and restless legs syndrome. Night eating syndrome (NES) is another important condition in the disordered night-time eating spectrum showing hyperphagia episodes at full arousal from nocturnal sleep without accompanying amnesia. NES could be considered an abnormality in the circadian rhythm of meal timing with a normal circadian timing of sleep onset. The two conditions often overlap and possibly share a common pathophysiology. Studies have suggested that central nervous system serotonin modulation may lead to an effective treatment of NES, while the anti-seizure medication topiramate may be an effective SRED treatment.

  6. Body image, eating disorders, and the media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogan, Marjorie J; Strasburger, Victor C

    2008-12-01

    Adolescence is a time of tremendous change in physical appearance. Many adolescents report dissatisfaction with their body shape and size. Forming one's body image is a complex process, influenced by family, peers, and media messages. Increasing evidence shows that the combination of ubiquitous ads for foods and emphasis on female beauty and thinness in both advertising and programming leads to confusion and dissatisfaction for many young people. Sociocultural factors, specifically media exposure, play an important role in the development of disordered body image. Of significant concern, studies have revealed a link between media exposure and the likelihood of having symptoms of disordered eating or a frank eating disorder. Pediatricians and other adults must work to promote media education and make media healthier for young people. More research is needed to identify the most vulnerable children and adolescents.

  7. Prevalence of eating disorders and picking/nibbling in elderly women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conceição, Eva M; Gomes, Fabiana V S; Vaz, Ana R; Pinto-Bastos, Ana; Machado, Paulo P P

    2017-07-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the point prevalence of eating disorders and picking/nibbling in elderly women. This was a two-stage epidemiological study that assessed 342 women aged 65-94 years old. In Stage 1, the following screening measures were used to identify possible cases: the Mini-Mental State Examination, to screen and exclude patients with cognitive impairment; Weight Concerns Scale; SCOFF (Sick, Control, One, Fat, Food) Questionnaire; Eating Disorder Examination Questionnaire-dietary restraint subscale; and three questions to screen for picking/nibbling and night eating syndrome. Women selected for Stage 2 (n = 118) were interviewed using the diagnostic items of the Eating Disorder Examination. According to the DSM-5, the prevalence of all eating disorders was 3.25% (1.83-5.7, 95% C.I.). Prevalence of binge-eating disorder was 1.68% (0.82-3.82, 95% C.I.), of other specified feeding or eating disorders was 1.48% (0.63-3.42, 95% C.I.), and of bulimia nervosa 0.3% (.05-1.7, 95% C.I.)]. Binge-eating episodes were reported by 5.62% of women. No cases of anorexia nervosa or night eating syndrome were identified. The prevalence of picking/nibbling was 18.9%. Picking/nibbling was associated with increased body mass index (t(322) = -3.28, p eating episodes (χ(2) (1) = 5.65, p eating disorders on elderly Portuguese women were comparable to those found on young women. Our data support the literature that suggests that binge-eating disorder is particularly prevalent in older adults. Picking/nibbling was the most prevalent eating behavior and we provide further evidence for its association with weight and disordered eating. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Apps and eating disorders: A systematic clinical appraisal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fairburn, Christopher G; Rothwell, Emily R

    2015-11-01

    Smartphone applications (apps) are proliferating and health-related apps are particularly popular. The aim of this study was to identify, characterize, and evaluate the clinical utility of apps designed either for people with eating disorders or for eating disorder professionals. A search of the major app stores identified 805 potentially relevant apps, of which 39 were primarily designed for people with eating disorders and five for professionals. The apps for people with eating disorders had four main functions. Most common was the provision of advice, the quality of which ranged from sound to potentially harmful. Five apps included self-assessment tools but only two used methods that would generally be viewed as reliable. Four apps had the self-monitoring of eating habits as a major feature. Entering information into these apps could be accomplished with varying degrees of ease, but viewing it was more difficult. One app allowed the transfer of information between patients and clinicians. The enthusiasm for apps outstrips the evidence supporting their use. Given their popularity, it is suggested that clinicians evaluate app use as part of routine assessment. The clinical utility of the existing apps is not clear. Some are capable of tracking key features over time, but none has the functions required for analytic self-monitoring as in cognitive behavioral treatments. The full potential of apps has yet to be realized. Specialized apps could be designed to augment various forms of treatment, and there is the possibility that they could deliver an entire personalized intervention. © 2015 The Authors. International Journal of Eating Disorders published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Family Histories of Anxiety in Overweight Men and Women with Binge Eating Disorder: A Preliminary Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blomquist, Kerstin K.; Grilo, Carlos M.

