Pillai, Prasanth A.; Sahai, A. K.
2016-08-01
Boreal summer intraseasonal oscillation (BSISO) has complex spatial structure due to the co-existence of equatorial eastward and off-equatorial northward propagation in the equatorial Indian Ocean. As a result, equatorial Indian Ocean convection has simultaneous northward and eastward (NE), northward only (N-only) and eastward only (E-only) propagations. It is well established that the convection propagates in the direction of increasing moist static energy (MSE). The moisture and MSE budget analysis reveals that the horizontal advection of anomalous MSE contributes to positive MSE tendency, which is in agreement with the horizontal advection of column integrated moisture anomaly. Northward movement of warm SST and the anomalous moisture advected by zonal wind are the major initiative for the northward propagation of convection from the equatorial Indian Ocean in both NE and N-only category. At the same time warm SST anomaly in the equatorial west Pacific along with moisture advection caused by anomalous meridional wind is important for the equatorial eastward branch of NE propagation. As these anomalies in the west Pacific moves northward, equatorial Indian Ocean convection establishes over the equatorial west Pacific. The absence of these processes confines the BSISO in northward direction for N-only category. In the case of E-only movement, warm SST anomaly and moisture advection by zonal component of wind causes the eastward propagation of convection. Boundary layer moisture convergence always remains east of convection center in E-only propagation, while it coincides with convection centre in other two categories. Thus the present study concludes that the difference in underlying SST and atmospheric circulation in tropical Indo-west Pacific oceanic regions encourage the differential propagation of BSISO convection through moisture dynamics.
An eastward propagating compressional Pc 5 wave observed by AMPTE/CCE in the postmidnight sector
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Takahashi, K.; McEntire, R.W.; Zanetti, L.J.; Lopez, R.E.; Kistler, L.M.; Ipavich, R.M.
1987-01-01
Data from three instruments, the magnetometer, the charge-energy-mass spectrometer, and the medium-energy particle analyzer onboard the Active Magnetospheric Particle Tracer Explorers/Charge Composition Explorer (CCE) spacecraft have been used to study a compressional Pc 5 wave observed at 1925-2200 UT on day 202 (July 21) of 1986 at a radial distance of ≅ 8 R E in the postmidnight sector near the beginning of minor geomagnetic activity. The wave exhibited harmonically related transverse and compressional magnetic oscillations, modulation of the flux of medium energy protons (E approx-gt 10 keV), and a large azimuthal wave number (m ∼ 65). These properties are similar to those of compressional Pc 5 waves observed previously at geostationary orbit. The unique observations associated with the CCE event are the occurrence in the postmidnight sector, the eastward (or sunward) propagation with respect to the spacecraft, and the left-handed polarization of the perturbed magnetic field. These are opposite to previous geostationary observations. The authors propose that the unique propagation and polarization are propagating westward in the plasma rest frame, appears to propagate eastward to the observer because the electric field drift velocity is larger than the wave phase velocity
Improvements of the Eastward Propagation of the MJO in MIROC6
Hirota, N.; Ogura, T.; Shiogama, H.; Kimoto, M.; Watanabe, M.; Tatebe, H.
2016-12-01
A new version of the atmosphere-ocean general circulation model cooperatively produced by the Japanese research community, known as the Model for Interdisciplinary Research on Climate (MIROC6), has recently been developed. Many aspects of the Madden Julian Oscillation (MJO) simulations are improved compared with its previous version MIROC5. For example, MJO amplitudes underestimated in MIROC5 are enhanced; the MJO convective envelopes over the Indian Ocean, which often decays too early around the Maritime Continent in MIROC5, propagate farther to the Central Pacific; the vertical structure of the MJO related humidity shows more realistic stepwise moistening associated with the transition from shallow convection to deep convection. Our preliminary analyses indicate that these improvements are associated with a newly implemented shallow convection scheme. The shallow convection in MIROC6 transports the boundary layer moisture to the lower free troposphere, mitigating dry biases around 800hPa over the Western Pacific. MIROC6 also shows improvements in climatological mean precipitation. The coupling strength between convection and the free tropospheric humidity, that are consider to have large impacts on the reproducibility of the MJO and the mean states, will also be discussed. Acknowledgment: This work was supported by the Program for Risk Information on Climate Change (SOUSEI program) of the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology (MEXT), Japan.
Convective Propagation Characteristics Using a Simple Representation of Convective Organization
Neale, R. B.; Mapes, B. E.
2016-12-01
Observed equatorial wave propagation is intimately linked to convective organization and it's coupling to features of the larger-scale flow. In this talk we a use simple 4 level model to accommodate vertical modes of a mass flux convection scheme (shallow, mid-level and deep). Two paradigms of convection are used to represent convective processes. One that has only both random (unorganized) diagnosed fluctuations of convective properties and one with organized fluctuations of convective properties that are amplified by previously existing convection and has an explicit moistening impact on the local convecting environment We show a series of model simulations in single-column, 2D and 3D configurations, where the role of convective organization in wave propagation is shown to be fundamental. For the optimal choice of parameters linking organization to local atmospheric state, a broad array of convective wave propagation emerges. Interestingly the key characteristics of propagating modes are the low-level moistening followed by deep convection followed by mature 'large-scale' heating. This organization structure appears to hold firm across timescales from 5-day wave disturbances to MJO-like wave propagation.
Mass transport in propagating patterns of convection
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Moses, E.; Steinberg, V.
1988-01-01
Recent studies of propagating waves in an oscillatory convection of binary mixtures arise questions about transport properties of this flow. Optical visualization of a field of refraction index due to a shadowgraph technique gives information on the temperature and concentration fields. However, experimental observation of rolls propagating along the cell as travelling waves (TW) does not necessarily imply that mass is transferred hydrodynamically by the convective motion along the cell. One of the possibilities discussed, e.g., is that TW observed is only a phase propagation. The traditional examples of such situations come from the domain of linear, superposition-oriented physics. Acoustic waves transfer momentum and energy, but do not cause the mass to make excursions for their equilibrium point that are larger than the oscillation amplitude. In the case of nonlinear physics we were aware that small amplitude surface waves cause only small oscillatory motion round the equilibrium point, while larger amplitudes can cause the mass to start moving in the direction of the TW. This paper discussed the different possibilities of mass transfer by TW. 27 refs., 20 figs
Savarin, A.; Chen, S. S.
2017-12-01
The Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO) is a dominant mode of intraseasonal variability in the tropics. Large-scale convection fueling the MJO is initiated over the tropical Indian Ocean and propagates eastward across the Maritime Continent (MC) and into the western Pacific. Observational studies have shown that near 40-50% of the MJO events cannot pass through the MC, which is known as the MC barrier effect. Previous studies have also shown a strong diurnal cycle of convection over the islands and coastal seas, with an afternoon precipitation maximum over land and high terrain, and an early morning maximum over water and mountain valley areas. As an eastward-propagating MJO convective event passes over the MC, its nature may be altered due to the complex interaction with the large Islands and topography. In turn, the passage of an MJO event modulates local conditions over the MC. The diurnal cycle of convection over the MC and its modulation by the MJO are not well understood and poorly represented in global numerical prediction models. This study aims to improve our understanding of how the diurnal cycle of convection and the presence of islands of the MC affect the eastward propagation of the MJO over the region. To this end, we use the Unified Wave Interface-Coupled Model (UWIN-CM) in its fully-coupled atmosphere-ocean configuration at a convection-permitting (4 km) resolution over the region. The control simulation is from the MJO event that occurred in November-December 2011, and has been verified against the Dynamics of the MJO (DYNAMO) field campaign observations, TRMM precipitation, and reanalysis products. To investigate the effects of the tropical islands on the MJO, we conduct two additional numerical experiments, one with preserved island shape but flattened topography, and one where islands are replaced by water. The difference in the diurnal cycle and convective organization among these experiments will provide some insights on the origin of the MC
Lightning-based propagation of convective rain fields
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
S. Dietrich
2011-05-01
Full Text Available This paper describes a new multi-sensor approach for continuously monitoring convective rain cells. It exploits lightning data from surface networks to propagate rain fields estimated from multi-frequency brightness temperature measurements taken by the AMSU/MHS microwave radiometers onboard NOAA/EUMETSAT low Earth orbiting operational satellites. Specifically, the method allows inferring the development (movement, morphology and intensity of convective rain cells from the spatial and temporal distribution of lightning strokes following any observation by a satellite-borne microwave radiometer. Obviously, this is particularly attractive for real-time operational purposes, due to the sporadic nature of the low Earth orbiting satellite measurements and the continuous availability of ground-based lightning measurements – as is the case in most of the Mediterranean region. A preliminary assessment of the lightning-based rainfall propagation algorithm has been successfully made by using two pairs of consecutive AMSU observations, in conjunction with lightning measurements from the ZEUS network, for two convective events. Specifically, we show that the evolving rain fields, which are estimated by applying the algorithm to the satellite-based rainfall estimates for the first AMSU overpass, show an overall agreement with the satellite-based rainfall estimates for the second AMSU overpass.
Zhao, Yang; Xu, Xiangde; Ruan, Zheng; Chen, Bin; Wang, Fang
2018-03-01
The integrated analysis of the data from a C-band frequency-modulated continuous-wave (C-FMCW) radar site in Naqu obtained during a rainstorm over the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River and the data concerning the three-dimensional structure of the circulation of the precipitation system that occurred over the lower reaches of the Yangtze River Basin during the Third Tibetan Plateau (TP) Atmospheric Experiment from August 15th to 19th, 2014, was carried out. The changes in the echo intensity at the C-FMCW radar site in Naqu were of regional indicative significance for the characteristics of the whole-layer apparent heat source Q1 in local areas and the region of the adjacent river source area, including the Yangtze River, Yellow River, and Lancang River (hereinafter referred to as the "source area of three rivers"), as well as to the vertical speeds due to the development of convection. This study indicates that the C-FMCW radar echo intensity of the plateau convection zone and the related power structures of the coupled dipole circulations in the middle layer of the atmosphere, as well as in the upper atmospheric level divergence and lower atmospheric level convergence, are important stimuli for convective clouds in this region. Furthermore, these radar data provided a physical image of the development and maintenance mechanisms of an eastward-moving heavy rainstorm belt. This study also shows that changes in the echo intensities at the C-FMCW radar site of Naqu can provide strong signals related to heavy rainstorm processes in the upper reaches of the Yangtze River.
The effect of convection and shear on the damping and propagation of pressure waves
Kiel, Barry Vincent
Combustion instability is the positive feedback between heat release and pressure in a combustion system. Combustion instability occurs in the both air breathing and rocket propulsion devices, frequently resulting in high amplitude spinning waves. If unchecked, the resultant pressure fluctuations can cause significant damage. Models for the prediction of combustion instability typically include models for the heat release, the wave propagation and damping. Many wave propagation models for propulsion systems assume negligible flow, resulting in the wave equation. In this research the effect of flow on wave propagation was studied both numerically and experimentally. Two experiential rigs were constructed, one with axial flow to study the longitudinal waves, the other with swirling flow to study circumferential waves. The rigs were excited with speakers and the resultant pressure was measured simultaneously at many locations. Models of the rig were also developed. Equations for wave propagation were derived from the Euler Equations. The resultant resembled the wave equation with three additional terms, two for the effect of the convection and a one for the effect of shear of the mean flow on wave propagation. From the experimental and numerical data several conclusions were made. First, convection and shear both act as damping on the wave propagation, reducing the magnitude of the Frequency Response Function and the resonant frequency of the modes. Second, the energy extracted from the mean flow as a result of turbulent shear for a given condition is frequency dependent, decreasing with increasing frequency. The damping of the modes, measured for the same shear flow, also decreased with frequency. Finally, the two convective terms cause the anti-nodes of the modes to no longer be stationary. For both the longitudinal and circumferential waves, the anti-nodes move through the domain even for mean flow Mach numbers less than 0.10. It was concluded that convection
Development of convection along the SPCZ within a Madden-Julian oscillation
Matthews, Adrian J.; Hoskins, Brian J.; Slingo, Julia M.; Blackburn, Mike
1996-01-01
A subtropical Rossby-wave propagation mechanism is proposed to account for the poleward and eastward progression of intraseasonal convective anomalies along the South Pacific convergence zone (SPCZ) that is observed in a significant proportion of Madden–Julian oscillations (MJOs). Large-scale convection, associated with an MJO, is assumed to be already established over the Indonesian region. The latent heating associated with this convection forces an equatorial Rossby-wave response with an u...
Development of convection along the SPCZ within a Madden-Julian oscillation
Matthews, AJ; Hoskins, BJ; Slingo, JM; Blackburn, M
1996-01-01
A subtropical Rossby wave propagation mechanism is proposed to account for the poleward and eastward progression of intraseasonal convective anomalies along the South Pacific Convergence Zone (SPCZ) that is observed in a significant proportion of Madden-Julian Oscillations (MJOs). Large scale convection, associated with an MJO, is assumed to be already established over the Indonesian region. The latent heating associated with this convection forces an equatorial Rossby wave response with an u...
Liu, Fei; Zhao, Jiuwei; Fu, Xiouhua; Huang, Gang
2018-02-01
By conducting idealized experiments in a general circulation model (GCM) and in a toy theoretical model, we test the hypothesis that shallow convection (SC) is responsible for explaining why the boreal summer intraseasonal oscillation (BSISO) prefers propagating northward. Two simulations are performed using ECHAM4, with the control run using a standard detrainment rate of SC and the sensitivity run turning off the detrainment rate of SC. These two simulations display dramatically different BSISO characteristics. The control run simulates the realistic northward propagation (NP) of the BSISO, while the sensitivity run with little SC only simulates stationary signals. In the sensitivity run, the meridional asymmetries of vorticity and humidity fields are simulated under the monsoon vertical wind shear (VWS); thus, the frictional convergence can be excited to the north of the BSISO. However, the lack of SC makes the lower and middle troposphere very dry, which prohibits further development of deeper convection. A theoretical BSISO model is also constructed, and the result shows that SC is a key to convey the asymmetric vorticity effect to induce the BSISO to move northward. Thus, both the GCM and theoretical model results demonstrate the importance of SC in promoting the NP of the BSISO.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Erckmann, V.; Gasparino, U.; Giannone, L.
1992-01-01
ECRH power modulation experiments in toroidal devices offer the chance to analyze the electron heat transport more conclusively: the electron heat wave propagation can be observed by ECE (or SX) leading to radial profiles of electron temperature modulation amplitude and time delay (phase shift). Taking also the stationary power balance into account, the local electron heat transport can be modelled by a combination of diffusive and convective transport terms. This method is applied to ECRH discharges in the W7-AS stellarator (B=2.5T, R=2m, a≤18 cm) where the ECRH power deposition is highly localized. In W7-AS, the T e modulation profiles measured by a high resolution ECE system are the basis for the local transport analysis. As experimental errors limit the separation of diffusive and convective terms in the electron heat transport for central power deposition, also ECRH power modulation experiments with off-axis deposition and inward heat wave propagation were performed (with 70 GHz o-mode as well as with 140 GHz x-mode for increased absorption). Because collisional electron-ion coupling and radiative losses are only small, low density ECRH discharges are best candidates for estimating the electron heat flux from power balance. (author) 2 refs., 3 figs
Numerical simulations of convectively excited gravity waves
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Glatzmaier, G.A.
1983-01-01
Magneto-convection and gravity waves are numerically simulated with a nonlinear, three-dimensional, time-dependent model of a stratified, rotating, spherical fluid shell heated from below. A Solar-like reference state is specified while global velocity, magnetic field, and thermodynamic perturbations are computed from the anelastic magnetohydrodynamic equations. Convective overshooting from the upper (superadiabatic) part of the shell excites gravity waves in the lower (subadiabatic) part. Due to differential rotation and Coriolis forces, convective cell patterns propagate eastward with a latitudinally dependent phase velocity. The structure of the excited wave motions in the stable region is more time-dependent than that of the convective motions above. The magnetic field tends to be concentrated over giant-cell downdrafts in the convective zone but is affected very little by the wave motion in the stable region
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Erckmann, V; Gasparino, U; Giannone, L. (Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, Garching (Germany)) (and others)
1992-01-01
ECRH power modulation experiments in toroidal devices offer the chance to analyze the electron heat transport more conclusively: the electron heat wave propagation can be observed by ECE (or SX) leading to radial profiles of electron temperature modulation amplitude and time delay (phase shift). Taking also the stationary power balance into account, the local electron heat transport can be modelled by a combination of diffusive and convective transport terms. This method is applied to ECRH discharges in the W7-AS stellarator (B=2.5T, R=2m, a[<=]18 cm) where the ECRH power deposition is highly localized. In W7-AS, the T[sub e] modulation profiles measured by a high resolution ECE system are the basis for the local transport analysis. As experimental errors limit the separation of diffusive and convective terms in the electron heat transport for central power deposition, also ECRH power modulation experiments with off-axis deposition and inward heat wave propagation were performed (with 70 GHz o-mode as well as with 140 GHz x-mode for increased absorption). Because collisional electron-ion coupling and radiative losses are only small, low density ECRH discharges are best candidates for estimating the electron heat flux from power balance. (author) 2 refs., 3 figs.
GRAND MINIMA AND EQUATORWARD PROPAGATION IN A CYCLING STELLAR CONVECTIVE DYNAMO
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Augustson, Kyle; Miesch, Mark [High Altitude Observatory, Center Green 1, Boulder, CO 80301 (United States); Brun, Allan Sacha [Laboratoire AIM Paris-Saclay, CEA/DSM–CNRS–Université Paris Diderot, IRFU/SAp, Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Toomre, Juri [JILA and Department of Astrophysical and Planetary Sciences, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO 80309 (United States)
2015-08-20
The 3D MHD Anelastic Spherical Harmonic code, using slope-limited diffusion, is employed to capture convective and dynamo processes achieved in a global-scale stellar convection simulation for a model solar-mass star rotating at three times the solar rate. The dynamo-generated magnetic fields possesses many timescales, with a prominent polarity cycle occurring roughly every 6.2 years. The magnetic field forms large-scale toroidal wreaths, whose formation is tied to the low Rossby number of the convection in this simulation. The polarity reversals are linked to the weakened differential rotation and a resistive collapse of the large-scale magnetic field. An equatorial migration of the magnetic field is seen, which is due to the strong modulation of the differential rotation rather than a dynamo wave. A poleward migration of magnetic flux from the equator eventually leads to the reversal of the polarity of the high-latitude magnetic field. This simulation also enters an interval with reduced magnetic energy at low latitudes lasting roughly 16 years (about 2.5 polarity cycles), during which the polarity cycles are disrupted and after which the dynamo recovers its regular polarity cycles. An analysis of this grand minimum reveals that it likely arises through the interplay of symmetric and antisymmetric dynamo families. This intermittent dynamo state potentially results from the simulation’s relatively low magnetic Prandtl number. A mean-field-based analysis of this dynamo simulation demonstrates that it is of the α-Ω type. The timescales that appear to be relevant to the magnetic polarity reversal are also identified.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Luisa Malaguti
2011-01-01
Full Text Available The paper deals with a degenerate reaction-diffusion equation, including aggregative movements and convective terms. The model also incorporates a real parameter causing the change from a purely diffusive to a diffusive-aggregative and to a purely aggregative regime. Existence and qualitative properties of traveling wave solutions are investigated, and estimates of their threshold speeds are furnished. Further, the continuous dependence of the threshold wave speed and of the wave profiles on a real parameter is studied, both when the process maintains its diffusion-aggregation nature and when it switches from it to another regime.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Xu, G.S.; Naulin, Volker; Fundamenski, W.
2010-01-01
Drift-Alfvén vortex filaments associated with electromagnetic turbulence were recently identified in reversed field pinch devices. Similar propagating filamentary structures were observed in the Earth magnetosheath, magnetospheric cusp and Saturn’s magnetosheath by spacecrafts. The characteristics...... energy, magnetic momentum, and angular momentum. The perpendicular vortex motions and the kinetic shear Alfvén waves are coupled through the parallel current and Ampere’s law, leading to field line bending. On the timescale of interchange motion τ⊥, a thermal expansion force in the direction of curvature......, heat, and momentum in the fusion plasmas can be interpreted in terms of the ballistic motion of these solitary electromagnetic filamentary structures....
Blanco, Joaquín. E.; Nolan, David S.; Mapes, Brian E.
2016-10-01
This second part of a two-part study uses Weather Research and Forecasting simulations with aquachannel and aquapatch domains to investigate the time evolution of convectively coupled Kelvin waves (CCKWs). Power spectra, filtering, and compositing are combined with object-tracking methods to assess the structure and phase speed propagation of CCKWs during their strengthening, mature, and decaying phases. In this regard, we introduce an innovative approach to more closely investigate the wave (Kelvin) versus entity (super cloud cluster or "SCC") dualism. In general, the composite CCKW structures represent a dynamical response to the organized convective activity. However, pressure and thermodynamic fields in the boundary layer behave differently. Further analysis of the time evolution of pressure and low-level moist static energy finds that these fields propagate eastward as a "moist" Kelvin wave (MKW), faster than the envelope of organized convection or SCC. When the separation is sufficiently large the SCC dissipates, and a new SCC generates to the east, in the region of strongest negative pressure perturbations. We revisit the concept itself of the "coupling" between convection and dynamics, and we also propose a conceptual model for CCKWs, with a clear distinction between the SCC and the MKW components.
Biggerstaff, Michael I.; Zounes, Zackery; Addison Alford, A.; Carrie, Gordon D.; Pilkey, John T.; Uman, Martin A.; Jordan, Douglas M.
2017-08-01
A series of vertical cross sections taken through a small mesoscale convective system observed over Florida by the dual-polarimetric SMART radar were combined with VHF radiation source locations from a lightning mapping array (LMA) to examine the lightning channel propagation paths relative to the radar-observed ice alignment signatures associated with regions of negative specific differential phase (KDP). Additionally, charge layers inferred from analysis of LMA sources were related to the ice alignment signature. It was found that intracloud flashes initiated near the upper zero-KDP boundary surrounding the negative KDP region. The zero-KDP boundary also delineated the propagation path of the lightning channel with the negative leaders following the upper boundary and positive leaders following the lower boundary. Very few LMA sources were found in the negative KDP region. We conclude that rapid dual-polarimetric radar observations can diagnose strong electric fields and may help identify surrounding regions of charge.
Upscale Impact of Mesoscale Disturbances of Tropical Convection on Convectively Coupled Kelvin Waves
Yang, Q.; Majda, A.
2017-12-01
Tropical convection associated with convectively coupled Kelvin waves (CCKWs) is typically organized by an eastward-moving synoptic-scale convective envelope with numerous embedded westward-moving mesoscale disturbances. It is of central importance to assess upscale impact of mesoscale disturbances on CCKWs as mesoscale disturbances propagate at various tilt angles and speeds. Here a simple multi-scale model is used to capture this multi-scale structure, where mesoscale fluctuations are directly driven by mesoscale heating and synoptic-scale circulation is forced by mean heating and eddy transfer of momentum and temperature. The two-dimensional version of the multi-scale model drives the synoptic-scale circulation, successfully reproduces key features of flow fields with a front-to-rear tilt and compares well with results from a cloud resolving model. In the scenario with an elevated upright mean heating, the tilted vertical structure of synoptic-scale circulation is still induced by the upscale impact of mesoscale disturbances. In a faster propagation scenario, the upscale impact becomes less important, while the synoptic-scale circulation response to mean heating dominates. In the unrealistic scenario with upward/westward tilted mesoscale heating, positive potential temperature anomalies are induced in the leading edge, which will suppress shallow convection in a moist environment. In its three-dimensional version, results show that upscale impact of mesoscale disturbances that propagate at tilt angles (110o 250o) induces negative lower-tropospheric potential temperature anomalies in the leading edge, providing favorable conditions for shallow convection in a moist environment, while the remaining tilt angle cases have opposite effects. Even in the presence of upright mean heating, the front-to-rear tilted synoptic-scale circulation can still be induced by eddy terms at tilt angles (120o 240o). In the case with fast propagating mesoscale heating, positive
COMPARISON OF ELM PULSE PROPAGATION IN THE DIII-D SOL AND DIVERTORS WITH AN ION CONVECTION MODEL
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
FENSTERMACHER, ME; PORTER, GD; LEONARD, AW; BROOKS, NH; BOEDO, JA; COLCHIN, RJ; GRAY, DS; GROEBNER, RJ; GROTH, M; HOGAN, JT; HOLLMANN, EM; LASNIER, CJ; OSBORNE, TH; PETRIE, TW; RUDAKOV, DL; SNYDER, PB; TAKAHASHI, H; WATKINS, JG; ZENG, L; DIII-D TEAM
2003-01-01
OAK-B135 Results from dedicated ELM experiments, performed in DIII-D with fast diagnostics to measure the evolution of Type-I ELM effects in the SOL and divertor, are compared with a simple ion convection model and with initial time-dependent UEDGE simulations. Delays between ELM effects observed in the inner versus the outer divertor regions in the experiments scale, as a function of density, with the difference in ion convection time along field lines from the outer midplane to the divertor targets. The ELM perturbation was modeled as an instantaneous radially uniform increase of diffusion coefficients from the top of the pedestal to the outer SOL. The perturbation was confined to a low field side poloidal zone ± 40 o from the outer midplane. The delays in the simulations are similar to those observed in the experiments
Rocket observations at the northern edge of the eastward electrojet
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cahill, L.J. Jr.; Arnoldy, R.L.; Taylor, W.W.L.
1980-01-01
A Nike-Tomahawk rocket was launched north over two quiet, late evening auroral arcs in March 1975. A northward magnetic disturbance was observed on the ground under the rocket trajectory. South of the arcs the northward electric field was 60 mV/m, indicating strong westward plasma flow. An eastward electrojet current layer was penetrated in the upward flight. Precipitating electrons were observed over each arc. The electric field decreased to below 20 mV/m over each arc and recovered to 50 mV/m between the arcs. Using the observed electron flux and a model of the ionosphere, the Hall and Pedersen conductivities were calculated. These conductivities were used, with the observed electric field, to calculate the eastward and northward components of the horizontal ionospheric currents. The eastward current calculated south of the first arc agreed well with the observed eastward electrojet current. The power dissipated by the Pedersen current Σ/sub p/EPSILON 2 was also calculated and compared with the power carried by the precipitating electrons. The Joule power decreased abruptly in the auroral arcs, as the pricipitating electron power increased. The total dissipated power was approximately the same inside the arcs, between them, and south of the luminosity. North of the aurora the electric field and dissipated power remained low. Field-aligned currents carried by the observed electrons were about a factor of 3 lower than those inferred from the magnetic field measurements. Likewise, current continuity arguments to keep the auroral current system divergence free required a larger field-aligned current than that obtained from the particle detectors
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Xiaoli Liu
2018-01-01
Full Text Available A number of studies revealed the possible eastward movement of the Tibetan Plateau low-pressure system in summer and indicated the enhancement effect of this process on the southwest vortex in the Sichuan Basin, which can induce strong convective precipitation and flood events in China. In this study, a numerical simulation of a southwest vortex rainstorm process was performed. The results show that the low-pressure system originated from the Tibetan Plateau affects the southwest vortex mainly at the middle level, causing the strength increase of southwest vortex (SWV, and acts as a connection between the positive vorticity centers at the upper and lower layers. For the microscopic cloud structure, the vertical updraft of the cloud cluster embedded in the SWV increases as the low-pressure system from the plateau arrives at the Sichuan Basin. Vapor and liquid cloud water at the lower level are transported upward, based on which the ice cloud at the upper level and the warm cloud at the lower level are joined to create favorable conditions for the growth of ice crystals. As the ice crystals grow up, snow and graupel particles form, which substantially elevates the precipitation. This effect leads to the rapid development of SWV rainstorm clouds and the occurrence of precipitation. In addition to the effect of the plateau vortex, the subsequent merging of the convective clouds is another important factor for heavy rainfall because it also leads to development of convective clouds, causing heavy rainfall.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Eltayeb, I.A.
1983-07-01
The linear progation properties and stability of wave motions in spherical shells examined in paper I (Geophys. Astr. Fluid Dyn., 16, 129) are here extended to the case of a toroidal magnetic field together with an associated shear flow. The analysis is restricted to moderate values of the magnetic field amplitude, in which case the ensuing motions are two-dimensional. They occur in thin cylindrical cells coaxial with the axis of rotation. For every set of the relevant parameters an infinity of modes exists and is divided into two uncoupled categories. One category is associated with a temperature perturbation even in the axial coordinate z and the other category odd in z. In the presence of an inner solid core the even set persists only outside the cylindrical surface, Csub(c), whose generators touch the inner core at its equator while the odd set persists everywhere. The direction of propagation of these waves depends on the ratio, q, of thermal to magnetic diffusivities and on the modified Chandrasekhar number Q (which is the ratio of Lorentz to Coriolis forces). For small values of q relevant to geophysical applications both eastward and westward propagation is possible if Q is small; but as Q increases beyond a certain value, only eastward propagation is possible. For the case of large q applicable to astrophysical situations both eastward and westward propagation is possible. All these results apply for a variety of temperature gradients in which both internal and differential forms of heating are invoked, and various forms of toroidal magnetic fields. The stability of these wave motions is examined and the most preferred mode of convection is identified in each case. The unstable cell always lies on Csub(c) or outside it. Its precise location depends on the types of magnetic field and temperature gradient. The sloping boundary of the spherical shell tends to stabilize westward propagating waves
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
S. E. Milan
1998-01-01
Full Text Available A common feature of evening near-range ionospheric backscatter in the CUTLASS Iceland radar field of view is two parallel, approximately L-shell-aligned regions of westward flow which are attributed to irregularities in the auroral eastward electrojet region of the ionosphere. These backscatter channels are separated by approximately 100–200 km in range. The orientation of the CUTLASS Iceland radar beams and the zonally aligned nature of the flow allows an approximate determination of flow angle to be made without the necessity of bistatic measurements. The two flow channels have different azimuthal variations in flow velocity and spectral width. The nearer of the two regions has two distinct spectral signatures. The eastern beams detect spectra with velocities which saturate at or near the ion-acoustic speed, and have low spectral widths (less than 100 m s–1, while the western beams detect lower velocities and higher spectral widths (above 200 m s–1. The more distant of the two channels has only one spectral signature with velocities above the ion-acoustic speed and high spectral widths. The spectral characteristics of the backscatter are consistent with E-region scatter in the nearer channel and upper-E-region or F-region scatter in the further channel. Temporal variations in the characteristics of both channels support current theories of E-region turbulent heating and previous observations of velocity-dependent backscatter cross-section. In future, observations of this nature will provide a powerful tool for the investigation of simultaneous E- and F-region irregularity generation under similar (nearly co-located or magnetically conjugate electric field conditions.Key words. Auroral ionosphere · Ionospheric irregularities · Plasma convection
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
S. E. Milan
Full Text Available A common feature of evening near-range ionospheric backscatter in the CUTLASS Iceland radar field of view is two parallel, approximately L-shell-aligned regions of westward flow which are attributed to irregularities in the auroral eastward electrojet region of the ionosphere. These backscatter channels are separated by approximately 100–200 km in range. The orientation of the CUTLASS Iceland radar beams and the zonally aligned nature of the flow allows an approximate determination of flow angle to be made without the necessity of bistatic measurements. The two flow channels have different azimuthal variations in flow velocity and spectral width. The nearer of the two regions has two distinct spectral signatures. The eastern beams detect spectra with velocities which saturate at or near the ion-acoustic speed, and have low spectral widths (less than 100 m s^{–1}, while the western beams detect lower velocities and higher spectral widths (above 200 m s^{–1}. The more distant of the two channels has only one spectral signature with velocities above the ion-acoustic speed and high spectral widths. The spectral characteristics of the backscatter are consistent with E-region scatter in the nearer channel and upper-E-region or F-region scatter in the further channel. Temporal variations in the characteristics of both channels support current theories of E-region turbulent heating and previous observations of velocity-dependent backscatter cross-section. In future, observations of this nature will provide a powerful tool for the investigation of simultaneous E- and F-region irregularity generation under similar (nearly co-located or magnetically conjugate electric field conditions.
Key words. Auroral ionosphere · Ionospheric irregularities · Plasma convection
Low-frequency oscillations in radiative-convective models
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hu, Qi; Randall, D.A.
1991-12-31
Although eastward propagation is usually regarded as an essential feature of the low-frequency ``Madden-Julian oscillation`` observed in the tropical atmosphere, many observations indicate that there is an important stationary or quasi-stationary component of the oscillation. Yasunari (1979), for example, investigated the stationary 30--60 day variation in upper tropospheric cloudiness in the Asian summer monsoon region. In a case study of the 30--60 day oscillation. Hsu et al. (1990) found a strong stationary oscillation of the divergence, outgoing longwave mdiadon and other fields. A recent observational study by Weickmann and Khalsa (1990) offers further evidence that the Madden-Julian oscillation has an important stationary component. In this paper, we present evidence that intraseasonal oscillations can be produced by local radiative and convective processes. This suggests that the observed propagating Madden-Julian wave is produced by interactions between these local processes and the large scale motion field, and is not essential for the existence of the observed oscillation.
Low-frequency oscillations in radiative-convective models
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hu, Qi; Randall, D.A.
1991-01-01
Although eastward propagation is usually regarded as an essential feature of the low-frequency Madden-Julian oscillation'' observed in the tropical atmosphere, many observations indicate that there is an important stationary or quasi-stationary component of the oscillation. Yasunari (1979), for example, investigated the stationary 30--60 day variation in upper tropospheric cloudiness in the Asian summer monsoon region. In a case study of the 30--60 day oscillation. Hsu et al. (1990) found a strong stationary oscillation of the divergence, outgoing longwave mdiadon and other fields. A recent observational study by Weickmann and Khalsa (1990) offers further evidence that the Madden-Julian oscillation has an important stationary component. In this paper, we present evidence that intraseasonal oscillations can be produced by local radiative and convective processes. This suggests that the observed propagating Madden-Julian wave is produced by interactions between these local processes and the large scale motion field, and is not essential for the existence of the observed oscillation.
Evaluation of a Mesoscale Convective System in Variable-Resolution CESM
Payne, A. E.; Jablonowski, C.
2017-12-01
Warm season precipitation over the Southern Great Plains (SGP) follows a well observed diurnal pattern of variability, peaking at night-time, due to the eastward propagation of mesoscale convection systems that develop over the eastern slopes of the Rockies in the late afternoon. While most climate models are unable to adequately capture the organization of convection and characteristic pattern of precipitation over this region, models with high enough resolution to explicitly resolve convection show improvement. However, high resolution simulations are computationally expensive and, in the case of regional climate models, are subject to boundary conditions. Newly developed variable resolution global climate models strike a balance between the benefits of high-resolution regional climate models and the large-scale dynamics of global climate models and low computational cost. Recently developed parameterizations that are insensitive to the model grid scale provide a way to improve model performance. Here, we present an evaluation of the newly available Cloud Layers Unified by Binormals (CLUBB) parameterization scheme in a suite of variable-resolution CESM simulations with resolutions ranging from 110 km to 7 km within a regionally refined region centered over the SGP Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) site. Simulations utilize the hindcast approach developed by the Department of Energy's Cloud-Associated Parameterizations Testbed (CAPT) for the assessment of climate models. We limit our evaluation to a single mesoscale convective system that passed over the region on May 24, 2008. The effects of grid-resolution on the timing and intensity of precipitation, as well as, on the transition from shallow to deep convection are assessed against ground-based observations from the SGP ARM site, satellite observations and ERA-Interim reanalysis.
Artist's concept of eastward view of Apollo 16 Descartes landing site
1972-01-01
An artist's concept illustrating an eastward view of the Apollo 16 Descartes landing site. The white overlay indicates the scheduled tranverses by the Apollo 16 astronauts in the Lunar Roving Vehicle. The Roman numerals are the extravehicular activities (EVA's); and the Arabic numbers are the station stops along the traverse.
Bosart, L. F.; Wallace, B. C.
2017-12-01
Two high-impact convective storm forecast challenges occurred between 17-20 May 2016 during NOAA's Hazardous Weather Testbed Spring Forecast Experiment (SFE) at the Storm Prediction Center. The first forecast challenge was 286 mm of unexpected record-breaking rain that fell on Vero Beach (VRB), Florida, between 1500 UTC 17 May and 0600 UTC 18 May, more than doubling the previous May daily rainfall record. The record rains in VRB occurred subsequent to the formation of a massive MCS over the central Gulf of Mexico between 0900-1000 UTC 17 May. This MCS, linked to the earlier convection associated with an anomalously strong subtropical jet (STJ) over the Gulf of Mexico, moved east-northeastward toward Florida. The second forecast challenge was a large MCS that formed over the Mexican mountains near the Texas-Mexican border, moved eastward and grew upscale prior to 1200 UTC 19 May. This MCS further strengthened offshore after 1800 UTC 19 May beneath the STJ. SPC SFE participants expected this MCS to move east-northeastward and bring heavy rain due to training echoes along the Gulf coast as far eastward as the Florida panhandle. Instead, this MCS transitioned into a bowing MCS that resembled a low-end derecho and produced a 4-6 hPa cold pool with widespread surface wind gusts between 35-50 kt. Both MCS events occurred in a large-scale baroclinic environment along the northern Gulf coast. Both MCS events responded to antecedent convection within this favorable large-scale environment. Rainfall amounts with the first heavy rain-producing MCS were severely underestimated by models and forecasters alike. The second MCS produced the greatest forecaster angst because rainfall totals were forecast too high (MCS propagated too fast) and severe wind reports were much more widespread than anticipated (because of cold pool formation). This presentation will attempt to untangle what happened and why it happened.
The eastward enlargement of the eurozone: social and policy aspects in Portugal, Spain and Italy
Galego, Aurora; Caétano, José; Costa, Sofia; Liiv, Reilika
2003-01-01
This report explores some features of the social dimension of enlargement regarding the Southern EU-Member countries, namely Portugal, Spain and Italy. Economic theory suggests that integration may affect wages, employment and income distribution through changes on trade, FDI and migration flows. By removing all barriers to the free movement of goods and services, capital and labour, Eastward Enlargement will affect the location of economic activities, innovation, and technology. Subsequently...
Jiji, Latif M.
Professor Jiji's broad teaching experience lead him to select the topics for this book to provide a firm foundation for convection heat transfer with emphasis on fundamentals, physical phenomena, and mathematical modelling of a wide range of engineering applications. Reflecting recent developments, this textbook is the first to include an introduction to the challenging topic of microchannels. The strong pedagogic potential of Heat Convection is enhanced by the follow ing ancillary materials: (1) Power Point lectures, (2) Problem Solutions, (3) Homework Facilitator, and, (4) Summary of Sections and Chapters.
Kooperman, Gabriel J.; Pritchard, Michael S.; Somerville, Richard C. J.
2013-06-01
Mesoscale convective systems (MCSs) can bring up to 60% of summer rainfall to the central United States but are not simulated by most global climate models. In this study, a new empirical orthogonal function based index is developed to isolate the MCS activity, similar to that developed by Wheeler and Hendon (2004) for the Madden-Julian Oscillation. The index is applied to compactly compare three conventional- and super-parameterized (SP) versions (3.0, 3.5, and 5.0) of the National Center for Atmospheric Research Community Atmosphere Model (CAM). Results show that nocturnal, eastward propagating convection is a robust effect of super-parameterization but is sensitive to its specific implementation. MCS composites based on the index show that in SP-CAM3.5, convective MCS anomalies are unrealistically large scale and concentrated, while surface precipitation is too weak. These aspects of the MCS signal are improved in the latest version (SP-CAM5.0), which uses high-order microphysics.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
M. S. Johnston
2013-12-01
Full Text Available An earlier method to determine the mean response of upper-tropospheric water to localised deep convective systems (DC systems is improved and applied to the EC-Earth climate model. Following Zelinka and Hartmann (2009, several fields related to moist processes and radiation from various satellites are composited with respect to the local maxima in rain rate to determine their spatio-temporal evolution with deep convection in the central Pacific Ocean. Major improvements to the earlier study are the isolation of DC systems in time so as to prevent multiple sampling of the same event, and a revised definition of the mean background state that allows for better characterisation of the DC-system-induced anomalies. The observed DC systems in this study propagate westward at ~4 m s−1. Both the upper-tropospheric relative humidity and the outgoing longwave radiation are substantially perturbed over a broad horizontal extent and for periods >30 h. The cloud fraction anomaly is fairly constant with height but small maximum can be seen around 200 hPa. The cloud ice water content anomaly is mostly confined to pressures greater than 150 hPa and reaches its maximum around 450 hPa, a few hours after the peak convection. Consistent with the large increase in upper-tropospheric cloud ice water content, albedo increases dramatically and persists about 30 h after peak convection. Applying the compositing technique to EC-Earth allows an assessment of the model representation of DC systems. The model captures the large-scale responses, most notably for outgoing longwave radiation, but there are a number of important differences. DC systems appear to propagate eastward in the model, suggesting a strong link to Kelvin waves instead of equatorial Rossby waves. The diurnal cycle in the model is more pronounced and appears to trigger new convection further to the west each time. Finally, the modelled ice water content anomaly peaks at pressures greater than 500 h
Land surface sensitivity of mesoscale convective systems
Tournay, Robert C.
Mesoscale convective systems (MCSs) are important contributors to the hydrologic cycle in many regions of the world as well as major sources of severe weather. MCSs continue to challenge forecasters and researchers alike, arising from difficulties in understanding system initiation, propagation, and demise. One distinct type of MCS is that formed from individual convective cells initiated primarily by daytime heating over high terrain. This work is aimed at improving our understanding of the land surface sensitivity of this class of MCS in the contiguous United States. First, a climatology of mesoscale convective systems originating in the Rocky Mountains and adjacent high plains from Wyoming southward to New Mexico is developed through a combination of objective and subjective methods. This class of MCS is most important, in terms of total warm season precipitation, in the 500 to 1300m elevations of the Great Plains (GP) to the east in eastern Colorado to central Nebraska and northwest Kansas. Examining MCSs by longevity, short lasting MCSs (15 hrs) reveals that longer lasting systems tend to form further south and have a longer track with a more southerly track. The environment into which the MCS is moving showed differences across commonly used variables in convection forecasting, with some variables showing more favorable conditions throughout (convective inhibition, 0-6 km shear and 250 hPa wind speed) ahead of longer lasting MCSs. Other variables, such as convective available potential energy, showed improving conditions through time for longer lasting MCSs. Some variables showed no difference across longevity of MCS (precipitable water and large-scale vertical motion). From subsets of this MCS climatology, three regions of origin were chosen based on the presence of ridgelines extending eastward from the Rocky Mountains known to be foci for convection initiation and subsequent MCS formation: Southern Wyoming (Cheyenne Ridge), Colorado (Palmer divide) and
Eastward shift and maintenance of Arabian Sea oxygen minimum zone: Understanding the paradox
Acharya, Shiba Shankar; Panigrahi, Mruganka K.
2016-09-01
The dominance of Oxygen Minimum Zone in the eastern part of the Arabian Sea (ASOMZ) instead of the more bio-productive and likely more oxygen consuming western part is the first part of the paradox. The sources of oxygen to the ASOMZ were evaluated through the distributions of different water masses using the extended optimum multiparameter (eOMP) analysis, whereas the sinks of oxygen were evaluated through the organic matter remineralization, using the apparent oxygen utilization (AOU). The contributions of major source waters to the Arabian Sea viz. Indian Deep water (dIDW), Indian Central water (ICW), Persian Gulf Water (PGW) and Red Sea Water (RSW) have been quantified through the eOMP analysis which shows that the PGW and RSW are significant for the eastward shift of ASOMZ instead of voluminous ICW and dIDW. The distribution of Net Primary Production (NPP) and AOU clearly suggest the transport of organic detritus from the highly productive western Arabian Sea to its eastern counterpart which adds to the eastward shifting of ASOMZ. A revised estimate of the seasonal variation of areal extent and volume occupied by ASOMZ through analysis of latest available data reveals a distinct intensification of ASOMZ by 30% and increase in its volume by 5% during the spring-summer transition. However, during this seasonal transition the productivity in the Arabian Sea shows 100% increase in mean NPP. This disparity between ASOMZ and monsoonal variation of productivity is the other part of the paradox, which has been constrained through apparent oxygen utilization, Net Primary Production along with a variation of core depths of source waters. This study reveals a subtle balance between the circulation of marginal oxygen-rich water masses from the western Arabian Sea and organic matter remineralization in the eastern Arabian Sea in different seasons that explains the maintenance of ASOMZ throughout the year.
National Convective Weather Diagnostic
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Current convective hazards identified by the National Convective Weather Detection algorithm. The National Convective Weather Diagnostic (NCWD) is an automatically...
Coupling of convection and circulation at various resolutions
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Cathy Hohenegger
2015-03-01
Full Text Available A correct representation of the coupling between convection and circulation constitutes a prerequisite for a correct representation of precipitation at all scales. In this study, the coupling between convection and a sea breeze is investigated across three main resolutions: large-eddy resolution where convection is fully explicit, convection-permitting resolution where convection is partly explicit and coarse resolution where convection is parameterised. The considered models are the UCLA-LES, COSMO and ICON. Despite the use of prescribed surface fluxes, comparison of the simulations reveals that typical biases associated with a misrepresentation of convection at convection-permitting and coarser resolutions significantly alter the characteristics of the sea breeze. The coarse-resolution simulations integrated without convective parameterisation and the convection-permitting simulations simulate a too slow propagation of the breeze front as compared to the large-eddy simulations. From the various factors affecting the propagation, a delayed onset and intensification of cold pools primarily explains the differences. This is a direct consequence of a delayed development of convection when the grid spacing is coarsened. Scaling the time the sea breeze reaches the centre of the land patch by the time precipitation exceeds 2 mm day−1, used as a measure for significant evaporation, yields a collapse of the simulations onto a simple linear relationship although subtle differences remain due to the use of different turbulence and microphysical schemes. Turning on the convection scheme significantly disrupts the propagation of the sea breeze due to a misrepresented timing (too early triggering and magnitude (too strong precipitation evaporation in one of the tested convection schemes of the convective processes.
Interaction of externally-driven acoustic waves with compressible convection
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jones, P.; Merryfield, W.
1992-01-01
Two-dimensional numerical simulations are used to examine the interaction of acoustic waves with a compressible convecting fluid. Acoustic waves are forced at the lower boundary of the computational domain and propagate through a three-layer system undergoing vigorous penetrative convection. Energy exchange between the wave and the fluid is analyzed using a work integral formulation
Cheng, H.; Shi, Y.; Zhang, H.
2016-12-01
Since the last 50 million years, 2500km shorting of Indian Plate moving north collided with the Eurasian Plate has resulted in rapid uplift of the Tibetan Plateau shaped into the most intensive and extensive orogen on earth (Molnar and Tapponnier, 1975; Li et al., 2013). Based on previous geological and geophysical investigations (Royden et al., 1997; Clark and Royden, 2000), two end-member models of the entire Tibetan Plateau are proposed: thin visous sheet model and lateral escape model. However, when we scope into a special local area, for example, Northeastern Tibetan plateau and surrounding regions, end-member models could change to lower crustal flow model and upper crust shorting model. Recently, with vigorous geophysical observations, more data such as differential traveltime tomography and seismic velocity structure in the Tibetan Plateau actually reveal that the eastward crustal flow from the central Tibetan plateau is expected to divert north-eastward and south-eastward around the rigid Sichuan basin (Royden et al., 1997, 2008; Clark and Royden, 2000). Moreover, both the P-wave polarization tomography and gravitational anomaly and the GPS data from the intensive crustal movement monitoring network in China show that the north-eastward crustal flow divide two direction due to the Ordos Block as a barrier with rigid, cold and stable crust. In order to investigate mechanical of the eastward escape flow pattern around the Northeastern Tibetan plateau and surrounding regions, especially along the Xi'an-Taiyuan-Datong, we construct 3-D geological finite element model with high resolution topography and non-homogeneous strata. For the uncertainties of computational parameters, such as the depth and width and viscosity coefficient of the middle-lower crust, and the pressure differences, several models were tested to analyze the spatial distribution of curst flow and try to known about the uplift of Datong in Shanxi Province.
Moist convection and the 2010-2011 revival of Jupiter's South Equatorial Belt
Fletcher, Leigh N.; Orton, G. S.; Rogers, J. H.; Giles, R. S.; Payne, A. V.; Irwin, P. G. J.; Vedovato, M.
2017-04-01
The transformation of Jupiter's South Equatorial Belt (SEB) from its faded, whitened state in 2009-2010 (Fletcher et al., 2011b) to its normal brown appearance is documented via comparisons of thermal-infrared (5-20 μm) and visible-light imaging between November 2010 and November 2011. The SEB revival consisted of convective eruptions triggered over ∼100 days, potentially powered by the latent heat released by the condensation of water. The plumes rise from the water cloud base and ultimately diverge and cool in the stably-stratified upper troposphere. Thermal-IR images from the Very Large Telescope (VLT) were acquired 2 days after the SEB disturbance was first detected as a small white spot by amateur observers on November 9th 2010. Subsequent images over several months revealed the cold, putatively anticyclonic and cloudy plume tops (area 2.5 × 106 km2) surrounded by warm, cloud-free conditions at their peripheries due to subsidence. The latent heating was not directly detectable in the 5-20 μm range. The majority of the plumes erupted from a single source near 140 -160∘ W, coincident with the remnant cyclonic circulation of a brown barge that had formed during the fade. The warm remnant of the cyclone could still be observed in IRTF imaging 5 days before the November 9th eruption. Additional plumes erupted from the leading edge of the central disturbance immediately east of the source, which propagated slowly eastwards to encounter the Great Red Spot. The tropospheric plumes were sufficiently vigorous to excite stratospheric thermal waves over the SEB with a 20 -30∘ longitudinal wavelength and 5-6 K temperature contrasts at 5 mbar, showing a direct connection between moist convection and stratospheric wave activity. The subsidence and compressional heating of dry, unsaturated air warmed the troposphere (particularly to the northwest of the central branch of the revival) and removed the aerosols that had been responsible for the fade. Dark, cloud
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
K. M. Huang
2015-10-01
Full Text Available By using meteor radar, radiosonde and satellite observations over 20° N and NCEP/NCAR reanalysis data during 81 days from 22 December 2004 to 12 March 2005, a quasi-27-day oscillation propagating from the troposphere to the mesosphere is reported. A pronounced 27-day periodicity is observed in the raw zonal wind from meteor radar. Spectral analysis shows that the oscillation also occurs in the meridional wind and temperature and propagates westward with wavenumber s = 1; thus the oscillation is of Rossby wave type. The oscillation attains a large amplitude of about 12 m s−1 in the eastward wind shear region of the troposphere. When the wind shear reverses, its amplitude rapidly decays, and the background wind gradually evolves to be westward. However, the oscillation can penetrate through the weak westward wind field due to its relatively large phase speed. After this, the oscillation restrengthens with its upward propagation and reaches about 20 m s−1 in the mesosphere. Reanalysis data show that the oscillation can propagate to the mid and high latitudes from the low latitudes and has large amplitudes over there. There is another interesting phenomenon that a quasi-46-day oscillation appears simultaneously in the troposphere, but it cannot penetrate through the westward wind field because of its smaller phase speed. In the observational interval, a quasi-27-day periodicity in outgoing long-wave radiation (OLR and specific humidity is found in a latitudinal zone of 5–20° N. Thus the quasi-27-day oscillation may be an atmospheric response to forcing due to the convective activity with a period of about 27 days in the tropical region.
National Convective Weather Forecast
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NCWF is an automatically generated depiction of: (1) current convection and (2) extrapolated signficant current convection. It is a supplement to, but does NOT...
ALBERTO CARLOS DE QUEIROZ PINTO; VICTOR GALÁN SAÚCO; SISIR KUMAR MITRA; FRANCISCO RICARDO FERREIRA
2018-01-01
ABSTRACT This Chapter has the objectives to search, through the review of the available literature, important informations on the evolution of mango propagation regarding theoretical and practical aspects from cellular base of sexual propagation, nursery structures and organizations, substrate compositions and uses, importance of rootstock and scion selections, also it will be described the preparation and transport of the grafts (stem and bud) as well as the main asexual propagation methods...
Might electrical earthing affect convection of light
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Budrikis, Z.L.
1982-01-01
Partial convection of light by moving media was predicted by Fresnel and verified by Fizeau, Zeeman and others. It is accepted as an important argument in favour of the Special Theory of Relativity. The suggestion is made here that the convection is partial only when the propagating medium is moved with respect to its electrically earthed surroundings and that it would be total if an earthed shield was co-moving with the medium. This is based on a reinterpretation of Maxwell's equations wherein they are seen as macroscopic relationships that are in each case valid only in respect of a particular inertial frame of reference, the local electrical earth frame. (Auth.)
Kaspi, Yohai
This thesis studies the dynamics of a rotating compressible gas sphere, driven by internal convection, as a model for the dynamics on the giant planets. We develop a new general circulation model for the Jovian atmosphere, based on the MITgcm dynamical core augmenting the nonhydrostatic model. The grid extends deep into the planet's interior allowing the model to compute the dynamics of a whole sphere of gas rather than a spherical shell (including the strong variations in gravity and the equation of state). Different from most previous 3D convection models, this model is anelastic rather than Boussinesq and thereby incorporates the full density variation of the planet. We show that the density gradients caused by convection drive the system away from an isentropic and therefore barotropic state as previously assumed, leading to significant baroclinic shear. This shear is concentrated mainly in the upper levels and associated with baroclinic compressibility effects. The interior flow organizes in large cyclonically rotating columnar eddies parallel to the rotation axis, which drive upgradient angular momentum eddy fluxes, generating the observed equatorial superrotation. Heat fluxes align with the axis of rotation, contributing to the observed flat meridional emission. We show the transition from weak convection cases with symmetric spiraling columnar modes similar to those found in previous analytic linear theory, to more turbulent cases which exhibit similar, though less regular and solely cyclonic, convection columns which manifest on the surface in the form of waves embedded within the superrotation. We develop a mechanical understanding of this system and scaling laws by studying simpler configurations and the dependence on physical properties such as the rotation period, bottom boundary location and forcing structure. These columnar cyclonic structures propagate eastward, driven by dynamics similar to that of a Rossby wave except that the restoring planetary
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
ALBERTO CARLOS DE QUEIROZ PINTO
2018-03-01
Full Text Available ABSTRACT This Chapter has the objectives to search, through the review of the available literature, important informations on the evolution of mango propagation regarding theoretical and practical aspects from cellular base of sexual propagation, nursery structures and organizations, substrate compositions and uses, importance of rootstock and scion selections, also it will be described the preparation and transport of the grafts (stem and bud as well as the main asexual propagation methods their uses and practices. Finally, pattern and quality of graft mangos and their commercialization aspects will be discussed in this Chapter.
Radial propagation of turbulence in tokamaks
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Garbet, X.; Laurent, L.; Samain, A.
1993-12-01
It is shown in this paper that a turbulence propagation can be due to toroidal or non linear mode coupling. An analytical analysis indicates that the toroidal coupling acts through a convection while the non linear effects induce a diffusion. Numerical simulations suggest that the toroidal propagation is usually the fastest process, except perhaps in some highly turbulent regimes. The consequence is the possibility of non local effects on the fluctuation level and the associated transport. (authors). 7 figs., 19 refs
Stephens, G. K.; Sitnov, M. I.; Ukhorskiy, A. Y.; Roelof, E. C.; Tsyganenko, N. A.; Le, G.
2016-01-01
The structure of storm time currents in the inner magnetosphere, including its innermost region inside 4R(sub E), is studied for the first time using a modification of the empirical geomagnetic field model TS07D and new data from Van Allen Probes and Time History of Events and Macroscale Interactions during Substorms missions. It is shown that the model, which uses basis-function expansions instead of ad hoc current modules to approximate the magnetic field, consistently improves its resolution and magnetic field reconstruction with the increase of the number of basis functions and resolves the spatial structure and evolution of the innermost eastward current. This includes a connection between the westward ring current flowing largely at R > or approx. 3R(sub E) and the eastward ring current concentrated at R banana current' was previously inferred from the pressure distributions based on the energetic neutral atom imaging and first-principles ring current simulations. The morphology of the equatorial currents is dependent on storm phase. During the main phase, it is complex, with several asymmetries forming banana currents. Near SYM-H minimum, the banana current is strongest, is localized in the evening-midnight sector, and is more structured compared to the main phase. It then weakens during the recovery phase resulting in the equatorial currents to become mostly azimuthally symmetric.
Stephens, G. K.; Sitnov, M. I.; Ukhorskiy, A. Y.; Roelof, E. C.; Tsyganenko, N. A.; Le, G.
2016-01-01
The structure of storm time currents in the inner magnetosphere, including its innermost region inside 4R(sub E), is studied for the first time using a modification of the empirical geomagnetic field model TS07D and new data from Van Allen Probes and Time History of Events and Macroscale Interactions during Substorms missions. It is shown that the model, which uses basis-function expansions instead of ad hoc current modules to approximate the magnetic field, consistently improves its resolution and magnetic field reconstruction with the increase of the number of basis functions and resolves the spatial structure and evolution of the innermost eastward current. This includes a connection between the westward ring current flowing largely at R > or approx. 3R(sub E) and the eastward ring current concentrated at R storm phase. During the main phase, it is complex, with several asymmetries forming banana currents. Near SYM-H minimum, the banana current is strongest, is localized in the evening-midnight sector, and is more structured compared to the main phase. It then weakens during the recovery phase resulting in the equatorial currents to become mostly azimuthally symmetric.
Rasmussen, K. L.; Prein, A. F.; Rasmussen, R. M.; Ikeda, K.; Liu, C.
2017-11-01
Novel high-resolution convection-permitting regional climate simulations over the US employing the pseudo-global warming approach are used to investigate changes in the convective population and thermodynamic environments in a future climate. Two continuous 13-year simulations were conducted using (1) ERA-Interim reanalysis and (2) ERA-Interim reanalysis plus a climate perturbation for the RCP8.5 scenario. The simulations adequately reproduce the observed precipitation diurnal cycle, indicating that they capture organized and propagating convection that most climate models cannot adequately represent. This study shows that weak to moderate convection will decrease and strong convection will increase in frequency in a future climate. Analysis of the thermodynamic environments supporting convection shows that both convective available potential energy (CAPE) and convective inhibition (CIN) increase downstream of the Rockies in a future climate. Previous studies suggest that CAPE will increase in a warming climate, however a corresponding increase in CIN acts as a balancing force to shift the convective population by suppressing weak to moderate convection and provides an environment where CAPE can build to extreme levels that may result in more frequent severe convection. An idealized investigation of fundamental changes in the thermodynamic environment was conducted by shifting a standard atmospheric profile by ± 5 °C. When temperature is increased, both CAPE and CIN increase in magnitude, while the opposite is true for decreased temperatures. Thus, even in the absence of synoptic and mesoscale variations, a warmer climate will provide more CAPE and CIN that will shift the convective population, likely impacting water and energy budgets on Earth.
