Sample records for eastern yangtze craton

  1. Metallogenic Districts of Yangtze Cratonic Rim at the Edge of Chaos


    Combining the science of complexity with ore geology, the author puts forward a new theory of metallogenesis: "complexity and self-organized criticality of metallogenic dynamic systems", and three fundamental theories are raised for it. The ore genesis and regularity of ore formation of four metallogenic districts around the Yangtze craton in China are studied with this theory. It is found that"metallogenic districts of Yangtze cratonic rim are all at the edge of chaos". This proposition is expounded by four determinative criteria of the edge of chaos for metallogenic districts of Yangtze cratonic rim.

  2. Detrital Zircon Ages of Hanjiang River:Constraints on Evolution of Northern Yangtze Craton, South China

    Yang Jie; Gao Shan; Yuan Honglin; Gong Hujun; Zhang Hong; Xie Shiwen


    Clastic sedimentary rocks are natural samples of the exposed continental crust over large ideal sample for studying the formation and evolution of the northern Yangtze craton. Here we report laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer U-Pb ages of 122 detrital zircons from one sand sample of the Hanjiang River. The 110 concordant zircons reveal four major age groups of 768,444, 212, and 124 Ma, which well correlate with known magmatic events in the northern Yangtze craton. A minor group is present at 1 536 Ma, which is less known in the study area. Only seven zircons have ages of >1 750 Ma. Our results show that the Early Paleozoic, Late Triassic, and Early Cretaceous are important episodes of zircon growth and crustal growth/reworking in addition to the previously documented Neoproterozoic event. Our results suggest very limited exposures of Paleoproterozoic and Archean rocks in the northern parts of the Yangtze craton.

  3. Triassic magmatism and its relation to decratonization in the eastern North China Craton


    Lithospheric removal and destruction of the North China Craton have been hotly discussed recently. It has been confirmed that the timing of a strong lithospheric removal took place in Late Mesozoic; however, little is known about when the lithospheric removal was initiated and how the Late Permian to Early Triassic deep subduction of Yangtze continental crust affected the cratonic destruction. This paper presents an overview on the temporal and spatial framework and geochemical characteristics of the Triassic intrusive rocks in the eastern North China Craton and use these data to trace their sources and petrogenetic processes, in order to constrain the tectonic setting in which they evolved. It is concluded that the destruction of the North China Craton was initiated in the Late Triassic and induced by delamination of the thickened continental crust by deep subduction of Yangtze continental crust and continent-continent collision. This suggests that the subduction of the continental crust and continent-continent collision are possibly interpreted as the inducement of Late Mesozoic decratonization of the North China Craton.

  4. Triassic magmatism and its relation to decratonization in the eastern North China Craton

    YANG JinHui; WU FuYuan


    Lithospheric removal and destruction of the North China Craton have been hotly discussed recently.It has been confirmed that the timing of a strong lithospheric removal took place in Late Mesozoic;however,little is known about when the lithospheric removal was initiated and how the Late Permian to Early Triassic deep subduction of Yangtze continental crust affected the cratonic destruction.This paper presents an overview on the temporal and spatial framework and geochemical characteristics of the Triassic intrusive rocks in the eastern North China Craton and use these data to trace their sources and petrogenetic processes,in order to constrain the tectonic setting in which they evolved.It is concluded that the destruction of the North China Craton was initiated in the Late Triassic and induced by delamination of the thickened continental crust by deep subduction of Yangtze continental crust and continent-continent collision.This suggests that the subduction of the continental crust and continent-continent collision are possibly interpreted as the inducement of Late Mesozoic decratonization of the North China Craton.

  5. Architecture of the Sulu crustal suture between the North China Craton and Yangtze Craton: Constraints from Mesozoic granitoids

    Zhao, Rui; Wang, Qingfei; Liu, Xuefei; Wang, Wei; Pan, Ruiguang


    The Yangtze Craton (YC) and the North China Craton (NCC) collided in the Triassic, producing the prominent NNE-trending Sulu high-ultrahigh pressure metamorphic belt and associated crustal thickening. Late Jurassic-Early Cretaceous granitic plutons in the Sulu orogenic belt and the Jiaobei terrane to the west were used to investigate the crustal architecture across the suture. Our new data show that the granitoids from these two regions have similar chemical and isotope compositions. They are all characterized by very high Sr and low Y-Yb contents, high Sr/Y and (La/Yb)N ratios, similar ƐNd(t) values from - 18.2 to - 21.4, and similar initial 87Sr/86Sr ratios from 0.7076 to 0.7119. The calculated Nd two-stage model ages (TDM2) based on whole rock data vary from 2415 to 2662 Ma. Co-magmatic zircon crystals from the granitoids have variably negative ƐHf(t) values from - 26.8 to - 12.8, with the calculated Hf TDM2 from 2008 to 2892 Ma. The inherited zircon crystals from these rocks are dominated by Neoproterozoic (800-600 Ma) and Triassic-Early Jurassic ( 220 Ma and 180 Ma) ages. The ƐHf(t) values of the inherited zircon crystals with U-Pb ages between 180 Ma and 800 Ma from Sulu and Jiaobei range from - 21.6 to 4.2 and from - 23 to - 1.9, respectively. They all plot within the field of crustal evolution between 1385 and 2583 Ma. The similar whole rock geochemical signatures and similar inherited zircon data indicate a similar source for the granitoids in these two regions. We propose that the source regions across the suture all belong to the YC. The occurrence of the YC crust beneath the NCC at this location is thought to have resulted from the westward subduction of the YC beneath the NCC and subsequent continental collision in the Triassic. In this model, the abundant 800 to 230 Ma inherited zircon crystals in the granitoids are interpreted to have been derived from the source region whereas the rare older inherited zircon crystals are thought to have been

  6. Petrogenesis and Tectonic Implications of Paleoproterozoic Metapelitic Rocks in the Archean Kongling Complex from the Northern Yangtze Craton, South China

    Li, Y.; Zheng, J.; Wang, W.; Xiong, Q.


    The Archean Kongling Complex in the northern Yangtze Craton is an ideal target to investigate the Precambrian accretion and evolution of continental crust in South China. This study aims to unravel the crustal evolution and tectonic setting of the Yangtze Craton during the Paleoproterozoic time, using integrated studies of petrography, zircon U-Pb and Hf isotopes and whole-rock geochemistry of Paleoproterozoic metapelitic rocks in the Kongling Complex. These rocks contain garnet, sillimanite, biotite, plagioclase, minor graphite and ilmenite. Zircons from the samples show nebulous sector-zoning and rim-core structure, suggesting both metamorphic origin and detrital origin with metamorphic overprints. The metamorphic zircons and metamorphic overprints have concordant 207Pb/206Pb age at ~2.0 Ga, while detrital grains yield three distinct concordant-age populations of >2.5 Ga, 2.4-2.2 Ga and 2.2-2.1 Ga. The age patterns indicate that the depositional age of the metasedimentary rocks was 2.1-2.0 Ga. Those 2.2-2.1 Ga detrital zircons with variable ɛHf(t) values (-7.28 to 2.97) suggest the addition of juvenile materials from depleted mantle to the crust during 2.2-2.1 Ga. The 2.4-2.2 Ga zircons have Hf model ages (TDM2) of ~2.6-3.5 Ga and >2.5 Ga zircons have TDM2 ages varying from 2.9 Ga to 3.3 Ga. The new data suggest that the Kongling Complex was originally a Paleoarchean (old up to 3.5 Ga) continental nucleus, which experienced multiple episodes of growth and reworking events at 3.3-3.2 Ga, 2.9 Ga, 2.7-2.6 Ga, 2.4-2.2 Ga and 2.2-2.1 Ga. In combination with available data, the new results in this study suggest a continent-arc-continent evolution model to explain the tectonic evolution of the Yangtze Craton during the Paleoproterozoic time: the western margin of Yangtze Craton was originally an individual continent, which underwent a reworking event during 2.4-2.2 Ga and a crust growth event caused by continent-arc collision during 2.2-2.1 Ga; it subsequently collided

  7. SHRIMP single zircon U-Pb dating of the Kongling high-grade metamorphic terrain: Evidence for >3.2 Ga old continental crust in the Yangtze craton

    GAO; Shan; (


    [1]Liu, G. L., New progress in the geochronology of the Kongling terrain, Regional Geology of China, 1987, 1: 95.[2]Zheng, W. Z., Liu, G. L., Wang, X. W., Geochronology of the Archean Kongling terrain, Bull. Yichang Inst. Geol. Miner. Resour. (in Chinese), 1991, 16: 97-105.[3]Yuan, H. H., Zhang, Z. L., Liu, W. et al., Dating of zircons by evaporation method and its application, Mineral. Petrol. (in Chinese), 1991, 11: 72.-79[4]Ling, W. L., Gao, S., Zheng, H. F. et al., Sm-Nd isotopic dating of Kongling terrain, Chinese. Sci. Bull., 1998, 43(1): 86-89.[5]Gao, S., Ling, W. L., Qiu, Y. et al., Contrasting geochemical and Sm-Nd isotopic compositions of Archean metasediments from the Kongling high-grade terrain of the Yangtze craton: evidence for cratonic evolution and redistribution of REE during crustal anatexis, Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta, 1999, 63: 2071-2088.[6]Gao, S., Zhang, B. R., The discovery of Archean TTG gneisses in northern Yangtze craton and their implications, Earth Sci. (in Chinese, with English abstract), 1990, 15: 675-679.[7]Dong, S. B., Metamorphism and Its Relation to the Crustal Evolution in China (in Chinese), Beijing: Geological Publishing House, 1986. [8]Composton, W., Williams, I. S., Meyer, C., U-Pb geochronology of zircons from lunar breccia 73217 using sensitive high mass-resolution ion microprobe, J. Geophys. Res., 1984, 89(B): 252-534.[9]Williams, I. S., Composton, W., Black, L. P et al., Unsupported radiogenic Pb in zircon: a case of anomalously high Pb-Pb, U-Pb and Th-Pb ages, Contrib. Mineral. Petrol., 1984, 88: 322-327.[10] Nelson, D. R., Evolution of the Archean granite-greenstone terrains of the Eastern Goldfileds, Western Australia: SHRIMP U-Pb zircon constraints, Precambrian Res., 1997, 83: 57-81.[11] Ling, W. L., Geochronology and crustal growth of the Paleoproterozoic basements along the northern margin of the Yangzte craton, Earth Sci., 1996, 21(5): 491—493.

  8. The story of a craton from heart to margins: illuminating cratonic lithosphere with Rayleigh wave phase velocities in Eastern Canada

    Petrescu, L.; Darbyshire, F. A.; Gilligan, A.; Bastow, I. D.; Totten, E. J.


    Cratons are Precambrian continental nuclei that are geologically distinct from modern continental regions and are typically underlain by seismically fast lithospheric roots (keels) to at least 200 km depth. Both plate and non-plate tectonic origin theories such as stacking of subducted slabs or multiple mantle plume underplating have been proposed to explain keel growth.Eastern Canada is an ideal continental region to investigate cratonization processes and the onset of plate tectonics. It comprises part of the largest Archean craton in the world, the Superior Province, flanked by a ~1.1 Ga Himalayan-scale orogenic belt, the Grenville Province, and the 500-300 Ma old Appalachian orogenic province, following the same general SW-NE axial trend. The region is also cross-cut by the Great Meteor Hotspot track, providing an excellent opportunity to study the interaction of hotspot tectonism with progressively younger lithospheric domains.We investigate the lithospheric structure of Precambrian Eastern Canada using teleseismic earthquake data recorded at permanent and temporary networks. We measure interstation dispersion curves of Rayleigh wave phase velocities between ~15 and 220 s, and compare the results to standard continental and cratonic reference models. We combine the dispersion curves via a tomographic inversion which solves for isotropic phase velocity heterogeneity and azimuthal anisotropy across the region at a range of periods. The phase velocity maps indicate variations in lithospheric properties from the heart of the Superior craton to the SE Canadian coast.The new regional-scale models will help to understand the processes that generated, stabilized and reworked the cratonic roots through their billion-year tectonic history. We investigate how surface tectonic boundaries relate to deeper lithospheric structural changes, and consider the effects of the multiple Wilson cycles that affected Laurentia.

  9. Geochronology of middle Neoproterozoic volcanic deposits in Yangtze Craton interior of South China and its implications to tectonic settings


    Here we report new SHRIMP dating results of the crystal tuff in Ejiaao Formation of middle Banxi Group in northern Guizhou. The results indicate that the volcanic deposition occurred at ~780 Ma. We also suggests that the igneous activities across Yangtze Craton with diabase dyke swarms and basal volcanic rocks during middle Banxi time are indicative of the episodic, extensive and vigorous great bimodal igneous events during middle Neoproterozoic (825-720 Ma) in South China. The characteristics of the igneous series are contrary to the model claiming they are of island-arc origin, but suggest that they are the records of rifting process and may be related to the episodic plume activities leading to the break-up of Rodinia.

  10. Pb–Pb zircon ages of Archaean metasediments and gneisses from the Dharwar craton, southern India: Implications for the antiquity of the eastern Dharwar craton

    B Maibam; J N Goswami; R Srinivasan


    207Pb–206Pb ages of zircons in samples of metasediments as well as ortho- and para-gneisses from both the western and the eastern parts of the Dharwar craton have been determined using an ion microprobe. Detrital zircons in metasedimentary rocks from both yielded ages ranging from 3.2 to 3.5 Ga. Zircons from orthogneisses from the two parts also yielded similar ages. Imprints of younger events have been discerned in the ages of overgrowths on older zircon cores in samples collected throughout the craton. Our data show that the evolution of the southwestern part of eastern Dharwar craton involved a significant amount of older crust (< 3.0 Ga). This would suggest that crust formation in both the western and eastern parts of the Dharwar craton took place over similar time interval starting in the Mesoarchaean at ca. 3.5 Ga and continuing until 2.5 Ga. Our data coupled with geological features and geodynamic setting of the Dharwar craton tend to suggest that the eastern Dharwar craton and the western Dharwar craton formed part of a single terrane.

  11. Identification of 3.5 Ga detrital zircons from Yangtze craton in south China and the implication for Archean crust evolution

    LIU Xiaoming; GAO Shan; LING Wenli; YUAN Honglin; HU Zhaochu


    The LA-ICP-MS U-Pb dating of hundreds of detrital zircon grains from the Sinian sandstones of Liantuo formation and tillites of Nantuo formation at Sanxia area in Yichang identified 3319-3508 Ma zircon grains. Their 207pb/206pb and 206pb/238U ages show excellent agreement (concordia degree 99 %-100 % ). Their CL images exhibit well-developed oscillatory zoning and the Th/U ratios are within 0. 46-0. 76, implying that they are igneous zircons which formed during middle-early Archean. These zircons are the oldest ones discovered in Yangtze craton until now. However, the detrital zircons with ages older than 3.3 Ga in the metamorphic rocks of Kongling group were not found by further investigation, which suggests the presence of crust older than high-grade metamorphic Kongling terrain in Yangtze craton.

  12. Seismic anisotropy of Precambrian lithosphere: Insights from Rayleigh wave tomography of the eastern Superior Craton

    Petrescu, Laura; Darbyshire, Fiona; Bastow, Ian; Totten, Eoghan; Gilligan, Amy


    The thick, seismically fast lithospheric keels underlying continental cores (cratons) are thought to have formed in the Precambrian and resisted subsequent tectonic destruction. A consensus is emerging from a variety of disciplines that keels are vertically stratified, but the processes that led to their development remain uncertain. Eastern Canada is a natural laboratory to study Precambrian lithospheric formation and evolution. It comprises the largest Archean craton in the world, the Superior Craton, surrounded by multiple Proterozoic orogenic belts. To investigate its lithospheric structure, we construct a frequency-dependent anisotropic seismic model of the region using Rayleigh waves from teleseismic earthquakes recorded at broadband seismic stations across eastern Canada. The joint interpretation of phase velocity heterogeneity and azimuthal anisotropy patterns reveals a seismically fast and anisotropically complex Superior Craton. The upper lithosphere records fossilized Archean tectonic deformation: anisotropic patterns align with the orientation of the main tectonic boundaries at periods ≤110 s. This implies that cratonic blocks were strong enough to sustain plate-scale deformation during collision at 2.5 Ga. Cratonic lithosphere with fossil anisotropy partially extends beneath adjacent Proterozoic belts. At periods sensitive to the lower lithosphere, we detect fast, more homogenous, and weakly anisotropic material, documenting postassembly lithospheric growth, possibly in a slow or stagnant convection regime. A heterogeneous, anisotropic transitional zone may also be present at the base of the keel. The detection of multiple lithospheric fabrics at different periods with distinct tectonic origins supports growing evidence that cratonization processes may be episodic and are not exclusively an Archean phenomenon.

  13. Origin and diamond prospectivity of Mesoproterozoic kimberlites from the Narayanpet field, Eastern Dharwar Craton, southern India

    Chalapathi Rao, N.V.; Paton, Chad; Lehmann, B.


    The Mesoproterozoic Narayanpet Kimberlite Field (NKF) is located ~200km north of the well-known Wajrakarur Kimberlite Field (WKF) in the Eastern Dharwar Craton, southern India. Whereas a majority of the WKF occurrences are diamondiferous and contain mantle xenoliths and xenocrysts, their paucity ......-wide, indicates that redox conditions were favourable for diamond prospectivity, and that magmatic emplacement could, instead, have played a major role in their low diamond potential. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.....

  14. Contrasting geochemical and Sm-Nd isotopic compositions of Archean metasediments from the Kongling high-grade terrain of the Yangtze craton: Evidence for cratonic evolution and redistribution of REE during crustal anatexis

    Gao, Shan; Ling, Wenli; Qiu, Yumin; Lian, Zhou; Hartmann, Gerald; Simon, Klaus


    Twenty-three clastic metasediments from the Kongling high-grade terrain of the Yangtze craton, South China were analyzed for major, trace and rare earth elements and Sm-Nd isotopic ratios. Associated dioritic-tonalitic-trondhjemitic (DTT) and granitic gneisses as well as amphibolites were also analyzed in order to constrain provenance. The results show that the clastic metasediments can be classified into 3 distinct groups in terms of mineralogical, geochemical and Sm-Nd isotopic compositions. Group A is characterized by having no to slight negative Eu anomalies (Eu/Eu∗ = 0.82-1.07), being high in Cr (191-396 ppm) and Ni (68-137 ppm), and low in Th (3.3-7.8 ppm) and REE (ΣREE = 99-156 ppm). These characteristics are similar to those of metasediments from Archean greenstone belts. In addition, the Group A metasediments have the value of the Chemical Index of Alteration (CIW) close to felsic gneisses. Their Sm-Nd isotopic, REE and trace element compositions can be interpreted by mixtures of the DTT gneisses and amphibolites. Dating of detrital zircons from 2 Group A samples by SHRIMP reveals a major concordant age group of 2.87-3.0 Ga, which is identical to the age of the trondhjemitic gneiss. These results strongly suggest that Group A was principally the first-cycle erosion product of the local Kongling DTT gneiss and amphibolite. Moreover, the higher than amphibolite Cr content and slight Eu depletion exhibited by some samples from this group infer that ultramafic rocks like komatiite and granite of probably 3.0-3.3 Ga in age also played a role. Group B is characterized by the presence of graphite and shows a more evolved composition similar to post-Archean shales with a prominent negative Eu anomaly (Eu/Eu∗ = 0.48-0.77) and high CIW. On paired Cr/Th vs La/Co and Co/Th plots, Group B samples conform to a two-end member mixing line of the Kongling granitic gneiss and amphibolite. However, data on Nd model age and CIW suggest that the granite component should

  15. Zircon U-Pb age and Hf isotope of Quanyishang A-type granite in Yichang: Signification for the Yangtze continental cratonization in Paleoproterozoic

    XIONG Qing; ZHENG JianPing; YU ChunMei; SU YuPing; TANG HuaYun; ZHANG ZhiHai


    Zircon U-Pb age and Hf isotope, and major and trace element compositions were reported for granite at Quanyishang, which intruded into the Kongling complex in Yichang, Hubei Province. The results show that the Quanyishang granite is rich in silicon and alkalis but poor in calcium and magnesium, and displays enrichment in Ga, Y, Zr, Nb but depletion in Sr and Ba, exhibiting the post-orogenic A-type affinity. 90% zircons from the granite are concordant, and give a middle Paleoproterozoic magmatic crystallization age (mean 1854 Ma). Initial Hf isotope ratios (176Hf/177Hf)1 of the middle Paleoproterozoic zircons range from 0.280863 to 0.281134 and they have negative εHf(t) values with a minimum of -26.3. These zircons give the depleted mantle model ages (TDM) of 2.9-3.3 Ga (mean 3.0 Ga), and the average crustal model ages (Tcrust) of 3.6-4.2 Ga (mean 3.8 Ga)., A Mesoarchean grain with 207pb/206Pb age of 2859 Ma has a slightly high TDM (3.4 Ga) but similar Tcrust (3.8 Ga) to the Paleoproterozoic zircons. All these data suggest that the source materials of the Quanyishang A-type granite are unusually old, at least ≥2.9 Ga (even Eoarchean). The event of crustal remelting, which resulted in the formation of the Quanyishang granite in the middle Paleoproterozoic, recorded the cratonization of the Yangtze conti-nent. The process may have relation to the extension and collapse of the deep crust with Archean ages, in response to the transition stage of the assembly and breakup of the Columbia supercontinent.

  16. Age of Anzishan granulites in the Mianxian-Lueyang suture zone of Qingling orogen: With a discussion of the timing offinal assembly of Yangtze and North China craton blocks


    Many granulite blocks have been recently discovered in the Anzishan area, Mianxian County, Shaanxi Province, in the central segment of the Mianxian-Lueyang suture zone. Sm-Nd isochron and 40Ar/39Ar ages of mineral samples of granulites from this area are reported in the note. The granulite mineral samples give a Sm-Nd isochron age of t=(206 ( 55) Ma (2(), with INd = 0.51302(7(2() and MSWD = 1.6, and a biotite 40Ar/39Ar plateau age of (199.7(1.7) Ma (2(). The formation and uplift of the granulites were related to subduction of the Yangtze block beneath the South Qinling microcontinent and their collision and the final amalgamation of the Yangtze and Sino-Korean craton blocks in the Indosinian, and their age is consistent with or close to those of the Dabie ultrahigh-pressure and high-pressure metamorphic rocks, so have great tectonic significance.

  17. Yangtze. Yangtze

    Qing, Dai; Adams, P.; Thibodeau, J. [eds.


    The major criticisms regarding the construction of the world`s largest dam on the Yangtze River in China were presented. Construction of the Three Gorges dam was proposed more than 70 years ago. However, the opinions of those opposed to its construction have been repeatedly suppressed by the Chinese government. This book is a collection of documents debating the merits (or lack of merits) of the Three Gorges project. The documents represent an indictment of the political system that produced the decision to build the mega-hydroelectric power generating facility. The construction of the 185-metre-high dam across the Yangtze River is scheduled to begin in 1997; it aims to generate 18.2 million kilowatts on completion in 2009. The critiques focus on a closed decision-making process that distorts technical data and analysis to meet political needs, and justifies the dam on operational, geographical and structural reasons. Critics believe that the dam will fail to control flood damages, navigation will be impeded rather than enhanced, and the promised electricity will not materialize. The authors also make recommendations as to how flood protection, navigation and electricity could be provided more safely, more quickly and at less cost. 29 refs., 5 tabs., 5 figs.

  18. Discussion: The timing of gold mineralization across the eastern Yilgarn Craton using U-Pb geochronology of hydrothermal phosphate minerals

    Bateman, Roger; Jones, Sarah


    The presentation of recent geochronological work on orogenic gold deposits in the Eastern Goldfields of the Yilgarn Craton, Western Australia, claims to prove that there is a single broad event of gold mineralization and that structural work demonstrating that there are a number of discrete gold mineralization events is wrong. This new data demonstrates no such thing, as this data, no doubt the best that can currently be produced, shows a very wide and inconsistent range in ages. Geochronology is not yet able to reliably separate these events, which appear to be spread over an interval of perhaps 30 Ma, up to ˜2635 Ma.

  19. Boron isotopes reveal multiple metasomatic events in the mantle beneath the eastern North China Craton

    Li, Hong-Yan; Zhou, Zhou; Ryan, Jeffrey G.; Wei, Gang-Jian; Xu, Yi-Gang


    Linkages inferred between the geochemical heterogeneity of the mantle beneath eastern Eurasia and the stagnant Pacific slab documented geophysically in its mantle transition zone are as yet not clearly characterized. In this paper we report new elemental and isotopic data for boron (B) on a suite of well-characterized Cenozoic basalts (alkali basalts, basanites and nephelinites), with ocean island basalt (OIB)-like trace element signatures from western Shandong of the eastern North China Craton (NCC). Correlations between major elements (e.g., FeOT versus SiO2), trace elements (e.g., CeN/PbN versus BaN/ThN) and radiogenic isotopes (e.g., 206Pb/204Pb versus 87Sr/86Sr) suggest these basalts are derived via the mixing of melts from two mantle components: a fluid mobile element (FME; such as Ba, K, Pb and Sr) enriched component, which is most evident in the alkali basalts, and a FME depleted mantle component that is more evident in the basanites and nephelinites. The alkali basalts in this study have lower B concentrations (1.4-2.2 μg/g) but higher δ11B (-4.9 to -1.4) values than the basanites and nephelinites (B = 2.1-5.0 μg/g; δ11B = -6.9 to -3.9), and all the samples have nearly constant B/Nb ratios between 0.03 and 0.07, similar to the observed range in B/Nb for intraplate lavas. Our high-SiO2 samples have higher δ11B than that of our low SiO2 samples, indicating that the B isotopic differences among our samples do not result from the addition of a continental crustal component in the mantle source, or direct crustal assimilation during the eruption process. The positive B versus Nb correlation suggests the B isotopic compositions of the western Shandong basalts primarily reflect the pre-eruptive compositions of their mantle sources. Correlations among B, Nd and Sr isotope signatures of the western Shandong basalts differ from those among basalts from plume settings (e.g., Azores and Hawaii), and are inconsistent with models suggesting single-step metasomatic

  20. The evolution of eastern Sichuan basin, Yangtze block since Cretaceous: Constraints from low temperature thermochronology

    Shi, Hongcai; Shi, Xiaobin; Glasmacher, Ulrich A.; Yang, Xiaoqiu; Stockli, Daniel F.


    In Yangtze block (South China), there is a well-developed Mesozoic thrust system extended through the Xuefeng and Wuling mountains in the southeast to the Sichuan basin in the northwest. We present 11 apatite fission-track (AFT) data and 11 (U-Th-Sm)/He ages to unravel the low temperature thermal history of a part of the system located in the eastern Sichuan basin. The fission-track data are interpreted using a grain-age deconvolution algorithm with inverse thermal modeling of track length, grain ages and mineral composition proxy data. Results suggest that apatite fission-track ages range between 99.3 ± 8.1 and 51.0 ± 4.0 Ma, and the apatite (U-Th-Sm)/He ages between 58.3 ± 3.5 Ma and 14.2 ± 0.9. The spatial distribution of these ages shows a trend decreased from SE to NW gradually, which supports the idea of a prolonged, steady-state rock uplift and erosion process across the eastern Sichuan basin. Thermal history modeling of the combined FT and (U-Th-Sm)/He datasets reveal a common three stage cooling history: (1) initial stage of rapid cooling that younger to the east during pre-Cretaceous, (2) following by a period of relative (but not perfect) thermal stability at ∼65-50 °C, (3) and then a new rapid cooling stage that initiated in all samples between ∼15 and 20 Ma. The first rapid cooling at a rate of ⩾1.5 °C/Ma is associated with coeval tectonism in nearby regions, which result in folds and faults of the eastern Sichuan basin. Early-mid Cenozoic thermal stability is contributed to the extension widely occurring in the eastern China continent at which the average cooling rate decreased to ∼0.16 °C/Ma. Causes for speculative accelerated cooling after ca. 20-15 Ma with a rate of ⩾1.2 °C/Ma may be a far-field effect of upward and eastward growth of the Tibetan Plateau but could also be related to climate effects. In a whole, this paper analyzes the several Mesozoic and Cenozoic tectonic events influence to the patters of regional denudation.

  1. Crustal and uppermost mantle structure of the eastern margin of the Yilgarn Craton (Australia) from passive seismic data

    Sippl, Christian; Tkalčić, Hrvoje; Kennett, Brian; Spaggiari, Catherine; Gessner, Klaus


    The Yilgarn Craton in Western Australia is one of the largest units of Archean lithosphere on earth. Along its southern and southeastern margin, it is bounded by the Albany-Fraser Orogen (AFO), a Paleo- to Mesoproterozoic extensioal-accretionary orogen. In this contribution, we investigate the crustal and upper mantle structure of the AFO and adjacent regions using passive seismic data collected during the recent ALFREX experiment. Since the entire region has not been significantly reactivated since the Mesoproterozoic, the old signature of craton edge modification should have been well preserved until today. From November 2013 until January 2016, we operated a temporary passive seismic network consisting of 70 stations in the eastern Albany-Fraser Orogen. The array had an average station spacing of about 40 km and was designed to fill the gap between recently acquired active seismic profiles. We present results from the analysis of P receiver functions and ambient noise tomography using the ALFREX data. Receiver functions were used to derive a Moho depth map via H-K stacking, for direct imaging (common conversion point stacking) as well as joint inversion with surface wave dispersion data to derive 1D S-velocity profiles beneath the stations. The obtained receiver functions show a marked change of character from west to east across the array. Whereas they feature clear and sharp Moho phases for stations on the Yilgarn Craton, significantly more crustal complexity and fainter Moho phases are seen throughout the AFO. Crustal thickness increases from 36-39 km for the Yilgarn Craton to values between 42 and 48 km across the AFO, decreasing to around 40 km in the east. Ambient noise cross-correlations were used to derive maps of phase and group velocities of Rayleigh waves at periods between 1 and 30 seconds. A three-dimensional model of S wavespeeds throughout the area was then computed by pixelwise inversion of dispersion curves. Obtained S wavespeeds are generally

  2. Evolution of the mantle beneath the eastern North China Craton during the Cenozoic: Linking geochemical and geophysical observations

    Li, Hong-Yan; Xu, Yi-Gang; Ryan, Jeffrey G.; Whattam, Scott A.


    Recent discoveries related to the geochemistry of Cenozoic basalts and the geophysics of the deep mantle beneath eastern Eurasia make it possible to place constraints on the relationship between the seismic tomography of subcontinental mantle domains and their geochemical heterogeneities. Basalts with ocean island basalt-like trace elements erupted during (56-23 Ma) and after (≤23 Ma) rifting of the eastern North China Craton (NCC) show evidence for the mixing of an isotopically depleted source and an EMI (Enriched mantle type I) pyroxenitic mantle. NCC rifting-stage basalts exhibit anomalously low MgO and Fe2O3T and high SiO2 and Al2O3, as well as low Dy/Yb and Y/Yb and high ɛHf at a given ɛNd, as compared to the postrifting basalts. Temporal compositional variations and their association with basin subsidence indicate that heterogeneity in the eastern NCC asthenospheric mantle is the primary driver for intraplate magmatism in this region. The specific magmatic sources shifted in terms of depth, related to lithospheric thinning and thickening in the eastern NCC. The NCC EMI mantle domain most likely developed due to ancient events, is persistent through time, and is not related to dehydration of the stagnant Pacific slab in the mantle transition zone. Based on the chemical signatures of postrifting basalts, contributions from the Pacific slab are likely to be carbonatite rich. Mantle metasomatism by carbonatite melts from the Pacific slab and the interaction of these melts at shallower depths with EMI pyroxenitic mantle domains to trigger melting are contributors to the observed low P wave velocity zone beneath eastern Eurasia.

  3. Cenozoic lithospheric evolution of the Bohai Bay Basin, eastern North China Craton: Constraint from tectono-thermal modeling

    Liu, Qiongying; He, Lijuan; Huang, Fang; Zhang, Linyou


    It is well established that the lithosphere beneath the eastern North China Craton (NCC) had been thinned before the Cenozoic. A 2D multi-phase extension model, in which the initial crustal and lithospheric thicknesses are variable, is presented to reconstruct the initial thicknesses of the crust and lithosphere in the early Cenozoic and to further investigate the lithospheric evolution beneath the eastern NCC through the Cenozoic. We conduct thermal modeling along three profiles from east to west in the Bohai Bay Basin, which is the center of the lithospheric destruction and thinning of the NCC. Using multiple constraints, such as tectonic subsidence, the present-day heat flow and the Moho depth, we determine the initial crustal and lithospheric thicknesses of the Bohai Bay Basin before the Cenozoic rift to be 33-36 km and 80-105 km, respectively. The model results show that the most rapid lithospheric thinning during the Cenozoic occurred in the middle Eocene for most depressions, and the thinning activity ceased at the end of the Oligocene, reaching a minimum lithospheric thickness of 53-74 km, followed by a thermal relaxation phase. Combined with previous studies, we infer that the lithosphere beneath the eastern NCC experienced two stages of alternating thinning and thickening: notable thinning in the Early Cretaceous and Paleogene, and thickening in the Late Cretaceous and late Cenozoic. We believe that thermo-chemical erosion, together with extension, was probably the major mechanism of the significant lithospheric removal during the Mesozoic, whereas the Cenozoic lithospheric thinning was mainly dominated by tectonic extension in the eastern NCC; lithospheric thickening was generally a result of thermal cooling.

  4. Big insights from tiny peridotites: Evidence for persistence of Precambrian lithosphere beneath the eastern North China Craton

    Liu, Jingao; Rudnick, Roberta L.; Walker, Richard J.; Xu, Wen-liang; Gao, Shan; Wu, Fu-yuan


    Previous studies have shown that the eastern North China Craton (NCC) lost its ancient lithospheric mantle root during the Phanerozoic. The temporal sequence, spatial extent, and cause of the lithospheric thinning, however, continue to be debated. Here we report olivine compositions, whole-rock Re-Os isotopic systematics, and platinum-group element abundances of small ( 92) lithospheric mantle is largely absent. Osmium isotopic data suggest the Wudi peridotites experienced melt depletion primarily during the Paleoproterozoic (~ 1.8 Ga), although an Archean Os model age for one xenolith indicates incorporation of a minor component of Archean lithospheric mantle. These data suggest that a previously unrecognized Paleoproterozoic orogenic event removed and replaced the original Archean lithospheric mantle beneath the sedimentary basin at the southern edge of the Bohai Sea. By contrast, the Fuxin peridotites, entrained in Cretaceous basalts that crop out along the northern edge of the eastern NCC, document the coexistence of both ancient (≥ 2.3 Ga) and modern lithospheric mantle components. Here, the original Late Archean-Early Paleoproterozoic lithospheric mantle was, at least partially, removed and replaced prior to 100 Ma. Combined with literature data, our results show that removal of the original Archean lithosphere occurred within Proterozoic collisional orogens, and that replacement of Precambrian lithosphere during the Mesozoic may have been spatially associated with the collisional boundaries and the strike-slip Tan-Lu fault, as well as the onset of Paleo-Pacific plate subduction.

  5. Major, trace and platinum group element (PGE) geochemistry of Archean Iron Ore Group and Proterozoic Malangtoli metavolcanic rocks of Singhbhum Craton, Eastern India: Inferences on mantle melting and sulphur saturation history

    Singh, M.R.; Manikyamba, C.; Ray, J.; Ganguly, S.; Santosh, M.; Saha, A.; Rambabu, S.; Sawant, S.S.

    The geological and metallogenic history of the Singhbhum Craton of eastern India is marked by several episodes of volcanism, plutonism, sedimentation and mineralization spanning from Paleoarchean to Mesoproterozoic in a dynamic tectonic milieu...

  6. Group velocity dispersion characteristics and one-dimensional regional shear velocity structure of the eastern Indian craton

    Mandal, Prantik


    In the past three years, a semi-permanent network of fifteen 3-component broadband seismographs has become operational in the eastern Indian shield region occupying the Archean (∼2.5-3.6 Ga) Singhbhum-Odisha craton (SOC) and the Proterozoic (∼1.0-2.5 Ga) Chotanagpur Granitic Gneissic terrane (CGGT). The reliable and accurate broadband data for the recent 2015 Nepal earthquake sequence from 10 broadband stations of this network enabled us to estimate the group velocity dispersion characteristics and one-dimensional regional shear velocity structure of the region. First, we measure fundamental mode Rayleigh- and Love-wave group velocity dispersion curves in the period range of 7-70 s and then invert these curves to estimate the crustal and upper mantle structure below the eastern Indian craton (EIC). We observe that group velocities of Rayleigh and Love waves in SOC are relatively high in comparison to those of CGGT. This could be attributed to a relatively mafic-rich crust-mantle structure in SOC resulting from two episodes of magmatism associated with the 1.6 Ga Dalma and ∼117 Ma Rajmahal volcanisms. The best model for the EIC from the present study is found to be a two-layered crust, with a 14-km thick upper-crust (UC) of average shear velocity (Vs) of 3.0 km/s and a 26-km thick lower-crust (LC) of average Vs of 3.6 km/s. The present study detects a sharp drop in Vs (∼-2 to 3%) at 120-260 km depths, underlying the EIC, representing the probable seismic lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary (LAB) at 120 km depth. Such sharp fall in Vs below the LAB indicates a partially molten layer. Further, a geothermal gradient extrapolated from the surface heat flow shows that such a gradient would intercept the wet basalt solidus at 88-103 km depths, suggesting a 88-103 km thick thermal lithosphere below the EIC. This could also signal the presence of small amounts of partial melts. Thus, this 2-3% drop in Vs could be attributed to the presence of partial melts in the

  7. Magnesium isotopic heterogeneity across the cratonic lithosphere in eastern China and its origins

    Wang, Ze-Zhou; Liu, Sheng-Ao; Ke, Shan; Liu, Yi-Can; Li, Shu-Guang


    Available data in the literature have demonstrated a broad magnesium (Mg) isotope range for mantle and lower continental crustal rocks, implying an isotopically heterogeneous continental lithosphere, but its origin has not been thoroughly understood. Here, to investigate the primary cause of lithospheric Mg isotopic heterogeneity, we report major-trace elements, Sr and Mg isotope data for thirty deep-seated mafic xenoliths, which sampled different lithospheric depths in the southeastern North China Craton (NCC). The xenoliths are classified into three types based upon petrology and mineralogy, sampling from middle continental crust (Group I), lower continental crust (Group II) and lithospheric mantle (Group III), respectively. The Group I xenoliths have mantle-like to slightly high δ26Mg values (- 0.32 ‰ to + 0.01 ‰), whereas some of the Group II xenoliths have very low δ26Mg values (- 0.93 ‰ to - 0.07 ‰), reflecting substantial reaction with intracrustal carbonate-derived fluids. Combined with data in the literature, the results suggest that the Mg isotopic composition of the lower continental crust is much more heterogeneous and lighter on average relative to the middle continental crust. Except for one sample, the Group III xenoliths have extremely low δ26Mg values (- 1.23 ‰ to - 0.73 ‰), the lightest among values already reported for mantle-derived rocks including peridotites and basalts. They also have highly variable 87Sr/86Sr ratios, of 0.70387 to 0.71675. The covariation of Mg and Sr isotopes in Group III xenoliths can be explained by Mg and Sr isotopic exchange reactions during mantle metasomatism, implying that the sub-continental mantle has been significantly modified by fluids derived from recycled carbonate-pelite bearing oceanic crust. Together with the metasomatism age of ∼400 Ma obtained for one Group III xenolith, the results provide new evidence for the presence of extremely low-δ26Mg rocks in the lithosphere and indicate ancient

  8. Multi-phase tectonic structures in the collision zone of the Kolyma-Omolon microcontinent and the eastern margin of the North Asian craton, Northeastern Russia

    Prokopiev, A. V.; Oxman, V. S.