    2015-01-01

    Objective A preliminary examination of the significance of family histories of anxiety in the expression of binge eating disorder (BED) and associated functioning. Methods Participants were 166 overweight patients with BED assessed using diagnostic interviews. Participants were administered a structured psychiatric history interview about their first-degree relatives (parents, siblings, children) (N=897) to determine lifetime diagnoses of DSM-IV anxiety disorders and completed a battery of questionnaires assessing current and historical eating and weight variables and associated psychological functioning (depression). Results BED patients with a family history of anxiety disorder were significantly more likely than BED patients without a family history of anxiety disorder to have lifetime diagnoses of anxiety disorders and mood disorders but not substance use disorders. A family history of anxiety was not significantly associated with timing or sequencing of age at onset of anxiety disorder, binge eating, dieting, or obesity, or with variability in current levels of binge eating, eating disorder psychopathology, or psychological functioning. Conclusions Although replication with direct interview method is needed, our preliminary findings suggest that a family history of anxiety confers greater risk for comorbid anxiety and mood disorders but is largely unrelated to the development of binge eating, dieting, or obesity and unrelated to variability in eating disorder psychopathology or psychological functioning in overweight patients with BED. PMID:26343481

  10. Disorders of fuel metabolism: medical complications associated with starvation, eating disorders, dietary fads, and supplements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Judge, Bryan S; Eisenga, Bernard H

    2005-08-01

    Disorders of fuel metabolism as they relate to abnormal fuel intake,abnormal fuel expenditure, and dietary supplements are the focus of this article. The emergency physician should be aware of the medical complications that can occur as a result of starvation states,eating disorders, fad diets, hypermetabolic states, and ergogenic aids. Knowledge and understanding of the complications associated with these disorders will facilitate the diagnosis and management of patients who present to the emergency department with any of the disorders reviewed.

  11. Preventing Eating Disorder Pathology: Common and Unique Features of Successful Eating Disorders Prevention Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciao, Anna C.; Loth, Katie; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne

    2014-01-01

    Over the past two decades, the field of eating disorders has made remarkable strides in identifying, evaluating, and disseminating successful prevention programs. The current review identifies and discusses nine distinct eating disorders prevention programs that reduce existing eating disorder pathology or prevent the onset of future pathology. Each program was evaluated in one or more controlled trial with a follow-up period of at least six months. We review the evidence base for these nine successful programs and discuss their common and unique features. Based on authors’ descriptions of their programs in published trials, we found that all programs were theory-driven, targeted one or more eating disorder risk factor (e.g., body dissatisfaction), were delivered across multiple group sessions, and included at least some interactive content. Most programs included content related to healthy eating/nutrition, media literacy/sociocultural pressures, and body acceptance/body satisfaction. Notably, there was wide variation in some participant features (e.g., participant age, sex, risk status) and intervention features (e.g., setting and format, length and dose, providers), suggesting that a variety of programs are beneficial in impacting eating disorder pathology. Implications and directions for future research are discussed, including an increased focus on universal and indicated prevention programs, expanding programs to a wider age range and a broader spectrum of weight-related problems, and rigorous evaluation of programs through efficacy, effectiveness, and implementation research. PMID:24821099

  12. Preventing eating disorder pathology: common and unique features of successful eating disorders prevention programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciao, Anna C; Loth, Katie; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne

