WorldWideScience

Sample records for easy-to-inject bulking substance

  1. 78 FR 72841 - List of Bulk Drug Substances That May Be Used in Pharmacy Compounding; Bulk Drug Substances That...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-04

    ... Used in Pharmacy Compounding; Bulk Drug Substances That May Be Used To Compound Drug Products in... Administration (FDA or Agency) is withdrawing the proposed rule to list bulk drug substances used in pharmacy... Pharmacopoeia chapter on pharmacy compounding; (II) if such a monograph does not exist, are drug substances that...

  2. The levitation characteristics of the magnetic substances using trapped HTS bulk annuli with various magnetic field distributions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, S.B., E-mail: kim@ec.okayama-u.ac.jp [Graduate School of Natural Science and Technology, Okayama University, 3-1-1, Tsushima-Naka, Kita-ku, Okayama 700-8530 (Japan); Ikegami, T.; Matsunaga, J.; Fujii, Y. [Graduate School of Natural Science and Technology, Okayama University, 3-1-1, Tsushima-Naka, Kita-ku, Okayama 700-8530 (Japan); Onodera, H. [Japan Science and Technology Agency–Core Research for Evolutional Science and Technology (JST–CREST), Tokyo 102-0076 (Japan)

    2013-11-15

    Highlights: •The spherical solenoid magnet can make a various magnetic field distributions. •We generated a large magnetic gradient at inner space of HTS bulks. •The levitation height of samples was improved by the reapplied field method. •The levitation height depends on the variation rate of magnetic field gradient. -- Abstract: We have been investigating the levitation system without any mechanical contact which is composed of a field-cooled ring-shaped high temperature superconducting (HTS) bulks [1]. In this proposed levitation system, the trapped magnetic field distributions of stacked HTS bulk are very important. In this paper, the spherical solenoid magnet composed of seven solenoid coils with different inner and outer diameters was designed and fabricated as a new magnetic source. The fabricated spherical solenoid magnet can easily make a homogeneous and various magnetic field distributions in inner space of stacked HTS bulk annuli by controlling the emerging currents of each coil. By using this spherical solenoid magnet, we tried to make a large magnetic field gradient in inner space of HTS bulk annuli, and it is very important on the levitation of magnetic substances. In order to improve the levitation properties of magnetic substances with various sizes, the external fields were reapplied to the initially trapped HTS bulk magnets. We could generate a large magnetic field gradient along the axial direction in inner space of HTS bulk annuli, and obtain the improved levitation height of samples by the proposed reapplied field method.

  3. Development of a validated liquid chromatographic method for determination of related substances of telmisartan in bulk drugs and formulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, R Nageswara; Guru Prasad, K; Gangu Naidu, Ch; Maurya, Pawan K

    2011-11-01

    A simple and rapid reversed phase liquid chromatographic method for separation and determination of the related substances of telmisartan (TLM) was developed and validated. The chromatographic separation was achieved on Lichrospher RP-18 column (250 × 4.6 mm, 5 μm), using 20 mM ammonium acetate containing 0.1% (v/v) triethylamine (pH adjusted to 3.0 with trifluoroacetic acid) and acetonitrile as mobile phase at 25°C. The detection was performed at 254 nm. The method was validated and found to be robust, precise, specific and linear between 0.37 and 500 μg/mL. The limits of detection and quantification of telmisartan were 0.11 and 0.37 μg/mL, respectively. The method was successfully applied to quantify related substances and assay of TLM in bulk drugs and commercial tablets. The related substances relate to a novel synthetic route and different from those A-H impurities reported by European Pharmacopeia.

  4. A validated HPLC stability-indicating method for the determination of diacerhein in bulk drug substance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giannellini, Valerio; Salvatore, Francesco; Bartolucci, Gianluca; Coran, Silvia A; Bambagiotti-Alberti, Massimo

    2005-09-15

    A novel stability-indicating high-performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) method was developed and validated for the assay of diacerhein in bulk forms. Diacerhein was found to degrade in alkaline and acidic conditions and also under oxidative stress. The drug was stable to dry heat and in presence of light. Resolution of drug, its potential impurities and degradation products were achieved on a RP18 (endcapped) column utilizing 0.1 M phosphoric acid and methanol (40:60, v/v) as eluent at the detection wavelength of 254 nm. The validation studies were carried out fulfilling International Conference on Harmonisation (ICH) requirements. The procedure was found to be specific, linear, precise (including intermediate precision), accurate and robust.

  5. Development and validation of a reversed-phase HPLC method for separation and simultaneous determination of process-related substances of mirtazapine in bulk drugs and formulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, R Nageswara; Raju, A Narasa

    2009-03-01

    A simple and rapid reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatographic method has been developed for the separation and simultaneous determination of related substances of mirtazapine in bulk drugs and pharmaceutical formulations. Six impurities, including one degradation product of mirtazapine, have been separated on a BDS Hypersil (4.6 x 250 mm; particle size 5 microm) column with a mobile phase consisting of 0.3% triethylamine (pH 3.0)-acetonitrile (78:22 v/v) eluted in an isocratic mode and monitored with a photo diode array detector at 215 nm. The chromatographic behavior of all the analytes was studied under variable compositions of different solvent systems, temperatures, buffer concentrations, and pH values. The method was validated in terms of accuracy, precision, and linearity. The inter- and intra-day assay precision was found to be method was successfully applied to the analysis of commercial formulations and the recoveries of mirtazapine were in the range of 99.38-100.73% with method is useful not only for rapid evaluation of the purity of mirtazapine, but also for the simultaneous determination of related substances in bulk drugs and pharmaceutical formulations.

  6. 氟康唑原料药有关物质的研究%Determination of Related Substances in Fluconazole Bulk Drug

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    严小红; 李春盈; 陈安丽; 江英桥; 霍秀敏; 邵颖

    2012-01-01

    目的 建立高效液相色谱梯度法测定氟康唑原料药的有关物质.方法 采用十八烷基硅烷键合硅胶为填充剂,流动相A为0.01 mol · L-1甲酸铵,流动相B为乙腈,梯度洗脱,流速为0.5 mL·min-1,检测波长为261 nm,进样量为20 μL.结果 降解产物和杂质在该色谱条件分离良好,氟康唑与杂质B~D在2.632~21.06、2.688 ~ 53.76、0.853 6 ~ 21.34、2.595 ~20.76μg·mL-1之间线性关系良好,检测限分别为0.20、0.005 2、0.0073、0.13 μg·mL-1,对来自9个厂家17批氟康唑原料药(含国外5批)进行了测定,各杂质能有效检出.结论 该方法简便、快速、灵敏、准确,可用于测定氟康唑原料药的有关物质.%OBJECTIVE To establish an HPLC gradient elution method for the determination of related substances in fluconazole bulk drug. METHODS The separation was achieved by using an ODS column with gradient elution of mobile phase composed of 0. 01 mol·L-1 ammonium formate and acetonitrile. The flow rate was 0.5 mL·min-1. The UV detection wavelength was 261 nm,injection volume is 20 μL. RESULTS Fluconazole and its related substances can be separated effectively by this method, linear relation of fluconazole and impurity B - D were good, the detection limit were 0. 20, 0. 005 2, 0. 007 3, 0. 13 μg·mL-1, seventeen batches sample from nine manufacturers were determined. The related substances in fluconazole bulk drug were effectively determined. CONCLUSION The HPLC method is rapid and accurate which may be used for the inspection of related substances in fluconazole bulk drug.

  7. The Development and Validation of a Stability-Indicating UHPLC-DAD Method for Determination of Perindopril l-Arginine in Bulk Substance and Pharmaceutical Dosage Form.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paczkowska, Magdalena; Zalewski, Przemysław; Garbacki, Piotr; Talaczyńska, Alicja; Krause, Anna; Cielecka-Piontek, Judyta

    2014-01-01

    A stability-indicating ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC) method with a diode array detector was developed and validated for the determination of cis/trans isomers of perindopril l-arginine in bulk substance and pharmaceutical dosage form. The separation was achieved on a Poroshell 120 Hilic (4.6 × 150 mm, 2.7 µm) column using a mobile phase composed of acetonitrile-0.1 % formic acid (20:80 v/v) at a flow rate of 1 mL min(-1). The injection volume was 5.0 µL and the wavelength of detection was controlled at 230 nm. The selectivity of the UHPLC-DAD method was confirmed by determining perindopril l-arginine in the presence of degradation products formed during acid-base hydrolysis and oxidation as well as degradation in the solid state, at an increased relative air humidity and in dry air. The method's linearity was investigated in the ranges 0.40-1.40 µg mL(-1) for isomer I and 0.40-2.40 µg mL(-1) for isomer II of perindopril l-arginine. The UHPLC-DAD method met the precision and accuracy criteria for the determination of the isomers of perindopril l-arginine. The limits of detection and quantitation were 0.1503 and 0.4555 µg mL(-1) for isomer I and 0.0356 and 0.1078 µg mL(-1) for isomer II, respectively.

  8. Development of a validated RP-LC/ESI-MS-MS method for separation, identification and determination of related substances of tamsulosin in bulk drugs and formulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nageswara Rao, R; Kumar Talluri, M V N; Narasa Raju, A; Shinde, Dhananjay D; Ramanjaneyulu, G S

    2008-01-01

    A reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatographic (RP-HPLC) method for evaluation of purity of tamsulosin in bulk drugs and pharmaceuticals was developed. The separation was accomplished on an Inertsil C(18) column using 10 mM ammonium acetate: acetonitrile as a mobile phase in a gradient elution mode. A photodiode array detector set at 280 nm was used for detection. The impurities were identified by ESI-MS-MS. The detection limits were 0.06-0.11 microg/ml. The method was validated with respect to accuracy, precision, linearity, ruggedness and limits of detection and quantification. It finds application not only for monitoring the reactions during the process development but also on quality assurance of tamsulosin.

  9. Development and validation of a liquid chromatographic method for the simultaneous determination of aniracetam and its related substances in the bulk drug and a tablet formulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papandreou, Georgios; Zorpas, Kostas; Archontaki, Helen

    2011-11-01

    Simultaneous determination of aniracetam and its related impurities (2-pyrrolidinone, p-anisic acid, 4-p-anisamidobutyric acid and (p-anisoyl)-4-methyl-2-pyrrolidinone) was accomplished in the bulk drug and in a tablet formulation using a high performance liquid chromatographic method with UV detection. Separation was achieved on a Hypersil BDS-CN column (150 mm × 4.0 mm, 5 μm) using a gradient elution program with solvent A composed of phosphate buffer (pH 4.0; 0.010 M) and solvent B of acetonitrile-phosphate buffer (pH 4.0; 0.010 M) (90:10, v/v). The flow rate of the mobile phase was 1.0 mL min(-1) and the total elution time, including the column re-equilibration, was approximately 20 min. The UV detection wavelength was varied appropriately among 210, 250 and 280 nm. Injection volume was 20 μL and experiments were conducted at ambient temperature. The developed method was validated in terms of system suitability, selectivity, linearity, range, precision, accuracy, limits of detection and quantification for the impurities, short term and long term stability of the analytes in the prepared solutions and robustness, following the ICH guidelines. Therefore, the proposed method was suitable for the simultaneous determination of aniracetam and its studied related impurities.

  10. 76 FR 21915 - Importer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-19

    ... substance to manufacture bulk controlled substance for distribution to its customer. As explained in the.... 823(a), and 21 CFR 1301.34(b), (c), (d), (e), and (f) are satisfied. Dated: April 11, 2011. Joseph...

  11. 77 FR 2324 - Manufacturer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Registration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-17

    ... controlled substances: Drug Schedule Marihuana (7360) I Tetrahydrocannabinols (7370) I The company plans to... drug code 7360 (Marihuana), the company plans to bulk manufacture cannabidiol as a synthetic...

  12. 76 FR 17968 - Manufacturer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Registration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-31

    ... controlled substances: Drug Schedule Marihuana (7360) I Tetrahydrocannabinols (7370) I Alphamethadol (9605) I... code 7360 (Marihuana), the company plans to bulk manufacture cannabidiol as a synthetic intermediate...

  13. Substance use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Substance abuse; Illicit drug abuse; Narcotic abuse; Hallucinogen abuse ... Arlington, VA: American Psychiatric Publishing. 2013. Weiss RD. Drugs of abuse. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Goldman's Cecil ...

  14. 75 FR 44287 - Manufacturer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Registration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-28

    ... Enforcement Administration Manufacturer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Registration By Notice dated March... Administration (DEA) to be registered as a bulk manufacturer of the basic classes of controlled substances listed....33, the above named company is granted registration as a bulk manufacturer of the basic classes...

  15. 75 FR 69466 - Manufacturer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Registration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-12

    ... Enforcement Administration Manufacturer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Registration By Notice dated April... Administration (DEA) to be registered as a bulk manufacturer of the basic classes of controlled substances listed... named company is granted registration as a bulk manufacturer of the basic classes of...

  16. 76 FR 587 - Manufacturer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Registration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-05

    ... Enforcement Administration Manufacturer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Registration By Notice dated... Enforcement Administration (DEA) to be registered as a bulk manufacturer of the following basic classes of... registration as a bulk manufacturer of the basic classes of controlled substances listed. Dated: December...

  17. 75 FR 69467 - Manufacturer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Registration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-12

    ... Enforcement Administration Manufacturer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Registration By Notice dated June... Administration (DEA) to be registered as a bulk manufacturer of the basic classes of controlled substances listed... company is granted registration as a bulk manufacturer of the basic classes of controlled...

  18. 75 FR 10314 - Manufacturer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Registration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-05

    ...: 2010-4723] DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Drug Enforcement Administration Manufacturer of Controlled Substances... registered as a bulk manufacturer of the basic classes of controlled substances listed in schedules I and II... company is granted registration as a bulk manufacturer of the basic classes of controlled...

  19. 76 FR 77257 - Manufacturer of Controlled Substances Notice of Registration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-12

    ... Enforcement Administration Manufacturer of Controlled Substances Notice of Registration By Notice dated August... Administration (DEA) to be registered as a bulk manufacturer of Methamphetamine (1105), a basic class of... registration as a bulk manufacturer of the basic class of controlled substance listed. ] Dated: December...

  20. 75 FR 32506 - Manufacturer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Registration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-08

    ... Enforcement Administration Manufacturer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Registration By Notice dated... Enforcement Administration (DEA) to be registered as a bulk manufacturer of the basic classes of controlled... a bulk manufacturer of the basic classes of controlled substances listed. Dated: May 28,...

  1. 76 FR 62451 - Manufacturer of Controlled Substances, Notice of Registration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-07

    ... Enforcement Administration Manufacturer of Controlled Substances, Notice of Registration By Notice dated June... Administration (DEA) to be registered as a bulk manufacturer of the following basic classes of controlled... registration as a bulk manufacturer of the basic classes of controlled substances listed. Dated: September...

  2. 76 FR 65750 - Manufacturer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Registration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-24

    ... Enforcement Administration Manufacturer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Registration By Notice dated June... Enforcement Administration (DEA) to be registered as a bulk manufacturer of the following basic classes of... registration as a bulk manufacturer of the basic classes of controlled substances listed. Dated: October...

  3. 75 FR 62570 - Manufacturer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Registration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-12

    ... Enforcement Administration Manufacturer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Registration By Notice dated March... Administration (DEA) to be registered as a bulk manufacturer of methamphetamine (1105), a basic class of... granted registration as a bulk manufacturer of the basic class of controlled substance listed....

  4. 76 FR 36578 - Manufacturer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Registration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-22

    ... Enforcement Administration Manufacturer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Registration By Notice dated March... Enforcement Administration (DEA) to be registered as a bulk manufacturer of the following basic classes of... a bulk manufacturer of the basic classes of controlled substances listed. Dated: June 14,...

  5. 76 FR 8777 - Manufacturer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Registration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-15

    ... Enforcement Administration Manufacturer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Registration By Notice dated... registered as a bulk manufacturer of the following basic classes of controlled substances: Drug Schedule... with 21 CFR 1301.33, the above named company is granted registration as a bulk manufacturer of...

  6. 76 FR 51403 - Manufacturer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Registration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-18

    ... Enforcement Administration Manufacturer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Registration By Notice dated April... the Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA) to be registered as a bulk manufacturer of the following... registration as a bulk manufacturer of the basic classes of controlled substances listed. Dated: August...

  7. Bioactive substances

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Wahidullah, S.

    Chemistry related to certain bioactive molecules, from Indian Ocean Region, developed into drugs or which served as models for the synthesis of more effective bioactive substances or in use in fundamental studies of physiological and biochemical...

  8. 76 FR 53961 - Manufacturer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Registration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-30

    ... Enforcement Administration Manufacturer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Registration By Notice dated April... Enforcement Administration (DEA) to be registered as a bulk manufacturer of 4-Anilino-N-phenethyl-4-Piperidine... controlled substance in the manufacturer of another controlled substance. No comments or objections have...

  9. Shared Substance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gjerlufsen, Tony; Klokmose, Clemens Nylandsted; Eagan, James

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a novel middleware for developing flexible interactive multi-surface applications. Using a scenario-based approach, we identify the requirements for this type of applications. We then introduce Substance, a data- oriented framework that decouples functionality from data, and S...

  10. Bulk Nanostructured Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, C. C.; Langdon, T. G.; Lavernia, E. J.

    2017-09-01

    This paper will address three topics of importance to bulk nanostructured materials. Bulk nanostructured materials are defined as bulk solids with nanoscale or partly nanoscale microstructures. This category of nanostructured materials has historical roots going back many decades but has relatively recent focus due to new discoveries of unique properties of some nanoscale materials. Bulk nanostructured materials are prepared by a variety of severe plastic deformation methods, and these will be reviewed. Powder processing to prepare bulk nanostructured materials requires that the powders be consolidated by typical combinations of pressure and temperature, the latter leading to coarsening of the microstructure. The thermal stability of nanostructured materials will also be discussed. An example of bringing nanostructured materials to applications as structural materials will be described in terms of the cryomilling of powders and their consolidation.

  11. 77 FR 47114 - Manufacturer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Application; AMRI Rensselaer, Inc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-07

    ... following basic classes of controlled substances: Drug Schedule Marihuana (7360) I Tetrahydrocannabinols... distribution to its customers. In reference to drug code 7360 (Marihuana), the company plans to bulk...

  12. Psychotoxic Substances

    Science.gov (United States)

    1964-11-16

    began an in- tensive research for the clarification of the mechanism of the effect of psychotomimetic substances. In addition to the semi-synthetically...Dibenamine i.v. 200,000 ... 6oo,000 Ethyl ether p.o. 200,000 ... 400,000 Cocaine s.c. 80,000 ... 300,000 Mescaline p.o. 10,000 ... 20,000 Morphia s.c. 5,000...Autonomic functions Excitement, mood Pyramidal and extra- Meso-diencephalic changes: pyramidal effects: effects: Euphoria , depres- Ataxia, spastic

  13. Large area bulk superconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Dean J.; Field, Michael B.

    2002-01-01

    A bulk superconductor having a thickness of not less than about 100 microns is carried by a polycrystalline textured substrate having misorientation angles at the surface thereof not greater than about 15.degree.; the bulk superconductor may have a thickness of not less than about 100 microns and a surface area of not less than about 50 cm.sup.2. The textured substrate may have a thickness not less than about 10 microns and misorientation angles at the surface thereof not greater than about 15.degree.. Also disclosed is a process of manufacturing the bulk superconductor and the polycrystalline biaxially textured substrate material.

  14. 76 FR 51401 - Manufacturer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-18

    ... classes of controlled substances: Drug Schedule Marihuana (7360) I Tetrahydrocannabinols (7370) I The... customers. In reference to drug code 7360 (Marihuana), the company plans to bulk manufacture cannabidiol as...

  15. 76 FR 5829 - Manufacturer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-02

    ... controlled substances: Drug Schedule Marihuana (7360) I Tetrahydrocannabinols (7370) I Amphetamine (1100) II... distribution to its customers. In reference to drug code 7360 (Marihuana), the company plans to bulk...

  16. 76 FR 30970 - Manufacturer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Registration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-27

    ... controlled substances: Drug Schedule Marihuana (7360) I Tetrahydrocannabinols (7370) I Amphetamine (1100) II... distribution to its customers. In reference to drug code 7360 (Marihuana), the company plans to bulk...

  17. 76 FR 14690 - Manufacturer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-17

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Drug Enforcement Administration Manufacturer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Application Pursuant to Sec. 1301... Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA) to be registered as a bulk manufacturer of...

  18. 76 FR 23627 - Manufacturer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-27

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Drug Enforcement Administration Manufacturer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Application Pursuant to Sec. 1301... the Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA) to be registered as a bulk manufacturer of...

  19. 75 FR 75497 - Manufacturer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-03

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Drug Enforcement Administration Manufacturer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Application Pursuant to Sec. 1301... the Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA) to be registered as a bulk manufacturer of...

  20. 76 FR 21916 - Manufacturer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-19

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Drug Enforcement Administration Manufacturer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Application Pursuant to Sec. 1301... Enforcement Administration (DEA) to be registered as a bulk manufacturer of 4-...

  1. 75 FR 53719 - Manufacturer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-01

    ... Acid (GHB) (2010), a basic class of controlled substance listed in schedule I. The company plans to manufacture Gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid (GHB) (2010) in bulk active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) form...

  2. 76 FR 66994 - Manufacturer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-28

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Drug Enforcement Administration Manufacturer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Application Pursuant to Sec. 1301... registered as a bulk manufacturer of the following basic classes of controlled substances: Drug...

  3. 76 FR 44358 - Manufacturer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Registration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-25

    ... Enforcement Administration Manufacturer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Registration By Notice dated April... Administration (DEA) to be registered as a bulk manufacturer of the following basic classes of controlled... manufacturer of the basic classes of controlled substances listed. Dated: July 19, 2011. Joseph T....

  4. 75 FR 69464 - Manufacturer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-12

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Drug Enforcement Administration Manufacturer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Application Pursuant to Sec. 1301... Administration (DEA) as a bulk manufacturer of the basic classes of controlled substances listed in schedules...

  5. 75 FR 10313 - Manufacturer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-05

    ... [Federal Register Volume 75, Number 43 (Friday, March 5, 2010)] [Notices] [Page 10313] [FR Doc No: 2010-4717] DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Drug Enforcement Administration Manufacturer of Controlled Substances... as a bulk manufacturer of the basic classes of controlled substances listed in schedules I and...

  6. 76 FR 62448 - Importer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Registration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-07

    ... the company's compliance with state and local laws, and a review of the company's background and... substance listed in schedule II. The company plans to import the listed controlled substance in bulk for... Noramco Inc. to ensure that the company's registration is consistent with the public interest. The...

  7. 75 FR 69461 - Importer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Registration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-12

    ... inspection and testing of the company's physical security systems, verification of the company's compliance with state and local laws, and a review of the company's background and history. Therefore, pursuant to... substance listed in schedule II. The company plans to import the listed controlled substance in bulk to...

  8. 75 FR 10313 - Manufacturer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Registration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-05

    ... Doc No: 2010-4728] DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Drug Enforcement Administration Manufacturer of Controlled... application by renewal to the Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA) to be registered as a bulk manufacturer of... as a bulk manufacturer of the basic classes of controlled substances listed. Dated: February 26,...

  9. 75 FR 69463 - Manufacturer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Registration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-12

    ... Enforcement Administration Manufacturer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Registration By Notice dated June... Enforcement Administration (DEA) to be registered as a bulk manufacturer of the basic classes of controlled... 1301.33, the above named company is granted ] registration as a bulk manufacturer of the basic...

  10. 76 FR 14690 - Manufacturer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Registration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-17

    ... Enforcement Administration Manufacturer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Registration By Notice dated... Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA) to be registered as a bulk manufacturer of the following basic... accordance with 21 CFR 1301.33, the above named company is granted registration as a bulk manufacturer of...

  11. 77 FR 7603 - Manufacturer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Registration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-13

    ... Enforcement Administration Manufacturer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Registration By Notice dated... Enforcement Administration (DEA) to be registered as a bulk manufacturer of the following basic classes of... above named company is granted registration as a bulk manufacturer of the basic classes of...

  12. 75 FR 75498 - Manufacturer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-03

    ... Enforcement Administration Manufacturer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Application Pursuant to Sec. 1301... letter to the Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA) to be registered as a bulk manufacturer of the basic..., Inc.'s legal existence as a corporation and as a DEA registrant as a bulk manufacturer will...

  13. 76 FR 7234 - Manufacturer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Registration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-09

    ... Enforcement Administration Manufacturer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Registration By Notice dated... Administration (DEA) to be registered as a bulk manufacturer of the following basic classes of controlled... with 21 CFR Sec. 1301.33, the above named company is granted registration as a bulk manufacturer of...

  14. 76 FR 44359 - Manufacturer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Registration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-25

    ... Enforcement Administration Manufacturer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Registration By Notice dated April... Administration (DEA) to be registered as a bulk manufacturer of 4-Anilino-N-Phenethyl-4-Piperidine (8333), a... accordance with 21 CFR 1301.33, the above named company is granted registration as a bulk manufacturer of...

  15. 76 FR 21916 - Manufacturer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Registration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-19

    ... Enforcement Administration Manufacturer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Registration By Notice dated... Enforcement Administration (DEA) to be registered as a bulk manufacturer of the basic classes of controlled... company is granted registration as a bulk manufacturer of the basic classes of controlled...

  16. 76 FR 77257 - Manufacturer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Registration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-12

    ... Enforcement Administration Manufacturer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Registration By Notice dated... Enforcement Administration (DEA) to be registered as a bulk manufacturer of Morphine (9300), a basic class of... accordance with 21 CFR 1301.33, the above named company is granted registration as a bulk manufacturer of...

  17. 75 FR 20002 - Manufacturer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Registration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-16

    ... Enforcement Administration Manufacturer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Registration By Notice dated... the Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA) to be registered as a bulk manufacturer of the basic classes... 21 CFR 1301.33, the above named company is granted registration as a bulk manufacturer of the...

  18. 76 FR 51402 - Manufacturer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Registration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-18

    ... Enforcement Administration Manufacturer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Registration By Notice dated April... to the Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA) to be registered as a bulk manufacturer of the following... company is granted registration as a bulk manufacturer of the basic classes of controlled...

  19. 75 FR 75498 - Manufacturer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Registration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-03

    ... Enforcement Administration Manufacturer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Registration By Notice dated May... Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA) to be registered as a bulk manufacturer of the basic classes of... named company is granted registration as a bulk manufacturer of the basic classes of...

  20. 76 FR 62451 - Manufacturer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Registration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-07

    ... Enforcement Administration Manufacturer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Registration By Notice dated May... Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA) to be registered as a bulk manufacturer of Carfentanil (9743), a... named company is granted registration as a bulk manufacturer of the basic class of controlled...

  1. 75 FR 2160 - Manufacturer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Registration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-14

    ... Enforcement Administration Manufacturer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Registration By Notice dated... Enforcement Administration (DEA) to be registered as a bulk manufacturer of the basic classes of controlled... named company is granted registration as a bulk manufacturer of the basic classes of...

  2. Substance Identification Information from EPA's Substance Registry

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Substance Registry Services (SRS) is the authoritative resource for basic information about substances of interest to the U.S. EPA and its state and tribal...

  3. Bulk chemicals from biomass

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haveren, van J.; Scott, E.L.; Sanders, J.P.M.

    2008-01-01

    Given the current robust forces driving sustainable production, and available biomass conversion technologies, biomass-based routes are expected to make a significant impact on the production of bulk chemicals within 10 years, and a huge impact within 20-30 years. In the Port of Rotterdam there is a

  4. Auctioning Bulk Mobile Messages

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Meij (Simon); L-F. Pau (Louis-François); H.W.G.M. van Heck (Eric)

    2003-01-01

    textabstractThe search for enablers of continued growth of SMS traffic, as well as the take-off of the more diversified MMS message contents, open up for enterprises the potential of bulk use of mobile messaging , instead of essentially one-by-one use. In parallel, such enterprises or value added

  5. Bulk chemicals from biomass

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haveren, van J.; Scott, E.L.; Sanders, J.P.M.

    2008-01-01

    Given the current robust forces driving sustainable production, and available biomass conversion technologies, biomass-based routes are expected to make a significant impact on the production of bulk chemicals within 10 years, and a huge impact within 20-30 years. In the Port of Rotterdam there is a

  6. Radiative Bulk Viscosity

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, X

    2001-01-01

    Viscous resistance to changes in the volume of a gas arises when different degrees of freedom have different relaxation times. Collisions tend to oppose the resulting departures from equilibrium and, in so doing, generate entropy. Even for a classical gas of hard spheres, when the mean free paths or mean flight times of constituent particles are long, we find a nonvanishing bulk viscosity. Here we apply a method recently used to uncover this result for a classical rarefied gas to radiative transfer theory and derive an expression for the radiative stress tensor for a gray medium with absorption and Thomson scattering. We determine the transport coefficients through the calculation of the comoving entropy generation. When scattering dominates absorption, the bulk viscosity becomes much larger than either the shear viscosity or the thermal conductivity.

  7. Bulk modification of PDMS microchips by an amphiphilic copolymer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Yan; Yu, Xiao-Dong; Xu, Jing-Juan; Chen, Hong-Yuan

    2007-09-01

    A simple and rapid bulk-modification method based on adding an amphiphilic copolymer during the fabrication process was employed to modify PDMS microchips. Poly(lactic acid)-poly(ethylene glycol) (PLA-PEG) was used as the additive substance. Compared to the native PDMS microchips, both the contact angle and the EOF of the bulk-modified PDMS microchips decreased. The effects of the additive loading and the pH on the EOF were investigated in detail. The bulk-modified PDMS microchips exhibited reproducible and stable EOF behavior. The application of the bulk-modified PDMS microchips was also studied and the results indicated that they could be successfully used to separate amino acids and to suppress protein adsorption.

  8. Bulk-Fill Resin Composites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benetti, Ana Raquel; Havndrup-Pedersen, Cæcilie; Honoré, Daniel;

    2015-01-01

    the restorative procedure. The aim of this study, therefore, was to compare the depth of cure, polymerization contraction, and gap formation in bulk-fill resin composites with those of a conventional resin composite. To achieve this, the depth of cure was assessed in accordance with the International Organization...... for Standardization 4049 standard, and the polymerization contraction was determined using the bonded-disc method. The gap formation was measured at the dentin margin of Class II cavities. Five bulk-fill resin composites were investigated: two high-viscosity (Tetric EvoCeram Bulk Fill, SonicFill) and three low......-viscosity (x-tra base, Venus Bulk Fill, SDR) materials. Compared with the conventional resin composite, the high-viscosity bulk-fill materials exhibited only a small increase (but significant for Tetric EvoCeram Bulk Fill) in depth of cure and polymerization contraction, whereas the low-viscosity bulk...

  9. Explosive bulk charge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, Jacob Lee

    2015-04-21

    An explosive bulk charge, including: a first contact surface configured to be selectively disposed substantially adjacent to a structure or material; a second end surface configured to selectively receive a detonator; and a curvilinear side surface joining the first contact surface and the second end surface. The first contact surface, the second end surface, and the curvilinear side surface form a bi-truncated hemispherical structure. The first contact surface, the second end surface, and the curvilinear side surface are formed from an explosive material. Optionally, the first contact surface and the second end surface each have a substantially circular shape. Optionally, the first contact surface and the second end surface consist of planar structures that are aligned substantially parallel or slightly tilted with respect to one another. The curvilinear side surface has one of a smooth curved geometry, an elliptical geometry, and a parabolic geometry.

  10. The Incredible Bulk

    CERN Document Server

    Fukushima, Keita; Kumar, Jason; Sandick, Pearl; Yamamoto, Takahiro

    2014-01-01

    Recent experimental results from the LHC have placed strong constraints on the masses of colored superpartners. The MSSM parameter space is also constrained by the measurement of the Higgs boson mass, and the requirement that the relic density of lightest neutralinos be consistent with observations. Although large regions of the MSSM parameter space can be excluded by these combined bounds, leptophilic versions of the MSSM can survive these constraints. In this paper we consider a scenario in which the requirements of minimal flavor violation, vanishing $CP$-violation, and mass universality are relaxed, specifically focusing on scenarios with light sleptons. We find a large region of parameter space, analogous to the original bulk region, for which the lightest neutralino is a thermal relic with an abundance consistent with that of dark matter. We find that these leptophilic models are constrained by measurements of the magnetic and electric dipole moments of the electron and muon, and that these models have ...

  11. Creating bulk nanocrystalline metal.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fredenburg, D. Anthony (Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA); Saldana, Christopher J. (Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN); Gill, David D.; Hall, Aaron Christopher; Roemer, Timothy John (Ktech Corporation, Albuquerque, NM); Vogler, Tracy John; Yang, Pin

    2008-10-01

    Nanocrystalline and nanostructured materials offer unique microstructure-dependent properties that are superior to coarse-grained materials. These materials have been shown to have very high hardness, strength, and wear resistance. However, most current methods of producing nanostructured materials in weapons-relevant materials create powdered metal that must be consolidated into bulk form to be useful. Conventional consolidation methods are not appropriate due to the need to maintain the nanocrystalline structure. This research investigated new ways of creating nanocrystalline material, new methods of consolidating nanocrystalline material, and an analysis of these different methods of creation and consolidation to evaluate their applicability to mesoscale weapons applications where part features are often under 100 {micro}m wide and the material's microstructure must be very small to give homogeneous properties across the feature.

  12. Substance use and multiculturalism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adrian, M

    1996-01-01

    This paper reviews intercultural variability of substance use behaviors, including availability of international statistics on consumption of alcohol and other drugs, as well as the use of drugs available locally only. Within a conceptual framework of intercultural relations, it considers the history of transcultural spread of substance use behaviors and possible reactions to the introduction of new drugs within a culture or jurisdiction, including illustrations of the "law of alien poisons." Although intercultural views of substance use have generally concentrated on majority groups' views of substance use in minority groups, minority and non-Western views of substance use need to be considered in the context of increasing international and intercultural communications that increase the rate at which substance use behaviors spread. Both Western and non-Western experiences with substance use and misuse must be taken into account so that better interventions can be developed to deal with addictions and other substance-related problems.

  13. Substance Use in Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... emergency room or die from overdose or other effects of certain substances. Women who are victims of domestic violence are at increased risk of substance use. Divorce, loss of child custody, or the death of ...

  14. Substance Abuse and Trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmons, Shannon; Suárez, Liza

    2016-10-01

    There is a strong, bidirectional link between substance abuse and traumatic experiences. Teens with cooccurring substance use disorders (SUDs) and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) have significant functional and psychosocial impairment. Common neurobiological foundations point to the reinforcing cycle of trauma symptoms, substance withdrawal, and substance use. Treatment of teens with these issues should include a systemic and integrated approach to both the SUD and the PTSD.

  15. Substance, Reality, and Distinctness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boris Hennig

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Descartes claims that God is a substance, and that mind and body are two different and separable substances. This paper provides some background that renders these claims intelligible. For Descartes, that something is real means it can exist in separation, and something is a substance if it does not depend on other substances for its existence. Further, separable objects are correlates of distinct ideas, for an idea is distinct (in an objective sense if its object may be easily and clearly separated from everything that is not its object. It follows that if our idea of God is our most distinct idea, as Descartes claims, then God must be a substance in the Cartesian sense of the term. Also, if we can have an idea of a thinking subject which does not in any sense refer to bodily things, and if bodily things are substances, then mind and body must be two different substances.

  16. Developing bulk exchange spring magnets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mccall, Scott K.; Kuntz, Joshua D.

    2017-06-27

    A method of making a bulk exchange spring magnet by providing a magnetically soft material, providing a hard magnetic material, and producing a composite of said magnetically soft material and said hard magnetic material to make the bulk exchange spring magnet. The step of producing a composite of magnetically soft material and hard magnetic material is accomplished by electrophoretic deposition of the magnetically soft material and the hard magnetic material to make the bulk exchange spring magnet.

  17. Brane Couplings from Bulk Loops

    OpenAIRE

    Georgi, Howard; Grant, Aaron K.; Hailu, Girma

    2000-01-01

    We compute loop corrections to the effective action of a field theory on a five-dimensional $S_1/Z_2$ orbifold. We find that the quantum loop effects of interactions in the bulk produce infinite contributions that require renormalization by four-dimensional couplings on the orbifold fixed planes. Thus bulk couplings give rise to renormalization group running of brane couplings.

  18. Can bulk viscosity drive inflation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pacher, T.; Stein-Schabes, J.A.; Turner, M.S.

    1987-09-15

    Contrary to other claims, we argue that bulk viscosity associated with the interactions of non- relativistic particles with relativistic particles around the time of the grand unified theory (GUT) phase transition cannot lead to inflation. Simply put, the key ingredient for inflation, negative pressure, cannot arise due to the bulk-viscosity effects of a weakly interacting mixture of relativistic and nonrelativistic particles.

  19. 78 FR 30332 - Manufacturer of Controlled Substances, Notice of Application, Austin Pharma, Llc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-22

    ... Marihuana (7360), a basic class of controlled substance listed in schedule I. The company plans to... drug code 7360 (Marihuana), the company plans to bulk manufacture cannabidiol as a synthetic...

  20. 77 FR 75670 - Manufacturer of Controlled Substances, Notice of Registration, AMRI Rensselaer, Inc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-21

    ... basic classes of controlled substances: Drug Schedule Marihuana (7360) I Tetrahydrocannabinols (7370) I... reference to drug code 7360 (Marihuana), the company plans to bulk manufacture cannabidiol as a synthetic...

  1. 77 FR 52368 - Manufacturer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Registration; Austin Pharma, LLC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-29

    ... basic classes of controlled substances: Drug Schedule Marihuana (7360) I Tetrahydrocannabinols (7370) I... customers. In reference to drug code 7360 (Marihuana), the company plans to bulk manufacture cannabidiol as...

  2. 75 FR 9614 - Manufacturer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Registration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-03

    ... controlled substances listed in schedule I: Drug Schedule Marihuana (7360) I Tetrahydrocannabinols (7370) I The company plans to manufacture small quantities of marihuana derivatives for research purposes. In reference to drug code 7360 (Marihuana), the company plans to bulk manufacture cannabidiol. In reference to...

  3. 76 FR 21917 - Manufacturer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Registration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-19

    ... controlled substances: Drug Schedule Marihuana (7360) I Tetrahydrocannabinols (7370) I The company plans to manufacture small quantities of marihuana derivatives for research purposes. In reference to drug code 7360 (Marihuana), the company plans to bulk manufacture cannabidiol. In reference to drug code 7370...

  4. 75 FR 64744 - Manufacturer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-20

    ... controlled substances listed in schedule I: Drug Schedule Marihuana (7360) I Tetrahydrocannabinols (7370) I The company plans to manufacture small quantities of marihuana derivatives for research purposes. In reference to drug code 7360 (Marihuana), the company plans to bulk manufacture cannabidiol. In reference to...

  5. 75 FR 44286 - Manufacturer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Registration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-28

    ... Enforcement Administration Manufacturer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Registration By Notice dated March... Enforcement Administration (DEA) to be registered as a bulk manufacturer of the basic classes of controlled... company plans to manufacture Hydromorphone HCL for sale to other manufacturers and for the manufacture...

  6. 76 FR 77850 - Manufacturer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-14

    ... Enforcement Administration Manufacturer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Application Pursuant to Sec. 1301... Enforcement Administration (DEA) to be registered as a bulk manufacturer of the following basic classes of... manufacture Hydromorphone HCL for sale to other manufacturers, and to manufacture other controlled...

  7. 75 FR 14189 - Manufacturer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-24

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Drug Enforcement Administration Manufacturer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Application Pursuant to Sec. 1301... Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA) to be registered as a bulk manufacturer of Amphetamine (1100),...

  8. 76 FR 51401 - Manufacturer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-18

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Drug Enforcement Administration Manufacturer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Application Pursuant to Sec. 1301... Enforcement Administration (DEA) to be registered as a bulk manufacturer of the following basic classes...

  9. 76 FR 23627 - Manufacturer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Registration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-27

    ... Enforcement Administration Manufacturer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Registration By Notice dated... Administration (DEA) to be registered as a bulk manufacturer of the following basic classes of controlled... company is a contract manufacturer. At the request of the company's customers, it manufactures...

  10. 75 FR 82073 - Manufacturer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-29

    ... [Federal Register Volume 75, Number 249 (Wednesday, December 29, 2010)] [Notices] [Page 82073] [FR Doc No: 2010-32855] DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Drug Enforcement Administration Manufacturer of Controlled... registered as a bulk manufacturer of the basic classes of controlled substances listed in schedules I and...

  11. 75 FR 21661 - Manufacturer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-26

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Drug Enforcement Administration Manufacturer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Application Pursuant to Sec. 1301... by renewal to the Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA) as a bulk manufacturer of the basic...

  12. 77 FR 2324 - Manufacturer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-17

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Drug Enforcement Administration Manufacturer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Application Pursuant to Sec. 1301... the Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA) to be registered as a bulk manufacturer of the...

  13. 76 FR 14689 - Manufacturer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-17

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Drug Enforcement Administration Manufacturer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Application Pursuant to Sec. 1301... Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA) to be registered as a bulk manufacturer of the following...

  14. 77 FR 2323 - Manufacturer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-17

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Drug Enforcement Administration Manufacturer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Application Pursuant to Sec. 1301... Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA) to be registered as a bulk manufacturer of the following...

  15. 75 FR 13304 - Manufacturer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-19

    ... Enforcement Administration Manufacturer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Application Pursuant to Sec. 1301... renewal to the Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA) to be registered as a bulk manufacturer of the basic... commercial distribution. The company plans to manufacture Hydromorphone HCL for sale to other...

  16. 75 FR 20001 - Manufacturer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-16

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Drug Enforcement Administration Manufacturer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Application Pursuant to Sec. 1301... application by renewal to the Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA) to be registered as a bulk manufacturer...

  17. 75 FR 32506 - Manufacturer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-08

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Drug Enforcement Administration Manufacturer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Application Pursuant to Sec. 1301... application by renewal to the Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA) to be registered as a bulk manufacturer...

  18. 76 FR 33785 - Manufacturer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-09

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Drug Enforcement Administration Manufacturer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Application Pursuant to Sec. 1301... Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA) to be registered as a bulk manufacturer of the following...

  19. 76 FR 51400 - Manufacturer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-18

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Drug Enforcement Administration Manufacturer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Application Pursuant to Sec. 1301... ] Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA) to be registered as a bulk manufacturer of Morphine (9300),...

  20. 76 FR 62450 - Manufacturer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-07

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Drug Enforcement Administration Manufacturer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Application Pursuant to Sec. 1301... Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA) to be registered as a bulk manufacturer of the following...

  1. 75 FR 14190 - Manufacturer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-24

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Drug Enforcement Administration Manufacturer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Application Pursuant to Sec. 1301... application by renewal to the Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA) as a bulk manufacturer of the...

  2. 76 FR 36577 - Manufacturer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-22

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Drug Enforcement Administration Manufacturer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Application Pursuant to Sec. 1301... the Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA) to be registered as a bulk manufacturer of the...

  3. 76 FR 77257 - Manufacturer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-12

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Drug Enforcement Administration Manufacturer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Application Pursuant to Sec. 1301... by renewal to the Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA) to be registered as a bulk manufacturer...

  4. 76 FR 44358 - Manufacturer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-25

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Drug Enforcement Administration Manufacturer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Application Pursuant to Sec. 1301... to the Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA) to be registered as a bulk manufacturer of...

  5. 76 FR 31638 - Manufacturer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-01

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Drug Enforcement Administration Manufacturer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Application Pursuant to Sec. 1301... renewal to the Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA) to be registered as a bulk manufacturer...

  6. 76 FR 51402 - Manufacturer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-18

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Drug Enforcement Administration Manufacturer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Application Pursuant to Sec. 1301... to the Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA) to be registered as a bulk manufacturer of the...

  7. 77 FR 4833 - Manufacturer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Registration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-31

    ... physical security systems, verification of the company's compliance with state and local laws, and a review... Tapentadol (9780) II The company plans to manufacture the listed controlled substances in bulk for distribution and sale to its customers for Amphetamine (1100). The company plans to acquire the listed...

  8. 77 FR 5848 - Manufacturer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Registration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-06

    ..., verification of the company's compliance with state and local laws, and a review of the company's background... (9801) II The company plans to manufacture the listed controlled substances in bulk for sale to its... Cody Laboratories, Inc. to ensure that the company's registration is consistent with the public...

  9. Can bulk viscosity drive inflation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pacher, T.; Stein-Schabes, J.A.; Turner, M.S.

    1987-04-01

    Contrary to other claims, we argue that, bulk viscosity associated with the interactions of nonrelativistic particles with relativistic particles around the time of the grand unified theory (GUT) phase transition cannot lead to inflation. Simply put, the key ingredient for inflation, negative pressure, cannot arise due to the bulk viscosity effects of a weakly-interacting mixture of relativistic and nonrelativistic particles. 13 refs., 1 fig.