Orsolini, Y.J.; Zhang, L.; Peters, D.H.W.; Fraedrich, K.; Zhu, X.; Schneidereit, A.; van den Hurk, B.J.J.M.
2015-01-01
Over the Far East in summer, climate is strongly influenced by the fluctuating Western Pacific Subtropical High (WPSH), and strong precipitation is often associated with southeasterly low-level wind that brings moist air from the southern China seas. The WPSH intraseasonal variability is partly
Observing Convective Aggregation
Holloway, Christopher E.; Wing, Allison A.; Bony, Sandrine; Muller, Caroline; Masunaga, Hirohiko; L'Ecuyer, Tristan S.; Turner, David D.; Zuidema, Paquita
2017-11-01
Convective self-aggregation, the spontaneous organization of initially scattered convection into isolated convective clusters despite spatially homogeneous boundary conditions and forcing, was first recognized and studied in idealized numerical simulations. While there is a rich history of observational work on convective clustering and organization, there have been only a few studies that have analyzed observations to look specifically for processes related to self-aggregation in models. Here we review observational work in both of these categories and motivate the need for more of this work. We acknowledge that self-aggregation may appear to be far-removed from observed convective organization in terms of time scales, initial conditions, initiation processes, and mean state extremes, but we argue that these differences vary greatly across the diverse range of model simulations in the literature and that these comparisons are already offering important insights into real tropical phenomena. Some preliminary new findings are presented, including results showing that a self-aggregation simulation with square geometry has too broad distribution of humidity and is too dry in the driest regions when compared with radiosonde records from Nauru, while an elongated channel simulation has realistic representations of atmospheric humidity and its variability. We discuss recent work increasing our understanding of how organized convection and climate change may interact, and how model discrepancies related to this question are prompting interest in observational comparisons. We also propose possible future directions for observational work related to convective aggregation, including novel satellite approaches and a ground-based observational network.
Kakac, Sadik; Pramuanjaroenkij, Anchasa
2014-01-01
Intended for readers who have taken a basic heat transfer course and have a basic knowledge of thermodynamics, heat transfer, fluid mechanics, and differential equations, Convective Heat Transfer, Third Edition provides an overview of phenomenological convective heat transfer. This book combines applications of engineering with the basic concepts of convection. It offers a clear and balanced presentation of essential topics using both traditional and numerical methods. The text addresses emerging science and technology matters, and highlights biomedical applications and energy technologies. What’s New in the Third Edition: Includes updated chapters and two new chapters on heat transfer in microchannels and heat transfer with nanofluids Expands problem sets and introduces new correlations and solved examples Provides more coverage of numerical/computer methods The third edition details the new research areas of heat transfer in microchannels and the enhancement of convective heat transfer with nanofluids....
Relationships between radiation, clouds, and convection during DYNAMO
Ciesielski, Paul E.; Johnson, Richard H.; Jiang, Xianan; Zhang, Yunyan; Xie, Shaocheng
2017-03-01
The relationships between radiation, clouds, and convection on an intraseasonal time scale are examined with data taken during the Dynamics of the Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO) field campaign. Specifically, column-net, as well as vertical profiles of radiative heating rates, computed over Gan Island in the central Indian Ocean (IO) are used along with an objective analysis of large-scale fields to examine three MJO events that occurred during the 3 month period (October to December 2011) over this region. Longwave (LW) and shortwave radiative heating rates exhibit tilted structures, reflecting radiative effects associated with the prevalence of shallow cumulus during the dry, suppressed MJO phase followed by increasing deep convection leading into the active phase. As the convection builds going into the MJO active phase, there are increasingly top-heavy anomalous radiative heating rates while the column-net radiative cooling rate progressively decreases. Temporal fluctuations in the cloud radiative forcing, being quite sensitive to changes in high cloudiness, are dominated by LW effects with an intraseasonal variation of 0.4-0.6 K/d. While both the water vapor and cloud fields are inextricably linked, it appears that the tilted radiative structures are more related to water vapor effects. The intraseasonal variation of column-net radiative heating enhances the convective signal in the mean by 20% with a minimum in this enhancement 10 days prior to peak MJO rainfall and maximum 7 days after. This suggests that as MJO convective envelope weakens over the central IO, cloud-radiative feedbacks help maintain the mature MJO as it moves eastward.
Convective instabilities in SN 1987A
Benz, Willy; Thielemann, Friedrich-Karl
1990-01-01
Following Bandiera (1984), it is shown that the relevant criterion to determine the stability of a blast wave, propagating through the layers of a massive star in a supernova explosion, is the Schwarzschild (or Ledoux) criterion rather than the Rayleigh-Taylor criterion. Both criteria coincide only in the incompressible limit. Results of a linear stability analysis are presented for a one-dimensional (spherical) explosion in a realistic model for the progenitor of SN 1987A. When applying the Schwarzschild criterion, unstable regions get extended considerably. Convection is found to develop behind the shock, with a characteristic growth rate corresponding to a time scale much smaller than the shock traversal time. This ensures that efficient mixing will take place. Since the entire ejected mass is found to be convectively unstable, Ni can be transported outward, even into the hydrogen envelope, while hydrogen can be mixed deep into the helium core.
Lattice Boltzmann model for melting with natural convection
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Huber, Christian; Parmigiani, Andrea; Chopard, Bastien; Manga, Michael; Bachmann, Olivier
2008-01-01
We develop a lattice Boltzmann method to couple thermal convection and pure-substance melting. The transition from conduction-dominated heat transfer to fully-developed convection is analyzed and scaling laws and previous numerical results are reproduced by our numerical method. We also investigate the limit in which thermal inertia (high Stefan number) cannot be neglected. We use our results to extend the scaling relations obtained at low Stefan number and establish the correlation between the melting front propagation and the Stefan number for fully-developed convection. We conclude by showing that the model presented here is particularly well-suited to study convection melting in geometrically complex media with many applications in geosciences
Exporting EU Liberalism Eastwards
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Lynn M. Tesser
2009-07-01
Full Text Available There is much more to liberalism in the post communist context than has been acknowledged. A sizeable effort has indeed emerged to transplant a relatively coherent liberal ideology to the region, one exported not merely through the conditionality of international financial institutions, but also through the conditionality and socialization of organizations like the NATO, OSCE, EU, and the Council of Europe. ‘EU liberalism’ includes the ‘standard’ liberal emphasis on individual rights, the rule of law, constitutional democracy, freedom, and market economics as well as support for minority rights, and a seemingly schizophrenic emphasis on economic integration that involves, first bringing down borders for the free movement of people, goods, capital, and services between member states, and second, market regulation to diminish the social downsides of capitalism. This paper outlines EU liberalism’s emergence and its application to Central and East European countries.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hermansson, B.R.
1989-01-01
The main part of this thesis consists of 15 published papers, in which the numerical Beam Propagating Method (BPM) is investigated, verified and used in a number of applications. In the introduction a derivation of the nonlinear Schroedinger equation is presented to connect the beginning of the soliton papers with Maxwell's equations including a nonlinear polarization. This thesis focuses on the wide use of the BPM for numerical simulations of propagating light and particle beams through different types of structures such as waveguides, fibers, tapers, Y-junctions, laser arrays and crystalline solids. We verify the BPM in the above listed problems against other numerical methods for example the Finite-element Method, perturbation methods and Runge-Kutta integration. Further, the BPM is shown to be a simple and effective way to numerically set up the Green's function in matrix form for periodic structures. The Green's function matrix can then be diagonalized with matrix methods yielding the eigensolutions of the structure. The BPM inherent transverse periodicity can be untied, if desired, by for example including an absorptive refractive index at the computational window edges. The interaction of two first-order soliton pulses is strongly dependent on the phase relationship between the individual solitons. When optical phase shift keying is used in coherent one-carrier wavelength communication, the fiber attenuation will suppress or delay the nonlinear instability. (orig.)
Lin, W.; Xie, S.; Jackson, R. C.; Endo, S.; Vogelmann, A. M.; Collis, S. M.; Golaz, J. C.
2017-12-01
Climate models are known to have difficulty in simulating tropical diurnal convections that exhibit distinct characteristics over land and open ocean. While the causes are rooted in deficiencies in convective parameterization in general, lack of representations of mesoscale dynamics in terms of land-sea breeze, convective organization, and propagation of convection-induced gravity waves also play critical roles. In this study, the problem is investigated at the process-level with the U.S. Department of Energy Accelerated Climate Modeling for Energy (ACME) model in short-term hindcast mode using the Cloud Associated Parameterization Testbed (CAPT) framework. Convective-scale radar retrievals and observation-driven convection-permitting simulations for the Tropical Warm Pool-International Cloud Experiment (TWP-ICE) cases are used to guide the analysis of the underlying processes. The emphasis will be on linking deficiencies in representation of detailed process elements to the model biases in diurnal convective properties and their contrast among inland, coastal and open ocean conditions.
Simulating deep convection with a shallow convection scheme
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
C. Hohenegger
2011-10-01
Full Text Available Convective processes profoundly affect the global water and energy balance of our planet but remain a challenge for global climate modeling. Here we develop and investigate the suitability of a unified convection scheme, capable of handling both shallow and deep convection, to simulate cases of tropical oceanic convection, mid-latitude continental convection, and maritime shallow convection. To that aim, we employ large-eddy simulations (LES as a benchmark to test and refine a unified convection scheme implemented in the Single-column Community Atmosphere Model (SCAM. Our approach is motivated by previous cloud-resolving modeling studies, which have documented the gradual transition between shallow and deep convection and its possible importance for the simulated precipitation diurnal cycle.
Analysis of the LES reveals that differences between shallow and deep convection, regarding cloud-base properties as well as entrainment/detrainment rates, can be related to the evaporation of precipitation. Parameterizing such effects and accordingly modifying the University of Washington shallow convection scheme, it is found that the new unified scheme can represent both shallow and deep convection as well as tropical and mid-latitude continental convection. Compared to the default SCAM version, the new scheme especially improves relative humidity, cloud cover and mass flux profiles. The new unified scheme also removes the well-known too early onset and peak of convective precipitation over mid-latitude continental areas.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Huang, C.S.; Murr, D.; Sofko, G.J.
2000-01-01
response to IMF Bz changes during strong IMF BZ. On March 23, 1995, B-x was small, B-y was strongly positive (7-11 nT), and the B-z polarity changed several times after 1300 UT. The dayside ionospheric convection is dominated by a large clockwise convection cell. The cell focus (the "eye" of the convection...... cell, or the largest change in the convection pattern, is limited roughly to the region between the previous cell focus and the new cell focus. Outside this region, the ionospheric flows could be greatly enhanced or weakened, while the convection pattern shape changes very little. When B-y is strong...... the dawn-dusk meridian plane, which is interpreted as propagation or expansion of newly generated convection cells in the cusp region. Other studies showed that the change in convection pattern in response to IMF reorientations is spatially fixed. In this paper, we investigate the ionospheric convection...
Convection and stellar oscillations
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Aarslev, Magnus Johan
2017-01-01
for asteroseismology, because of the challenges inherent in modelling turbulent convection in 1D stellar models. As a result of oversimplifying the physics near the surface, theoretical calculations systematically overestimate the oscillation frequencies. This has become known as the asteroseismic surface effect. Due...... to lacking better options, this frequency difference is typically corrected for with ad-hoc formulae. The topic of this thesis is the improvement of 1D stellar convection models and the effects this has on asteroseismic properties. The source of improvements is 3D simulations of radiation...... atmospheres to replace the outer layers of stellar models. The additional turbulent pressure and asymmetrical opacity effects in the atmosphere model, compared to convection in stellar evolution models, serve to expand the atmosphere. The enlarged acoustic cavity lowers the pulsation frequencies bringing them...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bau, H.H. [Univ. of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA (United States)
1995-12-31
Using stability theory, numerical simulations, and in some instances experiments, it is demonstrated that the critical Rayleigh number for the bifurcation (1) from the no-motion (conduction) state to the motion state and (2) from time-independent convection to time-dependent, oscillatory convection in the thermal convection loop and Rayleigh-Benard problems can be significantly increased or decreased. This is accomplished through the use of a feedback controller effectuating small perturbations in the boundary data. The controller consists of sensors which detect deviations in the fluid`s temperature from the motionless, conductive values and then direct actuators to respond to these deviations in such a way as to suppress the naturally occurring flow instabilities. Actuators which modify the boundary`s temperature/heat flux are considered. The feedback controller can also be used to control flow patterns and generate complex dynamic behavior at relatively low Rayleigh numbers.
Convective transport in tokamaks
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
D'Ippolito, D.A.; Myra, J.R.; Russell, D.A.; Krasheninnikov, S.I.; Pigarov, A.Yu.; Yu, G.Q.; Xu, X.Q.; Nevins, W.M.
2005-01-01
Scrape-off-layer (SOL) convection in fusion experiments appears to be a universal phenomenon that can 'short-circuit' the divertor in some cases. The theory of 'blob' transport provides a simple and robust physical paradigm for studying convective transport. This paper summarizes recent advances in the theory of blob transport and its comparison with 2D and 3D computer simulations. We also discuss the common physical basis relating radial transport of blobs, pellets, and ELMs and a new blob regime that may lead to a connection between blob transport and the density limit. (author)
Arnett, W. David
2009-05-01
We review recent progress using numerical simulations as a testbed for development of a theory of stellar convection, much as envisaged by John von Newmann. Necessary features of the theory, non-locality and fluctuations, are illustrated by computer movies. It is found that the common approximation of convection as a diffusive process presents the wrong physical picture, and improvements are suggested. New observational results discussed at the conference are gratifying in their validation of some of our theoretical ideas, especially the idea that SNIb and SNIc events are related to the explosion of massive star cores which have been stripped by mass loss and binary interactions [1
Parameterizing convective organization
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Brian Earle Mapes
2011-06-01
Full Text Available Lateral mixing parameters in buoyancy-driven deep convection schemes are among the most sensitive and important unknowns in atmosphere models. Unfortunately, there is not a true optimum value for plume mixing rate, but rather a dilemma or tradeoff: Excessive dilution of updrafts leads to unstable stratification bias in the mean state, while inadequate dilution allows deep convection to occur too easily, causing poor space and time distributions and variability. In this too-small parameter space, compromises are made based on competing metrics of model performance. We attempt to escape this “entrainment dilemma” by making bulk plume parameters (chiefly entrainment rate depend on a new prognostic variable (“organization,” org meant to reflect the rectified effects of subgrid-scale structure in meteorological fields. We test an org scheme in the Community Atmosphere Model (CAM5 with a new unified shallow-deep convection scheme (UW-ens, a 2-plume version of the University of Washington scheme. Since buoyant ascent involves natural selection, subgrid structure makes convection systematically deeper and stronger than the pure unorganized case: plumes of average (or randomly sampled air rising in the average environment. To reflect this, org is nonnegative, but we leave it dimensionless. A time scale characterizes its behavior (here ∼3 h for a 2o model. Currently its source is rain evaporation, but other sources can be added easily. We also let org be horizontally transported by advection, as a mass-weighted mean over the convecting layer. Linear coefficients link org to a plume ensemble, which it assists via: 1 plume base warmth above the mean temperature 2 plume radius enhancement (reduced mixing, and 3 increased probability of overlap in a multi-plume scheme, where interactions benefit later generations (this part has only been implemented in an offline toy column model. Since rain evaporation is a source for org, it functions as a time
Mathematical models of convection
Andreev, Victor K; Goncharova, Olga N; Pukhnachev, Vladislav V
2012-01-01
Phenomena of convection are abundant in nature as well as in industry. This volume addresses the subject of convection from the point of view of both, theory and application. While the first three chapters provide a refresher on fluid dynamics and heat transfer theory, the rest of the book describes the modern developments in theory. Thus it brings the reader to the ""front"" of the modern research. This monograph provides the theoretical foundation on a topic relevant to metallurgy, ecology, meteorology, geo-and astrophysics, aerospace industry, chemistry, crystal physics, and many other fiel
Convective aggregation in realistic convective-scale simulations
Holloway, Christopher E.
2017-01-01
To investigate the real-world relevance of idealized-model convective self-aggregation, five 15-day cases of real organized convection in the tropics are simulated. These include multiple simulations of each case to test sensitivities of the convective organization and mean states to interactive radiation, interactive surface fluxes, and evaporation of rain. These simulations are compared to self-aggregation seen in the same model configured to run in idealized radiative-convective equilibriu...
Mukhopadhyay, P.; Phani Murali Krishna, R.; Goswami, Bidyut B.; Abhik, S.; Ganai, Malay; Mahakur, M.; Khairoutdinov, Marat; Dudhia, Jimmy
2016-05-01
Inspite of significant improvement in numerical model physics, resolution and numerics, the general circulation models (GCMs) find it difficult to simulate realistic seasonal and intraseasonal variabilities over global tropics and particularly over Indian summer monsoon (ISM) region. The bias is mainly attributed to the improper representation of physical processes. Among all the processes, the cloud and convective processes appear to play a major role in modulating model bias. In recent times, NCEP CFSv2 model is being adopted under Monsoon Mission for dynamical monsoon forecast over Indian region. The analyses of climate free run of CFSv2 in two resolutions namely at T126 and T382, show largely similar bias in simulating seasonal rainfall, in capturing the intraseasonal variability at different scales over the global tropics and also in capturing tropical waves. Thus, the biases of CFSv2 indicate a deficiency in model's parameterization of cloud and convective processes. Keeping this in background and also for the need to improve the model fidelity, two approaches have been adopted. Firstly, in the superparameterization, 32 cloud resolving models each with a horizontal resolution of 4 km are embedded in each GCM (CFSv2) grid and the conventional sub-grid scale convective parameterization is deactivated. This is done to demonstrate the role of resolving cloud processes which otherwise remain unresolved. The superparameterized CFSv2 (SP-CFS) is developed on a coarser version T62. The model is integrated for six and half years in climate free run mode being initialised from 16 May 2008. The analyses reveal that SP-CFS simulates a significantly improved mean state as compared to default CFS. The systematic bias of lesser rainfall over Indian land mass, colder troposphere has substantially been improved. Most importantly the convectively coupled equatorial waves and the eastward propagating MJO has been found to be simulated with more fidelity in SP-CFS. The reason of
CDM Convective Forecast Planning guidance
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The CDM Convective Forecast Planning (CCFP) guidance product provides a foreast of en-route aviation convective hazards. The forecasts are updated every 2 hours and...
Presentation on Tropical Mesoscale convective Systems and ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
IAS Admin
Shallow convection- 70% of the storm heights are below 6 km. ♢ Deep convection ... Decay convection, the convective top is found at a higher altitude than deep .... Stratospheric Fountain – Two step process. Warm tropopause- preferable for.
Convective overshooting in stars
Andrássy, R.
2015-01-01
Numerous observations provide evidence that the standard picture, in which convective mixing is limited to the unstable layers of a star, is incomplete. The mixing layers in real stars are significantly more extended than what the standard models predict. Some of the observations require changing
Fusing Multiple Satellite Datasets Toward Defining and Understanding Organized Convection
Elsaesser, G.; Del Genio, A. D.
2017-12-01
How do we differentiate unorganized from organized convection? We might think of organized convection as being long lasting (at least longer than the lifetime of any individual cumulus cell), clustered at larger spatial scales (>100 km), and responsible for substantial rainfall accumulation. Organized convection is sustained on such scales due to the arrangement of moist/dry and buoyant/non-buoyant mesoscale circulations. The nature of these circulations is tied to system diabatic heating profiles; in particular, the 2nd baroclinic (top-heavy), stratiform heating mode is thought to be important for organized convection maintenance/propagation. We investigate the extent to which these characteristics are jointly found in propagating convective systems. Lifecycle information comes from hi-res IR data. Diabatic heating profiles, convective fractions and rainfall are provided by GPM retrievals mapped to convective system tracks. Moisture is provided by AIRS/AMSU and passive microwave retrievals. Instead of compositing heating profile information along a system track, where information is smoothed out, we sort system heating profile structures according to their "top heaviness" and then analyze PDFs of system rainfall, system sizes, durations, convective/stratiform ratios, etc. as a function of diabatic heating structure. Perhaps contrary to expectation, we find only small differences in PDFs of rainfall rates, system sizes, and system duration for different heating profile structures. If organization is defined according to heating structures, then one possible interpretation of these results is that organization is independent of system size, duration, and many times, even lifecycle stage. Is it possible that most systems "hobble" along and exhibit varying degrees of organization, dependent on local environment moisture/buoyancy variations, unlike the archetypical MCS paradigm? This presentation will also discuss the questions posed above within the context of
Auroral-arc splitting by intrusion of a new convection channel
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
H. U. Frey
Full Text Available During a run of the Common Programme Three of the EISCAT radar the splitting of an auroral arc was observed by high time-resolution, ground-based cameras when the UHF radar beam was close to the arc. The evening eastward electrojet situation with a large-scale northward ionospheric electric field was disturbed by the intrusion of a convection channel with southward electric field from the east. The interaction of the new convection channel with the auroral arc caused changes in arc brightness and arc splitting, i.e. the creation of a new arc parallel to the pre-existing auroral arc. The event is described as one possibility for the creation of parallel arcs during slightly disturbed magnetic conditions far from the Harang discontinuity.
Auroral-arc splitting by intrusion of a new convection channel
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
H. U. Frey
1996-12-01
Full Text Available During a run of the Common Programme Three of the EISCAT radar the splitting of an auroral arc was observed by high time-resolution, ground-based cameras when the UHF radar beam was close to the arc. The evening eastward electrojet situation with a large-scale northward ionospheric electric field was disturbed by the intrusion of a convection channel with southward electric field from the east. The interaction of the new convection channel with the auroral arc caused changes in arc brightness and arc splitting, i.e. the creation of a new arc parallel to the pre-existing auroral arc. The event is described as one possibility for the creation of parallel arcs during slightly disturbed magnetic conditions far from the Harang discontinuity.
Umakanth, U.
2015-11-07
The aim of the study is to evaluate the performance of regional climate model (RegCM) version 4.4 over south Asian CORDEX domain to simulate seasonal mean and monsoon intraseasonal oscillations (MISOs) during Indian summer monsoon. Three combinations of Grell (G) and Emanuel (E) cumulus schemes namely, RegCM-EG, RegCM-EE and RegCM-GE have been used. The model is initialized at 1st January, 2000 for a 13-year continuous simulation at a spatial resolution of 50 km. The models reasonably simulate the seasonal mean low level wind pattern though they differ in simulating mean precipitation pattern. All models produce dry bias in precipitation over Indian land region except in RegCM-EG where relatively low value of dry bias is observed. On seasonal scale, the performance of RegCM-EG is more close to observation though it fails at intraseasonal time scales. In wave number-frequency spectrum, the observed peak in zonal wind (850 hPa) at 40–50 day scale is captured by all models with a slight change in amplitude, however, the 40–50 day peak in precipitation is completely absent in RegCM-EG. The space–time characteristics of MISOs are well captured by RegCM-EE over RegCM-GE, however it fails to show the eastward propagation of the convection across the Maritime Continent. Except RegCM-EE all other models completely underestimates the moisture advection from Equatorial Indian Ocean onto Indian land region during life-cycle of MISOs. The characteristics of MISOs are studied for strong (SM) and weak (WM) monsoon years and the differences in model performances are analyzed. The wavelet spectrum of rainfall over central India denotes that, the SM years are dominated by high frequency oscillations (period <20 days) whereas little higher periods (>30 days) along with dominated low periods (<20 days) observed during WM years. During SM, RegCM-EE is dominated with high frequency oscillations (period <20 days) whereas in WM, RegCM-EE is dominated with periods >20
Bejan, Adrian
2013-01-01
Written by an internationally recognized authority on heat transfer and thermodynamics, this second edition of Convection Heat Transfer contains new and updated problems and examples reflecting real-world research and applications, including heat exchanger design. Teaching not only structure but also technique, the book begins with the simplest problem solving method (scale analysis), and moves on to progressively more advanced and exact methods (integral method, self similarity, asymptotic behavior). A solutions manual is available for all problems and exercises.
Concepts of magnetospheric convection
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Vasyliunas, V.M.
1975-01-01
Magnetospheric physics, which grew out of attempts to understand the space environment of the Earth, is becoming increasingly applicable to other systems in the Universe. Among the planets, in addition to the Earth, Jupiter, Mercury, Mars and (in a somewhat different way) Venus are now known to have magnetospheres. The magnetospheres of pulsars have been regarded as an essential part of the pulsar phenomenon. Other astrophysical systems, such as supernova remnant shells or magnetic stars and binary star systems, may be describable as magnetospheres. The major concepts of magnetospheric physics thus need to be formulated in a general way not restricted to the geophysical context in which they may have originated. Magnetospheric convection has been one of the most important and fruitful concepts in the study of the Earth's magnetosphere. This paper describes the basic theoretical notions of convection in a manner applicable to magnetospheres generally and discusses the relative importance of convective corotational motions, with particular reference to the comparison of the Earth and Jupiter. (Auth.)
Convectively-driven cold layer and its influences on moisture in the UTLS
Kim, J.; Randel, W. J.; Birner, T.
2016-12-01
Characteristics of the cold anomaly in the tropical tropopause layer (TTL) that is commonly observed with deep convection are examined using CloudSat and Constellation Observing System for Meteorology, Ionosphere and Climate (COSMIC) GPS radio occultation measurements. Deep convection is sampled based on the cloud top height (>17 km) from CloudSat 2B-CLDCLASS, and then temperature profiles from COSMIC are composited around the deep convection. The composite temperature shows anomalously warm troposphere (up to 14 km) and a significantly cold layer near the tropopause (at 16-18 km) in the regions of deep convection. Generally in the tropics, the cold layer has very large horizontal scale (2,000 - 6,000 km) compared to that of mesoscale convective cluster, and it lasts one or two weeks with minimum temperature anomaly of - 2K. The cold layer shows slight but clear eastward-tilted vertical structure in the deep tropics indicating a large-scale Kelvin wave response. Further analyses on circulation patterns suggest that the anomaly can be explained as a part of Gill-type response in the TTL to deep convective heating in the troposphere. Response of moisture to the cold layer is also examined in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere using microwave limb sounder (MLS) measurements. The water vapor anomalies show coherent structures with the temperature and circulation anomalies. A clear dry anomaly is found in the cold layer and its outflow region, implying a large-scale dehydration process due to the convectively driven cold layer in the upper TTL.
Pattern formation in rotating Bénard convection
Fantz, M.; Friedrich, R.; Bestehorn, M.; Haken, H.
1992-12-01
Using an extension of the Swift-Hohenberg equation we study pattern formation in the Bénard experiment close to the onset of convection in the case of rotating cylindrical fluid containers. For small Taylor numbers we emphasize the existence of slowly rotating patterns and describe behaviour exhibiting defect motion. Finally, we study pattern formation close to the Küppers-Lortz instability. The instability is nucleated at defects and proceeds through front propagation into the bulk patterns.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Picard, R.R.
1989-01-01
Topics covered in this chapter include a discussion of exact results as related to nuclear materials management and accounting in nuclear facilities; propagation of error for a single measured value; propagation of error for several measured values; error propagation for materials balances; and an application of error propagation to an example of uranium hexafluoride conversion process
Bidispersive-inclined convection
Mulone, Giuseppe; Straughan, Brian
2016-01-01
A model is presented for thermal convection in an inclined layer of porous material when the medium has a bidispersive structure. Thus, there are the usual macropores which are full of a fluid, but there are also a system of micropores full of the same fluid. The model we employ is a modification of the one proposed by Nield & Kuznetsov (2006 Int. J. Heat Mass Transf. 49, 3068–3074. (doi:10.1016/j.ijheatmasstransfer.2006.02.008)), although we consider a single temperature field only. PMID:27616934
Evaluation of the sensitivity of the Amazonian diurnal cycle to convective intensity in reanalyses
Itterly, Kyle F.; Taylor, Patrick C.
2017-02-01
Model parameterizations of tropical deep convection are unable to reproduce the observed diurnal and spatial variability of convection in the Amazon, which contributes to climatological biases in the water cycle and energy budget. Convective intensity regimes are defined using percentiles of daily minimum 3-hourly averaged outgoing longwave radiation (OLR) from Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES). This study compares the observed spatial variability of convective diurnal cycle statistics for each regime to MERRA-2 and ERA-Interim (ERA) reanalysis data sets. Composite diurnal cycle statistics are computed for daytime hours (06:00-21:00 local time) in the wet season (December-January-February). MERRA-2 matches observations more closely than ERA for domain averaged composite diurnal statistics—specifically precipitation. However, ERA reproduces mesoscale features of OLR and precipitation phase associated with topography and the propagation of the coastal squall line. Both reanalysis models are shown to underestimate extreme convection.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
S. E. Milan
Full Text Available Three SuperDARN coherent HF radars are employed to investigate the excitation of convection in the dayside high-latitude ionosphere in response to transient reconnection occurring in the cusp region. This study demonstrates the existence of transient antisunward-propagating backscatter features at the expected location of the ionospheric footprint of the cusp region, which have a repetition rate near 10 min. These are interpreted as the ionospheric signature of flux transfer events. Moreover, transient sunward-propagating regions of backscatter are observed in the convection return flow regions of both the pre- and post-noon sectors. These patches are observed to propagate towards the noon sector from at least as far around the auroral zone as 07 MLT in the pre-noon sector and 17 MLT in the post-noon sector, travelling with a velocity of approximately 1.5 to 2 km s^{-1}. These return flow patches have a repetition rate similar to that of the transient features observed at local noon. While providing supporting evidence for the impulsive nature of convection flow, the observation of sunward-propagating features in the return flow region is not consistent with current conceptual models of the excitation of convection.
Key words. Ionosphere (plasma convection · Magnetospheric physics (magnetopause · cusp · and boundary layers; magnetosphere-ionosphere interactions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sun, Z.; Schubert, G.
1995-01-01
In this study, we carry out numerical simulations of thermal convection in a rapidly rotating spherical fluid shell at high Taylor number Ta and Rayleigh number R with a nonlinear, three-dimensional, time-dependent, spectral-transform code. The parameters used in the simulations are chosen to be in a range which allows us to study two different types of convection, i.e., single column and multi-layered types, and the transition between them. Numerical solutions feature highly time-dependent north--south open columnar convective cells. The cells occur irregularly in longitude, are quasi-layered in cylindrical radius, and maintain alternating bands of mean zonal flow. The complex convective structure and the banded mean zonal flow are results of the high Taylor and Rayleigh numbers. The transition between the two types of convection appears to occur gradually with increasing Rayleigh and Taylor numbers. At a Taylor number of 10 7 the differential rotation pattern consists of an inner cylindrical region of subrotation and an outer cylindrical shell of superrotation manifest at the outer boundary as an equatorial superrotation and a high latitude subrotation. The differential rotation pattern is similar at Ta=10 8 and low Rayleigh number. Cylindrical shells of alternately directed mean zonal flow begin to develop at Ta=10 8 and R=50R c and at Ta=10 9 and R=25R c . This pattern is seen on the outer surface as a latitudinally-banded zonal flow consisting of an equatorial superrotation, a middle and high latitude subrotation, and a polar superrotation. At Ta=10 9 and R=50R c the differential rotation appears at the surface as a broad eastward flow in the equatorial region with alternating bands of westward and eastward flow at high latitudes. copyright 1995 American Institute of Physics
Project "Convective Wind Gusts" (ConWinG)
Mohr, Susanna; Richter, Alexandra; Kunz, Michael; Ruck, Bodo
2017-04-01
similar occurrence probabilities. A laboratory experiment with an impinging jet simulating the downdraft was performed to investigate the propagation of a gust within built environment. The aim is to investigate the interaction of the resulting convective gusts along the near-surface layers with different urban structures - from single street canyons up to more complex block array structures. It was shown that high velocities are conserved within street canyons over longer distances compared to open terrain conditions. In addition, the experiments revealed the ratio of building height to downdraft size as a crucial factor with regard to vertical velocities at roof level and the pressure distribution on the facades.
Investigations on the propagation of free surface boiling in a vertical superheated liquid column
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Das, P.K.; Bhat, G.S.; Arakeri, V.H.
1987-04-01
Some experimental studies on boiling propagation in a suddenly depressurized superheated vertical liquid column are reported. The propagation velocity of this phase change has been measured using an optical method. This velocity is strongly dependent on liquid superheat, liquid purity and test section size. The measured velocities of less than 5 m s/sup -1/ are significantly lower than the sonic velocity. Present observations suggest that the dominant mechanism for boiling propagation is convection.
Investigations on the propagation of free surface boiling in a vertical superheated liquid column
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Das, P.K.; Bhat, G.S.; Arakeri, V.H.
1987-01-01
Some experimental studies on boiling propagation in a suddenly depressurized superheated vertical liquid column are reported. The propagation velocity of this phase change has been measured using an optical method. This velocity is strongly dependent on liquid superheat, liquid purity and test section size. The measured velocities of less than 5 m s -1 are significantly lower than the sonic velocity. Present observations suggest that the dominant mechanism for boiling propagation is convection. (author)
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Benthic organism were collected using sediment sampler, BT, and bottle casts from the EASTWARD and other platforms in the Georges' Bank from 10 July 1981 to 08 June...
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Physical, chemical, and other data were collected from the EASTWARD and other platforms from 01 October 1972 to 07 December 1974. Data were collected by the National...
Nield, Donald A
2013-01-01
Convection in Porous Media, 4th Edition, provides a user-friendly introduction to the subject, covering a wide range of topics, such as fibrous insulation, geological strata, and catalytic reactors. The presentation is self-contained, requiring only routine mathematics and the basic elements of fluid mechanics and heat transfer. The book will be of use not only to researchers and practicing engineers as a review and reference, but also to graduate students and others entering the field. The new edition features approximately 1,750 new references and covers current research in nanofluids, cellular porous materials, strong heterogeneity, pulsating flow, and more. Recognized as the standard reference in the field Includes a comprehensive, 250-page reference list Cited over 2300 times to date in its various editions Serves as an introduction for those entering the field and as a comprehensive reference for experienced researchers Features new sections on nanofluids, carbon dioxide sequestration, and applications...
Bohan, Richard J.; Vandegrift, Guy
2003-02-01
Warm air aloft is stable. This explains the lack of strong winds in a warm front and how nighttime radiative cooling can lead to motionless air that can trap smog. The stability of stratospheric air can be attributed to the fact that it is heated from above as ultraviolet radiation strikes the ozone layer. On the other hand, fluid heated from below is unstable and can lead to Bernard convection cells. This explains the generally turbulent nature of the troposphere, which receives a significant fraction of its heat directly from the Earth's warmer surface. The instability of cold fluid aloft explains the violent nature of a cold front, as well as the motion of Earth's magma, which is driven by radioactive heating deep within the Earth's mantle. This paper describes how both effects can be demonstrated using four standard beakers, ice, and a bit of food coloring.
Nield, Donald A
1992-01-01
This book provides a user-friendly introduction to the topic of convection in porous media The authors as- sume that the reader is familiar with the basic elements of fluid mechanics and heat transfer, but otherwise the book is self-contained The book will be useful both as a review (for reference) and as a tutorial work, suitable as a textbook in a graduate course or seminar The book brings into perspective the voluminous research that has been performed during the last two decades The field has recently exploded because of worldwide concern with issues such as energy self-sufficiency and pollution of the environment Areas of application include the insulation of buildings and equipment, energy storage and recovery, geothermal reservoirs, nuclear waste disposal, chemical reactor engineering, and the storage of heat-generating materials such as grain and coal Geophysical applications range from the flow of groundwater around hot intrusions to the stability of snow against avalanches
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Baumjohann, W.; Untiedt, J.; Greenwald, R.A.
1980-01-01
Two-dimensional distributions of ground magnetic and ionospheric electric fields in the evening sector auroral oval have been simultaneously observed by the Scandinavian Magnetometer Array and the Scandinavian Twin Auroral Radar Experiment (Stare) radars, respectively, on February 15, 1977. They were associated with varying, substorm-intensified, eastward electrojet current systems of the western, middle, and eastern segment of the eastward electrojet. We conclude that the substorm-intensified eastward electroject was a nearly pure Hall current driven by northward electric fields. The observed eastward increase of the current in the western segment of the electrojet was due to a gradual enhancement of the Hall conductivity. Here, the electrojet was fed by a broad sheet of net downward field-aligned current. During one period, the eastern-terminating part of the eastward electrojet diverged up the field lines in a rather local area because of a strong longitudinal decrease in the northward-directed electric field. On another occasion, it diverged northward within the ionosphere and joined the westward-flowing current because of a rotation of the northward electric field with increasing latitude through west- to southward. These two observed mechanisms of current divergence in the region where eastward and westward electrojects coexist may shed some new light on the controversy over the existence of upward field-aligned current flow in the Harang discontinuity
Stellar convection and dynamo theory
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Jennings, R L
1989-10-01
In considering the large scale stellar convection problem the outer layers of a star are modelled as two co-rotating plane layers coupled at a fluid/fluid interface. Heating from below causes only the upper fluid to convect, although this convection can penetrate into the lower fluid. Stability analysis is then used to find the most unstable mode of convection. With parameters appropriate to the Sun the most unstable mode is steady convection in thin cells (aspect ratio {approx equal} 0.2) filling the convection zone. There is negligible vertical motion in the lower fluid, but considerable thermal penetration, and a large jump in helicity at the interface, which has implications for dynamo theory. An {alpha}{omega} dynamo is investigated in isolation from the convection problem. Complexity is included by allowing both latitudinal and time dependence in the magnetic fields. The nonlinear dynamics of the resulting partial differential equations are analysed in considerable detail. On varying the main control parameter D (the dynamo number), many transitions of behaviour are found involving many forms of time dependence, but not chaos. Further, solutions which break equatorial symmetry are common and provide a theoretical explanation of solar observations which have this symmetry. Overall the behaviour was more complicated than expected. In particular, there were multiple stable solutions at fixed D, meaning that similar stars can have very different magnetic patterns, depending upon their history. (author).
Mechanically driven interface propagation in biological tissues
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ranft, Jonas; Joanny, Jean-François; Aliee, Maryam; Jülicher, Frank; Prost, Jacques
2014-01-01
Many biological tissues consist of more than one cell type. We study the dynamics of an interface between two different cell populations as it occurs during the growth of a tumor in a healthy host tissue. Recent work suggests that the rates of cell division and cell death are under mechanical control, characterized by a homeostatic pressure. The difference in the homeostatic pressures of two cell types drives the propagation of the interface, corresponding to the invasion of one cell type into the other. We derive a front propagation equation that takes into account the coupling between cell number balance and tissue mechanics. We show that in addition to pulled fronts, pushed-front solutions occur as a result of convection driven by mechanics. (paper)
Striation and convection in penumbral filaments
Spruit, H. C.; Scharmer, G. B.; Löfdahl, M. G.
2010-10-01
Observations with the 1-m Swedish Solar Telescope of the flows seen in penumbral filaments are presented. Time sequences of bright filaments show overturning motions strikingly similar to those seen along the walls of small isolated structures in the active regions. The filaments show outward propagating striations with inclination angles suggesting that they are aligned with the local magnetic field. We interpret it as the equivalent of the striations seen in the walls of small isolated magnetic structures. Their origin is then a corrugation of the boundary between an overturning convective flow inside the filament and the magnetic field wrapping around it. The outward propagation is a combination of a pattern motion due to the downflow observed along the sides of bright filaments, and the Evershed flow. The observed short wavelength of the striation argues against the existence of a dynamically significant horizontal field inside the bright filaments. Its intensity contrast is explained by the same physical effect that causes the dark cores of filaments, light bridges and “canals”. In this way striation represents an important clue to the physics of penumbral structure and its relation with other magnetic structures on the solar surface. We put this in perspective with results from the recent 3-D radiative hydrodynamic simulations. 4 movies are only available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org
The convection patterns in microemulsions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Korneta, W.; Lopez Quintela, M.A.; Fernandez Novoa, A.
1991-07-01
The Rayleigh-Benard convection in the microemulsion consisting of water (7.5%), cyclohexan (oil-61.7%) and diethylenglycolmonobutylether (surfactant-30.8%) is studied from the onset of convection to the phase separation. The five classes of convection patterns are observed and recorded on the video: localized travelling waves, travelling waves, travelling waves and localized steady rolls, steady rolls and steady polygons. The Fourier transforms and histograms of these patterns are presented. The origin of any pattern is discussed. The intermittent behaviour close to the phase separation was observed. Possible applications of the obtained results are suggested. (author). 6 refs, 4 figs
Convection in the Labrador Sea
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
Davis, R
1997-01-01
The long-term goal of this grant was to describe the process of deep oceanic convection well enough to provide critical tests of, and guidance to, models used to predict subsurface ocean conditions...
Dunn, James C.; Hardee, Harry C.; Striker, Richard P.
1985-01-01
A convective heat flow probe device is provided which measures heat flow and fluid flow magnitude in the formation surrounding a borehole. The probe comprises an elongate housing adapted to be lowered down into the borehole; a plurality of heaters extending along the probe for heating the formation surrounding the borehole; a plurality of temperature sensors arranged around the periphery of the probe for measuring the temperature of the surrounding formation after heating thereof by the heater elements. The temperature sensors and heater elements are mounted in a plurality of separate heater pads which are supported by the housing and which are adapted to be radially expanded into firm engagement with the walls of the borehole. The heat supplied by the heater elements and the temperatures measured by the temperature sensors are monitored and used in providing the desired measurements. The outer peripheral surfaces of the heater pads are configured as segments of a cylinder and form a full cylinder when taken together. A plurality of temperature sensors are located on each pad so as to extend along the length and across the width thereof, with a heating element being located in each pad beneath the temperature sensors. An expansion mechanism driven by a clamping motor provides expansion and retraction of the heater pads and expandable packer-type seals are provided along the probe above and below the heater pads.
Variations in tropical convection as an amplifier of global climate change at the millennial scale
Ivanochkoa, T.S.; Ganeshram, R.S.; Brummer, G.J.A.; Ganssen, G.M.; Jung, S.J.A.; Moreton, S.G.; Kroon, D.
2005-01-01
The global expression of millennial-scale climatic change during the glacial period and the persistence of this signal in Holocene records point to atmospheric teleconnections as the mechanism propagating rapid climate variations. We suggest rearrangements in the tropical convection system globally
Convection-enhanced water evaporation
B. M. Weon; J. H. Je; C. Poulard
2011-01-01
Water vapor is lighter than air; this can enhance water evaporation by triggering vapor convection but there is little evidence. We directly visualize evaporation of nanoliter (2 to 700 nL) water droplets resting on silicon wafer in calm air using a high-resolution dual X-ray imaging method. Temporal evolutions of contact radius and contact angle reveal that evaporation rate linearly changes with surface area, indicating convective (instead of diffusive) evaporation in nanoliter water droplet...
Translation and convection of Earth's inner core
Monnereau, M.; Calvet, M.; Margerin, L.; Mizzon, H.; Souriau, A.
2012-12-01
The image of the inner core growing slowly at the center of the Earth by gradual cooling and solidification of the surrounding liquid outer core is being replaced by the more vigorous image of a ``deep foundry'', where melting and crystallization rates exceed by many times the net growth rate. Recently, a particular mode of convection, called translation, has been put forward as an important mode of inner core dynamics because this mechanism is able to explain the observed East-West asymmetry of P-wave velocity and attenuation (Monnereau et al. 2010). Translation is a pure solid displacement of the inner core material (solid iron) within its envelop, implying crystallization of entering iron on one side of the inner core and melting on the opposite side. Translation is consistent with multiple scattering models of wave propagation. If they do not experience deformation, iron crystals grow as they transit from one hemisphere to the other. Larger crystals constituting a faster and more attenuating medium, a translation velocity of some cm/yr (about ten times the growth rate) is enough to account for the superficial asymmetry observed for P-wave velocity and attenuation, with grains of a few hundred meters on the crystallizing side (West) growing up to a few kilometers before melting on the East side, and a drift direction located in the equatorial plane. Among all hypotheses that have been proposed to account for the seismic asymmetry, translation is the only one based on a demonstrated link between the seismic data and the proposed dynamics, notably through a model of seismic wave propagation. This mechanism was also proposed to be responsible for the formation of a dense layer at the bottom of the outer core, since the high rate of melting and crystallization would release a liquid depleted in light elements at the surface of the inner core (Alboussiere et al 2010). This would explain the anomalously low gradient of P wave velocity in the lowermost 200 km of the
A stochastic parameterization for deep convection using cellular automata
Bengtsson, L.; Steinheimer, M.; Bechtold, P.; Geleyn, J.
2012-12-01
Cumulus parameterizations used in most operational weather and climate models today are based on the mass-flux concept which took form in the early 1970's. In such schemes it is assumed that a unique relationship exists between the ensemble-average of the sub-grid convection, and the instantaneous state of the atmosphere in a vertical grid box column. However, such a relationship is unlikely to be described by a simple deterministic function (Palmer, 2011). Thus, because of the statistical nature of the parameterization challenge, it has been recognized by the community that it is important to introduce stochastic elements to the parameterizations (for instance: Plant and Craig, 2008, Khouider et al. 2010, Frenkel et al. 2011, Bentsson et al. 2011, but the list is far from exhaustive). There are undoubtedly many ways in which stochastisity can enter new developments. In this study we use a two-way interacting cellular automata (CA), as its intrinsic nature possesses many qualities interesting for deep convection parameterization. In the one-dimensional entraining plume approach, there is no parameterization of horizontal transport of heat, moisture or momentum due to cumulus convection. In reality, mass transport due to gravity waves that propagate in the horizontal can trigger new convection, important for the organization of deep convection (Huang, 1988). The self-organizational characteristics of the CA allows for lateral communication between adjacent NWP model grid-boxes, and temporal memory. Thus the CA scheme used in this study contain three interesting components for representation of cumulus convection, which are not present in the traditional one-dimensional bulk entraining plume method: horizontal communication, memory and stochastisity. The scheme is implemented in the high resolution regional NWP model ALARO, and simulations show enhanced organization of convective activity along squall-lines. Probabilistic evaluation demonstrate an enhanced spread in
Luong, Thang
2018-01-22
A commonly noted problem in the simulation of warm season convection in the North American monsoon region has been the inability of atmospheric models at the meso-β scales (10 s to 100 s of kilometers) to simulate organized convection, principally mesoscale convective systems. With the use of convective parameterization, high precipitation biases in model simulations are typically observed over the peaks of mountain ranges. To address this issue, the Kain–Fritsch (KF) cumulus parameterization scheme has been modified with new diagnostic equations to compute the updraft velocity, the convective available potential energy closure assumption, and the convective trigger function. The scheme has been adapted for use in the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF). A numerical weather prediction-type simulation is conducted for the North American Monsoon Experiment Intensive Observing Period 2 and a regional climate simulation is performed, by dynamically downscaling. In both of these applications, there are notable improvements in the WRF model-simulated precipitation due to the better representation of organized, propagating convection. The use of the modified KF scheme for atmospheric model simulations may provide a more computationally economical alternative to improve the representation of organized convection, as compared to convective-permitting simulations at the kilometer scale or a super-parameterization approach.
Mantle Convection on Modern Supercomputers
Weismüller, J.; Gmeiner, B.; Huber, M.; John, L.; Mohr, M.; Rüde, U.; Wohlmuth, B.; Bunge, H. P.
2015-12-01
Mantle convection is the cause for plate tectonics, the formation of mountains and oceans, and the main driving mechanism behind earthquakes. The convection process is modeled by a system of partial differential equations describing the conservation of mass, momentum and energy. Characteristic to mantle flow is the vast disparity of length scales from global to microscopic, turning mantle convection simulations into a challenging application for high-performance computing. As system size and technical complexity of the simulations continue to increase, design and implementation of simulation models for next generation large-scale architectures is handled successfully only in an interdisciplinary context. A new priority program - named SPPEXA - by the German Research Foundation (DFG) addresses this issue, and brings together computer scientists, mathematicians and application scientists around grand challenges in HPC. Here we report from the TERRA-NEO project, which is part of the high visibility SPPEXA program, and a joint effort of four research groups. TERRA-NEO develops algorithms for future HPC infrastructures, focusing on high computational efficiency and resilience in next generation mantle convection models. We present software that can resolve the Earth's mantle with up to 1012 grid points and scales efficiently to massively parallel hardware with more than 50,000 processors. We use our simulations to explore the dynamic regime of mantle convection and assess the impact of small scale processes on global mantle flow.
Modelling the gluon propagator
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Leinweber, D.B.; Parrinello, C.; Skullerud, J.I.; Williams, A.G
1999-03-01
Scaling of the Landau gauge gluon propagator calculated at {beta} = 6.0 and at {beta} = 6.2 is demonstrated. A variety of functional forms for the gluon propagator calculated on a large (32{sup 3} x 64) lattice at {beta} = 6.0 are investigated.
Salomons, E.; Polinder, H.; Lohman, W.; Zhou, H.; Borst, H.
2009-01-01
A new engineering model for sound propagation in cities is presented. The model is based on numerical and experimental studies of sound propagation between street canyons. Multiple reflections in the source canyon and the receiver canyon are taken into account in an efficient way, while weak
Convective behaviour in severe accidents
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Clement, C.F.
1988-01-01
The nature and magnitude of the hazard from radioactivity posed by a possible nuclear accident depend strongly on convective behaviour within and immediately adjacent to the plant in question. This behaviour depends upon the nature of the vapour-gas-aerosol mixture concerned, and can show unusual properties such as 'upside-down' convection in which hot mixtures fall and cold mixtures rise. Predictions and criteria as to the types of behaviour which could possibly occur are summarised. Possible applications to present reactors are considered, and ways in which presently expected convection could be drastically modified are described. In some circumstances these could be used to suppress the radioactive source term or to switch its effect between distant dilute contamination and severe local contamination. (author). 8 refs, 2 figs, 2 tabs
Ramey, Holly S.; Robertson, Franklin R.
2010-01-01
Intraseasonal variability of deep convection represents a fundamental mode of variability in the organization of tropical convection. While most studies of intraseasonal oscillations (ISOs) have focused on the spatial propagation and dynamics of convectively coupled circulations, we examine the projection of ISOs on the tropically-averaged temperature and energy budget. The area of interest is the global oceans between 20degN/S. Our analysis then focuses on these questions: (i) How is tropospheric temperature related to tropical deep convection and the associated ice cloud fractional amount (ICF) and ice water path (IWP)? (ii) What is the source of moisture sustaining the convection and what role does deep convection play in mediating the PBL - free atmospheric temperature equilibration? (iii) What affect do convectively generated upper-tropospheric clouds have on the TOA radiation budget? Our methodology is similar to that of Spencer et al., (2007) with some modifications and some additional diagnostics of both clouds and boundary layer thermodynamics. A composite ISO time series of cloud, precipitation and radiation quantities built from nearly 40 events during a six-year period is referenced to the atmospheric temperature signal. The increase of convective precipitation cannot be sustained by evaporation within the domain, implying strong moisture transports into the tropical ocean area. While there is a decrease in net TOA radiation that develops after the peak in deep convective rainfall, there seems little evidence that an "Infrared Iris"- like mechanism is dominant. Rather, the cloud-induced OLR increase seems largely produced by weakened convection with warmer cloud tops. Tropical ISO events offer an accessible target for studying ISOs not just in terms of propagation mechanisms, but on their global signals of heat, moisture and radiative flux feedback processes.
Topology Optimization for Convection Problems
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Alexandersen, Joe
2011-01-01
This report deals with the topology optimization of convection problems.That is, the aim of the project is to develop, implement and examine topology optimization of purely thermal and coupled thermomechanical problems,when the design-dependent eects of convection are taken into consideration.......This is done by the use of a self-programmed FORTRAN-code, which builds on an existing 2D-plane thermomechanical nite element code implementing during the course `41525 FEM-Heavy'. The topology optimizationfeatures have been implemented from scratch, and allows the program to optimize elastostatic mechanical...
Experimental methods in natural convection
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Koster, J.N.
1982-11-01
Some common experimental techniques to determine local velocities and to visualize temperature fields in natural convection research are discussed. First the physics and practice of anemometers are discussed with emphasis put on optical anemometers. In the second and third case the physics and practice of the most developed interferometers are discussed; namely differential interferometry for visualization of temperature gradient fields and holographic interferometry for visualization of temperature fields. At the Institut fuer Reaktorbauelemente these three measuring techniques are applied for convection and pipe flow studies. (orig.) [de
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
K. Zhang
2016-06-01
Full Text Available The Asian monsoon region is the most prominent moisture center of water vapor in the lower stratosphere (LS during boreal summer. Previous studies have suggested that the transport of water vapor to the Asian monsoon LS is controlled by dehydration temperatures and convection mainly over the Bay of Bengal and Southeast Asia. However, there is a clear geographic variation of convection associated with the seasonal and intra-seasonal variations of the Asian monsoon circulation, and the relative influence of such a geographic variation of convection vs. the variation of local dehydration temperatures on water vapor transport is still not clear. Using satellite observations from the Aura Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS and a domain-filling forward trajectory model, we show that almost half of the seasonal water vapor increase in the Asian monsoon LS are attributable to geographic variations of convection and resultant variations of the dehydration center, of which the influence is comparable to the influence of the local dehydration temperature increase. In particular, dehydration temperatures are coldest over the southeast and warmest over the northwest Asian monsoon region. Although the convective center is located over Southeast Asia, an anomalous increase of convection over the northwest Asia monsoon region increases local diabatic heating in the tropopause layer and air masses entering the LS are dehydrated at relatively warmer temperatures. Due to warmer dehydration temperatures, anomalously moist air enters the LS and moves eastward along the northern flank of the monsoon anticyclonic flow, leading to wet anomalies in the LS over the Asian monsoon region. Likewise, when convection increases over the Southeast Asia monsoon region, dry anomalies appear in the LS. On a seasonal scale, this feature is associated with the monsoon circulation, convection and diabatic heating marching towards the northwest Asia monsoon region from June to August. The
Segregation and convection in dendritic alloys
Poirier, D. R.
1990-01-01
Microsegregation in dentritic alloys is discussed, including solidification with and without thermal gradient, the convection of interdendritic liquid. The conservation of momentum, energy, and solute is considered. Directional solidification and thermosolutal convection are discussed.
Boiling Suppression in Convective Flow
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Aounallah, Y.
2004-01-01
The development of convective boiling heat transfer correlations and analytical models has almost exclusively been based on measurements of the total heat flux, and therefore on the overall two-phase heat transfer coefficient, when the well-known heat transfer correlations have often assumed additive mechanisms, one for each mode of heat transfer, convection and boiling. While the global performance of such correlations can readily be assessed, the predictive capability of the individual components of the correlation has usually remained elusive. This becomes important when, for example, developing mechanistic models for subcooled void formation based on the partitioning of the wall heat flux into a boiling and a convective component, or when extending a correlation beyond its original range of applications where the preponderance of the heat transfer mechanisms involved can be significantly different. A new examination of existing experimental heat transfer data obtained under fixed hydrodynamic conditions, whereby the local flow conditions are decoupled from the local heat flux, has allowed the unequivocal isolation of the boiling contribution over a broad range of thermodynamic qualities (0 to 0.8) for water at 7 MPa. Boiling suppression, as the quality increases, has consequently been quantified, thus providing valuable new insights on the functionality and contribution of boiling in convective flows. (author)
Database for propagation models
Kantak, Anil V.
1991-07-01
A propagation researcher or a systems engineer who intends to use the results of a propagation experiment is generally faced with various database tasks such as the selection of the computer software, the hardware, and the writing of the programs to pass the data through the models of interest. This task is repeated every time a new experiment is conducted or the same experiment is carried out at a different location generating different data. Thus the users of this data have to spend a considerable portion of their time learning how to implement the computer hardware and the software towards the desired end. This situation may be facilitated considerably if an easily accessible propagation database is created that has all the accepted (standardized) propagation phenomena models approved by the propagation research community. Also, the handling of data will become easier for the user. Such a database construction can only stimulate the growth of the propagation research it if is available to all the researchers, so that the results of the experiment conducted by one researcher can be examined independently by another, without different hardware and software being used. The database may be made flexible so that the researchers need not be confined only to the contents of the database. Another way in which the database may help the researchers is by the fact that they will not have to document the software and hardware tools used in their research since the propagation research community will know the database already. The following sections show a possible database construction, as well as properties of the database for the propagation research.
Kerns, B. W.; Chen, S. S.
2017-12-01
The Indo-Pacific Maritime Continent (MC) is the most active convection center in the tropics, and the most important modes of variability are the diurnal cycle and the Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO). Previous studies have shown that the MC has strong diurnal variability compared with the rest of the tropics, and the diurnal cycle of convection over the MC is amplified during the passage of an MJO. One outstanding science question is how the passage of the active MJO affects the diurnal cycle. The atmospheric, upper ocean, and land surface forcing factors contributing to the diurnal cycle need to be clarified. In order to address this, large scale precipitation tracking (LPT) is used to identify MJO active and suppressed periods for 2000-2015. To document the diurnal cycle of convection during the active and suppressed periods, TRMM/GPM and mesoscale cloud cluster tracking are used. Finally, the LPT tracking is used to composite the satellite-estimated surface wind, humidity, temperature, cloud cover, and soil moisture over the islands for active versus suppressed MJO periods. In active MJO periods, the diurnal convection in the surrounding marginal seas is enhanced and the diurnal convection over land is decreased. The islands of the MC have greater soil moisture, more cloud cover, and do not warm up as much during the day, leading to a weaker afternoon maximum over land. But how is nocturnal convection over the sea increased? The largest, most mature convective cloud systems are found over the marginal seas in the early morning. This is hypothesized to mainly be a consequence of the longer life cycle of convective systems in the favorable large-scale active MJO. The propagation of the MJO across the MC is facilitated by the enhanced nocturnal deep convection over the sea. In contrast, In the suppressed period the convection is mostly daytime forced convection over land which is locked to the terrain.
A transilient matrix for moist convection
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Romps, D.; Kuang, Z.