    2014-07-01

    Over the past two decades, the field of eating disorders has made remarkable strides in identifying, evaluating, and disseminating successful prevention programs. The current review identifies and discusses nine distinct eating disorders prevention programs that reduce existing eating disorder pathology or prevent the onset of future pathology. Each program was evaluated in one or more controlled trial with a follow-up period of at least six months. We review the evidence base for these nine successful programs and discuss their common and unique features. Based on authors' descriptions of their programs in published trials, we found that all programs were theory-driven, targeted one or more eating disorder risk factor (e.g., body dissatisfaction), were delivered across multiple group sessions, and included at least some interactive content. Most programs included content related to healthy eating/nutrition, media literacy/sociocultural pressures, and body acceptance/body satisfaction. Notably, there was wide variation in some participant features (e.g., participant age, sex, risk status) and intervention features (e.g., setting and format, length and dose, providers), suggesting that a variety of programs are beneficial in impacting eating disorder pathology. Implications and directions for future research are discussed, including an increased focus on universal and indicated prevention programs, expanding programs to a wider age range and a broader spectrum of weight-related problems, and rigorous evaluation of programs through efficacy, effectiveness, and implementation research.

  13. Reassessment of patients with Eating Disorders after moving from DSM-IV towards DSM-5: a retrospective study in a clinical sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gualandi, Malvina; Simoni, Marzia; Manzato, Emilia; Scanelli, Giovanni

    2016-12-01

    To compare the relative prevalence of eating disorders moving from DSM-IV to DSM-5, and to reassess the overall medical impairment in the revised diagnostic classes. We applied DSM-5 to 206 patients (age 15-56 years) previously studied and classified according to DSM-IV. Medical impairment was classified as low, medium, or high, based on a cumulative score of clinical severity (SCS), computed as the sum of specific weights assigned to different pathological conditions and their ascertained prognostic impact. Application of DSM-5 produced a decrease in Eating Disorders Not Otherwise Specified (EDNOS) by 17 %, an increase in anorexia (AN) by 14 % and bulimia (BN) by 2.4 %; 44.6 % of EDNOS migrated to AN, 8 % to BN, and 30.8 % was reclassified as Other Specified Feeding and Eating Disorders (OSFED). Mean SCS was higher in AN than in other diagnoses independent of classification. Differently from EDNOS, no high score was found in OSFED. BMI (OR 0.74, 95 % CI 0.56-0.98) and duration of amenorrhea >1 year (OR 6.63, 95 % CI 1.29-34.16) resulted significantly associated with the risk for medium-high SCS level in AN classified with DSM-5. The results confirmed that DSM-5 reduces the number of EDNOS. DSM-5 seems to better represent the clinical picture in OSFED than in EDNOS. The clinical relevance of BMI and duration of amenorrhea should be considered even more now that they are no longer used as diagnostic hallmarks of AN.

  14. The eating disorders as addiction: a psychobiological perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, C; Claridge, G

    1998-01-01

    A number of theories have been proposed to explain the substantial comorbidity between the eating disorders and the substance-related disorders. Among them is the claim that self-starvation--exacerbated by excessive exercising--is itself an addiction to the body's endogenous opioids. While efforts have also been made to identify an "addictive personality," attempts to establish whether eating-disordered patients share these characteristics have met with mixed success. The present study was designed to determine the degree to which anorexic and bulimic patients display addictive personality characteristics, and whether these traits are useful in predicting the severity of the patient's weight preoccupation and their degree of excessive exercising. Results confirmed that both anorexic and bulimic patients had high scores on the Addiction Scale of the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire, and that addictiveness and obsessive-compulsiveness were related simultaneously to weight preoccupation and excessive exercising in both patient groups. Findings are discussed within the framework of the auto-addiction opioid theory, and they highlight the similarities and differences in the personality structure of the eating-disorder subtypes.

  15. Purging behavior in anorexia nervosa and eating disorder not otherwise specified

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Støving, René Klinkby; Andries, Alin; Brixen, Kim Torsten

    2012-01-01

    Purging behavior in eating disorders is associated with medical risks. We aimed to compare remission rates in purging and non-purging females with anorexia nervosa (AN) and eating disorder not otherwise specified (EDNOS) in a large retrospective single center cohort. A total of 339 patients...

