WorldWideScience

Sample records for easy plant-based probe

  1. γ-Glutamyl-dipeptides: Easy tools to rapidly probe the stereoelectronic properties of ionotropic glutamate receptor binding pocket

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tamborini, Lucia; Nicosia, Veronica; Conti, Paola

    2016-01-01

    γ-Glutamyl-dipeptides, built by condensing the distal carboxylate of L-Glu (or D-Glu) onto a series of differently functionalized amino acids, were prepared and used as tools for rapidly probing the stereoelectronic properties of iGluRs, searching for subtype-selective ligands.......γ-Glutamyl-dipeptides, built by condensing the distal carboxylate of L-Glu (or D-Glu) onto a series of differently functionalized amino acids, were prepared and used as tools for rapidly probing the stereoelectronic properties of iGluRs, searching for subtype-selective ligands....

  2. Easy Meal

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-01-01

    The woman pictured below is sitting down to a nutritious, easily-prepared meal similar to those consumed by Apollo astronauts. The appetizing dishes shown were created simply by adding water to the contents of a Mountain House* Easy Meal package of freeze dried food. The Easy Meal line is produced by Oregon Freeze Dry Foods, Inc., Albany, Oreaon, a pioneer in freeze drying technology and a company long associated with NASA in developing suitable preparations for use on manned spacecraft. Designed to provide nutritionally balanced, attractive hot meals for senior adults, Easy Meal is an offshoot of a 1975-77 demonstration project managed by Johnson Space Center and called Meal System for the Elderly. The project sought ways to help the estimated 3.5 million elderly Americans who are unable to take advantage of existing meal programs. Such services are provided by federal, state and local agencies, but they are not available to many who live in rural areas, or others who are handicapped, temporarily ill or homebound for other reasons. Oregon Freeze Dry Foods was a participant in that multi-agency cooperative project. With its Easy Meal assortment of convenience foods pictured above left, the company is making commercially available meal packages similar to those distributed in the Meal System for the Elderly program. In the freeze drying process, water is extracted from freshly-cooked foods by dehydration at very low temperatures, as low as 50 I degrees below zero. Flavor is locked in by packaging the dried food in pouches which block out moisture and oxygen, the principal causes of food deterioration; thus the food can be stored for long periods without refrigeration. Meals are reconstituted by adding hot or cold water, depending on the type of food, and they are table ready in five to 10 minutes. Oregon Freeze Dry Foods offers five different meal packages and plans to expand the line.

  3. Lahkumistorm EASis / Kristina Traks

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Traks, Kristina, 1976-

    2004-01-01

    Ettevõtluse Arendamise Sihtasutusest on viimase kahe aasta jooksul lahkunud suur osa valdkonnajuhtidest. Vt. samas: Minister Meelis Atonen pidas EASiga ideoloogilist vaidlust; EASi juhtide seas kaadri voolavus erakordselt kõrge; intervjuud EAS-i juhi Tea Varrakuga

  4. Easy Exercises for Teens

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Week of Healthy Breakfasts Shyness Easy Exercises for Teens KidsHealth > For Teens > Easy Exercises for Teens A A A en español Ejercicios fáciles para ... not enough.) What more should we do? First, teens should do 60 minutes or more of physical ...

  5. Consumers' readiness to eat a plant-based diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lea, E J; Crawford, D; Worsley, A

    2006-03-01

    The aim of this study was to examine consumers' readiness to change to a plant-based diet. Mail survey that included questions on readiness to change, eating habits and perceived benefits and barriers to the consumption of a plant-based diet. Victoria, Australia. A total of 415 randomly selected adults. In terms of their readiness to eat a plant-based diet, the majority (58%) of participants were in the precontemplation stage of change, while 14% were in contemplation/preparation, and 28% in action/maintenance. Those in the action/maintenance stage ate more fruit, vegetables, nuts, seeds, whole-meal bread, and cooked cereals than those in earlier stages. There were statistically significant differences in age and vegetarian status between the stages of change, but not for other demographic variables. There were strong differences across the stages of change with regard to perceived benefits and barriers to plant-based diets. For example, those in action/maintenance scored highest for benefit factors associated with well-being, weight, health, convenience and finances, whereas those in the precontemplation stage did not recognise such benefits. These findings can be utilised to help provide appropriate nutrition education and advertising, targeted at specific stages of change. For example, education about how it is possible to obtain iron and protein from a plant-based diet and on the benefits of change, in addition to tips on how to make a gradual, easy transition to a plant-based diet, could help progress precontemplators to later stages. Australian Research Council.

  6. French grammar made easy

    CERN Document Server

    McNab, Rosi

    2014-01-01

    The Grammar Made Easy series is ideal for complete beginners as well as for those non-linguists who have some knowledge of the language but need to know the basics of grammar to progress beyond phrasebook level. The books consist of seven units that present basic grammar topics in an accessible and non-patronising manner. The interactive CD-ROM provides extensive interactive grammar practice, it contains around 220 activities (those included in the book plus extra ones) covering all the language in French Grammar Made Easy. Learners work at their own pace and move through the different sect

  7. 1001 easy French phrases

    CERN Document Server

    McCoy, Heather

    2010-01-01

    The perfect companion for tourists and business travelers in France and other places where the French language is spoken, this book offers fast, effective communication. More than 1,000 basic words, phrases, and sentences cover everything from asking directions and renting a car to ordering dinner and finding a bank.Designed as a quick reference tool and an easy study guide, this inexpensive and easy-to-use book offers completely up-to-date terms for modern telecommunications, idioms, and slang. The contents are arranged for quick access to phrases related to greetings, transportation, shoppin

  8. French made nice & easy

    CERN Document Server

    REA, The Editors of

    2012-01-01

    Whether travelling to a foreign country or to your favorite international restaurant, this Nice & Easy guide gives you just enough of the language to get around and be understood. Much of the material in this book was developed for government personnel who are often assigned to a foreign country on a moment's notice and need a quick introduction to the language.

  9. if language learning easy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张悦清

    2002-01-01

    " Learning a language is as easy as ABC. Even a child can do it. " Most stu-dents who are learning a foreign language would disagree with this statement. For them, learning a foreign language, eg. English,is a very difficult task. They need thousands of hours to study and practice, and even this will not guarantee success for every language learner.

  10. Easy does it

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anuj K. Shah

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available We propose that people weight fluent, or easy to process, information more heavily than disfluent information when making judgments. Cue fluency was manipulated independent of objective cue validity in three studies, the findings from which support our hypothesis. In Experiment 1, participants weighted a consumer review more heavily when it was written in a clear font than in a less clear font. In Experiment 2, participants placed more weight on information when it was in focus than when it was blurry. In Experiment 3, participants placed more weight on financial information from brokerage firms with easy to pronounce names than those with hard to pronounce names. These studies demonstrate that fluency affects cue weighting independent of objective cue validity.

  11. Frustratingly Easy Domain Adaptation

    CERN Document Server

    Daumé, Hal

    2009-01-01

    We describe an approach to domain adaptation that is appropriate exactly in the case when one has enough ``target'' data to do slightly better than just using only ``source'' data. Our approach is incredibly simple, easy to implement as a preprocessing step (10 lines of Perl!) and outperforms state-of-the-art approaches on a range of datasets. Moreover, it is trivially extended to a multi-domain adaptation problem, where one has data from a variety of different domains.

  12. English made easy

    CERN Document Server

    Crichton, Jonathan

    2013-01-01

    This is a fun and user–friendly way to learn EnglishEnglish Made Easy is a breakthrough in English language learning—imaginatively exploiting how pictures and text can work together to create understanding and help learners learn more productively. It gives learners easy access to the vocabulary, grammar and functions of English as it is actually used in a comprehensive range of social situations. Self–guided students and classroom learners alike will be delighted by the way they are helped to progress easily from one unit to the next, using a combination of pictures and text to discover for themselves how English works. The pictorial method used in this book is based on a thorough understanding of language structure and how language is successfully learned.English Made Easy, Volume 2 consists of a total of 20 units arranged in groups of five. The first four units presents language and provide learners the opportunities to practice as they learn. The first page of each unit has a list of all the words...

  13. English made easy

    CERN Document Server

    Crichton, Jonathan

    2013-01-01

    This is a fun and user–friendly way to learn English English Made Easy is a breakthrough in English language learning—imaginatively exploiting how pictures and text can work together to create understanding and help learners learn more productively. It gives learners easy access to the vocabulary, grammar and functions of English as it is actually used in a comprehensive range of social situations. Self–guided students and classroom learners alike will be delighted by the way they are helped to progress easily from one unit to the next, using a combination of pictures and text to discover for themselves how English works. The pictorial method used in this book is based on a thorough understanding of language structure and how language is successfully learned.English Made Easy, Volume 1 consists of a total of 20 units arranged in groups of five. The first four units presents language and provide learners the opportunities to practice as they learn. The first page of each unit has a list of all the word...

  14. Relativity made relatively easy

    CERN Document Server

    Steane, Andrew M

    2012-01-01

    Relativity Made Relatively Easy presents an extensive study of Special Relativity and a gentle (but exact) introduction to General Relativity for undergraduate students of physics. Assuming almost no prior knowledge, it allows the student to handle all the Relativity needed for a university course, with explanations as simple, thorough, and engaging as possible.The aim is to make manageable what would otherwise be regarded as hard; to make derivations as simple as possible and physical ideas as transparent as possible. Lorentz invariants and four-vectors are introduced early on, but tensor not

  15. Business plans made easy

    CERN Document Server

    Press, Entrepreneur

    2005-01-01

    Business Plans Made Easy, 3rd Edition is the latest incarnation of the essential guide for creating a high-impact business plan that will turn an entrepreneur's dreams into reality. Revised and updated, the book expands the helpful business plan summaries and adds new examples of real-life business plans. Tips about information technology and an added business plan for artists increase the scope of the book. The useful forms, worksheets and financial statements have been updated to reflect recent changes in the business world, and an added "expert advice" section at the end of each chapter giv

  16. Spectroscopy Made Easy: Evolution

    CERN Document Server

    Piskunov, Nikolai

    2016-01-01

    Context. The Spectroscopy Made Easy (SME) package has become a popular tool for analyzing stellar spectra, often in connection with large surveys or exoplanet research. SME has evolved significantly since it was first described in 1996, but many of the original caveats and potholes still haunt users. The main drivers for this paper are complexity of the modeling task, the large user community, and the massive effort that has gone into SME. Aims. We do not intend to give a comprehensive introduction to stellar atmospheres, but will describe changes to key components of SME: the equation of state, opacities, and radiative transfer. We will describe the analysis and fitting procedure and investigate various error sources that affect inferred parameters. Methods. We review the current status of SME, emphasizing new algorithms and methods. We describe some best practices for using the package, based on lessons learned over two decades of SME usage. We present a new way to assess uncertainties in derived stellar pa...

  17. Pretty Easy Pervasive Positioning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Rene; Wind, Rico; Jensen, Christian Søndergaard;

    2009-01-01

    With the increasing availability of positioning based on GPS, Wi-Fi, and cellular technologies and the proliferation of mobile devices with GPS, Wi-Fi and cellular connectivity, ubiquitous positioning is becoming a reality. While offerings by companies such as Google, Skyhook, and Spotigo render...... positioning possible in outdoor settings, including urban environments with limited GPS coverage, they remain unable to offer accurate indoor positioning. We will demonstrate a software infrastructure that makes it easy for anybody to build support for accurate Wi-Fi based positioning in buildings. All...... that is needed is a building with Wi-Fi coverage, access to the building, a floor plan of the building, and a Wi-Fi enabled device. Specifically, we will explain the software infrastructure and the steps that must be completed to obtain support for positioning. And we will demonstrate the positioning obtained...

  18. [Plant-based diets: a review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szabó, Zoltán; Erdélyi, Attila; Gubicskóné Kisbenedek, Andrea; Ungár, Tamás; Lászlóné Polyák, Éva; Szekeresné Szabó, Szilvia; Kovács, Réka Erika; Raposa, László Bence; Figler, Mária

    2016-11-01

    Plant-based diet is an old-new trend in nutrition. In this review based on a historical context, we wish to introduce this popular nutritional trend. Our aim is to present plant-based diet as a primary measure for prevention. We intend to critically analyse some past stereotypes related to plant-based diet - whose main components include fruits, vegetables, whole grains, legumes, nuts and seeds - according to the literature (e.g. protein, vitamin B12, folic acid, and iron intake) by doing so we wish to create an adequate conceptual basis for its interpretation. We discuss positive physiological effects of plant-based diet and its possible role in diseases risk reduction. Cardiovascular and metabolic diseases developing due to obesity could be prevented by a properly compiled plant-based diet. For patients with cancer minimizing the intake of foods of animal origin - as opposed to plant-based ones - has proved to have positive effects. Our review suggests this diet can be used in a number of diseases and it also provides long-term sustainable solutions for the health care challenges of the newest era. Orv. Hetil., 2016, 157(47), 1859-1865.

  19. Spectroscopy Made Easy: Evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piskunov, Nikolai; Valenti, Jeff A.

    2017-01-01

    Context. The Spectroscopy Made Easy (SME) package has become a popular tool for analyzing stellar spectra, often in connection with large surveys or exoplanet research. SME has evolved significantly since it was first described in 1996, but many of the original caveats and potholes still haunt users. The main drivers for this paper are complexity of the modeling task, the large user community, and the massive effort that has gone into SME. Aims: We do not intend to give a comprehensive introduction to stellar atmospheres, but will describe changes to key components of SME: the equation of state, opacities, and radiative transfer. We will describe the analysis and fitting procedure and investigate various error sources that affect inferred parameters. Methods: We review the current status of SME, emphasizing new algorithms and methods. We describe some best practices for using the package, based on lessons learned over two decades of SME usage. We present a new way to assess uncertainties in derived stellar parameters. Results: Improvements made to SME, better line data, and new model atmospheres yield more realistic stellar spectra, but in many cases systematic errors still dominate over measurement uncertainty. Future enhancements are outlined.

  20. Plant-Based Vaccines: Production and Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erna Laere

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Plant-based vaccine technologies involve the integration of the desired genes encoding the antigen protein for specific disease into the genome of plant tissues by various methods. Agrobacterium-mediated gene transfer and transformation via genetically modified plant virus are the common methods that have been used to produce effective vaccines. Nevertheless, with the advancement of science and technology, new approaches have been developed to increase the efficiency of former methods such as biolistic, electroporation, agroinfiltration, sonication, and polyethylene glycol treatment. Even though plant-based vaccines provide many benefits to the vaccine industry, there are still challenges that limit the rate of successful production of these third-generation vaccines. Even with all the limitations, continuous efforts are still ongoing in order to produce efficient vaccine for many human and animals related diseases owing to its great potentials. This paper reviews the existing conventional methods as well as the development efforts by researchers in order to improve the production of plant-based vaccines. Several challenges encountered during and after the production process were also discussed.

  1. Plant-Based Diets Score Big for Healthy Weight Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_162874.html Plant-Based Diets Score Big for Healthy Weight Loss ... row, U.S. News & World Report has named the plant-based eating plan as the best choice overall, ...

  2. Easy-to-use interface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blattner, M M; Blattner, D O; Tong, Y

    1999-04-01

    Easy-to-use interfaces are a class of interfaces that fall between public access interfaces and graphical user interfaces in usability and cognitive difficulty. We describe characteristics of easy-to-use interfaces by the properties of four dimensions: selection, navigation, direct manipulation, and contextual metaphors. Another constraint we introduced was to include as little text as possible, and what text we have will be in at least four languages. Formative evaluations were conducted to identify and isolate these characteristics. Our application is a visual interface for a home automation system intended for a diverse set of users. The design will be expanded to accommodate the visually disabled in the near future.

  3. Easy and flexible mixture distributions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fosgerau, Mogens; Mabit, Stefan L.

    2013-01-01

    We propose a method to generate flexible mixture distributions that are useful for estimating models such as the mixed logit model using simulation. The method is easy to implement, yet it can approximate essentially any mixture distribution. We test it with good results in a simulation study...

  4. Orcc: multimedia development made easy

    OpenAIRE

    Yviquel H.; Lorence A.; Jerbi K.; Cocherel G.; Sanchez A.; Raulet M.

    2013-01-01

    International audience; In this paper, we present Orcc, an open-source development environment that aims at enhancing multimedia development by offering all the advantages of dataflow programming: flexibility, portability and scalability. To do so, Orcc embeds two rich eclipse-based editors that provide an easy writing of dataflow applications, a simulator that allows quick validation of the written code, and a multi-target compiler that is able to translate any dataflow program, written in t...

  5. How easy the invention is

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Yeon Jung

    2002-05-15

    This book deals with the inventions invented by kids such as a utility helmet, a useful drawing board, automatic safe device, telephone for the blind, a peaceful washboard, roly poly milk bottle, seat belt with height control, gas hose to prevent thief, portable magic soap, useful bus handle, convent desk, a paper cup attached a spoon, a useful washboard, dressing room using moveable small cymbals, fluorescent light which is easy to put in a new one, rods for night, curtain for cars, spray shampoo, and a good calendar.

  6. Words Do Come Easy (Sometimes)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Starrfelt, Randi; Petersen, Anders; Vangkilde, Signe Allerup

    multiple stimuli are presented simultaneously: Are words treated as units or wholes in visual short term memory? Using methods based on a Theory of Visual Attention (TVA), we measured perceptual threshold, visual processing speed and visual short term memory capacity for words and letters, in two simple...... a different pattern: Letters are perceived more easily than words, and this is reflected both in perceptual processing speed and short term memory capacity. So even if single words do come easy, they seem to enjoy no advantage in visual short term memory....

  7. Words Do Come Easy (Sometimes)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Starrfelt, Randi; Petersen, Anders; Vangkilde, Signe Allerup

    multiple stimuli are presented simultaneously: Are words treated as units or wholes in visual short term memory? Using methods based on a Theory of Visual Attention (TVA), we measured perceptual threshold, visual processing speed and visual short term memory capacity for words and letters, in two simple...... psychophysical experiments. Using briefly presented single stimuli (words and letters), we show that the classical WSE is specifically reflected in perceptual processing speed: words are simply processed faster than single letters. Intriguingly, when multiple stimuli are presented simultaneously we find...... a different pattern: Letters are perceived more easily than words, and this is reflected both in perceptual processing speed and short term memory capacity. So even if single words do come easy, they seem to enjoy no advantage in visual short term memory....

  8. Cobra Probes Containing Replaceable Thermocouples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, John; Redding, Adam

    2007-01-01

    A modification of the basic design of cobra probes provides for relatively easy replacement of broken thermocouples. Cobra probes are standard tube-type pressure probes that may also contain thermocouples and that are routinely used in wind tunnels and aeronautical hardware. They are so named because in side views, they resemble a cobra poised to attack. Heretofore, there has been no easy way to replace a broken thermocouple in a cobra probe: instead, it has been necessary to break the probe apart and then rebuild it, typically at a cost between $2,000 and $4,000 (2004 prices). The modified design makes it possible to replace the thermocouple, in minimal time and at relatively low cost, by inserting new thermocouple wire in a tube.

  9. Mobile Probing and Probes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2013-01-01

    Mobile probing is a method, developed for learning about digital work situations, as an approach to discover new grounds. The method can be used when there is a need to know more about users and their work with certain tasks, but where users at the same time are distributed (in time and space......). Mobile probing was inspired by the cultural probe method, and was influenced by qualitative interview and inquiry approaches. The method has been used in two subsequent projects, involving school children (young adults at 15-17 years old) and employees (adults) in a consultancy company. Findings point...... to mobile probing being a flexible method for uncovering the unknowns, as a way of getting rich data to the analysis and design phases. On the other hand it is difficult to engage users to give in depth explanations, which seem easier in synchronous dialogs (whether online or face2face). The development...

  10. Mobile Probing and Probes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2012-01-01

    Mobile probing is a method, which has been developed for learning about digital work situations, as an approach to discover new grounds. The method can be used when there is a need to know more about users and their work with certain tasks, but where users at the same time are distributed (in time...... and space). Mobile probing was inspired by the cultural probe method, and was influenced by qualitative interview and inquiry approaches. The method has been used in two subsequent projects, involving school children (young adults at 15-17 years old) and employees (adults) in a consultancy company. Findings...... point to mobile probing being a flexible method for uncovering the unknowns, as a way of getting rich data to the analysis and design phases. On the other hand it is difficult to engage users to give in depth explanations, which seem easier in synchronous dialogs (whether online or face2face...

  11. Mobile Probing and Probes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2012-01-01

    Mobile probing is a method, which has been developed for learning about digital work situations, as an approach to discover new grounds. The method can be used when there is a need to know more about users and their work with certain tasks, but where users at the same time are distributed (in time...... and space). Mobile probing was inspired by the cultural probe method, and was influenced by qualitative interview and inquiry approaches. The method has been used in two subsequent projects, involving school children (young adults at 15-17 years old) and employees (adults) in a consultancy company. Findings...... point to mobile probing being a flexible method for uncovering the unknowns, as a way of getting rich data to the analysis and design phases. On the other hand it is difficult to engage users to give in depth explanations, which seem easier in synchronous dialogs (whether online or face2face...

  12. Venturi easy ambient sonic-spray ionization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Vanessa G; Regiani, Thaís; Dias, Fernanda F G; Romão, Wanderson; Jara, Jose Luis Paz; Klitzke, Clécio F; Coelho, Fernando; Eberlin, Marcos N

    2011-02-15

    The development and illustrative applications of an ambient ionization technique termed Venturi easy ambient sonic-spray ionization (V-EASI) is described. Its dual mode of operation with Venturi self-pumping makes V-EASI applicable to the direct mass spectrometric analysis of both liquid (V(L)-EASI) and solid (V(S)-EASI) samples. V-EASI is simple and easy to assemble, operating solely via the assistance of a sonic stream of nitrogen or air. The sonic gas stream causes two beneficial and integrated effects: (a) the self-pumping of solutions via the Venturi effect and (b) sonic-spray ionization (SSI) of analytes either in solution or resting on solid surfaces. In its liquid mode, V(L)-EASI is applicable to analytes in solution, forming negatively and/or positively charged intact molecular species in a soft fashion with little or no fragmentation. In its solid mode, V(S)-EASI relies on Venturi self-pumping of a proper SSI solvent solution in combination with SSI to form a stream of bipolar charged droplets that bombard the sample surface, causing desorption and ionization of the analyte molecules. As for its precursor technique (EASI), V-EASI generates bipolar droplets with considerably lower average charging, which increases selectivity for ionization with high signal-to-noise ratios and clean spectra dominated by single molecular species with minimal solvent ions. V-EASI also operates in a voltage-, heat-, and radiation-free fashion and is therefore free of thermal, electrical, or discharge interferences.

  13. Nutritional update for physicians: plant-based diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuso, Philip J; Ismail, Mohamed H; Ha, Benjamin P; Bartolotto, Carole

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this article is to present to physicians an update on plant-based diets. Concerns about the rising cost of health care are being voiced nationwide, even as unhealthy lifestyles are contributing to the spread of obesity, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease. For these reasons, physicians looking for cost-effective interventions to improve health outcomes are becoming more involved in helping their patients adopt healthier lifestyles. Healthy eating may be best achieved with a plant-based diet, which we define as a regimen that encourages whole, plant-based foods and discourages meats, dairy products, and eggs as well as all refined and processed foods. We present a case study as an example of the potential health benefits of such a diet. Research shows that plant-based diets are cost-effective, low-risk interventions that may lower body mass index, blood pressure, HbA1C, and cholesterol levels. They may also reduce the number of medications needed to treat chronic diseases and lower ischemic heart disease mortality rates. Physicians should consider recommending a plant-based diet to all their patients, especially those with high blood pressure, diabetes, cardiovascular disease, or obesity.

  14. Mobile Probing and Probes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2013-01-01

    to mobile probing being a flexible method for uncovering the unknowns, as a way of getting rich data to the analysis and design phases. On the other hand it is difficult to engage users to give in depth explanations, which seem easier in synchronous dialogs (whether online or face2face). The development...

  15. Petroleomics by EASI(+/-) FT-ICR MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corilo, Yuri E; Vaz, Boniek G; Simas, Rosineide C; Nascimento, Heliara D Lopes; Klitzke, Clécio F; Pereira, Rosana C L; Bastos, Wagner L; Santos Neto, Eugênio V; Rodgers, Ryan P; Eberlin, Marcos N

    2010-05-15

    An ambient ionization/desorption technique, namely, easy ambient sonic-spray ionization mass spectrometry (EASI), has been applied to crude oil samples. From a single droplet of the sample placed on an inert surface, EASI(+/-) is shown to promote efficient desorption and ionization of a myriad of polar components via the action of its cloud of very minute supersonic bipolar charged droplets. The gaseous [M + H](+) and [M - H](-) ions concurrently formed by EASI(+/-) were analyzed by Fourier transform mass spectrometry (FT-ICR MS), and a total of approximately 6000 acidic and basic components have been attributed. EASI(+/-) FT-ICR MS of crude oils is show to be almost as fast as ESI(+)/ESI(-) FT-ICR MS, providing similar compositional information of polar components and spectral quality comparable to that of a commercial nonochip-based robotic ESI device. EASI(+/-) requires no sample workup thus eliminating risks of contamination during sample manipulation and memory effects because of carry over in pumping ESI lines. More importantly, EASI(+/-) is a voltage-free ionization technique therefore eliminating risks of redox processes or duality of ionization mechanisms that can be observed in voltage-assisted processes. Data visualization via typical petroleomic plots confirms the similarity of the compositional information provided by EASI(+/-) compared to ESI(+)/ESI(-). The ambient EASI(+/-) FT-ICR MS method requires no voltage switching in changing the ion polarity mode, offering a workup, heating and voltage-free protocol for petroleomic studies performed at open atmosphere directly on the undisturbed crude oil sample.

  16. De Finetti theorems for easy quantum groups

    CERN Document Server

    Banica, Teodor; Speicher, Roland

    2009-01-01

    We study sequences of noncommutative random variables which are invariant under "quantum transformations" coming from an orthogonal quantum group satisfying the "easiness" condition axiomatized in our previous paper. For 10 easy quantum groups, we obtain de Finetti type theorems characterizing the joint distribution of any infinite, quantum invariant sequence. In particular, we give a new and unified proof of the classical results of de Finetti and Freedman for the easy groups S_n, O_n, which is based on the combinatorial theory of cumulants. We also recover the free de Finetti theorem of K\\"ostler and Speicher, and the characterization of operator-valued free semicircular families due to Curran. We consider also finite sequences, and prove an approximation result in the spirit of Diaconis and Freedman.

  17. French Pen Pals Made Easy KS3

    CERN Document Server

    Leleu, Sinéad

    2010-01-01

    French Pen Pals Made Easy provides an easy way for pupils to communicate in French with other French speakers. It contains fill-in-the-gap letters, so even pupils just beginning to learn French can have the satisfaction of being able to communicate effectively in French. The format is ideal for non-specialist teachers as it does not require fluency and little or no preparation is required. English translations of the letters are included, as are lists of vocabulary, key grammar points and exten

  18. Tally NP Sets and Easy Census Functions

    OpenAIRE

    Goldsmith, Judy; Ogihara, Mitsunori; Rothe, Joerg

    1998-01-01

    We study the question of whether every P set has an easy (i.e., polynomial-time computable) census function. We characterize this question in terms of unlikely collapses of language and function classes such as the containment of #P_1 in FP, where #P_1 is the class of functions that count the witnesses for tally NP sets. We prove that every #P_{1}^{PH} function can be computed in FP^{#P_{1}^{#P_{1}}}. Consequently, every P set has an easy census function if and only if every set in the polyno...

  19. Sustainability of plant-based diets: back to the future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabaté, Joan; Soret, Sam

    2014-07-01

    Plant-based diets in comparison to diets rich in animal products are more sustainable because they use many fewer natural resources and are less taxing on the environment. Given the global population explosion and increase in wealth, there is an increased demand for foods of animal origin. Environmental data are rapidly accumulating on the unsustainability of current worldwide food consumption practices that are high in meat and dairy products. Natural nonrenewable resources are becoming scarce, and environmental degradation is rapidly increasing. At the current trends of food consumption and environmental changes, food security and food sustainability are on a collision course. Changing course (to avoid the collision) will require extreme downward shifts in meat and dairy consumption by large segments of the world's population. Other approaches such as food waste reduction and precision agriculture and/or other technological advances have to be simultaneously pursued; however, they are insufficient to make the global food system sustainable. For millennia, meatless diets have been advocated on the basis of values, and large segments of the world population have thrived on plant-based diets. "Going back" to plant-based diets worldwide seems to be a reasonable alternative for a sustainable future. Policies in favor of the global adoption of plant-based diets will simultaneously optimize the food supply, health, environmental, and social justice outcomes for the world's population. Implementing such nutrition policy is perhaps one of the most rational and moral paths for a sustainable future of the human race and other living creatures of the biosphere that we share.

  20. Plant based dietary supplement increases urinary pH

    OpenAIRE

    Rao A Venket; Logan Alan C; Berardi John M

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background Research has demonstrated that the net acid load of the typical Western diet has the potential to influence many aspects of human health, including osteoporosis risk/progression; obesity; cardiovascular disease risk/progression; and overall well-being. As urinary pH provides a reliable surrogate measure for dietary acid load, this study examined whether a plant-based dietary supplement, one marketed to increase alkalinity, impacts urinary pH as advertised. Methods Using pH...

  1. Plant based dietary supplement increases urinary pH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rao A Venket

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Research has demonstrated that the net acid load of the typical Western diet has the potential to influence many aspects of human health, including osteoporosis risk/progression; obesity; cardiovascular disease risk/progression; and overall well-being. As urinary pH provides a reliable surrogate measure for dietary acid load, this study examined whether a plant-based dietary supplement, one marketed to increase alkalinity, impacts urinary pH as advertised. Methods Using pH test strips, the urinary pH of 34 healthy men and women (33.9 +/- 1.57 y, 79.3 +/- 3.1 kg was measured for seven days to establish a baseline urinary pH without supplementation. After this initial baseline period, urinary pH was measured for an additional 14 days while participants ingested the plant-based nutritional supplement. At the end of the investigation, pH values at baseline and during the treatment period were compared to determine the efficacy of the supplement. Results Mean urinary pH statistically increased (p = 0.03 with the plant-based dietary supplement. Mean urinary pH was 6.07 +/- 0.04 during the baseline period and increased to 6.21 +/- 0.03 during the first week of treatment and to 6.27 +/- 0.06 during the second week of treatment. Conclusion Supplementation with a plant-based dietary product for at least seven days increases urinary pH, potentially increasing the alkalinity of the body.

  2. Mind wandering while reading easy and difficult texts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Shi; D'Mello, Sidney; Graesser, Arthur C

    2013-06-01

    Mind wandering is a phenomenon in which attention drifts away from the primary task to task-unrelated thoughts. Previous studies have used self-report methods to measure the frequency of mind wandering and its effects on task performance. Many of these studies have investigated mind wandering in simple perceptual and memory tasks, such as recognition memory, sustained attention, and choice reaction time tasks. Manipulations of task difficulty have revealed that mind wandering occurs more frequently in easy than in difficult conditions, but that it has a greater negative impact on performance in the difficult conditions. The goal of this study was to examine the relation between mind wandering and task difficulty in a high-level cognitive task, namely reading comprehension of standardized texts. We hypothesized that reading comprehension may yield a different relation between mind wandering and task difficulty than has been observed previously. Participants read easy or difficult versions of eight passages and then answered comprehension questions after reading each of the passages. Mind wandering was reported using the probe-caught method from several previous studies. In contrast to the previous results, but consistent with our hypothesis, mind wandering occurred more frequently when participants read difficult rather than easy texts. However, mind wandering had a more negative influence on comprehension for the difficult texts, which is consistent with the previous data. The results are interpreted from the perspectives of the executive-resources and control-failure theories of mind wandering, as well as with regard to situation models of text comprehension.

  3. New Candidates for Plant-Based Repellents Against Aedes aegypti.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misni, Norashiqin; Nor, Zurainee Mohamed; Ahmad, Rohani

    2016-06-01

    Based on an ethnobotanical study on use for plant species against mosquito bites in the Kota Tinggi District, Johor State, Malaysia, 3 plants selected for study, Citrus aurantifolia (leaves), Citrus grandis (fruit peel), and Alpinia galanga (rhizome), were extracted using hydrodistillation to produce essential oils. These essential oils were then formulated as a lotion using a microencapsulation process and then tested for their repellent effect against Aedes aegypti. N,N-diethyl-m-toluamide (deet) was also prepared in the same formulation and tested for repellency as controls. Four commercial plant-based repellent (KAPS(®), MozAway(®), BioZ Natural(®), and Mosiquard(®)) also were incorporated in the bioassay for comparison purposes. Bioassays revealed that at 20% concentration all repellent formulations demonstrated complete protection for 2 h and >90% for 4 h post-application. The A. galanga-based formulation provided the greatest level of protection (98.91%), which extended for 4 h post-application and was not significantly different from deet at similar concentration. When compared with commercial plant-based repellents (KAPS(®), MozAway(®), and BioZ Natural(®)), the 3 lotion formulations showed significantly better protection against Ae. aegypti bites, providing >90% protection for 4 h. In conclusion, our 3 plant-based lotion formulations provided acceptable levels of protection against host-seeking Ae. aegypti and should be developed.

  4. Cardio-Metabolic Benefits of Plant-Based Diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hana Kahleova

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Cardio-metabolic disease, namely ischemic heart disease, stroke, obesity, and type 2 diabetes, represent substantial health and economic burdens. Almost one half of cardio-metabolic deaths in the U.S. might be prevented through proper nutrition. Plant-based (vegetarian and vegan diets are an effective strategy for improving nutrient intake. At the same time, they are associated with decreased all-cause mortality and decreased risk of obesity, type 2 diabetes, and coronary heart disease. Evidence suggests that plant-based diets may reduce the risk of coronary heart disease events by an estimated 40% and the risk of cerebral vascular disease events by 29%. These diets also reduce the risk of developing metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes by about one half. Properly planned vegetarian diets are healthful, effective for weight and glycemic control, and provide metabolic and cardiovascular benefits, including reversing atherosclerosis and decreasing blood lipids and blood pressure. The use of plant-based diets as a means of prevention and treatment of cardio-metabolic disease should be promoted through dietary guidelines and recommendations.

  5. Interpreting Histograms. As Easy as It Seems?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lem, Stephanie; Onghena, Patrick; Verschaffel, Lieven; Van Dooren, Wim

    2014-01-01

    Histograms are widely used, but recent studies have shown that they are not as easy to interpret as it might seem. In this article, we report on three studies on the interpretation of histograms in which we investigated, namely, (1) whether the misinterpretation by university students can be considered to be the result of heuristic reasoning, (2)…

  6. 'German Angst' vs 'Danish Easy Going'?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fersch, Barbara

    2012-01-01

    national lines. Whereas insecurity and its related fear and anxiety played a huge role in the German interviews (‘German Angst’), the Danish freelancers attached less importance to the topic of insecurity and showed almost no sign of related anxiety (‘Danish Easy-going’). Some reasons for this can be found...

  7. Planar graphical models which are easy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chertkov, Michael [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Chernyak, Vladimir [WAYNE STATE UNIV

    2009-01-01

    We describe a rich family of binary variables statistical mechanics models on planar graphs which are equivalent to Gaussian Grassmann Graphical models (free fermions). Calculation of partition function (weighted counting) in the models is easy (of polynomial complexity) as reduced to evaluation of determinants of matrixes linear in the number of variables. In particular, this family of models covers Holographic Algorithms of Valiant and extends on the Gauge Transformations discussed in our previous works.

  8. Probe Storage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gemelli, Marcellino; Abelmann, Leon; Engelen, Johan B.C.; Khatib, Mohammed G.; Koelmans, Wabe W.; Zaboronski, Olog; Campardo, Giovanni; Tiziani, Federico; Laculo, Massimo

    2011-01-01

    This chapter gives an overview of probe-based data storage research over the last three decades, encompassing all aspects of a probe recording system. Following the division found in all mechanically addressed storage systems, the different subsystems (media, read/write heads, positioning, data chan

  9. Cultural probes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Jacob Østergaard

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was thus to explore cultural probes (Gaver, Boucher et al. 2004), as a possible methodical approach, supporting knowledge production on situated and contextual aspects of occupation.......The aim of this study was thus to explore cultural probes (Gaver, Boucher et al. 2004), as a possible methodical approach, supporting knowledge production on situated and contextual aspects of occupation....

  10. An easy guide to factor analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Kline, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Factor analysis is a statistical technique widely used in psychology and the social sciences. With the advent of powerful computers, factor analysis and other multivariate methods are now available to many more people. An Easy Guide to Factor Analysis presents and explains factor analysis as clearly and simply as possible. The author, Paul Kline, carefully defines all statistical terms and demonstrates step-by-step how to work out a simple example of principal components analysis and rotation. He further explains other methods of factor analysis, including confirmatory and path analysis, a

  11. Easy and Effective Parallel Programmable ETL

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Christian; Pedersen, Torben Bach

    2011-01-01

    , typically the case that the ETL program can exploit both task parallelism and data parallelism to run faster. This, on the other hand, makes the development time longer as it is complex to create a parallel ETL program. To remedy this situation, we propose efficient ways to parallelize typical ETL tasks...... and we implement these new constructs in an ETL framework. The constructs are easy to apply and do only require few modifications to an ETL program to parallelize it. They support both task and data parallelism and give the programmer different possibilities to choose from. An experimental evaluation...

  12. Easy cross parameterization for articulated shapes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jian-wei HU; Li-gang LIU; Guo-zhao WANG

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a novel interactive system for establishing compatible meshes for articulated shapes. Given two mesh surfaces, our system automatically generates both the global level component correspondence and the local level feature correspondence. Users can use some sketch-based tools to specify the correspondence in an intuitive and easy way. Then all the other vertex correspondences could be generated automatically. The cross parameterization preserves both high level and low level features of the shapes. The technique showed in the system benefits various applications in graphics including mesh inter-polation, deformation transfer, and texture transfer.

  13. Fast Visual Modeling for Plant Based on Real Images

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Yun-feng; ZHU Qing-sheng; CAO Yu-kun; LIU Yin-bin; HE Xi-ping

    2004-01-01

    Structures of natural plants are complex and difficult to model. This paper proposes a fast visual modeling for plants based on a small set of images, and establishes a reasonable plant model.Based on knowledge about growth patterns of the plant, image segmentation and 3D reconstruction are first performed to construct the plant skeleton (trunk and major branches), from which the remainder of the plant grows. Then the system produces the realistic plant model images based on image synthesis and validation. It is unnecessary to acquire the complex structure (such as the complex production rules of L-systems). The method provides a high degree of control over the final shape by image validation,resulting in realistic reconstruction.

  14. Meeting report VLPNPV: Session 5: Plant based technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meador, Lydia R; Mor, Tsafrir S

    2014-01-01

    The VLPNPV 2014 Conference that was convened at the Salk institute was the second conference of its kind to focus on advances in production, purification, and delivery of virus-like particles (VLPs) and nanoparticles. Many exciting developments were reported and discussed in this interdisciplinary arena, but here we report specifically on the contributions of plant-based platforms to VLP vaccine technology as reported in the section of the conference devoted to the topic as well in additional presentations throughout the meeting. The increasing popularity of plant production platforms is due to their lower cost, scalability, and lack of contaminating animal pathogens seen with other systems. Reports include production of complex VLPs consisting of 4 proteins expressed at finely-tuned expression levels, a prime-boost strategy for HIV vaccination using plant-made VLPs and a live viral vector, and the characterization and development of plant viral nanoparticles for use in cancer vaccines, drug delivery, and bioimaging.

  15. An easy method for plant polysome profiling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lecampion, Cécile; Floris, Maina Huguette Joséphine; Fantino, Jean Raphaël;

    2016-01-01

    Translation of mRNA to protein is a fundamental and highly regulated biological process. Polysome profiling is considered as a gold standard for the analysis of translational regulation. The method described here is an easy and economical way for fractionating polysomes from various plant tissues....... A sucrose gradient is made without the need for a gradient maker by sequentially freezing each layer. Cytosolic extracts are then prepared in a buffer containing cycloheximide and chloramphenicol to immobilize the cytosolic and chloroplastic ribosomes to mRNA and are loaded onto the sucrose gradient. After...... are then pooled to prepare three different mRNA populations: the polysomes, mRNAs bound to several ribosomes; the monosomes, mRNAs bound to one ribosome; and mRNAs that are not bound to ribosomes. mRNAs are then extracted. This protocol has been validated for different plants and tissues including Arabidopsis...

  16. Easy and Effective Parallel Programmable ETL

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Christian; Pedersen, Torben Bach

    2011-01-01

    Extract–Transform–Load (ETL) programs are used to load data into data warehouses (DWs). An ETL program must extract data from sources, apply different transformations to it, and use the DW to look up/insert the data. It is both time consuming to develop and to run an ETL program. It is, however......, typically the case that the ETL program can exploit both task parallelism and data parallelism to run faster. This, on the other hand, makes the development time longer as it is complex to create a parallel ETL program. To remedy this situation, we propose efficient ways to parallelize typical ETL tasks...... and we implement these new constructs in an ETL framework. The constructs are easy to apply and do only require few modifications to an ETL program to parallelize it. They support both task and data parallelism and give the programmer different possibilities to choose from. An experimental evaluation...

  17. Use of Time-Resolved Fluorescence to Monitor Bioactive Compounds in Plant Based Foodstuffs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Adília Lemos

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The study of compounds that exhibit antioxidant activity has recently received much interest in the food industry because of their potential health benefits. Most of these compounds are plant based, such as polyphenolics and carotenoids, and there is a need to monitor them from the field through processing and into the body. Ideally, a monitoring technique should be non-invasive with the potential for remote capabilities. The application of the phenomenon of fluorescence has proved to be well suited, as many plant associated compounds exhibit fluorescence. The photophysical behaviour of fluorescent molecules is also highly dependent on their microenvironment, making them suitable probes to monitor changes in pH, viscosity and polarity, for example. Time-resolved fluorescence techniques have recently come to the fore, as they offer the ability to obtain more information, coupled with the fact that the fluorescence lifetime is an absolute measure, while steady state just provides relative and average information. In this work, we will present illustrative time-resolved measurements, rather than a comprehensive review, to show the potential of time-resolved fluorescence applied to the study of bioactive substances. The aim is to help assess if any changes occur in their form, going from extraction via storage and cooking to the interaction with serum albumin, a principal blood transport protein.

  18. Mobile probes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2016-01-01

    A project investigating the effectiveness of a collection of online resources for teachers' professional development used mobile probes as a data collection method. Teachers received questions and tasks on their mobile in a dialogic manner while in their everyday context as opposed to in an inter......A project investigating the effectiveness of a collection of online resources for teachers' professional development used mobile probes as a data collection method. Teachers received questions and tasks on their mobile in a dialogic manner while in their everyday context as opposed...... to in an interview. This method provided valuable insight into the contextual use, i.e. how did the online resource transfer to the work practice. However, the research team also found that mobile probes may provide the scaffolding necessary for individual and peer learning at a very local (intra-school) community...... level. This paper is an initial investigation of how the mobile probes process proved to engage teachers in their efforts to improve teaching. It also highlights some of the barriers emerging when applying mobile probes as a scaffold for learning....

  19. Planning of dairy farm and dairy plant based ecotourism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarnyoto, A. S.; Tama, I. P.; Tantrika, C. F. M.

    2017-06-01

    One of a dairy production company producing pasteurized milk and yoghurt drink, whose brand has widely known in East Java, has a factory plant in Batu City, one of tourism destinations in Indonesia. Behind the factory plant, there is a vacant land with an estimated total area of 2.3 ha and a vacant cowshed which had not been used for cattle ranching. Because of that, the company planned to develop the vacant land as a dairy farm and plant based ecotourism. In addition, dairy farm and dairy plant based tourism attractions are still rarely found in Batu. Thus, the first aim of this study was to analyse the potencies of the company that related to future plans of ecotourism built. The second aim was to set up the strategies that can be done in order to actualize the ecotourism project. The next aim was to plan the ecotourism, especially the facilities planning and the facilities arrangement on the vacant land. Strategic management approach was used to analyse the potencies and to determine the strategies. To select the proper facilities, tourists were asked to give appraisal by using questionnaire. Appraisal result was mapped onto four quadrants spatial map to see advantages and shortcomings of each facility along with choosing the right facilities to be built. Those facilities and tourist activities were compared with ecotourism criteria to make sure that the facilities were appropriate to provide not only entertainment but also ecotourism function. To arrange the chosen facilities, the step in Systematic Layout Planning were conducted to generate a propose layout of facilities arrangement. Based on potencies analysis, in Internal-External matrix, the company current position was on quadrant 2 (grow and build), with the most appropriate strategy was intensive or integrative. The proposed strategies were to build the new infrastructure, to renovate cowshed, and to add new tourism facilities on the land. There were 11 selected facilities based on MDS. Moreover, based

  20. Conductivity Probe

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    The Thermal and Electrical Conductivity Probe (TECP) for NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander took measurements in Martian soil and in the air. The needles on the end of the instrument were inserted into the Martian soil, allowing TECP to measure the propagation of both thermal and electrical energy. TECP also measured the humidity in the surrounding air. The needles on the probe are 15 millimeters (0.6 inch) long. The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  1. Toxicity of a plant based mosquito repellent/killer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Bhoopendra; Singh, Prakash Raj; Mohanty, Manoj Kumar

    2012-12-01

    The mission to make humans less attractive to mosquitoes has fuelled decades of scientific research on mosquito behaviour and control. The search for the perfect topical insect repellent/killer continues. This analysis was conducted to review and explore the scientific information on toxicity produced by the ingredients/contents of a herbal product. In this process of systemic review the following methodology was applied. By doing a MEDLINE search with key words of selected plants, plant based insect repellents/killers pertinent articles published in journals and authentic books were reviewed. The World Wide Web and the Extension Toxicity Network database (IPCS-ITOX) were also searched for toxicology data and other pertinent information. Repellents do not all share a single mode of action and surprisingly little is known about how repellents act on their target insects. Moreover, different mosquito species may react differently to the same repellent. After analysis of available data and information on the ingredient, of the product in relation to medicinal uses, acute and chronic toxicity of the selected medicinal plants, it can be concluded that the ingredients included in the herbal product can be used as active agents against mosquitoes. If the product which contains the powder of the above said plants is applied with care and safety, it is suitable fo use as a mosquito repellent/killer.

  2. Plant based phosphorus recovery from wastewater via algae and macrophytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shilton, Andrew N; Powell, Nicola; Guieysse, Benoit

    2012-12-01

    At present, resource recovery by irrigation of wastewater to plants is usually driven by the value of the water resource rather than phosphorus recovery. Expanded irrigation for increased phosphorus recovery may be expected as the scarcity and price of phosphorus increases, but providing the necessary treatment, storage and conveyance comes at significant expense. An alternative to taking the wastewater to the plants is instead to take the plants to the wastewater. Algal ponds and macrophyte wetlands are already in widespread use for wastewater treatment and if harvested, would require less than one-tenth of the area to recover phosphorus compared to terrestrial crops/pastures. This area could be further decreased if the phosphorus content of the macrophytes and algae biomass was tripled from 1% to 3% via luxury uptake. While this and many other opportunities for plant based recovery of phosphorus exist, e.g. offshore cultivation, much of this technology development is still in its infancy. Research that enhances our understanding of how to maximise phosphorus uptake and harvest yields; and further add value to the biomass for reuse would see the recovery of phosphorus via plants become an important solution in the future.

  3. Pollution Probe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chant, Donald A.

    This book is written as a statement of concern about pollution by members of Pollution Probe, a citizens' anti-pollution group in Canada. Its purpose is to create public awareness and pressure for the eventual solution to pollution problems. The need for effective government policies to control the population explosion, conserve natural resources,…

  4. Adolescents' Food Choice and the Place of Plant-Based Foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ensaff, Hannah; Coan, Susan; Sahota, Pinki; Braybrook, Debbie; Akter, Humaira; McLeod, Helen

    2015-06-09

    A diet dominated by plant foods, with limited amounts of refined processed foods and animal products conveys substantial health benefits. This study sought to explore adolescents' attitudes and perceptions towards plant-based foods. Semi-structured focus group interviews were conducted with adolescents (age 14-15 years) (n = 29) attending an inner city school in Yorkshire, UK. Using a grounded theory methodology, data analysis provided four main categories and related concepts revolving around adolescents' perspectives on plant-based foods: food choice parameters; perceived drivers and benefits of plant-based foods; environmental food cues; barriers to plant-based food choice. In the emergent grounded theory, a clear disconnect between plant-based foods and the parameters that adolescents use to make food choices, is highlighted. Further, key barriers to adolescents adopting a plant-based diet are differentiated and considered with respect to practice and policy. The analysis offers a framework to remodel and re-present plant-based foods. In this way, it is proposed that a closer connection is possible, with consequent shifts in adolescents' dietary behaviour towards a more plant-based diet and associated health benefits.

  5. Adolescents’ Food Choice and the Place of Plant-Based Foods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hannah Ensaff

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available A diet dominated by plant foods, with limited amounts of refined processed foods and animal products conveys substantial health benefits. This study sought to explore adolescents’ attitudes and perceptions towards plant-based foods. Semi-structured focus group interviews were conducted with adolescents (age 14–15 years (n = 29 attending an inner city school in Yorkshire, UK. Using a grounded theory methodology, data analysis provided four main categories and related concepts revolving around adolescents’ perspectives on plant-based foods: food choice parameters; perceived drivers and benefits of plant-based foods; environmental food cues; barriers to plant-based food choice. In the emergent grounded theory, a clear disconnect between plant-based foods and the parameters that adolescents use to make food choices, is highlighted. Further, key barriers to adolescents adopting a plant-based diet are differentiated and considered with respect to practice and policy. The analysis offers a framework to remodel and re-present plant-based foods. In this way, it is proposed that a closer connection is possible, with consequent shifts in adolescents’ dietary behaviour towards a more plant-based diet and associated health benefits.

  6. Easy Buy Online的设计与实现%Design and Implementation of Easy Buy Online

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王立群; 王彩霞

    2016-01-01

    伴随着互联网的蓬勃发展,网络购物作为电子商务的一种形式以其高效、低成本的绝对优势,逐步成为最具竞争力和广泛流行的经营模式和现代化管理理念。Easy Buy Online是一个提供动态、交互式和具有商品交易、系统管理、用户留言等核心功能和购物流程的网络购物平台。该文研究了网站的设计、开发等内容,旨在梳理网站设计开发的流程及相关技术的使用。%Along with the rapid development of the Internet, online shopping with high efficiency and low cost gradually become the most competitive and widespread business model and modern management concepts. Easy Buy Online is a dynamic, interac-tive and has commodity trading, system management, user comments and other core functions online shopping platform. This paper research to the online shopping website design and development, aims to comb and summarizes the website development processes and related technologies.

  7. Scientific Visualization Made Easy for the Scientist

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westerhoff, M.; Henderson, B.

    2002-12-01

    amirar is an application program used in creating 3D visualizations and geometric models of 3D image data sets from various application areas, e.g. medicine, biology, biochemistry, chemistry, physics, and engineering. It has demonstrated significant adoption in the market place since becoming commercially available in 2000. The rapid adoption has expanded the features being requested by the user base and broadened the scope of the amira product offering. The amira product offering includes amira Standard, amiraDevT, used to extend the product capabilities by users, amiraMolT, used for molecular visualization, amiraDeconvT, used to improve quality of image data, and amiraVRT, used in immersive VR environments. amira allows the user to construct a visualization tailored to his or her needs without requiring any programming knowledge. It also allows 3D objects to be represented as grids suitable for numerical simulations, notably as triangular surfaces and volumetric tetrahedral grids. The amira application also provides methods to generate such grids from voxel data representing an image volume, and it includes a general-purpose interactive 3D viewer. amiraDev provides an application-programming interface (API) that allows the user to add new components by C++ programming. amira supports many import formats including a 'raw' format allowing immediate access to your native uniform data sets. amira uses the power and speed of the OpenGLr and Open InventorT graphics libraries and 3D graphics accelerators to allow you to access over 145 modules, enabling you to process, probe, analyze and visualize your data. The amiraMolT extension adds powerful tools for molecular visualization to the existing amira platform. amiraMolT contains support for standard molecular file formats, tools for visualization and analysis of static molecules as well as molecular trajectories (time series). amiraDeconv adds tools for the deconvolution of 3D microscopic images. Deconvolution is the

  8. EasyPipes - Final/annual report; EasyPipes - Rapport final/annuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gallinelli, P.; Thomann, P.; Weber, W. [University of Geneva, Geneva (Switzerland); Hollmuller, P. [University of Lisbon, Lisbon (Portugal)

    2009-06-15

    This report describes follow-up activities in the field of design of buried air-to-ground heat exchangers for ventilated low-energy buildings. Such heat exchangers preheat the inlet air in winter and cool it in summer, contributing to significantly reduce the energy consumption and improve indoor thermal comfort. They have been extensively studied at the University of Geneva, Switzerland by P. Hollmuller, B. Lachal et al. since 2001. The corresponding reports can be found in the ETDE data base. The present and latest report of the series deals with implemented improvements of the computer simulation program for the dimensioning of such heat exchangers. A previous, experimentally and analytically validated version, based on TRNSYS formalism, was not enough user-friendly for architects and engineers in the practice. A new interface called EasyPipes, based on the windows input and output formalism and including graphical features, has been developed. Details are reported on.

  9. STRATEGI PEMASARAN PAKET WISATA DI BALI EASY HOLIDAY DENPASAR BALI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erick Kevin Perangin-Angin

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This Journal aimed to know the strengths and weaknesses of the internal environment and opportunities as well as threats from the external environment and create strategies and marketing programs that can be applied in the Bali Easy Holiday. The technique data collection using observation, interview, questionnaire, the study of literature and documentation study. Sampling techniques using a purposive sampling. Data analysis techniques using qualitative descriptive analysis and Likert scale analysis. The results of this research are obtaining indicators of strengths and weaknesses of internal environment and the opportunities and threats of weaknesses in Bali Easy Holiday. Bali Easy Holiday gains 16 indicators of strengths and 4 indicators of weaknesses in Bali Easy Holiday. Bali Easy Holiday gains 9 indicators of opportunities 5 indicators of threats in Bali Easy Holiday. Marketing strategies can be applied to Bali Easy Holiday, namely : the creation of strategy and product development, market development strategies, promotion strategy, a strategy of improved human resources, the strategy of market penetration strategies, improvement of the quality of products and services and pricing strategies. This research has some advice for Bali Easy Holiday is to increase the intensity of promotion, provide ease reservations and payments to consumers, renew tour packages, provide affordable rates to customers and formed a marketing division.

  10. EasyVoice: Integrating voice synthesis with Skype

    CERN Document Server

    Condado, Paulo A

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents EasyVoice, a system that integrates voice synthesis with Skype. EasyVoice allows a person with voice disabilities to talk with another person located anywhere in the world, removing an important obstacle that affect these people during a phone or VoIP-based conversation.

  11. Gold nanoparticle-coated biomaterial as SERS micro-probes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    G V Pavan Kumar

    2011-06-01

    We report for the first time, on the utility of plant-based biomaterial as enhanced-Raman scattering probes. The bio-substrate used in this study are commonly found in plant extracts, and are cost-effective, mechanically robust, flexible and easily transportable. The probe was fabricated by coating the plant extract with gold nanoparticles and characterized. By employing a ‘single-touch contact’ method, we reveal the ability of these probes to detect routinely used Raman markers such as 2-napthalenethiol and rhodamine B, at nano-molar concentrations, in dry and liquid forms, respectively. Reproducibility of the signals with variation <5%, and the ability to detect biomolecules are demonstrated herein. We envision these bio-probes as potential candidates for enhanced Raman sensing in chemical, environmental, and archaeological applications. By further engineering the shape, morphology, and surface chemistry of these micro-probes, we foresee their utility as miniaturized, natural SERS substrates.

  12. Whole plant based treatment of hypercholesterolemia with Crataegus laevigata in a zebrafish model

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Littleton, Robert M; Miller, Matthew; Hove, Jay R

    2012-01-01

    .... Here we develop the larval zebrafish (4-30 days post fertilization) as a vertebrate model of dietary plant-based treatment of hypercholesterolemia and test the effects of Crataegus laevigata in this model...