2011-08-15
A method is introduced for diagnosing a transilient matrix for moist convection. This transilient matrix quantifies the nonlocal transport of air by convective eddies: for every height z, it gives the distribution of starting heights z{prime} for the eddies that arrive at z. In a cloud-resolving simulation of deep convection, the transilient matrix shows that two-thirds of the subcloud air convecting into the free troposphere originates from within 100 m of the surface. This finding clarifies which initial height to use when calculating convective available potential energy from soundings of the tropical troposphere.
Convective aggregation in realistic convective-scale simulations
Holloway, Christopher E.
2017-06-01
To investigate the real-world relevance of idealized-model convective self-aggregation, five 15 day cases of real organized convection in the tropics are simulated. These include multiple simulations of each case to test sensitivities of the convective organization and mean states to interactive radiation, interactive surface fluxes, and evaporation of rain. These simulations are compared to self-aggregation seen in the same model configured to run in idealized radiative-convective equilibrium. Analysis of the budget of the spatial variance of column-integrated frozen moist static energy shows that control runs have significant positive contributions to organization from radiation and negative contributions from surface fluxes and transport, similar to idealized runs once they become aggregated. Despite identical lateral boundary conditions for all experiments in each case, systematic differences in mean column water vapor (CWV), CWV distribution shape, and CWV autocorrelation length scale are found between the different sensitivity runs, particularly for those without interactive radiation, showing that there are at least some similarities in sensitivities to these feedbacks in both idealized and realistic simulations (although the organization of precipitation shows less sensitivity to interactive radiation). The magnitudes and signs of these systematic differences are consistent with a rough equilibrium between (1) equalization due to advection from the lateral boundaries and (2) disaggregation due to the absence of interactive radiation, implying disaggregation rates comparable to those in idealized runs with aggregated initial conditions and noninteractive radiation. This points to a plausible similarity in the way that radiation feedbacks maintain aggregated convection in both idealized simulations and the real world.Plain Language SummaryUnderstanding the processes that lead to the organization of tropical rainstorms is an important challenge for weather
CRUCIB: an axisymmetric convection code
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bertram, L.A.
1975-03-01
The CRUCIB code was written in support of an experimental program aimed at measurement of thermal diffusivities of refractory liquids. Precise values of diffusivity are necessary to realistic analysis of reactor safety problems, nuclear waste disposal procedures, and fundamental metal forming processes. The code calculates the axisymmetric transient convective motions produced in a right circular cylindrical crucible, which is surface heated by an annular heat pulse. Emphasis of this report is placed on the input-output options of the CRUCIB code, which are tailored to assess the importance of the convective heat transfer in determining the surface temperature distribution. Use is limited to Prandtl numbers less than unity; larger values can be accommodated by replacement of a single block of the code, if desired. (U.S.)
Fluid convection, constraint and causation
Bishop, Robert C.
2012-01-01
Complexity—nonlinear dynamics for my purposes in this essay—is rich with metaphysical and epistemological implications but is receiving sustained philosophical analysis only recently. I will explore some of the subtleties of causation and constraint in Rayleigh–Bénard convection as an example of a complex phenomenon, and extract some lessons for further philosophical reflection on top-down constraint and causation particularly with respect to causal foundationalism. PMID:23386955
Cryogenic helium gas convection research
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Donnelly, R.J.
1994-10-01
This is a report prepared by a group interested in doing research in thermal convection using the large scale refrigeration facilities available at the SSC Laboratories (SSCL). The group preparing this report consists of Michael McAshan at SSCL, Robert Behringer at Duke University, Katepalli Sreenivasan at Yale University, Xiao-Zhong Wu at Northern Illinois University and Russell Donnelly at the University of Oregon, who served as Editor for this report. This study reports the research and development opportunities in such a project, the technical requirements and feasibility of its construction and operation, and the costs associated with the needed facilities and support activities. The facility will be a unique national resource for studies of high-Reynolds-number and high-Rayleigh-number and high Rayleigh number turbulence phenomena, and is one of the six items determined as suitable for potential funding through a screening of Expressions of Interest. The proposed facility is possible only because of the advanced cryogenic technology available at the SSCL. Typical scientific issues to be addressed in the facility will be discussed. It devolved during our study, that while the main experiment is still considered to be the thermal convection experiment discussed in our original Expression of Interest, there are now a very substantial set of other, important and fundamental experiments which can be done with the large cryostat proposed for the convection experiment. We believe the facility could provide several decades of front-line research in turbulence, and shall describe why this is so
Thermosolutal convection during dendritic solidification
Heinrich, J. C.; Nandapurkar, P.; Poirier, D. R.; Felicelli, S.
1989-01-01
This paper presents a mathematical model for directional solidification of a binary alloy including a dendritic region underlying an all-liquid region. It is assumed initially that there exists a nonconvecting state with planar isotherms and isoconcentrates solidifying at a constant velocity. The stability of this system has been analyzed and nonlinear calculations are performed that show the effect of convection in the solidification process when the system is unstable. Results of calculations for various cases defined by the initial temperature gradient at the dendrite tips and varying strength of the gravitational field are presented for systems involving lead-tin alloys. The results show that the systems are stable for a gravitational constant of 0.0001 g(0) and that convection can be suppressed by appropriate choice of the container's size for higher values of the gravitational constant. It is also concluded that for the lead-tin systems considered, convection in the mushy zone is not significant below the upper 20 percent of the dendritic zone, if al all.
David, P
2013-01-01
Propagation of Waves focuses on the wave propagation around the earth, which is influenced by its curvature, surface irregularities, and by passage through atmospheric layers that may be refracting, absorbing, or ionized. This book begins by outlining the behavior of waves in the various media and at their interfaces, which simplifies the basic phenomena, such as absorption, refraction, reflection, and interference. Applications to the case of the terrestrial sphere are also discussed as a natural generalization. Following the deliberation on the diffraction of the "ground? wave around the ear
Propagation environments [Chapter 4
Douglass F. Jacobs; Thomas D. Landis; Tara Luna
2009-01-01
An understanding of all factors influencing plant growth in a nursery environment is needed for the successful growth and production of high-quality container plants. Propagation structures modify the atmospheric conditions of temperature, light, and relative humidity. Native plant nurseries are different from typical horticultural nurseries because plants must be...
Uncertainty Propagation in OMFIT
Smith, Sterling; Meneghini, Orso; Sung, Choongki
2017-10-01
A rigorous comparison of power balance fluxes and turbulent model fluxes requires the propagation of uncertainties in the kinetic profiles and their derivatives. Making extensive use of the python uncertainties package, the OMFIT framework has been used to propagate covariant uncertainties to provide an uncertainty in the power balance calculation from the ONETWO code, as well as through the turbulent fluxes calculated by the TGLF code. The covariant uncertainties arise from fitting 1D (constant on flux surface) density and temperature profiles and associated random errors with parameterized functions such as a modified tanh. The power balance and model fluxes can then be compared with quantification of the uncertainties. No effort is made at propagating systematic errors. A case study will be shown for the effects of resonant magnetic perturbations on the kinetic profiles and fluxes at the top of the pedestal. A separate attempt at modeling the random errors with Monte Carlo sampling will be compared to the method of propagating the fitting function parameter covariant uncertainties. Work supported by US DOE under DE-FC02-04ER54698, DE-FG2-95ER-54309, DE-SC 0012656.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dvoeglazov, V.V.
1997-01-01
An analog of the j = 1/2 Feynman-Dyson propagator is presented in the framework of the j = 1 Weinberg's theory. The basis for this construction is the concept of the Weinberg field as a system of four field functions differing by parity and by dual transformations. (orig.)
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Schejbal, V.; Bezoušek, P.; Čermák, D.; NĚMEC, Z.; Fišer, Ondřej; Hájek, M.
2006-01-01
Roč. 15, č. 1 (2006), s. 17-24 ISSN 1210-2512 R&D Projects: GA MPO(CZ) FT-TA2/030 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30420517 Keywords : Ultra wide band * UWB antennas * UWB propagation * multipath effects Subject RIV: JB - Sensors, Measurment, Regulation
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
Gray, William
1994-01-01
This paper discusses the question of tropical cyclone propagation or why the average tropical cyclone moves 1-2 m/s faster and usually 10-20 deg to the left of its surrounding (or 5-7 deg radius) deep layer (850-300 mb) steering current...
Convective overshoot at the solar tachocline
Brown, Benjamin; Oishi, Jeffrey S.; Anders, Evan H.; Lecoanet, Daniel; Burns, Keaton; Vasil, Geoffrey M.
2017-08-01
At the base of the solar convection zone lies the solar tachocline. This internal interface is where motions from the unstable convection zone above overshoot and penetrate downward into the stiffly stable radiative zone below, driving gravity waves, mixing, and possibly pumping and storing magnetic fields. Here we study the dynamics of convective overshoot across very stiff interfaces with some properties similar to the internal boundary layer within the Sun. We use the Dedalus pseudospectral framework and study fully compressible dynamics at moderate to high Peclet number and low Mach number, probing a regime where turbulent transport is important, and where the compressible dynamics are similar to those of convective motions in the deep solar interior. We find that the depth of convective overshoot is well described by a simple buoyancy equilibration model, and we consider implications for dynamics at the solar tachocline and for the storage of magnetic fields there by overshooting convection.
The convection electric field in auroral substorms
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Gjerløv, Jesper Wittendorff; Hoffman, R.A.
2001-01-01
Dynamics Explorer 2 (DE 2) electric field and ion drift data are used in a statistical study of the ionospheric convection electric field in bulge-type auroral substorms. Thirty-one individual DE 2 substorm crossings were carefully selected and organized by the use of global auroral images obtained...... this database enabled us to compile a model of the ionospheric convection electric field. The characteristics of the premidnight convection reversal show a pronounced local time dependency. Far west of the surge it is a fairly well defined point reversal or convection shear. Approaching the surge and within...... the surge it is a region of weak electric fields increasing in width toward midnight that separates regions of equatorward and poleward electric fields. Therefore we adopt the term Harang region rather than the Harang discontinuity for the premidnight convection reversal. A relatively narrow convection...
The pattern of convection in the Sun
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Weiss, N.O.
1976-01-01
The structure of solar magnetic fields is dominated by the effects of convection, which should be incorporated in any model of the solar cycle. Although mixing length theory is adequate for calculating the structure of main sequence stars, a better description of convection is needed for any detailed dynamo model. Recent work on nonlinear convection at low Prandt numbers is reviewed. There has been some progress towards a theory of compressible convection, though there is still no firm theoretical evidence for cells with scales less than the depth of the convecting layer. However, it remains likely that the pattern of solar convection is dominated by granules, supergranules and giant cells. The effects of rotation on these cells are briefly considered. (Auth.)
Latitudinally propagating on-off switching aurorae and associated geomagnetic pulsations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Oguti, T.; Kokubun, S.; Hayashi, K.; Tsuruda, K.; Machida, S.; Kitamura, T.; Saka, O.; Watanabe, T.
1981-01-01
Poleward propagating on-off switching aurorae and equatorward propagating aurorae, otherwise similar, were observed simultaneously at Rabbit Lake and La Ronge, respectively, for about 40 min before dawn of Feb 20, 1980. Rabbit Lake is a high auroral latitude site at the northern end of the Saskatchewan chain of stations for the Pulsating Aurora Campaign, whereas La Ronge, due south of Rabbit, is almost at the southern edge of the auroral zone. The repetition periods of the on-off switching aurorae are about 6 to 13 s. The poleward propagating aurorae had well defined fronts of light which extended a few hundred kilometres or more in the east-west direction. The light fronts of the equatorward propagating aurorae, though comparable in extent, were less well defined: they were thicker and fuzzier. The poleward propagating aurorae moved with a speed of approximately 10 km/s whereas the equatorward ones did so with a slightly greater velocity. Geomagnetic field fluctuations were concurrent with the aurorae at both sites. At Rabbit Lake, northward (southward) field changes were associated with upward (downward) changes, whereas the trend is reversed at La Ronge, viz., northward (southward) changes with downward (upward) changes. These trends are consistent with a model of a periodic occurrence of two line currents, westward and eastward, the former moving poleward north of Rabbit Lake and the latter approaching La Ronge from the north
Vertical Transport by Coastal Mesoscale Convective Systems
Lombardo, K.; Kading, T.
2016-12-01
This work is part of an ongoing investigation of coastal mesoscale convective systems (MCSs), including changes in vertical transport of boundary layer air by storms moving from inland to offshore. The density of a storm's cold pool versus that of the offshore marine atmospheric boundary layer (MABL), in part, determines the ability of the storm to successfully cross the coast, the mechanism driving storm propagation, and the ability of the storm to lift air from the boundary layer aloft. The ability of an MCS to overturn boundary layer air can be especially important over the eastern US seaboard, where warm season coastal MCSs are relatively common and where large coastal population centers generate concentrated regions of pollution. Recent work numerically simulating idealized MCSs in a coastal environment has provided some insight into the physical mechanisms governing MCS coastal crossing success and the impact on vertical transport of boundary layer air. Storms are simulated using a cloud resolving model initialized with atmospheric conditions representative of a Mid-Atlantic environment. Simulations are run in 2-D at 250 m horizontal resolution with a vertical resolution stretched from 100 m in the boundary layer to 250 m aloft. The left half of the 800 km domain is configured to represent land, while the right half is assigned as water. Sensitivity experiments are conducted to quantify the influence of varying MABL structure on MCS coastal crossing success and air transport, with MABL values representative of those observed over the western Mid-Atlantic during warm season. Preliminary results indicate that when the density of the cold pool is much greater than the MABL, the storm successfully crosses the coastline, with lifting of surface parcels, which ascend through the troposphere. When the density of the cold pool is similar to that of the MABL, parcels within the MABL remain at low levels, though parcels above the MABL ascend through the troposphere.
Mann, P.; Chen, Y. W.; Wu, J.; Suppe, J.
2017-12-01
The idea of a Pacific-derived and eastward-transported Caribbean and Scotia plates was first proposed by J. Tuzo Wilson in 1966. Wilson proposed that the motion of these two, small plates was analogous to "ice rafting" observed on frozen lakes and oceans when a narrow ( 50 m) strip of ice is forced over a lower plate of ice. In the Caribbean the upper plate corresponds to the 750 km-long, north-south length of the Lesser Antilles volcanic arc ranging in thickness from 20-30 km while its subducting plate is Atlantic Cretaceous oceanic crust of 8-10 km thickness and subducting at an angle of 45º to a depth of 300 km into the mantle. We estimated the length of the Lesser Antilles slab from MIT P-wave global tomography (MITP08; Li et al., 2008) and compared to published transects from Utrecht UUP-07 global tomography (van Bentham et al., 2013). The measured slab lengths vary from 1550 km (Utrecht) to 1250 km (MIT). We then unfolded both slabs to the Earth's surface, and used GPlates to restore the leading edge of the Caribbean plate at the time of the Lesser Antilles slab's initial subduction. The Middle Eocene (49 Ma) reconstruction realigns the proto-Lesser Antilles arc and leading edge of the Caribbean plate in a continuous arc with older arc rocks in Cuba. During this Middle Eocene period of abrupt tectonic transition, the Cuban arc segment was terminated on its northeastward path by collision with the Bahama carbonate platform with subsequent reorientation onto its present, east-west path into the central Atlantic Ocean from 49-0 Ma. This collision/plate reorientation event is independently recorded by: 1) a poorly defined Greater Antilles slab seen on tomography that is aligned with the Cuban arc; 2) identical initiation ages of 49 Ma for the Cayman trough pull-apart and the Lesser Antilles slab; and 3) similarity in lengths for the length of the subducted, Lesser Antilles slab ( 1250-1550 km) and the length of the Cayman trough pull-apart basin ( 1100 km). East
Titan Balloon Convection Model, Phase I
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This innovative research effort is directed at determining, quantitatively, the convective heat transfer coefficients applicable to a Montgolfiere balloon operating...
REVERSALS IN THE 6-CELLS CONVECTION DRIVEN
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
G.M. Vodinchar
2015-12-01
Full Text Available We describe the large-scale model geodynamo, which based on indirect data of inhomogeneities in the density of the Earth’s core. Convection structure is associated with spherical harmonic Y24 , which defines the basic poloidal component of velocity. Coriolis drift of this mode determines the toroidal component of velocity. Thus, 6 convective cells are formed. The model takes into account the feedback effect of the magnetic field on convection. It was ascertained that the model contains stable regimes of field generation. The velocity of convection and the dipole component of the magnetic field are close to the observed ones.
Scale analysis of convective clouds
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Micha Gryschka
2008-12-01
Full Text Available The size distribution of cumulus clouds due to shallow and deep convection is analyzed using satellite pictures, LES model results and data from the German rain radar network. The size distributions found can be described by simple power laws as has also been proposed for other cloud data in the literature. As the observed precipitation at ground stations is finally determined by cloud numbers in an area and individual sizes and rain rates of single clouds, the cloud size distributions might be used for developing empirical precipitation forecasts or for validating results from cloud resolving models being introduced to routine weather forecasts.
Characterizing Convection in Stellar Atmospheres
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tanner, Joel; Basu, Sarbani; Demarque, Pierre; Robinson, Frank
2011-01-01
We perform 3D radiative hydrodynamic simulations to study the properties of convection in the superadiabatic layer of stars. The simulations show differences in both the stratification and turbulent quantities for different types of stars. We extract turbulent pressure and eddy sizes, as well as the T-τ relation for different stars and find that they are sensitive to the energy flux and gravity. We also show that contrary to what is usually assumed in the field of stellar atmospheres, the structure and gas dynamics of simulations of turbulent atmospheres cannot be parameterized with T eff and log(g) alone.
Seman, Charles J.
1994-06-01
Nonlinear nonhydrostatic conditional symmetric instability (CSI) is studied as an initial value problem using a two-dimensional (y, z)nonlinear, nonhydrostatic numerical mesoscale/cloud model. The initial atmosphere for the rotating, baroclinic (BCF) simulation contains large convective available potential energy (CAPE). Analytical theory, various model output diagnostics, and a companion nonrotating barotropic (BTNF) simulation are used to interpret the results from the BCF simulation. A single warm moist thermal initiates convection for the two 8-h simulations.The BCF simulation exhibited a very intricate life cycle. Following the initial convection, a series of discrete convective cells developed within a growing mesoscale circulation. Between hours 4 and 8, the circulation grew upscale into a structure resembling that of a squall-line mesoscale convective system (MCS). The mesoscale updrafts were nearly vertical and the circulation was strongest on the baroclinically cool side of the initial convection, as predicted by a two-dimensional Lagrangian parcel model of CSI with CAPE. The cool-side mesoscale circulation grew nearly exponentially over the last 5 h as it slowly propagated toward the warm air. Significant vertical transport of zonal momentum occurred in the (multicellular) convection that developed, resulting in local subgeostrophic zonal wind anomalies aloft. Over time, geostrophic adjustment acted to balance these anomalies. The system became warm core, with mesohigh pressure aloft and mesolow pressure at the surface. A positive zonal wind anomaly also formed downstream from the mesohigh.Analysis of the BCF simulation showed that convective momentum transport played a key role in the evolution of the simulated MCS, in that it fostered the development of the nonlinear CSI on mesoscale time scales. The vertical momentum transport in the initial deep convection generated a subgeostrophic zonal momentum anomaly aloft; the resulting imbalance in pressure
Propagator of stochastic electrodynamics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cavalleri, G.
1981-01-01
The ''elementary propagator'' for the position of a free charged particle subject to the zero-point electromagnetic field with Lorentz-invariant spectral density proportionalω 3 is obtained. The nonstationary process for the position is solved by the stationary process for the acceleration. The dispersion of the position elementary propagator is compared with that of quantum electrodynamics. Finally, the evolution of the probability density is obtained starting from an initial distribution confined in a small volume and with a Gaussian distribution in the velocities. The resulting probability density for the position turns out to be equal, to within radiative corrections, to psipsi* where psi is the Kennard wave packet. If the radiative corrections are retained, the present result is new since the corresponding expression in quantum electrodynamics has not yet been found. Besides preceding quantum electrodynamics for this problem, no renormalization is required in stochastic electrodynamics
Preventing Unofficial Information Propagation
Le, Zhengyi; Ouyang, Yi; Xu, Yurong; Ford, James; Makedon, Fillia
Digital copies are susceptible to theft and vulnerable to leakage, copying, or manipulation. When someone (or some group), who has stolen, leaked, copied, or manipulated digital documents propagates the documents over the Internet and/or distributes those through physical distribution channels many challenges arise which document holders must overcome in order to mitigate the impact to their privacy or business. This paper focuses on the propagation problem of digital credentials, which may contain sensitive information about a credential holder. Existing work such as access control policies and the Platform for Privacy Preferences (P3P) assumes that qualified or certified credential viewers are honest and reliable. The proposed approach in this paper uses short-lived credentials based on reverse forward secure signatures to remove this assumption and mitigate the damage caused by a dishonest or honest but compromised viewer.
Observations of Convectively Coupled Kelvin Waves forced by Extratropical Wave Activity
Kiladis, G. N.; Biello, J. A.; Straub, K. H.
2012-12-01
It is well established by observations that deep tropical convection can in certain situations be forced by extratropical Rossby wave activity. Such interactions are a well-known feature of regions of upper level westerly flow, and in particular where westerlies and equatorward wave guiding by the basic state occur at low enough latitudes to interact with tropical and subtropical moisture sources. In these regions convection is commonly initiated ahead of upper level troughs, characteristic of forcing by quasi-geostrophic dynamics. However, recent observational evidence indicates that extratropical wave activity is also associated with equatorial convection even in regions where there is a "critical line" to Rossby wave propagation at upper levels, that is, where the zonal phase speed of the wave is equal to the zonal flow speed. A common manifestation of this type of interaction involves the initiation of convectively coupled Kelvin waves, as well as mixed Rossby-gravity (MRG) waves. These waves are responsible for a large portion of the convective variability within the ITCZ over the Indian, Pacific, and Atlantic sectors, as well as within the Amazon Basin of South America. For example, Kelvin waves originating within the western Pacific ITCZ are often triggered by Rossby wave activity propagating into the Australasian region from the South Indian Ocean extratropics. At other times, Kelvin waves are seen to originate along the eastern slope of the Andes. In the latter case the initial forcing is sometimes linked to a low-level "pressure surge," initiated by wave activity propagating equatorward from the South Pacific storm track. In yet other cases, such as over Africa, the forcing appears to be related to wave activity in the extratropics which is not necessarily propagating into low latitudes, but appears to "project" onto the Kelvin structure, in line with past theoretical and modeling studies. Observational evidence for extratropical forcing of Kelvin and MRG
Two-dimensional turbulent convection
Mazzino, Andrea
2017-11-01
We present an overview of the most relevant, and sometimes contrasting, theoretical approaches to Rayleigh-Taylor and mean-gradient-forced Rayleigh-Bénard two-dimensional turbulence together with numerical and experimental evidences for their support. The main aim of this overview is to emphasize that, despite the different character of these two systems, especially in relation to their steadiness/unsteadiness, turbulent fluctuations are well described by the same scaling relationships originated from the Bolgiano balance. The latter states that inertial terms and buoyancy terms balance at small scales giving rise to an inverse kinetic energy cascade. The main difference with respect to the inverse energy cascade in hydrodynamic turbulence [R. H. Kraichnan, "Inertial ranges in two-dimensional turbulence," Phys. Fluids 10, 1417 (1967)] is that the rate of cascade of kinetic energy here is not constant along the inertial range of scales. Thanks to the absence of physical boundaries, the two systems here investigated turned out to be a natural physical realization of the Kraichnan scaling regime hitherto associated with the elusive "ultimate state of thermal convection" [R. H. Kraichnan, "Turbulent thermal convection at arbitrary Prandtl number," Phys. Fluids 5, 1374-1389 (1962)].
Atmosphere-ionosphere coupling from convectively generated gravity waves
Azeem, Irfan; Barlage, Michael
2018-04-01
Ionospheric variability impacts operational performances of a variety of technological systems, such as HF communication, Global Positioning System (GPS) navigation, and radar surveillance. The ionosphere is not only perturbed by geomagnetic inputs but is also influenced by atmospheric tides and other wave disturbances propagating from the troposphere to high altitudes. Atmospheric Gravity Waves (AGWs) excited by meteorological sources are one of the largest sources of mesoscale variability in the ionosphere. In this paper, Total Electron Content (TEC) data from networks of GPS receivers in the United States are analyzed to investigate AGWs in the ionosphere generated by convective thunderstorms. Two case studies of convectively generated gravity waves are presented. On April 4, 2014 two distinct large convective systems in Texas and Arkansas generated two sets of concentric AGWs that were observed in the ionosphere as Traveling Ionospheric Disturbances (TIDs). The period of the observed TIDs was 20.8 min, the horizontal wavelength was 182.4 km, and the horizontal phase speed was 146.4 m/s. The second case study shows TIDs generated from an extended squall line on December 23, 2015 stretching from the Gulf of Mexico to the Great Lakes in North America. Unlike the concentric wave features seen in the first case study, the extended squall line generated TIDs, which exhibited almost plane-parallel phase fronts. The TID period was 20.1 min, its horizontal wavelength was 209.6 km, and the horizontal phase speed was 180.1 m/s. The AGWs generated by both of these meteorological events have large vertical wavelength (>100 km), which are larger than the F2 layer thickness, thus allowing them to be discernible in the TEC dataset.
Benard convection in gaps and cavities
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mueller, U.
1981-04-01
The article contains two parts. In the first part a condensed review of the most striking phenomena in Benard convection in laterally confined fluid layers is given. In the second part recent experimental and theoretical work on Benard convection in gaps is presented an analysed. (orig.) [de
Convective mixing and accretion in white dwarfs
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Koester, D.
1976-01-01
The evolution of convection zones in cooling white dwarfs with helium envelopes and outer hydrogen layers is calculated with a complete stellar evolution code. It is shown that white dwarfs of spectral type DB cannot be formed from DA stars by convective mixing. However, for cooler temperatures (Tsub(e) [de
Convection flow structure in the central polar cap
Bristow, W. A.
2017-12-01
A previous study of spatially averaged flow velocity in the central polar cap [Bristow et al., 2015] observed under steady IMF conditions found that it was extremely rare for the average to exceed 850 m/s (less than 0.2 % of the time). Anecdotally, however it is not uncommon to observe line-of-sight velocities in excess of 100 m/s in the McMurdo radar field of view directly over the magnetic pole. This discrepancy motivated this study, which examines the conditions under which high-velocity flows are observed at latitudes greater than 80° magnetic latitude. It was found that highly structured flows are common in the central polar cap, which leads to the flow within regions to have significant deviation from the average. In addition, the high-speed flow regions are usually directed away from the earth-sun line. No specific set of driving conditions was identified to be associated with high-speed flows. The study did conclude that 1)Polar cap velocities are generally highly structured. 2)Flow patterns typically illustrate narrow channels, vortical flow regions, and propagating features. 3) Persistent waves are a regular occurrence. 3)Features are observed to propagate from day side to night side, and from night side to day side.. 4)Convection often exhibits significant difference between the two hemispheres. And 5)About 10% of the time the velocity somewhere in the cap exceeds 1 Km/s The presentation will conclude with a discussion of the physical reasons for the flow structure. Bristow, W. A., E. Amata, J. Spaleta, and M. F. Marcucci (2015), Observations of the relationship between ionospheric central polar cap and dayside throat convection velocities, and solar wind/IMF driving, J. Geophys. Res. Space Physics, 120, doi:10.1002/2015JA021199.
Southern Ocean Convection and tropical telleconnections
Marinov, I.; Cabre, A.; Gnanadesikan, A.
2014-12-01
We show that Southern Ocean (SO) temperatures in the latest generation of Earth System Models exhibit two major modes of variation, one driven by deep convection, the other by tropical variability. We perform a CMIP5 model intercomparison to understand why different climate models represent SO variability so differently in long, control simulations. We show that multiyear variability in Southern Ocean sea surface temperatures (SSTs) can in turn influence oceanic and atmospheric conditions in the tropics on short (atmospheric) time-scales. We argue that the strength and pattern of SO-tropical teleconnections depends on the intensity of SO deep convection. Periodic convection in the SO is a feature of most CMIP5 models under preindustrial forcing (deLavergne et al., 2014). Models show a wide distribution in the spatial extent, periodicity and intensity of their SO convection, with some models convecting most of the time, and some showing very little convection. In a highly convective coupled model, we find that multidecadal variability in SO and global SSTs, as well as SO heat storage are driven by Weddell Sea convective variability, with convective decades relatively warm due to the heat released from the deep southern ocean and non-convective decades cold due to the subsurface storage of heat. Furthermore, pulses of SO convection drive SST and sea ice variations, influencing absorbed shortwave and emitted longwave radiation, wind, cloud and precipitation patterns, with climatic implications for the low latitudes via fast atmospheric teleconnections. We suggest that these high-low latitude teleconnection mechanisms are relevant for understanding hiatus decades. Additionally, Southern Ocean deep convection varied significantly during past, natural climate changes such as during the last deglaciation. Weddell Sea open convection was recently weakened, likely as a consequence of anthropogenic forcing and the resulting surface freshening. Our study opens up the
Topology Optimisation for Coupled Convection Problems
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Alexandersen, Joe
This thesis deals with topology optimisation for coupled convection problems. The aim is to extend and apply topology optimisation to steady-state conjugate heat transfer problems, where the heat conduction equation governs the heat transfer in a solid and is coupled to thermal transport...... in a surrounding uid, governed by a convection-diffusion equation, where the convective velocity field is found from solving the isothermal incompressible steady-state Navier-Stokes equations. Topology optimisation is also applied to steady-state natural convection problems. The modelling is done using stabilised...... finite elements, the formulation and implementation of which was done partly during a special course as prepatory work for this thesis. The formulation is extended with a Brinkman friction term in order to facilitate the topology optimisation of fluid flow and convective cooling problems. The derived...
Convective penetration in a young sun
Pratt, Jane; Baraffe, Isabelle; Goffrey, Tom; MUSIC developers group
2018-01-01
To interpret the high-quality data produced from recent space-missions it is necessary to study convection under realistic stellar conditions. We describe the multi-dimensional, time implicit, fully compressible, hydrodynamic, implicit large eddy simulation code MUSIC. We use MUSIC to study convection during an early stage in the evolution of our sun where the convection zone covers approximately half of the solar radius. This model of the young sun possesses a realistic stratification in density, temperature, and luminosity. We approach convection in a stellar context using extreme value theory and derive a new model for convective penetration, targeted for one-dimensional stellar evolution calculations. This model provides a scenario that can explain the observed lithium abundance in the sun and in solar-like stars at a range of ages.
Wave propagation in elastic solids
Achenbach, Jan
1984-01-01
The propagation of mechanical disturbances in solids is of interest in many branches of the physical scienses and engineering. This book aims to present an account of the theory of wave propagation in elastic solids. The material is arranged to present an exposition of the basic concepts of mechanical wave propagation within a one-dimensional setting and a discussion of formal aspects of elastodynamic theory in three dimensions, followed by chapters expounding on typical wave propagation phenomena, such as radiation, reflection, refraction, propagation in waveguides, and diffraction. The treat
Magnetic Fields in the Solar Convection Zone
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Fan Yuhong
2004-07-01
Full Text Available Recent studies of the dynamic evolution of magnetic flux tubes in the solar convection zone are reviewed with focus on emerging flux tubes responsible for the formation of solar active regions. The current prevailing picture is that active regions on the solar surface originate from strong toroidal magnetic fields generated by the solar dynamo mechanism at the thin tachocline layer at the base of the solar convection zone. Thus the magnetic fields need to traverse the entire convection zone before they reach the photosphere to form the observed solar active regions. This review discusses results with regard to the following major topics: 1. the equilibrium properties of the toroidal magnetic fields stored in the stable overshoot region at the base of the convection zone, 2. the buoyancy instability associated with the toroidal magnetic fields and the formation of buoyant magnetic flux tubes, 3. the rise of emerging flux loops through the solar convective envelope as modeled by the thin flux tube calculations which infer that the field strength of the toroidal magnetic fields at the base of the solar convection zone is significantly higher than the value in equipartition with convection, 4. the minimum twist needed for maintaining cohesion of the rising flux tubes, 5. the rise of highly twisted kink unstable flux tubes as a possible origin of d -sunspots, 6. the evolution of buoyant magnetic flux tubes in 3D stratified convection, 7. turbulent pumping of magnetic flux by penetrative compressible convection, 8. an alternative mechanism for intensifying toroidal magnetic fields to significantly super-equipartition field strengths by conversion of the potential energy associated with the superadiabatic stratification of the solar convection zone, and finally 9. a brief overview of our current understanding of flux emergence at the surface and post-emergence evolution of the subsurface magnetic fields.
Numerical simulation of convective generated gravity waves in the stratosphere and MLT regions.
Heale, C. J.; Snively, J. B.
2017-12-01
Convection is an important source of gravity wave generation, especially in the summer tropics and midlatitudes, and coherent wave fields above convection are now routinely measured in the stratosphere and mesosphere [e.g. Hoffmann et al., JGR, 118, 2013; Gong et al., JGR, 120, 2015; Perwitasari et al., GRL, 42, 22, 2016]. Numerical studies have been performed to investigate the generation mechanisms, source spectra, and their effects on the middle and upper atmosphere [e.g. Fovell et al., AMS, 49,16, 1992; Alexander and Holton, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 4 2004; Vincent et al., JGR, 1118, 2013], however there is still considerable work needed to fully describe these parameters. GCMs currently lack the resolution to explicitly simulate convection generation and rely on simplified parameterizations while full cloud resolving models are computationally expensive and often only extend into the stratosphere. More recent studies have improved the realism of these simulations by using radar derived precipitation rates to drive latent heating in models that simulate convection [Grimsdell et al., AMS, 67, 2010; Stephan and Alexander., J. Adv. Model. Earth. Syst, 7, 2015], however they too only consider wave propagation in the troposphere and stratosphere. We use a 2D nonlinear, fully compressible model [Snively and Pasko., JGR, 113, 2008] to excite convectively generated waves, based on NEXRAD radar data, using the Stephan and Alexander [2015] algorithms. We study the propagation, and spectral evolution of the generated waves up into the MLT region. Ambient atmosphere parameters are derived from observations and MERRA-2 reanalysis data, and stratospheric (AIRS) and mesospheric (Lidar, OH airglow) observations enable comparisons with simulation results.
Temporal scaling in information propagation
Huang, Junming; Li, Chao; Wang, Wen-Qiang; Shen, Hua-Wei; Li, Guojie; Cheng, Xue-Qi
2014-06-01
For the study of information propagation, one fundamental problem is uncovering universal laws governing the dynamics of information propagation. This problem, from the microscopic perspective, is formulated as estimating the propagation probability that a piece of information propagates from one individual to another. Such a propagation probability generally depends on two major classes of factors: the intrinsic attractiveness of information and the interactions between individuals. Despite the fact that the temporal effect of attractiveness is widely studied, temporal laws underlying individual interactions remain unclear, causing inaccurate prediction of information propagation on evolving social networks. In this report, we empirically study the dynamics of information propagation, using the dataset from a population-scale social media website. We discover a temporal scaling in information propagation: the probability a message propagates between two individuals decays with the length of time latency since their latest interaction, obeying a power-law rule. Leveraging the scaling law, we further propose a temporal model to estimate future propagation probabilities between individuals, reducing the error rate of information propagation prediction from 6.7% to 2.6% and improving viral marketing with 9.7% incremental customers.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Paolucci, S.
1982-12-01
An approximation leading to anelastic equations capable of describing thermal convection in a compressible fluid is given. These equations are more general than the Oberbeck-Boussinesq equations and different than the standard anelastic equations in that they can be used for the computation of convection in a fluid with large density gradients present. We show that the equations do not contain acoustic waves, while at the same time they can still describe the propagation of internal waves. Throughout we show that the filtering of acoustic waves, within the limits of the approximation, does not appreciably alter the description of the physics.
Actively convected liquid metal divertor
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Shimada, Michiya; Hirooka, Yoshi
2014-01-01
The use of actively convected liquid metals with j × B force is proposed to facilitate heat handling by the divertor, a challenging issue associated with magnetic fusion experiments such as ITER. This issue will be aggravated even more for DEMO and power reactors because the divertor heat load will be significantly higher and yet the use of copper would not be allowed as the heat sink material. Instead, reduced activation ferritic/martensitic steel alloys with heat conductivities substantially lower than that of copper, will be used as the structural materials. The present proposal is to fill the lower part of the vacuum vessel with liquid metals with relatively low melting points and low chemical activities including Ga and Sn. The divertor modules, equipped with electrodes and cooling tubes, are immersed in the liquid metal. The electrode, placed in the middle of the liquid metal, can be biased positively or negatively with respect to the module. The j × B force due to the current between the electrode and the module provides a rotating motion for the liquid metal around the electrodes. The rise in liquid temperature at the separatrix hit point can be maintained at acceptable levels from the operation point of view. As the rotation speed increases, the current in the liquid metal is expected to decrease due to the v × B electromotive force. This rotating motion in the poloidal plane will reduce the divertor heat load significantly. Another important benefit of the convected liquid metal divertor is the fast recovery from unmitigated disruptions. Also, the liquid metal divertor concept eliminates the erosion problem. (letter)
Bolt beam propagation analysis
Shokair, I. R.
BOLT (Beam on Laser Technology) is a rocket experiment to demonstrate electron beam propagation on a laser ionized plasma channel across the geomagnetic field in the ion focused regime (IFR). The beam parameters for BOLT are: beam current I(sub b) = 100 Amps, beam energy of 1--1.5 MeV (gamma =3-4), and a Gaussian beam and channel of radii r(sub b) = r(sub c) = 1.5 cm. The N+1 ionization scheme is used to ionize atomic oxygen in the upper atmosphere. This scheme utilizes 130 nm light plus three IR lasers to excite and then ionize atomic oxygen. The limiting factor for the channel strength is the energy of the 130 nm laser, which is assumed to be 1.6 mJ for BOLT. At a fixed laser energy and altitude (fixing the density of atomic oxygen), the range can be varied by adjusting the laser tuning, resulting in a neutralization fraction axial profile of the form: f(z) = f(sub 0) e(exp minus z)/R, where R is the range. In this paper we consider the propagation of the BOLT beam and calculate the range of the electron beam taking into account the fact that the erosion rates (magnetic and inductive) vary with beam length as the beam and channel dynamically respond to sausage and hose instabilities.
A thermodynamically general theory for convective vortices
Renno, Nilton O.
2008-08-01
Convective vortices are common features of atmospheres that absorb lower-entropy-energy at higher temperatures than they reject higher-entropy-energy to space. These vortices range from small to large-scale and play an important role in the vertical transport of heat, momentum, and tracer species. Thus, the development of theoretical models for convective vortices is important to our understanding of some of the basic features of planetary atmospheres. The heat engine framework is a useful tool for studying convective vortices. However, current theories assume that convective vortices are reversible heat engines. Since there are questions about how reversible real atmospheric heat engines are, their usefulness for studying real atmospheric vortices is somewhat controversial. In order to reduce this problem, a theory for convective vortices that includes irreversible processes is proposed. The paper's main result is that the proposed theory provides an expression for the pressure drop along streamlines that includes the effects of irreversible processes. It is shown that a simplified version of this expression is a generalization of Bernoulli's equation to convective circulations. It is speculated that the proposed theory not only explains the intensity, but also sheds light on other basic features of convective vortices such as their physical appearance.
Boundary Layer Control of Rotating Convection Systems
King, E. M.; Stellmach, S.; Noir, J.; Hansen, U.; Aurnou, J. M.
2008-12-01
Rotating convection is ubiquitous in the natural universe, and is likely responsible for planetary processes such magnetic field generation. Rapidly rotating convection is typically organized by the Coriolis force into tall, thin, coherent convection columns which are aligned with the axis of rotation. This organizational effect of rotation is thought to be responsible for the strength and structure of magnetic fields generated by convecting planetary interiors. As thermal forcing is increased, the relative influence of rotation weakens, and fully three-dimensional convection can exist. It has long been assumed that rotational effects will dominate convection dynamics when the ratio of buoyancy to the Coriolis force, the convective Rossby number, Roc, is less than unity. We investigate the influence of rotation on turbulent Rayleigh-Benard convection via a suite of coupled laboratory and numerical experiments over a broad parameter range: Rayleigh number, 10310; Ekman number, 10-6≤ E ≤ ∞; and Prandtl number, 1≤ Pr ≤ 100. In particular, we measure heat transfer (as characterized by the Nusselt number, Nu) as a function of the Rayleigh number for several different Ekman and Prandtl numbers. Two distinct heat transfer scaling regimes are identified: non-rotating style heat transfer, Nu ~ Ra2/7, and quasigeostrophic style heat transfer, Nu~ Ra6/5. The transition between the non-rotating regime and the rotationally dominant regime is described as a function of the Ekman number, E. We show that the regime transition depends not on the global force balance Roc, but on the relative thicknesses of the thermal and Ekman boundary layers. The transition scaling provides a predictive criterion for the applicability of convection models to natural systems such as Earth's core.
The influence of terrain forcing on the initiation of deep convection over Mediterranean islands
Barthlott, Christian; Kirshbaum, Daniel
2013-04-01
The influence of mountainous islands on the initiation of deep convection is investigated using the Consortium for Small-scale Modeling (COSMO) model. The study day is 26 August 2009 on which moist convection occurred over both the Corsica and Sardinia island in the Mediterranean Sea. Sensitivity runs with systematically modified topography are explored to evaluate the relative importance of the land-sea contrast and the terrain height for convection initiation. Whereas no island precipitation is simulated when the islands are completely removed, all simulations that represent these land surfaces develop convective precipitation. Although convection initiates progressively earlier in the day over taller islands, the precipitation rates and accumulations do not show a fixed relationship with terrain height. This is due to the competing effects of different physical processes. First, whereas the forcing for low-level ascent increases over taller islands, the boundary-layer moisture supply decreases, which diminishes the conditional instability and precipitable water. Second, whereas taller islands enhance the inland propagation speeds of sea-breeze fronts, they also mechanically block these fronts and prevent them from reaching the island interior. As a result, the island precipitation is rather insensitive to island terrain height except for one particular case in which the island precipitation increases considerably due to an optimal superposition of the sea breeze and upslope flow. These results demonstrate the complexity of interactions between sea breezes and orography and reinforce that an adequate representation of detailed topographic features is necessary to account for thermally induced wind systems that initiate deep convection.
Measuring Convective Mass Fluxes Over Tropical Oceans
Raymond, David
2017-04-01
Deep convection forms the upward branches of all large-scale circulations in the tropics. Understanding what controls the form and intensity of vertical convective mass fluxes is thus key to understanding tropical weather and climate. These mass fluxes and the corresponding conditions supporting them have been measured by recent field programs (TPARC/TCS08, PREDICT, HS3) in tropical disturbances considered to be possible tropical storm precursors. In reality, this encompasses most strong convection in the tropics. The measurements were made with arrays of dropsondes deployed from high altitude. In some cases Doppler radar provided additional measurements. The results are in some ways surprising. Three factors were found to control the mass flux profiles, the strength of total surface heat fluxes, the column-integrated relative humidity, and the low to mid-tropospheric moist convective instability. The first two act as expected, with larger heat fluxes and higher humidity producing more precipitation and stronger lower tropospheric mass fluxes. However, unexpectedly, smaller (but still positive) convective instability produces more precipitation as well as more bottom-heavy convective mass flux profiles. Furthermore, the column humidity and the convective instability are anti-correlated, at least in the presence of strong convection. On spatial scales of a few hundred kilometers, the virtual temperature structure appears to be in dynamic balance with the pattern of potential vorticity. Since potential vorticity typically evolves on longer time scales than convection, the potential vorticity pattern plus the surface heat fluxes then become the immediate controlling factors for average convective properties. All measurements so far have taken place in regions with relatively flat sea surface temperature (SST) distributions. We are currently seeking funding for a measurement program in the tropical east Pacific, a region that exhibits strong SST gradients and
Transient Mixed Convection Validation for NGNP
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Smith, Barton [Utah State Univ., Logan, UT (United States); Schultz, Richard [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)
2015-10-19
The results of this project are best described by the papers and dissertations that resulted from the work. They are included in their entirety in this document. They are: (1) Jeff Harris PhD dissertation (focused mainly on forced convection); (2) Blake Lance PhD dissertation (focused mainly on mixed and transient convection). This dissertation is in multi-paper format and includes the article currently submitted and one to be submitted shortly; and, (3) JFE paper on CFD Validation Benchmark for Forced Convection.
Convective cells and transport in toroidal plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hassam, A.B.; Kulsrud, R.M.
1978-12-01
The properties of convective cells and the diffusion resulting from such cells are significantly influenced by an inhomogeneity in the extermal confining magnetic field, such as that in toroidal plasmas. The convective diffusion in the presence of a field inhomogeneity is estimated. For a thermal background, this diffusion is shown to be substantially smaller than classical collisional diffusion. For a model nonthermal background, the diffusion is estimated, for typical parameters, to be at most of the order of collisional diffusion. The model background employed is based on spectra observed in numerical simulations of drift-wave-driven convective cells
Transient Mixed Convection Validation for NGNP
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Smith, Barton; Schultz, Richard
2015-01-01
The results of this project are best described by the papers and dissertations that resulted from the work. They are included in their entirety in this document. They are: (1) Jeff Harris PhD dissertation (focused mainly on forced convection); (2) Blake Lance PhD dissertation (focused mainly on mixed and transient convection). This dissertation is in multi-paper format and includes the article currently submitted and one to be submitted shortly; and, (3) JFE paper on CFD Validation Benchmark for Forced Convection.
Eskew, Matthew W.; Harrison, Jason; Simoyi, Reuben H.
2016-11-01
Oxidation reactions of thiourea by chlorite in a Hele-Shaw cell are excitable, autocatalytic, exothermic, and generate a lateral instability upon being triggered by the autocatalyst. Reagent concentrations used to develop convective instabilities delivered a temperature jump at the wave front of 2.1 K. The reaction zone was 2 mm and due to normal cooling after the wave front, this generated a spike rather than the standard well-studied front propagation. The reaction front has solutal and thermal contributions to density changes that act in opposite directions due to the existence of a positive isothermal density change in the reaction. The competition between these effects generates thermal plumes. The fascinating feature of this system is the coexistence of plumes and fingering in the same solution which alternate in frequency as the front propagates, generating hot and cold spots within the Hele-Shaw cell, and subsequently spatiotemporal inhomogeneities. The small ΔT at the wave front generated thermocapillary convection which competed effectively with thermogravitational forces at low Eötvös Numbers. A simplified reaction-diffusion-convection model was derived for the system. Plume formation is heavily dependent on boundary effects from the cell dimensions. This work was supported by Grant No. CHE-1056366 from the NSF and a Research Professor Grant from the University of KwaZulu-Natal.
Propagators and path integrals
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Holten, J.W. van
1995-08-22
Path-integral expressions for one-particle propagators in scalar and fermionic field theories are derived, for arbitrary mass. This establishes a direct connection between field theory and specific classical point-particle models. The role of world-line reparametrization invariance of the classical action and the implementation of the corresponding BRST-symmetry in the quantum theory are discussed. The presence of classical world-line supersymmetry is shown to lead to an unwanted doubling of states for massive spin-1/2 particles. The origin of this phenomenon is traced to a `hidden` topological fermionic excitation. A different formulation of the pseudo-classical mechanics using a bosonic representation of {gamma}{sub 5} is shown to remove these extra states at the expense of losing manifest supersymmetry. (orig.).
Curvilinear crack layer propagation
Chudnovsky, Alexander; Chaoui, Kamel; Moet, Abdelsamie
1987-01-01
An account is given of an experiment designed to allow observation of the effect of damage orientation on the direction of crack growth in the case of crack layer propagation, using polystyrene as the model material. The direction of crack advance under a given loading condition is noted to be determined by a competition between the tendency of the crack to maintain its current direction and the tendency to follow the orientation of the crazes at its tip. The orientation of the crazes is, on the other hand, determined by the stress field due to the interaction of the crack, the crazes, and the hole. The changes in craze rotation relative to the crack define the active zone rotation.
Atomistics of crack propagation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sieradzki, K.; Dienes, G.J.; Paskin, A.; Massoumzadeh, B.
1988-01-01
The molecular dynamic technique is used to investigate static and dynamic aspects of crack extension. The material chosen for this study was the 2D triangular solid with atoms interacting via the Johnson potential. The 2D Johnson solid was chosen for this study since a sharp crack in this material remains stable against dislocation emission up to the critical Griffith load. This behavior allows for a meaningful comparison between the simulation results and continuum energy theorems for crack extension by appropriately defining an effective modulus which accounts for sample size effects and the non-linear elastic behavior of the Johnson solid. Simulation results are presented for the stress fields of moving cracks and these dynamic results are discussed in terms of the dynamic crack propagation theories, of Mott, Eshelby, and Freund
Broadband unidirectional ultrasound propagation
Sinha, Dipen N.; Pantea, Cristian
2017-12-12
A passive, linear arrangement of a sonic crystal-based apparatus and method including a 1D sonic crystal, a nonlinear medium, and an acoustic low-pass filter, for permitting unidirectional broadband ultrasound propagation as a collimated beam for underwater, air or other fluid communication, are described. The signal to be transmitted is first used to modulate a high-frequency ultrasonic carrier wave which is directed into the sonic crystal side of the apparatus. The apparatus processes the modulated signal, whereby the original low-frequency signal exits the apparatus as a collimated beam on the side of the apparatus opposite the sonic crystal. The sonic crystal provides a bandpass acoustic filter through which the modulated high-frequency ultrasonic signal passes, and the nonlinear medium demodulates the modulated signal and recovers the low-frequency sound beam. The low-pass filter removes remaining high-frequency components, and contributes to the unidirectional property of the apparatus.
Propagation into an unstable state
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dee, G.
1985-01-01
We describe propagating front solutions of the equations of motion of pattern-forming systems. We make a number of conjectures concerning the properties of such fronts in connection with pattern selection in these systems. We describe a calculation which can be used to calculate the velocity and state selected by certain types of propagating fronts. We investigate the propagating front solutions of the amplitude equation which provides a valid dynamical description of many pattern-forming systems near onset
Convection in complex shaped vessel; Convection dans des enceintes de forme complexe
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
NONE
2000-07-01
The 8 november 2000, the SFT (Societe Francaise de Thermique) organized a technical day on the convection in complex shaped vessels. Nine papers have been presented in the domains of the heat transfers, the natural convection, the fluid distribution, the thermosyphon effect, the steam flow in a sterilization cycle and the transformers cooling. Eight papers are analyzed in ETDE and one paper dealing with the natural convection in spent fuels depository is analyzed in INIS. (A.L.B.)
Steady, three-dimensional, internally heated convection
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Schubert, G.; Glatzmaier, G.A.; Travis, B.
1993-01-01
Numerical calculations have been carried out of steady, symmetric, three-dimensional modes of convection in internally heated, infinite Prandtl number, Boussinesq fluids at a Rayleigh number of 1.4x10 4 in a spherical shell with inner/outer radius of 0.55 and in a 3x3x1 rectangular box. Multiple patterns of convection occur in both geometries. In the Cartesian geometry the patterns are dominated by cylindrical cold downflows and a broad hot upwelling. In the spherical geometry the patterns consist of cylindrical cold downwellings centered either at the vertices of a tetrahedron or the centers of the faces of a cube. The cold downflow cylinders are immersed in a background of upwelling within which there are cylindrical hot concentrations (plumes) and hot halos around the downflows. The forced hot upflow return plumes of internally heated spherical convection are fundamentally different from the buoyancy-driven plumes of heated from below convection
Convective Radio Occultations Final Campaign Summary
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Biondi, R. [Atmospheric Radiation Measurement, Washington, DC (United States)
2016-03-01
Deep convective systems are destructive weather phenomena that annually cause many deaths and injuries as well as much damage, thereby accounting for major economic losses in several countries. The number and intensity of such phenomena have increased over the last decades in some areas of the globe. Damage is mostly caused by strong winds and heavy rain parameters that are strongly connected to the structure of the particular storm. Convection over land is usually stronger and deeper than over the ocean and some convective systems, known as supercells, also develop tornadoes through processes that remain mostly unclear. The intensity forecast and monitoring of convective systems is one of the major challenges for meteorology because in situ measurements during extreme events are too sparse or unreliable and most ongoing satellite missions do not provide suitable time/space coverage.
Ignition in Convective-Diffusive Systems
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
Law, Chung
1999-01-01
... efficiency as well as the knock and emission characteristics. The ignition event is clearly controlled by the chemical reactions of fuel oxidation and the fluid mechanics of convective and diffusive transport...
Understanding and controlling plasmon-induced convection
Roxworthy, Brian J.; Bhuiya, Abdul M.; Vanka, Surya P.; Toussaint, Kimani C.
2014-01-01
The heat generation and fluid convection induced by plasmonic nanostructures is attractive for optofluidic applications. However, previously published theoretical studies predict only nanometre per second fluid velocities that are inadequate for microscale mass transport. Here we show both theoretically and experimentally that an array of plasmonic nanoantennas coupled to an optically absorptive indium-tin-oxide (ITO) substrate can generate >micrometre per second fluid convection. Crucially, the ITO distributes thermal energy created by the nanoantennas generating an order of magnitude increase in convection velocities compared with nanoantennas on a SiO2 base layer. In addition, the plasmonic array alters absorption in the ITO, causing a deviation from Beer-Lambert absorption that results in an optimum ITO thickness for a given system. This work elucidates the role of convection in plasmonic optical trapping and particle assembly, and opens up new avenues for controlling fluid and mass transport on the micro- and nanoscale.
What favors convective aggregation and why?
Muller, Caroline; Bony, Sandrine
2015-07-01
The organization of convection is ubiquitous, but its physical understanding remains limited. One particular type of organization is the spatial self-aggregation of convection, taking the form of cloud clusters, or tropical cyclones in the presence of rotation. We show that several physical processes can give rise to self-aggregation and highlight the key features responsible for it, using idealized simulations. Longwave radiative feedbacks yield a "radiative aggregation." In that case, sufficient spatial variability of radiative cooling rates yields a low-level circulation, which induces the upgradient energy transport and radiative-convective instability. Not only do vertically integrated radiative budgets matter but the vertical profile of cooling is also crucial. Convective aggregation is facilitated when downdrafts below clouds are weak ("moisture-memory aggregation"), and this is sufficient to trigger aggregation in the absence of longwave radiative feedbacks. These results shed some light on the sensitivity of self-aggregation to various parameters, including resolution or domain size.
Organized convection over southwest peninsular India during the pre-monsoon season
Sreelekha, P. N.; Babu, C. A.
2018-03-01
The paper addresses observational aspects of widespread rain associated with the organized convection that forms over the southwest peninsular India during the pre-monsoon season. The evolution of the cloud band over the equatorial region, its northward propagation, development of cross equatorial flow near the Somalia coast, and appearance of equatorial westerly wind resemble closely to that of the monsoon organized convection. Low-level convergence, cyclonic vorticity, and ascending motion are other major characteristics of the cloud bands associated with the pre-monsoon organized convection which exhibits similarity with that of monsoon. The ascending motion plays vital role on the formation of cloud band that produces widespread rainfall persisting for more than a week. The vertical shear of meridional winds is found to co-exist with precipitation over the Arabian Sea off the southwest peninsular India. The velocity potential values derived from the winds at 850 and 200 hPa levels confirm the rising motion on the basis of low-level convergence and upper level divergence. Also, shifting of ascending limb of the local Hadley circulation to the north of the equator is observed during the days of the presence of organized convection over the southwest peninsular region. Noticeable shift in the Walker circulation rising limb is also identified during the same time.
Antartic observations of plasma convection
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hansen, H.J.
1983-01-01
This thesis is concerned with the use of whistler duct tracking as a diagnostic for the behaviour of plasma in the plasmasphere. As a setting for the results given in the thesis, a broad review is presented which embraces pertinent aspects of previous experimental and theoretical studies of the plasmasphere. From a study of 24 hours of continuous whistler data recorded at Sanae, (L = 3,98), it is shown that associated with quiet magnetic conditions (Av Ksub(p)=1), there exists two plasmasphere bulges centred on about 1700 and 0100 UT. There is evidence that these plasmasphere bulge structures are part of a ground-state or reference base drift pattern. Electric field measurements provide some evidence that quiet time plasmasphere drift behaviour is controlled by the internal ionospheric current systems of dynamo origin, rather than being controlled by magnetospheric convection. Finally, this thesis describes an application of the whistler duct tracking technique to whistler data recorded simultaneously at two ground-based stations (Sanae (L = 3,98) and Halley (L = 4,23)). The identification of common whistler components on each station's data set provides a means of estimating the lifetimes of the associated whistler ducts. Duct lifetimes of as little as 30 minutes are found. Such short lived ducts have important implications for current theories of duct formation
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Engebretson, M. J.; Yeoman, T. K.; Oksavik, K.
2013-01-01
of the IMAGE magnetometer array. Hankasalmi SuperDARN radar data showed a west-to-east (antisunward) propagating vortical ionospheric flow in a region of high spectral width ~ 1–2° north of Svalbard, confirming that this magnetic impulse was the signature of a traveling convection vortex. Ground...
Dynamics of acoustic-convective drying of sunflower cake
Zhilin, A. A.
2017-10-01
The dynamics of drying sunflower cake by a new acoustic-convective method has been studied. Unlike the conventional (thermal-convective) method, the proposed method allows moisture to be extracted from porous materials without applying heat to the sample to be dried. Kinetic curves of drying by the thermal-convective and acoustic-convective methods were obtained and analyzed. The advantages of the acoustic-convective extraction of moisture over the thermal-convective method are discussed. The relaxation times of drying were determined for both drying methods. An intermittent drying mode which improves the efficiency of acoustic-convective extraction of moisture is considered.
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Oceanographic Station and CTD data were collected from the EASTWARD from the SE Pacific (limit-140 W) from 23 July 1976 to 16 August 1976. Data were collected by...