  16. Binge or control? : assessment of the validity, treatment and underlying mechanisms of Binge Eating Disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dingemans, Alexandra

    2009-01-01

    This thesis focuses on patients with Binge Eating Disorder. The thesis consists of three parts. In the first part the validity of the diagnosis of BED will be discussed. The results of two literature reviews and an empirical cross-sectional study suggested that BED is a distinct eating disorder and

  17. Binge or control? : assessment of the validity, treatment and underlying mechanisms of Binge Eating Disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dingemans, Alexandra

    2009-01-01

    This thesis focuses on patients with Binge Eating Disorder. The thesis consists of three parts. In the first part the validity of the diagnosis of BED will be discussed. The results of two literature reviews and an empirical cross-sectional study suggested that BED is a distinct eating disorder and

  18. Premature termination of treatment in an inpatient eating disorder programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masson, Philip C; Perlman, Christopher M; Ross, Stuart A; Gates, April L

    2007-07-01

    This retrospective study was conducted to explore rates, timing and predictors of two forms of premature termination of treatment (PTT) in an inpatient eating disorders programme: patient dropout (DO) and administrative discharge (AD). A chart review was conducted to obtain demographic, Eating Disorder Inventory-2 (EDI-2), and Resident Assessment Instrument-Mental Health (RAI-MH) data for 186 patients being treated for bulimia nervosa (BN), anorexia nervosa (AN), or eating disorder not otherwise specified (EDNOS). Overall, of the 37.6% of patients who terminated treatment prematurely, 22.1% of patients dropped out, and 15.5% of patients were administratively discharged. Time at which discharge occurred was found to be associated with the type of premature termination. The presence of DSM-IV Axis-I comorbidity was found to be the only factor associated with an increased risk of being administratively discharged. No factors were predictive of patients dropping out of treatment. The findings support the notion that AD and patient DO are different events that may have different factors influencing their rates and timing. Implications for future research and programme planning are discussed.

  19. Olfaction in Eating Disorders and Abnormal Eating Behaviour: A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Anisul eIslam

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The study provides a systematic review that explores the current literature on olfactory capacity in abnormal eating behavior to present a basis for discussion on whether research in olfaction in eating disorders may offer additional insights with regard to the complex etiopathology of ED and abnormal eating behaviors. Electronic databases (Medline, PsycINFO, PubMed, Science Direct and Web of Science were searched using the components in relation to olfaction and combining them with the components related to abnormal eating behavior. Out of 1,352 articles, 14 articles were selected (820 patients and 385 control participants for this review. The highest number of existing literature on olfaction in ED were carried out with AN patients (78.6% followed by BN (35.7% and obesity (14.3%. The general findings support that olfaction is altered in AN and Obesity and indicates towards there being no differences in olfactory capacity between BN patients and the general population. Due to the limited number of studies and heterogeneity this review stresses on the importance of more research on olfaction and abnormal eating behavior.

  20. Eating Disorders in African American Girls: Implications for Counselors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talleyrand, Regine M.

    2010-01-01

    Given the recent focus on eating disorders in children, it is imperative that counselors consider eating concerns that affect children of all racial and ethnic groups and hence are effective in working with this population. The author discusses risk factors that potentially contribute to eating disorders in African American girls given their…

  1. Eating Disorders in African American Girls: Implications for Counselors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talleyrand, Regine M.

    2010-01-01

    Given the recent focus on eating disorders in children, it is imperative that counselors consider eating concerns that affect children of all racial and ethnic groups and hence are effective in working with this population. The author discusses risk factors that potentially contribute to eating disorders in African American girls given their…

  2. Risk of Eating Disorders among Female College Athletes and Nonathletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirk, Ginger; Singh, Kusum; Getz, Hildy

    2001-01-01

    Compares the prevalence of eating disorder behaviors between female collegiate athletes and female college nonathletes. Although female nonathletes had somewhat higher average scores on the Eating Attitudes Test 26, the proportion at risk for disordered eating was not different in the two groups. There was no significant difference among female…

  3. [Role of Serotonin Transporter Gene in Eating Disorders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Muñoz, Sandra; Camarena-Medellin, Beatriz