  13. Plant-based milk alternatives an emerging segment of functional beverages: a review

    OpenAIRE

    Sethi, Swati; Tyagi, S. K.; Anurag, Rahul K.

    2016-01-01

    Plant-based or non-dairy milk alternative is the fast growing segment in newer food product development category of functional and specialty beverage across the globe. Nowadays, cow milk allergy, lactose intolerance, calorie concern and prevalence of hypercholesterolemia, more preference to vegan diets has influenced consumers towards choosing cow milk alternatives. Plant-based milk alternatives are a rising trend, which can serve as an inexpensive alternate to poor economic group of developi...

  14. What Makes Mathematics Lessons Easy to Follow, Understand, and Remember?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hativa, Nira

    1983-01-01

    Described is a teaching method explored in the author's doctoral dissertation, as well as some findings from the study. Lesson organization and clarity are stressed, with the qualities that make a lesson easy to follow, understand, and remember discussed. (MNS)

  15. On Creativity and Humor: An Analysis of EASY STREET

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behrens, Roy R.

    1974-01-01

    Author attempted to present a reasonable description of the film, Easy Street, with major antics numbered, then analyzed those in terms of Duncker and Koestler, thereby extending the latter's theory of bisociation. (Author/RK)

  16. Easy Rider og drømmen om frihed

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peters, Rikke

    2011-01-01

    Artiklen undersøger det frihedsbegreb, som filmen Easy Rider er blevet eksponent for og hvilket symbolværdi dette frihedsbegreb har haft i en amerikansk kontekst siden filmens premiere i 1969.......Artiklen undersøger det frihedsbegreb, som filmen Easy Rider er blevet eksponent for og hvilket symbolværdi dette frihedsbegreb har haft i en amerikansk kontekst siden filmens premiere i 1969....

  17. High pressure optical combustion probe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woodruff, S.D.; Richards, G.A.

    1995-06-01

    The Department of Energy`s Morgantown Energy Technology Center has developed a combustion probe for monitoring flame presence and heat release. The technology involved is a compact optical detector of the OH radical`s UV fluorescence. The OH Monitor/Probe is designed to determine the flame presence and provide a qualitative signal proportional to the flame intensity. The probe can be adjusted to monitor a specific volume in the combustion zone to track spatial fluctuations in the flame. The probe is capable of nanosecond time response and is usually slowed electronically to fit the flame characteristics. The probe is a sapphire rod in a stainless steel tube which may be inserted into the combustion chamber and pointed at the flame zone. The end of the sapphire rod is retracted into the SS tube to define a narrow optical collection cone. The collection cone may be adjusted to fit the experiment. The fluorescence signal is collected by the sapphire rod and transmitted through a UV transmitting, fused silica, fiber optic to the detector assembly. The detector is a side window photomultiplier (PMT) with a 310 run line filter. A Hamamatsu photomultiplier base combined with a integral high voltage power supply permits this to be a low voltage device. Electronic connections include: a power lead from a modular DC power supply for 15 VDC; a control lead for 0-1 volts to control the high voltage level (and therefore gain); and a lead out for the actual signal. All low voltage connections make this a safe and easy to use device while still delivering the sensitivity required.

  18. Proximal Probes Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Proximal Probes Facility consists of laboratories for microscopy, spectroscopy, and probing of nanostructured materials and their functional properties. At the...

  19. Plant-based insect repellents: a review of their efficacy, development and testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maia Marta

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Plant-based repellents have been used for generations in traditional practice as a personal protection measure against host-seeking mosquitoes. Knowledge on traditional repellent plants obtained through ethnobotanical studies is a valuable resource for the development of new natural products. Recently, commercial repellent products containing plant-based ingredients have gained increasing popularity among consumers, as these are commonly perceived as “safe” in comparison to long-established synthetic repellents although this is sometimes a misconception. To date insufficient studies have followed standard WHO Pesticide Evaluation Scheme guidelines for repellent testing. There is a need for further standardized studies in order to better evaluate repellent compounds and develop new products that offer high repellency as well as good consumer safety. This paper presents a summary of recent information on testing, efficacy and safety of plant-based repellents as well as promising new developments in the field.

  20. Mechanistic understanding of cellular level of water in plant-based food material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Md. Imran H.; Kumar, C.; Karim, M. A.

    2017-06-01

    Understanding of water distribution in plant-based food material is crucial for developing an accurate heat and mass transfer drying model. Generally, in plant-based food tissue, water is distributed in three different spaces namely, intercellular water, intracellular water, and cell wall water. For hygroscopic material, these three types of water transport should be considered for actual understanding of heat and mass transfer during drying. However, there is limited study dedicated to the investigation of the moisture distribution in a different cellular environment in the plant-based food material. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to investigate the proportion of intercellular water, intracellular water, and cell wall water inside the plant-based food material. During this study, experiments were performed for two different plant-based food tissues namely, eggplant and potato tissue using 1H-NMR-T2 relaxometry. Various types of water component were calculated by using multicomponent fits of the T2 relaxation curves. The experimental result showed that in potato tissue 80-82% water exist in intracellular space; 10-13% water in intercellular space and only 4-6% water exist in the cell wall space. In eggplant tissue, 90-93% water in intracellular space, 4-6% water exists in intercellular space and the remaining percentage of water is recognized as cell wall water. The investigated results quantify different types of water in plant-based food tissue. The highest proportion of water exists in intracellular spaces. Therefore, it is necessary to include different transport mechanism for intracellular, intercellular and cell wall water during modelling of heat and mass transfer during drying.

  1. "RMP Evaluations, Course Easiness, and Grades: Are They Related?"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syed A. Rizvi

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the relationship between the student evaluations of the instructors at the RateMyProfessors.com (RMP website and the average grades awarded by those instructors. As of Spring 2012, the RMP site included evaluations of 538 full-and part-time instructors at the College of Staten Island (CSI. We selected the evaluations of the 419 instructors who taught at CSI for at least two semesters from Fall 2009 to Spring 2011 and had at least ten evaluations. This research indicates that there is a strong correlation between RMP's overall evaluation and easiness scores. However, the perceived easiness of an instructor/course does not always result in higher grades for students. Furthermore, we found that the instructors who received high overall evaluation and easiness scores (4.0 to 5.0 at the RMP site do not necessarily award high grades. This is a very important finding as it disputes the argument that instructors receive high evaluations because they are easy or award high grades. On the other hand, instructors of the courses that are perceived to be difficult (RMP easiness score of 3.0 or less are likely to be tough graders. However, instructors who received moderate overall evaluation and easiness scores (between 3.0 and 4.0 the RMP site had a high correlation between these scores and average grade awarded by those instructors. Finally, our research shows that the instructors in non-STEM disciplines award higher grades than the instructors in STEM disciplines. Non-STEM instructors also received higher overall evaluations than their STEM counterparts and non-STEM courses were perceived easier by the students than STEM courses.

  2. Probe tip heating assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitz, Roger William; Oh, Yunje

    2016-10-25

    A heating assembly configured for use in mechanical testing at a scale of microns or less. The heating assembly includes a probe tip assembly configured for coupling with a transducer of the mechanical testing system. The probe tip assembly includes a probe tip heater system having a heating element, a probe tip coupled with the probe tip heater system, and a heater socket assembly. The heater socket assembly, in one example, includes a yoke and a heater interface that form a socket within the heater socket assembly. The probe tip heater system, coupled with the probe tip, is slidably received and clamped within the socket.

  3. easyCBM Norms. 2014 Edition. Technical Report #1409

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saven, Jessica L.; Tindal, Gerald; Irvin, P. Shawn; Farley, Dan; Alonzo, Julie

    2014-01-01

    Previous norms for the easyCBM assessment system were computed using scores from all students who took each measure for every grade and benchmark season (fall, winter, and spring). During the 2013-­14 school year, new national norms were developed to more accurately (proportionately) represent reading and mathematics performance by two variables:…

  4. Thermally induced reversible easy axis rotations in permalloy thin films

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Horsthuis, Winfried H.G.; Eijkel, Kees J.M.; Ridder, de René M.; Leeuwis, Henk

    1988-01-01

    The thermal stability of the easy axis orientation in thin Permalloy films was studied. This orientation was measured by two methods, i.e. the magneto-optic Kerr effect and a novel measurement scheme based on magnetoresistive effects. It appeared that even for small temperature changes rotations of

  5. Clinical Judgments of Easy vs. Difficult Clients by Counselor Trainees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Allen; Morrison, Thomas L.

    1984-01-01

    Investigated responses of counselor trainees (N=31) to easy versus difficult clients in terms of clinical judgments. Results indicated that clients with a difficult interpersonal style were not regarded as more psychologically disturbed, but were rated as having less potential for change and less ego strength. (LLL)

  6. Fast and Easy Searching of Files in Unisys 2200 Computers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snook, Bryan E.

    2010-01-01

    A program has been written to enable (1) fast and easy searching of symbolic files for one or more strings of characters, dates, or numerical values in specific fields or columns and (2) summarizing results of searching other fields or columns.

  7. Gel Electrophoresis--The Easy Way for Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanRooy, Wilhelmina; Sultana, Khalida

    2010-01-01

    This article describes a simple, inexpensive, easy to conduct gel-electrophoresis activity using food dyes. It is an alternative to the more expensive counterparts which require agarose gel, DNA samples, purchased chamber and Tris-borate-EDTA buffer. We suggest some learning activities for senior biology students along with comments on several…

  8. A Geostationary Earth Orbit Satellite Model Using Easy Java Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wee, Loo Kang; Goh, Giam Hwee

    2013-01-01

    We develop an Easy Java Simulation (EJS) model for students to visualize geostationary orbits near Earth, modelled using a Java 3D implementation of the EJS 3D library. The simplified physics model is described and simulated using a simple constant angular velocity equation. We discuss four computer model design ideas: (1) a simple and realistic…

  9. Pheromone Caterpillar Trails: An Easy Lab Exercise for the Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Travis, Holly

    2003-01-01

    Lab activities using live specimens always seem to catch students' attention faster than those using inanimate materials. For example, many teachers are familiar with the activities using goldfish to study the effect of temperature on respiration rate. Insects are particularly useful because they are cheap, easy to find, and have a certain "yuck"…

  10. The Creation of Easy and Stress-free Classroom

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    皮继伟

    2014-01-01

    This research paper concentrates on creating easy and stress-free classroom in English teaching. The paper talks that teachers should adopt pupil-centered teaching methodology and employ every means of teaching such as listening and speaking;acting;singing songs;playing games;role-playing.

  11. The Creation of Easy and Stress-free Classroom

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    皮继伟

    2014-01-01

    This research paper concentrates on creating easy and stress-free classroom in English teaching.The paper talks that teachers should adopt pupil-centered teaching methodology and employ every means of teaching such as listening and speaking;acting;singing songs;playing games;role-playing.

  12. EASY AT-Food for Thought: The Minibook

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoonover, Judith

    2015-01-01

    Not all technology requires plugs, batteries, or software updates. Sometimes the simplest tools can make all the difference in the world, and open doors (and minds) to other possibilities. One such tool is a minibook constructed by a single sheet of cleverly folded paper. A minibook is a cost-effective, easy to revise and replace,…

  13. Gel Electrophoresis--The Easy Way for Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanRooy, Wilhelmina; Sultana, Khalida

    2010-01-01

    This article describes a simple, inexpensive, easy to conduct gel-electrophoresis activity using food dyes. It is an alternative to the more expensive counterparts which require agarose gel, DNA samples, purchased chamber and Tris-borate-EDTA buffer. We suggest some learning activities for senior biology students along with comments on several…

  14. Easy Fabrication of Dense Ceramic Membrane for Oxygen Separation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    A combined EDTA-citrate complexing method was developed for the easy preparation of mixed oxygen-ionic and electronic conducting dense ceramic membrane for oxygen separation.The new method takes the advantage of lower calcination temperature for phase formation, lower membrane sintering temperature and higher relative density over the standard ceramic method.

  15. A Geostationary Earth Orbit Satellite Model Using Easy Java Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wee, Loo Kang; Goh, Giam Hwee

    2013-01-01

    We develop an Easy Java Simulation (EJS) model for students to visualize geostationary orbits near Earth, modelled using a Java 3D implementation of the EJS 3D library. The simplified physics model is described and simulated using a simple constant angular velocity equation. We discuss four computer model design ideas: (1) a simple and realistic…

  16. An Easy-to-Assemble Three-Part Galvanic Cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eggen, Per-Odd; Skaugrud, Brit

    2015-01-01

    The galvanic cell presented in this article is made of only three parts, is easy to assemble, and can light a red light emitting diode (LED). The three cell components consist of a piece of paper with copper sulfate, a piece of paper with sodium sulfate, and a piece of magnesium ribbon. Within less than 1 h, students have time to discuss the…

  17. Technical Manual: easyCBM. Technical Report #1408

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Daniel; Alonzo, Julie; Tindal, Gerald; Farley, Dan; Irvin, P. Shawn; Lai, Cheng-Fei; Saven, Jessica L.; Wray, Kraig A.

    2014-01-01

    Since the easyCBM© learning system was first published in 2006, over $8 million of federal funding (both from the Office of Special Education Programs and more recently from the Institute of Education Sciences) has been used to develop, study, and refine the assessments available on the system. This Technical Manual summarizes the ongoing research…

  18. An Easy-to-Assemble Three-Part Galvanic Cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eggen, Per-Odd; Skaugrud, Brit

    2015-01-01

    The galvanic cell presented in this article is made of only three parts, is easy to assemble, and can light a red light emitting diode (LED). The three cell components consist of a piece of paper with copper sulfate, a piece of paper with sodium sulfate, and a piece of magnesium ribbon. Within less than 1 h, students have time to discuss the…

  19. EASY MONEY: An Exploration of Trust in Teams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiagarajan, Sivasailam

    1997-01-01

    Cash games are simulation activities which feature real cash prizes and explore interpersonal skills and concepts. EASY MONEY is one such game, featuring an investment activity which focuses on trust among team members in ambiguous decision-making situations. Directions for administering the game and suggestions for applying a standard six-phase…

  20. Comparison of plant-based expression platforms for the heterologous production of geraniol

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vasilev, N.; Schmitz, C.; Dong, L.; Ritala, A.; Imseng, N.; Hakkinen, S.T.; Krol, van der A.R.; Eibl, R.; Oksman-Caldentey, K.M.; Bouwmeester, H.J.; Fischer, R.; Schillberg, S.

    2014-01-01

    We compared the ability of different plant-based expression platforms to produce geraniol, a key metabolite in the monoterpenoid branch of the terpenoid indole alkaloid biosynthesis pathway. A geraniol synthase gene isolated from Valeriana officinalis (VoGES) was stably expressed in different

  1. Removal of pharmaceuticals and personal care products in aquatic plant-based systems: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Dongqing; Gersberg, Richard M; Ng, Wun Jern; Tan, Soon Keat

    2014-01-01

    Pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) in the aquatic environment are regarded as emerging contaminants and have attracted increasing concern. The use of aquatic plant-based systems such as constructed wetlands (CWs) for treatment of conventional pollutants has been well documented. However, available research studies on aquatic plant-based systems for PPCP removal are still limited. The removal of PPCPs in CWs often involves a diverse and complex set of physical, chemical and biological processes, which can be affected by the design and operational parameters selected for treatment. This review summarizes the PPCP removal performance in different aquatic plant-based systems. We also review the recent progress made towards a better understanding of the various mechanisms and pathways of PPCP attenuation during such phytoremediation. Additionally, the effect of key CW design characteristics and their interaction with the physico-chemical parameters that may influence the removal of PPCPs in functioning aquatic plant-based systems is discussed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Development of Novel Vaccines and Therapeutics Using Plant-Based Expression Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    is 458  room for improvement (e.g., reducing in planta aggregate formation), we obtained a 459  comparatively high level of expression for plant-based...Gils, M., Kandzia, R., Klimyuk, V., and Gleba, Y. (2004) In 675  planta engineering of viral RNA replicons: efficient assembly by recombination of DNA

  3. Easy Pha-max:New Business Model to Enter World Herbal Market

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ About Easy Pha-max Easy Pha-max Marketing Sdn is the subsidiary of INS Bioscience,which is the marketion and distribution arm of Easy Pha-max brand of health supplement in the local and international markets.

  4. Mobile Game Probes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borup Lynggaard, Aviaja

    2006-01-01

    This paper will examine how probes can be useful for game designers in the preliminary phases of a design process. The work is based upon a case study concerning pervasive mobile phone games where Mobile Game Probes have emerged from the project. The new probes are aimed towards a specific target...... group and the goal is to specify the probes so they will cover the most relevant areas for our project. The Mobile Game Probes generated many interesting results and new issues occurred, since the probes came to be dynamic and favorable for the process in new ways....

  5. Transcutaneous pressure at which the internal jugular vein is collapsed on ultrasonic imaging predicts easiness of the venous puncture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joo, Woo Jin; Fukui, Michihiko; Kooguchi, Kunihiko; Sakaguchi, Masahiro; Shinzato, Taiichi

    2011-04-01

    Even though we use ultrasound guidance for central venous puncture, we sometimes experience difficulties. We infer that in such cases the vein is collapsed and that the transcutaneous ultrasound probe pressure at which the vein is collapsed (P (tc)) may predict the easiness of the venous puncture. We measured P (tc) and the diameter of the internal jugular vein in 47 adult patients in our ICU. After successful puncture, we also measured venous pressure (P (v)). The patients were divided into two groups based on the number of puncture attempts: ≥3 attempts constituted the "difficult group" and venous collapsibility and vertical diameter determine difficulty in performing venous puncture.

  6. EasyModeller: A graphical interface to MODELLER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuntal Bhusan K

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background MODELLER is a program for automated protein Homology Modeling. It is one of the most widely used tool for homology or comparative modeling of protein three-dimensional structures, but most users find it a bit difficult to start with MODELLER as it is command line based and requires knowledge of basic Python scripting to use it efficiently. Findings The study was designed with an aim to develop of "EasyModeller" tool as a frontend graphical interface to MODELLER using Perl/Tk, which can be used as a standalone tool in windows platform with MODELLER and Python preinstalled. It helps inexperienced users to perform modeling, assessment, visualization, and optimization of protein models in a simple and straightforward way. Conclusion EasyModeller provides a graphical straight forward interface and functions as a stand-alone tool which can be used in a standard personal computer with Microsoft Windows as the operating system.

  7. Cheap and Easy PIN Entering Using Eye Gaze

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kasprowski Pawel

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available PINs are one of the most popular methods to perform simple and fast user authentication. PIN stands for Personal Identification Number, which may have any number of digits or even letters. Nevertheless, 4-digit PIN is the most common and is used for instance in ATMs or cellular phones. The main advantage of the PIN is that it is easy to remember and fast to enter. There are, however, some drawbacks. One of them - addressed in this paper - is a possibility to steal PIN by a technique called `shoulder surfing'. To avoid such problems a novel method of the PIN entering was proposed. Instead of using a numerical keyboard, the PIN may be entered by eye gazes, which is a hands-free, easy and robust technique. References:

  8. Easy Rawlins’ Identity: a Unique African American Male Detective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agustín Reyes Torres

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Using the hardboiled conventions as the narrative framework for his series, Walter Mosleyportrays a black detective hero, Easy Rawlins, who goes through a process of discovering his true identityby exploring the nature of being a black male throughout the 1950s and 1960s in America. He displayspeculiar characteristics in the way of leading his life and the use of his double consciousness and hisabilities as a trickster.

  9. Customized MFM probes with high lateral resolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Óscar Iglesias-Freire

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Magnetic force microscopy (MFM is a widely used technique for magnetic imaging. Besides its advantages such as the high spatial resolution and the easy use in the characterization of relevant applied materials, the main handicaps of the technique are the lack of control over the tip stray field and poor lateral resolution when working under standard conditions. In this work, we present a convenient route to prepare high-performance MFM probes with sub-10 nm (sub-25 nm topographic (magnetic lateral resolution by following an easy and quick low-cost approach. This allows one to not only customize the tip stray field, avoiding tip-induced changes in the sample magnetization, but also to optimize MFM imaging in vacuum (or liquid media by choosing tips mounted on hard (or soft cantilevers, a technology that is currently not available on the market.

  10. easyDAS: Automatic creation of DAS servers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jimenez Rafael C

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Distributed Annotation System (DAS has proven to be a successful way to publish and share biological data. Although there are more than 750 active registered servers from around 50 organizations, setting up a DAS server comprises a fair amount of work, making it difficult for many research groups to share their biological annotations. Given the clear advantage that the generalized sharing of relevant biological data is for the research community it would be desirable to facilitate the sharing process. Results Here we present easyDAS, a web-based system enabling anyone to publish biological annotations with just some clicks. The system, available at http://www.ebi.ac.uk/panda-srv/easydas is capable of reading different standard data file formats, process the data and create a new publicly available DAS source in a completely automated way. The created sources are hosted on the EBI systems and can take advantage of its high storage capacity and network connection, freeing the data provider from any network management work. easyDAS is an open source project under the GNU LGPL license. Conclusions easyDAS is an automated DAS source creation system which can help many researchers in sharing their biological data, potentially increasing the amount of relevant biological data available to the scientific community.

  11. New, Easy and Effective Method to Take Dermatoglyphic Prints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roopam K Gupta

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The most common method used to take dermatoglyphic prints is the ‘Ink method’. It has a few drawbacks because it is not subject friendly or user friendly. In spite of this alternative methods have been rarely described. We experimented with different methods and found an innovative, easy, effective and very economical method to obtain the dermatoglyphic prints by using a ‘Lip Stick’. Methodology: The lip Stick method was perfected and steps documented. A100 medical students were adequately trained and divided into smaller groups. They performed the ‘Dermatoglyphic Print’ obtaining and analysis process, by both the conventional ‘Ink method’ and by the new ‘Lip Stick’ method. They then evaluated both the procedures under headings of ease of procedure, clarity, ease of analysis and subject friendliness by questionere method. Results: The lipstick method was found to be more easy to perform (94%, better in clarity (63%, easier to analyze (55% and very much subject friendly (100% when compared to the ink method. Conclusion: This ‘Lip stick’ method is easy, subject friendly, user friendly and as efficient for analysis as the conventional method of printer’s ink, and very cheap compared to the other hi tech methods. We recommend that this method should be used preferably for dermatoglyphic studies. [Natl J of Med Res 2013; 3(1.000: 45-47

  12. EasyExonPrimer: automated primer design for exon sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xiaolin; Munroe, David J

    2006-01-01

    EasyExonPrimer is a web-based software that automates the design of PCR primers to amplify exon sequences from genomic DNA. EasyExonPrimer is written in Perl and uses Primer3 to design PCR primers based on the genome builds and annotation databases available at the University of California, Santa Cruz (UCSC) Genome Browser database (http://genome.ucsc.edu/). It masks repeats and known single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) sites in the genome and designs standardised primers using optimised conditions. Users can input genes by RefSeq mRNA ID, gene name or keyword. The primer design is optimised for large-scale resequencing of exons. For exons larger than 1 kb, the user has the option of breaking the exon sequence down into overlapping smaller fragments. All primer pairs are then verified using the In-Silico PCR software to test for uniqueness in the genome. We have designed >1000 pairs of primers for 90 genes; 95% of the primer pairs successfully amplified exon sequences under standard PCR conditions without requiring further optimisation. EasyExonPrimer is available from http://129.43.22.27/~primer/. The source code is also available upon request. Xiaolin Wu (forestwu@mail.nih.gov).

  13. Properties of Ultrasound Probes

    OpenAIRE

    Rusina, M.

    2015-01-01

    This work deals with the measurement properties of ultrasound probes. Ultrasound probes and their parameters significantly affect the quality of the final image. In this work there are described the possibility of measuring the spatial resolution, sensitivity of the probe and measuring the length of the dead zone. Ultrasound phantom ATS Multi Purpose Phantom Type 539 was used for measurements.

  14. Adopting a plant-based diet minimally increased food costs in WHEL Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyder, Joseph A.; Thomson, Cynthia A.; Natarajan, Loki; Madlensky, Lisa; Pu, Minya; Emond, Jennifer; Kealey, Sheila; Rock, Cheryl L.; Flatt, Shirley W.; Pierce, John P.

    2017-01-01

    Objective To assess the cost of adopting a plant-based diet. Methods Breast cancer survivors randomized to dietary intervention (n=1109) or comparison (n=1145) group; baseline and 12-month data on diet and grocery costs. Results At baseline, both groups reported similar food costs and dietary intake. At 12 months, only the intervention group changed their diet (vegetable-fruit:6.3 to 8.9 serv/d.; fiber: 21.6 to 29.8 g/d; fat: 28.2 to 22.3% of E). The intervention change was associated with a significant increase of $1.22/person/week (multivariate model, p=0.027). Conclusions A major change to a plant-based diet was associated with a minimal increase in grocery costs. PMID:19296743

  15. Whole plant based treatment of hypercholesterolemia with Crataegus laevigata in a zebrafish model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Littleton Robert M

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Consumers are increasingly turning to plant-based complementary and alternative medicines to treat hypercholesterolemia. Many of these treatments are untested and their efficacy is unknown. This multitude of potential remedies necessitates a model system amenable to testing large numbers of organisms that maintains similarity to humans in both mode of drug administration and overall physiology. Here we develop the larval zebrafish (4–30 days post fertilization as a vertebrate model of dietary plant-based treatment of hypercholesterolemia and test the effects of Crataegus laevigata in this model. Methods Larval zebrafish were fed high cholesterol diets infused with fluorescent sterols and phytomedicines. Plants were ground with mortar and pestle into a fine powder before addition to food. Fluorescent sterols were utilized to optically quantify relative difference in intravascular cholesterol levels between groups of fish. We utilized the Zeiss 7-Live Duo high-speed confocal platform in order to both quantify intravascular sterol fluorescence and to capture video of the heart beat for determination of cardiac output. Results In this investigation we developed and utilized a larval zebrafish model to investigate dietary plant-based intervention of the pathophysiology of hypercholesterolemia. We found BODIPY-cholesterol effectively labels diet-introduced intravascular cholesterol levels (P t-test. We also established that zebrafish cardiac output declines as cholesterol dose increases (difference between 0.1% and 8% (w/w high cholesterol diet-treated cardiac output significant at P  Conclusions The results of this study demonstrate that the larval zebrafish has the potential to become a powerful model to test plant based dietary intervention of hypercholesterolemia. Using this model we have shown that hawthorn leaves and flowers have the potential to affect cardiac output as well as intravascular cholesterol levels

  16. Whole plant based treatment of hypercholesterolemia with Crataegus laevigata in a zebrafish model

    OpenAIRE

    Littleton Robert M; Miller Matthew; Hove Jay R

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Consumers are increasingly turning to plant-based complementary and alternative medicines to treat hypercholesterolemia. Many of these treatments are untested and their efficacy is unknown. This multitude of potential remedies necessitates a model system amenable to testing large numbers of organisms that maintains similarity to humans in both mode of drug administration and overall physiology. Here we develop the larval zebrafish (4–30 days post fertilization) as a verteb...

  17. Plant foods and plant-based diets: protective against childhood obesity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newby, P K

    2009-05-01

    The objective of this article is to review the epidemiologic literature examining the role of plant foods and plant-based diets in the prevention of childhood obesity. Available data suggest a protective effect of ready-to-eat cereal on risk of obesity, although prospective studies are still needed. Studies on fruit and vegetables; grains other than cereal; high-protein foods, including beans, legumes, and soy; fiber; and plant-based dietary patterns are inconsistent or generally null. The evidence base is limited, and most studies are fraught with methodologic limitations, including cross-sectional design, inadequate adjustment for potential confounders, and lack of consideration of reporting errors, stage of growth, and genetic influences. Well-designed prospective studies are needed. The lack of evidence showing an association between plant-based diets and childhood obesity does not mean that such diets should not be encouraged. Plant foods are highlighted in the Dietary Guidelines for Americans, and children do not meet the current recommendations for most plant foods. Although the advice to consume a plant-based, low-energy-dense diet is sound, ethical questions arise concerning the relatively high price of these diets in the United States and the way in which such diets are perceived in other parts of the world. Reducing the burden of childhood obesity, eliminating health disparities, and preventing the further spread of the disease around the globe will require not only policy interventions to ensure that plant foods are affordable and accessible to children of all income levels but also awareness of sociocultural norms that affect consumption.

  18. vProtein: identifying optimal amino acid complements from plant-based foods.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter J Woolf

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Indispensible amino acids (IAAs are used by the body in different proportions. Most animal-based foods provide these IAAs in roughly the needed proportions, but many plant-based foods provide different proportions of IAAs. To explore how these plant-based foods can be better used in human nutrition, we have created the computational tool vProtein to identify optimal food complements to satisfy human protein needs. METHODS: vProtein uses 1251 plant-based foods listed in the United States Department of Agriculture standard release 22 database to determine the quantity of each food or pair of foods required to satisfy human IAA needs as determined by the 2005 daily recommended intake. The quantity of food in a pair is found using a linear programming approach that minimizes total calories, total excess IAAs, or the total weight of the combination. RESULTS: For single foods, vProtein identifies foods with particularly balanced IAA patterns such as wheat germ, quinoa, and cauliflower. vProtein also identifies foods with particularly unbalanced IAA patterns such as macadamia nuts, degermed corn products, and wakame seaweed. Although less useful alone, some unbalanced foods provide unusually good complements, such as Brazil nuts to legumes. Interestingly, vProtein finds no statistically significant bias toward grain/legume pairings for protein complementation. These analyses suggest that pairings of plant-based foods should be based on the individual foods themselves instead of based on broader food group-food group pairings. Overall, the most efficient pairings include sweet corn/tomatoes, apple/coconut, and sweet corn/cherry. The top pairings also highlight the utility of less common protein sources such as the seaweeds laver and spirulina, pumpkin leaves, and lambsquarters. From a public health perspective, many of the food pairings represent novel, low cost food sources to combat malnutrition. Full analysis results are available online

  19. Compatibility of selected plant-based shortening as lard substitute: microstructure, polymorphic forms and textural properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. A.M. Yanty

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available A study was carried out to determine the compatibility of three plant-based shortening mixtures to lard shortening (LD in terms of microstructure, polymorphic forms, and textural properties. The shortenings of binary, ternary, and quaternary fat mixtures were prepared according to a standard procedure by blending mee fat (MF with palm stearin (PS in a 99:1 (w/w ratio; avocado fat (Avo with PS and cocoa butter (CB in a 84:7:9 (w/w ratio; palm oil (PO with PS, soybean oil (SBO and CB in a 38:5:52:5 (w/w ratio, respectively. The triacylglycerol composition, polymorphic forms, crystal morphology, and textural properties of the shortening were evaluated. This study found that all three plant-based shortenings and LD shortening were similar with respect to their consistency, hardness and compression and adhesiveness values. However, all plant-based shortening was found to be dissimilar to LD shortening with respect to microstructure.

  20. Antimicrobial peptide production and plant-based expression systems for medical and agricultural biotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holaskova, Edita; Galuszka, Petr; Frebort, Ivo; Oz, M Tufan

    2015-11-01

    Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are vital components of the innate immune system of nearly all living organisms. They generally act in the first line of defense against various pathogenic bacteria, parasites, enveloped viruses and fungi. These low molecular mass peptides are considered prospective therapeutic agents due to their broad-spectrum rapid activity, low cytotoxicity to mammalian cells and unique mode of action which hinders emergence of pathogen resistance. In addition to medical use, AMPs can also be employed for development of innovative approaches for plant protection in agriculture. Conferred disease resistance by AMPs might help us surmount losses in yield, quality and safety of agricultural products due to plant pathogens. Heterologous expression in plant-based systems, also called plant molecular farming, offers cost-effective large-scale production which is regarded as one of the most important factors for clinical or agricultural use of AMPs. This review presents various types of AMPs as well as plant-based platforms ranging from cell suspensions to whole plants employed for peptide production. Although AMP production in plants holds great promises for medicine and agriculture, specific technical limitations regarding product yield, function and stability still remain. Additionally, establishment of particular stable expression systems employing plants or plant tissues generally requires extended time scale for platform development compared to certain other heterologous systems. Therefore, fast and promising tools for evaluation of plant-based expression strategies and assessment of function and stability of the heterologously produced AMPs are critical for molecular farming and plant protection.

  1. Nanoscale microwave microscopy using shielded cantilever probes

    KAUST Repository

    Lai, Keji

    2011-04-21

    Quantitative dielectric and conductivity mapping in the nanoscale is highly desirable for many research disciplines, but difficult to achieve through conventional transport or established microscopy techniques. Taking advantage of the micro-fabrication technology, we have developed cantilever-based near-field microwave probes with shielded structures. Sensitive microwave electronics and finite-element analysis modeling are also utilized for quantitative electrical imaging. The system is fully compatible with atomic force microscope platforms for convenient operation and easy integration of other modes and functions. The microscope is ideal for interdisciplinary research, with demonstrated examples in nano electronics, physics, material science, and biology.

  2. Easy Come, Easy Go?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    The Internet has become a new platform for testing people’s credibility On April 22,a post on the microblogging website Weibo.com caught netizens’ attention across China.Fu Weigang,a 34-year-old lawyer who works at the Shanghai Institute of Finance and Law,said in the post every time his post was forwarded,he would give 1 yuan($0.15)to the son of Zhang Miao,a young mothers tabbed to death by a student in Xi’an,capi-

  3. The Batalain-Vilkovisky method of quantization made easy

    CERN Document Server

    Dayi, O F

    1995-01-01

    Odd time was introduced to formulate the Batalin-Vilkovisky method of quantization of gauge theories in a systematic manner. This approach is presented emphasizing the odd time canonical formalism beginning from an odd time Lagrangian. To let the beginners have access to the method essential notions of the gauge theories are briefly discussed, and each step is illustrated with examples. Moreover, the method of solving the master equation in an easy way for a class of gauge theories is reviewed. When this method is applicable some properties of the solutions can easily be extracted as shown in the related examples.

  4. Physics over easy Breakfasts with Beth and physics

    CERN Document Server

    Azaroff, L V

    2010-01-01

    During a sequence of meals, the author relates the principal features of physics in easy-to-understand conversations with his wife Beth. Beginning with the studies of motion by Galileo and Newton through to the revolutionary theories of relativity and quantum mechanics in the 20th century, all important aspects of electricity, energy, magnetism, gravity and the structure of matter and atoms are explained and illustrated. The second edition similarly recounts the more recent application of these theories to nanoparticles, Bose-Einstein condensates, quantum entanglement and quantum computers. By

  5. Easy creation of polymeric systems for molecular dynamics with Assemble!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degiacomi, Matteo T.; Erastova, Valentina; Wilson, Mark R.

    2016-05-01

    We present Assemble!, a program greatly simplifying the preparation of molecular dynamics simulations of polymeric systems. The program is controlled either via command line or an intuitive Graphical User Interface, and runs on all major operating systems. Assemble! allows the creation of a desired system of polymer chains from constituent monomers, packs the chains into a box according to the required concentration and returns all the files needed for simulation with Gromacs. We illustrate the capabilities of Assemble! by demonstrating the easy preparation of a 300 monomers-long polyisoprene in hexane, and a heterogeneous mixture of polybutadiene.

  6. MYRaf: An Easy Aperture Photometry GUI for IRAF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niaei, M. S.; KiliÇ, Y.; Özeren, F. F.

    2015-07-01

    We describe the design and development of MYRaf, a GUI (Graphical User Interface) that aims to be completely open-source under General Public License (GPL). MYRaf is an easy to use, reliable, and a fast IRAF aperture photometry GUI tool for those who are conversant with text-based software and command-line procedures in GNU/Linux OSs. MYRaf uses IRAF, PyRAF, matplotlib, ginga, alipy, and SExtractor with the general-purpose and high-level programming language Python, and uses the Qt framework.

  7. Web Pages for Your Classroom The EASY Way!

    CERN Document Server

    Mccorkle, Sandra

    2003-01-01

    A practical how-to guide, this book provides the classroom teacher or librarian with all of the tools necessary for creating Web pages for student use. Useful templates-a CD ROM is included for easy use-and clear, logical instructions guide you in the creation of pages that students can later use for research or other types of projects that familiarize students with the power and usefulness of the Web. Gaining this skill allows you the flexibility of tailoring Web pages to students' specific needs and being sure of the quality of resources students are accessing. This book is indispensable for

  8. Plano de marketing para o Projeto "Easy Bike Lisboa"

    OpenAIRE

    Ferreira, Célia Cristina Eboma

    2015-01-01

    Mestrado em Marketing Este trabalho final de Mestrado é um projeto que tem como principal objetivo criar um plano estratégico de marketing para um novo serviço a implementar na cidade de Lisboa ? um sistema de bike sharing. O nome do projeto será apresentado como Easy Bike Lisboa. Como metodologia de estudo, foram abordados e analisados vários case studies de sistemas de bike sharing implementados em algumas cidades da Europa e no Brasil, na cidade do Rio de Janeiro. Através da análise...

  9. MIDOT: A novel probe for monitoring high-current flat transmission lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omar, K.; Novac, B. M.; Graneau, N.; Senior, P.; Smith, I. R.; Sinclair, M.

    2016-12-01

    A novel inductive probe, termed MIDOT, was developed for monitoring high-current flat transmission lines. While being inexpensive the probe does not require calibration, is resistant to both shock waves and temperature variations, and it is easy to manufacture and mount. It generates strong output signals that are relatively easy to interpret and has a detection region limited to a pre-defined part of the transmission line. The theoretical background related to the MIDOT probes, together with their practical implementation in both preliminary experimentation and high-current tests, is also presented in the paper. The novel probe can be used to benchmark existing 2D numerical codes used in calculating the current distribution inside the conductors of a transmission line but can also easily detect an early movement of a transmission line component. The probe can also find other applications, such as locating the position of a pulsed current flowing through a thin wire.

  10. BrailleEasy: One-handed Braille Keyboard for Smartphones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šepić, Barbara; Ghanem, Abdurrahman; Vogel, Stephan

    2015-01-01

    The evolution of mobile technology is moving at a very fast pace. Smartphones are currently considered a primary communication platform where people exchange voice calls, text messages and emails. The human-smartphone interaction, however, is generally optimized for sighted people through the use of visual cues on the touchscreen, e.g., typing text by tapping on a visual keyboard. Unfortunately, this interaction scheme renders smartphone technology largely inaccessible to visually impaired people as it results in slow typing and higher error rates. Apple and some third party applications provide solutions specific to blind people which enables them to use Braille on smartphones. These applications usually require both hands for typing. However, Brailling with both hands while holding the phone is not very comfortable. Furthermore, two-handed Brailling is not possible on smartwatches, which will be used more pervasively in the future. Therefore, we develop a platform for one-handed Brailing consisting of a custom keyboard called BrailleEasy to input Arabic or English Braille codes within any application, and a BrailleTutor application for practicing. Our platform currently supports Braille grade 1, and will be extended to support contractions, spelling correction, and more languages. Preliminary analysis of user studies for blind participants showed that after less than two hours of practice, participants were able to type significantly faster with the BrailleEasy keyboard than with the standard QWERTY keyboard.

  11. Astrophysics is easy! an introduction for the amateur astronomer

    CERN Document Server

    Inglis, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Astrophysics is often –with some justification – regarded as incomprehensible without the use of higher mathematics. Consequently, many amateur astronomers miss out on some of the most fascinating aspects of the subject. Astrophysics Is Easy! cuts through the difficult mathematics and explains the basics of astrophysics in accessible terms. Using nothing more than plain arithmetic and simple examples, the workings of the universe are outlined in a straightforward yet detailed and easy-to-grasp manner.   The original edition of the book was written over eight years ago, and in that time, advances in observational astronomy have led to new and significant changes to the theories of astrophysics. The new theories will be reflected in both the new and expanded chapters.   A unique aspect of this book is that, for each topic under discussion, an observing list is included so that observers can actually see for themselves the concepts presented –stars of the spectral sequence, nebulae, galaxies, even black ...

  12. Edit while watching: home video editing made easy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campanella, Marco; Weda, Hans; Barbieri, Mauro

    2007-01-01

    In recent years, more and more people capture their experiences in home videos. However, home video editing still is a difficult and time-consuming task. We present the Edit While Watching system that allows users to automatically create and change a summary of a home video in an easy, intuitive and lean-back way. Based on content analysis, video is indexed, segmented, and combined with proper music and editing effects. The result is an automatically generated home video summary that is shown to the user. While watching it, users can indicate whether they like certain content, so that the system will adapt the summary to contain more content that is similar or related to the displayed content. During the video playback users can also modify and enrich the content, seeing immediately the effects of their changes. Edit While Watching does not require a complex user interface: a TV and a few keys of a remote control are sufficient. A user study has shown that it is easy to learn and to use, even if users expressed the need for more control in the editing operations and in the editing process.

  13. Atom probe crystallography

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gault, Baptiste; Moody, Michael P; Cairney, Julie M; Ringer, Simon P

    2012-01-01

    This review addresses new developments in the emerging area of "atom probe crystallography", a materials characterization tool with the unique capacity to reveal both composition and crystallographic...

  14. Plant-based oral vaccines against zoonotic and non-zoonotic diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahid, Naila; Daniell, Henry

    2016-11-01

    The shared diseases between animals and humans are known as zoonotic diseases and spread infectious diseases among humans. Zoonotic diseases are not only a major burden to livestock industry but also threaten humans accounting for >60% cases of human illness. About 75% of emerging infectious diseases in humans have been reported to originate from zoonotic pathogens. Because antibiotics are frequently used to protect livestock from bacterial diseases, the development of antibiotic-resistant strains of epidemic and zoonotic pathogens is now a major concern. Live attenuated and killed vaccines are the only option to control these infectious diseases and this approach has been used since 1890. However, major problems with this approach include high cost and injectable vaccines is impractical for >20 billion poultry animals or fish in aquaculture. Plants offer an attractive and affordable platform for vaccines against animal diseases because of their low cost, and they are free of attenuated pathogens and cold chain requirement. Therefore, several plant-based vaccines against human and animals diseases have been developed recently that undergo clinical and regulatory approval. Plant-based vaccines serve as ideal booster vaccines that could eliminate multiple boosters of attenuated bacteria or viruses, but requirement of injectable priming with adjuvant is a current limitation. So, new approaches like oral vaccines are needed to overcome this challenge. In this review, we discuss the progress made in plant-based vaccines against zoonotic or other animal diseases and future challenges in advancing this field. © 2016 The Authors. Plant Biotechnology Journal published by Society for Experimental Biology and The Association of Applied Biologists and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Nuclear probes and intraoperative gamma cameras.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heller, Sherman; Zanzonico, Pat

    2011-05-01

    Gamma probes are now an important, well-established technology in the management of cancer, particularly in the detection of sentinel lymph nodes. Intraoperative sentinel lymph node as well as tumor detection may be improved under some circumstances by the use of beta (negatron or positron), rather than gamma detection, because the very short range (∼ 1 mm or less) of such particulate radiations eliminates the contribution of confounding counts from activity other than in the immediate vicinity of the detector. This has led to the development of intraoperative beta probes. Gamma camera imaging also benefits from short source-to-detector distances and minimal overlying tissue, and intraoperative small field-of-view gamma cameras have therefore been developed as well. Radiation detectors for intraoperative probes can generally be characterized as either scintillation or ionization detectors. Scintillators used in scintillation-detector probes include thallium-doped sodium iodide, thallium- and sodium-doped cesium iodide, and cerium-doped lutecium orthooxysilicate. Alternatives to inorganic scintillators are plastic scintillators, solutions of organic scintillation compounds dissolved in an organic solvent that is subsequently polymerized to form a solid. Their combined high counting efficiency for beta particles and low counting efficiency for 511-keV annihilation γ-rays make plastic scintillators well-suited as intraoperative beta probes in general and positron probes in particular Semiconductors used in ionization-detector probes include cadmium telluride, cadmium zinc telluride, and mercuric iodide. Clinical studies directly comparing scintillation and semiconductor intraoperative probes have not provided a clear choice between scintillation and ionization detector-based probes. The earliest small field-of-view intraoperative gamma camera systems were hand-held devices having fields of view of only 1.5-2.5 cm in diameter that used conventional thallium

  16. Extraction and purification methods in downstream processing of plant-based recombinant proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Łojewska, Ewelina; Kowalczyk, Tomasz; Olejniczak, Szymon; Sakowicz, Tomasz

    2016-04-01

    During the last two decades, the production of recombinant proteins in plant systems has been receiving increased attention. Currently, proteins are considered as the most important biopharmaceuticals. However, high costs and problems with scaling up the purification and isolation processes make the production of plant-based recombinant proteins a challenging task. This paper presents a summary of the information regarding the downstream processing in plant systems and provides a comprehensible overview of its key steps, such as extraction and purification. To highlight the recent progress, mainly new developments in the downstream technology have been chosen. Furthermore, besides most popular techniques, alternative methods have been described.

  17. Whole plant based treatment of hypercholesterolemia with Crataegus laevigata in a zebrafish model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Littleton, Robert M; Miller, Matthew; Hove, Jay R

    2012-07-23

    Consumers are increasingly turning to plant-based complementary and alternative medicines to treat hypercholesterolemia. Many of these treatments are untested and their efficacy is unknown. This multitude of potential remedies necessitates a model system amenable to testing large numbers of organisms that maintains similarity to humans in both mode of drug administration and overall physiology. Here we develop the larval zebrafish (4-30 days post fertilization) as a vertebrate model of dietary plant-based treatment of hypercholesterolemia and test the effects of Crataegus laevigata in this model. Larval zebrafish were fed high cholesterol diets infused with fluorescent sterols and phytomedicines. Plants were ground with mortar and pestle into a fine powder before addition to food. Fluorescent sterols were utilized to optically quantify relative difference in intravascular cholesterol levels between groups of fish. We utilized the Zeiss 7-Live Duo high-speed confocal platform in order to both quantify intravascular sterol fluorescence and to capture video of the heart beat for determination of cardiac output. In this investigation we developed and utilized a larval zebrafish model to investigate dietary plant-based intervention of the pathophysiology of hypercholesterolemia. We found BODIPY-cholesterol effectively labels diet-introduced intravascular cholesterol levels (P < 0.05, Student's t-test). We also established that zebrafish cardiac output declines as cholesterol dose increases (difference between 0.1% and 8% (w/w) high cholesterol diet-treated cardiac output significant at P < 0.05, 1-way ANOVA). Using this model, we found hawthorn leaves and flowers significantly reduce intravascular cholesterol levels (P < 0.05, 1-way ANOVA) and interact with cholesterol to impact cardiac output in hypercholesterolemic fish (2-way ANOVA, P < 0.05 for interaction effect). The results of this study demonstrate that the larval zebrafish has the potential to become a powerful

  18. Security Design of Remote Maintenance Systems for Nuclear Power Plants Based on ISO/IEC 15408

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watabe, Ryosuke; Oi, Tadashi; Endo, Yoshio

    This paper presents a security design of remote maintenance systems for nuclear power plants. Based on ISO/IEC 15408, we list assets to be protected, threats to the assets, security objectives against the threats, and security functional requirements that achieve the security objectives. Also, we show relations between the threats and the security objectives, and relations between the security objectives and the security functional requirements. As a result, we concretize a necessary and sufficient security design of remote maintenance systems for nuclear power plants that can protect the instrumentation and control system against intrusion, impersonation, tapping, obstruction and destruction.

  19. TVA coal-gasification commercial demonstration plant project. Volume 5. Plant based on Koppers-Totzek gasifier. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-11-01

    This volume presents a technical description of a coal gasification plant, based on Koppers-Totzek gasifiers, producing a medium Btu fuel gas product. Foster Wheeler carried out a conceptual design and cost estimate of a nominal 20,000 TPSD plant based on TVA design criteria and information supplied by Krupp-Koppers concerning the Koppers-Totzek coal gasification process. Technical description of the design is given in this volume.

  20. Strain measurements in ferromagnetic martensitic Heuslers and magnetization easy axis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aksoy, Seda; Acet, Mehmet; Wassermann, Eberhard F. [Experimentalphysik, Universitaet Duisburg-Essen, Duisburg (Germany)

    2008-07-01

    The temperature-dependence of strain under constant magnetic-fields is studied in Ni-Mn-X (X:Ga,In,Sn,Sb) and Ni-Mn-In-X (X:Ga,Sn,Sb) polycrystalline ferromagnetic Heusler alloys which undergo a martensitic transformation close to room-temperature. The applied magnetic-field influences the nucleation of martensite so that decreasing the temperature under a magnetic field leads to large length changes between the austenite and martensite states. The length-change within the martensitic state varies with the magnitude of the cooling-field. This is related to the variant-orientation during martensite nucleation. These strain-data provide information on the easy axis of magnetization.

  1. Easy Solar Photovoltaic Panel as Renewable Energy System Device

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalaivani D/O Ramachandran

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Solar power is energy from the sun that is converted into electrical energy. Solar energy is the abundant renewable energy source available, and the Malaysia has some of the richest solar resources in the world. Electric energy is becoming one of the source energy which is required daily. However, electric power outages always happened. Easy Solar Photovoltaic Panel as Renewable Energy System Device isimplemented as an electric power source by using solar as a help and support. It is used by providing charge through solar panel from sunlight. Then, the charge is flowing through the solar controller to charges battery that will flow to the load. Since energy that obtained from the battery are shaped in direct current (DC, then the inverter used to change direct current (DC to alternating current (AC for purpose of using device or application that using alternating current (AC to operate.

  2. A language for easy and efficient modeling of Turing machines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Pinaki Chakraborty

    2007-01-01

    A Turing Machine Description Language (TMDL) is developed for easy and efficient modeling of Turing machines.TMDL supports formal symbolic representation of Turing machines. The grammar for the language is also provided. Then a fast singlepass compiler is developed for TMDL. The scope of code optimization in the compiler is examined. An interpreter is used to simulate the exact behavior of the compiled Turing machines. A dynamically allocated and resizable array is used to simulate the infinite tape of a Turing machine. The procedure for simulating composite Turing machines is also explained. In this paper, two sample Turing machines have been designed in TMDL and their simulations are discussed. The TMDL can be extended to model the different variations of the standard Turing machine.

  3. Astrophysics is easy! an introduction for the amateur astronomer

    CERN Document Server

    Inglis, Mike

    2007-01-01

    With some justification, many amateur astronomers believe astrophysics is a very difficult subject, requiring at least degree-level mathematics to understand it properly. This isn’t necessarily the case. Mike Inglis' quantitative approach to the subject explains all aspects of astrophysics in simple terms and cuts through the incomprehensible mathematics with which this fascinating subject is all too often associated. Astrophysics is Easy! begins by looking at the H-R diagram and other basic tools of astrophysics, then ranges across the universe, from a first look at the interstellar medium and nebulae, through the birth, evolution and death of stars, to the physics of galaxies and clusters of galaxies. A unique feature of this book is the way that Dr. Inglis lists example objects for practical observation at every stage, so that practical astronomers can go and look at the object or objects under discussion – using only easily-available commercial amateur equipment.

  4. Synthesis and Application of Easy Hydrolysis Degradable Polyester

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张大省; 李燕立; 陈英; 付中玉; 王锐; 李梅

    2001-01-01

    An easy hydrolysis degradable polyester (EHDP) is synthesized; the fiber produced from which can be hydrolyzed by dilute basic solution easily. The properties of these kind polyesters are measured. The results show that this kind polymer is suitable to be spun into filament The EHDP can be spun into staple fiber and manufactured into non-woven fabric. This fabric is used as disposable clothes. In composite spinning, the PET (polyethylen glycol terephthalate) or PA (polyamide) is used as continuous phase, and EHDP used as dispersed phase. Then the fabric of this kind fiber is treated by basic solution; the ultra-fine fiber fabric is obtained.The fineness of the fiber is about 0.045 dtex. In blend spinning, EHDP is mixed with polypropylene (PP) to produce hollow fiber with micro-holes in radical direction. This fiber is a usable material in filter especially in medical use.

  5. An easy to compare tool for more readable (physics) textbooks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skorecova, I.; Teleki, A.; Lacsny, B.; Zelenicky, L.

    2016-11-01

    In this article, we show the easy way to compare the readability of two physics school texts written in the same language. We show that the readability of scholar texts depends on the frequency of terms. We compare the readability of texts from two physics textbooks written in Slovak. In these comparisons, we used the frequency of words and terms with a given length (probability distribution) instead of using a readability formula. The concept of analysing the frequency of words in a text agrees with our observations made by eye tracking systems. We verified our results by cloze tests. The method comparing the probability distribution of words and terms of two texts (written in the same language) is very simple, intuitive as well as language independent (in contrary to readability formulae).

  6. Breathe easy in Seattle : addressing asthma disparities through healthier housing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krieger, J.W.; Rabkin, J.C. [Seattle and King County, Seattle Public Health, Seattle, WA (United States); Takaro, T.K. [Simon Fraser Univ., Burnaby, BC (Canada). Faculty of Health Sciences

    2008-07-01

    The prevalence of mortality associated with asthma in children in the United States has significantly increased over the past two decades and remains high. This paper described three home intervention projects that spanned the spectrum from individual behaviour change to improving housing quality. It described 2 healthy homes projects and 1 project known as Breathe Easy Homes. The first healthy home project involved randomly assigning 274 low-income asthmatic children to a high or low intensity group. Community health workers (CHWs) visited all homes to assess exposures, develop an action plan, and provide bedding encasements. The high intensity group received cleaning equipment and an average of 7 additional visits over a year while the low group received only the initial visit. In the second healthy home project, 309 low-income asthmatic children were randomly assigned to a CHW intervention group or usual care group. All participants received clinic based asthma education from a nurse. The breathe easy homes project involved using a pre-post design to examine the benefits of a new home designed to reduce asthma trigger on outcomes among 35 low-income children with asthma. All homes received a detailed inspection by a remediation coordinator who identified conditions associated with exposure to asthma triggers, such as moisture and mould, dust, pets, tobacco smoke and wood smoke. Mitigative actions included the use of proper ventilation, vacuuming with a high efficiency particulate filter and avoiding the use of fireplaces and wood stoves. It was concluded that home visits increased asthma control behaviours, reduced urgent health services, improved caregiver quality-of-life and decreased asthma symptoms. 93 refs., 3 tabs., 1 fig.

  7. Synthesis and Characterization of Plant based Polythiophene Copolymers for Light Harvesting Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kodithuwakku, Udari; Malavi Arachchi, Prashantha; Ratnaweera, Dilru

    Polythiophenes became more attractive in diverse applications due to some of their inherent properties including thermal and environmental stability as well as optical and electronic conductive properties. Commonly thiophene monomers are obtained from byproducts of crude oils. The current study discuss for the first time the synthesis and characterization of light harvesting polythiophenes copolymers from thiophene derivatives extracted from Tagetes species. There were mainly two thiophenes derivatives, 5-(3-buten-1-ynyl)-2, 2-bithienyl and 2, 2', 5, 2''-terthienyl (terthiophene), in the roots of the plant. Chemical oxidative radical polymerization was followed during the synthesis of copolymers with various block compositions of plant based terthiophenes and 3-hexyl terthiophenes. Structural characterization of the synthetic products was done using FTIR, NMR, Uv-vis, XRD and DSC techniques. Polythiophene homopolymers obtained from plant based terthiophenes have limited processability of solar cells due to poor solubility in common organic solvents. A significant solubility improvement was observed with copolymers having minor contributions of 3-hexylthiophenes. Research Grants, University of Sri Jayewardenepura, Sri Lanka.