CONVECTION IN CONDENSIBLE-RICH ATMOSPHERES
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ding, F. [Department of the Geophysical Sciences, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States); Pierrehumbert, R. T., E-mail: fding@uchicago.edu [Department of Physics, University of Oxford, Oxford OX1 3PU (United Kingdom)
2016-05-01
Condensible substances are nearly ubiquitous in planetary atmospheres. For the most familiar case—water vapor in Earth’s present climate—the condensible gas is dilute, in the sense that its concentration is everywhere small relative to the noncondensible background gases. A wide variety of important planetary climate problems involve nondilute condensible substances. These include planets near or undergoing a water vapor runaway and planets near the outer edge of the conventional habitable zone, for which CO{sub 2} is the condensible. Standard representations of convection in climate models rely on several approximations appropriate only to the dilute limit, while nondilute convection differs in fundamental ways from dilute convection. In this paper, a simple parameterization of convection valid in the nondilute as well as dilute limits is derived and used to discuss the basic character of nondilute convection. The energy conservation properties of the scheme are discussed in detail and are verified in radiative-convective simulations. As a further illustration of the behavior of the scheme, results for a runaway greenhouse atmosphere for both steady instellation and seasonally varying instellation corresponding to a highly eccentric orbit are presented. The latter case illustrates that the high thermal inertia associated with latent heat in nondilute atmospheres can damp out the effects of even extreme seasonal forcing.
Sheshadri, A.; Plumb, R. A.
2017-12-01
The leading "annular mode", defined as the dominant EOF of surface pressure or of zonal mean zonal wind variability, appears as a dipolar structure straddling the mean midlatitude jet and thus seems to describe north-south wobbling of the jet latitude. However, extratropical zonal wind anomalies frequently tend to migrate poleward. This behavior can be described by the first two EOFs, the first (AM1) being the dipolar structure, and the second (AM2) having a tripolar structure centered on the mean jet. Taken in isolation, AM1 thus describes a north-south wobbling of the jet position, while AM2 describes a strengthening and narrowing of the jet. However, despite the fact that they are spatially orthogonal, and their corresponding time series temporally orthogonal, AM1 and AM2 are not independent, but show significant lag-correlations which reveal the propagation. The EOFs are not modes of the underlying dynamical system governing the zonal flow evolution. The true modes can be estimated using principal oscillation pattern (POP) analysis. In the troposphere, the leading POPs manifest themselves as a pair of complex conjugate structures with conjugate eigenvalues thus, in reality, constituting a single, complex, mode that describes propagating anomalies. Even though the principal components associated with the two leading EOFs decay at different rates, each decays faster than the true mode. These facts have implications for eddy feedback and the susceptibility of the mode to external perturbations. If one interprets the annular modes as the modes of the system, then simple theory predicts that the response to steady forcing will usually be dominated by AM1 (with the longest time scale). However, such arguments should really be applied to the true modes. Experiments with a simplified GCM show that climate response to perturbations do not necessarily have AM1 structures. Implications of these results for stratosphere-troposphere interactions are explored. The POP
Two-dimensional behavior of solitons in a low-β plasma with convective motion
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Makino, Mitsuhiro; Kamimura, Tetsuo; Sato, Tetsuya.
1981-01-01
The initial value problem of the Hasegawa-Mima (HM) equation, which describes the propagation of drift waves in a low beta magnetized plasma, is numerically studied. Solitons are formed from an initial sinusoidal wave. For a wide range of initial conditions, the number of solitons and the recurrence time agree well with those obtained from the KdV eq. reduced from the HM eq. by Nozaki et al. As a result of nonlinear interactions among different solitons, their peak positions shift in the direction normal to the zeroth order convective motion in a regular but different fashion. When we start from a sinusoidal wave, the peaks of the generated soliton train line up on a line at an angle with respect to the convective direction. Two-deimensional collisions of different solitons are examined. (author)
The onset of nonpenetrative convection in a suddenly cooled layer of fluid
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ihle, Christian F. [Program in Fluid Dynamics, Facultad de Ciencias Fisicas y Matematicas, Universidad de Chile, Blanco Encalada 2002 Of. 327, Santiago (Chile); Nino, Yarko [Departamento de Ingenieria Civil, Division de Recursos Hidricos y Medio Ambiente, Universidad de Chile, Av. Blanco Encalada 2002, Santiago (Chile)
2006-04-15
Conditions for the onset of nonpenetrative convection in a horizontal Boussinesq fluid layer subject to a step change in temperature are studied using propagation theory. A wide range of Prandtl numbers and two different kinematic boundary conditions are considered. It is shown that for high Rayleigh numbers, critical conditions for the onset of convective motion reproduce exactly those for the unsteady Rayleigh-Benard instability. Present results extend those of previous research and show a tendency of the rigid-rigid and free-rigid critical curves to converge for low Prandtl numbers. Comparison between present and previously reported results on critical conditions for the onset of instabilities and onset time using different methods yields good agreement on a middle to high Prandtl number range. A ratio of 10 between experimentally measured and theoretically predicted onset times is suggested for stress-free bounded systems. (author)
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
P. E. Sandholt
2001-05-01
Full Text Available We document the activation of transient polar arcs emanating from the cusp within a 15 min long intermediate phase during the transition from a standard two-cell convection pattern, representative of a strongly southward interplanetary magnetic field (IMF, to a "reverse" two-cell pattern, representative of strongly northward IMF conditions. During the 2–3 min lifetime of the arc, its base in the cusp, appearing as a bright spot, moved eastward toward noon by ~ 300 km. As the arc moved, it left in its "wake" enhanced cusp precipitation. The polar arc is a tracer of the activation of a lobe convection cell with clockwise vorticity, intruding into the previously established large-scale distorted two-cell pattern, due to an episode of localized lobe reconnection. The lobe cell gives rise to strong flow shear (converging electric field and an associated sheet of outflowing field-aligned current, which is manifested by the polar arc. The enhanced cusp precipitation represents, in our view, the ionospheric footprint of the lobe reconnection process.Key words. Magnetospheric physics (auroral phenomena; magnetopause, cusp, and boundary layers; plasma convection
Propagation of Ion Acoustic Perturbations
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Pécseli, Hans
1975-01-01
Equations describing the propagation of ion acoustic perturbations are considered, using the assumption that the electrons are Boltzman distributed and isothermal at all times. Quasi-neutrality is also considered.......Equations describing the propagation of ion acoustic perturbations are considered, using the assumption that the electrons are Boltzman distributed and isothermal at all times. Quasi-neutrality is also considered....
Deep currents in the Gulf of Guinea: along slope propagation of intraseasonal waves
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
C. Guiavarc'h
2009-05-01
Full Text Available In the Gulf of Guinea, intraseasonal variability is large at the equator and along the coast. Current data on the continental slope near 7.5° S show very energetic biweekly oscillations at 1300 m depth. A high resolution primitive equation numerical model demonstrates that this deep variability is forced by equatorial winds, through the generation of equatorial Yanai waves that propagate eastward and at depth, and then poleward as coastally-trapped waves upon reaching the coast of Africa. Intraseasonal variability is intensified along the coast of the Gulf of Guinea, especially in the 10–20 day period range and at depths between 500 and 1500 m. The kinetic energy distribution is well explained at first order by linear theory. Along the equator, eastward intensification of energy and bottom intensification are in qualitative agreement with vertically propagating Yanai waves, although the signal is influenced by the details of the bathymetry. Along the coast, baroclinic modes 3 to 5 are important close to the equator, and the signal is dominated by lower vertical modes farther south. Additional current meter data on the continental slope near 3° N display an energy profile in the 10–20 day period band that is strikingly different from the one at 7.5° S, with surface intensification rather than bottom intensification and a secondary maximum near 800 m. The model reproduces these features and explains them: the surface intensification in the north is due to the regional wind forcing, and the north-south asymmetry of the deep signal is due to the presence of the zonal African coast near 5° N. A 4 years time series of current measurements at 7.5° S shows that the biweekly oscillations are intermittent and vary from year to year. This intermittency is not well correlated with fluctuations of the equatorial winds and does not seem to be a simple linear response to the wind forcing.
Imbol Koungue, Rodrigue Anicet; Illig, Serena; Rouault, Mathieu
2017-06-01
The link between equatorial Atlantic Ocean variability and the coastal region of Angola-Namibia is investigated at interannual time scales from 1998 to 2012. An index of equatorial Kelvin wave activity is defined based on Prediction and Research Moored Array in the Tropical Atlantic (PIRATA). Along the equator, results show a significant correlation between interannual PIRATA monthly dynamic height anomalies, altimetric monthly Sea Surface Height Anomalies (SSHA), and SSHA calculated with an Ocean Linear Model. This allows us to interpret PIRATA records in terms of equatorial Kelvin waves. Estimated phase speed of eastward propagations from PIRATA equatorial mooring remains in agreement with the linear theory, emphasizing the dominance of the second baroclinic mode. Systematic analysis of all strong interannual equatorial SSHA shows that they precede by 1-2 months extreme interannual Sea Surface Temperature Anomalies along the African coast, which confirms the hypothesis that major warm and cold events in the Angola-Benguela current system are remotely forced by ocean atmosphere interactions in the equatorial Atlantic. Equatorial wave dynamics is at the origin of their developments. Wind anomalies in the Western Equatorial Atlantic force equatorial downwelling and upwelling Kelvin waves that propagate eastward along the equator and then poleward along the African coast triggering extreme warm and cold events, respectively. A proxy index based on linear ocean dynamics appears to be significantly more correlated with coastal variability than an index based on wind variability. Results show a seasonal phasing, with significantly higher correlations between our equatorial index and coastal SSTA in October-April season.
Propagation Engineering in Wireless Communications
Ghasemi, Abdollah; Ghasemi, Farshid
2012-01-01
Wireless communications has seen explosive growth in recent decades, in a realm that is both broad and rapidly expanding to include satellite services, navigational aids, remote sensing, telemetering, audio and video broadcasting, high-speed data communications, mobile radio systems and much more. Propagation Engineering in Wireless Communications deals with the basic principles of radiowaves propagation for frequency bands used in radio-communications, offering descriptions of new achievements and newly developed propagation models. The book bridges the gap between theoretical calculations and approaches, and applied procedures needed for advanced radio links design. The primary objective of this two-volume set is to demonstrate the fundamentals, and to introduce propagation phenomena and mechanisms that engineers are likely to encounter in the design and evaluation of radio links of a given type and operating frequency. Volume one covers basic principles, along with tropospheric and ionospheric propagation,...
Transionospheric propagation predictions
Klobucher, J. A.; Basu, S.; Basu, S.; Bernhardt, P. A.; Davies, K.; Donatelli, D. E.; Fremouw, E. J.; Goodman, J. M.; Hartmann, G. K.; Leitinger, R.
1979-01-01
The current status and future prospects of the capability to make transionospheric propagation predictions are addressed, highlighting the effects of the ionized media, which dominate for frequencies below 1 to 3 GHz, depending upon the state of the ionosphere and the elevation angle through the Earth-space path. The primary concerns are the predictions of time delay of signal modulation (group path delay) and of radio wave scintillation. Progress in these areas is strongly tied to knowledge of variable structures in the ionosphere ranging from the large scale (thousands of kilometers in horizontal extent) to the fine scale (kilometer size). Ionospheric variability and the relative importance of various mechanisms responsible for the time histories observed in total electron content (TEC), proportional to signal group delay, and in irregularity formation are discussed in terms of capability to make both short and long term predictions. The data base upon which predictions are made is examined for its adequacy, and the prospects for prediction improvements by more theoretical studies as well as by increasing the available statistical data base are examined.
Dressing the nucleon propagator
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fishman, S.; Gersten, A.
1976-01-01
The nucleon propagator in the ''nested bubbles'' approximation is analyzed. The approximation is built from the minimal set of diagrams which is needed to maintain the unitarity condition under two-pion production threshold in the two-nucleon Bethe--Salpeter equation. Recursive formulas for subsets of ''nested bubbles'' diagrams calculated in the framework of the pseudoscalar interaction are obtained by the use of dispersion relations. We prove that the sum of all the ''nested bubbles'' diverges. Moreover, the successive iterations are plagued with ghost poles. We prove that the first approximation--which is the so-called chain approximation--has ghost poles for any nonvanishing coupling constant. In an earlier paper we have shown that ghost poles lead to ghost cuts. These cuts are present in the ''nested bubbles.'' Ghost elimination procedures are discussed. Modifications of the ''nested bubbles'' approximation are introduced in order to obtain convergence and in order to eliminate the ghost poles and ghost cuts. In a similar way as in the Lee model, cutoff functions are introduced in order to eliminate the ghost poles. The necessary and sufficient conditions for the absence of ghost poles are formulated and analyzed. The spectral functions of the modified ''nested bubbles'' are analyzed and computed. Finally, we present a theorem, similar in its form to Levinson's theorem in scattering theory, which enables one to compute in a simple way the number of ghost poles
Vertical natural convection: application of the unifying theory of thermal convection
Ng, C.S.; Ooi, A.; Lohse, Detlef; Chung, D.
2015-01-01
Results from direct numerical simulations of vertical natural convection at Rayleigh numbers 1.0×10 5 –1.0×10 9 and Prandtl number 0.709 support a generalised applicability of the Grossmann–Lohse (GL) theory, which was originally developed for horizontal natural (Rayleigh–Bénard) convection. In
Biomass plug development and propagation in porous media.
Stewart, T L; Fogler, H S
2001-02-05
Exopolymer-producing bacteria can be used to modify soil profiles for enhanced oil recovery or bioremediation. Understanding the mechanisms associated with biomass plug development and propagation is needed for successful application of this technology. These mechanisms were determined from packed-bed and micromodel experiments that simulate plugging in porous media. Leuconostoc mesenteroides was used, because production of dextran, a water-insoluble exopolymer, can be controlled by using different carbon sources. As dextran was produced, the pressure drop across the porous media increased and began to oscillate. Three pressure phases were identified under exopolymer-producing conditions: the exopolymer-induction phase, the plugging phase, and the plug-propagation phase. The exopolymer-induction phase extended from the time that exopolymer-producing conditions were induced until there was a measurable increase in pressure drop across the porous media. The plugging phase extended from the first increase in pressure drop until a maximum pressure drop was reached. Changes in pressure drop in these two phases were directly related to biomass distribution. Specifically, flow channels within the porous media filled with biomass creating a plugged region where convective flow occurred only in water channels within the biofilm. These water channels were more restrictive to flow causing the pressure drop to increase. At a maximum pressure drop across the porous media, the biomass yielded much like a Bingham plastic, and a flow channel was formed. This behavior marked the onset of the plug-propagation phase which was characterized by sequential development and breakthrough of biomass plugs. This development and breakthrough propagated the biomass plug in the direction of nutrient flow. The dominant mechanism associated with all three phases of plugging in porous media was exopolymer production; yield stress is an additional mechanism in the plug-propagation phase. Copyright
Nishitani, N.; Hori, T.; Kataoka, R.; Ebihara, Y.; Shiokawa, K.; Otsuka, Y.; Suzuki, H.; Yoshikawa, A.
2016-12-01
The SuperDARN HOkkaido Pair of (HOP) radars, consisting of the Hokkaido East (2006-) and West (2014-) radars, are the SuperDARN radars located at the lowest geomagnetic latitude (36.5 degrees), and have been continuously measuring ionospheric convection at high to subauroral and middle latitudes with high temporal resolutions (Japan from 15 to 19 UT on March 17, 2015 and from 1900 to 2030 UT on December 20, 2015, identified using optical instruments such as all-sky CCD camera, wide field of view digital camera and meridian scanning photometer. Both events occurred during the main phase of the relatively large geomagnetic storms with minimum Dst of -223 nT and -170 nT respectively. The ionospheric convection at mid-latitude regions associated with the low-latitude auroral emission is characterized by (1) transient equatorward flows up to about 500 m/s in the initial phase of the emission (the geomagnetic field data at Paratunka, Far East Russia show corresponding negative excursions), and (2) sheared flow structure consisting of westward flow (about 500 m/s) equatorward of eastward flow (1000 m/s), with the equatorward boundary of auroral emission embedded in the westward flow region which expanded up to below 50 deg geomagnetic latitude. These observations imply that the electric field / convection distribution plays important roles in continuously generating the low latitude auroral emission. In particular the observation of the equatorward flow (dawn-dusk electric field) up to as low as about 50 deg geomagnetic latitude is the direct evidence for the presence of electric field to drive ring current particles into the plasmaspheric regions.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
2002-01-01
The purpose of this Analysis and Model Report (AMR) supporting the Site Recommendation/License Application (SR/LA) for the Yucca Mountain Project is the development of elementary analyses of the interactions of a hypothetical dike with a repository drift (i.e., tunnel) and with the drift contents at the potential Yucca Mountain repository. This effort is intended to support the analysis of disruptive events for Total System Performance Assessment (TSPA). This AMR supports the Process Model Report (PMR) on disruptive events (CRWMS M and O 2000a). This purpose is documented in the development plan (DP) ''Coordinate Modeling of Dike Propagation Near Drifts Consequences for TSPA-SR/LA'' (CRWMS M and O 2000b). Evaluation of that Development Plan and the work to be conducted to prepare Interim Change Notice (ICN) 1 of this report, which now includes the design option of ''Open'' drifts, indicated that no revision to that DP was needed. These analyses are intended to provide reasonable bounds for a number of expected effects: (1) Temperature changes to the waste package from exposure to magma; (2) The gas flow available to degrade waste containers during the intrusion; (3) Movement of the waste package as it is displaced by the gas, pyroclasts and magma from the intruding dike (the number of packages damaged); (4) Movement of the backfill (Backfill is treated here as a design option); (5) The nature of the mechanics of the dike/drift interaction. These analyses serve two objectives: to provide preliminary analyses needed to support evaluation of the consequences of an intrusive event and to provide a basis for addressing some of the concerns of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) expressed in the Igneous Activity Issue Resolution Status Report
Laser beam propagation generation and propagation of customized light
Forbes, Andrew
2014-01-01
""The text is easy to read and is accompanied by beautiful illustrations. It is an excellent book for anyone working in laser beam propagation and an asset for any library.""-Optics & Photonics News, July 2014
Wavelength selection in traveling-wave convection in a fluid mixture
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Surko, C.M.; Eaton, K.D.; Baxter, G.W.; Iwata, K.
1993-01-01
The mechanisms by which a one-dimensional pattern of traveling waves changes wavelength (i.e. the Eckhaus instability) is studied in a binary fluid mixture. Propagating wavelength modulations develop when the Rayleigh number of the system is decreased below a wavelength-dependent threshold, commonly referred to as the Eckhaus boundary. These wavelength modulations increase in amplitude and narrow in spatial extent until they trigger the creation or annihilation of convection roll pairs and thereby change the average wavelength of the system. The authors find qualitatively different dynamics for wavelength-increasing events and wavelength-decreasing events; these differences are due to the strong wavelength dependence of the group velocity
Convective transport resistance in the vitreous humor
Penkova, Anita; Sadhal, Satwindar; Ratanakijsuntorn, Komsan; Moats, Rex; Tang, Yang; Hughes, Patrick; Robinson, Michael; Lee, Susan
2012-11-01
It has been established by MRI visualization experiments that the convection of nanoparticles and large molecules with high rate of water flow in the vitreous humor will experience resistance, depending on the respective permeabilities of the injected solute. A set of experiments conducted with Gd-DTPA (Magnevist, Bayer AG, Leverkusen, Germany) and 30 nm gadolinium-based particles (Gado CELLTrackTM, Biopal, Worcester, MA) as MRI contrast agents showed that the degree of convective transport in this Darcy-type porous medium varies between the two solutes. These experiments consisted of injecting a mixture of the two (a 30 μl solution of 2% Magnevist and 1% nanoparticles) at the middle of the vitreous of an ex vivo whole bovine eye and subjecting the vitreous to water flow rate of 100 μl/min. The water (0.9% saline solution) was injected at the top of the eye, and was allowed to drain through small slits cut at the bottom of the eyeball. After 50 minutes of pumping, MRI images showed that the water flow carried the Gd-DTPA farther than the nanoparticles, even though the two solutes, being mixed, were subjected to the same convective flow conditions. We find that the convected solute lags the water flow, depending on the solute permeability. The usual convection term needs to be adjusted to allow for the filtration effect on the larger particles in the form (1- σ) u . ∇ c with important implications for the modeling of such systems.
Convective mixing in helium white dwarfs
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Vauclair, G.; Fontaine, G.
1979-01-01
The conditions under which convective mixing episodes take place between the helium envelopes and the underlying carbon layers in helium-rich white dwarfs are investigated. It is found that, for essentially any value of the initial helium content less than the maximum mass a helium convection zone can have, mixing does occur, and leads, in the vast majority of cases, to an almost pure carbon superficial composition. Mixing products that show only traces of carbon while retaining helium-dominated envelopes are possible only if the initial helium content is quite close to the maximum possible mass of the helium convection zone. In the presence of turbulence, this restriction could be relaxed, however, and the helium-rich lambda4670 stars may possibly be explained in this fashion
Methodologies of Uncertainty Propagation Calculation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chojnacki, Eric
2002-01-01
After recalling the theoretical principle and the practical difficulties of the methodologies of uncertainty propagation calculation, the author discussed how to propagate input uncertainties. He said there were two kinds of input uncertainty: - variability: uncertainty due to heterogeneity, - lack of knowledge: uncertainty due to ignorance. It was therefore necessary to use two different propagation methods. He demonstrated this in a simple example which he generalised, treating the variability uncertainty by the probability theory and the lack of knowledge uncertainty by the fuzzy theory. He cautioned, however, against the systematic use of probability theory which may lead to unjustifiable and illegitimate precise answers. Mr Chojnacki's conclusions were that the importance of distinguishing variability and lack of knowledge increased as the problem was getting more and more complex in terms of number of parameters or time steps, and that it was necessary to develop uncertainty propagation methodologies combining probability theory and fuzzy theory
Propagation engineering in wireless communications
Ghasemi, Abdollah; Ghasemi, Farshid
2016-01-01
This book covers the basic principles for understanding radio wave propagation for common frequency bands used in radio-communications. This includes achievements and developments in propagation models for wireless communication. This book is intended to bridge the gap between the theoretical calculations and approaches to the applied procedures needed for radio links design in a proper manner. The authors emphasize propagation engineering by giving fundamental information and explain the use of basic principles together with technical achievements. This new edition includes additional information on radio wave propagation in guided media and technical issues for fiber optics cable networks with several examples and problems. This book also includes a solution manual - with 90 solved examples distributed throughout the chapters - and 158 problems including practical values and assumptions.
Wave propagation in electromagnetic media
Davis, Julian L
1990-01-01
This is the second work of a set of two volumes on the phenomena of wave propagation in nonreacting and reacting media. The first, entitled Wave Propagation in Solids and Fluids (published by Springer-Verlag in 1988), deals with wave phenomena in nonreacting media (solids and fluids). This book is concerned with wave propagation in reacting media-specifically, in electro magnetic materials. Since these volumes were designed to be relatively self contained, we have taken the liberty of adapting some of the pertinent material, especially in the theory of hyperbolic partial differential equations (concerned with electromagnetic wave propagation), variational methods, and Hamilton-Jacobi theory, to the phenomena of electromagnetic waves. The purpose of this volume is similar to that of the first, except that here we are dealing with electromagnetic waves. We attempt to present a clear and systematic account of the mathematical methods of wave phenomena in electromagnetic materials that will be readily accessi...
Massive propagators in instanton fields
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Brown, L.S.; Lee, C.
1978-01-01
Green's functions for massive spinor and vector particles propagating in a self-dual but otherwise arbitrary non-Abelian gauge field are shown to be completely determined by the corresponding Green's functions of massive scalar particles
Propagation of dynamic measurement uncertainty
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hessling, J P
2011-01-01
The time-dependent measurement uncertainty has been evaluated in a number of recent publications, starting from a known uncertain dynamic model. This could be defined as the 'downward' propagation of uncertainty from the model to the targeted measurement. The propagation of uncertainty 'upward' from the calibration experiment to a dynamic model traditionally belongs to system identification. The use of different representations (time, frequency, etc) is ubiquitous in dynamic measurement analyses. An expression of uncertainty in dynamic measurements is formulated for the first time in this paper independent of representation, joining upward as well as downward propagation. For applications in metrology, the high quality of the characterization may be prohibitive for any reasonably large and robust model to pass the whiteness test. This test is therefore relaxed by not directly requiring small systematic model errors in comparison to the randomness of the characterization. Instead, the systematic error of the dynamic model is propagated to the uncertainty of the measurand, analogously but differently to how stochastic contributions are propagated. The pass criterion of the model is thereby transferred from the identification to acceptance of the total accumulated uncertainty of the measurand. This increases the relevance of the test of the model as it relates to its final use rather than the quality of the calibration. The propagation of uncertainty hence includes the propagation of systematic model errors. For illustration, the 'upward' propagation of uncertainty is applied to determine if an appliance box is damaged in an earthquake experiment. In this case, relaxation of the whiteness test was required to reach a conclusive result
Report on thermic effects in the study of the control and propagation of nuclear reactions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Naudet, R.
It is very likely that nuclear reactions in natural reactors are governed by temperature, chiefly as a result of the moderation rate when the water density is altered. Since reactors operate under high pressure, with supercritical water, high temperatures (at least 350 to 400 0 C in some instances) are required in order to stabilize the reactors. Some typical calculations are shown in order to illustrate the changes in the control temperature during irradiation. The speed and, therefore, the duration of reactions is determined by the need to maintain the necessary temperature required for criticality, with heat dissipation conditions taken into account. Apparent measured durations are compatible with heat dissipation by simple conduction. However, it is likely that convection currents exist, and that their effects are superimposed on those of simple conduction. Reaction propagation must also be taken into consideration since criticality cannot be realized simultaneously at every point. The presence of impurities such as gadolinium or samarium in the mineral ore allows reactions to propagate in initially subcritical increments, through progressive breakdown of the impurities by means of neutronic diffusion. However, it has been shown that this phenomenon is seriously affected by thermic effects. Typical calculations are presented. Results clearly depend on temperature distribution hypotheses; sufficient thermic coupling can totally inhibit reaction propagation. It is concluded that, if convection currents are present, propagation is favored inversely with respect to the currents, and therefore a priori downstream of the reactors. 6 figures
Natural Convective Heat Transfer from Narrow Plates
Oosthuizen, Patrick H
2013-01-01
Natural Convective Heat Transfer from Narrow Plates deals with a heat transfer situation that is of significant practical importance but which is not adequately dealt with in any existing textbooks or in any widely available review papers. The aim of the book is to introduce the reader to recent studies of natural convection from narrow plates including the effects of plate edge conditions, plate inclination, thermal conditions at the plate surface and interaction of the flows over adjacent plates. Both numerical and experimental studies are discussed and correlation equations based on the results of these studies are reviewed.
Introductory analysis of Benard-Marangoni convection
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Maroto, J A; Perez-Munuzuri, V; Romero-Cano, M S
2007-01-01
We describe experiments on Benard-Marangoni convection which permit a useful understanding of the main concepts involved in this phenomenon such as, for example, Benard cells, aspect ratio, Rayleigh and Marangoni numbers, Crispation number and critical conditions. In spite of the complexity of convection theory, we carry out a simple and introductory analysis which has the additional advantage of providing very suggestive experiments. As a consequence, we recommend our device for use as a laboratory experiment for undergraduate students of the thermodynamics of nonlinear and fluid physics
Introductory analysis of Benard-Marangoni convection
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Maroto, J A [Group of Physics and Chemistry of Linares, Escuela Politecnica Superior, St Alfonso X El Sabio, 28, University of Jaen, E-23700 Linares, Jaen (Spain); Perez-Munuzuri, V [Group of Nonlinear Physics, University of Santiago de Compostela, E-15782 Santiago de Compostela (Spain); Romero-Cano, M S [Group of Complex Fluids Physics, Department of Applied Physics, University of Almeria, E-04120 Almeria (Spain)
2007-03-15
We describe experiments on Benard-Marangoni convection which permit a useful understanding of the main concepts involved in this phenomenon such as, for example, Benard cells, aspect ratio, Rayleigh and Marangoni numbers, Crispation number and critical conditions. In spite of the complexity of convection theory, we carry out a simple and introductory analysis which has the additional advantage of providing very suggestive experiments. As a consequence, we recommend our device for use as a laboratory experiment for undergraduate students of the thermodynamics of nonlinear and fluid physics.
Topology Optimisation for Coupled Convection Problems
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Alexandersen, Joe; Andreasen, Casper Schousboe; Aage, Niels
stabilised finite elements implemented in a parallel multiphysics analysis and optimisation framework DFEM [1], developed and maintained in house. Focus is put on control of the temperature field within the solid structure and the problems can therefore be seen as conjugate heat transfer problems, where heat...... conduction governs in the solid parts of the design domain and couples to convection-dominated heat transfer to a surrounding fluid. Both loosely coupled and tightly coupled problems are considered. The loosely coupled problems are convection-diffusion problems, based on an advective velocity field from...
Lattice BGK simulation of natural convection
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chen, Yu; Ohashi, Hirotada; Akiyama, Mamoru
1995-01-01
Recently a new thermal lattice Bhatnagar-Gross-Krook fluid model was suggested by the authors. In this study, this new model was applied into the numerical simulation of natural convection, namely the Rayleigh Benard flow. The critical number for the onset of convective phenomenon was numerically measured and compared with that of theoretical prediction. A gravity dependent deviation was found in the numerical simulation, which is explained as an unavoidable consequence of the incorporation of gravity force in the lattice BGK system. (author)
Semiclassical propagation of Wigner functions.
Dittrich, T; Gómez, E A; Pachón, L A
2010-06-07
We present a comprehensive study of semiclassical phase-space propagation in the Wigner representation, emphasizing numerical applications, in particular as an initial-value representation. Two semiclassical approximation schemes are discussed. The propagator of the Wigner function based on van Vleck's approximation replaces the Liouville propagator by a quantum spot with an oscillatory pattern reflecting the interference between pairs of classical trajectories. Employing phase-space path integration instead, caustics in the quantum spot are resolved in terms of Airy functions. We apply both to two benchmark models of nonlinear molecular potentials, the Morse oscillator and the quartic double well, to test them in standard tasks such as computing autocorrelation functions and propagating coherent states. The performance of semiclassical Wigner propagation is very good even in the presence of marked quantum effects, e.g., in coherent tunneling and in propagating Schrodinger cat states, and of classical chaos in four-dimensional phase space. We suggest options for an effective numerical implementation of our method and for integrating it in Monte-Carlo-Metropolis algorithms suitable for high-dimensional systems.
Dhara, Chirag; Renner, Maik; Kleidon, Axel
2015-04-01
The convective transport of heat and moisture plays a key role in the climate system, but the transport is typically parameterized in models. Here, we aim at the simplest possible physical representation and treat convective heat fluxes as the result of a heat engine. We combine the well-known Carnot limit of this heat engine with the energy balances of the surface-atmosphere system that describe how the temperature difference is affected by convective heat transport, yielding a maximum power limit of convection. This results in a simple analytic expression for convective strength that depends primarily on surface solar absorption. We compare this expression with an idealized grey atmosphere radiative-convective (RC) model as well as Global Circulation Model (GCM) simulations at the grid scale. We find that our simple expression as well as the RC model can explain much of the geographic variation of the GCM output, resulting in strong linear correlations among the three approaches. The RC model, however, shows a lower bias than our simple expression. We identify the use of the prescribed convective adjustment in RC-like models as the reason for the lower bias. The strength of our model lies in its ability to capture the geographic variation of convective strength with a parameter-free expression. On the other hand, the comparison with the RC model indicates a method for improving the formulation of radiative transfer in our simple approach. We also find that the latent heat fluxes compare very well among the approaches, as well as their sensitivity to surface warming. What our comparison suggests is that the strength of convection and their sensitivity in the climatic mean can be estimated relatively robustly by rather simple approaches.
Combined MW-IR Precipitation Evolving Technique (PET of convective rain fields
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
F. Di Paola
2012-11-01
Full Text Available This paper describes a new multi-sensor approach for convective rain cell continuous monitoring based on rainfall derived from Passive Microwave (PM remote sensing from the Low Earth Orbit (LEO satellite coupled with Infrared (IR remote sensing Brightness Temperature (TB from the Geosynchronous (GEO orbit satellite. The proposed technique, which we call Precipitation Evolving Technique (PET, propagates forward in time and space the last available rain-rate (RR maps derived from Advanced Microwave Sounding Units (AMSU and Microwave Humidity Sounder (MHS observations by using IR TB maps of water vapor (6.2 μm and thermal-IR (10.8 μm channels from a Spinning Enhanced Visible and Infrared Imager (SEVIRI radiometer. PET is based on two different modules, the first for morphing and tracking rain cells and the second for dynamic calibration IR-RR. The Morphing module uses two consecutive IR data to identify the motion vector to be applied to the rain field so as to propagate it in time and space, whilst the Calibration module computes the dynamic relationship between IR and RR in order to take into account genesis, extinction or size variation of rain cells. Finally, a combination of the Morphing and Calibration output provides a rainfall map at IR space and time scale, and the whole procedure is reiterated by using the last RR map output until a new MW-based rainfall is available. The PET results have been analyzed with respect to two different PM-RR retrieval algorithms for seven case studies referring to different rainfall convective events. The qualitative, dichotomous and continuous assessments show an overall ability of this technique to propagate rain field at least for 2–3 h propagation time.
High Ra, high Pr convection with viscosity gradients
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. High Ra, high Pr convection with viscosity gradients. Weak upward flow through mesh. Top fluid more viscous. Unstable layer Instability Convection.
Stretched flow of Carreau nanofluid with convective boundary ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
journal of. January 2016 physics pp. 3–17. Stretched flow of Carreau nanofluid with ... fluid over a flat plate subjected to convective surface condition. ... the steady laminar boundary layer flow over a permeable plate with a convective boundary.
An infinite-dimensional model of free convection
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Iudovich, V.I. (Rostovskii Gosudarstvennyi Universitet, Rostov-on-Don (USSR))
1990-12-01
An infinite-dimensional model is derived from the equations of free convection in the Boussinesq-Oberbeck approximation. The velocity field is approximated by a single mode, while the heat-conduction equation is conserved fully. It is shown that, for all supercritical Rayleigh numbers, there exist exactly two secondary convective regimes. The case of ideal convection with zero viscosity and thermal conductivity is examined. The averaging method is used to study convection regimes at high Reynolds numbers. 10 refs.
Education: DNA replication using microscale natural convection.
Priye, Aashish; Hassan, Yassin A; Ugaz, Victor M
2012-12-07
There is a need for innovative educational experiences that unify and reinforce fundamental principles at the interface between the physical, chemical, and life sciences. These experiences empower and excite students by helping them recognize how interdisciplinary knowledge can be applied to develop new products and technologies that benefit society. Microfluidics offers an incredibly versatile tool to address this need. Here we describe our efforts to create innovative hands-on activities that introduce chemical engineering students to molecular biology by challenging them to harness microscale natural convection phenomena to perform DNA replication via the polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Experimentally, we have constructed convective PCR stations incorporating a simple design for loading and mounting cylindrical microfluidic reactors between independently controlled thermal plates. A portable motion analysis microscope enables flow patterns inside the convective reactors to be directly visualized using fluorescent bead tracers. We have also developed a hands-on computational fluid dynamics (CFD) exercise based on modeling microscale thermal convection to identify optimal geometries for DNA replication. A cognitive assessment reveals that these activities strongly impact student learning in a positive way.
Evolution of Excited Convective Cells in Plasmas
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Pécseli, Hans; Juul Rasmussen, Jens; Sugai, H.
1984-01-01
Convective cells are excited externally in a fully ionized magnetized plasma and their space-time evolution is investigated by two-dimensional potential measurements. A positive cell is excited externally by control of the end losses in the 'scrape off' layer of a plasma column produced by surface...
Free convection film flows and heat transfer
Shang, Deyi
2010-01-01
Presents development of systematic studies for hydrodynamics and heat and mass transfer in laminar free convection, accelerating film boiling and condensation of Newtonian fluids, and accelerating film flow of non-Newtonian power-law fluids. This book provides a system of analysis models with a developed velocity component method.
Penetrative convection at high Rayleigh numbers
Toppaladoddi, Srikanth; Wettlaufer, John S.
2018-04-01
We study penetrative convection of a fluid confined between two horizontal plates, the temperatures of which are such that a temperature of maximum density lies between them. The range of Rayleigh numbers studied is Ra=[0.01 ,4 ]106,108 and the Prandtl numbers are Pr=1 and 11.6. An evolution equation for the growth of the convecting region is obtained through an integral energy balance. We identify a new nondimensional parameter, Λ , which is the ratio of temperature difference between the stable and unstable regions of the flow; larger values of Λ denote increased stability of the upper stable layer. We study the effects of Λ on the flow field using well-resolved lattice Boltzmann simulations and show that the characteristics of the flow depend sensitively upon it. For the range Λ = , we find that for a fixed Ra the Nusselt number, Nu, increases with decreasing Λ . We also investigate the effects of Λ on the vertical variation of convective heat flux and the Brunt-Väisälä frequency. Our results clearly indicate that in the limit Λ →0 the problem reduces to that of the classical Rayleigh-Bénard convection.
Radiative-convective equilibrium model intercomparison project
Wing, Allison A.; Reed, Kevin A.; Satoh, Masaki; Stevens, Bjorn; Bony, Sandrine; Ohno, Tomoki
2018-03-01
RCEMIP, an intercomparison of multiple types of models configured in radiative-convective equilibrium (RCE), is proposed. RCE is an idealization of the climate system in which there is a balance between radiative cooling of the atmosphere and heating by convection. The scientific objectives of RCEMIP are three-fold. First, clouds and climate sensitivity will be investigated in the RCE setting. This includes determining how cloud fraction changes with warming and the role of self-aggregation of convection in climate sensitivity. Second, RCEMIP will quantify the dependence of the degree of convective aggregation and tropical circulation regimes on temperature. Finally, by providing a common baseline, RCEMIP will allow the robustness of the RCE state across the spectrum of models to be assessed, which is essential for interpreting the results found regarding clouds, climate sensitivity, and aggregation, and more generally, determining which features of tropical climate a RCE framework is useful for. A novel aspect and major advantage of RCEMIP is the accessibility of the RCE framework to a variety of models, including cloud-resolving models, general circulation models, global cloud-resolving models, single-column models, and large-eddy simulation models.
Vortex statistics in turbulent rotating convection
Kunnen, R.P.J.; Clercx, H.J.H.; Geurts, B.J.
2010-01-01
The vortices emerging in rotating turbulent Rayleigh-Bénard convection in water at Rayleigh number Ra=6.0×108 are investigated using stereoscopic particle image velocimetry and by direct numerical simulation. The so-called Q criterion is used to detect the vortices from velocity fields. This
Phenomenology of convection-parameterization closure
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
J.-I. Yano
2013-04-01
Full Text Available Closure is a problem of defining the convective intensity in a given parameterization. In spite of many years of efforts and progress, it is still considered an overall unresolved problem. The present article reviews this problem from phenomenological perspectives. The physical variables that may contribute in defining the convective intensity are listed, and their statistical significances identified by observational data analyses are reviewed. A possibility is discussed for identifying a correct closure hypothesis by performing a linear stability analysis of tropical convectively coupled waves with various different closure hypotheses. Various individual theoretical issues are considered from various different perspectives. The review also emphasizes that the dominant physical factors controlling convection differ between the tropics and extra-tropics, as well as between oceanic and land areas. Both observational as well as theoretical analyses, often focused on the tropics, do not necessarily lead to conclusions consistent with our operational experiences focused on midlatitudes. Though we emphasize the importance of the interplays between these observational, theoretical and operational perspectives, we also face challenges for establishing a solid research framework that is universally applicable. An energy cycle framework is suggested as such a candidate.
Oscillatory Convection in Rotating Liquid Metals
Bertin, Vincent; Grannan, Alex; Aurnou, Jonathan
2016-11-01
We have performed laboratory experiments in a aspect ratio Γ = 2 cylinder using liquid gallium (Pr = 0 . 023) as the working fluid. The Ekman number varies from E = 4 ×10-5 to 4 ×10-6 and the Rayleigh number varies from Ra = 3 ×105 to 2 ×107 . Using heat transfer and temperature measurements within the fluid, we characterize the different styles of low Pr rotating convective flow. The convection threshold is first overcome in the form of a container scale inertial oscillatory mode. At stronger forcing, wall-localized modes develop, coexisting with the inertial oscillatory modes in the bulk. When the strength of the buoyancy increases further, the bulk flow becomes turbulent while the wall modes remain. Our results imply that rotating convective flows in liquid metals do not develop in the form of quasi-steady columns, as in Pr = 1 planetary and stellar dynamo models, but in the form of oscillatory motions. Therefore, convection driven dynamo action in low Pr fluids can differ substantively than that occurring in typical Pr = 1 numerical models. Our results also suggest that low wavenumber, wall modes may be dynamically and observationally important in liquid metal dynamo systems. We thank the NSF Geophysics Program for support of this project.
Natural convection in horizontal fluid layers
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Suo-Antilla, A.J.
1977-02-01
The experimental work includes developing and using a thermal convection cell to obtain measurements of the heat flux and turbulent core temperature of a horizontal layer of fluid heated internally and subject to both stabilizing and destabilizing temperature differences. The ranges of Rayleigh numbers tested were 10 7 equal to or less than R/sub I/ equal to or less than 10 13 and -10 10 equal to or less than R/sub E/ equal to or less than 10 10 . Power integral methods were found to be adequate for interpolating and extrapolating the data. The theoretical work consists of the derivation, solution and use of the mean field equations for study of thermally driven convection in horizontal layers of infinite extent. The equations were derived by a separation of variables technique where the horizontal directions were described by periodic structures and the vertical being some function of z. The derivation resulted in a coupled set of momentum and energy equations. The equations were simplified by using the infinite Prandtl number limit and neglecting direct intermodal interaction. Solutions to these equations are used to predict the existence of multi-wavenumber flows at all supercritical Rayleigh numbers. Subsequent inspection of existing experimental photographs of convecting fluids confirms their existence. The onset of time dependence is found to coincide with the onset of the second convective mode. Each mode is found to consist of two wavenumbers and typically the velocity and temperature fields of the right modal branch are found to be out of phase
Unstable mixed convective transport in groundwater
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Schincariol, R.A.; Schwartz, F.W.
1990-01-01
This study is an experimental investigation of variable density groundwater flow in homogeneous and lenticular porous media. A solution of 500 mg/l Rhodamine WT dye served as the carrier for various concentrations of solute (NaCl) introduced into a two-dimensional flow tank at concentrations ranging from 1000 to 100,000 mg/l. At the scale of the experiments, mass transport depends upon both forced and free convection. In addition, density differences as low as 0.008 g/cm 3 (1000 mg/l NaCl) between a plume of dense water and ambient groundwater in homogeneous medium produces gravitational instabilities at realistic groundwater velocities. These instabilities are manifest by lobe-shaped protuberances that formed first along the bottom edge of the plume and later within the plume. As the density difference increases to 0.0015 g/cm 3 (2000 mg/l NaCl), 0.0037 g/cm 3 (5000 mg/l NaCl) or higher, this unstable mixing due to convective dispersion significantly alters the spreading process, resulting in a large degree of vertical spreading of the plume. In a lenticular medium the combination of convective dispersion and nonuniform flow due to heterogeneities results in relatively large dispersion. Scale considerations indicate that convective dispersion may provide an important component of mixing at the field scale. (Author) (30 refs., 12 figs., 3 tabs.)
Solar Hot Water Heating by Natural Convection.
Noble, Richard D.
1983-01-01
Presents an undergraduate laboratory experiment in which a solar collector is used to heat water for domestic use. The working fluid is moved by natural convection so no pumps are required. Experimental apparatus is simple in design and operation so that data can be collected quickly and easily. (Author/JN)
A 'backward' free-convective boundary layer
Kuiken, H.K.
1981-01-01
In this paper the cooling of a low-heat-resistance sheet that moves downwards is considered. The free-convective velocities are assumed to be much larger than the velocity of the sheet. As a result the motion of the fluid is mainly towards the point where the sheet enters the system and a ‘backward’
Natural convection inside an irregular porous cavity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Beltran, Jorge I. LLagostera; Trevisan, Osvair Vidal
1990-01-01
Natural convection flow induced by heating from below in a irregular porous cavity is investigated numerically. The influence of the modified Rayleigh number and geometric ratios on heat transfer and fluid flow is studied. Global and local Nusselt for Rayleigh numbers covering the range 0 - 1600 and for several geometric ratios. The fluid flow and the temperature field are illustrated by contour maps. (author)
Convection in Slab and Spheroidal Geometries
Porter, David H.; Woodward, Paul R.; Jacobs, Michael L.
2000-01-01
Three-dimensional numerical simulations of compressible turbulent thermally driven convection, in both slab and spheroidal geometries, are reviewed and analyzed in terms of velocity spectra and mixing-length theory. The same ideal gas model is used in both geometries, and resulting flows are compared. The piecewise-parabolic method (PPM), with either thermal conductivity or photospheric boundary conditions, is used to solve the fluid equations of motion. Fluid motions in both geometries exhibit a Kolmogorov-like k(sup -5/3) range in their velocity spectra. The longest wavelength modes are energetically dominant in both geometries, typically leading to one convection cell dominating the flow. In spheroidal geometry, a dipolar flow dominates the largest scale convective motions. Downflows are intensely turbulent and up drafts are relatively laminar in both geometries. In slab geometry, correlations between temperature and velocity fluctuations, which lead to the enthalpy flux, are fairly independent of depth. In spheroidal geometry this same correlation increases linearly with radius over the inner 70 percent by radius, in which the local pressure scale heights are a sizable fraction of the radius. The effects from the impenetrable boundary conditions in the slab geometry models are confused with the effects from non-local convection. In spheroidal geometry nonlocal effects, due to coherent plumes, are seen as far as several pressure scale heights from the lower boundary and are clearly distinguishable from boundary effects.
Preserving Symmetry in Convection-Diffusion Schemes
Verstappen, R.W.C.P.; Veldman, A.E.P.; Drikakis, D.; Geurts, B.J.
2002-01-01
We propose to perform turbulent flow simulations in such manner that the difference operators do have the same symmetry properties as the corresponding differential operators. That is, the convective operator is represented by a skew-symmetric difference operator and the diffusive operator is
Theories for convection in stellar atmospheres
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nordlund, Aa.
1976-02-01
A discussion of the fundamental differences between laboratory convection in a stellar atmosphere is presented. The shortcomings of laterally homogeneous model atmospheres are analysed, and the extent to which these shortcoming are avoided in the two-component representation is discussed. Finally a qualitative discussion on the scaling properties of stellar granulation is presented. (Auth.)
Terminal project heat convection in thin cylinders
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Morales Corona, J.
1992-01-01
Heat convection in thin cylinders and analysis about natural convection for straight vertical plates, and straight vertical cylinders submersed in a fluid are presented some works carry out by different authors in the field of heat transfer. In the part of conduction, deduction of the equation of heat conduction in cylindrical coordinates by means of energy balance in a control volume is presented. Enthalpy and internal energy are used for the outlining of the equation and finally the equation in its vectorial form is obtained. In the convection part development to calculate the Nusselt number for a straight vertical plate by a forces analysis, an energy balance and mass conservation over a control volume is outlined. Several empiric correlations to calculate the Nusselt number and its relations with other dimensionless numbers are presented. In the experimental part the way in which a prototype rode is assembled is presented measurements of temperatures attained in steady state and in free convection for working fluids as air and water are showed in tables. Also graphs of Nusselt numbers obtained in the experimental way through some empiric correlations are showed (Author)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Rauf, A., E-mail: raufamar@ciitsahiwal.edu.pk [Department of Mathematics, Comsats Institute of Information Technology, Sahiwal 57000 (Pakistan); Siddiq, M.K. [Centre for Advanced Studies in Pure and Applied Mathematics, Department of Mathematics, Bahauddin Zakariya University, Multan 63000 (Pakistan); Abbasi, F.M. [Department of Mathematics, Comsats Institute of Information Technology, Islamabad 44000 (Pakistan); Meraj, M.A. [Department of Mathematics, Comsats Institute of Information Technology, Sahiwal 57000 (Pakistan); Ashraf, M. [Centre for Advanced Studies in Pure and Applied Mathematics, Department of Mathematics, Bahauddin Zakariya University, Multan 63000 (Pakistan); Shehzad, S.A. [Department of Mathematics, Comsats Institute of Information Technology, Sahiwal 57000 (Pakistan)
2016-10-15
The present work deals with the steady laminar three-dimensional mixed convective magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) boundary layer flow of Casson nanofluid over a bidirectional stretching surface. A uniform magnetic field is applied normal to the flow direction. Similarity variables are implemented to convert the non-linear partial differential equations into ordinary ones. Convective boundary conditions are utilized at surface of the sheet. A numerical technique of Runge–Kutta–Fehlberg (RFK45) is used to obtain the results of velocity, temperature and concentration fields. The physical dimensionless parameters are discussed through tables and graphs. - Highlights: • Mixed convective boundary layer flow of Casson nanofluid is taken into account. • Impact of magnetic field is examined. • Convective heat and mass conditions are imposed. • Numerical solutions are presented and discussed.
Testing particle filters on convective scale dynamics
Haslehner, Mylene; Craig, George. C.; Janjic, Tijana
2014-05-01
Particle filters have been developed in recent years to deal with highly nonlinear dynamics and non Gaussian error statistics that also characterize data assimilation on convective scales. In this work we explore the use of the efficient particle filter (P.v. Leeuwen, 2011) for convective scale data assimilation application. The method is tested in idealized setting, on two stochastic models. The models were designed to reproduce some of the properties of convection, for example the rapid development and decay of convective clouds. The first model is a simple one-dimensional, discrete state birth-death model of clouds (Craig and Würsch, 2012). For this model, the efficient particle filter that includes nudging the variables shows significant improvement compared to Ensemble Kalman Filter and Sequential Importance Resampling (SIR) particle filter. The success of the combination of nudging and resampling, measured as RMS error with respect to the 'true state', is proportional to the nudging intensity. Significantly, even a very weak nudging intensity brings notable improvement over SIR. The second model is a modified version of a stochastic shallow water model (Würsch and Craig 2013), which contains more realistic dynamical characteristics of convective scale phenomena. Using the efficient particle filter and different combination of observations of the three field variables (wind, water 'height' and rain) allows the particle filter to be evaluated in comparison to a regime where only nudging is used. Sensitivity to the properties of the model error covariance is also considered. Finally, criteria are identified under which the efficient particle filter outperforms nudging alone. References: Craig, G. C. and M. Würsch, 2012: The impact of localization and observation averaging for convective-scale data assimilation in a simple stochastic model. Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc.,139, 515-523. Van Leeuwen, P. J., 2011: Efficient non-linear data assimilation in geophysical
Novel Natural Convection Heat Sink Design Concepts From First Principles
2016-06-01
CONVECTION HEAT SINK DESIGN CONCEPTS FROM FIRST PRINCIPLES by Derek E. Fletcher June 2016 Thesis Advisor: Garth Hobson Second Reader...COVERED Master’s Thesis 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE NOVEL NATURAL CONVECTION HEAT SINK DESIGN CONCEPTS FROM FIRST PRINCIPLES 5. FUNDING NUMBERS 6...CONVECTION HEAT SINK DESIGN CONCEPTS FROM FIRST PRINCIPLES Derek E. Fletcher Lieutenant Commander, United States Navy B.S., Southwestern
International symposium on transient convective heat transfer: book of abstracts
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
1996-01-01
The international symposium on convective heat transfer was held on 19-23 August 1996, in Cesme, Izmir, Turkey. The spesialists discussed forced convection, heat exchangers, free convection and multiphase media and phase change at the meeting. Almost 53 papers were presented in the meeting
Xu, Kuan-Man
2015-01-01
During inactive phases of Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO), there are plenty of deep but small convective systems and far fewer deep and large ones. During active phases of MJO, a manifestation of an increase in the occurrence of large and deep cloud clusters results from an amplification of large-scale motions by stronger convective heating. This study is designed to quantitatively examine the roles of small and large cloud clusters during the MJO life cycle. We analyze the cloud object data from Aqua CERES (Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System) observations between July 2006 and June 2010 for tropical deep convective (DC) and cirrostratus (CS) cloud object types according to the real-time multivariate MJO index, which assigns the tropics to one of the eight MJO phases each day. The cloud object is a contiguous region of the earth with a single dominant cloud-system type. The criteria for defining these cloud types are overcast footprints and cloud top pressures less than 400 hPa, but DC has higher cloud optical depths (=10) than those of CS (background noises resulting from various types of the tropical waves with different wavenumbers and propagation speeds/directions.
Group symmetries and information propagation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Draayer, J.P.
1980-01-01
Spectroscopy concerns itself with the ways in which the Hamiltonian and other interesting operators defined in few-particle spaces are determined or determine properties of many-particle systems. But the action of the central limit theorem (CLT) filters the transmission of information between source and observed so whether propagating forward from a few-particle defining space, as is usual in theoretical studies, or projecting backward to it from measured things, each is only sensitive to averaged properties of the other. Our concern is with the propagation of spectroscopic information in the presence of good symmetries when filtering action of the CLT is effective. Specifically, we propose to address the question, What propagates and how. We begin with some examples, using both scalar and isospin geometries to illustrate simple propagation. Examples of matrix propagation are studied; contact with standard tensor algebra is established and an algorithm put forward for the expansion of any operator in terms of another set, complete or not; shell-model results for 20 Ne using a realistic interaction and two trace-equivalent forms are presented; and some further challenges are mentioned
Basal melting driven by turbulent thermal convection
Rabbanipour Esfahani, Babak; Hirata, Silvia C.; Berti, Stefano; Calzavarini, Enrico
2018-05-01
Melting and, conversely, solidification processes in the presence of convection are key to many geophysical problems. An essential question related to these phenomena concerns the estimation of the (time-evolving) melting rate, which is tightly connected to the turbulent convective dynamics in the bulk of the melt fluid and the heat transfer at the liquid-solid interface. In this work, we consider a convective-melting model, constructed as a generalization of the Rayleigh-Bénard system, accounting for the basal melting of a solid. As the change of phase proceeds, a fluid layer grows at the heated bottom of the system and eventually reaches a turbulent convection state. By means of extensive lattice-Boltzmann numerical simulations employing an enthalpy formulation of the governing equations, we explore the model dynamics in two- and three-dimensional configurations. The focus of the analysis is on the scaling of global quantities like the heat flux and the kinetic energy with the Rayleigh number, as well as on the interface morphology and the effects of space dimensionality. Independently of dimensionality, we find that the convective-melting system behavior shares strong resemblances with that of the Rayleigh-Bénard one, and that the heat flux is only weakly enhanced with respect to that case. Such similarities are understood, at least to some extent, considering the resulting slow motion of the melting front (with respect to the turbulent fluid velocity fluctuations) and its generally little roughness (compared to the height of the fluid layer). Varying the Stefan number, accounting for the thermodynamical properties of the material, also seems to have only a mild effect, which implies the possibility of extrapolating results in numerically delicate low-Stefan setups from more convenient high-Stefan ones. Finally, we discuss the implications of our findings for the geophysically relevant problem of modeling Arctic ice melt ponds.
Convective mass transfer around a dissolving bubble
Duplat, Jerome; Grandemange, Mathieu; Poulain, Cedric
2017-11-01
Heat or mass transfer around an evaporating drop or condensing vapor bubble is a complex issue due to the interplay between the substrate properties, diffusion- and convection-driven mass transfer, and Marangoni effects, to mention but a few. In order to disentangle these mechanisms, we focus here mainly on the convective mass transfer contribution in an isothermal mass transfer problem. For this, we study the case of a millimetric carbon dioxide bubble which is suspended under a substrate and dissolved into pure liquid water. The high solubility of CO2 in water makes the liquid denser and promotes a buoyant-driven flow at a high (solutal) Rayleigh number (Ra˜104 ). The alteration of p H allows the concentration field in the liquid to be imaged by laser fluorescence enabling us to measure both the global mass flux (bubble volume, contact angle) and local mass flux around the bubble along time. After a short period of mass diffusion, where the boundary layer thickens like the square root of time, convection starts and the CO2 is carried by a plume falling at constant velocity. The boundary layer thickness then reaches a plateau which depends on the bubble cross section. Meanwhile the plume velocity scales like (dV /d t )1 /2 with V being the volume of the bubble. As for the rate of volume loss, we recover a constant mass flux in the diffusion-driven regime followed by a decrease in the volume V like V2 /3 after convection has started. We present a model which agrees well with the bubble dynamics and discuss our results in the context of droplet evaporation, as well as high Rayleigh convection.
Signal propagation along the axon.
Rama, Sylvain; Zbili, Mickaël; Debanne, Dominique
2018-03-08
Axons link distant brain regions and are usually considered as simple transmission cables in which reliable propagation occurs once an action potential has been generated. Safe propagation of action potentials relies on specific ion channel expression at strategic points of the axon such as nodes of Ranvier or axonal branch points. However, while action potentials are generally considered as the quantum of neuronal information, their signaling is not entirely digital. In fact, both their shape and their conduction speed have been shown to be modulated by activity, leading to regulations of synaptic latency and synaptic strength. We report here newly identified mechanisms of (1) safe spike propagation along the axon, (2) compartmentalization of action potential shape in the axon, (3) analog modulation of spike-evoked synaptic transmission and (4) alteration in conduction time after persistent regulation of axon morphology in central neurons. We discuss the contribution of these regulations in information processing. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
A continuous and prognostic convection scheme based on buoyancy, PCMT
Guérémy, Jean-François; Piriou, Jean-Marcel
2016-04-01
A new and consistent convection scheme (PCMT: Prognostic Condensates Microphysics and Transport), providing a continuous and prognostic treatment of this atmospheric process, is described. The main concept ensuring the consistency of the whole system is the buoyancy, key element of any vertical motion. The buoyancy constitutes the forcing term of the convective vertical velocity, which is then used to define the triggering condition, the mass flux, and the rates of entrainment-detrainment. The buoyancy is also used in its vertically integrated form (CAPE) to determine the closure condition. The continuous treatment of convection, from dry thermals to deep precipitating convection, is achieved with the help of a continuous formulation of the entrainment-detrainment rates (depending on the convective vertical velocity) and of the CAPE relaxation time (depending on the convective over-turning time). The convective tendencies are directly expressed in terms of condensation and transport. Finally, the convective vertical velocity and condensates are fully prognostic, the latter being treated using the same microphysics scheme as for the resolved condensates but considering the convective environment. A Single Column Model (SCM) validation of this scheme is shown, allowing detailed comparisons with observed and explicitly simulated data. Four cases covering the convective spectrum are considered: over ocean, sensitivity to environmental moisture (S. Derbyshire) non precipitating shallow convection to deep precipitating convection, trade wind shallow convection (BOMEX) and strato-cumulus (FIRE), together with an entire continental diurnal cycle of convection (ARM). The emphasis is put on the characteristics of the scheme which enable a continuous treatment of convection. Then, a 3D LAM validation is presented considering an AMMA case with both observations and a CRM simulation using the same initial and lateral conditions as for the parameterized one. Finally, global
Wave equations for pulse propagation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Shore, B.W.