  10. Pricing hazardous substance emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Staring, Knut; Vennemo, Haakon

    1997-12-31

    This report discusses pricing of emissions to air of several harmful substances. It combines ranking indices for environmentally harmful substances with economic valuation data to yield price estimates. The ranking methods are discussed and a relative index established. Given the relative ranking of the substances, they all become valued by assigning a value to one of them, the `anchor` substance, for which lead is selected. Valuations are provided for 19 hazardous substances that are often subject to environmental regulations. They include dioxins, TBT, etc. The study concludes with a discussion of other categories of substances as well as uncertainties and possible refinements. When the valuations are related to CO, NOx, SOx and PM 10, the index system undervalues these pollutants as compared to other studies. The scope is limited to the outdoor environment and does not include global warming and eutrophication. The indices are based on toxicity and so do not apply to CO{sub 2} or other substances that are biologically harmless. The index values are not necessarily valid for all countries and should be considered as preliminary. 18 refs., 6 tabs.

  11. Supervision: Substance and Style

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gellerman, Saul W.

    1976-01-01

    Argues that managerial style and substance are inextricably intertwined, illustrating the discussion with excerpts from an extensive study and job analysis of first-line supervisors in a food packaging plant. (JG)

  12. Looking for a bulk point

    CERN Document Server

    Maldacena, Juan; Zhiboedov, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    We consider Lorentzian correlators of local operators. In perturbation theory, singularities occur when we can draw a position-space Landau diagram with null lines. In theories with gravity duals, we can also draw Landau diagrams in the bulk. We argue that certain singularities can arise only from bulk diagrams, not from boundary diagrams. As has been previously observed, these singularities are a clear diagnostic of bulk locality. We analyze some properties of these perturbative singularities and discuss their relation to the OPE and the dimensions of double-trace operators. In the exact nonperturbative theory, we expect no singularity at these locations. We prove this statement in 1+1 dimensions by CFT methods.

  13. Bulk nano-crystalline alloys

    OpenAIRE

    T.-S. Chin; Lin, C. Y.; Lee, M.C.; R.T. Huang; S. M. Huang

    2009-01-01

    Bulk metallic glasses (BMGs) Fe–B–Y–Nb–Cu, 2 mm in diameter, were successfully annealed to become bulk nano-crystalline alloys (BNCAs) with α-Fe crystallite 11–13 nm in size. A ‘crystallization-and-stop’ model was proposed to explain this behavior. Following this model, alloy-design criteria were elucidated and confirmed successful on another Fe-based BMG Fe–B–Si–Nb–Cu, 1 mm in diameter, with crystallite sizes 10–40 nm. It was concluded that BNCAs can be designed in general by the proposed cr...

  14. Longitudinal bulk acoustic mass sensor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hales, Jan Harry; Teva, Jordi; Boisen, Anja

    2009-01-01

    A polycrystalline silicon longitudinal bulk acoustic cantilever is fabricated and operated in air at 51 MHz. A mass sensitivity of 100 Hz/fg (1 fg=10(-15) g) is obtained from the preliminary experiments where a minute mass is deposited on the device by means of focused ion beam. The total noise...

  15. Bulk viscosity and deflationary universes

    CERN Document Server

    Lima, J A S; Waga, I

    2007-01-01

    We analyze the conditions that make possible the description of entropy generation in the new inflationary model by means of a nearequilibrium process. We show that there are situations in which the bulk viscosity cannot describe particle production during the coherent field oscillations phase.

  16. The Universe With Bulk Viscosity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    Exact solutions for a model with variable G, A and bulk viscosity areobtained. Inflationary solutions with constant (de Sitter-type) and variable energydensity are found. An expanding anisotropic universe is found to isotropize duringits expansion but a static universe cannot isotropize. The gravitational constant isfound to increase with time and the cosmological constant decreases with time asAo∝t-2.

  17. SUBSTANCE ABUSE IN INDIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bano Rubeena

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The epidemic of substance abuse in young generation has assumed alarming dimensions in India. Changing cultural values, increasing economic stress and dwindling supportive bonds are leading to initiation into substance use. Cannabis, heroin, and Indian-produced pharmaceutical drugs are the most frequently abused drugs in India. Drug use, misuse or abuse is also primarily due to the nature of the drug abused, the personality of the individual and the addict’s immediate environment. The processes of industrialization, urbanization and migration have led to loosening of the traditional methods of social control rendering an individual vulnerable to the stresses and strains of modern life.

  18. Cosmic bulk viscosity through backreaction

    CERN Document Server

    Barbosa, Rodrigo M; Zimdahl, Winfried; Piattella, Oliver F

    2015-01-01

    We consider an effective viscous pressure as the result of a backreaction of inhomogeneities within Buchert's formalism. The use of an effective metric with a time-dependent curvature radius allows us to calculate the luminosity distance of the backreaction model. This quantity is different from its counterpart for a "conventional" spatially flat bulk viscous fluid universe. Both expressions are tested against the SNIa data of the Union2.1 sample with only marginally different results.

  19. Bulk Superconductors in Mobile Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werfel, F. N.; Delor, U. Floegel-; Rothfeld, R.; Riedel, T.; Wippich, D.; Goebel, B.; Schirrmeister, P.

    We investigate and review concepts of multi - seeded REBCO bulk superconductors in mobile application. ATZ's compact HTS bulk magnets can trap routinely 1 T@77 K. Except of magnetization, flux creep and hysteresis, industrial - like properties as compactness, power density, and robustness are of major device interest if mobility and light-weight construction is in focus. For mobile application in levitated trains or demonstrator magnets we examine the performance of on-board cryogenics either by LN2 or cryo-cooler application. The mechanical, electric and thermodynamical requirements of compact vacuum cryostats for Maglev train operation were studied systematically. More than 30 units are manufactured and tested. The attractive load to weight ratio is more than 10 and favours group module device constructions up to 5 t load on permanent magnet (PM) track. A transportable and compact YBCO bulk magnet cooled with in-situ 4 Watt Stirling cryo-cooler for 50 - 80 K operation is investigated. Low cooling power and effective HTS cold mass drives the system construction to a minimum - thermal loss and light-weight design.

  20. Adolescent Substance Abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorne, Craig R.; DeBlassie, Richard R.

    1985-01-01

    Cummings (1979), citing evidence from the National Institute of Drug Abuse, reports that one of every eleven adult Americans suffers from a severe addictive problem. Drug addiction is epidemic among teenagers; one of every six teenagers suffers from a severe addictive problem. This paper focuses on adolescent drug/substance abuse. (Author)

  1. Bulk Moisture and Salinity Sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nurge, Mark; Monje, Oscar; Prenger, Jessica; Catechis, John

    2013-01-01

    Measurement and feedback control of nutrient solutions in plant root zones is critical to the development of healthy plants in both terrestrial and reduced-gravity environments. In addition to the water content, the amount of fertilizer in the nutrient solution is important to plant health. This typically requires a separate set of sensors to accomplish. A combination bulk moisture and salinity sensor has been designed, built, and tested with different nutrient solutions in several substrates. The substrates include glass beads, a clay-like substrate, and a nutrient-enriched substrate with the presence of plant roots. By measuring two key parameters, the sensor is able to monitor both the volumetric water content and salinity of the nutrient solution in bulk media. Many commercially available moisture sensors are point sensors, making localized measurements over a small volume at the point of insertion. Consequently, they are more prone to suffer from interferences with air bubbles, contact area of media, and root growth. This makes it difficult to get an accurate representation of true moisture content and distribution in the bulk media. Additionally, a network of point sensors is required, increasing the cabling, data acquisition, and calibration requirements. measure the dielectric properties of a material in the annular space of the vessel. Because the pore water in the media often has high salinity, a method to measure the media moisture content and salinity simultaneously was devised. Characterization of the frequency response for capacitance and conductance across the electrodes was completed for 2-mm glass bead media, 1- to 2-mm Turface (a clay like media), and 1- to 2-mm fertilized Turface with the presence of root mass. These measurements were then used to find empirical relationships among capacitance (C), the dissipation factor (D), the volumetric water content, and the pore water salinity.

  2. Toughness of Bulk Metallic Glasses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shantanu V. Madge

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Bulk metallic glasses (BMGs have desirable properties like high strength and low modulus, but their toughness can show much variation, depending on the kind of test as well as alloy chemistry. This article reviews the type of toughness tests commonly performed and the factors influencing the data obtained. It appears that even the less-tough metallic glasses are tougher than oxide glasses. The current theories describing the links between toughness and material parameters, including elastic constants and alloy chemistry (ordering in the glass, are discussed. Based on the current literature, a few important issues for further work are identified.

  3. Substance abuse and criminal behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradford, J M; Greenberg, D M; Motayne, G G

    1992-09-01

    As forensic psychiatry develops as a clinical subspecialty, clinical skill in understanding, treating, and predicting violent behavior will become more important. This article addresses the importance of understanding the relationship between substance abuse and violent behavior. This article also discusses morbidity and mortality in substance abuse, the demographics of substance abuse and criminality, and the clinical aspects of the forensic psychiatric evaluation.

  4. Toxic Substances Control Act

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-05-15

    This Reference Book contains a current copy of the Toxic Substances Control Act and those regulations that implement the statute and appear to be most relevant to DOE activities. The document is provided to DOE and contractor staff for informational purposes only and should not be interpreted as legal guidance. Questions concerning this Reference Book may be directed to Mark Petts, EH-231 (202/586-2609).

  5. Determination of Critical Parameters of Drug Substance Influencing Dissolution: A Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erika Bojnanska

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to specify critical parameters (physicochemical characteristics of drug substance that can affect dissolution profile/dissolution rate of the final drug product manufactured by validated procedure from various batches of the same drug substance received from different suppliers. The target was to design a sufficiently robust drug substance specification allowing to obtain a satisfactory drug product. For this reason, five batches of the drug substance and five samples of the final peroral drug products were analysed with the use of solid state analysis methods on the bulk level. Besides polymorphism, particle size distribution, surface area, zeta potential, and water content were identified as important parameters, and the zeta potential and the particle size distribution of the drug substance seem to be critical quality attributes affecting the dissolution rate of the drug substance released from the final peroral drug formulation.

  6. Illicit substance use among adolescents: a matrix of prospective predictors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petraitis, J; Flay, B R; Miller, T Q; Torpy, E J; Greiner, B

    1998-11-01

    This paper reviews findings from 58 prospective studies of illicit substance use (ISU) among adolescents. It arranges 384 findings according to three types of influence (viz., social, attitudinal, and intrapersonal) and four levels of influence (viz., ultimate, distal, proximal, and immediate). The bulk of evidence reconfirms the importance of several predictors of ISU (e.g., intentions and prior substance-related behavior, friendship patterns and peer behaviors, absence of supportive parents, psychological temperament), reveals that a few variables thought to be well-established predictors may not be (e.g., parental behaviors, parental permissiveness, depression, low self-esteem), and uncovers several variables where findings were either sparse or inconsistent (e.g., the role of public policies concerning ISU, mass media depictions of ISU, certain parenting styles, affective states, perceptions of parental disapproval for ISU, and substance-specific refusal skills). Directions for future research are discussed.

  7. Handling of bulk solids theory and practice

    CERN Document Server

    Shamlou, P A

    1990-01-01

    Handling of Bulk Solids provides a comprehensive discussion of the field of solids flow and handling in the process industries. Presentation of the subject follows classical lines of separate discussions for each topic, so each chapter is self-contained and can be read on its own. Topics discussed include bulk solids flow and handling properties; pressure profiles in bulk solids storage vessels; the design of storage silos for reliable discharge of bulk materials; gravity flow of particulate materials from storage vessels; pneumatic transportation of bulk solids; and the hazards of solid-mater

  8. New fermions in the bulk

    CERN Document Server

    de Brito, K P S

    2016-01-01

    Spinor fields on 5-dimensional Lorentzian manifolds are classified, according to the geometric Fierz identities that involve their bilinear covariants. Based upon this classification that generalises the celebrated 4-dimensional Lounesto classification of spinor fields, new non-trivial classes of 5-dimensional spinor fields are, hence, found, with important potential applications regarding bulk fermions and their subsequent localisation on brane-worlds. In addition, quaternionic bilinear covariants are used to derive the quaternionic spin density, through the truncated exterior bundle. In order to accomplish a realisation of these new spinors, a Killing vector field is constructed on the horizon of 5-dimensional Kerr black holes. This Killing vector field is shown to reach the time-like Killing vector field at the spatial infinity, through a current 1-form density, constructed with the derived new spinor fields. The current density is, moreover, expressed as the f\\"unfbein components, assuming a condensed for...

  9. New fermions in the bulk

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Brito, K. P. S.; da Rocha, Roldão

    2016-10-01

    The spinor fields on 5-dimensional Lorentzian manifolds are classified according to the geometric Fierz identities, which involve their bilinear covariants. Based upon this classification, which generalises the celebrated 4-dimensional Lounesto classification of spinor fields, new non-trivial classes of 5-dimensional spinor fields are hence found, with important potential applications regarding bulk fermions and their subsequent localisation on brane-worlds. In addition, quaternionic bilinear covariants are used to derive the quaternionic spin density through the truncated exterior bundle. In order to accomplish the realisation of these new spinors, a Killing vector field is constructed on the horizon of a 5-dimensional Kerr black hole. This Killing vector field is shown to reach the time-like Killing vector field at spatial infinity through a current 1-form density, constructed with the new derived spinor fields. The current density is, moreover, expressed as the fünfbein component, assuming a condensed form.

  10. Nanofluidics, from bulk to interfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bocquet, Lydéric; Charlaix, Elisabeth

    2010-03-01

    Nanofluidics has emerged recently in the footsteps of microfluidics, following the quest for scale reduction inherent to nanotechnologies. By definition, nanofluidics explores transport phenomena of fluids at nanometer scales. Why is the nanometer scale specific? What fluid properties are probed at nanometric scales? In other words, why does 'nanofluidics' deserve its own brand name? In this critical review, we will explore the vast manifold of length scales emerging for fluid behavior at the nanoscale, as well as the associated mechanisms and corresponding applications. We will in particular explore the interplay between bulk and interface phenomena. The limit of validity of the continuum approaches will be discussed, as well as the numerous surface induced effects occurring at these scales, from hydrodynamic slippage to the various electro-kinetic phenomena originating from the couplings between hydrodynamics and electrostatics. An enlightening analogy between ion transport in nanochannels and transport in doped semi-conductors will be discussed (156 references).

  11. Scientific opinion on the evaluation of substances as acceptable previous cargoes for edible fats and oils

    OpenAIRE

    Petersen, Annette

    2017-01-01

    Shipping of edible fats and oils into Europe is permitted in bulk tanks, provided that the previous cargo is included in a positive list. The European Commission requested EFSA to evaluate the acceptability as previous cargoes for fats and oils the substances calcium lignosulphonate, methyl acetate, ethyl tert-butyl ether (ETBE) and ammonium sulphate. The evaluation was based on the same criteria as those used for the evaluation of the substances currently on the list in the Annex to Commissi...

  12. Substance abuse and child maltreatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, Kathryn

    2009-04-01

    Pediatricians and other medical providers caring for children need to be aware of the dynamics in the significant relationship between substance abuse and child maltreatment. A caregiver's use and abuse of alcohol, marijuana, heroin, cocaine, methamphetamine, and other drugs place the child at risk in multiple ways. Members of the medical community need to understand these risks because the medical community plays a unique and important role in identifying and caring for these children. Substance abuse includes the abuse of legal drugs as well as the use of illegal drugs. The abuse of legal substances may be just as detrimental to parental functioning as abuse of illicit substances. Many substance abusers are also polysubstance users and the compounded effect of the abuse of multiple substances may be difficult to measure. Often other interrelated social features, such as untreated mental illness, trauma history, and domestic violence, affect these families.

  13. CHARACTERIZATION OF BULK SOIL HUMIN AND ITS ALKALINE-SOLUBLE AND ALKALINE-INSOLUBLE FRACTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cuilan Li

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Humic substances are the major components of soil organic matter. Among the three humic substance components (humic acid, fulvic acid, and humin, humin is the most insoluble in aqueous solution at any pH value and, in turn, the least understood. Humin has poor solubility mainly because it is tightly bonded to inorganic soil colloids. By breaking the linkage between humin and inorganic soil colloids using inorganic or organic solvents, bulk humin can be partially soluble in alkali, enabling a better understanding of the structure and properties of humin. However, the structural relationship between bulk humin and its alkaline-soluble (AS and alkaline-insoluble (AIS fractions is still unknown. In this study, we isolated bulk humin from two soils of Northeast China by exhaustive extraction (25 to 28 times with 0.1 mol L-1 NaOH + 0.1 mol L-1 Na4P2O7, followed by the traditional treatment with 10 % HF-HCl. The isolated bulk humin was then fractionated into AS-humin and AIS-humin by exhaustive extraction (12 to 15 times with 0.1 mol L-1 NaOH. Elemental analysis and solid-state 13C cross-polarization magic angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance (13C CPMAS NMR spectroscopy were used to characterize and compare the chemical structures of bulk humin and its corresponding fractions. The results showed that, regardless of soil types, bulk humin was the most aliphatic and most hydrophobic, AS-humin was the least aliphatic, and AIS-humin was the least alkylated among the three humic components. The results showed that bulk humin and its corresponding AS-humin and AIS-humin fractions are structurally differed from one another, implying that the functions of these humic components in the soil environment differed.

  14. Carrier Bulk-Lifetime Measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Solcansky

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available For the measurement of the minority carrier bulk-lifetime the characterization method MW-PCD is used, where the result of measurement is the effective carrier lifetime, which is very dependent on the surface recombination velocity and therefore on the quality of a silicon surface passivation. This work deals with an examination of a different solution types for the chemical passivation of a silicon surface. Various solutions are tested on silicon wafers for their consequent comparison. The main purpose is to find optimal solution, which suits the requirements of a time stability and start-up velocity of passivation, reproducibility of the measurements and a possibility of a perfect cleaning of a passivating solution remains from a silicon surface, so that the parameters of a measured silicon wafer will not worsen and there will not be any contamination of the other wafers series in the production after a repetitive return of the measured wafer into the production process. The cleaning process itself is also a subject of a development.

  15. Coupling brane fields to bulk supergravity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parameswaran, Susha L. [Uppsala Univ. (Sweden). Theoretical Physics; Schmidt, Jonas [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany)

    2010-12-15

    In this note we present a simple, general prescription for coupling brane localized fields to bulk supergravity. We illustrate the procedure by considering 6D N=2 bulk supergravity on a 2D orbifold, with brane fields localized at the fixed points. The resulting action enjoys the full 6D N=2 symmetries in the bulk, and those of 4D N=1 supergravity at the brane positions. (orig.)

  16. Relative entropy equals bulk relative entropy

    CERN Document Server

    Jafferis, Daniel L; Maldacena, Juan; Suh, S Josephine

    2015-01-01

    We consider the gravity dual of the modular Hamiltonian associated to a general subregion of a boundary theory. We use it to argue that the relative entropy of nearby states is given by the relative entropy in the bulk, to leading order in the bulk gravitational coupling. We also argue that the boundary modular flow is dual to the bulk modular flow in the entanglement wedge, with implications for entanglement wedge reconstruction.

  17. Targets for bulk hydrogen analysis using thermal neutrons

    CERN Document Server

    Csikai, J; Buczko, C M

    2002-01-01

    The reflection property of substances can be characterized by the reflection cross-section of thermal neutrons, sigma subbeta. A combination of the targets with thin polyethylene foils allowed an estimation of the flux depression of thermal neutrons caused by a bulk sample containing highly absorbing elements or compounds. Some new and more accurate sigma subbeta values were determined by using the combined target arrangement. For the ratio, R of the reflection and the elastic scattering cross-sections of thermal neutrons, R=sigma subbeta/sigma sub E sub L a value of 0.60+-0.02 was found on the basis of the data obtained for a number of elements from H to Pb. Using this correlation factor, and the sigma sub E sub L values, the unknown sigma subbeta data can be deduced. The equivalent thicknesses, to polyethylene or hydrogen, of the different target materials were determined from the sigma subbeta values.

  18. 33 CFR 127.313 - Bulk storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) WATERFRONT FACILITIES WATERFRONT FACILITIES HANDLING LIQUEFIED NATURAL GAS AND LIQUEFIED HAZARDOUS GAS Waterfront Facilities Handling Liquefied Natural Gas Operations § 127.313 Bulk storage. (a) The...

  19. Applications of bulk high-temperature superconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hull, J. R.

    The development of high-temperature superconductors (HTS's) can be broadly generalized into thin-film electronics, wire applications, and bulk applications. We consider bulk HTS's to include sintered or crystallized forms that do not take the geometry of filaments or tapes, and we discuss major applications for these materials. For the most part applications may be realized with the HTS's cooled to 77 K, and the properties of the bulk HTS's are often already sufficient for commercial use. A non-exhaustive list of applications for bulk HTS's includes trapped field magnets, hysteresis motors, magnetic shielding, current leads, and magnetic bearings. These applications are briefly discussed in this paper.

  20. Hyperon bulk viscosity in strong magnetic fields

    CERN Document Server

    Sinha, Monika

    2008-01-01

    We study bulk viscosity in neutron star matter including $\\Lambda$ hyperons in the presence of quantizing magnetic fields. Relaxation time and bulk viscosity due to both the non-leptonic weak process involving $\\Lambda$ hyperons and the direct Urca (dUrca) process are calculated here. In the presence of a strong magnetic field, bulk viscosity coefficients are enhanced when protons, electrons and muons are populated in their respective zeroth Landau levels compared with the field free cases. The enhancement of bulk viscosity coefficient is larger for the dUrca case.

  1. Interactions of astringent substances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawless, H T; Corrigan, C J; Lee, C B

    1994-04-01

    Two-component mixtures of astringent materials were rated for perceived intensity of astringent and taste attributes over time. Components included alum (a complex salt), gallic acid (the monomeric component of hydrolyzable tannins), catechin (the monomeric component of condensed tannins) and citric acid. Mixtures of alum and gallic acid showed mixture suppression, in that the 50/50 mixture was less intense than either component in astringency, drying, roughing and puckery/drawing sensations. Suppression was seen at concentration levels producing moderate to strong astringency but was absent or less pronounced at lower concentration levels. A similar pattern held for citric acid, although the suppressive effects were less pronounced. Catechin and gallic acid mixtures were additive. Sensory interactions between astringent materials appears to depend on the substances involved and their concentrations (or intensity levels).

  2. The structural dilemma of bulk polyethylene: an intermediary structure.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morteza Laridjani

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The Fourier space (reciprocal space image of bulk polyethylene consists of lines superimposed on the coherent diffuse background. The mixed character of the image indicates the complex nature of these compounds. The inability in detecting full images of reciprocal space of polymeric substances without Compton radiation and the other undesirable diffuse scatterings has misled the structural analysis (structural characterisation of these materials. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We propose the use of anomalous diffractometry where, it is possible to obtain a real image of reciprocal space without Compton radiation and other undesirable scatterings. By using classical diffractometry techniques this procedure is not possible. This methodology permitted us to obtain the "Direct Delta function", in the case of polycrystalline substances that was not previously detected. A new procedure was proposed to interpret the image of reciprocal space of bulk polyethylene. The results show the predominance of the geometry of local order determination compared to the crystal unit cell. The analysis of x-ray diffraction images illustrates that the elementary structural unit is a tetrahedron. This structural unit illustrates the atoms in the network scatter in a coherent diffuse manner. Moreover, the interference function derived from the coherent diffuse scattering dampens out quickly and the degree of randomness is superior to a liquid state. The radial distribution function derived from this interference function shows bond shortening in the tetrahedron configuration. It is this particular effect, which stabilises polyethylene. CONCLUSION: Here we show by anomalous diffractometry that the traditional concept of the two-phase or the crystal-defect model is an oversimplification of the complex reality. The exploitation of anomalous diffractometry has illustrated that polyethylene has an intermediate ordered structure.

  3. Preparation of Chemicals and Bulk Drug Substances for the U.S. Army Drug Development Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-12-01

    which was purified by sublimation followed by chromatography. The purified acid was alkylated with 2- chloroethanol in the presence of base and the...3CH3 Cl Resolution of the corresponding dibutylaminophenanthrenemethanol (halofantrine) by fractional crystallization of the d- camphoric acid salt

  4. Preparation of Chemicals and Bulk Drug Substances for the U.S. Army Drug Development Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-12-01

    methanol (550 mL) was added to the ester 2 (42.0 g, 0.092 mol). The reaction was stirred at room temperature for 7 days. The progress of the reaction ...THF, b= Et 20, c= DMF, d= DME , e= CH3CN 3. Results classified as: a= no reaction , b= no isolated products, c= no desired product, d= desired product...8217 Dichlorobenzaldehyde 4 was reacted c- HO N cl H-CHCOCH 3 C 3 4 1 d Cl C02CH 5 0 5 6 with acetone in the presence of base to give 5 in 67% yield. Reaction of

  5. 27 CFR 20.191 - Bulk articles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Bulk articles. 20.191... Users of Specially Denatured Spirits Operations by Users § 20.191 Bulk articles. Users who convey articles in containers exceeding one gallon may provide the recipient with a photocopy of subpart G of...

  6. 78 FR 64016 - Importer of Controlled Substances, Notice of Registration, Akorn, Inc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-25

    ... physical security systems, verification of the company's compliance with state and local laws, and a review... substance listed in schedule II. The company plans to import Remifentanil in bulk for use in dosage form... on May 1, 1971. DEA has investigated Akorn, Inc., to ensure that the company's registration is...

  7. 78 FR 64019 - Manufacturer of Controlled Substances, Notice of Registration, Austin Pharma, LLC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-25

    ... security systems, verification of the company's compliance with state and local laws, and a review of the... Tetrahydrocannabinols (7370), a basic class of controlled substance listed in schedule I. The company plans to bulk.... DEA has investigated Austin Pharma, LLC., to ensure that the company's registration is consistent with...

  8. Surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy of novel psychoactive substances using polymer-stabilized Ag nanoparticle aggregates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, W W Y; Silverson, V A D; Jones, L E; Ho, Y C; Fletcher, N C; McNaul, M; Peters, K L; Speers, S J; Bell, S E J

    2016-01-11

    A set of seized "legal high" samples and pure novel psychoactive substances have been examined by surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy using polymer-stabilized Ag nanoparticle (Poly-SERS) films. The films both quenched fluorescence in bulk samples and allowed identification of μg quantities of drugs collected with wet swabs from contaminated surfaces.

  9. Bulk equations of motion from CFT correlators

    CERN Document Server

    Kabat, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    To O(1/N) we derive, purely from CFT data, the bulk equations of motion for interacting scalar fields and for scalars coupled to gauge fields and gravity. We first uplift CFT operators to mimic local AdS fields by imposing bulk microcausality. This requires adding an infinite tower of smeared higher-dimension double-trace operators to the CFT definition of a bulk field, with coefficients that we explicitly compute. By summing the contribution of the higher-dimension operators we derive the equations of motion satisfied by these uplifted CFT operators and show that we precisely recover the expected bulk equations of motion. We exhibit the freedom in the CFT construction which corresponds to bulk field redefinitions.

  10. Bulk equations of motion from CFT correlators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kabat, Daniel [Department of Physics and Astronomy,Lehman College, City University of New York, Bronx NY 10468 (United States); Lifschytz, Gilad [Department of Physics and Astronomy,Lehman College, City University of New York, Bronx NY 10468 (United States); Physics Department,City College, City University of New York, New York NY 10031 (United States); Department of Mathematics and Physics,University of Haifa at Oranim, Kiryat Tivon 36006 (Israel)

    2015-09-10

    To O(1/N) we derive, purely from CFT data, the bulk equations of motion for interacting scalar fields and for scalars coupled to gauge fields and gravity. We first uplift CFT operators to mimic local AdS fields by imposing bulk microcausality. This requires adding an infinite tower of smeared higher-dimension double-trace operators to the CFT definition of a bulk field, with coefficients that we explicitly compute. By summing the contribution of the higher-dimension operators we derive the equations of motion satisfied by these uplifted CFT operators and show that we precisely recover the expected bulk equations of motion. We exhibit the freedom in the CFT construction which corresponds to bulk field redefinitions.

  11. Isolation of haloorganic groundwater humic substances

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krog, M.; Grøn, C.

    1995-01-01

    Humic substances were isolated from groundwater according to a revised method designed to avoid organohalogen artefacts. The prepared humic substances exhibited lower halogen contents than humic substances isolated according to the conventionally used method. Excessive oxidation or hydrolysis...

  12. Holographic representation of local bulk operators

    CERN Document Server

    Hamilton, A; Lifschytz, G; Lowe, D A; Hamilton, Alex; Kabat, Daniel; Lifschytz, Gilad; Lowe, David A.

    2006-01-01

    The Lorentzian AdS/CFT correspondence implies a map between local operators in supergravity and non-local operators in the CFT. By explicit computation we construct CFT operators which are dual to local bulk fields in the semiclassical limit. The computation is done for general dimension in global, Poincare and Rindler coordinates. We find that the CFT operators can be taken to have compact support in a region of the complexified boundary whose size is set by the bulk radial position. We show that at finite N the number of independent commuting operators localized within a bulk volume saturates the holographic bound.

  13. Elder Abuse and Substance Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Culture in Elder Abuse Mental capacity, consent, and undue influence The relationship between elder abuse and substance abuse ... older person's financial resources and to wield significant ... financially or, in the case of illegal drug use, less likely to report. ...

  14. Substance Abuse Treatment Facilities Locator

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA) provides on-line resource for locating drug and alcohol abuse treatment programs. The...

  15. Ozone-depleting Substances (ODS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This site includes all of the ozone-depleting substances (ODS) recognized by the Montreal Protocol. The data include ozone depletion potentials (ODP), global warming...

  16. Superconducting bulk magnets for magnetic levitation systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujimoto, H.; Kamijo, H.

    2000-06-01

    The major applications of high-temperature superconductors have mostly been confined to products in the form of wires and thin films. However, recent developments show that rare-earth REBa 2Cu 3O 7- x and light rare-earth LREBa 2Cu 3O 7- x superconductors prepared by melt processes have a high critical-current density at 77 K and high magnetic fields. These superconductors will promote the application of bulk high-temperature superconductors in high magnetic fields; the superconducting bulk magnet for the Maglev train is one possible application. We investigated the possibility of using bulk magnets in the Maglev system, and examined flux-trapping characteristics of multi-superconducting bulks arranged in array.

  17. Music, Substance Use, and Aggression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Meng-Jinn; Miller, Brenda A.; Grube, Joel W.; Waiters, Elizabeth D.

    2016-01-01

    Objective This study investigated whether young people’s substance use and aggressive behaviors are related to their listening to music containing messages of substance use and violence. Method Data were collected using self-administered questionnaires and from a sample of community college students aged 15-25 (N = 1056; 43% male). A structural equation modeling method was used to simultaneously assess the associations between listening to various genres of music, alcohol use, illicit drug use, and aggressive behaviors, taking into account respondents’ age, gender, race/ethnicity, and level of sensation seeking. Results Listening to rap music was significantly and positively associated with alcohol use, problematic alcohol use, illicit drug use, and aggressive behaviors when all other variables were controlled. Additionally, alcohol and illicit drug use were positively associated with listening to musical genres of techno and reggae. Control variables such as sensation seeking, age, gender and race/ethnicity were significantly related to substance use and aggressive behaviors. Conclusion The findings suggest that young people’s substance use and aggressive behaviors may be related to their frequent exposure to music containing references to substance use and violence. Conversely, music listening preference may reflect some personal predispositions or lifestyle preferences. Alternatively, substance use, aggression and music preference are independent constructs, but share common “third factors.” PMID:16608146

  18. Measuring Bulk Flows in Large Scale Surveys

    CERN Document Server

    Feldman, H A; Feldman, Hume A.; Watkins, Richard

    1993-01-01

    We follow a formalism presented by Kaiser to calculate the variance of bulk flows in large scale surveys. We apply the formalism to a mock survey of Abell clusters \\'a la Lauer \\& Postman and find the variance in the expected bulk velocities in a universe with CDM, MDM and IRAS--QDOT power spectra. We calculate the velocity variance as a function of the 1--D velocity dispersion of the clusters and the size of the survey.

  19. The Bulk Multicore Architecture for Improved Programmability

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-12-01

    algorithm, forcing the same order of chunk commits as in the recording step. This design, which we call PicoLog , typically incurs a performance cost... PicoLog . Data-race detection at production- run speed. The Bulk Multicore can support an efficient data-race detec- tor based on the “happens-before...Bulk Multicore (a), with a possible OrderOnly execution log (b) and PicoLog execution log (c). contributed articles DECEMBER 2009 | VOL. 52

  20. Prospects for Detecting a Cosmic Bulk Flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Benjamin; Garnavich, Peter M.; Mathews, Grant James

    2015-01-01

    The ΛCDM model is based upon a homogeneous, isotropic space-time leading to uniform expansion with random peculiar velocities caused by local gravitation perturbations. The Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) radiation evidences a significant dipole moment in the frame of the Local Group. This motion is usually explained with the Local Group's motion relative to the background Hubble expansion. An alternative explanation, however, is that the dipole moment is the result of horizon-scale curvature remaining from the birth of space-time, possibly a result of quantum entanglement with another universe. This would appear as a single velocity (a bulk flow) added to all points in space. These two explanations differ observationally on cosmic distance scales (z > 0.1). There have been many differing attempts to detect a bulk flow, many with no detectable bulk flow but some with a bulk flow velocity as large as 1000 km/s. Here we report on a technique based upon minimizing the scatter around the expected cosine distribution of the Hubble redshift residuals with respect to angular distance on the sky. That is, the algorithm searches for a directional dependence of Hubble residuals. We find results consistent with most other bulk flow detections at z Type Ia Supernovae to be ~0.01, whereas the current error (~0.2.) is more than an order of magnitude too large for the detection of bulk flow beyond z~0.05.

  1. Membrane fouling in a submerged membrane bioreactor with focus on surface properties and interactions of cake sludge and bulk sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Haiying; Lin, Hongjun; Zhang, Meijia; Hong, Huachang; He, Yiming; Wang, Fangyuan; Zhao, Leihong

    2014-10-01

    In this study, the fouling behaviors and surface properties of cake sludge and bulk sludge in a submerged membrane bioreactor (MBR) were investigated and compared. It was found that the specific filtration resistance (SFR) of cake sludge was about 5 times higher than that of bulk sludge. Two types of sludge possessed similar extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) content, particle size distribution (PSD) and zeta potential. However, their surface properties in terms of surface tensions were significantly different. Further analysis showed that cake sludge was more hydrophilic and had worse aggregation ability. Moreover, cake sludge surface possessed more hydrocarbon, less oxygen and nitrogen moieties than bulk sludge surface. It was suggested that, rather than EPS and PSD differences, the differences in the surface composition were the main cause of the great differences in SFR and adhesion ability between cake sludge and bulk sludge.

  2. Pollution extents of organic substances from a coal gangue dump of Jiulong Coal Mine, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Y Z; Fan, J S; Qin, P; Niu, H Y

    2009-02-01

    This paper addresses the distribution and occurrence of harmful organic substances in coal gangue dump from Jiulong Coal Mine and its influence on the environment. The samples were taken from the coal gangue dump and coal waste water stream and analyzed by organic geochemical methods. The results indicate that the coal gangues contain abundant harmful organic substances like polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. The TOC and sulfur contents of the samples are much higher than those of the background sample except Sample JL7. The contents of organic bulk parameters are relatively high. Ten carcinogenic PAHs were identified and these harmful organic substances have influenced the surrounding area. Along the waste water stream, organic substances pollute at least 1,800 m far from the coal gangue dump.

  3. Pollution extents of organic substances from a coal gangue dump of Jiulong Coal Mine, China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Y.Z.; Fan, J.S.; Qin, P.; Niu, H.Y. [Hebei University of Engineering, Handan (China)

    2009-02-15

    This paper addresses the distribution and occurrence of harmful organic substances in coal gangue dump from Jiulong Coal Mine and its influence on the environment. The samples were taken from the coal gangue dump and coal waste water stream and analyzed by organic geochemical methods. The results indicate that the coal gangues contain abundant harmful organic substances like polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. The TOC and sulfur contents of the samples are much higher than those of the background sample except Sample JL7. The contents of organic bulk parameters are relatively high. Ten carcinogenic PAHs were identified and these harmful organic substances have influenced the surrounding area. Along the waste water stream, organic substances pollute at least 1,800 m far from the coal gangue dump.

  4. 75 FR 64585 - Bulk Solid Hazardous Materials: Harmonization With the International Maritime Solid Bulk Cargoes...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-19

    ... nonsubstantive changes, however, to correct grammar, internal paragraph references, and a temperature conversion... means the English version of the ``International Maritime Solid Bulk Cargoes Code'' published by...

  5. Development of superconductor bulk for superconductor bearing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Chan Joong; Jun, Byung Hyuk; Park, Soon Dong (and others)

    2008-08-15

    Current carrying capacity is one of the most important issues in the consideration of superconductor bulk materials for engineering applications. There are numerous applications of Y-Ba-Cu-O (YBCO) bulk superconductors e.g. magnetic levitation train, flywheel energy storage system, levitation transportation, lunar telescope, centrifugal device, magnetic shielding materials, bulk magnets etc. Accordingly, to obtain YBCO materials in the form of large, single crystals without weak-link problem is necessary. A top seeded melt growth (TSMG) process was used to fabricate single crystal YBCO bulk superconductors. The seeded and infiltration growth (IG) technique was also very promising method for the synthesis of large, single-grain YBCO bulk superconductors with good superconducting properties. 5 wt.% Ag doped Y211 green compacts were sintered at 900 .deg. C {approx} 1200 .deg.C and then a single crystal YBCO was fabricated by an infiltration method. A refinement and uniform distribution of the Y211 particles in the Y123 matrix were achieved by sintering the Ag-doped samples. This enhancement of the critical current density was ascribable to a fine dispersion of the Y211 particles, a low porosity and the presence of Ag particles. In addition, we have designed and manufactured large YBCO single domain with levitation force of 10-13 kg/cm{sup 2} using TSMG processing technique.

  6. Into the Bulk: A Covariant Approach

    CERN Document Server

    Engelhardt, Netta

    2016-01-01

    I propose a general, covariant way of defining when one region is "deeper in the bulk" than another. This definition is formulated outside of an event horizon (or in the absence thereof) in generic geometries; it may be applied to both points and surfaces, and may be used to compare the depth of bulk points or surfaces relative to a particular boundary subregion or relative to the entire boundary. Using the recently proposed "lightcone cut" formalism, the comparative depth between two bulk points can be determined from the singularity structure of Lorentzian correlators in the dual field theory. I prove that, by this definition, causal wedges of progressively larger regions probe monotonically deeper in the bulk. The definition furthermore matches expectations in pure AdS and in static AdS black holes with isotropic spatial slices, where a well-defined holographic coordinate exists. In terms of holographic RG flow, this new definition of bulk depth makes contact with coarse-graining over both large distances ...

  7. Best practice in substance misuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Anne L

    2012-08-01

    While substance misuse by adolescents in the UK has declined over the last decade, the UK continues to have some of the highest rates of alcohol and drug use in Europe. Many young people will try smoking and drinking alcohol during their adolescence and a significant minority will misuse alcohol and illicit drugs. This behaviour remains a significant cause for concern owing to its associated risks to the health and wellbeing of adolescents. Guidance is emerging regarding good practice in the assessment and management of adolescent substance misuse. Paediatricians may encounter substance-misusing adolescents in a variety of clinical settings and can play a valuable role in the screening, management and support of this group of young people.

  8. Women and substance use disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morten Hesse

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Substance use disorders belong to the class of externalizing behaviours that are generally more common among men than women. Those women who do have substance disorders therefore deviate more from the norms of society compared with men, tend to live in an environment characterized by high risk of violence and other forms of abuse, and tend to be survivors of childhood trauma. In terms of seeking treatment, women often have difficulty acknowledging their problems with substance use disorders, and professionals are reluctant to ask women about drug or alcohol use. Even when they do seek treatment, women in many countries face practical and financial barriers to access treatment. For women who do enter treatment, outcomes are generally comparable to outcomes for men, suggesting that facilitating entry into treatment can yield substantial benefits for women with addictions.

  9. A diphoton resonance from bulk RS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csáki, Csaba; Randall, Lisa

    2016-07-01

    Recent LHC data hinted at a 750 GeV mass resonance that decays into two photons. A significant feature of this resonance is that its decays to any other Standard Model particles would be too low to be detected so far. Such a state has a compelling explanation in terms of a scalar or a pseudoscalar that is strongly coupled to vector states charged under the Standard Model gauge groups. Such a scenario is readily accommodated in bulk RS with a scalar localized in the bulk away from but close to the Higgs. Turning this around, we argue that a good way to find the elusive bulk RS model might be the search for a resonance with prominent couplings to gauge bosons.

  10. A stereoscopic look into the bulk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czech, Bartlomiej; Lamprou, Lampros; McCandlish, Samuel; Mosk, Benjamin; Sully, James

    2016-07-01

    We present the foundation for a holographic dictionary with depth perception. The dictionary consists of natural CFT operators whose duals are simple, diffeomorphisminvariant bulk operators. The CFT operators of interest are the "OPE blocks," contributions to the OPE from a single conformal family. In holographic theories, we show that the OPE blocks are dual at leading order in 1 /N to integrals of effective bulk fields along geodesics or homogeneous minimal surfaces in anti-de Sitter space. One widely studied example of an OPE block is the modular Hamiltonian, which is dual to the fluctuation in the area of a minimal surface. Thus, our operators pave the way for generalizing the Ryu-Takayanagi relation to other bulk fields.

  11. Bulk amorphous Mg-based alloys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pryds, Nini

    2004-01-01

    The present paper describes the preparation and properties of bulk amorphous quarternary Mg-based alloys and the influence of additional elements on the ability of the alloy to form bulk amorphous. The main goal is to find a Mg-based alloy system which shows both high strength to weight ratio...... and a low glass transition temperature. The alloys were prepared by using a relatively simple technique, i.e. rapid cooling of the melt in a copper wedge mould. The essential structural changes that are achieved by going from the amorphous to the crystalline state through the supercooled liquid state...... are discussed in this paper. On the basis of these measurements phase diagrams of the different systems were constructed. Finally, it is demonstrated that when pressing the bulk amorphous alloy onto a metallic dies at temperatures within the supercooled liquid region, the alloy faithfully replicates the surface...

  12. Orchestrating Bulk Data Movement in Grid Environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vazhkudai, SS

    2005-01-25

    Data Grids provide a convenient environment for researchers to manage and access massively distributed bulk data by addressing several system and transfer challenges inherent to these environments. This work addresses issues involved in the efficient selection and access of replicated data in Grid environments in the context of the Globus Toolkit{trademark}, building middleware that (1) selects datasets in highly replicated environments, enabling efficient scheduling of data transfer requests; (2) predicts transfer times of bulk wide-area data transfers using extensive statistical analysis; and (3) co-allocates bulk data transfer requests, enabling parallel downloads from mirrored sites. These efforts have demonstrated a decentralized data scheduling architecture, a set of forecasting tools that predict bandwidth availability within 15% error and co-allocation architecture, and heuristics that expedites data downloads by up to 2 times.

  13. Bulk fields from the boundary OPE

    CERN Document Server

    Guica, Monica

    2016-01-01

    Previous work has established an equality between the geodesic integral of a free bulk field in AdS and the contribution of the conformal descendants of its dual CFT primary operator to the OPE of two other operators inserted at the endpoints of the geodesic. Working in the context of AdS$_3$/CFT$_2$, we extend this relation to include all $1/N$ corrections to the bulk field obtained by dressing it with i) a $U(1)$ current and ii) the CFT stress tensor, and argue it equals the contribution of the Ka\\v{c}-Moody/the Virasoro block to the respective boundary OPE. This equality holds for a particular framing of the bulk field to the boundary that involves a split Wilson line.

  14. Multiphase composites with extremal bulk modulus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gibiansky, L. V.; Sigmund, Ole

    2000-01-01

    This paper is devoted to the analytical and numerical study of isotropic elastic composites made of three or more isotropic phases. The ranges of their effective bulk and shear moduli are restricted by the Hashin-Shtrikman-Walpole (HSW) bounds. For two-phase composites, these bounds are attainable......, that is, there exist composites with extreme bulk and shear moduli. For multiphase composites, they may or may not be attainable depending on phase moduli and volume fractions. Sufficient conditions of attainability of the bounds and various previously known and new types of optimal composites...... are described. Most of our new results are related to the two-dimensional problem. A numerical topology optimization procedure that solves the inverse homogenization problem is adopted and used to look for two-dimensional three-phase composites with a maximal effective bulk modulus. For the combination...

  15. Bulk Comptonization by Turbulence in Accretion Disks

    CERN Document Server

    Kaufman, J

    2016-01-01

    Radiation pressure dominated accretion discs around compact objects may have turbulent velocities that greatly exceed the electron thermal velocities within the disc. Bulk Comptonization by the turbulence may therefore dominate over thermal Comptonization in determining the emergent spectrum. Bulk Comptonization by divergenceless turbulence is due to radiation viscous dissipation only. It can be treated as thermal Comptonization by solving the Kompaneets equation with an equivalent "wave" temperature, which is a weighted sum over the power present at each scale in the turbulent cascade. Bulk Comptonization by turbulence with non-zero divergence is due to both pressure work and radiation viscous dissipation. Pressure work has negligible effect on photon spectra in the limit of optically thin turbulence, and in this limit radiation viscous dissipation alone can be treated as thermal Comptonization with a temperature equivalent to the full turbulent power. In the limit of extremely optically thick turbulence, ra...