  8. A review of plant-based compounds and medicinal plants effective on atherosclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehrnoosh Sedighi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Atherosclerosis is one of the most important cardiovascular diseases that involve vessels through the development of fatty streaks and plaques. Plant-based compounds can help treat or prevent atherosclerosis through affecting the involved factors. The main purpose of this review article is to investigate and introduce medicinal plants and their potential activities regarding antioxidant properties, effective on lipids level and development of plaque, atherosclerosis, and progression of atherosclerosis as well as the development of cardiovascular disease and ischemia. To search for the relevant articles indexed in Information Sciences Institute, PubMed, Scientific Information Database, IranMedex, and Scopus between 1980 and 2013, with further emphasis on those indexed from 2004 to 2015, we used these search terms: atherosclerosis, antioxidant, cholesterol, inflammation, and the medicinal plants below. Then, the articles with inclusion criteria were used in the final analysis of the findings. Plant-based active compounds, including phenols, flavonoids, and antioxidants, can be effective on atherosclerosis predisposing factors and hence in preventing this disease and associated harmful complications, especially through reducing cholesterol, preventing increase in free radicals, and ultimately decreasing vascular plaque and vascular resistance. Hence, medicinal plants can contribute to treating atherosclerosis and preventing its progression through reducing cholesterolemia, free radicals, inflammation, vascular resistance, and certain enzymes. They, alone or in combination with hypocholesterolemic drugs, can therefore be useful for patients with hyperlipidemia and its complications.

  9. A plant-based diet for overweight and obesity prevention and treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner-McGrievy, Gabrielle; Mandes, Trisha; Crimarco, Anthony

    2017-05-01

    The goal of this paper is to review the evidence related to the effect of plant-based dietary patterns on obesity and weight loss, including both observational and intervention trials. Literature from plant-based diets (PBDs) epidemiological and clinical trial research was used to inform this review. In addition, data on dietary quality, adherence, and acceptability were evaluated and are presented. Both clinical trials and observational research indicate an advantage to adoption of PBDs for preventing overweight and obesity and promoting weight loss. PBDs may also confer higher levels of diet quality than are observed with other therapeutic diet approaches, with similar levels of adherence and acceptability. Future studies should utilize health behavior theory to inform intervention development and delivery of PBDs studies and new technologies to bring interventions to scale for greater public health impact. Research examining PBDs and weight loss is also needed with more diverse populations, including older adults. Based on the available evidence, PBDs should be considered a viable option for the treatment and prevention of overweight and obesity.

  10. Plant-Based and Plant-Rich Diet Patterns during Gestation: Beneficial Effects and Possible Shortcomings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pistollato, Francesca; Sumalla Cano, Sandra; Elio, Iñaki; Masias Vergara, Manuel; Giampieri, Francesca; Battino, Maurizio

    2015-09-01

    Environmental and lifestyle factors are known to play an important role during gestation, determining newborns' health status and influencing their risk of being subject to certain noncommunicable diseases later in life. In particular, maternal nutritional patterns characterized by a low intake of plant-derived foods could increase the risk of gestation-related issues, such as preeclampsia and pregravid obesity, increase genotoxicant susceptibility, and contribute to the onset of pediatric diseases. In particular, the risk of pediatric wheeze, diabetes, neural tube defects, orofacial clefts, and some pediatric tumors seems to be reduced by maternal intake of adequate amounts of vegetables, fruits, and selected antioxidants. Nevertheless, plant-based diets, like any other diet, if improperly balanced, could be deficient in some specific nutrients that are particularly relevant during gestation, such as n-3 (ω-3) fatty acids, vitamin B-12, iron, zinc, and iodine, possibly affecting the offspring's health state. Here we review the scientific literature in this field, focusing specifically on observational studies in humans, and highlight protective effects elicited by maternal diets enriched in plant-derived foods and possible issues related to maternal plant-based diets. © 2015 American Society for Nutrition.

  11. Plant-based milk alternatives an emerging segment of functional beverages: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sethi, Swati; Tyagi, S K; Anurag, Rahul K

    2016-09-01

    Plant-based or non-dairy milk alternative is the fast growing segment in newer food product development category of functional and specialty beverage across the globe. Nowadays, cow milk allergy, lactose intolerance, calorie concern and prevalence of hypercholesterolemia, more preference to vegan diets has influenced consumers towards choosing cow milk alternatives. Plant-based milk alternatives are a rising trend, which can serve as an inexpensive alternate to poor economic group of developing countries and in places, where cow's milk supply is insufficient. Though numerous types of innovative food beverages from plant sources are being exploited for cow milk alternative, many of these faces some/any type of technological issues; either related to processing or preservation. Majority of these milk alternatives lack nutritional balance when compared to bovine milk, however they contain functionally active components with health promoting properties which attracts health conscious consumers. In case of legume based milk alternatives, sensory acceptability is a major limiting factor for its wide popularity. New and advanced non-thermal processing technologies such as ultra high temperature treatment, ultra high pressure homogenization, pulsed electric field processing are being researched for tackling the problems related to increase of shelf life, emulsion stability, nutritional completeness and sensory acceptability of the final product. Concerted research efforts are required in coming years in functional beverages segment to prepare tailor-made newer products which are palatable as well as nutritionally adequate.

  12. Pioneer Jupiter orbiter probe mission 1980, probe description

    Science.gov (United States)

    Defrees, R. E.

    1974-01-01

    The adaptation of the Saturn-Uranus Atmospheric Entry Probe (SUAEP) to a Jupiter entry probe is summarized. This report is extracted from a comprehensive study of Jovian missions, atmospheric model definitions and probe subsystem alternatives.

  13. Photoenzyme probes of photodamage to cells and cellular DNA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sutherland, B. M.

    1979-01-01

    Development of photoenzyme probes for detection of ultraviolet damage to cells and DNA is reviewed with special emphasis on a process using polyethylene glycol to induce cell fusion. Polyethylene glycol is easy to obtain and handle, is gentle to the cells and does not induce latent or productive virus infection; therefore, it may be a general method for insertion of exogenous enzymes into mammalian cells. (PCS)

  14. Plant-based culture media: Efficiently support culturing rhizobacteria and correctly mirror their in-situ diversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youssef, Hanan H.; Hamza, Mervat A.; Fayez, Mohamed; Mourad, Elhussein F.; Saleh, Mohamed Y.; Sarhan, Mohamed S.; Suker, Ragab M.; Eltahlawy, Asmaa A.; Nemr, Rahma A.; El-Tahan, Mahmod; Ruppel, Silke; Hegazi, Nabil A.

    2015-01-01

    Our previous publications and the data presented here provide evidences on the ability of plant-based culture media to optimize the cultivability of rhizobacteria and to support their recovery from plant-soil environments. Compared to the tested chemically-synthetic culture media (e.g. nutrient agar and N-deficient combined-carbon sources media), slurry homogenates, crude saps, juices and powders of cactus (Opuntia ficus-indica) and succulent plants (Aloe vera and Aloe arborescens) were rich enough to support growth of rhizobacteria. Representative isolates of Enterobacter spp., Klebsiella spp., Bacillus spp. and Azospirillum spp. exhibited good growth on agar plates of such plant-based culture media. Cell growth and biomass production in liquid batch cultures were comparable to those reported with the synthetic culture media. In addition, the tested plant-based culture media efficiently recovered populations of rhizobacteria associated to plant roots. Culturable populations of >106–108 cfu g−1 were recovered from the ecto- and endo-rhizospheres of tested host plants. More than 100 endophytic culture-dependent isolates were secured and subjected to morphophysiological identification. Factor and cluster analyses indicated the unique community structure, on species, genera, class and phyla levels, of the culturable population recovered with plant-based culture media, being distinct from that obtained with the chemically-synthetic culture media. Proteobacteria were the dominant (78.8%) on plant-based agar culture medium compared to only 31% on nutrient agar, while Firmicutes prevailed on nutrient agar (69%) compared to the plant-based agar culture media (18.2%). Bacteroidetes, represented by Chryseobacterium indologenes, was only reported (3%) among the culturable rhizobacteria community of the plant-based agar culture medium. PMID:26966571

  15. Plant-based culture media: Efficiently support culturing rhizobacteria and correctly mirror their in-situ diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youssef, Hanan H; Hamza, Mervat A; Fayez, Mohamed; Mourad, Elhussein F; Saleh, Mohamed Y; Sarhan, Mohamed S; Suker, Ragab M; Eltahlawy, Asmaa A; Nemr, Rahma A; El-Tahan, Mahmod; Ruppel, Silke; Hegazi, Nabil A

    2016-03-01

    Our previous publications and the data presented here provide evidences on the ability of plant-based culture media to optimize the cultivability of rhizobacteria and to support their recovery from plant-soil environments. Compared to the tested chemically-synthetic culture media (e.g. nutrient agar and N-deficient combined-carbon sources media), slurry homogenates, crude saps, juices and powders of cactus (Opuntia ficus-indica) and succulent plants (Aloe vera and Aloe arborescens) were rich enough to support growth of rhizobacteria. Representative isolates of Enterobacter spp., Klebsiella spp., Bacillus spp. and Azospirillum spp. exhibited good growth on agar plates of such plant-based culture media. Cell growth and biomass production in liquid batch cultures were comparable to those reported with the synthetic culture media. In addition, the tested plant-based culture media efficiently recovered populations of rhizobacteria associated to plant roots. Culturable populations of >10(6)-10(8) cfu g(-1) were recovered from the ecto- and endo-rhizospheres of tested host plants. More than 100 endophytic culture-dependent isolates were secured and subjected to morphophysiological identification. Factor and cluster analyses indicated the unique community structure, on species, genera, class and phyla levels, of the culturable population recovered with plant-based culture media, being distinct from that obtained with the chemically-synthetic culture media. Proteobacteria were the dominant (78.8%) on plant-based agar culture medium compared to only 31% on nutrient agar, while Firmicutes prevailed on nutrient agar (69%) compared to the plant-based agar culture media (18.2%). Bacteroidetes, represented by Chryseobacterium indologenes, was only reported (3%) among the culturable rhizobacteria community of the plant-based agar culture medium.

  16. Easy Long-Term Identifiers and the "Data Paper"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunze, John

    2011-05-01

    A new publishing paradigm is needed to cope with the deluge of data artifacts produced by data-intensive science, many of which are vital to data re-use and verification of published scientific conclusions. Due to the limitations of traditional publishing, most of these artifacts are not usually disseminated, cited, or preserved. At the California Digital Library (CDL), one promising approach to the problem is to wrap these artifacts in the metaphor of a "data paper", assigning and managing data citations with our EZID (easy-eye-dee) identifier service. A data paper is a somewhat unfamiliar bundle of scholarly output with a familiar facade: minimally, a set of links to archived artifacts and a cover sheet containing familiar elements such as title, authors, date, abstract, and persistent identifier _ just enough to create basic citations, build "overlay journals", and enable discovery of data by internet search engines. Over time, we expect to add elements that permit deeper domain-specific discovery and re-use, such as variable names, methods, etc. At the same time, for data and identifiers that we manage, we will leverage as much domain-agnosticism data and identifier as possible.

  17. Growing perovskite into polymers for easy-processable optoelectronic devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masi, Sofia; Colella, Silvia; Listorti, Andrea; Roiati, Vittoria; Liscio, Andrea; Palermo, Vincenzo; Rizzo, Aurora; Gigli, Giuseppe

    2015-01-01

    Here we conceive an innovative nanocomposite to endow hybrid perovskites with the easy processability of polymers, providing a tool to control film quality and material crystallinity. We verify that the employed semiconducting polymer, poly[2-methoxy-5-(2-ethylhexyloxy)-1,4-phenylenevinylene] (MEH-PPV), controls the self-assembly of CH3NH3PbI3 (MAPbI3) crystalline domains and favors the deposition of a very smooth and homogenous layer in one straightforward step. This idea offers a new paradigm for the implementation of polymer/perovskite nanocomposites towards versatile optoelectronic devices combined with the feasibility of mass production. As a proof-of-concept we propose the application of such nanocomposite in polymer solar cell architecture, demonstrating a power conversion efficiency up to 3%, to date the highest reported for MEH-PPV. On-purpose designed polymers are expected to suit the nanocomposite properties for the integration in diverse optoelectronic devices via facile processing condition.

  18. The IBA Easy-E-Beam™ Integrated Processing System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleland, Marshall R.; Galloway, Richard A.; Lisanti, Thomas F.

    2011-06-01

    IBA Industrial Inc., (formerly known as Radiation Dynamics, Inc.) has been making high-energy and medium-energy, direct-current proton and electron accelerators for research and industrial applications for many years. Some industrial applications of high-power electron accelerators are the crosslinking of polymeric materials and products, such as the insulation on electrical wires, multi-conductor cable jackets, heat-shrinkable plastic tubing and film, plastic pipe, foam and pellets, the partial curing of rubber sheet for automobile tire components, and the sterilization of disposable medical devices. The curing (polymerization and crosslinking) of carbon and glass fiber-reinforced composite plastic parts, the preservation of foods and the treatment of waste materials are attractive possibilities for future applications. With electron energies above 1.0 MeV, the radiation protection for operating personnel is usually provided by surrounding the accelerator facility with thick concrete walls. With lower energies, steel and lead panels can be used, which are substantially thinner and more compact than the equivalent concrete walls. IBA has developed a series of electron processing systems called Easy-e-Beam™ for the medium energy range from 300 keV to 1000 keV. These systems include the shielding as an integral part of a complete radiation processing facility. The basic concepts of the electron accelerator, the product processing equipment, the programmable control system, the configuration of the radiation shielding and some performance characteristics are described in this paper.

  19. Easy and effective virtual tour on the World Wide Web

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Ilmi; Kang, Andrew; Roberts, John; Yoon, Sanghyuk

    2005-01-01

    Web-based Virtual Tour has become a desirable and demanded application, yet challenging due to the nature of web application's running environment such as limited bandwidth and no guarantee of high computation power on the client side. Image-based rendering approach has attractive advantages over traditional 3D rendering approach in such Web Applications. Traditional geometry-based approach, such as VRML, requires labor-intensive 3D modeling process, high bandwidth and computation power especially for photo-realistic virtual scenes. QuickTime VR and IPIX as examples of image-based approach, use panoramic photos and the virtual scenes that can be generated from photos directly skipping the modeling process. But, QuickTime VR and IPIX may not only require special cameras or effort to take panoramic views but also provide only one fixed-point navigation (look-around and zooming in-out) rather than "walk around", that is a very important feature to provide immersive experience to virtual tourists. Easy and Effective Virtual Tour constructs virtual tour using several snap shots of conventional photos without special tools, build simple 3D space within each photo using spidery mesh, and expand the virtual spaces by connecting each other using simple user intervention to specify correspondence. The expanded virtual space provides virtual tourists with free navigation and immersive experience of walking around through the WWW.

  20. Modern TRIZ A Practical Course with EASyTRIZ Technology

    CERN Document Server

    Orloff, Michael A

    2012-01-01

    This is the first open practical guide for Modern TRIZ technology of effective inventive thinking. Modern TRIZ makes possible creating the innovations and inventions with systematic methods supported with effective EASyTRIZ technology and software. Vang Venming, company owner, inventor, participant of a 2-day workshop for 1,000 students at the North-Eastern Forestry University, Harbin, China: Right here, at this Modern TRIZ workshop, I came up with a new idea which improves my own patent. This is simply fabulous! I would never have believed before that it is possible! Seung-Hyen Yoo, professor of Mechanical Engineering, AJOU University, Suwon, Republic of Korea: We have known TRIZ for more than 10 years, and have successfully used it in engineering consulting and student training. And we saw a new TRIZ at lectures and workshops delivered by Professor Orloff in the Republic of Korea before experts working for SAMSUNG and other companies, and before faculty and students of several universities. Heinrich Kochs, ...

  1. Designing easy DNA extraction: Teaching creativity through laboratory practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susantini, Endang; Lisdiana, Lisa; Isnawati; Tanzih Al Haq, Aushia; Trimulyono, Guntur

    2017-05-01

    Subject material concerning Deoxyribose Nucleic Acid (DNA) structure in the format of creativity-driven laboratory practice offers meaningful learning experience to the students. Therefore, a laboratory practice in which utilizes simple procedures and easy-safe-affordable household materials should be promoted to students to develop their creativity. This study aimed to examine whether designing and conducting DNA extraction with household materials could foster students' creative thinking. We also described how this laboratory practice affected students' knowledge and views. A total of 47 students participated in this study. These students were grouped and asked to utilize available household materials and modify procedures using hands-on worksheet. Result showed that this approach encouraged creative thinking as well as improved subject-related knowledge. Students also demonstrated positive views about content knowledge, social skills, and creative thinking skills. This study implies that extracting DNA with household materials is able to develop content knowledge, social skills, and creative thinking of the students. © 2016 by The International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 45(3):216-225, 2017. © 2016 The International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology.

  2. Multiplex fluorescence melting curve analysis for mutation detection with dual-labeled, self-quenched probes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiuying Huang

    Full Text Available Probe-based fluorescence melting curve analysis (FMCA is a powerful tool for mutation detection based on melting temperature generated by thermal denaturation of the probe-target hybrid. Nevertheless, the color multiplexing, probe design, and cross-platform compatibility remain to be limited by using existing probe chemistries. We hereby explored two dual-labeled, self-quenched probes, TaqMan and shared-stem molecular beacons, in their ability to conduct FMCA. Both probes could be directly used for FMCA and readily integrated with closed-tube amplicon hybridization under asymmetric PCR conditions. Improved flexibility of FMCA by using these probes was illustrated in three representative applications of FMCA: mutation scanning, mutation identification and mutation genotyping, all of which achieved improved color-multiplexing with easy probe design and versatile probe combination and all were validated with a large number of real clinical samples. The universal cross-platform compatibility of these probes-based FMCA was also demonstrated by a 4-color mutation genotyping assay performed on five different real-time PCR instruments. The dual-labeled, self-quenched probes offered unprecedented combined advantage of enhanced multiplexing, improved flexibility in probe design, and expanded cross-platform compatibility, which would substantially improve FMCA in mutation detection of various applications.

  3. An Ultrasonographic Periodontal Probe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertoncini, C. A.; Hinders, M. K.

    2010-02-01

    Periodontal disease, commonly known as gum disease, affects millions of people. The current method of detecting periodontal pocket depth is painful, invasive, and inaccurate. As an alternative to manual probing, an ultrasonographic periodontal probe is being developed to use ultrasound echo waveforms to measure periodontal pocket depth, which is the main measure of periodontal disease. Wavelet transforms and pattern classification techniques are implemented in artificial intelligence routines that can automatically detect pocket depth. The main pattern classification technique used here, called a binary classification algorithm, compares test objects with only two possible pocket depth measurements at a time and relies on dimensionality reduction for the final determination. This method correctly identifies up to 90% of the ultrasonographic probe measurements within the manual probe's tolerance.

  4. Hard probes 2006 Asilomar

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    "The second international conference on hard and electromagnetic probes of high-energy nuclear collisions was held June 9 to 16, 2006 at the Asilomar Conference grounds in Pacific Grove, California" (photo and 1/2 page)

  5. Dataset of the Botrytis cinerea phosphoproteome induced by different plant-based elicitors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Liñeiro

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Phosphorylation is one of the main post-translational modification (PTM involved in signaling network in the ascomycete Botrytis cinerea, one of the most relevant phytopathogenic fungus. The data presented in this article provided a differential mass spectrometry-based analysis of the phosphoproteome of B. cinerea under two different phenotypical conditions induced by the use of two different elicitors: glucose and deproteinized Tomate Cell Walls (TCW. A total 1138 and 733 phosphoproteins were identified for glucose and TCW culture conditions respectively. Raw data are deposited at the ProteomeXchange Consortium via the PRIDE partner repository with the data set identifier (PRIDE: http://www.ebi.ac.uk/pride/archive/projects/PXD003099. Further interpretation and discussion of these data are provided in our research article entitled “Phosphoproteome analysis of B.cinerea in response to different plant-based elicitors” (Liñeiro et al., 2016 [1].

  6. Bringing plant-based veterinary vaccines to market: Managing regulatory and commercial hurdles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDonald, Jacqueline; Doshi, Ketan; Dussault, Marike; Hall, J Christopher; Holbrook, Larry; Jones, Ginny; Kaldis, Angelo; Klima, Cassidy L; Macdonald, Phil; McAllister, Tim; McLean, Michael D; Potter, Andrew; Richman, Alex; Shearer, Heather; Yarosh, Oksana; Yoo, Han Sang; Topp, Edward; Menassa, Rima

    2015-12-01

    The production of recombinant vaccines in plants may help to reduce the burden of veterinary diseases, which cause major economic losses and in some cases can affect human health. While there is abundant research in this area, a knowledge gap exists between the ability to create and evaluate plant-based products in the laboratory, and the ability to take these products on a path to commercialization. The current report, arising from a workshop sponsored by an Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) Co-operative Research Programme, addresses this gap by providing guidance in planning for the commercialization of plant-made vaccines for animal use. It includes relevant information on developing business plans, assessing market opportunities, manufacturing scale-up, financing, protecting and using intellectual property, and regulatory approval with a focus on Canadian regulations.

  7. Feasibility of large-scale power plants based on thermoelectric effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Liping

    2014-12-01

    Heat resources of small temperature difference are easily accessible, free and enormous on the Earth. Thermoelectric effects provide the technology for converting these heat resources directly into electricity. We present designs for electricity generators based on thermoelectric effects that utilize heat resources of small temperature difference, e.g., ocean water at different depths and geothermal resources, and conclude that large-scale power plants based on thermoelectric effects are feasible and economically competitive. The key observation is that the power factor of thermoelectric materials, unlike the figure of merit, can be improved by orders of magnitude upon laminating good conductors and good thermoelectric materials. The predicted large-scale power generators based on thermoelectric effects, if validated, will have the advantages of the scalability, renewability, and free supply of heat resources of small temperature difference on the Earth.

  8. Effect of fermentation on the antioxidant activity in plant-based foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hur, Sun Jin; Lee, Seung Yuan; Kim, Young-Chan; Choi, Inwook; Kim, Geun-Bae

    2014-10-01

    This study provides an overview of the factors that influence the effect of fermentation on the antioxidant activity and the mechanisms that augment antioxidative activities in fermented plant-based foods. The ability of fermentation to improve antioxidant activity is primarily due to an increase in the amount of phenolic compounds and flavonoids during fermentation, which is the result of a microbial hydrolysis reaction. Moreover, fermentation induces the structural breakdown of plant cell walls, leading to the liberation or synthesis of various antioxidant compounds. These antioxidant compounds can act as free radical terminators, metal chelators, singlet oxygen quenchers, or hydrogen donors to radicals. The production of protease, α-amylase and some other enzymes can be influenced by fermentation that may have metal ion chelation activity. Because the mechanisms that affect antioxidant activity during fermentation are extremely varied, further investigation is needed to establish the precise mechanisms for these processes.

  9. Plant-based plume-scale mapping of tritium contamination in desert soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andraski, B.J.; Stonestrom, D.A.; Michel, R.L.; Halford, K.J.; Radyk, J.C.

    2005-01-01

    Plant-based techniques were tested for field-scale evaluation of tritium contamination adjacent to a low-level radioactive waste (LLRW) facility in the Amargosa Desert, Nevada. Objectives were to (i) characterize and map the spatial variability of tritium in plant water, (ii) develop empirical relations to predict and map subsurface contamination from plant-water concentrations, and (iii) gain insight into tritium migration pathways and processes. Plant sampling [creosote bush, Larrea tridentata (Sessé & Moc. ex DC.) Coville] required one-fifth the time of soil water vapor sampling. Plant concentrations were spatially correlated to a separation distance of 380 m; measurement uncertainty accounted for plant tritium explained 96 and 90% of the variation in root-zone and sub-root-zone soil water vapor concentrations, respectively. The equations were combined with kriged plant-water concentrations to map subsurface contamination. Mapping showed preferential lateral movement of tritium through a dry, coarse-textured layer beneath the root zone, with concurrent upward movement through the root zone. Analysis of subsurface fluxes along a transect perpendicular to the LLRW facility showed that upward diffusive-vapor transport dominates other transport modes beneath native vegetation. Downward advective-liquid transport dominates at one endpoint of the transect, beneath a devegetated road immediately adjacent to the facility. To our knowledge, this study is the first to document large-scale subsurface vapor-phase tritium migration from a LLRW facility. Plant-based methods provide a noninvasive, cost-effective approach to mapping subsurface tritium migration in desert areas.

  10. Attached to meat? (Un)Willingness and intentions to adopt a more plant-based diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graça, João; Calheiros, Maria Manuela; Oliveira, Abílio

    2015-12-01

    In response to calls to expand knowledge on consumer willingness to reduce meat consumption and to adopt a more plant-based diet, this work advances the construct of meat attachment and the Meat Attachment Questionnaire (MAQ). The MAQ is a new measure referring to a positive bond towards meat consumption. It was developed and validated through three sequential studies following from an in-depth approach to consumer representations of meat. The construct and initial pool of items were firstly developed drawing on qualitative data from 410 participants in a previous work on consumers' valuation of meat. Afterwards, 1023 participants completed these items and other measures, providing data to assess item selection, factor structure, reliability, convergent and concurrent validity, and predictive ability. Finally, a sample of 318 participants from a different cultural background completed the final version of the MAQ along with other measures to assess measurement invariance, reliability and predictive ability. Across samples, a four-factor solution (i.e., hedonism, affinity, entitlement, and dependence) with 16 items and a second-order global dimension of meat attachment fully met criteria for good model fit. The MAQ subscales and global scale were associated with attitudes towards meat, subjective norm, human supremacy beliefs, eating habits, and dietary identity. They also provided additional explanatory variance above and beyond the core TPB variables (i.e. attitudes, subjective norm and perceived behavioral control) in willingness and intentions concerning meat substitution. Overall, the findings point towards the relevance of the MAQ for the study of meat consumption and meat substitution, and lend support to the idea that holding a pattern of attachment towards meat may hinder a shift towards a more plant-based diet.

  11. The second green revolution? Production of plant-based biodegradable plastics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mooney, Brian P

    2009-03-01

    Biodegradable plastics are those that can be completely degraded in landfills, composters or sewage treatment plants by the action of naturally occurring micro-organisms. Truly biodegradable plastics leave no toxic, visible or distinguishable residues following degradation. Their biodegradability contrasts sharply with most petroleum-based plastics, which are essentially indestructible in a biological context. Because of the ubiquitous use of petroleum-based plastics, their persistence in the environment and their fossil-fuel derivation, alternatives to these traditional plastics are being explored. Issues surrounding waste management of traditional and biodegradable polymers are discussed in the context of reducing environmental pressures and carbon footprints. The main thrust of the present review addresses the development of plant-based biodegradable polymers. Plants naturally produce numerous polymers, including rubber, starch, cellulose and storage proteins, all of which have been exploited for biodegradable plastic production. Bacterial bioreactors fed with renewable resources from plants--so-called 'white biotechnology'--have also been successful in producing biodegradable polymers. In addition to these methods of exploiting plant materials for biodegradable polymer production, the present review also addresses the advances in synthesizing novel polymers within transgenic plants, especially those in the polyhydroxyalkanoate class. Although there is a stigma associated with transgenic plants, especially food crops, plant-based biodegradable polymers, produced as value-added co-products, or, from marginal land (non-food), crops such as switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.), have the potential to become viable alternatives to petroleum-based plastics and an environmentally benign and carbon-neutral source of polymers.

  12. Diesel power plants based on biomass gasification; Biomassan ja turpeen kaasutukseen perustuen dieselvoimalaitosten toteutettavuustutkimus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurkela, E.; Staahlberg, P.; Solantausta, Y. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland)

    1996-12-01

    Different power production systems have been developed for biomass feedstocks. However, only few of these systems can meet the following three requirements: (1) suitability to small scale electricity production (<5-10 MWe), (2) reliable operation with realistically available biomass feedstocks, and (3) potential for economical competitiveness. The fluidized-bed boilers have been successfully operated with wood waste and peat down to outputs of the order of 5 MWe and the investment costs have been successfully lowered to a reasonable level. However, this concept is most suitable for combined heat and electricity production and smaller plant sizes are not considered feasible. One of the most promising alternative for this commercially proven technology is the diesel power plant based on gasification. This concept has a potential for higher power to heat ratios in cogeneration or higher efficiency in separate electricity production. The objectives of this project were (1) to evaluate the technical and economical feasibility of diesel power plants based on biomass gasification and (2) to study the effects of operating conditions (temperature, bed material and air staging) on the performance of a circulating fluidized-bed gasifier. The experimental part of the project was carried out on a new PDU-scale Circulating Fluidized-Bed Gasification test facility of VTT. Wood residues were used as the feedstocks and the experiments were mainly focused on tar formation and gasifier performance. The results will be compared to earlier VTT data obtained for bubbling-bed reactors. The techno-economic feasibility studies are carried out using existing process modelling tools of VTT and the gasification based diesel plants will be compared to conventional fluidized-bed boilers. The studies are scheduled to be completed in March 1996. (author)

  13. Diesel power plants based on biomass gasification; Biomassan ja turpeen kaasutukseen perustuvien dieselvoimalaitosten toteutettavuustutkimus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurkela, E.; Staahlberg, P.; Solantausta, Y.; Wilen, C.

    1995-12-31

    Different power production systems have been developed for biomass feedstocks. However, only few of these systems can meet the following three requirements: (a) suitability to small scale electricity production (< 5-10 MWe), (b) reliable operation with realistically available biomass feedstocks, and (c) potential for economical competitiveness. The fluidized-bed boilers have been successfully operated with wood waste and peat down to outputs of the order of 5 MWe and the investment costs have been successfully lowered to a reasonable level. However, this concept is most suitable for combined heat and electricity production and smaller plant sizes are not considered feasible. One of the most promising alternative for this commercially proven technology is the diesel power plant based on gasification. This concept has a potential for higher power to heat ratios in cogeneration or higher efficiency in separate electricity production. The objectives of this project were (a) to evaluate the technical and economical feasibility of diesel power plants based on biomass gasification and (b) to study the effects of operating conditions (temperature, bed material and air staging) on the performance of a circulating fluidized-bed gasifier. The experimental part of the project was carried out on a new PDU-scale Circulating Fluidized-Bed Gasification test facility of VTT. Wood residues were used as the feedstocks and the experiments were mainly focused on tar formation and gasifier performance. The results will be compared to earlier VTT data obtained for bubbling-bed reactors. The techno-economic feasibility studies are carried out using existing process modelling tools of VTT and the gasification based diesel plants will be compared to conventional fluidized-bed boilers

  14. Diesel power plants based on biomass gasification; Biomassan ja turpeen kaasutukseen perustuvien dieselvoimalaitosten toteutettavuustutkimus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurkela, E.; Staahlberg, P.; Solantausta, Y.; Wilen, C. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland)

    1998-12-31

    Different power production systems have been developed for biomass feedstocks. However, only few of these systems can meet the following three requirements: (a) suitability to small scale electricity production (< 5-10 MWe), (b) reliable operation with realistically available biomass feedstocks, and (c) potential for economical competitiveness. The fluidized-bed boilers have been successfully operated with wood waste and peat down to outputs of the order of 5 MWe and the investment costs have been successfully lowered to a reasonable level. However, this concept is most suitable for combined heat and electricity production and smaller plant sizes are not considered feasible. One of the most promising alternative for this commercially proven technology is the diesel power plant based on gasification. This concept has a potential for higher power to heat ratios in cogeneration or higher efficiency in separate electricity production. The objectives of this project were (a) to evaluate the technical and economical feasibility of diesel power plants based on biomass gasification and (b) to study the effects of operating conditions (temperature, bed material and air staging) on the performance of a circulating fluidized-bed gasifies. The experimental part of the project was carried out on a new PDU-scale Circulating Fluidized-Bed Gasification test facility of VTT (Technical Research Centre of Finland). Wood residues were used as the feedstocks and the experiments were mainly focused on tar formation and gasifier performance. The results will be compared to earlier VTT data obtained for the bubbling-bed reactors. The techno-economic feasibility studies are carried out using existing process modelling tools of VTT and the gasification based diesel plants will be compared to conventional fluidized-bed boilers. (orig.)

  15. Next-generation sequencing approaches for improvement of lactic acid bacteria-fermented plant-based beverages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jordyn Bergsveinson

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Plant-based beverages and milk alternatives produced from cereals and legumes have grown in popularity in recent years due to a range of consumer concerns over dairy products. These plant-based products can often have undesirable physiochemical properties related to flavour, texture, and nutrient availability and/or deficiencies. Lactic acid bacteria (LAB fermentation offers potential remediation for many of these issues, and allows consumers to retain their perception of the resultant products as natural and additive-free. Using next-generation sequencing (NGS or omics approaches to characterize LAB isolates to find those that will improve properties of plant-based beverages is the most direct way to product improvement. Although NGS/omics approaches have been extensively used for selection of LAB for use in the dairy industry, a comparable effort has not occurred for selecting LAB for fermenting plant raw substrates, save those used in producing wine and certain types of beer. Here we review the few and recent applications of NGS/omics to profile and improve LAB fermentation of various plant-based substrates for beverage production. We also identify specific issues in the production of various LAB fermented plant-based beverages that such NGS/omics applications have the power to resolve.

  16. Miniaturized magnetic-driven scanning probe for endoscopic optical coherence tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Ziwei; Wu, Jigang

    2015-06-01

    We designed and implemented a magnetic-driven scanning (MDS) probe for endoscopic optical coherence tomography (OCT). The probe uses an externally-driven tiny magnet in the distal end to achieve unobstructed 360-degree circumferential scanning at the side of the probe. The design simplifies the scanning part inside the probe and thus allows for easy miniaturization and cost reduction. We made a prototype probe with an outer diameter of 1.4 mm and demonstrated its capability by acquiring OCT images of ex vivo trachea and artery samples from a pigeon. We used a spectrometer-based Fourier-domain OCT system and the system sensitivity with our prototype probe was measured to be 91 dB with an illumination power of 850 μW and A-scan exposure time of 1 ms. The axial and lateral resolutions of the system are 6.5 μm and 8.1 μm, respectively.

  17. NutriChem: a systems chemical biology resource to explore the medicinal value of plant-based foods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kasper; Panagiotou, Gianni; Kouskoumvekaki, Irene

    2015-01-01

    There is rising evidence of an inverse association be-tween chronic diseases and diets characterized byrich fruit and vegetable consumption. Dietary com-ponents may act directly or indirectly on the humangenome and modulate multiple processes involvedin disease risk and disease progression. However......,there is currently no exhaustive resource on thehealth benefits associated to specific dietary inter-ventions, or a resource covering the broad molecu-lar content of food. Here we present the first releaseof NutriChem, available athttp://cbs.dtu.dk/services/NutriChem-1.0, a database generated by text miningof 21...... million MEDLINE abstracts for information thatlinks plant-based foods with their small moleculecomponents and human disease phenotypes. Nu-triChem contains text-mined data for 18478 pairs of1772 plant-based foods and 7898 phytochemicals,and 6242 pairs of 1066 plant-based foods and 751diseases. In addition...

  18. A molecular-beacon-based asymmetric PCR assay for easy visualization of amplicons in the diagnosis of trichomoniasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonkar, Subash C; Sachdev, Divya; Mishra, Prashant K; Kumar, Anita; Mittal, Pratima; Saluja, Daman

    2016-12-15

    The currently available nucleic acid amplification tests (NAATs) for trichomoniasis are accurate, quick and confirmative with superior sensitivity than traditional culture-based microbiology assays. However, these assays are associated with problems of carry over contamination, false positive results, requirement of technical expertise for performance and detection of end product. Hence, a diagnostic assay with easy visualization of the amplified product will be profitable. An in-house, rapid, sensitive, specific molecular-beacon-based PCR assay, using primers against pfoB gene of Trichomonas vaginalis, was developed and evaluated using dry ectocervical swabs (n=392) from symptomatic females with vaginal discharge. Total DNA was isolated and used as template for the PCR assays. The performance and reproducibility of PCR assay was evaluated by composite reference standard (CRS). For easy visualization of the amplified product, molecular-beacon was designed and amplicons were visualized directly using fluorescent handheld dark reader or by Micro-Plate Reader. Molecular-beacons are single-stranded hairpin shaped nucleic acid probes composed of a stem, with fluorophore/quencher pair and a loop region complementary to the desired DNA. The beacon-based PCR assay designed in the present study is highly specific as confirmed by competition experiments and extremely sensitive with detection limit of 20fg of genomic DNA (3-4 pathogens). The minimum infrastructure requirement and ease to perform the assay makes this method highly useful for resource poor countries for better disease management. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Java Web application based on MVC pattern and EasyJWeb framework%基于EasyJWeb框架和MVC模式的Web应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苑宝林; 李志蜀

    2008-01-01

    描述了MVC设计模式和EasyJWeb框架的组成和工作原理,然后通过一个客户管理系统实例论述了基于MVC模式EasyJWeb框架的Web应用系统的实现方法.通过实例论述了基于EasyJWeb框架开发的Web应用系统可获得较高的效率性、可扩展性和易维护性.

  20. NutriChem 2.0: exploring the effect of plant-based foods on human health and drug efficacy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ni, Yueqiong; Jensen, Kasper; Kouskoumvekaki, Eirini

    2017-01-01

    NutriChem is a database generated by text mining of 21 million MEDLINE abstracts that links plant-based foods with their small molecule components and human health effect. In this new, second release of NutriChem (NutriChem 2.0) we have integrated information on overlapping protein targets between...... FDA-approved drugs and small compounds in plant-based foods, which may have implications on drug pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics. NutriChem 2.0 contains predicted interactions between 428 drugs and 339 foods, supported by 107 jointly targeted proteins. Chemical bioactivity data were integrated...

  1. Plant-based diets on social media : How content on social media influence for maintaining a lifestyle

    OpenAIRE

    Holmgren, Hanna

    2017-01-01

    Plant-based food has recently been a frequently addressed topic for scientific research, mainly because of its benefits for the environmental sustainability, human health and animal welfare. Nonetheless, there is limited research on how people maintain a plant-based diet, as well as research gaps on the topic in relation to media and communication studies. The purpose of this research is to provide new empirical data on how social media can inspire and/or influence a person to maintain a plan...

  2. Food quality and authenticity screening via easy ambient sonic-spray ionization mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porcari, Andreia M; Fernandes, Gabriel D; Barrera-Arellano, Daniel; Eberlin, Marcos N; Alberici, Rosana M

    2016-02-21

    This review is the first to summarize a decade of studies testing the use of easy ambient sonic-spray ionization mass spectrometry (EASI-MS) and its several sister techniques, Venturi (V-EASI), thermal imprinting (TI-EASI) and Spartan (S-EASI) mass spectrometry in food quality control and authentication. Since minimal or no sample preparation is required, such ambient desorption/ionization techniques have been shown to provide direct, fast and selective fingerprinting characterization at the molecular level based on the pools of the most typical components. They have also been found to be applicable on intact, undisturbed samples or on simple solvent extracts. Fundamentals of EASI-MS and its sister techniques, including mechanisms, devices, parameters and strategies, as well as the many applications reported for food analysis, are summarized and discussed.

  3. A MODIS-based planetary probe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clinton, N.

    2016-12-01

    Despite an ever growing archive of Earth observation imagery, the data are not accessible or useful to policy makers without extensive technical expertise and efforts to derive information. Previous developments to enable access Earth imagery through easy to use interfaces have included broadly scoped analysis platforms (e.g. NASA's Giovanni, http://giovanni.gsfc.nasa.gov/giovanni/) as well as narrowly focussed decision support tools (e.g. for predicting primate habitat suitability, http://www.janegoodall.org/what-we-do/conservation-science/decision-support-system/). To date, a general-purpose tool to query local environmental condition and change trajectory, valid at any point on Earth, has not been available. Here we describe an easy to use probe, implemented with Google Earth Engine's graphical user interface API, that allows interested users to query a location to obtain charts of environmental vital statistics. The data are derived from the complete MODIS time series. Case studies demonstrate the utility of the tool for illustrating sudden and episodic disturbances to the land surface, seasonality and persistence or recovery of any disturbance. As the algorithm is based on a random walk, potential for a statistically based alerting system is also discussed. The results highlight the ability of cloud-based satellite image analysis to provide a monitoring tool similar to tools used in medical or financial fields.

  4. Utilization of plant-based natural coagulants as future alternatives towards sustainable water clarification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choy, Sook Yan; Prasad, Krishna Murthy Nagendra; Wu, Ta Yeong; Raghunandan, Mavinakere Eshwaraiah; Ramanan, Ramakrishnan Nagasundara

    2014-11-01

    Rapid industrial developments coupled with surging population growth have complicated issues dealing with water scarcity as the quest for clean and sanitized water intensifies globally. Existing fresh water supplies could be contaminated with organic, inorganic and biological matters that have potential harm to the society. Turbidity in general is a measure of water cloudiness induced by such colloidal and suspended matters and is also one of the major criteria in raw water monitoring to meet the stipulated water quality guidelines. Turbidity reduction is often accomplished using chemical coagulants such as alum. The use of alum is widely associated with potential development of health issues and generation of voluminous sludge. Natural coagulants that are available in abundance can certainly be considered in addressing the drawbacks associated with the use of chemical coagulants. Twenty one types of plant-based natural coagulants categorized as fruit waste and others are identified and presented collectively with their research summary in this review. The barriers and prospects of commercialization of natural coagulants in near future are also discussed.

  5. Chemical characterization of Klason lignin preparations from plant-based foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunzel, Mirko; Schüssler, Anne; Tchetseubu Saha, Gérard

    2011-12-14

    To analyze the accuracy of the Klason lignin method as applied for the determination of lignin contents in plant based-food products, Klason lignin preparations from curly kale, pears, whole wheat grains, and corn bran were chemically characterized. Characterization included routine ash and protein determinations and the extraction of fat/waxes as well as cutin/suberin depolymerization and extraction of the liberated monomers. Fat/wax and cutin/suberin amounts in the Klason lignin preparations were determined gravimetrically, and their compositions were analyzed by using GC-MS. Typical fat, wax, and cutin (and suberin) constituents such as saturated and unsaturated fatty acids, hydroxy and/or epoxy fatty acids, and phenolic acids were identified in all samples, whereas the detection of long-chain hydrocarbons, alcohols, and ketones, sterols, stanols, and dioic acids was dependent on the sample analyzed. Estimation of the contribution of non-lignin compounds to the Klason lignin contents reduced the noncorrected Klason lignin contents of the insoluble fibers from 28.7% (kale), 22.8% (pear), 14.8% (wheat), and 9.9% (corn) to maximum lignin contents of 6.5% (kale), 16.4% (pear), 4.9% (wheat), and 2.3% (corn). These data demonstrate that certain commonly used statements such as "cereal brans are highly lignified" need to be revised.

  6. Novel Approach to Classify Plants Based on Metabolite-Content Similarity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kang Liu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Secondary metabolites are bioactive substances with diverse chemical structures. Depending on the ecological environment within which they are living, higher plants use different combinations of secondary metabolites for adaptation (e.g., defense against attacks by herbivores or pathogenic microbes. This suggests that the similarity in metabolite content is applicable to assess phylogenic similarity of higher plants. However, such a chemical taxonomic approach has limitations of incomplete metabolomics data. We propose an approach for successfully classifying 216 plants based on their known incomplete metabolite content. Structurally similar metabolites have been clustered using the network clustering algorithm DPClus. Plants have been represented as binary vectors, implying relations with structurally similar metabolite groups, and classified using Ward’s method of hierarchical clustering. Despite incomplete data, the resulting plant clusters are consistent with the known evolutional relations of plants. This finding reveals the significance of metabolite content as a taxonomic marker. We also discuss the predictive power of metabolite content in exploring nutritional and medicinal properties in plants. As a byproduct of our analysis, we could predict some currently unknown species-metabolite relations.

  7. Food processing strategies to enhance phenolic compounds bioaccessibility and bioavailability in plant-based foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribas-Agustí, Albert; Martín-Belloso, Olga; Soliva-Fortuny, Robert; Elez-Martínez, Pedro

    2017-06-13

    Phenolic compounds are important constituents of plant-based foods, as their presence is related to protective effects on health. To exert their biological activity, phenolic compounds must be released from the matrix during digestion in an absorbable form (bioaccessible) and finally absorbed and transferred to the bloodstream (bioavailable). Chemical structure and matrix interactions are some food-related factors that hamper phenolic compounds bioaccessibility and bioavailability, and that can be counteracted by food processing. It has been shown that food processing can induce chemical or physical modifications in food that enhance phenolic compounds bioaccessibility and bioavailability. These changes include: (i) chemical modifications into more bioaccessible and bioavailable forms; (ii) cleavage of covalent or hydrogen bonds or hydrophobic forces that attach phenolic compounds to matrix macromolecules; (iii) damaging microstructural barriers such as cell walls that impede the release from the matrix; and (iv) create microstructures that protect phenolic compounds until they are absorbed. Indeed, food processing can produce degradation of phenolic compounds, however, it is possible to counteract it by modulating the operating conditions in favor of increased bioaccessibility and bioavailability. This review compiles the current knowledge on the effects of processing on phenolic compounds bioaccessibility or bioavailability, while suggesting new guidelines in the search of optimal processing conditions as a step forward towards the design of healthier foods.

  8. Plant-based antimicrobial studies--methods and approaches to study the interaction between natural products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Vuuren, Sandy; Viljoen, Alvaro

    2011-07-01

    The therapeutic value of synergistic interactions has been known since antiquity, and many different cultural healing systems still rely on this principle in the belief that combination therapy may enhance efficacy. This paper intends to provide an overview, from an antimicrobial perspective, on the research undertaken and interactive principles involved in pharmacognosy studies. Methods used to determine antimicrobial interactions include basic combination studies, the sum of the fractional inhibitory concentration index (ΣFIC), isobole interpretations, and death kinetic (time-kill) assays. The various interactions are discussed with reference to molecules, different plant parts or fractions, different plant species, and combinations with nonbotanical antimicrobial agents. It is recommended for future development in the field of phytosynergy that consideration should be given to the selection criteria for the two inhibitors. A more conservative approach should be adopted when classifying synergy. When examining interactions in plant-based studies, antagonistic interactions should not be ignored. Combinations involving more than two test samples should be examined where applicable, and very importantly, the mechanism of action of synergistic interactions should be given precedence. It is encouraging to observe the upsurge in papers exploring the complex interactions of medicinal plants, and undoubtedly this will become increasingly important in our continued quest to understand the mechanism of action of phytotherapy. The scientific validation of efficacious antimicrobial combinations could lead to patentable entities making research in the field of phytosynergy not only academically rewarding but also commercially relevant.

  9. RHIZOtest: A plant-based biotest to account for rhizosphere processes when assessing copper bioavailability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bravin, Matthieu N., E-mail: matthieu.bravin@cirad.f [INRA, UMR 1222 Eco and Sols (INRA-IRD-SupAgro), Place Viala, F-34060 Montpellier (France); Michaud, Aurelia M.; Larabi, Bourane; Hinsinger, Philippe [INRA, UMR 1222 Eco and Sols (INRA-IRD-SupAgro), Place Viala, F-34060 Montpellier (France)

    2010-10-15

    The ability of the free ion activity model (FIAM), the terrestrial biotic ligand model (TBLM), the diffusive gradients in thin films (DGT) technique and a plant-based biotest, the RHIZOtest, to predict root copper (Cu) concentration in field-grown durum wheat (Triticum turgidum durum L.) was assessed on 44 soils varying in pH (3.9-7.8) and total Cu (32-184 mg kg{sup -1}). None of the methods adequately predicted root Cu concentration, which was mainly correlated with total soil Cu. Results from DGT measurements and even more so FIAM prediction were negatively correlated with soil pH and over-estimated root Cu concentration in acidic soils. TBLM implementation improved numerically FIAM prediction but still failed to predict adequately root Cu concentration as the TBLM formalism did not considered the rhizosphere alkalisation as observed in situ. In contrast, RHIZOtest measurements accounted for rhizosphere alkalisation and were mainly correlated with total soil Cu. - In contrast with physico-chemical methods, RHIZOtest measurement accounted for the rhizosphere alkalisation altering Cu bioavailability to wheat as observed in situ.

  10. Modeling Textural Processes during Self-Assembly of Plant-Based Chiral-Nematic Liquid Crystals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yogesh K. Murugesan

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Biological liquid crystalline polymers are found in cellulosic, chitin, and DNA based natural materials. Chiral nematic liquid crystalline orientational order is observed frozen-in in the solid state in plant cell walls and is known as a liquid crystal analogue characterized by a helicoidal plywood architecture. The emergence of the plywood architecture by directed chiral nematic liquid crystalline self assembly has been postulated as the mechanism that leads to optimal cellulose fibril organization. In natural systems, tissue growth and development takes place in the presence of inclusions and secondary phases leaving behind characteristic defects and textures, which provide a unique testing ground for the validity of the liquid crystal self-assembly postulate. In this work, a mathematical model, based on the Landau-de Gennes theory of liquid crystals, is used to simulate defect textures arising in the domain of self assembly, due to presence of secondary phases representing plant cells, lumens and pit canals. It is shown that the obtained defect patterns observed in some plant cell walls are those expected from a truly liquid crystalline phase. The analysis reveals the nature and magnitude of the viscoelastic material parameters that lead to observed patterns in plant-based helicoids through directed self-assembly. In addition, the results provide new guidance to develop biomimetic plywoods for structural and functional applications.

  11. Novel Approach to Classify Plants Based on Metabolite-Content Similarity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Kang; Abdullah, Azian Azamimi; Huang, Ming; Nishioka, Takaaki; Altaf-Ul-Amin, Md; Kanaya, Shigehiko

    2017-01-01

    Secondary metabolites are bioactive substances with diverse chemical structures. Depending on the ecological environment within which they are living, higher plants use different combinations of secondary metabolites for adaptation (e.g., defense against attacks by herbivores or pathogenic microbes). This suggests that the similarity in metabolite content is applicable to assess phylogenic similarity of higher plants. However, such a chemical taxonomic approach has limitations of incomplete metabolomics data. We propose an approach for successfully classifying 216 plants based on their known incomplete metabolite content. Structurally similar metabolites have been clustered using the network clustering algorithm DPClus. Plants have been represented as binary vectors, implying relations with structurally similar metabolite groups, and classified using Ward's method of hierarchical clustering. Despite incomplete data, the resulting plant clusters are consistent with the known evolutional relations of plants. This finding reveals the significance of metabolite content as a taxonomic marker. We also discuss the predictive power of metabolite content in exploring nutritional and medicinal properties in plants. As a byproduct of our analysis, we could predict some currently unknown species-metabolite relations.

  12. Plant based cosmetics%源自植物的化妆品

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡静

    2011-01-01

    The green,environmental friendly plant based cosmetics,and the green cosmetic raw materials extracted from nature plants are related briefly.The skin care cosmetics based on plant shoots,the cosmetics based on collagen and the skin care products based on essential oil are introduced.Meanwhile,some healthy ideas for skin care,hair care,methods solving skin and hair problems at the source,and improving the skin care follow-up are also included here.%简要论述了体现绿色环保价值的化妆品,以及绿色化妆品原料的纯天然植物提取物。介绍了源自纯净植物嫩芽的护肤品、源自植物的胶原蛋白护肤品、源自植物的精油护肤品、护发品以及一些健康护肤理念,从根源上改善头发和肌肤问题,促进后续保养品的吸收。

  13. Pythium invasion of plant-based life support systems: biological control and sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, D. G.; Cook, K. L.; Garland, J. L.; Board, K. F.; Sager, J. C. (Principal Investigator)

    2000-01-01

    Invasion of plant-based life support systems by plant pathogens could cause plant disease and disruption of life support capability. Root rot caused by the fungus, Pythium, was observed during tests of prototype plant growth systems containing wheat at the Kennedy Space Center (KSC). We conducted experiments to determine if the presence of complex microbial communities in the plant root zone (rhizosphere) resisted invasion by the Pythium species isolated from the wheat root. Rhizosphere inocula of different complexity (as assayed by community-level physiological profile: CLPP) were developed using a dilution/extinction approach, followed by growth in hydroponic rhizosphere. Pythium growth on wheat roots and concomitant decreases in plant growth were inversely related to the complexity of the inocula during 20-day experiments in static hydroponic systems. Pythium was found on the seeds of several different wheat cultivars used in controlled environmental studies, but it is unclear if the seed-borne fungal strain(s) were identical to the pathogenic strain recovered from the KSC studies. Attempts to control pathogens and their effects in hydroponic life support systems should include early inoculation with complex microbial communities, which is consistent with ecological theory.

  14. Development and assessment of plant-based synthetic odor baits for surveillance and control of Malaria vectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recent malaria vector control measures have considerably reduced indoor biting mosquito populations. However, reducing the outdoor biting populations remains a challenge because of the unavailability of appropriate lures to achieve this. This study sought to test the efficacy of plant-based syntheti...

  15. Formulation of plant based Rainbow trout feeds on an Ideal Protein Basis can reduce total dietary protein

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fish meal has been a primary protein source in trout feeds and any changes that can reduce fish meal levels and total costs are beneficial. Replacing fish meal with plant protein is a first step, but amino acid content of plant based diets can be limiting. Amino acids are needed for many metabolic...

  16. Enhancing dissemination of Beauveria bassiana with host plant base incision trapfor the management of the banana weevil Cosmopolites sordidus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tinzaara, W.; Emudong, P.; Nankinga, C.; Tushemereirwe, W.; Kagezi, G.H.; Gold, C.S.; Dicke, M.; Huis, van A.; Karamura, E.

    2015-01-01

    The banana weevil, Cosmopolites sordidus (Germar) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) is an important pest of highland banana in East and central Africa. It causes yield loss of up to 100% in heavily infested fields. Studies were carried out in Uganda to evaluate the efficacy of the the plant base incision

  17. Hard Probes at ATLAS

    CERN Document Server

    Citron, Z; The ATLAS collaboration

    2014-01-01

    The ATLAS collaboration has measured several hard probe observables in Pb+Pb and p+Pb collisions at the LHC. These measurements include jets which show modification in the hot dense medium of heavy ion collisions as well as color neutral electro-weak bosons. Together, they elucidate the nature of heavy ion collisions.

  18. Endocavity Ultrasound Probe Manipulators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoianovici, Dan; Kim, Chunwoo; Schäfer, Felix; Huang, Chien-Ming; Zuo, Yihe; Petrisor, Doru; Han, Misop

    2013-06-01

    We developed two similar structure manipulators for medical endocavity ultrasound probes with 3 and 4 degrees of freedom (DoF). These robots allow scanning with ultrasound for 3-D imaging and enable robot-assisted image-guided procedures. Both robots use remote center of motion kinematics, characteristic of medical robots. The 4-DoF robot provides unrestricted manipulation of the endocavity probe. With the 3-DoF robot the insertion motion of the probe must be adjusted manually, but the device is simpler and may also be used to manipulate external-body probes. The robots enabled a novel surgical approach of using intraoperative image-based navigation during robot-assisted laparoscopic prostatectomy (RALP), performed with concurrent use of two robotic systems (Tandem, T-RALP). Thus far, a clinical trial for evaluation of safety and feasibility has been performed successfully on 46 patients. This paper describes the architecture and design of the robots, the two prototypes, control features related to safety, preclinical experiments, and the T-RALP procedure.

  19. One-Probe Search

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Östlin, Anna; Pagh, Rasmus

    2002-01-01

    We consider dictionaries that perform lookups by probing a single word of memory, knowing only the size of the data structure. We describe a randomized dictionary where a lookup returns the correct answer with probability 1 - e, and otherwise returns don't know. The lookup procedure uses an expan...

  20. Probing the Solar System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, John

    2013-01-01

    Humans have always had the vision to one day live on other planets. This vision existed even before the first person was put into orbit. Since the early space missions of putting humans into orbit around Earth, many advances have been made in space technology. We have now sent many space probes deep into the Solar system to explore the planets and…

  1. One-Probe Search

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Östlin, Anna; Pagh, Rasmus

    2002-01-01

    We consider dictionaries that perform lookups by probing a single word of memory, knowing only the size of the data structure. We describe a randomized dictionary where a lookup returns the correct answer with probability 1 - e, and otherwise returns don't know. The lookup procedure uses an expan...