1987-01-01
Theoretical discussions of the propagation of pulses of laser radiation through atomic or molecular vapor rely on a number of traditional approximations for idealizing the radiation and the molecules, and for quantifying their mutual interaction by various equations of propagation (for the radiation) and excitation (for the molecules). In treating short-pulse phenomena it is essential to consider coherent excitation phenomena of the sort that is manifest in Rabi oscillations of atomic or molecular populations. Such processes are not adequately treated by rate equations for excitation nor by rate equations for radiation. As part of a more comprehensive treatment of the coupled equations that describe propagation of short pulses, this memo presents background discussion of the equations that describe the field. This memo discusses the origin, in Maxwell's equations, of the wave equation used in the description of pulse propagation. It notes the separation into lamellar and solenoidal (or longitudinal and transverse) and positive and negative frequency parts. It mentions the possibility of separating the polarization field into linear and nonlinear parts, in order to define a susceptibility or index of refraction and, from these, a phase and group velocity. The memo discusses various ways of characterizing the polarization characteristics of plane waves, that is, of parameterizing a transverse unit vector, such as the Jones vector, the Stokes vector, and the Poincare sphere. It discusses the connection between macroscopically defined quantities, such as the intensity or, more generally, the Stokes parameters, and microscopic field amplitudes. The material presented here is a portion of a more extensive treatment of propagation to be presented separately. The equations presented here have been described in various books and articles. They are collected here as a summary and review of theory needed when treating pulse propagation
Wave propagation in electromagnetic media
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Davis, J.L.
1990-01-01
This book is concerned with wave propagation in reacting media, specifically in electromagnetic materials. An account is presented of the mathematical methods of wave phenomena in electromagnetic materials. The author presents the theory of time-varying electromagnetic fields, which involves a discussion of Faraday's laws, Maxwell's equations and their application to electromagnetic wave propagation under a variety of conditions. The author gives a discussion of magnetohydrodynamics and plasma physics. Chapters are included on quantum mechanics and the theory of relativity. The mathematical foundation of electromagnetic waves vis a vis partial differential equations is discussed
Vegetative propagation of Bambusa vulgaris
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Rafael Malfitano Braga
2017-06-01
Full Text Available Bamboo is an important source of raw material of multiple uses. The development of simple techniques for its propagation is a practical way to enable its implementation in ownership of low technology. The present work had the objective of evaluating artisanal propagation methods for Bambusa vulgaris. Two types of propagules were tested, with buds budded or not, and three relative positions to the removal of vegetative material on the culm. The best propagule was with only one node, extracted from the lower thirds of the stem, presenting 72% of rooting. This result demonstrates its potential for seedling production of this species under low tech.
Nonequilibrium theory of flame propagation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Merzhanov, A.G.
1995-01-01
The nonequilibrium theory of flame propagation is considered as applied to the following three processes of wave propagation: the combustion waves of the second kind, the combustion waves with broad reaction zones, and the combustion waves with chemical stages. Kinetic and combustion wave parameters are presented for different in composition mixtures of boron and transition metals, such as Zr, Hf, Ti, Nb, Ta, Mo, as well as for the Ta-N, Zr-C-H, Nb-B-O systems to illustrate specific features of the above-mentioned processes [ru
Behaviors and transitions along the path to magnetostrophic convection
Grannan, A. M.; Vogt, T.; Horn, S.; Hawkins, E. K.; Aggarwal, A.; Aurnou, J. M.
2017-12-01
The generation of magnetic fields in planetary and stellar interiors are believed to be controlled primarily by turbulent convection constrained by Coriolis and Lorentz forces in their electrically conducting fluid layers. Yet relatively few laboratory experiments are capable of investigating the different regimes of turbulent magnetohydrodynamic convection. In this work, we perform one laboratory experiment in a cylinder at a fixed heat flux using the liquid metal gallium in order to investigate, sequentially: Rayleigh-Bènard convection without any imposed constraints, magnetoconvection with a Lorentz constraint imposed by vertical magnetic field, rotating convection with a Coriolis constraint imposed by rotation, and finally the magnetostrophic convective regime where both Coriolis and Lorentz are imposed and equal. Using an array of internal and external temperature probes, we show that each regime along the path to magnetostrophic convection is unique. The behaviors and transitions in the dominant modes of convection as well as their fundamental frequencies and wavenumbers are investigated.
Convective equilibrium and mixing-length theory for stellarator reactors
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ho, D.D.M.; Kulsrud, R.M.
1985-09-01
In high β stellarator and tokamak reactors, the plasma pressure gradient in some regions of the plasma may exceed the critical pressure gradient set by ballooning instabilities. In these regions, convective cells break out to enhance the transport. As a result, the pressure gradient can rise only slightly above the critical gradient and the plasma is in another state of equilibrium - ''convective equilibrium'' - in these regions. Although the convective transport cannot be calculated precisely, it is shown that the density and temperature profiles in the convective region can still be estimated. A simple mixing-length theory, similar to that used for convection in stellar interiors, is introduced in this paper to provide a qualitative description of the convective cells and to show that the convective transport is highly efficient. A numerical example for obtaining the density and temperature profiles in a stellarator reactor is given
Moisture Vertical Structure, Deep Convective Organization, and Convective Transition in the Amazon
Schiro, K. A.; Neelin, J. D.
2017-12-01
Constraining precipitation processes in climate models with observations is crucial to accurately simulating current climate and reducing uncertainties in future projections. Results from the Green Ocean Amazon (GOAmazon) field campaign (2014-2015) provide evidence that deep convection is strongly controlled by the availability of moisture in the free troposphere over the Amazon, much like over tropical oceans. Entraining plume buoyancy calculations confirm that CWV is a good proxy for the conditional instability of the environment, yet differences in convective onset as a function of CWV exist over land and ocean, as well as seasonally and diurnally over land. This is largely due to variability in the contribution of lower tropospheric humidity to the total column moisture. Boundary layer moisture shows a strong relationship to the onset during the day, which largely disappears during nighttime. Using S-Band radar, these transition statistics are examined separately for unorganized and mesoscale-organized convection, which exhibit sharp increases in probability of occurrence with increasing moisture throughout the column, particularly in the lower free troposphere. Retrievals of vertical velocity from a radar wind profiler indicate updraft velocity and mass flux increasing with height through the lower troposphere. A deep-inflow mixing scheme motivated by this — corresponding to deep inflow of environmental air into a plume that grows with height — provides a weighting of boundary layer and free tropospheric air that yields buoyancies consistent with the observed onset of deep convection across seasons and times of day, across land and ocean sites, and for all convection types. This provides a substantial improvement relative to more traditional constant mixing assumptions, and a dramatic improvement relative to no mixing. Furthermore, it provides relationships that are as strong or stronger for mesoscale-organized convection as for unorganized convection.
Physics of Earthquake Rupture Propagation
Xu, Shiqing; Fukuyama, Eiichi; Sagy, Amir; Doan, Mai-Linh
2018-05-01
A comprehensive understanding of earthquake rupture propagation requires the study of not only the sudden release of elastic strain energy during co-seismic slip, but also of other processes that operate at a variety of spatiotemporal scales. For example, the accumulation of the elastic strain energy usually takes decades to hundreds of years, and rupture propagation and termination modify the bulk properties of the surrounding medium that can influence the behavior of future earthquakes. To share recent findings in the multiscale investigation of earthquake rupture propagation, we held a session entitled "Physics of Earthquake Rupture Propagation" during the 2016 American Geophysical Union (AGU) Fall Meeting in San Francisco. The session included 46 poster and 32 oral presentations, reporting observations of natural earthquakes, numerical and experimental simulations of earthquake ruptures, and studies of earthquake fault friction. These presentations and discussions during and after the session suggested a need to document more formally the research findings, particularly new observations and views different from conventional ones, complexities in fault zone properties and loading conditions, the diversity of fault slip modes and their interactions, the evaluation of observational and model uncertainties, and comparison between empirical and physics-based models. Therefore, we organize this Special Issue (SI) of Tectonophysics under the same title as our AGU session, hoping to inspire future investigations. Eighteen articles (marked with "this issue") are included in this SI and grouped into the following six categories.
Invisibility cloaking without superluminal propagation
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Perczel, Janos; Leonhardt, Ulf [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of St Andrews, North Haugh, St Andrews KY16 9SS (United Kingdom); Tyc, Tomas, E-mail: jp394@st-andrews.ac.uk, E-mail: tomtyc@physics.muni.cz, E-mail: ulf@st-andrews.ac.uk [Faculty of Science, Kotlarska 2 and Faculty of Informatics, Botanicka 68a, Masaryk University, 61137 Brno (Czech Republic)
2011-08-15
Conventional cloaking based on Euclidean transformation optics requires that the speed of light should tend to infinity on the inner surface of the cloak. Non-Euclidean cloaking still needs media with superluminal propagation. Here we show by giving an example that this is no longer necessary.
Propagating Class and Method Combination
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Ernst, Erik
1999-01-01
number of implicit combinations. For example, it is possible to specify separate aspects of a family of classes, and then combine several aspects into a full-fledged class family. The combination expressions would explicitly combine whole-family aspects, and by propagation implicitly combine the aspects...
Natural convection in heat-generating fluids
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bol'shov, Leonid A; Kondratenko, Petr S; Strizhov, Valerii F
2001-01-01
Experimental and theoretical studies of convective heat transfer from a heat-generating fluid confined to a closed volume are reviewed. Theoretical results are inferred from analytical estimates based on the relevant conservation laws and the current understanding of the convective heat-transfer processes. Four basic and one asymptotic regime of heat transfer are identified depending on the heat generation rate. Limiting heat-transfer distribution patterns are found for the lower boundary. Heat transfer in a quasi-two-dimensional geometry is analyzed. Quasi-steady-state heat transfer from a cooling-down fluid without internal heat sources is studied separately. Experimental results and theoretical predictions are compared. (reviews of topical problems)
Topology optimisation of natural convection problems
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Alexandersen, Joe; Aage, Niels; Andreasen, Casper Schousboe
2014-01-01
This paper demonstrates the application of the density-based topology optimisation approach for the design of heat sinks and micropumps based on natural convection effects. The problems are modelled under the assumptions of steady-state laminar flow using the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations...... coupled to the convection-diffusion equation through the Boussinesq approximation. In order to facilitate topology optimisation, the Brinkman approach is taken to penalise velocities inside the solid domain and the effective thermal conductivity is interpolated in order to accommodate differences...... in thermal conductivity of the solid and fluid phases. The governing equations are discretised using stabilised finite elements and topology optimisation is performed for two different problems using discrete adjoint sensitivity analysis. The study shows that topology optimisation is a viable approach...
Natural convection heat transfer in SIGMA experiment
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lee, Seung Dong; Lee, Gang Hee; Suh, Kune Yull
2004-01-01
A loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA) results in core melt formation and relocation at various locations within the reactor core over a considerable period of time. If there is no effective cooling mechanism, the core debris may heat up and commence natural circulation. The high temperature pool of molten core material will threaten the structural integrity of the reactor vessel. The extent and urgency of this threat depend primarily upon the intensity of the internal heat sources and upon the consequent distribution of the heat fluxes on the vessel walls in contact with the molten core material pools. In such a steady molten pool convection state, the thermal loads against the vessel would be determined by the in-vessel heat transfer distribution involving convective and conductive heat transfer from the decay-heated core material pool to the lower head wall in contact with the core material. In this study, upward and downward heat transfer fraction ratio is focused on
International oil and gas imnvestment: moving eastward?
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Waelde, T.W.; Ndi, G.K.
1994-01-01
Emerging trends in international oil and gas investment are surveyed in this volume. There is a particular emphasis on the evolution in investment conditions, the environment, and the relationship between the international petroleum industry and the oil and gas sectors in Russia, the Commonwealth of Independent States, and Eastern Europe. A number of legislative documents appear as annexes. A separate abstract has been prepared for each of the 23 chapters. (UK)
Guervilly, C.; Cardin, P.
2017-10-01
We study rapidly rotating Boussinesq convection driven by internal heating in a full sphere. We use a numerical model based on the quasi-geostrophic approximation for the velocity field, whereas the temperature field is 3-D. This approximation allows us to perform simulations for Ekman numbers down to 10-8, Prandtl numbers relevant for liquid metals (˜10-1) and Reynolds numbers up to 3 × 104. Persistent zonal flows composed of multiple jets form as a result of the mixing of potential vorticity. For the largest Rayleigh numbers computed, the zonal velocity is larger than the convective velocity despite the presence of boundary friction. The convective structures and the zonal jets widen when the thermal forcing increases. Prograde and retrograde zonal jets are dynamically different: in the prograde jets (which correspond to weak potential vorticity gradients) the convection transports heat efficiently and the mean temperature tends to be homogenized; by contrast, in the cores of the retrograde jets (which correspond to steep gradients of potential vorticity) the dynamics is dominated by the propagation of Rossby waves, resulting in the formation of steep mean temperature gradients and the dominance of conduction in the heat transfer process. Consequently, in quasi-geostrophic systems, the width of the retrograde zonal jets controls the efficiency of the heat transfer.
Li, Mingliang; Deng, Mingxi; Gao, Guangjian; Xiang, Yanxun
2018-05-01
This paper investigated modeling of second-harmonic generation (SHG) of circumferential guided wave (CGW) propagation in a composite circular tube, and then analyzed the influences of interfacial properties on the SHG effect of primary CGW. Here the effect of SHG of primary CGW propagation is treated as a second-order perturbation to its linear wave response. Due to the convective nonlinearity and the inherent elastic nonlinearity of material, there are second-order bulk driving forces and surface/interface driving stresses in the interior and at the surface/interface of a composite circular tube, when a primary CGW mode propagates along its circumference. Based on the approach of modal expansion analysis for waveguide excitation, the said second-order driving forces/stresses are regarded as the excitation sources to generate a series of double-frequency CGW modes that constitute the second-harmonic field of the primary CGW propagation. It is found that the modal expansion coefficient of each double-frequency CGW mode is closely related to the interfacial stiffness constants that are used to describe the interfacial properties between the inner and outer circular parts of the composite tube. Furthermore, changes in the interfacial stiffness constants essentially influence the dispersion relation of CGW propagation. This will remarkably affect the efficiency of cumulative SHG of primary CGW propagation. Some finite element simulations have been implemented of response characteristics of cumulative SHG to the interfacial properties. Both the theoretical analyses and numerical simulations indicate that the effect of cumulative SHG is found to be much more sensitive to changes in the interfacial properties than primary CGW propagation. The potential of using the effect of cumulative SHG by primary CGW propagation to characterize a minor change in the interfacial properties is considered.
An experimental study of mixed convection
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Saez, Manuel
1998-01-01
The aim of our study is to establish a reliable data base for improving thermal-hydraulic codes, in the field of turbulent flows with buoyancy forces. The flow considered is mixed convection in the Reynolds and Richardson number range: Re=10"3 to 6*10"4 and Ri=10"-"4 to 1. Experiments are carried out in an upward turbulent flow between vertical parallel plates at different wall temperatures. Part 1 gives a detailed data base of turbulent mixed flow of free and forced convection. Part II presents the installation and the calibration system intended for probes calibration. Part III describes the measurement technique (constant-temperature probe and cold-wire probe) and the method for measuring the position of the hot-wire anemometer from the wall surface. The measurement accuracy is within 0.001 mm in the present system. Part IV relates the development of a method for near wall measurements. This correction procedure for hot-wire anemometer close to wall has been derived on the basis of a two-dimensional numerical study. The method permits to obtain a quantitative correction of the wall influence on hot-wires and takes into account the velocity profile and the effects the wall material has on the heat loss. Part V presents the experimental data obtained in the channel in forced and mixed convection. Results obtained in the forced convection regime serve as a verification of the measurement technique close to the wall and give the conditions at the entrance of the test section. The effects of the buoyancy force on the mean velocity and temperature profiles are confirmed. The buoyancy strongly affects the flow structure and deforms the distribution of mean velocity. The velocity profiles are asymmetric. The second section of part V gives an approach of analytical wall functions with buoyancy forces, on the basis of the experimental data obtained in the test section. (author) [fr
Convection and crystal settling in sills
Gibb, Fergus G. F.; Henderson, C. Michael B.
1992-02-01
It has been advocated that convective and crystal settling processes play significant, and perhaps crucial, roles in magmatic differentiation. The fluid dynamics of magma chambers have been extensively studied in recent years, both theoretically and experimentally, but there is disagreement over the nature and scale of the convection, over its bearing on fractionation and possibly over whether it occurs at all. The differential distribution of modal olivine with height in differentiated alkaline basic sills provides critical evidence to resolve this controversy, at least for small to medium-large magma chambers. Our own and others' published data for such sills show that, irrespective of overall olivine content, modal olivine contents tend to increase in a roughly symmetrical manner inwards from the upper and lower margins of the sill, i.e. the distribution patterns are more often approximately D-shaped rather than the classic S-shape generally ascribed to gravity settling. We concur with the majority of other authors that this is an original feature of the filling process which has survived more or less unchanged since emplacement. We therefore conclude that the magmas have not undergone turbulent convection and that gravity settling has usually played only a minor modifying role since the intrusion of these sills. We offer a possible explanation for the apparent contradiction between fluid dynamical theory and the petrological evidence by suggesting that such sills rarely fill by the rapid injection of a single pulse of magma. Rather, they form from a series of pulses or a continuous pulsed influx over a protracted interval during which marginal cooling severely limits the potential for thermal convection.
Nonlinear Convective Models of RR Lyrae Stars
Feuchtinger, M.; Dorfi, E. A.
The nonlinear behavior of RR Lyrae pulsations is investigated using a state-of-the-art numerical technique solving the full time-dependent system of radiation hydrodynamics. Grey radiative transfer is included by a variable Eddington-factor method and we use the time-dependent turbulent convection model according to Kuhfuss (1986, A&A 160, 116) in the version of Wuchterl (1995, Comp. Phys. Comm. 89, 19). OPAL opacities extended by the Alexander molecule opacities at temperatures below 6000 K and an equation of state according to Wuchterl (1990, A&A 238, 83) close the system. The resulting nonlinear system is discretized on an adaptive mesh developed by Dorfi & Drury (1987, J. Comp. Phys. 69, 175), which is important to provide the necessary spatial resolution in critical regions like ionization zones and shock waves. Additionally, we employ a second order advection scheme, a time centered temporal discretizaton and an artificial tensor viscosity in order to treat discontinuities. We compute fundamental as well first overtone models of RR Lyrae stars for a grid of stellar parameters both with and without convective energy transport in order to give a detailed picture of the pulsation-convection interaction. In order to investigate the influence of the different features of the convection model calculations with and without overshooting, turbulent pressure and turbulent viscosity are performed and compared with each other. A standard Fourier decomposition is used to confront the resulting light and radial velocity variations with recent observations and we show that the well known RR Lyrae phase discrepancy problem (Simon 1985, ApJ 299, 723) can be resolved with these stellar pulsation computations.
Natural convective heat transfer from square cylinder
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Novomestský, Marcel, E-mail: marcel.novomestsky@fstroj.uniza.sk; Smatanová, Helena, E-mail: helena.smatanova@fstroj.uniza.sk; Kapjor, Andrej, E-mail: andrej.kapjor@fstroj.uniza.sk [University of Žilina, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Department of Power Engineering, Univerzitná 1, 010 26 Žilina (Slovakia)
2016-06-30
This article is concerned with natural convective heat transfer from square cylinder mounted on a plane adiabatic base, the cylinders having an exposed cylinder surface according to different horizontal angle. The cylinder receives heat from a radiating heater which results in a buoyant flow. There are many industrial applications, including refrigeration, ventilation and the cooling of electrical components, for which the present study may be applicable.
Tropical Cyclone Lightning Distribution and Its Relationship to Convection and Intensity Change
Rodgers, Edward; Wienman, James; Pierce, Harold; Olson, William
2000-01-01
The long distance National Lightning Detection Network (NLDN) was used to monitor the distribution of lightning strokes in various 1998 and 1999 western North Atlantic tropical cyclones. These ground-based lightning observations together with the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) Special Sensor Microwave/Imager (SSM/I) and the Tropical Rain Mapping Mission (TRMM) Microwave Instrument (TMI) derived convective rain rates were used to monitor the propagation of electrically charged convective rain bands aid to qualitatively estimate intensification. An example of the lightning analyses was performed on hurricane George between 25-28 September, 1998 when the system left Key West and moved towards the Louisiana coast. During this period of time, George's maximum winds increased from 38 to 45 meters per second on 25 September and then remained steady state until it made landfall. Time-radius displays of the lightning strokes indicated that the greatest number of lightning strokes occurred within the outer core region (greater than 165 km) with little or no lightning strokes at radii less than 165 km. The trend in these lightning strokes decreased as George move into the Gulf of Mexico and showed no inward propagation. The lack inward propagating lightning strokes with time indicated that there was no evidence that an eye wall replacement was occurring that could alter George's intensity. Since George was steady state at this time, this result is not surprising. Time-azimuth displays of lightning strokes in an annulus whose outer and inner radii were respectively, 222 and 333 km from George's center were also constructed. A result from this analysis indicated that the maximum number of strokes occurred in the forward and rear right quadrant when George was over the Gulf of Mexico. This result is, consistent with the aircraft and satellite observations of maximum rainfall.
Study of mixed convection in sodium pool
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wang Zhou; Chen Yan
1995-01-01
The mixed convection phenomena in the sodium pool of fast reactor have been studied systematically by the two dimensional modeling method. A generalized concept of circumferential line in the cylindrical coordinates was proposed to overcome the three dimensional effect induced by the pool geometry in an analysis of two dimensional modeling. A method of sub-step in time was developed for solving the turbulent equations. The treatments on the boundary condition for the auxiliary velocity field have been proposed, and the explanation of allowing the flow function method to be used in the flow field in presence of a mass source term was given. As examples of verification, the experiments were conducted with water flow in a rectangular cavity. The results from theoretical analysis were applied to the numerical computation for the mixed convection in the cavity. The mechanism of stratified flow in the cavity was studied. A numerical calculation was carried out for the mixed convection in hot plenum of a typical fast reactor
Heat transport in bubbling turbulent convection.
Lakkaraju, Rajaram; Stevens, Richard J A M; Oresta, Paolo; Verzicco, Roberto; Lohse, Detlef; Prosperetti, Andrea
2013-06-04
Boiling is an extremely effective way to promote heat transfer from a hot surface to a liquid due to numerous mechanisms, many of which are not understood in quantitative detail. An important component of the overall process is that the buoyancy of the bubble compounds with that of the liquid to give rise to a much-enhanced natural convection. In this article, we focus specifically on this enhancement and present a numerical study of the resulting two-phase Rayleigh-Bénard convection process in a cylindrical cell with a diameter equal to its height. We make no attempt to model other aspects of the boiling process such as bubble nucleation and detachment. The cell base and top are held at temperatures above and below the boiling point of the liquid, respectively. By keeping this difference constant, we study the effect of the liquid superheat in a Rayleigh number range that, in the absence of boiling, would be between 2 × 10(6) and 5 × 10(9). We find a considerable enhancement of the heat transfer and study its dependence on the number of bubbles, the degree of superheat of the hot cell bottom, and the Rayleigh number. The increased buoyancy provided by the bubbles leads to more energetic hot plumes detaching from the cell bottom, and the strength of the circulation in the cell is significantly increased. Our results are in general agreement with recent experiments on boiling Rayleigh-Bénard convection.
Modeling mantle convection in the spherical annulus
Hernlund, John W.; Tackley, Paul J.
2008-12-01
Most methods for modeling mantle convection in a two-dimensional (2D) circular annular domain suffer from innate shortcomings in their ability to capture several characteristics of the spherical shell geometry of planetary mantles. While methods such as rescaling the inner and outer radius to reduce anomalous effects in a 2D polar cylindrical coordinate system have been introduced and widely implemented, such fixes may have other drawbacks that adversely affect the outcome of some kinds of mantle convection studies. Here we propose a new approach that we term the "spherical annulus," which is a 2D slice that bisects the spherical shell and is quantitatively formulated at the equator of a spherical polar coordinate system after neglecting terms in the governing equations related to variations in latitude. Spherical scaling is retained in this approximation since the Jacobian function remains proportional to the square of the radius. We present example calculations to show that the behavior of convection in the spherical annulus compares favorably against calculations performed in other 2D annular domains when measured relative to those in a fully three-dimensional (3D) spherical shell.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ghalambaz, M.; Noghrehabadi, A.; Ghanbarzadeh, A., E-mail: m.ghalambaz@gmail.com, E-mail: ghanbarzadeh.a@scu.ac.ir [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Shahid Chamran University of Ahvaz, Ahvaz (Iran, Islamic Republic of)
2014-04-15
In this paper, the natural convective flow of nanofluids over a convectively heated vertical plate in a saturated Darcy porous medium is studied numerically. The governing equations are transformed into a set of ordinary differential equations by using appropriate similarity variables, and they are numerically solved using the fourth-order Runge-Kutta method associated with the Gauss-Newton method. The effects of parametric variation of the Brownian motion parameter (Nb), thermophoresis parameter (Nt) and the convective heating parameter (Nc) on the boundary layer profiles are investigated. Furthermore, the variation of the reduced Nusselt number and reduced Sherwood number, as important parameters of heat and mass transfer, as a function of the Brownian motion, thermophoresis and convective heating parameters is discussed in detail. The results show that the thickness of the concentration profiles is much lower than the temperature and velocity profiles. For low values of the convective heating parameter (Nc), as the Brownian motion parameter increases, the non-dimensional wall temperature increases. However, for high values of Nc, the effect of the Brownian motion parameter on the non-dimensional wall temperature is not significant. As the Brownian motion parameter increases, the reduced Sherwood number increases and the reduced Nusselt number decreases. (author)
Convective Heat Transfer Coefficients of the Human Body under Forced Convection from Ceiling
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Kurazumi, Yoshihito; Rezgals, Lauris; Melikov, Arsen Krikor
2014-01-01
The average convective heat transfer coefficient for a seated human body exposed to downward flow from above was determined. Thermal manikin with complex body shape and size of an average Scandinavian female was used. The surface temperature distribution of the manikin’s body was as the skin...... of the convective heat transfer coefficient of the whole body (hc [W/(m2•K)]) was proposed: hc=4.088+6.592V1.715 for a seated naked body at 20ºC and hc=2.874+7.427V1.345 for a seated naked body at 26ºC. Differences in the convective heat transfer coefficient of the whole body in low air velocity range, V
Panosetti, Davide; Schlemmer, Linda; Schär, Christoph
2018-05-01
Convection-resolving models (CRMs) can explicitly simulate deep convection and resolve interactions between convective updrafts. They are thus increasingly used in numerous weather and climate applications. However, the truncation of the continuous energy cascade at scales of O (1 km) poses a serious challenge, as in kilometer-scale simulations the size and properties of the simulated convective cells are often determined by the horizontal grid spacing (Δ x ).In this study, idealized simulations of deep moist convection over land are performed to assess the convergence behavior of a CRM at Δ x = 8, 4, 2, 1 km and 500 m. Two types of convergence estimates are investigated: bulk convergence addressing domain-averaged and integrated variables related to the water and energy budgets, and structural convergence addressing the statistics and scales of individual clouds and updrafts. Results show that bulk convergence generally begins at Δ x =4 km, while structural convergence is not yet fully achieved at the kilometer scale, despite some evidence that the resolution sensitivity of updraft velocities and convective mass fluxes decreases at finer resolution. In particular, at finer grid spacings the maximum updraft velocity generally increases, and the size of the smallest clouds is mostly determined by Δ x . A number of different experiments are conducted, and it is found that the presence of orography and environmental vertical wind shear yields more energetic structures at scales much larger than Δ x , sometimes reducing the resolution sensitivity. Overall the results lend support to the use of kilometer-scale resolutions in CRMs, despite the inability of these models to fully resolve the associated cloud field.
The propagator of stochastic electrodynamics
Cavalleri, G.
1981-01-01
The "elementary propagator" for the position of a free charged particle subject to the zero-point electromagnetic field with Lorentz-invariant spectral density ~ω3 is obtained. The nonstationary process for the position is solved by the stationary process for the acceleration. The dispersion of the position elementary propagator is compared with that of quantum electrodynamics. Finally, the evolution of the probability density is obtained starting from an initial distribution confined in a small volume and with a Gaussian distribution in the velocities. The resulting probability density for the position turns out to be equal, to within radiative corrections, to ψψ* where ψ is the Kennard wave packet. If the radiative corrections are retained, the present result is new since the corresponding expression in quantum electrodynamics has not yet been found. Besides preceding quantum electrodynamics for this problem, no renormalization is required in stochastic electrodynamics.
Interprocedural Analysis with Lazy Propagation
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Jensen, Simon Holm; Møller, Anders; Thiemann, Peter
2010-01-01
We propose lazy propagation as a technique for flow- and context-sensitive interprocedural analysis of programs with objects and first-class functions where transfer functions may not be distributive. The technique is described formally as a systematic modification of a variant of the monotone fr...... framework and its theoretical properties are shown. It is implemented in a type analysis tool for JavaScript where it results in a significant improvement in performance....
Crack propagation in dynamic thermoelasticity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bui, H.D.
1980-01-01
We study the singular thermoelastic fields near the crack tip, in the linear strain assumption. The equations are coupled and non linear. The asymptotic expansions of the displacement and the temperature are given for the first and the second order. It is shown that the temperature is singular when the crack propagates. However, this field does not change the dominant singularity of the mechanical field which is the same as that obtained in the theory of isothermal elasticity [fr
Information Propagation on Permissionless Blockchains
Ersoy, Oguzhan; Ren, Zhijie; Erkin, Zekeriya; Lagendijk, Reginald L.
2017-01-01
Blockchain technology, as a decentralized and non-hierarchical platform, has the potential to replace centralized systems. Yet, there are several challenges inherent in the blockchain structure. One of the deficiencies of the existing blockchains is a convenient information propagation technique enhancing incentive-compatibility and bandwidth efficiency. The transition from a centralized system into distributed one brings along game theoretical concerns. Especially for the permissionless bloc...
Quantum noise and superluminal propagation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Segev, Bilha; Milonni, Peter W.; Babb, James F.; Chiao, Raymond Y.
2000-01-01
Causal ''superluminal'' effects have recently been observed and discussed in various contexts. The question arises whether such effects could be observed with extremely weak pulses, and what would prevent the observation of an ''optical tachyon.'' Aharonov, Reznik, and Stern (ARS) [Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 2190 (1998)] have argued that quantum noise will preclude the observation of a superluminal group velocity when the pulse consists of one or a few photons. In this paper we reconsider this question both in a general framework and in the specific example, suggested by Chiao, Kozhekin, and Kurizki (CKK) [Phys. Rev. 77, 1254 (1996)], of off-resonant, short-pulse propagation in an optical amplifier. We derive in the case of the amplifier a signal-to-noise ratio that is consistent with the general ARS conclusions when we impose their criteria for distinguishing between superluminal propagation and propagation at the speed c. However, results consistent with the semiclassical arguments of CKK are obtained if weaker criteria are imposed, in which case the signal can exceed the noise without being ''exponentially large.'' We show that the quantum fluctuations of the field considered by ARS are closely related to superfluorescence noise. More generally, we consider the implications of unitarity for superluminal propagation and quantum noise and study, in addition to the complete and truncated wave packets considered by ARS, the residual wave packet formed by their difference. This leads to the conclusion that the noise is mostly luminal and delayed with respect to the superluminal signal. In the limit of a very weak incident signal pulse, the superluminal signal will be dominated by the noise part, and the signal-to-noise ratio will therefore be very small. (c) 2000 The American Physical Society
Propagation functions in pseudoparticle fields
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Brown, L.S.; Carlitz, R.D.; Creamer, D.B.; Lee, C.
1978-01-01
The Green's functions for massless spinor and vector particles propagating in a self-dual but otherwise arbitrary non-Abelian gauge field are shown to be completely determined by the corrresponding Green's functions of scalar particles. Simple, explicit algebraic expressions are constructed for the scalar Green's functions of isospin-1/2 and isospin-1 particles in the self-dual field of a configuration of n pseudoparticles described by 5n arbitrary parameters
Propagation calculation for reactor cases
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Yang Yanhua [School of Power and Energy Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong Univ., Shanghai (China); Moriyama, K.; Maruyama, Y.; Nakamura, H.; Hashimoto, K. [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment
2000-11-01
The propagation of steam explosion for real reactor geometry and conditions are investigated by using the computer code JASMINE-pro. The ex-vessel steam explosion is considered, which is described as follow: during the accident of reactor core meltdown, the molten core melts a hole at the bottom of reactor vessel and causes the higher temperature core fuel being leaked into the water pool below reactor vessel. During the melt-water mixing interaction process, the high temperature melt evaporates the cool water at an extreme high rate and might induce a steam explosion. A steam explosion could experience first the premixing phase and then the propagation explosion phase. For a propagation calculation, we should know the information about the initial fragmentation time, the total melt mass, premixing region size, initial void fraction and distribution of the melt volume fraction, and so on. All the initial conditions used in this calculation are based on analyses from some simple assumptions and the observation from the experiments. The results show that the most important parameter for the initial condition of this phase is the total mass and its initial distribution. This gives the requirement for a premixing calculation. On the other hand, for higher melt volume fraction case, the fragmentation is strong so that the local pressure can exceed over the EOS maximum pressure of the code, which lead to the incorrect calculation or divergence of the calculation. (Suetake, M.)
Vorticity imbalance and stability in relation to convection
Read, W. L.; Scoggins, J. R.
1977-01-01
A complete synoptic-scale vorticity budget was related to convection storm development in the eastern two-thirds of the United States. The 3-h sounding interval permitted a study of time changes of the vorticity budget in areas of convective storms. Results of analyses revealed significant changes in values of terms in the vorticity equation at different stages of squall line development. Average budgets for all areas of convection indicate systematic imbalance in the terms in the vorticity equation. This imbalance resulted primarily from sub-grid scale processes. Potential instability in the lower troposphere was analyzed in relation to the development of convective activity. Instability was related to areas of convection; however, instability alone was inadequate for forecast purposes. Combinations of stability and terms in the vorticity equation in the form of indices succeeded in depicting areas of convection better than any one item separately.
A Thermodynamically General Theory for Convective Circulations and Vortices
Renno, N. O.
2007-12-01
Convective circulations and vortices are common features of atmospheres that absorb low-entropy-energy at higher temperatures than they reject high-entropy-energy to space. These circulations range from small to planetary-scale and play an important role in the vertical transport of heat, momentum, and tracer species. Thus, the development of theoretical models for convective phenomena is important to our understanding of many basic features of planetary atmospheres. A thermodynamically general theory for convective circulations and vortices is proposed. The theory includes irreversible processes and quantifies the pressure drop between the environment and any point in a convective updraft. The article's main result is that the proposed theory provides an expression for the pressure drop along streamlines or streamtubes that is a generalization of Bernoulli's equation to convective circulations. We speculate that the proposed theory not only explains the intensity, but also shed light on other basic features of convective circulations and vortices.
Thermo-electro-hydrodynamic convection under microgravity: a review
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Mutabazi, Innocent; Yoshikawa, Harunori N; Fogaing, Mireille Tadie; Travnikov, Vadim; Crumeyrolle, Olivier [Laboratoire Ondes et Milieux Complexes, UMR 6294, CNRS-Université du Havre, CS 80450, F-76058 Le Havre Cedex (France); Futterer, Birgit; Egbers, Christoph, E-mail: Innocent.Mutabazi@univ-lehavre.fr [Department of Aerodynamics and Fluid Mechanics, Brandenburg University of Technology Cottbus-Senftenberg, Cottbus (Germany)
2016-12-15
Recent studies on thermo-electro-hydrodynamic (TEHD) convection are reviewed with focus on investigations motivated by the analogy with natural convection. TEHD convection originates in the action of the dielectrophoretic force generated by an alternating electric voltage applied to a dielectric fluid with a temperature gradient. This electrohydrodynamic force is analogous to Archimedean thermal buoyancy and can be regarded as a thermal buoyancy force in electric effective gravity. The review is concerned with TEHD convection in plane, cylindrical, and spherical capacitors under microgravity conditions, where the electric gravity can induce convection without any complexities arising from geometry or the buoyancy force due to the Earth’s gravity. We will highlight the convection in spherical geometry, comparing developed theories and numerical simulations with the GEOFLOW experiments performed on board the International Space Station (ISS). (paper)
Propagating separable equalities in an MDD store
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hadzic, Tarik; Hooker, John N.; Tiedemann, Peter
2008-01-01
We present a propagator that achieves MDD consistency for a separable equality over an MDD (multivalued decision diagram) store in pseudo-polynomial time. We integrate the propagator into a constraint solver based on an MDD store introduced in [1]. Our experiments show that the new propagator pro...... provides substantial computational advantage over propagation of two inequality constraints, and that the advantage increases when the maximum width of the MDD store increases....
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lin, Ailan [CMA, Key Open Laboratory for Tropical Monsoon, Institute of Tropical and Marine Meteorology, Guangzhou (China); Li, Tim [CMA, Key Open Laboratory for Tropical Monsoon, Institute of Tropical and Marine Meteorology, Guangzhou (China); University of Hawaii, IPRC, Honolulu, Hawaii (United States); University of Hawaii, Department of Meteorology, Honolulu, Hawaii (United States); Fu, Xiouhua [University of Hawaii, IPRC, Honolulu, Hawaii (United States); Luo, Jing-Jia; Masumoto, Yukio [Research Institute for Global Change, JAMSTEC, Yokohama (Japan)
2011-12-15
The effects of air-sea coupling over the tropical Indian Ocean (TIO) on the eastward- and northward-propagating boreal summer intraseasonal oscillation (BSISO) are investigated by comparing a fully coupled (CTL) and a partially decoupled Indian Ocean (pdIO) experiment using SINTEX-F coupled GCM. Air-sea coupling over the TIO significantly enhances the intensity of both the eastward and northward propagations of the BSISO. The maximum spectrum differences of the northward- (eastward-) propagating BSISO between the CTL and pdIO reach 30% (25%) of their respective climatological values. The enhanced eastward (northward) propagation is related to the zonal (meridional) asymmetry of sea surface temperature anomaly (SSTA). A positive SSTA appears to the east (north) of the BSISO convection, which may positively feed back to the BSISO convection. In addition, air-sea coupling may enhance the northward propagation through the changes of the mean vertical wind shear and low-level specific humidity. The interannual variations of the TIO regulate the air-sea interaction effect. Air-sea coupling enhances (reduces) the eastward-propagating spectrum during the negative Indian Ocean dipole (IOD) mode, positive Indian Ocean basin (IOB) mode and normal years (during positive IOD and negative IOB years). Such phase dependence is attributed to the role of the background mean westerly in affecting the wind-evaporation-SST feedback. A climatological weak westerly in the equatorial Indian Ocean can be readily reversed by anomalous zonal SST gradients during the positive IOD and negative IOB events. Although the SSTA is always positive to the northeast of the BSISO convection for all interannual modes, air-sea coupling reduces the zonal asymmetry of the low-level specific humidity and thus the eastward propagation spectrum during the positive IOD and negative IOB modes, while strengthening them during the other modes. Air-sea coupling enhances the northward propagation under all
Fast Heat Pulse Propagation by Turbulence Spreading
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Naulin, Volker; Juul Rasmussen, Jens; Mantica, Paola
2009-01-01
The propagation of a cold pulse initiated by edge cooling in JET is compared to propagation of the heat wave originating from a modulation of the heating source roughly at mid radius. It is found that the propagation of the cold pulse is by far faster than what could be predicted on the basis of ...
Primary Issues of Mixed Convection Heat Transfer Phenomena
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Chae, Myeong-Seon; Chung, Bum-Jin [Kyung Hee University, Yongin (Korea, Republic of)
2015-10-15
The computer code analyzing the system operating and transient behavior must distinguish flow conditions involved with convective heat transfer flow regimes. And the proper correlations must be supplied to those flow regimes. However the existing safety analysis codes are focused on the Light Water Reactor and they are skeptical to be applied to the GCRs (Gas Cooled Reactors). One of the technical issues raise by the development of the VHTR is the mixed convection, which occur when the driving forces of both forced and natural convection are of comparable magnitudes. It can be encountered as in channel of the stacked with fuel elements and a decay heat removal system and in VHTR. The mixed convection is not intermediate phenomena with natural convection and forced convection but independent complicated phenomena. Therefore, many researchers have been studied and some primary issues were propounded for phenomena mixed convection. This paper is to discuss some problems identified through reviewing the papers for mixed convection phenomena. And primary issues of mixed convection heat transfer were proposed respect to thermal hydraulic problems for VHTR. The VHTR thermal hydraulic study requires an indepth study of the mixed convection phenomena. In this study we reviewed the classical flow regime map of Metais and Eckert and derived further issues to be considered. The following issues were raised: (1) Buoyancy aided an opposed flows were not differentiated and plotted in a map. (2) Experimental results for UWT and UHF condition were also plotted in the same map without differentiation. (3) The buoyancy coefficient was not generalized for correlating with buoyancy coefficient. (4) The phenomenon analysis for laminarization and returbulization as buoyancy effects in turbulent mixed convection was not established. (5) The defining to transition in mixed convection regime was difficult.
Some problems of free convection in a macrocapillary
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Luikov, A V; Berkovsky, B M; Kolpashchikov, V L
1971-01-01
Solution is given to a number of problems of free convection in incompressible viscous fluid in elementary macrocapillaries with nonuniform temperature distribution at the boundary. The fluid flow structure and effect of a magnetic field on convection in the case of conducting fluid has been studied in detail. The influence of macrocapillary properties on the flow structure, rate of convection, and temperature distribution has been estimated.
Convective Cold Pool Structure and Boundary Layer Recovery in DYNAMO
Savarin, A.; Chen, S. S.; Kerns, B. W.; Lee, C.; Jorgensen, D. P.
2012-12-01
One of the key factors controlling convective cloud systems in the Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO) over the tropical Indian Ocean is the property of the atmospheric boundary layer. Convective downdrafts and precipitation from the cloud systems produce cold pools in the boundary layer, which can inhibit subsequent development of convection. The recovery time is the time it takes for the boundary layer to return to pre convective conditions. It may affect the variability of the convection on various time scales during the initiation of MJO. This study examines the convective cold pool structure and boundary layer recovery using the NOAA WP-3D aircraft observations, include the flight-level, Doppler radar, and GPS dropsonde data, collected during the Dynamics of MJO (DYNAMO) field campaign from November-December 2011. The depth and strength of convective cold pools are defined by the negative buoyancy, which can be computed from the dropsonde data. Convective downdraft can be affected by environmental water vapor due to entrainment. Mid-level dry air observed during the convectively suppressed phase of MJO seems to enhance convective downdraft, making the cold pools stronger and deeper. Recovery of the cold pools in the boundary layer is determined by the strength and depth of the cold pools and also the air-sea heat and moisture fluxes. Given that the water vapor and surface winds are distinct for the convectively active and suppressed phases of MJO over the Indian Ocean, the aircraft data are stratified by the two different large-scale regimes of MJO. Preliminary results show that the strength and depth of the cold pools are inversely correlated with the surrounding mid-level moisture. During the convectively suppressed phase, the recovery time is ~5-20 hours in relative weak wind condition with small air-sea fluxes. The recovery time is generally less than 6 hours during the active phase of MJO with moist mid-levels and stronger surface wind and air-sea fluxes.
Strategic Repositioning for Convection Business Case Study: AR Vendor
Anindita, Pratisara Satwika; Toha, Mohamad
2013-01-01
The study aims to determine suitable position and strategy in order to reach superiority in convection business based on the company strengths and weaknesses. A study conducted in late 2012 at AR Vendor, a home-based convection company which focus on the t-shirt screen printing service. In response to the issue of the below average profit margin, the company has to rethink their position and strategy in handling the convection business environment. While AR Vendor business may growth in accor...
Convection Cells in the Atmospheric Boundary Layer
Fodor, Katherine; Mellado, Juan-Pedro
2017-04-01
In dry, shear-free convective boundary layers (CBLs), the turbulent flow of air is known to organise itself on large scales into coherent, cellular patterns, or superstructures, consisting of fast, narrow updraughts and slow, wide downdraughts which together form circulations. Superstructures act as transport mechanisms from the surface to the top of the boundary layer and vice-versa, as opposed to small-scale turbulence, which only modifies conditions locally. This suggests that a thorough investigation into superstructure properties may help us better understand transport across the atmospheric boundary layer as a whole. Whilst their existence has been noted, detailed studies into superstructures in the CBL have been scarce. By applying methods which are known to successfully isolate similar large-scale patterns in turbulent Rayleigh-Bénard convection, we can assess the efficacy of those detection techniques in the CBL. In addition, through non-dimensional analysis, we can systematically compare superstructures in various convective regimes. We use direct numerical simulation of four different cases for intercomparison: Rayleigh-Bénard convection (steady), Rayleigh-Bénard convection with an adiabatic top lid (quasi-steady), a stably-stratified CBL (quasi-steady) and a neutrally-stratified CBL (unsteady). The first two are non-penetrative and the latter two penetrative. We find that although superstructures clearly emerge from the time-mean flow in the non-penetrative cases, they become obscured by temporal averaging in the CBL. This is because a rigid lid acts to direct the flow into counter-rotating circulation cells whose axis of rotation remains stationary, whereas a boundary layer that grows in time and is able to entrain fluid from above causes the circulations to not only grow in vertical extent, but also to move horizontally and merge with neighbouring circulations. Spatial filtering is a useful comparative technique as it can be performed on boundary
Transitions in rapidly rotating convection dynamos
Tilgner, A.
2013-12-01
It is commonly assumed that buoyancy in the fluid core powers the geodynamo. We study here the minimal model of a convection driven dynamo, which is a horizontal plane layer in a gravity field, filled with electrically conducting fluid, heated from below and cooled from above, and rotating about a vertical axis. Such a plane layer may be viewed as a local approximation to the geophysically more relevant spherical geometry. The numerical simulations have been run on graphics processing units with at least 960 cores. If the convection is driven stronger and stronger at fixed rotation rate, the flow behaves at some point as if it was not rotating. This transition shows in the scaling of the heat transport which can be used to distinguish slow from rapid rotation. One expects dynamos to behave differently in these two flow regimes. But even within the convection flows which are rapidly rotating according to this criterion, it will be shown that different types of dynamos exist. In one state, the magnetic field strength obeys a scaling indicative of a magnetostrophic balance, in which the Lorentz force is in equilibrium with the Coriolis force. The flow in this case is helical. A different state exists at higher magnetic Reynolds numbers, in which the magnetic energy obeys a different scaling law and the helicity of the flow is much reduced. As one increases the Rayleigh number, all other parameters kept constant, one may find both types of dynamos separated by an interval of Rayleigh numbers in which there are no dynamos at all. The effect of these transitions on energy dissipation and mean field generation have also been studied.
What Determines Upscale Growth of Oceanic Convection into MCSs?
Zipser, E. J.
2017-12-01
Over tropical oceans, widely scattered convection of various depths may or may not grow upscale into mesoscale convective systems (MCSs). But what distinguishes the large-scale environment that favors such upscale growth from that favoring "unorganized", scattered convection? Is it some combination of large-scale low-level convergence and ascending motion, combined with sufficient instability? We recently put this to a test with ERA-I reanalysis data, with disappointing results. The "usual suspects" of total column water vapor, large-scale ascent, and CAPE may all be required to some extent, but their differences between large MCSs and scattered convection are small. The main positive results from this work (already published) demonstrate that the strength of convection is well correlated with the size and perhaps "organization" of convective features over tropical oceans, in contrast to tropical land, where strong convection is common for large or small convective features. So, important questions remain: Over tropical oceans, how should we define "organized" convection? By size of the precipitation area? And what environmental conditions lead to larger and better organized MCSs? Some recent attempts to answer these questions will be described, but good answers may require more data, and more insights.
Natural convection in superposed fluid-porous layers
Bagchi, Aniruddha
2013-01-01
Natural Convection in Composite Fluid-Porous Domains provides a timely overview of the current state of understanding on the phenomenon of convection in composite fluid-porous layers. Natural convection in horizontal fluid-porous layers has received renewed attention because of engineering problems such as post-accident cooling of nuclear reactors, contaminant transport in groundwater, and convection in fibrous insulation systems. Because applications of the problem span many scientific domains, the book serves as a valuable resource for a wide audience.
Urban Influences on Convection and Lightning Over Houston
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
Gauthier, Michael L
2006-01-01
The research presented in this dissertation addresses a fundamental question regarding urban, ultimately anthropogenic, influences on convection as it relates to lightning production and precipitation structure...
Effects of variable thermal diffusivity on the structure of convection
Shcheritsa, O. V.; Getling, A. V.; Mazhorova, O. S.
2018-03-01
The structure of multiscale convection in a thermally stratified plane horizontal fluid layer is investigated by means of numerical simulations. The thermal diffusivity is assumed to produce a thin boundary sublayer convectively much more unstable than the bulk of the layer. The simulated flow is a superposition of cellular structures with three different characteristic scales. In contrast to the largest convection cells, the smaller ones are localised in the upper portion of the layer. The smallest cells are advected by the larger-scale convective flows. The simulated flow pattern qualitatively resembles that observed on the Sun.
Cumulus convection and the terrestrial water-vapor distribution
Donner, Leo J.
1988-01-01
Cumulus convection plays a significant role in determining the structure of the terrestrial water vapor field. Cumulus convection acts directly on the moisture field by condensing and precipitating water vapor and by redistributing water vapor through cumulus induced eddy circulations. The mechanisms by which cumulus convection influences the terrestrial water vapor distribution is outlined. Calculations using a theory due to Kuo is used to illustrate the mechanisms by which cumulus convection works. Understanding of these processes greatly aids the ability of researchers to interpret the seasonal and spatial distribution of atmospheric water vapor by providing information on the nature of sources and sinks and the global circulation.
Mixing in heterogeneous internally-heated convection
Limare, A.; Kaminski, E. C.; Jaupart, C. P.; Farnetani, C. G.; Fourel, L.; Froment, M.
2017-12-01
Past laboratory experiments of thermo chemical convection have dealt with systems involving fluids with different intrinsic densities and viscosities in a Rayleigh-Bénard setup. Although these experiments have greatly improved our understanding of the Earth's mantle dynamics, they neglect a fundamental component of planetary convection: internal heat sources. We have developed a microwave-based method in order to study convection and mixing in systems involving two layers of fluid with different densities, viscosities, and internal heat production rates. Our innovative laboratory experiments are appropriate for the early Earth, when the lowermost mantle was likely enriched in incompatible and heat producing elements and when the heat flux from the core probably accounted for a small fraction of the mantle heat budget. They are also relevant to the present-day mantle if one considers that radioactive decay and secular cooling contribute both to internal heating. Our goal is to quantify how two fluid layers mix, which is still very difficult to resolve accurately in 3-D numerical calculations. Viscosities and microwave absorptions are tuned to achieve high values of the Rayleigh-Roberts and Prandtl numbers relevant for planetary convection. We start from a stably stratified system where the lower layer has higher internal heat production and density than the upper layer. Due to mixing, the amount of enriched material gradually decreases to zero over a finite time called the lifetime. Based on more than 30 experiments, we have derived a scaling law that relates the lifetime of an enriched reservoir to the layer thickness ratio, a, to the density and viscosity contrasts between the two layers, and to their two different internal heating rates in the form of an enrichment factor beta=1+2*a*H1/H, where H1 is the heating rate of the lower fluid and H is the average heating rate. We find that the lifetime of the lower enriched reservoir varies as beta**(-7/3) in the low
Natural convection between two concentric spheres
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Blondel-Roux, Marie
1983-01-01
After an overview of researches on natural convection in a confined or semi-confined environment, this research thesis reports the use of the Caltagirone and Mojtabi numerical model and the study of its validity for different values of the Rayleigh and Prandtl numbers. Results obtained with this model are compared with experimental ones. Thermal transfer curves are presented and discussed, as well as the different temperature fields numerically obtained, flow function fields, velocities in the fluid layer, and temperature profiles with respect to the Rayleigh number [fr
Measurement of natural convection by speckle photography
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wernekinck, U.; Merzkirch, W.
1986-01-01
The principle of speckle photography can be applied to the measurement of density variations in fluids. A modification of existing experimental arrangements allows for the measurement of large values of the light deflection angles as they may occur in heat and mass transfer situations. The method is demonstrated for the case of a helium jet exhausting into still air and the natural convective flow along a heated plate. The obtained data are compared with results measured with classical optical interferometers, and good agreement is found. The advantages of the new technique over the classical optical methods are briefly discussed. 11 references
Hamiltonian Description of Convective-cell Generation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Krommes, J.A.; Kolesnikov, R.A.
2004-01-01
The nonlinear statistical growth rate eq for convective cells driven by drift-wave (DW) interactions is studied with the aid of a covariant Hamiltonian formalism for the gyrofluid nonlinearities. A statistical energy theorem is proven that relates eq to a second functional tensor derivative of the DW energy. This generalizes to a wide class of systems of coupled partial differential equations a previous result for scalar dynamics. Applications to (i) electrostatic ion-temperature-gradient-driven modes at small ion temperature, and (ii) weakly electromagnetic collisional DW's are noted
Parker, E. N.
1979-01-01
The effect of negative aerodynamic drag in an ideal fluid subject to convective instability is considered. It is shown that a cylinder moving in such a fluid is propelled forward in its motion by the convective forces and that the characteristic acceleration time is comparable to the onset time of convective motions in the fluid. It is suggested that convective propulsion plays an important role in the dynamics of flux tubes extending through the surface of the sun. The suppression of the upward heat flow in a Boussinesq convective cell with free upper and lower boundaries by a downdraft is then analyzed. Application to the solar convection zone indicates that downdrafts of 1 to 2 km/s at depths of 1000 to 4000 km beneath the visible surface of the sun are sufficient to reduce the upward heat flux to a small fraction of the ambient value.
Self-Propagating Frontal Polymerization in Water at Ambient Pressure
Olten, Nesrin; Kraigsley, Alison; Ronney, Paul D.
2003-01-01
boiling point solutions are needed because in order to produce a propagating front, a high front temperature is needed to produce sufficiently rapid decomposition of the free radical initiator and subsequent free radical polymerization and heat release at a rate faster than heat losses remove thermal energy from the system. (While the conduction heat loss rate increases linearly with temperature, the free radical initiator decomposition is a high activation energy process whose rate increases much more rapidly than linearly with temperature, thus as the temperature decreases, the ratio of heat loss to heat generation increases, eventually leading to extinction of the front if the temperature is too low.) In order to obtain atmospheric pressure frontal polymerization in water, it is necessary to identify a monomer/initiator combination that is water soluble and will not extinguish even when the peak temperature (T*) is less than 100 C. In this work acrylic acid (AA) was chosen as the monomer because is it one of the most reactive monomers and can polymerize readily at low temperatures even without initiators. Ammonium persulfate (AP) was chosen as the initiator because it decomposes readily at low temperatures, produces relatively few bubbles and is commercially available. The propagation rates and extinction conditions of the fronts are studied for a range of AA and AP concentrations. Small amounts of fumed silica powder (Cab-o-sil, Cabot Corporation) were added to the solutions to inhibit buoyancy induced convection in the solutions; future studies will investigate the effects of buoyant convection within the solutions.
An application of the unifying theory of thermal convection in vertical natural convection
Ng, Chong Shen; Ooi, Andrew; Lohse, Detlef; Chung, Daniel
2014-11-01
Using direct numerical simulations of vertical natural convection (VNC) at Rayleigh numbers 1 . 0 ×105 - 1 . 0 ×109 and Prandtl number 0 . 709 , we provide support for a generalised applicability of the Grossmann-Lohse (GL) theory, originally developed for horizontal natural (Rayleigh-Bénard) convection. In accordance with the theory, the boundary-layer thicknesses of the velocity and temperature fields in VNC obey laminar-like scaling, whereas away from the walls, the dissipation of the turbulent fluctuations obey the scaling for fully developed turbulence. In contrast to Rayleigh-Bénard convection, the direction of gravity in VNC is parallel to the mean flow. Thus, there no longer exists an exact relation linking the normalised global dissipations to the Nusselt, Rayleigh and Prandtl numbers. Nevertheless, we show that the unclosed term, namely the global-averaged buoyancy flux, also exhibits laminar and turbulent scaling, consistent with the GL theory. The findings suggest that, similar to Rayleigh-Bénard convection, a pure power-law relationship between the Nusselt, Rayleigh and Prandtl numbers is not the best description for VNC and existing empirical power-law relationships should be recalibrated to better reflect the underlying physics.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
MD. FAISAL KADER
2012-10-01
Full Text Available In the present paper, the effect of solar radiation on automobiles has been studied by both experimentally and numerically. The numerical solution is done by an operation friendly and fast CFD code – SC/Tetra with a full scale model of a SM3 car and turbulence is modeled by the standard k-ε equation. Numerical analysis of the three-dimensional model predicts a detailed description of fluid flow and temperature distribution in the passenger compartment during both the natural convection due to the incoming solar radiation and mixed convection due to the flow from defrost nozzle and radiation. It can be seen that solar radiation is an important parameter to raise the compartment temperature above the ambient temperature during summer. During natural convection, the rate of heat transfer is fast at the initial period. In the mixed convection analyses, it is found that the temperature drops down to a comfortable range almost linearly at the initial stage. Experimental investigations are performed to determine the temperature contour on the windshield and the local temperature at a particular point for further validation of the numerical results.