    The sequence of formation of structures is established in the zone of junction of the eastern margin of the North Asian craton and the northeastern flank of the Kolyma-Omolon microcontinent, in the area of bend of the Kolyma structural loop. Detailed structural studies revealed two phases in the formation of Mesozoic structures – an early thrust phase and a late strike-slip phase. Structures formed during each of the phases are described. Thrust structures are represented...

  9. Paleoproterozoic Cordilleran-style accretion along the south eastern margin of the eastern Dharwar craton: Evidence from the Vinjamuru arc terrane of the Krishna orogen, India

    Chatterjee, Chiranjeeb; Vadlamani, Ravikant; Kaptan, Om Prakash


    Accretion along continental or island arcs at cratonic margins was responsible for most Paleoproterozoic crustal growth. For the development of the Krishna orogen, India, at the southeastern margin of the Eastern Dharwar craton (EDC), two contrasting models, one by long-lived accretion between ~ 1.85 Ga and 1.33 Ga terminating in continental collision with the Napier Complex and the other involving continental collision with the Napier Complex at ~ 1.6 Ga have been proposed. Here we report the geology and geochemistry of the granitoid rocks grouping them into the Vinjamuru arc terrane. These comprise biotite ± hornblende high-silica granite which are mostly calc-alkaline, weakly metaluminous to peraluminous with normalized trace and rare earth element plots resembling those derived from arc sources as seen by negative Nb, Ti, Zr anomalies, enriched LREE and moderate Eu anomalies. On (La/Yb)CN vs YbCN and Sr/Y vs Y discrimination diagrams these rocks plot in the field of liquids from mantle-derived melts resembling Cordilleran type granitoids. Petrography, major oxide and trace element concentrations suggest formation in an arc tectonic setting during convergent tectonics at the active continental margin of the EDC with evidence for crustal assimilation. To generate the observed high-silica granite, using selected trace and REE, we modeled 10% aggregate continuous melting of a lower crustal hydrous, high K2O-bearing gabbro yielding a granodiorite magma that underwent fractional crystallization at mid-to lower crust followed by mixing with country rock tonalite and minor assimilation with metasedimentary crustal rocks resulting in the observed heterogeneity in trace elements from the granite. We interpret Paleoproterozoic paleopostions of component Indian cratons leading to their Mesoproterozoic assembly and in that context relate the crustal growth along the southeastern margin of the EDC. In contrast to the existing two models, we propose an alternative

  10. U-Pb zircon ages and geochemistry of the Wuguan complex in the Qinling orogen, central China: Implications for the late Paleozoic tectonic evolution between the Sino-Korean and Yangtze cratons

    Chen, Longyao; Liu, Xiaochun; Qu, Wei; Hu, Juan


    The tectonic evolution of the Qinling orogen, central China, is the key to understanding the assembly of the Sino-Korean and Yangtze cratons. The Wuguan complex, between the early Paleozoic North Qinling and Mesozoic South Qinling tectonic belts, can provide important constraints on the late Paleozoic evolutionary processes in the Qinling orogen. U-Pb zircon analyses, using laser ablation-multicollector-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry, reveal protolith ages of 446 ± 2 Ma for a garnet amphibolite, 368 ± 3 Ma for a meta-andesite, and 351 ± 2 Ma for a mylonitized granitic dike from the Wuguan complex. Elemental geochemistry indicates typical island arc affinities for all the above rocks, but some amphibolites of unknown age have E-MORB signatures. Detrital zircons from a metaquartzite have an age spectrum with a major peak at 462 Ma, two subordinate peaks at 828 and 446 Ma, and a youngest weighted mean age of 423 ± 5 Ma. This suggests that at least some of metasedimentary rocks from the Wuguan complex belong to the part of the Devonian turbidite sequence of the Liuling Group, which was deposited in a fore-arc basin along the southern accreted margin of the Sino-Korean craton, whereas the late Ordovician precursors of the amphibolite might be derived from the Danfeng Group. The occurrence of late Devonian-early Carboniferous arc-related rocks in the Wuguan complex implies penecontemporaneous oceanic subduction, and therefore the Paleo-Qinling Ocean was not finally closed until the early Carboniferous. On the other hand, metamorphic zircon grains from two amphibolites yielded ages of 321 ± 2 and 318 ± 3 Ma. Hence, the Wuguan complex in the Qinling orogen and the Guishan complex in the Tongbai orogen constitute a medium-pressure Carboniferous metamorphic belt that is more than 500 km long, and which was formed in the hanging wall of a subduction zone.

  11. Geochemical and Sm–Nd isotopic study of titanite from granitoid rocks of the eastern Dharwar craton, southern India

    R Anand; S Balakrishnan


    Titanite occurs as an accessory phase in a variety of igneous rocks, and is known to concentrate geologically important elements such as U, Th, rare earth element (REE), Y and Nb. The differences in the abundances of the REEs contained in titanite from granitoid rocks could reflect its response to changes in petrogenetic variables such as temperature of crystallization, pressure, composition, etc. Widespread migmatization in the granodiorite gneisses occurring to the east of Kolar and Ramagiri schist belts of the eastern Dharwar craton resulted in the enrichment of the REEs in titanite relative to their respective host rocks. A compositional influence on the partitioning of REEs between titanite and the host rock/magma is also noticed. The relative enrichment of REEs in titanite from quartz monzodiorite is lower than that found in the granodioritic gneiss. Depletion of REE and HFSE (high field-strength elements) abundances in granitic magmas that have equilibrated with titanite during fractional crystallization or partial melting has been modelled. As little as 1% of titanite present in residual phases during partial melting or in residual melts during fractional crystallization can significantly lower the abundances of trace elements such as Nb, Y, Zr and REE which implies the significance of this accessory mineral as a controlling factor in trace element distribution in granitoid rocks. Sm–Nd isotope studies on titanite, hornblende and whole rock yield isochron ages comparable to the precise U–Pb titanite ages, invoking the usefulness of Sm–Nd isochron ages involving minerals like titanite.

  12. Late Archaean mantle metasomatism below eastern Indian craton: Evidence from trace elements, REE geochemistry and Sr-Nd-O isotope systematics of ultramafic dykes

    Abhijit Roy; A Sarkar; S Jeyakumar; S K Aggrawal; M Ebihara; H Satoh


    Trace, rare earth elements (REE), Rb-Sr, Sm-Nd and O isotope studies have been carried out on ultramafic (harzburgite and lherzolite) dykes belonging to the newer dolerite dyke swarms of eastern Indian craton. The dyke swarms were earlier considered to be the youngest mafic magmatic activity in this region having ages not older than middle to late Proterozoic. The study indicates that the ultramafic members of these swarms are in fact of late Archaean age (Rb-Sr isochron age 2613 ± 177 Ma, Sri ∼0.702 ± 0.004) which attests that out of all the cratonic blocks of India, eastern Indian craton experienced earliest stabilization event. Primitive mantle normalized trace element plots of these dykes display enrichment in large ion lithophile elements (LILE), pronounced Ba, Nb and Sr depletions but very high concentrations of Cr and Ni. Chondrite normalised REE plots exhibit light REE (LREE) enrichment with nearly flat heavy REE (HREE; ( HREE)N ∼ 2-3 times chondrite, (Gd/Yb)N∼1). The Nd(t) values vary from +1.23 to −3.27 whereas 18O values vary from +3.16‰ to +5.29‰ (average +3.97‰ ± 0.75‰) which is lighter than the average mantle value. Isotopic, trace and REE data together indicate that during 2.6 Ga the nearly primitive mantle below the eastern Indian Craton was metasomatised by the fluid (±silicate melt) coming out from the subducting early crust resulting in LILE and LREE enriched, Nb depleted, variable Nd, low Sri(0.702) and low 18O bearing EMI type mantle. Magmatic blobs of this metasomatised mantle were subsequently emplaced in deeper levels of the granitic crust which possibly originated due to the same thermal pulse.

  13. Petrogenesis of the middle Jurassic appinite and coeval granitoids in the Eastern Hebei area of North China Craton

    Fan, Wenbo; Jiang, Neng; Xu, Xiyang; Hu, Jun; Zong, Keqing


    An integrated study of zircon U-Pb ages and Hf-O isotopic compositions, whole rock elemental and Sr-Nd isotope geochemistry was conducted on three lithologically diverse middle Jurassic plutons from the Eastern Hebei area of the North China Craton (NCC), in order to reveal both their petrogenesis and possible tectonic affinity. The three plutons have consistent magmatic zircon U-Pb ages from 167 ± 1 Ma to 173 ± 1 Ma. The Nianziyu pluton has typical characteristics of appinite with low SiO2 (43.7-52.6%), high Ca, Mg, Fe and H2O contents. It possesses subduction-related trace element patterns, enriched Nd-Hf isotopic signatures as well as elevated zircon δ18O values (6.2-7.2‰), arguing for an enriched mantle source metasomatized by fluids related to subduction. The Shuihutong monzogranites have high silica (SiO2 = 75.4-75.9%) and alkali contents, low Ca contents and striking negative Ba, Sr and Eu anomalies. Samples from the pluton have more evolved Nd-Hf isotopic values and are considered to be most likely derived from anatexis of ancient lower continental crust. Hybridization between mantle- and ancient lower crust-derived magmas is proposed for the mafic microgranular enclave-bearing Baijiadian granitoids, which are characterized by variable εNd (t) and εHf(t) values. Integrated with the regional geologic history, we suggest that the formation of the three middle Jurassic plutons were related to the subduction of the Paleo-Pacific ocean plate beneath the NCC. Their petrogenetic differences reflect complex magmatic processes in subduction settings involving melting of multiple sources, possible partly facilitated by fluid metasomatism and water-rich magma injection, accompanied with various degrees of magma mixing. The appearance of middle Jurassic appinitic rocks leads us to propose that the NCC destruction and lithosphere thinning were facilitated and controlled by the weakening of the lithospheric mantle after hydration because of the subduction of the

  14. Spectral characteristics of banded iron formations in Singhbhum craton, eastern India: Implications for hematite deposits on Mars

    Mahima Singh


    Full Text Available Banded iron formations (BIFs are major rock units having hematite layers intermittent with silica rich layers and formed by sedimentary processes during late Archean to mid Proterozoic time. In terrestrial environment, hematite deposits are mainly found associated with banded iron formations. The BIFs in Lake Superior (Canada and Carajas (Brazil have been studied by planetary scientists to trace the evolution of hematite deposits on Mars. Hematite deposits are extensively identified in Meridiani region on Mars. Many hypotheses have been proposed to decipher the mechanism for the formation of these deposits. On the basis of geomorphological and mineralogical studies, aqueous environment of deposition is found to be the most supportive mechanism for its secondary iron rich deposits. In the present study, we examined the spectral characteristics of banded iron formations of Joda and Daitari located in Singhbhum craton in eastern India to check its potentiality as an analog to the aqueous/marine environment on Mars. The prominent banding feature of banded iron formations is in the range of few millimeters to few centimeters in thickness. Fe rich bands are darker (gray in color compared to the light reddish jaspilitic chert bands. Thin quartz veins (<4 mm are occasionally observed in the hand-specimens of banded iron formations. Spectral investigations have been conducted in VIS/NIR region of electromagnetic spectrum in the laboratory conditions. Optimum absorption bands identified include 0.65, 0.86, 1.4 and 1.9 μm, in which 0.56 and 0.86 μm absorption bands are due to ferric iron and 1.4 and 1.9 μm bands are due to OH/H2O. To validate the mineralogical results obtained from VIS/NIR spectral radiometry, laser Raman and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopic techniques were utilized and the results were found to be similar. Goethite-hematite association in banded iron formation in Singhbhum craton suggests dehydration activity, which has

  15. Spectral characteristics of banded iron formations in Singhbhum craton, eastern India:Implications for hematite deposits on Mars

    Mahima Singh; Jayant Singhal; K. Arun Prasad; V.J. Rajesh; Dwijesh Ray; Priyadarshi Sahoo


    Banded iron formations (BIFs) are major rock units having hematite layers intermittent with silica rich layers and formed by sedimentary processes during late Archean to mid Proterozoic time. In terrestrial environment, hematite deposits are mainly found associated with banded iron formations. The BIFs in Lake Superior (Canada) and Carajas (Brazil) have been studied by planetary scientists to trace the evo-lution of hematite deposits on Mars. Hematite deposits are extensively identified in Meridiani region on Mars. Many hypotheses have been proposed to decipher the mechanism for the formation of these deposits. On the basis of geomorphological and mineralogical studies, aqueous environment of deposi-tion is found to be the most supportive mechanism for its secondary iron rich deposits. In the present study, we examined the spectral characteristics of banded iron formations of Joda and Daitari located in Singhbhum craton in eastern India to check its potentiality as an analog to the aqueous/marine envi-ronment on Mars. The prominent banding feature of banded iron formations is in the range of few millimeters to few centimeters in thickness. Fe rich bands are darker (gray) in color compared to the light reddish jaspilitic chert bands. Thin quartz veins (<4 mm) are occasionally observed in the hand-specimens of banded iron formations. Spectral investigations have been conducted in VIS/NIR region of electromagnetic spectrum in the laboratory conditions. Optimum absorption bands identified include 0.65, 0.86, 1.4 and 1.9 mm, in which 0.56 and 0.86 mm absorption bands are due to ferric iron and 1.4 and 1.9 mm bands are due to OH/H2O. To validate the mineralogical results obtained from VIS/NIR spectral radiometry, laser Raman and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopic techniques were utilized and the results were found to be similar. Goethite-hematite association in banded iron formation in Singhbhum craton suggests dehydration activity, which has altered the primary

  16. ArcGIS studies and field relationships of Paleoproterozoic mafic dyke swarms from the south of Devarakonda area, Eastern Dharwar Craton, southern India: Implications for their relative ages

    Amiya K Samal; Rajesh K Srivastava; Lokesh K Sinha


    Google Earth Image and cross-cutting field relationships of distinct Paleoproterozoic mafic dykes from south of Devarakonda area in the Eastern Dharwar Craton has been studied to establish relative emplacement ages. The Devarakonda, covering an area of ∼700 km2, shows spectacular cross-cutting field relationships between different generations of mafic dykes, and is therefore selected for the present study. Although some recent radiometric age data are available for distinct Paleoproterozoic mafic dykes from the Eastern Dharwar Craton, there is no analogous age data available for the study area. Therefore, relative age relationships of distinct mafic dykes have been established for the study area using cross-cutting field relationships and GIS techniques, which shows slightly different picture than other parts of the Eastern Dharwar Craton. It is suggested that NE–SW trending mafic dykes are youngest in age (probably belong to ∼1.89 Ga dyke swarm), whereas NNW–SSE trending mafic dykes have oldest emplacement age. Further, the NNW–SSE mafic dykes are older to the other two identified mafic dyke swarms, i.e., WNW–ESE (∼2.18 Ga) and N–S trending (∼2.21 Ga) mafic dyke swarms, as dykes of these two swarms cross-cut a NNW–SSE dyke. It provides an evidence for existence of a new set of mafic dykes that is older to the ∼2.21 Ga and probably younger to the ∼2.37 Ga swarm. Present study also supports existence of two mafic dyke swarms having similar trend (ENE–WSW to NE–SW) but emplaced in two different ages (one is ∼2.37 Ga and other ∼1.89 Ga).

  17. SHRIMP Zircon U-Pb Dating of Gabbro and Granite from the Huashan Ophiolite, Qinling Orogenic Belt, China: Neoproterozoic Suture on the Northern Margin of the Yangtze Craton

    SHI Yuruo; LIU Dunyi; ZHANG Zongqing; MIAO Laicheng; ZHANG Fuqin; XUE Hongmei


    The recently identified Huashan ophiolitic mélange was considered as the eastern part of the Mianliie suture in the Qinling orogenic belt. SHRIMP zircon U-Pb geochronology on gabbro from the Huashan ophiolite and granite intruding basic volcanic rocks indicates crystallization ages of 947±14Ma and 876±17 Ma respectively. These ages do not support a recently proposed Hercynian Huashan Ocean, but rather favor that a Neoproterozoic suture assemblage (ophiolite) is incorporated into the younger (Phanerozoic) Qinling orogenic belt.

  18. Tectonic setting of the Helong Block: Implications for the northern boundary of the eastern North China Craton

    ZHANG Yanbin; WU Fuyuan; ZHAI Mingguo; LU Xiaoping


    LA-ICP-MS zircon U-Pb dating indicates that the Bailiping granitic pluton was emplaced during Late Paleozoic to Early Cretaceous (285―116 Ma) by four distinct magmatic episodes, arguing against the previous thought that the Bailiping granites were emplaced during Archean, Proterozoic or Early Paleozoic. It is suggested that the so-called Archean Jinchengdong granite-greenstone belt, mainly composed of Bailiping granites, should be broken down. Sr-Nd isotopic compositions of the Bailiping granites are similar to those of the Phanerozoic granites in the Xing'an-Mongolian orogenic belt, suggesting that their parental magmas were mainly derived from a juvenile crust with some contamination of ancient crustal materials during magma rising and/or emplacement. Therefore, the basement of the Helong Block is similar to that in the northern Xing'an-Mongolian Orogenic Belt, but different from that of the North China Craton. It is proposed that the Archean Jinchengdong complex in this area is probably an exotic slice from the North China Craton, which indicates that the Fu'erhe-Gudonghe Fault, located in northern part of the Helong area, is not the boundary between the North China Craton and the Xing'an-Mongolian Orogenic Belt. The possible boundary should be located further southward more than 50 km and near the Baitoushan volcano.


    E. Yu. Goshko


    Full Text Available The article presents results of specialized processing of the deep seismic profile along a part of Reference Profile 3-DV which crosses the Aldan-Stanovoi shield in the meridian direction and goes across its buried northern slope. The study is aimed at determining frequency-energy characteristics of the seismic wave field which are related to physical conditions of geological features of the crust. Based on analysis and interpretation of the dynamic profiles, it is possible to reveal and contour the Archean cores of consolidation of the Aldan shield and its buried continuation that is covered by sediments of the Middle Lena monocline and to input new facts in the proposed geodynamic model showing formation of the crust in the south-eastern segment of the North Asian craton.

  20. Cretaceous Cu-Au, pyrite, and Fe-oxide-apatite deposits in the Ningwu basin, Lower Yangtze Area, Eastern China

    Yu, Jin-Jie; Lu, Bang-Cheng; Wang, Tie-Zhu; Che, Lin-Rui


    The Cretaceous Ningwu volcanic basin of the Middle and Lower Yangtze River Valley metallogenic belt of eastern China hosts numerous Fe-oxide-apatite, Cu-Au, and pyrite deposits. The mineralization in the Ningwu basin is associated with subvolcanic rocks, consisting of gabbro-diorite porphyry and/or pyroxene diorite. However, the mineralization is associated with subvolcanic and volcanic rock suite belonging to the Niangniangshan Formation in the Tongjing Cu-Au deposit, including nosean-bearing aegirine-augite syenites, quartz syenites, and quartz monzonites. The zoning displayed by the alteration and mineralization comprises: (1) an upper light-colored zone of argillic, carbonate, and pyrite alteration and silicification that is locally associated with pyrite and gold mineralization, (2) a central dark-colored zone of diopside, fluorapatite-magnetite, phlogopite, and garnet alteration associated with fluorapatite-magnetite mineralization, and (3) a lowermost light-colored zone of extensive albite alteration. The Cu-Au and pyrite orebodies are peripheral to the Fe-oxide-apatite deposits in this area and overlie the iron orebodies, including the Meishan Cu-Au deposit in the northern Ningwu basin and the pyrite deposits in the central Ningwu basin. The δ34S values of sulfides from the Fe-oxide-apatite, Cu-Au, and pyrite deposits in the Ningwu basin show large variation, with a mixed sulfur source, including magmatic sulfur and/or a mixture of sulfur derived from a magmatic component, country rock, and thermochemical reduction of sulfate at 200-300 °C. The ore-forming fluids associated with iron mineralization were derived mainly from magmatic fluids, and the late-stage ore-forming fluids related to Cu-Au and pyrite mineralization may have formed by the introduction of cooler meteoric water to the system. The Fe-oxide-apatite, Cu-Au, and pyrite deposits of the Ningwu basin formed in an extensional environment and are associated with a large-scale magmatic

  1. Spatial and temporal trends of reference crop evapotranspiration and its influential variables in Yangtze River Delta, eastern China

    Xu, Yu; Xu, Youpeng; Wang, Yuefeng; Wu, Lei; Li, Guang; Song, Song


    Reference crop evapotranspiration (ETo) is one of the most important links in hydrologic circulation and greatly affects regional agricultural production and water resource management. Its variation has drawn more and more attention in the context of global warming. We used the Penman-Monteith method of the Food and Agriculture Organization, based on meteorological factors such as air temperature, sunshine duration, wind speed, and relative humidity to calculate the ETo over 46 meteorological stations located in the Yangtze River Delta, eastern China, from 1957 to 2014. The spatial distributions and temporal trends in ETo were analyzed based on the modified Mann-Kendall trend test and linear regression method, while ArcGIS software was employed to produce the distribution maps. The multiple stepwise regression method was applied in the analysis of the meteorological variable time series to identify the causes of any observed trends in ETo. The results indicated that annual ETo showed an obvious spatial pattern of higher values in the north than in the south. Annual increasing trends were found at 34 meteorological stations (73.91 % of the total), which were mainly located in the southeast. Among them, 12 (26.09 % of the total) stations showed significant trends. We saw a dominance of increasing trends in the monthly ETo except for January, February, and August. The high value zone of monthly ETo appeared in the northwest from February to June, mid-south area from July to August, and southeast coastal area from September to January. The research period was divided into two stages—stage I (1957-1989) and stage II (1990-2014)—to investigate the long-term temporal ETo variation. In stage I, almost 85 % of the total stations experienced decreasing trends, while more than half of the meteorological stations showed significant increasing trends in annual ETo during stage II except in February and September. Relative humidity, wind speed, and sunshine duration were

  2. Contrasting geochemistry of the Cretaceous volcanic suites in Shandong province and its implications for the Mesozoic lower crust delamination in the eastern North China craton

    Ling, Wen-Li; Duan, Rui-Chun; Xie, Xian-Jun; Zhang, Yong-Qing; Zhang, Jun-Bo; Cheng, Jian-Ping; Liu, Xiao-Ming; Yang, Hong-Mei


    metasomatic interaction with convecting mantle peridotite, which thus resulted in the low-Mg and high-Mg andesitic suites. Nd-Sr isotopic and HFSE features imply that the convecting mantle was mixed with the foundered lithospheric peridotite, which previously experienced subduction-related melt metasomatism during the collision of the Yangtze-North China cratons in the early Triassic. The Qingshan volcanic suites in western Shandong are synchronous with the Tan-Lu strike-slip fault, inferring that the lower crust delamination was initially triggered by sinistral motion of the Tan-Lu fault at ~130 Ma. Due to an eastward development of regional lithospheric delamination, the Jiaozhou bimodal volcanic succession was formed owing to the regional geothermal gradient increase and lithosphere thinning. The recognition of contrasting andesitic suites in the Qingshan volcanic succession and their temporal trend provide additional evidence for lower crust delamination during the early Cretaceous in the North China craton and new constraints on its lithosphere thinning model.

  3. Hf isotopes of the 3.8 Ga zircons in eastern Hebei Province, China: Implications for early crustal evolution of the North China Craton

    WU Fuyuan; YANG Jinhui; LIU Xiaoming; LI Tiesheng; XIE Liewen; YANG Yueheng


    Zircon U-Pb dating indicates that the fuchsite quartzite in eastern Hebei Province was derived from weathering and erosion of the 3.6-3.8 Ga granitic rocks. In-situ zircon Hf analyses show that the Lu-Hf isotopic system remained closed during later thermal disturbances. Zircons with concordant ages have Hf isotopic model ages of about 3.8 Ga, suggesting a recycling of this ancient crust. The ~3.8 Ga zircons have similar Hf isotopic compositions to those of chondrite, indicating that their source rocks (granitic rocks) were derived from partial melting of the juvenile crust which originated from a mantle without significant crust-mantle differentiation. Therefore, it is proposed that there was no large-scale crustal growth before ~3.8 Ga in eastern Hebei Province. Considering zircon Hf isotopic data from other areas, it is concluded that the most ancient crust in the North China Craton probably formed at about 4.0 Ga, and the possibility to find crust older than 4.0 Ga is very limited.

  4. Comparison of mantle-derived matierals from different spatiotemporal settings: Implications for destructive and accretional processes of the North China Craton

    ZHENG JianPing


    Cratonic destruction or lithospheric thinning beneath North China makes it as one of the most ideal areas for the studying on the formation and evolution of continent. However, the mechanism, time, range and dynamic setting of the destruction, even the lithospheric status before the destruction, are contentious. The comparison among mantle xenoliths in the volcanic rocks from different captured times (e.g. Paleozoic, Mesozoic and Cenozoic) and locations (e.g. Intra-plate or its rim, the translithospheric Tanlu fault or the North-South Gravity Line), and peridotitic massifs within the Sulu-Dabie ultrahigh-pressure metamorphism belt along the southern margin of the North China Craton, indicates that (1) the cratonic lithosphere is heterogeneous in structure and composition, and contains mantle weak zones; and (2) the Mesozoic-Cenozoic lithospheric thinning process is complex, including lateral spreading of lithosphere, interaction between melt and peridotite, non-even asthenospheric erosion (huge lithospheric thinning), and the limited lithospheric accretion and thus thickening, which resulted in the final replacement of the refractory cratonic lithosphere by juvenile fertile mantle. In early Mesozoic, the integrity of the North China Craton was interrupted, even destroyed by subduction and collision of the Yangtze block. The mantle wedge of the North China Craton was also metasomatized and modified by melt/fluids revealed from the subducted Yangtze continent. Lithospheric mantle extension and tectonic intrusion of the North China Craton also occurred, accompanied by the asthenospheric upwelling that due to the detachement of the subducted Yangtze continent (orogenic root). During early Cretaceous-early Tertiary, the huge thinning of lithosphere was triggered by the upwelling asthenosphere due to the subduction of the Pacific plate. Since late Tertiary, the cooling of the upwelling asthenosphere resulted in the replacement of the mantle in existence by the newly

  5. Metamorphism of the northern Liaoning Complex: Implications for the tectonic evolution of Neoarchean basement of the Eastern Block, North China Craton

    Kam Kuen Wu


    Full Text Available As one of the areas where typical late Archean crust is exposed in the Eastern Block of the North China Craton, the northern Laioning Complex consists principally of tonalitic-trondhjemitic-granodioritic (TTG gneisses, massive granitoids and supracrustal rocks. The supracrustal rocks, named the Qingyuan Group, consist of interbedded amphibolite, hornblende granulite, biotite granulite and BIF. Petrological evidence indicates that the amphibolites experienced the early prograde (M1, peak (M2 and post-peak (M3 metamorphism. The early prograde assemblage (M1 is preserved as mineral inclusions, represented by actinotite + hornblende + plagioclase + epidote + quartz + sphene, within garnet porphyroblasts. The peak assemblage (M2 is indicated by garnet + clinopyroxene + hornblende + plagioclase + quartz + ilmenite, which occur as major mineral phases in the rock. The post-peak assemblage (M3 is characterized by the garnet + quartz symplectite. The P–T pseudosections in the NCFMASHTO system constructed by using THERMOCALC define the P–T conditions of M1, M2 and M3 at 490–550 °C/<4.5 kbar, 780–810 °C/7.65–8.40 kbar and 630–670 °C/8.15–9.40 kbar, respectively. As a result, an anticlockwise P–T path involving isobaric cooling is inferred for the metamorphic evolution of the amphibolites. Such a P–T path suggests that the late Archean metamorphism of the northern Liaoning Complex was related to the intrusion and underplating of mantle-derived magmas. The underplating of voluminous mantle-derived magmas leading to metamorphism with an anticlockwise P–T path involving isobaric cooling may have occurred in continental magmatic arc regions, above hot spots driven by mantle plumes, or in continental rift environments. A mantle plume model is favored because this model can reasonably interpret many other geological features of late Archean basement rocks from the northern Liaoning Complex in the Eastern Block of

  6. Zircon and titanite U Pb SHRIMP geochronology of Neoproterozoic felsic magmatism on the eastern border of the Rio de la Plata Craton, Uruguay

    Hartmann, Léo A.; Santos, João Orestes S.; Bossi, Jorge; Campal, Néstor; Schipilov, Alejandro; McNaughton, Neal J.


    The Neoproterozoic reactivation of the eastern border of the Rio de la Plata Craton in Uruguay has major significance in the Precambrian geology of South America because it occurred on the southernmost extension of the 4000 km long Brasiliano cycle belt. The reactivated belt is known to be mostly Neoproterozoic in age, but three major geological events are dated for the first time in this investigation by the sensitive, high-mass resolution ion microprobe (SHRIMP II). The syntectonic Rocha syenogranite intruded the Cuchilla Dionisio Terrane at 762±8 Ma, within the time span of the São Gabriel orogeny of the Brasiliano cycle. The Puntas del Santa Lucı´a monzogranite intruded the Nico Pérez Terrane at 633±8 Ma, during the Dom Feliciano orogeny, which is the main thermal peak of the Brasiliano cycle in South America. This monzogranite was metamorphosed at 607±7 Ma. The Cerro Aguirre dacite, a volcanic rock from the Piriápolis foreland basin, crystallized at 571±8 Ma during one of the latest events of the Brasiliano cycle. Inherited zircon cores from the Rocha syenogranite yielded ages near 2.0 Ga, a possible indication of Paleoproterozoic basement in the terrane.

  7. Deep vs. shallow expressions of continental cratons: Can cratonic roots be destroyed by subduction?

    Perry-Houts, J.; Calo, M.; Eddy, C. L.; Guerri, M.; Holt, A.; Hopper, E.; Tesoniero, A.; Romanowicz, B. A.; Becker, T. W.; Wagner, L. S.


    Cratons are parts of continents that have remained tectonically quiescent over billion-year timescales. Although cratonic lithosphere has the stabilizing properties of chemical buoyancy and high viscosity, it can still be destroyed. The best known example of a missing cratonic root is beneath the eastern North China Craton (NCC). Despite strong evidence for the past existence of a craton in northern China, high heat flow, Mesozoic basin formation, extensive seismicity, and the lack of a fast seismic root imply that the deep cratonic lithosphere is missing. The mechanism for the lithospheric root loss is a source of much debate. Many mechanisms have been proposed, among them: shearing of the lithospheric root by asthenospheric flow induced by the Indo-Eurasian collision; ponding of the Pacific slab in the transition zone acting as a source of fluids that enable hydrous weakening; and thermal erosion due to the corner-flow upwelling of hot, deep material. It is generally agreed that the influence of subduction is key, both from the temporal coincidence of subduction with increased tectonomagmatic activity on the craton and from the spatial correlation of lithospheric loss adjacent to the Pacific trench. We investigate how cratons extend to depth through comparison between seismic signatures of the cratonic lithosphere in the upper mantle and surficial evidence of cratonic boundaries. We examine global and regional tomography, as well as receiver-function constraints on lithospheric thickness in the NCC. We define craton boundaries at the surface through analyses on crust and lithospheric mantle ages and kimberlite locations. We aim to identify regions where the fast cratonic root has been lost or altered beneath Archean and Proterozoic crust and in particular place constraints on the extent of the remaining cratonic root beneath North China. Given the common emphasis on the role of subduction as a driving force for the root loss beneath the eastern NCC, we focus on

  8. A Neoarchean subduction recorded by the Eastern Hebei Precambrian basement, North China Craton: Geochemical fingerprints from metavolcanic rocks of the Saheqiao-Shangying-Qinglong supracrustal belt

    Guo, Rongrong; Liu, Shuwen; Bai, Xiang; Wang, Wei


    The Saheqiao-Shangying-Qinglong supracrustal belt (SSQB) in the northern Eastern Hebei Precambrian basement (EHPB) is located in the northern margin of the Eastern Block (EB) of the North China Craton (NCC). The Shangying terrane constitutes the middle segment of the SSQB and contains primarily metamorphic volcanics and plutonic tonalitic gneisses. The metamorphic volcanics mainly consist of pyroxene plagioclase amphibolites, garnet plagioclase amphibolites, biotite plagioclase amphibole gneisses, and amphibole plagioclase gneisses. Zircon U-Pb-Lu-Hf isotopic analyses reveal that the metavolcanic rocks from the Shangying terrane crystallized at ∼2506-2613 Ma with TDM (Hf) values of ∼2541-2944 Ma. These metamorphic volcanic rocks are subdivided into four groups based on their lithological and chemical features. Group I consists chiefly of tholeiites that are characterized by slightly light rare earth element (LREE) depleted patterns and flat multi-element spider diagrams, which are similar to back-arc basin basalt (BABB)-like rocks and were derived from the partial melting of the depleted mantle. The tholeiites in Group II have slightly fractionated rare earth element (REE) patterns without Nb anomalies, exhibit an affinity to Nb-enriched basalt (NEB)-like rocks, and were produced by the partial melting of HFSE-enriched mantle peridotites. Group III is composed of slightly LREE-enriched tholeiites with negative Nb-Ta anomalies that resemble island arc tholeiites. Group IV comprises calc-alkaline basalts and andesites with highly enriched LREEs and evident Nb, Ta and Ti depletions that are geochemically similar to the products of island arcs. The island arc tholeiites and calc-alkaline basalt-andesites originated from the partial melting of sub-arc mantle peridotites that were previously metasomatized by slab-derived fluids/melts with the fractional crystallization of ferromagnesian minerals. Collectively, the BABB-like rocks, the NEBs, arc tholeiites and calc

  9. Factorial Kriging analysis and sources of heavy metals in soils of different land-use types in the Yangtze River Delta of Eastern China.

    Zhou, Jie; Feng, Ke; Li, Yinju; Zhou, Yang


    The objectives of this study are to analyse the pollution status and spatial correlation of soil heavy metals and identify natural and anthropogenic sources of these heavy metals at different spatial scales. Two hundred and twenty-four soil samples (0-20 cm) were collected and analysed for eight heavy metals (Cd, Hg, As, Cu, Pb, Cr, Zn and Ni) in soils of different land-use types in the Yangtze River Delta of Eastern China. The multivariate methods and factorial Kriging analysis were used to achieve the research objectives. The results indicated that the human and natural effects of different land-use types on the contents of soil heavy metals were different. The Cd, Hg, Cu, Pb and Zn in soils of industrial area were affected by human activities, and the pollution level of these heavy metals in this area was moderate. The Pb in soils of traffic area was affected by human activities, and eight heavy metals in soils of residential area and farmland area were affected by natural factor. The ecological risk status of eight heavy metals in soils of the whole study area was light. The heavy metals in soils showed three spatial scales (nugget effect, short range and long range). At the nugget effect and short range scales, the Cd, Hg, Cu, Pb and Zn in soils were affected by human and natural factors. At three spatial scales, the As, Cr and Ni in soils were affected by soil parent materials.

  10. Spatio-temporal characteristics of precipitation and dryness/wetness in Yangtze River Delta, eastern China, during 1960-2012

    Wang, Yuefeng; Xu, Youpeng; Lei, Chaogui; Li, Guang; Han, Longfei; Song, Song; Yang, Liu; Deng, Xiaojun


    Changes in precipitation have a large effect on human society and are a key factor in the study of the patterns of hydrological and meteorological variables. Based on daily precipitation records during 1960-2012 at 24 meteorological stations in the Yangtze River Delta (YRD), the spatial and temporal variations of six extreme precipitation indices were detected by the modified Mann-Kendall test. Then, the characteristics of dryness/wetness patterns were assessed by Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI) and principal component analysis (PCA) on a 24-month time scale. For precipitation extremes, most of the precipitation indices had increasing trends, especially the annual total precipitation in wet day (PRCPTOT), which showed a significant positive trend distributed mainly in the southern part of the YRD. In contrast, decreasing trends in consecutive dry days (CDD) were detected at most stations of the YRD, with more than 20% of the stations having negative trends that were statistically significant. Additionally, three dominant geographic sub-regions of dryness/wetness pattern were identified in YRD: the central and southern, northeastern, and northwestern areas of the YRD. With respect to temporal variations of dryness/wetness conditions in each sub-region, a long-term wet tendency in the central and southern area was characterized as being stronger than the tendency in other parts of the YRD over the past 53 years, which indicates that flood disaster may become increasingly serious in the area. Furthermore, a 4 to 8-year period of variation was observed for each sub-region. The results of this study suggest that adaptive water resource measures for future water resource management and water-related disaster reduction mitigation should be considered separately for these regions in the YRD.