  2. Probing the Solar System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, John

    2013-01-01

    Humans have always had the vision to one day live on other planets. This vision existed even before the first person was put into orbit. Since the early space missions of putting humans into orbit around Earth, many advances have been made in space technology. We have now sent many space probes deep into the Solar system to explore the planets and…

  3. Increasing Plant Based Foods or Dairy Foods Differentially Affects Nutrient Intakes: Dietary Scenarios Using NHANES 2007-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cifelli, Christopher J; Houchins, Jenny A; Demmer, Elieke; Fulgoni, Victor L

    2016-07-11

    Diets rich in plant foods and lower in animal-based products have garnered increased attention among researchers, dietitians and health professionals in recent years for their potential to, not only improve health, but also to lessen the environmental impact. However, the potential effects of increasing plant-based foods at the expense of animal-based foods on macro- and micronutrient nutrient adequacy in the U.S. diet is unknown. In addition, dairy foods are consistently under consumed, thus the impact of increased dairy on nutrient adequacy is important to measure. Accordingly, the objective of this study was to use national survey data to model three different dietary scenarios to assess the effects of increasing plant-based foods or dairy foods on macronutrient intake and nutrient adequacy. Data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2007-2010 for persons two years and older (n = 17,387) were used in all the analyses. Comparisons were made of usual intake of macronutrients and shortfall nutrients of three dietary scenarios that increased intakes by 100%: (i) plant-based foods; (ii) protein-rich plant-based foods (i.e., legumes, nuts, seeds, soy); and (iii) milk, cheese and yogurt. Scenarios (i) and (ii) had commensurate reductions in animal product intake. In both children (2-18 years) and adults (≥19 years), the percent not meeting the Estimated Average Requirement (EAR) decreased for vitamin C, magnesium, vitamin E, folate and iron when plant-based foods were increased. However the percent not meeting the EAR increased for calcium, protein, vitamin A, and vitamin D in this scenario. Doubling protein-rich plant-based foods had no effect on nutrient intake because they were consumed in very low quantities in the baseline diet. The dairy model reduced the percent not meeting the EAR for calcium, vitamin A, vitamin D, magnesium, and protein, while sodium and saturated fat levels increased. Our modeling shows that increasing plant-based

  4. Increasing Plant Based Foods or Dairy Foods Differentially Affects Nutrient Intakes: Dietary Scenarios Using NHANES 2007–2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher J. Cifelli

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Diets rich in plant foods and lower in animal-based products have garnered increased attention among researchers, dietitians and health professionals in recent years for their potential to, not only improve health, but also to lessen the environmental impact. However, the potential effects of increasing plant-based foods at the expense of animal-based foods on macro- and micronutrient nutrient adequacy in the U.S. diet is unknown. In addition, dairy foods are consistently under consumed, thus the impact of increased dairy on nutrient adequacy is important to measure. Accordingly, the objective of this study was to use national survey data to model three different dietary scenarios to assess the effects of increasing plant-based foods or dairy foods on macronutrient intake and nutrient adequacy. Data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES 2007–2010 for persons two years and older (n = 17,387 were used in all the analyses. Comparisons were made of usual intake of macronutrients and shortfall nutrients of three dietary scenarios that increased intakes by 100%: (i plant-based foods; (ii protein-rich plant-based foods (i.e., legumes, nuts, seeds, soy; and (iii milk, cheese and yogurt. Scenarios (i and (ii had commensurate reductions in animal product intake. In both children (2–18 years and adults (≥19 years, the percent not meeting the Estimated Average Requirement (EAR decreased for vitamin C, magnesium, vitamin E, folate and iron when plant-based foods were increased. However the percent not meeting the EAR increased for calcium, protein, vitamin A, and vitamin D in this scenario. Doubling protein-rich plant-based foods had no effect on nutrient intake because they were consumed in very low quantities in the baseline diet. The dairy model reduced the percent not meeting the EAR for calcium, vitamin A, vitamin D, magnesium, and protein, while sodium and saturated fat levels increased. Our modeling shows that

  5. Zinc bioavailability in rats fed a plant-based diet: a study of fermentation and zinc supplementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia E. Lazarte

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Zinc deficiency is a significant problem, in developing countries and in vegetarians, which can be caused by plant-based diets. Thus, dietary strategies, such as fermentation, to improve zinc bioavailability of diets should be investigated. Objective: To improve zinc bioavailability in a plant-based diet by the inclusion of fermented food. Design: Cassava tubers were fermented and made to replace the unfermented cassava in a basal plant-based diet, and compared with plant-based diets with and without zinc supplement. The zinc bioavailability of the diets was evaluated in Wistar rats that were fed these diets for 28 days. The evaluation was for zinc apparent absorption (ZnAA, serum zinc levels, and zinc deposits in liver and femur; in addition, the feed efficiency ratio (FER of the diets and femur weight (FW of the rats were evaluated. Results: During the cassava fermentation, lactic acid increased and pH decreased (from 6.8 to 3.9, which is favorable for native phytase activity, resulting in a 90.2% reduction of phytate content in cassava. The diet containing fermented cassava showed significantly higher levels of ZnAA, FER, and FW (p<0.001. Moreover, the zinc levels in serum and femur were significantly higher (p<0.001 compared with the results of the diet with unfermented cassava. The results clearly show a higher zinc bioavailability in the diet containing fermented cassava and are comparable with the results obtained with the plant-based diet with zinc supplement. Conclusions: In conclusion, the fermentation of cassava reduces the phytate content. The diet containing the fermented cassava represents a better nutritional alternative than the diet with unfermented cassava and is comparable with the zinc-supplemented diets.

  6. EDITORIAL: Probing the nanoworld Probing the nanoworld

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miles, Mervyn

    2009-10-01

    In nanotechnology, it is the unique properties arising from nanometre-scale structures that lead not only to their technological importance but also to a better understanding of the underlying science. Over the last twenty years, material properties at the nanoscale have been dominated by the properties of carbon in the form of the C60 molecule, single- and multi-wall carbon nanotubes, nanodiamonds, and recently graphene. During this period, research published in the journal Nanotechnology has revealed the amazing mechanical properties of such materials as well as their remarkable electronic properties with the promise of new devices. Furthermore, nanoparticles, nanotubes, nanorods, and nanowires from metals and dielectrics have been characterized for their electronic, mechanical, optical, chemical and catalytic properties. Scanning probe microscopy (SPM) has become the main characterization technique and atomic force microscopy (AFM) the most frequently used SPM. Over the past twenty years, SPM techniques that were previously experimental in nature have become routine. At the same time, investigations using AFM continue to yield impressive results that demonstrate the great potential of this powerful imaging tool, particularly in close to physiological conditions. In this special issue a collaboration of researchers in Europe report the use of AFM to provide high-resolution topographical images of individual carbon nanotubes immobilized on various biological membranes, including a nuclear membrane for the first time (Lamprecht C et al 2009 Nanotechnology 20 434001). Other SPM developments such as high-speed AFM appear to be making a transition from specialist laboratories to the mainstream, and perhaps the same may be said for non-contact AFM. Looking to the future, characterisation techniques involving SPM and spectroscopy, such as tip-enhanced Raman spectroscopy, could emerge as everyday methods. In all these advanced techniques, routinely available probes will

  7. Microfluidics for Positron Emission Tomography Probe Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-Wei Wang

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Owing to increased needs for positron emission tomography (PET, high demands for a wide variety of radiolabeled compounds will have to be met by exploiting novel radiochemistry and engineering technologies to improve the production and development of PET probes. The application of microfluidic reactors to perform radiosyntheses is currently attracting a great deal of interest because of their potential to deliver many advantages over conventional labeling systems. Microfluidics-based radiochemistry can lead to the use of smaller quantities of precursors, accelerated reaction rates, and easier purification processes with greater yield and higher specific activity of desired probes. Several proof-of-principle examples along with the basics of device architecture and operation and the potential limitations of each design are discussed. Along with the concept of radioisotope distribution from centralized cyclotron facilities to individual imaging centers and laboratories (“decentralized model”, an easy-to-use, stand-alone, flexible, fully automated, radiochemical microfluidic platform can provide simpler and more cost-effective procedures for molecular imaging using PET.

  8. Invited Review Article: Pump-probe microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fischer, Martin C., E-mail: Martin.Fischer@duke.edu; Wilson, Jesse W.; Robles, Francisco E. [Department of Chemistry, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina 27708 (United States); Warren, Warren S. [Departments of Chemistry, Biomedical Engineering, Physics, and Radiology, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina 27708 (United States)

    2016-03-15

    Multiphoton microscopy has rapidly gained popularity in biomedical imaging and materials science because of its ability to provide three-dimensional images at high spatial and temporal resolution even in optically scattering environments. Currently the majority of commercial and home-built devices are based on two-photon fluorescence and harmonic generation contrast. These two contrast mechanisms are relatively easy to measure but can access only a limited range of endogenous targets. Recent developments in fast laser pulse generation, pulse shaping, and detection technology have made accessible a wide range of optical contrasts that utilize multiple pulses of different colors. Molecular excitation with multiple pulses offers a large number of adjustable parameters. For example, in two-pulse pump-probe microscopy, one can vary the wavelength of each excitation pulse, the detection wavelength, the timing between the excitation pulses, and the detection gating window after excitation. Such a large parameter space can provide much greater molecular specificity than existing single-color techniques and allow for structural and functional imaging without the need for exogenous dyes and labels, which might interfere with the system under study. In this review, we provide a tutorial overview, covering principles of pump-probe microscopy and experimental setup, challenges associated with signal detection and data processing, and an overview of applications.

  9. Identification of Ornamental Plant Functioned as Medicinal Plant Based on Redundant Discrete Wavelet Transformation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kohei Arai

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Human has a duty to preserve the nature. One of the examples is preserving the ornamental plant. Huge economic value of plant trading, escalating esthetical value of one space and medicine efficacy that contained in a plant are some positive values from this plant. However, only few people know about its medicine efficacy. Considering the easiness to obtain and the medicine efficacy, this plant should be an initial treatment of a simple disease or option towards chemical based medicines. In order to let people get acquaint, we need a system that can proper identify this plant. Therefore, we propose to build a system based on Redundant Discrete Wavelet Transformation (RDWT through its leaf. Since its character is translation invariant that able to produce some robust features to identify ornamental plant. This system was successfully resulting 95.83% of correct classification rate.

  10. Low-fat, plant-based diet in multiple sclerosis: A randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Vijayshree; Marracci, Gail; Kim, Edward; Spain, Rebecca; Cameron, Michelle; Overs, Shannon; Riddehough, Andrew; Li, David K B; McDougall, John; Lovera, Jesus; Murchison, Charles; Bourdette, Dennis

    2016-09-01

    The role that dietary interventions can play in multiple sclerosis (MS) management is of huge interest amongst patients and researchers but data evaluating this is limited. Possible effects of a very-low-fat, plant-based dietary intervention on MS related progression and disease activity as measured by brain imaging and MS related symptoms have not been evaluated in a randomized-controlled trial. Despite use of disease modifying therapies (DMT), poor quality of life (QOL) in MS patients can be a significant problem with fatigue being one of the common disabling symptoms. Effective treatment options for fatigue remain limited. Emerging evidence suggests diet and vascular risk factors including obesity and hyperlipidemia may influence MS disease progression and improve QOL. To evaluate adherence, safety and effects of a very-low-fat, plant-based diet (Diet) on brain MRI, clinical [MS relapses and disability, body mass index (BMI)] and metabolic (blood lipids and insulin) outcomes, QOL [Short Form-36 (SF-36)], and fatigue [Fatigue Severity Scale (FSS) and Modified Fatigue Impact Scale (MFIS)], in relapsing-remitting MS (RRMS). This was a randomized-controlled, assessor-blinded, one-year long study with 61 participants assigned to either Diet (N=32) or wait-listed (Control, N=29) group. The mean age (years) [Control-40.9±8.48; Diet-40.8±8.86] and the mean disease duration (years) [Control -5.3±3.86; Diet-5.33±3.63] were comparable between the two groups. There was a slight difference between the two study groups in the baseline mean expanded disability status scale (EDSS) score [Control-2.22±0.90; Diet-2.72±1.05]. Eight subjects withdrew (Diet, N=6; Control, N=2). Adherence to the study diet based on monthly Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ) was excellent with the diet group showing significant difference in the total fat caloric intake compared to the control group [total fat intake/total calories averaged ~15% (Diet) versus ~40% (Control)]. The two groups

  11. New Database Manipulation Tools in the Easy-Learning On-Line Platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radescu, Radu; Davidescu, Andrei; Pupezescu, Valentin

    2011-01-01

    The present paper deals with the new ORM (object-relational mapping) tool introduced in the easy-learning platform. Propel 1.5 is the latest version of Propel, one of the ORMs fully compatible with the Symfony framework, and in comparison with the older versions and it has drastically improved the way the easy-learning platform can manipulate its…

  12. Idea on saanud jala EASi ukse vahele / Ralf-Martin Soe

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Soe, Ralf-Martin

    2007-01-01

    2006. aasta lõpus ostis EAS 700 000 krooni eest reklaamibüroo Idea AD teenuseid. EAS-i partneriks sai Idea 2004. aastal, kui ta ootamatult tõusis reklaamikampaania riigihanke võitnud Tanki kõrvale. Diagramm: EAS-i suurematele partneritele makstud koondsummad

  13. Easy Information about Research: Getting the Message out to People with Learning Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodwin, Julian; Mason, Victoria; Williams, Val; Townsley, Ruth

    2015-01-01

    This paper discusses the provision of easy information about research to people with learning disabilities, their families and supporters. We explore some different ways we have used over the past 25 years, to make sure that research has the greatest impact both in the UK and abroad. We discuss first the process of providing easy-read versions of…

  14. Easy Ergonomics: A Guide to Selecting Non-Powered Hand Tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Easy Ergonomics: A Guide to Selecting Non-Powered Hand Tools Department of Industrial Relations Cal/OSHA Consultation Service Research ... puborder.asp http://www.cdc.gov/niosh Easy Ergonomics: A Guide to Selecting Non-Powered Hand Tools ...

  15. easyCBM[R] Mathematics Criterion Related Validity Evidence: Washington State Test. Technical Report #1010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Daniel; Alonzo, Julie; Tindal, Gerald

    2010-01-01

    easyCBM[R] is an online benchmark and progress monitoring assessment system designed for use within a response to intervention (RTI) framework. Part of the purpose of easyCBM[R] is to help educators identify students who may be at risk for failure. Often, students deemed at-risk are those who would be predicted to not pass the state test. Previous…

  16. Idea on saanud jala EASi ukse vahele / Ralf-Martin Soe

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Soe, Ralf-Martin

    2007-01-01

    2006. aasta lõpus ostis EAS 700 000 krooni eest reklaamibüroo Idea AD teenuseid. EAS-i partneriks sai Idea 2004. aastal, kui ta ootamatult tõusis reklaamikampaania riigihanke võitnud Tanki kõrvale. Diagramm: EAS-i suurematele partneritele makstud koondsummad

  17. Plant-based medicines for anxiety disorders, Part 1: a review of preclinical studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarris, Jerome; McIntyre, Erica; Camfield, David A

    2013-03-01

    Research in the area of herbal psychopharmacology has revealed a variety of promising medicines that may provide benefit in the treatment of general anxiety and specific anxiety disorders. However, a comprehensive review of plant-based anxiolytics has been absent to date. This article (part 1) reviews herbal medicines for which only preclinical investigations for anxiolytic activity have been performed. In part 2, we review herbal medicines for which there have been clinical investigations for anxiolytic activity. An open-ended, language-restricted (English) search of MEDLINE (PubMed), CINAHL, Scopus and the Cochrane Library databases was conducted (up to 28 October 2012) using specific search criteria to identify herbal medicines that have been investigated for anxiolytic activity. This search of the literature revealed 1,525 papers, from which 53 herbal medicines were included in the full review (having at least one study using the whole plant extract). Of these plants, 21 had human clinical trial evidence (reviewed in part 2), with another 32 having solely preclinical studies (reviewed here in part 1). Preclinical evidence of anxiolytic activity (without human clinical trials) was found for Albizia julibrissin, Sonchus oleraceus, Uncaria rhynchophylla, Stachys lavandulifolia, Cecropia glazioui, Magnolia spp., Eschscholzia californica, Erythrina spp., Annona spp., Rubus brasiliensis, Apocynum venetum, Nauclea latifolia, Equisetum arvense, Tilia spp., Securidaca longepedunculata, Achillea millefolium, Leea indica, Juncus effusus, Coriandrum sativum, Eurycoma longifolia, Turnera diffusa, Euphorbia hirta, Justicia spp., Crocus sativus, Aloysia polystachya, Albies pindrow, Casimiroa edulis, Davilla rugosa, Gastrodia elata, Sphaerathus indicus, Zizyphus jujuba and Panax ginseng. Common mechanisms of action for the majority of botanicals reviewed primarily involve GABA, either via direct receptor binding or ionic channel or cell membrane modulation; GABA transaminase

  18. Thermal and refining processes, not fermentation, tend to reduce lipotropic capacity of plant-based foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fardet, Anthony; Martin, Jean-François; Chardigny, Jean-Michel

    2011-08-01

    Plant-based foods (PBF) are relevant and diversified sources of lipotropes, which are compounds preventing excess hepatic fat deposits. In a first study, we defined the lipotropic capacity (LC, %) of raw PBF as the means of 8 lipotrope densities (LD, mg/100 kcal), each expressed relative to that of a reference food ranking the highest considering its mean 8 LD ranks (LC(raw asparagus)=100%) (A. Fardet, J.-F. Martin and J. M. Chardigny, J. Food Comp. Anal., 2011, DOI: 10.1016/j.jfca.2011.1003.1013). We showed that vegetables appeared as the best source of lipotropes on a 100 kcal-basis compared to legumes, cereals, fruits and nuts. The main objective of this second study was to quantify the effect of processing on LD and LC of raw PBF based on lipotrope contents collected in a USDA (United State Department of Agriculture) database and the literature, i.e. betaine, choline, myo-inositol, methionine, magnesium, niacin, pantothenic acid and folate contents. Choline and betaine densities were not significantly affected by processing while methionine and lipotropic micronutrient densities were significantly decreased, especially for magnesium, pantothenate and folates. Myo-inositol density decreases were insignificant due to lower product number resulting from limited literature data. Lipotropic micronutrient densities were more affected by processing than other densities. Fermentations increased betaine (median change of +32%) and choline (+34%) densities. Canning and boiling vegetables increased choline densities (+26%). Globally, processing significantly reduced LC by ∼20%, fermentations being less drastic (median change of -5%) than refining (-33%) and thermal treatments (-16%). More specifically, canning increased LC of beetroot (536 vs 390%) and common bean (40 vs 36%) as fermentation towards LC grape (14 vs 7% for wine). Results were then mainly discussed based on percentages of lipotrope content changes on a dry-weight basis. Results of this study also showed

  19. Calibration Fixture For Anemometer Probes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Charles R.; Nagel, Robert T.

    1993-01-01

    Fixture facilitates calibration of three-dimensional sideflow thermal anemometer probes. With fixture, probe oriented at number of angles throughout its design range. Readings calibrated as function of orientation in airflow. Calibration repeatable and verifiable.

  20. Preparation and Easy-Cleaning Property of Rare Earth Composite Ceramic

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Rare earth and far-infrared mineral composite materials were added to ceramic glazes to prepare easy-cleaning ceramic. The morphology of easy-cleaning ceramic was observed by SEM. The influence of easy-cleaning ceramic on water surface tension and contact angles of water were investigated. Through calculation of ceramic surface free energy and observation of oil drop on ceramic surface in water, the easy-cleaning mechanism of rare earth composite ceramic was studied. It is found that the rare earth composite ceramic can make water surface tension decrease. The surface free energy and the polar component of rare earth composite ceramic are increased. The rare earth composite ceramics have the easy-cleaning property.

  1. Kinetic viability assays using DRAQ7 probe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wlodkowic, Donald; Akagi, Jin; Dobrucki, Jurek; Errington, Rachel; Smith, Paul J; Takeda, Kazuo; Darzynkiewicz, Zbigniew

    2013-07-01

    Cell death within cell populations is a stochastic process where cell-to-cell variation in temporal progression through the various stages of cell death arises from asynchrony of subtle fluctuations in the signaling pathways. Most cell death assays rely on detection of the specific marker of cell demise at the end-point of cell culturing. Such an approach cannot account for the asynchrony and the stochastic nature of cell response to the death-inducing signal. There is a need therefore for rapid and high-throughput bioassays capable of continuously tracking viability of individual cells from the time of encountering a stress signal up to final stages of their demise. In this context, a new anthracycline derivative, DRAQ7, is gaining increasing interest as an easy-to-use marker capable of long-term monitoring of cell death in real-time. This novel probe neither penetrates the plasma membrane of living cells nor does it affect the cells' susceptibility to the death-inducing agents. However, when the membrane integrity is compromised, DRAQ7 enters cells undergoing demise and binds readily to nuclear DNA to report cell death. Here, we provide three sets of protocols for viability assays using DRAQ7 probe. The first protocol describes the innovative use of single-color DRAQ7 real-time assay to dynamically track cell viability. The second protocol outlines a simplified end-point DRAQ7 staining approach. The final protocol highlights the real-time and multiparametric apoptosis assay utilizing DRAQ7 dye concurrently with tetramethylrhodamine methyl ester (TMRM), the mitochondrial trans-membrane electrochemical potential (ΔΨm) sensing probe.

  2. Probing properties of cold radiofrequency plasma with polymer probe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bormashenko, E.; Chaniel, G.; Multanen, V.

    2015-01-01

    The probe intended for the characterization of cold plasma is introduced. The probe allows the estimation of Debye length of cold plasma. The probe is based on the pronounced modification of surface properties (wettability) of polymer films by cold plasmas. The probe was tested with the cold radiofrequency inductive air plasma discharge. The Debye length and the concentration of charge carriers were estimated for various gas pressures. The reported results coincide reasonably with the corresponding values established by other methods. The probe makes possible measurement of characteristics of cold plasmas in closed chambers.

  3. Probing Properties of Cold Radiofrequency Plasma with Polymer Probe

    CERN Document Server

    Bormashenko, Edward; Multanen, Victor

    2014-01-01

    The probe intended for the characterization of cold plasma is introduced. The probe allows estimation of the Debye length of the cold plasma. The probe is based on the pronounced modification of surface properties (wettability) of polymer films by cold plasmas. The probe was tested with the cold radiofrequency inductive air plasma discharge. The Debye length and the concentration of charge carriers were estimated for various gas pressures. The reported results coincide reasonably with the corresponding values established by other methods. The probe makes possible measurement of characteristics of cold plasmas in closed chambers.

  4. Phoenix Conductivity Probe

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    This image taken by the Surface Stereo Imager on Sol 49, or the 49th Martian day of the mission (July 14, 2008), shows thermal and electrical conductivity probe on NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander's Robotic Arm. The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is led by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  5. Atom probe tomography today

    OpenAIRE

    Alfred Cerezo; Peter H. Clifton; Mark J. Galtrey; Humphreys, Colin J.; Kelly, Thomas. F.; David J. Larson; Sergio Lozano-Perez; Marquis, Emmanuelle A.; Oliver, Rachel A.; Gang Sha; Keith Thompson; Mathijs Zandbergen; Roger L. Alvis

    2007-01-01

    This review aims to describe and illustrate the advances in the application of atom probe tomography that have been made possible by recent developments, particularly in specimen preparation techniques (using dual-beam focused-ion beam instruments) but also of the more routine use of laser pulsing. The combination of these two developments now permits atomic-scale investigation of site-specific regions within engineering alloys (e.g. at grain boundaries and in the vicinity of cracks) and also...

  6. Einstein Inflationary Probe (EIP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinshaw, Gary

    2004-01-01

    I will discuss plans to develop a concept for the Einstein Inflation Probe: a mission to detect gravity waves from inflation via the unique signature they impart to the cosmic microwave background (CMB) polarization. A sensitive CMB polarization satellite may be the only way to probe physics at the grand-unified theory (GUT) scale, exceeding by 12 orders of magnitude the energies studied at the Large Hadron Collider. A detection of gravity waves would represent a remarkable confirmation of the inflationary paradigm and set the energy scale at which inflation occurred when the universe was a fraction of a second old. Even a strong upper limit to the gravity wave amplitude would be significant, ruling out many common models of inflation, and pointing to inflation occurring at much lower energy, if at all. Measuring gravity waves via the CMB polarization will be challenging. We will undertake a comprehensive study to identify the critical scientific requirements for the mission and their derived instrumental performance requirements. At the core of the study will be an assessment of what is scientifically and experimentally optimal within the scope and purpose of the Einstein Inflation Probe.

  7. Nanoscale thermal probing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanan Yue

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Nanoscale novel devices have raised the demand for nanoscale thermal characterization that is critical for evaluating the device performance and durability. Achieving nanoscale spatial resolution and high accuracy in temperature measurement is very challenging due to the limitation of measurement pathways. In this review, we discuss four methodologies currently developed in nanoscale surface imaging and temperature measurement. To overcome the restriction of the conventional methods, the scanning thermal microscopy technique is widely used. From the perspective of measuring target, the optical feature size method can be applied by using either Raman or fluorescence thermometry. The near-field optical method that measures nanoscale temperature by focusing the optical field to a nano-sized region provides a non-contact and non-destructive way for nanoscale thermal probing. Although the resistance thermometry based on nano-sized thermal sensors is possible for nanoscale thermal probing, significant effort is still needed to reduce the size of the current sensors by using advanced fabrication techniques. At the same time, the development of nanoscale imaging techniques, such as fluorescence imaging, provides a great potential solution to resolve the nanoscale thermal probing problem.

  8. Nine New Fluorescent Probes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Tsung-I.; Jovanovic, Misa V.; Dowben, Robert M.

    1989-06-01

    Absorption and fluorescence spectroscopic studies are reported here for nine new fluorescent probes recently synthesized in our laboratories: four pyrene derivatives with substituents of (i) 1,3-diacetoxy-6,8-dichlorosulfonyl, (ii) 1,3-dihydroxy-6,8-disodiumsulfonate, (iii) 1,3-disodiumsulfonate, and (iv) l-ethoxy-3,6,8-trisodiumsulfonate groups, and five [7-julolidino] coumarin derivatives with substituents of (v) 3-carboxylate-4-methyl, (vi) 3- methylcarboxylate, (vii) 3-acetate-4-methyl, (viii) 3-propionate-4-methyl, and (ix) 3-sulfonate-4-methyl groups. Pyrene compounds i and ii and coumarin compounds v and vi exhibit interesting absorbance and fluorescence properties: their absorption maxima are red shifted compared to the parent compound to the blue-green region, and the band width broadens considerably. All four blue-absorbing dyes fluoresce intensely in the green region, and the two pyrene compounds emit at such long wavelengths without formation of excimers. The fluorescence properties of these compounds are quite environment-sensitive: considerable spectral shifts and fluorescence intensity changes have been observed in the pH range from 3 to 10 and in a wide variety of polar and hydrophobic solvents with vastly different dielectric constants. The high extinction and fluorescence quantum yield of these probes make them ideal fluorescent labeling reagents for proteins, antibodies, nucleic acids, and cellular organelles. The pH and hydrophobicity-dependent fluorescence changes can be utilized as optical pH and/or hydrophobicity indicators for mapping environmental difference in various cellular components in a single cell. Since all nine probes absorb in the UV, but emit at different wavelengths in the visible, these two groups of compounds offer an advantage of utilizing a single monochromatic light source (e.g., a nitrogen laser) to achieve multi-wavelength detection for flow cytometry application. As a first step to explore potential application in

  9. Impact of high-intensity pulsed electric fields on bioactive compounds in Mediterranean plant-based foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elez-Martínez, Pedro; Soliva-Fortuny, Robert; Martín-Belloso, Olga

    2009-05-01

    Novel non-thermal processing technologies such as high-intensity pulsed electric field (HIPEF) treatments may be applied to pasteurize plant-based liquid foods as an alternative to conventional heat treatments. In recent years, there has been an increasing interest in HIPEF as a way of preserving and extending the shelf-life of liquid products without the quality damage caused by heat treatments. However, less attention has been paid to the effects of HIPEF on minor constituents of these products, namely bioactive compounds. This review is a state-of-the-art update on the effects of HIPEF treatments on health-related compounds in plants of the Mediterranean diet such as fruit juices, and Spanish gazpacho. The relevance of HIPEF-processing parameters on retaining plant-based bioactive compounds will be discussed.

  10. Transgênicos - Plantas Produtoras de Fármacos (PPF Trangenics - Plant-Based Drugs (PBD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele Rachidi da Rocha

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available As Plantas Produtoras de Fármacos (PPF representam a 4ª onda de vegetais geneticamente modificados. Neste caso, com a tecnologia sendo empregada para desenvolver e produzir vacinas e/ou produtos farmacêuticos, a partir de plantas transgênicas. Esta tecnologia, como todas as inovações científicas, vem acompanhada de riscos. Porém, o conhecimento atual disponível sobre seu uso não permite ainda conclusões definitivas sobre o caráter dos riscos, sua significância e sua probabilidade de causar, ou não, sérios danos. A análise de risco deve servir de base para a implementação de inovações tecnocientíficas. Os parâmetros devem ser avaliados, precauções especiais devem ser tomadas, a pesquisa deve ser conduzida de forma detalhada e também precisa ter amplo alcance quanto aos riscos potenciais por ser uma inovação. O presente artigo revisou a aplicabilidade desta nova tecnologia com relação ao gerenciamento do risco e a uma contenção que vise a segurança de uso, a manipulação e o comércio para os seres humanos.Plant-Based Drugs - PBD - represent the 4th generation of genetically-modified plants and in this case the technology is used to develop and produce pharmaceuticals vaccines and/or products from transgenic seeds. This technology, like all scientific innovations, has inherent risks. However, the current knowledge available about the use of this technology means that no firm conclusions can be drawn about the nature of the risks involved, as well as their significance and the likelihood of causing serious damage or not. Risk analysis should be the starting premise prior to any implementation of techno-scientific innovations. The parameters must be evaluated and precautions taken and research must be conducted in a detailed and broad-ranging manner with respect to the potential risks of any innovation. This article analyzed the applicability of this new technology, as well as risk management and containment in order

  11. Development of Mackintosh Probe Extractor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Noor Khazanah A.; Kaamin, Masiri; Suwandi, Amir Khan; Sahat, Suhaila; Jahaya Kesot, Mohd

    2016-11-01

    Dynamic probing is a continuous soil investigation technique, which is one of the simplest soil penetration test. It basically consist of repeatedly driving a metal tipped probe into the ground using a drop weight of fixed mass and travel. Testing was carried out continuously from ground level to the final penetration depth. Once the soil investigation work done, it is difficult to pull out the probe rod from the ground, due to strong soil structure grip against probe cone and prevent the probe rod out from the ground. Thus, in this case, a tool named Extracting Probe was created to assist in the process of retracting the probe rod from the ground. In addition, Extracting Probe also can reduce the time to extract the probe rod from the ground compare with the conventional method. At the same time, it also can reduce manpower cost because only one worker involve to handle this tool compare with conventional method used two or more workers. From experiment that have been done we found that the time difference between conventional tools and extracting probe is significant, average time difference is 155 minutes. In addition the extracting probe can reduce manpower usage, and also labour cost for operating the tool. With all these advantages makes this tool has the potential to be marketed.

  12. Plant-based culture media: Efficiently support culturing rhizobacteria and correctly mirror their in-situ diversity

    OpenAIRE

    Youssef, Hanan H.; Hamza, Mervat A.; Fayez, Mohamed; Mourad, Elhussein F.; Saleh, Mohamed Y.; Sarhan, Mohamed S.; Suker, Ragab M.; Eltahlawy, Asmaa A.; Nemr, Rahma A.; El-Tahan, Mahmod; Ruppel, Silke; Hegazi, Nabil A.

    2015-01-01

    Our previous publications and the data presented here provide evidences on the ability of plant-based culture media to optimize the cultivability of rhizobacteria and to support their recovery from plant-soil environments. Compared to the tested chemically-synthetic culture media (e.g. nutrient agar and N-deficient combined-carbon sources media), slurry homogenates, crude saps, juices and powders of cactus (Opuntia ficus-indica) and succulent plants (Aloe vera and Aloe arborescens) were rich ...

  13. Pre-historic eating patterns in Latin America and protective effects of plant-based diets on cardiovascular risk factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio C. Acosta Navarro

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In this review, we present the contributions to nutrition science from Latin American native peoples and scientists, appreciated from a historic point of view since pre-historic times to the modern age. Additionally, we present epidemiological and clinical studies on the area of plant-based diets and their relation with the prevention and treatment of cardiovascular diseases conducted in recent decades, and we discuss challenges and perspectives regarding aspects of nutrition in the region

  14. Probe-based data storage

    CERN Document Server

    Koelmans, Wabe W; Abelmann, L

    2015-01-01

    Probe-based data storage attracted many researchers from academia and industry, resulting in unprecendeted high data-density demonstrations. This topical review gives a comprehensive overview of the main contributions that led to the major accomplishments in probe-based data storage. The most investigated technologies are reviewed: topographic, phase-change, magnetic, ferroelectric and atomic and molecular storage. Also, the positioning of probes and recording media, the cantilever arrays and parallel readout of the arrays of cantilevers are discussed. This overview serves two purposes. First, it provides an overview for new researchers entering the field of probe storage, as probe storage seems to be the only way to achieve data storage at atomic densities. Secondly, there is an enormous wealth of invaluable findings that can also be applied to many other fields of nanoscale research such as probe-based nanolithography, 3D nanopatterning, solid-state memory technologies and ultrafast probe microscopy.

  15. Mycotoxins in Plant-Based Dietary Supplements: Hidden Health Risk for Consumers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veprikova, Zdenka; Zachariasova, Milena; Dzuman, Zbynek; Zachariasova, Alena; Fenclova, Marie; Slavikova, Petra; Vaclavikova, Marta; Mastovska, Katerina; Hengst, Daniel; Hajslova, Jana

    2015-07-29

    Mycotoxin contamination of dietary supplements represents a possible risk for human health, especially in the case of products intended for people suffering from certain health conditions. The aim of this study was to assess the extent of this problem based on analyses of a wide set of herbal-based dietary supplements intended for various purposes: (i) treatment of liver diseases (milk thistle); (ii) reduction of menopause effects (red clover, flax seed, and soy); and (iii) preparations for general health support (green barley, nettle, goji berries, yucca, etc.) The analytical method including 57 mycotoxins was based on a QuEChERS-like (quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, safe) approach and ultrahigh performance liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry. The main mycotoxins determined were Fusarium trichothecenes, zearalenone and enniatins, and Alternaria mycotoxins. Co-occurrence of enniatins, HT-2/T-2 toxins, and Alternaria toxins was observed in many cases. The highest mycotoxin concentrations were found in milk thistle-based supplements (up to 37 mg/kg in the sum).

  16. Design of a requirements system for decommissioning of a nuclear power plant based on systems engineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Hee Seong; Park, Seung Kook; Jin, Hyung Gon; Song, Chan Ho; Choi, Jong won [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    The nuclear industry has required an advanced system that can manage decommissioning information ever since the Korean government decide to decommission the Gori No.1 nuclear power plant. The D and D division at KAERI has been developing a system that can secure the reliability and sustainability of the decommissioning project based on the engineering system of the KRR-2 (Korean Research Reactor-2). To establish a decommissioning information system, a WBS that needs to be managed for the decommissioning of an NPP has been extracted, and requirements management research composed of system engineering technology has progressed. This paper propose a new type of system based on systems engineering technology. Even though a decommissioning engineering system was developed through the KRR-2, we are now developing an advanced decommissioning information system because it is not easy to apply this system to a commercial nuclear power plant. An NPP decommissioning is a project requiring a high degree of safety and economic feasibility. Therefore, we have to use a systematic project management at the initial phase of the decommissioning. An advanced system can manage the decommissioning information from preparation to remediation by applying a previous system to the systems engineering technology that has been widely used in large-scale government projects. The first phase of the system has progressed the requirements needed for a decommissioning project for a full life cycle. The defined requirements will be used in various types of documents during the decommissioning preparation phase.

  17. PROcess Based Diagnostics PROBE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clune, T.; Schmidt, G.; Kuo, K.; Bauer, M.; Oloso, H.

    2013-01-01

    Many of the aspects of the climate system that are of the greatest interest (e.g., the sensitivity of the system to external forcings) are emergent properties that arise via the complex interplay between disparate processes. This is also true for climate models most diagnostics are not a function of an isolated portion of source code, but rather are affected by multiple components and procedures. Thus any model-observation mismatch is hard to attribute to any specific piece of code or imperfection in a specific model assumption. An alternative approach is to identify diagnostics that are more closely tied to specific processes -- implying that if a mismatch is found, it should be much easier to identify and address specific algorithmic choices that will improve the simulation. However, this approach requires looking at model output and observational data in a more sophisticated way than the more traditional production of monthly or annual mean quantities. The data must instead be filtered in time and space for examples of the specific process being targeted.We are developing a data analysis environment called PROcess-Based Explorer (PROBE) that seeks to enable efficient and systematic computation of process-based diagnostics on very large sets of data. In this environment, investigators can define arbitrarily complex filters and then seamlessly perform computations in parallel on the filtered output from their model. The same analysis can be performed on additional related data sets (e.g., reanalyses) thereby enabling routine comparisons between model and observational data. PROBE also incorporates workflow technology to automatically update computed diagnostics for subsequent executions of a model. In this presentation, we will discuss the design and current status of PROBE as well as share results from some preliminary use cases.

  18. Atom probe tomography today

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfred Cerezo

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available This review aims to describe and illustrate the advances in the application of atom probe tomography that have been made possible by recent developments, particularly in specimen preparation techniques (using dual-beam focused-ion beam instruments but also of the more routine use of laser pulsing. The combination of these two developments now permits atomic-scale investigation of site-specific regions within engineering alloys (e.g. at grain boundaries and in the vicinity of cracks and also the atomic-level characterization of interfaces in multilayers, oxide films, and semiconductor materials and devices.

  19. Experimental probes of axions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chou, Aaron S.; /Fermilab

    2009-10-01

    Experimental searches for axions or axion-like particles rely on semiclassical phenomena resulting from the postulated coupling of the axion to two photons. Sensitive probes of the extremely small coupling constant can be made by exploiting familiar, coherent electromagnetic laboratory techniques, including resonant enhancement of transitions using microwave and optical cavities, Bragg scattering, and coherent photon-axion oscillations. The axion beam may either be astrophysical in origin as in the case of dark matter axion searches and solar axion searches, or created in the laboratory from laser interactions with magnetic fields. This note is meant to be a sampling of recent experimental results.

  20. Atom Probe Tomography 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Thomas F.; Larson, David J.

    2012-08-01

    In the world of tomographic imaging, atom probe tomography (APT) occupies the high-spatial-resolution end of the spectrum. It is highly complementary to electron tomography and is applicable to a wide range of materials. The current state of APT is reviewed. Emphasis is placed on applications and data analysis as they apply to many fields of research and development including metals, semiconductors, ceramics, and organic materials. We also provide a brief review of the history and the instrumentation associated with APT and an assessment of the existing challenges in the field.

  1. Mobile Probing Kit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Jakob Eg; Sørensen, Lene Tolstrup; Sørensen, J.K.

    2007-01-01

    characterized as being highly nomadic and thus potential users of mobile and ubiquitous technologies. The methodology has been applied in the 1ST MAGNET Beyond project in order to obtain user needs and requirements in the process of developing pilot services. We report on the initial findings from applying......Mobile Probing Kit is a low tech and low cost methodology for obtaining inspiration and insights into user needs, requirements and ideas in the early phases of a system's development process. The methodology is developed to identify user needs, requirements and ideas among knowledge workers...

  2. Magnetic Barkhausen Noise Measurements Using Tetrapole Probe Designs

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNairnay, Paul

    A magnetic Barkhausen noise (MBN) testing system was developed for Defence Research and Development Canada (DRDC) to perform MBN measurements on the Royal Canadian Navy's Victoria class submarine hulls that can be correlated with material properties, including residual stress. The DRDC system was based on the design of a MBN system developed by Steven White at Queen's University, which was capable of performing rapid angular dependent measurements through the implementation of a flux controlled tetrapole probe. In tetrapole probe designs, the magnetic excitation field is rotated in the surface plane of the sample under the assumption of linear superposition of two orthogonal magnetic fields. During the course of this work, however, the validity of flux superposition in ferromagnetic materials, for the purpose of measuring MBN, was brought into question. Consequently, a study of MBN anisotropy using tetrapole probes was performed. Results indicate that MBN anisotropy measured under flux superposition does not simulate MBN anisotropy data obtained through manual rotation of a single dipole excitation field. It is inferred that MBN anisotropy data obtained with tetrapole probes is the result of the magnetic domain structure's response to an orthogonal magnetization condition and not necessarily to any bulk superposition magnetization in the sample. A qualitative model for the domain configuration under two orthogonal magnetic fields is proposed to describe the results. An empirically derived fitting equation, that describes tetrapole MBN anisotropy data, is presented. The equation describes results in terms of two largely independent orthogonal fields, and includes interaction terms arising due to competing orthogonally magnetized domain structures and interactions with the sample's magnetic easy axis. The equation is used to fit results obtained from a number of samples and tetrapole orientations and in each case correctly identifies the samples' magnetic easy axis.

  3. Easy-to-Use UAV Ground Station Software for Low-Altitude Civil Operations Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose to design and develop easy-to-use Ground Control Station (GCS) software for low-altitude civil Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) operations. The GCS software...

  4. Naar een probleemloos afkalvende dikbilkoe = Towards an easy-calving double-muscled cow

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Napel, ten J.; Hoving, A.H.; Bohte-Wilhelmus, D.I.; Hannewijk, P.

    2012-01-01

    Samen met fokkers van dikbilkoeien is een meet- en fokprogramma ontwikkeld gericht op natuurlijke geboorte.A measuring and breeding programme has been developed for easy calving doublemuscled beef cattle.

  5. Estonian Air valmistub odavate piletitega EasyJeti tulekuks / Erkki Erilaid

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Erilaid, Erkki

    2004-01-01

    Estonian Air pidi langetama piletihindu Berliini ja Londoni liinil kolmandiku võrra, kuna oktoobri lõpust hakkab Tallinna lennujaamast reise tegema uus odavlennufirma Easy-Jet. Lisa: Estonian Airi hinnad internetis

  6. Deflecting Easy-axis of Fe304 Single Crystal Nanowires by Magnetic-field-induced Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    W. Wang; S. Y. Wang

    2012-01-01

    In order to control the orientation of easy-axis of magnetic nanowires, FesO4 single crystal nanowires with easy-axis perpendicular to wire-axis were prepared successfully by means of a magnetic-field-induced method. Analysis of X-ray diffraction and electron diffraction pattern showed that there was a wide-angle deflection of easy-axis in the prepared Fe304 nanowires. A high saturation magnetization (82 emu/g) of the FesO4 nanowires was achieved at room temperature. The benefits and mechanism of the deflection of easy-axis from its wire-axis in FesO4 single crystal nanowires were discussed. The results are expected to broaden the magnetic properties of traditional ferrite nanowires.

  7. Naar een probleemloos afkalvende dikbilkoe = Towards an easy-calving double-muscled cow

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Napel, ten J.; Hoving, A.H.; Bohte-Wilhelmus, D.I.; Hannewijk, P.

    2012-01-01

    Samen met fokkers van dikbilkoeien is een meet- en fokprogramma ontwikkeld gericht op natuurlijke geboorte.A measuring and breeding programme has been developed for easy calving doublemuscled beef cattle.

  8. Awareness and Perception of Plant-Based Diets for the Treatment and Management of Type 2 Diabetes in a Community Education Clinic: A Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincent Lee

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To assess awareness, barriers, and promoters of plant-based diet use for management of type 2 diabetes (T2D for the development of an appropriate educational program. Design. Cross-sectional study of patients and healthcare providers. Setting. Regional Diabetes Education Centre in ON, Canada. Participants. n=98 patients attending the Diabetes Education Centre and n=25 healthcare providers. Variables Measures. Patient questionnaires addressed demographics, health history, and eating patterns, as well as current knowledge, confidence levels, barriers to, promoters of, and interests in plant-based diets. Staff questionnaires addressed attitudes and current practice with respect to plant-based diets. Analysis. Mean values, frequency counts, and logistic regression (alpha = 0.05. Results. Few respondents (9% currently followed a plant-based diet, but 66% indicated willingness to follow one for 3 weeks. Family eating preferences and meal planning skills were common barriers to diet change. 72% of healthcare providers reported knowledge of plant-based diets for diabetes management but low levels of practice. Conclusions and Implications. Patient awareness of the benefits of a plant-based diet for the management of diabetes remains suboptimal and may be influenced by perception of diabetes educators and clinicians. Given the reported willingness to try (but low current use of plant-based diets, educational interventions targeting patient and provider level knowledge are warranted.

  9. Effects of Gender, Load, and Backpack on Easy Standing and Vertical Jump Performance. Volume 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-03-01

    OOVT ACCESSION NO. 3. RECIPIENT’S CATALOO NUMBER «. TITLE (md Subtitl.) VOLUME II, EFFECTS OF GENDER, LOAD, AND BACKPACK ON EASY STANDING AND...worn or carried and the type of backpack used on parameters of the easy standing and vertical jumping performance of men ajnd women. Fourteen men and...3 - combat gear (Load 2 plus PASGT helmet, PASGT armor vest, simulated M16 rifle); Load A - combat gear and 20-lb backpack oo,; JAM 7» 1473

  10. Effect of alignment of easy axes on dynamic magnetization of immobilized magnetic nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Takashi; Matsugi, Yuki; Tsujimura, Naotaka; Sasayama, Teruyoshi; Enpuku, Keiji; Viereck, Thilo; Schilling, Meinhard; Ludwig, Frank

    2017-04-01

    In some biomedical applications of magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs), the particles are physically immobilized. In this study, we explore the effect of the alignment of the magnetic easy axes on the dynamic magnetization of immobilized MNPs under an AC excitation field. We prepared three immobilized MNP samples: (1) a sample in which easy axes are randomly oriented, (2) a parallel-aligned sample in which easy axes are parallel to the AC field, and (3) an orthogonally aligned sample in which easy axes are perpendicular to the AC field. First, we show that the parallel-aligned sample has the largest hysteresis in the magnetization curve and the largest harmonic magnetization spectra, followed by the randomly oriented and orthogonally aligned samples. For example, 1.6-fold increase was observed in the area of the hysteresis loop of the parallel-aligned sample compared to that of the randomly oriented sample. To quantitatively discuss the experimental results, we perform a numerical simulation based on a Fokker-Planck equation, in which probability distributions for the directions of the easy axes are taken into account in simulating the prepared MNP samples. We obtained quantitative agreement between experiment and simulation. These results indicate that the dynamic magnetization of immobilized MNPs is significantly affected by the alignment of the easy axes.

  11. Orientation of the magnetization easy axes of interacting nanoparticles: Influence on the hyperthermia properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conde-Leborán, Iván, E-mail: ivan.conde@usc.es [Departamento de Física Aplicada, Universidade de Santiago de Compostela, E-15782 Campus Sur s/n, Santiago de Compostela (Spain); Instituto de Investigacións Tecnolóxicas, Universidade de Santiago de Compostela, E-15782 Campus Sur s/n, Santiago de Compostela (Spain); Serantes, David [Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Madrid, CSIC, E-28049 Cantoblanco, Madrid (Spain); Baldomir, Daniel [Departamento de Física Aplicada, Universidade de Santiago de Compostela, E-15782 Campus Sur s/n, Santiago de Compostela (Spain); Instituto de Investigacións Tecnolóxicas, Universidade de Santiago de Compostela, E-15782 Campus Sur s/n, Santiago de Compostela (Spain)

    2015-04-15

    The relative orientation between anisotropy easy axes of magnetization of magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) and the applied magnetic field direction determines their heating properties and thus needs to be considered for accurate heating applications. In this work we systematically study the heating properties of a system of interacting MNPs with ferromagnetic-like behavior (i.e. in the blocked state), randomly distributed in space, as a function of the degree of collinearity of their easy anisotropy axes along the magnetic field direction. The easy-axes of the particles were distributed at random within cones of different aperture angles (0, 10, 22.5 and 45 degrees with respect to the field direction), under different conditions of magnetic field amplitude and interparticle interactions. Our results show that easy-axes collinearity marks a clear threshold for heat dissipation at low interacting conditions, but increasing interactions tends to attenuate this effect. - Highlights: • Heating is strongly influenced by easy-axes collinearity and field direction. • Easy-axes collinearity marks a threshold for heat dissipation at low interaction. • Increasing interactions attenuates this influence.

  12. The Antartic Ice Borehole Probe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behar, A.; Carsey, F.; Lane, A.; Engelhardt, H.

    2000-01-01

    The Antartic Ice Borehole Probe mission is a glaciological investigation, scheduled for November 2000-2001, that will place a probe in a hot-water drilled hole in the West Antartic ice sheet. The objectives of the probe are to observe ice-bed interactions with a downward looking camera, and ice inclusions and structure, including hypothesized ice accretion, with a side-looking camera.

  13. Easy Sports

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chris的猴子; 许为政(图)

    2009-01-01

    夏季已到,各大球鞋商纷纷力推诸多款式Sneaker,有主打功能的,有主打颜色的,有主打代言人的,也有主打轻质的,总之是八仙过海,各显神通。今次,Easy建立09年Summer季球鞋档案,打一个“噱头”招牌,

  14. Easy Sneaker

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    2010年新年伊始,潮流界开始流行一个新游戏:登录Google Earth页面,锁定位置将被迅速定位,然后被一束激光炮轰毁,而废墟则显示为adidas Originals的三叶草标志形状——这并非是电脑黑客设计的病毒,

  15. Common path ball lens probe for optical coherence tomography (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Kanwarpal; Yamada, Daisuke; Tearney, Guillermo J.

    2016-02-01

    Background: Common path probes are highly desirable for optical coherence tomography (OCT) as they reduce system complexity and cost. In this work we report an all-fiber common path side viewing monolithic probe for coronary artery imaging. Methods: Our common path probe was designed for spectrometer based Fourier domain OCT at 1310 nm wavelength. Light from the fiber expands in the coreless fiber region and then focussed by the ball lens. Reflection from ball lens-air interface served as reference signal. The monolithic ball lens probe was assembled within a 560 µmouter diameter drive shaft which was attached to a rotary junction. The drive shaft was placed inside an outer, transparent sheath of 800 µm diameter. Results: With a source input power of 25 mW, we could achieve sensitivity of 100.5 dB. The axial resolution of the system was found to be 15.6 µm in air and the lateral resolution (full width half maximum) was approximately 49 µm. As proof of principal, images of skin acquired using this probe demonstrated clear visualization of the stratum corneum, epidermis, and papillary dermis, along with sweat ducts. Conclusion: In this work we have demonstrated a monolithic, ball lens common, path probe for OCT imaging. The designed ball lens probe is easy to fabricate using a laser splicer. Based on the features and capability of common path probes to provide a simpler solution for OCT, we believe that this development will be an important enhancement for certain types of catheters.

  16. Micro scanning probes

    CERN Document Server

    Niblock, T

    2001-01-01

    This thesis covers the design methodology, theory, modelling, fabrication and evaluation of a Micro-Scanning-Probe. The device is a thermally actuated bimorph quadrapod fabricated using Micro Electro Mechanical Systems technology. A quadrapod is a structure with four arms, in this case a planar structure with the four arms forming a cross which is dry etched out of a silicon diaphragm. Each arm has a layer of aluminium deposited on it forming a bimorph. Through heating each arm actuation is achieved in the plane of the quadrapod and the direction normal to it. Fabrication of the device has required the development of bulk micromachining techniques to handle post CMOS fabricated wafers and the patterning of thickly sputtered aluminium in bulk micro machined cavities. CMOS fabrication techniques were used to incorporate diodes onto the quadrapod arms for temperature measurement of the arms. Fine tungsten and silicon tips have also been fabricated to allow tunnelling between the tip and the platform at the centr...

  17. Cosmological Probes for Supersymmetry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maxim Khlopov

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The multi-parameter character of supersymmetric dark-matter models implies the combination of their experimental studies with astrophysical and cosmological probes. The physics of the early Universe provides nontrivial effects of non-equilibrium particles and primordial cosmological structures. Primordial black holes (PBHs are a profound signature of such structures that may arise as a cosmological consequence of supersymmetric (SUSY models. SUSY-based mechanisms of baryosynthesis can lead to the possibility of antimatter domains in a baryon asymmetric Universe. In the context of cosmoparticle physics, which studies the fundamental relationship of the micro- and macro-worlds, the development of SUSY illustrates the main principles of this approach, as the physical basis of the modern cosmology provides cross-disciplinary tests in physical and astronomical studies.

  18. Cosmological Probes for Supersymmetry

    CERN Document Server

    Khlopov, Maxim

    2015-01-01

    The multi-parameter character of supersymmetric dark-matter models implies the combination of their experimental studies with astrophysical and cosmological probes. The physics of the early Universe provides nontrivial effects of non-equilibrium particles and primordial cosmological structures. Primordial black holes (PBHs) are a profound signature of such structures that may arise as a cosmological consequence of supersymmetric (SUSY) models. SUSY-based mechanisms of baryosynthesis can lead to the possibility of antimatter domains in a baryon asymmetric Universe. In the context of cosmoparticle physics, which studies the fundamental relationship of the micro- and macro-worlds, the development of SUSY illustrates the main principles of this approach, as the physical basis of the modern cosmology provides cross-disciplinary tests in physical and astronomical studies.

  19. Spontaneous Symmetry Probing

    CERN Document Server

    Nicolis, Alberto

    2011-01-01

    For relativistic quantum field theories, we consider Lorentz breaking, spatially homogeneous field configurations or states that evolve in time along a symmetry direction. We dub this situation "spontaneous symmetry probing" (SSP). We mainly focus on internal symmetries, i.e. on symmetries that commute with the Poincare group. We prove that the fluctuations around SSP states have a Lagrangian that is explicitly time independent, and we provide the field space parameterization that makes this manifest. We show that there is always a gapless Goldstone excitation that perturbs the system in the direction of motion in field space. Perhaps more interestingly, we show that if such a direction is part of a non-Abelian group of symmetries, the Goldstone bosons associated with spontaneously broken generators that do not commute with the SSP one acquire a gap, proportional to the SSP state's "speed". We outline possible applications of this formalism to inflationary cosmology.

  20. New probe of naturalness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig, Nathaniel; Englert, Christoph; McCullough, Matthew

    2013-09-20

    Any new scalar fields that perturbatively solve the hierarchy problem by stabilizing the Higgs boson mass also generate new contributions to the Higgs boson field-strength renormalization, irrespective of their gauge representation. These new contributions are physical, and in explicit models their magnitude can be inferred from the requirement of quadratic divergence cancellation; hence, they are directly related to the resolution of the hierarchy problem. Upon canonically normalizing the Higgs field, these new contributions lead to modifications of Higgs couplings that are typically great enough that the hierarchy problem and the concept of electroweak naturalness can be probed thoroughly within a precision Higgs boson program. Specifically, at a lepton collider this can be achieved through precision measurements of the Higgs boson associated production cross section. This would lead to indirect constraints on perturbative solutions to the hierarchy problem in the broadest sense, even if the relevant new fields are gauge singlets.

  1. Advanced Langmuir Probe (LP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voronka, N. R.; Block, B. P.; Carignan, G. R.

    1991-01-01

    The dynamic response of the MK-2 version of the Langmuir probe amplifier was studied. The settling time of the step response is increased by: (1) stray node-to-ground capacitance at series connections between high value feedback resistors; and (2) input capacitance due to the input cable, FET switches, and input source follower. The stray node-to-ground capacitances can be reduced to tolerable levels by elevating the string of feedback resistors above the printing board. A new feedback network was considered, with promising results. The design uses resistances having much lower nominal values, thereby minimizing the effect of stray capacitances. Faster settling times can be achieved by using an operational amplifier having a higher gain-bandwidth product.