From convection rolls to finger convection in double-diffusive turbulence
Yang, Yantao; Verzicco, Roberto; Lohse, Detlef
2015-01-01
Double-diffusive convection (DDC), which is the buoyancy-driven flow with fluid density depending on two scalar components, is ubiquitous in many natural and engineering environments. Of great interests are scalars’ transfer rate and flow structures. Here we systematically investigate DDC flow
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
J. Y. Jia
2014-11-01
Full Text Available Absolute values of gravity wave momentum flux (GWMF deduced from satellite measurements by the Sounding of the Atmosphere using Broadband Emission Radiometry (SABER instrument and the High Resolution Dynamics Limb Sounder (HIRDLS are correlated with sea surface temperature (SST with the aim of identifying those oceanic regions for which convection is a major source of gravity waves (GWs. Our study identifies those latitude bands where high correlation coefficients indicate convective excitation with confidence. This is based on a global ray-tracing simulation, which is used to delineate the source and wind-filtering effects. Convective GWs are identified at the eastern coasts of the continents and over the warm water regions formed by the warm ocean currents, in particular the Gulf Stream and the Kuroshio. Potential contributions of tropical cyclones to the excitation of the GWs are discussed. Convective excitation can be identified well into the mid-mesosphere. In propagating upward, the centers of GWMF formed by convection shift poleward. Some indications of the main forcing regions are even shown for the upper mesosphere/lower thermosphere (MLT.
A Madden-Julian oscillation event realistically simulated by a global cloud-resolving model.
Miura, Hiroaki; Satoh, Masaki; Nasuno, Tomoe; Noda, Akira T; Oouchi, Kazuyoshi
2007-12-14
A Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO) is a massive weather event consisting of deep convection coupled with atmospheric circulation, moving slowly eastward over the Indian and Pacific Oceans. Despite its enormous influence on many weather and climate systems worldwide, it has proven very difficult to simulate an MJO because of assumptions about cumulus clouds in global meteorological models. Using a model that allows direct coupling of the atmospheric circulation and clouds, we successfully simulated the slow eastward migration of an MJO event. Topography, the zonal sea surface temperature gradient, and interplay between eastward- and westward-propagating signals controlled the timing of the eastward transition of the convective center. Our results demonstrate the potential making of month-long MJO predictions when global cloud-resolving models with realistic initial conditions are used.
The effect of convection and semi-convection on the C/O yield of massive stars
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dearborn, D.S.
1979-01-01
The C/O ratio produced during core helium burning affects the future evolution and nucleosynthetic yield of massive stars. This ratio is shown to be sensitive to the treatment of convection as well as uncertainties in nuclear rates. By minimizing the effect of semi-convection and reducing the size of the convective core, mass loss in OB stars increases the C/O ratio. (Author)
Semiclassical propagator of the Wigner function.
Dittrich, Thomas; Viviescas, Carlos; Sandoval, Luis
2006-02-24
Propagation of the Wigner function is studied on two levels of semiclassical propagation: one based on the Van Vleck propagator, the other on phase-space path integration. Leading quantum corrections to the classical Liouville propagator take the form of a time-dependent quantum spot. Its oscillatory structure depends on whether the underlying classical flow is elliptic or hyperbolic. It can be interpreted as the result of interference of a pair of classical trajectories, indicating how quantum coherences are to be propagated semiclassically in phase space. The phase-space path-integral approach allows for a finer resolution of the quantum spot in terms of Airy functions.
The propagator of quantum gravity in minisuperspace
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Louko, J.
1985-04-01
We study the quantum gravitational propagation amplitude between two spacelike three-surfaces in minisuperspaces where the supermomentum constraints are identically satisfied. We derive a well-defined path integral formula for the propagator and show that the propagator is an inverse of the canonical Hamiltonian operator. In an exactly solvable deSitter minisuperspace model the propagator is found to obey semi-classically correct boundary conditions. We discuss the implications for the full theory and suggest an approach to unravelling the physical meaning of the propagator. (orig.)
Tropospheric radiowave propagation beyond the horizon
Du Castel, François
1966-01-01
Tropospheric Radiowave Propagation Beyond the Horizon deals with developments concerning the tropospheric propagation of ultra-short radio waves beyond the horizon, with emphasis on the relationship between the theoretical and the experimental. Topics covered include the general conditions of propagation in the troposphere; general characteristics of propagation beyond the horizon; and attenuation in propagation. This volume is comprised of six chapters and begins with a brief historical look at the various stages that have brought the technique of transhorizon links to its state of developmen
Light propagation in linear optical media
Gillen, Glen D; Guha, Shekhar
2013-01-01
Light Propagation in Linear Optical Media describes light propagation in linear media by expanding on diffraction theories beyond what is available in classic optics books. In one volume, this book combines the treatment of light propagation through various media, interfaces, and apertures using scalar and vector diffraction theories. After covering the fundamentals of light and physical optics, the authors discuss light traveling within an anisotropic crystal and present mathematical models for light propagation across planar boundaries between different media. They describe the propagation o
Scaff, L.; Li, Y.; Prein, A. F.; Liu, C.; Rasmussen, R.; Ikeda, K.
2017-12-01
A better representation of the diurnal cycle of convective precipitation is essential for the analysis of the energy balance and the water budget components such as runoff, evaporation and infiltration. Convection-permitting regional climate modeling (CPM) has been shown to improve the models' performance of summer precipitation, allowing to: (1) simulate the mesoscale processes in more detail and (2) to provide more insights in future changes in convective precipitation under climate change. In this work we investigate the skill of the Weather Research and Forecast model (WRF) in simulating the summer precipitation diurnal cycle over most of North America. We use 4 km horizontal grid spacing in a 13-years long current and future period. The future scenario is assuming no significant changes in large-scale weather patterns and aims to answer how the weather of the current climate would change if it would reoccur at the end of the century under a high-end emission scenario (Pseudo Global Warming). We emphasize on a region centered on the lee side of the Canadian Rocky Mountains, where the summer precipitation amount shows a regional maximum. The historical simulations are capable to correctly represent the diurnal cycle. At the lee-side of the Canadian Rockies the increase in the convective available potential energy as well as pronounced low-level moisture flux from the southeast Prairies explains the local maximum in summer precipitation. The PGW scenario shows an increase in summer precipitation amount and intensity in this region, consistently with a stronger source of moisture and convective energy.
Dong, X.; Logan, T.; Xi, B.
2015-12-01
Three deep convective cloud cases were selected during the 2011 Mid-Latitude Continental Convective Clouds Experiment (MC3E). Although biomass burning smoke advected from Mexico and Central America was the dominant source of cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) for deep convective cloud formation, the 11 May, 20 May, and 23 May cases exhibited different convective characteristics. The convection in the 11 May and 23 May cases formed in smoke laden environments in the presence of convective available potential energy (CAPE) values exceeding 1000 m2 s-2 and 3000 m2 s-2 along with low-level (0-1 km) shear of 10.3 m s-1 and 5.1 m s-1, respectively. The 11 May case had linear convection while the 23 May case featured discrete supercells. The 20 May case featured elevated linear convection that formed in a more moist environment with cleaner aerosol conditions, weak CAPE (9 km) suggesting a warm rain suppression mechanism caused by a combination of strong aerosol loading, large CAPE, and weak low-level wind shear. The observed results for the 20 May and 23 May cases agree well with recent modeling studies that simulated the convection and precipitation in these cases. Furthermore, the modeling of the 11 May case is suggested since the abundant amount of smoke CCN did not greatly enhance the overall precipitation amount and could be a possible aerosol-induced precipitation suppression case.
Radio wave propagation and parabolic equation modeling
Apaydin, Gokhan
2018-01-01
A thorough understanding of electromagnetic wave propagation is fundamental to the development of sophisticated communication and detection technologies. The powerful numerical methods described in this book represent a major step forward in our ability to accurately model electromagnetic wave propagation in order to establish and maintain reliable communication links, to detect targets in radar systems, and to maintain robust mobile phone and broadcasting networks. The first new book on guided wave propagation modeling and simulation to appear in nearly two decades, Radio Wave Propagation and Parabolic Equation Modeling addresses the fundamentals of electromagnetic wave propagation generally, with a specific focus on radio wave propagation through various media. The authors explore an array of new applications, and detail various v rtual electromagnetic tools for solving several frequent electromagnetic propagation problems. All of the methods described are presented within the context of real-world scenari...
Propagation phenomena in real world networks
Fay, Damien; Gabryś, Bogdan
2015-01-01
“Propagation, which looks at spreading in complex networks, can be seen from many viewpoints; it is undesirable, or desirable, controllable, the mechanisms generating that propagation can be the topic of interest, but in the end all depends on the setting. This book covers leading research on a wide spectrum of propagation phenomenon and the techniques currently used in its modelling, prediction, analysis and control. Fourteen papers range over topics including epidemic models, models for trust inference, coverage strategies for networks, vehicle flow propagation, bio-inspired routing algorithms, P2P botnet attacks and defences, fault propagation in gene-cellular networks, malware propagation for mobile networks, information propagation in crisis situations, financial contagion in interbank networks, and finally how to maximize the spread of influence in social networks. The compendium will be of interest to researchers, those working in social networking, communications and finance and is aimed at providin...
Wave Propagation in Bimodular Geomaterials
Kuznetsova, Maria; Pasternak, Elena; Dyskin, Arcady; Pelinovsky, Efim
2016-04-01
Observations and laboratory experiments show that fragmented or layered geomaterials have the mechanical response dependent on the sign of the load. The most adequate model accounting for this effect is the theory of bimodular (bilinear) elasticity - a hyperelastic model with different elastic moduli for tension and compression. For most of geo- and structural materials (cohesionless soils, rocks, concrete, etc.) the difference between elastic moduli is such that their modulus in compression is considerably higher than that in tension. This feature has a profound effect on oscillations [1]; however, its effect on wave propagation has not been comprehensively investigated. It is believed that incorporation of bilinear elastic constitutive equations within theory of wave dynamics will bring a deeper insight to the study of mechanical behaviour of many geomaterials. The aim of this paper is to construct a mathematical model and develop analytical methods and numerical algorithms for analysing wave propagation in bimodular materials. Geophysical and exploration applications and applications in structural engineering are envisaged. The FEM modelling of wave propagation in a 1D semi-infinite bimodular material has been performed with the use of Marlow potential [2]. In the case of the initial load expressed by a harmonic pulse loading strong dependence on the pulse sign is observed: when tension is applied before compression, the phenomenon of disappearance of negative (compressive) strains takes place. References 1. Dyskin, A., Pasternak, E., & Pelinovsky, E. (2012). Periodic motions and resonances of impact oscillators. Journal of Sound and Vibration, 331(12), 2856-2873. 2. Marlow, R. S. (2008). A Second-Invariant Extension of the Marlow Model: Representing Tension and Compression Data Exactly. In ABAQUS Users' Conference.
Forced convection heat transfer in He II
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kashani, A.
1986-01-01
An investigation of forced convection heat transfer in He II is conducted. The study includes both experimental and theoretical treatments of the problem. The experiment consists of a hydraulic pump and a copper flow tube, 3 mm in ID and 2m long. The system allows measurements of one-dimensional heat and mass transfer in He II. The heat transfer experiments are performed by applying heat at the midpoint along the length of the flow tube. Two modes of heat input are employed, i.e., step function heat input and square pulse heat input. The heat transfer results are discussed in terms of temperature distribution in the tube. The experimental temperature profiles are compared with numerical solutions of an analytical model developed from the He II energy equation. The bath temperature is set at three different values of 1.65, 1.80, and 1.95 K. The He II flow velocity is varied up to 90 cm/s. Pressure is monitored at each end of the flow tube, and the He II pressure drop is obtained for different flow velocities. Results indicate that He II heat transfer by forced convention is considerably higher than that by internal convection. The theoretical model is in close agreement with the experiment. He II pressure drop and friction factor are very similar to those of an ordinary fluid
Vertical Slot Convection: A linear study
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
McAllister, A.; Steinolfson, R.; Tajima, T.
1992-11-01
The linear stability properties of fluid convection in a vertical slot were studied. We use a Fourier-Chebychev decomposition was used to set up the linear eigenvalue problems for the Vertical Slot Convection and Benard problems. The eigenvalues, neutral stability curves, and critical point values of the Grashof number, G, and the wavenumber were determined. Plots of the real and imaginary parts of the eigenvalues as functions of G and α are given for a wide range of the Prandtl number, Pr, and special note is made of the complex mode that becomes linearly unstable above Pr ∼ 12.5. A discussion comparing different special cases facilitates the physical understanding of the VSC equations, especially the interaction of the shear-flow and buoyancy induced physics. Making use of the real and imaginary eigenvalues and the phase properties of the eigenmodes, the eigenmodes were characterized. One finds that the mode structure becomes progressively simpler with increasing Pr, with the greatest complexity in the mid ranges where the terms in the heat equation are of roughly the same size
Solutocapillary Convection Effects on Polymeric Membrane Morphology
Krantz, William B.; Todd, Paul W.; Kinagurthu, Sanjay
1996-01-01
Macro voids are undesirable large pores in membranes used for purification. They form when membranes are cast as thin films on a smooth surface by evaporating solvent (acetone) from a polymer solution. There are two un-tested hypotheses explaining the growth of macro voids. One states that diffusion of the non-solvent (water) is solely responsible, while the other states that solutocapillary convection is the primary cause of macro void growth. Solutocapillary convection is flow-caused by a concentration induced surface-tension gradient. Macrovoid growth in the former hypothesis is gravity independent, while in the latter it is opposed by gravity. To distinguish between these two hypotheses, experiments were designed to cast membranes in zero-gravity. A semi-automated apparatus was designed and built for casting membranes during the 20 secs of zero-g time available in parabolic aircraft flight such as NASA's KC-135. The phase changes were monitored optically, and membrane morphology was evaluated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). These studies appear to be the first quantitative studies of membrane casting in micro-gravity which incorporate real-time data acquisition. Morphological studies of membranes cast at 0, 1, and 1.8 g revealed the presence of numerous, sparse and no macrovoids respectively. These results are consistent with the predictions of the solutocapillary hypothesis of macrovoid growth.
Conjugate Problems in Convective Heat Transfer: Review
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Abram Dorfman
2009-01-01
Full Text Available A review of conjugate convective heat transfer problems solved during the early and current time of development of this modern approach is presented. The discussion is based on analytical solutions of selected typical relatively simple conjugate problems including steady-state and transient processes, thermal material treatment, and heat and mass transfer in drying. This brief survey is accompanied by the list of almost two hundred publications considering application of different more and less complex analytical and numerical conjugate models for simulating technology processes and industrial devices from aerospace systems to food production. The references are combined in the groups of works studying similar problems so that each of the groups corresponds to one of selected analytical solutions considered in detail. Such structure of review gives the reader the understanding of early and current situation in conjugate convective heat transfer modeling and makes possible to use the information presented as an introduction to this area on the one hand, and to find more complicated publications of interest on the other hand.
Benard convection in liquid sodium layers
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kek, V.
1989-08-01
In a sodium layer heated from below and cooled from above, the integral Nusselt numbers are determined in a range of Rayleigh numbers 1.5x10 3 5 . The experiments are performed in containers with dimensions of 500 mm in diameter and 15 mm and 45 mm in height. The relevant quantities are evaluated from measured temperature and heating power data. The experiments show that the heat transfer across the layer is determined mainly by heat conduction up to Rayleigh number Ra ≅ 10 4 . Beyond this value a significant increase of the convective heat transport is observed. At a Rayleigh number of 4x10 4 the Nusselt number achieves the value Nu = 1.7. This result differs from values given by Nusselt-Rayleigh number correlations reported in the literature for liquids with higher Prandtl number. A regression analysis of the experimental data results empirical correlations for the Nusselt number. A time series analysis of the time dependent temperature signals shows that the measured temperature fluctuations exhibit predominantly stochastic features. However, in the lower range of Rayleigh numbers 1.5x10 3 4 certain regular frequencies can be identified from peaks in broadband power density spectra. These frequencies correspond to fluctuations of a period of 80 to 200 seconds. These regular frequencies are explained by instabilities of the cellular pattern in the convection layer reported in the literature. (orig./HP) [de
Effective diffusion in laminar convective flows
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rosenbluth, M.N.; Berk, H.L.; Doxas, I.; Horton, W.
1987-03-01
The effective diffusion coefficient D* of a passive component, such as test particles, dye, temperature, magnetic flux, etc., is derived for motion in periodic two-dimensional incompressible convective flow with characteristic velocity v and size d in the presence of an intrinsic local diffusivity D. Asymptotic solutions for effective diffusivity D*(P) in the large P limit, with P ∼ vd/D, is shown to be of the form D* = cDP/sup 1/2/ with c being a coefficient that is determined analytically. The constant c depends on the geometry of the convective cell and on an average of the flow speed along the separatrix. The asymptotic method of evaluation applies to both free boundary and rough boundary flow patterns and it is shown that the method can be extended to more complicated patterns such as the flows generated by rotating cylinders, as in the problem considered by Nadim, Cox, and Brenner [J. Fluid Mech., 164: 185 (1986)]. The diffusivity D* is readily calculated for small P, but the evaluation for arbitrary P requires numerical methods. Monte Carlo particle simulation codes are used to evaluate D* at arbitrary P, and thereby describe the transition for D* between the large and small P limits
Multispecimen fatigue crack propagation testing
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ermi, A.M.; Bauer, R.E.; Chin, B.A.; Straalsund, J.L.
1981-01-01
Chains of miniature center-cracked-tension specimens were tested on a conventional testing machine and on a prototypic in-reactor fatigue machine as part of the fusion reactor materials alloy development program. Annealed and 20 percent cold-worked 316 stainless steel specimens were cycled under various conditions of temperature, frequency, stress ratio and chain length. Crack growth rates determined from multispecimen visual measurements and from an electrical potential technique were consistent with those obtained by conventional test methods. Results demonstrate that multispecimen chain testing is a valid method of obtaining fatigue crack propagation information for alloy development. 8 refs
Radio Propagation into Modern Buildings
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Rodriguez Larrad, Ignacio; Nguyen, Huan Cong; Jørgensen, Niels T.K.
2014-01-01
Energy-efficient buildings are gaining momentum in order to comply with the new energy regulations. Especially in northern cold countries, thick reinforced walls and energy-efficient windows composed of several layers of glass plus metal coating are becoming the de facto elements in modern building...... constructions. These materials are used in favor of achieving a proper level of thermal isolation, but it has been noticed that they can impact heavily on radio signal propagation. This paper presents a measurement-based analysis of the outdoor-to-indoor attenuation experienced in several modern constructions...
Fast imaging of streamer propagation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Veldhuizen, E.M. van; Baede, A.H.F.M.; Hayashi, D.; Rutgers, W.R.
2001-01-01
Recently measurement methods are becoming available to study the corona discharge in more detail. One of the most promising methods is laser-induced fluorescence to determine radical density. Recent improvements in CCD cameras makes it now possible to improve measurements of the discharge structure to a resolution of 1 ns in time and 10 μm in space. This paper shows the first results of the spontaneous emission of a point-to-plane corona discharge in air using such a camera. It clearly indicates that the 2-D approach for streamer propagation under these conditions is insufficient
Fast imaging of streamer propagation
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Veldhuizen, E.M. van; Baede, A.H.F.M.; Hayashi, D.; Rutgers, W.R. [Eindhoven Univ. of Technology (Netherlands). Dept. of Applied Physics
2001-07-01
Recently measurement methods are becoming available to study the corona discharge in more detail. One of the most promising methods is laser-induced fluorescence to determine radical density. Recent improvements in CCD cameras makes it now possible to improve measurements of the discharge structure to a resolution of 1 ns in time and 10 {mu}m in space. This paper shows the first results of the spontaneous emission of a point-to-plane corona discharge in air using such a camera. It clearly indicates that the 2-D approach for streamer propagation under these conditions is insufficient.
Modification Propagation in Complex Networks
Mouronte, Mary Luz; Vargas, María Luisa; Moyano, Luis Gregorio; Algarra, Francisco Javier García; Del Pozo, Luis Salvador
To keep up with rapidly changing conditions, business systems and their associated networks are growing increasingly intricate as never before. By doing this, network management and operation costs not only rise, but are difficult even to measure. This fact must be regarded as a major constraint to system optimization initiatives, as well as a setback to derived economic benefits. In this work we introduce a simple model in order to estimate the relative cost associated to modification propagation in complex architectures. Our model can be used to anticipate costs caused by network evolution, as well as for planning and evaluating future architecture development while providing benefit optimization.
Propagation and diffusion-limited extinction of nonadiabatic heterogeneous flame in the SHS process
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Makino, Atsushi
1994-01-01
Nonadiabatic heterogeneous flame propagation and extinction in self-propagating high-temperature synthesis (SHS) are analyzed based on a premixed mode of propagation for the bulk flame supported by the nonpremixed reaction of dispersed nonmetals in the liquid metal. The formulation allows for volumetric heat loss throughout the bulk flame, finite-rate Arrhenius reaction at the particle surface, and temperature-sensitive Arrhenius mass diffusion in the liquid. Results show that, subsequent to melting of the metal, the flame structure consists of a relatively thin diffusion-consumption/convection zone followed by a relatively thick convection-loss zone, that the flame propagation rate decreases with increasing heat loss, that at a critical heat-loss rate the flame extinguishes as indicated by the characteristic turning-point behavior, that the surface reaction is diffusion limited such that the nonlinear, temperature-sensitive nature of the system is actually a consequence of the Arrhenius mass diffusion, and that extinction is sensitively affected by the mixture ratio, the degree of dilution, the initial temperature of the compact, and the size of the nonmetal particles. An explicit expression is derived for the normalized mass burning rate, which exhibits the characteristic turning point and shows that extinction occurs when this value is reduced to e -1/2 , which is the same as that for the nonadiabatic gaseous premixed flame. It is further shown that the theoretical results agree well with available experimental data, indicating that the present formulation captures the essential features of the nonadiabatic heterogeneous SHS processes and its potential for extension to describe other SHS phenomena
Effect of Chamber Pressurization Rate on Combustion and Propagation of Solid Propellant Cracks
Yuan, Wei-Lan; Wei, Shen; Yuan, Shu-Shen
2002-01-01
area of the propellant grain satisfies the designed value. But cracks in propellant grain can be generated during manufacture, storage, handing and so on. The cracks can provide additional surface area for combustion. The additional combustion may significantly deviate the performance of the rocket motor from the designed conditions, even lead to explosive catastrophe. Therefore a thorough study on the combustion, propagation and fracture of solid propellant cracks must be conducted. This paper takes an isolated propellant crack as the object and studies the effect of chamber pressurization rate on the combustion, propagation and fracture of the crack by experiment and theoretical calculation. deformable, the burning inside a solid propellant crack is a coupling of solid mechanics and combustion dynamics. In this paper, a theoretical model describing the combustion, propagation and fracture of the crack was formulated and solved numerically. The interaction of structural deformation and combustion process was included in the theoretical model. The conservation equations for compressible fluid flow, the equation of state for perfect gas, the heat conducting equation for the solid-phase, constitutive equation for propellant, J-integral fracture criterion and so on are used in the model. The convective burning inside the crack and the propagation and fracture of the crack were numerically studied by solving the set of nonlinear, inhomogeneous gas-phase governing equations and solid-phase equations. On the other hand, the combustion experiments for propellant specimens with a precut crack were conducted by RTR system. Predicted results are in good agreement with experimental data, which validates the reasonableness of the theoretical model. Both theoretical and experimental results indicate that the chamber pressurization rate has strong effects on the convective burning in the crack, crack fracture initiation and fracture pattern.
Genetic conservation and paddlefish propagation
Sloss, Brian L.; Klumb, Robert A.; Heist, Edward J.
2009-01-01
The conservation of genetic diversity of our natural resources is overwhelmingly one of the central foci of 21st century management practices. Three recommendations related to the conservation of paddlefish Polyodon spathula genetic diversity are to (1) identify genetic diversity at both nuclear and mitochondrial DNA loci using a suggested list of 20 sampling locations, (2) use genetic diversity estimates to develop genetic management units, and (3) identify broodstock sources to minimize effects of supplemental stocking on the genetic integrity of native paddlefish populations. We review previous genetic work on paddlefish and described key principles and concepts associated with maintaining genetic diversity within and among paddlefish populations and also present a genetic case study of current paddlefish propagation at the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service Gavins Point National Fish Hatchery. This study confirmed that three potential sources of broodfish were genetically indistinguishable at the loci examined, allowing the management agencies cooperating on this program flexibility in sampling gametes. This study also showed significant bias in the hatchery occurred in terms of male reproductive contribution, which resulted in a shift in the genetic diversity of progeny compared to the broodfish. This shift was shown to result from differential male contributions, partially attributed to the mode of egg fertilization. Genetic insights enable implementation of a paddlefish propagation program within an adaptive management strategy that conserves inherent genetic diversity while achieving demographic goals.
Quantum propagation across cosmological singularities
Gielen, Steffen; Turok, Neil
2017-05-01
The initial singularity is the most troubling feature of the standard cosmology, which quantum effects are hoped to resolve. In this paper, we study quantum cosmology with conformal (Weyl) invariant matter. We show that it is natural to extend the scale factor to negative values, allowing a large, collapsing universe to evolve across a quantum "bounce" into an expanding universe like ours. We compute the Feynman propagator for Friedmann-Robertson-Walker backgrounds exactly, identifying curious pathologies in the case of curved (open or closed) universes. We then include anisotropies, fixing the operator ordering of the quantum Hamiltonian by imposing covariance under field redefinitions and again finding exact solutions. We show how complex classical solutions allow one to circumvent the singularity while maintaining the validity of the semiclassical approximation. The simplest isotropic universes sit on a critical boundary, beyond which there is qualitatively different behavior, with potential for instability. Additional scalars improve the theory's stability. Finally, we study the semiclassical propagation of inhomogeneous perturbations about the flat, isotropic case, at linear and nonlinear order, showing that, at least at this level, there is no particle production across the bounce. These results form the basis for a promising new approach to quantum cosmology and the resolution of the big bang singularity.
Simplified propagation of standard uncertainties
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Shull, A.H.
1997-01-01
An essential part of any measurement control program is adequate knowledge of the uncertainties of the measurement system standards. Only with an estimate of the standards'' uncertainties can one determine if the standard is adequate for its intended use or can one calculate the total uncertainty of the measurement process. Purchased standards usually have estimates of uncertainty on their certificates. However, when standards are prepared and characterized by a laboratory, variance propagation is required to estimate the uncertainty of the standard. Traditional variance propagation typically involves tedious use of partial derivatives, unfriendly software and the availability of statistical expertise. As a result, the uncertainty of prepared standards is often not determined or determined incorrectly. For situations meeting stated assumptions, easier shortcut methods of estimation are now available which eliminate the need for partial derivatives and require only a spreadsheet or calculator. A system of simplifying the calculations by dividing into subgroups of absolute and relative uncertainties is utilized. These methods also incorporate the International Standards Organization (ISO) concepts for combining systematic and random uncertainties as published in their Guide to the Expression of Measurement Uncertainty. Details of the simplified methods and examples of their use are included in the paper
Uncertainty propagation in nuclear forensics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pommé, S.; Jerome, S.M.; Venchiarutti, C.
2014-01-01
Uncertainty propagation formulae are presented for age dating in support of nuclear forensics. The age of radioactive material in this context refers to the time elapsed since a particular radionuclide was chemically separated from its decay product(s). The decay of the parent radionuclide and ingrowth of the daughter nuclide are governed by statistical decay laws. Mathematical equations allow calculation of the age of specific nuclear material through the atom ratio between parent and daughter nuclides, or through the activity ratio provided that the daughter nuclide is also unstable. The derivation of the uncertainty formulae of the age may present some difficulty to the user community and so the exact solutions, some approximations, a graphical representation and their interpretation are presented in this work. Typical nuclides of interest are actinides in the context of non-proliferation commitments. The uncertainty analysis is applied to a set of important parent–daughter pairs and the need for more precise half-life data is examined. - Highlights: • Uncertainty propagation formulae for age dating with nuclear chronometers. • Applied to parent–daughter pairs used in nuclear forensics. • Investigated need for better half-life data
Convective losses through an air-filled gap
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Baum, V A; Ovezsakhatov, N
1976-01-01
Simplified formulas for the heat fluxes with given parameters of the air are used to calculate the specific heat losses by convection in a number of solar-energy systems (water heater, thermal generator, double-glazed window, and still). Heat losses by convection and radiation are compared.
Unravelling convective heat transfer in the Rotated Arc Mixer
Speetjens, M.F.M.; Baskan, O.; Metcalfe, G.; Clercx, H.J.H.
2014-01-01
Thermal homogenization is essentially a transient problem and convective heat transfer by (chaotic) advection is known to accelerate this process. Convective heat transfer traditionally is examined in terms of heat-transfer coefficients at domain walls and characterised by Nusselt relations.
Solar wind effects on ionospheric convection: a review
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Lu, G.; Cowley, S.W.H.; Milan, S.E.
2002-01-01
), and travelling convection vortices (TCVs). Furthermore, the large-scale ionospheric convection configuration has also demonstrated a strong correspondence to variations in the interplanetary medium and substorm activity. This report briefly discusses the progress made over the past decade in studies...
Modulated convection at high frequencies and large modulation amplitudes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Swift, J.B.; Hohenberg, P.C.
1987-01-01
Modulated Rayleigh-Benard convection is analyzed for high frequencies and large modulation amplitudes. The linear theory of Gershuni and Zhukhovitskii is generalized to the nonlinear domain, and a subcritical bifurcation to convection is found in agreement with the experiments of Niemela and Donnelly. The crossover between the high-frequency (''Stokes layer'') regime and the low-frequency regime studied previously is analyzed
Measurements of convective and radiative heating in wildland fires
David Frankman; Brent W. Webb; Bret W. Butler; Daniel Jimenez; Jason M. Forthofer; Paul Sopko; Kyle S. Shannon; J. Kevin Hiers; Roger D. Ottmar
2012-01-01
Time-resolved irradiance and convective heating and cooling of fast-response thermopile sensors were measured in 13 natural and prescribed wildland fires under a variety of fuel and ambient conditions. It was shown that a sensor exposed to the fire environment was subject to rapid fluctuations of convective transfer whereas irradiance measured by a windowed sensor was...
Natural convection and vapor loss during underground waste storage
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Plys, M.G.; Epstein, M.; Turner, D.
1996-01-01
Natural convection and vapor loss from underground waste storage tanks is examined here. Stability criteria are provided for the onset of natural convection flow within the headspace of a tank, and between tanks and the environment. The flowrate is quantified and used to predict vapor losses during storage
Heat removal by natural convection in a RPR reactor
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sampaio, P.A.B. de
1987-01-01
In this paper natural convection in RPR reactor is analysed. The effect of natural convection valves size on cladding temperature is studied. The reactor channel heat transfer problem is solved using finite elements in a two-dimensional analysis. Results show that two valves with Φ = 0.16 m are suited to keep coolant and cladding temperatures below 73 0 C. (author) [pt
Efficiency of Heat Transfer in Turbulent Rayleigh-Benard Convection
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Urban, Pavel; Musilová, Věra; Skrbek, L.
2011-01-01
Roč. 107, č. 1 (2011), 014302:1-4 ISSN 0031-9007 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KJB200650902 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20650511 Keywords : natural convection * thermal convection Subject RIV: BK - Fluid Dynamics Impact factor: 7.370, year: 2011
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mauk, B.H.
1989-01-01
The ''convection surge'' computer model presented previously (concerning the dramatic, nonadiabatic, magnetic-field-aligned energization of ions near the Earth's geosynchronous orbit in the presence of strong, transient, magnetic-field-perpendicular inductive electric fields) has been extended to include the self-consistent generation of magnetic-field-aligned electric fields. The field-aligned electric potential is obtained by imposing the quasi-neutrality condition using approximated electron distribution forms. The ions are forced to respond self-consistently to this potential. It is found that field-aligned potential drops up to 1 to 10 kV can be generated depending on electron temperatures and on the mass species of the ions. During transient periods of the process, these large potential drops can be confined to a few degrees of magnetic latitude at positions close to the magnetic equator. Anomalous, sometimes dramatic, additional magnetic-field-aligned ion acceleration also occurs in part as a result of a quasi-resonance between the parallel velocities of some ions and the propagating electric potential fronts. It is speculated that the convection surge mechanism could be a key player in the transient, field-aligned electromagnetic processes observed to operate within the middle (e.g., geosynchronous) magnetosphere. copyright American Geophysical Union 1989
Bifurcations and chaos in convection taking non-Fourier heat-flux
Layek, G. C.; Pati, N. C.
2017-11-01
In this Letter, we report the influences of thermal time-lag on the onset of convection, its bifurcations and chaos of a horizontal layer of Boussinesq fluid heated underneath taking non-Fourier Cattaneo-Christov hyperbolic model for heat propagation. A five-dimensional nonlinear system is obtained for a low-order Galerkin expansion, and it reduces to Lorenz system for Cattaneo number tending to zero. The linear stability agreed with existing results that depend on Cattaneo number C. It also gives a threshold Cattaneo number, CT, above which only oscillatory solutions can persist. The oscillatory solutions branch terminates at the subcritical steady branch with a heteroclinic loop connecting a pair of saddle points for subcritical steady-state solutions. For subcritical onset of convection two stable solutions coexist, that is, hysteresis phenomenon occurs at this stage. The steady solution undergoes a Hopf bifurcation and is of subcritical type for small value of C, while it becomes supercritical for moderate Cattaneo number. The system goes through period-doubling/noisy period-doubling transition to chaos depending on the control parameters. There after the system exhibits Shil'nikov chaos via homoclinic explosion. The complexity of spiral strange attractor is analyzed using fractal dimension and return map.
Madhulatha, A.; Rajeevan, M.
2018-02-01
Main objective of the present paper is to examine the role of various parameterization schemes in simulating the evolution of mesoscale convective system (MCS) occurred over south-east India. Using the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model, numerical experiments are conducted by considering various planetary boundary layer, microphysics, and cumulus parameterization schemes. Performances of different schemes are evaluated by examining boundary layer, reflectivity, and precipitation features of MCS using ground-based and satellite observations. Among various physical parameterization schemes, Mellor-Yamada-Janjic (MYJ) boundary layer scheme is able to produce deep boundary layer height by simulating warm temperatures necessary for storm initiation; Thompson (THM) microphysics scheme is capable to simulate the reflectivity by reasonable distribution of different hydrometeors during various stages of system; Betts-Miller-Janjic (BMJ) cumulus scheme is able to capture the precipitation by proper representation of convective instability associated with MCS. Present analysis suggests that MYJ, a local turbulent kinetic energy boundary layer scheme, which accounts strong vertical mixing; THM, a six-class hybrid moment microphysics scheme, which considers number concentration along with mixing ratio of rain hydrometeors; and BMJ, a closure cumulus scheme, which adjusts thermodynamic profiles based on climatological profiles might have contributed for better performance of respective model simulations. Numerical simulation carried out using the above combination of schemes is able to capture storm initiation, propagation, surface variations, thermodynamic structure, and precipitation features reasonably well. This study clearly demonstrates that the simulation of MCS characteristics is highly sensitive to the choice of parameterization schemes.
Leuenberger, D.; Rossa, A.
2007-12-01
Next-generation, operational, high-resolution numerical weather prediction models require economical assimilation schemes for radar data. In the present study we evaluate and characterise the latent heat nudging (LHN) rainfall assimilation scheme within a meso-γ scale NWP model in the framework of identical twin simulations of an idealised supercell storm. Consideration is given to the model’s dynamical response to the forcing as well as to the sensitivity of the LHN scheme to uncertainty in the observations and the environment. The results indicate that the LHN scheme is well able to capture the dynamical structure and the right rainfall amount of the storm in a perfect environment. This holds true even in degraded environments but a number of important issues arise. In particular, changes in the low-level humidity field are found to affect mainly the precipitation amplitude during the assimilation with a fast adaptation of the storm to the system dynamics determined by the environment during the free forecast. A constant bias in the environmental wind field, on the other hand, has the potential to render a successful assimilation with the LHN scheme difficult, as the velocity of the forcing is not consistent with the system propagation speed determined by the wind. If the rainfall forcing moves too fast, the system propagation is supported and the assimilated storm and forecasts initialised therefrom develop properly. A too slow forcing, on the other hand, can decelerate the system and eventually disturb the system dynamics by decoupling the low-level moisture inflow from the main updrafts during the assimilation. This distortion is sustained in the free forecast. It has further been found that a sufficient temporal resolution of the rainfall input is crucial for the successful assimilation of a fast moving, coherent convective storm and that the LHN scheme, when applied to a convective storm, appears to necessitate a careful tuning.
Boundary-modulated Thermal Convection Model in the Mantle
Kurita, K.; Kumagai, I.
2008-12-01
Analog experiments have played an important role in the constructing ideas of mantle dynamics. The series of experiments by H. Ramberg is one of the successful examples. Recently, however the realm of the analog experiments seems to be overwhelmed by steady progress of computer simulations. Is there still room for the analog experiments? This might be a main and hidden subject of this session. Here we propose a working hypothesis how the convecting mantle behaves based on the analog experiments in the system of viscous fluid and particles. The essential part is the interaction of convecting flow with heterogeneities existing in the boundaries. It is proposed the preexisting topographical heterogeneity in the boundary could control the flow pattern of convecting fluid. If this kind of heterogeneity can be formed as a consequence of convective motion and mobilized by the flow, the convection also can control the heterogeneity. We can expect interactions in two ways, by which the system behaves in a self-organize fashion. To explore the mutual interactions between convection flow and heterogeneity the system of viscous fluid and particles with slightly higher density is selected as 2D Rayleigh-Benard type convection. The basic structure consists of a basal particulate layer where permeable convection transports heat and an upper viscous fluid layer. By reducing the magnitude of the density difference the convective flow can mobilize the particles and can erode the basal layer. The condition of this erosion can be identified in the phase diagram of the particle Shields"f and the Rayleigh numbers. At Ra greater than 107 the convection style drastically changed before and after the erosion. Before the erosion where the flat interface of the boundary is maintained small scaled turbulent convection pattern is dominant. After the erosion where the interface becomes bumpy the large scale convective motion is observed. The structure is coherent to that of the boundary. This
Do tropical wetland plants possess a convective gas flow mechanism?
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Jensen, Dennis Konnerup; Sorrell, Brian Keith; Brix, Hans
2011-01-01
Internal pressurization and convective gas flow, which can aerate wetland plants more efficiently than diffusion, are common in temperate species. Here, we present the first survey of convective flow in a range of tropical plants. The occurrence of pressurization and convective flow was determined...... in 20 common wetland plants from the Mekong Delta in Vietnam. The diel variation in pressurization in culms and the convective flow and gas composition from stubbles were examined for Eleocharis dulcis, Phragmites vallatoria and Hymenachne acutigluma, and related to light, humidity and air temperature....... Nine of the 20 species studied were able to build up a static pressure of >50Pa, and eight species had convective flow rates higher than 1mlmin-1. There was a clear diel variation, with higher pressures and flows during the day than during the night, when pressures and flows were close to zero...
Heat transfer of laminar mixed convection of liquid
Shang, De-Yi
2016-01-01
This book presents a new algorithm to calculate fluid flow and heat transfer of laminar mixed convection. It provides step-by-step tutorial help to learn quickly how to set up the theoretical and numerical models of laminar mixed convection, to consider the variable physical properties of fluids, to obtain the system of numerical solutions, to create a series of formalization equations for the convection heat transfer by using a curve-fitting approach combined with theoretical analysis and derivation. It presents the governing ordinary differential equations of laminar mixed convection, equivalently transformed by an innovative similarity transformation with the description of the related transformation process. A system of numerical calculations of the governing ordinary differential equations is presented for the water laminar mixed convection. A polynomial model is induced for convenient and reliable treatment of variable physical properties of liquids. The developed formalization equations of mixed convec...
Natural Convection Analysis with Various Turbulent Models Using FLUENT
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Park, Yu Sun
2007-01-01
The buoyancy driven convective flow fields are steady circulatory flows which were made between surfaces maintained at two fixed temperatures. They are ubiquitous in nature and play an important role in many engineering applications. Especially, in last decades, natural convection in a close loop or cavity becomes the main issue in the molecular biology for the polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Application of a natural convection can reduce the costs and efforts remarkably. This paper focuses on the sensitivity study of turbulence analysis using CFD for a natural convection in a closed rectangular cavity. Using commercial CFD code, FLUENT, various turbulent models were applied to the turbulent flow. Results from each CFD model will be compared each other in the viewpoints of flow characteristics. This work will suggest the best turbulent model of CFD for analyzing turbulent flows of the natural convection in an enclosure system
The influence of convective current generator on the global current
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
V. N. Morozov
2006-01-01
Full Text Available The mathematical generalization of classical model of the global circuit with taking into account the convective current generator, working in the planetary boundary layer was considered. Convective current generator may be interpreted as generator, in which the electromotive force is generated by processes, of the turbulent transport of electrical charge. It is shown that the average potential of ionosphere is defined not only by the thunderstorm current generators, working at the present moment, but by the convective current generator also. The influence of the convective processes in the boundary layer on the electrical parameters of the atmosphere is not only local, but has global character as well. The numerical estimations, made for the case of the convective-unstable boundary layer demonstrate that the increase of the average potential of ionosphere may be of the order of 10% to 40%.
Neutral beam injection and plasma convection in a magnetic field
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Okuda, H.; Hiroe, S.
1988-06-01
Injection of a neutral beam into a plasma in a magnetic field has been studied by means of numerical plasma simulations. It is found that, in the absence of a rotational transform, the convection electric field arising from the polarization charges at the edges of the beam is dissipated by turbulent plasma convection, leading to anomalous plasma diffusion across the magnetic field. The convection electric field increases with the beam density and beam energy. In the presence of a rotational transform, polarization charges can be neutralized by the electron motion along the magnetic field. Even in the presence of a rotational transform, a steady-state convection electric field and, hence, anomalous plasma diffusion can develop when a neutral beam is constantly injected into a plasma. Theoretical investigations on the convection electric field are described for a plasma in the presence of rotational transform. 11 refs., 19 figs
D'Addezio, Joseph M.; Subrahmanyam, Bulusu
2018-01-01
The Madden-Julian oscillation (MJO) is the dominant driver of intraseasonal variability across the equatorial domain of the global ocean with alternating wet and dry bands that propagate eastward primarily between 5°N and 5°S. Past research has shown that MJOs impact the surface and subsurface variability of the Seychelles-Chagos thermocline ridge (SCTR) (55°E-65°E, 5°S-12°S) located in the southwest tropical Indian Ocean (SWTIO), but investigations of how SWTIO internal dynamics may play an important role in producing MJO events remain limited. This study uses Argo, in conjunction with several remote sensing and reanalysis products, to demonstrate that SWTIO oceanic dynamics, particularly barrier layer formation and near surface heat buildup, may be associated with MJO genesis between August and December of most years between 2005 and 2013. A total of eight SWTIO specific MJO events are observed, all occurring between August and December. Four of the eight events are correlated with positive SWTIO total heat content (THC) and barrier layer thickness (BLT) interannual anomalies. Two others formed over the SWTIO during times when only one of the variables was at or above their seasonal average, while two additional events occurred when both variables experienced negative interannual anomalies. Lacking complete 1:1 correlation between the hypothesized oceanic state and the identified SWTIO MJO events, we conclude that additional work is required to better understand when variability in key oceanic variables plays a primary role in regional MJO genesis or when other factors, such as atmospheric variability, are the dominate drivers.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
M. Keller
2018-04-01
Full Text Available Climate models project an increase in heavy precipitation events in response to greenhouse gas forcing. Important elements of such events are rain showers and thunderstorms, which are poorly represented in models with parameterized convection. In this study, simulations with 12 km horizontal grid spacing (convection-parameterizing model, CPM and 2 km grid spacing (convection-resolving model, CRM are employed to investigate the change in the diurnal cycle of convection with warmer climate. For this purpose, simulations of 11 days in June 2007 with a pronounced diurnal cycle of convection are compared with surrogate simulations from the same period. The surrogate climate simulations mimic a future climate with increased temperatures but unchanged relative humidity and similar synoptic-scale circulation. Two temperature scenarios are compared: one with homogeneous warming (HW using a vertically uniform warming and the other with vertically dependent warming (VW that enables changes in lapse rate.The two sets of simulations with parameterized and explicit convection exhibit substantial differences, some of which are well known from the literature. These include differences in the timing and amplitude of the diurnal cycle of convection, and the frequency of precipitation with low intensities. The response to climate change is much less studied. We can show that stratification changes have a strong influence on the changes in convection. Precipitation is strongly increasing for HW but decreasing for the VW simulations. For cloud type frequencies, virtually no changes are found for HW, but a substantial reduction in high clouds is found for VW. Further, we can show that the climate change signal strongly depends upon the horizontal resolution. In particular, significant differences between CPM and CRM are found in terms of the radiative feedbacks, with CRM exhibiting a stronger negative feedback in the top-of-the-atmosphere energy budget.
Keller, Michael; Kröner, Nico; Fuhrer, Oliver; Lüthi, Daniel; Schmidli, Juerg; Stengel, Martin; Stöckli, Reto; Schär, Christoph
2018-04-01
Climate models project an increase in heavy precipitation events in response to greenhouse gas forcing. Important elements of such events are rain showers and thunderstorms, which are poorly represented in models with parameterized convection. In this study, simulations with 12 km horizontal grid spacing (convection-parameterizing model, CPM) and 2 km grid spacing (convection-resolving model, CRM) are employed to investigate the change in the diurnal cycle of convection with warmer climate. For this purpose, simulations of 11 days in June 2007 with a pronounced diurnal cycle of convection are compared with surrogate simulations from the same period. The surrogate climate simulations mimic a future climate with increased temperatures but unchanged relative humidity and similar synoptic-scale circulation. Two temperature scenarios are compared: one with homogeneous warming (HW) using a vertically uniform warming and the other with vertically dependent warming (VW) that enables changes in lapse rate. The two sets of simulations with parameterized and explicit convection exhibit substantial differences, some of which are well known from the literature. These include differences in the timing and amplitude of the diurnal cycle of convection, and the frequency of precipitation with low intensities. The response to climate change is much less studied. We can show that stratification changes have a strong influence on the changes in convection. Precipitation is strongly increasing for HW but decreasing for the VW simulations. For cloud type frequencies, virtually no changes are found for HW, but a substantial reduction in high clouds is found for VW. Further, we can show that the climate change signal strongly depends upon the horizontal resolution. In particular, significant differences between CPM and CRM are found in terms of the radiative feedbacks, with CRM exhibiting a stronger negative feedback in the top-of-the-atmosphere energy budget.
Laminar Mixed Convection Heat Transfer Correlation for Horizontal Pipes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chae, Myeong Seon; Chung, Bum Jin
2013-01-01
This study aimed at producing experimental results and developing a new heat transfer correlation based upon a semi-empirical buoyancy coefficient. Mixed convection mass transfers inside horizontal pipe were investigated for the pipe of various length-to-diameters with varying Re. Forced convection correlation was developed using a very short cathode. With the length of cathode increase and Re decrease, the heat transfer rates were enhanced and becomes higher than that of forced convection. An empirical buoyancy coefficient was derived from correlation of natural convection and forced convection with the addition of L/D. And the heat transfer correlation for laminar mixed convection was developed using the buoyancy coefficient, it describes not only current results, but also results of other studies. Mixed convection occurs when the driving forces of both forced and natural convections are of comparable magnitude (Gr/Re 2 ∼1). It is classical problem but is still an active area of research for various thermal applications such as flat plate solar collectors, nuclear reactors and heat exchangers. The effect of buoyancy on heat transfer in a forced flow is varied by the direction of the buoyancy force. In a horizontal pipe the direction of the forced and buoyancy forces are perpendicular. The studies on the mixed convections of the horizontal pipes were not investigated very much due to the lack of practical uses compared to those of vertical pipes. Even the definitions on the buoyancy coefficient that presents the relative influence of the forced and the natural convections, are different by scholars. And the proposed heat transfer correlations do not agree
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yoshimura, H.
1976-01-01
Extensive numerical studies of the dynamo equations due to the global convection are presented to simulate the solar cycle and to open the way to study general stellar magnetic cycles. The dynamo equations which represent the longitudinally-averaged magnetohydrodynamical action (mean magnetohydrodynamics) of the global convection under the influence of the rotation in the solar convection zone are considered here as an initial boundary-value problem. The latitudinal and radial structure of the dynamo action consisting of a generation action due to the differential rotation and a regeneration action due to the global convection is parameterized in accordance with the structure of the rotation and of the global convection. This is done especially in such a way as to represent the presence of the two cells of the regeneration action in the radial direction in which the action has opposite signs, which is typical of the regeneration action of the global convection. The effects of the dynamics of the global convection (e.g., the effects of the stratification of the physical conditions in the solar convection zone) are presumed to be all included in those parameters used in the model and they are presumed not to alter the results drastically since these effects are only to change the structure of the regeneration action topologically. (Auth.)
A quasi-one-dimensional theory of sound propagation in lined ducts with mean flow
Dokumaci, Erkan
2018-04-01
Sound propagation in ducts with locally-reacting liners has received the attention of many authors proposing two- and three-dimensional solutions of the convected wave equation and of the Pridmore-Brown equation. One-dimensional lined duct models appear to have received less attention. The present paper proposes a quasi-one-dimensional theory for lined uniform ducts with parallel sheared mean flow. The basic assumption of the theory is that the effects of refraction and wall compliance on the fundamental mode remain within ranges in which the acoustic fluctuations are essentially uniform over a duct section. This restricts the model to subsonic low Mach numbers and Helmholtz numbers of less than about unity. The axial propagation constants and the wave transfer matrix of the duct are given by simple explicit expressions and can be applied with no-slip, full-slip or partial slip boundary conditions. The limitations of the theory are discussed and its predictions are compared with the fundamental mode solutions of the convected wave equation, the Pridmore-Brown equation and measurements where available.
Modes of convection in the magnetotail
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Baumjohann, Wolfgang
2002-01-01
The flow of plasma in the Earth's magnetotail cannot reach a steady state, since adiabatic convection would lead to exceedingly high pressure of the associated magnetic flux tubes closer to the Earth, the so-called pressure catastrophe. The natural way to avoid the pressure catastrophe is to significantly reduce the flux tube volume by reconnection, and observations show a near-Earth reconnection line typically around 20-25 Earth radii down tail. Earthward flows from this reconnection line are rather bursty and typically seen outside of 10 Earth radii. At this point they are strongly braked by the here dominant dipolar magnetic field. The pressure gradients piled up by the flow lead to the substorm current wedge, and possibly other substorm phenomena observed in the Earth's ionosphere. When more and more flux tubes are piled up, the dipolarization front moves tailward and finally shuts off near-Earth reconnection
Mixed convection flow past a horizontal plate
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Savić Lj.
2005-01-01
Full Text Available The mixed convection flow past a horizontal plate being aligned through a small angle of attack to a uniform free stream will be considered in the limit of large Reynolds number and small Richardson number. Even a small angle of inclination of the wake is sufficient for the buoyancy force to accelerate the flow in the wake which causes a velocity overshoot in the wake. Moreover a hydrostatic pressure difference across the wake induces a correction to the potential flow which influences the inclination of the wake. Thus the wake and the correction of the potential flow have to be determined simultaneously. However, it turns out that solutions exist only if the angle of attack is sufficiently large. Solutions are computed numerically and the influence of the buoyancy on the lift coefficient is determined.
Imaging convection and magnetism in the sun
Hanasoge, Shravan
2015-01-01
This book reviews the field of helioseismology and its outstanding challenges and also offers a detailed discussion of the latest computational methodologies. The focus is on the development and implementation of techniques to create 3-D images of convection and magnetism in the solar interior and to introduce the latest computational and theoretical methods to the interested reader. With the increasing availability of computational resources, demand for greater accuracy in the interpretation of helioseismic measurements and the advent of billion-dollar instruments taking high-quality observations, computational methods of helioseismology that enable probing the 3-D structure of the Sun have increasingly become central. This book will benefit students and researchers with proficiency in basic numerical methods, differential equations and linear algebra who are interested in helioseismology.
Design Aspects of the Rayleigh Convection Code
Featherstone, N. A.
2017-12-01
Understanding the long-term generation of planetary or stellar magnetic field requires complementary knowledge of the large-scale fluid dynamics pervading large fractions of the object's interior. Such large-scale motions are sensitive to the system's geometry which, in planets and stars, is spherical to a good approximation. As a result, computational models designed to study such systems often solve the MHD equations in spherical geometry, frequently employing a spectral approach involving spherical harmonics. We present computational and user-interface design aspects of one such modeling tool, the Rayleigh convection code, which is suitable for deployment on desktop and petascale-hpc architectures alike. In this poster, we will present an overview of this code's parallel design and its built-in diagnostics-output package. Rayleigh has been developed with NSF support through the Computational Infrastructure for Geodynamics and is expected to be released as open-source software in winter 2017/2018.
Prediction of flow instability during natural convection
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Farhadi, Kazem
2005-01-01
The occurrence of flow excursion instability during passive heat removal for Tehran Research Reactor (TRR) has been analyzed at low-pressure and low-mass rate of flow conditions without boiling taking place. Pressure drop-flow rate characteristics in the general case are determined upon a developed code for this purpose. The code takes into account variations of different pressure drop components caused by different powers as well as different core inlet temperatures. The analysis revealed the fact that the instability can actually occur in the natural convection mode for a range of powers per fuel plates at a predetermined inlet temperature with fixed geometry of the core. Low mass rate of flow and high sub-cooling are the two important conditions for the occurrence of static instability in the TRR. The calculated results are compared with the existing data in the literature. (author)
Mixed convection in fluid superposed porous layers
Dixon, John M
2017-01-01
This Brief describes and analyzes flow and heat transport over a liquid-saturated porous bed. The porous bed is saturated by a liquid layer and heating takes place from a section of the bottom. The effect on flow patterns of heating from the bottom is shown by calculation, and when the heating is sufficiently strong, the flow is affected through the porous and upper liquid layers. Measurements of the heat transfer rate from the heated section confirm calculations. General heat transfer laws are developed for varying porous bed depths for applications to process industry needs, environmental sciences, and materials processing. Addressing a topic of considerable interest to the research community, the brief features an up-to-date literature review of mixed convection energy transport in fluid superposed porous layers.
Convective heat transfer and infrared thermography.
Carlomagno, Giovanni M; Astarita, Tommaso; Cardone, Gennaro
2002-10-01
Infrared (IR) thermography, because of its two-dimensional and non-intrusive nature, can be exploited in industrial applications as well as in research. This paper deals with measurement of convective heat transfer coefficients (h) in three complex fluid flow configurations that concern the main aspects of both internal and external cooling of turbine engine components: (1) flow in ribbed, or smooth, channels connected by a 180 degrees sharp turn, (2) a jet in cross-flow, and (3) a jet impinging on a wall. The aim of this study was to acquire detailed measurements of h distribution in complex flow configurations related to both internal and external cooling of turbine components. The heated thin foil technique, which involves the detection of surface temperature by means of an IR scanning radiometer, was exploited to measure h. Particle image velocimetry was also used in one of the configurations to precisely determine the velocity field.
Propagation engineering in radio links design
Ghasemi, Abdollah; Ghasemi, Farshid
2013-01-01
Propagation Engineering in Radio Link Design covers the basic principles of radiowaves propagation in a practical manner. This fundamental understanding enables the readers to design radio links efficiently. This book elaborates on new achievements as well as recently developed propagation models. This is in addition to a comprehensive overview of fundamentals of propagation in various scenarios. It examines theoretical calculations, approaches and applied procedures needed for radio links design. The authors study and analysis of the main propagation phenomena and its mechanisms based on the recommendations of International Telecommunications Union, (ITU). The book has been organized in 9 chapters and examines the role of antennas and passive reflectors in radio services, propagation mechanisms related to radar, satellite, short distance, broadcasting and trans-horizon radio links, with two chapters devoted to radio noise and main parameters of radio link design. The book presents some 278 illustration...
Convectively Induced Meanflow in a Long Channel.
Grimm, Th.; Maxworthy, T.
1997-11-01
The similarity theory of Phillips (Deep Sea Res. 13, 1966) for the convectively induced motion in the Red Sea, predicts that the outflow buoyancy difference should scale as (B _0L) ^2/3/h :: , where B 0 is the surface buoyancy flux and L and h are the length and height of the channel above the sill crest, respectively. A friction-buoyancy balance leads to a modified expression [(B _0L) ^2/3/h][fracLh]^1/3 :: (2). The results can be applied also to a number of other natural flows including freezing-induced convection in fjords and polar seas. A series of Experiments have been conducted to check the predictions. A channel 300 cm long and 21 cm wide has been constructed. Within it segmented salt-water sources have been placed over a length of 250 cm. Their depth varied from 2 to 12 cm. A sill was placed in the exit region and its height was at least half the total depth of water in the channel. Density data were taken by withdrawing samples while velocity profiles were found by a DPIV technique. The meanflow consists of a two-layer stratification over a large fraction of the length of the channel. Our results suggest that the scaling (2) above is most closely realized with a constant of value 1.1. Analysis of the Red Sea data suggests a constant between 1.1 and 1.4 depending on the data set used. The exit Fr-number is unity. The amount of mixing within the channel is less than that predicted for the 'overmixed' state. Supported by the German Acad. Exchge. Serv. and the NSF Polar Programs.
Engineering photochemical smog through convection towers
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Elliott, S.; Prueitt, M.L.; Bossert, J.E.; Mroz, E.J.; Krakowski, R.A.; Miller, R.L. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Jacobson, M.Z.; Turco, R.P. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)]|[Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States). Atmospheric Sciences Dept.
1995-02-01
Reverse convection towers have attracted attention as a medium for cleansing modern cities. Evaporation of an aqueous mist injected at the tower opening could generate electrical power by creating descent, and simultaneously scavenge unsightly and unhealthful particulates. The study offered here assesses the influence to tower water droplets on the photochemical component of Los Angeles type smog. The primary radical chain initiator OH is likely removed into aqueous phases well within the residence time of air in the tower, and then reacts away rapidly. Organics do not dissolve, but nighttime hydrolysis of N{sub 2}O{sub 5} depletes the nitrogen oxides. A lack of HOx would slow hydrocarbon oxidation and so also ozone production. Lowering of NOx would also alter ozone production rates, but the direction is uncertain. SO{sub 2} is available in sufficient quantities in some urban areas to react with stable oxidants, and if seawater were the source of the mist, the high pH would lead to fast sulfur oxidation kinetics. With an accommodation coefficient of 10{sup {minus}3}, however, ozone may not enter the aqueous phase efficiently. Even if ozone is destroyed or its production suppressed, photochemical recovery times are on the order of hours, so that tower processing must be centered on a narrow midday time window. The cost of building the number of structures necessary for this brief turnover could be prohibitive. The increase in humidity accompanying mist evaporation could be controlled with condensers, but might otherwise counteract visibility enhancements by recreating aqueous aerosols. Quantification of the divergent forcings convection towers must exert upon the cityscape would call for coupled three dimensional modeling of transport, microphysics, and photochemistry. 112 refs.