  11. Geochronology and geochemistry of gneissic metagranites in eastern Dabie Mountains:Implications for the Neoproterozoic tectono-magmatism along the northeastern margin of the Yangtze Block


    The gneissic metagranites with Neoproterozoic protolith ages are widely exposed along the eastern margin of the Dabie ultra-high-pressure(UHP) metamorphic belt.In this paper,five representative plutons,including Huangzhen,Daba,Shima,Shuanghe,and Sanzusi,were selected for a detailed chronological and geochemical study aiming to identify the nature of the protoliths and to reveal their implications for the Neoproterozoic tectono-magmatic evolution along the northeastern margin of the Yangtze Block.These gneissic metagranites consist mainly of quartz,albite(oligoclase) and K-feldspar,and minor amphibole and biotite,as well as some metamorphic minerals due to the UHP metamorphism,such as phengite,epidote and minor kyanite and garnet.Mafic alkaline minerals(e.g.,aegirine or aegirine-augite) have been observed in some of these plutons.Zircon LA-ICP-MS U-Pb dating results indicate that the protoliths of the gneissic metagranites have been generated in Mid-Neoproterozoic(770-780 Ma),and suffered both ultrahigh-pressure metamorphism in Early Mesozoic and subsequently high-pressure eclogite-facies recrystallization at about 215 Ma.Although the gneissic metagranites generally have high SiO2 contents(70.23%-77.23%) and show metaluminous-weakly peraluminous signatures(ASI=0.90-1.05),there are still some geochemical variances between different plutons.Compared with the Sanzusi pluton,the metagranites from the Huangzhen,Daba,Shima,and Shuanghe have high K2O+Na2O contents(7.76%-9.45%),FeOtotal/(FeOtotal+MgO) ratios(0.82-0.96),HFSEs and Ga concentrations with an average 104×Ga/Al ratio up to 3.07.Combined with the features that the four plutons commonly contain aegirine-augite and have high zircon saturation temperatures(816-918°C),it is suggested that their proto-liths belong to peralkaline A-type granites.The Sanzusi pluton generally contains biotite and epidote generated from metamorphic reaction of amphibole,and is chemically enriched in calcium and depleted in potassium with

  12. Early Cretaceous continental delamination in the Yangtze Block: Evidence from high-Mg adakitic intrusions along the Tanlu fault, central Eastern China

    Jia, Liqiong; Mo, Xuanxue; Santosh, M.; Yang, Zhusen; Yang, Dan; Dong, Guochen; Wang, Liang; Wang, Xinchun; Wu, Xuan


    Early Cretaceous high-Mg adakitic rocks from central Eastern China provide important insights into the thinning mechanism of the over-thickened lithosphere in the Yangtze Block (YB) as well as the North China Block (NCB). The Tanlu fault (TLF), located between the North China and Yangtze Blocks, and has been considered as a prominent pathway of magmas and fluids that resulted in lithosphere thinning of the YB during the Mesozoic-Cenozoic. Here we report the petrology, whole-rock geochemistry, zircon U-Pb geochronology, in situ Hf isotopes, and whole-rock Sr-Nd-Pb isotopes of four high-Mg adakitic intrusions along the TLF in northeastern Langdai. These adakitic intrusions consist of monzodiorite, quartz monzonite porphyry, and quartz monzodiorite. Zircon LA-MC-ICPMS analyses of five samples yield weighted mean 206Pb/238U ages of 127.58 ± 0.80, 126.90 ± 0.81, 120.71 ± 0.64, 122.75 ± 0.57, and 129.2 ± 1.1 Ma, indicating their emplacement during the Early Cretaceous. The intrusions have intermediate SiO2 (53.18-65.48 wt%) and high potassium (K2O = 3.07-3.95 wt%; Na2O/K2O = 1.02-1.26) and are classified as shoshonitic to high-K calc-alkaline series. They are characterized by high MgO (1.80-7.35 wt%), Mg# (50-65), Sr (591-1183 ppm), Ni (20.3-143.0 ppm), and Cr (51.40-390.0 ppm) contents, high (La/Yb)N (11.60-28.33) and Sr/Y (27.9-113.5) ratios, and low Y (7.79-22.4 ppm) and Yb (0.60-2.01 ppm) contents, comparable with high-Mg adakites. The samples are enriched in light rare earth elements but depleted in heavy rare earth elements and high field strength elements with slightly negative to positive Eu anomalies (δEu = 0.81-1.30), resembling the features of high-Mg adakitic rocks. Their whole-rock εNd(t) = -16.2 to -15.0, initial (87Sr/86Sr)i = 0.7060-0.7074, low radiogenic Pb (206Pb/204Pb(t) = 16.208-16.509, 207Pb/204Pb(t) = 15.331-15.410, and 208Pb/204Pb(t) = 36.551-36.992), and zircon εHf(t) = -36.6 to -16.6 suggest magma derivation from a continental crustal

  13. The lithosphere architecture and geodynamic of the Middle and Lower Yangtze metallogenic belt in eastern China: constraints from integrated geophysical data

    Lü, Qingtian; Shi, Danian; Jiang, Guoming; Dong, Shuwen


    The lithosphere structure and deep processes are keys to understanding mineral system and ore-forming processes. Lithosphere-scale process could create big footprints or signatures which can be observed by geophysics methods. SinoProbe has conducted an integrated deep exploration across middle and lower reaches of Yangtze Metallogenic Belt (YMB) in Eastern China, these included broadband seismic, reflection seismic, wide-angle reflection and magnetotellurics survey. Seismic reflection profiles and MT survey were also performed in Luzong, Tongling and Ningwu ore districts to construct 3D geological model. The resulting geophysical data provides new information which help to better understanding the lithosphere structure, geodynamic, deformation and heat and mass transportation that lead to the formation of the Metallogenic Belt. The major results are: (1) Lower velocity body at the top of upper mantle and a SE dipping high velocity body were imaged by teleseismic tomography beneath YMB; (2) Shear wave splitting results show NE parallel fast-wave polarization direction which parallel with tectonic lineament; (3) The reflection seismic data support the crustal-detachment model, the lower and upper crust was detached during contraction deformation near Tanlu fault and Ningwu volcanic basin; (4) Broadband and reflection seismic confirm the shallow Moho beneath YMB; (5) Strong correlation of lower crust reflectivity with magmatism; (6) The lower crust below Luzong Volcanics shows obvious reflective anisotropy both at the crust-mantle transition and the brittle-ductile transition in the crust. All these features suggest that introcontinental subduction, lithosphere delamination, mantle sources magmatic underplating, and MASH process are responsible for the formation of this Mesozoic metallogenic belt. Acknowledgment: We acknowledge the financial support of SinoProbe by the Ministry of Finance and Ministry of Land and Resources, P. R. China, under Grant sinoprobe-03, and

  14. Complex evolution of the lower crust beneath the southeastern North China Craton: The Junan xenoliths and xenocrysts: Comment

    Yuan, Ya-Juan; Xia, Bin


    The Junan granulite xenoliths and xenocrysts have a distinct overlap in U-Pb ages and Lu-Hf isotopic compositions with the Precambrian basement of the Yangtze craton. We thus believe that the Junan granulite cannot be derived from the North China lower crust. Moreover, broad deep seismic and magnetotelluric probing across the Sulu UHP terrane indicates the former is well coupled with the lower crust of the Yangtze craton. Therefore, we suggest that the Junan granulites are most likely to have been derived from the Yangtze Precambrian basement and their zircon U-Pb-Lu-Hf isotope systematics are more likely to indicate the complex evolution of the Precambrian lower crust along the northern margin of the Yangtze craton.

  15. Geochronology, geochemistry, and mineralization of the granodiorite porphyry hosting the Matou Cu-Mo (±W) deposit, Lower Yangtze River metallogenic belt, eastern China

    Zhu, Zhi-Yong; Jiang, Shao-Yong; Hu, Jian; Gu, Lian-Xing; Li, Jianwei


    Porphyry and skarn Cu-Fe-Au-Mo deposits are widespread in the Middle and Lower Yangtze River metallogenic belt (MLYMB), eastern China. The Matou deposit has long been regarded as a typical Cu-Mo porphyry deposit within Lower Yangtze part of the belt. Recently, we identified scheelite and wolframite in quartz veins in the Matou deposit, which is uncommon in other porphyry and skarn deposits in the MLYMB. We carried out detailed zircon U-Pb dating and geochemical and Sr-Nd-Hf isotopic studies of the granodiorite porphyry at Matou to define any differences from other ore-related granitoids. The porphyry shows a SiO2 content ranging from 61.85 wt.% to 65.74 wt.%, K2O from 1.99 wt.% to 3.74 wt.%, and MgO from 1.74 wt.% to 2.19 wt.% (Mg# value ranging from 45 to 55). It is enriched in light rare earth elements and large ion lithophile elements, but relatively depleted in Nb, Ta, Y, Yb and compatible trace elements (such as Cr, Ni, and V), with slight negative Eu anomalies (Eu/Eu* = 0.88-0.98) and almost no negative Sr anomalies. Results of electron microprobe analysis of rock-forming silicate minerals indicate that the Matou porphyry has been altered by an oxidized fluid that is rich in Mg, Cl, and K. The samples show relatively low ɛNd(t) values from -7.4 to -7.1, slightly high initial 87Sr/86Sr values from 0.708223 to 0.709088, and low ɛHf(t) values of zircon from -9.0 to -6.5, when compared with the other Cu-Mo porphyry deposits in the MLYMB. Zircon U-Pb dating suggests the Matou granodiorite porphyry was emplaced at 139.5 ± 1.5 Ma (MSWD = 1.8, n = 15), which is within the age range of the other porphyries in the MLYMB. Although geochemical characteristics of the Matou and other porphyries in the MLYMB are similar and all adakitic, the detrital zircons in the samples from Matou suggest that Archean lower crust (2543 ± 29 Ma, MSWD = 0.25, n = 5) was involved with the generation of Matou magma, which is different from the other porphyries in the belt. Our study

  16. Levels of synthetic musk fragrances in human milk from three cities in the Yangtze River Delta in Eastern China.

    Zhang, Xiaolan; Liang, Gaofeng; Zeng, Xiangying; Zhou, Jing; Sheng, Guoying; Ful, Jiamo


    Synthetic musks are used as additives in many household products. After absorption into the human body, they accumulate and their concentrations in human milk reflect both the mother and her infant's exposure level. Concentrations of four synthetic musks, musk xylene (1-tert-butyl-2,6-dimethyl-2,4,6-trinitrobenzene, MX), musk ketone (4-tert-butyl-2,6-dimethyl-3,5-dinitroacetophenone, MK), 1,3,4,6,7,8-hexahydro-4,6,6,7,8,8-hexamethylcyclopenta[gamma]-2-benzopyran (HHCB) and 7-acetyl-1,1,3,4,4,6-hexamethyl- 1,2,3,4-tetrahydronaphthalene (AHTN), were determined in human milk samples collected from Shanghai, Wuxi, and Shaoxing in Eastern China. The four synthetic musks were found in most samples analyzed, with HHCB the dominant component followed by MX. The median (mean) values for HHCB, AHTN, MX and MK concentrations were 63 (82), 5 (12), 17 (24) and 4 (9) ng/g lipid weight, respectively. These data suggested the total synthetic musk contamination was low, and the distribution percentage was HHCB > MX > AHTN approximately MK. The relative high ratio of nitro to polycylic musk indicated that nitro musks were still widely used. The musk concentrations in these cities were not significantly different from each other (p > 0.05). Principal components score plots were obtained, which showed similar exposure sources. The amount of total synthetic musks in human milk were not associated with mother's age, although HHCB was significantly correlated with AHTN (p < 0.05). Daily ingestion of HHCB, AHTN, MX and MK for infants from human milk were estimated as (2526 +/- 2926), (370 +/- 524), (7391 +/- 832), and (277 +/- 462) ng/day, respectively. Those doses were 1-2 orders of magnitude below the provisional tolerable daily intakes.

  17. Collision Event during 177-135 Ma on the Eastern Margin of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau: Evidence from 40Ar/ 39Ar Dating for Basalts on the Western Margin of the Yangtze Platform

    侯增谦; 陈文; 卢记仁


    Geochronology of continental flood basalts sampled from the Emei large igneous province (LIP) on the western margin of the Yangtze platform was investigated by the laser microprobe 40Ar/39Ar dating technique. These basalts yield a fairly wide range of 40Ar/39Ar ages, varying from 259 to 135 Ma. One basalt sample, at least altered, recorded the oldest 40Ar/39Ar age of about 259 Ma, corresponding to a peak eruption age of the Emei LIP continental flood basalts. Most of the samples yield much younger ages from 135 to 177 Ma, which are consistent with the K-Ar ages for the same samples (122.8-172.1 Ma). The dating data suggest that these Permian basalts had been widely affected by the regional tectonothermal event at 177-135 Ma. The event was probably caused by the convergence and collision among the Laurasia, Yangtze and Qiangtang-Qamdo continental blocks on the eastern margin of the Qinghai-Tibet plateau after the late Triassic. The age of the event reflects the timing of the peak collisional orogeny.

  18. The 40Ar/39Ar dating of magmatic activity in the Donbas Fold Belt and the Scythian Platform (Eastern European Craton)

    Alexandre, P.; Chalot-Prat, F.; Saintot, A.; Wijbrans, J.; Stephenson, R.; Wilson, M.; Kitchka, A.; Stovba, S.


    The Donbas Fold Belt is the compressionally deformed southeasternmost part of the intracratonic late Paleozoic Dniepr-Donets rift basin. It is situated in an intracratonic setting but close to the southern margin of the East European Craton, south of which lies the Scythian Platform. A range of igneous rocks from the Donbas Fold Belt and the Scythian Platform were dated by the 40Ar/39Ar method in order to constrain the ages of magmatic activity in these areas, and compare them. The plateau ages from the south margin of the Donbas Fold Belt vary from 151.4 +/- 4.7 Ma to 278.1 +/- 5.3 Ma, and define three main age groups: Middle-Late Jurassic, Middle-Late Triassic, and Early Permian. The age spectra obtained from the Scythian Platform samples are often disturbed as a result of limited alteration. The proposed ages (plateau and pseudoplateau) vary from 174.4 +/- 2.1 Ma to 243.7 +/- 1.4 Ma, and two major age groups are defined, in Early Carboniferous and Triassic/Jurassic times. The Early Permian (285-270 Ma) and Early Triassic (245-250 Ma) ages of magmatic activity are the same in both areas; in the Late Triassic, the ages of magmatic activity are slightly different (220 and 205 Ma), and they are entirely different thereafter. These data can be interpreted as indicating a mantle plume as common deep magmatic source.

  19. Hierarchy of sedimentary discontinuity surfaces and condensed beds from the middle Paleozoic of eastern North America: Implications for cratonic sequence stratigraphy

    McLaughlin, P.I.; Brett, Carlton E.; Wilson, M.A.


    Sedimentological analyses of middle Paleozoic epeiric sea successions in North America suggest a hierarchy of discontinuity surfaces and condensed beds of increasing complexity. Simple firmgrounds and hardgrounds, which are comparatively ephemeral features, form the base of the hierarchy. Composite hardgrounds, reworked concretions, authigenic mineral crusts and monomictic intraformational conglomerates indicate more complex histories. Polymictic intraformational conglomerates, ironstones and phosphorites form the most complex discontinuity surfaces and condensed beds. Complexity of discontinuities is closely linked to depositional environments duration of sediment starvation and degree of reworking which in turn show a relationship to stratigraphic cyclicity. A model of cratonic sequence stratigraphy is generated by combining data on the complexity and lateral distribution of discontinuities in the context of facies successions. Lowstand, early transgressive and late transgressive systems tracts are representative of sea-level rise. Early and late transgressive systems tracts are separated by the maximum starvation surface (typically a polymictic intraformational conglomerate or condensed phosphorite), deposited during the peak rate of sea-level rise. Conversely the maximum flooding surface, representing the highest stand of sea level, is marked by little to no break in sedimentation. The highstand and falling stage systems tracts are deposited during relative sea-level fall. They are separated by the forced-regression surface, a thin discontinuity surface or condensed bed developed during the most rapid rate of sea-level fall. The lowest stand of sea level is marked by the sequence boundary. In subaerially exposed areas it is occasionally modified as a rockground or composite hardground.

  20. Radiogenic and stable isotopes of mid-Miocene silicic volcanism in eastern Oregon: Evidence for variable and high Sr / low δ18O domains west of the terrane-cratonic lithosphere transition

    Jenkins, E. N.; Streck, M. J.; Ramos, F. C.; Bindeman, I. N.


    Widespread mid-Miocene rhyolite volcanism of eastern Oregon mostly coeval with flood basalts of the Columbia River Basalt Province allows for mapping crustal domains using radiogenic and stable isotopes. Rhyolites are thought to be derived in large part by partial melting of the crust and thus yield direct information on the composition of the crust. Silicic volcanism is expressed in the form of numerous domes and tuffs exposed over a wide area (~300 km in N-S dimension and ~100 km in E-W dimension) west of the craton boundary, which runs parallel but mostly east of the Oregon-Idaho state border as delineated by geophysical characteristics and isotopic transitions. Here, we mainly focus on initial 87Sr/86Sr ratios and δ18O obtained from mid-Miocene silicic volcanic centers in eastern Oregon. Our data, in combination with data from the literature, indicate variable 87Sr/86Sr mostly along longitudinal sections, yet more similar ratios in latitudinal directions. Except for rare examples on the west side, dispersion of 87Sr/86Sr ratios among both silicic and basaltic rocks occurs eastward of 118.6°W. For example, rhyolites in the Owyhee region between 117.10°W and 117.25°W retain 87Sr/86Sr ratios ranging from 0.70413 to 0.70566. The most radiogenic Sri ratio of 0.70787 in our study is obtained on a plagioclase separate from Buchanan Dome complex located near the western boundary of our study area. Feldspar separates and fresh groundmass of samples from adjacent centers yield similar 87Sr/86Sr ratios. δ18O values for feldspars range from below 2‰ to above 9‰. In addition, there is a crude trend of rhyolites having lower δ18O and more radiogenic 87Sr/86Sr ratios. With one exception, all samples with 87Sr/86Sr above 0.7050 are depleted in 18O (δ18O 6‰). The most depleted oxygen ratios (<2‰) come from rhyolites ~80 km west of the cratonic margin reflecting remelting or assimilation of hydrothermally altered crust. Yet, some compositionally similar rhyolites

  1. Protolith ages and timing of peak and retrograde metamorphism of the high-pressure granulites in the Shandong Peninsula, eastern North China Craton

    Pinghua Liu


    Full Text Available High-pressure (HP granulites widely occur as enclaves within tonalite-trondhjemite-granodiorite (TTG gneisses of the Early Precambrian metamorphic basement in the Shandong Peninsula, southeast part of the North China Craton (NCC. Based on cathodoluminescence (CL, laser Raman spectroscopy and in-situ U-Pb dating, we characterize the zircons from the HP granulites and group them into three main types: inherited (magmatic zircon, HP metamorphic zircon and retrograde zircon. The inherited zircons with clear or weakly defined magmatic zoning contain inclusions of apatites, and 207Pb/206Pb ages of 2915–2890 Ma and 2763–2510 Ma, correlating with two magmatic events in the Archaean basement. The homogeneous HP metamorphic zircons contain index minerals of high-pressure metamorphism including garnet, clinopyroxene, plagioclase, quartz, rutile and apatite, and yield 207Pb/206Pb ages between 1900 and 1850 Ma, marking the timing of peak HP granulite facies metamorphism. The retrograde zircons contain inclusions of orthopyroxene, plagioclase, quartz, apatite and amphibole, and yield the youngest 207Pb/206Pb ages of 1840–1820 Ma among the three groups, which we correlate to the medium to low-pressure granulite facies retrograde metamorphism. The data presented in this study suggest subduction of Meso- and Neoarchean magmatic protoliths to lower crust depths where they were subjected to HP granulite facies metamorphism during Palaeoproterozoic (1900–1850 Ma. Subsequently, the HP granulites were exhumated to upper crust levels, and were overprinted by medium to low-pressure granulite and amphibolite facies retrograde event at ca. 1840–820 Ma.

  2. Paleoproterozoic arc basalt-boninite-high magnesian andesite-Nb enriched basalt association from the Malangtoli volcanic suite, Singhbhum Craton, eastern India: Geochemical record for subduction initiation to arc maturation continuum

    Rajanikanta Singh, M.; Manikyamba, C.; Ganguly, Sohini; Ray, Jyotisankar; Santosh, M.; Dhanakumar Singh, Th.; Chandan Kumar, B.


    The Singhbhum Craton of eastern India preserves distinct signatures of ultramafic-mafic-intermediate-felsic magmatism of diverse geodynamic affiliations spanning from Paleo-Mesoarchean to Proterozoic. Here we investigate the 2.25 Ga Malangtoli volcanic rocks that are predominantly clinopyroxene- and plagioclase-phyric, calc-alkaline in nature, display basalt-basaltic andesite compositions, and preserve geochemical signatures of subduction zone magmatism. Major, trace and rare earth element characteristics classify the Malangtoli volcanic rocks as arc basalts, boninites, high magnesian andesites (HMA) and Nb enriched basalts (NEB). The typical LILE enriched-HFSE depleted geochemical attributes of the arc basalts corroborate a subduction-related origin. The boninitic rocks have high Mg# (0.8), MgO (>25 wt.%), Ni and Cr contents, high Al2O3/TiO2 (>20), Zr/Hf and (La/Sm)N (>1) ratios with low (Gd/Yb)N (54 wt.%), MgO (>6 wt.%), Mg# (0.47) with elevated Cr, Co, Ni and Th contents, depleted (Nb/Th)N, (Nb/La)N, high (Th/La)N and La/Yb (<9) ratio, moderate depletion in HREE and Y with low Sr/Y. The NEBs have higher Nb contents (6.3-24 ppm), lower magnitude of negative Nb anomalies with high (Nb/Th)pm = 0.28-0.59 and (Nb/La)pm = 0.40-0.69 and Nb/U = 2.8-34.4 compared to normal arc basalts [Nb = <2 ppm; (Nb/Th)pm = 0.10-1.19; (Nb/La)pm 0.17-0.99 and Nb/U = 2.2-44 respectively] and HMA. Arc basalts and boninites are interpreted to be the products of juvenile subduction processes involving shallow level partial melting of mantle wedge under hydrous conditions triggered by slab-dehydrated fluid flux. The HMA resulted through partial melting of mantle wedge metasomatized by slab-dehydrated fluids and sediments during the intermediate stage of subduction. Slab-melting and mantle wedge hybridization processes at matured stages of subduction account for the generation of NEB. Thus, the arc basalt-boninite-HMA-NEB association from Malangtoli volcanic suite in Singhbhum Craton

  3. Genesis of the Datuanshan stratabound skarn Cu(-Mo) deposit, Middle-Lower Yangtze Valley, Eastern China: constraints from geology, Re-Os geochronology, mineralogy, and sulfur isotopes

    Cao, Yi; Gao, Fuping; Du, Yangsong; Du, Yilun; Pang, Zhenshan


    Stratabound deposits are the most abundant and economically significant ore type in the Middle-Lower Yangtze River Valley, one of the most important metallogenic belts in China. The Datuanshan deposit is one of the largest and most representative stratabound Cu(-Mo) deposits in the Tongling district of the Middle-Lower Yangtze River metallogenic belt. All the orebodies of the Datuanshan deposit occur around Mesozoic quartz monzodiorite and are tabular or semi-tabular bodies along bedding-parallel faults within upper Permian to Lower Triassic strata. However, discordant and crosscutting relationships (e.g., the host rocks crosscut by skarn- and quartz-sulfide veins, with alteration halos around the veins) have also been found, especially along the skarn-host contact and orebody-host contact, indicating that skarnitization and mineralization postdated the deposition of the host sediments. The skarn consists mainly of prograde garnet and pyroxene and retrograde alteration assemblages of amphibole, epidote, and chlorite, as well as quartz and sulfides. Electron microprobe analyses show that the garnets and pyroxenes are grossular-andradite and hedenbergite-diopside series, respectively, and all samples plot in the field of typical skarn copper deposits worldwide. Molybdenite samples from stratiform copper ores yield Re-Os model ages of 138.2-139.9 Ma with a weighted mean age of 139.2 ± 0.9 Ma. This is reasonably consistent with the ages of the stratiform Mo ores (138.0-140.8 Ma) and genetically related quartz monzodiorite (135.2-139.3 Ma) in the Datuanshan deposit, indicating that the stratiform Cu and Mo mineralization was contemporaneous with emplacement of the quartz monzodiorite magmas in the Early Cretaceous. Fifteen δ34S values for sulfides range from -1.8 to +4.7 ‰, with a mean of 0.5 ‰, indicating that the sulfur was derived mainly from a magmatic source. Moreover, the sulfur isotope values of the ores are consistent with those of Mesozoic intermediate

  4. Major tectonic units of the North China Craton and their Paleoproterozoic assembly


    The basement of the North China Craton can be divided into the Eastern and Western Blocks and the Central Zone (Trans-North China Orogen). The West Block formed by the amalgamation of the Ordos Block in the south and the Yinshan Block in the north 1.9-2.0 Ga ago. In 1.8-1.9 Ga, the Eastern and Western Blocks were amalgamated along the Central Zone to form the North China Craton.

  5. Extraction of the vegetation fraction based on a stepwise spectral mixture analysis for the central and eastern area of source region of Yangtze, Yellow and Lantsang Rivers

    Li, Xiaoxue; An, Ru; Qu, Chunmei; Yang, Renmin; Gong, Tianyu; Wu, Hong; Lu, Ling; Liu, Yingying; Liang, Xin


    Vegetation cover is an important parameter used in monitoring ecological changes of the source region of Yangtze, Yellow and Lantsang Rivers and understanding human activities. Thus, how to extract the large area's vegetation fraction quickly effectively is an open question. The traditional linear spectral mixture analysis (LSMA) assumes that the spectral reflectance is a mixture of several fixed endmember spectral values, which ignores considerable within-class variability. However, multiple endmember spectral mixture analysis (MESMA) overcomes the disadvantage by allowing the number and types to vary on a per-pixel basis. This paper proposes a stepwise spectral mixture analysis (SSMA) containing two steps of MESMA and adding the endmember fraction rationality rule in each step. The aim of the first step is to detect the pixels that didn't contain vegetation information at all and these pixels would be masked out. In the second step, MESMA is used to unmix the pixels only reserved in previous process. The results show that SSMA is more accurate than LSMA in extracting the vegetation fraction for the Three-Rivers. This means that SSMA is a good substitute for LSMA in studies on ecological changes. The concept of SSMA also can be applied for other large study areas.

  6. Temporal and spatial distribution, sources, and potential health risks of ambient polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the Yangtze River Delta (YRD) of eastern China.

    Niu, Shan; Dong, Liang; Zhang, Lifei; Zhu, Chaofei; Hai, Reti; Huang, Yeru


    In this study, from July 2011 to June 2012, 31 sampling sites were identified in order to investigate the concentrations and sources of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), as well as to evaluate their potential health risks in the cities of Suzhou, Wuxi, and Nantong, which are located in the Yangtze River Delta (YRD). The samples were collected by means of passive air sampling (PAS), and the contents of 15 PAHs were detected by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The ∑15PAHs concentrations were found to range from 6.48 to 154 ng m(-3), with an average value of 56.8 ± 14.8 ng m(-3). The pollution levels in Suzhou and Nantong were higher than those in Wuxi. Furthermore, the concentrations of the PAHs in the urban sites were determined to be higher than those in the suburban sites for ambient air. The seasonal average contents were found to be at a maximum in autumn, with concentrations reaching 74.1 ng m(-3). Vehicle emissions and coal/biomass combustion were the dominant sources of the PAHs in the ambient air, with the contributions of 48% and 46%, respectively. The BaP TEQ (0.88 ng m(-3)) was found to have surpassed the Chinese and Japanese dioxin emission limit, and in doing so, may have caused a certain degree of risk to human health. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Petrogenesis of Late Mesozoic granitoids and coeval mafic rocks from the Jiurui district in the Middle-Lower Yangtze metallogenic belt of Eastern China: Geochemical and Sr-Nd-Pb-Hf isotopic evidence

    Xu, Yao-Ming; Jiang, Shao-Yong; Zhu, Zhi-Yong; Yang, Shui-Yuan; Zhou, Wei


    Large-scale Cu-Au mineralization is associated with the Late Mesozoic granitoids in the Jiurui district of the Middle-Lower Yangtze Mineralization Belt in Eastern China. To constrain the petrogenesis of these granitoids and coeval mafic rocks, a detailed geochemical and Sr-Nd-Pb-Hf isotopic study was performed. The Jiurui granitoids are made up primarily of granodiorite porphyry and quartz diorite porphyry. These granitoids are characterized by SiO2 and K2O contents of 58.8 wt.% to 68.6 wt.% and 1.9 wt.% to 5.7 wt.%, respectively. These granitoids show relatively high MgO contents (1.0 wt.% to 3.1 wt.%, average 2.1 wt.%) and high Mg# values (39 to 70, average 54). The Jiurui granitoids are enriched in light rare earth elements (LREE), large ion lithophile elements (LILE), and compatible trace elements (Cr, Ni and V) but are relatively depleted in Nb, Ta, Y and Yb. These rocks show a negligible negative Eu anomaly (Eu/Eu* = 0.76-1.13, average 0.91) and nearly no negative Sr anomaly. The whole-rock initial 87Sr/86Sr ratios range from 0.7060 to 0.7092, and the ɛNd(t) values vary from - 5.4 to - 2.0. The granitoids show radiogenic Pb isotopic ratios with values of 206Pb/204Pb (17.93-18.21), 207Pb/204Pb (15.55-15.58), and 208Pb/204Pb (38.16-38.56) for the plagioclases. The zircon Hf isotopic compositions show ɛHf(t) values from - 11.8 to 2.4. The coeval mafic rocks consist of lamprophyre, diabase and fine-grained mafic dyke. These rocks are characterized by SiO2 contents ranging from 47.6 wt.% to 54.8 wt.%, with a negative Eu anomaly and a positive to negative Sr anomaly. The whole-rock initial 87Sr/86Sr ratios range from 0.7059 to 0.7071, and the ɛNd(t) values vary from - 3.8 to - 1.4. By comparing the geochemical and isotopic compositions of the Jiurui granitoids and the coeval mafic rocks, we conclude that the granitoids are similar to adakites that were likely related to the delamination processes, and the coeval mafic rocks may have originated directly from

  8. Taizhou Yangtze River Bridge


    Taizhou Bridge lies between Taizhou, Zhenjiang and Changzhou City in Jiangsu Province. The total length of Taizhou Bridge is 62.088 kin. The whole line is designed by freeway codes with six lanes in two directions. The wholeinvestment is 9.37 billion RMB and the planned construction duration is 5.5 years. The main bridge crossing the Yangtze River is a continuous three-pylon two-span suspension bridge with the main span of 1 080 m. The bridge system is realized for the first time and ranks first in the world until now.

  9. The Yangtze-Project

    Subklew, Günter; Ulrich, Julia; Fürst, Leander; Höltkemeier, Agnes


    As an important element in Chinese politics for the development of the Western parts of the country, a large hydraulic engineering project - the Three Gorges Dam - has been set up in order to dam the Yangtze River for a length of over 600 km with an average width of about 1,100 m. It is expected that this results in ecological, technical and social problems of a magnitude hardly dealt with before. With this gigantic project, the national executive is pursuing the aims of - preventing flooding - safeguarding the water supply - encouraging navigation and - generating electric energy. In future, fluctuations of the water level of up to 30 metres will be deliberately applied in the dammed-up section of the river while retaining the flow character of the seasonal variation. The pollution of the Yangtze with a wide range of problem substances is frequently underestimated since in many cases attention is only paid to the low measured concentrations. However, the large volumes of water lead to appreciable loads and thus the danger of an accumulation of pollutants even reaching the human food chain. It should also not be forgotten that the Yangtze represents the major, and in some cases indeed the only, source of drinking and domestic water for the population. A consideration of the water level in the impoundment that will in future arise from management of the reservoir reveals the dramatic change in contrast to the natural inundation regime. In the past, the flood events on the banks of the Yangtze and its tributaries occurred in the summer months. The plants in the riparian zone (water fluctuation zone = WFZ) were previously inundated during the warmer time of year (28 ° July/August) and the terrestrial phase of the WFZ was characterized by cool temperatures (3-5 °C January) that permitted little plant activity. In future, the highest water levels will occur in winter above the dam on the Yangtze and also on the tributaries flowing into it. The plants in the WFZ will

  10. Crustal and upper mantle structure of the Slave craton from P- and S- Receiver Functions

    Barantseva, Olga; Vinnik, Lev; Artemieva, Irina


    Teleseismic events recorded by POLARIS array in NW Canada (Slave craton) and Yellowknife station were used to calculate a sufficient number of receiver functions for P (PRF) and S (SRF) waves. Velocity (Vp and Vs) and Vp/Vs profiles from the Earth's surface down to 300 km are obtained through the simultaneous inversion of PRF and SRF with teleseismic travel time residuals for the crust and upper mantle. We observe highly heterogeneous structure of the cratonic upper mantle. The Lehman discontinuity (the bottom of the low velocity zone) is found in the western Slave craton, whereas it is not observed in the eastern part of the Slave craton. At stations located in the southern part of the craton, we observe an increase of S-wave velocities (as compared to IASP91 values) at the depths 45-150 km which is typical for depleted cratonic mantle. Low Vp/Vs ratio, obtained for the uppermost mantle (1.65-1.70) can be explained by a high fraction of Opx. A comparison of our results with available xenoliths data shows a good agreement between seismic velocity change at a depth of ca. 160 km and a decrease in mantle depletion at about the same depth.

  11. Geochemistry of Gneisses from Dabie Complex and Tongbai Complex in Qinling-Tongbai-Dabie Orogenic Belt: Implications for Location of Yangtze-Sino-Korean Suture


    The Dabie complex (DC) and the Tongbai complex (TBC) are separately distributed in the middle and eastern parts of the Qinling-Tongbai-Dabie orogenic belt. In this study, the Dabie complex can be divided into two units: one is the complex with no high pressure and ultrahigh pressure metamorphic rocks (DC1), and the other is the complex containing coesite-bearing eclogite lenses or boudins (DC2). Gneisses are predominant in the TBC, DC1 and DC2. Major and trace element data of gneisses in the TBC, DC1 and DC2 show them to be the orthogneisses. The gneisses in the DC1 have higher incompatible element contents and higher ratios of w(K2O)/w(Na2O) and w(La)n/w(Yb)n than those in the DC2. However, no obvious differences arise in other element contents and the ratios of w(La)/w( Nb), w(Nb)/w(Th), w(Nb)/w(Hf), w(Ba)/w(La), w(Sm)/w(Nd) and w(Th)/w(U) between the gneisses in the DC2 and those in the DC1. These observations suggest that the protoliths of the gneisses in the DC2 have affinities to those in the DC1. The difference between the DC1 and DC2 gneisses in incompat- ible element contents could reflect the difference in their partial melting extent. The TBC gneisses are geochemically similar to the DC1 gneisses, suggesting that the TBC and DC1 gneisses are the same lithologic unit in the Qinling-Tongbai-Dabie orogenic belt and that they have experienced similar formations and evolution histories. In the Qinling-Tongbai area, the TBC is part of the northern blocks of the Yangtze craton. Given the similarity of geochemical characteristics, the rock assemblage and the ages between the TBC and DC1 gneisses, we can infer that the Dabie complex also belongs to the northern blocks of the Yangtze craton. In terms of the distribution of eciogites and metamorphic facies, we propose that the collisionai suture in the Dabie area is distributed along the Xiaotian-Mozitan fault, at the contact with the Shang-Dan-Tongbai fault to the west.

  12. Metasomatism and the Weakening of Cratons: A Mechanism to Rift Cratons

    Wenker, Stefanie; Beaumont, Christopher


    The preservation of cratons is a demonstration of their strength and resistance to deformation. However, several cratons are rifting now (e.g. Tanzania and North China Craton) or have rifted in the past (e.g. North Atlantic Craton). To explain this paradox, we suggest that widespread metasomatism of the originally cold depleted dehydrated craton mantle lithosphere root can act as a potential weakening mechanism. This process, particularly melt metasomatism, increases root density through a melt-peridotite reaction, and reduces root viscosity by increasing the temperature and rehydrating the cratonic mantle lithosphere. Using 2D numerical models, we model silicate-melt metasomatism and rehydration of cold cratonic mantle lithosphere that is positioned beside standard Phanerozoic lithosphere. The models are designed to investigate when a craton is sufficiently weakened to undergo rifting and is no longer protected by the initially weaker adjacent standard Phanerozoic lithosphere. Melt is added to specified layers in the cratonic mantle lithosphere at a uniform volumetric rate determined by the duration of metasomatism (3 Myr, 10 Myr or 30 Myr), until a total of ~30% by volume of melt has been added. During melt addition heat and mass are properly conserved and the density and volume increase by the respective amounts required by the reaction with the peridotite. No extensional boundary conditions are applied to the models during the metasomatism process. As expected, significant refertilization leads to removal and thinning of progressively more gravitationally unstable cratonic mantle lithosphere. We show that the duration of metasomatism dictates the final temperature in the cratonic upper mantle lithosphere. Consequently, when extensional boundary conditions are applied in our rifting tests in most cases the Phanerozoic lithosphere rifts. The craton rifts only in the models with the hottest cratonic upper mantle lithosphere. Our results indicate rifting of cratons


    Klaus Fraedrich; Xiuhua Zhu


    We present a review on studies focusing on memories in hydrological time series in the Yangtze Basin based on observational and reconstructed historical data.Memory appears as scaling of power spectra,S(f)~f-β,with 0 <β≤ 1.The presence of scaling is noteworthy in daily river discharge time series:1)from weeks to a couple of years,power spectra follow flicker noise,that is β≈ 1;2)beyond years,spectral scaling appraaclTes β≈0.3.In historical time series of floods and draughts,power spectra also shows scaling with β≈ 0.38 ~0.52.Furthermore,a 70-year peak is detected in historical maritime events series,which also appears in other past climate indicators.Presence of memory in these hydrological time series implies clustering of extremes and scaling of their recurrence times,therefore,probabilistic forecast potential for extremes can be derived.On the other hand,although several physical processes,for example,soil moisture storage and high intermittency of precipitation,have been suggested to be the possible candidates contributing to the presence of long term memory,they remain open for future research.

  14. Kanfenggou UHP Metamorphic Fragment in Eastern Qinling Orogen and Its Relationship to Dabie-Sulu UHP and HP Metamorphic Belts, Central China

    Suo Shutian; Zhong Zengqiu; Zhou Hanwen; You Zhendong


    In the Central Orogenic Belt, China, two UHP metamorphic belts are discriminated mainly based on a detailed structural analysis of the Kanfenggou UHP metamorphic fragment exposed in the eastern Qinling orogen, and together with previous regional structural, petrological and geochronological data at the scale of the orogenic domain. The first one corresponds to the South Altun-North QaidamNorth Qinling UHP metamorphic belt. The other is the Dabie-Sulu UHP and HP metamorphic belts. The two UHP metamorphic belts are separated by a series of tectonic slices composed by the Qinling rock group, Danfeng rock group and Liuling or Foziling rock group etc. respectively, and are different in age of the peak UHP metamorphism and geodynamic implications for continental deep subduction and collision. Regional field and petrological relationships suggest that the Kanfenggou UHP metamorphic fragment that contains a large volume of the coesite- and microdiamond-bearing eclogite lenses is compatible with the structures recognized in the South Altun and North Qaidam UHP metamorphic fragments exposed in the western part of China, thereby forming a large UHP metamorphic belt up to 1 000 km long along the orogen strike. This UHP metamorphic belt represents an intercontinental deep subduction and collision belt between the Yangtze and Sino-Korean cratons, occurred during the Paleozoic. On the other hand, the well-constrained Dabie-Sulu UHP and HP metamorphic belts occurred mainly during Triassic time (250-220 Ma), and were produced by the intrucontinental deep subduction and collision within the Yangtze craton. The Kanfenggou UHP metamorphic fragment does not appear to link with the Dabie-Sulu UHP and HP metamorphic belts along the orogen. There is no reason to assume the two UHP metamorphic belts us a single giant deep subduction and collision zone in the Central Orogenic Belt situated between the Yangtze and Sino-Korean cratons. Therefore, any dynamic model for the orogen must account

  15. Towards a Holistic Model for the Tectonic Evolution of the North China Craton

    Kusky, T. M.; Polat, A.; Windley, B. F.; Wang, J.; Deng, H.


    The North China Craton (NCC) consists of distinctly different tectonic elements assembled during the late Archean - early Proterozoic. We propose a new tectonic evolution of the NCC. The Eastern Block (EB) consists of small microblocks that resemble a collage of accreted arc-rocks from a sutured archipelago similar to the SW Pacific, accreted between 2.6 and 2.7 Ga. An Atlantic-type margin developed on the western side of the EB by 2.5 Ga, and a >1,300 km long arc/accretionary prism collided with this passive margin at 2.5 Ga, obducting ophiolites and ophiolitic mélanges, and forming a foreland basin. This was followed by arc-polarity reversal, and injection of mantle wedge-derived melts. By 2.43 Ga, the ocean behind the accreted arc closed through the collision of an oceanic plateau. Rifting of the amalgamated craton followed at 2.4-2.35 Ga, with a failed rift arm preserved in the center of the craton, and two that successfully made an ocean along the northern margin. By 2.3 Ga an arc built on older cratonic material collided with this passive margin which soon converted to an Andean-type margin. Andean margin tectonics affected much of the craton from 2.3-1.9 Ga, forming a broad E-W swath of continental margin magmas, and retro-arc sedimentary basins including a superimposed basin over the passive margin on the northern margin. From 1.88-1.79 Ga the craton experienced a craton-wide granulite facies metamorphism and basement reactivation event with high-pressure granulites and eclogites in the north, and medium-pressure granulites across the craton. Early Proterozoic granulites and anatectic melts were generated by high-grade metamorphism and partial melting at mid-crustal levels beneath a collisionally-thickened plateau. This collision of the NCC on its northern margin was with the Columbia (Nuna) Continent. The NCC broke out in the period 1753-1673 Ma, as indicated by the formation of a suite of anorthosite, mangerite, charnockite, and alkali-feldspar granites

  16. Destruction geodynamics of the North China Craton and its Paleoproterozoic plate tectonics

    ZHU RiXiang; ZHENG TianYu


    Much attention has been paid in the last two decades to the physical and chemical processes as well as temporal-spatial variations of the lithospheric mantle beneath the North China Craton. In order to provide insights into the geodynamics of this variation, it is necessary to thoroughly study the state and structure of the lithospheric crust and mantle of the North China Craton and its adjacent regions as an integrated unit. Based on the velocity structure of the crust and upper mantle constrained from seismological studies, this paper presents various available geophysical results regarding the lithosphere thickness, the nature of crust-mantle boundary, the upper mantle structure and deformation characteristics as well as their tectonic features and evolution systematics. Combined with the obtained data from petrology and geochemistry, a mantle flow model is proposed for the tectonic evolution of the North China Craton during the Mesozoic-Cenozoic. We suggest that subduction of the Pacific plate made the mantle underneath the eastern Asian continent unstable and able to flow faster. Such a regional mantle flow system would cause an elevation of melt/fluid content in the upper mantle of the North China Craton and the lithospheric softening, which, subsequently resulted in destruction of the North China Craton in different ways of delamination and thermal erosion in Yanshan, Taihang Mountains and the Tan-Lu Fault zone. Multiple lines of evidence recorded in the crust of the North China Craton, such as the amalgamation of the Archean eastern and western blocks, the subduction of Paleo-oceanic crust and Paleo-continental residue, indicate that the Earth in the Paleoproterozoic had already evolved into the plate tectonic system similar to the present plate tectonics.