  2. Probing cellular behaviors through nanopatterned chitosan membranes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chung-Yao Yang, Chun-Yen Sung, Hung-Hsun Shuai, Chao-Min Cheng and J Andrew Yeh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a high-throughput method for developing physically modified chitosan membranes to probe the cellular behavior of MDCK epithelial cells and HIG-82 fibroblasts adhered onto these modified membranes. To prepare chitosan membranes with micro/nanoscaled features, we have demonstrated an easy-to-handle, facile approach that could be easily integrated with IC-based manufacturing processes with mass production potential. These physically modified chitosan membranes were observed by scanning electron microscopy to gain a better understanding of chitosan membrane surface morphology. After MDCK cells and HIG-82 fibroblasts were cultured on these modified chitosan membranes for various culture durations (i.e. 1, 2, 4, 12 and 24 h, they were investigated to decipher cellular behavior. We found that both cells preferred to adhere onto a flat surface rather than on a nanopatterned surface. However, most (> 80% of the MDCK cells showed rounded morphology and would suspend in the cultured medium instead of adhering onto the planar surface of negatively nanopatterned chitosan membranes. This means different cell types (e.g. fibroblasts versus epithelia showed distinct capabilities/preferences of adherence for materials of varying surface roughness. We also showed that chitosan membranes could be re-used at least nine times without significant contamination and would provide us consistency for probing cell–material interactions by permitting reuse of the same substrate. We believe these results would provide us better insight into cellular behavior, specifically, microscopic properties and characteristics of cells grown under unique, nanopatterned cell-interface conditions.

  3. Plant-based vaccines: novel and low-cost possible route for Mediterranean innovative vaccination strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aboul-Ata, Aboul-Ata E; Vitti, Antonella; Nuzzaci, Maria; El-Attar, Ahmad K; Piazzolla, Giuseppina; Tortorella, Cosimo; Harandi, Ali M; Olson, Olof; Wright, Sandra A; Piazzolla, Pasquale

    2014-01-01

    A plant bioreactor has enormous capability as a system that supports many biological activities, that is, production of plant bodies, virus-like particles (VLPs), and vaccines. Foreign gene expression is an efficient mechanism for getting protein vaccines against different human viral and nonviral diseases. Plants make it easy to deal with safe, inexpensive, and provide trouble-free storage. The broad spectrum of safe gene promoters is being used to avoid risk assessments. Engineered virus-based vectors have no side effect. The process can be manipulated as follows: (a) retrieve and select gene encoding, use an antigenic protein from GenBank and/or from a viral-genome sequence, (b) design and construct hybrid-virus vectors (viral vector with a gene of interest) eventually flanked by plant-specific genetic regulatory elements for constitutive expression for obtaining chimeric virus, (c) gene transformation and/or transfection, for transient expression, into a plant-host model, that is, tobacco, to get protocols processed positively, and then moving into edible host plants, (d) confirmation of protein expression by bioassay, PCR-associated tests (RT-PCR), Northern and Western blotting analysis, and serological assay (ELISA), (e) expression for adjuvant recombinant protein seeking better antigenicity, (f) extraction and purification of expressed protein for identification and dosing, (g) antigenicity capability evaluated using parental or oral delivery in animal models (mice and/or rabbit immunization), and (h) growing of construct-treated edible crops in protective green houses. Some successful cases of heterologous gene-expressed protein, as edible vaccine, are being discussed, that is, hepatitis C virus (HCV). R9 mimotope, also named hypervariable region 1 (HVR1), was derived from the HVR1 of HCV. It was used as a potential neutralizing epitope of HCV. The mimotope was expressed using cucumber mosaic virus coat protein (CP), alfalfa mosaic virus CP P3/RNA3, and

  4. Do plant-based amendments improve soil physiochemical and microbiological properties and plant growth in dryland ecosystems?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kneller, Tayla; Harris, Richard; Muñoz-Rojas, Miriam

    2017-04-01

    Background Land intensive practices including mining have contributed to the degradation of landscapes globally. Current challenges in post-mine restoration revolve around the use of substrates poor in organic materials (e.g. overburden and waste rock) and lack of original topsoil which may result in poor seedling recruitment and in later stages in soil nutrient deficiency, metal toxicity, decreased microbial activity and high salinity (Bateman et al., 2016; Muñoz-Rojas et al., 2016). Despite continuous efforts and advances we have not proportionally advanced our capability to successfully restore these landscapes following mining. Recent attempts to improve plant establishment in arid zone restoration programs have included the application of plant based amendments to soil profiles. This approach usually aims to accelerate soil reconstruction via improvement of soil aggregate stability and increase of soil organic carbon, and water holding capacity. Whilst a significant amount of recent research has focused on the application of such amendments, studies on the potential application of plant based materials to recover soil functionality and re-establish plant communities in post-mined landscapes in arid regions are limited. Here we will discuss our work investigating the application of a plant based amendment on soil substrates commonly used in post mining restoration in the Pilbara region, Western Australia. Methodology The study was conducted in a glasshouse facility where environmental conditions were continuously monitored. Using two growth materials (topsoil and waste rock) and a plant based amendment (dry biomass of the most common grass in the Pilbara, Triodia wiseana) five different treatments were tested. Treatments consisted of control soil treatments (topsoil, waste and a mixture of the former soil types (mixture)) and two amended soil treatments (waste amended and mixture amended). Additionally, three different vegetation communities were studies

  5. EuroFIR-BASIS - a combined composition and biological activity database for bioactive compounds in plant-based foods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gry, Jørn; Black, Lucinda; Eriksen, Folmer Damsted

    2007-01-01

    Mounting evidence suggests that certain non-nutrient bioactive compounds promote optimal human health and reduce the risk of chronic disease. An Internet-deployed database, EuroFIR-BASIS, which uniquely combines food composition and biological effects data for plant-based bioactive compounds......, is being developed. The database covers multiple compound classes and 330 major food plants and their edible parts with data sourced from quality-assessed, peer-reviewed literature. The database will be a valuable resource for food regulatory and advisory bodies, risk authorities, epidemiologists...... and researchers interested in diet and health relationships, and product developers within the food industry....

  6. Growth Performance Characteristics of Goats Fed Varied Levels of Poultry Manure in whole Cassava Plant Based Concentrate Diet

    OpenAIRE

    Yousuf, M.B.; Adeloye A. A.; Okukpe K. M; Adeyemi, K. D.; A. H. A Badmus; Daramola, J. O.; Ogundun, N. J.

    2013-01-01

    A 56-day feed intake, growth and digestibility trial was carried out to investigate the use of poultry manure as a fermentable nitrogen source in whole cassava plant-based concentrate fed to goats on basal Panicummaximum hay (9.18 % CP). Sixteen adult (2 years old; 12.48 – 16.72 kg initial body weights) West African Dwarf goats were blocked on the basis of body weights into four similar groups that were assigned randomly to four treatments. Treatments consisted of dried poultry manure that wa...

  7. Environmental status of plant-based industries. Biomass and bio-materials; Bilan environnemental des filieres vegetales. Biomasse et biomateriaux

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vindimian, E.; Boeglin, N.; Houillon, G.; Osset, Ph.; Vial, E.; Leguern, Y.; Gosse, G.; Gabrielle, B.; Dohy, M.; Bewa, H.; Rigal, L.; Guilbert, St.; Cesar, G.; Pandard, P.; Oster, D.; Normand, N.; Piccardi, M.; Garoux, V.; Arnaud, L.; Barbier, J.; Mougin, G.; Krausz, P.; Pluquet, V.; Massacrier, L.; Dussaud, J.

    2005-07-01

    The French agency of environment and energy mastery (Ademe) and the agency of Agriculture for chemistry and energy (Agrice) have jointly organized these technical days about the potentialities of plant-based products in front of the big environmental stakes of the diversification of energy sources, the development of new outputs for agriculture and the opening of new fields of industrial innovation. This document gathers the articles and transparencies of the presentations given during these 2 days of conference: 1 - Biomass and life cycle analysis (LCA) - impacts and benefits: introduction to LCA (E. Vindimian), keys to understand this environmental evaluation tool (N. Boeglin); environmental status of plant-based industries for chemistry, materials and energy: LCA knowledge status, plant versus fossil (G. Houillon), detailed analysis of 2 industries: agro-materials and bio-polymers (J. Payet); example of environmental and LCA studies: energy and greenhouse gas statuses of the biofuel production processes (P. Osset, E. Vial), LCA of collective and industrial wood-fueled space heating (Y. Leguern), contribution and limitations of LCA for plant-based industries (G. Gosse, B. Gabrielle), conclusion of the first day (M. Dohy). 2 - Biomass and materials: a reality: biomaterials in the Agrice program (H. Bewa), plant-derived materials: resources, status and perspectives (L. Rigal); biopolymers: overview of the industrial use of biopolymers: materials and markets, applications (S. Guibert), degradation mechanisms of biopolymers used in agriculture: biodegradability, eco-toxicity and accumulation in soils (G. Cesar, P. Pandard), present and future regulatory framework: specifications and methods of biodegradability evaluation of materials for agriculture and horticulture (D. Oster), standardization: necessity and possibilities (N. Normand); vegetable fibers and composite materials: market of new vegetable fiber uses (M. Piccardi, V. Garoux), vegetable particulates and

  8. Synthesis of Photoactivatable Phospholipidic Probes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qing PENG; Fan Qi QU; Yi XIA; Jie Hua ZHOU; Qiong You WU; Ling PENG

    2005-01-01

    We synthesized and characterized photoactivatable phospholipidic probes 1-3. These probes have the perfluorinated aryl azide function at the polar head of phospholipid. They are stable in dark and become highly reactive upon photoirradiation. The preliminary results suggest that they are promising tools to study the topology of membrane proteins and protein-lipid interactions using photolabeling approach.

  9. Non-inductive current probe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bak, Christen Kjeldahl

    1977-01-01

    The current probe described is a low-cost, shunt resistor for monitoring current pulses in e.g., pulsed lasers. Rise time is......The current probe described is a low-cost, shunt resistor for monitoring current pulses in e.g., pulsed lasers. Rise time is...

  10. Effects of self-esteem on electrophysiological correlates of easy and difficult math.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Juan; Zhao, Ruifang; Zhang, Qinglin; Pruessner, Jens C

    2013-01-01

    The current study investigated the effects of easy versus difficult math on event-related potentials as a function of self-esteem in 28 undergraduate students. First, it was found that participants responded much more rapidly to an easy task. Second, the amplitude of P2 (150-300 ms) was more positive amplified in low self-esteem participants when compared to high self-esteem participants. Third, the difficult task elicited a greater N2 (300-450 ms) component than the easy task, but only in the low self-esteem participants. Finally, the easy task elicited a greater late positive component (LPC: 450-600 ms) compared with the difficult task and the difficult task elicited a greater LPC (900-1200 ms) components compared with the easy task separately, which were consistent with behavioral reaction times. We speculate that the difficult math might have induced more negative emotions in subjects with low self-esteem, and that low self-esteem individuals might be more susceptible to interpret the difficult task as threatening.

  11. Easy ambient sonic-spray ionization mass spectrometry combined with thin-layer chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haddad, Renato; Milagre, Humberto M S; Catharino, Rodrigo Ramos; Eberlin, Marcos N

    2008-04-15

    On-spot detection and analyte characterization on thin-layer chromatography (TLC) plates is performed via ambient desorption/ionization and (tandem) mass spectrometry detection, that is, via easy ambient sonic spray ionization mass spectrometry (EASI-MS). As proof-of-principle cases, mixtures of semipolar nitrogenated compounds as well as pharmaceutical drugs and vegetable oils have been tested. The technique has also been applied to monitor a chemical reaction of synthetic importance. EASI is the simplest and gentlest ambient ionization technique currently available, assisted solely by N2 (or air). It uses no voltages, no electrical discharges; no UV or laser beams, and no high temperature and is most easily implemented in all API mass spectrometers. TLC is also the simplest, fastest, and most easily performed chromatographic technique. TLC plus EASI-MS therefore provide a simple and advantageous combination of chromatographic separation and sensitive detection of the TLC spots as well as on-spot MS or MS/MS characterization. The favorable characteristics of TLC-EASI-MS indicate advantageous applications in several areas such as drug and oil analysis, phytochemistry and synthetic chemistry, forensics via reliable counterfeit detection, and quality control.

  12. Nanobits: customizable scanning probe tips

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kumar, Rajendra; Shaik, Hassan Uddin; Sardan Sukas, Özlem

    2009-01-01

    silicon processing. Using a microgripper they were detached from an array and fixed to a standard pyramidal AFM probe or alternatively inserted into a tipless cantilever equipped with a narrow slit. The nanobit-enhanced probes were used for imaging of deep trenches, without visible deformation, wear......We present here a proof-of-principle study of scanning probe tips defined by planar nanolithography and integrated with AFM probes using nanomanipulation. The so-called 'nanobits' are 2-4 mu m long and 120-150 nm thin flakes of Si3N4 or SiO2, fabricated by electron beam lithography and standard...... or dislocation of the tips of the nanobit after several scans. This approach allows an unprecedented freedom in adapting the shape and size of scanning probe tips to the surface topology or to the specific application....

  13. Wearable probes for service design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mullane, Aaron; Laaksolahti, Jarmo Matti; Svanæs, Dag

    2014-01-01

    by service employees in reflecting on the delivery of a service. In this paper, we present the ‘wearable probe’, a probe concept that captures sensor data without distracting service employees. Data captured by the probe can be used by the service employees to reflect and co-reflect on the service journey......Probes are used as a design method in user-centred design to allow end-users to inform design by collecting data from their lives. Probes are potentially useful in service innovation, but current probing methods require users to interrupt their activity and are consequently not ideal for use......, helping to identify opportunities for service evolution and innovation....

  14. Electrophoresis-mass spectrometry probe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andresen, Brian D.; Fought, Eric R.

    1987-01-01

    The invention involves a new technique for the separation of complex mixtures of chemicals, which utilizes a unique interface probe for conventional mass spectrometers which allows the electrophoretically separated compounds to be analyzed in real-time by a mass spectrometer. This new chemical analysis interface, which couples electrophoresis with mass spectrometry, allows complex mixtures to be analyzed very rapidly, with much greater specificity, and with greater sensitivity. The interface or probe provides a means whereby large and/or polar molecules in complex mixtures to be completely characterized. The preferred embodiment of the probe utilizes a double capillary tip which allows the probe tip to be continually wetted by the buffer, which provides for increased heat dissipation, and results in a continually operating interface which is more durable and electronically stable than the illustrated single capillary tip probe interface.

  15. Mobile Probes in Mobile Learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ørngreen, Rikke; Blomhøj, Ulla; Duvaa, Uffe

    as an agent for acquiring empirical data (as the situation in hitherto mobile probe settings) but was also the technological medium for which data should say something about (mobile learning). Consequently, not only the content of the data but also the ways in which data was delivered and handled, provided......In this paper experiences from using mobile probes in educational design of a mobile learning application is presented. The probing process stems from the cultural probe method, and was influenced by qualitative interview and inquiry approaches. In the project, the mobile phone was not only acting...... a valuable dimension for investigating mobile use. The data was collected at the same time as design activities took place and the collective data was analysed based on user experience goals and cognitive processes from interaction design and mobile learning. The mobile probe increased the knowledge base...

  16. Exact probes of orientifolds

    CERN Document Server

    Fiol, Bartomeu; Torrents, Genis

    2014-01-01

    We compute the exact vacuum expectation value of circular Wilson loops for Euclidean ${\\cal N}=4$ super Yang-Mills with $G=SO(N),Sp(N)$, in the fundamental and spinor representations. These field theories are dual to type IIB string theory compactified on $AdS_5\\times {\\mathbb R} {\\mathbb P}^5$ plus certain choices of discrete torsion, and we use our results to probe this holographic duality. We first revisit the LLM-type geometries having $AdS_5\\times {\\mathbb R} {\\mathbb P}^5$ as ground state. Our results clarify and refine the identification of these LLM-type geometries as bubbling geometries arising from fermions on a half harmonic oscillator. We furthermore identify the presence of discrete torsion with the one-fermion Wigner distribution becoming negative at the origin of phase space. We then turn to the string world-sheet interpretation of our results and argue that for the quantities considered they imply two features: first, the contribution coming from world-sheets with a single crosscap is closely ...

  17. Steerable Doppler transducer probes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fidel, H.F.; Greenwood, D.L.

    1986-07-22

    An ultrasonic diagnostic probe is described which is capable of performing ultrasonic imaging and Doppler measurement consisting of: a hollow case having an acoustic window which passes ultrasonic energy and including chamber means for containing fluid located within the hollow case and adjacent to a portion of the acoustic window; imaging transducer means, located in the hollow case and outside the fluid chamber means, and oriented to direct ultrasonic energy through the acoustic window toward an area which is to be imaged; Doppler transducer means, located in the hollow case within the fluid chamber means, and movably oriented to direct Doppler signals through the acoustic window toward the imaged area; means located within the fluid chamber means and externally controlled for controllably moving the Doppler transducer means to select one of a plurality of axes in the imaged area along which the Doppler signals are to be directed; and means, located external to the fluid chamber means and responsive to the means for moving, for providing an indication signal for identifying the selected axis.

  18. Transient Astrophysics Probe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camp, Jordan

    2017-08-01

    Transient Astrophysics Probe (TAP), selected by NASA for a funded Concept Study, is a wide-field high-energy transient mission proposed for flight starting in the late 2020s. TAP’s main science goals, called out as Frontier Discovery areas in the 2010 Decadal Survey, are time-domain astrophysics and counterparts of gravitational wave (GW) detections. The mission instruments include unique imaging soft X-ray optics that allow ~500 deg2 FoV in each of four separate modules; a high sensitivity, 1 deg2 FoV soft X-ray telescope based on single crystal silicon optics; a passively cooled, 1 deg2 FoV Infrared telescope with bandpass 0.6-3 micron; and a set of ~8 small NaI gamma-ray detectors. TAP will observe many events per year of X-ray transients related to compact objects, including tidal disruptions of stars, supernova shock breakouts, neutron star bursts and superbursts, and high redshift Gamma-Ray Bursts. Perhaps most exciting is TAP’s capability to observe X-ray and IR counterparts of GWs involving stellar mass black holes detected by LIGO/Virgo, and possibly X-ray counterparts of GWs from supermassive black holes, detected by LISA and Pulsar Timing Arrays.

  19. Meat, beyond the plate. Data-driven hypotheses for understanding consumer willingness to adopt a more plant-based diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graça, João; Oliveira, Abílio; Calheiros, Maria Manuela

    2015-07-01

    A shift towards reduced meat consumption and a more plant-based diet is endorsed to promote sustainability, improve public health, and minimize animal suffering. However, large segments of consumers do not seem willing to make such transition. While it may take a profound societal change to achieve significant progresses on this regard, there have been limited attempts to understand the psychosocial processes that may hinder or facilitate this shift. This study provides an in-depth exploration of how consumer representations of meat, the impact of meat, and rationales for changing or not habits relate with willingness to adopt a more plant-based diet. Multiple Correspondence Analysis was employed to examine participant responses (N = 410) to a set of open-ended questions, free word association tasks and closed questions. Three clusters with two hallmarks each were identified: (1) a pattern of disgust towards meat coupled with moral internalization; (2) a pattern of low affective connection towards meat and willingness to change habits; and (3) a pattern of attachment to meat and unwillingness to change habits. The findings raise two main propositions. The first is that an affective connection towards meat relates to the perception of the impacts of meat and to willingness to change consumption habits. The second proposition is that a set of rationales resembling moral disengagement mechanisms (e.g., pro-meat justifications; self-exonerations) arise when some consumers contemplate the consequences of meat production and consumption, and the possibility of changing habits.

  20. Growth Performance Characteristics of Goats Fed Varied Levels of Poultry Manure in whole Cassava Plant Based Concentrate Diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yousuf, M. B.

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available A 56-day feed intake, growth and digestibility trial was carried out to investigate the use of poultry manure as a fermentable nitrogen source in whole cassava plant-based concentrate fed to goats on basal Panicummaximum hay (9.18 % CP. Sixteen adult (2 years old; 12.48 – 16.72 kg initial body weights West African Dwarf goats were blocked on the basis of body weights into four similar groups that were assigned randomly to four treatments. Treatments consisted of dried poultry manure that was included in a cassava-based concentrate at 0, 14, 18 or 22 % level. Average feed intake (g/W0.725 kg was reduced (p < 0.05 in goats fed poultry manure at 22 % inclusion level when compared with the other dietary groups. Effects of poultry manure treatments on digestibility of dry matter or crude protein, nitrogen retention and body weight gain were significant (p < 0.05. It was concluded that poultry manure could be used to complement cassava leaf meal in cassava plant-based concentrates for the goats. The use of poultry manure as a source of fermentable nitrogen would promote activities of rumen microbial populations for efficient fermentation and reduce the constraints associated with collection and processing of cassava leaf in sufficient quantity for inclusion in the diet.

  1. Food Choice Architecture: An Intervention in a Secondary School and its Impact on Students' Plant-based Food Choices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ensaff, Hannah; Homer, Matt; Sahota, Pinki; Braybrook, Debbie; Coan, Susan; McLeod, Helen

    2015-06-02

    With growing evidence for the positive health outcomes associated with a plant-based diet, the study's purpose was to examine the potential of shifting adolescents' food choices towards plant-based foods. Using a real world setting of a school canteen, a set of small changes to the choice architecture was designed and deployed in a secondary school in Yorkshire, England. Focussing on designated food items (whole fruit, fruit salad, vegetarian daily specials, and sandwiches containing salad) the changes were implemented for six weeks. Data collected on students' food choice (218,796 transactions) enabled students' (980 students) selections to be examined. Students' food choice was compared for three periods: baseline (29 weeks); intervention (six weeks); and post-intervention (three weeks). Selection of designated food items significantly increased during the intervention and post-intervention periods, compared to baseline (baseline, 1.4%; intervention 3.0%; post-intervention, 2.2%) χ(2)(2) = 68.1, p food items during the intervention period, compared to baseline. The study's results point to the influence of choice architecture within secondary school settings, and its potential role in improving adolescents' daily food choices.

  2. Physicochemical and acid gelation properties of commercial UHT-treated plant-based milk substitutes and lactose free bovine milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mäkinen, Outi E; Uniacke-Lowe, Thérèse; O'Mahony, James A; Arendt, Elke K

    2015-02-01

    Physicochemical and acid gelation properties of UHT-treated commercial soy, oat, quinoa, rice and lactose-free bovine milks were studied. The separation profiles were determined using a LUMiSizer dispersion analyser. Soy, rice and quinoa milks formed both cream and sediment layers, while oat milk sedimented but did not cream. Bovine milk was very stable to separation while all plant milks separated at varying rates; rice and oat milks being the most unstable products. Particle sizes in plant-based milk substitutes, expressed as volume mean diameters (d4.3), ranged from 0.55μm (soy) to 2.08μm (quinoa) while the average size in bovine milk was 0.52μm. Particles of plant-based milk substitutes were significantly more polydisperse compared to those of bovine milk. Upon acidification with glucono-δ-lactone (GDL), bovine, soy and quinoa milks formed structured gels with maximum storage moduli of 262, 187 and 105Pa, respectively while oat and rice milks did not gel. In addition to soy products currently on the market, quinoa may have potential in dairy-type food applications. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Foods for Special Dietary Needs: Non-dairy Plant-based Milk Substitutes and Fermented Dairy-type Products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mäkinen, Outi Elina; Wanhalinna, Viivi; Zannini, Emanuele; Arendt, Elke Karin

    2016-01-01

    A growing number of consumers opt for plant-based milk substitutes for medical reasons or as a lifestyle choice. Medical reasons include lactose intolerance, with a worldwide prevalence of 75%, and cow's milk allergy. Also, in countries where mammal milk is scarce and expensive, plant milk substitutes serve as a more affordable option. However, many of these products have sensory characteristics objectionable to the mainstream western palate. Technologically, plant milk substitutes are suspensions of dissolved and disintegrated plant material in water, resembling cow's milk in appearance. They are manufactured by extracting the plant material in water, separating the liquid, and formulating the final product. Homogenization and thermal treatments are necessary to improve the suspension and microbial stabilities of commercial products that can be consumed as such or be further processed into fermented dairy-type products. The nutritional properties depend on the plant source, processing, and fortification. As some products have extremely low protein and calcium contents, consumer awareness is important when plant milk substitutes are used to replace cow's milk in the diet, e.g. in the case of dairy intolerances. If formulated into palatable and nutritionally adequate products, plant-based substitutes can offer a sustainable alternative to dairy products.

  4. Plant-Based and Plant-Rich Diet Patterns during Gestation: Beneficial Effects and Possible Shortcomings12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pistollato, Francesca; Sumalla Cano, Sandra; Elio, Iñaki; Masias Vergara, Manuel; Giampieri, Francesca; Battino, Maurizio

    2015-01-01

    Environmental and lifestyle factors are known to play an important role during gestation, determining newborns’ health status and influencing their risk of being subject to certain noncommunicable diseases later in life. In particular, maternal nutritional patterns characterized by a low intake of plant-derived foods could increase the risk of gestation-related issues, such as preeclampsia and pregravid obesity, increase genotoxicant susceptibility, and contribute to the onset of pediatric diseases. In particular, the risk of pediatric wheeze, diabetes, neural tube defects, orofacial clefts, and some pediatric tumors seems to be reduced by maternal intake of adequate amounts of vegetables, fruits, and selected antioxidants. Nevertheless, plant-based diets, like any other diet, if improperly balanced, could be deficient in some specific nutrients that are particularly relevant during gestation, such as n–3 (ω-3) fatty acids, vitamin B-12, iron, zinc, and iodine, possibly affecting the offspring’s health state. Here we review the scientific literature in this field, focusing specifically on observational studies in humans, and highlight protective effects elicited by maternal diets enriched in plant-derived foods and possible issues related to maternal plant-based diets. PMID:26374180

  5. Food Choice Architecture: An Intervention in a Secondary School and its Impact on Students’ Plant-based Food Choices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hannah Ensaff

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available With growing evidence for the positive health outcomes associated with a plant-based diet, the study’s purpose was to examine the potential of shifting adolescents’ food choices towards plant-based foods. Using a real world setting of a school canteen, a set of small changes to the choice architecture was designed and deployed in a secondary school in Yorkshire, England. Focussing on designated food items (whole fruit, fruit salad, vegetarian daily specials, and sandwiches containing salad the changes were implemented for six weeks. Data collected on students’ food choice (218,796 transactions enabled students’ (980 students selections to be examined. Students’ food choice was compared for three periods: baseline (29 weeks; intervention (six weeks; and post-intervention (three weeks. Selection of designated food items significantly increased during the intervention and post-intervention periods, compared to baseline (baseline, 1.4%; intervention 3.0%; post-intervention, 2.2% χ2(2 = 68.1, p < 0.001. Logistic regression modelling also revealed the independent effect of the intervention, with students 2.5 times as likely (p < 0.001 to select the designated food items during the intervention period, compared to baseline. The study’s results point to the influence of choice architecture within secondary school settings, and its potential role in improving adolescents’ daily food choices.

  6. Dairy and plant based food intakes are associated with altered faecal microbiota in 2 to 3 year old Australian children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith-Brown, P.; Morrison, M.; Krause, L.; Davies, P. S. W.

    2016-01-01

    The first 1000 days (conception to 24 months) is when gut microbiota composition and eating patterns are established, and a critical period influencing lifelong health. The aim of this study is to examine the associations between food intakes and microbiota composition at the end of this period. Diet was quantified for 37 well-nourished Australian children aged between 2 to 3 years by using a food frequency questionnaire and 24 hr recalls. Both dairy and plant-based (fruit, vegetables, soy, pulses and nuts) food intakes were associated with distinct microbiota profiles. Dairy intake was positively associated with the Firmicutes:Bacteroidetes ratio, and in particular Erysipelatoclostridium spp., but negatively associated with species richness and diversity. Vegetable intake was positively associated with the relative abundance of the Lachnospira genus, while soy, pulse and nut intake was positively associated with the relative abundance of bacteria related to Bacteroides xylanisolvens. Fruit intake, especially apples and pears, were negatively associated with the relative abundance of bacteria related to Ruminococcus gnavus. In this cohort of young children dairy and plant based food intakes were found to be associated with altered microbiota composition. Further exploration is needed to elucidate the effect of these dietary and microbial differences on host phenotype. PMID:27694811

  7. 触摸屏Easy Access远程监控设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    缪玉珍

    2012-01-01

    This paper introduces and analyzes the theory and implementation of WEINVIEW Easy Access and remote monitoring to the touch screen MT8070iH respectively on LAN and Internet, it realizes uploading and downling of the document, and real-time monitoring function, and provides the intuitive, monitoring practical, visual solutions for air-conditioner unit.%本文介绍和分析了WEINVIEW Easy Access的原理和实现方式,分别对局域网及广域网MT8070iH触摸屏进行了Easy Access远程监控,实现了文档上传与下载、实时监控功能,为空调机组监控系统提供了直观、实用、可视化的解决方案。

  8. Naive empiricism and dogmatism in confidence research: a critical examination of the hard-easy effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juslin, P; Winman, A; Olsson, H

    2000-04-01

    Two robust phenomena in research on confidence in one's general knowledge are the overconfidence phenomenon and the hard-easy effect. In this article, the authors propose that the hard-easy effect has been interpreted with insufficient attention to the scale-end effects, the linear dependency, and the regression effects in data and that the continued adherence to the idea of a "cognitive overconfidence bias" is mediated by selective attention to particular data sets. A quantitative review of studies with 2-alternative general knowledge items demonstrates that, contrary to widespread belief, there is (a) very little support for a cognitive-processing bias in these data; (b) a difference between representative and selected item samples that is not reducible to the difference in difficulty; and (c) near elimination of the hard-easy effect when there is control for scale-end effects and linear dependency.

  9. Extension Activity Support System (EASY: A Web-Based Prototype for Facilitating Farm Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Pettit

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In response to disparate advances in delivering spatial information to support agricultural extension activities, the Extension Activity Support System (EASY project was established to develop a vision statement and conceptual design for such a system based on a national needs assessment. Personnel from across Australia were consulted and a review of existing farm information/management software undertaken to ensure that any system that is eventually produced from the EASY vision will build on the strengths of existing efforts. This paper reports on the collaborative consultative process undertaken to create the EASY vision as well as the conceptual technical design and business models that could support a fully functional spatially enabled online system.

  10. EasyKSORD: A Platform of Keyword Search Over Relational Databases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Zhaohui; Li, Jing; Wang, Shan

    Keyword Search Over Relational Databases (KSORD) enables casual users to use keyword queries (a set of keywords) to search relational databases just like searching the Web, without any knowledge of the database schema or any need of writing SQL queries. Based on our previous work, we design and implement a novel KSORD platform named EasyKSORD for users and system administrators to use and manage different KSORD systems in a novel and simple manner. EasyKSORD supports advanced queries, efficient data-graph-based search engines, multiform result presentations, and system logging and analysis. Through EasyKSORD, users can search relational databases easily and read search results conveniently, and system administrators can easily monitor and analyze the operations of KSORD and manage KSORD systems much better.

  11. Continuous ECG Monitoring in Patients With Acute Coronary Syndrome or Heart Failure: EASI Versus Gold Standard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lancia, Loreto; Toccaceli, Andrea; Petrucci, Cristina; Romano, Silvio; Penco, Maria

    2017-04-01

    The purpose of the study was to compare the EASI system with the standard 12-lead surface electrocardiogram (ECG) for the accuracy in detecting the main electrocardiographic parameters (J point, PR, QT, and QRS) commonly monitored in patients with acute coronary syndromes or heart failure. In this observational comparative study, 253 patients who were consecutively admitted to the coronary care unit with acute coronary syndrome or heart failure were evaluated. In all patients, two complete 12-lead ECGs were acquired simultaneously. A total of 6,072 electrocardiographic leads were compared (3,036 standard and 3,036 EASI). No significant differences were found between the investigate parameters of the two measurement methods, either in patients with acute coronary syndrome or in those with heart failure. This study confirmed the accuracy of the EASI system in monitoring the main ECG parameters in patients admitted to the coronary care unit with acute coronary syndrome or heart failure.

  12. Ultrathin MXene-Micropattern-Based Field-Effect Transistor for Probing Neural Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Bingzhe; Zhu, Minshen; Zhang, Wencong; Zhen, Xu; Pei, Zengxia; Xue, Qi; Zhi, Chunyi; Shi, Peng

    2016-05-01

    A field-effect transistor (FET) based on ultrathin Ti3 C2 -MXene micropatterns is developed and utilized as a highly sensitive biosensor. The device is produced with the microcontact printing technique, making use of its unique advantages for easy fabrication. Using the MXene-FET device, label-free probing of small molecules in typical biological environments and fast detection of action potentials in primary neurons is demonstrated.

  13. Effect of Maximal Apnoea Easy-Going and Struggle Phases on Subarachnoid Width and Pial Artery Pulsation in Elite Breath-Hold Divers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pawel J Winklewski

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to assess changes in subarachnoid space width (sas-TQ, the marker of intracranial pressure (ICP, pial artery pulsation (cc-TQ and cardiac contribution to blood pressure (BP, cerebral blood flow velocity (CBFV and cc-TQ oscillations throughout the maximal breath hold in elite apnoea divers. Non-invasive assessment of sas-TQ and cc-TQ became possible due to recently developed method based on infrared radiation, called near-infrared transillumination/backscattering sounding (NIR-T/BSS.The experimental group consisted of seven breath-hold divers (six men. During testing, each participant performed a single maximal end-inspiratory breath hold. Apnoea consisted of the easy-going and struggle phases (characterised by involuntary breathing movements (IBMs. Heart rate (HR was determined using a standard ECG. BP was assessed using the photoplethysmography method. SaO2 was monitored continuously with pulse oximetry. A pneumatic chest belt was used to register thoracic and abdominal movements. Cerebral blood flow velocity (CBFV was estimated by a 2-MHz transcranial Doppler ultrasonic probe. sas-TQ and cc-TQ were measured using NIR-T/BSS. Wavelet transform analysis was performed to assess cardiac contribution to BP, CBFV and cc-TQ oscillations.Mean BP and CBFV increased compared to baseline at the end of the easy phase and were further augmented by IBMs. cc-TQ increased compared to baseline at the end of the easy phase and remained stable during the IBMs. HR did not change significantly throughout the apnoea, although a trend toward a decrease during the easy phase and recovery during the IBMs was visible. Amplitudes of BP, CBFV and cc-TQ were augmented. sas-TQ and SaO2 decreased at the easy phase of apnoea and further decreased during the IBMs.Apnoea increases intracranial pressure and pial artery pulsation. Pial artery pulsation seems to be stabilised by the IBMs. Cardiac contribution to BP, CBFV and cc-TQ oscillations does not

  14. Uniaxial ferromagnetic film in magnetic field perpendicular to the easy axis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korneta, W.; Pytel, Z.

    1987-08-01

    The spin model of single domain ferromagnetic film is considered. Only the nearest-neighbor interactions are taken into account. The interactions depend on distances from surfaces. The external magnetic field is applied perpendicular to the easy axis lying in the plane of the film. The thermodynamic behaviour of the model is studied near the second-order ferro-paramagnetic phase transition for the component of the magnetization in the direction of the easy axis. The molecular-field theory is used. The phase diagram and profiles of the order parameter are obtained. Different feasible investigations of the phase transition are compared.

  15. The fish stick: an easy-to-use classroom training apparatus for fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miskovsky, Charles; Becker, Brittney; Hilker, Alleah; Abramson, Charles I

    2010-02-01

    The fish stick is an easy-to-use device for conditioning fish under classroom conditions. It is constructed from inexpensive plastic pipe available at most hardware stores and uses electronic components available at retail electronics outlets. Fish press a nipple for baby food which can be brought under stimulus control using lights, vibratory cues, or both. The fish stick is suitable for inquiry-based experiences in courses on the psychology of learning or comparative psychology. Data are presented using a continuous reinforcement schedule and discrimination learning. Students report that the fish are easy to train and enjoy the hands-on experience.

  16. Development of Monju easy-to-introduce system for total evaluation of reactor core

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kitano, Akihiro; Teruyama, Hidehiko; Nishi, Hiroshi [Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Inst., Tsuruga Head Office, Tsuruga, Fukui (Japan); Yamaoka, Mitsuaki; Moriki, Yasuyuki [Toshiba Corp., Tokyo (Japan); Nakagawa, Masatoshi [AITEL Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    2002-06-01

    An interactive core analysis tool for use on a PC MEISTER (Monju Easy-to-Introduce System for Total Evaluation of Reactor Core) has been developed, enabling evaluation of the overall core characteristics, including core physics, thermal hydraulics and structural integrity, in an easy but accurate manner. Data processing, such as the preparation of input data, data transfer from one code to another or display of output data, can be achieved in a systematic manner by graphical user interfaces. MEISTER has been verified by the analysis of core criticality, control rod worth and the maximum linear heat rate measured in the Monju start-up tests. (author)

  17. English made easy volume one a new ESL approach learning English through pictures

    CERN Document Server

    Crichton, Jonathan

    2015-01-01

    This is a fun and user–friendly way to learn English English Made Easy is a breakthrough in English language learning—imaginatively exploiting how pictures and text can work together to create understanding and help learners learn more productively. It gives beginner English learners easy access to the vocabulary, grammar and functions of English as it is actually used in a comprehensive range of social situations. Self–guided students and classroom learners alike will be delighted by the way they are helped to progress easily from one unit to the next, using a combination of pictures and text

  18. English made easy, v.1 a new ESL approach learning English through pictures

    CERN Document Server

    Crichton, Jonathan

    2015-01-01

    This is a fun and userfriendly way to learn EnglishEnglish Made Easy is a breakthrough in English language learningimaginatively exploiting how pictures and text can work together to create understanding and help learners learn more productively. It gives beginner English learners easy access to the vocabulary, grammar and functions of English as it is actually used in a comprehensive range of social situations. Selfguided students and classroom learners alike will be delighted by the way they are helped to progress easily from one unit to the next, using a combina

  19. Target-protecting dumbbell molecular probe against exonucleases digestion for sensitive detection of ATP and streptavidin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jinyang; Liu, Yucheng; Ji, Xinghu; He, Zhike

    2016-09-15

    In this work, a versatile dumbbell molecular (DM) probe was designed and employed in the sensitively homogeneous bioassay. In the presence of target molecule, the DM probe was protected from the digestion of exonucleases. Subsequently, the protected DM probe specifically bound to the intercalation dye and resulted in obvious fluorescence signal which was used to determine the target molecule in return. This design allows specific and versatile detection of diverse targets with easy operation and no sophisticated fluorescence labeling. Integrating the idea of target-protecting DM probe with adenosine triphosphate (ATP) involved ligation reaction, the DM probe with 5'-end phosphorylation was successfully constructed for ATP detection, and the limitation of detection was found to be 4.8 pM. Thanks to its excellent selectivity and sensitivity, this sensing strategy was used to detect ATP spiked in human serum as well as cellular ATP. Moreover, the proposed strategy was also applied in the visual detection of ATP in droplet-based microfluidic platform with satisfactory results. Similarly, combining the principle of target-protecting DM probe with streptavidin (SA)-biotin interaction, the DM probe with 3'-end biotinylation was developed for selective and sensitive SA determination, which demonstrated the robustness and versatility of this design.

  20. A subcutaneous Raman needle probe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, John C C; Stone, Nicholas

    2013-03-01

    Raman spectroscopy is a powerful tool for studying the biochemical composition of tissues and cells in the human body. We describe the initial results of a feasibility study to design and build a miniature, fiber optic probe incorporated into a standard hypodermic needle. This probe is intended for use in optical biopsies of solid tissues to provide valuable information of disease type, such as in the lymphatic system, breast, or prostate, or of such tissue types as muscle, fat, or spinal, when identifying a critical injection site. The optical design and fabrication of this probe is described, and example spectra of various ex vivo samples are shown.

  1. Subminiature Hot-Wire Probes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westphal, R. V.; Lemos, F. R.; Ligrani, P. M.

    1989-01-01

    Class of improved subminiature hot-wire flow-measuring probes developed. Smaller sizes yield improved resolution in measurements of practical aerodynamic flows. Probe made in one-wire, two-perpendicular-wire, and three-perpendicular-wire version for measurement of one, two, or all three components of flow. Oriented and positioned on micromanipulator stage and viewed under microscope during fabrication. Tested by taking measurements in constant-pressure turbulent boundary layer. New probes give improved measurements of turbulence quantities near surfaces and anisotropies of flows strongly influence relative errors caused by phenomena related to spatial resolution.

  2. Optic probe for semiconductor characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sopori, Bhushan L.; Hambarian, Artak

    2008-09-02

    Described herein is an optical probe (120) for use in characterizing surface defects in wafers, such as semiconductor wafers. The optical probe (120) detects laser light reflected from the surface (124) of the wafer (106) within various ranges of angles. Characteristics of defects in the surface (124) of the wafer (106) are determined based on the amount of reflected laser light detected in each of the ranges of angles. Additionally, a wafer characterization system (100) is described that includes the described optical probe (120).

  3. Development and assessment of plant-based synthetic odor baits for surveillance and control of malaria vectors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincent O Nyasembe

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Recent malaria vector control measures have considerably reduced indoor biting mosquito populations. However, reducing the outdoor biting populations remains a challenge because of the unavailability of appropriate lures to achieve this. This study sought to test the efficacy of plant-based synthetic odor baits in trapping outdoor populations of malaria vectors. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDING: Three plant-based lures ((E-linalool oxide [LO], (E-linalool oxide and (E-β-ocimene [LO + OC], and a six-component blend comprising (E-linalool oxide, (E-β-ocimene, hexanal, β-pinene, limonene, and (E-β-farnesene [Blend C], were tested alongside an animal/human-based synthetic lure (comprising heptanal, octanal, nonanal, and decanal [Blend F] and worn socks in a malaria endemic zone in the western part of Kenya. Mosquito Magnet-X (MM-X and lightless Centre for Disease Control (CDC light traps were used. Odor-baited traps were compared with traps baited with either solvent alone or solvent + carbon dioxide (controls for 18 days in a series of randomized incomplete-block designs of days × sites × treatments. The interactive effect of plant and animal/human odor was also tested by combining LO with either Blend F or worn socks. Our results show that irrespective of trap type, traps baited with synthetic plant odors compared favorably to the same traps baited with synthetic animal odors and worn socks in trapping malaria vectors, relative to the controls. Combining LO and worn socks enhanced trap captures of Anopheles species while LO + Blend F recorded reduced trap capture. Carbon dioxide enhanced total trap capture of both plant- and animal/human-derived odors. However, significantly higher proportions of male and engorged female Anopheles gambiae s.l. were caught when the odor treatments did not include carbon dioxide. CONCLUSION AND SIGNIFICANCE: The results highlight the potential of plant-based odors and specifically linalool oxide

  4. Genotype by diet interactions in European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax L.): Nutritional challenge with totally plant-based diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Boucher, R; Vandeputte, M; Dupont-Nivet, M; Quillet, E; Ruelle, F; Vergnet, A; Kaushik, S; Allamellou, J M; Médale, F; Chatain, B

    2013-01-01

    Aquaculture of carnivorous species has strongly relied on fish meal and fish oil for feed formulation; however, greater replacement by terrestrial plant-based products is occurring now. This rapid change in dietary environment has been a major revolution and has to be taken into consideration in breeding programs. The present study analyzes potential consequences of this nutritional tendency for selective breeding by estimating genetic parameters of BW and growth rates estimated by the thermal growth coefficient (TGC) over different periods with extremely different diets. European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax L.) from a factorial cross (1,526 fish) between 25 sires and 9 dams were used to estimate heritabilities and genotype by diet interaction. Starting 87 d after fertilization (2.5 g), one-half of the sea bass were fed a diet containing marine products (M), and the other one-half were fed a totally plant-based (PB) diet (without any fish meal or fish oil). The fish were individually tagged, reared in a recirculated system, and genotyped at 13 microsatellites to rebuild parentage of individuals. Body weight and TGC were measured for 335 d until fish fed the M diet reached 108.3 g of BW. These traits were significantly less in fish fed the PB diet (Pdiets rapidly disappeared (P>0.1). Survival was significantly less in fish fed the PB diet (PB=64.7%, M=93.7% after 418 d, Pdiets and high genetic correlations between diets (0.78 to 0.93), meaning low genotype by diet interactions, although diets were extremely different. Heritabilities of TGC (0.11 to 0.3) were less than for BW as well as genetic correlations between diets (0.43 to 0.64). Using such extremely different diets, predicted BW gains in different scenarios indicated that selecting fish for growth on a marine diet should be the most efficient way to increase growth on plant-based diets, meaning that, in this case, indirect selection should be more efficient than direct selection.

  5. Plant-based medicines for anxiety disorders, part 2: a review of clinical studies with supporting preclinical evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarris, Jerome; McIntyre, Erica; Camfield, David A

    2013-04-01

    Research in the area of herbal psychopharmacology has revealed a variety of promising medicines that may provide benefit in the treatment of general anxiety and specific anxiety disorders. However, a comprehensive review of plant-based anxiolytics has been absent to date. Thus, our aim was to provide a comprehensive narrative review of plant-based medicines that have clinical and/or preclinical evidence of anxiolytic activity. We present the article in two parts. In part one, we reviewed herbal medicines for which only preclinical investigations for anxiolytic activity have been performed. In this current article (part two), we review herbal medicines for which there have been both preclinical and clinical investigations of anxiolytic activity. A search of MEDLINE (PubMed), CINAHL, Scopus and the Cochrane Library databases was conducted (up to 28 October 2012) for English language papers using the search terms 'anxiety' OR 'anxiety disorder' OR 'generalized anxiety disorder' OR 'social phobia' OR 'post-traumatic stress disorder' OR 'panic disorder' OR 'agoraphobia' OR 'obsessive compulsive disorder' in combination with the search terms 'Herb*' OR 'Medicinal Plants' OR 'Botanical Medicine' OR 'Chinese herb*', in addition to individual herbal medicines. This search of the literature revealed 1,525 papers, of which 53 plants were included in the review (having at least one study using the whole plant extract). Of these plants, 21 had human clinical trial evidence (reviewed here in part two), with the other 32 having solely preclinical evidence (reviewed in part one). Support for efficacy was found for chronic use (i.e. greater than one day) of the following herbs in treating a range of anxiety disorders in human clinical trials: Piper methysticum, Matricaria recutita, Ginkgo biloba, Scutellaria lateriflora, Silybum marianum, Passiflora incarnata, Withania somniferum, Galphimia glauca, Centella asiatica, Rhodiola rosea, Echinacea spp., Melissa officinalis and Echium

  6. Techniques for measuring small changes in the orientation of the easy axis in permalloy films

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eijkel, Kees J.M.; Haan, de Poul; Ridder, de René M.

    1988-01-01

    It is well known that the orientation of the easy axis in permalloy can be affected by annealing. The need in our research for detailed information of the behavior of the easy‐axis orientation in the temperature range from room temperature to 100 °C and the absence of measurement techniques to deriv

  7. Understanding Resonance Graphs Using Easy Java Simulations (EJS) and Why We Use EJS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wee, Loo Kang; Lee, Tat Leong; Chew, Charles; Wong, Darren; Tan, Samuel

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports a computer model simulation created using Easy Java Simulation (EJS) for learners to visualize how the steady-state amplitude of a driven oscillating system varies with the frequency of the periodic driving force. The simulation shows (N = 100) identical spring-mass systems being subjected to (1) a periodic driving force of…

  8. Technical Adequacy of the easyCBM Grade 2 Reading Measures. Technical Report #1004

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamgochian, Elisa; Park, Bitnara Jasmine; Nese, Joseph F. T.; Lai, Cheng-Fei; Saez, Leilani; Anderson, Daniel; Alonzo, Julie; Tindal, Gerald

    2010-01-01

    In this technical report, we provide reliability and validity evidence for the easyCBM[R] Reading measures for grade 2 (word and passage reading fluency and multiple choice reading comprehension). Evidence for reliability includes internal consistency and item invariance. Evidence for validity includes concurrent, predictive, and construct…

  9. [Easy creation of a kit of radiologic images with Microsoft Visual Basic].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itti, E; Durand, F; Bercez, H; Ceugnart, L; Pruvo, J P

    1996-11-01

    As computer media have a well accepted role in the medical world, we suggest to residents and assistants specialized in imaging, an easy, evolutive and low-cost computer-based method, that allows to build up a picture data bank for use as a teaching tool. We join to this article, the output of our interface program.

  10. Supervisor Perspective on the Process and Outcome of Giving Easy, Difficult, or No Feedback to Supervisees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Mary Ann; Hill, Clara E.; Holmes, Stacey E.; Freitas, Gary F.

    2005-01-01

    Fifteen counseling center supervisors were interviewed about 3 instances related to important feedback with an intern supervisee: in which the feedback was given easily, in which it was given reluctantly or with difficulty, and another in which it was not given. Supervisors indicated that easy feedback was most often about clinical problems, was…

  11. Management of Acute Pancreatitis: "PANCREAS" Contains Eight Easy Steps to Remember the Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Khaliq

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The most recent evidence-based medical findings for the management of acute pancreatitis has prompted us to propose the acronym “PANCREAS”(Perfusion, Analgesia, Nutrition, Clinical assessment, Radiological assessment, ERCP, Antibiotics, and Surgery for easy remembrance and management in daily medical practice

  12. Chitin microneedles for an easy-to-use tuberculosis skin test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Jungho; Reese, Valerie; Coler, Rhea; Carter, Darrick; Rolandi, Marco

    2014-03-01

    An easy-to-use tuberculosis skin test is developed with chitin microneedles that deliver purified protein derivative at the correct skin depth and result in a positive test in BCG-immunized guinea pigs. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Introducing Human Population Biology through an Easy Laboratory Exercise on Mitochondrial DNA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pardinas, Antonio F.; Dopico, Eduardo; Roca, Agustin; Garcia-Vazquez, Eva; Lopez, Belen

    2010-01-01

    This article describes an easy and cheap laboratory exercise for students to discover their own mitochondrial haplogroup. Students use buccal swabs to obtain mucosa cells as noninvasive tissue samples, extract DNA, and with a simple polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis they can obtain DNA fragments of…

  14. How to Create a 3D Model from Scanned Data in 5 Easy Steps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagen, Richard

    2017-01-01

    Additive manufacturing is a cost effective way to generate copies of damaged parts for demonstrations. Integrating scanned data of a damaged area into an existing model may be challenging. However, using the relatively inexpensive Nettfab software (from one can generate a "watertight" model that is easy to print.

  15. Easy simulation and design of on-chip inductors in standard CMOS processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Kåre Tais; Jørgensen, Allan

    1998-01-01

    This paper presents an approach to CMOS inductor modelling, that allow easy simulation in SPICE-like simulators. A number of test results are presented concerning optimal center hole, inductor area, wire spacing and self-inductance. Finally a comprehensive design guide is provided on how to design...

  16. BODIPY-phosphane as a versatile tool for easy access to new metal-based theranostics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tasan, Semra; Zava, Olivier; Bertrand, Benoit; Bernhard, Claire; Goze, Christine; Picquet, Michel; Le Gendre, Pierre; Harvey, Pierre; Denat, Franck; Casini, Angela; Bodio, Ewen

    2013-01-01

    A new BODIPY-phosphane was synthesized and proved to be a versatile tool for imaging organometallic complexes. It also led to easy access to a new family of theranostics, featuring gold, ruthenium and osmium complexes. The compounds' cytotoxicity was tested on cancer cells, and their cell uptake was

  17. Topology optimization using PETSc: An easy-to-use, fully parallel, open source topology optimization framework

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aage, Niels; Andreassen, Erik; Lazarov, Boyan Stefanov

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a flexible framework for parallel and easy-to-implement topology optimization using the Portable and Extendable Toolkit for Scientific Computing (PETSc). The presented framework is based on a standardized, and freely available library and in the published form it solves the mi...

  18. The easy ADL home: A physical-virtual approach to domestic living

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Surie, Dipak; Pederson, Thomas; Janlert, Lars-Erik

    2010-01-01

    . In this paper, we present such an approach and use it for designing a smart home intended to support Activities of Daily Living (ADL). The easy ADL home is designed based on a wearable personal server that runs a personal ADL support middleware and a set of computationally augmented everyday objects within...

  19. Analyzing the Reliability of the easyCBM Reading Comprehension Measures: Grade 3. Technical Report #1202

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Cheng-Fei; Irvin, P. Shawn; Park, Bitnara Jasmine; Alonzo, Julie; Tindal, Gerald

    2012-01-01

    In this technical report, we present the results of a reliability study of the third-grade multiple choice reading comprehension measures available on the easyCBM learning system conducted in the spring of 2011. Analyses include split-half reliability, alternate form reliability, person and item reliability as derived from Rasch analysis,…

  20. Analyzing the Reliability of the easyCBM Reading Comprehension Measures: Grade 6. Technical Report #1205

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irvin, P. Shawn; Alonzo, Julie; Park, Bitnara Jasmine; Lai, Cheng-Fei; Tindal, Gerald

    2012-01-01

    In this technical report, we present the results of a reliability study of the sixth-grade multiple choice reading comprehension measures available on the easyCBM learning system conducted in the spring of 2011. Analyses include split-half reliability, alternate form reliability, person and item reliability as derived from Rasch analysis,…

  1. Analyzing the Reliability of the easyCBM Reading Comprehension Measures: Grade 7. Technical Report #1206

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irvin, P. Shawn; Alonzo, Julie; Lai, Cheng-Fei; Park, Bitnara Jasmine; Tindal, Gerald

    2012-01-01

    In this technical report, we present the results of a reliability study of the seventh-grade multiple choice reading comprehension measures available on the easyCBM learning system conducted in the spring of 2011. Analyses include split-half reliability, alternate form reliability, person and item reliability as derived from Rasch analysis,…

  2. Analyzing the Reliability of the easyCBM Reading Comprehension Measures: Grade 2. Technical Report #1201

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Cheng-Fei; Irvin, P. Shawn; Alonzo, Julie; Park, Bitnara Jasmine; Tindal, Gerald

    2012-01-01

    In this technical report, we present the results of a reliability study of the second-grade multiple choice reading comprehension measures available on the easyCBM learning system conducted in the spring of 2011. Analyses include split-half reliability, alternate form reliability, person and item reliability as derived from Rasch analysis,…

  3. Analyzing the Reliability of the easyCBM Reading Comprehension Measures: Grade 5. Technical Report #1204

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Bitnara Jasmine; Irvin, P. Shawn; Lai, Cheng-Fei; Alonzo, Julie; Tindal, Gerald

    2012-01-01

    In this technical report, we present the results of a reliability study of the fifth-grade multiple choice reading comprehension measures available on the easyCBM learning system conducted in the spring of 2011. Analyses include split-half reliability, alternate form reliability, person and item reliability as derived from Rasch analysis,…

  4. Analyzing the Reliability of the easyCBM Reading Comprehension Measures: Grade 4. Technical Report #1203

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Bitnara Jasmine; Irvin, P. Shawn; Alonzo, Julie; Lai, Cheng-Fei; Tindal, Gerald

    2012-01-01

    In this technical report, we present the results of a reliability study of the fourth-grade multiple choice reading comprehension measures available on the easyCBM learning system conducted in the spring of 2011. Analyses include split-half reliability, alternate form reliability, person and item reliability as derived from Rasch analysis,…

  5. The Three Bears and Other Plays: Six Easy Plays Especially Written for Educationally Handicapped Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassie, Dhyan

    This booklet contains six easy plays written for educationally handicapped children. The plays are brief, use few characters and simple language and plots, and are based on fairy tales. Titles are: (1) "The Three Bears'" (2) "The Gingerbread Boy'" (3) "Little Red Riding Hood'" (4) "The Three Billy Goats Gruff'" (5) "Hansel and Gretel'" and (6)…

  6. BODIPY-phosphane as a versatile tool for easy access to new metal-based theranostics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tasan, Semra; Zava, Olivier; Bertrand, Benoit; Bernhard, Claire; Goze, Christine; Picquet, Michel; Le Gendre, Pierre; Harvey, Pierre; Denat, Franck; Casini, Angela; Bodio, Ewen

    2013-01-01

    A new BODIPY-phosphane was synthesized and proved to be a versatile tool for imaging organometallic complexes. It also led to easy access to a new family of theranostics, featuring gold, ruthenium and osmium complexes. The compounds' cytotoxicity was tested on cancer cells, and their cell uptake was

  7. The Alignment of easyCBM[R] Math Measures to Curriculum Standards. Technical Report #1002

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nese, Joseph F. T.; Lai, Cheng-Fei; Anderson, Daniel; Park, Bitnara Jasmine; Tindal, Gerald; Alonzo, Julie

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the alignment of the easyCBM[R] mathematics benchmark and progress monitoring measures to the National Council of Teachers of Mathematics "Curriculum Focal Points" (NCTM, 2006). Based on Webb's alignment model (1997, 2002), we collected expert judgments on individual math items across a sampling of forms…

  8. Can expressions of anger enhance creativity? A test of the emotions as social information (EASI) model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Kleef, G.A.; Anastasopoulou, C.; Nijstad, B.A.