  16. A Diphoton Resonance from Bulk RS

    CERN Document Server

    Csaki, Csaba

    2016-01-01

    Recent LHC data hints at a 750 GeV mass resonance that decays into two photons. A significant feature of this resonance is that its decays to Higges and to any other Standard Model particles are so far too low to be detected. Such a state has a compelling explanation in terms of a scalar or a pseudoscalar that is strongly coupled to vector states charged under the Standard Model gauge groups. We argue that if the state is a scalar, some form of sequestering is likely to be necessary to naturally explain the suppressed scalar-Higgs interactions. Such a scenario is readily accommodated in bulk RS with a scalar localized in the bulk away from the Higgs. Turning this around, we argue that a good way to find the elusive bulk RS model might be the search for a resonance with prominent couplings to gauge bosons.

  17. Spherically symmetric brane spacetime with bulk gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, Sumanta; SenGupta, Soumitra

    2015-01-01

    Introducing term in the five-dimensional bulk action we derive effective Einstein's equation on the brane using Gauss-Codazzi equation. This effective equation is then solved for different conditions on dark radiation and dark pressure to obtain various spherically symmetric solutions. Some of these static spherically symmetric solutions correspond to black hole solutions, with parameters induced from the bulk. Specially, the dark pressure and dark radiation terms (electric part of Weyl curvature) affect the brane spherically symmetric solutions significantly. We have solved for one parameter group of conformal motions where the dark radiation and dark pressure terms are exactly obtained exploiting the corresponding Lie symmetry. Various thermodynamic features of these spherically symmetric space-times are studied, showing existence of second order phase transition. This phenomenon has its origin in the higher curvature term with gravity in the bulk.

  18. Adolescent pregnancy and substance use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flanagan, P; Kokotailo, P

    1999-03-01

    The question of just what is the relationship of early pregnancy and childbearing and substance use among adolescents remains unanswered. From a public health perspective, both behaviors are unwanted, and populations that are at risk are often at high risk for both. Perhaps prevention of one behavior may be expected to prevent the other. This, however, may be too simplistic a notion, grounded in misconception of the role of early pregnancy and specific cultural context. Furthermore, several studies have documented a decline of drug use during pregnancy and just after delivery among adolescent mothers. Does this trend continue through the parenting years? If so, for whom? What are the individual maternal, child, and family environmental characteristics that predict a decline in use or continued abstinence after early childbearing? Within the context of poverty, lower educational attainment, minority status, and high prevalence of alcohol and drug use, pregnancy may play a positive role. With a change in role, young women may be less likely than nonparenting peers and less likely than prior to their own pregnancy to become deeply involved in the negative behaviors, such as smoking, drinking, and substance use. Perhaps this is a potential opportunity to intervene. To summarize, the health risk behaviors of substance use and adolescent pregnancy and childbearing appear to be linked. Youths who become pregnant before they complete high school represent a particular group of young women who may be at higher risk than the general population for substance use, at least cigarettes, alcohol, and marijuana. Yet, most pregnant teenagers are not substance users. Among those who are, frequency and amounts of use in most samples were low compared with adult samples of pregnant women. Furthermore, there is evidence that teenagers perceive substance use as a risk to their pregnancies and their unborn children. Among users, there is a decrease in use and increase in quit rates

  19. Making bulk-conductive glass microchannel plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Jay J. L.; Niu, Lihong

    2008-02-01

    The fabrication of microchannel plate (MCP) with bulk-conductive characteristics has been studied. Semiconducting clad glass and leachable core glass were used for drawing fibers and making MCP. Co-axial single fiber was drawn from a platinum double-crucible in an automatic fiberizing system, and the fibers were stacked and redrawn into multifiber by a special gripping mechanism. The multifibers were stacked again and the boule was made and sliced into discs. New MCPs were made after chemically leaching process without the traditional hydrogen firing. It was shown that bulk-conductive glass MCP can operate at higher voltage with lower noise.

  20. "Work-Hardenable" ductile bulk metallic glass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Jayanta; Tang, Mei Bo; Kim, Ki Buem; Theissmann, Ralf; Baier, Falko; Wang, Wei Hua; Eckert, Jürgen

    2005-05-27

    Usually, monolithic bulk metallic glasses undergo inhomogeneous plastic deformation and exhibit poor ductility (< 1%) at room temperature. We present a new class of bulk metallic glass, which exhibits high strength of up to 2265 MPa together with extensive "work hardening" and large ductility of 18%. Significant increase in the flow stress was observed during deformation. The "work-hardening" capability and ductility of this class of metallic glass is attributed to a unique structure correlated with atomic-scale inhomogeneity, leading to an inherent capability of extensive shear band formation, interactions, and multiplication of shear bands.

  1. Synthesis of Bulk Superconducting Magnesium Diboride

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margie Olbinado

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Bulk polycrystalline superconducting magnesium diboride, MgB2, samples were successfully prepared via a one-step sintering program at 750°C, in pre Argon with a pressure of 1atm. Both electrical resistivity and magnetic susceptibility measurements confirmed the superconductivity of the material at 39K, with a transition width of 5K. The polycrystalline nature, granular morphology, and composition of the sintered bulk material were confirmed using X-ray diffractometry (XRD, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, and energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX.

  2. Towards a Reconstruction of General Bulk Metrics

    CERN Document Server

    Engelhardt, Netta

    2016-01-01

    We prove that the metric of a general holographic spacetime can be reconstructed (up to an overall conformal factor) from distinguished spatial slices - "light-cone cuts" - of the conformal boundary. Our prescription is covariant and applies to bulk points in causal contact with the boundary. Furthermore, we describe a procedure for determining the light-cone cuts corresponding to bulk points in the causal wedge of the boundary in terms of the divergences of correlators in the dual field theory. Possible extensions for determining the conformal factor and including the cuts of points outside of the causal wedge are discussed. We also comment on implications for subregion/subregion duality.

  3. Synthesis and characterization of related substances and metabolite of tadalafil, a PDE-5 inhibitor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goverdhan Gilla

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Tadalafil (Cialis is a potent and selective inhibitor of cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP-specific phosphodiesterase type-5 (PDE-5 and it is administered orally for the treatment of erectile dysfunction (ED. Two synthetic schemes were evaluated to study the impurity profile of tadalafil. Six impurities were detected in the bulk substance (prepared by two methods at a level of 0.1-0.15%. Identification, synthesis, characterization of impurities (related substances and metabolite and origin of their formation is described .

  4. Health risks in international container and bulk cargo transport due to volatile toxic compounds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baur, Xaver; Budnik, Lygia T; Zhao, Zhiwei

    2015-01-01

    on the toxic substance, its chemical reactivity, concentration, the temperature, the contaminated matrix (goods and packing materials), and the packing density in the transport units. Regulations on declaration and handling dangerous goods are mostly not followed. It is obvious that this hazardous situation...... shown to contain volatile toxic substances above the exposure limit values. Possible exposure to these toxic chemicals may occur not only for the applicators but also the receiver by off gassing from products, packing materials or transport units like containers. A number of intoxications, some...... with lethal outcome, occur not only during the fumigation, but also during freight transport (on bulk carriers and other transport vessels), as well as in the logistic lines during loading and unloading. Risk occupations include dock-workers, seafarers, inspectors, as well as the usually uninformed workers...

  5. Analytical Chemistry of Perfluoroalkylated Substances

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Voogt, P.; Saez Ribas, M.

    2006-01-01

    Polyfluorinated alkylated substances have recently gainedscientific interest because they have been found to be present in appreciable concentrations in human serum, in surface waters, and in tissues of wildlife from remote areas. The developments in analytical chemistry of these mainly neutral or

  6. Juvenile Justice and Substance Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chassin, Laurie

    2008-01-01

    Laurie Chassin focuses on the elevated prevalence of substance use disorders among young offenders in the juvenile justice system and on efforts by the justice system to provide treatment for these disorders. She emphasizes the importance of diagnosing and treating these disorders, which are linked both with continued offending and with a broad…

  7. Substance Abuse by Anesthesiology Residents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutsky, Irving; And Others

    1991-01-01

    The analysis of 183 responses to a survey of former anesthesiology residents of the Medical College of Wisconsin found that 29 had been self-administered problematic substance abusers during their residencies, 23 had been alcohol dependent, and 6 had been drug dependent. More than 85 percent of respondents considered the drug policy information…

  8. Substance Use as Impression Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharp, Mark J.; Getz, J. Greg

    1996-01-01

    Examines the function of substance use as an impression management tactic. Introductory psychology students (n=377) responded to a survey instrument measuring self-monitoring, perceived success in impression management, interaction anxiety, and self-esteem. Results suggest that alcohol use may serve an impression management function. (JPS)

  9. Polymer-fullerene bulk heterojunction solar cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, RAJ; Hummelen, JC; Saricifti, NS

    2005-01-01

    Nanostructured phase-separated blends, or bulk heterojunctions, of conjugated Polymers and fullerene derivatives form a very attractive approach to large-area, solid-state organic solar cells.The key feature of these cells is that they combine easy, processing from solution on a variety of substrate

  10. Failure by fracture in bulk metal forming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Silva, C.M.A.; Alves, Luis M.; Nielsen, Chris Valentin

    2015-01-01

    This paper revisits formability in bulk metal forming in the light of fundamental concepts of plasticity,ductile damage and crack opening modes. It proposes a new test to appraise the accuracy, reliability and validity of fracture loci associated with crack opening by tension and out-of-plane she...

  11. THE OPTIMIZATION OF PLUSH YARNS BULKING PROCESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VINEREANU Adam

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the experiments that were conducted on the installation of continuous bulking and thermofixing “SUPERBA” type TVP-2S for optimization of the plush yarns bulking process. There were considered plush yarns Nm 6.5/2, made of the fibrous blend of 50% indigenous wool sort 41 and 50% PES. In the first stage, it performs a thermal treatment with a turboprevaporizer at a temperature lower than thermofixing temperature, at atmospheric pressure, such that the plush yarns - deposed in a freely state on a belt conveyor - are uniformly bulking and contracting. It was followed the mathematical modeling procedure, working with a factorial program, rotatable central composite type, and two independent variables. After analyzing the parameters that have a direct influence on the bulking degree, there were selected the pre-vaporization temperature (coded x1,oC and the velocity of belt inside pre-vaporizer (coded x 2, m/min. As for the dependent variable, it was chosen the plush yarn diameter (coded y, mm. There were found the coordinates of the optimal point, and then this pair of values was verified in practice. These coordinates are: x1optim= 90oC and x 2optim= 6.5 m/min. The conclusion is that the goal was accomplished: it was obtained a good cover degree f or double-plush carpets by reducing the number of tufts per unit surface.

  12. Forming of bulk metallic glass microcomponents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wert, John A.; Thomsen, Christian; Jensen, Rune Debel

    2009-01-01

    The present article considers forward extrusion, closed-die forging and backward extrusion processes for fabrication of individual microcomponents from two bulk metallic glass (BMG) compositions: Mg60Cu30Y10 and Zr44Cu40Ag8Al8. Two types of tooling were used in the present work: relatively massive...

  13. Bulk viscosity effects on ultrasonic thermoacoustic instability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jeffrey; Scalo, Carlo; Hesselink, Lambertus

    2016-11-01

    We have carried out unstructured fully-compressible Navier-Stokes simulations of a minimal-unit traveling-wave ultrasonic thermoacoustic device in looped configuration. The model comprises a thermoacoustic stack with 85% porosity and a tapered area change to suppress the fundamental standing-wave mode. A bulk viscosity model, which accounts for vibrational and rotational molecular relaxation effects, is derived and implemented via direct modification of the viscous stress tensor, τij ≡ 2 μSij +λ/2 μ ∂uk/∂xk δij , where the bulk viscosity is defined by μb ≡ λ +2/3 μ . The effective bulk viscosity coefficient accurately captures acoustic absorption from low to high ultrasonic frequencies and matches experimental wave attenuation rates across five decades. Using pressure-based similitude, the model was downscaled from total length L = 2 . 58 m to 0 . 0258 m, corresponding to the frequency range f = 242 - 24200 Hz, revealing the effects of bulk viscosity and direct modification of the thermodynamic pressure. Simulations are carried out to limit cycle and exhibit growth rates consistent with linear stability analyses, based on Rott's theory.

  14. Longitudinal bulk a coustic mass sensor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hales, Jan Harry; Teva, Jordi; Boisen, Anja;

    2009-01-01

    Design, fabrication and characterization, in terms of mass sensitivity, is presented for a polycrystalline silicon longitudinal bulk acoustic cantilever. The device is operated in air at 51 MHz, resulting in a mass sensitivity of 100 HZ/fg (1 fg = 10{su−15 g). The initial characterization...

  15. Winterization strategies for bulk storage of pickles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cucumbers are commercially fermented and stored in bulk in outdoor open top fiberglass tanks. During winter, snow and ice accumulates around and on top of tanks influencing heat transfer in an unpredictable manner, often compromising the fruit quality. This study evaluates the performance of inexpen...

  16. A Stereoscopic Look into the Bulk

    CERN Document Server

    Czech, Bartlomiej; McCandlish, Samuel; Mosk, Benjamin; Sully, James

    2016-01-01

    We present the foundation for a holographic dictionary with depth perception. The dictionary consists of natural CFT operators whose duals are simple, diffeomorphism-invariant bulk operators. The CFT operators of interest are the "OPE blocks," contributions to the OPE from a single conformal family. In holographic theories, we show that the OPE blocks are dual at leading order in 1/N to integrals of effective bulk fields along geodesics or homogeneous minimal surfaces in anti-de Sitter space. One widely studied example of an OPE block is the modular Hamiltonian, which is dual to the fluctuation in the area of a minimal surface. Thus, our operators pave the way for generalizing the Ryu-Takayanagi relation to other bulk fields. Although the OPE blocks are non-local operators in the CFT, they admit a simple geometric description as fields in kinematic space--the space of pairs of CFT points. We develop the tools for constructing local bulk operators in terms of these non-local objects. The OPE blocks also allow ...

  17. Fluctuating brane in a dilatonic bulk

    CERN Document Server

    Brax, P; Rodríguez-Martinez, M; Brax, Philippe; Langlois, David; Rodriguez-Martinez, Maria

    2003-01-01

    We consider a cosmological brane moving in a static five-dimensional bulk spacetime endowed with a scalar field whose potential is exponential. After studying various cosmological behaviours for the homogeneous background, we investigate the fluctuations of the brane that leave spacetime unaffected. A single mode embodies these fluctuations and obeys a wave equation which we study for bouncing and ever-expanding branes.

  18. Meteoroid Bulk Density and Ceplecha Types

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaauw, R. C.; Moser, D. E.; Moorhead, A. V.

    2017-01-01

    The determination of asteroid bulk density is an important aspect of Near Earth Object (NEO) characterization. A fraction of meteoroids originate from asteroids (including some NEOs), thus in lieu of mutual perturbations, satellites, or expensive spacecraft missions, a study of meteoroid bulk densities can potentially provide useful insights into the densities of NEOs and PHOs (Potentially Hazardous Objects). Meteoroid bulk density is still inherently difficult to measure, and is most often determined by modeling the ablation of the meteoroid. One approach towards determining a meteoroid density distribution entails using a more easily measured proxy for the densities, then calibrating the proxy with known densities from meteorite falls, ablation modelling, and other sources. An obvious proxy choice is the Ceplecha type, KB (Ceplecha, 1958), which is thought to indicate the strength of a meteoroid and often correlated to different bulk densities in literature. KB is calculated using the air density at the beginning height of the meteor, the initial velocity, and the zenith angle of the radiant; quantities more readily determined than meteoroid bulk density itself. Numerical values of K(sub B) are sorted into groups (A, B, C, etc.), which have been matched to meteorite falls or meteor showers with known composition such as the porous Draconids. An extensive survey was conducted to establish the strength of the relationship between bulk density and K(sub B), specifically looking at those that additionally determined K(sub B) for the meteors. In examining the modeling of high-resolution meteor data from Kikwaya et al. (2011), the correlation between K(sub B) and bulk density was not as strong as hoped. However, a distinct split by dynamical type was seen with Jovian Tisserand parameter (T(sub J)), with meteoroids from Halley Type comets (T(sub J) densities than those originating from Jupiter Family comets and asteroids (T(sub J) > 2). Therefore, this work indicates

  19. Integration of bulk piezoelectric materials into microsystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aktakka, Ethem Erkan

    Bulk piezoelectric ceramics, compared to deposited piezoelectric thin-films, provide greater electromechanical coupling and charge capacity, which are highly desirable in many MEMS applications. In this thesis, a technology platform is developed for wafer-level integration of bulk piezoelectric substrates on silicon, with a final film thickness of 5-100microm. The characterized processes include reliable low-temperature (200°C) AuIn diffusion bonding and parylene bonding of bulk-PZT on silicon, wafer-level lapping of bulk-PZT with high-uniformity (+/-0.5microm), and low-damage micro-machining of PZT films via dicing-saw patterning, laser ablation, and wet-etching. Preservation of ferroelectric and piezoelectric properties is confirmed with hysteresis and piezo-response measurements. The introduced technology offers higher material quality and unique advantages in fabrication flexibility over existing piezoelectric film deposition methods. In order to confirm the preserved bulk properties in the final film, diaphragm and cantilever beam actuators operating in the transverse-mode are designed, fabricated and tested. The diaphragm structure and electrode shapes/sizes are optimized for maximum deflection through finite-element simulations. During tests of fabricated devices, greater than 12microm PP displacement is obtained by actuation of a 1mm2 diaphragm at 111kHz with management IC, which incorporates a supply-independent bias circuitry, an active diode for low-dropout rectification, a bias-flip system for higher efficiency, and a trickle battery charger. The overall system does not require a pre-charged battery, and has power consumption of sleep-mode (simulated). Under lg vibration at 155Hz, a 70mF ultra-capacitor is charged from OV to 1.85V in 50 minutes.

  20. 46 CFR 148.04-23 - Unslaked lime in bulk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Unslaked lime in bulk. 148.04-23 Section 148.04-23... HAZARDOUS MATERIALS IN BULK Special Additional Requirements for Certain Material § 148.04-23 Unslaked lime in bulk. (a) Unslaked lime in bulk must be transported in unmanned, all steel, double-hulled...

  1. [Impacts of filamentous bulking on treatment effect and fouling characteristics of nonwoven bioreactor].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Kuan; Xue, Gang; Gao, Pin; Wu, Fan

    2014-06-01

    Sludge flocs morphology and effluent qualities of nonwoven bioreactor during filamentous bulking and normal sludge status were compared. Flux variations, analysis of filtration resistances and extracellular polymer substances (EPS) contents during filamentous bulking and normal sludge status were studied. The results showed that the average particle size of bulking sludge flocs and normal sludge flocs was 448.6 microm and 234.8 microm, respectively. During the bulking sludge status, the average COD and NH4(+) -N removal rate and effluent turbidity were 90.1%, 93.1% and 1.33 NTU, respectively, compared with 91.4% , 97.0% and 0.99 NTU during the normal sludge status. Filamentous bulking had little impact on COD removal, while it inhibited NH4(+) -N removal to a certain extent and had slight impact on effluent turbidity. Average membrane flux decay rates during the bulking sludge status and the normal sludge status were 3.29 L x (m2 x h2)(-1) and 4.87 L x (m2 x h2)(-1), respectively, and the fouling during bulking sludge status was slighter. Reversible fouling was the main fouling when sludge was bulking while irreversible fouling was the main fouling when the sludge was in normal status. The prior occurrence of reversible fouling could reduce irreversible fouling therefore slow down the flux decline. Soluble microbial products (SMP) contents in normal sludge mixed liquid and bulking sludge mixed liquid were 21.369 mg x L(-1) and 10.182 mg x L(-1), respectively, protein/polysaccharide (P/C) was 0.370 and 0.497, respectively, SMP gross was related to fouling resistance and P/C was associated with reversible fouling proportion. The relation between loosely bound EPS in mixed liquid sludge and membrane fouling was similar to SMP. Sludge with more EPS could accumulate on membrane more easily, and the EPS that accumulated on membrane was mainly protein. EPS gross in mixed liquid sludge, EPS in membrane surface sludge and their P/C all had positive correlations to

  2. Bulk solitary waves in elastic solids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samsonov, A. M.; Dreiden, G. V.; Semenova, I. V.; Shvartz, A. G.

    2015-10-01

    A short and object oriented conspectus of bulk solitary wave theory, numerical simulations and real experiments in condensed matter is given. Upon a brief description of the soliton history and development we focus on bulk solitary waves of strain, also known as waves of density and, sometimes, as elastic and/or acoustic solitons. We consider the problem of nonlinear bulk wave generation and detection in basic structural elements, rods, plates and shells, that are exhaustively studied and widely used in physics and engineering. However, it is mostly valid for linear elasticity, whereas dynamic nonlinear theory of these elements is still far from being completed. In order to show how the nonlinear waves can be used in various applications, we studied the solitary elastic wave propagation along lengthy wave guides, and remarkably small attenuation of elastic solitons was proven in physical experiments. Both theory and generation for strain soliton in a shell, however, remained unsolved problems until recently, and we consider in more details the nonlinear bulk wave propagation in a shell. We studied an axially symmetric deformation of an infinite nonlinearly elastic cylindrical shell without torsion. The problem for bulk longitudinal waves is shown to be reducible to the one equation, if a relation between transversal displacement and the longitudinal strain is found. It is found that both the 1+1D and even the 1+2D problems for long travelling waves in nonlinear solids can be reduced to the Weierstrass equation for elliptic functions, which provide the solitary wave solutions as appropriate limits. We show that the accuracy in the boundary conditions on free lateral surfaces is of crucial importance for solution, derive the only equation for longitudinal nonlinear strain wave and show, that the equation has, amongst others, a bidirectional solitary wave solution, which lead us to successful physical experiments. We observed first the compression solitary wave in the

  3. Brief Intervention Helps Adolescents Curb Substance Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Helps Adolescents Curb Substance Use Brief Intervention Helps Adolescents Curb Substance Use Email Facebook Twitter Two hour- ... School, in Minneapolis, conducted the trial with 315 adolescent and parent/caregiver pairs. Their findings strengthen evidence, ...

  4. Youth employment and substance use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaestner, Robert; Sasso, Anthony Lo; Callison, Kevin; Yarnoff, Benjamin

    2013-01-01

    A significant portion of teens work while in school and the consequences of that work are of potential concern to society. While there is widespread support for combining work and school, and some evidence that employment has positive effects on youth development, previous research has revealed some potentially harmful consequences of employment among teens. In this paper, we investigate the relationship between teen employment and substance use. We extended this literature by studying two different cohorts of youth, and by exploiting arguably exogenous variation in youth employment and earnings caused by changes in minimum wages and the business cycle (unemployment). Estimates suggest that hours of work are positively associated with alcohol and cigarette use. However, if selection on unobserved variables were equal to selection on observed variables, these associations would be close to zero. With respect to the association between earnings and substance use, the evidence is less clear.

  5. Bulk locality and boundary creating operators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakayama, Yu; Ooguri, Hirosi

    2015-10-01

    We formulate a minimum requirement for CFT operators to be localized in the dual AdS. In any spacetime dimensions, we show that a general solution to the requirement is a linear superposition of operators creating spherical boundaries in CFT, with the dilatation by the imaginary unit from their centers. This generalizes the recent proposal by Miyaji et al. for bulk local operators in the three dimensional AdS. We show that Ishibashi states for the global conformal symmetry in any dimensions and with the imaginary di-latation obey free field equations in AdS and that incorporating bulk interactions require their superpositions. We also comment on the recent proposals by Kabat et al., and by H. Verlinde.

  6. Bulk Locality and Boundary Creating Operators

    CERN Document Server

    Nakayama, Yu

    2015-01-01

    We formulate a minimum requirement for CFT operators to be localized in the dual AdS. In any spacetime dimensions, we show that a general solution to the requirement is a linear superposition of operators creating spherical boundaries in CFT, with the dilatation by the imaginary unit from their centers. This generalizes the recent proposal by Miyaji et al. for bulk local operators in the three dimensional AdS. We show that Ishibashi states for the global conformal symmetry in any dimensions and with the imaginary dilatation obey free field equations in AdS and that incorporating bulk interactions require their superpositions. We also comment on the recent proposals by Kabat et al., and by H. Verlinde.

  7. Bulk locality and boundary creating operators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakayama, Yu [Walter Burke Institute for Theoretical Physics, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, California 91125 (United States); Ooguri, Hirosi [Walter Burke Institute for Theoretical Physics, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, California 91125 (United States); Kavli Institute for the Physics and Mathematics of the Universe, University of Tokyo, 5-1-5 Kashiwanoha, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8583 (Japan)

    2015-10-19

    We formulate a minimum requirement for CFT operators to be localized in the dual AdS. In any spacetime dimensions, we show that a general solution to the requirement is a linear superposition of operators creating spherical boundaries in CFT, with the dilatation by the imaginary unit from their centers. This generalizes the recent proposal by Miyaji et al. for bulk local operators in the three dimensional AdS. We show that Ishibashi states for the global conformal symmetry in any dimensions and with the imaginary dilatation obey free field equations in AdS and that incorporating bulk interactions require their superpositions. We also comment on the recent proposals by Kabat et al., and by H. Verlinde.

  8. Bulk and shear viscosity in Hagedorn fluid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tawfik, A.; Wahba, M. [Egyptian Center for Theoretical Physics (ECTP), MTI University, Faculty of Engineering, Cairo (Egypt)

    2010-11-15

    Assuming that the Hagedorn fluid composed of known particles and resonances with masses m <2 GeV obeys the first-order theory (Eckart) of relativistic fluid, we discuss the transport properties of QCD confined phase. Based on the relativistic kinetic theory formulated under the relaxation time approximation, expressions for bulk and shear viscosity in thermal medium of hadron resonances are derived. The relaxation time in the Hagedorn dynamical fluid exclusively takes into account the decay and eventually van der Waals processes. We comment on the in-medium thermal effects on bulk and shear viscosity and averaged relaxation time with and without the excluded-volume approach. As an application of these results, we suggest the dynamics of heavy-ion collisions, non-equilibrium thermodynamics and the cosmological models, which require thermo- and hydro-dynamics equations of state. (Abstract Copyright [2010], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  9. Bulk and Shear Viscosity in Hagedorn Fluid

    CERN Document Server

    Tawfik, A

    2010-01-01

    Assuming that the Hagedorn fluid composed of known particles and resonances with masses $m<2\\,$GeV obeys the {\\it first-order} theory (Eckart) of relativistic fluid, we discuss the transport properties of QCD confined phase. Based on the relativistic kinetic theory formulated under the relaxation time approximation, expressions for bulk and shear viscosity in thermal medium are derived. The relaxation time in the Hagedorn dynamical fluid exclusively takes into account the decay and eventually van der Waals processes. We comment on the {\\it in-medium} thermal effects on bulk and shear viscosities and averaged relaxation time with and without the excluded-volume approach. As an application of these results, we suggest the dynamics of heavy-ion collisions, non-equlibrium thermodynamics and the cosmological models, which require thermo and hydrodynamics equations of state.

  10. Portable design rules for bulk CMOS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griswold, T. W.

    1982-01-01

    It is pointed out that for the past several years, one school of IC designers has used a simplified set of nMOS geometric design rules (GDR) which is 'portable', in that it can be used by many different nMOS manufacturers. The present investigation is concerned with a preliminary set of design rules for bulk CMOS which has been verified for simple test structures. The GDR are defined in terms of Caltech Intermediate Form (CIF), which is a geometry-description language that defines simple geometrical objects in layers. The layers are abstractions of physical mask layers. The design rules do not presume the existence of any particular design methodology. Attention is given to p-well and n-well CMOS processes, bulk CMOS and CMOS-SOS, CMOS geometric rules, and a description of the advantages of CMOS technology.

  11. Fully antisymmetrised dynamics for bulk fermion systems

    CERN Document Server

    Vantournhout, Klaas

    2011-01-01

    The neutron star's crust and mantel are typical examples of non-uniform bulk systems with spacial localisations. When modelling such systems at low temperatures, as is the case in the crust, one has to work with antisymmetrised many-body states to get the correct fermion behaviour. Fermionic molecular dynamics, which works with an antisymmetrised product of localised wave packets, should be an appropriate choice. Implementing periodic boundary conditions into the fermionic molecular dynamics formalism would allow the study of the neutron star's crust as a bulk quantum system. Unfortunately, the antisymmetrisation is a non-local entanglement which reaches far out of the periodically repeated unit cell. In this proceeding, we give a brief overview how periodic boundary conditions and fermionic molecular dynamics can be combined without truncating the long-range many-body correlation induced by the antisymmetry of the many-body state.

  12. Large bulk Micromegas detectors for TPC applications

    CERN Document Server

    Anvar, S; Boyer, M; Beucher, J; Calvet, D; Colas, P; De La Broise, X; Delagnes, E; Delbart, A; Druillole, F; Emery, S; Giganti, C; Giomataris, I; Mazzucato, E; Monmarthe, E; Nizery, F; Pierre, F; Ritou, J L; Sarrat, A; Zito, M; Catanesi, M G; Radicioni, E; De Oliveira, R; Blondel, A; Di Marco, M; Ferrere, D; Perrin, E; Ravonel, M; Jover, G; Lux, T; Rodriguez, A Y; Sanchez, F; Cervera, A; Hansen, C; Monfregola, L

    2009-01-01

    A large volume TPC will be used in the near future in a variety of experiments including T2K. The bulk Micromegas detector for this TPC is built using a novel production technique particularly suited for compact, thin and robust low mass detectors. The capability to pave a large surface with a simple mounting solution and small dead space is of particular interest for these applications. We have built several large bulk Micromegas detectors () and we have tested one in the former HARP field cage with a magnetic field. Prototypes cards of the T2K front end electronics, based on the AFTER ASIC chip, have been used in this TPC test for the first time. Cosmic ray data have been acquired in a variety of experimental conditions. Good detector performances, space point resolution and energy loss measurement have been achieved.

  13. Bulk micromegas detectors for large TPC applications

    CERN Document Server

    Bouchez, J; Cavata, Ch; Colas, P; De La Broise, X; Delbart, A; Giganon, Arnaud; Giomataris, Ioanis; Graffin, P; Mols, J Ph; Pierre, F; Ritou, J L; Sarrat, A; Virique, E; Zito, M; Radicioni, E; De Oliveira, R; Dumarchez, J; Abgrall, N; Bene, P; Blondel, A; Cervera-Villanueva, Anselmo; Ferrère, D; Maschiocchi, F; Perrin, E; Richeux, J P; Schroeter, R; Jover, G; Lux,; Rodriguez, A Y; Sánchez, F

    2007-01-01

    A large volume TPC will be used in the near future in a variety of experiments including T2K. The bulk Micromegas detector for this TPC is built using a novel production technique particularly suited for compact and robust low mass detectors. The capability to pave a large surface with a simple mounting solution and small dead space between modules is of particular interest for these applications. We have built several large bulk Micromegas detectors and we have tested them in the former HARP field cage setup with a magnetic field. Cosmic ray data have been acquired in a variety of experimental conditions. Good detector performances and space point resolution have been achieved.

  14. Effective pure states for bulk quantum computation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knill, E.; Chuang, I.; Laflamme, R.

    1997-11-01

    In bulk quantum computation one can manipulate a large number of indistinguishable quantum computers by parallel unitary operations and measure expectation values of certain observables with limited sensitivity. The initial state of each computer in the ensemble is known but not pure. Methods for obtaining effective pure input states by a series of manipulations have been described by Gershenfeld and Chuang (logical labeling) and Corey et al. (spatial averaging) for the case of quantum computation with nuclear magnetic resonance. We give a different technique called temporal averaging. This method is based on classical randomization, requires no ancilla qubits and can be implemented in nuclear magnetic resonance without using gradient fields. We introduce several temporal averaging algorithms suitable for both high temperature and low temperature bulk quantum computing and analyze the signal to noise behavior of each.

  15. Modeling direct interband tunneling. I. Bulk semiconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pan, Andrew, E-mail: pandrew@ucla.edu [Department of Electrical Engineering, University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California 90095 (United States); Chui, Chi On [Department of Electrical Engineering, University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California 90095 (United States); California NanoSystems Institute, University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California 90095 (United States)

    2014-08-07

    Interband tunneling is frequently studied using the semiclassical Kane model, despite uncertainty about its validity. Revisiting the physical basis of this formula, we find that it neglects coupling to other bands and underestimates transverse tunneling. As a result, significant errors can arise at low and high fields for small and large gap materials, respectively. We derive a simple multiband tunneling model to correct these defects analytically without arbitrary parameters. Through extensive comparison with band structure and quantum transport calculations for bulk InGaAs, InAs, and InSb, we probe the accuracy of the Kane and multiband formulas and establish the superiority of the latter. We also show that the nonlocal average electric field should be used when applying either of these models to nonuniform potentials. Our findings are important for efficient analysis and simulation of bulk semiconductor devices involving tunneling.

  16. Towards a reconstruction of general bulk metrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engelhardt, Netta; Horowitz, Gary T.

    2017-01-01

    We prove that the metric of a general holographic spacetime can be reconstructed (up to an overall conformal factor) from distinguished spatial slices—‘light-cone cuts’—of the conformal boundary. Our prescription is covariant and applies to bulk points in causal contact with the boundary. Furthermore, we describe a procedure for determining the light-cone cuts corresponding to bulk points in the causal wedge of the boundary in terms of the divergences of correlators in the dual field theory. Possible extensions for determining the conformal factor and including the cuts of points outside of the causal wedge are discussed. We also comment on implications for subregion/subregion duality.

  17. Metal reduction at bulk chemical filtration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umeda, Toru; Daikoku, Shusaku; Tsuzuki, Shuichi; Murakami, Tetsuya

    2017-03-01

    OK73 thinner and cyclohexanone, both of which were spiked with metals were passed through Nylon 6,6 filter, varying flow rate, which include the conditions of both point-of-use and bulk filtrations. The influent and effluent metal concentrations were measured using ICP-MS for metal removal efficiency of the filtration. As a result, removal efficiency for some metals descended depending on the flow rate, while others maintained. Slower flow rate is recommended to maintain low metal concentration in bulk filtration based on the result. Metals in cyclohexanone were reduced at higher efficiency than in OK73 thinner, agrees with a metal removal model of hydrophilic adsorbent in organic solvent, evidenced in our previous paper. Further, metal reduction on 300 mm φ Si wafer after coating organic solvents with Nylon 6,6 filtration was evidenced with TREX analysis.

  18. Multilayer Integrated Film Bulk Acoustic Resonators

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Yafei

    2013-01-01

    Multilayer Integrated Film Bulk Acoustic Resonators mainly introduces the theory, design, fabrication technology and application of a recently developed new type of device, multilayer integrated film bulk acoustic resonators, at the micro and nano scale involving microelectronic devices, integrated circuits, optical devices, sensors and actuators, acoustic resonators, micro-nano manufacturing, multilayer integration, device theory and design principles, etc. These devices can work at very high frequencies by using the newly developed theory, design, and fabrication technology of nano and micro devices. Readers in fields of IC, electronic devices, sensors, materials, and films etc. will benefit from this book by learning the detailed fundamentals and potential applications of these advanced devices. Prof. Yafei Zhang is the director of the Ministry of Education’s Key Laboratory for Thin Films and Microfabrication Technology, PRC; Dr. Da Chen was a PhD student in Prof. Yafei Zhang’s research group.

  19. Microfabricated bulk wave acoustic bandgap device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsson, Roy H.; El-Kady, Ihab F.; McCormick, Frederick; Fleming, James G.; Fleming, Carol

    2010-06-08

    A microfabricated bulk wave acoustic bandgap device comprises a periodic two-dimensional array of scatterers embedded within the matrix material membrane, wherein the scatterer material has a density and/or elastic constant that is different than the matrix material and wherein the periodicity of the array causes destructive interference of the acoustic wave within an acoustic bandgap. The membrane can be suspended above a substrate by an air or vacuum gap to provide acoustic isolation from the substrate. The device can be fabricated using microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) technologies. Such microfabricated bulk wave phononic bandgap devices are useful for acoustic isolation in the ultrasonic, VHF, or UHF regime (i.e., frequencies of order 1 MHz to 10 GHz and higher, and lattice constants of order 100 .mu.m or less).

  20. Dissolution of bulk specimens of silicon nitride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, W. F.; Merkle, E. J.

    1981-01-01

    An accurate chemical characterization of silicon nitride has become important in connection with current efforts to incorporate components of this material into advanced heat engines. However, there are problems concerning a chemical analysis of bulk silicon nitride. Current analytical methods require the pulverization of bulk specimens. A pulverization procedure making use of grinding media, on the other hand, will introduce contaminants. A description is given of a dissolution procedure which overcomes these difficulties. It has been found that up to at least 0.6 g solid pieces of various samples of hot pressed and reaction bonded silicon nitride can be decomposed in a mixture of 3 mL hydrofluoric acid and 1 mL nitric acid overnight at 150 C in a Parr bomb. High-purity silicon nitride is completely soluble in nitric acid after treatment in the bomb. Following decomposition, silicon and hydrofluoric acid are volatilized and insoluble fluorides are converted to a soluble form.

  1. Family Characteristics and Adolescent Substance Use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephenson, Andy L.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Study used self-report questionnaire data from high school students to determine the relation between adolescents' perception of family characteristics and adolescent substance use patterns. Results indicate adolescents' perception of maternal substance use, family hardiness, and age of the adolescent were significant predictors of substance use.…

  2. Why adolescents use substances of abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duhigg, Daniel

    2013-08-01

    In summary, adolescent substance use is associated with a variety of risks. Using a nonjudgmental and collaborative approach to treating adolescent substance users can yield positive results. Motivational interviewing and the adolescent community reinforcement approach are evidence-based, nonpharmacologic treatments for teens with substance use disorders.

  3. Raman characterization of bulk ferromagnetic nanostructured graphite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pardo, Helena, E-mail: hpardo@fq.edu.uy [Centro NanoMat, Polo Tecnologico de Pando, Facultad de Quimica, Universidad de la Republica, Cno. Aparicio Saravia s/n, 91000, Pando, Canelones (Uruguay); Crystallography, Solid State and Materials Laboratory (Cryssmat-Lab), DETEMA, Facultad de Quimica, Universidad de la Republica, Gral. Flores 2124, P.O. Box 1157, Montevideo (Uruguay); Divine Khan, Ngwashi [Mantfort University, Leicester (United Kingdom); Faccio, Ricardo [Centro NanoMat, Polo Tecnologico de Pando, Facultad de Quimica, Universidad de la Republica, Cno. Aparicio Saravia s/n, 91000, Pando, Canelones (Uruguay); Crystallography, Solid State and Materials Laboratory (Cryssmat-Lab), DETEMA, Facultad de Quimica, Universidad de la Republica, Gral. Flores 2124, P.O. Box 1157, Montevideo (Uruguay); Araujo-Moreira, F.M. [Grupo de Materiais e Dispositivos-CMDMC, Departamento de Fisica e Engenharia Fisica, UFSCar, Caixa Postal 676, 13565-905, Sao Carlos SP (Brazil); Fernandez-Werner, Luciana [Centro NanoMat, Polo Tecnologico de Pando, Facultad de Quimica, Universidad de la Republica, Cno. Aparicio Saravia s/n, 91000, Pando, Canelones (Uruguay); Crystallography, Solid State and Materials Laboratory (Cryssmat-Lab), DETEMA, Facultad de Quimica, Universidad de la Republica, Gral. Flores 2124, P.O. Box 1157, Montevideo (Uruguay)

    2012-08-15

    Raman spectroscopy was used to characterize bulk ferromagnetic graphite samples prepared by controlled oxidation of commercial pristine graphite powder. The G:D band intensity ratio, the shape and position of the 2D band and the presence of a band around 2950 cm{sup -1} showed a high degree of disorder in the modified graphite sample, with a significant presence of exposed edges of graphitic planes as well as a high degree of attached hydrogen atoms.

  4. On bulk viscosity and moduli decay

    OpenAIRE

    M. Laine

    2010-01-01

    This pedagogically intended lecture, one of four under the header "Basics of thermal QCD", reviews an interesting relationship, originally pointed out by Bodeker, that exists between the bulk viscosity of Yang-Mills theory (of possible relevance to the hydrodynamics of heavy ion collision experiments) and the decay rate of scalar fields coupled very weakly to a heat bath (appearing in some particle physics inspired cosmological scenarios). This topic serves, furthermore, as a platform on whic...

  5. Depleted bulk heterojunction colloidal quantum dot photovoltaics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barkhouse, D.A.R. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Toronto, 10 King' s College Road, Toronto, Ontario M5S 3G4 (Canada); IBM Thomas J. Watson Research Center, Kitchawan Road, Yorktown Heights, NY, 10598 (United States); Debnath, Ratan; Kramer, Illan J.; Zhitomirsky, David; Levina, Larissa; Sargent, Edward H. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Toronto, 10 King' s College Road, Toronto, Ontario M5S 3G4 (Canada); Pattantyus-Abraham, Andras G. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Toronto, 10 King' s College Road, Toronto, Ontario M5S 3G4 (Canada); Quantum Solar Power Corporation, 1055 W. Hastings, Ste. 300, Vancouver, BC, V6E 2E9 (Canada); Etgar, Lioz; Graetzel, Michael [Laboratory for Photonics and Interfaces, Institute of Chemical Sciences and Engineering, School of Basic Sciences, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, CH-1015 Lausanne (Switzerland)

    2011-07-26

    The first solution-processed depleted bulk heterojunction colloidal quantum dot solar cells are presented. The architecture allows for high absorption with full depletion, thereby breaking the photon absorption/carrier extraction compromise inherent in planar devices. A record power conversion of 5.5% under simulated AM 1.5 illumination conditions is reported. (Copyright copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  6. Depleted Bulk Heterojunction Colloidal Quantum Dot Photovoltaics

    KAUST Repository

    Barkhouse, D. Aaron R.

    2011-05-26

    The first solution-processed depleted bulk heterojunction colloidal quantum dot solar cells are presented. The architecture allows for high absorption with full depletion, thereby breaking the photon absorption/carrier extraction compromise inherent in planar devices. A record power conversion of 5.5% under simulated AM 1.5 illumination conditions is reported. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. Effects of bulk viscosity on cosmological evolution

    CERN Document Server

    Pimentel, L O; Pimentel, L O; Diaz-Rivera, L M

    1994-01-01

    Abstract:The effect of bulk viscisity on the evolution of the homogeneous and isotropic cosmological models is considered. Solutions are found, with a barotropic equation of state, and a viscosity coefficient that is proportional to a power of the energy density of the universe. For flat space, power law expansions, related to extended inflation are found as well as exponential solutions, related to old inflation; also a solution with expansion that is an exponential of an exponential of the time is found.

  8. Modeling of Microimprinting of Bulk Metallic Glasses

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ming CHENG; John A. Wert

    2006-01-01

    A finite element analysis (FEA) model has been developed to analyze microimprinting of bulk metallic glasses (BMG) near the glass transition temperature (Tg). The results reveal an approximately universal imprinting response for BMG, independent of surface feature length scale. The scale-independent nature of BMG imprinting derives from the flow characteristics of BMG in the temperature range above Tg. It also shows that the lubrication condition has a mild influence on BMG imprinting in the temperature range above Tg.

  9. Dermal uptake of petroleum substances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakasa, Ivone; Kezic, Sanja; Boogaard, Peter J

    2015-06-01

    Petroleum products are complex substances comprising varying amounts of linear and branched alkanes, alkenes, cycloalkanes, and aromatics which may penetrate the skin at different rates. For proper interpretation of toxic hazard data, understanding their percutaneous absorption is of paramount importance. The extent and significance of dermal absorption of eight petroleum substances, representing different classes of hydrocarbons, was evaluated. Literature data on the steady-state flux and permeability coefficient of these substances were evaluated and compared to those predicted by mathematical models. Reported results spanned over 5-6 orders of magnitude and were largely dependent on experimental conditions in particular on the type of the vehicle used. In general, aromatic hydrocarbons showed higher dermal absorption than more lipophilic aliphatics with similar molecular weight. The results showed high variation and were largely influenced by experimental conditions emphasizing the need of performing the experiments under "in use" scenario. The predictive models overestimated experimental absorption. The overall conclusion is that, based on the observed percutaneous penetration data, dermal exposure to petroleum hydrocarbons, even of aromatics with highest dermal absorption is limited and highly unlikely to be associated with health risks under real use scenarios. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Bulk viscous cosmology in early Universe

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    C P Singh

    2008-07-01

    The effect of bulk viscosity on the early evolution of Universe for a spatially homogeneous and isotropic Robertson-Walker model is considered. Einstein's field equations are solved by using `gamma-law' equation of state = ( - 1)ρ, where the adiabatic parameter gamma () depends on the scale factor of the model. The `gamma' function is defined in such a way that it describes a unified solution of early evolution of the Universe for inflationary and radiation-dominated phases. The fluid has only bulk viscous term and the coefficient of bulk viscosity is taken to be proportional to some power function of the energy density. The complete general solutions have been given through three cases. For flat space, power-law as well as exponential solutions are found. The problem of how the introduction of viscosity affects the appearance of singularity, is briefly discussed in particular solutions. The deceleration parameter has a freedom to vary with the scale factor of the model, which describes the accelerating expansion of the Universe.