  17. Uppermost mantle P wavespeed structure beneath eastern China and its surroundings

    Sun, Weijia; Kennett, B. L. N.


    Pn travel-time tomography provides a way of improving structural information on the uppermost mantle across eastern China exploiting recent developments of dense seismic networks with well recorded seismic events. We used waveforms from 2009 at Chinese stations, supplemented by bulletin arrival times. An initial P wave model was constructed using the crustal model from CRUST1.0 coupled to a P wave model in the mantle derived from the SL2013sv model to capture the broad-scale features. This starting model enables us to compensate for the large contrasts in crustal thickness across the region. All events were relocated using the initial 3-D P model, and after relocation, consistent patterns of travel-time residuals are obtained. We extract Pn as the first arrival in the distance range 1.8 ∘ to 12 ∘. We use the FMTOMO (Fast Marching TOMOgraphy) approach to invert the travel-time results to generate a P wavespeed structure with a resolution of 2 ∘× 2 ∘ down to 75 km. There are considerable variations in Pn wavespeed in the uppermost mantle across the region. The central portion of the North China craton is imaged with particularly slow P wavespeeds, whilst most of the neighbouring Ordos block is fast. Fast P wavespeeds extend through much of the uppermost mantle beneath eastern Central Asia Orogen, northeast China and beneath the Korean peninsula. In the south, the Sichuan Block and the western Yangtze craton show rather fast P wavespeeds. The Tanlu fault system appears to cut through the crust into the mantle with marked slow P wavespeed at its southern end.

  18. Speculations on the formation of cratons and cratonic basins

    McKenzie, Dan; Priestley, Keith


    Surface wave tomography using Rayleigh waves has shown that Tibet and the surrounding mountain ranges that are now being shortened are underlain by thick lithosphere, of similar thickness to that beneath cratons. Both their elevation and lithospheric thickness can result from pure shear shortening of normal thickness continental lithosphere by about a factor of two. The resulting thermal evolution of the crust and lithosphere is dominated by radioactive decay in the crust. It raises the temperature of the lower part of the crust and of the upper part of the lithosphere to above their solidus temperatures, generating granites and small volumes of mafic alkaline rocks from beneath the Moho, as well as generating high temperature metamorphic assemblages in the crust. Thermal models of this process show that it can match the P, T estimates determined from metamorphic xenoliths from Tibet and the Pamirs, and can also match the compositions of the alkaline rocks. The seismological properties of the upper part of the lithosphere beneath northern Tibet suggest that it has already been heated by the blanketing effect and radioactivity of the thick crust on top. If the crustal thickness is reduced by erosion alone to its normal value at low elevations, without any tectonic extension, over a time scale that is short compared to the thermal time constant of thick lithosphere, of ∼250 Ma, thermal subsidence will produce a basin underlain by thick lithosphere. Though this simple model accounts for the relevant observations, there is not yet sufficient information available to be able to model in detail the resulting thermal evolution of the sediments deposited in such cratonic basins.

  19. The Acasta Gneiss - a Hadean cratonic nucleus

    Sprung, P.; Scherer, E. E.; Maltese, A.; Bast, R.; Bleeker, W.; Mezger, K.


    The known terrestrial rock record lacks undisputed, chemically intact Hadean crust. Direct evidence from this eon has been restricted to zircon grains within younger rocks [1]. The Acasta Gneiss Complex (AGC; NT, CA) has yielded zircon with Hadean domains [e.g., 2,3], but the time at which AGC rocks became closed chemical systems is unclear [4,5]. Determining this `time of last disturbance' (tld) would provide a minimum protolith age, and is crucial for using radiogenic isotope compositions of bulk rocks to trace crust-mantle evolution. Recent studies mostly focused on the `low-strain' eastern AGC [e.g., 6, 7], which records an evolving, early-mid Archean cratonic nucleus [7]. We also studied the `high-strain' banded gneiss in the western AGC, which hosts >4 Ga zircon domains [2,3], too. Our focusing lay on adjoining, lithologically distinct bands [8] of two distinct chemical groups: A) Mafic, chondrite-normalized LaN/YbN ≦20, slightly HFSE- depleted, and B) TTG-like, LaN/YbN up to 145, markedly HFSE-depleted. Six adjacent bands yield a well-defined 4 Ga Sm-Nd isochron with a ɛNd4Ga of +2 and ɛHf4Ga values from +1 to +6. Within-band Sm-Nd and Lu-Hf systematics imply younger mineral re-equilibration [9]. We interpret the 4 Ga Sm-Nd isochron to date the physical juxtaposition of bands in the gneiss unit and to define tld among bands for elements less mobile and diffusive than Sm and Nd. Contrasting Sm-Nd results from the same unit [10] likely are due to sampling at too fine a scale. Digestion of metamict pre-tld zircon likely caused the scatter in Lu-Hf. Both decay systems hint at the existence of a possibly local, strongly depleted Hadean mantle domain. The TTG-like bands are 0.4 Gyr older than similar rocks in the `low-strain' eastern AGC [7]. The AGC was thus an evolved cratonic nucleus already at 4 Ga, possibly with a depleted lithospheric keel. [1] Cavosie et al. (2004) Prec. Res. 135, 251-279 [2] Bowring & Williams (1999) CMP 134, 3-16 [3] Iizuka et al

  20. Water in the Cratonic Mantle Lithosphere

    Peslier, A. H.


    The fact that Archean and Proterozoic cratons are underlain by the thickest (>200 km) lithosphere on Earth has always puzzled scientists because the dynamic convection of the surrounding asthenosphere would be expected to delaminate and erode these mantle lithospheric "keels" over time. Although density and temperature of the cratonic lithosphere certainly play a role in its strength and longevity, the role of water has only been recently addressed with data on actual mantle samples. Water in mantle lithologies (primarily peridotites and pyroxenites) is mainly stored in nominally anhydrous minerals (olivine, pyroxene, garnet) where it is incorporated as hydrogen bonded to structural oxygen in lattice defects. The property of hydrolytic weakening of olivine [4] has generated the hypothesis that olivine, the main mineral of the upper mantle, may be dehydrated in cratonic mantle lithospheres, contributing to its strength. This presentation will review the distribution of water concentrations in four cratonic lithospheres. The distribution of water contents in olivine from peridotite xenoliths found in kimberlites is different in each craton (Figure 1). The range of water contents of olivine, pyroxene and garnet at each xenolith location appears linked to local metasomatic events, some of which occurred later then the Archean and Proterozoic when these peridotites initially formed via melting. Although the low olivine water contents ( 6 GPa at the base of the Kaapvaal cratonic lithosphere may contribute to its strength, and prevent its delamination, the wide range of those from Siberian xenoliths is not compatible with providing a high enough viscosity contrast with the asthenophere. The water content in olivine inclusions from Siberian diamonds, on the other hand, have systematically low water contents (water contents. The olivine inclusions, however, may have been protected from metasomatism by their host diamond and record the overall low olivine water content of

  1. Small-scale upper mantle flow during the initiation of craton destruction

    Zhao, Liang; Wang, Kun; Xu, Xiaobing


    The North China Craton (NCC) is an old craton which has experienced multi-episodic tectonism with surrounding plates. Bordered to the north by Xing'an-Mongolian Orogenic Belt, to the south by Qingling-Dabie-Sulu Orogen and to the far-east by (Paleo-) Pacific plate, the NCC has lost the cratonic properties within its eastern part. Evidently, the initiation and mechanism of craton destruction attract tremendous attention and remain hot debated. During the Mesozoic to the Cenozoic, the northeastern part of the NCC has been intensively revoked, along with the transition from NE shortening to NW-SE extension. The subduction of Paleo-Pacific plate becomes the prime suspect due to the same kinematic direction. Here we present a hybrid shear wave splitting measurement to investigate the mantle deformation of the NCC, and intend to constrain geodynamic process during the initiation of craton destruction. The SKS waveform data is recorded from 60 broadband stations with an average spacing of 15 km. We employ the traditional routine method to obtain fast polarization directions (FPDs, Φ) and delay times (δt) for the teleseismic events with epicenter range in 85°-115°. One may often have troubles in delimiting SKS and S wave with regard to the events at distances NCC, the east-end nearly E-W FPD is possibly owing to the fossil anisotropy in the lithosphere during the N-S shortening in Jurassic. The other is located in the Solonker suture zone beneath where the Moho and lithosphere and asthenosphere boundary (LAB) have sharp variation in depth. It suggests that the subduction of Pacific plate apparently reactivates the upper mantle of the north edge of the NCC but has minor effects westwards. The inconsistency in FPDs may result from small-scale mantle flow in the upper mantle, which could be the dominant operating mode of the Pacific subduction during the initiation of cratonic destruction.

  2. Evidence of enriched mantle in the Archaean beneath eastern Indian Singhbhum Craton: constraints from geochemistry and Sr-Nd isotopic studies of mafic-ultramafic rocks from Bangriposi, Orissa, India

    Mouli Chakraborti, Tushar; Ray, Arijit; Deb, Gautam Kumar; Chakrabarti, Ramananda; Banerjee, Anupam


    interaction with an alkali-carbonatite melt. Enriched nature of the mantle region is also revealed in the highly negative ɛNd (T) values (-2.5 to -16.6), low initial 143Nd/144Nd (0.507895- 0.508615), and high but variable initial 87Sr/ 86Sr (0.7025- 0.7232). Calculated 147Sm/ 144Nd of the source region of the gabbroic rocks (0.1869; 5% less than CHUR) corroborate with enriched nature and the Fractionation Factor (α) of 1.05 corresponds with melting from a garnet bearing source region. Depleted mantle model age (TDM) calculations of the mafic-ultramafic rocks yield a span of 3.6- 5.6 Ga. Lack of Nb-Ta anomaly and complete absence of any field evidence of emplacement in a liquid state (Chilled margins, feeder dykes) in both cases precludes enrichment due to crustal contamination. Overall it can be stated that, these mafic-ultramafic rocks represent tectonic slices of ancient oceanic crust and enriched lithospheric mantle, together constituting a partly preserved ophiolite complex from eastern India.

  3. Geochemical characteristics of the Shujiadian Cu deposit related intrusion in Tongling: Petrogenesis and implications for the formation of porphyry Cu systems in the Middle-Lower Yangtze River Valley metallogenic belt, eastern China

    Wang, Shiwei; Zhou, Taofa; Yuan, Feng; Fan, Yu; Cooke, David R.; Zhang, Lejun; Fu, Bin; White, Noel C.


    Porphyry Cu deposits can form in intracontinental or post-collision settings; however, both the genesis of fertile magmas and the mechanism of metal enrichment remain controversial. The Shujiadian porphyry Cu deposit is located in the Tongling area of the Middle-Lower Yangtze River Valley metallogenic belt. It is hosted by the Shujiadian complex, which mainly consists of quartz diorite porphyry (143.7 ± 1.7 Ma) and pyroxene diorite (139.8 ± 1.6 Ma). They both belong to the calc-alkaline series, with enrichment in large-ion lithophile elements (LILE) and light rare earth elements (LREE), depletion in high field-strength elements (HFSE) and heavy rare earth elements (HREE), and slightly negative Eu anomalies. Both quartz diorite porphyry and pyroxene diorite have geochemical affinities with adakite, and their low MgO (1.5-3.7 wt%), and Ni (3.7-6.9 ppm), Cr (2.0-44 ppm), and Th/Ce contents (0.06-0.11) indicate that the intrusive rocks have some characteristics of adakite-like rocks derived from thickened lower crust and melts from metabasaltic rocks and eclogites. Plagioclases from the quartz diorite porphyry are andesine (An value = 31.8-40.5) and from the pyroxene diorite are felsic albite and oligoclase with large-scale zones and variable An value (An value = 8.9-18.3), Fe and Sr contents, which indicate that mixing of mafic and felsic magma may have occurred in the shallow magma chamber. Compared to the barren quartz diorite porphyry, relatively lower SiO2 contents (49.5-55.2 wt.%), higher εNd(t) values (- 7.4 to - 6.9), εHf(t) values (- 11.0 to - 9.1) compositions, Ti-in-zircon temperatures (714-785 °C), and variations of HREE contents of the mineralization-related pyroxene diorite suggest mixing with high-temperature mafic magma. Calculated Ce4 +/Ce3 + values of pyroxene diorite plot between the Ni-NiO buffer (NNO) and magnetite-hematite buffer (MH), and barren quartz diorite porphyry samples plot below the Ni-NiO buffer (NNO). Geochemical features of

  4. Simulation of Typhoon-Driven Waves in the Yangtze Estuary with Multiple-Nested Wave Models

    XU Fu-min; Will Perrie; ZHANG Jun-lun; SONG Zhi-yao; Bechara Toulany


    Typhoon-generated waves are simulated with two numerical wave models, the SWAN model for the coastal and Yangtze Estuary domain, nested within the WAVEWATCHIII (WW3) for the basin-scale East China Sea domain. Typhoon No. 8114 is chosen because it was very strong, and generated high waves in the Estuary. WW3 was implemented for the East China Sea coarse-resolution computational domain, to simulate the waves over a large spatial scale and provide boundary conditions for SWAN model simulations, implemented on a fine-resolution nested domain for the Yangtze Estuary area. The Takahashi wind model is applied to the simulation of the East China Sea scale (3-hourly) and Yangtze Estuary scale (1-hourly) winds. Simulations of significant wave heights in the East China Sea show that the highest waves are on the right side of the storm track, and maxima tend to occur at the eastern deep-water open boundary of the Yangtze Estuary. In the Yangtze Estuary, incoming swell is dominant over locally generated waves before the typhoon approaches the Estuary. As the typhoon approaches the Estuary, wind waves and swell coexist, and the wave direction is mainly influenced by the swell direction and the complex topography.


    SHEN Zhigang


    The hydrodynamic and the sediment transport patterns within the estuary of the Yangtze River are complex because of interaction of fluvial and the tidal forces, depending on freshwater discharge and tidal range. Based on the data measured in recent years, this paper discusses the characteristics of flow and sediment movement in the Yangtze River Estuary and their influences on the evolution of the estuary.

  6. Density heterogeneity of the cratonic lithosphere

    Cherepanova, Yulia; Artemieva, Irina


    Using free-board modeling, we examine a vertically-averaged mantle density beneath the Archean-Proterozoic Siberian craton in the layer from the Moho down to base of the chemical boundary layer (CBL). Two models are tested: in Model 1 the base of the CBL coincides with the LAB, whereas in Model 2...... the base of the CBL is at a 180 km depth. The uncertainty of density model is density structure of the Siberian lithospheric mantle with a strong...... correlation between mantle density variations and the tectonic setting. Three types of cratonic mantle are recognized from mantle density anomalies. 'Pristine' cratonic regions not sampled by kimberlites have the strongest depletion with density deficit of 1.8-3.0% (and SPT density of 3.29-3.33 t/m3...

  7. Geochemical constraints on the origin of Late Mesozoic andesites from the Ningwu basin in the Middle-Lower Yangtze Valley, South China

    Chen, Long; Zheng, Yong-Fei; Zhao, Zi-Fu


    during subduction of the Cathaysia oceanic crust beneath the Yangtze Craton in the Neoproterozoic, whereas the Mesozoic mafic magmatism in the Middle-Lower Yangtze Valley is essentially caused by reactivation of the fertile and enriched mantle sources due to lithospheric extension in response to the subduction of Pacific plate beneath the eastern China continent. Therefore, the geochemical composition of andesites is primarily governed by their mantle sources that were generated by reaction of the mantle wedge peridotite with hydrous felsic melts originated from the subducted terrigenous sediment in Andean-type subduction zones, though such sources may be partially melt either immediately following generation or at a later time. Late-stage magma evolution processes such as fractional crystallization and magma mixing would have further modified the lithochemical composition of andesites but they are not the governing factors for their trace element and radiogenic isotope compositions.

  8. Cratonic lithospheric mantle: Is anything subducted?

    William L. Griffin; Suzanne Y. O'ReiUy


    @@ If the subcontinental lithospheric mantle (SCLM) formed through the repeated underthrusting of oceanic slabs, peridotitic SCLM should resemble oceanic peridotites, and mafic rocks (eclogites, s.l.) should be distributed throughout the SCLM. However, cratonic peridotites (both exposed massifs and xenoliths) differ markedly from oceanic and ophiolitic peridotites in their Fe-Cr-Al relationships and abundances of trace elements (Li and B) diagnostic of subduction. "Typical"cratonic peridotites have experienced extensive metaso matism; modelling of their refractory protoliths indicates high-degree melting at high P, perhaps a uniquely Archean process.

  9. Seismic imaging of Southern African cratons

    Soliman, Mohammad Youssof Ahmad

    Cratonic regions are the oldest stable parts of continents that hold most of Earth’s mineral resources. There are several open questions regarding their formation and evolution. In this PhD study, passive source seismic methods have been used to investigate the crustal and lithosphere structures...

  10. Cyclic Cratonic Carbonates and Phanerozoic Calcite Seas.

    Wilkinson, Bruce H.


    Discusses causes of cyclicity in cratonic carbonate sequences and evidence for and potential significance of postulated primary calcite sediment components in past Paleozoic seas, outlining problems, focusing on models explaining existing data, and identifying background. Future sedimentary geologists will need to address these and related areas…

  11. Variations of Meiyu Indicators in the Yangtze-Huaihe River Basin during 1954-2003

    ZHANG Yanxia; ZHAI Panmao; QIAN Yongfu


    To better understand climate variations of Meiyu, some new indicators for the onset and retreat dates,duration, and Meiyu precipitation in the Yangtze-Huaihe River valley are objectively developed by using observed daily precipitation data from 230 stations in eastern China during 1954-2003.The rainy season onset and retreat dates in each station can be defined in terms of thresholds for rainfall intensity and persistence. Then, the onset and retreat dates of the Meiyu for the Yangtze-Huaihe River basin have been determined when more than 40% of stations reach the first rainy season thresholds in the study region.Based on the indicators of Meiyu in the Yangtze-Huaihe River basin, variations of Meiyu rainfall during 1954-2003 are analyzed. The results suggest that Meiyu rainfall in the Yangtze-Huaihe River basin has increased in recent 50 years. In addition, interannual and interdecadal variability of Meiyu is also obvious.All the indicators display a predominant period of about 3 years.

  12. Petroleum Exploration of Craton Basins in China


    Craton basins are a significant petroliferous provenance. Having undergone multiple openclose tectonic cycles and strong reworking of the late Cenozoic tectonic movement, the craton basins in China are highly broken. This has resulted in multi-source and multiphase hydrocarbon generation and later hydrocarbon accumulation so that a complicated spatial assemblage of primary, paraprimary and secondary oil-gas pools has been formed. The primary factors controlling hydrocarbon accumulation include hydrocarbon-generating depressions, paleouplifts, paleoslopes, unconformity surfaces, paleo-karst, faults and fissure systems as well as the later conservation conditions. In consequence, the strategy of exploration for China's craton basins is to identify the effective source rocks, pay attention to the different effects of paleohighs and late reworking, enhance studies of the secondary storage space, attach importance to the exploration of lithologic oil-gas reservoirs and natural gas pools, and approach consciously from the secondary oil pools to the targets near the source rocks. At the same time, a complete system of technologies and techniques must be built up.

  13. DOBRE studies evolution of inverted intra-cratonic rifts in Ukraine

    DOBREflection-2000 Working Groups,; DOBREfraction'99 Working Groups,

    Donbas Refraction and Reflection (DOBRE) is a multinational study of the Donbas Foldbelt (DF) of Ukraine (Figure l). The DF is the uplifted and deformed part of the more than 20-km-thick Dniepr-Donets Basin (DDB) that formed due to Late Devonian rifting of the East European Craton (EEC) in eastern Ukraine and southern Russia. The DF; especially its southern margin, was uplifted in Early Permian times in a (trans) tensional tectonic stress regime. Folding and reverse faulting occurred later, during the Triassic and Late Cretaceous.

  14. Integrated Seismic Arrays for Imaging the North China Craton: the ¡°Destruction of the North China Craton¡± Project

    Chen, Y. J.; Chen, L.; Zheng, T.; Zhou, S.


    It has been known, mostly according to the petrological and geochemical studies particularly the xenolith's data, that the North China craton (NCC), which is part of the Archaean Sino-Korean craton, had been reactivated since Mesozoic, and experienced widespread extension and volcanism through much of the Cenozoic. Currently the NCC is characterized by a thin lithosphere (as thin as 80 km according to published studies) and strong internal deformation, where over half of the eastern China's earthquakes occurred while the two major plate boundaries about China are thousands kilometers away. Although it is seismically quite active this region encompasses the China's capital and several mega cities which together hosts a large population and are very important to China's growing economy. Supported by the Chinese earth science community, the Chinese NSF recently started a major research program, the ¡°Destruction of the North China craton¡± (DNCC). About 150 million RMB (~ 20 million US dollars) will be allocated for this 5-year multi-disciplinary research program which is open for competition for all the earth scientists in China. Here we report one major seismic observation project of ¡°Integrated Seismic Arrays of DNCC¡± just funded during the first phase funding of DNCC. This observation-driven project integrates two groups at the Institute of Geology and Geophysics, Chinese Academy of Sciences and Peking University, and both institutions have their own broadband seismometers and have recently conducted pilot portable seismic array studies in North China. Up to seven linear broadband seismic arrays, each consists of 60-100 stations, are planned within the NCC. The principle objectives are to quantify the range and degree of the craton destruction in spatial domain with major focus on the east-west variation from the previously proposed intact craton in the west to the rejuvenated region in the east and the transition zone in the middle. With the expected

  15. How craton margins are preserved: Insights from geodynamic models

    Currie, Claire A.; van Wijk, Jolante


    Lateral variations in lithosphere thickness are observed in many continental regions, especially at the boundary between the ancient cratonic core and the adjacent more juvenile lithosphere. In some places, such as the North America craton margin in western Canada and the Sorgenfrei-Tornquist Zone in northern Europe, the transition in lithosphere thickness has a steep gradient (>45°) and it appears to be a long-lived feature (at least 50 Ma). We use thermal-mechanical numerical models to address the dynamics of lithospheric thickness changes on timescales of 100 Ma. Models start with the juxtaposition of 60 km thick lithosphere ("mobile belt") and 160 km thick lithosphere ("craton"). In the reference model, all mantle materials have a damp olivine rheology and a density comparable to primitive mantle. With this configuration, edge-driven mantle convection occurs at the craton boundary, resulting in a lateral smoothing of the thickness transition. The density and rheology of the craton mantle lithosphere are then varied to approximate changes in composition and water content. For all densities, a steep transition is maintained only if the craton strength is 5-50 times stronger than the reference damp olivine. If dry olivine is an upper limit on strength, only cratonic mantle with moderate compositional buoyancy (20-40 kg/m3 less dense than primitive mantle) remains stable. At higher densities, the thick lithosphere is eroded through downwellings, and the craton margin migrates inboard. Conversely, a compositionally buoyant craton destabilises through lateral spreading below the mobile belt.

  16. The Prediction of Population of the Yangtze Finless Porpoise

    Yiheng LlU


    Objective] The aim was to study the current living situation of Yangtze finless porpoise, and explore the prediction of the number of Yangtze finless por-poise in next few years. [Method] Modified Leslie Model and Siler’s Model was ap-plied to estimate the number of Yangtze finless porpoise. [Result] Using the model, Yangtze finless porpoise wil extinct in nearly 20 years. [Conclusion] The study pro-vides a cautionary warning of the conservation of the freshwater cetacean species.

  17. Paleoproterozoic postcollisional magmatic belt of the southern Siberian craton

    Salnikova, E. B.; Larin, A. M.; Kotov, A. B.; Levitsky, V. I.; Reznitsky, L. Z.; Kovach, V. P.; Yakovleva, S. Z.


    Paleoproterozoic time is characterized by large-scale collisional and postcollisional magmatic activity evidenced in the most of ancient cratons. This global event is related to the Arctic supercontinent assemblage (Rogers, 1996). The formation of postcollisional magmatic belt at 1.9-1.8 Ga within the south-west flanking of the Siberian craton is a remarkable example of these processes happened during overall lithospheric convergence. This belt is extends for about 3000 km from the southern Enisey ridge at the west to the central Aldan shield at the east. Within the central Aldan shield the latest collisional event occurred 1925+/-5 Ma (Kotov et al, 2003) and post-collisional subalkaline S- and I-type granites emplaced at 1916+/-10 Ma (Bibikova et al., 1989), 1901+/-1 Ma (Frost et al., 1998) and 1899+/-6 Ma (Kotov et al, 2003). However at the southern Olekma terrain (western Aldan shield) the syncollisional granites have formed at 1906+/-4 Ma and postcollisional Kodar granitoids were generated at 1876-1873 Ma (Larin et al., 2000). The is a tendency outlined in timing of postcollision processes to the west (in modern coordinates). Ages of postcollisional Kevakta granitoid plutons (1846+/-8 Ma) and volcanics of North-Baikal volcano-plutonic belt (1869+/-6 Ma 1856+/-3 Ma), Baikal folded area, support this tendency. Emplacement of the Primorsky complex postcollisional rapakivi-type granitoids (southern Baikal lake) occurred at 1859+/-16 Ma (Donskaya et al., 2002). New results of U-Pb single zircon and baddeleyite dating demonstrate that formation of late-synkinematic syenite, charnockite and pegmatitic veins (1856±12 Ma, 1853±20 Ma) and calciphyre (1868±2 Ma) within the eastern part of the Sharyzhalgay block (southern Baikal lake) occurred virtually within the same episode. Postcollisional intrusive charnockite of the Shumikha complex from the western Sharyzhalgay block dated at 1861±1 Ma (Donskaya et al., 2001) and 1871±17 Ma (Levitsky et al., 2002). Subalcaline

  18. Jiaxing: Delicacy of the Yangtze River Delta



    THE yangtze River Delta,where the Yangtzc River crosses China's east coast,has one of the country's most dynamic economies.In 1976Jcan Gottmann.a french geographer,called shanghai and its neighboring Yangtze River Delta the world's "sixth largest megalopolis." The Yangtze River Delta has 15 cities. Its territory accounts for one percent of China's total, 5.8 percent of hthe population, and 19.5 percent of the national GDP.In terms of both aggregate economy and growth speed, the Delta currently leads China and could likely be the "enginc" of the world's future economic growth. Located at the juncition of Shanghai Jiangsu and Zhejiang, Jiaxing City holds a central economic belt. It is within 100 kilometers of Shanghai, Hangzhou and Suzhou. In 200 and 2003, Jiaxing's GDP growth rate was first in Zhejiang Province and second among the 1.5 Delta cities.

  19. Petrogenesis of Early Cretaceous basaltic lavas from the North China Craton: Implications for cratonic destruction

    Qian, Sheng-Ping; Ren, Zhong-Yuan; Richard, Wysoczanski; Zhang, Le; Zhang, Yin-Hui; Hong, Lu-Bing; Ding, Xiang-Li; Wu, Ya-Dong


    The North China Craton (NCC) is believed to be the best example of cratonic destruction. However, the processes leading to cratonic destruction remain unclear, largely due to a lack of knowledge of the nature of the Mesozoic NCC lithospheric mantle. Here we report new petrological and geochemical data for Early Cretaceous NCC basalts, which provide insights into the nature of the underlying lithospheric mantle. The Early Cretaceous basalts (all tholeiites) show a limited variation in geochemical composition. In contrast, olivine-hosted melt inclusions from these basalts display a wide range in compositional variation and include both alkalic and tholeiitic basaltic compositions. This result provides the direct evidence of the contribution of silica-undersaturated alkali basaltic melts in the petrogenesis of the Early Cretaceous NCC basalts. In addition, the compositions of olivine phenocrysts and reconstructed primary melts indicate that the Early Cretaceous basalts are derived from a mixed peridotite and refertilized peridotite source. The Pb isotopic compositions of melt inclusions in high fugacity of oxygen (fo) olivines combined with trace element characteristics of these basalts reveal that heterogeneous lithospheric mantle sources for Early Cretaceous basalts were metasomatized by carbonate-bearing eclogite-derived melts. The Pb isotopic variations of the melt inclusions and clinopyroxene and plagioclase phenocrysts demonstrate that the mantle-derived magmas were variably contaminated by lower continental crust. We propose that multiple subduction events during the Phanerozoic, combined with mantle-plume activity, likely play a vital role in the generation of the Early Cretaceous voluminous magmatism and cratonic destruction.

  20. Seismic Structure of Southern African Cratons

    Soliman, Mohammad Youssof Ahmad; Artemieva, Irina; Levander, Alan


    Cratons are extremely stable continental crustal areas above thick depleted lithosphere. These regions have remained largely unchanged for more than 2.5 Ga. This study presents a new seismic model of the seismic structure of the crust and lithospheric mantle constrained by seismic receiver...... functions and finite-frequency tomography based on data from the South Africa Seismic Experiment (SASE). Combining the two methods provides high vertical and lateral resolution. The main results obtained are (1) the presence of a highly heterogeneous crustal structure, in terms of thickness, composition (as...

  1. 长江流域1961-2002年极端降水特征%Changing features of extreme precipitation in the Yangtze River basin during 1961-2002

    张增信; 张强; 姜彤


    The total precipitation of the highest 1 day, 3 day, 5 day and 7 day precipitation amount (R1D, R3D, R5D and R7D) in the Yangtze River basin was analyzed with the help of linear trend analysis and continuous wavelet transform method. The research results indicated that: 1) Spatial distribution of R1D is similar in comparison with that of R3D, R5D and R7D. The Jialingjiang and Hanjiang river basins are dominated by decreasing trend, which is significant at >95% confidence level in Jialingjiang River basin and insignificant at >95% confidence level in Hanjiang River basin. The southern part of the Yangtze River basin and the western part of the upper Yangtze River basin are dominated by significant increasing trend of R1D extreme precipitation at >95% confidence level. 2) As for the R3D, R5D and R7D, the western part of the upper Yangtze River basin is dominated by significant increasing trend at >95% confidence level. The eastern part of the upper Yangtze River basin is dominated by decreasing trend, but is insignificant at >95% confidence level. The middle and lower Yangtze River basin is dominated by increasing trend, but insignificant at >95% confidence level. 3)The frequency and intensity of extreme precipitation events are intensified over time. Precipitation anomalies indicated that the southeastern part, southern part and southwestern part of the Yangtze River basin are dominated by positive extreme precipitation anomalies between 1993-2002 and 1961-1992. The research results of this text indicate that the occurrence probability of flash flood is higher in the western part of the upper Yangtze River basin and the middle and lower Yangtze River basin, esp. in the southwestern and southeastern parts of the Yangtze River basin.

  2. Quantitatively distinguishing sediments from the Yangtze River and the Yellow River using δEu_N-ΣREEs plot


    Sediment samples were collected from the lower channel of the Yangtze River and the Yellow River and the contents of rare earth elements (REEs) were measured. In addition, some historical REEs data were collected from published literatures. Based on the δEuN-ΣREEs plot, a clear boundary was found be-tween the sediments from the two rivers. The boundary can be described as an orthogonal polynomial equation by ordinary linear regression with sediments from the Yangtze River located above the curve and sediments from the Yellow River located below the curve. To validate this method, the REEs con-tents of sediments collected from the estuaries of the Yangtze River and the Yellow River were meas-ured. In addition, the REEs data of sediment Core 255 from the Yangtze River and Core YA01 from the Yellow River were collected. Results show that the samples from the Yangtze River estuary and Core 255 almost are above the curve and most samples from the Yellow River estuary and Core YA01 are below the curve in the δEuN-ΣREEs plot. The plot and the regression equation can be used to distin-guish sediments from the Yangtze River and the Yellow River intuitively and quantitatively, and to trace the sediment provenance of the eastern seas of China. The difference between the sediments from two rivers in the δEuN-ΣREEs plot is caused by different mineral compositions and regional climate patterns of the source areas. The relationship between δEuN and ΣREEs is changed little during the transport from the source area to the river, and from river to the sea. Thus the original information on mineral compositions and climate of the source area was preserved.

  3. Quantitatively distinguishing sediments from the Yangtze River and the Yellow River using δEuN-ΣREEs plot

    JIANG FuQing; ZHOU XiaoJing; LI AnChun; LI TieGang


    Sediment samples were collected from the lower channel of the Yangtze River and the Yellow River and the contents of rare earth elements (REEs) were measured. In addition, some historical REEs data were collected from published literatures. Based on the δEuN-ΣREEs plot, a clear boundary was found be-tween the sediments from the two rivers. The boundary can be described as an orthogonal polynomial equation by ordinary linear regression with sediments from the Yangtze River located above the curve and sediments from the Yellow River located below the curve. To validate this method, the REEs con-tents of sediments collected from the estuaries of the Yangtze River and the Yellow River were meas-ured. In addition, the REEs data of sediment Core 255 from the Yangtze River and Core YA01 from the Yellow River were collected. Results show that the samples from the Yangtze River estuary and Core 255 almost are above the curve and most samples from the Yellow River estuary and Core YA01 are below the curve in the δEuN-ΣREEs plot. The plot and the regression equation can be used to distin-guish sediments from the Yangtze River and the Yellow River intuitively and quantitatively, and to trace the sediment provenance of the eastern seas of China. The difference between the sediments from two rivers in the δEuN-ΣREEs plot is caused by different mineral compositions and regional climate patterns of the source areas. The relationship between δEuN and ΣREEs is changed little during the transport from the source area to the river, and from river to the sea. Thus the original information on mineral compositions and climate of the source area was preserved.

  4. Heat flow, heat generation and crustal thermal structure of the northern block of the South Indian Craton

    Gupta, Mohan L.; Sharma, S. R.; Sundar, A.


    Heat flow values and heat generation data calculated from the concentration of heat producing radioactive elements, U, Th and K in surface rocks were analyzed. The South Indian Craton according to Drury et al., can be divided into various blocks, separated by late Proterozoic shear belts. The northern block comprises Eastern and Western Dharwar Cratons of Rogers (1986), Naqvi and Rogers (1987) and a part of the South Indian granulite terrain up to a shear system occupying the Palghat-Cauvery low lands. The geothermal data analysis clearly demonstrates that the present thermal characteristics of the above two Archaean terrains of the Indian and Australian Shields are quite similar. Their crustal thermal structures are likely to be similar also.

  5. Underplating in the middle-lower Yangtze Valley and model of geodynamic evolution: Constraints from geophysical data

    Lü; Qingtian


    for continental growth and crust-mantle recycling, Journal of Petrology, 1995, 36:891-931.[25]Rapp, R. P., Shimizu, N., Norman, M. D. et al., Reaction between slab-derived melts and peridotite in the mantle wedge: Experimental constraints at 3.8 GPa, Chemical Geology, 1999, 160:335-356.[26]Bird, P., Initiation of intracontinental subduction in the Himalaya,J. Geophys. Res., 1978, 83: 4975-4987.[27]Houseman, G. A., McKenzie, D. P., Molnar, P., Convective instability of a thickened boundary layer and its relevance for the thermal evolution of continental convergent belts, J. Geophys.Res., 1981, 86: 6135-6155.[28]Nelson, K. D., Are crustal thickness variations in old mountain belts like the Appalachians a consequences of lithospheric delamination? Geology, 1992, 20: 498-502.[29]Nelson, K. D., A unified view of craton evolution motivated by recent deep seismic reflection and refraction results, Geophys. J.Int., 1991, 105: 25-35.[30]Dewey, J. F., Extensional collapse of orogens, Tectonics, 1988, 7:1123-1139.[31]Bird, P., Lateral extrusion of lower crust from under high topography, in the isostatic limit, J. Geophys. Res., 1991, 96: 10275-10286.[32]Collins, W. J., Upper and moddle crustal response to delamination:an example from the Lachlan fold belt, eastern Australia, Geology,1994, 22: 143-146.[33]Wang, L. S., Li, C., Shi, Y. S. et al., Distributions of geotemperature and terrestrial heat flow density in lower Yangtze area, Acta Geophysica Sinica (in Chinese), 1995, 38: 469-476.[34]Wang, C. Y., Zeng, R. S., Mooney, W. D. et al., A crustal model of the ultrahigh-pressure Dabie Shan orogenic belt, China, derived from deep seismic refraction profiling, J. Geophys. Res., 2000,105(B5): 10857-10869.[35]Zhang, Z. J., Li, Y. K., Lu, D. Y. et al., Velocity and anisotropy structure of the crust in the Dabie shan orogenic belt from wide-angle seismic data, Phys. Earth Planet Int., 2000, 122:115-131.[36]Zhang, Z. J., Wang, G. J., Teng, J. W. et al., CDP mapping to obtain the fine

  6. Paleo-environmental changes in the Yangtze Delta during past 8000 years

    ZHANGQiang; JIANGTong; SHIYafeng; LorenzKING; LIUChunling; MartinMETZLER


    The Yangtze Delta is one of the economically most developed areas in China. It is located in the eastern China monsoon region. Archaeological excavations and environment-archaeology studies over many years in this region provide exceptional information about climate changes, development of human civilization and also human-environment interactions. Archaeological excavations made in the study region reveal that the development of Neolithic cultures is not continuous, which may be a result of extreme climatic events. The analysis of 14C-dated buried paleotrees, peat and shell ridges show the rise and fall of human civilization in the study area. The research results presented in this paper confirm that human civilization collapsed six times in the Yangtze Delta, matching six high sea level epoches, peat accumulation and buried paleotrees formation periods respectively. This indicates that human activities in the Yangtze Delta are controlled by local climate changes and changing hydrological conditions. The collapse of the Liangzhu culture (5000 aBP-3800 aBP) in about 4000 aBP, after a tremendous flooding event, followed by a relatively backward Maqiao culture (3800 aBP-3200 aBP) confused researchers and aroused their great interest. The research results in this paper show that the collapse of the Liangzhu culture is a result of several factors, for example war and food shortage, but the flooding event occurred in the late Liangzhu culture epoch is the main factor therein.

  7. Proterozoic granitoids of the Amazonian craton

    dalĺAgnol, R.; Costi, H. T.; Lamarão, C. N.; Teixeira, N. P.; Bettencourt, J. S.; Fraga, L. M.