    2010-01-01

    We investigated whether expressions of anger can enhance creative performance. Building on the emotions as social information (EASI) model (Van Kleef, 2009), we predicted that the interpersonal effects of anger expressions on creativity depend on the target's epistemic motivation (EM)—the desire to

  9. Can expressions of anger enhance creativity? A test of the emotions as social information (EASI) model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Kleef, Gerben A.; Anastasopoulou, Christina; Nijstad, Bernard A.

    2010-01-01

    We investigated whether expressions of anger can enhance creative performance. Building on the emotions as social information (EASI) model (Van Kleef, 2009), we predicted that the interpersonal effects of anger expressions on creativity depend on the target's epistemic motivation (EM) the desire to

  10. The Use of Cylindrical Lenses in Easy Experiments for Physics Education and the Magic Arts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bednarek, Stanislaw; Krysiak, Jerzy

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to present the properties of cylindrical lenses and provide some examples of their use in easy school physics experiments. Such experiments could be successfully conducted in the context of science education, in fun experiments that teach physics and in science fair projects, or used to entertain an audience by…

  11. Introducing Human Population Biology through an Easy Laboratory Exercise on Mitochondrial DNA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pardinas, Antonio F.; Dopico, Eduardo; Roca, Agustin; Garcia-Vazquez, Eva; Lopez, Belen

    2010-01-01

    This article describes an easy and cheap laboratory exercise for students to discover their own mitochondrial haplogroup. Students use buccal swabs to obtain mucosa cells as noninvasive tissue samples, extract DNA, and with a simple polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis they can obtain DNA fragments of…

  12. A Theoretically Based, Easy-to-Use Tool for Promoting Goal-Setting Behaviors in Youths

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Anthony G.

    2017-01-01

    Extension youth development professionals benefit from having theoretically based, easy-to-use tools for promoting goal-setting behaviors in youths. The Youth Goal-Setting Map provides practitioners with a mechanism for helping youth develop attributes that place them on a pathway to thriving. This article provides the Youth Goal-Setting Map tool,…

  13. Digital Technology in the Visual Arts Classroom: An [un]Easy Partnership

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilks, Judith; Cutcher, Alexandra; Wilks, Susan

    2012-01-01

    This article scrutinizes the dichotomy of the uneasy and easy partnerships that exist between digital technology and visual arts education. The claim that by putting computers into schools "we have bought 'one half of a product'... we've bought the infrastructure and the equipment but we haven't bought the educational…

  14. Developing a Safety Management System for Fatigue Related Risks in easyJet

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stewart, S.; Koornneef, F.; Akselsson, R.; Turner, C.

    2009-01-01

    Chapter 5: Developing a Safety Management System for Fatigue Related Risks in easyJet The European Commission HILAS project (Human Integration into the Lifecycle of Aviation Systems - a project supported by the European Commission’s 6th Framework between 2005-2009) was focused on using human factor

  15. Properties of easy-plane/perpendicular magnetic anisotropy bilayers with varied interlayer exchange coupling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fallarino, Lorenzo; Sluka, Volker; Kardasz, Bartek; Pinarbasi, Mustafa; Kent, Andrew D.

    We explore the possibility of an easy-cone ground state in coupled easy plane/easy axis magnetic bilayers. The samples consist of a Co/Ni multilayer with perpendicular magnetic anisotropy and a CoFe layer with easy-plane anisotropy separated by a variable thickness Ru layer. Using ferromagnetic resonance spectroscopy, we characterize the magnetic behavior of the coupled thin films for different Ru thicknesses by determining the resonance fields for both the acoustic and optical FMR modes. In particular, we observe a gap in the resonance field opening up between the two modes in angular-dependent FMR, which is direct evidence for the presence of interlayer coupling. Quantitative comparisons with a theoretical model indicate that by varying the Ru thickness the coupling strength can be tuned continuously from ferromagnetic to the anti-ferromagnetic. These results are consistent with a canted magnetic ground state in zero field, a state of interest for applications in spin-torque devices, such as current tunable spin-torque oscillators. Supported by NSF-DMR1309202 and Spin-Transfer Technologies Inc.

  16. 基于Easy Screen的故障诊断界面开发%The development of fault diagnosis interface based on Easy Screen

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩广亮; 肖真诗

    2012-01-01

    In order to meet the need of the market, the secondary development carrying on the NC system is another brilliant point of the current NC technology. In this paper, using SINUMERK 828D NC system as developing platform,regarding horizontal boring-milling center HMC63c as the research object,using the secondary development software Easy Screen provided by Siemens company to develop the NC machine tool fault diagnosis interface which has its own characteristics, the HMI diagnostics interface is aimed at machine tool users, it's very intuitive, greatly enhances the competitiveness of the products.%为了适应市场的需要,进行数控系统的HMI二次开发则是当今数控技术的又一亮点.以西门子828D数控系统为开发平台,以卧式镗铣加工中心HMC63c为研究对象,利用西门子公司提供的二次开发软件Easy Screen,开发具有自己特色的数控机床故障诊断界面,该HMI诊断界面是针对机床用户的,十分直观,大大提高了产品的竞争力.

  17. Small Probe Reentry System Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Global Aerospace Corporation (GAC), and its research partner, Cal Poly San Luis Obispo (CPSLO), will develop an integrated Small Probe Reentry System (SPRS) for low...

  18. Lunar Probe Reaches Deep Space

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    @@ China's second lunar probe, Chang'e-2, has reached an orbit 1.5 million kilometers from Earth for an additional mission of deep space exploration, the State Administration for Science, Technology and Industry for National Defense announced.

  19. DNA probe for lactobacillus delbrueckii

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delley, M.; Mollet, B.; Hottinger, H. (Nestle Research Centre, Lausanne (Switzerland))

    1990-06-01

    From a genomic DNA library of Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus, a clone was isolated which complements a leucine auxotrophy of an Escherichia coli strain (GE891). Subsequent analysis of the clone indicated that it could serve as a specific DNA probe. Dot-blot hybridizations with over 40 different Lactobacillus strains showed that this clone specifically recognized L. delbrueckii subsp. delbrueckii, bulgaricus, and lactis. The sensitivity of the method was tested by using an {alpha}-{sup 32}P-labeled probe.

  20. Transformer-coupled NMR probe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utsuzawa, Shin; Mandal, Soumyajit; Song, Yi-Qiao

    2012-03-01

    In this study, we propose an NMR probe circuit that uses a transformer with a ferromagnetic core for impedance matching. The ferromagnetic core provides a strong but confined coupling that result in efficient energy transfer between the sample coil and NMR spectrometer, while not disturbing the B1 field generated by the sample coil. We built a transformer-coupled NMR probe and found that it offers comparable performance (loss NQR.

  1. Seismic Behavior of Vertical Shear Links made of Easy-Going Steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir S. Daryan

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem Statement: Since the time that steel was first used as a construction material, engineers have attempted to increase strength, reduce weight and produce more economical structures by using elegant member sections. However, the increase in steel strength and the decrease in cross section area are not always useful and in some cases it is necessary to reduce the strength to allow the structure to behave in a specific manner. This issue is seen in systems designed to withstand lateral loads, such as wind and earthquake loads. Approach: To improve the seismic behavior of braced frames, the V-EBF system with shear panels made of easy-going steel is presented. Using the finite element method, braced frames with shear panels made of easy-going steel were analyzed and compared to the behavior of the same frame with shear panels made of construction steel. The influence of shear panel systems made of easy-going steel is investigated by inserting this system in 4, 8 and 12-storey frames and analyzing them under earthquake loads. Results: The results indicate that contrary to shear panels made of construction steel no local buckling occurs in shear panels made of easy-going steel and the energy dissipation and ductility are increased considerably. Consequently, frames with shear panels made of easy-going steel exhibit better performance and energy absorption. Conclusion: In this research, it is attempted to improve the behavior of V-EBF frames by using a new type of steel, EGS, which has a lower yield stress than construction steel. The study shows that if EGS is used in a shear panel, seismic behavior of these frames improves noticeably.

  2. EasyGene – a prokaryotic gene finder that ranks ORFs by statistical significance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larsen Thomas

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Contrary to other areas of sequence analysis, a measure of statistical significance of a putative gene has not been devised to help in discriminating real genes from the masses of random Open Reading Frames (ORFs in prokaryotic genomes. Therefore, many genomes have too many short ORFs annotated as genes. Results In this paper, we present a new automated gene-finding method, EasyGene, which estimates the statistical significance of a predicted gene. The gene finder is based on a hidden Markov model (HMM that is automatically estimated for a new genome. Using extensions of similarities in Swiss-Prot, a high quality training set of genes is automatically extracted from the genome and used to estimate the HMM. Putative genes are then scored with the HMM, and based on score and length of an ORF, the statistical significance is calculated. The measure of statistical significance for an ORF is the expected number of ORFs in one megabase of random sequence at the same significance level or better, where the random sequence has the same statistics as the genome in the sense of a third order Markov chain. Conclusions The result is a flexible gene finder whose overall performance matches or exceeds other methods. The entire pipeline of computer processing from the raw input of a genome or set of contigs to a list of putative genes with significance is automated, making it easy to apply EasyGene to newly sequenced organisms. EasyGene with pre-trained models can be accessed at http://www.cbs.dtu.dk/services/EasyGene.

  3. Thermodynamic Model of a Very High Efficiency Power Plant based on a Biomass Gasifier, SOFCs, and a Gas Turbine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P V Aravind

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Thermodynamic calculations with a power plant based on a biomass gasifier, SOFCs and a gas turbine are presented. The SOFC anode off-gas which mainly consists of steam and carbon dioxides used as a gasifying agent leading to an allothermal gasification process for which heat is required. Implementation of heat pipes between the SOFC and the gasifier using two SOFC stacks and intercooling the fuel and the cathode streams in between them has shown to be a solution on one hand to drive the allothermal gasification process and on the other hand to cool down the SOFC. It is seen that this helps to reduce the exergy losses in the system significantly. With such a system, electrical efficiency around 73% is shown as achievable.

  4. Plant-based Paste Fermented by Lactic Acid Bacteria and Yeast: Functional Analysis and Possibility of Application to Functional Foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuwaki, Shinsuke; Nakajima, Nobuyoshi; Tanaka, Hidehiko; Ishihara, Kohji

    2012-01-01

    A plant-based paste fermented by lactic acid bacteria and yeast (fermented paste) was made from various plant materials. The paste was made of fermented food by applying traditional food-preservation techniques, that is, fermentation and sugaring. The fermented paste contained major nutrients (carbohydrates, proteins, and lipids), 18 kinds of amino acids, and vitamins (vitamin A, B1, B2, B6, B12, E, K, niacin, biotin, pantothenic acid, and folic acid). It contained five kinds of organic acids, and a large amount of dietary fiber and plant phytochemicals. Sucrose from brown sugar, used as a material, was completely resolved into glucose and fructose. Some physiological functions of the fermented paste were examined in vitro. It was demonstrated that the paste possessed antioxidant, antihypertensive, antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, anti-allergy and anti-tyrosinase activities in vitro. It was thought that the fermented paste would be a helpful functional food with various nutrients to help prevent lifestyle diseases.

  5. Environment control to improve recombinant protein yields in plants based on Agrobacterium-mediated transient gene expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naomichi eFujiuchi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Agrobacterium-mediated transient expression systems enable plants to produce a wide range of recombinant proteins on a rapid timescale. To achieve economically feasible upstream production and downstream processing, two yield parameters should be considered: 1 recombinant protein content per unit biomass; and 2 recombinant protein productivity per unit area-time at the end of the upstream production. Because environmental factors in the upstream production have impacts on those parameters, environment control is important to maximize the recombinant protein yield. In this review, we summarize the effects of pre- and post-inoculation environmental factors in the upstream production on the yield parameters and discuss the basic concept of environment control for plant-based transient expression systems. Pre-inoculation environmental factors associated with planting density, light quality and nutrient supply affect plant characteristics such as biomass and morphology, which in turn affect recombinant protein content and productivity. Accordingly, environment control for such plant characteristics has significant implications to achieve a high yield. On the other hand, post-inoculation environmental factors such as temperature, light intensity and humidity have been shown to affect recombinant protein content. Considering that recombinant protein production in Agrobacterium-mediated transient expression systems is a result of a series of complex biological events starting from T-DNA transfer from Agrobacterium tumefaciens to protein biosynthesis and accumulation in leaf tissue, we propose that dynamic environment control during the post-inoculation process, i.e., changing environmental conditions at an appropriate timing for each event, may be a promising approach to obtain a high yield. Detailed descriptions of plant growth conditions and careful examination of environmental effects will significantly contribute to our knowledge to stably obtain

  6. Effect of High Pressure Homogenization on the Physicochemical Properties of Natural Plant-based Model Emulsion Applicable for Dairy Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sung Hee; Min, Sang-Gi; Jo, Yeon-Ji; Chun, Ji-Yeon

    2015-01-01

    In the dairy industry, natural plant-based powders are widely used to develop flavor and functionality. However, most of these ingredients are water-insoluble; therefore, emulsification is essential. In this study, the efficacy of high pressure homogenization (HPH) on natural plant (chocolate or vanilla)-based model emulsions was investigated. The particle size, electrical conductivity, Brix, pH, and color were analyzed after HPH. HPH significantly decreased the particle size of chocolate-based emulsions as a function of elevated pressures (20-100 MPa). HPH decreased the mean particle size of chocolate-based emulsions from 29.01 μm to 5.12 μm, and that of vanilla-based emulsions from 4.18 μm to 2.44 μm. Electrical conductivity increased as a function of the elevated pressures after HPH, for both chocolate- and vanilla-based model emulsions. HPH at 100 MPa increased the electrical conductivity of chocolate-based model emulsions from 0.570 S/m to 0.680 S/m, and that of vanilla-based model emulsions from 0.573 S/m to 0.601 S/m. Increased electrical conductivity would be attributed to colloidal phase modification and dispersion of oil globules. Brix of both chocolate- and vanilla-based model emulsions gradually increased as a function of the HPH pressure. Thus, HPH increased the solubility of plant-based powders by decreasing the particle size. This study demonstrated the potential use of HPH for enhancing the emulsification process and stability of the natural plant powders for applications with dairy products. PMID:26761891

  7. Annual Energy Production (AEP) optimization for tidal power plants based on Evolutionary Algorithms - Swansea Bay Tidal Power Plant AEP optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kontoleontos, E.; Weissenberger, S.

    2016-11-01

    In order to be able to predict the maximum Annual Energy Production (AEP) for tidal power plants, an advanced AEP optimization procedure is required for solving the optimization problem which consists of a high number of design variables and constraints. This efficient AEP optimization procedure requires an advanced optimization tool (EASY software) and an AEP calculation tool that can simulate all different operating modes of the units (bidirectional turbine, pump and sluicing mode). The EASY optimization software is a metamodel-assisted Evolutionary Algorithm (MAEA) that can be used in both single- and multi-objective optimization problems. The AEP calculation tool, developed by ANDRITZ HYDRO, in combination with EASY is used to maximize the tidal annual energy produced by optimizing the plant operation throughout the year. For the Swansea Bay Tidal Power Plant project, the AEP optimization along with the hydraulic design optimization and the model testing was used to evaluate all different hydraulic and operating concepts and define the optimal concept that led to a significant increase of the AEP value. This new concept of a triple regulated “bi-directional bulb pump turbine” for Swansea Bay Tidal Power Plant (16 units, nominal power above 320 MW) along with its AEP optimization scheme will be presented in detail in the paper. Furthermore, the use of an online AEP optimization during operation of the power plant, that will provide the optimal operating points to the control system, will be also presented.

  8. IVVS probe mechanical concept design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rossi, Paolo, E-mail: paolo.rossi@enea.it; Neri, Carlo; De Collibus, Mario Ferri; Mugnaini, Giampiero; Pollastrone, Fabio; Crescenzi, Fabio

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • ENEA designed, developed and tested a laser based In Vessel Viewing System (IVVS). • IVVS mechanical design has been revised from 2011 to 2013 to meet ITER requirements. • Main improvements are piezoceramic actuators and a step focus system. • Successful qualification activities validated the concept design for ITER environment. - Abstract: ENEA has been deeply involved in the design, development and testing of a laser based In Vessel Viewing System (IVVS) required for the inspection of ITER plasma-facing components. The IVVS probe shall be deployed into the vacuum vessel, providing high resolution images and metrology measurements to detect damages and possible erosion. ENEA already designed and manufactured an IVVS probe prototype based on a rad-hard concept and driven by commercial micro-step motors, which demonstrated satisfying viewing and metrology performances at room conditions. The probe sends a laser beam through a reflective rotating prism. By rotating the axes of the prism, the probe can scan all the environment points except those present in a shadow cone and the backscattered light signal is then processed to measure the intensity level (viewing) and the distance from the probe (metrology). During the last years, in order to meet all the ITER environmental conditions, such as high vacuum, gamma radiation lifetime dose up to 5 MGy, cumulative neutron fluence of about 2.3 × 10{sup 17} n/cm{sup 2}, temperature of 120 °C and magnetic field of 8 T, the probe mechanical design was significantly revised introducing a new actuating system based on piezo-ceramic actuators and improved with a new step focus system. The optical and mechanical schemes have been then modified and refined to meet also the geometrical constraints. The paper describes the mechanical concept design solutions adopted in order to fulfill IVVS probe functional performance requirements considering ITER working environment and geometrical constraints.

  9. Multiple-probe scanning probe microscopes for nanoarchitectonic materials science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakayama, Tomonobu; Shingaya, Yoshitaka; Aono, Masakazu

    2016-11-01

    Nanoarchitectonic systems are of interest for utilizing a vast range of nanoscale materials for future applications requiring a huge number of elemental nanocomponents. To explore the science and technology of nanoarchitectonics, advanced characterization tools that can deal with both nanoscale objects and macroscopically extended nanosystems are demanded. Multiple-probe scanning probe microscopes (MP-SPMs) are powerful tools that meet this demand because they take the advantages of conventional scanning probe microscopes and realize atomically precise electrical measurements, which cannot be done with conventional microprobing systems widely used in characterizing materials and devices. Furthermore, an MP-SPM can be used to operate some nanoarchitectonic systems. In this review, we overview the indispensable features of MP-SPMs together with the past, present and future of MP-SPM technology.

  10. 'Turn On/Off' fluorescence probe for the screening of unactivated Bruton's tyrosine kinase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawahata, Wataru; Asami, Tokiko; Fujii, Ikuo; Sawa, Masaaki

    2015-01-01

    BTK has emerged as a promising target for treating B-cell malignancies and autoimmune diseases, and there has been a growing demand to identify selective BTK inhibitors efficiently. In this Letter, we have designed and synthesized a new fluorescent probe to screen compounds that preferentially bind to an unactivated state of BTK (BTK [U]). The fluorescence of the probe was turned on in the presence of BTK [U], and quenched by the addition of compounds which preferentially bind to BTK [U]. This unique fluorescent probe was successfully applied to the screening of a kinase focused compound library. The results suggest that this new method is a simple and easy-to-perform assay to screen inhibitors of BTK [U]. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Long-term feeding a plant-based diet devoid of marine ingredients strongly affects certain key metabolic enzymes in the rainbow trout liver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Véron, Vincent; Panserat, Stéphane; Le Boucher, Richard; Labbé, Laurent; Quillet, Edwige; Dupont-Nivet, Mathilde; Médale, Françoise

    2016-04-01

    Incorporation of a plant blend in the diet can affect growth parameters and metabolism in carnivorous fish. We studied for the first time the long-term (1 year) metabolic response of rainbow trout fed from first feeding with a plant-based diet totally devoid of marine ingredients. Hepatic enzymes were analyzed at enzymatic and molecular levels, at 3, 8 and 24 h after the last meal to study both the short-term effects of the last meal and long-term effects of the diet. The results were compared with those of fish fed a control diet of fish meal and fish oil. Growth, feed intake, feed efficiency and protein retention were lower in the group fed the plant-based diet. Glucokinase and pyruvate kinase activity were lower in the livers of trout fed the plant-based diet which the proportion of starch was lower than in the control diet. Glutamate dehydrogenase was induced by the plant-based diet, suggesting an imbalance of amino acids and a possible link with the lower protein retention observed. Gene expression of delta 6 desaturase was higher in fish fed the plant-based diet, probably linked to a high dietary level of linolenic acid and the absence of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids in vegetable oils. Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA synthase expression was also induced by plant-based diet because of the low rate of cholesterol in the diet. Changes in regulation mechanisms already identified through short-term nutritional experiments (<12 weeks) suggest that metabolic responses are implemented at short term and remain in the long term.

  12. Optical imaging probes in oncology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martelli, Cristina; Lo Dico, Alessia; Diceglie, Cecilia; Lucignani, Giovanni; Ottobrini, Luisa

    2016-07-26

    Cancer is a complex disease, characterized by alteration of different physiological molecular processes and cellular features. Keeping this in mind, the possibility of early identification and detection of specific tumor biomarkers by non-invasive approaches could improve early diagnosis and patient management.Different molecular imaging procedures provide powerful tools for detection and non-invasive characterization of oncological lesions. Clinical studies are mainly based on the use of computed tomography, nuclear-based imaging techniques and magnetic resonance imaging. Preclinical imaging in small animal models entails the use of dedicated instruments, and beyond the already cited imaging techniques, it includes also optical imaging studies. Optical imaging strategies are based on the use of luminescent or fluorescent reporter genes or injectable fluorescent or luminescent probes that provide the possibility to study tumor features even by means of fluorescence and luminescence imaging. Currently, most of these probes are used only in animal models, but the possibility of applying some of them also in the clinics is under evaluation.The importance of tumor imaging, the ease of use of optical imaging instruments, the commercial availability of a wide range of probes as well as the continuous description of newly developed probes, demonstrate the significance of these applications. The aim of this review is providing a complete description of the possible optical imaging procedures available for the non-invasive assessment of tumor features in oncological murine models. In particular, the characteristics of both commercially available and newly developed probes will be outlined and discussed.

  13. Influence of thermal agitation on the electric field induced precessional magnetization reversal with perpendicular easy axis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongguang Cheng

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the influence of thermal agitation on the electric field induced precessional magnetization switching probability with perpendicular easy axis by solving the Fokker-Planck equation numerically with finite difference method. The calculated results show that the thermal agitation during the reversal process crucially influences the switching probability. The switching probability can be achieved is only determined by the thermal stability factor Δ of the free layer, it is independent on the device dimension, which is important for the high density device application. Ultra-low error rate down to the order of 10−9 can be achieved for the device of thermal stability factor Δ of 40. Low damping factor α material should be used for the free layer for high reliability device applications. These results exhibit potential of electric field induced precessional magnetization switching with perpendicular easy axis for ultra-low power, high speed and high density magnetic random access memory (MRAM applications.

  14. Influence of thermal agitation on the electric field induced precessional magnetization reversal with perpendicular easy axis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng, Hongguang, E-mail: chenghg7932@gmail.com; Deng, Ning [Institute of Microelectronics, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)

    2013-12-15

    We investigated the influence of thermal agitation on the electric field induced precessional magnetization switching probability with perpendicular easy axis by solving the Fokker-Planck equation numerically with finite difference method. The calculated results show that the thermal agitation during the reversal process crucially influences the switching probability. The switching probability can be achieved is only determined by the thermal stability factor Δ of the free layer, it is independent on the device dimension, which is important for the high density device application. Ultra-low error rate down to the order of 10{sup −9} can be achieved for the device of thermal stability factor Δ of 40. Low damping factor α material should be used for the free layer for high reliability device applications. These results exhibit potential of electric field induced precessional magnetization switching with perpendicular easy axis for ultra-low power, high speed and high density magnetic random access memory (MRAM) applications.

  15. Easy fabrication of thin membranes with through holes. Application to protein patterning.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Masters

    Full Text Available Since protein patterning on 2D surfaces has emerged as an important tool in cell biology, the development of easy patterning methods has gained importance in biology labs. In this paper we present a simple, rapid and reliable technique to fabricate thin layers of UV curable polymer with through holes. These membranes are as easy to fabricate as microcontact printing stamps and can be readily used for stencil patterning. We show how this microfabrication scheme allows highly reproducible and highly homogeneous protein patterning with micron sized resolution on surfaces as large as 10 cm(2. Using these stencils, fragile proteins were patterned without loss of function in a fully hydrated state. We further demonstrate how intricate patterns of multiple proteins can be achieved by stacking the stencil membranes. We termed this approach microserigraphy.

  16. Simulating a Rotational Inverted Pendulum Model by using Matlab and Easy Java Simulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar O. Rodríguez-Díaz

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the analysis, design and construction of a virtual simulator, in which the behavior of a non-lineal system as the rotational inverted pendulum is represented graphically in an interface. This uses an Applet of Java that allows users change parameters of the model. The use of this tool is a good alternative for bridging the gap between the theoretical concepts and the actual behaviors of a process. The server uses Matlab/Simulink as a calculation engine, taking advantage of its ease for constructing non-lineal models by using block diagrams. The user interface has been created by a free software tool called Easy Java Simulations that allows designing interactive graphical applications as 3D interfaces. Easy Java results an interesting tool for automatic control system education.

  17. Second Interim Report NASA - easyJet Collaboration on the Human Factors Monitoring Program (HFMP) Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivistava, Ashok N.; Barton, Phil

    2012-01-01

    This is the second interim report jointly prepared by NASA and easyJet on the work performed under the agreement to collaborate on a study of the factors entailed in flight and cabin-crew fatigue, and decreases in performance associated with fatigue. The objective of this Agreement is to generate reliable procedures that aid in understanding the levels and characteristics of flight and cabin-crew fatigue factors, both latent and proximate, whose confluence will likely result in unacceptable crew performance. This study entails the analyses of numerical and textual data collected during operational flights. NASA and easyJet are both interested in assessing and testing NASA s automated capabilities for extracting operationally significant information from very large, diverse (textual and numerical) databases; much larger than can be handled practically by human experts.

  18. SCEW: a Microsoft Excel add-in for easy creation of survival curves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Haseeb Ahmad

    2006-07-01

    Survival curves are frequently used for reporting survival or mortality outcomes of experimental pharmacological/toxicological studies and of clinical trials. Microsoft Excel is a simple and widely used tool for creation of numerous types of graphic presentations however it is difficult to create step-wise survival curves in Excel. Considering the familiarity of clinicians and biomedical scientists with Excel, an algorithm survival curves in Excel worksheet (SCEW) has been developed for easy creation of survival curves directly in Excel worksheets. The algorithm has been integrated in the form of Excel add-in for easy installation and usage. The program is based on modification of frequency data for binary break-up using the spreadsheet formula functions whereas a macro subroutine automates the creation of survival curves. The advantages of this program are simple data input, minimal procedural steps and the creation of survival curves in the familiar confines of Excel.

  19. easyPET: a novel concept for an affordable tomographic system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arosio, V.; Caccia, M.; Castro, I. F.; Correia, P. M. M.; Mattone, C.; Moutinho, L. M.; Santoro, R.; Silva, A. L. M.; Veloso, J. F. C. A.

    2017-02-01

    The easyPET concept described here aims to reduce complexity and cost of preclinical Positron Emission Tomography (PET) scanners. The system, original in its principle and realisation, is based on a single pair of detectors and a rotating mechanism with two degrees of freedom reproducing the functionalities of an entire PET ring. The characterisation of a 2D imaging prototype, realised to assess the easyPET concept, is presented in this paper. In particular, a spatial resolution of 1±0.1 mm and a sensitivity of 0.1% with an energy threshold of 80 keV have been measured. These encouraging results, compared to the performances of commercial preclinical PET, motivate the feasibility study of a 3D system.

  20. Flare: Architecture for rapid and easy development of Internet-based Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Shekhar, Shashank; Chakravarthy, NVSN Kalyan

    2009-01-01

    We propose an architecture, Flare, that is a structured and easy way to develop applications rapidly, in a multitude of languages, which make use of online storage of data and management of users. The architecture eliminates the need for server-side programming in most cases, creation and management of online database storage servers, re-creation of user management schemes and writing a lot of unnecessary code for accessing different web-based services using their APIs. A Web API provides a common API for various web-based services like Blogger [2], Wordpress, MSN Live, Facebook [3] etc. Access Libraries provided for major programming languages and platforms make it easy to develop applications using the Flare Web Service. We demonstrate a simple micro-blogging service developed using these APIs in two modes: a graphical browser-based mode, and a command-line mode in C++, which provide two different interfaces to the same account and data.

  1. ANALYSIS OF PRINTING PARAMETERS FOR PRODUCTION OF COMPONENTS WITH ​EASY3DMAKER​ PRINTER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Rengevič

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The presented article deals with analyses and testing appropriate parameters for the production of components manufactured with rapid prototyping technology - Easy3DMaker printer. The quality of the printed component with a specific shape is analyzed. The analyzed materials are ABS Printplus and PLA Printplus. These materials are printed at different temperatures and speeds. combinations of different settings were tested in order to find the best conditions for printing with different nozzles. The quality of individual printed samples is assessed visually and by touch. The efficiency in terms of print time under various conditions was also analyzed. The main benefit of testing is the establishment of appropriate conditions for printing components on a Easy3DMaker printer. The article does not focus on mechanical properties of the examined samples.

  2. PHY∙FI: fast and easy online creation and manipulation of phylogeny color figures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fredslund, Jakob

    2006-01-01

    Background The need to depict a phylogeny, or some other kind of abstract tree, is very frequently experienced by researchers from a broad range of biological and computational disciplines. Thousands of papers and talks include phylogeny figures, and often during everyday work, one would like......-processing the phylogeny figure in some other general-purpose graphics program. PHY·FI is versatile, easy-to-use and fast, and supports comprehensive graphical control, several download image formats, and the possibility of dynamically collapsing groups of nodes into named subtrees (e.g. "Primates"). The user can create...... a color figure from any phylogeny, or other kind of tree, represented in the widely used parenthesized Newick format. Conclusion PHY·FI is fast and easy to use, yet still offers full color control, tree manipulation, and several image formats. It does not require any downloading and installing, and thus...

  3. DeadEasy caspase: automatic counting of apoptotic cells in Drosophila.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel G Forero

    Full Text Available Development, cancer, neurodegenerative and demyelinating diseases, injury, and stem cell manipulations are characterised by alterations in cell number. Research into development, disease, and the effects of drugs require cell number counts. These are generally indirect estimates, because counting cells in an animal or organ is paradoxically difficult, as well as being tedious and unmanageable. Drosophila is a powerful model organism used to investigate the genetic bases of development and disease. There are Drosophila models for multiple neurodegenerative diseases, characterised by an increase in cell death. However, a fast, reliable, and accurate way to count the number of dying cells in vivo is not available. Here, we present a method based on image filtering and mathematical morphology techniques, to count automatically the number of dying cells in intact fruit-fly embryos. We call the resulting programme DeadEasy Caspase. It has been validated for Drosophila and we present examples of its power to address biological questions. Quantification is automatic, accurate, objective, and very fast. DeadEasy Caspase will be freely available as an ImageJ plug-in, and it can be modified for use in other sample types. It is of interest to the Drosophila and wider biomedical communities. DeadEasy Caspase is a powerful tool for the analysis of cell survival and cell death in development and in disease, such as neurodegenerative diseases and ageing. Combined with the power of Drosophila genetics, DeadEasy expands the tools that enable the use of Drosophila to analyse gene function, model disease and test drugs in the intact nervous system and whole animal.

  4. Tootearendus EASi moodi sai riigikontrollilt hävitava hinnangu / Kristina Traks

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Traks, Kristina, 1976-

    2004-01-01

    Riigikontroll auditeeris Ettevõtluse Arenduse Sihtasutusest tootearendustoetust saanud projektide tulemusi ning avastas, et hulk toetusi saanud ettevõtteid ei ole jõudnud projekti käigus välja töötatud toodete eduka müügini. Diagramm. Lisad: EAS-i laenu abil valmib vähiravim; EAS jagab 4 miljonit krooni kohalikuks omaalgatuseks

  5. Don't words come easy? A psychophysical exploration of word superiority

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Starrfelt, Randi; Petersen, Anders; Vangkilde, Signe Allerup

    2013-01-01

    Words are made of letters, and yet sometimes it is easier to identify a word than a single letter. This word superiority effect (WSE) has been observed when written stimuli are presented very briefly or degraded by visual noise. We compare performance with letters and words in three experiments, ...... and visual short term memory capacity. So, even if single words come easy, there is a limit to the word superiority effect....

  6. Interaction between a domain wall and spin supercurrent in easy-cone magnets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Se Kwon; Tserkovnyak, Yaroslav

    2016-12-01

    A domain wall and spin supercurrent can coexist in magnets with easy-cone anisotropy owing to simultaneous spontaneous breaking of Z2 and U(1) symmetries. Their interaction is theoretically investigated in quasi-one-dimensional ferromagnets within the Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert phenomenology. Specifically, the spin supercurrent can exert the torque on a domain wall and thereby drive it. We also show, as a reciprocal phenomenon, a field-induced motion of a domain wall can generate spin supercurrent.

  7. Melting of Three-Sublattice Order in Easy-Axis Antiferromagnets on Triangular and Kagome Lattices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damle, Kedar

    2015-09-18

    When the constituent spins have an energetic preference to lie along an easy axis, triangular and kagome lattice antiferromagnets often develop long-range order that distinguishes the three sublattices of the underlying triangular Bravais lattice. In zero magnetic field, this three-sublattice order melts either in a two-step manner, i.e., via an intermediate phase with power-law three-sublattice order controlled by a temperature-dependent exponent η(T)∈(1/9,1/4), or via a transition in the three-state Potts universality class. Here, I predict that the uniform susceptibility to a small easy-axis field B diverges as χ(B)∼|B|^{-[(4-18η)/(4-9η)]} in a large part of the intermediate power-law ordered phase [corresponding to η(T)∈(1/9,2/9)], providing an easy-to-measure thermodynamic signature of two-step melting. I also show that these two melting scenarios can be generically connected via an intervening multicritical point and obtain numerical estimates of multicritical exponents.

  8. "easyMine" – realistic and systematic mine detection simulation tooltion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U. Böttger

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Mine detection is to date mainly performed with metal detectors, although new methods for UXO detection are explored worldwide. The main problem for the mine detection to date is, that there exist some ideas of which sensor combinations could yield a high score, but until now there is no systematic analysis of mine detection methods together with realistic environmental conditions to conclude on a physically and technically optimized sensor combination. This gap will be removed by a project “easyMine" (Realistic and systematic Mine Detection Simulation Tool which will result in a simulation tool for optimizing land mine detection in a realistic mine field. The project idea for this software tool is presented, that will simulate the closed chain of mine detection, including the mine in its natural environment, the sensor, the evaluation and application of the measurements by an user. The tool will be modularly designed. Each chain link will be an independent, exchangeable sub- module and will describe a stand alone part of the whole mine detection procedure. The advantage of the tool will be the evaluation of very different kinds of sensor combinations in relation of their real potential for mine detection. Three detection methods (metal detector, GPR and imaging IR-radiometry will be explained to be introduced into the easyMine software tool in a first step. An actual example for land mine detection problem will be presented and approaches for solutions with easyMine will be shown.

  9. Detection of the Magnetic Easy Direction in Steels Using Induced Magnetic Fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edgard M. Silva

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Conventional manufacturing processes cause plastic deformation that leads to magnetic anisotropy in processed materials. A deeper understanding of materials characterization under rotational magnetization enables engineers to optimize the overall volume, mass, and performance of devices such as electrical machines in industry. Therefore, it is important to find the magnetic easy direction of the magnetic domains in a simple and straightforward manner. The Magnetic easy direction can be obtained through destructive tests such as the Epstein frame method and the Single Sheet Tester by taking measurements in regions of irreversible magnetization usually called domains. In the present work, samples of rolled SAE 1045 steel (formed by perlite and ferrite microstructures were submitted to induced magnetic fields in the reversibility region of magnetic domains to detect the magnetic easy direction. The magnetic fields were applied to circular samples with different thicknesses and angles varying from 0° to 360° with steps of 45°. A square sample with a fixed thickness was also tested. The results showed that the proposed non-destructive approach is promising to evaluate the magnetic anisotropy in steels independently of the geometry of the sample. The region studied presented low induction losses and was affected by magnetic anisotropy, which did not occur in other works that only took into account regions of high induction losses.

  10. Spaser as a biological probe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galanzha, Ekaterina I.; Weingold, Robert; Nedosekin, Dmitry A.; Sarimollaoglu, Mustafa; Nolan, Jacqueline; Harrington, Walter; Kuchyanov, Alexander S.; Parkhomenko, Roman G.; Watanabe, Fumiya; Nima, Zeid; Biris, Alexandru S.; Plekhanov, Alexander I.; Stockman, Mark I.; Zharov, Vladimir P.

    2017-06-01

    Understanding cell biology greatly benefits from the development of advanced diagnostic probes. Here we introduce a 22-nm spaser (plasmonic nanolaser) with the ability to serve as a super-bright, water-soluble, biocompatible probe capable of generating stimulated emission directly inside living cells and animal tissues. We have demonstrated a lasing regime associated with the formation of a dynamic vapour nanobubble around the spaser that leads to giant spasing with emission intensity and spectral width >100 times brighter and 30-fold narrower, respectively, than for quantum dots. The absorption losses in the spaser enhance its multifunctionality, allowing for nanobubble-amplified photothermal and photoacoustic imaging and therapy. Furthermore, the silica spaser surface has been covalently functionalized with folic acid for molecular targeting of cancer cells. All these properties make a nanobubble spaser a promising multimodal, super-contrast, ultrafast cellular probe with a single-pulse nanosecond excitation for a variety of in vitro and in vivo biomedical applications.

  11. Sensor probe for rectal manometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blechschmidt, R.A.; Hohlfeld, O.; Mueller, R.; Werthschuetzky, R. [Technische Univ. Darmstadt (Germany). Inst. fuer Elektromechanische Konstruktionen

    2001-07-01

    In this paper a pressure sensor probe is presented that is suitable for assessing dynamic rectal pressure profiles. It consists of ten piezoresistive sensors, mounted on low temperature co-fired ceramics. The sensors are coated with a bio-compatible silicone elastomer. It was possible to reduce the size of the ceramic to 4.5 x 5.5 mm with a height of 1.4 mm. The whole probe has a diameter of 9 mm and a length of 20 cm. One healthy test person underwent rectal manometry. The experimental data and the analysis of linearity, hysteresis, temperature stability, and reproducibility are discussed. The presented sensor probe extends the classical anorectal manometry, particularly in view of quantifying disorders of the rectal motility. (orig.)

  12. Probing of Nascent Riboswitch Transcripts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chauvier, Adrien; Lafontaine, Daniel A

    2015-01-01

    The study of biologically significant and native structures is vital to characterize RNA-based regulatory mechanisms. Riboswitches are cis-acting RNA molecules that are involved in the biosynthesis and transport of cellular metabolites. Because riboswitches regulate gene expression by modulating their structure, it is vital to employ native probing assays to determine how native riboswitch structures perform highly efficient and specific ligand recognition. By employing RNase H probing, it is possible to determine the accessibility of specific RNA domains in various structural contexts. Herein, we describe how to employ RNase H probing to characterize nascent mRNA riboswitch molecules as a way to obtain information regarding the riboswitch regulation control mechanism.

  13. Hand-held survey probe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Kevin L [Idaho Falls, ID; Hungate, Kevin E [Idaho Falls, ID

    2010-02-23

    A system for providing operational feedback to a user of a detection probe may include an optical sensor to generate data corresponding to a position of the detection probe with respect to a surface; a microprocessor to receive the data; a software medium having code to process the data with the microprocessor and pre-programmed parameters, and making a comparison of the data to the parameters; and an indicator device to indicate results of the comparison. A method of providing operational feedback to a user of a detection probe may include generating output data with an optical sensor corresponding to the relative position with respect to a surface; processing the output data, including comparing the output data to pre-programmed parameters; and indicating results of the comparison.

  14. All-Fiber Raman Probe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brunetti, Anna Chiara

    The design and development of an all-in-fiber probe for Raman spectroscopy are presented in this Thesis. Raman spectroscopy is an optical technique able to probe a sample based on the inelastic scattering of monochromatic light. Due to its high specificity and reliability and to the possibility...... to perform real-time measurements with little or no sample preparation, Raman spectroscopy is now considered an invaluable analytical tool, finding application in several fields including medicine, defense and process control. When combined with fiber optics technology, Raman spectroscopy allows...... for the realization of flexible and minimally-invasive devices, able to reach remote or hardly accessible samples, and to perform in-situ analyses in hazardous environments. The work behind this Thesis focuses on the proof-of-principle demonstration of a truly in-fiber Raman probe, where all parts are realized...

  15. Probe Project Status and Accomplishments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burris, RD

    2001-05-07

    The Probe project has completed its first full year of operation. In this document we will describe the status of the project as of December 31, 2000. We will describe the equipment configuration, then give brief descriptions of the various projects undertaken to date. We will mention first those projects performed for outside entities and then those performed for the benefit of one of the Probe sites. We will then describe projects that are under consideration, including some for which initial actions have been taken and others which are somewhat longer-term.

  16. Radioactive Probes on Ferromagnetic Surfaces

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    On the (broad) basis of our studies of nonmagnetic radioactive probe atoms on magnetic surfaces and at interfaces, we propose to investigate the magnetic interaction of magnetic probe atoms with their immediate environment, in particular of rare earth (RE) elements positioned on and in ferromagnetic surfaces. The preparation and analysis of the structural properties of such samples will be performed in the UHV chamber HYDRA at the HMI/Berlin. For the investigations of the magnetic properties of RE atoms on surfaces Perturbed Angular Correlation (PAC) measurements and Mössbauer Spectroscopy (MS) in the UHV chamber ASPIC (Apparatus for Surface Physics and Interfaces at CERN) are proposed.

  17. Design, validation and annotation of transcriptome-wide oligonucleotide probes for the oligochaete annelid Eisenia fetida.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping Gong

    Full Text Available High density oligonucleotide probe arrays have increasingly become an important tool in genomics studies. In organisms with incomplete genome sequence, one strategy for oligo probe design is to reduce the number of unique probes that target every non-redundant transcript through bioinformatic analysis and experimental testing. Here we adopted this strategy in making oligo probes for the earthworm Eisenia fetida, a species for which we have sequenced transcriptome-scale expressed sequence tags (ESTs. Our objectives were to identify unique transcripts as targets, to select an optimal and non-redundant oligo probe for each of these target ESTs, and to annotate the selected target sequences. We developed a streamlined and easy-to-follow approach to the design, validation and annotation of species-specific array probes. Four 244K-formatted oligo arrays were designed using eArray and were hybridized to a pooled E. fetida cRNA sample. We identified 63,541 probes with unsaturated signal intensities consistently above the background level. Target transcripts of these probes were annotated using several sequence alignment algorithms. Significant hits were obtained for 37,439 (59% probed targets. We validated and made publicly available 63.5K oligo probes so the earthworm research community can use them to pursue ecological, toxicological, and other functional genomics questions. Our approach is efficient, cost-effective and robust because it (1 does not require a major genomics core facility; (2 allows new probes to be easily added and old probes modified or eliminated when new sequence information becomes available, (3 is not bioinformatics-intensive upfront but does provide opportunities for more in-depth annotation of biological functions for target genes; and (4 if desired, EST orthologs to the UniGene clusters of a reference genome can be identified and selected in order to improve the target gene specificity of designed probes. This approach is

  18. Development of a functional relationship between port pressures and flow properties for the calibration and application of multihole probes to highly three-dimensional flows

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pisasale, A.J.; Ahmed, N.A. [School of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering, The University of New South Wales, 2052, Sydney (Australia)

    2004-03-01

    It is common in the calibration of multihole probes to curve-fit the calibration data in order to determine a relationship between measured port pressures and flow properties. The parameters used in these techniques typically lack a theoretical background. In this article, a functional relationship is developed, based on theoretical considerations, that relates the port pressure directly to the flow properties and details a procedure that enables flow properties to be determined from the measured pressures of the multihole probe. The method is simple, easy to implement and provides a better understanding of the multihole probe operation in a three-dimensional flow. (orig.)

  19. Internal Consistency of the easyCBM© CCSS Reading Measures: Grades 3-8. Technical Report #1407

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerreiro, Meg; Alonzo, Julie; Tindal, Gerald

    2014-01-01

    This technical report documents findings from a study of the internal consistency and split-half reliability of the easyCBM© CCSS Reading measures, grades 3-8. Data, drawn from an extant data set gathered in school year 2013-2014, include scores from over 150,000 students' fall and winter benchmark assessments. Findings suggest that the easyCBM©…

  20. Eestisse lendama asuv easyGroup raiub samamoodi läbi ka kinoäris / Krister Paris

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Paris, Krister

    2004-01-01

    Odavlennufirma easyGroup rakendab oma äristrateegiat ka kinoäris, soovides muuta olukorda, kus kinod on täis vaid viiendiku ulatuses. Lisad: Virgin tegutseb samal põhimõttel; easyGroup; Võrdlus. Kommenteerib Peeter Rebane

  1. Eestisse lendama asuv easyGroup raiub samamoodi läbi ka kinoäris / Krister Paris

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Paris, Krister

    2004-01-01

    Odavlennufirma easyGroup rakendab oma äristrateegiat ka kinoäris, soovides muuta olukorda, kus kinod on täis vaid viiendiku ulatuses. Lisad: Virgin tegutseb samal põhimõttel; easyGroup; Võrdlus. Kommenteerib Peeter Rebane

  2. Electroless nickel plating on optical fiber probe

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Huang; Zhoufeng Wang; Zhuomin Li; Wenli Deng

    2009-01-01

    As a component of near-field scanning optical microscope (NSOM),optical fiber probe is an important factor influncing the equipment resolution.Electroless nickel plating is introduced to metallize the optical fiber probe.The optical fibers are etched by 40% HF with Turner etching method.Through pretreatment,the optical fiber probe is coated with Ni-P film by clectrolcss plating in a constant temperature water tank.Atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS),scanning electron microscopy (SEM),and energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry (EDXS) are carried out to charaeterizc the deposition on fiber probe.We have rcproducibly fabricated two kinds of fiber probes with a Ni-P fihn:aperture probe and apertureless probe.In addition,reductive particle transportation on the surface of fiber probe is proposed to explain the cause of these probes.

  3. Characterization of near-field optical probes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vohnsen, Brian; Bozhevolnyi, Sergey I.

    1999-01-01

    Radiation and collection characteristics of four different near-field optical-fiber probes, namely, three uncoated probes and an aluminium-coated small-aperture probe, are investigated and compared. Their radiation properties are characterized by observation of light-induced topography changes...... in a photo-sensitive film illuminated with the probes, and it is confirmed that the radiated optical field is unambigiously confined only for the coated probe. Near-field optical imaging of a standing evanescent-wave pattern is used to compare the detection characteristics of the probes, and it is concluded...... that, for the imaging of optical-field intensity distributions containing predominantly evanescent-wave components, a sharp uncoated tip is the probe of choice. Complementary results obtained with optical phase-conjugation experiments with he uncoated probes are discussed in relation to the probe...

  4. A fluorescent probe for ecstasy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masseroni, D; Biavardi, E; Genovese, D; Rampazzo, E; Prodi, L; Dalcanale, E

    2015-08-18

    A nanostructure formed by the insertion in silica nanoparticles of a pyrene-derivatized cavitand, which is able to specifically recognize ecstasy in water, is presented. The absence of effects from interferents and an efficient electron transfer process occurring after complexation of ecstasy, makes this system an efficient fluorescent probe for this popular drug.

  5. Health. CEM Probe, January 1977.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Billington, Roy

    The importance of health and its relationship to personal and community life are explored in this issue of PROBE. Designed to acquaint British secondary school youth with topical problems, the series contains discussion and case studies of national and world issues, followed by questions for student discussion and research. Nine chapters comprise…

  6. An easy assembled fluorescent sensor for dicarboxylates and acidic amino acids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albert W. M. Lee

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Two mesitylene based neutral receptors 1 and 2 bearing two thiourea binding sites were constructed as fluorescent probes for sensing dicarboxylates. Their binding affinities toward dicarboxylates, aspartate and glutamate have been investigated in acetonitrile solution by fluorescence titration experiments. Both fluorescent sensors exhibited some ability to discriminate the antipodal forms of aspartate and glutamate.

  7. Liquid metal engineering aspects of a commercial-sized power plant based on the hylife converter concept

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoffman, N.J.; McDowell, M.W.

    1979-12-01

    A study of a commercial fusion plant based on the High Yield Lithium Injection Fusion Energy (HYLIFE) converter has been performed. A net efficiency of 33.3% was derived for a plant using 2-1/4 Cr - 1 Mo ferritic steel as structural alloy. Use of a thick lithium fall to protect structural materials from the deleterious effects of pellet thermonuclear burn allows the structure to last the life of the plant without replacement. Both mechanical pumps and EM pumps are analyzed for this application. The power requirement for the lithium fall mechanical pumps is approx. 20 MWe. This is a relatively insignificant 1.6% of the gross electrical power output of the plant of approx. 1250 MWe. An EM pump has a greater electrical requirement but the lesser head (NPSH) requirement of an EM pump appears to be a marked advantage since this affects the size of the lithium inventory. The preferred tritium separation method appears to be that developed by Argonne National Laboratory which involves mixing lithium into an immiscible liquid having a greater affinity for hydrogen isotopes, with subsequent electrolytic separation. The immiscible liquid under consideration is a lithium bromide-lithium fluoride-lithium chloride mixture.

  8. Effect of Rocket (Eruca sativa Extract on MRSA Growth and Proteome: Metabolic Adjustments in Plant-Based Media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agapi I. Doulgeraki

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The emergence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA in food has provoked a great concern about the presence of MRSA in associated foodstuff. Although MRSA is often detected in various retailed meat products, it seems that food handlers are more strongly associated with this type of food contamination. Thus, it can be easily postulated that any food could be contaminated with this pathogen in an industrial environment or in household and cause food poisoning. To this direction, the effect of rocket (Eruca sativa extract on MRSA growth and proteome was examined in the present study. This goal was achieved with the comparative study of the MRSA strain COL proteome, cultivated in rocket extract versus the standard Luria-Bertani growth medium. The obtained results showed that MRSA was able to grow in rocket extract. In addition, proteome analysis using 2-DE method showed that MRSA strain COL is taking advantage of the sugar-, lipid-, and vitamin-rich substrate in the liquid rocket extract, although its growth was delayed in rocket extract compared to Luria–Bertani medium. This work could initiate further research about bacterial metabolism in plant-based media and defense mechanisms against plant-derived antibacterials.

  9. Plant-based Paste Fermented by Lactic Acid Bacteria and Yeast: Functional Analysis and Possibility of Application to Functional Foods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuwaki, Shinsuke; Nakajima, Nobuyoshi; Tanaka, Hidehiko; Ishihara, Kohji

    2012-01-01

    A plant-based paste fermented by lactic acid bacteria and yeast (fermented paste) was made from various plant materials. The paste was made of fermented food by applying traditional food-preservation techniques, that is, fermentation and sugaring. The fermented paste contained major nutrients (carbohydrates, proteins, and lipids), 18 kinds of amino acids, and vitamins (vitamin A, B1, B2, B6, B12, E, K, niacin, biotin, pantothenic acid, and folic acid). It contained five kinds of organic acids, and a large amount of dietary fiber and plant phytochemicals. Sucrose from brown sugar, used as a material, was completely resolved into glucose and fructose. Some physiological functions of the fermented paste were examined in vitro. It was demonstrated that the paste possessed antioxidant, antihypertensive, antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, anti-allergy and anti-tyrosinase activities in vitro. It was thought that the fermented paste would be a helpful functional food with various nutrients to help prevent lifestyle diseases. PMID:25114554

  10. Comparative effectiveness of plant-based diets for weight loss: a randomized controlled trial of five different diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner-McGrievy, Gabrielle M; Davidson, Charis R; Wingard, Ellen E; Wilcox, Sara; Frongillo, Edward A

    2015-02-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effect of plant-based diets on weight loss. Participants were enrolled in a 6-mo, five-arm, randomized controlled trial in 2013 in South Carolina. Participants attended weekly group meetings, with the exception of the omnivorous group, which served as the control and attended monthly meetings augmented with weekly e-mail lessons. All groups attended monthly meetings for the last 4 mo of the study. Diets did not emphasize caloric restriction. Overweight adults (body mass index 25-49.9 kg/m(2); age 18-65 y, 19% non-white, and 27% men) were randomized to a low-fat, low-glycemic index diet: vegan (n = 12), vegetarian (n = 13), pesco-vegetarian (n = 13), semi-vegetarian (n = 13), or omnivorous (n = 12). Fifty (79%) participants completed the study. In intention-to-treat analysis, the linear trend for weight loss across the five groups was significant at both 2 (P diets may result in greater weight loss than more modest recommendations. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Chemical composition, antifungal and antiaflatoxigenic activities of Ocimum sanctum L. essential oil and its safety assessment as plant based antimicrobial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Ashok; Shukla, Ravindra; Singh, Priyanka; Dubey, Nawal Kishore

    2010-02-01

    The study deals with the efficacy of Ocimum sanctum essential oil (EO) and its major component, eugenol against the fungi causing biodeterioration of food stuffs during storage. O. sanctum EO and eugenol were found efficacious in checking growth of Aspergillus flavus NKDHV8; and, their minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) were recorded as 0.3 and 0.2 microl ml(-1), respectively. The O. sanctum EO and eugenol also inhibited the aflatoxin B1 production completely at 0.2 and 0.1 microl ml(-1), respectively. Both of these were found superior over some prevalent synthetic antifungals and exhibited broad fungitoxic spectrum against 12 commonly occurring fungi. The LD50 value of O. sanctum EO on mice was found to be 4571.43 microl kg(-1) suggesting its non-mammalian toxic nature. The findings of present study reveals the possible exploitation of O. sanctum EO and eugenol as plant based safe preservatives against fungal spoilage of food stuffs during storage.

  12. Protection of Human Colon Cells from Shiga Toxin by Plant-based Recombinant Secretory IgA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakanishi, Katsuhiro; Morikane, Shota; Ichikawa, Shiori; Kurohane, Kohta; Niwa, Yasuo; Akimoto, Yoshihiro; Matsubara, Sachie; Kawakami, Hayato; Kobayashi, Hirokazu; Imai, Yasuyuki

    2017-01-01

    Shiga toxin is a major virulence factor of food-poisoning caused by Escherichia coli such as O157:H7. Secretory immunoglobulin (Ig) A (SIgA) is supposed to prevent infection of the mucosal surface and is a candidate agent for oral immunotherapy. We previously established a recombinant monoclonal antibody (mAb) consisting of variable regions from a mouse IgG mAb specific for the binding subunit of Shiga toxin 1 (Stx1) and the Fc region of mouse IgA. Here we produced a secretory form of the recombinant IgA (S-hyIgA) with transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana plant. All the S-hyIgA cDNAs (heavy, light, J chain and secretory component) were expressed under the control of a bidirectional promoter of a chlorophyll a/b-binding protein of A. thaliana without using a viral promoter. The plant-based S-hyIgA exhibited antigen binding, and was modified with plant-specific N-linked sugar chains. The Ig heavy chain and secretory components were observed in an intracellular protein body-like structure of the transgenic leaves on immuno-electron microscopy. An extract of the transgenic leaves neutralized the cytotoxicity of Stx1 toward butyrate-treated Caco-2 cells, a human colon carcinoma cell line. These results will contribute to the development of edible therapeutic antibodies such as those for the treatment of mucosal infection. PMID:28368034

  13. The Positive Impact of the Early-Feeding of a Plant-Based Diet on Its Future Acceptance and Utilisation in Rainbow Trout

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geurden, I.; Borchert, P.; Balasubramanian, M.N.; Schrama, J.W.; Dupont-Nivet, M.; Quillet, E.; Kaushik, S.J.; Panserat, S.; Médale, F.