Acoustic energy propagation around railways
Cizkova, Petra
2017-09-01
The article deals with the issues of acoustic energy propagation around railways. The research subject was noise emission spreading into the surroundings during the passage of trains over a directly travelled steel bridge construction. Noise emissions were measured using direct measurements in the field. The measurements were performed in two measurement profiles. The noise exposures A LAE measured near the steel bridge construction were compared against the noise exposures A LAE captured on an open track. From the difference of these data, the noise level of the steel bridge structure was determined. Part of the research was to evaluate the effect of the reconstruction of the railway track superstructure on the acoustic situation in the given section of the railway track. The article describes the methodology of measurements, including the processing and evaluation of measured data. The article points out the noise levels of the steel bridge construction and assesses changes in the acoustic situation after the reconstruction.
Pulse Propagation on close conductors
Dieckmann, A
2001-01-01
The propagation and reflection of arbitrarily shaped pulses on non-dispersive parallel conductors of finite length with user defined cross section is simulated employing the discretized telegraph equation. The geometry of the system of conductors and the presence of dielectric material determine the capacities and inductances that enter the calculation. The values of these parameters are found using an iterative Laplace equation solving procedure and confirmed for certain calculable geometries including the line charge inside a box. The evolving pulses and the resulting crosstalk can be plotted at any instant and - in the Mathematica notebook version of this report - be looked at in an animation. As an example a differential pair of microstrips as used in the ATLAS vertex detector is analysed.
IBEX - annular beam propagation experiment
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mazarakis, M.G.; Miller, R.B.; Shope, S.L.; Poukey, J.W.; Ramirez, J.J.; Ekdahl, C.A.; Adler, R.J.
1983-01-01
IBEX is a 4-MV, 100-kA, 20-ns cylindrical isolated Blumlein accelerator. In the experiments reported here, the accelerator is fitted with a specially designed foilless diode which is completely immersed in a uniform magnetic field. Several diode geometries have been studied as a function of magnetic field strength. The beam propagates a distance of 50 cm (approx. 10 cyclotron wavelengths) in vacuum before either striking a beam stop or being extracted through a thin foil. The extracted beam was successfully transported 60 cm downstream into a drift pipe filled either with 80 or 640 torr air. The main objectives of this experiment were to establish the proper parameters for the most quiescent 4 MV, 20 to 40 kA annular beam, and to compare the results with available theory and numerical code simulations
Front propagation in flipping processes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Antal, T; Ben-Avraham, D; Ben-Naim, E; Krapivsky, P L
2008-01-01
We study a directed flipping process that underlies the performance of the random edge simplex algorithm. In this stochastic process, which takes place on a one-dimensional lattice whose sites may be either occupied or vacant, occupied sites become vacant at a constant rate and simultaneously cause all sites to the right to change their state. This random process exhibits rich phenomenology. First, there is a front, defined by the position of the leftmost occupied site, that propagates at a nontrivial velocity. Second, the front involves a depletion zone with an excess of vacant sites. The total excess Δ k increases logarithmically, Δ k ≅ ln k, with the distance k from the front. Third, the front exhibits ageing-young fronts are vigorous but old fronts are sluggish. We investigate these phenomena using a quasi-static approximation, direct solutions of small systems and numerical simulations
Nonlinear operators and their propagators
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Schwartz, C.
1997-01-01
Mathematical physicists are familiar with a large set of tools designed for dealing with linear operators, which are so common in both the classical and quantum theories; but many of those tools are useless with nonlinear equations of motion. In this work a general algebra and calculus is developed for working with nonlinear operators: The basic new tool being the open-quotes slash product,close quotes defined by A(1+εB) =A+εA/B+O(ε 2 ). For a generic time development equation, the propagator is constructed and then there follows the formal version of time dependent perturbation theory, in remarkable similarity to the linear situation. A nonperturbative approximation scheme capable of producing high accuracy computations, previously developed for linear operators, is shown to be applicable as well in the nonlinear domain. A number of auxiliary mathematical properties and examples are given. copyright 1997 American Institute of Physics
True polar wander on convecting planets
Rose, Ian Robert
Rotating planets are most stable when spinning around their maximum moment of inertia, and will tend to reorient themselves to achieve this configuration. Geological activity redistributes mass in the planet, making the moment of inertia a function of time. As the moment of inertia of the planet changes, the spin axis shifts with respect to a mantle reference frame in order to maintain rotational stability. This process is known as true polar wander (TPW). Of the processes that contribute to a planet's moment of inertia, convection in the mantle generates the largest and longest-period fluctuations, with corresponding shifts in the spin axis. True polar wander has been hypothesized to explain several physiographic features on planets and moons in our solar system. On Earth, TPW events have been invoked in some interpretations of paleomagnetic data. Large swings in the spin axis could have enormous ramifications for paleogeography, paleoclimate, and the history of life. Although the existence of TPW is well-verified, it is not known whether its rate and magnitude have been large enough for it to be an important process in Earth history. If true polar wander has been sluggish compared to plate tectonic speeds, then it would be difficult to detect and its consequences would be minor. I investigate rates of true polar wander on convecting planets using scaling, numerics, and inverse problems. I perform a scaling analysis of TPW on a convecting planet, identifying a minimal set of nondimensional parameters which describe the problem. The primary nondimensional numbers that control the rate of TPW are the ratio of centrifugal to gravitational forces m and the Rayleigh number Ra. The parameter m sets the size of a planet's rotational bulge, which determines the amount of work that needs to be done to move the spin axis. The Rayleigh number controls the size, distribution, and rate of change of moment of inertia anomalies, all of which affect the rate of TPW. I find that
Rapid Vegetative Propagation Method for Carob
Hamide GUBBUK; Esma GUNES; Tomas AYALA-SILVA; Sezai ERCISLI
2011-01-01
Most of fruit species are propagated by vegetative methods such as budding, grafting, cutting, suckering, layering etc. to avoid heterozygocity. Carob trees (Ceratonia siliqua L.) are of highly economical value and are among the most difficult to propagate fruit species. In the study, air-layering propagation method was investigated first time to compare wild and cultivated (�Sisam�) carob types. In the experiment, one year old carob limbs were air-layered on coco peat medium by wrapping with...
Zhu, Kefeng; Xue, Ming; Zhou, Bowen; Zhao, Kun; Sun, Zhengqi; Fu, Peiling; Zheng, Yongguang; Zhang, Xiaoling; Meng, Qingtao
2018-01-01
Forecasts at a 4 km convection-permitting resolution over China during the summer season have been produced with the Weather Research and Forecasting model at Nanjing University since 2013. Precipitation forecasts from 2013 to 2014 are evaluated with dense rain gauge observations and compared with operational global model forecasts. Overall, the 4 km forecasts show very good agreement with observations over most parts of China, outperforming global forecasts in terms of spatial distribution, intensity, and diurnal variation. Quantitative evaluations with the Gilbert skill score further confirm the better performance of the 4 km forecasts over global forecasts for heavy precipitation, especially for the thresholds of 100 and 150 mm d-1. Besides bulk characteristics, the representations of some unique features of summer precipitation in China under the influence of the East Asian summer monsoon are further evaluated. These include the northward progression and southward retreat of the main rainband through the summer season, the diurnal variations of precipitation, and the meridional and zonal propagation of precipitation episodes associated with background synoptic flow and the embedded mesoscale convective systems. The 4 km forecast is able to faithfully reproduce most of the features while overprediction of afternoon convection near the southern China coast is found to be a main deficiency that requires further investigations.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kim, S.H.; Taleyarkhan, R.P.; Navarro-Valenti, S.; Georgevich, V.
1995-01-01
This paper describes modeling and analysis to evaluate the extent of core damage during flow blockage events in the Advanced Neutron Source (ANS) reactor planned to be built at ORNL. Damage propagation is postulated to occur from thermal conduction between dmaged and undamaged plates due to direct thermal contact. Such direct thermal contact may occur beause of fuel plate swelling during fission product vapor release or plate buckling. Complex phenomena of damage propagation were modeled using a one-dimensional heat transfer model. A parametric study was done for several uncertain variables. The study included investigating effects of plate contact area, convective heat transfer coefficient, thermal conductivity on fuel swelling, and initial temperature of the plate being contacted by the damaged plate. Also, the side support plates were modeled to account for their effects of damage propagation. Results provide useful insights into how variouss uncertain parameters affect damage propagation
Aspects of HF radio propagation
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Stephane Saillant
2009-06-01
Full Text Available
radio systems. From the point of view Working Group 2 of the COST 296 Action, interest lies with effects associated
with propagation via the ionosphere of signals within the HF band. Several aspects are covered in this paper:
a The directions of arrival and times of flight of signals received over a path oriented along the trough have
been examined and several types of propagation effects identified. Of particular note, combining the HF observations
with satellite measurements has identified the presence of irregularities within the floor of the trough that
result in propagation displaced from the great circle direction. An understanding of the propagation effects that
result in deviations of the signal path from the great circle direction are of particular relevance to the operation
of HF radiolocation systems.
b Inclusion of the results from the above mentioned measurements into a propagation model of the northerly
ionosphere (i.e. those regions of the ionosphere located poleward of, and including, the mid-latitude trough
and the use of this model to predict the coverage expected from transmitters where the signals impinge on the
northerly ionosphere
Neural network construction via back-propagation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Burwick, T.T.
1994-06-01
A method is presented that combines back-propagation with multi-layer neural network construction. Back-propagation is used not only to adjust the weights but also the signal functions. Going from one network to an equivalent one that has additional linear units, the non-linearity of these units and thus their effective presence is then introduced via back-propagation (weight-splitting). The back-propagated error causes the network to include new units in order to minimize the error function. We also show how this formalism allows to escape local minima
Terrestrial propagation of long electromagnetic waves
Galejs, Janis; Fock, V A
2013-01-01
Terrestrial Propagation of Long Electromagnetic Waves deals with the propagation of long electromagnetic waves confined principally to the shell between the earth and the ionosphere, known as the terrestrial waveguide. The discussion is limited to steady-state solutions in a waveguide that is uniform in the direction of propagation. Wave propagation is characterized almost exclusively by mode theory. The mathematics are developed only for sources at the ground surface or within the waveguide, including artificial sources as well as lightning discharges. This volume is comprised of nine chapte
ACTS Propagation Measurements in Maryland and Virginia
Dissanayake, Asoka; Lin, Kuan-Ting
1996-01-01
Rapid growth in new satellite services incorporating very small aperture terminals (VSAT) and ultra small aperture terminals (USAT) is expected in the coming years. Small size terminals allow for widespread use of satellite services in small business and domestic applications. Due to congestion of lower frequency bands such as C and Ku, most of these services will use Ka-band (2/20 GHz) frequencies. Propagation impairments produced by the troposphere is a limiting factor for the effective use of the 20/30 GHz band and the use of smaller Earth terminals makes it difficult to provide sufficient link margins for propagation related outages. In this context, reliable prediction of propagation impairments for low margin systems becomes important. Due to the complexity of propagation phenomena propagation modeling is mainly attempted on an empirical basis. As such, the availability of reliable measured data that extend to probability levels well in excess of the traditional limit of 1 percent is of great importance in the development, validation, and refinement of propagation models. The beacon payload on the Advanced Communications Technology Satellite (ACTS) together with the propagation measurement terminals developed under the NASA ACTS propagation program provide an excellent opportunity to collect such data on a long-term basis. This paper presents the results of ACTS propagation measurements conducted in the Washington, DC metropolitan area by COMSAT Laboratories.
Fatigue crack propagation behavior under creep conditions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ohji, Kiyotsugu; Kubo, Shiro
1991-01-01
The crack propagation behavior of the SUS 304 stainless steel under creep-fatigue conditions was reviewed. Cracks propagated either in purely time-dependent mode or in purely cycle-dependent mode, depending on loading conditions. The time-dependent crack propagation rate was correlated with modified J-integral J * and the cycle-dependent crack propagation rate was correlated with J-integral range ΔJ f . Threshold was observed in the cycle-dependent crack propagation, and below this threshold the time-dependent crack propagation appeared. The crack propagation rates were uniquely characterized by taking the effective values of J * and ΔJ f , when crack closure was observed. Change in crack propagation mode occurred reversibly and was predicted by the competitive damage model. The threshold disappeared and the cycle-dependent crack propagation continued in a subthreshold region under variable amplitude conditions, where the threshold was interposed between the maximum and minimum ΔJ f . (orig.)
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
C. Senior
2002-06-01
Full Text Available High-time resolution data from the two Iceland SuperDARN HF radars show very strong nightside convection activity during a prolonged period of low geomagnetic activity and northward interplanetary magnetic field (IMF. Flows bursts with velocities ranging from 0.8 to 1.7 km/s are observed to propagate in the sunward direction with phase velocities up to 1.5 km/s. These bursts occur over several hours of MLT in the 20:00–01:00 MLT sector, in the evening-side sunward convection. Data from a simultaneous DMSP pass and POLAR UVI images show a very contracted polar cap and extended regions of auroral particle precipitation from the magnetospheric boundaries. A DMSP pass over the Iceland-West field-of-view while one of these sporadic bursts of enhanced flow is observed, indicates that the flow bursts appear within the plasma sheet and at its outward edge, which excludes Kelvin-Helmholtz instabilities at the magnetopause boundary as the generation mechanism. In the nightside region, the precipitation is more spot-like and the convection organizes itself as clockwise U-shaped structures. We interpret these flow bursts as the convective transport following plasma injection events from the tail into the night-side ionosphere. We show that during this period, where the IMF clock angle is around 70°, the dayside magnetosphere is not completely closed.Key words. Ionosphere (Auroral ionosphere; Ionospheremagnetosphere interactions; Particle precipitation
Improved nowcasting of precipitation based on convective analysis fields
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
T. Haiden
2007-04-01
Full Text Available The high-resolution analysis and nowcasting system INCA (Integrated Nowcasting through Comprehensive Analysis developed at the Austrian national weather service provides three-dimensional fields of temperature, humidity, and wind on an hourly basis, and two-dimensional fields of precipitation rate in 15 min intervals. The system operates on a horizontal resolution of 1 km and a vertical resolution of 100–200 m. It combines surface station data, remote sensing data (radar, satellite, forecast fields of the numerical weather prediction model ALADIN, and high-resolution topographic data. An important application of the INCA system is nowcasting of convective precipitation. Based on fine-scale temperature, humidity, and wind analyses a number of convective analysis fields are routinely generated. These fields include convective boundary layer (CBL flow convergence and specific humidity, lifted condensation level (LCL, convective available potential energy (CAPE, convective inhibition (CIN, and various convective stability indices. Based on the verification of areal precipitation nowcasts it is shown that the pure translational forecast of convective cells can be improved by using a decision algorithm which is based on a subset of the above fields, combined with satellite products.
Convective effects in a regulatory and proposed fire model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wix, S.D.; Hohnstreiter, G.F.
1995-01-01
Radiation is the dominant mode of heat transfer in large fires. However, convection can be as much as 10 to 20 percent of the total heat transfer to an object in a large fire. The current radioactive material transportation packaging regulations include convection as a mode of heat transfer in the accident condition scenario. The current International Atomic Energy Agency Safety Series 6 packaging regulation states ''the convection coefficient shall be that value which the designer can justify if the package were exposed to the specified fire''. The current Title 10, Code of Federal Regulations, Part 71 (10CFR71) packaging regulation states ''when significant, convection heat input must be included on the basis of still, ambient air at 800 degrees C (1475 degrees F)''. Two questions that can arise in an analysts mind from an examination of the packaging regulations is whether convection is significant and whether convection should be included in the design analysis of a radioactive materials transportation container. The objective of this study is to examine the convective effects on an actual radioactive materials transportation package using a regulatory and a proposed thermal boundary condition
Modeling of plasma-sheet convection: implications for substorms
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Erickson, G.M.
1985-01-01
An answer is suggested to the question of why plasma and magnetic energy accumulate in the Earth's magnetotail to be released in sporadic events, namely substorms. It is shown that the idea of steady convection is inconsistent with the idea of slow, approximately lossless, plasma convection in a long, closed-field-line region that extends into a long magnetotail, such as occurs during Earthward convection in the Earth's plasma sheet. This inconsistency is argued generally and demonstrated specifically using several quantitative models of the Earth's magnetospheric magnetic field. These results suggest that plasma-sheet convection is necessarily time dependent. If flux tubes are to convect adiabatically earthward, the confining magnetic pressure in the tail lobes must increase with time, and the magnetotail must evolve into a more stretched configuration. Eventually, the magnetosphere must find some way to release plasma from inner-plasma-sheet flux tubes. This suggests an obvious role for the magnetospheric substorm in the convection process. To probe this process further, a two-dimensional, self-consistent, quasi-static convection model was developed. This model self consistently includes a dipole field and can reasonably account for the effects of inner-magnetospheric shielding
Diagnosing MJO Destabilization and Propagation with the Moisture and MSE Budgets
Maloney, Eric; Wolding, Brandon
2015-04-01
Novel diagnostics obtained as an extension of empirical orthogonal function analysis are used as a composting basis to gain insight into MJO dynamics through examination of reanalysis moisture and moist static energy budgets. The net effect of vertical moisture advection and cloud processes was found to be a modest positive feedback to column moisture anomalies during both enhanced and suppressed phases of the MJO. This positive feedback is regionally strengthened by anomalous surface fluxes of latent heat. The modulation of horizontal synoptic scale eddy mixing acts as a negative feedback to column moisture anomalies, while anomalous winds acting against the mean state moisture gradient aid in eastward propagation. These processes act in a systematic fashion across the Indian Ocean and oceanic regions of the Maritime Continent. The ability to approximately close the MSE budget serves an important role in constraining the moisture budget, whose residual is several times larger than the total and horizontal advective moisture tendencies. Comparison with TRMM precipitation anomalies suggests that the moisture budget residual results from an underestimation by ERAi of variations in both total precipitation and vertical moisture advection associated with the MJO. The results of this study support the concept of the MJO as a moisture-mode. This analysis is extended to examine the impact of boundary layer convergence driven by MJO SST anomalies on the vertically-integrated moisture budget. Results from a coupled version of the SP-CAM suggest that SST-driven moisture convergence anomalies are of a sufficient amplitude to be important for MJO propagation and destabilization, and may help explain why coupled models produce better simulations of the MJO than uncoupled models.
Scaling of Convection and Plate Tectonics in Super-Earths
Valencia, D. C.; O'Connell, R. J.; Sasselov, D. D.
2006-12-01
The discovery of three Super-Earths around different stars, possible only in the last year, prompts us to study the characteristics of our planet within a general context. The Earth, being the most massive terrestrial object in the solar system is the only planet that exhibits plate tectonics. We think this might not be a coincidence and explore the role that mass plays in determining the mode of convection. We use the scaling of convective vigor with Rayleigh number commonly used in parameterized convection. We study how the parameters controlling convection: Rayleigh number (Ra), boundary layer thickness (δ), internal temperature (T_i) and convective velocities (u) scale with mass. This is possible from the scaling of heat flux, mantle density, size and gravity with mass which we reported in Valencia, et. al 2006. The extrapolation to massive rocky planets is done from our knowledge of the Earth. Even though uncertainties arise from extrapolation and assumptions are needed we consider this simple scaling to be a first adequate step. As the mass of a planet increases, Ra increases, yielding a decrease in δ and an increase in u, while T_i increases very slightly. This is true for an isoviscous case and is more accentuated in a temperature dependent viscosity scenario. In a planet with vigorous convection (high u), a thin lithosphere (low δ) is easier to subduct and hence, initiate plate tectonics. The lithosphere also has to be dense enough (cold and thick) to have the bouyancy necessary for subduction. We calculate that a convective cycle for an isoviscous planet is τ ~ M^{-0.3} considering whole mantle convection. Meaning that if these planets have continents, the timescale for continental rearrangement is shorter (about half the Earth's for a 5 earth-mass planet). Additionally, we explore the negative feedback cycle between convection and temperature dependent viscosity and estimate a timescale for this effect.
Double Diffusive Natural Convection in a Nuclear Waste Repository
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Y. Hao; J. Nitao; T.A. Buscheck; Y. Sun
2006-01-01
In this study, we conduct a two-dimensional numerical analysis of double diffusive natural convection in an emplacement drift for a nuclear waste repository. In-drift heat and moisture transport is driven by combined thermal- and compositional-induced buoyancy forces. Numerical results demonstrate buoyancy-driven convective flow patterns and configurations during both repository heat-up and cool-down phases. It is also shown that boundary conditions, particularly on the drip-shield surface, have strong impacts on the in-drift convective flow and transport
Anomalous Convection Reversal due to Turbulence Transition in Tokamak Plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sun Tian-Tian; Chen Shao-Yong; Huang Jie; Mou Mao-Lin; Tang Chang-Jian; Wang Zhan-Hui; Peng Xiao-Dong
2015-01-01
A critical physical model, based on the ion temperature gradient (ITG) mode and the trapped electron mode (TEM), trying to explain the spatio-temporal dynamics of anomalous particle convection reversal (i.e., the particle convective flux reverses from inward to outward), is developed numerically. The dependence of density peaking and profile shape on the particle convection is studied. Only the inward pinch could lead to the increase of the density peaking. The validation of the critical model is also analyzed. A comparison of the estimates calculated by the model and the experimental results from the Tore Supra tokamak shows that they are qualitatively both consistent. (paper)
Convection with local thermal non-equilibrium and microfluidic effects
Straughan, Brian
2015-01-01
This book is one of the first devoted to an account of theories of thermal convection which involve local thermal non-equilibrium effects, including a concentration on microfluidic effects. The text introduces convection with local thermal non-equilibrium effects in extraordinary detail, making it easy for readers newer to the subject area to understand. This book is unique in the fact that it addresses a large number of convection theories and provides many new results which are not available elsewhere. This book will be useful to researchers from engineering, fluid mechanics, and applied mathematics, particularly those interested in microfluidics and porous media.
Confinement and dynamical regulation in two-dimensional convective turbulence
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bian, N.H.; Garcia, O.E.
2003-01-01
In this work the nature of confinement improvement implied by the self-consistent generation of mean flows in two-dimensional convective turbulence is studied. The confinement variations are linked to two distinct regulation mechanisms which are also shown to be at the origin of low......-frequency bursting in the fluctuation level and the convective heat flux integral, both resulting in a state of large-scale intermittency. The first one involves the control of convective transport by sheared mean flows. This regulation relies on the conservative transfer of kinetic energy from tilted fluctuations...
Tests for removal of decay heat by natural convection
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kashiwagi, E.; Wataru, M.; Gomi, Y.; Hattori, Y.; Ozaki, S.
1993-01-01
Interim storage technology for spent fuel by dry storage casks have been investigated. The casks are vertically placed in a storage building. The decay heat is removed from the outer cask surface by natural convection of air entering from the building wall to the roof. The air flow pattern in the storage building was governed by the natural driving pressure difference and circulating flow. The purpose of this study is to understand the mechanism of the removal of decay heat from casks by natural convection. The simulated flow conditions in the building were assumed as a natural and forced combined convection and were investigated by the turbulent quantities near wall. (author)
Content Propagation in Online Social Networks
Blenn, N.
2014-01-01
This thesis presents methods and techniques to analyze content propagation within online social networks (OSNs) using a graph theoretical approach. Important factors and different techniques to analyze and describe content propagation, starting from the smallest entity in a network, representing a
Topology optimization of wave-propagation problems
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Jensen, Jakob Søndergaard; Sigmund, Ole
2006-01-01
Topology optimization is demonstrated as a useful tool for systematic design of wave-propagation problems. We illustrate the applicability of the method for optical, acoustic and elastic devices and structures.......Topology optimization is demonstrated as a useful tool for systematic design of wave-propagation problems. We illustrate the applicability of the method for optical, acoustic and elastic devices and structures....
Propagation of microwaves in pulsar magnetospheres
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bodo, G; Ferrari, A [Turin Univ. (Italy). Ist. di Fisica Generale; Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Turin (Italy). Lab. di Cosmo-Geofisica); Massaglia, S [Turin Univ. (Italy). Ist. di Fisica Generale; Cambridge Univ. (UK). Inst. of Astronomy)
1981-12-01
We discuss the dispersion relation of linearly-polarized waves, propagating along a strong background magnetic field embedded in an electron-positron plasma. The results are then applied to the study of the propagation conditions of coherent curvature radio radiation inside neutron stars magnetospheres, as produced by electric discharges following current pulsar models.
Wave propagation in thermoelastic saturated porous medium
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
the existence and propagation of four waves in the medium. Three of the waves are ... predicted infinite speed for propagation of ther- mal signals. Lord and ..... saturated reservoir rock (North-sea Sandstone) is chosen for the numerical model ...
In vitro propagation of Irvingia gabonensis
African Journals Online (AJOL)
GREGO
2007-04-16
Apr 16, 2007 ... Full-grown plantlets were obtained and work is in progress on mass propagation. ... subsequent mass propagation to produce seedlings for farmers, and to improve food security and ... Shooting and rooting were observed, and full grown plantlets were obtained. ¼ MS +0.2 mg KIN. +0.1 mg NAA. Rooting ...
Uncertainty Propagation in an Ecosystem Nutrient Budget.
New aspects and advancements in classical uncertainty propagation methods were used to develop a nutrient budget with associated error for a northern Gulf of Mexico coastal embayment. Uncertainty was calculated for budget terms by propagating the standard error and degrees of fr...
Canada Basin Acoustic Propagation Experiment (CANAPE)
2015-09-30
acoustic communications, acoustic navigation, or acoustic remote sensing of the ocean interior . RELATED PROJECTS The 2015 CANAPE pilot study was a...1 DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A. Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. Canada Basin Acoustic Propagation Experiment (CANAPE...ocean structure. Changes in sea ice and the water column affect both acoustic propagation and ambient noise. This implies that what was learned
Propagation testing multi-cell batteries.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Orendorff, Christopher J. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Lamb, Joshua [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Steele, Leigh Anna Marie [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Spangler, Scott Wilmer [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)
2014-10-01
Propagation of single point or single cell failures in multi-cell batteries is a significant concern as batteries increase in scale for a variety of civilian and military applications. This report describes the procedure for testing failure propagation along with some representative test results to highlight the potential outcomes for different battery types and designs.
Diagnostics for the ATA beam propagation experiments
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fessenden, T.J.; Atchison, W.L.; Barletta, W.A.
1981-11-01
This report contains a discussion of the diagnostics required for the beam propagation experiment to be done with the ATA accelerator. Included are a list of the diagnostics needed; a description of the ATA experimental environment; the status of beam diagnostics available at Livermore including recent developments, and a prioritized list of accelerator and propagation diagnostics under consideration or in various stages of development
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
C. T. Duba
2012-05-01
Full Text Available Using the shallow water equations for a rotating layer of fluid, the wave and dispersion equations for Rossby waves are developed for the cases of both the standard β-plane approximation for the latitudinal variation of the Coriolis parameter f and a zonal variation of the shallow water speed. It is well known that the wave normal diagram for the standard (mid-latitude Rossby wave on a β-plane is a circle in wave number (ky,kx space, whose centre is displaced −β/2 ω units along the negative kx axis, and whose radius is less than this displacement, which means that phase propagation is entirely westward. This form of anisotropy (arising from the latitudinal y variation of f, combined with the highly dispersive nature of the wave, gives rise to a group velocity diagram which permits eastward as well as westward propagation. It is shown that the group velocity diagram is an ellipse, whose centre is displaced westward, and whose major and minor axes give the maximum westward, eastward and northward (southward group speeds as functions of the frequency and a parameter m which measures the ratio of the low frequency-long wavelength Rossby wave speed to the shallow water speed. We believe these properties of group velocity diagram have not been elucidated in this way before. We present a similar derivation of the wave normal diagram and its associated group velocity curve for the case of a zonal (x variation of the shallow water speed, which may arise when the depth of an ocean varies zonally from a continental shelf.
Tectonic predictions with mantle convection models
Coltice, Nicolas; Shephard, Grace E.
2018-04-01
Over the past 15 yr, numerical models of convection in Earth's mantle have made a leap forward: they can now produce self-consistent plate-like behaviour at the surface together with deep mantle circulation. These digital tools provide a new window into the intimate connections between plate tectonics and mantle dynamics, and can therefore be used for tectonic predictions, in principle. This contribution explores this assumption. First, initial conditions at 30, 20, 10 and 0 Ma are generated by driving a convective flow with imposed plate velocities at the surface. We then compute instantaneous mantle flows in response to the guessed temperature fields without imposing any boundary conditions. Plate boundaries self-consistently emerge at correct locations with respect to reconstructions, except for small plates close to subduction zones. As already observed for other types of instantaneous flow calculations, the structure of the top boundary layer and upper-mantle slab is the dominant character that leads to accurate predictions of surface velocities. Perturbations of the rheological parameters have little impact on the resulting surface velocities. We then compute fully dynamic model evolution from 30 and 10 to 0 Ma, without imposing plate boundaries or plate velocities. Contrary to instantaneous calculations, errors in kinematic predictions are substantial, although the plate layout and kinematics in several areas remain consistent with the expectations for the Earth. For these calculations, varying the rheological parameters makes a difference for plate boundary evolution. Also, identified errors in initial conditions contribute to first-order kinematic errors. This experiment shows that the tectonic predictions of dynamic models over 10 My are highly sensitive to uncertainties of rheological parameters and initial temperature field in comparison to instantaneous flow calculations. Indeed, the initial conditions and the rheological parameters can be good enough
Unirradiated cladding rip-propagation tests
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hu, W.L.; Hunter, C.W.
1981-04-01
The size of cladding rips which develop when a fuel pin fails can affect the subassembly cooling and determine how rapidly fuel escapes from the pin. The object of the Cladding Rip Propagation Test (CRPT) was to quantify the failure development of cladding so that a more realistic fuel pin failure modeling may be performed. The test results for unirradiated 20% CS 316 stainless steel cladding show significantly different rip propagation behavior at different temperatures. At room temperature, the rip growth is stable as the rip extension increases monotonically with the applied deformation. At 500 0 C, the rip propagation becomes unstable after a short period of stable rip propagation. The rapid propagation rate is approximately 200 m/s, and the critical rip length is 9 mm. At test temperatures above 850 0 C, the cladding exhibits very high failure resistances, and failure occurs by multiple cracking at high cladding deformation. 13 figures
Propagation of SLF/ELF electromagnetic waves
Pan, Weiyan
2014-01-01
This book deals with the SLF/ELF wave propagation, an important branch of electromagnetic theory. The SLF/ELF wave propagation theory is well applied in earthquake electromagnetic radiation, submarine communication, thunderstorm detection, and geophysical prospecting and diagnostics. The propagation of SLF/ELF electromagnetic waves is introduced in various media like the earth-ionospheric waveguide, ionospheric plasma, sea water, earth, and the boundary between two different media or the stratified media. Applications in the earthquake electromagnetic radiation and the submarine communications are also addressed. This book is intended for scientists and engineers in the fields of radio propagation and EM theory and applications. Prof. Pan is a professor at China Research Institute of Radiowave Propagation in Qingdao (China). Dr. Li is a professor at Zhejiang University in Hangzhou (China).
Sears, Julian D.
1934-01-01
The report describes the geology and coal deposits of the southwestern part of the San Juan Basin, N.Mex. The field lies northeast of the town of Gallup, on the Atchison, Topeka & Santa Fe Railway, and is an irregular tract of about 630 square miles in central and west-central McKinley County; it includes the southeast corner of the Navajo Indian Reservation. Settlement is confined to the white families at a few trading posts and the Indian agency at Crown Point and to scattered Navajo Indians. The land forms, drainage, vegetation, and climate are those typical of the highland in the semiarid Southwest.The investigation disclosed complicated relations of the Mancos shale and the Mesaverde formation, of Upper Cretaceous age, and a marked variation in the stratigraphic boundary between them. At the western edge of the field, as in the adjoining Gallup coal district, the Mancos consists of about 725 feet of marine shale almost wholly of Benton (lower Colorado) age. It is overlain by about 1,800 feet of chiefly estuarine and fluviatile deposits that represent the lower part of the Mesaverde formation. In ascending order the Mesaverde here consists of the Gallup sandstone member (which includes local lenses of valuable coal), the Dilco coal member, the Bartlett barren member, the Gibson coal member, and the Allison barren member. Eastward through the field the outcrops extend obliquely across the trend of old shore lines out into the ancient basin of marine deposition, and some of the beds consequently show a progressive lateral change into rocks of littoral and marine types. The Gallup sandstone member is in part replaced by marine shale of the Mancos. The upper part of the Dilco coal member is replaced by the Dalton sandstone member, and still farther east the bottom of the Dalton and the top of the remaining Dilco are replaced by the Mulatto tongue of the Mancos shale. The Bartlett barren member becomes coal-bearing and thus merges with the Gibson. The Gibson coal
In vitro propagation of jojoba.
Llorente, Berta E; Apóstolo, Nancy M
2013-01-01
Jojoba (Simmondsia chinensis (Link) Schn.) is a nontraditional crop in arid and semi-arid areas. Vegetative propagation can be achieved by layering, grafting, or rooting semi-hardwood cuttings, but the highest number of possible propagules is limited by the size of the plants and time of the year. Micropropagation is highly recommended strategy for obtaining jojoba elite clones. For culture initiation, single-node explants are cultivated on Murashige and Skoog medium (MS) supplemented with Gamborg's vitamins (B5), 11.1 μM BA (N(6)-benzyl-adenine), 0.5 μM IBA (indole-3-butyric acid), and 1.4 μM GA(3) (gibberellic acid). Internodal and apical cuttings proliferate on MS medium containing B5 vitamins and 4.4 μM BA. Rooting is achieved on MS medium (half strength mineral salt) amended with B5 vitamins and 14.7 μM IBA during 7 days and transferred to develop in auxin-free rooting medium. Plantlets are acclimatized using a graduated humidity regime on soil: peat: perlite (5:1:1) substrate. This micropagation protocol produces large numbers of uniform plants from selected genotypes of jojoba.
Time dependent convection electric fields and plasma injection
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kaye, S.M.; Kivelson, M.G.
1979-01-01
Large-scale electric fields associated with storms or substorms are responsible for inward convection and energization of plasma sheet plasma. Calculations based on steady state convection theory show that the response to such electric fields qualitatively accounts for many features of the injected particle distribution, but quantitative agreement with the theory has not yet been obtained. It is known that the predictions can be improved by introducing the concept of convection in response to a time dependent electric field. On the other hand, time dependent calculations are sensitive to the choice of initial conditions, and most models have failed to incorporate these conditions in a realistic and self-consistent manner. In this paper we present a more complete model consisting of realisic initial conditions and time dependent convection to explain a typical substorm-associated electron injection event. We find very good agreement between the observed electron flux changes and those predicted by our model
Boundary layers and scaling relations in natural thermal convection
Shishkina, Olga; Lohse, Detlef; Grossmann, Siegfried
2017-11-01
We analyse the boundary layer (BL) equations in natural thermal convection, which includes vertical convection (VC), where the fluid is confined between two differently heated vertical walls, horizontal convection (HC), where the fluid is heated at one part of the bottom plate and cooled at some other part, and Rayleigh-Benard convection (RBC). For BL dominated regimes we derive the scaling relations of the Nusselt and Reynolds numbers (Nu, Re) with the Rayleigh and Prandtl numbers (Ra, Pr). For VC the scaling relations are obtained directly from the BL equations, while for HC they are derived by applying the Grossmann-Lohse theory to the case of VC. In particular, for RBC with large Pr we derive Nu Pr0Ra1/3 and Re Pr-1Ra2/3. The work is supported by the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG) under the Grant Sh 405/4 - Heisenberg fellowship.
VARIATION OF STELLAR ENVELOPE CONVECTION AND OVERSHOOT WITH METALLICITY
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tanner, Joel D.; Basu, Sarbani; Demarque, Pierre
2013-01-01
We examine how metallicity affects convection and overshoot in the superadiabatic layer of main sequence stars. We present results from a grid of three-dimensional radiation hydrodynamic simulations with four metallicities (Z = 0.040, 0.020, 0.010, 0.001), and spanning a range in effective temperature (4950 eff < 6230). We show that changing the metallicity alters properties of the convective gas dynamics, and the structure of the superadiabatic layer and atmosphere. Our grid of simulations shows that the amount of superadiabaticity, which tracks the transition from efficient to inefficient convection, is sensitive to changes in metallicity. We find that increasing the metallicity forces the location of the transition region to lower densities and pressures, and results in larger mean and turbulent velocities throughout the superadiabatic region. We also quantify the degree of convective overshoot in the atmosphere, and show that it increases with metallicity as well.
Convective heat and mass transfer in rotating disk systems
Shevchuk, Igor V
2009-01-01
The book describes results of investigations of a series of convective heat and mass transfer problems in rotating-disk systems. Methodology used included integral methods, self-similar and approximate analytical solutions, as well as CFD.
NUMERICALLY DETERMINED TRANSPORT LAWS FOR FINGERING ('THERMOHALINE') CONVECTION IN ASTROPHYSICS
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Traxler, A.; Garaud, P.; Stellmach, S.
2011-01-01
We present the first three-dimensional simulations of fingering convection performed at parameter values approaching those relevant for astrophysics. Our simulations reveal the existence of simple asymptotic scaling laws for turbulent heat and compositional transport, which can be straightforwardly extrapolated from our numerically tractable values to the true astrophysical regime. Our investigation also indicates that thermo-compositional 'staircases', a key consequence of fingering convection in the ocean, cannot form spontaneously in the fingering regime in stellar interiors. Our proposed empirically determined transport laws thus provide simple prescriptions for mixing by fingering convection in a variety of astrophysical situations, and should, from here on, be used preferentially over older and less accurate parameterizations. They also establish that fingering convection does not provide sufficient extra-mixing to explain observed chemical abundances in red giant branch stars.
Convective behaviour in vapour-gas-aerosol mixtures
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Clement, C.F.
1986-01-01
Unusual convective behaviour can occur in mixtures of gases and heavy vapour, including stabilization of mixtures hot at the base and 'upside-down' convection in mixtures hot at the top. Previous work produced a criterion for this behaviour which ignored the necessary presence of an aerosol. Modification arising from aerosol condensation is derived and is shown to involve the Lewis and condensation numbers of the mixture, as well as a quantity involving the temperature drop across a boundary layer. It becomes negligible at high temperatures, but can crucially affect the temperature for the onset of unusual behaviour. Aerosol formation produces an asymmetry between the convective forces in boundary layers in which the mixture is being heated and cooled, respectively, for example at the base and roof of a cavity. The convective behaviour discussed could occur in situations relevant to nuclear safety. (author)
Effect of Chemical Reaction on Unsteady MHD Free Convective Two
African Journals Online (AJOL)
Joseph et al.
radiation effects on mixed convection heat and mass transfer over a vertical plate in ... numerically by finite difference method and analytically by perturbation. ... Brinkman equation was used to model the flow in the porous region. The.
Convectively driven flow past an infinite moving vertical cylinder with ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
2013-10-01
Oct 1, 2013 ... tical cylinder with combined effects of heat and mass transfer is an ... presented a numerical study of free convective flow of a viscous ... models. The simultaneous effects of thermal and mass stratifications have application.
Turbulent convection in liquid metal with and without rotation.
King, Eric M; Aurnou, Jonathan M
2013-04-23
The magnetic fields of Earth and other planets are generated by turbulent, rotating convection in liquid metal. Liquid metals are peculiar in that they diffuse heat more readily than momentum, quantified by their small Prandtl numbers, Pr rotating Rayleigh-Bénard convection experiments in the liquid metal gallium (Pr = 0.025) over a range of nondimensional buoyancy forcing (Ra) and rotation periods (E). Our primary diagnostic is the efficiency of convective heat transfer (Nu). In general, we find that the convective behavior of liquid metal differs substantially from that of moderate Pr fluids, such as water. In particular, a transition between rotationally constrained and weakly rotating turbulent states is identified, and this transition differs substantially from that observed in moderate Pr fluids. This difference, we hypothesize, may explain the different classes of magnetic fields observed on the Gas and Ice Giant planets, whose dynamo regions consist of Pr 1 fluids, respectively.
Convective Self-Aggregation in Numerical Simulations: A Review
Wing, Allison A.; Emanuel, Kerry; Holloway, Christopher E.; Muller, Caroline
Organized convection in the tropics occurs across a range of spatial and temporal scales and strongly influences cloud cover and humidity. One mode of organization found is ``self-aggregation,'' in which moist convection spontaneously organizes into one or several isolated clusters despite spatially homogeneous boundary conditions and forcing. Self-aggregation is driven by interactions between clouds, moisture, radiation, surface fluxes, and circulation, and occurs in a wide variety of idealized simulations of radiative-convective equilibrium. Here we provide a review of convective self-aggregation in numerical simulations, including its character, causes, and effects. We describe the evolution of self-aggregation including its time and length scales and the physical mechanisms leading to its triggering and maintenance, and we also discuss possible links to climate and climate change.
Mixing properties of thermal convection in the earth's mantle
Schmalzl, J.T.
1996-01-01
The structure of mantle convection will greatly influence the generation and the survival of compositional heterogeneities. Conversely, geochemical observations can be used to obtain information about heterogeneities in the mantle and then, with certain model assumptions, information about the
Using naive Bayes classifier for classification of convective rainfall ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
the rainfall intensity in the convective clouds is evaluated using weather radar over the northern Algeria. The results indicate an ... tropical and extratropical regions, are dominated .... MSG is a new series of European geostationary satellites ...
Large Eddy Simulations of Severe Convection Induced Turbulence
Ahmad, Nash'at; Proctor, Fred
2011-01-01
Convective storms can pose a serious risk to aviation operations since they are often accompanied by turbulence, heavy rain, hail, icing, lightning, strong winds, and poor visibility. They can cause major delays in air traffic due to the re-routing of flights, and by disrupting operations at the airports in the vicinity of the storm system. In this study, the Terminal Area Simulation System is used to simulate five different convective events ranging from a mesoscale convective complex to isolated storms. The occurrence of convection induced turbulence is analyzed from these simulations. The validation of model results with the radar data and other observations is reported and an aircraft-centric turbulence hazard metric calculated for each case is discussed. The turbulence analysis showed that large pockets of significant turbulence hazard can be found in regions of low radar reflectivity. Moderate and severe turbulence was often found in building cumulus turrets and overshooting tops.
Regime-dependent forecast uncertainty of convective precipitation
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Keil, Christian; Craig, George C. [Muenchen Univ. (Germany). Meteorologisches Inst.
2011-04-15
Forecast uncertainty of convective precipitation is influenced by all scales, but in different ways in different meteorological situations. Forecasts of the high resolution ensemble prediction system COSMO-DE-EPS of Deutscher Wetterdienst (DWD) are used to examine the dominant sources of uncertainty of convective precipitation. A validation with radar data using traditional as well as spatial verification measures highlights differences in precipitation forecast performance in differing weather regimes. When the forecast uncertainty can primarily be associated with local, small-scale processes individual members run with the same variation of the physical parameterisation driven by different global models outperform all other ensemble members. In contrast when the precipitation is governed by the large-scale flow all ensemble members perform similarly. Application of the convective adjustment time scale confirms this separation and shows a regime-dependent forecast uncertainty of convective precipitation. (orig.)
Performance of a convective, infrared and combined infrared- convective heated conveyor-belt dryer.
El-Mesery, Hany S; Mwithiga, Gikuru
2015-05-01
A conveyor-belt dryer was developed using a combined infrared and hot air heating system that can be used in the drying of fruits and vegetables. The drying system having two chambers was fitted with infrared radiation heaters and through-flow hot air was provided from a convective heating system. The system was designed to operate under either infrared radiation and cold air (IR-CA) settings of 2000 W/m(2) with forced ambient air at 30 °C and air flow of 0.6 m/s or combined infrared and hot air convection (IR-HA) dryer setting with infrared intensity set at 2000 W/m(2) and hot at 60 °C being blown through the dryer at a velocity of 0.6 m/s or hot air convection (HA) at an air temperature of 60 °C and air flow velocity 0.6 m/s but without infrared heating. Apple slices dried under the different dryer settings were evaluated for quality and energy requirements. It was found that drying of apple (Golden Delicious) slices took place in the falling rate drying period and no constant rate period of drying was observed under any of the test conditions. The IR-HA setting was 57.5 and 39.1 % faster than IR-CA and HA setting, respectively. Specific energy consumption was lower and thermal efficiency was higher for the IR-HA setting when compared to both IR-CA and HA settings. The rehydration ratio, shrinkage and colour properties of apples dried under IR-HA conditions were better than for either IR-CA or HA.
Klein, Cornelia; Belušić, Danijel; Taylor, Christopher M.
2018-03-01
Mesoscale convective systems (MCSs) are frequently associated with rainfall extremes and are expected to further intensify under global warming. However, despite the significant impact of such extreme events, the dominant processes favoring their occurrence are still under debate. Meteosat geostationary satellites provide unique long-term subhourly records of cloud top temperatures, allowing to track changes in MCS structures that could be linked to rainfall intensification. Focusing on West Africa, we show that Meteosat cloud top temperatures are a useful proxy for rainfall intensities, as derived from snapshots from the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission 2A25 product: MCSs larger than 15,000 km2 at a temperature threshold of -40°C are found to produce 91% of all extreme rainfall occurrences in the study region, with 80% of the storms producing extreme rain when their minimum temperature drops below -80°C. Furthermore, we present a new method based on 2-D continuous wavelet transform to explore the relationship between cloud top temperature and rainfall intensity for subcloud features at different length scales. The method shows great potential for separating convective and stratiform cloud parts when combining information on temperature and scale, improving the common approach of using a temperature threshold only. We find that below -80°C, every fifth pixel is associated with deep convection. This frequency is doubled when looking at subcloud features smaller than 35 km. Scale analysis of subcloud features can thus help to better exploit cloud top temperature data sets, which provide much more spatiotemporal detail of MCS characteristics than available rainfall data sets alone.
Universality in quasiperiodic Rayleigh-Benard convection
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ecke, R.E.; Mainieri, R.; Sullivan, T.S.
1991-01-01
We study universal scaling properties of quasiperiodic Rayleigh-Benard convection in a 3 He--superfluid- 4 He mixture. The critical line is located in a parameter space of Rayleigh and Prandtl numbers using a transient-Poincare-section technique to identify transitions from nodal periodic points to spiral periodic points within resonance horns. We measure the radial and angular contraction rates and extract the linear-stability eigenvalues (Flouquet multipliers) of the periodic point. At the crossings of the critical line with the lines of fixed golden-mean-tail winding number we determine the universality class of our experimental dynamics using f(α) and trajectory-scaling-function analyses. A technique is used to obtain a robust five-scale approximation to the universal trajectory scaling function. Different methods of multifractal analysis are employed and an understanding of statistical and systematic errors in these procedures is developed. The power law of the inflection point of the map, determined for three golden-mean-tail winding numbers, is 2.9±0.3, corresponding to the universality class of the sine map
Free convective condensation in a vertical enclosure
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Fox, R.J.; Peterson, P.F. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Corradini, M.L.; Pernsteiner, A.P. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States)
1995-09-01
Free convective condensation in a vertical enclosure was studied numerically and the results were compared with experiments. In both the numerical and experimental investigations, mist formation was observed to occur near the cooling wall, with significant droplet concentrations in the bulk. Large recirculation cells near the end of the condensing section were generated as the heavy noncondensing gas collecting near the cooling wall was accelerated downward. Near the top of the enclosure the recirculation cells became weaker and smaller than those below, ultimately disappearing near the top of the condenser. In the experiment the mist density was seen to be highest near the wall and at the bottom of the condensing section, whereas the numerical model predicted a much more uniform distribution. The model used to describe the formation of mist was based on a Modified Critical Saturation Model (MCSM), which allows mist to be generated once the vapor pressure exceeds a critical value. Equilibrium, nonequilibrium, and MCSM calculations were preformed, showing the experimental results to lie somewhere in between the equilibrium and nonequilibrium predictions of the numerical model. A single adjustable constant (indicating the degree to which equilibrium is achieved) is used in the model in order to match the experimental results.
A novel approach to modeling atmospheric convection
Goodman, A.
2016-12-01
The inadequate representation of clouds continues to be a large source of uncertainty in the projections from global climate models (GCMs). With continuous advances in computational power, however, the ability for GCMs to explicitly resolve cumulus convection will soon be realized. For this purpose, Jung and Arakawa (2008) proposed the Vector Vorticity Model (VVM), in which vorticity is the predicted variable instead of momentum. This has the advantage of eliminating the pressure gradient force within the framework of an anelastic system. However, the VVM was designed for use on a planar quadrilateral grid, making it unsuitable for implementation in global models discretized on the sphere. Here we have proposed a modification to the VVM where instead the curl of the horizontal vorticity is the primary predicted variable. This allows us to maintain the benefits of the original VVM while working within the constraints of a non-quadrilateral mesh. We found that our proposed model produced results from a warm bubble simulation that were consistent with the VVM. Further improvements that can be made to the VVM are also discussed.
Non-linear thermal convection in a
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Sachin Shaw
2016-06-01
Full Text Available Casson fluid flow has many practical applications such as food processing, metallurgy, drilling operations and bio-engineering operations. In this paper, we study Casson fluid flow through a plate with a convective boundary condition at the surface and quantify the effects of suction/injection, velocity ratio, and Soret and Dufour effects. Firstly we used a similarity transformation to change the governing equations to ordinary differential equations which were then solved numerically. The effect of the rheological parameters on the velocity, temperature, and concentration with skin friction, and heat and mass transfer are shown graphically and discussed briefly. It is observed that the velocity of the fluid at the surface decreases with increase of the velocity ratio while the nature of the flow is in opposite characteristics. The local Nusselt number decreases with increase in the velocity ratio. Skin friction at the surface is enhanced by buoyancy ratio and Casson number. Due to injection of the fluid in the system, the mass transfer rate at the surface increases while it decreases with the velocity ratio parameter.
Heat transfer characteristics of induced mixed convection
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Weiss, Y.; Lahav, C.; Szanto, M.; Shai, I.
1996-01-01
In the present work we focus our attention on the opposed Induced Mixed Convection case, i.e. the flow field structure in a vertical cylinder, closed at its bottom, opens at the top, and being heated circumferentially. The paper reports an experimental study of this complex heat transfer process. For a better understanding of the flow field and the related heat transfer process, two different experimental systems were built. The first was a flow visualization system, with water as the working fluid, while the second system enabled quantitative measurements of the temperature field in air. All the experiments were performed in the turbulent flow regime. In order to learn about all possible flow regimes, the visualization tests were conducted in three different length-to-diameter ratios (1/d=1,5,10). Quantitative measurements of the cylindrical wall temperature, as well as the radial and axial temperature profiles in the flow field, were taken in the air system. Based on the visualization observation and the measured wall temperature profile, it was found that the OIMC can be characterized by three main regimes: a mixing regime at the top, a central turbulent core and a boundary layer type of flow adjacent to the heated wall. (authors)
Thermal turbulent convection: thermal plumes and fluctuations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gibert, M.
2007-10-01
In this study we investigate the phenomenon of thermal turbulent convection in new and unprecedented ways. The first system we studied experimentally is an infinite vertical channel, where a constant vertical mean gradient of temperature exists. Inside this channel the average mass flux is null. The results obtained from our measurements reveal that the flow is mainly inertial; indeed the dissipative coefficients (here the viscosity) play a role only to define a coherence length L. This length is the distance over which the thermal plumes can be considered as 'free falling' objects. The horizontal transport, of heat and momentum, is entirely due to fluctuations. The associated 'mixing length' is small compared to the channel width. In the other hand, the vertical heat transport is due to coherent structures: the heat plumes. Those objects were also investigated in a Lagrangian study of the flow in the bulk of a Rayleigh-Benard cell. The probe, which has the same density as the fluid used in this experiment, is a sphere of 2 cm in diameter with embarked thermometers and radio-emitter. The heat plumes transport it, which allows a statistical study of such objects. (author)
Influence of convection on eutectic microstructure
Baskaran, V.; Eisa, G. F.; Wilcox, W. R.
1985-01-01
When the MnBi-Bi eutectic is directionally solidified, it forms fibers of MnBi in a matrix of bismuth. When the material solidified in space at rates of 30 and 50 cm/hr, the average fiber spacing lambda was about one half of the value obtained in cases in which the same material solidified on earth. Neither an altered temperature gradient nor a fluctuating freezing rate are apparently responsible for the change in lambda, and the possibility is studied that natural convection increases lambda on earth by perturbing the compositional field in the melt ahead of the growing solid. A theoretical analysis is conducted along with some experiments. On the basis of the theoretical results for lamellar growth, it is concluded that the spacing lambda increases with increasing stirring, especially at small freezing rates. The experiments indicate that at low growth rates the cross-sectional area of the MnBi blades increases with increased stirring and with decreased growth rate.
Solar Convective Furnace for Metals Processing
Patidar, Deepesh; Tiwari, Sheetanshu; Sharma, Piyush; Pardeshi, Ravindra; Chandra, Laltu; Shekhar, Rajiv
2015-11-01
Metals processing operations, primarily soaking, heat treatment, and melting of metals are energy-intensive processes using fossil fuels, either directly or indirectly as electricity, to operate furnaces at high temperatures. Use of concentrated solar energy as a source of heat could be a viable "green" option for industrial heat treatment furnaces. This paper introduces the concept of a solar convective furnace which utilizes hot air generated by an open volumetric air receiver (OVAR)-based solar tower technology. The potential for heating air above 1000°C exists. Air temperatures of 700°C have already been achieved in a 1.5-MWe volumetric air receiver demonstration plant. Efforts to retrofit an industrial aluminium soaking furnace for integration with a solar tower system are briefly described. The design and performance of an OVAR has been discussed. A strategy for designing a 1/15th-scale model of an industrial aluminium soaking furnace has been presented. Preliminary flow and thermal simulation results suggest the presence of recirculating flow in existing furnaces that could possibly result in non-uniform heating of the slabs. The multifarious uses of concentrated solar energy, for example in smelting, metals processing, and even fuel production, should enable it to overcome its cost disadvantage with respect to solar photovoltaics.
Multicomponent droplet vaporization in a convecting environment
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Megaridis, C.M.; Sirignano, W.A.
1990-01-01
In this paper a parametric study of the fundamental exchange processes for energy, mass and momentum between the liquid and gas phases of multicomponent liquid vaporizing droplets is presented. The model, which examines an isolated, vaporizing, multicomponent droplet in an axisymmetric, convecting environment, considers the different volatilities of the liquid components, the alteration of the liquid-phase properties due to the spatial/temporal variations of the species concentrations and also the effects of multicomponent diffusion. In addition, the model accounts for variable thermophysical properties, surface blowing and droplet surface regression due to vaporization, transient droplet heating with internal liquid circulation, and finally droplet deceleration with respect to the free flow due to drag. The numerical calculation employs finite-difference techniques and an iterative solution procedure that provides time-varying spatially-resolved data for both phases. The effects of initial droplet composition, ambient temperature, initial Reynolds number (based on droplet diameter), and volatility differential between the two liquid components are investigated for a liquid droplet consisting of two components with very different volatilities. It is found that mixtures with higher concentration of the less volatile substance actually vaporize faster on account of intrinsically higher liquid heating rates
Heating-insensitive scale increase caused by convective precipitation
Haerter, Jan; Moseley, Christopher; Berg, Peter
2017-04-01
The origin of intense convective extremes and their unusual temperature dependence has recently challenged traditional thermodynamic arguments, based on the Clausius-Clapeyron relation. In a sequence of studies (Lenderink and v. Mejgaard, Nat Geosc, 2008; Berg, Haerter, Moseley, Nat Geosc, 2013; and Moseley, Hohenegger, Berg, Haerter, Nat Geosc, 2016) the argument of convective-type precipitation overcoming the 7%/K increase in extremes by dynamical, rather than thermodynamic, processes has been promoted. How can the role of dynamical processes be approached for precipitating convective cloud? One-phase, non-precipitating Rayleigh-Bénard convection is a classical problem in complex systems science. When a fluid between two horizontal plates is sufficiently heated from below, convective rolls spontaneously form. In shallow, non-precipitating atmospheric convection, rolls are also known to form under specific conditions, with horizontal scales roughly proportional to the boundary layer height. Here we explore within idealized large-eddy simulations, how the scale of convection is modified, when precipitation sets in and intensifies in the course of diurnal solar heating. Before onset of precipitation, Bénard cells with relatively constant diameter form, roughly on the scale of the atmospheric boundary layer. We find that the onset of precipitation then signals an approximately linear (in time) increase in horizontal scale. This scale increase progresses at a speed which is rather insensitive to changes in surface temperature or changes in the rate at which boundary conditions change, hinting at spatial characteristics, rather than temperature, as a possible control on spatial scales of convection. When exploring the depth of spatial correlations, we find that precipitation onset causes a sudden disruption of order and a subsequent complete disintegration of organization —until precipitation eventually ceases. Returning to the initial question of convective
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Pelce, J [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires
1960-02-15
This report deals with the experimental study of forced heat convection in annular spaces through which flow of air is passing when a uniform heat flux is dissipated across the inner wall. These observations took place chiefly in the region where thermal equilibrium are not yet established. Amongst other things it became apparent that, both in the region where thermal equilibrium conditions are on the way to establishment and where they are already established, the following relationship held good: the longitudinal temperature gradient, either on the wall or in the fluid stream, is proportional to the heat flux dissipated q, and inversely proportional to the average flow rate V: dT/dx = B (q/V). From this result the next step is to express the variations of the local convection coefficient {alpha} (or of the Margoulis number M) in a relationship of the form: 1/M = {psi}(V) + F(x). If this relationship is compared with the classical empirical relationship {alpha} = KV{sup n} (where n is close to 0.8), the relationship: 1/M = {xi}V{sup 1-n} + F(x) is obtained ({xi} is a constant for a given annular space); from this it was possible to coordinate the whole set of experimental results. (author) [French] Il s'agit precisement de l'etude experimentale de la convection forcee de la chaleur dans des espaces annulaires parcourus par de l'air en ecoulement turbulent, lorsqu'on dissipe a travers la paroi interieure un flux de chaleur uniforme. Ces observations ont eu lieu principalement dans la region ou le regime thermique n'est pas encore etabli. Il est apparu, entre autre, qu'il existait, tant dans la region ou le regime thermique est en voie d'etablissement qu'en regime etabli, la relation suivante: le gradient longitudinal des temperatures, que ce soit sur la paroi ou dans l'ecoulement fluide, est proportionnel au flux de la chaleur dissipee q, et inversement proportionnel a la vitesse moyenne V de l'ecoulement: dT/dx = B (q/V). Ce resultat a pour consequence de traduire
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
J. Arteta
2009-09-01
Full Text Available The general objective of this series of papers is to evaluate long duration limited area simulations with idealised tracers as a tool to assess tracer transport in chemistry-transport models (CTMs. In this first paper, we analyse the results of six simulations using different convection closures and parameterizations. The simulations are using the Grell and Dévényi (2002 mass-flux framework for the convection parameterization with different closures (Grell = GR, Arakawa-Shubert = AS, Kain-Fritch = KF, Low omega = LO, Moisture convergence = MC and an ensemble parameterization (EN based on the other five closures. The simulations are run for one month during the SCOUT-O3 field campaign lead from Darwin (Australia. They have a 60 km horizontal resolution and a fine vertical resolution in the upper troposphere/lower stratosphere. Meteorological results are compared with satellite products, radiosoundings and SCOUT-O3 aircraft campaign data. They show that the model is generally in good agreement with the measurements with less variability in the model. Except for the precipitation field, the differences between the six simulations are small on average with respect to the differences with the meteorological observations. The comparison with TRMM rainrates shows that the six parameterizations or closures have similar behaviour concerning convection triggering times and locations. However, the 6 simulations provide two different behaviours for rainfall values, with the EN, AS and KF parameterizations (Group 1 modelling better rain fields than LO, MC and GR (Group 2. The vertical distribution of tropospheric tracers is very different for the two groups showing significantly more transport into the TTL for Group 1 related to the larger average values of the upward velocities. Nevertheless the low values for the Group 1 fluxes at and above the cold point level indicate that the model does not simulate significant overshooting. For stratospheric tracers
Predictions of laminar natural convection in heated cavities
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Winters, K.H.