  11. Pseudo-Riemannian Universe from Euclidean bulk

    CERN Document Server

    Vasilić, Milovan

    2015-01-01

    I develop the idea that our world is a brane-like object embedded in Euclidean bulk. In its ground state, the brane constituent matter is assumed to be homogeneous and isotropic, and of negligible influence on the bulk geometry. No action functional is initially specified. Instead, the brane dynamics is derived from the universally valid stress-energy conservation equations. The present work studies the cosmology of a $3$-sphere in the $5$-dimensional Euclidean bulk. It is shown that the conventional equation of state $p=\\alpha\\rho$ is universal in the sector of small energy densities, and so is the resulting brane dynamics. The inequality $\\alpha<0$ is found to be a necessary condition for the existence of a stable ground state of the Universe. It is demonstrated that the generic braneworld physics rules out the Big Bang cosmology, and in that matter, any cosmology of finite lifetime. I also demonstrate that stable brane vibrations satisfy Klein-Gordon-like equation with an effective metric of Minkowski s...

  12. Molecular imprinting of bulk, microporous silica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, Alexander; Davis, Mark E.

    2000-01-01

    Molecular imprinting aims to create solid materials containing chemical functionalities that are spatially organized by covalent or non-covalent interactions with imprint (or template) molecules during the synthesis process. Subsequent removal of the imprint molecules leaves behind designed sites for the recognition of small molecules, making the material ideally suited for applications such as separations, chemical sensing and catalysis. Until now, the molecular imprinting of bulk polymers and polymer and silica surfaces has been reported, but the extension of these methods to a wider range of materials remains problematic. For example, the formation of substrate-specific cavities within bulk silica, while conceptually straightforward, has been difficult to accomplish experimentally. Here we describe the imprinting of bulk amorphous silicas with single aromatic rings carrying up to three 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane side groups; this generates and occupies microporosity and attaches functional organic groups to the pore walls in a controlled fashion. The triethoxysilane part of the molecules' side groups is incorporated into the silica framework during sol-gel synthesis, and subsequent removal of the aromatic core creates a cavity with spatially organized aminopropyl groups covalently anchored to the pore walls. We find that the imprinted silicas act as shape-selective base catalysts. Our strategy can be extended to imprint other functional groups, which should give access to a wide range of functionalized materials.

  13. Bulk Higgs with a heavy diphoton signal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, Mariana; Pourtolami, Nima; Toharia, Manuel

    2017-02-01

    We consider scenarios of warped extra dimensions with all matter fields in the bulk and in which both the hierarchy and the flavor puzzles of the Standard Model are addressed. Inspired by the puzzling excess of diphoton events at 750 GeV reported in the early LHC Run II data (since then understood as a statistical excess), we consider here the general question as to whether the simplest extra-dimensional extension of the Standard Model Higgs sector, i.e., a five-dimensional bulk Higgs doublet, can lead to an intermediate mass resonance (between 500 GeV and 1.5 TeV) of which the first signature would be the presence of diphoton events. This surprising phenomenology can happen if the resonance is the lightest C P -odd state coming from the Higgs sector. No new matter content is required, the only new ingredient being the presence of (positive) brane localized kinetic terms associated to the five-dimensional bulk Higgs (which reduce the mass of the C P -odd states). Production and decay of this resonance can naturally give rise to observable diphoton signals, keeping dijet production under control, with very low ZZ and WW signals and with a highly reduced top pair production in an important region of parameter space. We use the 750 GeV excess as an example case scenario.

  14. Bulk Rashba Semiconductors and Related Quantum Phenomena.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahramy, Mohammad Saeed; Ogawa, Naoki

    2017-03-29

    Bithmuth tellurohalides BiTeX (X = Cl, Br and I) are model examples of bulk Rashba semiconductors, exhibiting a giant Rashba-type spin splitting among their both valence and conduction bands. Extensive spectroscopic and transport experiments combined with the state-of-the-art first-principles calculations have revealed many unique quantum phenomena emerging from the bulk Rashba effect in these systems. The novel features such as the exotic inter- and intra-band optical transitions, enhanced magneto-optical response, divergent orbital dia-/para-magnetic susceptibility and helical spin textures with a nontrivial Berry's phase in the momentum space are among the salient discoveries, all arising from this effect. Also, it is theoretically proposed and indications have been experimentally reported that bulk Rashba semiconductors such as BiTeI have the capability of becoming a topological insulator under the application of a hydrostatic pressure. Here, we overview these studies and show that BiTeX are an ideal platform to explore the next aspects of quantum matter, which could ultimately be utilized to create spintronic devices with novel functionalities.

  15. Cosmological Implications of QGP Bulk Viscosity

    CERN Document Server

    Anand, Sampurn; Bhatt, Jitesh R

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies of the hot QCD matter indicate that the bulk viscosity ($\\zeta$) of quark-gluon plasma (QGP) rises sharply near the critical point of the QCD phase transition. In this work, we show that such a sharp rise of the bulk viscosity will lead to an effective negative pressure near the critical temperature, $T_{c}$ which in turn drives the Universe to inflate. This inflation has a natural graceful exist when the viscous effect evanesce. We estimate that, depending upon the peak value of $\\zeta$, universe expands by a factor of $10$ to $80$ times in a very short span ($\\Delta t\\sim 10^{-8}$ seconds). Another important outcome of the bulk viscosity dominated dynamics is the cavitation of QGP around $T \\sim 1.5T_{c}$. This would lead to the phenomenon of formation of cavitation bubbles within the QGP phase. The above scenario is independent of the order of QCD phase transition. We delineate some of the important cosmological consequences of the inflation and the cavitation.

  16. Evidence for Bulk Ripplocations in Layered Solids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruber, Jacob; Lang, Andrew C.; Griggs, Justin; Taheri, Mitra L.; Tucker, Garritt J.; Barsoum, Michel W.

    2016-09-01

    Plastically anisotropic/layered solids are ubiquitous in nature and understanding how they deform is crucial in geology, nuclear engineering, microelectronics, among other fields. Recently, a new defect termed a ripplocation–best described as an atomic scale ripple–was proposed to explain deformation in two-dimensional solids. Herein, we leverage atomistic simulations of graphite to extend the ripplocation idea to bulk layered solids, and confirm that it is essentially a buckling phenomenon. In contrast to dislocations, bulk ripplocations have no Burgers vector and no polarity. In graphite, ripplocations are attracted to other ripplocations, both within the same, and on adjacent layers, the latter resulting in kink boundaries. Furthermore, we present transmission electron microscopy evidence consistent with the existence of bulk ripplocations in Ti3SiC2. Ripplocations are a topological imperative, as they allow atomic layers to glide relative to each other without breaking the in-plane bonds. A more complete understanding of their mechanics and behavior is critically important, and could profoundly influence our current understanding of how graphite, layered silicates, the MAX phases, and many other plastically anisotropic/layered solids, deform and accommodate strain.

  17. Substance misuse and substance use disorders in sex offenders: a review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F.L. Kraanen; P.M.G. Emmelkamp

    2011-01-01

    Substance abuse has often been associated with committing sex offenses. In this article, the following will be reviewed: 1) studies that assessed substance abuse in sex offenders; 2) differences in substance abuse among different types of sex offenders; 3) differences in substance abuse between sex

  18. Tailoring Magnetic Properties in Bulk Nanostructured Solids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales, Jason Rolando

    Important magnetic properties and behaviors such as coercivity, remanence, susceptibility, energy product, and exchange coupling can be tailored by controlling the grain size, composition, and density of bulk magnetic materials. At nanometric length scales the grain size plays an increasingly important role since magnetic domain behavior and grain boundary concentration determine bulk magnetic behavior. This has spurred a significant amount of work devoted to developing magnetic materials with nanometric features (thickness, grain/crystallite size, inclusions or shells) in 0D (powder), 1D (wires), and 2D (thin films) materials. Large 3D nanocrystalline materials are more suitable for many applications such as permanent magnets, magneto-optical Faraday isolators etc. Yet there are relatively few successful demonstrations of 3D magnetic materials with nanoscale influenced properties available in the literature. Making dense 3D bulk materials with magnetic nanocrystalline microstructures is a challenge because many traditional densification techniques (HIP, pressureless sintering, etc.) move the microstructure out of the "nano" regime during densification. This dissertation shows that the Current Activated Pressure Assisted Densification (CAPAD) method, also known as spark plasma sintering, can be used to create dense, bulk, magnetic, nanocrystalline solids with varied compositions suited to fit many applications. The results of my research will first show important implications for the use of CAPAD for the production of exchange-coupled nanocomposite magnets. Decreases in grain size were shown to have a significant role in increasing the magnitude of exchange bias. Second, preferentially ordered bulk magnetic materials were produced with highly anisotropic material properties. The ordered microstructure resulted in changing magnetic property magnitudes (ex. change in coercivity by almost 10x) depending on the relative orientation (0° vs. 90°) of an externally

  19. Materials for Bulk Acoustic Resonators and Filters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loebl, Hans-Peter

    2003-03-01

    Highly selective solidly mounted bulk acoustic wave (BAW) band pass filters are suited for mobile and wireless systems in the GHz frequency range between 0.8 and 10 GHz. Electro-acoustic thin film BAW resonators are the building blocks these BAW filters. Piezoelectric materials used in these resonators include mainly AlN or ZnO which can be deposited by dedicated thin film sputter deposition techniques. Using these piezo-electric materials and using suited materials for the acoustic Bragg reflector, BAW resonators with high quality factors can be fabricated. The achievable filter bandwidth is approximately 4Alternatively, also ferroelectric thin films might be used to achieve higher coupling coefficient and thus filter bandwidth. BAW resonators and filters have been designed and fabricated on 6" Silicon and glass wafers. Results are presented for resonators and filters operating between 1.95 and 8 GHz. The talk will give an overview of the material aspects which are important for BAW devices. It will be shown that modeling of the resonator and filter response using 1D electro-acoustic simulation (1,2) which includes losses is essential to extract acoustic and electrical material parameters. (1) Solidly Mounted Bulk Acoustic Wave Filters for the Ghz Frequency Range, H.P. Loebl, C. Metzmacher , D.N.Peligrad , R. Mauczok , M. Klee , W. Brand , R.F. Milsom , P.Lok , F.van Straten , A. Tuinhout , J.W.Lobeek, IEEE 2002 Ultrasonics Symposium Munich, October 2002. (2) Combined Acoustic-Electromagnetic Simulation Of Thin-Film Bulk Acoustic Wave Filters, R.F. Milsom, H-P. Löbl, D.N. Peligrad, J-W. Lobeek, A. Tuinhout, R. H. ten Dolle IEEE 2002 Ultrasonics Symposium Munich, October 2002.

  20. Nitrogen Forms in Humic Substances

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHUOSU-NENG; WENQI-XIAO

    1992-01-01

    In this paper,the nitrogen forms in newly-formed humic substances,including humic acid (HA),fulvic acid (FA) and humic acid in humin (HAI),were studied by using the 15N CP-MAS NMR technique in combination with chemical approaches.Results show that the majority of nitrogen in HA,FA and HAI was in the amide form with some presented as aliphatic and/ or aromatic amines and some as pyrrole type nitrogen,although the contents of nonhydrolyzable nitrogen in them differed greatly from each other (15-55%).

  1. Hubble Parameter in Bulk Viscous Cosmology

    CERN Document Server

    Tawfik, A; Wahba, M

    2009-01-01

    We discuss influences of bulk viscosity on the Early Universe, which is modeled by Friedmann-Robertson-Walker metric and Einstein field equations. We assume that the matter filling the isotropic and homogeneous background is relativistic viscous characterized by ultra-relativistic equations of state deduced from recent lattice QCD simulations. We obtain a set of complicated differential equations, for which we suggest approximate solutions for Hubble parameter $H$. We find that finite viscosity in Eckart and Israel-Stewart fluids would significantly modify our picture about the Early Universe.

  2. Fabrication of Porous Bulk Metallic Glass

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Keqiang QIU; Yinglei REN

    2005-01-01

    An open-cell porous bulk metallic glass (BMG)with a diameter of at least 6 mm was fabricated by using an U-turn quartz tube and infiltration casting aroundsoluble NaCl placeholders. The pore formation and glassy structure were examined by optical microscopy (OM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The results show that the pores or cells are connected to each other and the specimenis composed of a mostly glassy phase.This paper provides a suitable method for fabrication of porous BMG and BMG with larger size in diameter.

  3. Bulk metamaterials: Design, fabrication and characterization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andryieuski, Andrei; Malureanu, Radu; Alabastri, Alessandro

    2009-01-01

    Bulk metamaterials claim a lot of attention worldwide. We report about our activity and advances in design, fabrication and characterization of metal-dielectric composites with three-dimensional lattices. The nomenclature of designs exhibiting negative index behaviour in the near infrared includes...... the generic family of so-called nested structures. Such designs allow keeping the cubic symmetry of the unit cell along with the electric and magnetic responses showed by different parts in separate. For extraction of effective parameters we employ homemade wave propagation retrieving method free from...

  4. Calculated Bulk Properties of the Actinide Metals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skriver, Hans Lomholt; Andersen, O. K.; Johansson, B.

    1978-01-01

    Self-consistent relativistic calculations of the electronic properties for seven actinides (Ac-Am) have been performed using the linear muffin-tin orbitals method within the atomic-sphere approximation. Exchange and correlation were included in the local spin-density scheme. The theory explains...... the variation of the atomic volume and the bulk modulus through the 5f series in terms of an increasing 5f binding up to plutonium followed by a sudden localisation (through complete spin polarisation) in americium...

  5. Diffusion and bulk flow in phloem loading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dölger, Julia; Rademaker, Hanna; Liesche, Johannes

    2014-01-01

    loading mechanism, active symplasmic loading, also called the polymer trap mechanism, where sucrose is transformed into heavier sugars, such as raffinose and stachyose, in the intermediary-type companion cells bordering the sieve elements in the minor veins of the phloem. Keeping the heavier sugars from......%-20% to the sucrose flux into the intermediary cells, while the main part is transported by diffusion. On the other hand, the subsequent sugar translocation into the sieve elements would very likely be carried predominantly by bulk water flow through the plasmodesmata. Thus, in contrast to apoplasmic loaders, all...

  6. New Class of Plastic Bulk Metallic Glass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, L. Y.; Fu, Z. D.; Zhang, G. Q.; Hao, X. P.; Jiang, Q. K.; Wang, X. D.; Cao, Q. P.; Franz, H.; Liu, Y. G.; Xie, H. S.; Zhang, S. L.; Wang, B. Y.; Zeng, Y. W.; Jiang, J. Z.

    2008-02-01

    An intrinsic plastic Cu45Zr46Al7Ti2 bulk metallic glass (BMG) with high strength and superior compressive plastic strain of up to 32.5% was successfully fabricated by copper mold casting. The superior compressive plastic strain was attributed to a large amount of randomly distributed free volume induced by Ti minor alloying, which results in extensive shear band formation, branching, interaction and self-healing of minor cracks. The mechanism of plasticity presented here suggests that the creation of a large amount of free volume in BMGs by minor alloying or other methods might be a promising new way to enhance the plasticity of BMGs.

  7. Calculated Bulk Properties of the Actinide Metals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skriver, Hans Lomholt; Andersen, O. K.; Johansson, B.

    1978-01-01

    Self-consistent relativistic calculations of the electronic properties for seven actinides (Ac-Am) have been performed using the linear muffin-tin orbitals method within the atomic-sphere approximation. Exchange and correlation were included in the local spin-density scheme. The theory explains t...... the variation of the atomic volume and the bulk modulus through the 5f series in terms of an increasing 5f binding up to plutonium followed by a sudden localisation (through complete spin polarisation) in americium...

  8. Improving the bulk data transfer experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guok, Chin; Guok, Chin; Lee, Jason R.; Berket, Karlo

    2008-05-07

    Scientific computations and collaborations increasingly rely on the network to provide high-speed data transfer, dissemination of results, access to instruments, support for computational steering, etc. The Energy Sciences Network is establishing a science data network to provide user driven bandwidth allocation. In a shared network environment, some reservations may not be granted due to the lack of available bandwidth on any single path. In many cases, the available bandwidth across multiple paths would be sufficient to grant the reservation. In this paper we investigate how to utilize the available bandwidth across multiple paths in the case of bulk data transfer.

  9. Binary Cu-Zr Bulk Metallic Glasses

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TANG Mei-Bo; ZHAO De-Qian; PAN Ming-Xiang; WANG Wei-Hua

    2004-01-01

    @@ We report that bulk metallic glasses (BMGs) can be produced up to 2 mm by a copper mould casting in Cux Zr1-x binary alloy with a wide glass forming composition range (45 < x < 60 at.%). We find that the formation mechanism for the binary Cu-Zr binary BMG-forming alloy is obviously different from that of the intensively studied multicomponent BMGs. Our results demonstrate that the criteria for the multicomponent alloys with composition near deep eutectic and strong liquid behaviour are no longer the major concern for designing BMGs.

  10. Fate of bulk and trace organics during a simulated aquifer recharge and recovery (ARR)-ozone hybrid process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Min K; Drewes, Jörg E; Amy, Gary L

    2013-11-01

    The attenuation of bulk organic matter and trace organic contaminants (TOrCs) was evaluated for various aquifer recharge and recovery (ARR)-ozone (O3) hybrid treatment process combinations using soil-batch reactor and bench-scale ozonation experiments as a proof of concept prior to pilot and/or field studies. In water reclamation and especially potable reuse, refractory bulk organic matter and TOrCs are of potential health concern in recycled waters. In this study, the role of biotransformation of bulk organic matter and TOrCs was investigated considering different simulated treatment combinations, including soil passage (ARR) alone, ARR after ozonation (O3-ARR), and ARR prior to ozonation (ARR-O3). During oxic (aerobic) ARR simulations, soluble microbial-like substances (e.g., higher molecular weight polysaccharides and proteins) were easily removed while (lower molecular weight) humic substances and aromatic organic matter were not efficiently removed. During ARR-ozone treatment simulations, removals of bulk organic matter and TOrCs were rapid and effective compared to ARR alone. A higher reduction of effluent-derived organic matter, including aromatic organic matter and humic substances, was observed in the ARR-O3 hybrid followed by the O3-ARR hybrid. An enhanced attenuation of recalcitrant TOrCs was observed while increasing the ozone dose slightly (O3: DOC=1). TOrC removal efficiency also increased during the post-ozone treatment combination (i.e., ARR-O3). In addition, the carcinogenic wastewater disinfection byproduct N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA) was eliminated below the method reporting limit (<5 ng L(-1)) both during ARR treatment alone and the ARR-ozone hybrid.

  11. Fate of bulk and trace organics during a simulated aquifer recharge and recovery (ARR)-ozone hybrid process

    KAUST Repository

    Yoon, Min

    2013-11-01

    The attenuation of bulk organic matter and trace organic contaminants (TOrCs) was evaluated for various aquifer recharge and recovery (ARR)-ozone (O3) hybrid treatment process combinations using soil-batch reactor and bench-scale ozonation experiments as a proof of concept prior to pilot and/or field studies. In water reclamation and especially potable reuse, refractory bulk organic matter and TOrCs are of potential health concern in recycled waters. In this study, the role of biotransformation of bulk organic matter and TOrCs was investigated considering different simulated treatment combinations, including soil passage (ARR) alone, ARR after ozonation (O3-ARR), and ARR prior to ozonation (ARR-O3). During oxic (aerobic) ARR simulations, soluble microbial-like substances (e.g., higher molecular weight polysaccharides and proteins) were easily removed while (lower molecular weight) humic substances and aromatic organic matter were not efficiently removed. During ARR-ozone treatment simulations, removals of bulk organic matter and TOrCs were rapid and effective compared to ARR alone. A higher reduction of effluent-derived organic matter, including aromatic organic matter and humic substances, was observed in the ARR-O3 hybrid followed by the O3-ARR hybrid. An enhanced attenuation of recalcitrant TOrCs was observed while increasing the ozone dose slightly (O3: DOC=1). TOrC removal efficiency also increased during the post-ozone treatment combination (i.e., ARR-O3). In addition, the carcinogenic wastewater disinfection byproduct N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA) was eliminated below the method reporting limit (<5ngL-1) both during ARR treatment alone and the ARR-ozone hybrid. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

  12. Production, Properties and Applications of Bulk Amorphous Alloys

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tao Zhang; Akihisa Inoue

    2000-01-01

    A review is given of recent work concerned with the production method, the characteristic properties(1) Bulk amorphous system; (2) Mechanical and magnetic properties of bulkamorphous alloys; (3)application of bulk amorphous alloys.

  13. Constructing local bulk observables in interacting AdS/CFT

    CERN Document Server

    Kabat, Daniel; Lowe, David A

    2011-01-01

    Local operators in the bulk of AdS can be represented as smeared operators in the dual CFT. We show how to construct these bulk observables by requiring that the bulk operators commute at spacelike separation. This extends our previous work by taking interactions into account. Large-N factorization plays a key role in the construction. We show diagrammatically how this procedure is related to bulk Feynman diagrams.

  14. REACH. Analytical characterisation of petroleum UVCB substances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Graaff, R.; Forbes, S.; Gennart, J.P.; Gimeno Cortes, M.J.; Hovius, H.; King, D.; Kleise, H.; Martinez Martin, C.; Montanari, L.; Pinzuti, M.; Pollack, H.; Ruggieri, P.; Thomas, M.; Walton, A.; Dmytrasz, B.

    2012-10-15

    The purpose of this report is to summarise the findings of the scientific and technical work undertaken by CONCAWE to assess the feasibility and potential benefit of characterising petroleum UVCB substances (Substances of Unknown or Variable Composition, Complex reaction products or Biological Materials) beyond the recommendations issued by CONCAWE for the substance identification of petroleum substances under REACH. REACH is the European Community Regulation on chemicals and their safe use (EC 1907/2006). It deals with the Registration, Evaluation, Authorisation and Restriction of Chemical substances. The report is based on Member Company experience of the chemical analysis of petroleum UVCB substances, including analysis in support of REACH registrations undertaken in 2010. This report is structured into four main sections, namely: Section 1 which provides an introduction to the subject of petroleum UVCB substance identification including the purpose of the report, regulatory requirements, the nature of petroleum UVCB substances, and CONCAWE's guidance to Member Companies and other potential registrants. Section 2 provides a description of the capabilities of each of the analytical techniques described in the REACH Regulation. This section also includes details on the type of analytical information obtained by each technique and an evaluation of what each technique can provide for the characterisation of petroleum UVCB substances. Section 3 provides a series of case studies for six petroleum substance categories (low boiling point naphthas, kerosene, heavy fuel oils, other lubricant base oils, residual aromatic extracts and bitumens) to illustrate the value of the information derived from each analytical procedure, and provide an explanation for why some techniques are not scientifically necessary. Section 4 provides a summary of the conclusions reached from the technical investigations undertaken by CONCAWE Member Companies, and summarising the

  15. Neuropathology of substance use disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cadet, Jean Lud; Bisagno, Veronica; Milroy, Christopher Mark

    2014-01-01

    Addictions to licit and illicit drugs are chronic relapsing brain disorders that affect circuits that regulate reward, motivation, memory, and decision-making. Drug-induced pathological changes in these brain regions are associated with characteristic enduring behaviors that continue despite adverse biopsychosocial consequences. Repeated exposure to these substances leads to egocentric behaviors that focus on obtaining the drug by any means and on taking the drug under adverse psychosocial and medical conditions. Addiction also includes craving for the substances and, in some cases, involvement in risky behaviors that can cause death. These patterns of behaviors are associated with specific cognitive disturbances and neuroimaging evidence for brain dysfunctions in a diverse population of drug addicts. Postmortem studies have also revealed significant biochemical and/or structural abnormalities in some addicted individuals. The present review provides a summary of the evidence that has accumulated over the past few years to implicate brain dysfunctions in the varied manifestations of drug addiction. We thus review data on cerebrovascular alterations, brain structural abnormalities, and postmortem studies of patients who abuse cannabis, cocaine, amphetamines, heroin, and "bath salts". We also discuss potential molecular, biochemical, and cellular bases for the varied clinical presentations of these patients. Elucidation of the biological bases of addiction will help to develop better therapeutic approaches to these patient populations.

  16. [Substance abuse in older adults].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bitar, Raoul; Dürsteler, Kenneth M; Rösner, Susanne; Grosshans, Martin; Herdener, Marcus; Mutschler, Jochen

    2014-09-03

    In respect of demographic change, the number of older patients with substance abuse and addiction is on the raise. In this review we present important clinical and therapeutic aspects of substance abuse and addiction in the elderly and focus on alcohol, benzodiazepines and opioids. Daily and risky alcohol consumption is common among older people. They also have an increased risk getting alcohol-related complications. For early detection, laboratory parameters and questionnaires such as the AUDIT-C are suitable. Therapeutically brief interventions have been proved successful. Also, abuse of benzodiazepines, especially low-dose addiction, is widespread among older persons, although often overlooked, and patients often do not recognize their addiction. The physician has to know the correct indication, adequate dosage and pharmacological interactions. A slow-dose reduction is recommended in case of addiction. Thanks to opioid substitution therapy, patients with an opioidaddiction can reach a higher age. Age influences the effects of the substitute, which may require an adjustment of the dosage. Treatment of elderly patients should be based on their needs and resources and is usually very effective.

  17. Perovskite oxides: Oxygen electrocatalysis and bulk structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbonio, R. E.; Fierro, C.; Tryk, D.; Scherson, D.; Yeager, Ernest

    1987-01-01

    Perovskite type oxides were considered for use as oxygen reduction and generation electrocatalysts in alkaline electrolytes. Perovskite stability and electrocatalytic activity are studied along with possible relationships of the latter with the bulk solid state properties. A series of compounds of the type LaFe(x)Ni1(-x)O3 was used as a model system to gain information on the possible relationships between surface catalytic activity and bulk structure. Hydrogen peroxide decomposition rate constants were measured for these compounds. Ex situ Mossbauer effect spectroscopy (MES), and magnetic susceptibility measurements were used to study the solid state properties. X ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) was used to examine the surface. MES has indicated the presence of a paramagnetic to magnetically ordered phase transition for values of x between 0.4 and 0.5. A correlation was found between the values of the MES isomer shift and the catalytic activity for peroxide decomposition. Thus, the catalytic activity can be correlated to the d-electron density for the transition metal cations.

  18. A Batch Feeder for Inhomogeneous Bulk Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vislov, I. S.; Kladiev, S. N.; Slobodyan, S. M.; Bogdan, A. M.

    2016-04-01

    The work includes the mechanical analysis of mechanical feeders and batchers that find application in various technological processes and industrial fields. Feeders are usually classified according to their design features into two groups: conveyor-type feeders and non-conveyor feeders. Batchers are used to batch solid bulk materials. Less frequently, they are used for liquids. In terms of a batching method, they are divided into volumetric and weighting batchers. Weighting batchers do not provide for sufficient batching accuracy. Automatic weighting batchers include a mass controlling sensor and systems for automatic material feed and automatic mass discharge control. In terms of operating principle, batchers are divided into gravitational batchers and batchers with forced feed of material using conveyors and pumps. Improved consumption of raw materials, decreased loss of materials, ease of use in automatic control systems of industrial facilities allows increasing the quality of technological processes and improve labor conditions. The batch feeder suggested by the authors is a volumetric batcher that has no comparable counterparts among conveyor-type feeders and allows solving the problem of targeted feeding of bulk material batches increasing reliability and hermeticity of the device.

  19. Boundary-bulk relation in topological orders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang Kong

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we study the relation between an anomaly-free n+1D topological order, which are often called n+1D topological order in physics literature, and its nD gapped boundary phases. We argue that the n+1D bulk anomaly-free topological order for a given nD gapped boundary phase is unique. This uniqueness defines the notion of the “bulk” for a given gapped boundary phase. In this paper, we show that the n+1D “bulk” phase is given by the “center” of the nD boundary phase. In other words, the geometric notion of the “bulk” corresponds precisely to the algebraic notion of the “center”. We achieve this by first introducing the notion of a morphism between two (potentially anomalous topological orders of the same dimension, then proving that the notion of the “bulk” satisfies the same universal property as that of the “center” of an algebra in mathematics, i.e. “bulk = center”. The entire argument does not require us to know the precise mathematical description of a (potentially anomalous topological order. This result leads to concrete physical predictions.

  20. Enhancing bulk superconductivity by engineering granular materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayoh, James; García García, Antonio

    2014-03-01

    The quest for higher critical temperatures is one of the main driving forces in the field of superconductivity. Recent theoretical and experimental results indicate that quantum size effects in isolated nano-grains can boost superconductivity with respect to the bulk limit. Here we explore the optimal range of parameters that lead to an enhancement of the critical temperature in a large three dimensional array of these superconducting nano-grains by combining mean-field, semiclassical and percolation techniques. We identify a broad range of parameters for which the array critical temperature, TcArray, can be up to a few times greater than the non-granular bulk limit, Tc 0. This prediction, valid only for conventional superconductors, takes into account an experimentally realistic distribution of grain sizes in the array, charging effects, dissipation by quasiparticles and limitations related to the proliferation of thermal fluctuations for sufficiently small grains. For small resistances we find the transition is percolation driven. Whereas at larger resistances the transition occurs above the percolation threshold due to phase fluctuations. JM acknowledes support from an EPSRC Ph.D studentship, AMG acknowledges support from EPSRC, grant No. EP/I004637/1, FCT, grant PTDC/FIS/111348/2009 and a Marie Curie International Reintegration Grant PIRG07-GA-2010-268172.

  1. Bulk nanocrystalline Al prepared by cryomilling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Bulk nanocrystalline Al was fabricated by mechanically milling at cryogenic temperature (cryomilling) and then by hot pressing in vacuum. By using X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM), the microstructure evolution of the material during cryomilling and consolidation was investigated. With increasing the milling time, the grain size decreased sharply and reduced to 42 nm when cryomilled for 12 h. The grains had grown up, and the columnar grain was formed under the hot pressing and extrusion compared with the cryomilled powders. The grain size of as-extruded specimen was approximately 300-500 nm. The reason of high thermal stability of this bulk was attributed primarily to the Zener pinning from the grain boundary of the AlN arising from cryomilling and the solute drag of the impurity. Tensile tests show that the strength of nanocrystalline Al is enhanced with decreasing grain size. The ultimate tensile strength and tensile elongation were 173 MPa and 17.5%, respectively. It appears that the measured high strength in the cryomilled Al is related to a grain-size effect, dispersion strengthening, and dislocation strengthening.

  2. Substantial bulk photovoltaic effect enhancement via nanolayering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fenggong; Young, Steve M; Zheng, Fan; Grinberg, Ilya; Rappe, Andrew M

    2016-01-21

    Spontaneous polarization and inversion symmetry breaking in ferroelectric materials lead to their use as photovoltaic devices. However, further advancement of their applications are hindered by the paucity of ways of reducing bandgaps and enhancing photocurrent. By unravelling the correlation between ferroelectric materials' responses to solar irradiation and their local structure and electric polarization landscapes, here we show from first principles that substantial bulk photovoltaic effect enhancement can be achieved by nanolayering PbTiO3 with nickel ions and oxygen vacancies ((PbNiO2)x(PbTiO3)(1-x)). The enhancement of the total photocurrent for different spacings between the Ni-containing layers can be as high as 43 times due to a smaller bandgap and photocurrent direction alignment for all absorption energies. This is due to the electrostatic effect that arises from nanolayering. This opens up the possibility for control of the bulk photovoltaic effect in ferroelectric materials by nanoscale engineering of their structure and composition.

  3. 19 CFR 151.24 - Unlading facilities for bulk sugar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Unlading facilities for bulk sugar. 151.24 Section... OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) EXAMINATION, SAMPLING, AND TESTING OF MERCHANDISE Sugars, Sirups, and Molasses § 151.24 Unlading facilities for bulk sugar. When dutiable sugar is to be imported in bulk, a full...

  4. 30 CFR 56.6802 - Bulk delivery vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Bulk delivery vehicles. 56.6802 Section 56.6802... § 56.6802 Bulk delivery vehicles. No welding or cutting shall be performed on a bulk delivery vehicle until the vehicle has been washed down and all explosive material has been removed. Before welding...

  5. 30 CFR 57.6802 - Bulk delivery vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Bulk delivery vehicles. 57.6802 Section 57.6802...-Surface and Underground § 57.6802 Bulk delivery vehicles. No welding or cutting shall be performed on a bulk delivery vehicle until the vehicle has been washed down and all explosive material has...

  6. Cigarette smoking in pregnant substance users: Association with substance use and desire to quit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winhusen, Theresa; Lewis, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    Cigarette smoking is prevalent in pregnant substance users but receives low priority in substance use disorder treatment. This article reports the results of a secondary analysis of a randomized, multisite trial with 200 pregnant substance users, 145 (72.5%) of whom smoked at baseline. As predicted: (1) smokers had significantly greater substance use; (2) approximately half of smokers wanted to quit; and (3) smokers with a quit goal had significantly greater self-efficacy and lower perceived difficulty of quitting. Smoking may be associated with more severe substance use in pregnant substance-using patients, half of whom may be interested in smoking-cessation interventions.

  7. 75 FR 34573 - Bulk Solid Hazardous Materials: Harmonization With the International Maritime Solid Bulk Cargoes...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-17

    ... Bulk MSDS Material Safety Data Sheet NCB National Cargo Bureau NEPA National Environmental Policy Act... material safety data sheet (MSDS) address some portions of proposed Sec. 148.60. We agree with the comment... in the form of an MSDS. e. One comment observed that, as proposed in the 1994 NPRM, Sec. 148.60(d...

  8. Plasma substance P levels in fibrositis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, W J; Chiu, B; Inman, R D

    1988-12-01

    The mechanism of pain in the fibrositis syndrome is unknown. We measured plasma levels of substance P in 32 patients with fibrositis and 26 sex and age matched controls using a radioimmunoassay. The mean plasma level of substance P in the patients with fibrositis was 371 +/- 91 pg/ml and in controls 397 +/- 84 pg/ml (p = NS). We conclude that determination of plasma levels of substance P in fibrositis is of no diagnostic value. This does not exclude the possible role of substance P as a neurotransmitter in the fibrositis syndrome.

  9. Molecular size of aquatic humic substances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thurman, E.M.; Wershaw, R. L.; Malcolm, R.L.; Pinckney, D.J.

    1982-01-01

    Aquatic humic substances, which account for 30 to 50% of the organic carbon in water, are a principal component of aquatic organic matter. The molecular size of aquatic humic substances, determined by small-angle X-ray scattering, varies from 4.7 to 33 A?? in their radius of gyration, corresponding to a molecular weight range of 500 to greater than 10,000. The aquatic fulvic acid fraction contains substances with molecular weights ranging from 500 to 2000 and is monodisperse, whereas the aquatic humic acid fraction contains substances with molecular weights ranging from 1000 to greater than 10,000 and is generally polydisperse. ?? 1982.

  10. Ozone-depleting substances and the greenhouse gases HFCs, PFCs and SF6. Danish consumption and emissions, 2004

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sander Poulsen, T. [PlanMiljoe (Denmark)

    2006-05-19

    The objective of this project was to map the 2004 consumption of newly produced industrial ozone-depleting substances and the consumption and actual emissions of HFCs, PFCs, and SF6. The evaluation was made in accordance with the IPCC guidelines, and following the method employed in previous evaluations and it covers the net consumption of ozone-depleting substances. The term 'net consumption' is understood as the amount of imported goods in bulk or drums, less any re-export of substances as raw materials. Ozone-depleting substances contained in finished products that are imported and exported are not included in the evaluation. This delimitation is in full compliance with international guidelines. The evaluation does not account for the consumption of ozone-depleting substances used as raw material in the production of other substances, such as tetra chloromethane, and which are not subsequently emitted to the atmosphere. The information on consumption has been gathered from importers, suppliers and enterprise end-users (usually purchasing departments), and Statistics Denmark. This method of data gathering means that the information gathered is about the quantities of substances traded. Purchase and sales figures are used as an expression of consumption. This approach is considered to be suitable and adequate for the present purpose, since experience from previous projects shows that a levelling out occurs with time and that the substances sold/purchased are consumed within a relatively small time horizon. None of the substances covered here are produced in Denmark. Furthermore, ozone-depleting substances are treated at chemical waste processing plants in Denmark. Treatment and destruction data was gathered for the evaluation, but in line with all previous evaluations it has not been accounted for in the consumption figures. (BA)

  11. Technical issues of a high-Tc superconducting bulk magnet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujimoto, Hiroyuki

    2000-06-01

    Superconducting magnets made of high-Tc superconductors are promising for industrial applications. It is well known that REBa2Cu3O7-x superconductors prepared by melt processes have a high critical current density, Jc, at 77 K and high magnetic fields. The materials are very promising for high magnetic field applications as a superconducting permanent/bulk magnet with liquid-nitrogen refrigeration. Light rare-earth (LRE) BaCuO bulks, compared with REBaCuO bulks, exhibit a larger Jc in high magnetic fields and a much improved irreversibility field, Hirr, at 77 K. In this study, we discuss technical issues of a high-Tc superconducting bulk magnet, namely the aspects of the melt processing for bulk superconductors, their characteristic superconducting properties and mechanical properties, and trapped field properties of a superconducting bulk magnet. One of the possible applications is a superconducting bulk magnet for the magnetically levitated (Maglev) train in the future.

  12. A route to transparent bulk metals

    KAUST Repository

    Schwingenschlögl, Udo

    2012-07-23

    Hypothetical compounds based on a sapphire host are investigated with respect to their structural as well as electronic features. The results are obtained by electronic structure calculations within density functional theory and the generalized gradient approximation. A quarter of the Al atoms in Al 2O 3 is replaced by a 4d transition metal M ion, with d 0 to d 9 electronic configuration. We perform structure optimizations for all the compounds and analyze the electronic states. Due to the sizeable band gap of the Al 2O 3 host, we can identify promising candidates for transparent bulk metals. We explain the mechanisms leading to this combination of materials properties. © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Combustion of bulk titanium in oxygen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, A. F.; Moulder, J. C.; Runyan, C. C.

    1975-01-01

    The combustion of bulk titanium in one atmosphere oxygen is studied using laser ignition and several analytical techniques. These were high-speed color cinematography, time and space resolved spectra in the visible region, metallography (including SEM) of specimens quenched in argon gas, X-ray and chemical product analyses, and a new optical technique, the Hilbert transform method. The cinematographic application of this technique for visualizing phase objects in the combustion zone is described. The results indicate an initial vapor phase reaction immediately adjacent to the molten surface but as the oxygen uptake progresses the evaporation approaches the point of congruency and a much reduced evaporation rate. This and the accumulation of the various soluble oxides soon drive the reaction zone below the surface where gas formation causes boiling and ejection of particles. The buildup of rutile cuts off the oxygen supply and the reaction ceases.

  14. DEPLOYMENT OF THE BULK TRITIUM SHIPPING PACKAGE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blanton, P.

    2013-10-10

    A new Bulk Tritium Shipping Package (BTSP) was designed by the Savannah River National Laboratory to be a replacement for a package that has been used to ship tritium in a variety of content configurations and forms since the early 1970s. The BTSP was certified by the National Nuclear Safety Administration in 2011 for shipments of up to 150 grams of Tritium. Thirty packages were procured and are being delivered to various DOE sites for operational use. This paper summarizes the design features of the BTSP, as well as associated engineered material improvements. Fabrication challenges encountered during production are discussed as well as fielding requirements. Current approved tritium content forms (gas and tritium hydrides), are reviewed, as well as, a new content, tritium contaminated water on molecular sieves. Issues associated with gas generation will also be discussed.

  15. Tuneable film bulk acoustic wave resonators

    CERN Document Server

    Gevorgian, Spartak Sh; Vorobiev, Andrei K

    2013-01-01

    To handle many standards and ever increasing bandwidth requirements, large number of filters and switches are used in transceivers of modern wireless communications systems. It makes the cost, performance, form factor, and power consumption of these systems, including cellular phones, critical issues. At present, the fixed frequency filter banks based on Film Bulk Acoustic Resonators (FBAR) are regarded as one of the most promising technologies to address performance -form factor-cost issues. Even though the FBARs improve the overall performances the complexity of these systems remains high.  Attempts are being made to exclude some of the filters by bringing the digital signal processing (including channel selection) as close to the antennas as possible. However handling the increased interference levels is unrealistic for low-cost battery operated radios. Replacing fixed frequency filter banks by one tuneable filter is the most desired and widely considered scenario. As an example, development of the softwa...

  16. Criticality in Bulk Metallic Glass Constituent Elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mota, Rodrigo Miguel Ojeda; Graedel, T. E.; Pekarskaya, Evgenia; Schroers, Jan

    2017-07-01

    Bulk metallic glasses (BMGs), which readily form amorphous phases during solidification, are increasingly being used in first applications of watch components, electronic casings, and sporting goods. The compositions of BMGs typically include four to six elements. Various political and geological factors have recently led to supply disruptions for several metals, including some present in BMG compositions. In this work, we assess the "criticality" of 22 technologically interesting BMG compositions, compare the results with those for three common engineering alloy groups, and derive recommendations for BMG composition choices from a criticality perspective. The criticality of BMGs is found to be generally much higher compared with those for the established engineering alloys. Therefore, criticality concerns should also be considered in the choice between existing and developing novel BMGs.

  17. Organoboron polymers for photovoltaic bulk heterojunctions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cataldo, Sebastiano; Fabiano, Simone; Ferrante, Francesco; Previti, Francesco; Patanè, Salvatore; Pignataro, Bruno

    2010-07-15

    We report on the application of three-coordinate organoboron polymers, inherently strong electron acceptors, in flexible photovoltaic (PV) cells. Poly[(1,4-divinylenephenylene)(2,4,6-triisopropylphenylborane)] (PDB) has been blended with poly(3-hexylthiophene-2,5-diyl) (P3HT) to form a thin film bulk heterojunction (BHJ) on PET/ITO substrates. Morphology may be modulated to give a high percentage of domains (10-20 nm in size) allowing exciton separation. The photoelectric properties of the BHJs in devices with aluminium back electrodes were imaged by light beam induced current (LBIC) and light beam induced voltage (LBIV) techniques. Open circuit voltages, short circuit currents and overall external quantum efficiencies obtained are among the highest reported for all-polymer PV cells.

  18. New optical technique for bulk magnetostriction measurement

    CERN Document Server

    Samata, H; Uchida, T; Abe, S

    2000-01-01

    A new optical technique was applied to the measurement of magnetostriction in bulk samples. This technique utilizes an optical fiber bundle, AC-modulated light and lock-in detection. Deformation of the sample is determined from the ratio of the incident and reflected light intensities. Noise due to the instability of the light source is eliminated by obtaining the ratio of the incident and reflected light intensities, and the noise caused in the detector circuit can be reduced by lock-in detection. The performance of this method was characterized with a series of measurements using a gold film and crystal disks of pure iron and nickel. This technique offers a resolution of 0.5 nm and is sensitive enough to measure magnetostriction as small as 5x10 sup - sup 7 in 1 mm thick samples.

  19. Transformation of bulk alloys to oxide nanowires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Danni; Benson, Jim; Magasinski, Alexandre; Berdichevsky, Gene; Yushin, Gleb

    2017-01-01

    One dimensional (1D) nanostructures offer prospects for enhancing the electrical, thermal, and mechanical properties of a broad range of functional materials and composites, but their synthesis methods are typically elaborate and expensive. We demonstrate a direct transformation of bulk materials into nanowires under ambient conditions without the use of catalysts or any external stimuli. The nanowires form via minimization of strain energy at the boundary of a chemical reaction front. We show the transformation of multimicrometer-sized particles of aluminum or magnesium alloys into alkoxide nanowires of tunable dimensions, which are converted into oxide nanowires upon heating in air. Fabricated separators based on aluminum oxide nanowires enhanced the safety and rate capabilities of lithium-ion batteries. The reported approach allows ultralow-cost scalable synthesis of 1D materials and membranes.

  20. On bulk viscosity and moduli decay

    CERN Document Server

    Laine, M

    2010-01-01

    This pedagogically intended lecture, one of four under the header "Basics of thermal QCD", reviews an interesting relationship, originally pointed out by Bodeker, that exists between the bulk viscosity of Yang-Mills theory (of possible relevance to the hydrodynamics of heavy ion collision experiments) and the decay rate of scalar fields coupled very weakly to a heat bath (appearing in some particle physics inspired cosmological scenarios). This topic serves, futhermore, as a platform on which a number of generic thermal field theory concepts are illustrated. The other three lectures (on the QCD equation of state and the rates of elastic as well as inelastic processes experienced by heavy quarks) are recapitulated in brief encyclopedic form.