    2013-01-01

    Sustainable aquaculture, which entails proportional replacement of fish-based feed sources by plant-based ingredients, is impeded by the poor growth response frequently seen in fish fed high levels of plant ingredients. This study explores the potential to improve, by means of early nutritional expo

  14. Assessing green-processing technologies for wet milling freshly hulled and germinated brown rice, leading to naturally fortified plant-based beverages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice milk beverages can well balanced nutrition. With healthier nutrition in consumer’s minds, national. Worldwide consumption/production of plant-based milk beverages are increasing. Much past research and invention was based on enzymatic conversion processes for starch that were uncomplicated be...

  15. Gwyscan: a library to support non-equidistant scanning probe microscope measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klapetek, Petr; Yacoot, Andrew; Grolich, Petr; Valtr, Miroslav; Nečas, David

    2017-03-01

    We present a software library and related methodology for enabling easy integration of adaptive step (non-equidistant) scanning techniques into metrological scanning probe microscopes or scanning probe microscopes where individual x, y position data are recorded during measurements. Scanning with adaptive steps can reduce the amount of data collected in SPM measurements thereby leading to faster data acquisition, a smaller amount of data collection required for a specific analytical task and less sensitivity to mechanical and thermal drift. Implementation of adaptive scanning routines into a custom built microscope is not normally an easy task: regular data are much easier to handle for previewing (e.g. levelling) and storage. We present an environment to make implementation of adaptive scanning easier for an instrument developer, specifically taking into account data acquisition approaches that are used in high accuracy microscopes as those developed by National Metrology Institutes. This includes a library with algorithms written in C and LabVIEW for handling data storage, regular mesh preview generation and planning the scan path on basis of different assumptions. A set of modules for Gwyddion open source software for handling these data and for their further analysis is presented. Using this combination of data acquisition and processing tools one can implement adaptive scanning in a relatively easy way into an instrument that was previously measuring on a regular grid. The performance of the presented approach is shown and general non-equidistant data processing steps are discussed.

  16. The efficacy of transgingival probing in class II buccal furcation defects treated by guided tissue regeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Bansal

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The objectives of the present study were to establish transgingival probing as an evaluating method in the clinical studies of periodontal regenerative techniques and to compare the effectiveness of transgingival probing to the surgical entry. Materials and Methods: Ten systemically healthy persons (20–50 years with moderate to severe chronic periodontitis participated in this study. These cases were recruited into the study only when they fulfilled the eligibility criteria. Vertical probing depth (VPD and horizontal probing depth (HPD of furcation defects were measured with and without opening the flap, following local anesthesia during initial surgery and at 6 months after collagen membrane placement. The defect fill (DF was also noted. The mean measurements of clinical parameters were compared by two-tailed paired t-test at 5% level of significance. Results: The difference between the measurements of VPD and HPD taken during transgingival probing and after opening the flap was lie in the range of 0.10–0.30 mm at the time of initial surgery and 6 months after surgery that was not statistically significant. Persons experienced slight discomfort or pain during opening the flap as compared to transgingival probing, and this method was also appreciated by the patients as it is easy, simple and does not involve the surgical procedure. Conclusion: The results of the study suggest that measurements recorded during transgingival probing and after opening the flap do not influence the required outcome of regenerative therapies, i.e., DF that was not statistically significant difference from surgical reentry. Therefore, it was concluded that transgingival probing could be used as evaluating parameters to see the outcome of regenerative surgeries and the surgical reentry procedure may be avoided because it is a second surgical procedure, time-consuming and interrupts the healing process.

  17. Uncovering student thinking about mathematics in the common core, grades 6-8 25 formative assessment probes

    CERN Document Server

    Tobey, Cheryl Rose

    2013-01-01

    Pinpoint and reverse math misconceptions with laser-like accuracyQuickly and reliably uncover common math misconceptions in Grades 6-8 with these convenient and easy-to-implement diagnostic tools! Bestselling authors Cheryl Tobey and Carolyn Arline provide 25 new assessment probes that pinpoint subconcepts within the new Common Core Standards for Mathematics to promote deep learning and expert math instruction--while learning is already underway.Completely CCSM aligned, these grade-specific probes eliminate the guesswork and help teachers: Systematically address conceptual and procedural mistakes Help students better understand areas of struggle Plan targeted instruction that covers Grades 6-8 CCSM mathematical processes and proficiencies.

  18. The positive impact of the early-feeding of a plant-based diet on its future acceptance and utilisation in rainbow trout.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inge Geurden

    Full Text Available Sustainable aquaculture, which entails proportional replacement of fish-based feed sources by plant-based ingredients, is impeded by the poor growth response frequently seen in fish fed high levels of plant ingredients. This study explores the potential to improve, by means of early nutritional exposure, the growth of fish fed plant-based feed. Rainbow trout swim-up fry were fed for 3 weeks either a plant-based diet (diet V, V-fish or a diet containing fishmeal and fish oil as protein and fat source (diet M, M-fish. After this 3-wk nutritional history period, all V- or M-fish received diet M for a 7-month intermediate growth phase. Both groups were then challenged by feeding diet V for 25 days during which voluntary feed intake, growth, and nutrient utilisation were monitored (V-challenge. Three isogenic rainbow trout lines were used for evaluating possible family effects. The results of the V-challenge showed a 42% higher growth rate (P = 0.002 and 30% higher feed intake (P = 0.005 in fish of nutritional history V compared to M (averaged over the three families. Besides the effects on feed intake, V-fish utilized diet V more efficiently than M-fish, as reflected by the on average 18% higher feed efficiency (P = 0.003. We noted a significant family effect for the above parameters (P0.05. In summary, our study shows that an early short-term exposure of rainbow trout fry to a plant-based diet improves acceptance and utilization of the same diet when given at later life stages. This positive response is encouraging as a potential strategy to improve the use of plant-based feed in fish, of interest in the field of fish farming and animal nutrition in general. Future work needs to determine the persistency of this positive early feeding effect and the underlying mechanisms.

  19. Easy calibration method of vision system for in-situ measurement of strain of thin films

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jun-Hyub PARK; Dong-Joong KANG; Myung-Soo SHIN; Sung-Jo LIM; Son-Cheol YU; Kwang-Soo LEE; Jong-Eun HA; Sung-Hoon CHOA

    2009-01-01

    An easy calibration method was presented for in-situ measurement of displacement in the order of nanometer during micro-tensile test for thin films by using CCD camera as a sensing device. The calibration of the sensing camera in the system is a central element part to measure displacement in the order of nanometer using images taken with the camera. This was accomplished by modeling the optical projection through the camera lens and relative locations between the object and camera in 3D space. A set of known 3D points on a plane where the film is located on is projected to an image plane as input data. These points, known as a calibration points, are then used to estimate the projection parameters of the camera. In the measurement system of the micro-scale by CCD camera, the calibration data acquisition and one-to-one matching steps between the image and 3D planes need precise data extraction procedures and repetitive user's operation to calibrate the measuring devices. The lack of the robust image feature extraction and easy matching prevent the practical use of these methods. A data selection method was proposed to overcome these limitations and offer an easy and convenient calibration of a vision system that has the CCD camera and the 3D reference plane with calibration marks of circular type on the surface of the plane. The method minimizes the user's intervention such as the fine tuning of illumination system and provides an efficient calibration method of the vision system for in-situ axial displacement measurement of the micro-tensile materials.

  20. Zero-temperature magnetic transition in an easy-axis Kondo lattice model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Jian-Xin; Kirchner, Stefan; Bulla, Ralf; Si, Qimiao

    2007-11-30

    We address the quantum transition of a spin-1/2 antiferromagnetic Kondo lattice model with an easy-axis anisotropy using the extended dynamical mean field theory. We derive results in real frequency by using the bosonic numerical renormalization group (BNRG) method and compare them with quantum Monte Carlo results in Matsubara frequency. The BNRG results show a logarithmic divergence in the critical local spin susceptibility, signaling a destruction of Kondo screening. The T=0 transition is consistent with being second order. The BNRG results also display some subtle features; we identify their origin and suggest means for further microscopic studies.

  1. Women as easy scapegoats: witchcraft accusations and women as targets in tea plantations of India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhuri, Soma

    2012-10-01

    This article revisits a much-debated question: Why are women popular targets during witch hunts? By using in-depth interviews this article provides an answer. Women are easy targets or scapegoats for two reasons. First, it is widely believed in the community that was studied that witches do, in fact, exist, and the images of witches are always female. Second, tribal women hold lower positions than men in all social, political, and ritual matters, and this contributes to their vulnerability during the hunt for scapegoats. This article also highlights the roles that rumors play during manipulation of witchcraft accusations to gather support for witch hunts.

  2. Tailor-made resealable micro(bio)reactors providing easy integration of in situ sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viefhues, Martina; Sun, Shiwen; Valikhani, Donya; Nidetzky, Bernd; Vrouwe, Elwin X.; Mayr, Torsten; Bolivar, Juan M.

    2017-06-01

    Flow microreactors utilizing immobilized enzymes are of great interest in biocatalysis development. Most of the common devices are permanently closed, single-use systems, which allow limited physical and chemical surface modifications and evaluation methods. In this paper we will present resealable flowcells that overcome these limitations and moreover allow a quick and easy integration of sensor systems, because of the use of modular building blocks. The devices were utilized to study the enzyme activity of glucose oxidase immobilized on chemically modified glass surfaces under flow conditions, employing integrated optical oxygen sensors for on-line monitoring.

  3. Zero-Temperature Magnetic Transition in an Easy-Axis Kondo Lattice Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Jian-Xin; Kirchner, Stefan; Bulla, Ralf; Si, Qimiao

    2007-11-01

    We address the quantum transition of a spin-1/2 antiferromagnetic Kondo lattice model with an easy-axis anisotropy using the extended dynamical mean field theory. We derive results in real frequency by using the bosonic numerical renormalization group (BNRG) method and compare them with quantum Monte Carlo results in Matsubara frequency. The BNRG results show a logarithmic divergence in the critical local spin susceptibility, signaling a destruction of Kondo screening. The T=0 transition is consistent with being second order. The BNRG results also display some subtle features; we identify their origin and suggest means for further microscopic studies.

  4. Use of Freely-Available Weebly in Creating Quick and Easy Web Pages: poster presentation

    OpenAIRE

    Hyde, Denise

    2011-01-01

    Weebly is a freely-available software for creating Web pages without having to know HTML. It is easy to use, with its drag and drop editor, and offers the ability to add documents, Web links, videos, slideshows, audio, forms, polls, etc. It is hosted by Weebly and has no limits on storage space. Many templates are available for Web page design. One can publish and update almost immediately. Combined with usage of the freely-available Google Analytics, for example, it is possible to gathe...

  5. A new, accurate and easy to implement camera and video projector model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoppe, Harald; Däuber, Sascha; Kübler, Carsten; Raczkowsky, Jörg; Wörn, Heinz

    2002-01-01

    In 2000, the Institute for Process Control and Robotics/Universität Karlsruhe (TH) has developed a prototype system for projector based augmented reality consisting of a state-of-the-art PC, two CCD cameras and a video projector which is used for registration and projection of surgical planning data. Tracking, registration as well as projection require an accurate calibration process for cameras and video projectors. We have developed a new, flexible, plain and easy to implement model, which can both be used for calibration of cameras and video projectors.

  6. Spiral magnetic structure in non-Heisenberg magnets with an easy-axis anisotropy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neklyudov, E. A.; Klevets, Ph. N.; Fridman, Yu. A.

    2016-10-01

    The investigations performed in this work have demonstrated that an easy-axis frustrated non-Heisenberg magnet can contain homogeneous phases with the vector (ferromagnetic) and tensor (nematic) orderings, as well as a spatially inhomogeneous phase of the magnetic spiral type. Depending on the relationships between the material parameters, either a ferromagnetic spiral or a spiral of the quadrupole-ferromagnetic type with different periods of the spiral structures can be formed in the system. The phase diagram of the system has been constructed.

  7. Modulated magnetic phase of structurally heterogeneous easy-plane weak ferromagnets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dzhuraev, D. R.; Niyazov, L. N.; Sokolov, B. Yu.

    2016-06-01

    The modulated magnetic phase of a structurally heterogeneous easy-plane weak ferromagnet is considered in terms of the thermodynamic Landau theory of phase transitions. The temperature and field dependences of the main magnetic order modulation parameters are determined. The results obtained are compared with the experimental data obtained for the orientational phase transition into a modulated magnetic state that occurs in hematite and iron borate crystals doped with diamagnetic ions to create structural heterogeneity. The proposed theoretical model is shown to describe the entire set of experimental results consistently with some exceptions.

  8. Easy-to-Build Satellite Beacon Receiver for Propagation Experimentation at Millimeter Bands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Machado

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the design and development of a digital satellite beacon receiver for propagation experimentation. Satellite beacons are frequently available for pointing large antennas, but such signals can be used for measuring rain attenuation and other phenomena as, for example, tropospheric scintillation. A fairly inexpensive beacon receiver has been built using off-the-shelf parts. This instrument is not at all bulky making it suitable for easy transportation. This article analyzes the receiver specifications, describes in detail its structure and presents some operational test results.

  9. 三洋推出Easy Radio IC系列LV24000PL

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    三洋(Sanyo)公司日前推出Easy Radio IC系列LV24000PL。LV24000PL是一款不需要使用外部元器件的便携式Device用FM调谐器芯片,尺寸仅约5mm×5mm×0.8mm,尺寸缩减为原来的六分之一,适用于手机、PDA等便携式产品。

  10. [Easy and reproducible technique to address tricuspid valve regurgitation with patch augmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solinas, Marco; Bianchi, Giacomo; Glauber, Mattia

    2013-11-01

    We describe a patch augmentation of the anterior leaflet of the tricuspid valve to address tricuspid valve regurgitation due to leaflet retraction. The area of the anterior leaflet is measured using a tricuspid valve annuloplasty sizer; a glutaraldehyde-fixed autologous pericardial patch is trimmed with slight 5 mm oversize. The anterior leaflet is detached and the patch is sutured with three 5/0 running interlocked sutures, then an annuloplasty is performed with an undersized ring. This technique offers an easy and reproducible tool to address tricuspid regurgitation due to lack of leaflet coaptation.

  11. Blood oxygen content in microliter samples using an easy-to-build galvanic oxygen cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grubb, B R; Mills, C D

    1981-02-01

    We have designed a simple, inexpensive, easy-to-build and operate apparatus for measuring blood oxygen content. The galvanic oxygen cell (fuel cell) requires as little as 1 microliter of blood and has a measuring time of 1-3 min. It is well suited for measuring oxygen content in fluids low in oxygen inasmuch as the sensitivity of the instrument is variable. Either air or water (at a known temperature and oxygen tension) can be used for calibration. No significant differences in blood oxygen content measured with our cell or the Van Slyke manometric method were found.

  12. Cantilevered probe detector with piezoelectric element

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Jesse D; Sulchek, Todd A; Feigin, Stuart C

    2013-04-30

    A disclosed chemical detection system for detecting a target material, such as an explosive material, can include a cantilevered probe, a probe heater coupled to the cantilevered probe, and a piezoelectric element disposed on the cantilevered probe. The piezoelectric element can be configured as a detector and/or an actuator. Detection can include, for example, detecting a movement of the cantilevered probe or a property of the cantilevered probe. The movement or a change in the property of the cantilevered probe can occur, for example, by adsorption of the target material, desorption of the target material, reaction of the target material and/or phase change of the target material. Examples of detectable movements and properties include temperature shifts, impedance shifts, and resonant frequency shifts of the cantilevered probe. The overall chemical detection system can be incorporated, for example, into a handheld explosive material detection system.

  13. Overview of Probe-based Storage Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lei; Yang, Ci Hui; Wen, Jing; Gong, Si Di; Peng, Yuan Xiu

    2016-07-01

    The current world is in the age of big data where the total amount of global digital data is growing up at an incredible rate. This indeed necessitates a drastic enhancement on the capacity of conventional data storage devices that are, however, suffering from their respective physical drawbacks. Under this circumstance, it is essential to aggressively explore and develop alternative promising mass storage devices, leading to the presence of probe-based storage devices. In this paper, the physical principles and the current status of several different probe storage devices, including thermo-mechanical probe memory, magnetic probe memory, ferroelectric probe memory, and phase-change probe memory, are reviewed in details, as well as their respective merits and weakness. This paper provides an overview of the emerging probe memories potentially for next generation storage device so as to motivate the exploration of more innovative technologies to push forward the development of the probe storage devices.

  14. Direct Intracellular Delivery of Cell-Impermeable Probes of Protein Glycosylation by Using Nanostraws.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Alexander M; Wang, Derek S; Shieh, Peyton; Cao, Yuhong; Melosh, Nicholas A

    2017-04-04

    Bioorthogonal chemistry is an effective tool for elucidating metabolic pathways and measuring cellular activity, yet its use is currently limited by the difficulty of getting probes past the cell membrane and into the cytoplasm, especially if more complex probes are desired. Here we present a simple and minimally perturbative technique to deliver functional probes of glycosylation into cells by using a nanostructured "nanostraw" delivery system. Nanostraws provide direct intracellular access to cells through fluid conduits that remain small enough to minimize cell perturbation. First, we demonstrate that our platform can deliver an unmodified azidosugar, N-azidoacetylmannosamine, into cells with similar effectiveness to a chemical modification strategy (peracetylation). We then show that the nanostraw platform enables direct delivery of an azidosugar modified with a charged uridine diphosphate group (UDP) that prevents intracellular penetration, thereby bypassing multiple enzymatic processing steps. By effectively removing the requirement for cell permeability from the probe, the nanostraws expand the toolbox of bioorthogonal probes that can be used to study biological processes on a single, easy-to-use platform. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. Laboratory evaluation of traditionally used plant-based insect repellent against the malaria vector Anopheles arabiensis Patton (Diptera: Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karunamoorthi, Kaliyaperumal; Ilango, Kandan; Murugan, Kadarkarai

    2010-04-01

    A laboratory study was carried out to evaluate the repellent efficacy of a methanol-leaf extract of Ethiopian traditionally used insect repellent plant viz., Lomi sar [vernacular name (local native language, Amharic); Cymbopogon citratus (DC) Stapf. (Poaceae)] against Anopheles arabiensis at four different concentrations viz., 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, and 2.5 mg/cm(2). The percentage protection in relation to the dose method was performed. C. citratus extract has shown various degrees of repellency impact against A. arabiensis. It provided the maximum total percentage protection of 78.83% at 2.5 mg/cm(2) and followed 68.06% at 2.0 mg/cm(2) for 12 h. All four tested concentrations of C. citratus extract offered significant protection and Student's t test results shows statistically significant (p value = 0.001) [1.0 mg/cm(2) (t = 22.89; df = 4); 1.5 mg/cm(2) (t = 24.03; df = 4); 2.0 mg/cm(2) (t = 36.92; df = 4); 2.5 mg/cm(2) (t = 22.31; df = 4)] difference between treated and control groups. The result suggests that it could serve as a potent insect repellent against vectors of disease. Globally, C. citratus is renowned for its therapeutic values. Above and beyond, due to its user- as well as environmental-friendly nature, it should be promoted among the marginalized populations in order to reduce man-vector contact. In addition, this appropriate strategy affords the opportunity to minimize chemical repellent usage and the risks associated with adverse side effects. At the end of the day, traditionally used plant-based insect repellents could be viable safer alternative sources for chemical insect repellents.

  16. Plant based oral vaccines for human and animal pathogens – a new era of prophylaxis: current and future perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuldeep Dhama

    Full Text Available Vaccination remains a high priority for animal disease prevention and control especially on account of rising antimicrobial resistant strains of pathogens and frightening increase in new emerging and reemerging pathogens. Traditional vaccines have limitation like residual virulence, need of extensive safety precautions, production difficulty and huge initial investments. Additionally, they are inefficient in producing a protective response at mucosal surfaces such as of lungs and intestinal tract, the actual sites where disease agents enter the body. Recent advances in plant molecular farming has resulted in genetic manipulations in plants to make them bioreactors for production of various recombinant proteins, by using infectious vectors or stable transgenic systems, which formulate the edible/oral vaccines. Such plant-based oral/edible vaccines have several advantages like they are functionally similar to conventional vaccines, demonstrate extended storage period in food grains, are heat-stable and does not require cold storage, eliminate need for expensive purification steps, are free from contaminating pathogens, can be produced in large scale in a time bound fashion and their delivery is easier with practical feasibility for large masses application. Additionally, these are also ideal for vaccination of animals and birds living in the wild areas thereby preventing many zoonoses. However, at this moment there are many practical challenges like degradation of vaccine antigen by enzymes of upper digestive tract, dosage regime, oral tolerance and the issues concerned to the use of genetically modified plant. In the near future the biomedical applications of these vaccines could become a common alternative to conventional vaccines, for which there is a great need to strengthen research and development activities in this promising area for protecting health of animals as well as of humans.

  17. Characterization of Three Species of Thrips on Weeping Fig, Nutmeg, and Marine Seruni Plants Based on Mtcoi DNA Sequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nia Kurniawaty

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Thrips are widely reported as pests in vegetable crops. However, the existence of Phlaeothripidae members has a less concern in Indonesia. Phlaeothripidae is the only family of  Tubulifera Suborder and some reports suggested that they had potential to be pests in several crops due to their ability to roll up and to make galls on leaves. The first step in pest management attempt is to identify the pest accurately and quickly, so the pest management can be on target and more efficient. One of the identification methods is the molecular identification using DNA barcoding techniques. This study aimed to characterize and to compare species thrips in banyan, nutmeg, and marine seruni based on their molecular characteristics. This research was conducted in Bogor and Kuningan. The process of molecular characterization consisteds of four steps  DNA total extraction, amplification by using PCR, COI gene sequence, and data analysis.  PCR programme was succesfully to amplified mtCOI gene fragment at 710 bp. The length of mtCOI gene of Gynaikothrips uzeli, Haplothrips ganglbaueri, and Pseudophilothrips ichini were 704, 686, and 702 bp dominated by A and T bases with nucleotide variation value of 27.8%. This results confirmed that molecular characterization using mtCOI gene mitochondrial had successfully supported the morphological data. How to CiteKurniawaty, N., Hidayat, P. & Rauf, A. (2016. Characterization of Three Species of Thrips on Banyan, Nutmeg, and Marine Seruni Plants Based on Coi Gene. Biosaintifika: Journal of Biology & Biology Education, 8(2, 185-192.

  18. COGENERATION OPPORTUNITIES TO IMPROVE THE EFFICIENCY OF MICRO HEAT POWER PLANTS BASED ON AIR COOLED INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. A. Shchinnikov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The possibilities of operation of electric generators based on internal combustion engines with air cooling under conditions of cogeneration, when, along with the electricity, heat release in different embodiments is provided. Such facilities are usually realized on the basis of gasoline internal combustion engines (i.e. gasoline is used as a fuel. They can be used in the household, by professional builders, geologists, the military and rescuers in the area of emergencies and in areas with a lack of infrastructure. The basis of the facility is the gasoline generator Hitachi-2400 with an air-cooled power of 2.4 kW. The basic methodology for the study of microthermal power plants based on an air-cooled internal combustion engine which is based on balance equations is presented. The facility operation ensures the measurement of all temperatures and expenses of operating environments for determining heat flow in accordance with the proposed methodology. The specifications of heat exchangers for utilizing the heat of exhaust flue gases are presented. The energy diagram illustrating the useful effect of the application of various heat exchangers are plotted. Cogeneration possibilities of the facility are provided, firstly, by the release of heat with the air that cools a cylinder of the internal combustion engine, and, secondly, by the release of heat of hot water heated by utilizing the heat of the leaving flue gases, and, thirdly, in the calculated version, by the release of heat with air that is sequentially heated due to the cooling of the cylinder head and then by utilizing the heat of exhaust gases. It is demonstrated that the fuel heat utilization factor can be increased from 0.22 to 0.50–0.60, depending on the adopted technical solutions.

  19. Where do pulse oximeter probes break?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crede, S; Van der Merwe, G; Hutchinson, J; Woods, D; Karlen, W; Lawn, J

    2014-06-01

    Pulse oximetry, a non-invasive method for accurate assessment of blood oxygen saturation (SPO2), is an important monitoring tool in health care facilities. However, it is often not available in many low-resource settings, due to expense, overly sophisticated design, a lack of organised procurement systems and inadequate medical device management and maintenance structures. Furthermore medical devices are often fragile and not designed to withstand the conditions of low-resource settings. In order to design a probe, better suited to the needs of health care facilities in low-resource settings this study aimed to document the site and nature of pulse oximeter probe breakages in a range of different probe designs in a low to middle income country. A retrospective review of job cards relating to the assessment and repair of damaged or faulty pulse oximeter probes was conducted at a medical device repair company based in Cape Town, South Africa, specializing in pulse oximeter probe repairs. 1,840 job cards relating to the assessment and repair of pulse oximeter probes were reviewed. 60.2 % of probes sent for assessment were finger-clip probes. For all probes, excluding the neonatal wrap probes, the most common point of failure was the probe wiring (>50 %). The neonatal wrap most commonly failed at the strap (51.5 %). The total cost for quoting on the broken pulse oximeter probes and for the subsequent repair of devices, excluding replacement components, amounted to an estimated ZAR 738,810 (USD $98,508). Improving the probe wiring would increase the life span of pulse oximeter probes. Increasing the life span of probes will make pulse oximetry more affordable and accessible. This is of high priority in low-resource settings where frequent repair or replacement of probes is unaffordable or impossible.

  20. Equations of bark thickness and volume profiles at different heights with easy-measurement variables

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cellini, J. M.; Galarza, M.; Burns, S. L.; Martinez-Pastur, G. J.; Lencinas, M. V.

    2012-11-01

    The objective of this work was to develop equations of thickness profile and bark volume at different heights with easy-measurement variables, taking as a study case Nothofagus pumilio forests, growing in different site qualities and growth phases in Southern Patagonia. Data was collected from 717 harvested trees. Three models were fitted using multiple, non-lineal regression and generalized linear model, by stepwise methodology, iteratively reweighted least squares method for maximum likelihood estimation and Marquardt algorithm. The dependent variables were diameter at 1.30 m height (DBH), relative height (RH) and growth phase (GP). The statistic evaluation was made through the adjusted determinant coefficient (r2-adj), standard error of the estimation (SEE), mean absolute error and residual analysis. All models presented good fitness with a significant correlation with the growth phase. A decrease in the thickness was observed when the relative height increase. Moreover, a bark coefficient was made to calculate volume with and without bark of individual trees, where significant differences according to site quality of the stands and DBH class of the trees were observed. It can be concluded that the prediction of bark thickness and bark coefficient is possible using DBH, height, site quality and growth phase, common and easy measurement variables used in forest inventories. (Author) 23 refs.

  1. Transumbilical scarless surgery with thoracic trocar: easy and low-cost

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okur, Mehmet Hanifi; Aydogdu, Bahattin; Arslan, Mehmet Serif; Cimen, Hasan; Otcu, Selcuk

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Single-site laparoscopic surgery has become increasingly common. We herein report an easy and low-cost thoracic trocar technique (TTT) for these types of procedures and recommend the simpler name "transumbilical scarless surgery" (TUSS) to minimize confusion in nomenclature. Methods We retrospectively reviewed patients who underwent TUSS by TTT using a thoracic trocar and surgical glove in our hospital between November 2011 and November 2012. Operating time, postoperative stay, and complications were detailed. Results A total of 101 TUSS by TTT were successfully performed, comprising appendectomy (n = 63), ovarian cyst excision (n = 7), splenectomy (n = 5), nephroureterectomy (n = 5), orchidopexy (n = 4), pyeloplasty (n = 3), nephrolithotomy (n = 2), orchiectomy (n = 2), varicocelectomy (n = 2), lymphangioma excision (n = 2), ureterectomy (n = 1), Morgagni diaphragmatic hernia repair (n = 1), ovarian detorsion (n = 1), antegrade continence enema (n = 1), intestinal resection anastomosis (n = 1), and intestinal duplication excision (n = 1). Kirschner wires were used for some organ traction. Nine patients required an additional port, but no major complications occurred. The postoperative stay (mean ± standard deviation) was 3.2 ± 1.4 days, and operating time was 58.9 ± 38.3 minutes. Conclusion We recommend the simpler name of TUSS to minimize confusion in nomenclature for all transumbilical single-incision laparoendoscopic surgeries. TTT is an easy and low-cost TUSS technique. PMID:23741694

  2. FAST LABEL: Easy and efficient solution of joint multi-label and estimation problems

    KAUST Repository

    Sundaramoorthi, Ganesh

    2014-06-01

    We derive an easy-to-implement and efficient algorithm for solving multi-label image partitioning problems in the form of the problem addressed by Region Competition. These problems jointly determine a parameter for each of the regions in the partition. Given an estimate of the parameters, a fast approximate solution to the multi-label sub-problem is derived by a global update that uses smoothing and thresholding. The method is empirically validated to be robust to fine details of the image that plague local solutions. Further, in comparison to global methods for the multi-label problem, the method is more efficient and it is easy for a non-specialist to implement. We give sample Matlab code for the multi-label Chan-Vese problem in this paper! Experimental comparison to the state-of-the-art in multi-label solutions to Region Competition shows that our method achieves equal or better accuracy, with the main advantage being speed and ease of implementation.

  3. Easy probability estimation of the diagnosis of early axial spondyloarthritis by summing up scores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldtkeller, Ernst; Rudwaleit, Martin; Zeidler, Henning

    2013-09-01

    Several sets of criteria for the diagnosis of axial SpA (including non-radiographic axial spondyloarthritis) have been proposed in the literature in which scores were attributed to relevant findings and the diagnosis requests a minimal sum of these scores. To quantitatively estimate the probability of axial SpA, multiplying the likelihood ratios of all relevant findings was proposed by Rudwaleit et al. in 2004. The objective of our proposal is to combine the advantages of both, i.e. to estimate the probability by summing up scores instead of multiplying likelihood ratios. An easy way to estimate the probability of axial spondyloarthritis is to use the logarithms of the likelihood ratios as scores attributed to relevant findings and to use the sum of these scores for the probability estimation. A list of whole-numbered scores for relevant findings is presented, and also threshold sum values necessary for a definite and for a probable diagnosis of axial SpA as well as a threshold below which the diagnosis of axial spondyloarthritis can be excluded. In a diagram, the probability of axial spondyloarthritis is given for sum values between these thresholds. By the method proposed, the advantages of both, the easy summing up of scores and the quantitative calculation of the diagnosis probability, are combined. Our method also makes it easier to estimate which additional tests are necessary to come to a definite diagnosis.

  4. Distortion Analysis Toolkit—A Software Tool for Easy Analysis of Nonlinear Audio Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pakarinen, Jyri

    2010-12-01

    Several audio effects devices deliberately add nonlinear distortion to the processed signal in order to create a desired sound. When creating virtual analog models of nonlinearly distorting devices, it would be very useful to carefully analyze the type of distortion, so that the model could be made as realistic as possible. While traditional system analysis tools such as the frequency response give detailed information on the operation of linear and time-invariant systems, they are less useful for analyzing nonlinear devices. Furthermore, although there do exist separate algorithms for nonlinear distortion analysis, there is currently no unified, easy-to-use tool for rapid analysis of distorting audio systems. This paper offers a remedy by introducing a new software tool for easy analysis of distorting effects. A comparison between a well-known guitar tube amplifier and two commercial software simulations is presented as a case study. This freely available software is written in Matlab language, but the analysis tool can also run as a standalone program, so the user does not need to have Matlab installed in order to perform the analysis.

  5. Interlayer exchange coupling between layers with perpendicular and easy-plane magnetic anisotropies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fallarino, Lorenzo; Sluka, Volker; Kardasz, Bartek; Pinarbasi, Mustafa; Berger, Andreas; Kent, Andrew D.

    2016-08-01

    Interlayer exchange coupling between layers with perpendicular and easy-plane magnetic anisotropies separated by a non-magnetic spacer is studied using ferromagnetic resonance. The samples consist of a Co/Ni multilayer with perpendicular magnetic anisotropy and a CoFeB layer with easy-plane anisotropy separated by a variable thickness Ru layer. At a fixed frequency, we show that there is an avoided crossing of layer ferromagnetic resonance modes providing direct evidence for interlayer coupling. The mode dispersions for different Ru thicknesses are fit to a Heisenberg-type model to determine the interlayer exchange coupling strength and layer properties. The resulting interlayer exchange coupling varies continuously from antiferromagnetic to ferromagnetic as a function of the Ru interlayer thickness. These results show that the magnetic layer single domain ground state consists of magnetizations that can be significantly canted with respect to the layer planes and the canting can be tuned by varying the Ru thickness and the layer magnetic characteristics, a capability of interest for applications in spin-transfer torque devices.

  6. The Effect of Easy-Going Steel on KBF's Seismic Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mussa Mahmoudi

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The knee bracing steel frame (KBF is a new type of energy dissipating frame which enjoys exceptional ductility and lateral stiffness. Rather than the beam-column joint, one end of the diagonal brace in KBF is attached to the knee element. Indeed, the knee element as a hysteretic damper is designed and detailed to behave like a structural fuse by sustaining controlled inelastic deformations as well as by dissipating seismic energy, yet other parts and connections remain elastic. Simultaneously, the lower strength steel is utilized in knee element based on the general concept of easy-going steel (EGS. As the current paper takes into account the effect of easy going steel on KBF's response modification factor, several frames with similar dimensions but varying heights are designed based on the Iranian code of practice. For this purpose, initially the knee elements are substituted with the one made of EGS and subsequently the seismic parameters such as response modification factor and seismic performance levels are compared based on non-linear incremental dynamic analysis (IDA. The average values of response modification factor for these frames have been obtained 11.4 and 11.6 for KO and KE frames respectively. The results reveal that the frames' stiffness and ductility factor with EGS augments by 10% and 6% respectively.

  7. Easy and Fast Reconstruction of a 3D Avatar with an RGB-D Sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Aihua; Zhang, Hong; Liu, Yuxin; Zheng, Yinglong; Li, Guiqing; Han, Guoqiang

    2017-05-12

    This paper proposes a new easy and fast 3D avatar reconstruction method using an RGB-D sensor. Users can easily implement human body scanning and modeling just with a personal computer and a single RGB-D sensor such as a Microsoft Kinect within a small workspace in their home or office. To make the reconstruction of 3D avatars easy and fast, a new data capture strategy is proposed for efficient human body scanning, which captures only 18 frames from six views with a close scanning distance to fully cover the body; meanwhile, efficient alignment algorithms are presented to locally align the data frames in the single view and then globally align them in multi-views based on pairwise correspondence. In this method, we do not adopt shape priors or subdivision tools to synthesize the model, which helps to reduce modeling complexity. Experimental results indicate that this method can obtain accurate reconstructed 3D avatar models, and the running performance is faster than that of similar work. This research offers a useful tool for the manufacturers to quickly and economically create 3D avatars for products design, entertainment and online shopping.

  8. AME - Asteroseismology Made Easy. Estimating stellar properties by use of scaled models

    CERN Document Server

    Lundkvist, M; Aguirre, V Silva

    2014-01-01

    We present a new method to obtain stellar properties for stars exhibiting solar-like oscillations in an easy, fast, and transparent way. The method, called Asteroseismology Made Easy (AME), can determine stellar masses, mean-densities, radii, and surface gravities, as well as estimate ages. In this writing we present AME as a visual and powerful tool which could be useful; in particular in the light of the large number of exoplanets being found. AME consists of a set of figures from which the stellar parameters are deduced. These figures are made from a grid of stellar evolutionary models that cover masses ranging from 0.7 Msun to 1.6 Msun in steps of 0.1 Msun and metallicities in the interval -0.3 dex <= [Fe/H] <= +0.3 dex in increments of 0.1 dex. The stellar evolutionary models are computed using the Modules for Experiments in Stellar Astrophysics (MESA) code with simple input physics. We have compared the results from AME with results for three groups of stars; stars with radii determined from inter...

  9. Novel sodium fusidate-loaded film-forming hydrogel with easy application and excellent wound healing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dong Wuk; Kim, Kyung Soo; Seo, Youn Gee; Lee, Beom-Jin; Park, Young Joon; Youn, Yu Seok; Kim, Jong Oh; Yong, Chul Soon; Jin, Sung Giu; Choi, Han-Gon

    2015-11-10

    To develop a novel sodium fusidate-loaded film-forming hydrogel (FFH) for easy application and excellent wound healing, various FFH formulations and corresponding FFH dried films were prepared with drug, polyvinylalcohol (PVA), polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP), propylene glycol, ethanol and water, and their film forming times, mechanical properties, drug release, in vivo wound healing in rat and histopathology were assessed. The sodium fusidate-loaded FFH composed of sodium fusidate/PVP/PVA/propylene glycol/ethanol/water at the weight ratio of 1/2/12/3/8/74 could form a corresponding dried film in the wound sites promptly due to fast film-forming time of about 4 min. This FFH showed an appropriate hardness and adhesiveness. Furthermore, this corresponding dried film provided an excellent flexibility and elasticity, and gave relatively high drug release. As compared with the sodium fusidate-loaded commercial product, it significantly improved excision and infection wound healing in rats. This FFH was stable at 45°C for at least 6 months. Therefore, this novel sodium fusidate-loaded FFH would be an effective pharmaceutical product with easy application for the treatment of wounds.

  10. Probing zeolites by vibrational spectroscopies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bordiga, Silvia; Lamberti, Carlo; Bonino, Francesca; Travert, Arnaud; Thibault-Starzyk, Frédéric

    2015-10-21

    This review addresses the most relevant aspects of vibrational spectroscopies (IR, Raman and INS) applied to zeolites and zeotype materials. Surface Brønsted and Lewis acidity and surface basicity are treated in detail. The role of probe molecules and the relevance of tuning both the proton affinity and the steric hindrance of the probe to fully understand and map the complex site population present inside microporous materials are critically discussed. A detailed description of the methods needed to precisely determine the IR absorption coefficients is given, making IR a quantitative technique. The thermodynamic parameters of the adsorption process that can be extracted from a variable-temperature IR study are described. Finally, cutting-edge space- and time-resolved experiments are reviewed. All aspects are discussed by reporting relevant examples. When available, the theoretical literature related to the reviewed experimental results is reported to support the interpretation of the vibrational spectra on an atomic level.

  11. Metalloprotein-based MRI probes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Yuri; Jasanoff, Alan

    2013-04-17

    Metalloproteins have long been recognized as key determinants of endogenous contrast in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of biological subjects. More recently, both natural and engineered metalloproteins have been harnessed as biotechnological tools to probe gene expression, enzyme activity, and analyte concentrations by MRI. Metalloprotein MRI probes are paramagnetic and function by analogous mechanisms to conventional gadolinium or iron oxide-based MRI contrast agents. Compared with synthetic agents, metalloproteins typically offer worse sensitivity, but the possibilities of using protein engineering and targeted gene expression approaches in conjunction with metalloprotein contrast agents are powerful and sometimes definitive strengths. This review summarizes theoretical and practical aspects of metalloprotein-based contrast agents, and discusses progress in the exploitation of these proteins for molecular imaging applications.

  12. Two rhodamine lactam modulated lysosome-targetable fluorescence probes for sensitively and selectively monitoring subcellular organelle pH change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Hongmei [Ministry of Education Key Laboratory of Synthetic and Natural Functional Molecule Chemistry, College of Chemistry & Materials Science, Northwest University, Xi' an 710069 (China); Wang, Cuiling [Key Laboratory of Resource Biology and Biotechnology in Western China, Ministry of Education, College of Life Science, Northwest University, Xi' an 710069 (China); She, Mengyao; Zhu, Yuelu; Zhang, Jidong; Yang, Zheng [Ministry of Education Key Laboratory of Synthetic and Natural Functional Molecule Chemistry, College of Chemistry & Materials Science, Northwest University, Xi' an 710069 (China); Liu, Ping, E-mail: liuping@nwu.edu.cn [Ministry of Education Key Laboratory of Synthetic and Natural Functional Molecule Chemistry, College of Chemistry & Materials Science, Northwest University, Xi' an 710069 (China); Wang, Yaoyu [Ministry of Education Key Laboratory of Synthetic and Natural Functional Molecule Chemistry, College of Chemistry & Materials Science, Northwest University, Xi' an 710069 (China); Li, Jianli, E-mail: lijianli@nwu.edu.cn [Ministry of Education Key Laboratory of Synthetic and Natural Functional Molecule Chemistry, College of Chemistry & Materials Science, Northwest University, Xi' an 710069 (China)

    2015-11-05

    Be a powerful technique for convenient detection of pH change in living cells, especially at subcellular level, fluorescent probes has attracted more and more attention. In this work, we designed and synthesized three rhodamine lactam modulated fluorescent probes RS1, RS2 and RS3, which all respond sensitively toward weak acidity (pH range 4–6) via the photophysical property in buffer solution without interference from the other metal ions, and they also show ideal pKa values and excellent reversibility. Particularly, by changing the lone pair electrons distribution of lactam-N atom with different conjugations, RS2 and RS3 exhibit high quantum yield, negligible cytotoxicity and excellent permeability. They are suitable to stain selectively lysosomes of tumor cells and monitor its pH changes sensitively via optical molecular imaging. The above findings suggest that the probes we designed could act as ideal and easy method for investigating the pivotal role of H{sup +} in lysosomes and are potential pH detectors in disease diagnosis through direct intracellular imaging. - Highlights: • Two probes for sensitively and selectively monitoring weak acidic pH change. • The pKa of the probes was highly suitable for staining lysosomes in tumor cells. • The properties of those probes were changed by different conjugate system. • These probes have negligible cytotoxicity and good sensitivity in vivo.

  13. Distance probes of dark energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, A. G.; Padmanabhan, N.; Aldering, G.; Allen, S. W.; Baltay, C.; Cahn, R. N.; D’Andrea, C. B.; Dalal, N.; Dawson, K. S.; Denney, K. D.; Eisenstein, D. J.; Finley, D. A.; Freedman, W. L.; Ho, S.; Holz, D. E.; Kasen, D.; Kent, S. M.; Kessler, R.; Kuhlmann, S.; Linder, E. V.; Martini, P.; Nugent, P. E.; Perlmutter, S.; Peterson, B. M.; Riess, A. G.; Rubin, D.; Sako, M.; Suntzeff, N. V.; Suzuki, N.; Thomas, R. C.; Wood-Vasey, W. M.; Woosley, S. E.

    2015-03-01

    This document presents the results from the Distances subgroup of the Cosmic Frontier Community Planning Study (Snowmass 2013). We summarize the current state of the field as well as future prospects and challenges. In addition to the established probes using Type Ia supernovae and baryon acoustic oscillations, we also consider prospective methods based on clusters, active galactic nuclei, gravitational wave sirens and strong lensing time delays.

  14. Probing the Tautomerism of Histidine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bermudez, C.; Cabezas, C.; Mata, S.; Alonso, J. L.

    2013-06-01

    The rotational spectrum of histidine, showing a complex nuclear quadrupole interactions arising from three ^{14}N nuclei in non-equivalent positions have been resolved and completely analyzed. Solid samples (m.p. 290°C) were vaporized by laser ablation and probed by Fourier transform microwave spectroscopy in a supersonic expansion. The experimental constants clearly lead to the unambiguous identification of the \\varepsilon tautomer in the gas phase.

  15. Distance Probes of Dark Energy

    CERN Document Server

    Kim, A; Aldering, G; Allen, S; Baltay, C; Cahn, R; D'Andrea, C; Dalal, N; Dawson, K; Denney, K; Eisenstein, D; Finley, D; Freedman, W; Ho, S; Holz, D; Kent, A; Kasen, D; Kessler, R; Kuhlmann, S; Linder, E; Martini, P; Nugent, P; Perlmutter, S; Peterson, B; Riess, A; Rubin, D; Sako, M; Suntzeff, N; Suzuki, N; Thomas, R; Wood-Vasey, W M; Woosley, S

    2013-01-01

    This document presents the results from the Distances subgroup of the Cosmic Frontier Community Planning Study (Snowmass 2013). We summarize the current state of the field as well as future prospects and challenges. In addition to the established probes using Type IA supernovae and baryon acoustic oscillations, we also consider prospective methods based on clusters, active galactic nuclei, gravitational wave sirens and strong lensing time delays.

  16. Chemomechanics with Molecular Force Probes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-30

    probe should have [25,26]: (1) a size that is small enough to allow high-level quantum -chemical calcu- lations of geometries and energies of...macrocycles makes them amenable to high-level quantum -chemical calculations, which yield restoring forces without the ambi- guities intrinsic to...reactions to be measured and in- terpreted structurally and mechanistically by integrating molecular design, synthesis, kinetic/ mechanis - tic studies and

  17. Flying Probe Tester: Architecture, Principle and Implementation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fu,Xu; Fang,Kangling; Chen,Guoqing

    2005-01-01

    This paper introduces the flying probe tester, which is a testing device for PCB. The architecture and principle of flying probe tester are firstly introduced. Then the implementation of hardware and software is illuminated briefly. Finally, the optimizing method for the probe's moving path is researched based on the traveling salesman problem.

  18. The Van Allen Probes mission

    CERN Document Server

    Burch, James

    2014-01-01

    This collection of articles provides broad and detailed information about NASA’s Van Allen Probes (formerly known as the Radiation Belt Storm Probes) twin-spacecraft Earth-orbiting mission. The mission has the objective of achieving predictive understanding of the dynamic, intense, energetic, dangerous, and presently unpredictable belts of energetic particles that are magnetically trapped in Earth’s space environment above the atmosphere. It documents the science of the radiation belts and the societal benefits of achieving predictive understanding. Detailed information is provided about the Van Allen Probes mission design, the spacecraft, the science investigations, and the onboard instrumentation that must all work together to make unprecedented measurements within a most unforgiving environment, the core of Earth’s most intense radiation regions.
 This volume is aimed at graduate students and researchers active in space science, solar-terrestrial interactions and studies of the up...

  19. Effects of the total replacement of fish-based diet with plant-based diet on the hepatic transcriptome of two European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax half-sibfamilies showing different growth rates with the plant-based diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geay Florian

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Efforts towards utilisation of diets without fish meal (FM or fish oil (FO in finfish aquaculture have been being made for more than two decades. Metabolic responses to substitution of fishery products have been shown to impact growth performance and immune system of fish as well as their subsequent nutritional value, particularly in marine fish species, which exhibit low capacity for biosynthesis of long-chain poly-unsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA. The main objective of the present study was to analyse the effects of a plant-based diet on the hepatic transcriptome of European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax. Results We report the first results obtained using a transcriptomic approach on the liver of two half-sibfamilies of the European sea bass that exhibit similar growth rates when fed a fish-based diet (FD, but significantly different growth rates when fed an all-plant diet (VD. Overall gene expression was analysed using oligo DNA microarrays (GPL9663. Statistical analysis identified 582 unique annotated genes differentially expressed between groups of fish fed the two diets, 199 genes regulated by genetic factors, and 72 genes that exhibited diet-family interactions. The expression of several genes involved in the LC-PUFA and cholesterol biosynthetic pathways was found to be up-regulated in fish fed VD, suggesting a stimulation of the lipogenic pathways. No significant diet-family interaction for the regulation of LC-PUFA biosynthesis pathways could be detected by microarray analysis. This result was in agreement with LC-PUFA profiles, which were found to be similar in the flesh of the two half-sibfamilies. In addition, the combination of our transcriptomic data with an analysis of plasmatic immune parameters revealed a stimulation of complement activity associated with an immunodeficiency in the fish fed VD, and different inflammatory status between the two half-sibfamilies. Biological processes related to protein

  20. Influence of probe geometry on the response of an electrostatic probe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansson, Torben; Crichton, George C; McAllister, Iain Wilson

    1999-01-01

    The response of an electrostatic probe is examined with reference to the probe geometry. The study involves the evaluation of the probe lambda function, from which response-related characteristic parameters can be derived. These parameters enable the probe detection sensitivity Se and spatial...

  1. Influence of probe geometry on measurement results of non-ideal thermal conductivity sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiefenbacher, Patrick; Kömle, Norbert I.; Macher, Wolfgang; Kargl, Günter

    2016-09-01

    The thermal properties of the surface and subsurface layers of planets and planetary objects yield important information that allows us to better understand the thermal evolution of the body itself and its interactions with the environment. Various planetary bodies of our Solar System are covered by so-called regolith, a granular and porous material. On such planetary bodies the dominant heat transfer mechanism is heat conduction via IR radiation and contact points between particles. In this case the energy balance is mainly controlled by the effective thermal conductivity of the top surface layers, which can be directly measured by thermal conductivity probes. A traditionally used method for measuring the thermal conductivity of solid materials is the needle-probe method. Such probes consist of thin steel needles with an embedded heating wire and temperature sensors. For the evaluation of the thermal conductivity of a specific material the temperature change with time is determined by heating a resistance wire with a well-defined electrical current flowing through it and simultaneously measuring the temperature increase inside the probe over a certain time. For thin needle probes with a large length-to-diameter ratio it is mathematically easy to derive the thermal conductivity, while this is not so straightforward for more rugged probes with a larger diameter and thus a smaller length-to-diameter ratio. Due to the geometry of the standard thin needle probes they are mechanically weak and subject to bending when driven into a soil. Therefore, using them for planetary missions can be problematic. In this paper the thermal conductivity values determined by measurements with two non-ideal, ruggedized thermal conductivity sensors, which only differ in length, are compared to each other. Since the theory describing the temperature response of non-ideal sensors is highly complicated, those sensors were calibrated with an ideal reference sensor in various solid and

  2. Zero voltage mass spectrometry probes and systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cooks, Robert Graham; Wleklinski, Michael Stanley; Bag, Soumabha; Li, Yafeng

    2017-10-10

    The invention generally relates to zero volt mass spectrometry probes and systems. In certain embodiments, the invention provides a system including a mass spectrometry probe including a porous material, and a mass spectrometer (bench-top or miniature mass spectrometer). The system operates without an application of voltage to the probe. In certain embodiments, the probe is oriented such that a distal end faces an inlet of the mass spectrometer. In other embodiments, the distal end of the probe is 5 mm or less from an inlet of the mass spectrometer.

  3. Project Prometheus and Future Entry Probe Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spilker, Thomas R.

    2005-01-01

    A viewgraph presentation on project Prometheus and future entry probe missions is shown. The topics include: 1) What Is Project Prometheus?; 2) What Capabilities Can Project Prometheus Offer? What Mission Types Are Being Considered?; 3) Jupiter Icy Moons Orbiter (JIMO); 4) How Are Mission Opportunities Changing?; 5) Missions Of Interest a Year Ago; 6) Missions Now Being Considered For Further Study; 7) Galileo-Style (Conventional) Probe Delivery; 8) Galileo-Style Probe Support; 9) Conventional Delivery and Support of Multiple Probes; 10) How Entry Probe Delivery From an NEP Vehicle Is Different; and 11) Concluding Remarks.

  4. Easy-Magnetization-Axis Arrangements of Sm2Co17 and RE2Fe14B

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    In order to prepare the bulk samples with high residual magnetization of magnetic compounds, such as (Sm,La)2(Co,Cu,Fe,Zr)17, (Sm,La)1(Co,Cu,Fe)5, Nd2Fe14B, and Pr2Fe14B, directly prepared by solidification, or hot-deformation, it is the first thing to explore the possibilities of the easy magnetization axis of the whole bulk samples to be arranged in one designed direction. α is defined as the angle between the axis and the direction. In Sm-La-Co-Fe-Cu-Zr system, whether α is equal to 0° or 90° depends upon not only alloy compositions but also the ratio of the temperature gradient at the solid/liquid interface and the crystal growth rate. To some alloys, α can be changed from 90° to 0° if the ratio is increased to be higher than a critical value, so the c-axis texture orientation can be obtained. In Nd-Fe-B system, the easy magnetization axis of Nd2Fe14B is always perpendicular to the preferential growth direction [100], and the easy magnetization axes of Nd2Fe14B grains are randomly distributed in the plane normal to the growth direction even if the growth rate is decreased from 250 to 12 μm·s-1. But if the magnetization axis of the anisotropic magnet substrate is perpendicular to the heat flux direction of the laser melting solidification layer, c-axis texture of the columnar Nd2Fe14B grains in the layer can be obtained, which is the same as that of the substrate, if the laser scanning rate is not less than 25 μm·s-1. Also the c-axis texture [006] can be achieved through hot-deformation of PrxFe93.5-xB5Cu1.5 (x=15~19) under the conditions of hot-pressing temperature 973~1273 K, strain rate 10-3 S-1, and strain 50%~80%.

  5. EasyClone: method for iterative chromosomal integration of multiple genes in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Niels Bjerg; Strucko, Tomas; Kildegaard, Kanchana Rueksomtawin

    2014-01-01

    Development of strains for efficient production of chemicals and pharmaceuticals requires multiple rounds of genetic engineering. In this study, we describe construction and characterization of EasyClone vector set for baker's yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, which enables simultaneous expression...

  6. easyCBM[R] Reading Criterion Related Validity Evidence: Washington State Test 2009-2010. Technical Report #1101

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Daniel; Alonzo, Julie; Tindal, Gerald

    2011-01-01

    easyCBM[R] is an online benchmark and progress monitoring assessment system designed for use within a response to intervention (RTI) framework. Part of the purpose of easyCBM[R] is to help educators identify students who may be at risk for academic failure. Often, students deemed at risk are those who would be predicted to not pass the state test.…

  7. A reverse pendulum bath cryostat design suitable for low temperature scanning probe microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heyde, M.; Thielsch, G.; Rust, H.-P.; Freund, H.-J.

    2005-03-01

    A new low temperature, ultrahigh vacuum cryostat design has been developed for atomic force and scanning tunnelling microscopy measurements. A microscope can be operated at 5 K in ultrahigh vacuum. The microscope body is thermally connected to a reverse pendulum and completely surrounded by a radiation shield. The design allows in situ dosing and irradiation of the sample as well as for easy access of tip and sample. The temperature performance and the vibrational properties of the reverse pendulum design are demonstrated in detail. A brief overview of low temperature instrumentation in scanning probe microscopy is given.

  8. Flexible Ultrasonic Phased-Array Probe

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    施克仁; 阙开良; 郭大勇

    2004-01-01

    In ultrasonic phased-array testing, most probes are rigid with fixed elements. However, when testing a cambered piece, a rigid probe cannot be used directly, but an ultrasonic chock or coupling media must be used, which adds cost and reduces the accuracy. The objective of this research was to improve the tests of cambered pieces. A flexible ultrasonic phased-array probe was developed to do the flexible phased-array testing. The key technologies in the flexible phased-array probe include the probe design and the phased-array control. A new method was developed to design the flexible probe according to the curvature of the piece and the test depth. The method includes the calculation of the element's height (he), the relative rotation angle ((e), the distance between the adjoining elements (de), and the element's effective testing range. A flexible ultrasonic phased-array probe has been developed using this method.

  9. Easy synthesis of graphene sheets from alfalfa plants by treatment of nitric acid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qu, Jiao, E-mail: qujiao@bhu.edu.cn [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Bohai University, Jinzhou 121013 (China); School of Urban and Environmental Sciences, Northeast Normal University, Changchun 130024 (China); Luo, Chunqiu, E-mail: fplj_lcq@163.com [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Bohai University, Jinzhou 121013 (China); Zhang, Qian; Cong, Qiao [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Bohai University, Jinzhou 121013 (China); Yuan, Xing [School of Urban and Environmental Sciences, Northeast Normal University, Changchun 130024 (China)

    2013-04-01

    Highlights: ► An easy method for synthesis of graphene sheets using alfalfa plants was introduced. ► An novelty formation mechanism of graphene sheets using alfalfa plants was proposed. ► This method exploits a new carbon source and provides a novel idea to synthesize graphene sheets. -- Abstract: This letter focuses on synthesis of graphene sheets from alfalfa plants by treatment of nitric acid. The transmission electron microscopy image (TEM) demonstrates that the graphene sheets are agglomerated and overlapped, the energy dispersive spectrum (EDS) indicates that the products are pure, and the Raman spectrum shows the graphene sheets are well graphitized. In addition, the formation mechanism of the graphene sheets from alfalfa plants by treatment nitric acid is discussed. These findings inspire the search for a new strategy for synthesis of graphene sheets from renewable natural products, and the lower cost of this new process and carbon source may facilitate industrial production.