    2014-01-01

    The serotoninergic system has been implicated in mood and appetite regulation, and the serotonin transporter gene (SLC6A4) is a commonly studied candidate gene for eating disorders. However, most studies have focused on a single polymorphism (5-HTTLPR) in SLC6A4. We present the studies published on the association between eating disorders (ED) and 5-HTTLPR polymorphism in anorexia nervosa (AN), bulimia nervosa (BN), and eating disorders not otherwise specified (EDNOS). Search of databases: MEDLINE, ISI, and PubMed for SLC6A4 and ED. From a review of 37 original articles, it was suggested that carriers of S allele is a risk factor for eating disorders, especially for AN. However, BN did not show any association. Also, BMI, impulsivity, anxiety, depression, and age of onset have been associated with S allele in ED patients. Copyright © 2013 Asociación Colombiana de Psiquiatría. Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  4. Primary Prevention of Eating Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shisslak, Catherine M.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Summarizes current understanding of anorexia nervosa and bulimia (clinical symptoms and outcome, prevalence and risk factors), offering suggestions for the primary prevention of these disorders at the individual, family, and community levels, and emphasizing prevention in the schools. (Author/KS)

  5. Diagnosing binge eating disorder in a primary care setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montano, C Brendan; Rasgon, Natalie L; Herman, Barry K

    2016-01-01

    Binge eating disorder (BED), now recognized as a distinct eating disorder in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition, is the most prevalent eating disorder. Although nearly half of individuals with BED are obese, BED also occurs in nonobese individuals. Despite the relatively high percentage of weight loss treatment-seeking individuals meeting BED criteria, primary care physicians may not be familiar with or have ever diagnosed BED. Many providers may also have difficulty distinguishing BED as a contributory factor in obesity. This review differentiates BED from other causes of obesity by describing how obese individuals with BED differ from obese individuals without BED and from nonobese individuals with BED in areas including psychopathology, behavior, genetics, physiology, quality of life and productivity. The ways in which health-care providers can identify individuals who may have BED are also highlighted so the proper course of treatment is pursued. Overall, obese individuals with BED demonstrate a number of key characteristics that differentiate them from obese individuals without eating disorders, including increased impulsivity in response to food stimuli with loss of control over eating, resulting in the consumption of more calories. They also experience significant guilt and other negative emotions following a meal. In addition, individuals with BED patients have more psychiatric comorbidity, display more psychopathology, exhibit longer binge durations, consume more meals as snacks during the day and have less dietary restraint compared with individuals with BED who are not obese. However, the differences between individuals with BED who are obese versus not obese are not as prominent. Taken together, the evidence appears to support the conclusion that BED is a unique and treatable neurobehavioral disorder associated with distinct behavioral and psychological profiles and distinct medical and functional outcomes, and that

  6. Olfaction in eating disorders and abnormal eating behavior: a systematic review

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammed Anisul eIslam; Ana Beatriz Fagundo; Jon eArcelus; Zaida eAguera; Susana eJiménez-Murcia; Jose Manuel Fernandez-Real; Francisco J Tinahones; Rafael eDe La Torre; Cristina eBotella; Gema eFrühbeck; Casanueva, Felipe F; Jose M Menchon; Fernando eFernandez-Aranda

    2015-01-01

    The study provides a systematic review that explores the current literature on olfactory capacity in abnormal eating behavior. The objective is to present a basis for discussion on whether research in olfaction in eating disorders may offer additional insight with regard to the complex etiopathology of eating disorders (ED) and abnormal eating behaviors. Electronic databases (Medline, PsycINFO, PubMed, Science Direct, and Web of Science) were searched using the components in relation to olfac...

  7. Eating-related environmental factors in underweight eating disorders and obesity: are there common vulnerabilities during childhood and early adolescence?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krug, I; Villarejo, C; Jiménez-Murcia, S; Perpiñá, C; Vilarrasa, N; Granero, R; Cebolla, A; Botella, C; Montserrat-Gil de Bernabe, M; Penelo, E; Casella, S; Islam, M A; Orekhova, E; Casanueva, F F; Karwautz, A; Menchón, J M; Treasure, J; Fernández-Aranda, F

    2013-05-01

    This study aimed to examine whether there is an association between individual, social and family influences and dysfunctional eating patterns early in life and the likelihood of developing a subsequent underweight eating disorder (ED) or obesity. The total sample comprised 152 individuals (underweight ED, n = 45; obese patients, n = 65; healthy controls; n = 42) from Barcelona, Spain. The Cross-Cultural Questionnaire (CCQ) was used to assess early eating influences as well as individual and family eating patterns and attitudes towards food. Even though a few shared eating influences emerged for both groups, unique factors were also observed. Whereas relationship with friends, teasing about eating habits by family members and the mass media were of specific relevance to the underweight ED group, the patient's own physical appearance, body dissatisfaction, teasing about eating habits by friends, teasing about body shape by family members and dysfunctional eating patterns were unique to obesity. Overlapping environmental risk factors provide evidence for integral prevention and intervention approaches that simultaneously tackle a range of weight-related problems. The unique factors might be important for targeting high-risk individuals. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association.