  1. Bulk semiconducting scintillator device for radiation detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stowe, Ashley C.; Burger, Arnold; Groza, Michael

    2016-08-30

    A bulk semiconducting scintillator device, including: a Li-containing semiconductor compound of general composition Li-III-VI.sub.2, wherein III is a Group III element and VI is a Group VI element; wherein the Li-containing semiconductor compound is used in one or more of a first mode and a second mode, wherein: in the first mode, the Li-containing semiconductor compound is coupled to an electrical circuit under bias operable for measuring electron-hole pairs in the Li-containing semiconductor compound in the presence of neutrons and the Li-containing semiconductor compound is also coupled to current detection electronics operable for detecting a corresponding current in the Li-containing semiconductor compound; and, in the second mode, the Li-containing semiconductor compound is coupled to a photodetector operable for detecting photons generated in the Li-containing semiconductor compound in the presence of the neutrons.

  2. Bulk disk resonator based ultrasensitive mass sensor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cagliani, Alberto; Davis, Zachary James

    2009-01-01

    In the framework of developing an innovative label-free sensor for multiarrayed biodetection applications, we present a novel bulk resonator based mass sensor. The sensor is a polysilicon disk which shows a Q-factor of 6400 in air at 68.8 MHz, resulting in mass resolutions down in the femtogram...... range. The sensor has been characterized in terms of sensitivity both for distributed mass detection, performing six consecutive depositions of e-beam evaporated Au, and localized mass detection, depositing approximately 7.5 pg of Pt/Ga/C three times consecutively with a Focused Ion Beam system....... The sensor has an extremely high distributed mass to frequency shift sensitivity of 60104 Hzcm2/¿g and shows a localized mass to frequency sensitivity up to 4405 Hz/pg with a localized mass resolution down to 15 fg. The device has been fabricated with a new microfabrication process that uses only two...

  3. Universe Models with Negative Bulk Viscosity

    CERN Document Server

    Brevik, Iver

    2013-01-01

    The concept of negative temperatures has occasionally been used in connection with quantum systems. A recent example of this sort is reported in the paper of S. Braun et al. [Science 339,52 (2013)], where an attractively interacting ensemble of ultracold atoms is investigated experimentally and found to correspond to a negative-temperature system since the entropy decreases with increasing energy at the high end of the energy spectrum. As the authors suggest, it would be of interest to investigate whether a suitable generalization of standard cosmological theory could be helpful, in order to elucidate the observed accelerated expansion of the universe usually explained in terms of a positive tensile stress (negative pressure). In the present note we take up this basic idea and investigate a generalization of the standard viscous cosmological theory, not by admitting negative temperatures but instead by letting the bulk viscosity take negative values. Evidently, such an approach breaks standard thermodynamics,...

  4. Bulk heterojunction solar cells of three polythienothiophenes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elif Alturk Parlak

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Semiconducting conjugated copolymers poly(3-phenyl-2-(thiophen-2-ylthieno[3,2-b]thiophene (PTTPh, poly(3-(4-methoxyphenyl-2-(thiophen-2-ylthieno[3,2-b]thiophene (PTTPh-OMe and poly(3-(4-N,N-dimethylaminophenyl-2-(thiophen-2-ylthieno[3,2-b]thiophene (PTTPh-N(CH 3 2, which were synthesized previously through Suzuki coupling method, were fabricated for solar cell applications. The devices had a structure of glass/ITO/PEDOT:PSS/polymer:PC61BM/Al. Bulk heterojunction photovoltaic cells were prepared as blends of PTTPh, PTTPh-OMe, PTTPh-N(CH 3 2 and PC61BM in a 1:1 ratio, which delivered power conversion efficiencies of 0.43%, 0.039% and 0.027%, respectively, without addition of additives or device optimization.

  5. Vortices in superconducting bulk, films and SQUIDs

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Ernst Helmut Brandt

    2006-01-01

    The properties of the ideal periodic vortex lattice in bulk superconductors and in films of any thickness can be calculated from Ginzburg-Landau theory by an iteration method using Fourier series. The London theory yields general analytic expressions for the magnetic field and energy of arbitrary arrangements of straight or curved vortex lines. The elasticity of the vortex lattice is highly nonlocal. The magnetic response of superconductors of realistic shapes like thin and thick strips and disks or thin rectangular plates or films, containing pinned vortices, can be computed within continuum theory by solving an integral equation. A useful example is a thin square with a central hole and a radial slit, used as superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID).

  6. Charm mass effects in bulk channel correlations

    CERN Document Server

    Burnier, Y

    2013-01-01

    The bulk viscosity of thermalized QCD matter at temperatures above a few hundred MeV could be significantly influenced by charm quarks because their contribution arises four perturbative orders before purely gluonic effects. In an attempt to clarify the challenges of a lattice study, we determine the relevant imaginary-time correlator (of massive scalar densities) up to NLO in perturbation theory, and compare with existing data. We find discrepancies much larger than in the vector channel; this may hint, apart from the importance of taking a continuum limit, to larger non-perturbative effects in the scalar channel. We also recall how a transport peak related to the scalar density spectral function encodes non-perturbative information concerning the charm quark chemical equilibration rate close to equilibrium.

  7. Holographic bulk viscosity: GPR vs EO

    CERN Document Server

    Buchel, Alex; Kiritsis, Elias

    2011-01-01

    Recently Eling and Oz (EO) proposed a formula for the holographic bulk viscosity, in arXiv:1103.1657, derived from the null horizon focusing equation. This formula seems different from that obtained earlier by Gubser, Pufu and Rocha (GPR) in arXiv:0806.0407 calculated from the IR limit of the two-point function of the trace of the stress tensor. The two were shown to agree only for some simple scaling cases. We point out that the two formulae agree in two non-trivial holographic theories describing RG flows. The first is the strongly coupled N=2* gauge theory plasma. The second is the semi-phenomenological model of Improved Holographic QCD.

  8. Organic hybrid planar-nanocrystalline bulk heterojunctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forrest, Stephen R.; Yang, Fan

    2011-03-01

    A photosensitive optoelectronic device having an improved hybrid planar bulk heterojunction includes a plurality of photoconductive materials disposed between the anode and the cathode. The photoconductive materials include a first continuous layer of donor material and a second continuous layer of acceptor material. A first network of donor material or materials extends from the first continuous layer toward the second continuous layer, providing continuous pathways for conduction of holes to the first continuous layer. A second network of acceptor material or materials extends from the second continuous layer toward the first continuous layer, providing continuous pathways for conduction of electrons to the second continuous layer. The first network and the second network are interlaced with each other. At least one other photoconductive material is interspersed between the interlaced networks. This other photoconductive material or materials has an absorption spectra different from the donor and acceptor materials.

  9. Holographic dictionary and defects in the bulk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khramtsov, Mikhail

    2016-10-01

    We study the holographic dual of the AdS3 spacetime with a conical defect. We calculate the boundary two-point correlator using the holographic Gubser-Klebanov-Polyakov/Witten dictionary for a scalar field in the bulk. We consider the general case, when the conical defect breaks conformal symmetry at the boundary. The results are compared with previous studies based on the geodesic approximation. They are in good agreement for short correlators, and main discrepancy comes in the region of long correlations. It is shown that in the case when the spacetime is the AdS3/ℤN orbifold, both methods give the same result which also produces the result expected from the orbifold CFT.

  10. Anisotropy of transport in bulk Rashba metals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brosco, Valentina; Grimaldi, Claudio

    2017-05-01

    The recent experimental discovery of three-dimensional (3D) materials hosting a strong Rashba spin-orbit coupling calls for the theoretical investigation of their transport properties. Here we study the zero-temperature dc conductivity of a 3D Rashba metal in the presence of static diluted impurities. We show that, at variance with the two-dimensional case, in 3D systems, spin-orbit coupling affects dc charge transport in all density regimes. We find in particular that the effect of spin-orbit interaction strongly depends on the direction of the current, and we show that this yields strongly anisotropic transport characteristics. In the dominant spin-orbit coupling regime where only the lowest band is occupied, the conductivity anisotropy is governed entirely by the anomalous component of the renormalized current. We propose that measurements of the conductivity anisotropy in bulk Rashba metals may give a direct experimental assessment of the spin-orbit strength.

  11. Molecular aggregation of humic substances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wershaw, R. L.

    1999-01-01

    Humic substances (HS) form molecular aggregates in solution and on mineral surfaces. Elucidation of the mechanism of formation of these aggregates is important for an understanding of the interactions of HS in soils arid natural waters. The HS are formed mainly by enzymatic depolymerization and oxidation of plant biopolymers. These reactions transform the aromatic and lipid plant components into amphiphilic molecules, that is, molecules that consist of separate hydrophobic (nonpolar) and hydrophilic (polar) parts. The nonpolar parts of the molecules are composed of relatively unaltered segments of plant polymers and the polar parts of carboxylic acid groups. These amphiphiles form membrane-like aggregates on mineral surfaces and micelle-like aggregates in solution. The exterior surfaces of these aggregates are hydrophilic, and the interiors constitute separate hydrophobic liquid-like phases.

  12. Unification of Force and Substance

    CERN Document Server

    Wilczek, Frank

    2015-01-01

    Maxwell's mature presentation of his equations emphasized the unity of electromagnetism and mechanics, subsuming both as "dynamical systems". That intuition of unity has proved both fruitful, as a source of pregnant concepts, and broadly inspiring. A deep aspect of Maxwell's work is its use of redundant potentials, and the associated requirement of gauge symmetry. Those concepts have become central to our present understanding of fundamental physics, but they can appear to be rather formal and esoteric. Here I discuss two things: The physical significance of gauge invariance, in broad terms; and some tantalizing prospects for further unification, building on that concept, that are visible on the horizon today. If those prospects are realized, Maxwell's vision of the unity of field and substance will be brought to a new level.

  13. Adolescent substance dependency in relation to parental substance (ab)use

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rus-Makovec, Maja; Sernec, Karin; Rus, Velko S; Čebašek-Travnik, Zdenka; Tomori, Martina; Ziherl, Slavko

    2010-01-01

    Problem: Relations between adolescents' substance dependency status (yes-no) as independent and adolescent self and family evaluations and parental indicators of substance dependency as dependent variables were studied.Methods...

  14. Assessment of bioburden encapsulated in bulk materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schubert, Wayne W.; Newlin, Laura; Chung, Shirley Y.; Ellyin, Raymond

    2016-05-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) imposes bioburden limitations on all spacecraft destined for solar system bodies that might harbor evidence of extant or extinct life. The subset of microorganisms trapped within solid materials during manufacture and assembly is referred to as encapsulated bioburden. In the absence of spacecraft-specific data, NASA relies on specification values to estimate total spacecraft encapsulated bioburden, typically 30 endospores/cm3 or 300 viable cells/cm3 in non-electronic materials. Specification values for endospores have been established conservatively, and represent no less than an order of magnitude greater abundance than that derived from empirical assessments of actual spacecraft materials. The goal of this study was to generate data germane to determining whether revised bulk encapsulated material values (lower than those estimated by historical specifications) tailored specifically to the materials designated in modern-day spacecraft design could be used, on a case-by-case basis, to comply with planetary protection requirements. Organic materials having distinctly different chemical properties and configurations were selected. This required more than one experimental and analytical approach. Filtration was employed for liquid electrolytes, lubricants were suspended in an aqueous solution and solids (wire and epoxy sealant) were cryogenically milled. The final data characteristic for all bioburden estimates was microbial colony formation in rich agar growth medium. To assess survival potential, three non-spore-forming bacterial cell lines were systematically encapsulated in an epoxy matrix, liberated via cryogenic grinding, and cultured. Results suggest that bulk solid materials harbor significantly fewer encapsulated microorganisms than are estimated by specification values. Lithium-ion battery electrolyte reagents housed fewer than 1 CFU/cm3. Results also demonstrated that non-spore-forming microorganisms

  15. Substance abuse precedes Internet addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Young Sik; Han, Doug Hyun; Kim, Sun Mi; Renshaw, Perry F

    2013-04-01

    The purpose of the current study was to evaluate possible overlapping substance abuse and internet addiction in a large, uniformly sampled population, ranging in age from 13 to 18 years. Participants (N=73,238) in the current study were drawn from the 6th Korea Youth Risk Behavior Web-based Survey (KYRBWS-V) for students from 400 middle schools and 400 high schools in 16 cities within South Korea. Of adolescent internet users, 85.2% were general users (GU), 11.9% were users with potential risk for internet addiction (PR), and 3.0% were users with high risk for internet addiction (HR). There was a difference in the number of students with alcohol drinking among the GU, PR, and HR groups (20.8% vs 23.1% vs 27.4%). There was a difference in the number of students who smoked among the GS, PR, and HR groups (11.7% vs 13.5% vs 20.4%). There was a difference in the number of students with drug use among the GU, PR, and HR groups (1.7% vs 2.0% vs 6.5%). After adjusting for sex, age, stress, depressed mood, and suicidal ideation, smoking may predict a high risk for internet addiction (OR=1.203, p=0.004). In addition, drug use may predict a high risk for internet addiction (OR=2.591, pinternet addiction have vulnerability for addictive behaviors, co-morbid substance abuse should be evaluated and, if found, treated in adolescents with internet addiction.

  16. National Toxic Substance Incidents Program (NTSIP)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2011-02-03

    This podcast gives an overview of the three components of the National Toxic Substance Incidents Program: state surveillance, national database, and response teams.  Created: 2/3/2011 by Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry.   Date Released: 2/3/2011.

  17. Nursing and Substance Use Disorders in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villegas-Pantoja, Miguel A; Mendez-Ruiz, Martha D

    2016-04-01

    The authors of this article see substance use disorders as a major public health problem in Mexico in which nursing is taking on an increasingly important role in addressing. The authors discuss some the challenges and opportunities nurse researchers, educators, and clinicians face in the prevention and treatment of substance use disorders in Mexico.

  18. Substance Use during Pregnancy in Adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohr, Mary Jane; And Others

    Despite concern over the co-occurrence of substance use and unplanned pregnancy among adolescents, little information is available about drug use before and during pregnancy in adolescence. The present study examined substance use among a sample of premaritally pregnant adolescents (n=241) who were interviewed as part of an ongoing longitudinal…

  19. Accessing Substance Abuse Prevention Programs for Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroeder, Jennifer L.; Johnson, Gail E.

    2009-01-01

    Current estimates indicate that over 6 million children live with at least one parent who is a substance abuser or is substance dependent. Children who are exposed to drug and alcohol abuse are at a greater risk of experiencing academic and behavior difficulties. Additionally, several studies have shown that students with emotional and behavioral…

  20. Moving On: Young People and Substance Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daley, Kathryn; Chamberlain, Chris

    2009-01-01

    To help explain why some young people move from recreational drug use to substance abuse, twelve in-depth interviews were conducted with young people who had experienced problematic substance use. The data were supplemented by statistical data on 111 young people. The researchers found a variety of "structural" factors that help explain young…

  1. Harm Reduction in MSW Substance Abuse Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eversman, Michael H.

    2012-01-01

    Professional social work largely has endorsed the empirically supported paradigm of harm reduction in relation to substance abuse issues. Despite literature detailing similarities between social work and harm reduction, little is known about its presence in MSW substance abuse coursework. A purposive sample of 133 social work faculty from…

  2. Preventing and Treating Substance Abuse among Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sussman, Steve

    2011-01-01

    Substance misuse is one of the most prevalent causes of adolescent injury and death. Additionally, 5-8% of adolescents in the U.S. qualify for a diagnosis of substance abuse disorder. This article discusses formal prevention and treatment program models, focusing on a continuum of care which extends from prevention to treatment alternatives.…

  3. Contextual Factors in Adolescent Substance Use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hochhauser, Mark; And Others

    Research on adolescent substance use has focused on prevalence and incidence; however, contextual factors have been largely ignored. A survey of 155 adolescents from a Minneapolis suburb was conducted to assess contextual factors affecting adolescent substance use. Subjects reported their use of alcohol, cigarettes, and marihuana with respect to…

  4. Substance use and health related issues

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Didden, H.C.M.; Nagel, J.E.L. van der; Duijvenbode, N. van

    2016-01-01

    Individuals with intellectual and developmental disabilities (IDD) have an increased risk for developing problems related to use and misuse of substances such as alcohol and drugs. The consequences for mental and somatic health are often detrimental. Substance use disorder is a chronic and

  5. Cultural Issues in Substance Abuse Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortes, Dharma E.; Ja, Davis; Noboa, Abdin; Perry, Vincent; Robinson, Robert; Rodriguez, Domingo; Stubben, Jerry

    This monograph provides a tool to help providers and other substance abuse treatment professionals gain a greater understanding of the cultural, social, political, and economic forces affecting substance abuse treatment among Hispanic Americans, African Americans, Asian Americans/Pacific Islanders, and American Indians/Alaska Natives. An…

  6. Performance and applications of quench melt-growth bulk magnets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nariki, S.; Teshima, H.; Morita, M.

    2016-03-01

    This paper describes the progress in quench melt-growth (QMG) bulk magnets, developed by the Nippon Steel & Sumitomo Metal Corporation, which consist of single crystalline RE123 phase and finely dispersed RE211 particles. QMG bulks can trap high magnetic fields. The field-trapping ability of QMG bulks is largely increased with an improvement in its J c and size, promising the realization of various applications such as flywheel energy-storage systems, ship motors, NMR/MRI spectrometers, wind-power generators and so on. Intensive research has revealed that the optimal RE element is different depending on application requirements. Gd-QMG bulk is the most promising material for several high-field engineering applications. The trapped magnetic field of Gd-QMG bulk 60 mm in diameter at 77 K is twice as large as that of Y-QMG bulk with a similar size due to its excellent J c properties. The large Gd-based QMG bulks up to 150 mm in diameter are fabricated by incorporating the RE compositional gradient method. Compact NMR/MRI spectrometers are one of the promising applications of bulk superconductors. Eu-QMG bulks are suitable for NMR magnets. NMR applications require extremely homogeneous magnetic fields. In the Eu-system, the small paramagnetic moment of a Eu ion compared to a Gd ion improves the field homogeneity in the bulk. For the application of current leads, Dy-based QMG is available by utilizing a low thermal conductivity.

  7. Locality, bulk equations of motion and the conformal bootstrap

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kabat, Daniel [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Lehman College, City University of New York,250 Bedford Park Blvd. W, Bronx NY 10468 (United States); Lifschytz, Gilad [Department of Mathematics, Faculty of Natural Science, University of Haifa,199 Aba Khoushy Ave., Haifa 31905 (Israel)

    2016-10-18

    We develop an approach to construct local bulk operators in a CFT to order 1/N{sup 2}. Since 4-point functions are not fixed by conformal invariance we use the OPE to categorize possible forms for a bulk operator. Using previous results on 3-point functions we construct a local bulk operator in each OPE channel. We then impose the condition that the bulk operators constructed in different channels agree, and hence give rise to a well-defined bulk operator. We refer to this condition as the “bulk bootstrap.” We argue and explicitly show in some examples that the bulk bootstrap leads to some of the same results as the regular conformal bootstrap. In fact the bulk bootstrap provides an easier way to determine some CFT data, since it does not require knowing the form of the conformal blocks. This analysis clarifies previous results on the relation between bulk locality and the bootstrap for theories with a 1/N expansion, and it identifies a simple and direct way in which OPE coefficients and anomalous dimensions determine the bulk equations of motion to order 1/N{sup 2}.

  8. Substance use during pregnancy and postnatal outcomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Irner, Tina Birk; Teasdale, Thomas William; Tine, Nielsen

    2012-01-01

    pregnancy, as well as their background, and to examine the effect substance use has on gestational age, birth weight, and the development of neonatal abstinence syndrome at birth. A sample of 161 pregnant women and their 163 newborn children were included. The results indicate that the children whose...... mothers continued to use substances throughout their pregnancies were born at a lower gestational age (Chi-Square = 15.1(2), P ... of substances. More than 50% of the mothers ceased using any substances (with the exception of tobacco) by birth, indicating that the treatment program did have an interventional effect on the mothers. The mothers' ability to either cease or decrease the use of substances during pregnancy appears to have direct...

  9. Assessment and Diagnosis of the Substance Use Disorders (SUDs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, William N.

    1998-01-01

    A brief history of Substance Use Disorders in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders is presented, and the symptoms of substance dependence are presented. Substance dependence is distinguished from substance abuse. Assessment instruments, including laboratory tests and interviews for diagnosing substance use disorders, are…

  10. Gravitational potential wells and the cosmic bulk flow

    CERN Document Server

    Kumar, Abhinav; Feldman, Hume A; Watkins, Richard

    2015-01-01

    The bulk flow is a volume average of the peculiar velocities and a useful probe of the mass distribution on large scales. The gravitational instability model views the bulk flow as a potential flow that obeys a Maxwellian Distribution. We use two N-body simulations, the LasDamas Carmen and the Horizon Run, to calculate the bulk flows of various sized volumes in the simulation boxes. Once we have the bulk flow velocities as a function of scale, we investigate the mass and gravitational potential distribution around the volume. We found that matter densities can be asymmetrical and difficult to detect in real surveys, however, the gravitational potential and its gradient may provide better tools to investigate the underlying matter distribution. This study shows that bulk flows are indeed potential flows and thus provides information on the flow sources. We also show that bulk flow magnitudes follow a Maxwellian distribution on scales $>10\\ h^{-1}$Mpc.

  11. A CFT Perspective on Gravitational Dressing and Bulk Locality

    CERN Document Server

    Lewkowycz, Aitor; Verlinde, Herman

    2016-01-01

    We revisit the construction of local bulk operators in AdS/CFT with special focus on gravitational dressing and its consequences for bulk locality. Specializing to 2+1-dimensions, we investigate these issues via the proposed identification between bulk operators and cross-cap boundary states. We obtain explicit expressions for correlation functions of bulk fields with boundary stress tensor insertions, and find that they are free of non-local branch cuts but do have non-local poles. We recover the HKLL recipe for restoring bulk locality for interacting fields as the outcome of a natural CFT crossing condition. We show that, in a suitable gauge, the cross-cap states solve the bulk wave equation for general background geometries, and satisfy a conformal Ward identity analogous to a soft graviton theorem, Virasoro symmetry, the large N conformal bootstrap and the uniformization theorem all play a key role in our derivations.

  12. Bulk Glassy Alloys: Historical Development and Current Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akihisa Inoue

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews the development of current research in bulk glassy alloys by focusing on the trigger point for the synthesis of the first bulk glassy alloys by the conventional mold casting method. This review covers the background, discovery, characteristics, and applications of bulk glassy alloys, as well as recent topics regarding them. Applications of bulk glassy alloys have been expanding, particularly for Fe-based bulk glassy alloys, due to their unique properties, high glass-forming ability, and low cost. In the near future, the engineering importance of bulk glassy alloys is expected to increase steadily, and continuous interest in these novel metallic materials for basic science research is anticipated.

  13. Macroscopic and direct light propulsion of bulk graphene material

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Tengfei; Wu, Yingpeng; Xiao, Peishuang; Yi, Ningbo; Lu, Yanhong; Ma, Yanfeng; Huang, Yi; Zhao, Kai; Yan, Xiao-Qing; Liu, Zhi-Bo; Tian, Jian-Guo; Chen, Yongsheng

    2015-01-01

    It has been a great challenge to achieve the direct light manipulation of matter on a bulk scale. In this work, the direct light propulsion of matter was observed on a macroscopic scale for the first time using a bulk graphene based material. The unique structure and properties of graphene and the morphology of the bulk graphene material make it capable of not only absorbing light at various wavelengths but also emitting energetic electrons efficiently enough to drive the bulk material following Newtonian mechanics. Thus, the unique photonic and electronic properties of individual graphene sheets are manifested in the response of the bulk state. These results offer an exciting opportunity to bring about bulk scale light manipulation with the potential to realize long-sought proposals in areas such as the solar sail and space transportation driven directly by sunlight.

  14. Finsler geometric perspective on the bulk flow in the universe

    CERN Document Server

    Cahng, Zhe; Wang, Sai

    2013-01-01

    Astronomical observations showed that there exists a bulk flow with peculiar velocities in the universe, which contradicts with the (\\Lambda)CDM model. The bulk flow reveals that the observational universe is anisotropic at large scales. In this paper, we propose a "wind" scenario to the bulk flow. Under the influence of the "wind", the spacetime metric could become a Finsler structure. By resolving the null geodesic equation, we obtain the modified luminosity distance, which has a dipolar form at the leading order. Thus, the "wind" describes well the bulk flow. In addition, we perform a least-(\\chi^2) fit to the data of type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) in the Union2.1 compilation. The peculiar velocity of the bulk flow has an upper limit (v_{bulk}\\lesssim 4000 \\rm{km/s}), which is compatible with all the existing observational values.

  15. Material Profile Influences in Bulk-Heterojunctions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roehling, John D.; Rochester, Christopher W.; Ro, Hyun W.; Wang, Peng; Majewski, Jaroslaw; Batenburg, Kees J.; Arslan, Ilke; Delongchamp, Dean M.; Moule, Adam J.

    2014-10-01

    he morphology in mixed bulk-heterojunction films are compared using three different quantitative measurement techniques. We compare the vertical composition changes using high-angle annular dark-field scanning transmission electron microscopy with electron tomography and neutron and x-ray reflectometry. The three measurement techniques yield qualita-tively comparable vertical concentration measurements. The presence of a metal cathode during thermal annealing is observed to alter the fullerene concentration throughout the thickness of the film for all measurements. However, the abso-lute vertical concentration of fullerene is quantitatively different for the three measurements. The origin of the quantitative measurement differences is discussed. The authors thank Luna Innovations, Inc. for donating the endohedral fullerenes used in this study and Plextronics for the P3HT. They are gratefully thank the National Science Foundation Energy for Sustainability Program, Award No. 0933435. This work benefited from the use of the Lujan Neutron Scattering Center at Los Alamos Neutron Science Center funded by the DOE Office of Basic Energy Sciences and Los Alamos National Laboratory under DOE Contract DE-AC52-06NA25396. This research was also supported in part by Laboratory Directed Research & Development program at PNNL. The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory is operated by Battelle for the US Department of Energy under contract DE-AC05-76RL01830.

  16. Failure Prediction in Bulk Metal Forming Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ameen Topa

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available An important concern in metal forming is whether the desired deformation can be accomplished without defects in the final product. Various ductile fracture criteria have been developed and experimentally verified for a limited number of cases of metal forming processes. These criteria are highly dependent on the geometry of the workpiece and cannot be utilized for complicated shapes without experimental verification. However, experimental work is a resource hungry process. This paper proposes the ability of finite element analysis (FEA software such as LS-DYNA to pinpoint the crack-like flaws in bulk metal forming products. Two different approaches named as arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian (ALE and smooth particle hydrodynamics (SPH formulations were adopted. The results of the simulations agree well with the experimental work and a comparison between the two formulations has been carried out. Both approximation methods successfully predicted the flow of workpiece material (plastic deformation. However ALE method was able to pinpoint the location of the flaws.

  17. On methods of estimating cosmological bulk flows

    CERN Document Server

    Nusser, Adi

    2015-01-01

    We explore similarities and differences between several estimators of the cosmological bulk flow, $\\bf B$, from the observed radial peculiar velocities of galaxies. A distinction is made between two theoretical definitions of $\\bf B$ as a dipole moment of the velocity field weighted by a radial window function. One definition involves the three dimensional (3D) peculiar velocity, while the other is based on its radial component alone. Different methods attempt at inferring $\\bf B$ for either of these definitions which coincide only for a constant velocity field. We focus on the Wiener Filtering (WF, Hoffman et al. 2015) and the Constrained Minimum Variance (CMV,Feldman et al. 2010) methodologies. Both methodologies require a prior expressed in terms of the radial velocity correlation function. Hoffman et al. compute $\\bf B$ in Top-Hat windows from a WF realization of the 3D peculiar velocity field. Feldman et al. infer $\\bf B$ directly from the observed velocities for the second definition of $\\bf B$. The WF ...

  18. Fault current limiter using bulk oxides superconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belmont, O.; Ferracci, P.; Porcar, L.; Barbut, J.M. [Schneider Electric, Grenoble (France). Usine A3; Tixador, P.; Noudem, J.G.; Bourgault, D.; Tournier, R

    1998-08-01

    We study the limitation possibilities of bulk Bi high T{sub c} materials. For this we test these materials with AC or DC currents above their critical currents. We study particularly the evolution of the voltage with time or with current. The material, the value of the current and the time duration play important parts. For sintered Bi samples the voltage depends only on the current even for values much larger than the critical current. With textured samples the V(I) curves shows an hysteretic behaviour due to a warming up. The textured materials are more interesting than sintered ones in terms of required volume for the current limitation. In both cases the superconductors are in a dissipative state but not in the normal state. This state is nevertheless reached if the dissipated energy inside the sample is sufficient. We have tried to apply a magnetic field on the samples in order to trigger a more effective limitation. The voltage increases but with a limited effect for currents much higher (3-4 times) than the critical zero field current. We think that the dissipative state is due mainly to the grain boundaries which become resistive above the critical current. (orig.) 11 refs.

  19. Studies of bulk heterojunction solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cossel, Raquel; McIntyre, Max; Tzolov, Marian

    We are studying bulk heterojunction solar cells that were fabricated using a mixture of PCPDTBT and PCBM­C60. The impedance data of the cells in dark responded like a simple RC circuit. The value of the dielectric constant derived from these results is consistent with the values reported in the literature for these materials. We are showing that the parallel resistance in the equivalent circuit of linear lump elements can be interpreted using the DC current­voltage measurements. The impedance spectra under light illumination indicated the existence of additional polarization. This extra feature can be described by a model that includes a series RC circuit in parallel with the equivalent circuit for a device in dark. The physical interpretation of the additional polarization is based on photo­generated charges getting trapped in wells, which have a characteristic relaxation time corresponding to the observed break frequency in the impedance spectra. We have studied the influence of the anode and cathode interface on this phenomena, either by using different interface materials, or by depositing the metal electrode while the substate is heated.

  20. Recent developments of film bulk acoustic resonators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Junning; Liu, Guorong; Li, Jie; Li, Guoqiang

    2016-06-01

    Film bulk acoustic wave resonator (FBAR) experienced skyrocketing development in the past 15 years, owing to the explosive development of mobile communication. It stands out in acoustic filters mainly because of high quality factor, which enables low insertion loss and sharp roll off. Except for the massive application in wireless communication, FBARs are also promising sensors because of the high sensitivity and readily integration ability to miniaturize circuits. On the ground of summarizing FBAR’s application in wireless communication as filters and in sensors including electronic nose, bio field, and pressure sensing, this paper review the main challenges of each application faced. The number of filters installed in the mobile phone has being grown explosively, which leads to overcrowded bands and put harsh requirements on component size and power consumption control for each unit. Data flow and rate are becoming increasingly demanding as well. This paper discusses three promising technical strategies addressing these issues. Among which coupled resonator filter is given intense attention because it is able to vigorously reduce the filter size by stacking two or more resonators together, and it is a great technique to increase data flow and rate. Temperature compensation methods are discussed considering their vital influence on frequency stability. Finally, materials improvement and novel materials exploration for band width modulation, tunable band acquisition, and quality factor improvement are discussed. The authors appeal attention of the academic society to bring AlN epitaxial thin film into the FBAR fabrication and have proposed a configuration to implement this idea.

  1. Bulk viscous cosmology: statefinder and entropy

    CERN Document Server

    He, X

    2006-01-01

    The statefinder diagnostic pair is adopted to differentiate viscous cosmology models and it is found that the trajectories of these viscous cosmology models on the statefinder pair $s-r$ plane are quite different from those of the corresponding non-viscous cases. Particularly for the quiessence model, the singular properties of state parameter $w=-1$ are obviously demonstrated on the statefinder diagnostic pair planes. We then discuss the entropy of the viscous / dissipative cosmology system which may be more practical to describe the present cosmic observations as the perfect fluid is just a global approximation to the complicated cosmic media in current universe evolution. When the bulk viscosity takes the form of $\\zeta=\\zeta_{1}\\dot{a}/a$($\\zeta_{1}$ is constant), the relationship between the entropy $S$ and the redshift $z$ is explicitly given out. We find that the entropy of the viscous cosmology is always increasing and consistent with the thermodynamics arrow of time for the universe evolution. With t...

  2. Determination of Bulk Dimensional Variation in Castings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dr. James F. Cuttino Dr. Edward P. Morse

    2005-04-14

    The purpose of this work is to improve the efficiency of green sand foundries so that they may continue to compete as the most cost-effective method of fabrication while meeting tightening constraints on near-net shape manufacturing. In order to achieve this objective, the study is divided into two major components. The first component concentrated on identifying which processes control surface finish on the castings and which provide potential reductions in variations. The second component identified metrological methods that effectively discern between the geometry of bulk material versus surface finish in order to more accurately determine the quality of a part. The research resulted in the determination of an empirical relationship relating pouring parameters to dimensional variation, with an R2 value of greater than 0.79. A significant difference in variations obtained from vertical vs. horizontal molding machines was also noticed. When analyzed separately, however, the resulting empirical relationships for horizontal and vertical machines had reduced R2 values, probably due to the reduced data sets. Significant parameters when considering vertical and horizontal molding machines together included surface roughness, pattern type, iron type, pouring rate, copper content, amount of Western Bentonite, and permeability.

  3. Thermodynamic properties of bulk and confined water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mallamace, Francesco, E-mail: francesco.mallamace@unime.it [Dipartimento di Fisica e Scienza della Terra Università di Messina and CNISM, I-98168 Messina (Italy); Department of Nuclear Science and Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States); Center for Polymer Studies and Department of Physics, Boston University, Boston, Massachusetts 02215 (United States); Corsaro, Carmelo [Dipartimento di Fisica e Scienza della Terra Università di Messina and CNISM, I-98168 Messina (Italy); Mallamace, Domenico [Dipartimento di Scienze dell' Ambiente, della Sicurezza, del Territorio, degli Alimenti e della Salute, Università di Messina, I-98166 Messina (Italy); Vasi, Sebastiano; Vasi, Cirino [IPCF-CNR, I-98166 Messina (Italy); Stanley, H. Eugene [Center for Polymer Studies and Department of Physics, Boston University, Boston, Massachusetts 02215 (United States)

    2014-11-14

    The thermodynamic response functions of water display anomalous behaviors. We study these anomalous behaviors in bulk and confined water. We use nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) to examine the configurational specific heat and the transport parameters in both the thermal stable and the metastable supercooled phases. The data we obtain suggest that there is a behavior common to both phases: that the dynamics of water exhibit two singular temperatures belonging to the supercooled and the stable phase, respectively. One is the dynamic fragile-to-strong crossover temperature (T{sub L} ≃ 225 K). The second, T{sup *} ∼ 315 ± 5 K, is a special locus of the isothermal compressibility K{sub T}(T, P) and the thermal expansion coefficient α{sub P}(T, P) in the P–T plane. In the case of water confined inside a protein, we observe that these two temperatures mark, respectively, the onset of protein flexibility from its low temperature glass state (T{sub L}) and the onset of the unfolding process (T{sup *})

  4. Photoelectron spectroscopy bulk and surface electronic structures

    CERN Document Server

    Suga, Shigemasa

    2014-01-01

    Photoelectron spectroscopy is now becoming more and more required to investigate electronic structures of various solid materials in the bulk, on surfaces as well as at buried interfaces. The energy resolution was much improved in the last decade down to 1 meV in the low photon energy region. Now this technique is available from a few eV up to 10 keV by use of lasers, electron cyclotron resonance lamps in addition to synchrotron radiation and X-ray tubes. High resolution angle resolved photoelectron spectroscopy (ARPES) is now widely applied to band mapping of materials. It attracts a wide attention from both fundamental science and material engineering. Studies of the dynamics of excited states are feasible by time of flight spectroscopy with fully utilizing the pulse structures of synchrotron radiation as well as lasers including the free electron lasers (FEL). Spin resolved studies also made dramatic progress by using higher efficiency spin detectors and two dimensional spin detectors. Polarization depend...

  5. 76 FR 50236 - Center for Substance Abuse Prevention; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-12

    ...: Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration's Center for Substance Abuse Prevention, Drug... HUMAN SERVICES Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration Center for Substance Abuse... the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration's (SAMHSA) Center for Substance......

  6. Bulk Extractor 1.4 User’s Manual

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-01

    51 12 Related Reading 52 Appendices 54 A Output of bulk_extractor Help Command 54 v 1 Introduction 1.1 Overview of bulk_extractor bulk_extractor is a...10485760 Threads: 4 All data are read ; waiting for threads to finish... Time elapsed waiting for 1 thread to finish: (timeout in 60 min .) Time elapsed...anything but a[A-Z] = A to Z[A\\-Z]= A, Z, or hyphen (!)[A-Zaeiou] = capitalsor lowercase vowels [.+*?\\

  7. Locality, bulk equations of motion and the conformal bootstrap

    CERN Document Server

    Kabat, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    We develop an approach to construct local bulk operators in a CFT to order 1/N^2. Since 4-point functions are not fixed by conformal invariance we use the OPE to categorize possible forms for a bulk operator. Using previous results on 3-point functions we construct a local bulk operator in each OPE channel. We then impose the condition that the bulk operators constructed in different channels agree, and hence give rise to a well-defined bulk operator. We refer to this condition as the "bulk bootstrap." We argue and explicitly show in some examples that the bulk bootstrap leads to some of the same results as the regular conformal bootstrap. In fact the bulk bootstrap provides an easier way to determine some CFT data, since it does not require knowing the form of the conformal blocks. This analysis clarifies previous results on the relation between bulk locality and the bootstrap for theories with a 1/N expansion, and it identifies a simple and direct way in which OPE coefficients and anomalous dimensions deter...

  8. Preliminary study of superconducting bulk magnets for Maglev

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujimoto, Hiroyuki; Kamijo, Hiroki

    Recent development shows that melt-processed YBaCuO (Y123) or Rare Earth (RE)123 superconductors have a high Jc at 77 K and high magnetic field, leading to high field application as a superconducting quasi-permanent bulk magnet with the liquid nitrogen refrigeration. One of the promising applications is a superconducting magnet for the magnetically levitated (Maglev) train. We discuss a superconducting bulk magnet for the Maglev train in the aspect of a preliminary design of the bulk magnet and also processing for (L)REBaCuO bulk superconductors and their characteristic superconducting properties.

  9. Bulk flow scaling for turbulent channel and pipe flows

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Xi; She, Zhen-Su

    2016-01-01

    We report a theory deriving bulk flow scaling for canonical wall-bounded flows. The theory accounts for the symmetries of boundary geometry (flat plate channel versus circular pipe) by a variational calculation for a large-scale energy length, which characterizes its bulk flow scaling by a simple exponent, i.e. $m=4$ for channel and 5 for pipe. The predicted mean velocity shows excellent agreement with several dozen sets of quality empirical data for a wide range of the Reynolds number (Re), with a universal bulk flow constant $\\kappa\\approx0.45$. Predictions for dissipation and turbulent transport in the bulk flow are also given, awaiting data verification.

  10. Temperament Style and Substance Abuse Characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Melinda J.; Galen, Luke W.; DeLuca, John W.

    1998-06-01

    The relationship of temperament to different patterns and types of alcohol abuse has received much attention over the last decade in order to provide clues to matching patients optimally to treatment strategies. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship of temperament with a number of relevant substance abuse characteristics in a substance abusing population. One hundred forty-five male veterans were interviewed on their lifetime use of substances and on their psychiatric symptoms, problems associated with use, context, and family history of substance abuse. Subjects filled out the TPQ and the MPQ, which were subjected to factor analysis and revealed four factors: (1) Negative Affectivity/Impulsivity, (2) Positive Affectivity/Sociability, (3) Persistence/Achievement, and (4) Constraint. There was partial support for the hypotheses. Impulsivity was negatively correlated with age of onset and positively correlated with substance-related problems and a family history of substance abuse. Subjects with a history of depression scored significantly lower on the Positive Affectivity/Sociability factor than those who had not experienced a significant depression. Individuals who used alone scored lower on this factor than those who used in social contexts. The temperament factors of Persistence/Achievement and Constraint were, for the most part, unrelated to substance abuse.

  11. Best practice in workplace hazardous substances management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winder, C

    1995-09-01

    Chemical-induced injury and disease remains a significant problem in workers in industry. As a result of this problem, a number of national and international initiatives have recommended the development of conventions, regulations, and codes of practice to attempt to deal with the problems of hazardous substances at work. Within Australia, workplace hazardous substances regulations are in development which will impose legal obligations and responsibilities on the suppliers of hazardous substances and on the employers who use them. At the same time, internationally consistent ISO standards are in use, or are being developed, for quality systems, environmental management, and occupational health and safety. These standards outline a model for the management of quality, environment, or safety, and the processes involved are applicable to the management of hazardous substances. This process includes: obtaining commitment from senior management; instituting consultative mechanisms; developing a hazardous substances policy; identifying components of the hazardous substances management program; resourcing, implementing, and reviewing the program; and integrating the program into the organisation's strategic plan. Only by blending in a specific management program for hazardous substances into the overall planning of an organization will they be managed effectively and efficiently.

  12. Childhood Predictors of Adult Substance Abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arteaga, Irma; Chen, Chin-Chih; Reynolds, Arthur J

    2010-08-01

    Identification of the early determinants of substance abuse is a major focus of life course research. In this study, we investigated the child, family, and school-related antecedents of the onset and prevalence of substance abuse by age 26 for a cohort of 1,208 low-income minority children in the Chicago Longitudinal Study. Data onon well-being have been collected prospectively since birth from administrative records, parents, teachers, and children. Results indicated that the prevalence of substance abuse by age 26 was 32 percent (self reports or criminal justice system records) with a median age of first use of 17. Probit regression analysis indicated that substance abuse prevalence was primarily determined by gender (males had a higher rate), trouble making behavior by age 12, school mobility, and previous substance use. Family and peer predictors included involvement in the child welfare system by age 9, parent expectations for school success at age 9, parent substance abuse by children's age 15, and deviant peer affiliation by age 16. Age of first substance use was predicted by gender and race/ethnicity (males and Blacks had earlier incidence), involvement in the child welfare system, and family risk status at age 8. As with prevalence, the pattern of predictors for males was similar to the overall sample but the magnitude of effects was stronger.. The predictors of the timing of substance use dependency were gender, family conflict by age 5, involvement in the child welfare system, social maturity at age 9, adolescent school mobility, and school dropout by age 16. Findings indicate that the promotion of family involvement and positive school and social behavior can reduce the risk of substance abuse.

  13. Bulk Vitrification Castable Refractory Block Protection Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hrma, Pavel R.; Bagaasen, Larry M.; Beck, Andrew E.; Brouns, Thomas M.; Caldwell, Dustin D.; Elliott, Michael L.; Matyas, Josef; Minister, Kevin BC; Schweiger, Michael J.; Strachan, Denis M.; Tinsley, Bronnie P.; Hollenberg, Glenn W.

    2005-05-01

    Bulk vitrification (BV) was selected for a pilot-scale test and demonstration facility for supplemental treatment to accelerate the cleanup of low-activity waste (LAW) at the Hanford U.S. DOE Site. During engineering-scale (ES) tests, a small fraction of radioactive Tc (and Re, its nonradioactive surrogate) were transferred out of the LAW glass feed and molten LAW glass, and deposited on the surface and within the pores of the castable refractory block (CRB). Laboratory experiments were undertaken to understand the mechanisms of the transport Tc/Re into the CRB during vitrification and to evaluate various means of CRB protection against the deposition of leachable Tc/Re. The tests used Re as a chemical surrogate for Tc. The tests with the baseline CRB showed that the molten LAW penetrates into CRB pores before it converts to glass, leaving deposits of sulfates and chlorides when the nitrate components decompose. Na2O from the LAW reacts with the CRB to create a durable glass phase that may contain Tc/Re. Limited data from a single CRB sample taken from an ES experiment indicate that, while a fraction of Tc/Re is present in the CRB in a readily leachable form, most of the Tc/Re deposited in the refractory is retained in the form of a durable glass phase. In addition, the molten salts from the LAW, mainly sulfates, chlorides, and nitrates, begin to evaporate from BV feeds at temperatures below 800 C and condense on solid surfaces at temperatures below 530 C. Three approaches aimed at reducing or preventing the deposition of soluble Tc/Re within the CRB were proposed: metal lining, sealing the CRB surface with a glaze, and lining the CRB with ceramic tiles. Metal liners were deemed unsuitable because evaluations showed that they can cause unacceptable distortions of the electric field in the BV system. Sodium silicate and a low-alkali borosilicate glaze were selected for testing. The glazes slowed down molten salt condensate penetration, but did little to reduce the

  14. Continuum mechanics of single-substance bodies

    CERN Document Server

    Eringen, A Cemal

    1975-01-01

    Continuum Physics, Volume II: Continuum Mechanics of Single-Substance Bodies discusses the continuum mechanics of bodies constituted by a single substance, providing a thorough and precise presentation of exact theories that have evolved during the past years. This book consists of three parts-basic principles, constitutive equations for simple materials, and methods of solution. Part I of this publication is devoted to a discussion of basic principles irrespective of material geometry and constitution that are valid for all kinds of substances, including composites. The geometrical notions, k

  15. Former substance users working as counselors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hecksher, Dorte

    2007-01-01

    is derived from an interview study initiated in 2000 in Denmark on former substance users with 4 -8 years of abstinence. Through an analysis of interview data from a larger group of former substance users, it became evident that those working as counselors experienced specific dilemmas and problems......All helping professionals risk participation in "dual relationships". But in the case of former substance users working as counselors, specific dilemmas and problems are accentuated. A qualitative analysis highlights some of the ethical and personal dilemmas faced by these counselors. The data...