    Proterozoic granitoids are widespread in all provinces of the Amazonian craton. In the Maroni-Itacaiunas Province, granitoids associated with the Trans-Amazonian event include: subduction related, 2.16 to 2.14 Ga, calc-alkaline tonalites and trondhjemites; 2.10 to 2.08 Ga, syncolisional potassic granites; 2.05 Ga, charnockites. In the Tapajós Province, ˜2.01 Ga, tonalites are followed by ˜2.0 Ga volcanic sequences and ˜1.98 to 1.96 Ga calc-alkaline granitoids. A reappraisal of magmatic activity occurred at ˜1.88 Ga when calc-alkaline granitoids, as well as subalkaline, A-type granites, associated with felsic volcanic sequences were formed. A similar picture is observed in the northern Roraima region, where post-collisional 2.0 to 1.96 Ga calc-alkaline granitoids and associated volcanic sequences are followed by 1.92 Ga A-type granites. The remarkable 1.88 Ga magmatic event has a continental scale and is related to an extensional tectonism. It affected also the Archean Carajás Province, where, at this time, within-plate, shallow-level, A-type granites were emplaced. Coeval intermediate to felsic volcanic sequences are widespread in the Central Amazonian Province. In the Pitinga region, these sequences are intruded by ˜1.82 Ga, tin-mineralized granites. In the Central Guiana Belt and in the northwestern domains of the Guiana shield ˜1.55 Ga rapakivi complexes, locally with associated anorthosites and mangerites, are common. In the Rio Negro Province, 1.8 to 1.60 calc-alkaline (?) granitoids and gneisses are dominant. They are followed by 1.55 to 1.52 Ga, oxidized, titanite-bearing A-type granites and S-type, two-mica granites. The evolution of the southwestern part of the Amazonian craton is characterized by the occurrence of successive tectonic events extending from ˜1.75 Ga to ˜1.0 Ga. The oldest granitoids are dominantly calc-alkaline tonalites, trondhjemites and granodiorites. However, the Rondonia region is marked by the occurrence of 1.6 to 1.0 Ga old

  8. The Zimbabwe Craton in Mozambique: A brief review of its geochronological pattern and its relation to the Mozambique Belt

    Chaúque, F. R.; Cordani, U. G.; Jamal, D. L.; Onoe, A. T.


    The eastern margin of the Zimbabwe Craton, along the Mozambique-Zimbabwe border, includes the oldest rocks of west-central Mozambique constituting a large terrain of granite-greenstone type dated between 3000 and 2500 Ma. These rocks consist mainly of gneisses and granitoid rocks of tonalitic-trondhjemitic-granodioritic composition belonging to the Mudzi Metamorphic Complex in the northern part and to the Mavonde Complex in the southern part. The latter is associated with a granite-greenstone terrain, which includes the eastern part of Mutare-Odzi-Manica greenstone belt. A volcano-sedimentary sequences cover, belonging to the apparently Mesoproterozoic and Paleoproterozoic Umkondo and Gairezi groups respectively was deposited along the eastern margin of the craton and is exposed in the territory of Mozambique. The Umkondo minimum age is marked by intrusive dolerite in Zimbabwe dated at 1100 Ma while for the Ghairezi it is still not well established. The Gairezi Group was subjected to progressive metamorphism of Pan-African age. At the margin of the Zimbabwe Craton, in its northern part, metasedimentary units occur representing a passive margin of Neoproterozoic age. They make up the Rushinga Group, which includes felsic metavolcanic rocks dated at ca.800 Ma. Granulites and medium- to high-grade paragneisses, and migmatites of the Chimoio, Macossa and Mungari Groups of Neoproterozoic metamorphic age, overly the ortho-metamorphic pre-existing rock of ca. 1100 Ma, which belongs to the Báruè Magmatic Arc. They characterize the N-S trend Mozambique Belt, which appears to the east of the craton tectonically juxtaposed on the Archean rocks. The maximum age of deposition of these rocks, indicated by U-Pb dating of detrital zircons, is ca. 700 Ma and their minimum age is limited by a few monzonitic Cambrian intrusions dated at ca. 500 Ma. The Neoproterozoic bimodal Guro Suite, dated at ca. 850 Ma and composed of felsic and mafic members characterizes the east

  9. Geological evolution of the Antongil Craton, NE Madagascar

    Schofield, D.I.; Thomas, Ronald J.; Goodenough, K.M.; De Waele, B.; Pitfield, P.E.J.; Key, R.M.; Bauer, W.; Walsh, G.J.; Lidke, D.J.; Ralison, A.V.; Rabarimanana, M.; Rafahatelo, J.-M.; Randriamananjara, T.


    The Antongil Craton, along with the Masora and Antananarivo cratons, make up the fundamental Archaean building blocks of the island of Madagascar. They were juxtaposed during the late-Neoproterozoic to early Palaeozoic assembly of Gondwana. In this paper we give a synthesis of the geology of the Antongil Craton and present previously published and new geochemical and U-Pb zircon analyses to provide an event history for its evolution.The oldest rocks in the Antongil Craton form a nucleus of tonalitic gneiss, characteristic of Palaeo-Mesoarchaean cratons globally, including phases dated between 3320 ?? 14. Ma to 3231 ?? 6. Ma and 3187 ?? 2. Ma to 3154 ?? 5. Ma. A series of mafic dykes was intruded into the Mesoarchaean tonalites and a sedimentary succession was deposited on the craton prior to pervasive deformation and migmatisation of the region. The age of deposition of the metasediments has been constrained from a volcanic horizon to around 3178 ?? 2. Ma and subject to migmatisation at around 2597 ?? 49. Ma. A subsequent magmatic episode generated voluminous, weakly foliated granitic rocks, that also included additions from both reworked older crustal material and younger source components. An earlier granodiorite-dominated assemblage, dated between 2570 ?? 18. Ma and 2542 ?? 5. Ma, is largely exposed in xenoliths and more continuously in the northern part of the craton, while a later monzogranite-dominated phase, dated between 2531 ?? 13. Ma and 2513 ?? 0.4. Ma is more widely developed. Together these record the stabilisation of the craton, attested to by the intrusion of a younger dyke swarm, the age of which is constrained by a sample of metagabbro dated at 2147 ?? 6. Ma, providing the first evidence for Palaeoproterozoic rocks from the Antongil Craton.The youngest events recorded in the isotopic record of the Antongil Craton are reflected in metamorphism, neocrystallisation and Pb-loss at 792 ?? 130. Ma to 763 ?? 13. Ma and 553 ?? 68. Ma. These events are

  10. Variations in Moho and Curie depths and heat flow in Eastern and Southeastern Asia

    Li, Chun-Feng; Wang, Jian


    The Eastern and Southeastern Asian regions witness the strongest land-ocean and lithosphere-asthenosphere interactions. The extreme diversity of geological features warrants a unified study for a better understanding of their geodynamic uniqueness and/or ubiquity from a regional perspective. In this paper we have explored a large coverage of potential field data and have detected high resolution Moho and Curie depths in the aforementioned regions. The oldest continental and oceanic domains, i.e. the North China craton and the Pacific and Indian Ocean have been found thermally perturbed by events probably linked to small-scale convection or serpentinization in the mantle and to numerous volcanic seamounts and ridges. The thermal perturbation has also been observed in proximity of the fossil ridge of the western Philippine Sea Basin, which shows anomalously small Curie depths. The western Pacific marginal seas have the lowest Moho temperature, with Curie depths generally larger than Moho depths. The contrary is true in most parts of easternmost Eurasian continent. Magmatic processes feeding the Permian Emeishan large igneous province could have also been genetically linked to deep mantle/crustal processes beneath the Sichuan Basin. The regionally elongated magnetic features and small Curie depths along the Triassic Yangtze-Indochina plate boundary suggest that the igneous province could be caused by tectonic processes along plate margins, rather than by a deep mantle plume. At the same time, we interpret the Caroline Ridge, the boundary between the Pacific and the Caroline Sea, as a structure having a continental origin, rather than as hotspot or arc volcanism. The surface heat flow is primarily modulated by a deep isotherm through thermal conduction. This concordance is emphasized along many subduction trenches, where zones of large Curie depths often correspond with low heat flow. Local or regional surface heat flow variations cannot be faithfully used in inferring

  11. Construction and destruction of some North American cratons

    Snyder, D. B.; Humphreys, G.


    Construction histories of Archean cratons remain poorly understood; their destruction is even less clear because of, by definition, its rarity. By assembling geophysical and geochemical data in 3-D lithosphere models, a clearer understanding of the geometry of major structures within the Rae, Slave and Wyoming cratons of central North America is now possible. Little evidence exists of subducted slabs similar to modern oceanic lithosphere in these construction histories whereas underthrusting and wedging of proto-continental lithosphere is inferred from multiple dipping discontinuities. Archean continental building blocks may resemble the modern lithosphere of Ontong-Java-Hikurangi oceanic plateau. Radiometric dating of xenoliths provides estimates of rock types and ages at depth beneath sparse kimberlite occurrences. These ages can be correlated to surface rocks. The 3.6-2.6 Ga Rae, Slave and Wyoming cratons comprise smaller continental terranes that 'cratonized' during a granitic bloom at 2.61-2.55 ga. Cratonization probably represents the final differentiation of early crust into a relatively homogeneous, uniformly thin (35-42 km), tonalite-trondhjemite-granodiorite crust with pyroxenite layers near the Moho atop depleted lithospheric mantle. Peak thermo-tectonic events at 1.86-1.7 Ga broadly metasomatized, mineralized and recrystallized mantle and lower crustal rocks, apparently making mantle peridotite more 'fertile' and conductive by introducing or concentrating sulfides or graphite throughout the lithosphere at 80-120 km depths. This metasomatism may have also weakened the lithosphere or made it more susceptible to tectonic or chemical erosion. The arrival of the subducted Shatsky Rise conjugate at the Wyoming craton at 65-75 Ma appears to have eroded and displaced the thus weakened base of the craton below 140-160 km. This replaced old refertilized continental mantle with new depleted oceanic mantle. Is this the same craton?

  12. 峡东埃迪卡拉系陡山沱组稳定碳同位素记录及其年代地层意义%Stable isotope records of the Ediacaran Doushantuo Formation in the eastern Yangtze Gorges and its significance for choronostratigraphy

    陈孝红; 周鹏; 张保民; 王传尚


    提基于峡东秭归青林口、泗溪和宜昌晓峰河埃迪卡拉系下部陡山沱组剖面岩石、层序和精细的碳同位素地层研究,在埃迪卡拉系下部陡山沱组底部、下部、中部、上部和顶部分别识别出5次以灰岩出现或黑色页岩增厚为标志的海侵事件,划分出5个可以进行区域对比的三级层序,自下而上分别命名为BDSS,LDSS,MDSS,UDSS和TDSS。以层序界面为对比标志,峡东埃迪卡拉纪不同古地理部位碳同位素组成变化的对比显示峡东埃迪卡拉系陡山沱组中内部发育5次可以进行区域乃至全球对比的碳同位素负异常,分别是分布在BDSS下部的SN1,LDSS上部的SN2,MDSS上部和顶部的SN3和SN4,以及分布在UDSS上部的SN5。其中SN1和SN4碳同位素负偏离最为明显,最小δ13C分别达到−4‰~−5‰和−9‰~−10‰,分别与Marinoan冰期上覆盖帽白云岩以及Gaskier冰碛沉积上、下地层中的碳同位素组成特点接近。SN4是埃迪卡拉系最晚冰期的产物。与SN1是埃迪卡拉系底界划分对比的标志相对比,SN4的出现应该是埃迪卡拉系内部再划分中另一个不可忽视的界线标志。%The litho-, sequence and high-resolution stable isotopic stratigraphy of the Lower Eidacaran Doushantuo Formation in the Qinglingkou segment as well as Zigui, Xiaofeng and Sixi segments of Yichang were studied in this paper. Five transgressive events characterized by the occurrence of limestone or thickened black shale and five third-order sequences in ascending order named BDSS, LDSS, MDSS, UDSS and TDSS were recognized in the base, lower, middle, upper and top parts of the Lower Eidacaran Doushantou Formation. According to the features of the sequence boundary, the correlations of theδ13C profile between different geographic positions of the Eidiacara Doushantuo Formation in the eastern Yangtze Gorges indicate that there are five negativeδ13C excursions, which are

  13. Correlations between the North China Craton and the Indian Shield: Constraints from regional metallogeny

    Caifeng Li


    Full Text Available The correlation between the North China Craton (NCC and the Indian Shield (IND has been a hot topic in recent years. On the basis of ore deposit databases, the NCC and IND have shown broad similarity in metallogenesis from the middle Archaean to the Mesoproterozoic. The two blocks both have three major metallogenic systems: (1 the Archaean BIF metallogenic system; (2 the Paleoproterozoic Cu-Pb-Zn metallogenic system; and (3 the Mesoproterozoic Fe-Pb-Zn system. In the north margin of the NCC and the west margin of the IND, the Archaean BIF-Au-Cu-Pb-Zn deposits had the same petrogenesis and host rocks, the Paleoproterozoic Cu-Pb-Zn deposits were controlled by active belts, and the Mesoproterozoic Fe-Pb-Zn deposits were mainly related to multi-stage rifting. Matching regional mineralization patterns and geological features has established the continental assembly referred to as “NCWI”, an acronym for the north margin of the NCC (NC and the west margin of the IND (WI during the middle Archaean to the Mesoproterozoic. In this assembly, the available geological and metallogenic data from the Eastern Block and active belts of NC fit those from the Dharwar craton and the Aravalli–Delhi–Vindhyan belt of WI, respectively. Moreover, the depositional model and environment of Paleoproterozoic metasedimentary manganese deposits in NCWI implied that the assembly may be located at low latitudes, where the conditions were favorable for dissolving ice and precipitating manganese deposits.

  14. Tectonic Evolution of an Early Precambrian High-Pressure Granulite Belt in the North China Craton


    A large-scale high-pressure granulite belt (HPGB), more than 700 km long, is recognized within the metamorphic basement of the North China craton. In the regional tectonic framework, the Hengshan-Chengde HPGB is located in the central collision belt between the western block and eastern block, and represents the deep crustal structural level. The typical high-pressure granulite (HPG) outcrops are distributed in the Hengshan and Chengde areas. HPGs commonly occur as mafic xenoliths within ductile shear zones, and underwent multipile deformations. To the south, the Hengshan-Chengde HPGB is juxtaposed with the Wutai greenstone belt by several strike-slip shear zones. Preliminary isotopic age dating indicates that HPGs from North China were mainly generated at the end of the Neoarchaean, assocaited with tectonic assembly of the western and esatern blocks.

  15. On the nature and origin of highly-refractory Archean lithosphere: Petrological and geophysical constraints from the Tanzanian craton

    Gibson, S. A.; McMahon, S. C.; Day, J. A.; Dawson, J. B.


    The nature and timescales of garnet formation are important to understanding how subcontinental lithospheric mantle (SCLM) has evolved since the Archean, and also to mantle dynamics, because the presence of garnet greatly influences the density of the lower lithosphere and hence the long-term stability of thick (150 to 220 km) subcratonic lithosphere. Nevertheless, the widespread occurrence of garnet in the SCLM remains one of the 'holy grails' of mantle petrology. Garnets found in mantle xenoliths from the eastern margin of the Tanzanian Craton (Lashaine) have diverse compositions and provide major constraints on how the underlying deep (120 to 160 km) mantle evolved during the last 3 billion years. Certain harzburgite members of the xenolith suite contain the first reported occurrence of pyrope garnets with rare-earth element patterns similar to hypothetical garnets proposed to have formed in the Earth's SCLM during the Archean, prior to metasomatism [Stachel et al., 2004]. These rare ultradepleted low-Cr garnets occur in low temperature (~1050 oC) xenoliths derived from depths of ~120 km and coexist in chemical and textural equilibrium with highly-refractory olivine (Fo95.4) and orthopyroxene (Mg#=96.4). These phases are all more magnesian than generally encountered in global mantle harzburgites and diamond inclusions. The ultradepleted garnets form interconnecting networks around grains of orthopyroxene which give the rocks a banded appearance: we propose that the increase in pressure associated with cratonization may have caused isochemical exsolution of ultradepleted garnet from orthopyroxene. These unique garnets have not previously been identified in global suites of mantle xenoliths or diamond inclusions. We believe they are rare because their low concentrations of trace elements make them readily susceptible to geochemical overprinting. This highly-refractory low-density peridotite may be common in the 'shallow' SCLM but not normally brought to the

  16. Impacts of climate change on glacial water resources and hydrological cycles in the Yangtze River source region,the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau,China:A Progress Report


    annual distribution of runoff in the source region.The annual glacial meltwater runoff in the Yangtze River Source Region is projected to increase by 28.5 percent by 2050 over its 1970 value with the projected temperature increase of 2℃ and a precipitation increase of 29 mm.As a critical source of surface water for agriculture on the eastern Qinghai-Tibet Plateau and beyond,the mass retreat of glaciers in the Yangtze River Source Region will have enormous negative impacts on farming and livestock-raising ac-tivities in upper Yangtze River watershed,as well as on the viability of present ecosystems and even socioeconomic development in the upper Yangtze River Basin.

  17. Prediction and prevention of the impacts of sea level rise on the Yangtze River Delta and its adjacent areas


    The Yangtze River Delta region is characterized by high density of population and rapidly developing economy. There are low lying coastal plain and deltaic plain in this region. Thus, the study area could be highly vulnerable to accelerated sea level rise caused by global warming. This paper deals with the scenarios of the relative sea level rise in the early half period of the 21st century in the study area. The authors suggested that relative sea level would rise 25 50 cm by the year 2050 in the study area, of which the magnitude of relative sea level rise in the Yangtze River Delta would double the perspective worldwide average. The impacts of sea level rise include: (i) exacerbation of coastline recession in several sections and vertical erosion of tidal flat, and increase in length of eroding coastline; (ii) decrease in area of tidal flat and coastal wetland due to erosion and inundation; (iii) increase in frequency and intensity of storm surge, which would threaten the coastal protection works; (iv) reduction of drainage capacity due to backwater effect in the Lixiahe lowland and the eastern lowland of Taihu Lake region, and exacerbation of flood and waterlogging disasters; and (v) increase in salt water intrusion into the Yangtze Estuary. Comprehensive evaluation of sea level rise impacts shows that the Yangtze River Delta and eastern lowland of Taihu Lake region, especially Shanghai Municipality, belong in the district in the extreme risk category and the next is the northern bank of Hangzhou Bay, the third is the abandoned Yellow River delta, and the district at low risk includes the central part of north Jiangsu coastal plain and Lixiahe lowland.

  18. Sources and petrogenesis of the Cenozoic alkali basalts in Hebi, eastern North China Craton: Geochemical and Sr-Nd-Hf isotopic evidence%鹤壁新生代玄武岩源区及成因:地球化学和Sr-Nd-Hf同位素证据

    朱昱升; 侯广顺; 杨进辉


    大陆碱性玄武岩是研究大陆地慢、软流圈和岩石圈、壳幔相互作用的窗口.鹤壁碱性玄武岩为华北中部新生代玄武岩重要组成部分,其源区和成因对了解新生代期间华北克拉通中部岩石圈地幔改造提供了重要依据.鹤壁新生代玄武岩主要为碱性玄武岩,贫硅(SiO2 =45.0%~47.8%)富锾(MgO =7.3%~8.5%)和全碱(Na2O+K2O=4.6%~6.3%),富集轻稀土元素,轻、重稀土元素强烈分馏[(La/Yb)N=15.1~21.2],无明显Eu异常.富集大离子亲石元素(LILEs)和高场强元素(HFSEs).在原始地幔标准化蛛网图上,具有明显的Nb、Ta正异常,其中Nb/U=35 ~ 48、La/Nb=0.4~0.7、Ba/Nb=3.6 ~11.全岩的Sr、Nd、Hf同位素比值分别为87Sr/86 Sri=0.7036 ~0.7044,εNd(t)=+0.4~+5.4,εHf(t)=+5.0~+9.7,显示鹤壁新生代玄武岩具有洋岛玄武岩(OIB)的地球化学特征和同位素组成.岩相学特征和地球化学特征表明鹤壁新生代玄武岩是软流圈地幔(> 80km)小程度部分熔融形成的熔体与富集的岩石圈地幔相互作用后的结果,地壳物质混染和结晶分离作用不显著.%Continental alkali basalts are the key to understand the nature of the subcontinental lithospheric mantle and the interaction among the crust, lithospheric mantle and asthenosphere. Cenozoic alkali basalts, located in the central North China Craton, are main components of Cenozoic basalt province in the North China Craton. Their source and petrogenesis would provide complement evidence for studying the modification of lithospheric mantle beneath the central North China Craton during Cenozoic. The Hebi basalts are basanites and alkali olivine basalts, belonging to alkaline rocks, with SiO2 contents of 45. 0%~47. 8% , MgO concentrations of 7.3% ~8.5% , and Na2O + K2O abundances of4.6% ~6.3%. They are enriched in light rare earth elements (REEs) with highly fractionated LREEs and HREEs ( (La/Yb)N = 15. 1 ~ 21. 2) . In primitive mantle

  19. Lithospheric thermal structure of the North China Craton and its geodynamic implications

    Liu, Qiongying; Zhang, Linyou; Zhang, Chao; He, Lijuan


    We conduct 2-D numerical modeling of the lithospheric thermal structure of the North China Craton (NCC) on basis of twenty-four crustal velocity structure profiles. About five hundred heat flow data constitute the principal constraints for our modeling. The modeling results demonstrate marked lateral variations in thermal regime of the crust-lithosphere system in the NCC. The average mantle heat flow decreases from 38 ± 5 mW m-2 under the Bohai Bay Basin in the eastern NCC to 27 ± 4 mW m-2 under the Ordos Basin in the western NCC, characterized by a 'cold crust but hot mantle' structure and a 'hot crust but cold mantle' structure, respectively. Thermal lithospheric thickness varies from ∼65 km beneath the Tan-Lu Fault zone to ∼160 km beneath the western and northern Ordos Basin, with similar trend to the seismic lithosphere. However, the disparities in thickness between the thermal and seismic lithosphere are within 20 km beneath the Bohai Bay Basin, but 30-90 km beneath the Shanxi-Weihe Graben and 50-120 km beneath the Ordos Basin. This may imply a westward thickening trend of the rheological boundary layer, which might be attributed to the reducing of asthenosphere viscosity due to hydrous fluid released by dehydration of the subducting Pacific Plate under the eastern NCC. Combined with other pieces of evidence, we suggest that vigorous mantle processes may occur beneath the eastern NCC, whereas the western NCC is relatively stable.

  20. Jiangxinzhou-Emerald on the Yangtze River


    <正>Jiangxinzhou, green as jade and shaped like a green plum, is inlaid on the Yangtze River, in the western part of Jianye District in Nanjing, Jiangsu Province. It is only 6 kilometers away from Xinjiekou, the downtown commercial center, and is separated from the new modern city, the New District of Hexi in Nanjing, with a strip of water. The river with a distant source and long stream is just like the arms of a mother to embrace the green island of 15 kilometers and to nourish the 12,000 residents at the island.

  1. Brittle Deformation in the Ordos Basin in response to the Mesozoic destruction of the North China Craton

    Wang, Q.; Jiang, L.


    Craton is continental block that has been tectonically stable since at least Proterozoic. Some cratons, however, become unstable for some geodynamic reasons. The North China Craton (NCC) is an example. Structure geological, geochemical, and geophysical works have revealed that the NCC was destructed in Cretaceous and that lithosphere thickness beneath the eastern NCC were thinned by 120 km. The present study will focus on deformation of the western NCC, and to understand the effect of the Mesozoic destruction of the North China Craton (NCC). Structural partitioning of the Ordos Basin, which is located in the western NCC, from the eastern NCC occurred during the Mesozoic. Unlike the eastern NCC where many Cretaceous metamorphic core complexes developed, sedimentary cover of the NCC remains nearly horizontal and deformation is manifested by joint. We visited 216 sites of outcrops and got 1928 joints measurements, among which 270 from Jurassic sandstones, 1378 from the Upper Triassic sandstones, 124 from the Middle and Lower Triassic sandstones, and 156 from Paleozoic sandstones. In the interior of the Ordos Basin, joints developed quite well in the Triassic strata, while joints in the Jurassic stata developed weakly and no joint in the Cretaceous strata. The Mesozoic stratigraphic thickness are: 1000 meters for the Lower Triassic, the Middle Triassic sandstone with thickness of 800 meters, 3000 meters for the Upper Triassic, 4000 meters for the Jurassic, and 1100 meters for the Lower Cretaceous. The vertical difference in joint development might be related to the burying depth of the strata: the higher the strata, the smaller the lithostatic stress, and then the weaker the joint. Joints in all stratigraphic levels showed a similar strain direction with the sigma 1 (the maximum pressure stress) vertical and the sigma 3 (the minimum pressure stress) horizontal and running N-S. The unconformity below the Cretaceous further indicates that joints in Jurassic and Triassic

  2. Intensity distribution and effect of the Nov. 9, 1996 earthquake of MS=6.1 in offshore outside the Yangtze River Mouth on the South Korea

    李裕澈; 李德基; 吴锡薰; 尹龙勋


    @@ On Nov. 9, 1996 at 21h56min (Beijing Time), an earthquake of MS=6.1 occurred in offshore outside the Yangtze River Mouth (31o43¢N, 123o04¢E). The shock affected Shanghai City and both Jiangsu and Zhejiang Provinces in China mainly. The shock was felt more strongly in the Yangtze River Mouth and Hangzhou Bay area than in the rest of them, particularly in high buildings of Shanghai City. In addition, the earthquake was felt in South Korea and also stronger in apartments or high buildings. LIU, JIN (1998) and LIU, et al (1999) described effect of the shock on the eastern China. The paper describes the effect of the earthquake on South Korea and the whole intensity distribution in South Korea and eastern China.

  3. The 3-dimensional construction of the Rae craton, central Canada

    Snyder, David B.; Craven, James A.; Pilkington, Mark; Hillier, Michael J.


    Reconstruction of the 3-dimensional tectonic assembly of early continents, first as Archean cratons and then Proterozoic shields, remains poorly understood. In this paper, all readily available geophysical and geochemical data are assembled in a 3-D model with the most accurate bedrock geology in order to understand better the geometry of major structures within the Rae craton of central Canada. Analysis of geophysical observations of gravity and seismic wave speed variations revealed several lithospheric-scale discontinuities in physical properties. Where these discontinuities project upward to correlate with mapped upper crustal geological structures, the discontinuities can be interpreted as shear zones. Radiometric dating of xenoliths provides estimates of rock types and ages at depth beneath sparse kimberlite occurrences. These ages can also be correlated to surface rocks. The 3.6-2.6 Ga Rae craton comprises at least three smaller continental terranes, which "cratonized" during a granitic bloom. Cratonization probably represents final differentiation of early crust into a relatively homogeneous, uniformly thin (35-42 km), tonalite-trondhjemite-granodiorite crust with pyroxenite layers near the Moho. The peak thermotectonic event at 1.86-1.7 Ga was associated with the Hudsonian orogeny that assembled several cratons and lesser continental blocks into the Canadian Shield using a number of southeast-dipping megathrusts. This orogeny metasomatized, mineralized, and recrystallized mantle and lower crustal rocks, apparently making them more conductive by introducing or concentrating sulfides or graphite. Little evidence exists of thin slabs similar to modern oceanic lithosphere in this Precambrian construction history whereas underthrusting and wedging of continental lithosphere is inferred from multiple dipping discontinuities.

  4. The Role of Water in the Stability of Cratonic Keels

    Peslier, Anne H.; Woodland, Alan B.; Bell, David R.; Lazarov, Marina


    Cratons are typically underlain by large, deep, and old lithospheric keels (to greater than 200 km depth, greater than 2.5 Ga old) projecting into the asthenosphere (e.g., Jordan, 1978; Richardson et al., 1984). This has mystified Earth scientists as the dynamic and relatively hot asthenosphere should have eroded away these keels over time (e.g., Sleep, 2003; O'Neill et al., 2008; Karato, 2010). Three key factors have been invoked to explain cratonic root survival: 1) Low density makes the cratonic mantle buoyant (e.g., Poudjom Djomani et al., 2001). 2) Low temperatures (e.g., Pollack, 1986; Boyd, 1987), and 3) low water contents (e.g., Pollack, 1986), would make cratonic roots mechanically strong. Here we address the mechanism of the longevity of continental mantle lithosphere by focusing on the water parameter. Although nominally anhydrous , olivine, pyroxene and garnet can accommodate trace amounts of water in the form of H bonded to structural O in mineral defects (e.g., Bell and Rossman, 1992). Olivine softens by orders of magnitude if water (1-1000 ppm H2O) is added to its structure (e.g., Mackwell et al., 1985). Our recent work has placed constraints on the distribution of water measured in peridotite minerals in the cratonic root beneath the Kaapvaal in southern Africa (Peslier et al., 2010). At P greater than 5 GPa, the water contents of pyroxene remain relatively constant while those of olivine systematically decrease from 50 to less than 10 ppm H2O at 6.4 GPa. We hypothesized that at P greater than 6.4 GPa, i.e. at the bottom of the cratonic lithosphere, olivines are essentially dry (greater than 10 ppm H2O). As olivine likely controls the rheology of the mantle, we calculated that the dry olivines could be responsible for a contrast in viscosity between cratonic lithosphere and surrounding asthenosphere large enough to explain the resistance of cratonic root to asthenospheric delamination.

  5. Multi-stage crustal growth and cratonization of the North China Craton

    Mingguo Zhai


    The ∼2.5 Ga metamorphic-magmatic event is stronger than in most other cratons in the world. How to understand the geological significance of the 2.5 Ga event? The following points are emphasized: (1 nearly all old rocks >2.5 Ga underwent metamorphism at ∼2.52–2.5 Ga; (2 Archean basement rocks in the NCC experienced strong partial melting and migmatization; (3 granitoid rocks derived from partial melting include potassium granites, TTG granites and monzonites. These granitoids rocks intruded both the Archean greenstone belts and micro-blocks; (4 ∼2.5 Ga mafic dikes (amphibolites, granitic dikes (veins and syenitic-ultramafic dykes are also developed. Therefore, we suggest an assembly model that all micro-blocks in the NCC were welded together by late Archean greenstone belts at the end of the late Neoarchean. We also propose that the various micro-blocks were surrounded by small ocean basins, and the old continental crust and the oceanic crust were hotter than today. Subduction and collision were on much smaller scales as compared to the Phanerozoic plate tectonic regime, although the tectonic style and mechanisms were more or less similar. The formation of crustal melt granites is one of the processes of cratonization, inducing generation of stable upper and lower crustal layers. This process also generated an upper crust of more felsic composition and a lower crust of more mafic composition, due to molten residual materials and some underplated gabbros.

  6. Geochemistry of khondalites from the central portion of North China craton (NCC): implications for the continental cratonization in the Neoarchean


    Within the high-grade metamorphic basement, the central portion of North China Craton (NCC), a group of Neoarchean khondalites (KS) is identified. They are characterized by large ion lithophile elements (LILE) enrichment, lower abundances of Zr, Hf and Sr. Their rare earth element (REE) distribution has significant LREE enrichment and negative Eu anomalies. The protoliths of KS are interpreted as feldspathic quartzite, shale or pelite and carbonite, deposited in a shallow sea upon cratonic shelf distant from the land. KS's source region might be dominated by granitic rocks, with a minor amount of TTG, underwent comparatively severe chemical weathering. Considering relevent tectonic constraints, we suggest that khondalites from central portion of NCC, an important metamophosed sedimentary cover, are the most significant exogenetic marker of Neoarchean continental cratonization for NCC.

  7. Physico-chemical constraints on cratonic lithosphere discontinuities

    Aulbach, Sonja; Rondenay, Stéphane; Huismans, Ritske


    The origins of the mid-lithospheric discontinuity (MLD) and lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary (LAB) have received much attention over the recent years. Peculiarities of cratonic lithosphere construction - compositional and rheological stratification due to thickening in collisional settings or by plume subcretion, multiple metasomatic overprints due to longevity - offer a variety of possibilities for the generation of discontinuities. Interconnected small degrees of conductive partial melt (carbonate-rich melts, such as carbonatites and kimberlites, or highly alkaline melts) at the cratonic LAB, which produce seismic discontinuities, may be generated in the presence of volatiles. These depress the peridotite solidus sufficiently to intersect the mantle adiabat at depths near the cratonic LAB at ~160-220 km, i.e. above the depth of metal saturation where carbonatite becomes unstable. The absence of agreement between the different seismic and magnetotelluric estimates for the depth of the LAB beneath Kaapvaal may be due to impingement of a plume, leading to a pervasively, but heterogeneously metasomatised ('asthenospherised') hot and deep root. Such a root and hot sublithosphere may yield conflicting seismic-thermal-geochemical depths for the LAB. The question arises whether the chemical boundary layer should be defined as above or below the asthenospherised part of the SCLM, which has preserved isotopic, compositional (non-primitive olivine forsterite content) and physical evidence (e.g. from teleseismic tomography and receiver functions) for a cratonic heritage and which therefore is still distinguishable from the asthenospheric mantle. If cratonic lithosphere overlies anomalously hot mantle for extended periods of time, the LAB may be significantly thinned, aided by penetration of relatively high-degree Fe-rich partial melts, as has occurred beneath the Tanzanian craton. Xenoliths from the deep Slave craton show little evidence for 'asthenospherisation'. Its root

  8. A new conception on the formation of the first bend of Yangtze River: its relations with Eocene magmatic activities


    Based on field observations, the author proposes a new understanding on the formation of the first bend of the Yangtze River. The relationship between the formation of the first bend of the Yangtze River and Eocene magmatic activity is expounded, suggesting that the first bend of the Yangtze River is the result from choking of the strong magmatic activity in Eocene. As a result, the upstream became a natural reservoir, whose riverside between Mt. Yulong and Mt. Haba was burst,guiding Jinshajiang River running eastward. At the same time, the drastic uplift of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau led to the deep dissection of the river cut down the channel, resulting in the formation of the Tiger Leaping Gorge. The magnitude of uplift in the study area (located in the eastern of the Tibetan Plateau) is calculated. Taking Mt. Yulong as a base, the magnitude of lift is 3,300 m from Eocene to Pliocene, adding 700 m since Pleistocene, totaling up to 4,000 m or so.


    Thybo, Hans; Soliman, Mohammad Youssof Ahmad; Artemieva, Irina


    present a new seismic model for the structure of the crust and lithospheric mantle of the Kalahari Craton, constrained by seismic receiver functions and finite-frequency tomography based on the seismological data from the South Africa Seismic Experiment (SASE). The combination of these two methods...

  10. The application of Yangtze Estuary Tidal Wetlands Geographic Information System

    WANGJun; CHENZhenlou; XUShiyuan; WANGDongqi; LIUJie


    Yangtze Estuary Tidal Wetlands Geographic Information System (YETWGIS) is a comprehensive software system for environmental management and decision of Yangtze estuary tidal wetlands. Based on MapObjects components technology, Data Mining technology, mathematical modeling method and Visual Basic language, this software system has many functions such as displaying, editing, querying and searching, spatial statistics and analysis, thematic map compiling, and environmental quality evaluation. This paper firstly outlined the system structure, key techniques, and achieving methods of YETWGIS, and then, described the core modules (the thematic map compiling module and environmental quality evaluation model module) in detail. In addition, based on information entropy model, it thoroughly discussed the methods of environmental quality evaluation and indicators' weight calculation. Finally, by using YETWGIS, this paper analyzed the spatial distribution characteristics of Heavy Metal and Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs) of the Yangtze estuary tidal wetlands in 2002, and evaluated the environmental quality of the Yangtze estuary tidal wetlands in 2003.

  11. Paleoproterozoic, High-Metamorphic, Metasedimentary Units of Siberian Craton



    Sensitive, high-resointion ion microprobe zircon U-Pb ages of Paleoproterozoic, high-grade,metasedimentary rocks from the south-western part of the Siberian Craton are reported. Early Precambrian, high-grade complexes, including garnet-biotite, hypersthene-biotite, and cordierite-bearing gneisses compose the Irkut terrane of the Sharyzhalgay Uplift. Protoliths of studied gneisses correspond to terrigenous sediments, ranging from greywacke to shale. The paragneiss model Nd ages of 2.4-3.1 Ga indicate Archean-to-Paleoproterozoic source provinces. Zircons from gneisses show core-rim textures in cathodoluminescence (CL) image. Round or irregular shaped cores indicate detrital origin. Structureless rims with low Th/U are metamorphic in origin. The three age groups of detrital cores are: ≥2.7, -2.3, and 1.95-2 Ga. The ages of metamorphic rims range from 1.86 to 1.85 Ga;therefore, the sediments were deposited between 1.95 and 1.86 Ga and derived from Archean and Paleoproterozoic source rocks. It should be noted that Paleoproterozoic metasedimentary rocks of the Irkut Block are not unique. High-grade metaterrigenons sediments, with model Nd ages ranging from 2.3 to 2.5 Ga, are widely distributed within the AIdan and Anabar Shields of the Siberian Craton. The same situation is observed in the North China Craton, where metasedimentary rocks contain detrital igneous zircon grains with ages ranging from 3 to 2.1 Ga (Wan et al., 2006). All of these sedimentary units were subjected to Late Paleoproterozoic metamorphism. In the Siberian Craton, the Paleoproterozoic sedimentary deposits are possibly marked passive margins of the Early Precambrian crustal blocks, and their high-grade metamorphism was related to the consolidation of the Siberian Craton.

  12. The structure of the Amazonian craton: Available geophysical evidence

    Rosa, João Willy Corrêa; Rosa, José Wilson Corrêa; Fuck, Reinhardt A.


    The Amazonian craton, which covers a large area of South America, and is thought to have been stable since the end of the Mesoproterozoic, has recently benefited from a series of regional geophysical surveys. The Amazonian craton comprises the northern Guyana shield and the southern Central Brazil shield. It has become the main subject of seismological studies aiming to determine crustal thickness. Moho thickness maps that cover a large part of the South American continent summarize these studies. Receiver function studies, aided by surface wave dispersion tomography, were also useful tools applied in the region over the past decade. These have been improved by the addition of temporary and permanent regional seismological arrays and stations. An interesting NNW-SSE Moho depth anomaly, pointing to crustal thickening of up to 60 km in the central Guyana shield and a 50 km thick anomaly of the southern Central Brazil shield were recently identified. Areas with crustal thickening correspond to Paleoproterozoic magmatic arcs. The upper mantle seismic anisotropy in part of the region has been determined from SKS splitting studies. The currently available seismic anisotropy information shows that the orientation of the determined anisotropic axis is related to the frozen in anisotropy hypothesis for the Amazonian craton. The orientation of the anisotropic axis shows no relation to the current South American plate motion in the Amazonian craton. Most recently, detailed information for the two shields has benefited from a series of high-resolution, regional aerogeophysical surveys, made available by CPRM, the Brazilian Geological Survey. In addition to the mentioned contribution from seismology for imaging deeper crustal structures, regional gravity surveys have been expanded, adding to previous Bouguer anomaly maps, and deep drilling information from early exploration efforts have been compiled for the Amazon basin, which covers the Amazonian craton separating the Guyana

  13. Cover sequences at the northern margin of the Antongil Craton, NE Madagascar

    Bauer, W.; Walsh, G.J.; De Waele, B.; Thomas, Ronald J.; Horstwood, M.S.A.; Bracciali, L.; Schofield, D.I.; Wollenberg, U.; Lidke, D.J.; Rasaona, I.T.; Rabarimanana, M.H.