  8. Does maternal history of eating disorders predict mothers' feeding practices and preschoolers' emotional eating?

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Barse, Lisanne M; Tharner, Anne; Micali, Nadia; Jaddoe, Vincent V W; Hofman, Albert; Verhulst, Frank C; Franco, Oscar H; Tiemeier, Henning; Jansen, Pauline W

    2015-02-01

    We aimed to examine whether a maternal history of eating disorders predicted mothers' feeding practices and preschoolers' emotional eating patterns. Data were available from 4851 mothers and their children, who participated in a Dutch population-based cohort study (the Generation R Study). Maternal history of lifetime eating disorders was assessed during pregnancy using a self-report questionnaire. Mothers filled out the Child Feeding Questionnaire and the Child Eating Behaviour Questionnaire when children were four years old. Linear regression analyses were performed, adjusting for potential confounders. Of all mothers, 8.6% had a history of an eating disorder (2.5% anorexia nervosa (AN); 3.9% bulimia nervosa (BN); 2.2% both AN and BN). Compared to mothers without a history of eating disorders, mothers with a history of eating disorders, in particular AN, used less pressuring feeding strategies (standardized B = -0.30; 95% CI: -0.49, -0.11). Children of mothers with a history of AN had relatively high levels of emotional overeating (standardized B = 0.19; 95% CI: 0.00, 0.39). Maternal history of BN was not related to mothers' feeding practices or children's emotional eating. Overall, the levels of emotional overeating among children of mothers with a history of eating disorders are noteworthy, particularly considering the young age (4 years) of participating children. This finding may reflect an effect of maternal eating disorders on the development of disordered eating patterns, but could also be subject to mothers' perception.

  9. Psychopathology and hormonal disturbances in eating disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierpaola D’Arista

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available

    Background: Our aim was to study the relationship between hormonal disturbances and psychopathology in Eating Disorders (ED.

    Methods: Forty-nine women diagnosed as Eating Disorders according to DSM-IV were subjected to control plasma levels of TSH, FT3, FT4, LH, FSH, 17beta-estradiol, prolactin, cortisol, DHEAS, GH and IGF-1. They were also administered by SCL-90R, BAT, DES II questionnaires. We applied multivariate regression models.

    Results: Our results highlight a statistically significant relation between LH, FSH and prolactin decreased levels, mood and thought disturbances (subscales 3, 5, 7, 8 and 9 of SCL-90r which are associated to Body Attitude ( BAT total scale and Dissociative Experiences (DES II total scale.

    Conclusions: Decreased sexual hormones levels could have a role in ED psychological disturbances, not inquired yet

  10. Interpersonal problems across restrictive and binge-purge samples: data from a community-based eating disorders clinic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raykos, Bronwyn C; McEvoy, Peter M; Carter, Olivia; Fursland, Anthea; Nathan, Paula

    2014-08-01

    Contemporary models of eating disorders suggest that interpersonal problems contribute to the maintenance of eating disorders. This study examined whether baseline interpersonal problems differed across eating disorder diagnoses and across eating disorder subtypes ("restrictors" vs. "binge-purge" patients) in a large clinical sample. Patients with a primary eating disorder diagnosis (N=406) completed measures of interpersonal problems, eating disorder symptoms, and mood prior to treatment at a specialist eating disorder clinic. Across the sample, more severe eating disorder psychopathology was associated with significantly greater difficulty socializing. Anorexia Nervosa (AN)/restrictor patients reported significantly greater difficulty socializing than Bulimia Nervosa (BN)/binge-purge patients. AN patients reported significantly greater difficulty on a measure of competitiveness/assertiveness compared to BN and Eating Disorder Not Otherwise Specified patients. All findings were significant after controlling for comorbid depression and anxiety symptoms. Interpersonal problems appear to be unique risk factors for eating disorders. Specific interpersonal mechanisms include difficulties socializing and being assertive, which were most pronounced in AN patients. These findings provide potential avenues for enhancing interventions, such as adjunctive assertiveness training for AN.