  16. Investigating widely available substances as vaginal microbicides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, Wendy

    2004-01-01

    Microbicides to protect women from HIV are urgently needed. Several potential pharmaceutical microbicides are now undergoing obligatory clinical trials to check safety, acceptability and efficacy before approval for use. Microbicides may have side-effects and, paradoxically, their use may increase the risk of acquiring HIV. Several widely available substances have been suggested as microbicides, including substances with a low pH such as lemon juice, vinegar, soft drinks and lactobacillus dairy products. Because of the potential for harm it is important that these substances are tested before their use is widely promoted. After small scale safety and acceptability studies, their promotion needs to be evaluated as a communication intervention.

  17. Cavitation instability in bulk metallic glasses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dai L.H.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent experiments have shown that fracture surfaces of bulk metallic glasses (BMGs usually exhibit an intriguing nanoscale corrugation like fractographic feature mediated by nanoscale void formation. We attribute the onset of this nanoscale corrugation to TTZs (tension transformation zones mediated cavitation. In our recent study, the spall experiments of Zr-based BMG using a single-stage light gas gun were performed. To uncover the mechanisms of the spallation damage nucleation and evolution, the samples were designed to be subjected to dynamic tensile loadings of identical amplitude but with different durations by making use of the multi-stress pulse and the double-flyer techniques. It is clearly revealed that the macroscopic spall fracture in BMGs originates from the nucleation, growth and coalescence of micro-voids. Then, a microvoid nucleation model of BMGs based on free volume theory is proposed, which indicates that the nucleation of microvoids at the early stage of spallation in BMGs is resulted from diffusion and coalescence of free volume. Furthermore, a theoretical model of void growth in BMGs undergoing remote dynamic hydrostatic tension is developed. The critical condition of cavitation instability is obtained. It is found that dynamic void growth in BMGs can be well controlled by a dimensionless inertial number characterizing the competition between intrinsic and extrinsic time scales. To unveil the atomic-level mechanism of cavitation, a systematic molecular dynamics (MD simulation of spallation behaviour of a binary metallic glass with different impact velocities was performed. It is found that micro-void nucleation is determined TTZs while the growth is controlled by shear transformation zones (STZs at atomic scale.

  18. Silicon bulk micromachined hybrid dimensional artifact.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Claudet, Andre A.; Tran, Hy D.; Bauer, Todd Marks; Shilling, Katherine Meghan; Oliver, Andrew David

    2010-03-01

    A mesoscale dimensional artifact based on silicon bulk micromachining fabrication has been developed and manufactured with the intention of evaluating the artifact both on a high precision coordinate measuring machine (CMM) and video-probe based measuring systems. This hybrid artifact has features that can be located by both a touch probe and a video probe system with a k=2 uncertainty of 0.4 {micro}m, more than twice as good as a glass reference artifact. We also present evidence that this uncertainty could be lowered to as little as 50 nm (k=2). While video-probe based systems are commonly used to inspect mesoscale mechanical components, a video-probe system's certified accuracy is generally much worse than its repeatability. To solve this problem, an artifact has been developed which can be calibrated using a commercially available high-accuracy tactile system and then be used to calibrate typical production vision-based measurement systems. This allows for error mapping to a higher degree of accuracy than is possible with a glass reference artifact. Details of the designed features and manufacturing process of the hybrid dimensional artifact are given and a comparison of the designed features to the measured features of the manufactured artifact is presented and discussed. Measurement results from vision and touch probe systems are compared and evaluated to determine the capability of the manufactured artifact to serve as a calibration tool for video-probe systems. An uncertainty analysis for calibration of the artifact using a CMM is presented.

  19. Non-destructive automated sampling of mycotoxins in bulk food and feed - A new tool for required harmonization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spanjer, M; Stroka, J; Patel, S; Buechler, S; Pittet, A; Barel, S

    2001-06-01

    Mycotoxins contamination is highly non-uniformly distributed as is well recog-nized by the EC, by not only setting legal limits in a series of commodities, but also schedule a sampling plan that takes this heterogeneity into account. In practice however, it turns out that it is very difficult to carry out this sampling plan in a harmonised way. Applying the sampling plan to a container filled with pallets of bags (i.e. with nuts or coffee beans) varies from very laborious to almost impossible. The presented non-destructive automated method to sample bulk food could help to overcome these practical problems and to enforcing of EC directives. It is derived from a tested and approved technology for detection of illicit substances in security applications. It has capability to collect and iden-tify ultra trace contaminants, i.e. from a fingerprint of chemical substance in a bulk of goods, a cargo pallet load (~ 1000 kg) with boxes and commodities.The technology, patented for explosives detection, uses physical and chemistry processes for excitation and remote rapid enhanced release of contaminant residues, vapours and particulate, of the inner/outer surfaces of inspected bulk and collect them on selective probes. The process is automated, takes only 10 minutes, is non-destructive and the bulk itself remains unharmed. The system design is based on applicable international regulations for shipped cargo hand-ling and transportation by road, sea and air. After this process the pallet can be loaded on a truck, ship or plane. Analysis can be carried out before the cargo leaves the place of shipping. The potent application of this technology for myco-toxins detection, has been demonstrated by preliminary feasibility experiments. Aflatoxins were detected in pistachios and ochratoxin A in green coffee beans bulk. Both commodities were naturally contaminated, priory found and confirm-ed by common methods as used at routine inspections. Once the contaminants are extracted from a

  20. Effect of BCAA intake during endurance exercises on fatigue substances, muscle damage substances, and energy metabolism substances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dong-Hee; Kim, Seok-Hwan; Jeong, Woo-Seok; Lee, Ha-Yan

    2013-12-01

    The increase rate of utilization of branched-chain amino acids (BCAA) by muscle is reduced to its plasma concentration during prolonged exercise leading to glycogen. BCAA supplementation would reduce the serum activities of intramuscular enzymes associated with muscle damage. To examine the effects of BCAA administration on fatigue substances (serotonin, ammonia and lactate), muscle damage substances (CK and LDH) and energy metabolism substances (FFA and glucose) after endurance exercise. Subjects (n = 26, college-aged males) were randomly divided into an experimental (n = 13, EXP) and a placebo (n = 13, CON) group. Subjects both EXP and CON performed a bout of cycle training (70% VO2max intensity) to exhaustion. Subject in the EXP were administrated BCAA (78ml/kg·w) prior to the bout of cycle exercise. Fatigue substances, muscle damage substances and energy metabolism substances were measured before ingesting BCAAs and placebos, 10 min before exercise, 30 min into exercise, immediately after exercise, and 30 min after exercise. Data were analyzed by two-way repeated measure ANCOVA, correlation and statistical significance was set at p BCAA decreased serum concentrations of the intramuscular enzymes as CK and LDH following exhaustive exercise. This observation suggests that BCAA supplementation may reduce the muscle damage associated with endurance exercise.

  1. A Newly Improved Modified Method Development and Validation of Bromofenac Sodium Sesquihydrate in Bulk Drug Manufacturing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunil Kumar Yelamanchi V

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this study was to develop a simple, efficient, specific, precise and accurate newly improved modified Reverse Phase High Performance Liquid Chromatographic Purity (or Related substance method for bromofenac sodium sesquihydrate active pharmaceuticals ingredient dosage form. Validation of analytical method is the confirmation by examination and the provision of objective evidence that the particular requirements for a specific intended use are fulfilled as per ICH, USP, BP or any other suitable regulatory guidelines. The Reverse Phase High Performance Liquid Chromatographic Gradient method was developed by utilizing Waters Symmetry C8, 150x4.6mm, 3.5µm on Waters 2487 series Liquid Chromatograph. The retention time of bromofenac sodium sesquihydrate was found to be 5.973minutes. Considering all the results of validation parameters simplicity of the method and the cost effectiveness of the overall procedure, it is possible to conclude that the developed method can be suitable for the regular quality control determination of bromofenac sodium sesquihydrate in bulk as well as pharmaceutical dosage form.The developed Reverse Phase High Performance Liquid Chromatographic Purity (or Related substance method for bromofenac sodium sesquihydrate active pharmaceuticals ingredient method was validated with respect to System Suitability , linearity, , precision ,Range, Ruggedness, Test Solution and Mobile phase stability ,Robustness..

  2. Bulk forming of industrial micro components in conventional metals and bulk metallic glasses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arentoft, Mogens; Paldan, Nikolas Aulin; Eriksen, Rasmus Solmer;

    2007-01-01

    For production of micro components in large numbers, forging is an interesting and challenging process. The conventional metals like silver, steel and aluminum often require multi-step processes, but high productivity and increased strength justify the investment. As an alternative, bulk metallic...... glasses will at elevated temperatures behave like a highly viscous liquid, which can easily form even complicated geometries in 1 step. The strengths and limitations of forming the 2 materials are analyzed for a micro 3D component in a silver alloy and an Mg-Cu-Y BMG. ©2007 American Institute of Physics...

  3. Effects of effluent organic matter characteristics on the removal of bulk organic matter and selected pharmaceutically active compounds during managed aquifer recharge: Column study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeng, Sung Kyu; Sharma, Saroj K.; Abel, Chol D. T.; Magic-Knezev, Aleksandra; Song, Kyung-Guen; Amy, Gary L.

    2012-10-01

    Soil column experiments were conducted to investigate the effects of effluent organic matter (EfOM) characteristics on the removal of bulk organic matter (OM) and pharmaceutically active compounds (PhACs) during managed aquifer recharge (MAR) treatment processes. The fate of bulk OM and PhACs during an MAR is important to assess post-treatment requirements. Biodegradable OM from EfOM, originating from biological wastewater treatment, was effectively removed during soil passage. Based on a fluorescence excitation-emission matrix (F-EEM) analysis of wastewater effluent-dominated (WWE-dom) surface water (SW), protein-like substances, i.e., biopolymers, were removed more favorably than fluorescent humic-like substances under oxic compared to anoxic conditions. However, there was no preferential removal of biopolymers or humic substances, determined as dissolved organic carbon (DOC) observed via liquid chromatography with online organic carbon detection (LC-OCD) analysis. Most of the selected PhACs exhibited removal efficiencies of greater than 90% in both SW and WWE-dom SW. However, the removal efficiencies of bezafibrate, diclofenac and gemfibrozil were relatively low in WWE-dom SW, which contained more biodegradable OM than did SW (copiotrophic metabolism). Based on this study, low biodegradable fractions such as humic substances in MR may have enhanced the degradation of diclofenac, gemfibrozil and bezafibrate by inducing an oligotrophic microbial community via long term starvation. Both carbamazepine and clofibric acid showed persistent behaviors and were not influenced by EfOM.

  4. 27 CFR 24.301 - Bulk still wine record.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Bulk still wine record. 24..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Records and Reports § 24.301 Bulk still wine record. A proprietor who produces or receives still wine in bond, (including wine intended for use as distilling material or vinegar...

  5. 7 CFR 58.211 - Packaging room for bulk products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Packaging room for bulk products. 58.211 Section 58... Service 1 Rooms and Compartments § 58.211 Packaging room for bulk products. A separate room or area shall... dust within the packaging room and where needed, a dust collector shall be provided and...

  6. T-duality trivializes bulk-boundary correspondence

    CERN Document Server

    Mathai, Varghese

    2015-01-01

    Recently we introduced T-duality in the study of topological insulators. In this paper, we study the bulk-boundary correspondence for three phenomena in condensed matter physics, namely, the quantum Hall effect, the Chern insulator, and time reversal invariant topological insulators. In all of these cases, we show that T-duality trivializes the bulk-boundary correspondence.

  7. Import and Export of Bulk Pharmaceuticals in 2006

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ According to customs statistics, the total import and export value of bulk pharmaceuticals (excluding chemical raw materials and bulk pesticides) in China was US$10.346 billion in 2006. The export value was US$7.482 billion - an increase of 22% over the 2005.

  8. Modelling and Forecasting in the Dry Bulk Shipping Market

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, S.

    2011-01-01

    This dissertation proposes strategies not only for modelling price behavior in the dry bulk market, but also for modelling relationships between economic and technical variables of dry bulk ships, by using modern time series approaches, Monte Carlo simulation and other economic techniques. The time

  9. Advanced and new developments in bulk metal forming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bay, Niels; Wanheim, Tarras; Ravn, Bjarne Gottlieb;

    2000-01-01

    Increasing demands to manufacturing industry of faster, better and cheaper production has intensified the research and development of bulk metal forming. The present paper gives examples on European industrial research on secondary bulk metal forming processes. The R&D follows three lines of appr...

  10. Nucleation of bulk superconductivity close to critical magnetic fields

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fournais, Søren; Kachmar, Ayman

    2011-01-01

    threshold value of the applied magnetic field for which bulk superconductivity contributes to the leading order of the energy. Furthermore, the energy of the bulk is related to that of the Abrikosov problem in a periodic lattice. A key ingredient of the proof is a novel L∞ -bound which is of independent...

  11. Enzymic synthesis of labelled chiral substances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battersby, A R

    1985-01-01

    The enzymic synthesis of chiral substances in which one hydrogen atom of a methylene group has been replaced by deuterium or tritium is illustrated. Such labelled products can be used to determine the stereochemistry of other enzyme-catalysed reactions.

  12. Psilocybin for treating substance use disorders?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veen, B.T. de; Schellekens, A.F.A.; Verheij, M.M.M.; Homberg, J.R.

    2017-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Evidence based treatment for Substance use disorders (SUD) includes psychotherapy and pharmacotherapy. However, these are only partially effective. Hallucinogens, such as psilocybin, may represent potential new treatment options for SUD. This review provides a summary of (human)

  13. Psilocybin for treating substance use disorders?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veen, B.T. de; Schellekens, A.F.A.; Verheij, M.M.M.; Homberg, J.R.

    2017-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Evidence based treatment for Substance use disorders (SUD) includes psychotherapy and pharmacotherapy. However, these are only partially effective. Hallucinogens, such as psilocybin, may represent potential new treatment options for SUD. This review provides a summary of (human) studie

  14. [Oil and Hazardous Substance Spill Response Emergencies

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — A major oil or hazardous substance spill may constitute an emergency situation requiring prompt actions by the Service to protect threatened natural resources. This...

  15. Toxicities of selected substances to freshwater biota

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hohreiter, D.W.

    1980-05-01

    The amount of data available concerning the toxicity of various substances to freshwater biota is so large that it is difficult to use in a practical situation, such as environmental impact assessment. In this document, summary tables are presented showing acute and/or chronic toxicity of selected substances for various groups of aquatic biota. Each entry is referenced to its original source so that details concerning experimental conditions may be consulted. In addition, general information concerning factors modifying toxicity, synergisms, evidence of bioaccumulation, and water quality standards and criteria for the selected substances is given. The final table is a general toxicity table designed to provide an easily accessible and general indication of toxicity of selected substances in aquatic systems.

  16. Microcomputer for controlled substance record keeping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, R L; Motta, L J; Yee, A D

    1984-01-01

    The use of a microcomputer to maintain controlled substance inventory and record keeping is described. The system maintains perpetual inventories of the central narcotic vault and proof-of-use controlled drug records outstanding at nursing stations. The computerized system has eliminated (1) the delay previously encountered in the posting of transactions from the numeric log to perpetual inventory logs and (2) the potential addition and subtraction errors inherent in a manual system. Computerizing the controlled drug record-keeping system has saved approximately 166 minutes of labor per day, a cost savings of approximately $26. The new system also helps prevent diversion of controlled substances. The computer may also be used for other tasks while not running the controlled substance program. A microcomputer is well suited to the task of controlled-substance record-keeping functions, and the cost of the system (less than $4000) can be quickly recouped in labor savings.

  17. Understanding the role of extracellular polymeric substances in an enhanced biological phosphorus removal granular sludge system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Randeng; Peng, Yongzhen; Cheng, Zhanli; Ren, Nanqi

    2014-10-01

    The role of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) in the enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR) process was investigated in a P-accumulating granular sludge system by analyzing the distribution and transfer of P, K(+), Mg(2+) and Ca(2+) in the sludge phase, EPS, and the bulk liquid. In the sludge phase, about 30% P, 44.7% K(+), 27.7% Mg(2+), 28% Ca(2+) accumulated in the EPS at the end of aeration. The rate of P, K(+), Mg(2+) and Ca(2+) released from the EPS matrix into the bulk liquid in the anaerobic phase was faster than the rate they were adsorbed from the bulk liquid into the EPS in the aerobic phase. P, K(+), Mg(2+) and Ca(2+) were retained in EPS before transferring into the phosphorus accumulating organisms (PAOs). These results suggest that EPS play a critical role in facilitating the accumulation and transfer of P, K(+), Ca(2+) and Mg(2+) between PAO cells and bulk liquid. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Substance abuse on the college campus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rimsza, Mary Ellen; Moses, Karen S

    2005-02-01

    Substance abuse is a major health and behavioral concern in college students. Alcohol and marijuana are the most commonly abused drugs on college campuses. Others include tobacco, 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine, gamma-hydroxybutyrate, flunitrazepam (Rohypnol), lysergic acid, ketamine, methamphetamine, phencyclidine, cocaine, and psilocybin mushrooms. This article reviews the use of these drugs by college students. Substance use is a major contributing factor in poor academic performance and failure to successfully complete a college education.

  19. Stability of bulk metallic glass structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jain, H.; Williams, D.B.

    2003-06-18

    The fundamental origins of the stability of the (Pd-Ni){sub 80}P{sub 20} bulk metallic glasses (BMGs), a prototype for a whole class of BMG formers, were explored. While much of the properties of their BMGs have been characterized, their glass-stability have not been explained in terms of the atomic and electronic structure. The local structure around all three constituent atoms was obtained, in a complementary way, using extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS), to probe the nearest neighbor environment of the metals, and extended energy loss fine structure (EXELFS), to investigate the environment around P. The occupied electronic structure was investigated using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The (Pd-Ni){sub 80}P{sub 20} BMGs receive their stability from cumulative, and interrelated, effects of both atomic and electronic origin. The stability of the (Pd-Ni){sub 80}P{sub 20} BMGs can be explained in terms of the stability of Pd{sub 60}Ni{sub 20}P{sub 20} and Pd{sub 30}Ni{sub 50}P{sub 20}, glasses at the end of BMG formation. The atomic structure in these alloys is very similar to those of the binary phosphide crystals near x=0 and x=80, which are trigonal prisms of Pd or Ni atoms surrounding P atoms. Such structures are known to exist in dense, randomly-packed systems. The structure of the best glass former in this series, Pd{sub 40}Ni{sub 40}P{sub 20} is further described by a weighted average of those of Pd{sub 30}Ni{sub 50}P{sub 20} and Pd{sub 60}Ni{sub 20}P{sub 20}. Bonding states present only in the ternary alloys were found and point to a further stabilization of the system through a negative heat of mixing between Pd and Ni atoms. The Nagel and Tauc criterion, correlating a decrease in the density of states at the Fermi level with an increase in the glass stability, was consistent with greater stability of the Pd{sub x}Ni{sub (80-x)}P{sub 20} glasses with respect to the binary alloys of P. A valence electron concentration of 1.8 e/a, which

  20. Bulk viscosity, interaction and the viability of phantom solutions

    CERN Document Server

    Leyva, Yoelsy

    2016-01-01

    We study the dynamics of a bulk viscosity model in the Eckart approach for a spatially flat Friedmann-Robertson-Walker (FRW) universe. We have included radiation and dark energy, assumed as perfect fluids, and dark matter treated as an imperfect fluid having bulk viscosity. We also introduce an interaction term between the dark matter and dark energy components. Considering that the bulk viscosity is proportional to the dark matter energy density and imposing a complete cosmological dynamics, we find bounds on the bulk viscosity in order to reproduce a matter-dominated era (MDE). This constraint is independent of the interaction term. Some late time phantom solutions are mathematically possible. However, the constraint imposed by a MDE restricts the interaction parameter, in the phantom solutions, to a region consistent with a null value, eliminating the possibility of late time stable solutions with $w<-1$. From the different cases that we study, the only possible scenario, with bulk viscosity and interac...

  1. Bulk viscosity of spin-one color superconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sa' d, Basil A.

    2009-08-27

    The bulk viscosity of several quark matter phases is calculated. It is found that the effect of color superconductivity is not trivial, it may suppress, or enhance the bulk viscosity depending on the critical temperature and the temperature at which the bulk viscosity is calculated. Also, is it found that the effect of neutrino-emitting Urca processes cannot be neglected in the consideration of the bulk viscosity of strange quark matter. The results for the bulk viscosity of strange quark matter are used to calculate the r-mode instability window of quark stars with several possible phases. It is shown that each possible phase has a different structure for the r-mode instability window. (orig.)

  2. Renormalization group approach to causal bulk viscous cosmological models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belinchon, J A [Grupo Inter-Universitario de Analisis Dimensional, Dept. Fisica ETS Arquitectura UPM, Av. Juan de Herrera 4, Madrid (Spain); Harko, T [Department of Physics, University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam Road, Hong Kong (China); Mak, M K [Department of Physics, Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Clear Water Bay, Hong Kong (China)

    2002-06-07

    The renormalization group method is applied to the study of homogeneous and flat Friedmann-Robertson-Walker type universes, filled with a causal bulk viscous cosmological fluid. The starting point of the study is the consideration of the scaling properties of the gravitational field equations, the causal evolution equation of the bulk viscous pressure and the equations of state. The requirement of scale invariance imposes strong constraints on the temporal evolution of the bulk viscosity coefficient, temperature and relaxation time, thus leading to the possibility of obtaining the bulk viscosity coefficient-energy density dependence. For a cosmological model with bulk viscosity coefficient proportional to the Hubble parameter, we perform the analysis of the renormalization group flow around the scale-invariant fixed point, thereby obtaining the long-time behaviour of the scale factor.

  3. Bulk density - RTD results and status of the standardisation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boehm, T.; Hartmann, H. [Technologie- und Foerderzentrum fuer Nachwachsende Rohstoffe - TFZ, Straubing (Germany); Daugbjerg Jensen, P. [Royal Veterinary and Agricultural University, Vejle (Denmark). Danish Centre for Forest, Landscape and Planning - DFLRI; Temmerman, M.; Rabier, F. [CRA, Gembloux (Belgium). Department Genie Rural; Jirjis, R.; Burvall, J. [Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala (Sweden). Department of Bioenergy; Hersener, J.L. [Ingenieurbuero HERSENER, Wiesendangen (Switzerland); Rathbauer, J. [Bundesanstalt fuer Landtechnik - BLT, Wieselburg (Austria)

    2004-07-01

    Bulk density is an important property for determining storage and transportation room demands and for volume based payment of biofuels. It is also used for calculation of the energy density. Furthermore, bulk density influences the readings from many physical principles for rapid moisture content determination (e. g. microwave reflection method, time domain reflectometric or capacitive sensors [6]). Although bulk density is mostly regarded as an easily determinable parameter, the applied national and international standard methods are highly inconsistent in practice [1, 4, 8]. The goal of the here presented research was therefore to provide a sound knowledge basis for bulk density determination, which shall be used in the ongoing process of European biofuel standardisation. In particular the research focus was to determine the - effect of container size and shape in respect of different biofuels, - effect of shock impact and the - effect of moisture content (as received) on measured bulk density (dry basis). (orig.)

  4. Carbon nanotubes grown on bulk materials and methods for fabrication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menchhofer, Paul A.; Montgomery, Frederick C.; Baker, Frederick S.

    2011-11-08

    Disclosed are structures formed as bulk support media having carbon nanotubes formed therewith. The bulk support media may comprise fibers or particles and the fibers or particles may be formed from such materials as quartz, carbon, or activated carbon. Metal catalyst species are formed adjacent the surfaces of the bulk support material, and carbon nanotubes are grown adjacent the surfaces of the metal catalyst species. Methods employ metal salt solutions that may comprise iron salts such as iron chloride, aluminum salts such as aluminum chloride, or nickel salts such as nickel chloride. Carbon nanotubes may be separated from the carbon-based bulk support media and the metal catalyst species by using concentrated acids to oxidize the carbon-based bulk support media and the metal catalyst species.

  5. Biodegradation of fluorinated alkyl substances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frömel, Tobias; Knepper, Thomas P

    2010-01-01

    The incorporation of fluorine into organic molecules entails both positive and adverse effects. Although fluorine imparts positive and unique properties such as water-and oil-repellency and chemical stability, adverse effects often pervade members of this compound class. A striking property of long perfluoroalkyl chains is their very pronounced environmental persistence. The present review is the first one designed to summarize recent accomplishments in the field of biodegradation of fluorine-containing surfactants, their metabolites, and structural analogs. The pronounced scientific and public interest in these chemicals has given impetus to undertake numerous degradation studies to assess the sources and origins of different fluorinated analog chemical known to exist in the environment. It was shown that biodegradation plays an important role in understanding how fluorinated substances reach the environment and, once they do, what their fate is. Today, PFOS and PFOA are ubiquitously detected as environmental contaminants. Their prominence as contaminants is mainly due to their extreme persistence, which is linked to their perfluoroalkyl chain length. It appears that desulfonation of a highly fluorinated surfactants can be achieved if an α-situated H atom, in relation to the sulfonate group, is present, at least under sulfur-limiting conditions. Molecules that are less heavily fluorinated can show very complex metabolic behavior, as is the case for fluorotelomer alcohols. These compounds are degraded via different but simultaneous pathways, which produce different stable metabolites, one of which is the respective perfluoroalkanoate (8:2-FTOH is transformed to PFOA). Preliminary screening tests indicate that fluorinated functional groups, such as the trifluoromethoxy group and the p-(trifluoromethyl)phenoxy group, may be useful implementations in novel, environmentally benign fluorosurfactants. More specifically, trifluoromethoxy groups constitute a substitute

  6. Application of the penetration theory for gas - Liquid mass transfer without liquid bulk : Differences with system with a bulk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Elk, E. P.; Knaap, M. C.; Versteeg, G. F.

    2007-01-01

    Frequently applied micro models for gas-liquid mass transfer all assume the presence of a liquid bulk. However, some systems are characterized by the absence of a liquid bulk, a very thin layer of liquid flows over a solid surface. An example of such a process is absorption in a column equipped with

  7. Improving Performance in Dense Wireless Spaces by Controlling Bulk Traffic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marat Zhanikeev

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The growing number of wireless devices nowadays often results in congestion of wireless channels. In research, this topic is referred to as networking in dense wireless spaces. The literature on the topic shows that the biggest problem is the high number of concurrent sessions to a wireless access point. The obvious solution is to reduce the number of concurrent sessions. This paper proposes a simple method called Bulk-n-Pick which minimizes the number of prolonged concurrent sessions by separating bulk from sync traffic. Aiming at educational applications, under the proposed design, web applications would distribute the main bulk of content once at the beginning of a class and then rely on small messages for real time sync traffic during the class. For realistic performance analysis, this paper first performs real-life experiments with various counts of wireless devices, bulk sizes, and levels of sync intensity. Based on the experiments, this paper shows that the proposed Bulk-n-Pick method outperforms the traditional design even when only two concurrent bulk sessions are allowed. The experiment shows that up to 10 concurrent bulk sessions are feasible in practice. Based on these results, a method for online performance optimization is proposed and validated in a trace-based emulation.

  8. TOXIC SUBSTANCES FROM COAL COMBUSTION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    A KOLKER; AF SAROFIM; CL SENIOR; FE HUGGINS; GP HUFFMAN; I OLMEZ; J LIGHTY; JOL WENDT; JOSEPH J HELBLE; MR AMES; N YAP; R FINKELMAN; T PANAGIOTOU; W SEAMES

    1998-12-08

    carried out during August at the Advanced Photon Source (APS), the new synchrotron facility at Argonne National Laboratory, Chicago, IL. Further analysis of small-scale combustion experiments conducted at PSI in Phase I was completed this quarter. The results of these experiments for the first time suggest almost complete vaporization of certain trace elements (Se, Zn) from coal combustion in the flame zone, in accordance with theoretical equilibrium predictions. Other elements (As, Sb, Cr) appeared considerably less volatile and may react with constituents in the bulk ash at combustion temperatures. The combustion section of the University of Arizona's Downflow Combustor was completely rebuilt. The University of Utah worked on setting up EPA Method 26A to give the capability to measure chlorine in flue gas. The chlorine kinetic calculations performed as part of the Phase I program were found to have an error in the initial conditions. Therefore, the calculations were re-done this quarter with the correct starting conditions. Development of a quasi-empirical emissions model based on reported emissions of particulate matter from field measurements was continued this quarter. As a first step in developing the ToPEM, we developed a sub-model that calculates the evaporation of major elements (Na, K, Fe, Si, Al, Ca and Mg) from both inherent and extraneous minerals of coal. During this quarter, this sub-model was included into EMAF, which formed the ToPEM. Experimental data from the Phase I program were used to test and modify the sub-model and the ToPEM.

  9. Adolescent substance use disorders in the school setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yule, Amy M; Prince, Jefferson B

    2012-01-01

    Adolescent substance use is a major public health problem that concerns parents, schools, clinicians, and policy makers. The authors review school-based prevention programs, school drug policies, clinical signs and symptoms of substance impairment, recommendations for referral and engaging adolescents who are using substances, and treatment interventions for adolescent substance use disorders.

  10. Review of the Proposed "DSM-5" Substance Use Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, K. Dayle; Gill, Carman; Ray, Shannon

    2012-01-01

    The "DSM-5" Task Force has recommended a new substance use disorder to replace substance abuse and dependence. This article provides an overview of substance abuse and dependence, a description of the "DSM-5" substance use disorder, and implications and potential consequences of this change.

  11. Review of the Proposed "DSM-5" Substance Use Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, K. Dayle; Gill, Carman; Ray, Shannon

    2012-01-01

    The "DSM-5" Task Force has recommended a new substance use disorder to replace substance abuse and dependence. This article provides an overview of substance abuse and dependence, a description of the "DSM-5" substance use disorder, and implications and potential consequences of this change.

  12. Alternative technology of nanoparticles consolidation in the bulk material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VOLKOV Georgiy Michailovich

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Theoretical bases and technological principles of single-stages nanoparticles conso-lidation into bulk material were offered. The theory was implemented on the model system of carbon-carbon in the process of high-temperature pyrolysis of hydrocar-bons. The bulk carbon nanomaterial with unique technical properties was produced. That made it possible to create engineering products which technical characteristics are higher than the existing level in the world. The proposed theory can be adapted to other gas-phase, liquid phase and secondary crystallization processes to create bulk nanomaterials of another chemical composition with no less unique properties.

  13. Negative Effects of Sludge Bulking in Membrane Bio-Reactor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Ying; HUANG Zhi; REN Nanqi; MENG Qingjuan

    2006-01-01

    Sludge bulking property of membrane bio-reactor was investigated in this study through contrast research. When the sludge bulking appeared, the removal efficiency of COD in membrane bio-reactor increased slightly through the function of filamentous bacteria. However, the negative effects of the higher net water-head differential pressures, the high block rate of membrane pore and the great quantity of filamentous bacteria at the external surface presented at the same time. Thus, plenty of methods should be performed to control sludge bulking once it happened in membrane bio-reactor.

  14. Bulk local states and crosscaps in holographic CFT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakayama, Yu [Department of Physics, Rikkyo University,Toshima, Tokyo 175-8501 (Japan); Kavli Institute for the Physics and Mathematics of the Universe (WPI), University of Tokyo,Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8583 (Japan); Ooguri, Hirosi [Kavli Institute for the Physics and Mathematics of the Universe (WPI), University of Tokyo,Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8583 (Japan); Walter Burke Institute for Theoretical Physics, California Institute of Technology,Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Center for Mathematical Sciences and Applications andCenter for the Fundamental Laws of Nature, Harvard University,Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States)

    2016-10-17

    In a weakly coupled gravity theory in the anti-de Sitter space, local states in the bulk are linear superpositions of Ishibashi states for a crosscap in the dual conformal field theory. The superposition structure can be constrained either by the microscopic causality in the bulk gravity or the bootstrap condition in the boundary conformal field theory. We show, contrary to some expectation, that these two conditions are not compatible to each other in the weak gravity regime. We also present an evidence to show that bulk local states in three dimensions are not organized by the Virasoro symmetry.

  15. Engineering nanostructural routes for enhancing thermoelectric performance: bulk to nanoscale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajeshkumar eMohanraman

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Thermoelectricity is a very important physical property, especially its significance in heat-electricity conversion. If thermoelectric devices can be effectively applied to the recovery of the renewable energies, such as waste heat and solar energy, the energy shortage and global warming issues may be greatly relieved. This review focusses recent developments on the thermoelectric performance of a low-dimensional material, bulk nanostructured materials, conventional bulk materials etc. Particular emphasis is given on, how the nanostructure in nanostructured composites, confinement effects in one-dimensional nanowires and doping effects in conventional bulk composites plays an important role in ZT enhancement.

  16. Eco Issues in Bulk Materials Handling Technologies in Ports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nenad Zrnić

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with eco issues in bulk materials handling in ports. Solid, free-flowing materials are said to be in bulk. Bulk materials handling is very difficult, because it incorporates all the features of liquids, gasses and mass solids. Energy efficiency, dust emissions in nearby environment, dust explosions, jamming, noise, handling of hazardous materials and protection of materials from contamination are issues that will be considered in this paper. Here are also presented possible solutions for some of these issues

  17. Bulk sound velocity of porous materials at high pressures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    耿华运; 吴强; 谭华; 蔡灵仓; 经福谦

    2002-01-01

    A correction of Walsh's method for bulk sound velocity calculation for shocked porous materials is accomplishedbased on the Wu-Jing thermodynamic equation of state. The corrected bulk velocities for solid and porous sampleswith low porosities are in good agreement with the corresponding experimental data published previously. On the basisof this corrected equation, the influence of thermoelectrons on the bulk velocity of shocked materials is discussed indetail at pressures of 50, 70 and 200 GPa. Some interesting phenomena are revealed, which seem to be the uniquefeatures of a dynamic-pressure-loading process and could not be found in static experiments.

  18. Optimization and Performance Analysis of Bulk-Driven Differential Amplifier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antarpreet kaur

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, there has been an increasing demand for high-speed digital circuits at low power consumption. This paper presents a design of input stage of Operational Amplifier i.e cascode differential amplifier using a standard 65nm CMOS Technology.A comparison betweem gate-driven, bulk-driven and cascode bulk driven bulk-driven differential amplifier is described. The Results demonstrate that CMMR is 83.98 dB, 3-dB Bandwidth is 1.04 MHz. The circuit dissipate power of 28uWunder single supply of 1.0V.

  19. Control of bulking phenomena and foaming by respirometry; Control del fenomeno bulking y foaming por respirometria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serrano, E.

    2002-07-01

    The kinetic respirometry may represent an irreplaceable tool for the F/M control and toxicity detection in a waste water treatment plant control. The benefit of the respirometry lies on the fact that when using the genuine activated sludge from the own plant biological reactor, it reflects its current reality. On the other hand, the simplicity of the technique offers its possibility to be incorporated in different types of monitoring and control systems. In addition to a possible out of range dissolved oxygen and pH, the most common cause of the bulking and foaming phenomenon appearance may come from the F/M unbalance and toxicity. The type of respirometry we should make use lies on a kinetic system in where a serie of respiration rates can graphically represent the metabolization process of the organic matter. On this subject, we are utilizing a biological activity parameter figured out from the specific respiration rate Rsp determination. (Author)

  20. Personality Subtypes, Coping Styles, Symptom Correlates, and Substances of Choice among a Cohort of Substance Abusers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quirk, Stuart W.; McCormick, Richard A.

    1998-01-01

    The usefulness of the Five-Factor personality domains of the NEO Personality Inventory (P. Costa and R. McCrae, 1992) in identifying subtypes was studied with 3,256 substance abusers. Three groups, differing in coping style, psychopathological symptoms, and pattern of substance choice, were reliably identified. Implications for use of the measure…

  1. Attitude and Peer Influences on Adolescent Substance Use: The Moderating Effect of Age, Sex, and Substance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musher-Eizenman, Dara R.; Holub, Shayla C.; Arnett, Mitzi

    2003-01-01

    Examines the importance of peer influence and personal attitudes in relation to self-reported use of alcohol, cigarettes, and marijuana for 213 younger adolescents and 219 older adolescents. Friends' use was significantly related to substance use for both age groups, both sexes, and all substances examined. Resistance self- efficacy was…

  2. Order of age at onset for substance use, substance use disorder, conduct disorder and psychiatric illness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guldager, Steen; Linneberg, Inger Holm; Hesse, Morten

    2012-01-01

    and social phobia. Of patients reporting an age at onset for SUD and conduct disorder, 84% reported that age at onset was earliest for conduct disorder. Of patients reporting an age at onset for both any non-substance related axis I disorder and any substance related disorder, age at onset was earliest...

  3. Playing video games while using or feeling the effects of substances: associations with substance use problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ream, Geoffrey L; Elliott, Luther C; Dunlap, Eloise

    2011-10-01

    This study tested the hypothesis that playing video games while using or feeling the effects of a substance--referred to herein as "concurrent use"-is related to substance use problems after controlling for substance use frequency, video gaming as an enthusiastic hobby, and demographic factors. Data were drawn from a nationally representative online survey of adult video gamers conducted by Knowledge Networks, valid n = 2,885. Problem video game playing behavior was operationalized using Tejeiro Salguero and Bersabé Morán's 2002 problem video game play (PVP) measure, and measures for substance use problems were taken from the National Survey of Drug Use and Health (NSDUH). Separate structural equation modeling analyses were conducted for users of caffeine, tobacco, alcohol, and marijuana. In all four models, concurrent use was directly associated with substance use problems, but not with PVP. Video gaming as an enthusiastic hobby was associated with substance use problems via two indirect paths: through PVP for all substances, and through concurrent use for caffeine, tobacco, and alcohol only. Results illustrate the potential for "drug interaction" between self-reinforcing behaviors and addictive substances, with implications for the development of problem use.

  4. Substance Abuse Training and Perceived Knowledge: Predictors of Perceived Preparedness to Work in Substance Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bina, Rena; Yum, Joohee; Hall, Diane M. Harnek; Sowbel, Lynda; Mollette, Angela; Jani, Jayshree; Smith-Osborne, Alexa

    2008-01-01

    As frontline mental health care providers, social workers need to be prepared to confront and properly manage substance abuse issues in practice. This study examined predictors of recent master of social work (MSW) graduates' perceptions of preparedness to practice in the area of substance abuse. A cross-sectional design was used, and 232 recent…

  5. Classification of Chemical Substances and Adverse Effects of Chemical Substances on Human Health

    OpenAIRE

    Söyleriz, Yüksel

    2015-01-01

    In this study, classification of chemical substances and adverse effects of chemical substances on human health in European Union and Turkey are assessed. Method In this study, national and international legislation and practices in the countries of the European Union are reviewed.

  6. Liquid chromatographic analysis of oxytocin and its related substances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashenafi, Dunge; Van Hemelrijck, Elise; Chopra, Shruti; Hoogmartens, Jos; Adams, Erwin

    2010-01-05

    A selective gradient liquid chromatographic (LC) method for the determination of oxytocin (OT) and its related substances in bulk drugs has been developed. The method uses a reversed-phase C18 column (25 cm x 4.0 mm i.d.), 5 microm kept at 40 degrees C. The mobile phases consist of acetonitrile, dihydrogen phosphate solution pH 4.4 and water. The flow rate is 1.0 ml/min. UV detection is performed at 220 nm. A system suitability test (SST) was developed to govern the quality of the separation. The separation towards OT components was investigated on different C18 columns. The developed method was further validated with respect to robustness, precision, sensitivity and linearity. A central composite design was applied to examine the robustness of the method. The method shows good precision, sensitivity, linearity and robustness. Two commercial OT samples were examined using this method. Furthermore, the method proved to be successful when applied to analyze a marketed OT formulation for injection.

  7. Sensory processing disorders among substance dependents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Batya Engel-Yeger

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: (1 To compare sensory processing patterns as expressed in daily life between substance dependents and typical controls; (2 profile the prevalence of sensory processing disorders (SPD among substance dependents; and (3 examine gender effect on SPD within and between groups. Methods: Two hundred ninety people aged 19-64 participated in this study. The study group included 145 individuals who lived in the community or took part in an outpatient program because of addiction to drugs/alcohol and had been clean for over three months. The control group included 145 individuals who were not exposed to drugs or alcohol on a regular basis and did not suffer from addictive behavior. All participants filled a demographic questionnaire. Those who met the inclusion criteria completed the Adolescent/Adult Sensory Profile (AASP so that their sensory processing patterns could be assessed. Results: When comparing both groups, the study group showed greater sensory sensitivity and significantly higher prevalence of SPD. Significant group/gender interaction was found in regard to sensation seeking. Discussion: SPD among substance dependents may be expressed in daily life by either hypersensitivity or hyposensitivity. The behavioral outcomes reflected by the AASP support neurophysiological manifestations about SPD of substance dependents. The evaluation process of substance dependents should refer to their sensory processing abilities. In case SPD is diagnosed, Occupational Therapy and specific sensory–based interventions should be considered in order to fit the specific needs of individuals and enhance their performance, meaningful participation, and quality of life.

  8. Removal of humic substances by biosorption

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    VUKOVI(C) Marija; DOMANOVAC Tomislav; BRI(S)KI Felicita

    2008-01-01

    Fungal pellets of Aspergillus niger 405, Aspergillus ustus 326, and Stachybotrys sp. 1103 were used for the removal of humic substances from aqueous solutions. Batchwise biosorption, carried out at pH 6 and 25℃, was monitored spectrophotometrically and the process described with Freundlich's model. Calculated sorption coefficients K/and n showed that A. niger exhibited the highest efficiency. A good match between the model and experimental data and a high correlation coefficient (R2) pointed out to judicious choice of the mechanism for removal of humic substances from the reaction medium. The sorption rate constants (k) for A. ustus and Stachybotrys sp. were almost equal, however higher than that for A. niger. Comparison of test results with the simulated ones demonstrated the applicability of the designed kinetic model for removal of humic substances from natural water by biosorption with fungal pellets. Different morphological structure of the examined fungal pellets showed that faster sorption does not imply the most efficient removal of humic substances. Desorption of humic substances from fungal pellets was complete, rapid, and yielded uniform results.

  9. Client perceptions of incest and substance abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janikowski, T P; Bordieri, J E; Glover, N M

    1997-01-01

    Clients receiving substance abuse treatment from 35 treatment facilities throughout the United States were surveyed using the Substance Abuse and Incest Survey-Revised (SAIS-R). A total of 732 participants responded to the survey; 518 (71%) were males, 204 (28%) were females, and 10 (1%) did not indicate gender. Participants had a mean age of 33.8 years, were predominately Caucasian (61.6%), never married (45.2%), were currently unemployed (69.4%), and had completed an average of 11.7 years of education. Of the entire sample, 266 (36.3%) reported having been victims of incest; 151 were males and 113 were females (2 did not indicate gender). The group reporting incest histories had a significantly greater percentage of females that did the group not reporting incest histories (chi 2 = 48.1, p incest histories were asked about their perceptions regarding incest, substance abuse, and counseling. Item responses were examined using descriptive statistics and factor analysis. The factor analysis on SAIS-R perception items identified five factors that accounted for 68.9% of the variance; these factors were Stigma and Resistance to Counseling; Substance Abuse and Incest; Ambivalence; Fear and Anticipation; and Receptivity to Counseling. Results are presented and the implications for substance abuse treatment and counseling are discussed.

  10. Effect of wet oxidation on the fingerprints of polymeric substances from an activated sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urrea, José Luis; Collado, Sergio; Oulego, Paula; Díaz, Mario

    2016-11-15

    Thermal pre-treatments of activated sludge involve the release of a high amount of polymeric substances into the bulk medium. The molecular size of these polymers will largely define the subsequent biological treatment of the liquid effluent generated. In this work, the effects of wet oxidation treatment (WO) on the fingerprints of the polymeric substances which compose the activated sludge, were analysed. For a better understanding of these transformations, the sludge was separated into its main fractions: soluble microbial products (SMP), loosely bound extracellular polymeric substances (LB-EPS), tightly bound extracellular polymeric substances (TB-EPS) and naked cells, and then each one was subjected to WO separately (190 °C and 65 bar), determining the fingerprints evolution by size exclusion technique. Results revealed a fast degradation of larger molecules (over 500 kDa) during the first minutes of treatment (40 min). WO also increases the absorptive properties of proteins (especially for 30 kDa), which is possibly due to the hydroxylation of phenylalanine amino acids in their structure. WO of naked cells involved the formation of molecules between 23 and 190 kDa, which are related to the release of cytoplasmic polymers, and more hydrophobic polymers, probably from the cell membrane. The results allowed to establish a relationship between the location of polymeric material and its facility to become oxidised; thus, the more internal the polymeric material in the cell, the easier its oxidation. When working directly with the raw sludge, hydrolysis mechanisms played a key role during the starting period. Once a high degree of solubilisation was reached, the molecules were rapidly oxidised into other compounds with refractory characteristics. The final effluent after WO showed almost 90% of low molecular weight solubilised substances (0-35 kDa).