    The island of Madagascar is a collage of Precambrian, generally high-grade metamorphic basement domains, that are locally overlain by unmetamorphosed sedimentary rocks and poorly understood low-grade metasediments. In the Antalaha area of NE Madagascar, two distinct cover sequences rest on high-grade metamorphic and igneous basement rocks of the Archaean Antongil craton and the Neoproterozoic Bemarivo belt. The older of these two cover sequences, the Andrarona Group, consists of low-grade metasedimentary rocks. The younger sequence, the newly defined Ampohafana Formation, consists of unmetamorphosed sedimentary rocks. The Andrarona Group rests on Neoarchaean granites and monzogranites of the Antongil craton and consists of a basal metagreywacke, thick quartzites and an upper sequence of sericite-chlorite meta-mudstones, meta-sandstones and a volcaniclastic meta-sandstone. The depositional age of the volcaniclastic meta-sandstone is constrained in age by U–Pb laser-ablation ICP-MS analyses of euhedral zircons to 1875 ± 8 Ma (2σ). Detrital zircons of Archaean and Palaeoproterozoic age represent an input from the Antongil craton and a newly defined Palaeoproterozoic igneous unit, the Masindray tonalite, which underlies the Andrarona Group, and yielded a U–Pb zircon age of 2355 ± 11 Ma (2σ), thus constraining the maximum age of deposition of the basal part of the Andrarona Group. The Andrarona Group shows a low-grade metamorphic overprint in the area near Antalaha; illite crystallinity values scatter around 0.17°Δ2Θ CuKα, which is within the epizone. The Ampohafana Formation consists of undeformed, polymict conglomerate, cross-bedded sandstone, and red mudstone. An illite crystallinity value of >0.25°Δ2Θ CuKα obtained from the rocks is typical of the diagenetic zone. Occurrences of rhyodacite pebbles in the Ampohafana Formation and the intrusion of a basaltic dyke suggest a deposition in a WSW-ENE-trending graben system during the opening of the Indian

  14. Emergency Management of Maritime Accidents in the Yangtze River: Problems, Practice and Prospects

    Xin Ping Yan


    Full Text Available Maritime accidents have received considerable attentions due to the enormous property damage, casualties and serious environmental pollution. This paper first makes statistical analysis of the different types of maritime accidents in the period of 2012 to 2014 in the Yangtze River. Second, the problems of emergency management of maritime accidents are also proposed from the analysis of the major accident “Eastern Star”.. Afterwards, four practice cases, including decision support for maritime accidents, emergency resource allocation, emergency simulation system and effectiveness of emergency management, are introduced to present the insights gained from these practices. Last, in order to address these problems, this paper proposes that an artificial societies, Computational experiments, and Parallel execution (ACP approach should be introduced to establish an improved management system for maritime accidents in the future, and an ACP based maritime accident emergency management framework is proposed.

  15. Multi-stage crustal growth and cratonization of the North China Craton

    Mingguo Zhai


    The North China Craton (NCC) has a complicated evolutionary history with multi-stage crustal growth, recording nearly all important geological events in the early geotectonic history of the Earth. Our studies propose that the NCC can be divided into six micro-blocks with >w3.0e3.8 Ga old continental nuclei that are surrounded by Neoarchean greenstone belts (GRB). The micro-blocks are also termed as high-grade regions (HGR) and are mainly composed of orthogneisses with minor gabbros and BIF-bearing supracrustal beds or lenses, all of which underwent strong deformation and metamorphism of granu-lite-to high-grade amphibolite-facies. The micro-blocks are, in turn, from east to west, the Jiaoliao (JL), Qianhuai (QH), Ordos (ODS), Ji’ning (JN) and Alashan (ALS) blocks, and Xuchang (XCH) in the south. Recent studies led to a consensus that the basement of the NCC was composed of different blocks/ter-ranes that were finally amalgamated to form a coherent craton at the end of Neoarchean. Zircon U-Pb data show that TTG gneisses in the HGRs have two prominent age peaks at ca. 2.9e2.7 and 2.6e2.5 Ga which may correspond to the earliest events of major crustal growth in the NCC. Hafnium isotopic model ages range from ca. 3.8 to 2.5 Ga and mostly are in the range of 3.0e2.6 Ga with a peak at 2.82 Ga. Recent studies revealed a much larger volume of TTG gneisses in the NCC than previously considered, with a dominant ca. 2.7 Ga magmatic zircon ages. Most of the ca. 2.7 Ga TTG gneisses un-derwent metamorphism in 2.6e2.5 Ga as indicated by ubiquitous metamorphic rims around the cores of magmatic zircon in these rocks. Abundant ca. 2.6e2.5 Ga orthogneisses have Hf-in-zircon and Nd whole-rock model ages mostly around 2.9e2.7 Ga and some around 2.6e2.5 Ga, indicating the timing of pro-tolith formation or extraction of the protolith magma was from the mantle. Therefore, it is suggested that the 2.6e2.5 Ga TTGs probably represent a coherent event of continental accretion and major

  16. On the Origin of Cratonic Sag Basins: Did They Sag?

    Morgan, Jason P.


    Cratonic sag basins are regions of long-lived, extremely slow (~20-30 m/Myr) shallow water and terrestrial sediment accumulation that have no striking signs of tectonic activity (cf. Allen and Armitage, 2012). In their evolution, hundreds of Myr-long periods of slow sediment accumulation are separated by unconformities. The mechanisms for their formation resist geodynamic characterization by other common hypotheses for basin subsidence because of their extremely slow subsidence and lack of evident tectonic activity. I propose their dynamics are better understood within the geodynamic context of continental cratons that ride over a ~250km-deep sub-asthenospheric mantle with lateral temperature variations between a few wide and persistent 1000s-km broad ~1400C 'superplume' upwelling mantle structures (e.g. currently beneath S. African Atlantic and French Polynesia) and prevalent surrounding ~1150C average temperature sub-asthenospheric mantle. When continents pass over typical mantle plumes, buoyant plume material tends to drain beneath the continent along junctions between cratons where the lithosphere is relatively thin, keeping the lithosphere over regions where plume material drains hotter than the average temperature of ~250km-deep mantle. (e.g., the Cameroon Line.) Regions where melting of plume material occurs during decompression associated with either plume ascent or lateral drainage beneath continents are associated with the addition of a buoyant rind of more depleted mantle to the continent. In addition, regions where plume material can pond in a relatively thin sub-lithospheric 'anti-basin' beneath a continent, or that stay stationary for long times over super plumes will heat to a lithospheric basal temperature of ~1400C instead of ~1150C, with ~700m of associated uplift. (e.g., Southern Africa). In this scenario (cf. Yamamoto, Morgan, and Morgan in "Plumes, Plates, and Paradigms"), it is the relative plume-passage-induced uplift of arches between

  17. The elusive lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary (LAB) beneath cratons

    Eaton, David W.; Darbyshire, Fiona; Evans, Rob L.; Grütter, Herman; Jones, Alan G.; Yuan, Xiaohui


    The lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary (LAB) is a first-order structural discontinuity that accommodates differential motion between tectonic plates and the underlying mantle. Although it is the most extensive type of plate boundary on the planet, its definitive detection, especially beneath cratons, is proving elusive. Different proxies are used to demarcate the LAB, depending on the nature of the measurement. Here we compare interpretations of the LAB beneath three well studied Archean regions: the Kaapvaal craton, the Slave craton and the Fennoscandian Shield. For each location, xenolith and xenocryst thermobarometry define a mantle stratigraphy, as well as a steady-state conductive geotherm that constrains the minimum pressure (depth) of the base of the thermal boundary layer (TBL) to 45-65 kbar (170-245 km). High-temperature xenoliths from northern Lesotho record Fe-, Ca- and Ti-enrichment, grain-size reduction and globally unique supra-adiabatic temperatures at 53-61 kbar (200-230 km depth), all interpreted to result from efficient advection of asthenosphere-derived melts and heat into the TBL. Using a recently compiled suite of olivine creep parameters together with published geotherms, we show that beneath cratons the probable deformation mechanism near the LAB is dislocation creep, consistent with widely observed seismic and electrical anisotropy fabrics. If the LAB is dry, it is probably diffuse (> 50 km thick) and high levels of shear stress (> 2 MPa or > 20 bar) are required to accommodate plate motion. If the LAB is wet, lower shear stress is required to accommodate plate motion and the boundary may be relatively sharp (≤ 20 km thick). The seismic LAB beneath cratons is typically regarded as the base of a high-velocity mantle lid, although some workers infer its location based on a distinct change in seismic anisotropy. Surface-wave inversion studies provide depth-constrained velocity models, but are relatively insensitive to the sharpness of the LAB

  18. Neoproterozoic extension in the greater dharwar craton: A reevaluation of the "betsimisaraka suture" in madagascar

    Tucker, R.D.; Roig, J.-Y.; Delor, C.; Amlin, Y.; Goncalves, P.; Rabarimanana, M.H.; Ralison, A.V.; Belcher, R.W.


    The Precambrian shield of Madagascar is reevaluated with recently compiled geological data and new U-Pb sensitive high-resolution ion microprobe (SHRIMP) geochronology. Two Archean domains are recognized: the eastern Antongil-Masora domain and the central Antananarivo domain, the latter with distinctive belts of metamafic gneiss and schist (Tsaratanana Complex). In the eastern domain, the period of early crust formation is extended to the Paleo-Mesoarchean (3.32-3.15 Ga) and a supracrustal sequence (Fenerivo Group), deposited at 3.18 Ga and metamorphosed at 2.55 Ga, is identified. In the central domain, a Neoarchean period of high-grade metamorphism and anatexis that affected both felsic (Betsiboka Suite) and mafic gneisses (Tsaratanana Complex) is documented. We propose, therefore, that the Antananarivo domain was amalgamated within the Greater Dharwar Craton (India + Madagascar) by a Neoarchean accretion event (2.55-2.48 Ga), involving emplacement of juvenile igneous rocks, high-grade metamorphism, and the juxtaposition of disparate belts of mafic gneiss and schist (metagreenstones). The concept of the "Betsimisaraka suture" is dispelled and the zone is redefined as a domain of Neoproterozoic metasedimentary (Manampotsy Group) and metaigneous rocks (Itsindro-Imorona Suite) formed during a period of continental extension and intrusive igneous activity between 840 and 760 Ma. Younger orogenic convergence (560-520 Ma) resulted in east-directed overthrusting throughout south Madagascar and steepening with local inversion of the domain in central Madagascar. Along part of its length, the Manampotsy Group covers the boundary between the eastern and central Archean domains and is overprinted by the Angavo-Ifanadiana high-strain zone that served as a zone of crustal weakness throughout Cretaceous to Recent times.

  19. Density structure of the cratonic mantle in southern Africa

    Artemieva, Irina; Vinnik, Lev P.


    . An unusually high topography may be caused by a low density (high depletion) of the cratonic lithospheric mantle and/or by the dynamic support of the mantle with origin below the depth of isostatic compensation (assumed here to be at the lithosphere base). We use free-board constraints to examine the relative...... contributions of the both factors to surface topography in the cratons of southern Africa. Our analysis takes advantage of the SASE seismic experiment which provided high resolution regional models of the crustal thickness.We calculate the model of density structure of the lithospheric mantle in southern Africa...... and show that it has an overall agreement with xenolith-based data for lithospheric terranes of different ages. Density of lithospheric mantle has significant short-wavelength variations in all tectonic blocks of southern Africa and has typical SPT values of ca. 3.37-3.41g/cm3 in the Cape Fold and Namaqua...

  20. Construction and destruction of some North American cratons

    Snyder, David B.; Humphreys, Eugene; Pearson, D. Graham


    Construction histories of Archean cratons remain poorly understood; their destruction is even less clear because of its rarity, but metasomatic weakening is an essential precursor. By assembling geophysical and geochemical data in 3-D lithosphere models, a clearer understanding of the geometry of major structures within the Rae, Slave and Wyoming cratons of central North America is now possible. Little evidence exists of subducted slab-like geometries similar to modern oceanic lithosphere in these construction histories. Underthrusting and wedging of proto-continental lithosphere is inferred from multiple dipping discontinuities, emphasizing the role of lateral accretion. Archean continental building blocks may resemble the modern lithosphere of oceanic plateau, but they better match the sort of refractory crust expected to have formed at Archean ocean spreading centres. Radiometric dating of mantle xenoliths provides estimates of rock types and ages at depth beneath sparse kimberlite occurrences, and these ages can be correlated to surface rocks. The 3.6-2.6 Ga Rae, Slave and Wyoming cratons stabilized during a granitic bloom at 2.61-2.55 Ga. This stabilization probably represents the final differentiation of early crust into a relatively homogeneous, uniformly thin (35-42 km), tonalite-trondhjemite-granodiorite crust with pyroxenite layers near the Moho atop depleted lithospheric mantle. Peak thermo-tectonic events at 1.86-1.7 Ga broadly metasomatized, mineralized and recrystallized mantle and lower crustal rocks, apparently making mantle peridotite more 'fertile' and more conductive by introducing or concentrating sulfides or graphite at 80-120 km depths. This metasomatism may have also weakened the lithosphere or made it more susceptible to tectonic or chemical erosion. Late Cretaceous flattening of Farallon lithosphere that included the Shatsky Rise conjugate appears to have weakened, eroded and displaced the base of the Wyoming craton below 140-160 km. This

  1. SHRIMP zircon U-Pb ages for the Paleoproterozoic metamorphic-magmatic events in the southeast margin of the North China Craton

    GUO SuShu; LI ShuGuang


    A garnet-pyroxene bearing amphibolite as a xenolith hosted by the Mesozoic igneous rocks from Xuzhou-Suzhou area was dated by zircon SHRIMP U-Pb method, which yields a metamorphic age of Archean metamorphic complex named Wuhe group in the Bengbu uplift give a metamorphic U-Pb age Bengbu uplift give a magma crystallization U-Pb age of 2054 ± 22 Ma. Both the Xuzhou-Suzhou area and Bengbu uplift are located in the southeastern margin of the North China Craton. Therefore, these ages indicate that there is a Paleoproterozoic tectonic zone in the southeastern margin of the North China Craton, and its metamorphic and magmatic ages are consistent with those of the other three Paleoproterozoic tectonic zones in the North China Craton. In view of the large scale sinistral strike-slip movement occurred at the Mesozoic along the Tan-Lu fault zone, the position of the eastern Shandong area, which is a south section of the Paleoproterozoic Jiao-Liao-Ji Belt, was correlated to Xuzhou-Suzhou-Bengbu area prior to movement of the Tan-Lu fault zone. This suggests that the Xuzhou-Suzhou-Bengbu Paleoproterozoic tectonic zone might be a southwest extension of the Paleoproterozoic Jiao-Liao-Ji Belt.

  2. Highly Silica-Undersaturated Sapphirine Granulites from the Daqingshan Area of the Western Block, North China Craton: Palaeoproterozoic UHT Metamorphism and Tectonic Implications

    GUO Jing-hui; ZHAO Guo-chun; Chen Yi; Peng Peng; B. F. Windley; SUN Min


    @@ Sapphirine-bearing granulites have recently been found in the Daqingshan and Jining areas, both of which are located in a Palaeoproterozoic collisional belt, named the Khondalite Belt, along which the Yinshan Block in the north and the Ordos Block in the south were amalgamated to form the Western Block at~1.95 Ga, and then the Western Block collided with the Eastern Block along the Trans-North China Orogen to form the coherent basement of the North China Craton at~1.85 Ga.

  3. Strategic Thoughts on Economic Integration of Yangtze Delta

    Xu Cong


    @@ Importance of integration to China's economy Shanghai,Jiangsu and Zhejiang,the three provinces and cities around Yangtze Delta area,are not only related in geography,but also enjoy similar type of culture and economy.With 2.2%of the national land area.10.4%of national population.the Yangtze Delta has created 22.1%of the national GDP,24.5%of the national fiscal revenues and 28.5%of the total imports and exports in the country.which has already made it become one of the most advanced areas in science,technology and culture in China.

  4. Genetic diversity in the Yangtze finless porpoise by RAPD analysis

    He Shunping; Wang Ding; Wang Wei; Chen Daoquan; Zhao Qingzhong; Gong Weiming


    To estimate the genetic diversity in the Yangtze finless porpoise (Neophocaenaphocaenoides asiaeorientalis), the randomly amplified polymorphic DNA techniquewas applied to examine ten animals captured from the Yangtze River. Out of 20 arbitrary primers used in the experiment, seventeen produced clearly reproducible bged from 0.0986 to 0.5634. Compared with other cetacean populations, this genetic distance is quite low. Such a low genetic diversity suggests that this population may be suffering from reduced genetic variation, and be very fragile. More studiesare needed for understanding the basis for this apparent low genetic diversity and to help protect this endangered, unique population.

  5. Is the outcrop topology of dolerite dikes of the Precambrian Singhbhum Craton fractal?

    Nibir Mandal; Atin Kumar Mitra; Santanu Misra; Chandan Chakraborty


    In the Precambrian Singhbhum Craton of eastern India, newer dolerite dikes occur profusely with varying outcrop lengths. We have analysed the nature of their length-size and orientation distributions in relation to the theory of fractals. Two orientational sets of dikes (NW–SE and NE–SW) are present. Both the sets show strongly non-power-law size distributions, as reflected in nonlinear variations in logarithmic space. We analyzed thousands of data, revealing that polynomial functions with a degree of 3 to 4 are the best representatives of the non-linear variations. Orientation analysis shows that the degree of dispersions from the mean trend tends to decrease with increasing dike length. The length-size distributions were studied by simulating fractures in physical models. Experimental fractures also show a non-power-law distribution, which grossly conforms to those of the dolerite dikes. This type of complex size distributions results from the combined effects of nucleation, propagation and coalescence of fractures.

  6. Early Cambrian eodiscoid trilobites of the Yangtze Platform and their stratigraphic implications

    YANG Aihua; ZHU Maoyan; ZHANG Junming; LI Guoxiang


    Analysis of the taxonomy and stratigraphic distribution of the Early Cambrian eodiscoid trilobites of the Yangtze Platform indicates that species of Tsunyidiscus and Hupeidiscus can be used for biostratigraphic correlation. T. aclis occurs only in the lower Qiongzhusian, T. armatus occurs in the lower and middle Qiongzhusian, while T. niutitangensis and T. tingi occur mainly in the middle and upper Qiongzhusian, with only T. tingi extending upward into the lower Canglangpuian. H. orientalis first appears in the upper Qiongzhusian, reaching peak abundance in the lower Canglangpuian and becoming extinct above the Drepanuroides Zone. Biostratigraphic and lithostratigraphic correlations indicate that the limestone in the lower part of the Mingxinsi Formation, the Upper Member of Jiumenchong Formation, and the upper part of the Middle Member of the Huangbailing Formation, can be correlated with each other as Hupediscus, an index fossil of the lower Canglangpuian, is abundant in all these units. The lower part of the Niutitang and Jiumenchong formations in eastern Guizhou, which mainly represent Qiongzhusian strata, can be correlated with the Lower Member of the Huangbailing Formation. The basal part of the Niutitang Formation, which may be equivalent to the Upper Meishucunian Shiyantou Formation in eastern Yunnan, is very condensed. Well-preserved sponge faunas and non-mineralized fossils in the lower part of the Niutitang and Hetang formations are not older than Qiongzhusian in age.

  7. Flooding 1990s along the Yangtze River, has it concern of global warming?


    There were a series of severe floods along the middle to lower reaches of the Yangtze River (Changjiang River) in China during the 1990s. The extensive summer (June, July and August) precipitation is mostly responsible for the flooding. The summer rainfall in the 1980s and the 1990s is much higher than that in the previous 3 decades. The means for 1990-1999 is +87.62 mm above normal, marked the 1990s the wettest decade since the 1950s. Six stations with a time span of 1880-1999 are selected to establish century-long rainfall series. This series also shows that the 1990s is the wettest decade during the last 120 years. In the wettest 12 years, four occurred in the 1990s (1991,1996,1998 and 1999). Both global and China's temperature show there is a relative lower air temperature during the 1960-1970s, and a rapid warming in the 1980-1990s. Comparisons of rainfall between 1960-1979 and 1980-1999 show there are dramatic changes. In the cold period 1960-1979, the summer rainfall along the Yangtze River is 3.8 % to 4.7 % below the normal, during the warm period 1980-1999, over 8.4 % to 18.2 % of summer rainfall occurs. Over the whole eastern China, the summer rainfall shows opposite spatial patterns from the 1960-1970s to 1980-1990s. The consistent trend toward more rainfall with global warming is also presented by the greenhouse scenario modeling. A millennial Drought/flood Index for the middle to lower reaches of the Yangtze River showed that although the surplus summer rainfall in the 1990s is the severest during the past 150 years, it is not outstanding in the context of past millennium. Power spectra of the Drought/flood Index show significant interdecadal periods at 33.3 and 11.8 years. Thus, both the natural inter-decadal variations and the global warming may play important roles in the frequent floods witnessed during the last two decades.

  8. Latest Jurassic-early Cretaceous regressive facies, northeast Africa craton

    van Houten, F.B.


    Nonmarine to paralic detrital deposits accumulated in six large basins between Algeria and the Arabo-Nubian shield during major regression in latest Jurassic and Early Cretaceous time. The Ghadames Sirte (north-central Libya), and Northern (Egypt) basins lay along the cratonic margin of northeastern Africa. The Murzuk, Kufra, and Southern (Egypt) basins lay in the south within the craton. Data for reconstructing distribution, facies, and thickness of relevant sequences are adequate for the three northern basins only. High detrital influx near the end of Jurassic time and in mid-Cretaceous time produced regressive nubian facies composed largely of low-sinuosity stream and fahdelta deposits. In the west and southwest the Ghadames, Murzuk, and Kufra basins were filled with a few hundred meters of detritus after long-continued earlier Mesozoic aggradation. In northern Egypt the regressive sequence succeeded earlier Mesozoic marine sedimentation; in the Sirte and Southern basins correlative deposits accumulated on Precambrian and Variscan terranes after earlier Mesozoic uplift and erosion. Waning of detrital influx into southern Tunisia and adjacent Libya in the west and into Israel in the east initiated an Albian to early Cenomanian transgression of Tethys. By late Cenomanian time it had flooded the entire cratonic margin, and spread southward into the Murzuk and Southern basins, as well as onto the Arabo-Nubian shield. Latest Jurassic-earliest Cretaceous, mid-Cretaceous, and Late Cretaceous transgressions across northeastern Africa recorded in these sequences may reflect worldwide eustatic sea-level rises. In contrast, renewed large supply of detritus during each regression and a comparable subsidence history of intracratonic and marginal basins imply regional tectonic control. 6 figures.

  9. Remobilization in the cratonic lithosphere recorded in polycrystalline diamond

    Jacob; Viljoen; Grassineau; Jagoutz


    Polycrystalline diamonds (framesites) from the Venetia kimberlite in South Africa contain silicate minerals whose isotopic and trace element characteristics document remobilization of older carbon and silicate components to form the framesites shortly before kimberlite eruption. Chemical variations within the garnets correlate with carbon isotopes in the diamonds, indicating contemporaneous formation. Trace element, radiogenic, and stable isotope variations can be explained by the interaction of eclogites with a carbonatitic melt, derived by remobilization of material that had been stored for a considerable time in the lithosphere. These results indicate more recent formation of diamonds from older materials within the cratonic lithosphere.

  10. Craton-derived alluvium as a major sediment source in the Himalayan Foreland Basin of India

    Sinha, R.; Kettanah, Y.; Gibling, M.R.


    of the Yamuna. This gray cratonic sediment was probably deposited in part by the Chambal River, which transports high-grade metamorphic minerals from the Banded Gneiss Complex of the Aravalli belt. Cratonic sediment appears to interfinger with Himalayan detritus farther north below the Ganga-Yamuna Interfluve...

  11. Zircon U-Pb geochronology, geochemistry and Sr-Nd-Pb isotopes from the metamorphic basement in the Wuhe Complex: Implications for Neoarchean active continental margin along the southeastern North China Craton and constraints on the petrogenesis of Mesozoic granitoids

    Andong Wang


    Full Text Available We report zircon U-Pb geochronology, geochemistry and Sr-Nd-Pb isotope data from mafic granulites and garnet amphibolites of the Wuhe Complex in the southeastern margin of the North China Craton (NCC. In combination with previous data, our results demonstrate that these rocks represent fragments of the ancient lower crust, and have features similar to those of the granulite basement in the northern margin of the NCC. A detailed evaluation of the Pb isotope data shows that Pb isotopes cannot effectively distinguish the role of the Yangtze Craton basement from that of the NCC basement with regard to the source and generation of magmas, at least for southeastern NCC. The age data suggest that the protoliths of the granulites or amphibolites in the Wuhe Complex were most likely generated in Neoarchean and that these rocks were subjected to Paleoproterozoic (1.8–1.9 Ga high-pressure granulite facies metamorphism. This study also shows that the Precambrian metamorphic basement in the southeastern margin of the NCC might have formed in a tectonic setting characterized by a late Neoarchean active continental margin.

  12. Demo project initiated to protect Yangtze's aquatic wildlife


    @@ A demonstration project on aquatic wildlife protection and sustainable exploitation in the Yangtze Valley was launched by CAS Institute of Hydrobiology (IOH) in cooperation with several local administrative and research bodies on 21 December, 2007 in Wuhan, capital of central China's Hubei Province CAS geologists achieve advances in lithosphere evolution.

  13. The branching channel network in the Yangtze Estuary

    Wang, Z.B.; Ding, P.X.


    The channels in the Yangtze Estuary have an ordered-branching structure: The estuary is first divided by the Chongming Island into the North Branch and the South Branch. Then the South Branch is divided into the North Channel and South Channel by the Islands Changxing and Hengsha. The South Channel

  14. Yangtze-BASF Petrochemical Project Smoothly Under Way


    @@ The Yangtze-BASFPetrochemical Complex Project,the largest joint venture project between China and Germany, is smoothly under way since construction started in 2001. The project will be completed for its mechanical facilities by the end of next year and put into commercial operation in 2005.

  15. On the siltation of the middle Yangtze River

    YIN Hongfu; CHEN Guojin; LI Chang'an; WEI Yuan


    About 5.2×108 t/a of silts from the upper reach of the Yangtze River are transported through Yichang into the middle Yangtze River. The middle Yangtze itself and its tributaries yield ca. 0.8×108 t silts annually. Of this total 6×108 t/a input of silts, ca. 1.2×108 t/a are deposited within the river artery and lakes, while ca 4.83×108 t/a are at first transported into the lower reach through Datong, and then either deposited along the river and the Yangtze Delta, or output into the sea. Along the middle Yangtze River silting generally exceeds scouring, but the spatial and temporal distributions of scour-and-fill, as well as its distribution in the river valley transections, are uneven. Along the Yichang-Chenglingji and Jiujiang-Datong Segments of the middle Yangtze, scouring exceeds or equals silting. Silting mainly occurs along the Luoshan-Wuhan-Huangshi Segments with Wuhan as the pivotal point, as well as in the Dongting and Poyang Lakes. Even in these silting-dominated areas, there are times and parts of segments that scouring prevails. As to the transections, generally the river channel of main stream is scouring-dominated, forming V-shaped sections to a depth of 20-30 m or more, whereas the floodplains and bar islands are silting-dominated, forming wide and relatively high flats, which are often artificially transformed into protected embankments. Because the Jingjiang Levee separates the Jianghan Plain from Yangtze to the south, little has been deposited in that plain except a few sediments from the Han River-a tributary of the middle Yangtze. This factor plus the tectonic sag of that plain has made the altitude of plain surface several meters lower than that of the levee in most of the areas. Siltation along the Luoshan-Wuhan-Huangshi Segments has resulted in the elevation of flood level in this and upstream segments. River channel scouring plus floodplain silting have caused the transections of the middle Yangtze valley typically with deep channel and



    The characteristics of the Triassic sequences developed in the Lower Yangtze area display some great changes in both environment and climate. The change of environment was a transition from marine to continent via alternating environments. The change of climate was a transition from tropic (torrid) to warm and wet climate via subtropic dry climate. The type variations of the sequences were from the marine sequences to the continental sequences, corresponding to the changes of environments and climates.Sequence 1 is a type Ⅱ of sequence of mixed clastic and carbonate sediments; sequence 2 is a type Ⅰ of sequence of carbonate platform; sequence 3 is a type Ⅰ of sequence of carbonate tidal flat-salt lagoon,sequence 4 is a type Ⅱ of sequence of lacustrine within marine layers, and sequence 5 is a sequence of lacustrine-swamp. The development, distribution and preservation of those sequences reveal the tectonic controls and their changes in the background. The collision between the Yangtze plate and the North China plate was a great geological event in the geological history, but the timing of the collision is still disputed.However, the characteristics of Triassic sequence stratigraphy and sea level changes in the Lower Yangtze area responded to this coliision. The collision started at the beginning of middle Triassic and the great regression in the Lower Yangtze area started 22Ma earlier than those in the world. The tectonic conditions occurred before and during the collision controlled the development of sequences and type changes.

  17. Detrital zircon and apatite fission track data in the Liaoxi basins: Implication to Meso-Cenozoic thermo-tectonic evolution of the northern margin of the North China Craton

    Yi Yan; Xiaoqiong Hu; Ge Lin; Weiliang Liu; Zhengjiang Song


    Detrital zircon and apatite fission track (ZFT and AFT) data of the sandstones collected from the Liaoxi basins served as a significant probe to study the Meso-Cenozoic thermo-tectonic reactivation events in the northern margin of the North China Craton. All sandstones show wide ZFT and AFT age spectrum and most of ZFT and AFT ages are younger than depositional age of respective host rocks, which suggest widespread track resetting of the host rocks in the Liaoxi basins after deposition. This hot geothermal status in the Liaoxi basins deduced from ZFT and AFT data is temporal consistent with the lithospheric evolution of the North China Craton, which implies that the lithosphere under the northern margin of the North China Craton underwent similar thermo-tectonic destruction process as the intracratonic Bohai Sea. The young ZFT peak age, which ranges from ∼50Ma to 20 Ma, to some extend, provides a temporal constraint on the time that lithosphere significantly thinned and following reverse of the Liaoxi basins and uplift of the eastern part of the Yan-Liao Orogenic Belt. Exhumation of 1.5–2 km can be estimated in the eastern part of the Yan-Liao Orogenic Belt since ∼30Ma to 10 Ma.

  18. Late Albian dinosaur tracks from the cratonic (eastern) margin of the Western Interior Seaway, Nebraska, USA

    Joeckel, R.M.; Cunningham, J.M.; Corner, R.G.; Brown, G.W.; Phillips, P.L.; Ludvigson, Greg A.


    At least 22 tridactyl dinosaur tracks, poorly preserved in various degrees of expression, have recently been found at an exposure in the Dakota Formation (Lower Cretaceous, Albian) in Jefferson County, Nebraska. These tracks generally have broad, blunt digits and a broad posterior margin. The largest of the tracks measures 57 cm in length and 58 cm in width. All of the tracks lie within a stratigraphic horizon of 40 cm or less, but they do not form a single trackway. We interpret the trackmakers to have been ornithopods. The Jefferson County tracks are in a well-cemented sandstone with oscillation ripples, at a stratigraphic level between two well-established sequence boundaries. Channel forms and lateral accretion units are common in the stratigraphic interval enclosing the tracks, and the site is interpreted as a bar or sand flat in a tidally influenced river. The Jefferson County tracks are only the second known occurrence of large Mesozoic tetrapod tracks east of the Rocky Mountain Front-High Plains Margin, including the Black Hills of South Dakota, west of the Atlantic Coastal Plain, and north of the Gulf Coastal Plain. Further, this paper is the first documentation of in situ dinosaur fossils from the Nebraska-Iowa area. ?? Taylor and Francis Inc.

  19. Eastern Dharwar Craton, India: Continental lithosphere growth by accretion of diverse plume and arc terranes

    C. Manikyamba


    Archean lithospheric mantle, distinctive in being thick, refractory, and buoyant, formed complementary to the accreted plume and convergent margin terranes, as migrating arcs captured thick plume-plateaus, and the refractory, low density, residue of plume melting coupled with accreted imbricated plume-arc crust.

  20. Paleo-environmental changes in the Yangtze Delta during past 8000 years%长江三角洲8000年来古环境变迁

    张强; 姜彤; 施雅风


    The Yangtze Delta is one of the economically most developed areas in China. It is located in the eastern China monsoon region. Archaeological excavations and environment-archaeology studies over many years in this region provide exceptional information about climate changes, development of human civilization and also human-environment interactions. Archaeological excavations made in the study region reveal that the development of Neolithic cultures is not continuous, which may be a result of extreme climatic events. The analysis of 14C-dated buried paleotrees, peat and shell ridges show the rise and fall of human civilization in the study area. The research results presented in this paper confirm that human civilization collapsed six times in the Yangtze Delta, matching six high sea level epoches, peat accumulation and buried paleotrees formation periods respectively. This indicates that human activities in the Yangtze Delta are controlled by local climate changes and changing hydrological conditions. The collapse of the Liangzhu culture (5000 aBP-3800 aBP) in about 4000 aBP, after a tremendous flooding event, followed by a relatively backward Maqiao culture (3800 aBP-3200 aBP) confused researchers and aroused their great interest. The research results in this paper show that the collapse of the Liangzhu culture is a result of several factors, for example war and food shortage, but the flooding event occurred in the late Liangzhu culture epoch is the main factor therein.

  1. 3-D Structure of the Slave and Rae Cratons Provides Clues to Their Construction

    Snyder, D. B.


    Deep geologic structures within cratons that make up continental cores were long neglected. Recently acquired geophysical data from large observational arrays and geochemical data resulting from exploration for diamond has now made possible co-registration of large-scale (400-km depth), truly 3-dimensional data sets. P-waves, surface waves and magnetotelluric observations provide 3-D wavespeed and conductivity models. Multi-azimuthal receiver functions map seismic discontinuity surfaces in 3-D. Xenolith suites erupted in kimberlites provide rock samples at key lithospheric depths, albeit at sparsely distributed locations. These multi-disciplinary models are becoming available for several key cratons worldwide; here the deep structure of the Slave and Rae cratons of the Canadian Shield is described. Lithospheric layers with tapered, wedge-shaped margins are common. Slave craton layers are sub-horizontal and indicate construction of the craton core at 2.7 Ga by underthrusting and flat stacking of lithosphere. The central Rae craton has predominantly dipping discontinuities that indicate construction at 1.9 Ga by thrusting similar to that observed in crustal ';thick-skinned' fold-and-thrust belts. 3-D mapping of conductivity and metasomatism, the latter via mineral recrystallization and resetting of isotopic ages, overprints primary structures in both cratons. Distribution of more conductivitve mantle suggests that assumed causative pervasive metasomatism occurs at 100-200 km depths with ';chimneys' reaching to shallower depths, typically in locations where kimberlites or mineralization has occurred.

  2. EarthScope in Midcontinent North America: Investigating the Architecture and Tectonic History of Cratonic-Platform Lithosphere

    Marshak, S.; Larson, T.; Hamburger, M. W.; Pavlis, G. L.; Gilbert, H. J.; Parke, M.


    The transportable array of EarthScope will sweep across the Midcontinent of North America during 2011 and 2012. The central portion of this swath, between latitudes 36°N and 38°N, covers a "type example" of cratonic-platform lithosphere, where a veneer of Paleozoic sedimentary strata overlies Precambrian crystalline basement. In anticipating this scientific opportunity, we have compiled a unique suite of geologic, geophysical, subsurface, and topographic data sets for this area. The maps emphasize that, in spite of low topographic relief, the region has large subsurface structural relief. Specifically, its western portion includes a large intracratonic uplift (the Ozark Plateau), whereas its central portion includes a major intracratonic basin (the Illinois Basin). The elevation difference between the Cambrian-Precambrian unconformity at the crest of the Ozark Plateau and the same horizon at the base of the Illinois Basin (< 100 km to the east) is over 7.5 km. The region also includes the northern end of the Mississippi embayment (an anomalous depression), three major Proterozoic lithosphere accretionary boundaries (borders of the Yavapai, Mazatzal, and Grenville belts), one of the world's largest anorogenic igneous provinces (the Eastern Granite-Rhyolite Province), pronounced gravity and magnetic anomalies, and numerous fault-and-fold zones. Many of the zones remain active, both within and outside the notorious New Madrid seismic zone, making the central Midcontinent one of the most seismically active examples of cratonic platform lithosphere anywhere. As part of the USArray deployment in this region, a number of research groups (some of whom met at an EarthScope Workshop held in Urbana) have proposed dense, Flex-Array networks that would densify the sparser Transportable Array network. We propose an experiment that would span the Ozark Dome and the Illinois Basin, the Rough Creek Graben and other fault zones including the Wabash Valley seismic zone. This

  3. Aeromagnetic signatures reveal a back-arc basin imposed upon the inherited rifted margin of the East Antarctic craton

    Armadillo, E.; Ferraccioli, F.; Jordan, T. A.; Bozzo, E.


    The Wilkes Subglacial Basin (WSB) represents a largely unexplored, approximately 1400 km-long and up to 600 km-wide subglacial depression, buried beneath the over 3 km-thick East Antarctic Ice Sheet. During the 2005-06 austral summer an extensive aerogeophysical survey was flown to investigate the WSB adjacent to northern Victoria Land (NVL), and included the acquisition of new airborne radar, aeromagnetic and aerogravity data. Several contrasting models for the origin of the basin have been previously proposed, and are based primarily on relatively sparse gravity data. These range from Cenozoic flexure, to distributed crustal extension of unknown age (possibly Mesozoic to Cenozoic), and even compression along the margin of craton. Our recent aeromagnetic data reveal that the basin is structurally controlled and has a tectonic origin, at least adjacent to NVL. The eastern margin of the basin is imposed upon an Early Paleozoic thrust fault belt, which can be traced under the ice using aeromagnetic signatures from exposures in Oates Land and the Ross Sea coast. Aeromagnetic patterns reveal that the western margin of the basin is imposed upon a Proterozoic-age shear zone mapped in the Mertz Glacier, and that is interpreted from geological studies to represent the continuation of a coeval shear zone in Australia. The broad aeromagnetic and satellite magnetic low over the WSB contrasts with the high over the un-reworked Proterozoic craton to the west of the basin, and is interpreted to reflect Neoproterozoic-age sediments deposited along the rifted margin of the craton. Magnetic intrusions within the WSB are interpreted as back-arc plutons that formed later in response to Cambrian-Ordovician age subduction along the paleo-Pacific margin of Gondwana. The aeromagnetic interpretation for a former broad back-arc basin in the WSB is supported by the occurrence of low-grade metasedimentary rocks of back-arc affinity in Oates Land, and also by the similarity in long

  4. Study on the genesis of Yishui banded iron formation (BIF) in the North China Craton: geochemical characteristics and tectonic environment

    Moon, I.; Lee, I.; Yang, X.


    The Yishui BIFs are located in the Taishan Group, Shandong province of Eastern Block of North China Craton. The iron ore samples were collected from the mine pits. Major elements were analyzed by X-ray Fluoresence Spectromemter (XRF). Trace elements and REY (REE + Y) were analyzed by Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometer (ICP-MS). Petrological, mineralogical and geochemical analyses of iron ores and their wall rock (amphibolite) were conducted to trace the genesis of Yishui BIF. Iron ores of Yishui BIF are mainly composed of SiO2 and Fe2O3T (SiO2+ Fe2O3T= 85.8 to 98.8 wt%) and consistent with major mineral components which are quartz and iron oxide such as magnetite and hematite. Low contents of TiO2 (0.01 to 0.09 wt%) , Al2O3 (0.42 to 1.18 wt%) and HFSE indicate no or little effect of detrital contamination. Iron ores have positive La, Eu, Gd, Er and Y anomalies with enriched HREE in PAAS normalized REY graph. The REY patterns of iron ores were used as a fingerprint to trace the source of iron and silica. Distinctive positive Eu anomalies (Eu/Eu*= 2.44-4.19), Y anomalies (Y/Y*=0.97 - 4.19), slightly negative Ce anomalies (Ce/Ce*= 0.87-0.97) and enriched HREE ((La/Yb)SN= 0.17-0.32) indicate that mixture of seawater and high-temperature hydrothermal fluid (>250 ◦C). Depositional environment in North China Craton implies that Yishui BIFs were formed at Neoarchean and associated arc-related tectonic setting. All these data suggest that Yishui BIFs belong to typical Algoma-type BIF.