  11. Appropriate care for children with eating disorders and obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Radhi, A Sahib

    Eating disorders are essentially psychological diseases that are characterised by abnormal eating habits. Anorexia nervosa and bulimia are the most common forms of eating disorders. There is an increased recognition of eating disorders among both men and women, and growing numbers of children and teenagers seeking help for eating disorders. Fear of body-weight gain is central to both anorexia nervosa and bulimia. Before the diagnosis of an eating disorder is made, it is essential to exclude organic diseases that may present with similar symptoms to eating disorders. Management initially should focus on correcting the nutritional deficiencies and dehydration at a paediatric or paediatric gastroenterology department, followed by a multidisciplinary approach. At the other extreme, the prevalence of obesity in children is increasing at an alarming rate, and presents a serious public health challenge.

  12. Altered brain reward circuits in eating disorders: chicken or egg?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, Guido K W

    2013-10-01

    The eating disorders anorexia nervosa (AN) and bulimia nervosa (BN) are severe psychiatric disorders with high mortality. Our knowledge about the neurobiology of eating disorders is very limited, and the question remains whether alterations in brain structure or function in eating disorders are state related, remnants of the illness or premorbid traits. The brain reward system is a relatively well-characterized brain circuitry that plays a central role in the drive to eat and individuals with current or past eating disorders showed alterations in those pathways compared to controls. Here we propose that structural and functional alterations in the insula and frontal cortex, including orbitofrontal and cingulate regions, areas that contribute to reward and anxiety processing, could predispose to developing an eating disorder and that adaptive changes in those circuits in response to malnutrition or repeated binge eating and purging could further promote illness behavior, hinder recovery and contribute to relapse.

  13. Social perception in people with eating disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renwick, B; Dejong, H; Kenyon, M; Samarawickrema, N; Loomes, R; Watson, C; Ghelani, S; Schmidt, U

    2013-09-01

    Social perception is a key aspect of social cognition which has so far not been investigated in eating disorders (ED). This study aimed to investigate social perception in individuals with anorexia nervosa (AN) and bulimia nervosa (BN). Outpatients with AN (restricting subtype [AN-R]: n=51; binge-purge subtype [AN-BP]: n=26) or BN (n=57) and 50 healthy control (HC) participants completed the Interpersonal Perception Task (IPT-15). This is an ecologically valid task, which consists of 15 video clips, depicting complex social situations relating to intimacy, status, kinship, competition and deception. The participants have to assess relationships between protagonists' based on non-verbal cues. Overall, there was no difference between groups on the IPT total score and subscale scores. Group differences on the Intimacy subscale approached significance so post hoc comparisons were carried out. HCs performed significantly better than AN-R participants in determining the degree of intimacy between others. Social perception is largely preserved in ED patients. Individuals with AN-R show impairments in identifying intimacy in social situations, this may be due to the lack of relationship experience. Further research into different aspects of social cognition is required to establish the link between interpersonal difficulties and ED psychopathology. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  14. Resilience in eating disorders: A qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Las Hayas, Carlota; Padierna, Jesús A; Muñoz, Pedro; Aguirre, Maialen; Gómez Del Barrio, Andrés; Beato-Fernández, Luís; Calvete, Esther

    2016-07-01

    The objectives of the authors in this study were two-fold: (1) to explore the role of resilience in recovery from eating disorders (EDs), and (2) to develop a model of resilience in women with EDs. Semi-structured interviews with ten women were conducted in April 2011, along with two focus groups with women who had recovered from EDs (n  = 5 women each; conducted in April 2012 at the University of Deusto, Spain), one focus group with clinical experts (n = 8; conducted in April 2012 at the Foundation Against EDs of Biskay, Spain), and six narratives from primary caregivers of ED patients living in Biskay, Spain (conducted in November 2012). All data were analyzed using a grounded theory approach. All female participants acknowledged experiencing resilience in their recovery. The analysis resulted in a conceptual model of resilience composed of the following categories: deep dissatisfaction with life, turning point, acceptance, hope, determination to change, accountability for the ED, active coping, getting social support, gaining self-knowledge, getting information about EDs, increase well-being, trait resilience, initiating new projects and living in the here and now. According to the model presented, resilience preceded the experience of recovery in women with EDs in this sample and could be a useful asset for future interventions.