  11. Nondestructive Method for Bulk Chemical Characterization of Barred Olivine Chondrules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montoya-Perez, M. A.; Cervantes-de la Cruz, K. E.; Ruvalcaba-Sil, J. L.

    2017-02-01

    This work develops a bulk chemical characterization of barred olivine chondrules based on the XRF analysis using a portable equipment at the National Research and Conservation Science Laboratory of Cultural Heritage (LANCIC-IF) in Mexico City.

  12. Bulk metallic glass for low noise fluxgate Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The team of Prime Photonics, Virginia Tech, and Utron Kinetics propose to demonstrate a method for fabrication of a bulk, amorphous, cobalt-rich material that...

  13. Solidex 84 - modern technology in bulk solids handling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1984-01-01

    Proceedings from Conference on solids handling. Sections which are of interest include coal and ash handling, and flow problems and explosion hazards in bulk handling plant. 14 papers have been abstracted separately.

  14. Bulk metallic glasses: A new class of engineering materials

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Joysurya Basu; S Ranganathan

    2003-06-01

    Bulk glass-forming alloys have emerged over the past fifteen years with attractive properties and technological promise. A number of alloy systems based on lanthanum, magnesium, zirconium, palladium, iron, cobalt and nickel have been discovered. Glass-forming ability depends on various factors like enthalpy of mixing, atomic size and multicomponent alloying. A number of processes is available to synthesise bulk metallic glasses. The crystallisation behaviour and mechanical properties of these alloys pose interesting scientific questions. Upon crystallisation many of these glasses transform to bulk nanocrystals and nanoquasicrystals. A detailed study of the structure and the crystallisation behaviour of glasses has enabled the elucidation of the possible atomic configuration in liquid alloys. Their crystallisation behaviour can be exploited to synthesise novel nanocomposite microstructures and their mechanical properties can be enhanced. A broad overview of the present status of the science and technology of bulk metallic glasses and their potential technological uses is presented.

  15. Bulk Viscosity Effects in Event-by-Event Relativistic Hydrodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Noronha-Hostler, Jacquelyn; Noronha, Jorge; Andrade, Rone P G; Grassi, Frederique

    2013-01-01

    Bulk viscosity effects on the collective flow harmonics in heavy ion collisions are investigated, on an event by event basis, using a newly developed 2+1 Lagrangian hydrodynamic code named v-USPhydro which implements the Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH) algorithm for viscous hydrodynamics. A new formula for the bulk viscous corrections present in the distribution function at freeze-out is derived starting from the Boltzmann equation for multi-hadron species. Bulk viscosity is shown to enhance the collective flow Fourier coefficients from $v_2(p_T)$ to $v_5(p_T)$ when $% p_{T}\\sim 1-3$ GeV even when the bulk viscosity to entropy density ratio, $% \\zeta/s$, is significantly smaller than $1/(4\\pi)$.

  16. Nondestructive Method for Bulk Chemical Characterization of Barred Olivine Chondrules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montoya-Perez, M. A.; Cervantes-de la Cruz, K. E.; Ruvalcaba-Sil, J. L.

    2017-05-01

    This work develops a bulk chemical characterization of barred olivine chondrules based on the XRF analysis using a portable equipment at the National Research and Conservation Science Laboratory of Cultural Heritage (LANCIC-IF) in Mexico City.

  17. Efficiency of bulk-heterojunction organic solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scharber, M C; Sariciftci, N S

    2013-12-01

    During the last years the performance of bulk heterojunction solar cells has been improved significantly. For a large-scale application of this technology further improvements are required. This article reviews the basic working principles and the state of the art device design of bulk heterojunction solar cells. The importance of high power conversion efficiencies for the commercial exploitation is outlined and different efficiency models for bulk heterojunction solar cells are discussed. Assuming state of the art materials and device architectures several models predict power conversion efficiencies in the range of 10-15%. A more general approach assuming device operation close to the Shockley-Queisser-limit leads to even higher efficiencies. Bulk heterojunction devices exhibiting only radiative recombination of charge carriers could be as efficient as ideal inorganic photovoltaic devices.

  18. Role of the antiferromagnetic bulk spins in exchange bias

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schuller, Ivan K. [Center for Advanced Nanoscience and Physics Department, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093 (United States); Morales, Rafael, E-mail: rafael.morales@ehu.es [Department of Chemical-Physics & BCMaterials, University of the Basque Country UPV/EHU (Spain); IKERBASQUE, Basque Foundation for Science, 48011 Bilbao (Spain); Batlle, Xavier [Departament Física Fonamental and Institut de Nanociència i Nanotecnologia, Universitat de Barcelona, c/ Martí i Franqués s/n, 08028 Barcelona, Catalonia (Spain); Nowak, Ulrich [Department of Physics, University of Konstanz, 78464 Konstanz (Germany); Güntherodt, Gernot [Physics Institute (IIA), RWTH Aachen University, Campus RWTH-Melaten, 52074 Aachen (Germany)

    2016-10-15

    This “Critical Focused Issue” presents a brief review of experiments and models which describe the origin of exchange bias in epitaxial or textured ferromagnetic/antiferromagnetic bilayers. Evidence is presented which clearly indicates that inner, uncompensated, pinned moments in the bulk of the antiferromagnet (AFM) play a very important role in setting the magnitude of the exchange bias. A critical evaluation of the extensive literature in the field indicates that it is useful to think of this bulk, pinned uncompensated moments as a new type of a ferromagnet which has a low total moment, an ordering temperature given by the AFM Néel temperature, with parallel aligned moments randomly distributed on the regular AFM lattice. - Highlights: • We address the role of bulk antiferromagnetic spins in the exchange bias phenomenon. • Significant experiments on how bulk AFM spins determine exchange bias are highlighted. • We explain the model that accounts for experimental results.

  19. Efficiency of bulk-heterojunction organic solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scharber, M.C.; Sariciftci, N.S.

    2013-01-01

    During the last years the performance of bulk heterojunction solar cells has been improved significantly. For a large-scale application of this technology further improvements are required. This article reviews the basic working principles and the state of the art device design of bulk heterojunction solar cells. The importance of high power conversion efficiencies for the commercial exploitation is outlined and different efficiency models for bulk heterojunction solar cells are discussed. Assuming state of the art materials and device architectures several models predict power conversion efficiencies in the range of 10–15%. A more general approach assuming device operation close to the Shockley–Queisser-limit leads to even higher efficiencies. Bulk heterojunction devices exhibiting only radiative recombination of charge carriers could be as efficient as ideal inorganic photovoltaic devices. PMID:24302787

  20. 27 CFR 19.588 - Construction of bulk conveyances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... compartment) shall be so arranged that it can be completely drained. (3) Each tank car or tank truck shall... device, for carrying required marks or brands shall be provided on each bulk conveyance. (6)...

  1. Advanced Manufacturing Technologies (AMT): Bulk Metallic Glass Element

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The first major objective of the ‘Bulk Metallic Glasses (BMGs) for Space Applications’ project is to raise the technology readiness level dry lubricated,...

  2. 76 FR 36557 - Center for Substance Abuse Prevention; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-22

    ... Abuse and Mental Health Services, Administration's Center for Substance Abuse Prevention Drug Testing... HUMAN SERVICES Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration Center for Substance Abuse... Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration's (SAMHSA) Center for Substance Abuse......

  3. Occupational turnover intentions among substance abuse counselors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothrauff, Tanja C; Abraham, Amanda J; Bride, Brian E; Roman, Paul M

    2011-01-01

    This study examined predictor, moderator, and mediator variables of occupational turnover intention (OcTI) among substance abuse counselors. Data were obtained via questionnaires from 929 counselors working in 225 private substance abuse treatment (SAT) programs across the United States. Hierarchical multiple regression models were conducted to assess predictor, moderator, and mediator variables of OcTI. OcTI scores were relatively low on a 7-point scale, indicating that very few counselors definitely intended to leave the SAT field. Age, certification, positive perceptions of procedural and distributive justice, and hospital-based status negatively predicted OcTI. Counselors' substance use disorder-impacted history moderated the association between organizational commitment and OcTI. Organizational turnover intention partially mediated the link between organizational commitment and OcTI. Workforce stability might be achieved by promoting perceptions of advantages to working in a particular treatment program, having organizational commitment, showing appreciation for counselors' work, and valuing employees from diverse backgrounds.

  4. Prosocial coping and substance use during pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blechman, E A; Lowell, E S; Garrett, J

    1999-01-01

    In structured interviews of pregnant inner-city residents, 38 substance users reported more current liking of drugs and polysubstance use, disengagement coping, depressive symptoms, negative affect, and antisocial behavior than did 45 nonusers. During videotaped interviews, trained observers coded less warmth and less prosocial information exchange (e.g., self-disclosure, question asking) among users. Factor analysis of measures of coping and its concomitants yielded a three-factor (prosocial, antisocial, asocial) solution, with asocial and antisocial coping predominating among substance users. These results suggest that coping has emotional, social, and cognitive elements. This study is the first to demonstrate an association between a substance-using lifestyle and limited prosocial information exchange.

  5. An integral approach to substance abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amodia, Diana S; Cano, Carol; Eliason, Michele J

    2005-12-01

    There is a pressing need in the substance abuse field for more comprehensive models of etiology and treatment that address the complex issues of addiction, including the biological, social, cultural, spiritual and developmental needs of individuals and groups. This article presents a theoretical framework for an integral approach to substance abuse that expands on the existing biopsychosocial model. One contribution of the model is an integrated approach to spirituality from a cross-cultural perspective. This integral approach examines substance abuse etiology and treatment from a four-quadrant perspective adapted from the work of Ken Wilber, and incorporates concepts from integrative medicine and transpersonal psychology/psychiatry. Implications of the model are explored.

  6. Sociocultural perspective of substance use in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, H K

    1996-01-01

    The present communication focuses on a sociocultural perspective of substance use in a pluralistic and diverse culture. India has a history of use of plant products, viz., cannabis, opium, and home-brewed alcoholic beverages, within a defined sociocultural framework over five millennium. Cross sectional epidemiological studies in the field of substance use in different parts of India show that certain social groups are more "vulnerable" to substance use. Caste, religion, and local customs and traditions play a significant role in the choice of drugs, their consumption, and their control in rural/semiurban populations. The intercultural barriers are diminishing in urban populations, and even alien drugs like heroin have been introduced. The social and cultural implications of the traditional vis-a-vis the altering drug use scene are discussed at length.

  7. Biologically active substances of stone crop fruits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margarita Makarkina

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Stone fruit crops are successfully cultivated in many regions of Russia. Their fruits contain a great diversity of biologically active and mineral substances. The stone fruit varietal collection of the All Russia Research Institute of Fruit Crop Breeding has been estimated on the content of biologically active substances (ascorbic acid and phenolic compounds in fruits: 80 sour cherry varieties, 28 sweet cherry varieties, 29 plum varieties and 24 apricot varieties. High cultivar variability of the content of ascorbic acid and P-active sub-stances in fruits has been determined in each crop. The best genotypes have been singled out according to each biochemical component and a complex of characters.

  8. LHC signatures of vector boson emission from brane to bulk

    CERN Document Server

    Kirpichnikov, D V

    2012-01-01

    In the framework of the RSII-n model with n compact and one infinite extra dimensions, we study the production of Z-bosons and photons, which escape into the bulk, in association with a jet in pp collisions at the LHC energies. This would show up as the process pp -> jet+bulk. We calculate the distributions in the jet transverse momentum and rapidity and compare them with the Standard Model background pp->jet +\

  9. Compositional ordering and stability in nanostructured, bulk thermoelectric alloys.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hekmaty, Michelle A.; Faleev, S.; Medlin, Douglas L.; Leonard, F.; Lensch-Falk, J.; Sharma, Peter Anand; Sugar, J. D.

    2009-09-01

    Thermoelectric materials have many applications in the conversion of thermal energy to electrical power and in solid-state cooling. One route to improving thermoelectric energy conversion efficiency in bulk material is to embed nanoscale inclusions. This report summarize key results from a recently completed LDRD project exploring the science underpinning the formation and stability of nanostructures in bulk thermoelectric and the quantitative relationships between such structures and thermoelectric properties.

  10. China's bulk shipping industry overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Z. [China National Chartering Corp., Sinochart (China)

    2002-07-01

    A set of 20 slides/overheads (file LiZhen.ppt) in Chinese and English outlines the talk under the headings: recent development in marine shipping governance; trends and characteristics of international trade of China's main bulk cargo; China's bulk cargo fleet; and the development of China National Chartering Corp, SINOCHART. Four pages of text in English reports the talk.

  11. Alternative technology of nanoparticles consolidation in the bulk material

    OpenAIRE

    VOLKOV Georgiy Michailovich

    2016-01-01

    Theoretical bases and technological principles of single-stages nanoparticles conso-lidation into bulk material were offered. The theory was implemented on the model system of carbon-carbon in the process of high-temperature pyrolysis of hydrocar-bons. The bulk carbon nanomaterial with unique technical properties was produced. That made it possible to create engineering products which technical characteristics are higher than the existing level in the world. The proposed theory can be ada...

  12. Ionic Liquids in Bulk and at an Interface

    OpenAIRE

    Tariq, Mohammad; Shimizu, Karina; Lopes, Jose N. Canongia; Saramago, Benilde; Rebelo, Luis Paulo N.

    2015-01-01

    In the present chapter, we describe different types of investigation carried out by research groups based at CQE/IST/UTL and ITQB/UNL and their ramifications in terms of surface science. Most of the work is focused on the characterization of ionic liquids (ILs) (both by experimental and theoretical techniques) and on the different types of interaction that they can experience in the bulk or at an interface. Studies in the bulk include the analysis of the aggregation behavior (micelle formatio...

  13. Effects of humic substances on the bioconcentration of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons: Correlations with spectroscopic and chemical properties of humic substances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haitzer, M.; Abbt-Braun, G.; Traunspurger, W.; Steinberg, C.E.W.

    1999-01-01

    The presence of dissolved humic substances (HS, fulvic and humic acids) generally reduces the uptake of hydrophobic organic compounds into aquatic organisms. The extent of this effect depends both on the concentration and on the origin of the HS. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of qualitative differences between HS from different origins. The effects of seven different HS on the bioconcentration of pyrene and benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans were related to the spectroscopic and chemical properties of the HS. The effect of each humic material on the bioconcentration of pyrene or BaP was quantified as a 'biologically determined' partition coefficient K(DOC). We observed significant linear relationships between K(DOC) and the atomic H/C ratio, the specific absorptivity at 254 nm, the content of aromatic carbons (as determined by 13C nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, the copper-complexing capacity, the content of phenolic OH groups, and the molecular weight of the HS. There was no discernible relationship of K(DOC) with the atomic (N + O)/C ratio, an indicator of the polarity of HS. Taken together, our results show that the variability in the effects of HS from different origins could be related to variations in bulk properties of the HS. Parameters describing the aromaticity of the humic materials seemed to be most useful for estimating effects of HS on the bioconcentration of pyrene and BaP.

  14. Substance Use and Physical Dating Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes, H. Luz McNaughton; Foshee, Vangie A.; Tharp, Andra T.; Ennett, Susan T.; Bauer, Daniel J.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Theoretic models suggest that associations between substance use and dating violence perpetration may vary in different social contexts, but few studies have examined this proposition. The current study examined whether social control and violence in the neighborhood, peer, and family contexts moderate the associations between substance use (heavy alcohol use, marijuana, and hard drug use) and adolescent physical dating violence perpetration. Methods Adolescents in the eighth, ninth, and tenth grades completed questionnaires in 2004 and again four more times until 2007 when they were in the tenth, 11th and 12th grades. Multilevel analysis was used to examine interactions between each substance and measures of neighborhood, peer, and family social control and violence as within-person (time-varying) predictors of physical dating violence perpetration across eighth through 12th grade (N=2,455). Analyses were conducted in 2014. Results Physical dating violence perpetration increased at time points when heavy alcohol and hard drug use were elevated; these associations were weaker when neighborhood social control was higher and stronger when family violence was higher. Also, the association between heavy alcohol use and physical dating violence perpetration was weaker when teens had more-prosocial peer networks and stronger when teens’ peers reported more physical dating violence. Conclusions Linkages between substance use and physical dating violence perpetration depend on substance use type and levels of contextual violence and social control. Prevention programs that address substance use–related dating violence should consider the role of social contextual variables that may condition risk by influencing adolescents’ aggression propensity. PMID:26296445

  15. Problems of substance abuse: exploitation and control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, L

    1985-01-01

    The notion of substance abuse is highly problematic. There is considerable disagreement amongst 'experts' as to the relative hazards and addictive properties of both legally and illegally available substances. There are also widely divergent sub-cultural attitudes to the harmfulness or benefit of drug use. One can assume no social consensus as to the nature of the contemporary 'drug problem', nor about the most appropriate means of dealing with it. There is, however, considerable evidence that criminalization of drug use, and harsh penalties against users and suppliers, are ineffective and counter-productive. Other models of control need to be considered, and in particular the merits and de-merits of the medicalization of drug abuse require examination. However, this is only one aspect of the problem. On the other side are the national and international corporations and syndicates, both legitimate and criminal, that earn vast profits from trade in toxic substances. Tobacco is legally available in every country in the world, and the industry is rarely subject to strict control. Thus the issue of substance abuse and control should be seen in a global context, in which account is taken of both legitimate and underworld operations. In attempts to control international trade in toxic substances, the limited success and the problems of already existing legal controls should be acknowledged. Local awareness and regulation of trade in substances is essential, but not sufficient. Amongst other avenues to be explored is the possibility of diverting presently illicitly grown narcotics into indigenous pharmaceutical industries in the Third World. Some problems with this strategy are noted.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  16. Bulk flow of halos in $\\Lambda$CDM simulation

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Ming; Gao, Liang; Jing, Yipeng; Yang, Xiaohu; Chi, Xuebin; Feng, Longlong; Kang, Xi; Lin, Weipeng; Shang, Guihua; Wang, Long; Zhao, Donghai; Zhang, Pengjie

    2012-01-01

    Analysis of the Pangu N-body simulation validates that bulk flow of halos follows Maxwellian distribution of which variance is consistent with prediction of linear perturbation theory of structure formation. We propose that consistency between observed bulk velocity and theories shall be examined at the effective scale as radius of spherical top-hat window function yielding the same smoothed velocity variance in linear theory as the sample window does. Then we compared some recently estimated bulk flows from observational samples with prediction of the $\\Lambda$CDM model we used, some results deviate the expectation at level of $\\sim 3\\sigma$ but the tension is not as severe as previously claimed. We disclose that bulk flow is weakly correlated with dipole of internal mass distribution, alignment angle between mass dipole and bulk flow has broad distribution but is peaked at $\\sim 30-50^\\circ$, meanwhile bulk flow shows little dependence on mass of halos used for estimation. In the simulation of box size $1h^...

  17. Exploring the BTZ bulk with boundary conformal blocks

    CERN Document Server

    da Cunha, Bruno Carneiro

    2016-01-01

    We point out a simple relation between the bulk field at an arbitrary radial position and the boundary OPE, by placing some old work by Ferrara, Gatto, Grillo and Parisi in the AdS/CFT context. This gives us, in principle, a prescription for extracting the classical bulk field from the boundary conformal block, and also clarifies why the latter is computed by a geodesic Witten diagram. We apply this prescription to the BTZ black hole - viewed as a pure state created by the insertion of a heavy operator in the boundary CFT_2 - and use it to relate a classical field in the bulk to a heavy-light Virasoro conformal block in the boundary. In particular, we obtain a relation between the radial bulk position and the conformal ratios in the boundary CFT. We use this to show that the singular points of the radial bulk equation occur when the dual boundary operators approach each other and that the associated bulk monodromies map to monodromies of the (appropriately transformed) conformal block, thus providing a CFT in...

  18. Dirac Fermions without bulk backscattering in rhombohedral topological insulators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mera Acosta, Carlos; Lima, Matheus; Seixas, Leandro; da Silva, Antônio; Fazzio, Adalberto

    2015-03-01

    The realization of a spintronic device using topological insulators is not trivial, because there are inherent difficulties in achieving the surface transport regime. The majority of 3D topological insulators materials (3DTI) despite of support helical metallic surface states on an insulating bulk, forming topological Dirac fermions protected by the time-reversal symmetry, exhibit electronic scattering channels due to the presence of residual continuous bulk states near the Dirac-point. From ab initio calculations, we studied the microscopic origin of the continuous bulk states in rhombohedral topological insulators materials with the space group D3d 5 (R 3 m) , showing that it is possible to understand the emergence of residual continuous bulk states near the Dirac-point into a six bands effective model, where the breaking of the R3 symmetry beyond the Γ point has an important role in the hybridization of the px, py and pz atomic orbitals. Within these model, the mechanisms known to eliminate the bulk scattering, for instance: the stacking faults (SF), electric field and alloy, generated the similar effect in the effective states of the 3DTI. Finally, we show how the surface electronic transport is modified by perturbations of bulk with SF. We would like to thank the financial support by Fundação de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado de São Paulo (FAPESP).

  19. Unique properties of humic substances from sapropel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rumyantsev, V. A.; Mityukov, A. S.; Kryukov, L. N.; Yaroshevich, G. S.

    2017-04-01

    Sapropel from inland Russian water reservoirs is becoming a popular raw material for medicinal purposes, production of sorbents, organomineral fertilizers, and food supplements. A comparative study of the granulometric and biological properties of humic substances obtained from sapropel in a typical way and using ultrasonic treatment of the relevant reaction masses was performed at the Institute of Limnology of the Russian Academy of Sciences. It is shown that the humic substances of sapropel with an increased content of nanoparticles used as veterinary preparations lead to a significant economic effect without using imported preparations.

  20. Integrated Care for Pediatric Substance Abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barclay, Rebecca P; Hilt, Robert J

    2016-10-01

    Integrated care is a way to improve the prevention, identification, and treatment of mental health difficulties, including substance abuse, in pediatric care. The pediatrician's access, expertise in typical development, focus on prevention, and alignment with patients and families can allow successful screening, early intervention, and referral to treatment. Successful integrated substance abuse care for youth is challenged by current reimbursement systems, information exchange, and provider role adjustment issues, but these are being addressed as comfort with this care form and resources to support its development grow.

  1. Leaf-closing substance in Leucaena leucocephala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohtome, Yoshihiro; Tokunaga, Takashi; Ueda, Katsuhiro; Yamamura, Shosuke; Ueda, Minoru

    2002-01-01

    Potassium (2R,3R)-2,3,4-trihydroxy-2-methylbutanoate (1) was identified as a leaf-closing substance in the nyctinastic plant, Leucaena leucocephala. Compound 1 showed strong leaf-closing activity toward L. leucocephala and was not effective against other nyctinastic plants. The potassium ion was indispensable for the bioactivity of 1. Compound 1 gradually lost its bioactivity because of the exchange of the counter cation during isolation. A leaf-opening substance was also observed in the same plant.

  2. Terahertz spectroscopic investigations of hazardous substances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bojan, M.; Damian, V.; Fleaca, C.; Vasile, T.

    2016-12-01

    In this paper we report spectral measurements of some relatively common substances but from the hazardous category (possibly to be used like explosives or their manipulation is dangerous) in view to create a database with spectra of such substances. THz transmission spectra of some pure materials and mixed ones are also introduced. The measurements were performed using a Time-Domain system that work in the range of 0.2-4.5 THz. We develop our algorithm to obtain maximum information from the measurement and to minimize the errors.

  3. Substance misuse prevention as corporate social responsibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radacsi, Gergely; Hardi, Peter

    2014-03-01

    All sectors of society should be involved in reducing substance misuse, including businesses. However, the business sector is typically involved only to the extent that their products compel them to be (e.g., alcohol producers promoting responsible alcohol consumption). This article examines why business participation has been limited and how embedding prevention within a framework of health promotion could increase participation. It reviews both Hungarian and international cases, concluding that although corporate social responsibility (CSR) offers a framework to approach substance misuse reduction, a different perception of the role of the business sector is necessary to make it viable.

  4. Influence of low molecular weight fractions of humic substances on reducing capacities and distribution of redox functional groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zhen; Jiang, Jie

    2016-04-01

    Humic substances (HS) are redox-active organic compounds and their reducing capacities depend on their molecule structure and distribution of redox functional groups (RFG). During dialysis experiments, bulk humic acids (HA) were separated into low molecular weight fractions (LMWF) and retentate. LMWF account for only 2% of the total organic carbon content of HA molecules, however, their reducing capacities are up to 33 times greater than either those of the bulk HA or retentate. Furthermore, the total reducing capacity of the bulk HA accounts for less than 15% of the total reducing capacity of bulk HA, retentate and LMWF combined, suggesting that releasing of LMWF cannot reduce the number of RFG. RFG are neither in fixed amounts nor in uniformly distributed in bulk HA. LWMF have great fluorescence intensities for humic-like fluorophores (quinone-like functional groups), where quinonoid π-π* transition is responsible for the great reducing capacities of LMWF, and protein-like fluorophores. The 3,500 Da molecules (1.25 nm diameter) of HS could stimulate transformation of redox-active metals or potential pollutants trapped in soil micropores (< 2 nm diameter). A development of relationship between reducing capacity and Ex/Em position provides a possibility to predicate relative reducing capacities of HS in environmental samples.

  5. Toward a comprehensive approach to the collection and analysis of pica substances, with emphasis on geophagic materials.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sera L Young

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Pica, the craving and subsequent consumption of non-food substances such as earth, charcoal, and raw starch, has been an enigma for more than 2000 years. Currently, there are little available data for testing major hypotheses about pica because of methodological limitations and lack of attention to the problem. METHODOLOGY: In this paper we critically review procedures and guidelines for interviews and sample collection that are appropriate for a wide variety of pica substances. In addition, we outline methodologies for the physical, mineralogical, and chemical characterization of these substances, with particular focus on geophagic soils and clays. Many of these methods are standard procedures in anthropological, soil, or nutritional sciences, but have rarely or never been applied to the study of pica. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Physical properties of geophagic materials including color, particle size distribution, consistency and dispersion/flocculation (coagulation should be assessed by appropriate methods. Quantitative mineralogical analyses by X-ray diffraction should be made on bulk material as well as on separated clay fractions, and the various clay minerals should be characterized by a variety of supplementary tests. Concentrations of minerals should be determined using X-ray fluorescence for non-food substances and inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy for food-like substances. pH, salt content, cation exchange capacity, organic carbon content and labile forms of iron oxide should also be determined. Finally, analyses relating to biological interactions are recommended, including determination of the bioavailability of nutrients and other bioactive components from pica substances, as well as their detoxification capacities and parasitological profiles. SIGNIFICANCE: This is the first review of appropriate methodologies for the study of human pica. The comprehensive and multi-disciplinary approach to the

  6. Playing Video Games While Using or Feeling the Effects of Substances: Associations with Substance Use Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geoffrey L. Ream

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available This study tested the hypothesis that playing video games while using or feeling the effects of a substance—referred to herein as “concurrent use”—is related to substance use problems after controlling for substance use frequency, video gaming as an enthusiastic hobby, and demographic factors. Data were drawn from a nationally representative online survey of adult video gamers conducted by Knowledge Networks, valid n = 2,885. Problem video game playing behavior was operationalized using Tejeiro Salguero and Bersabé Morán’s 2002 problem video game play (PVP measure, and measures for substance use problems were taken from the National Survey of Drug Use and Health (NSDUH. Separate structural equation modeling analyses were conducted for users of caffeine, tobacco, alcohol, and marijuana. In all four models, concurrent use was directly associated with substance use problems, but not with PVP. Video gaming as an enthusiastic hobby was associated with substance use problems via two indirect paths: through PVP for all substances, and through concurrent use for caffeine, tobacco, and alcohol only. Results illustrate the potential for “drug interaction” between self-reinforcing behaviors and addictive substances, with implications for the development of problem use.

  7. Determination of thermal properties of composting bulking materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, H K; Sauer, T J; Richard, T L; Glanville, T D

    2009-09-01

    Thermal properties of compost bulking materials affect temperature and biodegradation during the composting process. Well determined thermal properties of compost feedstocks will therefore contribute to practical thermodynamic approaches. Thermal conductivity, thermal diffusivity, and volumetric heat capacity of 12 compost bulking materials were determined in this study. Thermal properties were determined at varying bulk densities (1, 1.3, 1.7, 2.5, and 5 times uncompacted bulk density), particle sizes (ground and bulk), and water contents (0, 20, 50, 80% of water holding capacity and saturated condition). For the water content at 80% of water holding capacity, saw dust, soil compost blend, beef manure, and turkey litter showed the highest thermal conductivity (K) and volumetric heat capacity (C) (K: 0.12-0.81 W/m degrees C and C: 1.36-4.08 MJ/m(3) degrees C). Silage showed medium values at the same water content (K: 0.09-0.47 W/m degrees C and C: 0.93-3.09 MJ/m(3) degrees C). Wheat straw, oat straw, soybean straw, cornstalks, alfalfa hay, and wood shavings produced the lowest K and C values (K: 0.03-0.30 W/m degrees C and C: 0.26-3.45 MJ/m(3) degrees C). Thermal conductivity and volumetric heat capacity showed a linear relationship with moisture content and bulk density, while thermal diffusivity showed a nonlinear relationship. Since the water, air, and solid materials have their own specific thermal property values, thermal properties of compost bulking materials vary with the rate of those three components by changing water content, bulk density, and particle size. The degree of saturation was used to represent the interaction between volumes of water, air, and solids under the various combinations of moisture content, bulk density, and particle size. The first order regression models developed in this paper represent the relationship between degree of saturation and volumetric heat capacity (r=0.95-0.99) and thermal conductivity (r=0.84-0.99) well. Improved

  8. Substance use disorders in forensic psychiatric patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kraan, J.; Verkes, R.J.; Goethals, K.; Vissers, A.; Brazil, I.A.; Bulten, B.H.

    2014-01-01

    There is a lack of detailed information on the role of substance use disorders (SUD) as a substantial factor in offences and treatment in forensic psychiatric patients. The aim of this study was to get a better understanding of these specifics. Clinical records of 193 male patients admitted to a Dut

  9. Study of humic substances by fluorescence spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sona Konecna

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to determine main fluorophores of soil humic substances using 2D and 3D synchronous fluorescencespectroscopy (SFS. The measured synchronous spectra werecompared with standards IHSS. Differences between humic andfulvic acids as well as our and IHSS samples are discussed.

  10. A cytotoxic substance from Sangre de Grado.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itokawa, H; Ichihara, Y; Mochizuki, M; Enomori, T; Morita, H; Shirota, O; Inamatsu, M; Takeya, K

    1991-04-01

    Taspine has been isolated as a cytotoxic substance from Sangre de Grado, sap of Croton palanostigma (Euphorbiaceae), by bioassay guided fractionation. The cytotoxicity (IC50) of taspine was found to be 0.39 microgram/ml against KB cells and 0.17 microgram/ml against V-79 cells.

  11. Lichen substances prevent lichens from nutrient deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauck, Markus; Willenbruch, Karen; Leuschner, Christoph

    2009-01-01

    The dibenzofuran usnic acid, a widespread cortical secondary metabolite produced by lichen-forming fungi, was shown to promote the intracellular uptake of Cu(2+) in two epiphytic lichens, Evernia mesomorpha and Ramalina menziesii, from acidic, nutrient-poor bark. Higher Cu(2+) uptake in the former, which produces the depside divaricatic acid in addition to usnic acid, suggests that this depside promotes Cu(2+) uptake. Since Cu(2+) is one of the rarest micronutrients, promotion of Cu(2+) uptake by lichen substances may be crucial for the studied lichens to survive in their nutrient-poor habitats. In contrast, study of the uptake of other metals in E. mesomorpha revealed that the intracellular uptake of Mn(2+), which regularly exceeds potentially toxic concentrations in leachates of acidic tree bark, was partially inhibited by the lichen substances produced by this species. Inhibition of Mn(2+) uptake by lichen substances previously has been demonstrated in lichens. The uptake of Fe(2+), Fe(3+), Mg(2+), and Zn(2+), which fail to reach toxic concentrations in acidic bark at unpolluted sites, although they are more common than Cu(2+), was not affected by lichen substances of E. mesomorpha.

  12. Binding of cationic surfactants to humic substances

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ishiguro, M.; Tan, W.; Koopal, L.K.

    2007-01-01

    Commercial surfactants are introduced into the environment either through waste products or site-specific contamination. The amphiphilic nature of both surfactants and humic substances (HS) leads to their mutual attraction especially when surfactant and HS are oppositely charged. Binding of the cati

  13. 77 FR 75783 - Disposal of Controlled Substances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-21

    ... maintain collection receptacles at that agency's physical location and to authorize collectors to maintain... availability of controlled substances for use. For example, within the meaning of the CSA, a controlled... care facilities (LTCFs). DEA defines a LTCF as ``a nursing home, retirement care, mental care or...

  14. Substance Abuse Taxes the American Workplace

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... are three times higher than for other workers. Workers in recovery from substance abuse have lower turnover rates and are less likely to miss work days, less likely to be hospitalized and have ... hire qualified workers (93 percent) and the costs of worker's compensation ( ...

  15. Psychoactive substance use in forensic psychiatry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kermani, E J; Castaneda, R

    1996-02-01

    The purpose of this article is to discuss the interface between judicial discipline and behavioral science in the context of substance-related disorders. We review the epidemiology of psychoactive drug use and crime and discuss the courts' decisions on relevant landmark cases, particularly as they influence the practice of psychiatry. (1) The phenomenology of addiction and crime is of great epidemiological import. (2) Our legal system inclines toward the view that the use of alcohol or other substances involves an element of choice and therefore would not amount to a legal insanity defense if the substance abuser commits a crime while intoxicated. (3) A state can confine an addict or alcoholic for compulsory treatment if that individual presents a danger to self or others. (4) The law has found that alcoholism and drug abuse are both "willful misconduct" and a disabling condition; the former definition contains the end in view of punitive action. The latter is aimed toward treatment and rehabilitation. (5) The law gives the right to the employer to test a suspected employee for drug abuse. The addicted or alcoholic employee has the choice to either go for treatment or face job termination. (6) Our judicial system gives serious consideration to the welfare of a child whose parents are alcoholic or drug addicted. The two disciplines of psychiatry and law follow their own modes in resolving issues in alcoholism and other substance abuse. We need research and new approaches to build a bridge between the two.

  16. Attaching substances to micro-organisms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buist, Girbe; Leenhouts, Cornelis Johannes; Venema, Gerard; Kok, Jan

    1999-01-01

    The invention relates to surface display of proteins on micro-organisms via the targeting and anchoring of heterologous proteins to the outer surface of cells such as yeast, fungi, mammalian and plant cells, and bacteria. The invention provides a proteinaceous substance comprising a reactive group a

  17. Public perceptions of behavioral and substance addictions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Brent; Rosenberg, Harold

    2017-02-01

    Most of the research on public perceptions of people with addictive disorders has focused on alcohol and illicit drugs, rather than addiction to behavioral activities. To expand the range of addictive behaviors and types of perceptions studied, we designed the present study to assess the lay public's definitions of and willingness to affiliate with people described as addicted to 1 of 2 specific behaviors (i.e., pornography or gambling) or 1 of 3 specific substances (i.e., alcohol, marijuana, or heroin). A nationwide convenience sample (N = 612) of American adults completed online questionnaires during the summer of 2015. Participants rated heroin as more addictive than the other drugs and behaviors and, despite differences among the conditions, were generally unwilling to affiliate with an individual addicted to any of the 2 behaviors or 3 substances. When asked to rate different potential indications of addiction, participants endorsed behavioral signs of impaired control and physiological and psychological dependence as more indicative of all 5 types of addiction than desire to use the substance or engage in the addictive behavior. Despite recent efforts to increase public knowledge about addictive disorders, members of the public continue to endorse some attitudes indicative of stigmatization toward people with selected substance and behavioral addictions. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  18. Reaction between drug substances and pharmaceutical excipients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Jesper; Cornett, Claus; Jaroszewski, Jerzy Witold

    2009-01-01

    The reactivity of citric acid towards drug substances in the solid state was examined using the beta-blocker carvedilol as a model compound. The reaction mixtures were analysed by LC-MS, the reaction products were isolated by preparative HPLC, and the structures were elucidated by microprobe NMR...

  19. Addressing Trauma in Substance Abuse Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giordano, Amanda L.; Prosek, Elizabeth A.; Stamman, Julia; Callahan, Molly M.; Loseu, Sahar; Bevly, Cynthia M.; Cross, Kaitlin; Woehler, Elliott S.; Calzada, Richard-Michael R.; Chadwell, Katie

    2016-01-01

    Trauma is prevalent among clients with substance abuse issues, yet addictions counselors' training in trauma approaches is limited. The purpose of the current article is to provide pertinent information regarding trauma treatment including the use of assessments, empirically supported clinical approaches, self-help groups and the risk of vicarious…

  20. [Profile of psychoactive substances consumption in workplace].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bœuf-Cazou, Olivia; Lapeyre-Mestre, Maryse; Niezborala, Michel; Montastruc, Jean-Louis

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to identify profiles of psychoactive substances consumers among workers according to their professional characteristics. In 2006, 2213 workers participated in "Mode de Vie et Travail" (Drugs and Work) cross-sectional survey. Data were collected by a self-administered questionnaire concerning general and professional characteristics and the consumption of psychoactive substances (psychoactive drugs, tobacco, alcohol and cannabis) during the professional medical visit. We identified consumer profiles with a hierarchical ascendant classification as statistical method. We underlined five profiles associated with psychoactive substance consumption: (1) alcohol consumers in the workplace were sales engineers satisfied with their employment, (2) alcohol consumers after their work were not satisfied with their lives, (3) cannabis consumers were men professionally satisfied but suffering from job insecurity, (4) smokers were workers with professional responsibilities under time pressure, and finally (5) poly-consumers had strong professional constraints. This study guides occupational physicians on psychoactive substances consumption among a worker population. © 2011 Société Française de Pharmacologie et de Thérapeutique.

  1. Substance Abuse: The Role of Industrial Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cloud, Luther A.; Sexias, Frank A.

    1971-01-01

    This article touches upon industrial medicine's history and its start as primarily one of first aid and its development into a dynamic force for dealing with the entire individual and his wide range of problems. It discusses alcoholism programming and programs which may be developed for other substance abuse. (Author)

  2. Ecotoxicological Hazard Assessment of Genotoxic Substances

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roex EWM; Traas TP; Slooff W; CSR

    2001-01-01

    The current knowledge about the ecological relevance of mutagenic substances is described. Mutations can be divided in somatic and germ-line mutations. Current screening methods in genotoxicology are focussed on the protection of man, and therefore somatic mutations are the most crucial. In the fiel

  3. Substance abuse in victims of fire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barillo, D J; Goode, R

    1996-01-01

    Ethanol or drug use may increase the risk of fire-related injury or death. This study was performed to quantify the role of substance abuse in fatal fires occurring in New Jersey over a 7-year period. Records of all the fatalities of fire reported to the State Medical Examiners Office between 1985 and 1991 were retrospectively examined. Blood assay results for ethanol were positive in 215 of the 727 (29.5%) fatalities of fire tested. For this group, the mean blood-ethanol level was 193.9 mg/dl. Blood or urine assay results for substances of abuse were positive in 78 of the 534 (14.6%) fatalities tested. The most commonly detected illicit substances were cocaine, benzodiazepines, barbiturates, and cannabinoids. The test results were positive for both ethanol and drug use in 36 victims. Forty percent of all the fatalities of fire were aged younger than 11 or older than 70. In contradistinction, 75% of drug-positive fatalities of fire and 58% of ethanol-positive fatalities of fire were between the ages of 21 and 50, suggesting that inebriation may impair the ability to escape from fire. Substance abusers in middle life are a previously unrecognized group at higher risk of injury or death in a fire.

  4. Former substance users working as counselors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hecksher, Dorte

    2007-01-01

    All helping professionals risk participation in "dual relationships". But in the case of former substance users working as counselors, specific dilemmas and problems are accentuated. A qualitative analysis highlights some of the ethical and personal dilemmas faced by these counselors. The data is...

  5. Substance Abuse among Native-American Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moncher, Michael S.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Reviews social epidemiological data on substance abuse among Native American youth and discusses culturally relevant etiological factors. Highlights strategies for identification of high-risk youth, concentrating on theoretical and methodological aspects appropriate for Native American populations. Issues of sensitive technology transfer and…

  6. Social Desirability Scales: More Substance than Style.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCrae, Robert R.; Costa, Paul T., Jr.

    1983-01-01

    Compared self-reports from 215 adults to the external criterion of spouse ratings of personality traits to separate substance from style in social desirability (SD) scales. Results showed that correcting self-reports for SD failed to improve correspondence with an external, objective criterion and in several cases lowered agreement. (LLL)

  7. Preventing Substance Abuse: An Elementary School Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsup, Ben; Boundy, Donna; Brown, Jordan; Reisman, David; Rothbart, Betty

    This booklet is designed to be used by teachers in elementary schools with the Public Broadcasting Systems series "Moyers on Addiction: Close to Home." The series explores the science, treatment, prevention, and politics of addiction. This booklet discusses strategies for preventing substance abuse in elementary school. Also examined are…

  8. Survey of transportation of liquid bulk chemicals in the Baltic Sea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Posti, A.; Hakkinen, J.

    2012-07-01

    This study is made as a part of the Chembaltic (Risks of Maritime Transportation of Chemicals in Baltic Sea) project which gathers information on the chemicals transported in the Baltic Sea. The purpose of this study is to provide an overview of handling volumes of liquid bulk chemicals (including liquefied gases) in the Baltic Sea ports and to find out what the most transported liquid bulk chemicals in the Baltic Sea are. Oil and oil products are also viewed in this study but only in a general level. Oils and oil products may also include chemical-related substances (e.g. certain bio-fuels which belong to MARPOL annex II category) in some cargo statistics. Chemicals in packaged form are excluded from the study. Most of the facts about the transport volumes of chemicals presented in this study are based on secondary written sources of Scandinavian, Russian, Baltic and international origin. Furthermore, statistical sources, academic journals, periodicals, newspapers and in later years also different homepages on the Internet have been used as sources of information. Chemical handling volumes in Finnish ports were examined in more detail by using a nationwide vessel traffic system called PortNet. Many previous studies have shown that the Baltic Sea ports are annually handling more than 11 million tonnes of liquid chemicals transported in bulk. Based on this study, it appears that the number may be even higher. The liquid bulk chemicals account for approximately 4 % of the total amount of liquid bulk cargoes handled in the Baltic Sea ports. Most of the liquid bulk chemicals are handled in Finnish and Swedish ports and their proportion of all liquid chemicals handled in the Baltic Sea is altogether over 50 %. The most handled chemicals in the Baltic Sea ports are methanol, sodium hydroxide solution, ammonia, sulphuric and phosphoric acid, pentanes, aromatic free solvents, xylenes, methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) and ethanol and ethanol solutions. All of these chemicals

  9. Incest and substance abuse: implications for treatment professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janikowski, T P; Glover, N M

    1994-01-01

    Seventy-seven volunteer participants enrolled in eight substance abuse treatment facilities were surveyed using the Substance Abuse and Incest Survey. Of the sample, 36 (48%) reported histories of incest. For participants reporting incest, data on substance abuse history, perceptions of the relationship between incest and substance abuse, and opinions regarding incest-related counseling in the context of substance abuse treatment are presented. Recommendations for substance abuse professionals and facilities are made, including intake screening, barriers to treatment, counselor education, and future research.

  10. Doctor and pharmacy shopping for controlled substances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peirce, Gretchen L; Smith, Michael J; Abate, Marie A; Halverson, Joel

    2012-06-01

    Prescription drug abuse is a major health concern nationwide, with West Virginia having one of the highest prescription drug death rates in the United States. Studies are lacking that compare living subjects with persons who died from drug overdose for evidence of doctor and pharmacy shopping for controlled substances. The study objectives were to compare deceased and living subjects in West Virginia for evidence of prior doctor and pharmacy shopping for controlled substances and to identify factors associated with drug-related death. A secondary data study was conducted using controlled substance, Schedule II-IV, prescription data from the West Virginia Controlled Substance Monitoring Program and drug-related death data compiled by the Forensic Drug Database between July 2005 and December 2007. A case-control design compared deceased subjects 18 years and older whose death was drug related with living subjects for prior doctor and pharmacy shopping. Logistic regression identified factors related to the odds of drug-related death. A significantly greater proportion of deceased subjects were doctor shoppers (25.21% vs. 3.58%) and pharmacy shoppers (17.48% vs. 1.30%) than living subjects. Approximately 20.23% of doctor shoppers were also pharmacy shoppers, and 55.60% of pharmacy shoppers were doctor shoppers. Younger age, greater number of prescriptions dispensed, exposure to opioids and benzodiazepines, and doctor and pharmacy shopping were factors with greater odds of drug-related death. Doctor and pharmacy shopping involving controlled substances were identified, and shopping behavior was associated with drug-related death. Prescription monitoring programs may be useful in identifying potential shoppers at the point of care.