  10. Soliton–antisoliton interaction in a parametrically driven easy-plane magnetic wire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Urzagasti, D., E-mail: deterlino@yahoo.com [Instituto de Investigaciones Físicas, UMSA, P.O. Box 8635, La Paz (Bolivia, Plurinational State of); Aramayo, A. [Instituto de Investigaciones Físicas, UMSA, P.O. Box 8635, La Paz (Bolivia, Plurinational State of); Laroze, D. [Instituto de Alta Investigación, Universidad de Tarapacá, Casilla 7D, Arica (Chile); Max Planck Institute for Polymer Research, 55021 Mainz (Germany)

    2014-07-11

    In the present work we study the soliton–antisoliton interaction in an anisotropic easy-plane magnetic wire forced by a transverse uniform and oscillatory magnetic field. This system is described in the continuous framework by the Landau–Lifshitz–Gilbert equation. We find numerically that the spatio-temporal magnetization field exhibits both annihilative and repulsive soliton–antisoliton interactions. We also describe this system with the aim of the associated Parametrically Driven and Damped Nonlinear Schrödinger amplitude equation and give an approximate analytical solution that roughly describes the repulsive interaction. - Highlights: • We study the interactions of solitons with opposite polarity with the LLG equation. • We found that there exists both annihilative and repulsive interactions. • Similar results we found for the Parametrically Driven and Damped NLS equation. • We obtain an approximate analytical solution for the repulsive interaction.

  11. Easy moment direction and antiferromagnetic domain wall motion in Mn2Au

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barthem, Vitoria M. T. S.; Colin, Claire V.; Haettel, Richard; Dufeu, Didier; Givord, Dominique

    2016-05-01

    The interest of giving active functions to antiferromagnetic (AFM) materials in spintronics devices has been realized recently. Mn2Au is a high-Néel temperature antiferromagnet with large Mn moment, lying in plane of the tetragonal structure. To determine the direction of the moments in Mn2Au, an original approach is demonstrated, which should be generic to planar AFM materials. It involves the rotation of the granular sample around an axis perpendicular to the applied magnetic field. The family of easy moment directions is . For grains prevented from rotating, the dominant magnetization process is AFM domain wall motion. Textured Mn2Au nanoelements could be introduced in spintronics devices, in which the Mn moments would be switched under modest external excitation.

  12. Designing Open Source Computer Models for Physics by Inquiry using Easy Java Simulation

    CERN Document Server

    Wee, Loo Kang

    2012-01-01

    The Open Source Physics community has created hundreds of physics computer models (Wolfgang Christian, Esquembre, & Barbato, 2011; F. K. Hwang & Esquembre, 2003) which are mathematical computation representations of real-life Physics phenomenon. Since the source codes are available and can be modified for redistribution licensed Creative Commons Attribution or other compatible copyrights like GNU General Public License (GPL), educators can customize (Wee & Mak, 2009) these models for more targeted productive (Wee, 2012) activities for their classroom teaching and redistribute them to benefit all humankind. In this interactive event, we will share the basics of using the free authoring toolkit called Easy Java Simulation (W. Christian, Esquembre, & Mason, 2010; Esquembre, 2010) so that participants can modify the open source computer models for their own learning and teaching needs. These computer models has the potential to provide the experience and context, essential for deepening students c...

  13. An easy and efficient permeabilization protocol for in vivo enzyme activity assays in cyanobacteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Randi Engelberth; Erstad, Simon Matthé; Ramos Martinez, Erick Miguel

    2016-01-01

    microbial cell factories. Better understanding of the activities of enzymes involved in the central carbon metabolism would lead to increasing product yields. Currently cell-free lysates are the most widely used method for determination of intracellular enzyme activities. However, due to thick cell walls...... and subsequent activity assays were successfully adapted to the 96-well plate system. CONCLUSIONS: An easy, efficient and scalable permeabilization protocol was established for cyanobacteria. The permeabilized cells can be directly applied for measurement of G6PDH and Rubisco activities without using...... radioisotopes and the protocol may be readily adapted to studies of other cyanobacterial species and other intracellular enzymes. The permeabilization and enzyme assays can be performed in 96-well plates in a high-throughput manner....

  14. An integrable, web-based solution for easy assessment of video-recorded performances

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Subhi, Yousif; Todsen, Tobias; Konge, Lars

    2014-01-01

    , and access to this information should be restricted to select personnel. A local software solution may also ease the need for customization to local needs and integration into existing user databases or project management software. We developed an integrable web-based solution for easy assessment of video......Assessment of clinical competencies by direct observation is problematic for two main reasons the identity of the examinee influences the assessment scores, and direct observation demands experts at the exact location and the exact time. Recording the performance can overcome these problems......; however, managing video recordings and assessment sheets is troublesome and may lead to missing or incorrect data. Currently, no existing software solution can provide a local solution for the management of videos and assessments but this is necessary as assessment scores are confidential information...

  15. Understanding resonance graphs using Easy Java Simulations (EJS) and why we use EJS

    CERN Document Server

    Wee, Loo Kang; Chew, Charles; Wong, Darren; Tan, Samuel

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports a computer model- simulation created using Easy Java Simulation (EJS) for learners to visualize how the steady-state amplitude of a driven oscillating system varies with the frequency of the periodic driving force. The simulation shows (N=100) identical spring-mass systems being subjected to (1) periodic driving force of equal amplitude but different driving frequencies and (2) different amount of damping. The simulation aims to create a visually intuitive way of understanding how the series of amplitude versus driving frequency graphs are obtained by showing how the displacement of the system changes over time as it transits from the transient to the steady state. A suggested how to use the model is added to help educators and students in their teaching and learning, where we explained the theoretical steady state equation, time conditions when the model starts allowing data recording of maximum amplitudes to closely match the theoretical equation and steps to collect different runs of deg...

  16. Physics Educators as Designers of Simulation using Easy Java Simulation (Ejs) Part 2*

    CERN Document Server

    Wee, Loo Kang

    2012-01-01

    To deepen do-it-yourself (DIY) technology in the physics classroom, we seek to highlight the Open Source Physics (OSP) community of educators that engage, enable and empower teachers as learners so that we create DIY technology tools-simulation for inquiry learning. We learn through Web 2 online collaborative means to develop simulations together with reputable physicists through the open source digital library. By examining the open source codes of the simulation through the Easy Java Simulation (EJS) toolkit, we are able make sense of the physics from the computational models created by practicing physicists. We will share newer (2010-present) simulations that we have remixed from existing library of simulations models into suitable learning environments for inquiry of physics. We hope other teachers would find these simulations useful and remix them that suit their own context and contribute back to benefit all humankind, becoming citizens for the world. Abstract Footnotes: website prior to the meeting htt...

  17. Using injection molding and reversible bonding for easy fabrication of magnetic cell trapping and sorting devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Royet, David; Hériveaux, Yoann; Marchalot, Julien; Scorretti, Riccardo; Dias, André; Dempsey, Nora M.; Bonfim, Marlio; Simonet, Pascal; Frénéa-Robin, Marie

    2017-04-01

    Magnetism and microfluidics are two key elements for the development of inexpensive and reliable tools dedicated to high-throughput biological analysis and providing a large panel of applications in domains ranging from fundamental biology to medical diagnostics. In this work, we introduce a simple protocol, relying on injection molding and reversible bonding for fabrication of magnetic cell trapping and sorting devices using only standard soft-lithography equipment. Magnetic strips or grids made of Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) doped with hard (NdFeB) or soft (carbonyl iron) magnetic powders were integrated at the bottom of whole PDMS chips. Preliminary results show the effective deviation/trapping of magnetic beads or magnetically-labeled bacteria as the sample flows through the microchannel, proving the potential of this rapid prototyping approach for easy fabrication of magnetic cell sorters.

  18. Don't words come easy? A psychophysical exploration of word superiority.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starrfelt, Randi; Petersen, Anders; Vangkilde, Signe

    2013-01-01

    Words are made of letters, and yet sometimes it is easier to identify a word than a single letter. This word superiority effect (WSE) has been observed when written stimuli are presented very briefly or degraded by visual noise. We compare performance with letters and words in three experiments, to explore the extents and limits of the WSE. Using a carefully controlled list of three letter words, we show that a WSE can be revealed in vocal reaction times even to undegraded stimuli. With a novel combination of psychophysics and mathematical modeling, we further show that the typical WSE is specifically reflected in perceptual processing speed: single words are simply processed faster than single letters. Intriguingly, when multiple stimuli are presented simultaneously, letters are perceived more easily than words, and this is reflected both in perceptual processing speed and visual short term memory (VSTM) capacity. So, even if single words come easy, there is a limit to the WSE.

  19. Development of sensorless easy-to-use overhead crane system via simulation based control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tagawa, Yasutaka; Mori, Yoshihito; Wada, Masaomi; Kawajiri, Eisaku; Nouzuka, Kazuma

    2016-09-01

    This paper describes the newly developed overhead crane which has a sensorless vibration control system. Generally, loads which are carried by the overhead cranes are easy to vibrate and only skilled people can operate the cranes. Therefore, a lot of studies have been done to solve this problem by using feedback control with vibration sensors. However vibration sensors often break down in severe industrial environment and more reliable control systems are required. For this reason, we have been developing sensorless control system for overhead cranes. In this paper, we firstly introduce basic idea of simulation based control which is called IDCS, then overview and modeling of the overhead crane is presented. Next, the control system design of the overhead crane is discussed, and experimental results are shown for real overhead crane with 2 axes.

  20. The SpeechEasy device in stuttering and nonstuttering adults: fluency effects while speaking and reading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foundas, Anne L; Mock, Jeffrey R; Corey, David M; Golob, Edward J; Conture, Edward G

    2013-08-01

    The SpeechEasy is an electronic device designed to alleviate stuttering by manipulating auditory feedback via time delays and frequency shifts. Device settings (control, default, custom), ear-placement (left, right), speaking task, and cognitive variables were examined in people who stutter (PWS) (n=14) compared to controls (n=10). Among the PWS there was a significantly greater reduction in stuttering (compared to baseline) with custom device settings compared to the non-altered feedback (control) condition. Stuttering was reduced the most during reading, followed by narrative and conversation. For the conversation task, stuttering was reduced more when the device was worn in the left ear. Those individuals with a more severe stuttering rate at baseline had a greater benefit from the use of the device compared to individuals with less severe stuttering. Our results support the view that overt stuttering is associated with defective speech-language monitoring that can be influenced by manipulating auditory feedback.

  1. Physics Educators as Designers of Simulation using Easy Java Simulation (Ejs)

    CERN Document Server

    Wee, Loo Kang

    2012-01-01

    To deepen the professional practice of physics educators, I seek to highlight the Open Source Physics (OSP) and Easy Java Simulation (Ejs or EJS) community of educators that engage, enable and empower teachers as learners so that we can be leaders in our teaching practice. I learned through Web 2 online collaborative means to develop simulations together with reputable physicists through the open source digital library. By examining the open source codes of the simulation through the Ejs toolkit, I was able to examine and make sense of the physics from the computational models created by practicing physicists. I will share some of the simulations that I have remixed from existing library of simulations models into suitable learning environments for inquiry of physics. http://www.phy.ntnu.edu.tw/ntnujava/index.php?board=28.0

  2. Carbon Nanotube Arrays with Strong Shear Binding-On and Easy Normal Lifting-Off

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Liangti; Dai, Liming; Stone, Morley; Xia, Zhenhai; Wang, Zhong Lin

    2008-10-01

    The ability of gecko lizards to adhere to a vertical solid surface comes from their remarkable feet with aligned microscopic elastic hairs. By using carbon nanotube arrays that are dominated by a straight body segment but with curly entangled top, we have created gecko-foot mimetic dry adhesives that show macroscopic adhesive forces of ~100 newtons per square centimeter, almost 10 times that of a gecko foot, and a much stronger shear adhesion force than the normal adhesion force, to ensure strong binding along the shear direction and easy lifting in the normal direction. This anisotropic force distribution is due to the shear-induced alignments of the curly segments of the nanotubes. The mimetic adhesives can be alternatively binding-on and lifting-off over various substrates for simulating the walking of a living gecko.

  3. An easy, rapid and inexpensive method to monitor tributyltin (TBT) toxicity in the laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz, Andreia; Moreira, Rafael; Mendo, Sónia

    2014-05-01

    Tributyltin (TBT) contamination remains a major problem worldwide. Many laboratories are committed to the development of remediation methodologies that could help reduce the negative impact of this compound in the environment. Furthermore, it is important to have at hand simple methodologies for evaluating TBT toxicity in the laboratory, besides the use of complex and costly analytical instrumentation. With that purpose, a method was adapted that is based on the inhibition of growth of an indicator strain, Micrococcus luteus ATCC 9341, under TBT. Different types of matrices, of TBT concentrations and sample treatments were tested. The results herein reported show that the bioassay method can be applied for both aqueous and soil samples and also for a high range of TBT concentrations (at least up to 500 μmol/L). Besides being cheap and easy to perform, it can be performed in any laboratory. Additionally, one possible application of the method to monitor TBT degradation is presented as an example.

  4. An easy and efficient method for flexible robots modeling and simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celentano, Laura

    2013-10-01

    In this paper a very easy, numerically stable and computationally efficient method is presented, which allows to model and simulate a flexible robot with high precision, also under the hypothesis of large link deformations and of time-varying geometrical and physical parameters of the robot and of the end-effector. This methodology uses the same approach of the rigid robots modeling, after suitably and fictitiously subdividing each link of the robot into sublinks, rigid to the aim of the calculus of the inertia matrix and flexible to the aim of the calculus of the elastic matrix. The static and dynamic precision of the method is proved with interesting theorems. Finally, the method is used to model, control and simulate a crane with three flexible links and a varying length cable carrying a body with a variable mass.

  5. An easy method for diagnosing macro-aspartate aminotransferase: a case series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beşer, Omer Faruk; Laçinel, Sibel; Gülcü, Didem; Kutlu, Tufan; Cullu Çokuğraş, Fügen; Erkan, Tülay

    2014-10-01

    Macro-aspartate transaminase (macro-AST) must be considered when the aspartate transaminase (AST) level is chronically high without any liver, cardiac, or muscle disease. Many specialized laboratory techniques have been recommended for diagnosing macro-AST, including the polyethylene glycol immune precipitate technique, which is simple. This study presents a considerably easier method based on the studies of Davidson and Watson and Castiella et al. Our method is based on the decrease in the plasma AST level after storage of the macroenzyme at 2-8 °C for 5 days, and has the advantages of low cost, reliability, and practicality at any health center. In our eight cases of macro-AST, the AST activity at day 6 had decreased by more than 50% from day 1. This method is practical for primary healthcare facilities because of its easy application and accurate results, and obviated the need for unnecessary tests after diagnosis.

  6. A universal, easy-to-apply light-quality index based on natural light spectrum resemblance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jou, Jwo-Huei; Chou, Kun-Yi; Yang, Fu-Chin; Agrawal, Abhishek; Chen, Sun-Zen; Tseng, Jing-Ru; Lin, Ching-Chiao; Chen, Po-Wei; Wong, Ken-Tsung; Chi, Yun

    2014-05-01

    Light-quality is extremely crucial for any light source to be used for illumination. However, a proper light-quality index is still missing although numerous electricity-driven lighting measures have been introduced since past 150 yr. We present in this communication a universal and easy-to-apply index for quantifying the quality of any given lighting source, which is based on direct comparison of its lumen spectrum with the natural light counterpart having the same color temperature. A general principle for creating high quality pseudo-natural light is accordingly derived. By using organic light-emitting diode technology, for example, daylight-style emission with a 96% natural light resemblance is obtained as a high number of organic emitters with diffused colors spanning throughout the entire visible range are employed. The same principle can be extended to other lighting technology such as light-emitting diode to generate natural light-style emission.

  7. AN INVESTIGATION OF THE HYDROPHOBIC AGGLOMERATION CHARACTERISTICS OF EASY DEGRADATION COAL FINES IN WATER

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王力; 陈鹏

    1997-01-01

    The separation of ultrafine coal from three Chinese coal samples of easy degradation coal fines in water has been investigated by the application of a hydrophobic agglomeration process. In addition to yielding clean coal with high recovery, this process requires significantly less oil concentration for agglomeration (less than 0.4% in oil-water weight ratio) and produces stabler agglomerates than general oil agglomeration process, the cost of the oil would no longer be an important consideration for its commercial application. Neutral diesel oil was used to make oleophilic coal particles agglomerated with good rejection of clay minerals under little oil consumption and certain agitation speed at 2000 r/min. An important advantage of this process compared with other cleaning fine coal methods is that it can extremely reduce or eliminate the effects of coal degradation and some clay minerals on coal preparation.

  8. Easy moment direction and antiferromagnetic domain wall motion in Mn{sub 2}Au

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barthem, Vitoria M.T.S. [Instituto de Fisica, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Cidade Universitaria, Ilha do Fundao, 21941-972 Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Colin, Claire V.; Haettel, Richard; Dufeu, Didier [Université Grenoble Alpes, Institut NEEL, 25 Avenue des Martyrs, BP 166, F-38042 Grenoble (France); CNRS, Institut NEEL, 25 Avenue des Martyrs, BP 166, F-38042 Grenoble (France); Givord, Dominique, E-mail: dominique.givord@neel.cnrs.fr [Instituto de Fisica, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Cidade Universitaria, Ilha do Fundao, 21941-972 Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Université Grenoble Alpes, Institut NEEL, 25 Avenue des Martyrs, BP 166, F-38042 Grenoble (France); CNRS, Institut NEEL, 25 Avenue des Martyrs, BP 166, F-38042 Grenoble (France)

    2016-05-15

    The interest of giving active functions to antiferromagnetic (AFM) materials in spintronics devices has been realized recently. Mn{sub 2}Au is a high-Néel temperature antiferromagnet with large Mn moment, lying in plane of the tetragonal structure. To determine the direction of the moments in Mn{sub 2}Au, an original approach is demonstrated, which should be generic to planar AFM materials. It involves the rotation of the granular sample around an axis perpendicular to the applied magnetic field. The family of easy moment directions is 〈110〉. For grains prevented from rotating, the dominant magnetization process is AFM domain wall motion. Textured Mn{sub 2}Au nanoelements could be introduced in spintronics devices, in which the Mn moments would be switched under modest external excitation.

  9. Teaching the teachers: Making solar science education fun and easy to teach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arwood, J.W. [Arizona Dept. of Commerce Energy Office, Phoenix, AZ (United States)

    1996-10-01

    America is facing a quiet crisis in the scientific and technology fields. Elementary school teachers are required to teach outside their specialty area using outdated materials. Furthering this crisis, teachers don`t have time to search for their own materials. These teachers need affordable instructional materials that are fun and easy to teach. Recognizing the importance of teaching science and technology in the classroom, the Arizona Department of Commerce Energy Office developed a Solar Energy Education Packet for Teachers. Also, an implementation workshop was developed to instruct teachers on how to use the materials in the packet. In this paper, the author demonstrates the overwhelming acceptability of using solar cooking for teaching solar science principles and technology in the classroom. By taking a fun and inexpensive approach to teaching the solar science principles, they have created a program that has been embraced not only by teachers, but by students as well.

  10. It’s easy to learn good posture and correct movements at work!

    CERN Multimedia

    HSE Unit

    2014-01-01

    Excessive and repetitive effort and incorrect movements pose a real health hazard, but we can all significantly improve our working conditions with a few simple actions that are easy to learn and put into practice.   The Safety Training Service offers a training course on this subject delivered by a certified external specialist or expert. The one-day course, "Working Conditions – Manual Handling”, is open to anyone whose role requires them to manually lift heavy loads, whether regularly or occasionally. It contains some theory but is mainly practical and will teach you to identify hazardous situations and optimise your effort. The scheduled sessions are in French but English sessions can also be arranged on request. The course description and registration form can be found in the training catalogue on the Safety Training Service’s website or by following this direct link. Don’t hesitate to contact us if you have any questions...

  11. SPLICEFINDER - a fast and easy screening method for active protein trans-splicing positions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joachim Zettler

    Full Text Available Split intein enabled protein trans-splicing (PTS is a powerful method for the ligation of two protein fragments, thereby paving the way for various protein modification or protein function control applications. PTS activity is strongly influenced by the amino acids directly flanking the splice junctions. However, to date no reliable prediction can be made whether or not a split intein is active in a particular foreign extein context. Here we describe SPLICEFINDER, a PCR-based method, allowing fast and easy screening for active split intein insertions in any target protein. Furthermore we demonstrate the applicability of SPLICEFINDER for segmental isotopic labeling as well as for the generation of multi-domain and enzymatically active proteins.

  12. "Nara" knot for suturing of cleft lip in children to make removal easy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Obaidullah

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Cleft patients usually go through a lifetime of repeated hospital admissions and multiple procedures. Suture removal at a tender age and on a sensitive area like the lip becomes a challenge for the nursing staff. It is also emotionally demanding on the part of the parents. Hence, in most centres these patients are at least sedated if not anaesthetised. We have been using a simple knot and running prolene material so that undoing of the knot becomes easy and suture removal more or less atraumatic. We would like to share our experience with readers through this article. An analysis of 53 cleft lip repairs has shown that this knot is safe and easily removable.

  13. Antiparasitic efficacy of a novel plant-based functional food using an Ascaris suum model in pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, R M; Storey, B E; Vidyashankar, A N; Bissinger, B W; Mitchell, S M; Howell, S B; Mason, M E; Lee, M D; Pedroso, A A; Akashe, A; Skrypec, D J

    2014-11-01

    Ascaris lumbricoides is the most prevalent soil-transmitted helminth (STH) infection of human beings worldwide. Chemotherapy with synthetic anthelmintics such as albendazole, mebendazole, and pyrantel pamoate is the current method of treatment; however, the emergence of anthelmintic resistance could substantially decrease the efficacy of such treatments and the sustainability of STH control programs. Additionally, benzimidazoles are not recommended for pregnant women or children under age one. A blinded, controlled study was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of two microencapsulated, plant-based essential oil blends, TTN1013 (α-pinene, linalyl acetate, p-cymene, and thymol octanoate) and TTN1014 (α-pinene, linalyl acetate, p-cymene, and thymol acetate) as functional foods against Ascaris suum infection in pigs, an important pathogen that closely resembles human infections with A. lumbricoides. Four groups of 16 female, 21-24 day old, Yorkshire-cross pigs were treated daily with 0.5 or 1.0mg/kg TTN1013, 1.0mg/kg TTN1014, or 1.0mg/kg equivalent of empty capsules, delivered inside a cream-filled sandwich cookie for 14 weeks. Three days after the initiation of daily treatments, pigs were inoculated daily with A. suum eggs for four weeks. Pigs were weighed weekly and fecal egg counts (FEC) were conducted weekly starting five weeks after initial inoculation with A. suum eggs. Fourteen weeks after first infection with eggs, pigs were necropsied and worms were recovered, counted and separated according to sex. TTN1013 administered daily at a dose of 1.0mg/kg yielded a statistically significant reduction in total worm counts (76.8%), female worm counts (75.5%), FEC (68.6%), and worm volume (62.9%) when compared to control group. Reduction of total and female worm numbers and FEC were not significant for TTN1014 or at the 0.5mg/kg dose of TTN1013. All treatments were well-tolerated by all pigs and did not cause any adverse reactions. All pigs remained clinically normal

  14. Impacts of plant-based foods in ancestral hominin diets on the metabolism and function of gut microbiota in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frost, Gary S; Walton, Gemma E; Swann, Jonathan R; Psichas, Arianna; Costabile, Adele; Johnson, Laura P; Sponheimer, Matt; Gibson, Glenn R; Barraclough, Timothy G

    2014-05-20

    Ancestral human populations had diets containing more indigestible plant material than present-day diets in industrialized countries. One hypothesis for the rise in prevalence of obesity is that physiological mechanisms for controlling appetite evolved to match a diet with plant fiber content higher than that of present-day diets. We investigated how diet affects gut microbiota and colon cells by comparing human microbial communities with those from a primate that has an extreme plant-based diet, namely, the gelada baboon, which is a grazer. The effects of potato (high starch) versus grass (high lignin and cellulose) diets on human-derived versus gelada-derived fecal communities were compared in vitro. We especially focused on the production of short-chain fatty acids, which are hypothesized to be key metabolites influencing appetite regulation pathways. The results confirmed that diet has a major effect on bacterial numbers, short-chain fatty acid production, and the release of hormones involved in appetite suppression. The potato diet yielded greater production of short-chain fatty acids and hormone release than the grass diet, even in the gelada cultures, which we had expected should be better adapted to the grass diet. The strong effects of diet on hormone release could not be explained, however, solely by short-chain fatty acid concentrations. Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy found changes in additional metabolites, including betaine and isoleucine, that might play key roles in inhibiting and stimulating appetite suppression pathways. Our study results indicate that a broader array of metabolites might be involved in triggering gut hormone release in humans than previously thought. One theory for rising levels of obesity in western populations is that the body's mechanisms for controlling appetite evolved to match ancestral diets with more low-energy plant foods. We investigated this idea by comparing the effects of diet on appetite suppression pathways

  15. Field evaluation of deet, Repel Care, and three plant based essential oil repellents against mosquitoes, black flies (Diptera: Simuliidae) and land leeches (Arhynchobdellida: Haemadipsidae) in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tawatsin, Apiwat; Thavara, Usavadee; Chansang, Uruyakorn; Chavalittumrong, Pranee; Boonruad, Thidarat; Wongsinkongman, Prapai; Bansidhi, Jaree; Mulla, Mir S

    2006-06-01

    Diethyl methyl benzamide, or deet, a commercial plant-based repellent (Repel Care), and essential ils from 3 species of plants (finger root rhizomes, guava leaves, and turmeric rhizomes), steam distillated and formulated as insect repellents, were evaluated in the field on human volunteers against hematophagous mosquitoes, black flies, and land leeches in Thailand. Field trials were conducted against wild mosquitoes in Bang Bua Thong District, Nonthaburi Province, and in the Thap Lan National Park Headquarters, Nadee District, Pranchinburi Province; anthroophilic black flies (Diptera: Simuliidae) at the Forestry Fire Control Station in Doi Inthanon National Park, Chomthong district, Chiang Mai Province; and land leeches (Arhynchobdellida: Haemadipsidae) in the Khao Yai National Park, Pak Chong District, Nakhon Ratchasima Province. The 3 experimental plant-based essential oil formulations as well as Repel Care and deet provided complete protection from mosquito landing and biting for up to 9 h (duration of the experiment). Similar results were obtained with the 5 products against black flies, providing 100% protection for 9 h but 96-82% protection after 10 and 11 h posttreatment. The 5 repellent products also provided 100% protection against land leeches for at least 8 h. Thi is the 1st report of repellency of plant-based repellents against black flies and land leeches in Thailand. The identification and availability of inexpensive sources of plant-based oils, i.e., finger root rhizomes, guava leaves, and turmeric rhizomes providing long-lasting repellency against blood-sucking organisms are promising leads into commercial production of relatively safe and effective repellents.

  16. Easy-to-use strategy for reference gene selection in quantitative real-time PCR experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klenke, Stefanie; Renckhoff, Kristina; Engler, Andrea; Peters, Jürgen; Frey, Ulrich H

    2016-12-01

    Real-time PCR is an indispensable technique for mRNA expression analysis but conclusions depend on appropriate reference gene selection. However, while reference gene selection has been a topic of publications, this issue is often disregarded when measuring target mRNA expression. Therefore, we (1) evaluated the frequency of appropriate reference gene selection, (2) suggest an easy-to-use tool for least variability reference gene selection, (3) demonstrate application of this tool, and (4) show effects on target gene expression profiles. All 2015 published articles in Naunyn-Schmiedeberg's Archives of Pharmacology were screened for the use of quantitative real-time PCR analysis and selection of reference genes. Target gene expression (Vegfa, Grk2, Sirt4, and Timp3) in H9c2 cells was analyzed following various interventions (hypoxia, hyperglycemia, and/or isoflurane exposure with and without subsequent hypoxia) in relation to putative reference genes (Actb, Gapdh, B2m, Sdha, and Rplp1) using the least variability method vs. an arbitrarily selected but established reference gene. In the vast majority (18 of 21) of papers, no information was provided regarding selection of an appropriate reference gene. In only 1 of 21 papers, a method of appropriate reference gene selection was described and in 2 papers reference gene selection remains unclear. The method of reference gene selection had major impact on interpretation of target gene expression. With hypoxia, for instance, the least variability gene was Rplp1 and target gene expression (Vefga) heavily showed a 2-fold up-regulation (p = 0.022) but no change (p = 0.3) when arbitrarily using Gapdh. Frequency of appropriate reference gene selection in this journal is low, and we propose our strategy for reference gene selection as an easy tool for proper target gene expression.

  17. PHY·FI: fast and easy online creation and manipulation of phylogeny color figures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fredslund Jakob

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The need to depict a phylogeny, or some other kind of abstract tree, is very frequently experienced by researchers from a broad range of biological and computational disciplines. Thousands of papers and talks include phylogeny figures, and often during everyday work, one would like to quickly get a graphical display of, e.g., the phylogenetic relationship between a set of sequences as calculated by an alignment program such as ClustalW or the phylogenetic package Phylip. A wealth of software tools capable of tree drawing exists; most are comprehensive packages that also perform various types of analysis, and hence they are available only for download and installing. Some online tools exist, too. Results This paper presents an online tool, PHY·FI, which encompasses all the qualities of existing online programs and adds functionality to hopefully eliminate the need for post-processing the phylogeny figure in some other general-purpose graphics program. PHY·FI is versatile, easy-to-use and fast, and supports comprehensive graphical control, several download image formats, and the possibility of dynamically collapsing groups of nodes into named subtrees (e.g. "Primates". The user can create a color figure from any phylogeny, or other kind of tree, represented in the widely used parenthesized Newick format. Conclusion PHY·FI is fast and easy to use, yet still offers full color control, tree manipulation, and several image formats. It does not require any downloading and installing, and thus any internet user regardless of computer skills, and computer platform, can benefit from it. PHY·FI is free for all and is available from this web address: http://cgi-www.daimi.au.dk/cgi-chili/phyfi/go

  18. Probing the nano-bio interface with nanoplasmonic optical probes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, X.; Wu, Linxi; Khanehzar, Ali; Feizpour, Amin; Xu, Fangda; Reinhard, Björn M.

    2014-08-01

    Noble metal nanoparticles have large cross-sections in both optical and electron microscopy and plasmon coupling between noble metal nanoparticles facilitate the characterization of subdiffraction limit separations through spectral analysis of the scattered light in Plasmon Coupling Microscopy (PCM). The size compatibility of noble metal nanoparticles together with the ability to encode specific functionality in a rational fashion by control of the nanoparticle surface makes noble metal nanoparticles unique probes for a broad range of biological processes. Recent applications of the technology include i.) characterization of cellular heterogeneity in nanomaterial uptake and processing through macrophages, ii.) testing the role of viral membrane lipids in mediating viral binding and trafficking, and iii.) characterizing the spatial organization of cancer biomarkers in plasma membranes. This paper reviews some of these applications and introduces the physical and material science principles underlying them. We will also introduce the use of membrane wrapped noble metal nanoparticles, which combine the superb photophysical properties of a nanoparticle core with the biological functionality of a membrane, as probes in PCM.

  19. Astrophysical probes of fundamental physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martins, C.J.A.P. [Centro de Astrofisica, Universidade do Porto, Rua das Estrelas, 4150-762 Porto (Portugal); DAMTP, University of Cambridge, Wilberforce Road, Cambridge CB3 0WA (United Kingdom)

    2009-10-15

    I review the motivation for varying fundamental couplings and discuss how these measurements can be used to constrain fundamental physics scenarios that would otherwise be inaccessible to experiment. I highlight the current controversial evidence for varying couplings and present some new results. Finally I focus on the relation between varying couplings and dark energy, and explain how varying coupling measurements might be used to probe the nature of dark energy, with some advantages over standard methods. In particular I discuss what can be achieved with future spectrographs such as ESPRESSO and CODEX.

  20. Soft QGP probes with ALICE

    CERN Document Server

    Graczykowski, Łukasz Kamil

    2016-01-01

    In heavy-ion collisions at the LHC a hot and dense medium of deconfided partons, the Quark-Gluon Plasma (QGP), is created. Its global properties can be characterized by the measurements of particles in the low transverse momentum (or "soft") regime, which represent the majority of created particles. In this report we outline a selection of measurements of the soft probes by the ALICE experiment in pp, p--Pb, and Pb--Pb collisions. The paper focuses on recent flow measurements via angular correlations and femtoscopic studies. The first ever preliminary analysis of $\\mathrm{K}^0_{\\rm S}\\mathrm{K}^{\\pm}$ femtoscopy is also presented.

  1. Pulsed laser noise analysis and pump-probe signal detection with a data acquisition card.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werley, Christopher A; Teo, Stephanie M; Nelson, Keith A

    2011-12-01

    A photodiode and data acquisition card whose sampling clock is synchronized to the repetition rate of a laser are used to measure the energy of each laser pulse. Simple analysis of the data yields the noise spectrum from very low frequencies up to half the repetition rate and quantifies the pulse energy distribution. When two photodiodes for balanced detection are used in combination with an optical modulator, the technique is capable of detecting very weak pump-probe signals (ΔI/I(0) ~ 10(-5) at 1 kHz), with a sensitivity that is competitive with a lock-in amplifier. Detection with the data acquisition card is versatile and offers many advantages including full quantification of noise during each stage of signal processing, arbitrary digital filtering in silico after data collection is complete, direct readout of percent signal modulation, and easy adaptation for fast scanning of delay between pump and probe.

  2. Easy DNA extraction method and optimisation of PCR-Temporal Temperature Gel Electrophoresis to identify the predominant high and low GC-content bacteria from dairy products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parayre, Sandrine; Falentin, Hélène; Madec, Marie-Noëlle; Sivieri, Katia; Le Dizes, Anne-Sophie; Sohier, Danièle; Lortal, Sylvie

    2007-06-01

    Molecular fingerprinting of bacterial ecosystems has recently increased in food microbiology. The aim of this work was to develop a rapid and easy method to extract DNA from various cheeses, and to optimize the separation of low and high GC-content bacteria by PCR-Temporal Temperature Gel Electrophoresis (PCR-TTGE). Seventy six strains belonging to 50 of the most frequently encountered bacterial species in dairy products were used to construct a database. Specific PCR-TTGE ladders containing 17 species forming a regular scale were created. Amplicons of these species were sequenced and the GC-content plotted against the migration distance: the correlation coefficients obtained were r(2)=0.97 and r(2)=0.99, respectively for high and low GC-contents. The extraction method developed did not use any harmful solvent such as phenol/chloroform. The concentrations of DNA extracted from hard cooked and pressed cheeses, quantified by picogreen molecular probes, were between 0.7 and 6 microg/g for core samples and 8 to 30 microg/g for rind samples. Experimental as well as commercial dairy products were analysed using the developed method and the reproducibility of the profiles was 89%. The method appears to be particularly efficient in the characterization of the ecosystem of cheese rinds.

  3. An easy-to-use site-directed mutagenesis method with a designed restriction site for convenient and reliable mutant screening

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bao-zhong ZHANG; Xin ZHANG; Xiao-ping AN; Duo-liang RAN; Yu-sen ZHOU; Jun LU; Yi-gang TONG

    2009-01-01

    Site-directed mutagenesis (SDM) has been a very important method to probe the function-structure relationship of proteins. In this study, we introduced an easy-to-use, polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based SDM method for double-stranded plasmid DNA, with a designed restriction site to ensure simple and efficient mutant screening. The DNA sequence to be mutated was first translated into amino acid sequence and then the amino acid sequence was reversely translated into DNA sequence with degenerate codons, resulting in a large number of sequences with silent mutations, which contained various restriction endonuclease (RE) sites. Certain mutated sequence with an appropriate RE site was selected as the target DNA sequence for designing a pair of mutation primers to amplify the full-length plasmid via inverse PCR. The amplified product was 5'-phosphorylated, circularized, and transformed into an Escherichia coli host. The transformants were screened by digesting with the designed RE. This protocol uses only one pair of primers and only one PCR is conducted, without the need for hybridization with hazardous isotope for mutant screening or subcloning step.

  4. A simpler sampling interface of venturi easy ambient sonic-spray ionization mass spectrometry for high-throughput screening enzyme inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ning; Liu, Yang; Yang, YuHan; He, Lan; Ouyang, Jin

    2016-03-24

    High-throughput screening (HTS) is often required in enzyme inhibitor drugs screening. Mass spectrometry (MS) provides a powerful method for high-throughput screening enzyme inhibitors because its high speed, sensitivity and property of lable free. However, most of the MS methods need complicated sampling interface system. Overall throughput was limited by sample loading in these cases. In this study, we develop a simple interface which coupled droplet segmented system to a venturi easy ambient sonic-spray ionization mass spectrometer. It is fabricated by using a single capillary to act as both sampling probe and the emitter, which simplifies the construction, reduces the cost and shorten the sampling time. Samples sucked by venturi effect are segmented to nanoliter plugs by air, then the plugs can be detected by MS directly. This system eliminated the need for flow injection which was popular used in classic scheme. The new system is applied to screen angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors. High-throughput was achieved in analyzing 96 samples at 1.6 s per sample. The plugs formation was at 0.5s per sample. Carry-over between samples was less than 5%, the peak height RSD was 2.92% (n = 15). Dose-response curves of 3 known inhibitors were also measured to validate its potential in drug discovery. The calculated IC50 agreed well with reported values.

  5. Radiation damping in microcoil NMR probes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnan, V V

    2006-04-01

    Radiation damping arises from the field induced in the receiver coil by large bulk magnetization and tends to selectively drive this magnetization back to equilibrium much faster than relaxation processes. The demand for increased sensitivity in mass-limited samples has led to the development of microcoil NMR probes that are capable of obtaining high quality NMR spectra with small sample volumes (nL-microL). Microcoil probes are optimized to increase sensitivity by increasing either the sample-to-coil ratio (filling factor) of the probe or quality factor of the detection coil. Though radiation damping effects have been studied in standard NMR probes, these effects have not been measured in the microcoil probes. Here a systematic evaluation of radiation damping effects in a microcoil NMR probe is presented and the results are compared with similar measurements in conventional large volume samples. These results show that radiation-damping effects in microcoil probe is much more pronounced than in 5 mm probes, and that it is critically important to optimize NMR experiments to minimize these effects. As microcoil probes provide better control of the bulk magnetization, with good RF and B0 inhomogeneity, in addition to negligible dipolar field effects due to nearly spherical sample volumes, these probes can be used exclusively to study the complex behavior of radiation damping.

  6. ProbeMaker: an extensible framework for design of sets of oligonucleotide probes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stenberg, Johan; Nilsson, Mats; Landegren, Ulf

    2005-01-01

    Background Procedures for genetic analyses based on oligonucleotide probes are powerful tools that can allow highly parallel investigations of genetic material. Such procedures require the design of large sets of probes using application-specific design constraints. Results ProbeMaker is a software framework for computer-assisted design and analysis of sets of oligonucleotide probe sequences. The tool assists in the design of probes for sets of target sequences, incorporating sequence motifs for purposes such as amplification, visualization, or identification. An extension system allows the framework to be equipped with application-specific components for evaluation of probe sequences, and provides the possibility to include support for importing sequence data from a variety of file formats. Conclusion ProbeMaker is a suitable tool for many different oligonucleotide design and analysis tasks, including the design of probe sets for various types of parallel genetic analyses, experimental validation of design parameters, and in silico testing of probe sequence evaluation algorithms. PMID:16171527

  7. Four-probe scanning tunnelling microscope with atomic resolution for electrical and electro-optical property measurements of nanosystems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lin Xiao; He Xiao-Bo; Lu Jun-Ling; Gao Li; Huan Qing; Shi Dong-Xia; Gao Hong-Jun

    2005-01-01

    We demonstrate a special four-probe scanning tunnelling microscope (STM) system in ultrahigh vacuum (UHV),which can provide coarse positioning for every probe independently with the help of scanning electron microscope (SEM)and fine positioning down to nanometre using the STM technology. The system allows conductivity measurement by means of a four-point probe method, which can draw out more accurate electron transport characteristics in nanostructures, and provides easy manipulation of low dimension materials. All measurements can be performed in variable temperature (from 30K to 500K), magnetic field (from 0 to 0.1T), and different gas environments. Simultaneously, the cathodoluminescence (CL) spectrum can be achieved through an optical subsystem. Test measurements using some nanowire samples show that this system is a powerful tool in exploring electron transport characteristics and spectra in nanoscale physics.

  8. Advanced oxidation scanning probe lithography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryu, Yu K.; Garcia, Ricardo

    2017-04-01

    Force microscopy enables a variety of approaches to manipulate and/or modify surfaces. Few of those methods have evolved into advanced probe-based lithographies. Oxidation scanning probe lithography (o-SPL) is the only lithography that enables the direct and resist-less nanoscale patterning of a large variety of materials, from metals to semiconductors; from self-assembled monolayers to biomolecules. Oxidation SPL has also been applied to develop sophisticated electronic and nanomechanical devices such as quantum dots, quantum point contacts, nanowire transistors or mechanical resonators. Here, we review the principles, instrumentation aspects and some device applications of o-SPL. Our focus is to provide a balanced view of the method that introduces the key steps in its evolution, provides some detailed explanations on its fundamentals and presents current trends and applications. To illustrate the capabilities and potential of o-SPL as an alternative lithography we have favored the most recent and updated contributions in nanopatterning and device fabrication.

  9. Compact Nanowire Sensors Probe Microdroplets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schütt, Julian; Ibarlucea, Bergoi; Illing, Rico; Zörgiebel, Felix; Pregl, Sebastian; Nozaki, Daijiro; Weber, Walter M; Mikolajick, Thomas; Baraban, Larysa; Cuniberti, Gianaurelio

    2016-08-10

    The conjunction of miniature nanosensors and droplet-based microfluidic systems conceptually opens a new route toward sensitive, optics-less analysis of biochemical processes with high throughput, where a single device can be employed for probing of thousands of independent reactors. Here we combine droplet microfluidics with the compact silicon nanowire based field effect transistor (SiNW FET) for in-flow electrical detection of aqueous droplets one by one. We chemically probe the content of numerous (∼10(4)) droplets as independent events and resolve the pH values and ionic strengths of the encapsulated solution, resulting in a change of the source-drain current ISD through the nanowires. Further, we discuss the specificities of emulsion sensing using ion sensitive FETs and study the effect of droplet sizes with respect to the sensor area, as well as its role on the ability to sense the interior of the aqueous reservoir. Finally, we demonstrate the capability of the novel droplets based nanowire platform for bioassay applications and carry out a glucose oxidase (GOx) enzymatic test for glucose detection, providing also the reference readout with an integrated parallel optical detector.

  10. Tunable nanowire nonlinear optical probe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakayama, Yuri; Pauzauskie, Peter J.; Radenovic, Aleksandra; Onorato, Robert M.; Saykally, Richard J.; Liphardt, Jan; Yang, Peidong

    2008-02-18

    One crucial challenge for subwavelength optics has been thedevelopment of a tunable source of coherent laser radiation for use inthe physical, information, and biological sciences that is stable at roomtemperature and physiological conditions. Current advanced near-fieldimaging techniques using fiber-optic scattering probes1,2 have alreadyachieved spatial resolution down to the 20-nm range. Recently reportedfar-field approaches for optical microscopy, including stimulatedemission depletion (STED)3, structured illumination4, and photoactivatedlocalization microscopy (PALM)5, have also enabled impressive,theoretically-unlimited spatial resolution of fluorescent biomolecularcomplexes. Previous work with laser tweezers6-8 has suggested the promiseof using optical traps to create novel spatial probes and sensors.Inorganic nanowires have diameters substantially below the wavelength ofvisible light and have unique electronic and optical properties9,10 thatmake them prime candidates for subwavelength laser and imagingtechnology. Here we report the development of an electrode-free,continuously-tunable coherent visible light source compatible withphysiological environments, from individual potassium niobate (KNbO3)nanowires. These wires exhibit efficient second harmonic generation(SHG), and act as frequency converters, allowing the local synthesis of awide range of colors via sum and difference frequency generation (SFG,DFG). We use this tunable nanometric light source to implement a novelform of subwavelength microscopy, in which an infrared (IR) laser is usedto optically trap and scan a nanowire over a sample, suggesting a widerange of potential applications in physics, chemistry, materials science,and biology.

  11. Sensitive Probe for Symmetry Potential

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Jian-Ye; XIAO Guo-Qing; GUO Wen-Jun; REN ZhongZhou; ZUO Wei; LEE Xi-Guo

    2007-01-01

    Based on both very obvious isospin effect of the neutron-proton number ratio of nucleon emissions (n/p)nucl on symmetry potential and (n/p)nucl's sensitive dependence on symmetry potential in the nuclear reactions induced by halo-neutron projectiles, compared to the same mass stable projectile, probing symmetry potential is investigated within the isospin-dependent quantum molecular dynamics with isospin and momentum-dependent interactions for different symmetry potentials U1sym and U2sym. It is found that the neutron-halo projectile induces very obvious increase of (n/p)nucl and strengthens the dependence of (n/p)nucl on the symmetry potential for all the beam energies and impact parameters, compared to the same mass stable projectile under the same incident channel condition. Therefore (n/p)nucl induced by the neutron-halo projectile is a more favourable probe than the normal neutron-rich and neutron-poor projectiles for extracting the symmetry potential.

  12. Information Gains from Cosmological Probes

    CERN Document Server

    Grandis, S; Refregier, A; Amara, A; Nicola, A

    2015-01-01

    In light of the growing number of cosmological observations, it is important to develop versatile tools to quantify the constraining power and consistency of cosmological probes. Originally motivated from information theory, we use the relative entropy to compute the information gained by Bayesian updates in units of bits. This measure quantifies both the improvement in precision and the 'surprise', i.e. the tension arising from shifts in central values. Our starting point is a WMAP9 prior which we update with observations of the distance ladder, supernovae (SNe), baryon acoustic oscillations (BAO), and weak lensing as well as the 2015 Planck release. We consider the parameters of the flat $\\Lambda$CDM concordance model and some of its extensions which include curvature and Dark Energy equation of state parameter $w$. We find that, relative to WMAP9 and within these model spaces, the probes that have provided the greatest gains are Planck (10 bits), followed by BAO surveys (5.1 bits) and SNe experiments (3.1 ...

  13. Advanced oxidation scanning probe lithography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryu, Yu K; Garcia, Ricardo

    2017-04-07

    Force microscopy enables a variety of approaches to manipulate and/or modify surfaces. Few of those methods have evolved into advanced probe-based lithographies. Oxidation scanning probe lithography (o-SPL) is the only lithography that enables the direct and resist-less nanoscale patterning of a large variety of materials, from metals to semiconductors; from self-assembled monolayers to biomolecules. Oxidation SPL has also been applied to develop sophisticated electronic and nanomechanical devices such as quantum dots, quantum point contacts, nanowire transistors or mechanical resonators. Here, we review the principles, instrumentation aspects and some device applications of o-SPL. Our focus is to provide a balanced view of the method that introduces the key steps in its evolution, provides some detailed explanations on its fundamentals and presents current trends and applications. To illustrate the capabilities and potential of o-SPL as an alternative lithography we have favored the most recent and updated contributions in nanopatterning and device fabrication.

  14. In vitro inhibitory effects of plant-based foods and their combinations on intestinal α-glucosidase and pancreatic α-amylase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adisakwattana Sirichai

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Plant-based foods have been used in traditional health systems to treat diabetes mellitus. The successful prevention of the onset of diabetes consists in controlling postprandial hyperglycemia by the inhibition of α-glucosidase and pancreatic α-amylase activities, resulting in aggressive delay of carbohydrate digestion to absorbable monosaccharide. In this study, five plant-based foods were investigated for intestinal α-glucosidase and pancreatic α-amylase. The combined inhibitory effects of plant-based foods were also evaluated. Preliminary phytochemical analysis of plant-based foods was performed in order to determine the total phenolic and flavonoid content. Methods The dried plants of Hibiscus sabdariffa (Roselle, Chrysanthemum indicum (chrysanthemum, Morus alba (mulberry, Aegle marmelos (bael, and Clitoria ternatea (butterfly pea were extracted with distilled water and dried using spray drying process. The dried extracts were determined for the total phenolic and flavonoid content by using Folin-Ciocateu’s reagent and AlCl3 assay, respectively. The dried extract of plant-based food was further quantified with respect to intestinal α-glucosidase (maltase and sucrase inhibition and pancreatic α-amylase inhibition by glucose oxidase method and dinitrosalicylic (DNS reagent, respectively. Results The phytochemical analysis revealed that the total phenolic content of the dried extracts were in the range of 230.3-460.0 mg gallic acid equivalent/g dried extract. The dried extracts contained flavonoid in the range of 50.3-114.8 mg quercetin equivalent/g dried extract. It was noted that the IC50 values of chrysanthemum, mulberry and butterfly pea extracts were 4.24±0.12 mg/ml, 0.59±0.06 mg/ml, and 3.15±0.19 mg/ml, respectively. In addition, the IC50 values of chrysanthemum, mulberry and butterfly pea extracts against intestinal sucrase were 3.85±0.41 mg/ml, 0.94±0.11 mg/ml, and 4.41±0.15 mg/ml, respectively

  15. Creating and Probing Graphene Electron Optics with Local Scanning Probes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stroscio, Joseph

    Ballistic propagation and the light-like dispersion of graphene charge carriers make graphene an attractive platform for optics-inspired graphene electronics where gate tunable potentials can control electron refraction and transmission. In analogy to optical wave propagation in lenses, mirrors and metamaterials, gate potentials can be used to create a negative index of refraction for Veselago lensing and Fabry-Pérot interferometers. In circular geometries, gate potentials can induce whispering gallery modes (WGM), similar to optical and acoustic whispering galleries albeit on a much smaller length scale. Klein scattering of Dirac carriers plays a central role in determining the coherent propagation of electron waves in these resonators. In this talk, I examine the probing of electron resonators in graphene confined by linear and circular gate potentials with the scanning tunneling microscope (STM). The tip in the STM tunnel junction serves both as a tunable local gate potential, and as a probe of the graphene states through tunneling spectroscopy. A combination of a back gate potential, Vg, and tip potential, Vb, creates and controls a circular pn junction that confines the WGM graphene states. The resonances are observed in two separate channels in the tunneling spectroscopy experiment: first, by directly tunneling into the state at the bias energy eVb, and, second, by tunneling from the resonance at the Fermi level as the state is gated by the tip potential. The second channel produces a fan-like set of WGM peaks, reminiscent of the fringes seen in planar geometries by transport measurements. The WGM resonances split in a small applied magnetic field, with a large energy splitting approaching the WGM spacing at 0.5 T. These results agree well with recent theory on Klein scattering in graphene electron resonators. This work is done in collaboration with Y. Zhao, J. Wyrick, F.D. Natterer, J. F. Rodriquez-Nieva, C. Lewandoswski, K. Watanabe, T. Taniguchi, N. B

  16. Aspects of probe correction for odd-order probes in spherical near-field antenna measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laitinen, Tommi; Pivnenko, Sergey N.; Breinbjerg, Olav

    2004-01-01

    Probe correction aspects for the spherical near-field antenna measurements are investigated. First, the spherical mode analyses of the radiated fields of several antennas are performed. It is shown that many common antennas are essentially so-called odd-order antennas. Second, the errors caused...... by the use of the first-order probe correction [1] for a rectangular waveguide probe, that is an odd-order antenna, are demonstrated. Third, a recently developed probe correction technique for odd-order probes is applied for the rectangular waveguide probe and shown to provide accurate results....

  17. A Novel Easy-to-Use Prediction Scheme for Upper Gastrointestinal Bleeding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, Vera; Neubauer, Henrik; Heinzler, Julia; Smarczyk, Anna; Hellmich, Martin; Bowe, Andrea; Kuetting, Fabian; Demir, Muenevver; Pelc, Agnes; Schulte, Sigrid; Toex, Ullrich; Nierhoff, Dirk; Steffen, Hans-Michael

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Acute upper gastrointestinal bleeding (UGIB) is the leading indication for emergency endoscopy. Scoring schemes have been developed for immediate risk stratification. However, most of these scores include endoscopic findings and are based on data from patients with nonvariceal bleeding. The aim of our study was to design a pre-endoscopic score for acute UGIB—including variceal bleeding—in order to identify high-risk patients requiring urgent clinical management. The scoring system was developed using a data set consisting of 586 patients with acute UGIB. These patients were identified from the emergency department as well as all inpatient services at the University Hospital of Cologne within a 2-year period (01/2007–12/2008). Further data from a cohort of 322 patients who presented to our endoscopy unit with acute UGIB in 2009 served for external/temporal validation. Clinical, laboratory, and endoscopic parameters, as well as further data on medical history and medication were retrospectively collected from the electronic clinical documentation system. A multivariable logistic regression was fitted to the development set to obtain a risk score using recurrent bleeding, need for intervention (angiography, surgery), or death within 30 days as a composite endpoint. Finally, the obtained risk score was evaluated on the validation set. Only C-reactive protein, white blood cells, alanine-aminotransferase, thrombocytes, creatinine, and hemoglobin were identified as significant predictors for the composite endpoint. Based on the regression coefficients of these variables, an easy-to-use point scoring scheme (C-WATCH) was derived to estimate the risk of complications from 3% to 86% with an area under the curve (AUC) of 0.723 in the development set and 0.704 in the validation set. In the validation set, no patient in the identified low-risk group (0–1 points), but 38.7% of patients in the high-risk group (≥ 2 points) reached the composite endpoint. Our

  18. ADAMS/CAR与EASY5在车辆主动悬架动力学研究中的应用%ADAMS/CAR AND EASY5 CO-SIMULATION TECHNOLOGY IN ACTIVE SUSPENSION VEHICLE RESEARCH

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张晓芬; 丛华; 晁志强; 刘相波

    2007-01-01

    概括介绍了ADAMS/CAR与EASY5仿真软件在车辆主动悬架研究中的应用,通过ADAMS/CAR建立了整车主动悬架的多体动力学模型,采用EASY5软件设计了主动悬架的液压系统,并提出了ADAMS/CAR与EASY5联合仿真的方案,对联合仿真技术应用于主动悬架进行了可行性分析.同时,车辆平顺性的仿真结果表明,采用液压主动悬架的车辆与采用被动悬架的车辆相比平顺性有了明显的改善.

  19. Visual-Inspection Probe For Cryogenic Chamber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friend, Steve; Valenzuela, James; Yoshinaga, Jay

    1990-01-01

    Visual-inspection probe that resembles borescope enables observer at ambient temperature to view objects immersed in turbulent flow of liquid oxygen, liquid nitrogen, or other cryogenic fluid. Design of probe fairly conventional, except special consideration given to selection of materials and to thermal expansion to provide for expected range of operating temperatures. Penetrates wall of cryogenic chamber to provide view of interior. Similar probe illuminates scene. View displayed on video monitor.

  20. A novel approach to early sickness absence management: The EASY (Early Access to Support for You) way.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demou, Evangelia; Brown, Judith; Sanati, Kaveh; Kennedy, Mark; Murray, Keith; Macdonald, Ewan B

    2015-01-01

    Sickness absence (SA) is multi-causal and remains a significant problem for employees, employers and society. This makes it necessary to concurrently manage a particular disabling condition and consider the working environment and employee-employer relationship. To describe and examine the components of a novel SA management service Early Access to Support for You (EASY) and discuss their potential influence on the intervention. A new sickness absence model, starting from day one of absence, was created called EASY. EASY is planned to support both employees and managers and comprises elements already found to be associated with reduction of SA, such as maintaining regular contact; early biopsychosocial case-management; physiotherapy; mental-health counselling; work modification; phased return-to-work; and health promotion activities. During the EASY implementation period, the SA rate at a health board reversed its trend of being one of the highest rates in the Scottish National Health Service (NHS) and EASY was considered helpful by both managers and employees. This paper describes an innovative occupational health intervention to sickness absence management based on the bio-psychosocial model to provide early intervention, and discusses the pros and cons of applying cognitive behavioural principles at an early stage in sickness-absence events, in order to improve return-to-work outcomes.