1982-06-01
Several examples of laminar, natural convection in heated cavities are discussed with illustrative calculations. These include convection in a square cavity at high Rayleigh number; in a narrow cavity at moderate aspect ratio; in a rectangular cavity heated from below; in a trapezoidal cavity, and in a rectangular cavity containing a conducting obstruction. The steady equations for the velocity, pressure and temperature are solved in the Boussinesq approximation, using a standard Galerkin formulation of the finite-element method. (author)
Turbulent convection in liquid metal with and without rotation
King, Eric M.; Aurnou, Jonathan M.
2013-01-01
The magnetic fields of Earth and other planets are generated by turbulent, rotating convection in liquid metal. Liquid metals are peculiar in that they diffuse heat more readily than momentum, quantified by their small Prandtl numbers, . Most analog models of planetary dynamos, however, use moderate fluids, and the systematic influence of reducing is not well understood. We perform rotating Rayleigh–Bénard convection experiments in the liquid metal gallium over a range of nondimensional bu...
Analysis and modeling of tropical convection observed by CYGNSS
Lang, T. J.; Li, X.; Roberts, J. B.; Mecikalski, J. R.
2017-12-01
The Cyclone Global Navigation Satellite System (CYGNSS) is a multi-satellite constellation that utilizes Global Positioning System (GPS) reflectometry to retrieve near-surface wind speeds over the ocean. While CYGNSS is primarily aimed at measuring wind speeds in tropical cyclones, our research has established that the mission may also provide valuable insight into the relationships between wind-driven surface fluxes and general tropical oceanic convection. Currently, we are examining organized tropical convection using a mixture of CYGNSS level 1 through level 3 data, IMERG (Integrated Multi-satellite Retrievals for Global Precipitation Measurement), and other ancillary datasets (including buoys, GPM level 1 and 2 data, as well as ground-based radar). In addition, observing system experiments (OSEs) are being performed using hybrid three-dimensional variational assimilation to ingest CYGNSS observations into a limited-domain, convection-resolving model. Our focus for now is on case studies of convective evolution, but we will also report on progress toward statistical analysis of convection sampled by CYGNSS. Our working hypothesis is that the typical mature phase of organized tropical convection is marked by the development of a sharp gust-front boundary from an originally spatially broader but weaker wind speed change associated with precipitation. This increase in the wind gradient, which we demonstrate is observable by CYGNSS, likely helps to focus enhanced turbulent fluxes of convection-sustaining heat and moisture near the leading edge of the convective system where they are more easily ingested by the updraft. Progress on the testing and refinement of this hypothesis, using a mixture of observations and modeling, will be reported.
Analysis of natural convection in volumetrically-heated melt pools
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sehgal, B.R.; Dinh, T.N.; Nourgaliev, R.R.
1996-12-01
Results of series of studies on natural convection heat transfer in decay-heated core melt pools which form in a reactor lower plenum during the progression of a core meltdown accident are described. The emphasis is on modelling and prediction of turbulent heat transfer characteristics of natural convection in a liquid pool with an internal energy source. Methods of computational fluid dynamics, including direct numerical simulation, were applied for investigation
Modeling approaches to natural convection in porous media
Su, Yan
2015-01-01
This book provides an overview of the field of flow and heat transfer in porous medium and focuses on presentation of a generalized approach to predict drag and convective heat transfer within porous medium of arbitrary microscopic geometry, including reticulated foams and packed beds. Practical numerical methods to solve natural convection problems in porous media will be presented with illustrative applications for filtrations, thermal storage and solar receivers.
The impact of parametrized convection on cloud feedback
Webb, Mark J.; Lock, Adrian P.; Bretherton, Christopher S.; Bony, Sandrine; Cole, Jason N. S.; Idelkadi, Abderrahmane; Kang, Sarah M.; Koshiro, Tsuyoshi; Kawai, Hideaki; Ogura, Tomoo; Roehrig, Romain; Shin, Yechul; Mauritsen, Thorsten; Sherwood, Steven C.; Vial, Jessica; Watanabe, Masahiro; Woelfle, Matthew D.; Zhao, Ming
2015-01-01
We investigate the sensitivity of cloud feedbacks to the use of convective parametrizations by repeating the CMIP5/CFMIP-2 AMIP/AMIP + 4K uniform sea surface temperature perturbation experiments with 10 climate models which have had their convective parametrizations turned off. Previous studies have suggested that differences between parametrized convection schemes are a leading source of inter-model spread in cloud feedbacks. We find however that ‘ConvOff’ models with convection switched off have a similar overall range of cloud feedbacks compared with the standard configurations. Furthermore, applying a simple bias correction method to allow for differences in present-day global cloud radiative effects substantially reduces the differences between the cloud feedbacks with and without parametrized convection in the individual models. We conclude that, while parametrized convection influences the strength of the cloud feedbacks substantially in some models, other processes must also contribute substantially to the overall inter-model spread. The positive shortwave cloud feedbacks seen in the models in subtropical regimes associated with shallow clouds are still present in the ConvOff experiments. Inter-model spread in shortwave cloud feedback increases slightly in regimes associated with trade cumulus in the ConvOff experiments but is quite similar in the most stable subtropical regimes associated with stratocumulus clouds. Inter-model spread in longwave cloud feedbacks in strongly precipitating regions of the tropics is substantially reduced in the ConvOff experiments however, indicating a considerable local contribution from differences in the details of convective parametrizations. In both standard and ConvOff experiments, models with less mid-level cloud and less moist static energy near the top of the boundary layer tend to have more positive tropical cloud feedbacks. The role of non-convective processes in contributing to inter-model spread in cloud
Convective parameters in fuel elements for research nuclear reactors
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lopez Martinez, C.D.
1992-01-01
The study of a prototype for the simulation of fuel elements for research nuclear reactors by natural convection in water is presented in this paper. This project is carry out in the thermofluids laboratory of National Institute of Nuclear Research. The fuel prototype has already been test for natural convection in air, and the first results in water are presented in this work. In chapter I, a general description of Triga Mark III is made, paying special atention to fuel-moderator components. In chapter II and III an approach to convection subject in its global aspects is made, since the intention is to give a general idea of the events occuring around fuel elements in a nuclear reactor. In chapter II, where an emphasis on forced convection is made, some basic concepts for forced convection as well as for natural convection are included. The subject of flow through cylinders is annotated only as a comparative reference with natural convection in vertical cylinders, noting the difference between used correlations and the involved variables. In chapter III a compilation of correlation found in the bibliography about natural convection in vertical cylinders is presented, since its geometry is the more suitable in the analysis of a fuel rod. Finally, in chapter IV performed experiments in the test bench are detailed, and the results are presented in form of tables and graphs, showing the used equations for the calculations and the restrictions used in each case. For the analysis of the prototypes used in the test bench, a constant and uniform flow of heat in the whole length of the fuel rod is considered. At the end of this chapter, the work conclusions and a brief explanation of the results are presented (Author)
Environmental Characteristics of Convective Systems During TRMM-LBA
Halverson, Jeffrey B.; Rickenbach, Thomas; Roy, Biswadev; Pierce, Harold; Williams, Earle; Einaudi, Franco (Technical Monitor)
2001-01-01
In this paper, data collected from 51 days of continual upper atmospheric soundings and TOGA radar at ABRACOS Hill during the TRMM-LBA experiment are used to describe the mean thermodynamic and kinematic airmass properties of wet season convection over Rondonia, Brazil. Distinct multi-day easterly and westerly lower tropospheric wind regimes occurred during the campaign with contrasting airmass characteristics. Westerly wind periods featured modest CAPE (1000 J/kg), moist conditions (>90% RH) extending through 700 mb and shallow (900 mb) speed shear on the order of 10(exp -4)/s. This combination of characteristics promoted convective systems that featured a relatively large fraction of stratiform rainfall and weak convection nearly devoid of lightning. The environment is very similar to the general airmass conditions experienced during the Darwin, Australia monsoon convective regime. In contrast, easterly regime convective systems were more strongly electrified and featured larger convective rain rates and reduced stratiform rainfall fraction. These systems formed in an environment with significantly larger CAPE (1500 J/kg), drier lower and middle level humidities (in the lowest 1-2 km, thus contributing to a more explosive growth of convection. The time series of low- and mid-level averaged humidity exhibited marked variability between westerly and easterly regimes and was characterized by low frequency (i.e., multi-day to weekly) oscillations. The synoptic scale origins of these moisture fluctuations are examined, which include the effects of variable low-level airmass trajectories and upper-level, westward migrating cyclonic vortices. The results reported herein provide an environmental context for ongoing dual Doppler analyses and numerical modeling case studies of individual TRMM-LBA convective systems.
Micro-Physical characterisation of Convective & Stratiform Rainfall at Tropics
Sreekanth, T. S.
Large Micro-Physical characterisation of Convective & Stratiform Rainfall at Tropics begin{center} begin{center} Sreekanth T S*, Suby Symon*, G. Mohan Kumar (1) , and V Sasi Kumar (2) *Centre for Earth Science Studies, Akkulam, Thiruvananthapuram (1) D-330, Swathi Nagar, West Fort, Thiruvananthapuram 695023 (2) 32. NCC Nagar, Peroorkada, Thiruvananthapuram ABSTRACT Micro-physical parameters of rainfall such as rain drop size & fall speed distribution, mass weighted mean diameter, Total no. of rain drops, Normalisation parameters for rain intensity, maximum & minimum drop diameter from different rain intensity ranges, from both stratiform and convective rain events were analysed. Convective -Stratiform classification was done by the method followed by Testud et al (2001) and as an additional information electrical behaviour of clouds from Atmospheric Electric Field Mill was also used. Events which cannot be included in both types are termed as 'mixed precipitation' and identified separately. For the three years 2011, 2012 & 2013, rain events from both convective & stratiform origin are identified from three seasons viz Pre-Monsoon (March-May), Monsoon (June-September) and Post-Monsoon (October-December). Micro-physical characterisation was done for each rain events and analysed. Ground based and radar observations were made and classification of stratiform and convective rainfall was done by the method followed by Testud et al (2001). Radar bright band and non bright band analysis was done for confimation of stratifom and convective rain respectievely. Atmospheric electric field data from electric field mill is also used for confirmation of convection during convective events. Statistical analyses revealed that the standard deviation of rain drop size in higher rain rates are higher than in lower rain rates. Normalised drop size distribution is ploted for selected events from both forms. Inter relations between various precipitation parameters were analysed in three
Analysis of natural convection in volumetrically-heated melt pools
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sehgal, B.R.; Dinh, T.N.; Nourgaliev, R.R. [Royal Inst. of Tech., Stockholm (Sweden). Div. of Nuclear Power Safety
1996-12-01
Results of series of studies on natural convection heat transfer in decay-heated core melt pools which form in a reactor lower plenum during the progression of a core meltdown accident are described. The emphasis is on modelling and prediction of turbulent heat transfer characteristics of natural convection in a liquid pool with an internal energy source. Methods of computational fluid dynamics, including direct numerical simulation, were applied for investigation. Refs, figs, tabs.
Assumed Probability Density Functions for Shallow and Deep Convection
Steven K Krueger; Peter A Bogenschutz; Marat Khairoutdinov
2010-01-01
The assumed joint probability density function (PDF) between vertical velocity and conserved temperature and total water scalars has been suggested to be a relatively computationally inexpensive and unified subgrid-scale (SGS) parameterization for boundary layer clouds and turbulent moments. This paper analyzes the performance of five families of PDFs using large-eddy simulations of deep convection, shallow convection, and a transition from stratocumulus to trade wind cumulus. Three of the PD...
Is Convection Sensitive to Model Vertical Resolution and Why?
Xie, S.; Lin, W.; Zhang, G. J.
2017-12-01
Model sensitivity to horizontal resolutions has been studied extensively, whereas model sensitivity to vertical resolution is much less explored. In this study, we use the US Department of Energy (DOE)'s Accelerated Climate Modeling for Energy (ACME) atmosphere model to examine the sensitivity of clouds and precipitation to the increase of vertical resolution of the model. We attempt to understand what results in the behavior change (if any) of convective processes represented by the unified shallow and turbulent scheme named CLUBB (Cloud Layers Unified by Binormals) and the Zhang-McFarlane deep convection scheme in ACME. A short-term hindcast approach is used to isolate parameterization issues from the large-scale circulation. The analysis emphasizes on how the change of vertical resolution could affect precipitation partitioning between convective- and grid-scale as well as the vertical profiles of convection-related quantities such as temperature, humidity, clouds, convective heating and drying, and entrainment and detrainment. The goal is to provide physical insight into potential issues with model convective processes associated with the increase of model vertical resolution. This work performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.
AN ANALYTIC RADIATIVE-CONVECTIVE MODEL FOR PLANETARY ATMOSPHERES
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Robinson, Tyler D.; Catling, David C.
2012-01-01
We present an analytic one-dimensional radiative-convective model of the thermal structure of planetary atmospheres. Our model assumes that thermal radiative transfer is gray and can be represented by the two-stream approximation. Model atmospheres are assumed to be in hydrostatic equilibrium, with a power-law scaling between the atmospheric pressure and the gray thermal optical depth. The convective portions of our models are taken to follow adiabats that account for condensation of volatiles through a scaling parameter to the dry adiabat. By combining these assumptions, we produce simple, analytic expressions that allow calculations of the atmospheric-pressure-temperature profile, as well as expressions for the profiles of thermal radiative flux and convective flux. We explore the general behaviors of our model. These investigations encompass (1) worlds where atmospheric attenuation of sunlight is weak, which we show tend to have relatively high radiative-convective boundaries; (2) worlds with some attenuation of sunlight throughout the atmosphere, which we show can produce either shallow or deep radiative-convective boundaries, depending on the strength of sunlight attenuation; and (3) strongly irradiated giant planets (including hot Jupiters), where we explore the conditions under which these worlds acquire detached convective regions in their mid-tropospheres. Finally, we validate our model and demonstrate its utility through comparisons to the average observed thermal structure of Venus, Jupiter, and Titan, and by comparing computed flux profiles to more complex models.
Convective heat transfer around vertical jet fires: An experimental study
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kozanoglu, Bulent, E-mail: bulentu.kozanoglu@udlap.mx [Universidad de las Americas, Puebla (Mexico); Zarate, Luis [Universidad Popular Autonoma del Estado de Puebla (Mexico); Gomez-Mares, Mercedes [Universita di Bologna (Italy); Casal, Joaquim [Universitat Politecnica de Catalunya (Spain)
2011-12-15
Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Experiments were carried out to analyze convection around a vertical jet fire. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Convection heat transfer is enhanced increasing the flame length. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Nusselt number grows with higher values of Rayleigh and Reynolds numbers. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer In subsonic flames, Nusselt number increases with Froude number. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Convection and radiation are equally important in causing a domino effect. - Abstract: The convection heat transfer phenomenon in vertical jet fires was experimentally analyzed. In these experiments, turbulent propane flames were generated in subsonic as well as sonic regimes. The experimental data demonstrated that the rate of convection heat transfer increases by increasing the length of the flame. Assuming the solid flame model, the convection heat transfer coefficient was calculated. Two equations in terms of adimensional numbers were developed. It was found out that the Nusselt number attains greater values for higher values of the Rayleigh and Reynolds numbers. On the other hand, the Froude number was analyzed only for the subsonic flames where the Nusselt number grows by this number and the diameter of the orifice.
On the mapping of ionospheric convection into the magnetosphere
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hesse, M.; Birn, J.; Hoffman, R.A.
1997-01-01
Under steady state conditions and in the absence of parallel electric fields, ionospheric convection is a direct map of plasma and magnetic flux convection in the magnetosphere, and quantitative estimates can be obtained from the mapping along magnetic field lines of electrostatic ionospheric electric fields. The resulting magnetospheric electrostatic potential distribution then provides the convection electric field in various magnetospheric regions. We present a quantitative framework for the investigation of the applicability and limitations of this approach based on an analytical theory derived from first principles. Particular emphasis is on the role of parallel electric field regions and on inductive effects, such as expected during the growth and expansive phases of magnetospheric substorms. We derive quantitative estimates for the limits in which either effect leads to a significant decoupling between ionospheric and magnetospheric convection and provide an interpretation of ionospheric convection which is independent of the presence of inductive electric fields elsewhere in the magnetosphere. Finally, we present a study of the relation between average and instantaneous convection, using two periodic dynamical models. The models demonstrate and quantify the potential mismatch between the average electric fields in the ionosphere and the magnetosphere in strongly time-dependent cases that may exist even when they are governed entirely by ideal MHD
Induced convection cylindrical probe conductivity measurements on permeable media
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fodemesi, S.P.; Beck, A.E.
1983-01-01
This chapter presents results from a program of investigation using the transient needle probe thermal conductivity technique on fluid saturated permeable media with a glass bead matrix. Uses eight additional radially located sensors in order to correlate the convection effects on the temperature sensor in the heater probe with convection behavior in the medium; all were scanned frequently with a data acquisition system, from the start of the experiment through a few hours of experimental time. Points out that with typical conditions encountered in oceanic heat flow work, induced convection may commence as early as 60 s from the start of the experiment. Finds that the convection effects are worse when the needle probe is oriented horizontally than when it is oriented vertically (gradients orthogonal to the gravitational field), and a correlation is made between permeability and the time of onset and the extent of convective effects. Indicates errors in conductivity as large as 40%. Suggests empirical techniques for detecting and correcting for thermal convection using probe sensor data alone
Natural convection heat transfer within horizontal spent nuclear fuel assemblies
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Canaan, R.E.
1995-12-01
Natural convection heat transfer is experimentally investigated in an enclosed horizontal rod bundle, which characterizes a spent nuclear fuel assembly during dry storage and/or transport conditions. The basic test section consists of a square array of sixty-four stainless steel tubular heaters enclosed within a water-cooled rectangular copper heat exchanger. The heaters are supplied with a uniform power generation per unit length while the surrounding enclosure is maintained at a uniform temperature. The test section resides within a vacuum/pressure chamber in order to subject the assembly to a range of pressure statepoints and various backfill gases. The objective of this experimental study is to obtain convection correlations which can be used in order to easily incorporate convective effects into analytical models of horizontal spent fuel systems, and also to investigate the physical nature of natural convection in enclosed horizontal rod bundles in general. The resulting data consist of: (1) measured temperatures within the assembly as a function of power, pressure, and backfill gas; (2) the relative radiative contribution for the range of observed temperatures; (3) correlations of convective Nusselt number and Rayleigh number for the rod bundle as a whole; and (4) correlations of convective Nusselt number as a function of Rayleigh number for individual rods within the array
Quantifying near-wall coherent structures in turbulent convection
Gunasegarane, G. S.; A Puthenveettil, Baburaj; K Agrawal, Yogesh; Schmeling, Daniel; Bosbach, Johannes; Arakeri, Jaywant; IIT Madras-DLR-IISc Collaboration
2011-11-01
We present planforms of line plumes formed on horizontal surfaces in turbulent convection, along with the length of near- wall line plumes measured from these planforms, in a six decade range of Rayleigh numbers (105 < Ra <1011) and at three Prandtl numbers (Pr = 0 . 7 , 6 , 602). Using geometric constraints on the relations for the mean plume spacings, we obtain expressions for the total length of these near-wall plumes in turbulent convection. The plume length per unit area (Lp / A), made dimensionless by the near-wall length scale in turbulent convection (Zw) remains a constant for a given fluid. The Nusselt number is shown to be directly proportional to Lp H / A for a given fluid layer of height H. Increase in Pr has a weak influence in decreasing Lp / A . These expressions match the measurements, thereby showing that the assumption of laminar natural convection boundary layers in turbulent convection is consistent with the observed total length of line plumes. We then show that similar relationships are obtained based on the assumption that the line plumes are the outcome of the instability of laminar natural convection boundary layers on the horizontal surfaces.
PROPAGATION OF NEW BLACKBERRY CULTIVARS FOR PRODUCING CERTIFIED PROPAGATION MATERIAL
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Valentina Isac
2014-12-01
Full Text Available The purpose of this research was to study the behaviour of two new Romanian thorn blackberry cultivars DAR 24 and DAR 8 in process of micropropagation, compared with Darrow cultivar usually commercially micropropagated in our laboratory. Due to several drawbacks of the conventional propagation of Rubus, the efficiency of micropropagation was tested in order to obtain high quality planting material and to introduce rapidly these new cultivars in a certification program. Thorn blackberry cultivars DAR 8 and DAR 24 with resistance to winter colds was successfully micropropagated. Blackberry plants were found without virus infection after biological and ELISA tests. Axillary buds from the branches in full growth were used as the initial explants. After four weeks of growth, aseptic cultures was established on MS basal mineral salts, LS vitamins with 0.3 mg/l BAP, 0.1mg/l GA3 and 0.001mg/l NAA. The rate of successfully established cultures was on average 65.11%. Good proliferation of the regenerated shoots was obtained on the same medium composition used for initiation phase, whereas medium MS with mineral salts reduced to ½ and LS vitamins with 0.1 mg/l IBA and 0.1 mg/l GA3 was used in the rooting phase. Dar 24 and Dar 8 cultivars responded by good rates of micropropagation on medium culture B as compared to control Darrow cultivar, even if the obtained shoots length was lower than on medium A. The statistical analysis reveled that the highest MR (20.66 plantlets/explant was obtained for Dar 24. In this case the length of shoots was 1.92 cm. The highest rooting percentages (over 85% were obtained with shoots multiplied on medium B. High quality of rooted plants induced a high percentage of acclimatization of cultivar Dar 8, 86.36% under mist system in green house whereas the percentage of acclimatization of cultivar Dar 24 was lower, 51.85%.
The accuracy of dynamic attitude propagation
Harvie, E.; Chu, D.; Woodard, M.
1990-01-01
Propagating attitude by integrating Euler's equation for rigid body motion has long been suggested for the Earth Radiation Budget Satellite (ERBS) but until now has not been implemented. Because of limited Sun visibility, propagation is necessary for yaw determination. With the deterioration of the gyros, dynamic propagation has become more attractive. Angular rates are derived from integrating Euler's equation with a stepsize of 1 second, using torques computed from telemetered control system data. The environmental torque model was quite basic. It included gravity gradient and unshadowed aerodynamic torques. Knowledge of control torques is critical to the accuracy of dynamic modeling. Due to their coarseness and sparsity, control actuator telemetry were smoothed before integration. The dynamic model was incorporated into existing ERBS attitude determination software. Modeled rates were then used for attitude propagation in the standard ERBS fine-attitude algorithm. In spite of the simplicity of the approach, the dynamically propagated attitude matched the attitude propagated with good gyros well for roll and yaw but diverged up to 3 degrees for pitch because of the very low resolution in pitch momentum wheel telemetry. When control anomalies significantly perturb the nominal attitude, the effect of telemetry granularity is reduced and the dynamically propagated attitudes are accurate on all three axes.
Failure propagation tests and analysis at PNC
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tanabe, H.; Miyake, O.; Daigo, Y.; Sato, M.
1984-01-01
Failure propagation tests have been conducted using the Large Leak Sodium Water Reaction Test Rig (SWAT-1) and the Steam Generator Safety Test Facility (SWAT-3) at PNC in order to establish the safety design of the LMFBR prototype Monju steam generators. Test objectives are to provide data for selecting a design basis leak (DBL), data on the time history of failure propagations, data on the mechanism of the failures, and data on re-use of tubes in the steam generators that have suffered leaks. Eighteen fundamental tests have been performed in an intermediate leak region using the SWAT-1 test rig, and ten failure propagation tests have been conducted in the region from a small leak to a large leak using the SWAT-3 test facility. From the test results it was concluded that a dominant mechanism was tube wastage, and it took more than one minute until each failure propagation occurred. Also, the total leak rate in full sequence simulation tests including a water dump was far less than that of one double-ended-guillotine (DEG) failure. Using such experimental data, a computer code, LEAP (Leak Enlargement and Propagation), has been developed for the purpose of estimating the possible maximum leak rate due to failure propagation. This paper describes the results of the failure propagation tests and the model structure and validation studies of the LEAP code. (author)
Network propagation in the cytoscape cyberinfrastructure.
Carlin, Daniel E; Demchak, Barry; Pratt, Dexter; Sage, Eric; Ideker, Trey
2017-10-01
Network propagation is an important and widely used algorithm in systems biology, with applications in protein function prediction, disease gene prioritization, and patient stratification. However, up to this point it has required significant expertise to run. Here we extend the popular network analysis program Cytoscape to perform network propagation as an integrated function. Such integration greatly increases the access to network propagation by putting it in the hands of biologists and linking it to the many other types of network analysis and visualization available through Cytoscape. We demonstrate the power and utility of the algorithm by identifying mutations conferring resistance to Vemurafenib.
Pole solutions for flame front propagation
Kupervasser, Oleg
2015-01-01
This book deals with solving mathematically the unsteady flame propagation equations. New original mathematical methods for solving complex non-linear equations and investigating their properties are presented. Pole solutions for flame front propagation are developed. Premixed flames and filtration combustion have remarkable properties: the complex nonlinear integro-differential equations for these problems have exact analytical solutions described by the motion of poles in a complex plane. Instead of complex equations, a finite set of ordinary differential equations is applied. These solutions help to investigate analytically and numerically properties of the flame front propagation equations.
Inward propagating chemical waves in Taylor vortices.
Thompson, Barnaby W; Novak, Jan; Wilson, Mark C T; Britton, Melanie M; Taylor, Annette F
2010-04-01
Advection-reaction-diffusion (ARD) waves in the Belousov-Zhabotinsky reaction in steady Taylor-Couette vortices have been visualized using magnetic-resonance imaging and simulated using an adapted Oregonator model. We show how propagating wave behavior depends on the ratio of advective, chemical and diffusive time scales. In simulations, inward propagating spiral flamelets are observed at high Damköhler number (Da). At low Da, the reaction distributes itself over several vortices and then propagates inwards as contracting ring pulses--also observed experimentally.
Propagation considerations in land mobile satellite transmission
Vogel, W. J.; Smith, E. K.
1985-01-01
It appears likely that the Land Mobile Satellite Services (LMSS) will be authorized by the FCC for operation in the 800 to 900 MHz (UHF) and possibly near 1500 MHz (L-band). Propagation problems are clearly an important factor in the effectiveness of this service, but useful measurements are few, and produced contradictory interpretations. A first order overview of existing measurements is presented with particular attention to the first two NASA balloon to mobile vehicle propagation experiments. Some physical insight into the interpretation of propagation effects in LMSS transmissions is provided.
Crack Propagation by Finite Element Method
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Luiz Carlos H. Ricardo
2018-01-01
Full Text Available Crack propagation simulation began with the development of the finite element method; the analyses were conducted to obtain a basic understanding of the crack growth. Today structural and materials engineers develop structures and materials properties using this technique. The aim of this paper is to verify the effect of different crack propagation rates in determination of crack opening and closing stress of an ASTM specimen under a standard suspension spectrum loading from FDandE SAE Keyhole Specimen Test Load Histories by finite element analysis. To understand the crack propagation processes under variable amplitude loading, retardation effects are observed
Network propagation in the cytoscape cyberinfrastructure.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Daniel E Carlin
2017-10-01
Full Text Available Network propagation is an important and widely used algorithm in systems biology, with applications in protein function prediction, disease gene prioritization, and patient stratification. However, up to this point it has required significant expertise to run. Here we extend the popular network analysis program Cytoscape to perform network propagation as an integrated function. Such integration greatly increases the access to network propagation by putting it in the hands of biologists and linking it to the many other types of network analysis and visualization available through Cytoscape. We demonstrate the power and utility of the algorithm by identifying mutations conferring resistance to Vemurafenib.
Nootz, Gero; Matt, Silvia; Kanaev, Andrey; Judd, Kyle P; Hou, Weilin
2017-08-01
The propagation of a laser beam through Rayleigh-Bénard (RB) turbulence is investigated experimentally and by way of numerical simulation. For the experimental part, a focused laser beam transversed a 5 m×0.5 m×0.5 m water filled tank lengthwise. The tank is heated from the bottom and cooled from the top to produce convective RB turbulence. The effect of the turbulence on the beam is recorded on the exit of the beam from the tank. From the centroid motion of the beam, the index of refraction structure constant Cn2 is determined. For the numerical efforts RB turbulence is simulated for a tank of the same geometry. The simulated temperature fields are converted to the index of refraction distributions, and Cn2 is extracted from the index of refraction structure functions, as well as from the simulated beam wander. To model the effect on beam propagation, the simulated index of refraction fields are converted to discrete index of refraction phase screens. These phase screens are then used in a split-step beam propagation method to investigate the effect of the turbulence on a laser beam. The beam wander as well as the index of refraction structure parameter Cn2 determined from the experiment and simulation are compared and found to be in good agreement.
Kelley, M. C.; Pfaff, R. F., Jr.; Dao, E. V.; Holzworth, R. H., II
2014-12-01
With the increase in solar activity, the Communications/Outage Forecast System satellite (C/NOFS) now goes below the F peak. As such, we now can study the development of Convective Ionospheric Storms (CIS) and, most importantly, large-scale seeding of the low growth-rate Rayleigh-Taylor (R-T) instability. Two mechanisms have been suggested for such seeding: the Collisional Kelvin-Helmholtz Instability (CKHI) and internal atmospheric gravity waves. A number of observations have shown that the spectrum of fully developed topside structures peaks at 600 km and extends to over 1000 km. These structures are exceedingly difficult to explain by CKHI. Here we show that sinusoidal plasma oscillations on the bottomside during daytime develop classical R-T structures on the nightside with the background 600 km structure still apparent. In two case studies, thunderstorm activity was observed east of the sinusoidal features in the two hours preceding the C/NOFS passes. Thus, we argue that convective tropospheric storms are a likely source of these sinusoidal features.
Lagrangian evaluation of convective shower characteristics in a convection-permitting model
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Erwan Brisson
2018-01-01
Full Text Available Convection-permitting models (CPMs have proven their usefulness in representing precipitation on a sub-daily scale. However, investigations on sub-hourly scales are still lacking, even though these are the scales for which showers exhibit the most variability. A Lagrangian approach is implemented here to evaluate the representation of showers in a CPM, using the limited-area climate model COSMO-CLM. This approach consists of tracking 5‑min precipitation fields to retrieve different features of showers (e.g., temporal pattern, horizontal speed, lifetime. In total, 312 cases are simulated at a resolution of 0.01 ° over Central Germany, and among these cases, 78 are evaluated against a radar dataset. The model is able to represent most observed features for different types of convective cells. In addition, the CPM reproduced well the observed relationship between the precipitation characteristics and temperature indicating that the COSMO-CLM model is sophisticated enough to represent the climatological features of showers.
Ostrowski, Ziemowit; Rojczyk, Marek
2017-11-01
The energy balance and heat exchange for newborn baby in radiant warmer environment are considered. The present study was performed to assess the body dry heat loss from an infant in radiant warmer, using copper cast anthropomorphic thermal manikin and controlled climate chamber laboratory setup. The total body dry heat losses were measured for varying manikin surface temperatures (nine levels between 32.5 °C and 40.1 °C) and ambient air temperatures (five levels between 23.5 °C and 29.7 °C). Radiant heat losses were estimated based on measured climate chamber wall temperatures. After subtracting radiant part, resulting convective heat loses were compared with computed ones (based on Nu correlations for common geometries). Simplified geometry of newborn baby was represented as: (a) single cylinder and (b) weighted sum of 5 cylinders and sphere. The predicted values are significantly overestimated relative to measured ones by: 28.8% (SD 23.5%) for (a) and 40.9% (SD 25.2%) for (b). This showed that use of adopted general purpose correlations for approximation of convective heat losses of newborn baby can lead to substantial errors. Hence, new Nu number correlating equation is proposed. The mean error introduced by proposed correlation was reduced to 1.4% (SD 11.97%), i.e. no significant overestimation. The thermal manikin appears to provide a precise method for the noninvasive assessment of thermal conditions in neonatal care.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Robin, M; Schwab, B [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires
1957-07-01
In the thermal study of a 'swimming-pool' type of pile, the flow of water between vertical plates of 'combustible' material must be investigated. Therefore starting from general equations of natural convection, we have determined, the law of distribution of velocities, then that of temperatures, and finally the value of the Biot-Nusselt number, assuming steady-state conditions (both dynamic and thermal) and a constant heat flow at the surface. An abacus (fig. 7, 8 and 9) allows working power to be related to the average velocity and to the heating of the water which passes through the pile. For purposes of comparison, the curves on the calculation presented by S. GLASSTONE (31) have been drawn. (author) [French] L'etude thermique d'une pile du type 'piscine' necessite l'etude de l'ecoulement de l'eau entre les plaques verticales de materiau 'combustible'. Nous avons donc, a partir des equations generales de la convection naturelle, determine la loi de repartition des vitesses, puis celle des temperatures et enfin la valeur du nombre de Biot-Niisselt, en supposant les regimes, dynamique et thermique, etablis et la densite de flux calorifique a la paroi constante. Un abaque (fig. 7, 8 et 9) permet de relier a la puissance de fonctionnement, la vitesse moyenne de l'echauffement de l'eau qui traverse la pile. On a trace a titre de comparaison, les courbes du calcul presente par S. GLASSTONE (3). (auteur)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ganguli, G.; Palmadesso, P.
1984-01-01
Finite geometry effects on the stability properties of a charged beam propagating through an intense relativistic annular electron beam have been studied. The stability of the system under transverse oscillation has been examined in detail in a parameter domain pertinent to the collective particle accelerator, currently under development at the Naval Research Laboratory. Both the normal mode and the convective aspects of this instability have been investigated. Despite a substantial temporal growth rate as predicted by the normal mode approach, this instability does not prevent successful acceleration of a portion of the axial beam. Thus the transverse oscillation is not fatal to the collective particle accelerator operation
The response of a simulated Mesoscale Convective System to increased aerosol pollution
Clavner, Michal
This work focuses on the impacts of aerosols on the total precipitation amount, rates and spatial distribution of precipitation produced by a Mesoscale Convective System (MCS), as well as the characteristics of a derecho event. Past studies have shown that the impacts on MCS-produced precipitation to changes in aerosol concentration are strongly dependent on environmental conditions, primarily humidity and environmental wind shear. Changes in aerosol concentrations were found to alter MCS-precipitation production directly by modifying precipitation processes and indirectly by affecting the efficiency of the storm's self-propagation. Observational and numerical studies have been conducted that have examined the dynamics responsible for the generation of widespread convectively-induced windstorms, primarily focusing on environmental conditions and the MCS features that generate a derecho event. While the sensitivity of the formation of bow-echoes, the radar signature associated with derecho events, to changes in microphysics has been examined, a study on a derecho-producing MCS characteristics to aerosol concentrations has not. In this study different aerosol concentrations and their effects on precipitation and a derecho produced by an MCS are examined by simulating the 8 May 2009 "Super-Derecho" MCS. The MCS was simulated using the Regional Atmospheric Modeling System (RAMS), a cloud-resolving model (CRM) with sophisticated aerosol and microphysical parameterizations. Three simulations were conducted that varied in their initial aerosol concentration, distribution and hygroscopicity as determined by their emission sources. The first simulation contained aerosols from only natural sources and the second with aerosols sourced from both natural and anthropogenic emissions The third simulation contained the same aerosol distribution as in the second simulation, however multiplied by a factor of 5 in order to represent a highly polluted scenario. In all three of the
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Feiden, Gregory A. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Uppsala University, Box 516, SE-751 20 Uppsala (Sweden); Chaboyer, Brian, E-mail: gregory.a.feiden@gmail.com, E-mail: brian.chaboyer@dartmouth.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Dartmouth College, 6127 Wilder Laboratory, Hanover, NH 03755 (United States)
2014-07-01
We examine the hypothesis that magnetic fields are inflating the radii of fully convective main-sequence stars in detached eclipsing binaries (DEBs). The magnetic Dartmouth stellar evolution code is used to analyze two systems in particular: Kepler-16 and CM Draconis. Magneto-convection is treated assuming stabilization of convection and also by assuming reductions in convective efficiency due to a turbulent dynamo. We find that magnetic stellar models are unable to reproduce the properties of inflated fully convective main-sequence stars, unless strong interior magnetic fields in excess of 10 MG are present. Validation of the magnetic field hypothesis given the current generation of magnetic stellar evolution models therefore depends critically on whether the generation and maintenance of strong interior magnetic fields is physically possible. An examination of this requirement is provided. Additionally, an analysis of previous studies invoking the influence of star spots is presented to assess the suggestion that star spots are inflating stars and biasing light curve analyses toward larger radii. From our analysis, we find that there is not yet sufficient evidence to definitively support the hypothesis that magnetic fields are responsible for the observed inflation among fully convective main-sequence stars in DEBs.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hammouda, I.; Mihoubi, D.
2014-01-01
Highlights: • Modelling of drying of deformable media. • Theoretical study of kaolin clay with three drying methods: convective, convective–microwave and convective infrared mode. • The stresses generated during convective, microwave/convective drying and infrared/convective drying. • The combined drying decrease the intensity of stresses developed during drying. - Abstract: A mathematical model is developed to simulate the response of a kaolin clay sample when subjected to convective, convective–microwave and convective–infrared mode. This model is proposed to describe heat, mass, and momentum transfers applied to a viscoelastic medium described by a Maxwell model with two branches. The combined drying methods were investigated to examine whether these types of drying may minimize cracking that can be generated in the product and to know whether the best enhancement is developed by the use of infra-red or microwave radiation. The numerical code allowed us to determine, and thus, compare the effect of the drying mode on drying rate, temperature, moisture content and mechanical stress evolutions during drying. The numerical results show that the combined drying decrease the intensity of stresses developed during drying and that convective–microwave drying is the best method that gives a good quality of dried product
Impacts of initial convective structure on subsequent squall line evolution
Varble, A.; Morrison, H.; Zipser, E. J.
2017-12-01
A Weather Research and Forecasting simulation of the 20 May 2011 MC3E squall line using 750-m horizontal grid spacing produces wide convective regions with strongly upshear tilted convective updrafts and mesoscale bowing segments that are not produced in radar observations. Similar features occur across several different bulk microphysics schemes, despite surface observations exhibiting cold pool equivalent potential temperature drops that are similar to and pressure rises that are greater than those in the simulation. Observed rear inflow remains more elevated than simulated, partly counteracting the cold pool circulation, whereas the simulated rear inflow descends to low levels, maintaining its strength and reinforcing the cold pool circulation that overpowers the pre-squall line low level vertical wind shear. The descent and strength of the simulated rear inflow is fueled by strong latent cooling caused by large ice water contents detrained from upshear tilted convective cores that accumulate at the rear of the stratiform region. This simulated squall evolution is sensitive to model resolution, which is too coarse to resolve individual convective drafts. Nesting a 250-m horizontal grid spacing domain into the 750-m domain substantially alters the initial convective cells with reduced latent cooling, weaker convective downdrafts, and a weaker initial cold pool. As the initial convective cells develop into a squall line, the rear inflow remains more elevated in the 250-m domain with a cold pool that eventually develops to be just as strong and deeper than the one in the 750-m run. Despite this, the convective cores remain more upright in the 250-m run with the rear inflow partly counteracting the cold pool circulation, whereas the 750-m rear inflow near the surface reinforces the shallower cold pool and causes bowing in the squall line. The different structure in the 750-m run produces excessive mid-level front-to-rear detrainment that widens the convective region
Deep convective clouds at the tropopause
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
H. H. Aumann
2011-02-01
Full Text Available Data from the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS on the EOS Aqua spacecraft each day show tens of thousands of Cold Clouds (CC in the tropical oceans with 10 μm window channel brightness temperatures colder than 225 K. These clouds represent a mix of cold anvil clouds and Deep Convective Clouds (DCC. This mix can be separated by computing the difference between two channels, a window channel and a channel with strong CO_{2} absorption: for some cold clouds this difference is negative, i.e. the spectra for some cold clouds are inverted. We refer to cold clouds with spectra which are more than 2 K inverted as DCCi2. Associated with DCCi2 is a very high rain rate and a local upward displacement of the tropopause, a cold "bulge", which can be seen directly in the brightness temperatures of AIRS and Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit (AMSU temperature sounding channels in the lower stratosphere. The very high rain rate and the local distortion of the tropopause indicate that DCCi2 objects are associated with severe storms. Significant long-term trends in the statistical properties of DCCi2 could be interesting indicators of climate change. While the analysis of the nature and physical conditions related to DCCi2 requires hyperspectral infrared and microwave data, the identification of DCCi2 requires only one good window channel and one strong CO_{2} sounding channel. This suggests that improved identification of severe storms with future advanced geostationary satellites could be accomplished with the addition of one or two narrow band channels.
Wave propagation of spectral energy content in a granular chain
Shrivastava, Rohit Kumar; Luding, Stefan
2017-01-01
A mechanical wave is propagation of vibration with transfer of energy and momentum. Understanding the spectral energy characteristics of a propagating wave through disordered granular media can assist in understanding the overall properties of wave propagation through inhomogeneous materials like
Coupled seismic and electromagnetic wave propagation
Schakel, M.D.
2011-01-01
Coupled seismic and electromagnetic wave propagation is studied theoretically and experimentally. This coupling arises because of the electrochemical double layer, which exists along the solid-grain/fluid-electrolyte boundaries of porous media. Within the double layer, charge is redistributed,
A solid state lightning propagation speed sensor
Mach, Douglas M.; Rust, W. David
1989-01-01
A device to measure the propagation speeds of cloud-to-ground lightning has been developed. The lightning propagation speed (LPS) device consists of eight solid state silicon photodetectors mounted behind precision horizontal slits in the focal plane of a 50-mm lens on a 35-mm camera. Although the LPS device produces results similar to those obtained from a streaking camera, the LPS device has the advantages of smaller size, lower cost, mobile use, and easier data collection and analysis. The maximum accuracy for the LPS is 0.2 microsec, compared with about 0.8 microsecs for the streaking camera. It is found that the return stroke propagation speed for triggered lightning is different than that for natural lightning if measurements are taken over channel segments less than 500 m. It is suggested that there are no significant differences between the propagation speeds of positive and negative flashes. Also, differences between natural and triggered dart leaders are discussed.
Universal self-similarity of propagating populations.
Eliazar, Iddo; Klafter, Joseph
2010-07-01
This paper explores the universal self-similarity of propagating populations. The following general propagation model is considered: particles are randomly emitted from the origin of a d-dimensional Euclidean space and propagate randomly and independently of each other in space; all particles share a statistically common--yet arbitrary--motion pattern; each particle has its own random propagation parameters--emission epoch, motion frequency, and motion amplitude. The universally self-similar statistics of the particles' displacements and first passage times (FPTs) are analyzed: statistics which are invariant with respect to the details of the displacement and FPT measurements and with respect to the particles' underlying motion pattern. Analysis concludes that the universally self-similar statistics are governed by Poisson processes with power-law intensities and by the Fréchet and Weibull extreme-value laws.
Universal self-similarity of propagating populations
Eliazar, Iddo; Klafter, Joseph
2010-07-01
This paper explores the universal self-similarity of propagating populations. The following general propagation model is considered: particles are randomly emitted from the origin of a d -dimensional Euclidean space and propagate randomly and independently of each other in space; all particles share a statistically common—yet arbitrary—motion pattern; each particle has its own random propagation parameters—emission epoch, motion frequency, and motion amplitude. The universally self-similar statistics of the particles’ displacements and first passage times (FPTs) are analyzed: statistics which are invariant with respect to the details of the displacement and FPT measurements and with respect to the particles’ underlying motion pattern. Analysis concludes that the universally self-similar statistics are governed by Poisson processes with power-law intensities and by the Fréchet and Weibull extreme-value laws.
Propagating semantic information in biochemical network models
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Schulz Marvin
2012-01-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background To enable automatic searches, alignments, and model combination, the elements of systems biology models need to be compared and matched across models. Elements can be identified by machine-readable biological annotations, but assigning such annotations and matching non-annotated elements is tedious work and calls for automation. Results A new method called "semantic propagation" allows the comparison of model elements based not only on their own annotations, but also on annotations of surrounding elements in the network. One may either propagate feature vectors, describing the annotations of individual elements, or quantitative similarities between elements from different models. Based on semantic propagation, we align partially annotated models and find annotations for non-annotated model elements. Conclusions Semantic propagation and model alignment are included in the open-source library semanticSBML, available on sourceforge. Online services for model alignment and for annotation prediction can be used at http://www.semanticsbml.org.
In vitro propagation of Paphiopedilum orchids.
Zeng, Songjun; Huang, Weichang; Wu, Kunlin; Zhang, Jianxia; da Silva, Jaime A Teixeira; Duan, Jun
2016-01-01
Paphiopedilum is one of the most popular and rare orchid genera. Members of the genus are sold and exhibited as pot plants and cut flowers. Wild populations of Paphiopedilum are under the threat of extinction due to over-collection and loss of suitable habitats. A reduction in their commercial value through large-scale propagation in vitro is an option to reduce pressure from illegal collection, to attempt to meet commercial needs and to re-establish threatened species back into the wild. Although they are commercially propagated via asymbiotic seed germination, Paphiopedilum are considered to be difficult to propagate in vitro, especially by plant regeneration from tissue culture. This review aims to cover the most important aspects and to provide an up-to-date research progress on in vitro propagation of Paphiopedilum and to emphasize the importance of further improving tissue culture protocols for ex vitro-derived explants.
Constrained bidirectional propagation and stroke segmentation
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Mori, S; Gillespie, W; Suen, C Y
1983-03-01
A new method for decomposing a complex figure into its constituent strokes is described. This method, based on constrained bidirectional propagation, is suitable for parallel processing. Examples of its application to the segmentation of Chinese characters are presented. 9 references.
The ghost propagator in Coulomb gauge
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Watson, P.; Reinhardt, H.
2011-01-01
We present results for a numerical study of the ghost propagator in Coulomb gauge whereby lattice results for the spatial gluon propagator are used as input to solving the ghost Dyson-Schwinger equation. We show that in order to solve completely, the ghost equation must be supplemented by a boundary condition (the value of the inverse ghost propagator dressing function at zero momentum) which determines if the solution is critical (zero value for the boundary condition) or subcritical (finite value). The various solutions exhibit a characteristic behavior where all curves follow the same (critical) solution when going from high to low momenta until 'forced' to freeze out in the infrared to the value of the boundary condition. The boundary condition can be interpreted in terms of the Gribov gauge-fixing ambiguity; we also demonstrate that this is not connected to the renormalization. Further, the connection to the temporal gluon propagator and the infrared slavery picture of confinement is discussed.
Propagation of synchrotron radiation through nanocapillary structures
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bjeoumikhov, A.; Bjeoumikhova, S.; Riesemeier, H.; Radtke, M.; Wedell, R.
2007-01-01
The propagation of synchrotron radiation through nanocapillary structures with channel sizes of 200 nm and periods in the micrometer size has been studied experimentally. It was shown that the propagation through individual capillary channels has a mode formation character. Furthermore it was shown that during the propagation through capillary channels the coherence of synchrotron radiation is partially conserved. Interference of beams propagating through different capillary channels is observed which leads to a periodically modulated distribution of the radiation intensity in a plane far from the exit of the structure. These investigations are of high relevance for the understanding of X-ray transmission through nanocapillaries and the appearance of wave properties at this size scale
Radio Propagation in Open-pit Mines
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Portela Lopes de Almeida, Erika; Caldwell, George; Rodriguez Larrad, Ignacio
2017-01-01
In this paper we present the results of an extensive measurement campaign performed at two large iron ore mining centers in Brazil at the 2.6 GHz band. Although several studies focusing on radio propagation in underground mines have been published, measurement data and careful analyses for open......-pit mines are still scarce. Our results aim at filling this gap in the literature. The research is motivated by the ongoing mine automation initiatives, where connectivity becomes critical. This paper presents the first set of results comprising measurements under a gamut of propagation conditions. A second...... paper detailing sub-GHz propagation is also in preparation. The results indicate that conventional wisdom is wrong, in other words, radio-frequency (RF) propagation in surface mines can be far more elaborate than plain free-space line-of-sight conditions. Additionally, the old mining adage “no two mines...
SDEM modelling of fault-propagation folding
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Clausen, O.R.; Egholm, D.L.; Poulsen, Jane Bang
2009-01-01
and variations in Mohr-Coulomb parameters including internal friction. Using SDEM modelling, we have mapped the propagation of the tip-line of the fault, as well as the evolution of the fold geometry across sedimentary layers of contrasting rheological parameters, as a function of the increased offset......Understanding the dynamics and kinematics of fault-propagation-folding is important for evaluating the associated hydrocarbon play, for accomplishing reliable section balancing (structural reconstruction), and for assessing seismic hazards. Accordingly, the deformation style of fault-propagation...... a precise indication of when faults develop and hence also the sequential evolution of secondary faults. Here we focus on the generation of a fault -propagated fold with a reverse sense of motion at the master fault, and varying only the dip of the master fault and the mechanical behaviour of the deformed...
ADVANCES IN THE PROPAGATION OF RAMBUTAN TREE
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
RENATA APARECIDA DE ANDRADE
2017-12-01
Full Text Available ABSTRACT The reality of Brazilian fruit farming is demonstrating increasing demand for sustainable information about native and exotic fruit, which can diversify and elevate the efficiency of fruit exploitation. Research on propagation of fruits tree is very important so that it can provide a protocol for suitable multiplication of this fruitful. Due to the great genetic diversity of rambutan plants, it is recommended the use of vegetative propagated plants. This research aimed to evaluate the propagation of rambutan by cuttings, layering and grafting, as well as seed germination and viability without storage. The results of this research indicate that this species can be successfully propagated by layering, grafting and seeds. We also observed that the germination percentage of seeds kept inside the fruits for six days were not influenced by the different substrates used in this experiment.
Reversed phase propagation for hyperbolic surface waves
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Repän, Taavi; Novitsky, Andrey; Willatzen, Morten
2018-01-01
Magnetic properties can be used to control phase propagation in hyperbolic metamaterials. However, in the visible spectrum magnetic properties are difficult to obtain. We discuss hyperbolic surface waves allowing for a similar control over phase, achieved without magnetic properties....
ADVANCES IN PEACH, NECTARINE AND PLUM PROPAGATION
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
NEWTON ALEX MAYER
2017-12-01
Full Text Available ABSTRACT Nursery trees of stone fruits (Prunus spp. are traditionally produced by union of two distinct genotypes - the rootstock and the scion - which, by grafting, form a composite plant that will be maintained throughout of all plant life. In Brazil, the rootstocks are predominantly seed propagated and therefore usually results in heterogeneous trees for vigor and edaphic adaptation. However, with advances in rootstock breeding programs that released cultivars and certification in several countries (notably in Europe, the system will come gradually evolving for vegetative propagation (cuttings and tissue culture and use of seeds of selected rootstocks with specific characteristics and potted nursery trees production. For scion cultivar propagation, the budding system (with its many variations has predominantly been adopted in major producing countries. This review had as objective to comment main propagation methods adopted for rootstocks and scion in peach, nectarine and plum, and recent technical progress obtained as well as the needs of improvement for nursery tree production.
On the Coulomb gauge quark propagator
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kloker, M.; Alkofer, R.; Krassnigg, A.; Krenn, R.
2006-01-01
Full text: A solution of the quark Dyson-Schwinger equation including transverse gluons is presented. The corresponding retardation effects in the quark propagator are discussed. Especially, their effects on confinement properties and dynamical mass generation are described. (author)
Front Propagation in Stochastic Neural Fields
Bressloff, Paul C.; Webber, Matthew A.
2012-01-01
We analyze the effects of extrinsic multiplicative noise on front propagation in a scalar neural field with excitatory connections. Using a separation of time scales, we represent the fluctuating front in terms of a diffusive-like displacement
International benchmark on the natural convection test in Phenix reactor
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tenchine, D.; Pialla, D.; Fanning, T.H.; Thomas, J.W.; Chellapandi, P.; Shvetsov, Y.; Maas, L.; Jeong, H.-Y.; Mikityuk, K.; Chenu, A.; Mochizuki, H.; Monti, S.
2013-01-01
Highlights: ► Phenix main characteristics, instrumentation and natural convection test are described. ► “Blind” calculations and post-test calculations from all the participants to the benchmark are compared to reactor data. ► Lessons learned from the natural convection test and the associated calculations are discussed. -- Abstract: The French Phenix sodium cooled fast reactor (SFR) started operation in 1973 and was stopped in 2009. Before the reactor was definitively shutdown, several final tests were planned and performed, including a natural convection test in the primary circuit. During this natural convection test, the heat rejection provided by the steam generators was disabled, followed several minutes later by reactor scram and coast-down of the primary pumps. The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) launched a Coordinated Research Project (CRP) named “control rod withdrawal and sodium natural circulation tests performed during the Phenix end-of-life experiments”. The overall purpose of the CRP was to improve the Member States’ analytical capabilities in the field of SFR safety. An international benchmark on the natural convection test was organized with “blind” calculations in a first step, then “post-test” calculations and sensitivity studies compared with reactor measurements. Eight organizations from seven Member States took part in the benchmark: ANL (USA), CEA (France), IGCAR (India), IPPE (Russian Federation), IRSN (France), KAERI (Korea), PSI (Switzerland) and University of Fukui (Japan). Each organization performed computations and contributed to the analysis and global recommendations. This paper summarizes the findings of the CRP benchmark exercise associated with the Phenix natural convection test, including blind calculations, post-test calculations and comparisons with measured data. General comments and recommendations are pointed out to improve future simulations of natural convection in SFRs
Spark channel propagation in a microbubble liquid
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Panov, V. A.; Vasilyak, L. M., E-mail: vasilyak@ihed.ras.ru; Vetchinin, S. P.; Pecherkin, V. Ya.; Son, E. E. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Joint Institute for High Temperatures (Russian Federation)
2016-11-15
Experimental study on the development of the spark channel from the anode needle under pulsed electrical breakdown of isopropyl alcohol solution in water with air microbubbles has been performed. The presence of the microbubbles increases the velocity of the spark channel propagation and increases the current in the discharge gap circuit. The observed rate of spark channel propagation in microbubble liquid ranges from 4 to 12 m/s, indicating the thermal mechanism of the spark channel development in a microbubble liquid.
The gluon propagator in momentum space
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bernard, C. [Washington Univ., St. Louis, MO (United States). Dept. of Physics; Parrinello, C. [New York Univ., NY (United States). Dept. of Physics]|[Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States); Soni, A. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)
1992-12-31
We consider quenched QCD on a 16{sup 3}{times}40 lattice at {beta}=6.0. We give preliminary numerical results for the lattice gluon propagator evaluated both in coordinate and momentum space. Our findings are compared with earlier results in the literature at zero momentum. In addition, by considering nonzero momenta we attempt to extract the form of the propagator and compare it to continuum predictions formulated by Gribov and others.
The gluon propagator in momentum space
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bernard, C. (Washington Univ., St. Louis, MO (United States). Dept. of Physics); Parrinello, C. (New York Univ., NY (United States). Dept. of Physics Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)); Soni, A. (Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States))
1992-01-01
We consider quenched QCD on a 16[sup 3][times]40 lattice at [beta]=6.0. We give preliminary numerical results for the lattice gluon propagator evaluated both in coordinate and momentum space. Our findings are compared with earlier results in the literature at zero momentum. In addition, by considering nonzero momenta we attempt to extract the form of the propagator and compare it to continuum predictions formulated by Gribov and others.
The gluon propagator in momentum space
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bernard, C. (Dept. of Physics, Washington Univ., St. Louis, MO (United States)); Parrinello, C. (Physics Dept., New York Univ., NY (United States) Physics Dept., Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)); Soni, A. (Physics Dept., Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States))
1993-03-01
We consider quenched QCD on a 16[sup 3] x 40 lattice at [beta] = 6.0. We give preliminary numerical results for the lattice gluon propagator evaluated both in coordinate and momentum space. Our findings are compared with earlier results in the literature at zero momentum. In addition, by considering nonzero momenta we attempt to extract the form of the propagator and compare it to continuum predictions formulated by Gribov and others. (orig.)
The structure of the gluon propagator
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Leinweber, D.B.; Parrinello, C.; Skullerud, J.I.; Williams, A.G
1999-03-01
The gluon propagator has been calculated for quenched QCD in the Landau gauge at {beta} = 6.0 for volumes 16{sup 3} x 48 and 32{sup 3} x 64, and at {beta} 6.2 for volume 24{sup 3} x 48. The large volume and different lattice spacings allow us to identify and minimise finite volume and finite lattice spacing artefacts. We also study the tensor structure of the gluon propagator, confirming that it obeys the lattice Landau gauge condition.