  11. On the nature of humic substances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedotov, G. N.; Shoba, S. A.

    2015-12-01

    It is argued that the isolation of low-molecular-weight compounds from humic substances does not prove their supramolecular nature, because small molecules can be sorbed on macromolecules by interacting with them due to noncovalent bonds. The relative mobility of molecular segments in humic substances has been proposed to be used as a criterion for the discrimination between the humic substances of supraand macromolecular nature. The macromolecules are characterized by mobility of their segments, whereas supramolecular systems have stiff structure. This difference between macroand supramolecules results in different behaviors of the matrices (gels) formed from them in the processes of segregation. In the macromolecules, the formations of a new phase appearing at the segregation (microphase separation) are of nano size, at least in one dimension. They are incapable of moving within the matrix and form a well-known, limited set of systems. In the supramolecular matrices, the new-phase formations should have higher mobility and ability to move within the matrix with the formation of particles and zones of not only nano, but also micro sizes, as well as a significantly larger set of systems, including fractal configurations. The experimental electron microscopic study of the humic matrices of soil gels shows that the new-phase formations in the matrix of humic substances have not only nano, but also micro sizes and are capable of moving within the matrix, which confirms the supramolecular nature of humic substances. The proposed method has allowed generalizing the supraand macromolecular approaches, because macromolecules can enter into the composition of supramolecular systems. It is no less important that the behavior of HSs can be perceived as the behavior of stiff impenetrable particles that may compose the structures of different types and sizes.

  12. Evaluation and remediation of bulk soap dispensers for biofilm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenz, Lindsey A; Ramsay, Bradley D; Goeres, Darla M; Fields, Matthew W; Zapka, Carrie A; Macinga, David R

    2012-01-01

    Recent studies evaluating bulk soap in public restroom soap dispensers have demonstrated up to 25% of open refillable bulk-soap dispensers were contaminated with ~ 6 log(10)(CFU ml(-1)) heterotrophic bacteria. In this study, plastic counter-mounted, plastic wall-mounted and stainless steel wall-mounted dispensers were analyzed for suspended and biofilm bacteria using total cell and viable plate counts. Independent of dispenser type or construction material, the bulk soap was contaminated with 4-7 log(10)(CFU ml(-1)) bacteria, while 4-6 log(10)(CFU cm(-2)) biofilm bacteria were isolated from the inside surfaces of the dispensers (n = 6). Dispenser remediation studies, including a 10 min soak with 5000 mg l(-1) sodium hypochlorite, were then conducted to determine the efficacy of cleaning and disinfectant procedures against established biofilms. The testing showed that contamination of the bulk soap returned to pre-test levels within 7-14 days. These results demonstrate biofilm is present in contaminated bulk-soap dispensers and remediation studies to clean and sanitize the dispensers are temporary.

  13. Bulk viscosity, interaction and the viability of phantom solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leyva, Yoelsy; Sepulveda, Mirko [Universidad de Tarapaca, Departamento de Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias, Arica (Chile)

    2017-06-15

    We study the dynamics of a bulk viscosity model in the Eckart approach for a spatially flat Friedmann-Robertson-Walker (FRW) Universe. We have included radiation and dark energy, assumed as perfect fluids, and dark matter treated as an imperfect fluid having bulk viscosity. We also introduce an interaction term between the dark matter and dark energy components. Considering that the bulk viscosity is proportional to the dark matter energy density and imposing a complete cosmological dynamics, we find bounds on the bulk viscosity in order to reproduce a matter-dominated era (MDE). This constraint is independent of the interaction term. Some late time phantom solutions are mathematically possible. However, the constraint imposed by a MDE restricts the interaction parameter, in the phantom solutions, to a region consistent with a null value, eliminating the possibility of late time stable solutions with w < -1. From the different cases that we study, the only possible scenario, with bulk viscosity and interaction term, belongs to the quintessence region. In the latter case, we find bounds on the interaction parameter compatible with latest observational data. (orig.)

  14. Running with rugby balls: bulk renormalization of codimension-2 branes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, M.; Burgess, C. P.; van Nierop, L.; Salvio, A.

    2013-01-01

    We compute how one-loop bulk effects renormalize both bulk and brane effective interactions for geometries sourced by codimension-two branes. We do so by explicitly integrating out spin-zero, -half and -one particles in 6-dimensional Einstein-Maxwell-Scalar theories compactified to 4 dimensions on a flux-stabilized 2D geometry. (Our methods apply equally well for D dimensions compactified to D - 2 dimensions, although our explicit formulae do not capture all divergences when D > 6.) The renormalization of bulk interactions are independent of the boundary conditions assumed at the brane locations, and reproduce standard heat-kernel calculations. Boundary conditions at any particular brane do affect how bulk loops renormalize this brane's effective action, but not the renormalization of other distant branes. Although we explicitly compute our loops using a rugby ball geometry, because we follow only UV effects our results apply more generally to any geometry containing codimension-two sources with conical singularities. Our results have a variety of uses, including calculating the UV sensitivity of one-loop vacuum energy seen by observers localized on the brane. We show how these one-loop effects combine in a surprising way with bulk back-reaction to give the complete low-energy effective cosmological constant, and comment on the relevance of this calculation to proposed applications of codimension-two 6D models to solutions of the hierarchy and cosmological constant problems.

  15. Universal properties of bulk viscosity near the QCD phase transition

    CERN Document Server

    Karsch, F; Tuchin, K

    2008-01-01

    We extract the bulk viscosity of hot quark-gluon matter in the presence of light quarks from the recent lattice data on the QCD equation of state. For that purpose we extend the sum rule analysis by including the contribution of light quarks. We also discuss the universal properties of bulk viscosity in the vicinity of a second order phase transition, as it might occur in the chiral limit of QCD at fixed strange quark mass and most likely does occur in two-flavor QCD. We point out that a chiral transition in the O(4) universality class at zero baryon density as well as the transition at the chiral critical point which belongs to the Z(2) universality class both lead to the critical behavior of bulk viscosity. In particular, the latter universality class implies the divergence of the bulk viscosity, which may be used as a signature of the critical point. We discuss the physical picture behind the dramatic increase of bulk viscosity seen in our analysis, and devise possible experimental tests of related phenome...

  16. Depth of cure of bulk-fill flowable composite resins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedalino, Inaam; Hartup, Grant R; Vandewalle, Kraig S

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, manufacturers have introduced flowable composite resins that reportedly can be placed in increments of 4 mm or greater. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the depth of cure of bulk-fill flowable composite resins (SureFil SDR Flow, Grandio Flow, and Venus Bulk Fill) and a conventional flowable composite resin (Revolution Formula 2). Depth of cure was measured in terms of bottom-maximum Knoop hardness number (KHN) ratios and the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) 4049 scrape technique. Shades A2 and A3 of SureFil SDR Flow, Grandio Flow, and Revolution Formula 2 were tested. Venus Bulk Fill was tested in its only available shade (universal). Specimens in thicknesses of 2, 3, 4, 5, and 6 mm were polymerized for 20 or 40 seconds, and a hardness tester was used to determine the hardness ratios for each shade at each thickness. For the scraping technique, after specimens were exposed to the curing light, unpolymerized composite resin was removed with a plastic instrument, the polymerized composite was measured, and the length was divided by 2 per ISO guidelines. According to the KHN ratios and the scrape test, Venus Bulk Fill predictably exceeded the manufacturer's claim of a 4-mm depth of cure at both 20 and 40 seconds of curing time. The overall results for depth of cure showed that Venus Bulk Fill ≥ SureFil SDR Flow ≥ Grandio Flow ≥ Revolution Formula 2.

  17. Color of bulk-fill composite resin restorative materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barutcigil, Çağatay; Barutcigil, Kubilay; Özarslan, Mehmet Mustafa; Dündar, Ayşe; Yilmaz, Burak

    2017-09-28

    To evaluate the color stability of novel bulk-fill composite resins. Color measurements of a nanohybrid composite resin (Z550) and 3 bulk-fill composite resins (BLK, AFX, XTF; n = 45) were performed before polymerization. After polymerization, color measurements were repeated and specimens were immersed in distilled water or red wine, or coffee. Color change [CIEDE2000 (ΔE00 )] was calculated after 24 h, 1 and 3 weeks. Data were analyzed with Kruskal-Wallis, Mann-Whitney U and Wilcoxon tests (α = 0.05). Color changes observed after polymerization were significant for all groups. Color changes observed in distilled water for Z550 and AFX were significant. Color changes after stored in red wine and coffee were significant for all groups. Bulk-fill composite resin color change increased over time for all groups in red wine and coffee (P composite resin and bulk-fill composite resins. AFX had the highest color change in distilled water. The color of tested bulk-fill composite resins significantly changed after immersion in beverages and over time. Color change observed with the nanohybrid composite resin after 1 week was stable. Clinicians should keep in mind that tested composite resins may change color when exposed to water and significantly change color immediately after they are polymerized. In addition, the color change continues over time should the patient is a coffee and/or red wine consumer. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Developments in the processing of bulk (RE)BCO superconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Babu, N. Hari, E-mail: mtsthbn@brunel.ac.u [Brunel Centre for Advanced Solidification Technology (BCAST), Brunel University, West London UB8 3PH (United Kingdom); Shi, Y.-H.; Pathak, S.K.; Dennis, A.R.; Cardwell, D.A. [Bulk Superconductivity Group, Engineering Department, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB2 1PZ (United Kingdom)

    2011-03-15

    Research highlights: {yields} (RE)-Ba-Cu-O bulk superconductors containing nano-scale inclusions are fabricated. {yields} Generic seed crystal development enabled batch process for Gd-Ba-Cu-O. {yields} Multi-grains with strongly coupled grain boundaries are fabricated. {yields} We propose recycling concept for bulk superconductors. - Abstract: The development of a practical processing method for the fabrication of high performance large, single grain bulk superconductors is essential for their cost-effective application in a variety of high field engineering devices. We discuss recent developments in the processing of these materials that enable high performance bulk superconductors to be fabricated in a practical way. These include the introduction of nano-scale second phase inclusions to the superconducting phase matrix, the development of a generic seed crystal, the development of practical, batch processing routes for the fabrication of light rare earth superconductors, the processing of complex shaped geometries via controlled multi-seeding and recycling of scrap bulk samples into high performance, single grains.

  19. Large-scale HTS bulks for magnetic application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werfel, Frank N.; Floegel-Delor, Uta; Riedel, Thomas; Goebel, Bernd; Rothfeld, Rolf; Schirrmeister, Peter; Wippich, Dieter

    2013-01-01

    ATZ Company has constructed about 130 HTS magnet systems using high-Tc bulk magnets. A key feature in scaling-up is the fabrication of YBCO melts textured multi-seeded large bulks with three to eight seeds. Except of levitation, magnetization, trapped field and hysteresis, we review system engineering parameters of HTS magnetic linear and rotational bearings like compactness, cryogenics, power density, efficiency and robust construction. We examine mobile compact YBCO bulk magnet platforms cooled with LN2 and Stirling cryo-cooler for demonstrator use. Compact cryostats for Maglev train operation contain 24 pieces of 3-seed bulks and can levitate 2500-3000 N at 10 mm above a permanent magnet (PM) track. The effective magnetic distance of the thermally insulated bulks is 2 mm only; the stored 2.5 l LN2 allows more than 24 h operation without refilling. 34 HTS Maglev vacuum cryostats are manufactured tested and operate in Germany, China and Brazil. The magnetic levitation load to weight ratio is more than 15, and by group assembling the HTS cryostats under vehicles up to 5 t total loads levitated above a magnetic track is achieved.

  20. Critical soil bulk density for soybean growth in Oxisols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keisuke Sato, Michel; Veras de Lima, Herdjania; Oliveira, Pedro Daniel de; Rodrigues, Sueli

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the critical soil bulk density from the soil penetration resistance measurements for soybean root growth in Brazilian Amazon Oxisols. The experiment was carried out in a greenhouse using disturbed soil samples collected from the northwest of Para characterized by different texture. The treatments consisted of a range of soil bulk densities for each soil textural class. Three pots were used for soybean growth of and two for the soil penetration resistance curve. From the fitted model, the critical soil bulk density was determined considering the penetration resistance values of 2 and 3 MPa. After sixty days, plants were cut and root length, dry mass of root, and dry mass of shoots were determined. At higher bulk densities, the increase in soil water content decreased the penetration resistance, allowing unrestricted growth of soybean roots. Regardless of soil texture, the penetration resistance of 2 and 3 MPa had a slight effect on root growth in soil moisture at field capacity and a reduction of 50% in the soybean root growth was achieved at critical soil bulk density of 1.82, 1.75, 1.51, and 1.45 Mg m-3 for the sandy loam, sandy clay loam, clayey, and very clayey soil.

  1. Dark goo: Bulk viscosity as an alternative to dark energy

    CERN Document Server

    Gagnon, Jean-Sebastien

    2011-01-01

    We present a simple (microscopic) model in which bulk viscosity plays a role in explaining the present acceleration of the universe. The effect of bulk viscosity on the Friedmann equations is to turn the pressure into an "effective" pressure containing the bulk viscosity. For a sufficiently large bulk viscosity, the effective pressure becomes negative and could mimic a dark energy equation of state. Our microscopic model includes self-interacting spin-zero particles (for which the bulk viscosity is known) that are added to the usual energy content of the universe. We study both background equations and linear perturbations in this model. We show that a dark energy behavior is obtained for reasonable values of the two parameters of the model (i.e. the mass and coupling of the spin-zero particles) and that linear perturbations are well-behaved. There is no apparent fine tuning involved. We also discuss the conditions under which hydrodynamics holds, in particular that the spin-zero particles must be in local eq...

  2. Thermoplastic Micro-Forming of Bulk Metallic Glasses: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ning; Chen, Wen; Liu, Lin

    2016-04-01

    Bulk metallic glasses are a fascinating class of metallic alloys with an isotropic amorphous structure that is rapidly quenched from liquid melts. The absence of a crystalline micro-structure endows them with a portfolio of properties such as high strength, high elasticity, and excellent corrosion resistance. Whereas the limited plasticity and hence poor workability at ambient temperature impede the structural application of bulk metallic glasses, the unique superplasticity within the supercooled liquid region opens an alternative window of so-called thermoplastic forming, which allows precise and versatile net-shaping of complex geometries on length scales ranging from nanometers to centimeters that were previously unachievable with conventional crystalline metal processing. Thermoplastic forming not only breaks through the bottleneck of the manufacture of bulk metallic glasses at ambient temperature but also offers an alluring prospect in micro-engineering applications. This paper comprehensively reviews some pivotal aspects of bulk metallic glasses during thermoplastic micro-forming, including an in-depth understanding of the crystallization kinetics of bulk metallic glasses and the thermoplastic processing time window, the thermoplastic forming map that clarifies the relationship between the flow characteristics and the formability, the interfacial friction in micro-forming and novel forming methods to improve the formability, and the potential applications of the hot-embossed micro-patterns/components.

  3. Psychopathology in Substance Use Disorder Patients with and without Substance-Induced Psychosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Zhornitsky

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Substance-induced psychotic disorder (SIPD is a diagnosis constructed to distinguish substance-induced psychotic states from primary psychotic disorders. A number of studies have compared SIPD persons with primary psychotic patients, but there is little data on what differentiates substance use disorder (SUD individuals with and without SIPD. Here, we compared psychopathology, sociodemographic variables, and substance use characteristics between SUD patients with and without SIPD. Methods. A retrospective chart review was conducted on newly admitted patients at a rehabilitation centre between 2007 and 2012. Results. Of the 379 patients included in the study, 5% were diagnosed with SIPD n=19 and 95% were diagnosed with SUDs without SIPD n=360. More SIPD patients reported using cannabis and psychostimulants, and fewer SIPD patients reported using alcohol than SUDs patients without SIPD. SIPD patients scored higher on the “schizophrenia nuclear symptoms” dimension of the SCL-90R psychoticism scale and exhibited more ClusterB personality traits than SUD patients without SIPD. Discussion. These data are consistent with previous studies suggesting that psychopathology, substance type, and sociodemographic variables play important role in the development of SIPD. More importantly, the results highlight the need for paying greater attention to the types of self-reported psychotic symptoms during the assessment of psychotomimetic effects associated with psychoactive substances.

  4. EBSD analysis of MgB2 bulk superconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koblischka-Veneva, A.; Koblischka, M. R.; Schmauch, J.; Inoue, K.; Muralidhar, M.; Berger, K.; Noudem, J.

    2016-04-01

    The grain orientation, the texture and the grain boundary misorientations are important parameters for the understanding of the magnetic properties of the bulk MgB2 samples intended for super-magnet applications. Such data can be provided by electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) analysis. However, as the grain size (GS) of the MgB2 bulks is preferably in the 100-200 nm range, the common EBSD technique working in reflection operates properly only on highly dense samples. In order to achieve a reasonably good Kikuchi pattern quality on all samples, we apply here the newly developed transmission EBSD (t-EBSD) technique to several bulk MgB2 samples. This method requires the preparation of TEM slices by means of focused ion-beam milling, which are then analyzed within the SEM, operating with a specific sample holder. We present several EBSD mappings of samples prepared with different techniques and at various reaction temperatures.

  5. Theoretical expectations for bulk flows in large scale surveys

    CERN Document Server

    Feldman, H A; Hume A Feldman; Richard Watkins

    1993-01-01

    We calculate the theoretical expectation for the bulk motion of a large scale survey of the type recently carried out by Lauer and Postman. Included are the effects of survey geometry, errors in the distance measurements, clustering properties of the sample, and different assumed power spectra. We consider the power spectrum calculated from the IRAS-QDOT survey, as well as spectra from hot + cold and standard cold dark matter models. We find that sparse sampling and clustering can lead to an unexpectedly large bulk flow, even in a very deep survey. Our results suggest that the expected bulk motion is inconsistent with that reported by Lauer and Postman at the 90-94% confidence level.

  6. Theoretical expectations for bulk flows in large-scale surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldman, Hume A.; Watkins, Richard

    1994-01-01

    We calculate the theoretical expectation for the bulk motion of a large-scale survey of the type recently carried out by Lauer and Postman. Included are the effects of survey geometry, errors in the distance measurements, clustering properties of the sample, and different assumed power spectra. We considered the power spectrum calculated from the Infrared Astronomy Satellite (IRAS)-QDOT survey, as well as spectra from hot + cold and standard cold dark matter models. We find that measurement uncertainty, sparse sampling, and clustering can lead to a much larger expectation for the bulk motion of a cluster sample than for the volume as a whole. However, our results suggest that the expected bulk motion is still inconsistent with that reported by Lauer and Postman at the 95%-97% confidence level.

  7. Confined linear carbon chains as a route to bulk carbyne

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Lei; Rohringer, Philip; Suenaga, Kazu; Niimi, Yoshiko; Kotakoski, Jani; Meyer, Jannik C.; Peterlik, Herwig; Wanko, Marius; Cahangirov, Seymur; Rubio, Angel; Lapin, Zachary J.; Novotny, Lukas; Ayala, Paola; Pichler, Thomas

    2016-06-01

    Strong chemical activity and extreme instability in ambient conditions characterize carbyne, an infinite sp1 hybridized carbon chain. As a result, much less has been explored about carbyne as compared to other carbon allotropes such as fullerenes, nanotubes and graphene. Although end-capping groups can be used to stabilize carbon chains, length limitations are still a barrier for production, and even more so for application. We report a method for the bulk production of long acetylenic linear carbon chains protected by thin double-walled carbon nanotubes. The synthesis of very long arrangements is confirmed by a combination of transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction and (near-field) resonance Raman spectroscopy. Our results establish a route for the bulk production of exceptionally long and stable chains composed of more than 6,000 carbon atoms, representing an elegant forerunner towards the final goal of carbyne’s bulk production.

  8. Spherically symmetric brane spacetime with bulk f(R) gravity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chakraborty, Sumanta [IUCAA, Ganeshkhind, Pune University Campus, Post Bag 4, Pune (India); SenGupta, Soumitra [Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science, Department of Theoretical Physics, Kolkata (India)

    2015-01-01

    Introducing f(R) term in the five-dimensional bulk action we derive effective Einstein's equation on the brane using Gauss-Codazzi equation. This effective equation is then solved for different conditions on dark radiation and dark pressure to obtain various spherically symmetric solutions. Some of these static spherically symmetric solutions correspond to black hole solutions, with parameters induced from the bulk. Specially, the dark pressure and dark radiation terms (electric part of Weyl curvature) affect the brane spherically symmetric solutions significantly. We have solved for one parameter group of conformal motions where the dark radiation and dark pressure terms are exactly obtained exploiting the corresponding Lie symmetry. Various thermodynamic features of these spherically symmetric space-times are studied, showing existence of second order phase transition. This phenomenon has its origin in the higher curvature term with f(R) gravity in the bulk. (orig.)

  9. Bulk Locality from Entanglement in Gauge/Gravity Duality

    CERN Document Server

    Lin, Jennifer

    2015-01-01

    Gauge/gravity duality posits an equivalence between certain strongly coupled quantum field theories and theories of gravity with negative cosmological constant in a higher number of spacetime dimensions. The map between the degrees of freedom on the two sides is non-local and incompletely understood. I describe recent work towards characterizing this map using entanglement in the QFT, where near the dual AdS boundary, the classical energy density at a point in the bulk is stored in the relative entropies of boundary subregions whose homologous minimal surfaces pass through the bulk point. I also derive bulk classical energy conditions near the AdS boundary from entanglement inequalities in the CFT. This is based on the paper [1] with Matilde Marcolli, Hirosi Ooguri and Bogdan Stoica. More generally, in recent years, there has appeared some evidence that quantum entanglement is responsible for the emergence of spacetime. I review and comment on the state of these developments.

  10. Composite superconducting bulks for efficient heat dissipation during pulse magnetization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baskys, A.; Patel, A.; Hopkins, S.; Kenfaui, D.; Chaud, X.; Zhang, M.; Glowacki, B. A.

    2014-05-01

    Pulsed field magnetization is the most practical method of magnetizing a (RE)BCO bulk, however large heat generation limits the trapped field to significantly less than possible using field cooling. Modelling has been used to show that effective heat removal from the bulk interior, using embedded metallic structures, can enhance trapped field by increasing thermal stability. The reported results are for experimental pulsed magnetization of a thin walled YBCO sample with 55 vertical holes embedded with high thermal conductivity wires. A specially designed copper coldhead was used to increase the trapped field and flux of the perforated YBCO by about 12% at 35 K using a multi-pulse magnetization. Moreover, by filling the perforations with copper, the central trapped field was enhanced by 15% after a single-pulse at 35 K. 3D FEM computer model of a perforated YBCO bulk was also developed showing localised heating effects around the perforations during pulse magnetisation.

  11. Bulk fabrication and properties of solar grade silicon microwires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. A. Martinsen

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available We demonstrate a substrate-free novel route for fabrication of solar grade silicon microwires for photovoltaic applications. The microwires are fabricated from low purity starting material via a bulk molten-core fibre drawing method. In-situ segregation of impurities during the directional solidification of the fibres yields solar grade silicon cores (microwires where the concentration of electrically detrimental transition metals has been reduced between one and two orders of magnitude. The microwires show bulk minority carrier diffusion lengths measuring ∼40 μm, and mobilities comparable to those of single-crystal silicon. Microwires passivated with amorphous silicon yield diffusion lengths comparable to those in the bulk.

  12. Phantom dark energy as an effect of bulk viscosity

    CERN Document Server

    Velten, Hermano; Meng, Xinhe

    2013-01-01

    In a homogeneous and isotropic universe bulk viscosity is the unique viscous effect capable to modify the background dynamics. Effects like shear viscosity or heat conduction can only change the evolution of the perturbations. The existence of a bulk viscous pressure in a fluid, which in order to obey to the second law of thermodynamics is negative, reduces its effective pressure. We discuss in this study the degeneracy in bulk viscous cosmologies and address the possibility that phantom dark energy cosmology could be caused by the existence of non-equilibrium pressure in any cosmic component. We establish the conditions under which either matter or radiation viscous cosmologies can be mapped into the phantom dark energy scenario with constraints from multiple observational data-sets

  13. Preparation of bulk superhard B-C-N nanocomposite compact

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Yusheng (Los Alamos, NM); He, Duanwei (Sichuan, CN)

    2011-05-10

    Bulk, superhard, B--C--N nanocomposite compacts were prepared by ball milling a mixture of graphite and hexagonal boron nitride, encapsulating the ball-milled mixture at a pressure in a range of from about 15 GPa to about 25 GPa, and sintering the pressurized encapsulated ball-milled mixture at a temperature in a range of from about 1800-2500 K. The product bulk, superhard, nanocomposite compacts were well sintered compacts with nanocrystalline grains of at least one high-pressure phase of B--C--N surrounded by amorphous diamond-like carbon grain boundaries. The bulk compacts had a measured Vicker's hardness in a range of from about 41 GPa to about 68 GPa.

  14. Causal Evolutions of Bulk Local Excitations from CFT

    CERN Document Server

    Goto, Kanato; Takayanagi, Tadashi

    2016-01-01

    Bulk localized excited states in an AdS spacetime can be constructed from Ishibashi states with respect to the global conformal symmetry in the dual CFT. We study boundary two point functions of primary operators in the presence of bulk localized excitations in two dimensional CFTs. From two point functions in holographic CFTs, we observe causal propagations of radiations when the mass of dual bulk scalar field is close to the BF bound. This behavior for holographic CFTs is consistent with the locality and causality in classical gravity duals. We also show that this cannot be seen in free fermion CFTs. Moreover, we find that the short distance behavior of two point functions is universal and obeys the relation which generalizes the first law of entanglement entropy.

  15. Retrieving HapMap Data via Bulk Download.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Albert Vernon

    2008-07-01

    INTRODUCTIONThe primary goal of the International Haplotype Map Project has been to develop a haplotype map of the human genome that describes the common patterns of genetic variation, in order to accelerate the search for the genetic causes of human disease. Within the project, ~3.9 million distinct single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) have been genotyped in 270 individuals from four worldwide populations. The project data are available for unrestricted public use at the HapMap Web site. This site, which is the primary portal to genotype data produced by the project, offers bulk downloads of the data set, as well as interactive data browsing and analysis tools that are not available elsewhere. Bulk downloads of chromosome- or genome-wide data provide text dumps of the entire HapMap data set. Although complete, such downloads do not provide any filtering or selection services. This protocol describes the retrieval of HapMap data via bulk download.

  16. Properties of Bulk Sintered Silver As a Function of Porosity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wereszczak, Andrew A [ORNL; Vuono, Daniel J [ORNL; Wang, Hsin [ORNL; Ferber, Mattison K [ORNL; Liang, Zhenxian [ORNL

    2012-06-01

    This report summarizes a study where various properties of bulk-sintered silver were investigated over a range of porosity. This work was conducted within the National Transportation Research Center's Power Device Packaging project that is part of the DOE Vehicle Technologies Advanced Power Electronics and Electric Motors Program. Sintered silver, as an interconnect material in power electronics, inherently has porosity in its produced structure because of the way it is made. Therefore, interest existed in this study to examine if that porosity affected electrical properties, thermal properties, and mechanical properties because any dependencies could affect the intended function (e.g., thermal transfer, mechanical stress relief, etc.) or reliability of that interconnect layer and alter how its performance is modeled. Disks of bulk-sintered silver were fabricated using different starting silver pastes and different sintering conditions to promote different amounts of porosity. Test coupons were harvested out of the disks to measure electrical resistivity and electrical conductivity, thermal conductivity, coefficient of thermal expansion, elastic modulus, Poisson's ratio, and yield stress. The authors fully recognize that the microstructure of processed bulk silver coupons may indeed not be identical to the microstructure produced in thin (20-50 microns) layers of sintered silver. However, measuring these same properties with such a thin actual structure is very difficult, requires very specialized specimen preparation and unique testing instrumentation, is expensive, and has experimental shortfalls of its own, so the authors concluded that the herein measured responses using processed bulk sintered silver coupons would be sufficient to determine acceptable values of those properties. Almost all the investigated properties of bulk sintered silver changed with porosity content within a range of 3-38% porosity. Electrical resistivity, electrical conductivity

  17. Large-scale HTS bulks for magnetic application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Werfel, Frank N., E-mail: werfel@t-online.de [Adelwitz Technologiezentrum GmbH (ATZ), Rittergut Adelwitz 16, 04886 Arzberg-Adelwitz (Germany); Floegel-Delor, Uta; Riedel, Thomas; Goebel, Bernd; Rothfeld, Rolf; Schirrmeister, Peter; Wippich, Dieter [Adelwitz Technologiezentrum GmbH (ATZ), Rittergut Adelwitz 16, 04886 Arzberg-Adelwitz (Germany)

    2013-01-15

    Highlights: ► ATZ Company has constructed about 130 HTS magnet systems. ► Multi-seeded YBCO bulks joint the way for large-scale application. ► Levitation platforms demonstrate “superconductivity” to a great public audience (100 years anniversary). ► HTS magnetic bearings show forces up to 1 t. ► Modular HTS maglev vacuum cryostats are tested for train demonstrators in Brazil, China and Germany. -- Abstract: ATZ Company has constructed about 130 HTS magnet systems using high-Tc bulk magnets. A key feature in scaling-up is the fabrication of YBCO melts textured multi-seeded large bulks with three to eight seeds. Except of levitation, magnetization, trapped field and hysteresis, we review system engineering parameters of HTS magnetic linear and rotational bearings like compactness, cryogenics, power density, efficiency and robust construction. We examine mobile compact YBCO bulk magnet platforms cooled with LN{sub 2} and Stirling cryo-cooler for demonstrator use. Compact cryostats for Maglev train operation contain 24 pieces of 3-seed bulks and can levitate 2500–3000 N at 10 mm above a permanent magnet (PM) track. The effective magnetic distance of the thermally insulated bulks is 2 mm only; the stored 2.5 l LN{sub 2} allows more than 24 h operation without refilling. 34 HTS Maglev vacuum cryostats are manufactured tested and operate in Germany, China and Brazil. The magnetic levitation load to weight ratio is more than 15, and by group assembling the HTS cryostats under vehicles up to 5 t total loads levitated above a magnetic track is achieved.

  18. Analysis of physical demands during bulk bag closing and sealing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasarwanji, Mahiyar F; Reardon, Leanna M; Heberger, John R; Dempsey, Patrick G

    2016-05-01

    Several tools are sold and recommended for closing and sealing flexible intermediate bulk containers (bulk bags) which are used to transport product that has been mined and processed. However, there is limited information on the risks, physical demands, or the benefits of using one tool over another. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the physical demands involved with two closing methods and several sealing tools in order to provide recommendations for selecting tools to reduce exposure to risk factors for work-related musculoskeletal disorders. In this study, twelve participants completed bag closing and sealing tasks using two different closing methods and eight sealing tools on two types of bulk bags. Physical demands and performance were evaluated using muscle activity, perceived exertion, subjective ratings of use, and time. Results indicate that using the "flowering" method to close bags required on average 32% less muscle activity, 30% less perceived exertion, 42% less time, and was preferred by participants compared to using the "snaking" method. For sealing, there was no single method significantly better across all measures; however, using a pneumatic cable tie gun consistently had the lowest muscle activity and perceived exertion ratings. The pneumatic cable tie gun did require approximately 33% more time to seal the bag compared to methods without a tool, but the amount of time to seal the bag was comparable to using other tools. Further, sealing a spout bulk bag required on average 13% less muscle activity, 18% less perceived exertion, 35% less time, and was preferred by participants compared to sealing a duffle bulk bag. The current results suggest that closing the spout bag using the flowering method and sealing the bag using the pneumatic cable tie gun that is installed with a tool balancer is ergonomically advantageous. Our findings can help organizations select methods and tools that pose the lowest physical demands when closing and

  19. Occurrence of comorbid substance use disorders among acute ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    some patients, the mental disorder and substance use might ... Therefore, this study was conducted to examine the prevalence of SUD among acute adult psychiatric inpatients at Stikland Hospital .... Substance induced anxiety disorders. 0.

  20. Substance Abuse and Prison Recidivism: Themes from Qualitative Interviews

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Lindsay A.

    2010-01-01

    This qualitative analysis explores the role of substance abuse in reentry from prison to society. Participants who recidivated (N = 20) in an urban prison system identified substance abuse as their primary reason for recidivism. Treatment implications are discussed.

  1. Prevalence and Behaviour Effects of Psychoactive Substance Use ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prevalence and Behaviour Effects of Psychoactive Substance Use Among ... in by the students in decreasing order were alcohol 212(50.2%), coffee 200(47.4%), ... Keywords: Psychoactive substance, behaviour effects, prevalence, students, ...

  2. Bianchi Type Ⅲ String Cosmological Model with Bulk Viscosity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANGXing-Xiang

    2004-01-01

    The Bianchi type Ⅲ cosmological model for a cloud string with bulk viscosity are presented. To obtain a determinate model, an equation of state ρ=kλ and a relation between metric potentials B = Cn are assumed. The physical and geometric aspects of the model are also discussed. The model describes a shearing non-rotating continuously expanding universe with a big-bang start, and the relation between the coefficient of bulk viscosity and the energy density is ζ∝ρ1/2.

  3. Bianchi Type Ⅲ String Cosmological Model with Bulk Viscosity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Xing-Xiang

    2004-01-01

    The Bianchi type Ⅲ cosmological model for a cloud string with bulk viscosity are presented. To obtaina determinate model, an equation of state p = κλ and a relation between metric potentials B = Cn are assumed. Thephysical and geometric aspects of the model are also discussed. The model describes a shearing non-rotating continuouslyexpanding universe with a big-bang start, and the relation between the coefficient of bulk viscosity and the energy densityis ζ∝1 p1/2.

  4. Enhancement of the Bulk Photovoltaic Effect in Topological Insulators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Liang Z.; Rappe, Andrew M.

    2016-06-01

    We investigate the shift current bulk photovoltaic response of materials close to a band inversion topological phase transition. We find that the bulk photocurrent reverses direction across the band inversion transition, and that its magnitude is enhanced in the vicinity of the phase transition. These results are demonstrated with first principles density functional theory calculations of BiTeI and CsPbI3 under hydrostatic pressure, and explained with an analytical model, suggesting that this phenomenon remains robust across disparate material systems.

  5. Investigations of waste heat recovery from bulk milk cooler

    OpenAIRE

    S.N. Sapali; S.M. Pise; A.T. Pise; D.V. Ghewade

    2014-01-01

    Bulk milk coolers are used to chill the milk from its harvest temperature of 35–4 °C to arrest the bacterial growth and maintain the quality of harvested milk. Milk chilling practices are energy intensive with low coefficient of performance (COP) of about 3.0. Increased energy cost concern encouraged an investigation of heat recovery from bulk milk cooler as one conservation alternative for reducing water heating cost in dairy industry. Heat dissipated to atmosphere through condenser is recov...

  6. Bulk Restoration for SDN-Based Transport Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Zhao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We propose a bulk restoration scheme for software defined networking- (SDN- based transport network. To enhance the network survivability and improve the throughput, we allow disrupted flows to be recovered synchronously in dynamic order. In addition backup paths are scheduled globally by applying the principles of load balance. We model the bulk restoration problem using a mixed integer linear programming (MILP formulation. Then, a heuristic algorithm is devised. The proposed algorithm is verified by simulation and the results are analyzed comparing with sequential restoration schemes.

  7. Bulk saturable absorption in topological insulator thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopal, Radha Krishna; Ambast, Deepak K. S.; Singh, Sourabh; Sarkar, Jit; Pal, Bipul; Mitra, Chiranjib

    2017-07-01

    We present nonlinear optical absorption properties of pulsed laser deposited thin films of topological insulator (TI), Bi2Se3 on a quartz substrate, using an open aperture z-scan technique. We observed saturable absorption with a low saturation intensity in as deposited thin films. Past results from the literature are inconclusive in establishing whether the saturable absorption in TI is coming from surface states or the bulk. Specifically designed experiments with magnetically doped TI samples allow us to attribute the saturable absorption characteristic of TI to the bulk states. Detailed experimental procedures and possible explanation of observed results have been discussed.

  8. Reversible ultrafast melting in bulk CdSe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Wenzhi [School of Electronic Engineering, Heilongjiang University, Harbin 150080 (China); Department of Mechanical Engineering, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas 78712 (United States); He, Feng; Wang, Yaguo, E-mail: yaguo.wang@austin.utexas.edu [Department of Mechanical Engineering, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas 78712 (United States); The Texas Materials Institute, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas 78712 (United States)

    2016-02-07

    In this work, transient reflectivity changes in bulk CdSe have been measured with two-color femtosecond pump-probe spectroscopy under a wide range of pump fluences. Three regions of reflectivity change with pump fluences have been consistently revealed for excited carrier density, coherent phonon amplitude, and lattice temperature. For laser fluences from 13 to 19.3 mJ/cm{sup 2}, ultrafast melting happens in first several picoseconds. This melting process is purely thermal and reversible. A complete phase transformation in bulk CdSe may be reached when the absorbed laser energy is localized long enough, as observed in nanocrystalline CdSe.

  9. Zinc uptake by brain cells: `surface' versus `bulk'

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeStasio, Gelsomina; Pochon, S.; Lorusso, G. F.; Tonner, B. P.; Mercanti, Delio; Ciotti, M. Teresa; Oddo, Nino; Galli, Paolo; Perfetti, P.; Margaritondo, G.

    1996-08-01

    The uptake of zinc by cerebellar rat cultures upon exposure to 0022-3727/29/8/023/img12 solutions was comparatively investigated using two well known condensed matter physics techniques: synchrotron photoelectron spectromicroscopy and inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy. The objective was to apply a strategy - well known in surface physics - to distinguish between `surface' and `bulk' phenomena. The results clearly demonstrate that exposure significantly enhances the bulk (cell cytoplasm) Zn concentration with respect to the physiological level, whereas the effect on the surface (cell membrane) is negligible.

  10. BRST Hamiltonian for Bulk-Quantized Gauge Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Rutenburg, A

    2003-01-01

    By treating the bulk-quantized Yang-Mills theory as a constrained system we obtain a consistent gauge-fixed BRST hamiltonian in the minimal sector. This provides an independent derivation of the 5-d lagrangian bulk action. The ground state is independent of the (anti)ghosts and is interpreted as the solution of the Fokker-Planck equation, thus establishing a direct connection to the Fokker-Planck hamiltonian. The vacuum state correlators are shown to be in agreement with correlators in lagrangian 5-d formulation. It is verified that the complete propagators remain parabolic in one-loop dimensional regularization.

  11. Thermal rectification in non-linear structures with bulk losses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Martin; Kottos, Tsampikos

    2013-03-01

    A mechanism for thermal rectification based on the interplay between non-uniform bulk losses with nonlinearity is presented. We theoretically analyze the phenomenon using an anharmonic array of coupled oscillators coupled to the left and right with two Langevin reservoirs. A third probe thermostat (with temperature TB) is placed in an asymmetric position in the bulk of the lattice thus breaking the translational symmetry and leading to rectification of heat flow. We note that for TB = 0 this Langevin term is equivalent to a simple friction. We find that an increase of the friction strength can increase both the asymmetry and heat flux. Visiting Student from Germany

  12. Cosmology with bulk viscosity and the gravitino problem

    CERN Document Server

    Buoninfante, L

    2016-01-01

    The gravitino problem is revisited in the framework of cosmological models in which the primordial cosmic matter is described by a relativistic imperfect fluid. Dissipative effects (or bulk viscosity effects) arise owing to the different cooling rates of the fluid components. We show that the effects of the bulk viscosity allow to avoid the late abundance of gravitinos. In particular, we found that for a particular choice of the parameters characterizing the cosmological model, the gravitino abundance turns out to be independent on the reheating temperature.

  13. Advanced and new developments in bulk metal forming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bay, Niels; Wanheim, Tarras; Ravn, Bjarne Gottlieb

    2000-01-01

    Increasing demands to manufacturing industry of faster, better and cheaper production has intensified the research and development of bulk metal forming. The present paper gives examples on European industrial research on secondary bulk metal forming processes. The R&D follows three lines...... of approach, 1. the classical process development, 2. development of physical as well as numerical modelling techniques and 3. the thematic approach, where integrated analysis of the interactions between workpiece, tool and press are now possible with objectives like prediction of workpiece defects...

  14. Enhancement of the Bulk Photovoltaic Effect in Topological Insulators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Liang Z; Rappe, Andrew M

    2016-06-10

    We investigate the shift current bulk photovoltaic response of materials close to a band inversion topological phase transition. We find that the bulk photocurrent reverses direction across the band inversion transition, and that its magnitude is enhanced in the vicinity of the phase transition. These results are demonstrated with first principles density functional theory calculations of BiTeI and CsPbI_{3} under hydrostatic pressure, and explained with an analytical model, suggesting that this phenomenon remains robust across disparate material systems.

  15. Sampling Odor Substances by Mist-Cyclone System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsubara, Osamu; Jiang, Zhiheng; Toyama, Shigeki

    2009-05-01

    Many techniques have been developed to measure odor substances. However most of those methods are based on using aquatic solutions(1),(2). Many odor substances specifically at low density situation, are difficult to dissolve into water. To absorb odor substances and obtain highest concentration solutions are key problems for olfactory systems. By blowing odor substances contained air mixture through mist of water and then separating the liquid from two-phases fluid with a cyclone unit a high concentration solution was obtained.

  16. Development and validation of a stability-indicating high performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) method for the determination of related substances of micafungin sodium in drug substances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Shengsheng; Meng, Xiang; Su, Xin; Luo, Yongwei; Sun, Zuyue

    2013-10-24

    An isocratic, sensitive and stability-indicating high performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) method for separation and determination of the related substances of micafungin sodium was developed. The chromatographic separation was achieved on Agilent Zorbax SB-C18 column (250 × 4.6 mm, 5 μm). Forced degradation study confirmed that the newly developed method was specific and selective to the degradation products. The performance of the method was validated according to the present ICH guidelines for specificity, linearity, accuracy, precision and robustness. Regression analysis showed correlation coefficient value greater than 0.999 for micafungin sodium and its six impurities. Limit of detection of impurities was in the range of 0.006%-0.013% indicating the high sensitivity of the newly developed method. Accuracy of the method was established based on the recovery obtained between 98.2% and 102.0% for all impurities. RSD obtained for the repeatability and intermediate precision experiments, was less than 1.0%. The method was successfully applied to quantify related substances of micafungin sodium in bulk drugs.

  17. Addiction: Alcohol and Substance Abuse in Judaism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kate Miriam Loewenthal

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This article outlines a history of rulings and beliefs about addiction in Judaism, covering alcohol and substance use and addiction, in the context of a brief account of the development of the status of addiction. It examines the prevalence of alcohol and substance use and abuse among Jews, including a discussion of some of the difficulties in estimating prevalence and of factors involved in changing patterns of use and abuse. Community beliefs and attitudes are examined, using published material and interviews with community leaders and members. Some conclusions are suggested about the impact of religious rulings and of other factors on addiction among Jews. Attention is given to the phenomenon of denial. Therapeutic practices and organisations are described. The scope for further research is identified.

  18. The Link: Trauma and Substance Abuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leslie Dawn Culpepper

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Trauma “is categorized as an overwhelming life-changing experience (and is typically a physical and/or emotional shock to the very fiber of one’s being.”It is a priority that those who experience trauma in their lives seek help from a licensed professional to deal with the emotional damage caused by the trauma(s and to be taught necessary coping skills to prevent them from seeking solace in unhealthy ways like abusing drugs and/or alcohol. Research proposes that all types of trauma and the aftermath that follows will likely impact the “exposed population’s behavioral health, resulting in an increase in mental and substance use disorders, along with a decline in perceived quality of life” [1]. Survey results teach us that more than 70% adolescents receiving treatment for substance abuse across the country have a history of trauma in their lives.

  19. Substance dependency among homeless American Indians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobo, Susan; Vaughan, Margaret Mortensen

    2003-01-01

    Extensive qualitative research in the San Francisco Bay Area in California and in Tucson, Arizona, indicates strong associations between substance abuse and homelessness among American Indians. This article takes a comparative approach to describe and analyze precipitating factors and survival patterns of those who are both homeless and who suffer from substance dependency. Possible precipitating factors presented through case studies consider the complex interaction of childhood fostering or adoption into non-Native families, different types of involuntary institutionalization during youth, and the personal impact of accident, trauma and loss. Coping strategies and keys to survival are examined, including the role of the extended family and close friendships, American Indian and mainstream organizations that offer formal and informal services, the existence of anchor or key households, the helping relationships and sobriety groups among homeless individuals, spirituality, and cultural resiliency.

  20. [The substance experience, a history of LSD].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, François; Bonnet, Nicolas

    2013-04-01

    This article reviews the recent knowledge on LSD stemming from various disciplines among which pharmacology, sociology and epidemiology. The d-lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) is a particularly powerful hallucinogenic substance. It produces distortions and hearing, visual and tactile hallucinations. Rarely used (only 1.7% of people aged 15-64 years old have tried it in their lifetime), this very powerful drug generates a strong apprehension within the general population, but the ethnographical studies show that its image seems rather good among illicit drug users. This representation relies both on the proper effects of this substance and also on the history of LSD very closely linked to the counterculture characteristic of the years 1960-1970. © 2013 médecine/sciences – Inserm / SRMS.