  5. Origins of cratonic mantle discontinuities: A view from petrology, geochemistry and thermodynamic models

    Aulbach, Sonja; Massuyeau, Malcolm; Gaillard, Fabrice


    Geophysically detectible mid-lithospheric discontinuities (MLD) and lithosphere-asthenosphere boundaries (LAB) beneath cratons have received much attention over recent years, but a consensus on their origin has not yet emerged. Cratonic lithosphere composition and origin is peculiar due to its ultra-depletion during plume or accretionary tectonics, cool present-day geothermal gradients, compositional and rheological stratification and multiple metasomatic overprints. Bearing this in mind, we integrate current knowledge on the physical properties, chemical composition, mineralogy and fabric of cratonic mantle with experimental and thermodynamic constraints on the formation and migration of melts, both below and within cratonic lithosphere, in order to find petrologically viable explanations for cratonic mantle discontinuities. LABs characterised by strong seismic velocity gradients and increased conductivity require the presence of melts, which can form beneath intact cratonic roots reaching to 200-250 km depth only in exceptionally warm and/or volatile-rich mantle, thus explaining the paucity of seismical LAB observations beneath cratons. When present, pervasive interaction of these - typically carbonated - melts with the deep lithosphere leads to densification and thermochemical erosion, which generates topography at the LAB and results in intermittent seismic LAB signals or conflicting seismic, petrologic and thermal LAB depths. In rare cases (e.g. Tanzanian craton), the tops of live melt percolation fronts may appear as MLDs and, after complete lithosphere rejuvenation, may be sites of future, shallower LABs (e.g. North China craton). Since intact cratons are presently tectonomagmatically quiescent, and since MLDs produce both positive and negative velocity gradients, in some cases with anisotropy, most MLDs may be best explained by accumulations (metasomes) of seismically slow minerals (pyroxenes, phlogopite, amphibole, carbonates) deposited during past

  6. Diamond genesis, seismic structure, and evolution of the Kaapvaal-Zimbabwe craton.

    Shirey, Steven B; Harris, Jeffrey W; Richardson, Stephen H; Fouch, Matthew J; James, David E; Cartigny, Pierre; Deines, Peter; Viljoen, Fanus


    The lithospheric mantle beneath the Kaapvaal-Zimbabwe craton of southern Africa shows variations in seismic P-wave velocity at depths within the diamond stability field that correlate with differences in the composition of diamonds and their syngenetic inclusions. Middle Archean mantle depletion events initiated craton keel formation and early harzburgitic diamond formation. Late Archean accretionary events involving an oceanic lithosphere component stabilized the craton and contributed a younger Archean generation of eclogitic diamonds. Subsequent Proterozoic tectonic and magmatic events altered the composition of the continental lithosphere and added new lherzolitic and eclogitic diamonds to the Archean diamond suite.



  8. Structural safety monitoring for Nanjing Yangtze River Bridge

    黄方林; 何旭辉; 陈政清; 曾储惠


    In order to evaluate objectively and accurately the integrity, safety and operating conditions in real time for the Nanjing Yangtze River Bridge, a large structural safety monitoring system was described. The monitoring system is composed of three parts: sensor system, signal sampling and processing system, and safety monitoring and assessment system. Combining theoretical analysis with measured data analysis, main monitoring contents and layout of measuring points were determined. The vibration response monitoring was significantly investigated. The main contents of safety monitoring on vibration response monitoring are vibration of the main body of the Nanjing Yangtze river bridge, collision avoidance of the bridge piers, vibration of girders on high piers for the bridge approach and earthquake. As a field laboratory, the safety monitorying system also provides information to investigate the unknown and indeterminate problems on bridge structures and specific environment around bridges.

  9. Plume tectonics and cratons formation in the early Earth

    Gerya, T.; Stern, R. J.; Baes, M.; Fischer, R.; Sizova, E.; Sobolev, S. V.; Whattam, S. A.


    Modern geodynamics and continental growth are critically driven by subduction and plate tectonics, however how this tectonic regime started and what geodynamic regime was before remains controversial. Most present-day subduction initiation mechanisms require acting plate forces and/or pre-existing zones of lithospheric weakness, which are themselves the consequence of plate tectonics. Here, we focus on plume-lithosphere interactions and spontaneous plume-induced subduction initiation, which does not require pre-existing lithospheric fabric and is viable for both stagnant lid and mobile/deformable lid conditions. We present results of 2D and 3D numerical modeling of plume-induced deformation and associated crustal growth resulting from tectono-magmatic interaction of ascending mantle plumes with oceanic-type lithosphere. We demonstrate that weakening of the lithosphere by plume-induced magmatism is the key factor allowing for its internal deformation and differentiation resulting in continental crust growth. We also show that plume-lithosphere interaction can enable subduction and rudimentary plate tectonics initiation at the margins of a crustal plateau growing above the plume head. We argue that frequent plume-arc interactions recorded in Archean crust could reflect either short-term plume-induced subduction or plume-induced episodic lithospheric drips. We furthermore suggest a distinct plume-tectonics regime operated on Earth before plate tectonics, which was associated with widespread tectono-magmatic heat and mass exchange between the crust and the mantle. This regime was characterized by weak deformable plates with low topography, massive juvenile crust production from mantle derived melts, mantle-flows-driven crustal deformation, magma-assisted crustal convection and widespread development of lithospheric delamination and crustal drips. Plume tectonics also resulted in growth of hot depleted chemically buoyant subcrustal proto-cratonic mantle layer. Later

  10. How to appreciate the Gardens South of the Yangtze River



    The primary goal of classical Chinese garden is to provide buildings, green spaces or relaxing spaces, but it is later endowed with more functions as a carrier for showing human beings’dependence on and respect for the nature, as well as var-ious emotions of them. This article briefly discussed how to appreciate the gardens south of the Yangtze River from aspects of construction elements, artistic conception and techniques.

  11. Similarities between Yangshan Harbor area and the Yangtze estuary


    By analysis of published papers on the Yangtze estuary and hydrological and sediments datain Yangshan Harbor area, many similarities are found between Yangshan Harbor area and the Yangtzeestuary. These similarities include the phenomenon of stagnating flow areas, the distributivecharacteristics of the highest suspended sediment concentration areas, superficial sediments and shoalbars. The stagnating flow area is the major similarity which causes other similarities. These similaritiesindicate that: 1) Turbidity Maximum and mouth bars in estuaries are mainly caused by the hydraulicbalance of stagnating flow areas of estuaries; 2) The stagnating sand area of sands caused by stagnatingflow area often locates on the narrower side of the stagnating flow area; 3) The location (or shape) offine sediments area caused by stagnating flow area reflects the location (or shape) of the stagnatingflow area. Both Yangshan Harbor area and the Yangtze estuary are the important developmental areasin the future (man-made similarity). In-depth studies on these similarities between Yangshan Harborarea and the Yangtze estuary will have momentous theoretical and practical significance.

  12. Yangtze River Delta and Railway Construction in Sustainable Development


    Yangtze River Delta is the most developed economy and society as well as one of the most densely populated and industrialized regions in China.It is also one of the most dynamic regions with the biggest potential and competitiveness to radiate and generate impetus to the trade development in the middle and western parts of China and in the world.The implementation of sustainable development strategy in the region urgently needs to improve the transportation structure and to solve the problems of constraints and "bottlenecks ".It is necessary to have the global view and insight and catering to the needs of the future to build outbound major railway corridors with a view to enhance the influential and attractive capacities of the Yangtze River Delta region;achieve the goals of construction of intercity railway lines with high standards to form integrated railway systems of the region;and speed up the construction of major hubs in the key cities 'integrated railway system so as to realize easy connection of various modes of transport and improve the railway construction programs with coordinated development of infrastructure.In the meantime,the advantages of different modes will be brought into play to accelerate the harmonious railway development of the Yangtze River Delta region in an all round way.

  13. Upper mantle geotherm for eastern China and its geological implications

    徐义刚; 林传勇; 史兰斌; J-C.C.Mercier; J.V.Ross


    The equilibrium temperature and pressure of both spinel and garnet peridotite xenolithsfrom eastern China have been estimated by using different geothermobarometers that are currentlyconsidered to be reliable.Based on these data,the upper mantle geotherm for eastern China has beenconstructed.The obtained geotherm is higher than that for old craton regions,but is similar to that for southeasternAustralia.The most prominent feature of the geotherm is that there is a slight gradient at about 60 kmdepth,and the inflection of the geotherm just passes through the transition line between spinel and garnetfacies.It is likely that the inflection represents the botmdary between the lithosphere and asthenosphere.Thestructures of the upper mantle beneath eastern China have also been discussed by combining the results ofpetrologic,rheological and dynamical studies of the upper mantle.

  14. Interdecadal variation of East Asian summer monsoon and drought/flood distribution over eastern China in the last 159 years

    LI Qian; WEI Fengying; LI Dongliang


    Based on the drought/flood grades of 90 meterological stations over eastern China and summer average sea-level pressure (SLP) during 1850-2008 and BPCCA statistical methods,the coupling relationship between the drought/flood grades and the East Asian summer SLP is analyzed.The East Asian summer monsoon index which is closely related with interdecadal variation of drought/flood distribution over eastern China is defined by using the key areas of SLP.The impact of the interdecadal variation of the East Asian summer monsoon on the distribution of drought/flood over eastern China in the last 159 years is researched.The results show that there are four typical drought and flood spatial distribution patterns in eastern China,i.e.the distribution of drought/flood in southern China is contrary to the other regions,the distribution of drought/flood along the Huanghe River-Huaihe River Valley is contrary to the Yangtze River Valley and regions south of it,the distribution of drought/flood along the Yangtze River Valley and Huaihe River Valley is contrary to the other regions,the distribution of drought/flood in eastern China is contrary to the western.The main distribution pattern of SLP in summer is that the strength of SLP is opposite in Asian continent and West Pacific.It has close relationship between the interdecadal variation of drought/flood distribution patterns over eastern China and the interdecadal variation of the East Asian summer monsoon which was defined in this paper,but the correlation is not stable and it has a significant difference in changes of interdecadal phase.When the East Asian summer monsoon was stronger (weaker),regions north of the Yangtze River Valley was more susceptible to drought (flood),the Yangtze River Valley and regions south of it were more susceptible to flood (drought) before the 1920s; when the East Asian summer monsoon was stronger (weaker),the regions north of the Yangtze River Valley was prone to flood (drought),the Yangtze River

  15. Sources and preservation of organic matter in recent sediment from the Changjiang (Yangtze River Estuary, China

    Lü Xiaoxia


    Full Text Available The vertical distributions of bulk and molecular biomarker compositions in the samples from four sediment cores of the Changjiang (Yangtze River Estuary were determined. The changes in the bulk and molecular compositions with depth suggest that there have been recent changes in the marine autogenic and terrigenous supply. In the site at the boundary of the turbidity maximum (Site 8 and the most southern site (Site 26, the autogenic and allochthonous inputs make almost the same contribution to sedimentary organic matter. In the site close to the river mouth (Site 11, the organic matter mainly comes from the terrestrial input carried by the Changjiang water, whereas, in the most eastern site (Site 17, the organic matter consists of a mixture of recent and ancient Changjiang delta sedimentary residues. Significant downcore fluctuations were observed in the patterns of the bulk and molecular compositions, as well as in several biomarker ratios, which also indicates the different anoxic conditions at different depths of the core besides the source variation. In addition, the distributions of molecular compounds show that the organic matter is a mixture of immature and mature in the sediments of the four cores, which further indicates that the microbial activity is active in anoxic conditions, especially in the surface sediment. The vertical distributions of molecular compounds also show that the autogenic marine organic matter is more easily degraded, and that the molecular compounds evolve from unstable steric configurations to stable ones in the early diagenetic processes.

  16. Geochemistry of khondalites from the central portion of North China craton (NCC):implications for the continental cratonization in the Neoarchean

    李江海; 钱祥麟; 刘树文


    Within the high-grade metamorphic basement, the central portion of North China Craton (NCC), a group of Neoarchean khondalites (KS) is identified. They are characterized by large ion lithophile elements (LILE) enrichment, lower abundances of Zr, Hf and Sr. Their rare earth element (REE) distribution has significant LREE enrichment and negative Eu anomalies. The protoliths of KS are interpreted as feldspathic quartzite, shale or petite and carbonite, deposited in a shallow sea upon cratonic shelf distant from the land. KS’s source region might be dominated by granitic rocks, with a minor amount of TTG, underwent comparatively severe chemical weathering. Considering relevent tectonic constraints, we suggest that khondalites from central portion of NCC, an important metamophosed sedimentary cover, are the most significant exogenetic marker of Neoarchean continental cratonization for NCC.

  17. Possible magmatic underplating beneath the west coast of India and adjoining Dharwar craton: Imprint from Archean crustal evolution to breakup of India and Madagascar

    Saikia, Utpal; Das, Ritima; Rai, S. S.


    The shear wave velocity of the crust along a ∼660 km profile from the west to the east coast of South India is mapped through the joint inversion of receiver functions and Rayleigh wave group velocity. The profile, consisting of 38 broadband seismic stations, covers the Archean Dharwar craton, Proterozoic Cuddapah basin, and rifted margin and escarpment. The Moho is mapped at a depth of ∼40 km beneath the mid-Archean Western Dharwar Craton (WDC), Cuddapah Basin (CB), and the west and east coasts formed through the rifting process. This is in contrast with a thin (∼35 km) crust beneath the late-Archean Eastern Dharwar Craton (EDC). Along the profile, the average thickness of the upper, middle and lower crust is ∼4 km, 12 ± 4 km and 24 ± 4 km respectively. Above the Moho, we observe a high-velocity layer (HVL, Vs > 4 km/s) of variable thickness increasing from 3 ± 1 km beneath the EDC to 11 ± 3 km beneath the WDC and the CB, and 18 ± 2 km beneath the west coast of India. The seismic wave velocity in this layer is greater than typical oceanic lower crust. We interpret the high-velocity layer as a signature of magmatic underplating due to past tectonic processes. Its significant thinning beneath the EDC may be attributed to crustal delamination or relamination at 2.5 Ga. These results demonstrate the dual signature of the Archean Dharwar crust. The change in the geochemical character of the crust possibly occurred at the end of Archean when Komatiite volcanism ceased. The unusually thick HVL beneath the west coast of India and the adjoining region may represent underplated material formed due to India-Madagascar rifting, which is supported by the presence of seaward dipping reflectors and a 85-90 Ma mafic dyke in the adjoining island.

  18. Intra-cratonic melting as a result of delamination of mantle lithosphere - insight from numerical modelling

    Gorczyk, W.; Vogt, K.; Gerya, T.; Hobbs, B. E.


    It is becoming increasingly apparent that intense deformation, metamorphism and metasomatism occur within continental cratonic blocks far removed form subducting margins Such changes may occur intra-cratonically arising from lithospheric thickening and the development of gravitational instabilities, but mostly occur at the boundary of cratonic blocks. The contact of two cratons is characterized by rheological lateral variations within mantle-lithosphere and overlying crust. Tectonic stresses acting on craton/craton boundaries may lead to thinning or thickening due to delamination of the mantle lithosphere. This is reflected in tectonic deformation, topography evolution, melting and crustal metamorphism. To understand the controls on these processes a number of 2D, coupled petrological thermo-mechanical numerical experiments has been performed to test the response of a laterally weakened zone to a compressional regime. The results indicate that the presence of water-bearing minerals in the lithosphere and lower crust is essential to initiate melting, which in the later stages may expand to dry melting of crust and mantle. In the case of anhydrous crust and lithosphere, no melting occurs. Thus a variety of instabilities, melting behaviour and topographic responses occurs at the base of the lithosphere as well as intensive faulting and buckling in the crust dependent on the strength and "water" content of the lithosphere.

  19. Lithospheric structure beneath the central and western North China Craton and adjacent regions from S-receiver function imaging

    Yinshuang, A.; Zhang, Y.; Chen, L.


    The central and western NCC(CWNCC) only experienced localized lithospheric modification and has remained relatively stable since the Pre-Cambrian in contrast to the fundamental destruction in the east. For better unraveling the tectonic evolution and dynamics of CWNCC, detailed knowledge of lithospheric structure is thus important. However, most of the available seismological observations are dominated by regional seismic tomography and the resolutions are rather low due to the limited data coverage or intrinsic limitation of the methods. S receiver function(RF) contains information from deep velocity discontinuities and is free from the interference of crustal multiples, so it is widely used in subcontinental lithospheric structural studies. We collected teleseismic data from 340 broadband stations in CWNCC, and adopted 2-D wave equation-based poststack migration method to do S-receiver function CCP imaging. Finally, we get 8 migrated profile images in CWNCC and adjacent areas and integrate them for an overview. The most prominent feature of the LAB beneath central NCC is an sudden subsidence to 160km in the southern portion, and the dimension and extension of this deep anomaly is correlated to the lithosphere in Ordos, so we interpret it as a remnant cratonic mantle root. The LAB beneath western NCC can extend to the depth of 150-180 km but appears laterally variable. Western Ordos becomes shallower than its eastern counterpart and there are two obvious deep anomalies beneath the eastern Ordos, divided by a geological boundary at 37°N, which reflects that the lithosphere of Ordos is not so homogeneous or rigid as people thought before. Furthermore, a negative velocity discontinuity is widely identified at the depth of 80- 110 km within the thick lithosphere of CWNCC, and the location is spatially coincide with the modified LAB in ENCC. Although the cause of this mid-lithospheric discontinuity(MLD) is still controversial, mechanically, it may indicate an ancient


    LiCheng; WangLiangshu; ShiXiaobin


    Fission-track analysis has been an available method to learn tectonic-thermal evolution and geothermal history[1-4], and it provides some information for the complex tectonic evolution in the Lower Yangtze area. No fission-track analyses in the area are published so far. This paper briefly presents the results of fission-track analyzed in the Lower Yangtze area.

  1. Metasomatic control of water contents in the Kaapvaal cratonic mantle

    Peslier, A. H.; Woodland, A. B.; Bell, D. R.; Lazarov, M.; Lapen, T. J.


    Water and trace element contents were measured by FTIR and laser ablation-ICPMS on minerals from peridotite xenoliths in kimberlites of the Kaapvaal craton from Finsch, Kimberley, Jagersfontein (South Africa), Letseng-La-Terae, and Liqhobong (Lesotho) mines. The peridotites record a wide range of pressure, temperature, oxygen fugacity, and metasomatic events. Correlations between water content or OH vibration bands with major, minor and trace elements in pyroxene and garnet precludes disturbance during xenolith entrainment by the host kimberlite magma and indicate preservation of mantle water contents. Clinopyroxene water contents (150-400 ppm H2O, by weight) correlate with those of orthopyroxene (40-250 ppm). Olivines (Peslier et al., 2008, 2010) and garnets have 0-86 and 0-20 ppm H2O, respectively. Relations in individual xenolith suites between the amount of water and that of incompatible elements Ti, Na, Fe3+ and rare earths in minerals suggests that metasomatism by oxidizing melts controls the water content of olivine, pyroxene and garnet. At pressures ⩽5.5 GPa, hydrous, alkaline, siliceous fluids or melts metasomatized Liqhobong and Kimberley peridotites, producing high water contents in their olivine, pyroxenes and garnet. At higher pressures, the percolation of ultramafic melts reacting with peridotite resulted in co-variation of Ca, Ti and water at the edge of garnets at Jagersfontein, and the overall crystallization of garnet with lower water contents than those in the original peridotites. The upward migration of these ultramafic melts through the lithospheric mantle also increased the water content of olivines with decreasing pressure at Finsch Mine. H2O/Ce ratios of melts in equilibrium with Kaapvaal peridotites range from 100 to 20,000 and the larger values may indicate metasomatism in subduction zone settings. Metasomatic events in Kaapvaal peridotites are thought to have occurred from the Archean to the Mesozoic. However, circumstantial evidence

  2. Rb–Sr and Sm–Nd isotope systematics and geochemical studies on metavolcanic rocks from Peddavura greenstone belt: Evidence for presence of Mesoarchean continental crust in easternmost part of Dharwar Craton, India

    M Rajamanickam; S Balakrishnan; R Bhutani


    Linear, north–south trending Peddavura greenstone belt occurs in easternmost part of the Dharwar Craton. It consists of pillowed basalts, basaltic andesites, andesites (BBA) and rhyolites interlayered with ferruginous chert that were formed under submarine condition. Rhyolites were divided into type-I and II based on their REE abundances and HREE fractionation. Rb–Sr and Sm–Nd isotope studies were carried out on the rock types to understand the evolution of the Dharwar Craton. Due to source heterogeneity Sm–Nd isotope system has not yielded any precise age. Rb–Sr whole-rock isochron age of 2551 ± 19 (MSWD = 1.16) Ma for BBA group could represent time of seafloor metamorphism after the formation of basaltic rocks. Magmas representing BBA group of samples do not show evidence for crustal contamination while magmas representing type-II rhyolites had undergone variable extents of assimilation of Mesoarchean continental crust (< 3.3 Ga) as evident from their initial Nd isotope values. Trace element and Nd isotope characteristics of type I rhyolites are consistent with model of generation of their magmas by partial melting of mixed sources consisting of basalt and oceanic sediments with continental crustal components. Thus this study shows evidence for presence of Mesoarchean continental crust in Peddavura area in eastern part of Dharwar Craton.

  3. Zircon geochronology and geochemistry of mafic xenoliths from Liaoning kimberlites:Track the early evolution of the lower crust, North China Craton

    ZHENG Jianping; YU Chunmei; LU Fengxiang; LI Huimin


    Mafic xenoliths from Paleozoic Fuxian kimberlites (Liaoning Province) mainly include garnet granulite, with minor pyroxene amphibolite, meta-gabbro and pyroxene syenite. The SiO2 contents of the xenoliths are from 47.3 wt% to 49.9 wt%. The granulites are mainly coarse-medium grained and reasonably with well-developed granoblastic (mostly polygonal)texture, contain the assemblage of garnet + plagioclase + pyroxene + K-feldspar ± phlogopite.The mineral assemblage of the amphibolites is plagioclase + pyroxene + amphibole ± K-feldspar,with the equilibrium temperature and pressure conditions of 744-821 ℃ and 0.76-0.88 GPa.The granulites are regarded as derivation from the lower crust depth (more than 29 km), below the amphibolites. Garnet granulites compositionally correspond to sub-alkalic basalt, and have wide ranges of Ni abundance (133-840 ppm), and Nb/Y (0.12-1.85), Nb/U (3.51-53.86) and Ta/U (0.38-2.48). The amphibolite and the syenite correspond to alkalic basalt. The Fuxian mafic xenoliths are regarded as the metamorphic product of the underplated magmas (including fractional crystallization or not) experienced the contamination with the pre-existed crustal components, and partly effected by kimberlitic magmas. The concordant ages of zircons for the gabbro (2610-2580 Ma) and the near-concordant upper intercept ages of zircons for the garnet granulite and pyroxene amphibolite (2578-2538 Ma) indicate that they are currently known as the oldest deep-seated xenoliths from the lower crust of the North China Craton. These ages recorded the formation of the united Eastern Block of the North China Craton, That is, Neoarchean (2.6-2.5 Ga) is an important continental crustal growth period of the North China Craton.The lower intercept age of the garnet granulite (1853 Ma) recorded an important tectonic thermal event in Paleoproterozoic. This event was probably related to collision of the East and West block,and resulted in the final assembly of the North China Craton

  4. Zircon geochronology and geochemistry of mafic xenoliths from Liaoning kimberlites: Track the early evolution of the lower crust, North China Craton

    ZHENG; Jianping; YU; Chunmei; LU; Fengxiang; LI; Huimin


    Mafic xenoliths from Paleozoic Fuxian kimberlites (Liaoning Province) mainly include garnet granulite, with minor pyroxene amphibolite, meta-gabbro and pyroxene syenite. The SiO2 contents of the xenoliths are from 47.3 wt% to 49.9 wt%. The granulites are mainly coarse-medium grained and reasonably with well-developed granoblastic (mostly polygonal)texture, contain the assemblage of garnet + plagioclase + pyroxene + K-feldspar ± phlogopite.The mineral assemblage of the amphibolites is plagioclase + pyroxene + amphibole ± K-feldspar,with the equilibrium temperature and pressure conditions of 744-821 ℃ and 0.76-0.88 GPa.The granulites are regarded as derivation from the lower crust depth (more than 29 km), below the amphibolites. Garnet granulites compositionally correspond to sub-alkalic basalt, and have wide ranges of Ni abundance (133-840 ppm), and Nb/Y (0.12-1.85), Nb/U (3.51-53.86) and Ta/U (0.38-2.48). The amphibolite and the syenite correspond to alkalic basalt. The Fuxian mafic xenoliths are regarded as the metamorphic product of the underplated magmas (including fractional crystallization or not) experienced the contamination with the pre-existed crustal components, and partly effected by kimberlitic magmas. The concordant ages of zircons for the gabbro (2610-2580 Ma) and the near-concordant upper intercept ages of zircons for the garnet granulite and pyroxene amphibolite (2578-2538 Ma) indicate that they are currently known as the oldest deep-seated xenoliths from the lower crust of the North China Craton. These ages recorded the formation of the united Eastern Block of the North China Craton, That is, Neoarchean (2.6-2.5 Ga) is an important continental crustal growth period of the North China Craton.The lower intercept age of the garnet granulite (1853 Ma) recorded an important tectonic thermal event in Paleoproterozoic. This event was probably related to collision of the East and West block,and resulted in the final assembly of the North China Craton

  5. The Rae craton of Laurentia/Nuna: a tectonically unique entity providing critical insights into the concept of Precambrian supercontinental cyclicity

    Bethune, K. M.


    Forming the nucleus of Laurentia/Nuna, the Rae craton contains rocks and structures ranging from Paleo/Mesoarchean to Mesoproterozoic in age and has long been known for a high degree of tectonic complexity. Recent work strongly supports the notion that the Rae developed independently from the Hearne; however, while the Hearne appears to have been affiliated with the Superior craton and related blocks of 'Superia', the genealogy of Rae is far less clear. A diagnostic feature of the Rae, setting it apart from both Hearne and Slave, is the high degree of late Neoarchean to early Paleoproterozoic reworking. Indeed, following a widespread 2.62-2.58 Ga granite bloom, the margins of Rae were subjected to seemingly continuous tectonism, with 2.55-2.50 Ga MacQuoid orogenesis in the east superseded by 2.50 to 2.28 Ga Arrowsmith orogenesis in the west. A recent wide-ranging survey of Hf isotopic ratios in detrital and magmatic zircons across Rae has demonstrated significant juvenile, subduction-related crustal production in this period. Following break-up at ca. 2.1 Ga, the Rae later became a tectonic aggregation point as the western and eastern margins transitioned back to convergent plate boundaries (Thelon-Taltson and Snowbird orogens) marking onset of the 2.0-1.8 Ga assembly of Nuna. The distinctive features of Rae, including orogenic imprints of MacQuoid and Arrowsmith vintage have now been identified in about two dozen cratonic blocks world-wide, substantiating the idea that the Rae cratonic family spawned from an independent earliest Paleoproterozoic landmass before its incorportation in Nuna. While critical tests remain to be made, including more reliable ground-truthing of proposed global correlations, these relationships strongly support the notion of supercontinental cyclicity in the Precambrian, including the Archean. They also challenge the idea of a globally quiescent period in the early Paleoproterozoic (2.45-2.2 Ga) in which plate tectonics slowed or shut down.

  6. Disclosing the Paleoarchean to Ediacaran history of the São Francisco craton basement: The Porteirinha domain (northern Araçuaí orogen, Brazil)

    Silva, Luiz Carlos da; Pedrosa-Soares, Antonio Carlos; Armstrong, Richard; Pinto, Claiton Piva; Magalhães, Joana Tiago Reis; Pinheiro, Marco Aurélio Piacentini; Santos, Gabriella Galliac


    This geochronological and isotopic study focuses on one of the Archean-Paleoproterozoic basement domains of the São Francisco craton reworked in the Araçuaí orogen, the Porteirinha domain, Brazil. It also includes a thorough compilation of the U-Pb geochronological data related to the adjacent Archean and Rhyacian terranes from the São Francisco craton and Araçuaí orogen. The main target of this study is the TTG gneisses of the Porteirinha complex (Sample 1). The gneiss dated at 3371 ± 6 Ma unraveled a polycyclic evolution characterized by two metamorphic overprinting episodes, dated at 3146 ± 24 Ma (M1) and ca. 600 Ma (M2). The former (M1) is so far the most reliable evidence of the oldest metamorphic episode ever dated in Brazil. The latter (M2), in turn, is endemic in most of the exposed eastern cratonic margin within the Araçuaí orogen. Whole-rock Sm-Nd analysis from the gneiss provided a slightly negative εNd(t3370) = - 0.78 value, and a depleted mantle model (TDM) age of 3.5 Ga, indicating derivation mainly from the melting of a ca. 3.5 Ga tholeiitic source. Sample 2, a K-rich leuco-orthogneiss from the Rio Itacambiriçu Complex, was dated at 2657 ± 25 Ma and also presents a ca. 600 Ma M2 overprinting M2 age. The other two analyses were obtained from Rhyacian granitoids. Sample 3 is syn-collisional, peraluminous leucogranite from the Tingui granitic complex, showing a crystallization age of 2140 ± 14 Ma and strong post-crystallization Pb*-loss, also ascribed to the Ediacaran overprinting. Accordingly, it is interpreted as a correlative of the late Rhyacian (ca. 2150-2050 Ma) collisional stage of the Mantiqueira orogenic system/belt (ca. 2220-2000 Ma), overprinted by the Ediacaran collage. Sample 4 is a Rhyacian post-orogenic (post-collisional), mixed-source, peralkaline, A1-type suite, with a crystallization age of 2050 ± 10 Ma, presenting an important post-crystallization Pb*-loss related to Ediacaran collision. The focused region records some

  7. Palaeointensity and palaeodirection determinations of Paleoproterozoic dykes in the Kaapvaal Craton (South Africa)

    Shcherbakova, V. V.; Lubnina, N. V.; Shcherbakov, V. P.; Zhidkov, G. V.


    A combined palaeodirectional and palaeointensity study of a representative collection from the Bushveld Igneous Complex from 27 dolerite dykes from the 2.9, 2.7, and 1.8 Ga age swarms radiating SE, E and NE, respectively [Olsson et al., 2010] was carried out. Conventional progressive thermal or AF demagnetization was applied to all specimens. The palaeomagnetic directions have been calculated after thermal demagnetization. The ChRMs were isolated over the temperature interval 440-590 C and their intensities amount to 95% of total NRMs. Paleopole calculate from the primary high-temperature component, separated in the 2.9 Ga SE-dykes, is close to the paleopoles, obtained by Wingate (1998) and Strik et al. (2007) for 2.78 Ga volcanics. The paleopole calculated for the 2.7 Ga age E-trending dykes of the eastern region does not correspond to any of the previously obtained Archean-Paleoproterozoic paleopoles for the Kaapvaal Craton. The paleopole calculated for some NE-trending dykes of the Black Ridge swarm in the NE region is close to the 1.87 Ga pole of the Kaapvaal Craton obtained by Hanson et al. (2004). Palaeointensity determinations were carried out on rocks from ten dykes of different ages using Thellier-Coe method with the "check-points" procedure on specimens of 1 cm in edge length cut from either drilled cores or hand samples. Rock magnetic measurements were made on sister specimens. Curie temperatures and the thermal stability of magnetic minerals were estimated from thermomagnetic heating-cooling cycles to incrementally higher temperatures Ti with a Curie balance in an external magnetic field H = 0.45 T. To assess the magnetic hardness and mineralogy of samples, measurements of magnetic susceptibility and hysteresis loop parameters were performed. The domain structure (DS) was estimated also from the thermomagnetic criterion by evaluating the tails of pTRMs. Wilson's method of palaeointensity determination based on comparison of thermodemagnetization curves

  8. Gross Nitrogen Mineralization in Surface Sediments of the Yangtze Estuary.

    Lin, Xianbiao; Hou, Lijun; Liu, Min; Li, Xiaofei; Yin, Guoyu; Zheng, Yanling; Deng, Fengyu


    Nitrogen mineralization is a key biogeochemical process transforming organic nitrogen to inorganic nitrogen in estuarine and coastal sediments. Although sedimentary nitrogen mineralization is an important internal driver for aquatic eutrophication, few studies have investigated sedimentary nitrogen mineralization in these environments. Sediment-slurry incubation experiments combined with 15N isotope dilution technique were conducted to quantify the potential rates of nitrogen mineralization in surface sediments of the Yangtze Estuary. The gross nitrogen mineralization (GNM) rates ranged from 0.02 to 5.13 mg N kg(-1) d(-1) in surface sediments of the study area. The GNM rates were generally higher in summer than in winter, and the relative high rates were detected mainly at sites near the north branch and frontal edge of this estuary. The spatial and temporal distributions of GNM rates were observed to depend largely on temperature, salinity, sedimentary organic carbon and nitrogen contents, and extracellular enzyme (urease and L-glutaminase) activities. The total mineralized nitrogen in the sediments of the Yangtze Estuary was estimated to be about 6.17 × 10(5) t N yr(-1), and approximately 37% of it was retained in the estuary. Assuming the retained mineralized nitrogen is totally released from the sediments into the water column, which contributed 12-15% of total dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN) sources in this study area. This result indicated that the mineralization process is a significant internal nitrogen source for the overlying water of the Yangtze Estuary, and thus may contribute to the estuarine and coastal eutrophication.

  9. Gross Nitrogen Mineralization in Surface Sediments of the Yangtze Estuary.

    Xianbiao Lin

    Full Text Available Nitrogen mineralization is a key biogeochemical process transforming organic nitrogen to inorganic nitrogen in estuarine and coastal sediments. Although sedimentary nitrogen mineralization is an important internal driver for aquatic eutrophication, few studies have investigated sedimentary nitrogen mineralization in these environments. Sediment-slurry incubation experiments combined with 15N isotope dilution technique were conducted to quantify the potential rates of nitrogen mineralization in surface sediments of the Yangtze Estuary. The gross nitrogen mineralization (GNM rates ranged from 0.02 to 5.13 mg N kg(-1 d(-1 in surface sediments of the study area. The GNM rates were generally higher in summer than in winter, and the relative high rates were detected mainly at sites near the north branch and frontal edge of this estuary. The spatial and temporal distributions of GNM rates were observed to depend largely on temperature, salinity, sedimentary organic carbon and nitrogen contents, and extracellular enzyme (urease and L-glutaminase activities. The total mineralized nitrogen in the sediments of the Yangtze Estuary was estimated to be about 6.17 × 10(5 t N yr(-1, and approximately 37% of it was retained in the estuary. Assuming the retained mineralized nitrogen is totally released from the sediments into the water column, which contributed 12-15% of total dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN sources in this study area. This result indicated that the mineralization process is a significant internal nitrogen source for the overlying water of the Yangtze Estuary, and thus may contribute to the estuarine and coastal eutrophication.

  10. The extent of the Cratonic keel underneath the Southern African region: A 3D image using Finite-Frequency Tomograph

    Soliman, Mohammad Youssof Ahmad; Bezada, Max; Thybo, Hans;


    We have re-examined the P body wave data from the South Africa Seismic Experiment (Carlson et al, EOS 77, 1996) across the Kaapvaal and Zimbabwe cratons and the Bushveld complex. Using finite-frequency kernels, we inverted the P-wave delay times to obtain 3-D images of compressional velocity...... between the Archean and modified regions such as the Bushveld complex, and the mobile belts surrounding the cratons. The high velocity (+1.0%) cratonic roots extend to 220-250 km depth beneath the Kaapvaal and Zimbabwe cratons. Lower P-velocities are found under the Bushveld complex and the mobile belts...

  11. Residential building thermal performance energy efficiency in Yangtze River basin

    王厚华; 庄燕燕; 吴伟伟


    Using energy consumption software VisualDOE4.0,simulation was carried out on the energy consumption of a typical residential building in Yangtze River basin,with a focus on thermal performance of envelope each component and application of total heating recovery equipment. The effects of thermal performance of building envelope each component on energy efficiency ratio were analyzed. Comprehensive measures schemes of energy saving were designed by the orthogonal experiment. The energy efficiency ratios of different envelopes combination schemes were gained. Finally,the optimize combination scheme was confirmed. With the measurement dates,the correctness of the simulation dates was completely verified.

  12. Peridotite-melt interaction: A key point for the destruction of cratonic lithospheric mantle

    ZHANG HongFu


    This paper presents an overview of recent studies dealing with different ages of mantle peridotitic xenoliths and xenocrysts from the North China Craton, with aim to provide new ideas for further study on the destruction of the North China Craton. Re-Os isotopic studies suggest that the lithospheric mantle of the North China Craton is of Archean age prior to its thinning. The key reason why such a low density and highly refractory Archean lithospheric mantle would be thinned is changes in composition, thermal regime, and physical properties of the lithospheric mantle due to interaction of peridotites with melts of different origins. Inward subducUon of circum craton plates and collision with the North China Craton provided not only the driving force for the destruction of the craton, but also continuous melts derived from partial melting of subducted continental or oceanic crustal materials that resulted in the compositional change of the lithospheric mantle. Regional thermal anomaly at ca. 120 Ma led to the melting of highly modified iithospheric mantle. At the same time or subsequently lithospheric extension and asthenospheric upwelling further reinforced the melting and thinning of the lithospheric mantle. Therefore, the destruction and thinning of the North China Craton is a combined result of peridotite-melt interaction (addition of volatile), enhanced regional thermal anomaly (temperature increase) and lithospheric extension (decompression). Such a complex geological process finally produced a "mixed" lithospheric mantle of highly chemical heterogeneity during the Mesozoic and Cenozoic. It also resulted in significant difference in the composition of mantle peridotitic xenoliths between different regions and times.

  13. Petrogenesis and metallogenesis of the Yanshanian adakite-like rocks in the Eastern Yangtze Block

    WANG; Qiang(


    Among the Sinian to Triassic strata in South China, the stratiform, quasi-stratiform and lenticular metallic deposits in association with hydrothermal sedimentation mainly occur in the four periods: (1) the Sinian Datangpo interglacial period, (2) the early period of Early Cambrian, (3) the late period of Middle Devonian to early period of Late Devonian,and (4) the late period of Early Permian. The four mineralization periods all happened around the maximum flooding period in the third-order seal-level cycle during the ascending stage in the first-order sea-level cycle. The deep seawater layer, starved and non-compensatory basin, low sedimentary rate, and low energy and anoxic environment during the maximum flooding period are very suitable for the formation and preservation of large to superlarge hydrothermal sedimentary deposits. The maximum flooding period also coincided with the intensified regional tectonism, extensive deep magmatism and hydrothermal sedimentation, which provide, for the formation of large to superlarge hydrothermal sedimentary deposits through the rapid accumulation of hydrothermal sediments, the needed dynamics, ore-forming materials and favorable passway for hydrothermal fluids to enter the basin.