  15. A review of eating disorders in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponton, L E

    1995-01-01

    Many review articles address the diverse and rapidly developing field of eating disorders, but there are far fewer articles addressing the specific population of adolescents. The social contributors (desire for thinness amplified by the media) to these illnesses are considerable and affect all adolescent and latency-age girls to some degree. Understanding the full range of behavior and those at high risk to develop pathology is important. Developing prevention programs that target adolescent girls and their families, schools, and the relevant media is also important. Prevention has been a much-neglected area within the field of eating disorders. The chronic nature of eating disorders characterized by remission and relapse bears further study. Attention to the factors that provoke a symptomatic period is crucial. Along with relapse and remission are shifts between diagnostic categories within the field of eating disorders and comorbid illnesses. A better understanding of the factors that cause these shifts to occur would be quite valuable. Outcome and prospective studies would provide valuable information about the course of the illnesses and further identify the individuals at high risk. Certain groups are known to be at high risk, such as girls involved in specific athletics (e.g., gymnastics) or career activities, but recent investigations have indicated that girls involved in what was previously believed to be a low risk activity, such as swimming, may also be at risk (Benson et al., 1990). Further investigation of these factors is crucial. Cultural factors play a role in these illnesses, and cross-cultural studies provide crucial information. We must also continue to explore the biological and psychological correlates of these illnesses and further define the complex and heterogeneous etiology of these illnesses. Their study still promises to yield exciting challenges. Increased public awareness regarding the need for treatment of these illnesses is a high

  16. Genetics and epigenetics of eating disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Yilmaz Z; Hardaway JA; Bulik CM

    2015-01-01

    Zeynep Yilmaz,1 J Andrew Hardaway,1 Cynthia M Bulik1–3 1Department of Psychiatry, 2Department of Nutrition, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC, USA; 3Department of Medical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden Abstract: Eating disorders (EDs) are serious psychiatric conditions influenced by biological, psychological, and sociocultural factors. A better understanding of the genetics of these complex traits and the developm...

  17. Binge Eating Disorder: A Review of a New "DSM" Diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Laura L.; Wiman, Allison M.

    2014-01-01

    In 1994, binge eating disorder (BED) was introduced as a disorder requiring further study in the "American Psychiatric Association's Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders", fourth edition ("DSM-IV"). It is now listed as a distinct eating disorder in the "DSM-5", along with bulimia nervosa and anorexia…

  18. Binge Eating Disorder: A Review of a New "DSM" Diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Laura L.; Wiman, Allison M.

    2014-01-01

    In 1994, binge eating disorder (BED) was introduced as a disorder requiring further study in the "American Psychiatric Association's Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders", fourth edition ("DSM-IV"). It is now listed as a distinct eating disorder in the "DSM-5", along with bulimia nervosa and…

  19. Binge Eating Disorder: A Review of a New "DSM" Diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Laura L.; Wiman, Allison M.

    2014-01-01

    In 1994, binge eating disorder (BED) was introduced as a disorder requiring further study in the "American Psychiatric Association's Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders", fourth edition ("DSM-IV"). It is now listed as a distinct eating disorder in the "DSM-5", along with bulimia nervosa and anorexia…

  20. Prevalence and correlates of binge eating in seasonal affective disorder

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Eating pathology in Seasonal Affective Disorder (SAD) may be more severe than hyperphagia during winter. Although research has documented elevated rates of subclinical binge eating in women with SAD, the prevalence and correlates of BED in SAD remain largely uncharacterized. We examined the prevalence and correlates of binge eating, weekly binge eating with distress, and BED as defined by the DSM-IV-TR in SAD. We also tested whether binge eating exhibits a seasonal pattern among individuals w...