  14. A review of structural patterns and melting processes in the Archean craton of West Greenland: Evidence for crustal growth at convergent plate margins as opposed to non-uniformitarian models

    Polat, Ali; Wang, Lu; Appel, Peter W. U.


    The Archean craton of West Greenland consists of many fault-bounded Eoarchean to Neoarchean tectonic terranes (crustal blocks). These tectonic terranes are composed mainly of tonalite-trondhjemite-granodiorite (TTG) gneisses, granitic gneisses, metavolcanic-dominated supracrustal belts, layered anorthositic complexes, and late- to post-tectonic granites. Rock assemblages and geochemical signatures in these terranes suggest that they represent fragments of dismembered oceanic island arcs, consisting mainly of TTG plutons, tholeiitic to calc-alkaline basalts, boninites, picrites, and cumulate layers of ultramafic rocks, gabbros, leucogabbros and anorthosites, with minor sedimentary rocks. The structural characteristics of the terrane boundaries are consistent with the assembly of these island arcs through modern style of horizontal tectonics, suggesting that the Archean craton of West Greenland grew at convergent plate margins. Several supracrustal belts that occur at or near the terrane boundaries are interpreted as relict accretionary prisms. The terranes display fold and thrust structures and contain numerous 10 cm to 20 m wide bifurcating, ductile shear zones that are characterized by a variety of structures including transposed and redistributed isoclinal folds. Geometrically these structures are similar to those occurring on regional scales, suggesting that the Archean craton of West Greenland can be interpreted as a continental scale accretionary complex, such as the Paleozoic Altaids. Melting of metavolcanic rocks during tectonic thickening in the arcs played an important role in the generation of TTGs. Non-uniformitarian models proposed for the origin of Archean terranes have no analogs in the geologic record and are inconsistent with structural, lithological, petrological and geochemical data collected from Archean terranes over the last four decades. The style of deformation and generation of felsic rocks on outcrop scales in the Archean craton of West

  15. Numerical Study of the Impacts of Urban Expansion on Meiyu Precipitation over Eastern China

    马新野; 张耀存


    The Yangtze River Delta (YRD) has experienced signifi cant urban expansion in recent years, while the Meiyu belt of China has demonstrated a decadal northward shifting trend. Thus, it is of interest to assess how urban expansion aff ects Meiyu precipitation and hopefully to reveal the underlying physical mechanisms involved. In this study, the urban extents over the YRD in 2001 and 2010 are derived based on land use/land cover (LULC) category data and nighttime light image data. Two parallel groups of 10-summer (2001–2010) numerical simulations are carried out with the urban extents over the YRD in 2001 and 2010, respectively. The results show that the urban expansion in the YRD tends to result in increased (decreased) Meiyu precipitation over the Huaihe River (Yangtze River) basin with intensities of 0.2–1.2 mm day−1. Further analysis indicates that the spatiotemporal pattern of the Meiyu precipitation change induced by the urban expansion resembles the third empirical orthogonal function (EOF) mode of the observed Meiyu precipitation. Analyses of the possible underlying physical mechanisms reveal that urban expansion in the YRD leads to changes in the surface energy balance and warming (cooling) of tropospheric (stratospheric) air temperature over eastern China. Anomalous upward (downward) motion and moisture convergence (divergence) over the Huaihe River (Yangtze River) basin occur, corresponding to the increases (decreases) of the Meiyu precipitation over the Huaihe River (Yangtze River) basin.

  16. Timing of the granulite facies metamorphism in the Sanggan area, North China craton: zircon U-Pb geochronology

    GUO; Jinghui


    [1]Lu, L. Z., Jin, S. Q., P-T-t paths and tectonic history of an early Precambrian granulite facies terrane, Jining District, south-eastern Inner Mongolia, China, J. Metamorphic Geol., 1993, 11: 483-498.[2]Liu, F. L., Shen, Q. H., Retrogressive textures and metamorphic reaction features of Al-rich gneisses in the granulite facies belt from northwestern Hebei province, Acta Petrologia Sinica (in Chinese with English abstract), 1999, 15(4): 505-517.[3]Zhai, M. G., Guo, J. H., Yan, Y. H. et al., Discovery of high-pressure basic granulite terrain in North China Archaean craton and preliminary study, Science in China, Ser. B, 1993, 36(11): 1402-1408.[4]Guo, J. H., Zhai, M. G., Zhang, Y. G. et al., Early Precambrian Manjinggou high-pressure granulite melange belt on the south edge of the Huaian complex, North China craton: geological features, petrology and isotopic geochronology, Acta Petrologica Sinica (in Chinese with English abstract), 1993, 9(4): 329-341.[5]Liu, S. W., Shen, Q. H., Geng, Y. S., Metamorphic evolution of two types of garnet-granulites in Northwestern Hebei province and analyses by Gibbs method, Acta Petrologica Sinica (in Chinese with English abstract), 1996, 12(2): 261-275.[6]Wang, R. M., Some evidence of the late Archaean collision zone in the northwestern Hebei Province, in Geological Evolution of the Granulite Terrane in North Part of the North China Craton (eds. Qian, X., Wang, R.), Beijing: Seismolgical Press. 1994, 7-20.[7]Liu, D. Y., Geng, Y. S., Song, B., Late Archean crustal accretion and reworking in northwest Hebei Province: geochronological evidence, Acta Geoscientia Sinica (in Chinese with English abstract), 1997, 18(3): 226-232.[8]Geng, Y. S., Liu, D. Y., Song, B., Chronological framework of the early Precambrian important events of the north-western Hebei granulite terrain, Acta Geologica Sinica (in Chinese with English abstract), 1997, 71:316-327.[9]Guo, J. H., Zhai, M. G., Sm-Nd age dating of high

  17. First SHRIMP zircon U-Pb ages for Hutuo Group in Wutaishan:Further evidence for Palaeoproterozoic amalgamation of North China Craton

    S.A.Wilde; ZHAO Guochun; WANG Kaiyi; SUN Min


    A felsic tuffaceous rock, obtained from a metamorphosed sequence of volcanics and sediments of the Hutuo Group, 8 km south of Taihuai in Wutaishan, contains two zircon populations. These record SHRIMP 207Pb/206Pb weighted mean ages of 2180 ± 5 Ma and 2087±9 Ma, respectively. The older date is within error of the age of the Dawaliang Granite in Wutaishan and is considered to be derived from a similar crustal magmatic source. The younger date is within error of reported ages from metasediments and meta-volcanics of the Wanzi supracrustal rocks and the Nanying granitic gneisses in the adjacent Fuping Complex and is interpreted to be the age of volcanism in the Hutuo Group. These data establish that: (1) the Hutuo Group is Paleoproterozoic and not Archean in age and (2) the volcanism and sedimentation were coeval in the Wutai and Fuping complexes. Sedimentation was therefore widespread at this time and possibly reflects deposition along an evolving continental margin, most likely the western margin of the Eastern Block of the North China Craton. The age of 2087 ± 9 Ma for volcanism in the Hutuo Group means that it must have been deformed and metamorphosed after this time. This further supports the evidence, obtained from other recent studies, that the main tectonism in the Wutaishan area occurred at ~1.8 Ga during the Lüliang orogeny. This orogeny resulted in the collision of the Eastern and Western blocks of the North China Craton and formed part of a global supercontinental amalgamation event.

  18. Study on the extremely cold winter of 1670 over the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River

    JunHui Yan; MingQi Li; HaoLong Liu; JingYun Zheng; Hui Fu


    The snow-cover days over the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River (MLRYR) in the winter of 1670 were extracted from Chinese historical documents. By these records, the winter temperature anomalies (compared to the mean of 1961-1990) recorded at seven meteorological stations and the regional mean winter temperature were estimated. The results show that:(1) There was an average of about 30 snow-cover days over the MLRYR region in 1670, ranging from 11-20 days in Shanghai and eastern Zhejiang to 51-60 days in eastern Hunan Province. The snow-cover days averaged about 40 days in Anqing and Nan-cheng, and ranged from 30 to 40 days in Quzhou, Jingdezhen, and Nanchang;and (2) the regional mean winter temperature in 1670 was estimated to be approximately 4.0 °C lower than that of 1961-1990. The maximum negative anomaly of 5.6 °C oc-curred in Nanchang and the minimum anomaly of-2.8 °C was detected in Quzhou. Both of these were lower than that of the coldest winter during the instrumental observation period of 1951-2010. This research could not only provide a method to es-timate historical climate extremes, but also provide a background to understand the recent instrumentally climate extremes.

  19. Variation of GPS Precipitable Water over the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau: Possible Teleconnection Triggering Rainfall over the Yangtze River Valley

    Gui-Rong Xu


    Full Text Available GPS technologies show many capabilities for monitoring atmospheric water vapor. This study uses GPS data from the Japan International Co-operation Agency (JICA and Hubei GPS network to monitor precipitable water (PW over the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau (QTP and over the middle Yangtze River Valley (YRV. The results show that the southern QTP is wetter than the central area due to the barring effect of the Plateau on the monsoon. PW is higher in summer than other months over either the QTP or the middle YRV. The diurnal variation of PW over the QTP is more complex than that of the middle YRV with fluctuations occurring during the whole day due to the unique topography. The minimum PW over both the QTP and the middle YRV appears in the morning; however, the peak over the QTP occurs at night while the peak over the middle YRV occurs in the early afternoon. Furthermore, PW over the QTP, especially its southern and eastern edges, are positively correlated with PW over the middle YRV. This may imply that the southern and eastern Plateaus are key regions transporting atmospheric vapor to the middle YRV. Our results indicate the possibility of finding early warning signals resulting from the intensification of the QTP atmospheric vapor leading to heavy rainfall events over the middle YRV.

  20. Characteristics of sulfur species and their implications in Lower Cambrian black shales from southern margin of Yangtze Platform


    There are different sulfur forms in the black shales from theEarly Cambrian of the Yangtze platform. With its emphasis on pyrite and organosulfur, this paper discusses their distribution and formation. The research shows that sulfur phases take regular variations laterally as well as vertically in the research areas. In western researched profile with high terrigenous supply at the time it formed, there exists a larger amount of pyrite and less organosulfur, and pyrite amount declines while organosulfur content increases upwards along the profile. This black shale profile is characterized by relatively light sulfur isotope composition with evolution trend of becoming heavier both for pyrite and organosulfur from bottom to top along the profile. Opposite situation occurs in eastern profiles which were located farther away from terrigenous land. Here pyrite amount obviously decreases and organic matter has combined more sulfur, although these two kinds of sulfur species take similar trend in content variation along profiles to that for western profile. At the same time more 34S is accumulated in sulfur species of black shale samples from eastern profile, and sulfur isotope composition gradually turns lighter from bottom to top. In combination with other information of iron, organic carbon contents and petrographic features, it can be established that sea-level change, supply of terrigenous matters, tectonic background and natures of paleoceanic chemistry have exerted great influence on the distribution of sulfur species in these black shales.

  1. Crutal and upper mantle structure beneath the mid-lower Yangtze metallogenic belt revealed by passive-source seismic array

    Shi, D.; Lu, Q.; Yan, J.; Xu, W.; Zhang, G.; Jiang, G.; Dong, S.


    The mid-lower reach of Yangtze River is an important metallogenic belt in Eastern China. To understand the formation and geodynamic process for the mineral deposits, SinoProbe program carries out a multidisciplinary trans-section in this region, including active-source methods such as near-vertical (NV) and wide-angle reflection(WA) seismic reflections, passive-source methods such as broadband seismic array(BB) and magnetotellurics (MT), and geochemical and geological observations. The broadband seismic array was initiated in November, 2009, which was deployed in a linear profile, and will record for ~ 1 year. Other geophysical components are planed to be initiated in 2011. The BB array is composed of 52 stations with a much denser spatial interval of ~5 km, starts from Liyang in Jiangsu province in the southeast, across the Yangtze metallogenic belt and the Tanlu fault and then ends in the North China Block (NCB) in the northwest. Based upon the data available at present, preliminary teleseismic receiver function cross-sections have been achieved. The preliminary results show a clear variation of Moho depths along the profile, which, we believe, shed lights on the gloomy and complicated geodynamic process. The Moho is seen around 30 km deep along the profile, becoming moderately shallow to ~27 km beneath the Yangtze metallogenic belt, getting gradually deeper across the Tanlu fault and reaching to a depth of ~32 km beneath the north end of profile in the NCB. In addition to the Moho structure, we have observed some intra-crustal converters and significant scattering energy from the Tanlu fault on the receiver function profile. More methods have been applying to the BB dataset. More detailed descriptions of the field experiment and coming results from this passive-source experiment will be presented. ACKNOWLEDGMENTS We acknowledge the financial support of SinoProbe by the Ministry of Finance and Ministry of Land and Resources, P. R. China, under Grant sinoprobe-03

  2. Future Earth Coasts: The Mississippi and Yangtze Rivers as Examples

    D'Elia, C.; Xu, K.; Chen, Z.; Day, J.; Le Tissier, M.


    Deltas and estuaries are productive and fertile links between the land and the sea. Deltas occupy only about 5% of the Earth's surface but sustain over a half billion people all around the world. Many river deltas are endangered because of extensive dam and levee construction, declining sediment supply, groundwater withdrawal, relative sea level rise and severe coastal erosion, leading to a variety of threats to natural, economic and social systems. About 630 million people now live at an elevation of 10 m or less above mean sea level, and maintaining sustainable land with a rising sea will be a challenging problem for many major deltaic coasts and cities in the next century. Stemming from 20 years of LOICZ (Land-Ocean Interactions in the Coastal Zone), Future Earth Coasts is a new global initiative that seeks to enable the scientific and social scientific communities to build knowledge through collaborative processes to better understand and address the profound and urgent changes occurring in vulnerable coastal zones. The topics of this comparative study are the Mississippi and Yangtze (Changjiang) Rivers, the largest in the United States and China, respectively. We use these two rivers as examples to evaluate current conditions and catalyze future discussion. The Mississippi and Yangtze both have had long-term observations of physical and biological processes that affect human activities, making it possible to quantify both natural and anthropogenic impacts. We also consider the limits to concept of sustainability for the Earth's biosphere and human civilization, and emphasize biophysical constraints and demographic challenges.

  3. Late Permian basalts in the Yanghe area, eastern Sichuan Province, SW China: Implications for the geodynamics of the Emeishan flood basalt province and Permian global mass extinction

    Li, Hongbo; Zhang, Zhaochong; Santosh, M.; Lü, Linsu; Han, Liu; Liu, Wei


    We report the finding of a ∼20 m thick sequence of massive pyroxene-plagioclase-phyric basalt lava flows in the Yanghe area of the northeastern Sichuan Basin, within the Yangtze craton of SW China, which were previously considered to be located outside the Emeishan flood basalt province. This basaltic sequence above the middle Permian Maokou Formation (Fm.) is overlain by the late Permian Longtan Fm. Thus, the Yanghe basalts should be stratigraphically correlated with the Emeishan flood basalts. The Yanghe basalts show typical oceanic island basalt (OIB) affinity, and geochemically resemble Emeishan basalts, especially in the case of high-Ti (HT) basalts from the eastern domain of the Emeishan flood basalt province. The rocks have low age-corrected (87Sr/86Sr)t (t = 260 Ma) ratios (0.704158-0.704929) and Pb isotopic ratios [206Pb/204Pb(t) (18.264-18.524), 207Pb/204Pb(t) (15.543-15.58), and 208Pb/204Pb(t) (38.147-38.519)], and positive εNd(t) values (+3.15 to +3.61), suggesting that the lavas have not undergone any significant crustal contamination. The crystallization temperature of clinopyroxene is estimated to be 1368-1420 °C, suggesting anomalously thermal inputs from a mantle source and a possible plume-head origin. The fractionation of middle rare earth elements (MREE) to heavy REE (HREE) suggests that these rocks were produced by small degrees of partial melting of mantle peridotite within the garnet-spinel transition region. The stratigraphic relationships and similar geochemical signatures with the Emeishan flood basalts suggest that the Yanghe basalts are part of the Emeishan flood basalt province and can be considered as the northeastern limit of the Emeishan flood basalt province. Our finding extends the diameter of the Emeishan flood basalt province to ∼1200-1400 km, covering an area of up to ∼7 × 105 km2, two times more than previously estimated. The larger areal extent and giant eruption volume, incorporating the Sichuan Basin, lend support


    M. V. Mints


    Full Text Available The article presents new data on the deep crustal structure, origin and evolution of the Bryansk-Kursk-Voronezh orogen in the south-eastern segment of the East European craton; it is composed of the Paleoproterozoic formations and areas of reworked Archean crust. The purpose of this paper is the development and improvement of ideas on intra-continental orogens. The deep structure of the orogen is presented by the 3D model based on results of geological mapping of the Precambrian basement and interpretations of geophysical fields and seismic images of the crust along geotraverse 1-EB and profile DOBRE. It is established that the orogen originated with riftogenic extension of the crust at 2.6–2.5 Ga, that was repeated at 2.2–2.1 Ga, and formation of wide depressions that were efficiently filled in with volcanosedimentary layers including BIF, which accumulation was followed by high-temperature up to granulite facies metamorphism. Suprasubduction magmatism took place at 2.10–2.08 Ga and resulted in formation of the Lipetsk-Losevka volcano-plutonic complex. The active margin was completely formed at about 2.05 Ga. The short duration of subduction-related magmatic activity and the lack of relics of the oceanic lithosphere suggest short-term and spatially limited developing of the oceanic structure. The tectonothermal activity of collisional and postcollision stages was expressed in emplacement of alkaline ultramafic (2.1–2.0 Ga and gabbro-syenite (1.8–1.7 Ga complexes. It is difficult or impossible to explain specific features of the structure and evolution of the orogen in framework of the model of the Cordilleras type  accretionary orogen. Mafic-ultramafic magmatism and indications of intensive heating of the crust suggest a special role of plume type processes that provided for influx of mantle heat and juvenile mantle derived matter. 

  5. At the craton edge: Geodynamic evolution of the southern Canadian Cordillera

    DiCaprio, L.; Eaton, D. W. S.


    In the southern Canadian Cordillera, the thermal and mechanical interface with the craton may influence the geodynamic evolution of the lithosphere-asthenosphere system. Evidence including recent Rayleigh-wave tomography studies suggest that, beneath the southern Canadian Cordillera, the mantle lithosphere is virtually absent. Here, the boundary between craton and Cordillera also marks a step change in measured surface heat flux and a westward termination of magnetic anomalies. This study provides a numerical simulation of lithospheric-mantle removal by geodynamic processes that include delamination, viscous erosion, and mantle dripping. An additional constraint to the geodynamic model comes from thermochronologic data demonstrating long wavelength uplift of the cordilleran plateau in the Eocene. We have developed a suite of 2D visco-plastic models of a transect through the southern Canadian Cordillera and North American Craton. Sensitivity tests elucidate a range of geodynamic models that are consistent with tomographic results and the observed uplift history.

  6. Passive margin asymmetry and its polarity in the presence of a craton

    Andres-Martinez, Miguel; Perez-Gussinye, Marta; Neto-Araujo, Mario; Morgan, Jason


    When continental lithosphere is extended to break-up it forms two conjugate passive margins. In many instances these margins are asymmetric: while one is wide and extensively faulted, the conjugate thins more abruptly and exhibits little faulting. Recent observational studies have suggested that this asymmetry results from the formation of an oceanward-younging sequential normal fault array on the future wide margin. Numerical models have shown that fault sequentiality arises as a result of asymmetric uplift of the hot mantle towards the hanging wall of the active fault, which weakens this area and promotes the formation of a new oceanward fault. In numerical models the polarity of the asymmetry is random. It results from spontaneous preferential localization of strain in a given fault, a process reinforced by strain weakening effects. Slight changes in the experiments initial grid result in an opposite polarity of the asymmetry. However, along a long stretch of the South Atlantic margins, from the Camamu-Gabon to the North Santos-South Kwanza conjugates, the polarity is not random and is very well correlated with the distance of the rift to nearby cratons. Here, we use numerical experiments to show that the presence of a thick cratonic root inhibits asthenospheric flow from underneath the craton towards the adjacent fold belt, while flow from underneath the fold belt towards the craton is favoured. This enhances and promotes sequential faulting towards the craton and results in a wide faulted margin located in the fold belt and a narrow conjugate margin in the craton side, thereby determining the polarity of the asymmetry, as observed in nature.

  7. Magnetotelluric characterization of the northern margin of the Yilgarn Craton (Western Australia)

    Piña-Varas, Perla; Dentith, Michael


    The northern margin of the Yilgarn Craton (Western Australia) was deformed during the convergence and collision with the Pilbara Craton and the intervening Glenburgh Terrain that created the Capricorn Orogen. The Yilgarn Craton is one of the most intensively mineralised areas of continental crust with world class deposits of gold and nickel. However, the region to its north has surprisingly few deposits. Cratonic margins are considered to be key indicators of prospectivity at a regional scale. The northern limit of the Yilgarn Craton within the Capricorn Orogen is not well resolved at date because of overlying Proterozoic sedimentary basins. We present here some of the results of an extensive magnetotelluric (MT) study that is being performed in the area. This study is a component of large multi-disciplinary geoscience project on the 'Distal Footprints of Giant Ore Systems' in the Capricorn Orogen. The MT dataset consists of a total of 240 broadband magnetotelluric stations (BBMT) and 84 long period stations (LMT). Analysis of the dataset reveals a clear 3-D geoelectrical behaviour and extreme complexity for most of the sites, including an extremely high number of sites with phases out-of-quadrant at long periods. 3-D inverse modelling of the MT data shows high resistivity Archean units and low resistivity Paleoproterozoic basins, including very low resistivity structures at depth. These strong resistivity contrasts allow us to successfully map northern margin of the Yilgarn Craton beneath basin cover, as well as identifying major lateral conductivity changes in the deep crust suggestive of different tectonic blocks. Upper crustal conductive zones can be correlated with faults on seismic reflection data. Our results suggest MT surveys are a useful tool for regional-scale exploration in the study area and in area of thick cover in general.

  8. High Water Contents in the Siberian Cratonic Mantle: An FTIR Study of Udachnaya Peridotite Xenoliths

    Doucet, Luc S.; Peslier, Anne H.; Ionov, Dimitri A.; Brandon, Alan D.; Golovin, Alexander V.; Ashchepkov, Igor V.


    Water is believed to be a key factor controlling the long-term stability of cratonic lithosphere, but mechanisms responsible for the water content distribution in the mantle remain poorly constrained. Water contents were obtained by FTIR in olivine, pyroxene and garnet for 20 well-characterized peridotite xenoliths from the Udachnaya kimberlite (central Siberian craton) and equilibrated at 2-7 GPa. Water contents in minerals do not appear to be related to interaction with the host kimberlite. Diffusion modeling indicates that the core of olivines preserved their original water contents. The Udachnaya peridotites show a broad range of water contents in olivine (6.5 +/- 1.1 to 323 +- 65 ppm H2O (2 sigma)), and garnet (0 - 23 +/- 6 ppm H2O). The water contents of olivine and garnet are positively correlated with modal clinopyroxene, garnet and FeO in olivine. Water-rich garnets are also rich in middle rare earth elements. This is interpreted as the result of interaction between residual peridotites and water rich-melts, consistent with modal and cryptic metasomatism evidenced in the Siberian cratonic mantle. The most water-rich Udachnaya minerals contain 2 to 3 times more water than those from the Kaapvaal craton, the only craton with an intact mantle root for which water data is available. The highest water contents in olivine and orthopyroxene in this study (>= 300 ppm) are found at the bottom of the lithosphere (> 6.5 GPa). This is in contrast with the Kaapvaal craton where the olivines of peridotites equilibrated at > 6.4 GPa have 6 GPa is lower or similar (8.4× 10(exp 16) to 8.0× 10(exp 18) Pa./s) to that of the asthenosphere (<= 3.7x10(exp 18) Pa./s ). Such lithologies would not be able to resist delamination by the convecting asthenosphere. However, seismology studies as well as the high equilibration pressures of our samples indicate that the Udachnaya cratonic lithosphere is 220-250 km thick. Consequently, the water-rich peridotites are likely not

  9. Paleomagnetism of the early Paleoproterozoic, volcanic Hekpoort Formation (Transvaal Supergroup) of the Kaapvaal craton, South Africa

    Humbert, F.; Sonnette, L.; de Kock, M. O.; Robion, P.; Horng, C. S.; Cousture, A.; Wabo, H.


    The Kaapvaal craton (South Africa) was the host of several major magmatic events during the Paleoproterozoic, including the volcanic Hekpoort and Ongeluk formations. Their possible comagmatic origin is the subject of a long debate. We performed a paleomagnetic study of the Hekpoort Formation to get a primary pole can be compared with the available paleopole of the Ongeluk Formation, but also to contribute to the apparent pole wander path of the Kaapvaal craton. Characterization of magnetic mineralogy by 3-axis thermal demagnetization of IRM and magnetic susceptibility vs temperature points out magnetite as the main remanence carrier in most samples.

  10. Changes in the Diurnal Cycles of Precipitation over Eastern China in the Past 40 Years

    YUAN Weihua; YU Rucong; LI Jian


    This study analyzed the interdecadal changes in the diurnal variability of summer (June August) precipitation over eastern China during the period 1966 2005 using hourly station rain gauge data.The results revealed that rainfall diurnal variations experienced significant interdecadal changes.Over the area to the south of the Yangtze River,as well as the area between the Yangtze and Yellow Rivers,the percentages of morning rainfall (0000-1200 LST) to total rainfall in terms of amount,frequency and intensity,all exhibited increasing interdecadal trends.On the contrary,over North China,decreasing trends were found.As a result,diurnal rainfall peaks also presented pronounced interdecadal variations.Over the area between the Yangtze and Yellow Rivers,there were 16 out of 46 stations with afternoon (1200 0000 LST) frequency peaks in the first 20 years of the 40-year period of study,while only eight remained in the latter 20 years.In North China,seven stations experienced the opposite changes,which accounted for about 21% of the total number of stations.The possible causes for the interdecadal changes in diurnal features were discussed.As the rainfall in the active monsoon period presents morning diurnal peaks,with afternoon peaks in the break period,the decrease (increase) of rainfall in the active monsoon period over North China (the area south of the Yangtze River and the area between the Yangtze and Yellow Rivers) may contribute to interdecadal changes in diurnal rainfall variability.

  11. Évidences paléomagnétiques et paléontologiques en faveur d'une position antipodale du craton Ouest-Africain et de la Chine du Nord : conséquences paléogéographiquesPalaeomagnetic and palaeontologic evidence for an antipodal position of the West African Craton and of northern China in the Rodinia puzzle: palaeogeographic consequences

    Lefort, Jean-Pierre; Aı̈fa, Tahar; Bourrouilh, Robert


    Reappraisal of the palaeomagnetic data previously published about the West African Craton and their comparison with the most recent information obtained on doleritic dykes and stromatolite-bearing formations allow us to propose, after a critical examination of the old geochronological data, a new path for the West African Craton between 2200 and 700 Ma. This path has been compared with that of eastern China (which can be simply divided into a northern and a southern China block) between 1400 and 700 Ma. We can observe that these two blocks show a common path before their accretion to the Rodinia super-continent. These two blocks, which were located close the equator and at the outboard of Rodinia at about 1000 Ma, were also characterized by identical stromatolitic assemblages. This result shows that West Africa and Eastern China represented the antipodal continental margins of Rodinia. One can also deduce from our data that the accretion of Rodinia mainly resulted from north-south-oriented displacements. To cite this article: J.-P. Lefort et al., C. R. Geoscience 336 (2004).

  12. Characteristics of observed trace gaseous pollutants in the Yangtze Delta

    WANG; Huixiang(王会祥); TANG; Xiaoyan(唐孝炎); WANG; Mulin(王木林); YAN; Peng(颜鹏); WANG; Tao(王韬); SHAO; Kesheng(邵可声); ZENG; Limin(曾立民); DU; Huifang(杜惠芳); CHEN; Limin(陈立民)


    Six stations in the Yangtze Delta were set up to measure minute-average ground-level concentrations of NO, NOx, SO2, CO and O3 from May, 1999 to Oct., 2000 continually. The percentage of total valid data of all sites was over 80%. The observed data were of adequate regional representation. The individual mean value of NO, NOx, SO2 and CO in the six selected sites was much higher than that of background level. Strong seasonal variations of observed data in the sites were expounded with peaks in winter. These showed that the air had been contaminated by anthropogenic pollutants. The highest monthly mixing ratios of O3 were found in May or June, and an ozone episode in September.


    CHEN Bin; WANG Kai


    Based on the Estuarine, Coastal and Ocean Modeling System with Sediments (ECOMSED) model, a 3-D hydrodynamic-transport numerical model was established for the offshore area near the Yangtze Estuary in the East China Sea .The hydrodynamic module was driven by tide and wind. Sediment module included sediment resuspension, transport and deposition of cohesive and non-cohesive sediment. The settling of cohesive sediment in the water column was modeled as a function of aggregation (flocculation) and deposition. The numerical results were compared with observation data for August, 2006. It shows that the sediment concentration reduces gradually from the seashore to the offshore area. Numerical results of concentration time series in the observation stations show two peaks and two valleys, according with the observation data. It is mainly affected by tidal current. The suspended sediment concentration is related to the tidal current during a tidal cycle, and the maximum concentration appears 1 h-4 h after the current maximum velocity has reached.

  14. Ethogram of Yangtze finless porpoise calves (Neophocaena phocaenoides asiaeorientalis).

    Xian, Yi-Jie; Wang, Ke-Xiong; Jiang, Wen-Hua; Zheng, Bang-You; Wang, Ding


    Underwater behavioral patterns of one Yangtze finless porpoise (Neophocaena phocaenoides asiaeorientalis) calf in captivity and those performed on the water surface by two calves in semi-natural environment were focally followed and continuously recorded until one year postpartum to construct the ethogram. The results indicate that 1) the three calves could display diverse and active behavioral patterns; 2) soon after birth, patterns critical for survival appeared first; 3) playful and social patterns predominated the ethogram; 4) most of the patterns were alike across age classes; 5) most of the patterns appeared at the calves' early life stage. It is possible that the above characteristics are adaptively shaped by the aquatic and social life of this subspecies.

  15. Thermo-chemical structure of the North China Craton from multi-observable probabilistic inversion: extent and causes of cratonic lithosphere modification

    Guo, Z.; Afonso, J. C.; Qashqai, M.; Yang, Y.; Chen, J.


    Although the North China Craton (NCC) is one of the best documented cases of cratonic lithosphere modification, the actual causes, processes, and extent of lithospheric modification still are a matter of debate. Here, we present the first thermo-chemical model of the NCC from the surface down to 350 km by jointly inverting surface wave phase velocity data, geoid height, surface heat flow and absolute elevation with a novel multi-observable probabilistic inversion method. Our model reveals a thin ( 65-100 km) and chemically fertile lithosphere (8790) lithospheric mantle is imaged beneath the central TNCO and Ordos Block, reaching depths > 260 km. This lithospheric "keel" is surrounded to the east by a high-temperature sublithospheric anomaly that originates at depths > 280 km. The spatial distribution of this anomaly and its correlation with the location of recent volcanism in the region suggest that the anomaly represents a deep mantle upwelling being diverted by the cratonic keel and spreading onto regions of shallow lithosphere. Our results indicate that the present-day thermochemical structure beneath the NCC is the result of a complex interaction between a large-scale return flow associated with the subduction of the Pacific slab and the shallow lithospheric structure.

  16. Simulation of regional land subsidence in the southern Yangtze Delta


    Investigation of the deformation characteristics of individual hydrostratigraphic units is the key to construct a regional land subsidence model. All of 12 hydrostratigraphic units in the study area were discussed throughout. On the basis of the measured data of groundwater level, five kinds of changing patterns of groundwater level were deduced and the relationship between the deformation characteris-tics of aquifer units and the corresponding changing patterns of groundwater level was discussed. The study area is 1.7×104 km2, where the geological condition is complex. The changing patterns of groundwater level the hydrostratigraphic units have experienced vary from site to site and from time to time. Consequently, the deformation characteristics of units are sophisticated. An identical hydros-tratigraphic unit may exhibit different deformation characteristics, such as elasticity, elasto-plasticity, visco-elasticity, and visco-elasto-plasticity, at different sites or during different periods, not to mention the different units. The existing models are difficult to describe the complex visco-elasto-plastic con-stitutive law under the condition of land subsidence. So the Merchant’s model was modified to depict the visco-elasto-plastic behavior of units. Then a three-dimensional flow model with variable parame-ters and a vertical one-dimensional subsidence model were constructed and coupled. The coupled model was applied in simulating land subsidence in the southern Yangtze Delta and a satisfactory re-sult was obtained. The simulation results show that the new coupled model can depict the complex geological conditions and describe the developing process of land subsidence very well in the south-ern Yangtze Delta. The new model can surely be used to predict land subsidence in the future, which is very helpful to taking measurements to control land subsidence.


    Arkady M. Stanevich


    Full Text Available In the state-of-the-art geology, concepts of evolution of interrelated geodynamic and biotic events throughout the history of the Earth have been developed (Fig. 1. Research results on sediments, bio-stratigraphy and geodynamics of the southern fragment of the Siberian craton (SSC, Fig. 2 provide for more or less reliable assessments of the status and evolution of ancient landscapes and biotas from the Lower Proterozoic to the Cenozoic.In the Lower Proterozoic, the geodynamic regime of the Urik-Iyskiy graben was similar to those of the westernpacific island-arc systems, which resulted in the orogen formation and established post-orogen granitoids of 1.86 bln years of age. At the beginning of the Early Riphean, volcano-sedimentary masses were accumulated in continental basins (Fig. 2, 3A. Collision orogenesis also resulted in the occurrence of the terrigeno-volcanogenic complex of the Akitkanskaya suite in the Western Pribaikalie and the transecting Irelskiy granitoids, aged 1.86 bln years, at the edge of the craton. Later on, most probably before the Riphean, peneplanation took place, and a shallow peripheral sea was formed with highly-mature sediments of the Purpolskaya suite. Different environments are reconstructed in the KodarUdokan zone. Sediments of the Udokanskaya suite, varying in thicknesses from 11 to 14 km, suggest a complicated evolution of sedimentation in the peripheral marine basin. Dozens of radiochronological datings of granitoids of the Chuiskiy and Kodarskiy complex which transect the Udokanskaya suite are within the range from 1.7 to 2.0 bln years. From the deposit composition and texture, it can be suggested that the middle, Chineiskaya sub-suite was formed under island-arc conditions; and glacial phenomena occurred in the late Udokan time.Further geological history of the SSC can be described only within the period after the Late Riphean sedimentations (see Fig. 3Б, В. The SSC evolution in the Neo-Proterozoic began with

  18. Extension of the Yellowstone plateau, eastern Snake River Plain, and Owyhee plateau

    Rodgers, David W.; Hackett, William R.; Ore, H. Thomas


    Formation of the late Cenozoic volcanic province comprising the Owyhee plateau, eastern Snake River Plain, and Yellowstone plateau has been accompanied by east-northeast-directed crustal extension. A new vector of 45 mm/yr, N56°E for the migration of silicic volcanism across the volcanic province is calculated. If migration of volcanism reflects west-southwest continental drift over a mantle plume, a zone of crustal extension must separate the volcanic province from the more slowly moving North American craton. Space-time relations of basin fill in the adjacent Basin and Range province provide evidence for a zone of extension, about 125 km wide, coincident with and east of coeval silicic volcanism. Since 16 Ma, the zone of extension has migrated along with silicic volcanism, maintaining its position between the province and the unextended craton.

  19. Analysis on River Sediment Changes of the Upper Reaches of Yangtze River

    ZHONG Xiang-hao; SHI Guo-yu; XU Quan-xi; CHEN Ze-fang; LIU Shu-zhen


    The sediment load and river sedimentation of the upper reaches of Yangtze River has been undergoing constant changes as complex landform, large mountain area and plentiful precipitation make the drainage area of Yangtze River very vulnerable to water erosion and gravity erosion. Through analyzing the hydrological and sediment load statistics recorded by major hydrological stations along Yangtze River since 1950s, and editing the accumulation graph of annual runoff volume and annual sediment load, we find out that the suspended-sediment of Yangtze river has been decreasing year by year in Wulong Hydrological Station on Wujiang River, Beibei Hydrological Station on Jialingjiang River, Lijiawan Hydrological Station on Tuojiang River and Gaochang Hydrological Station on Minjiang River, Yichang Hydrological Station, Cuntan Hydrological Station along Yangtze River mainstream share the same experience too. But the statistics obtained at Pingshan Hydrological Station on Jinshajiang River shows the sediment load there has increased. Taking ecological construction, hydraulic engineering construction and precipitation changes into consideration, the thesis analyses the causes for the sediment load decrease of Jialingjiang River, Tuojiang River, Minjiang River and Wujiang River and provides us both scientific foundation for further study of river sediment changes of the upper reaches of Yangtze River, and measures to control river sedimentation.

  20. Diversity, abundance, and possible sources of fecal bacteria in the Yangtze River.

    Sun, Haohao; He, Xiwei; Ye, Lin; Zhang, Xu-Xiang; Wu, Bing; Ren, Hongqiang


    The fecal bacteria in natural waters may pose serious risks on human health. Although many source tracking methods have been developed and used to determine the possible sources of the fecal pollution, little is known about the overall diversity and abundance of fecal bacterial community in natural waters. In this study, a method based on fecal bacterial sequence library was introduced to evaluate the fecal bacterial profile in the Yangtze River (Nanjing section). Our results suggested that the Yangtze River water harbors diverse fecal bacteria. Fifty-eight fecal operational taxonomic units (97% identity level) were detected in the Yangtze River water samples and the relative abundance of fecal bacteria in these samples ranged from 0.1 to 8%. It was also found that the relative abundances of the fecal bacteria in locations near to the downstream of wastewater treatment plants were obviously higher than those in other locations. However, the high abundance of fecal bacteria could decrease to the normal level in 2~4 km in the river due to degradation or dilution, and the overall fecal bacteria level changed little when the Yangtze River flew through the Nanjing City. Moreover, the fecal bacteria in the Yangtze River water were found to be highly associated (Spearman rho = 0.804, P bacteria. Collectively, the findings in this study reveal the diversity, abundance, and possible sources of fecal bacteria in the Yangtze River and advance our understandings of the fecal bacteria community in the natural waters.

  1. The nature of cratonic lithosphere: Combining constraints from seismology, mineral physics, and petrology

    Dalton, Colleen; Faul, Ulrich; Hirsch, Aaron


    In recent years, the prevailing notion of Precambrian continental lithosphere as a thick boundary layer (~200-300 km) with a very depleted composition and temperature structure controlled by steady-state conductive cooling has been challenged by several lines of seismological evidence. One, profiles of shear velocity with depth beneath cratons exhibit lower wave speed at shallow depths and higher wave speed at greater depths than can be explained by temperature alone. These profiles are also characterized by positive or flat velocity gradients with depth in the uppermost mantle and anomalously high attenuation, both of which are difficult to reconcile with the low temperatures and large thermal gradient expected in the thermal boundary layer. Two, body-wave receiver-function studies have detected a mid-lithospheric discontinuity that requires a large and abrupt velocity decrease with depth in cratonic regions that cannot be achieved by thermal gradients alone. We have used a forward-modeling approach to identify the suite of shear-velocity profiles that are consistent with phase-velocity observations made for Rayleigh waves traversing cratons in North America, Africa, and Australia. We have also calculated the range of lithospheric temperatures and compositions that are consistent with the elastic and anelastic seismological models, using laboratory measurements on the sensitivity of velocity and attenuation to temperature, major-element composition, and mineralogy. Finally, we consider the implications of the models for the long-term stability of cratons.

  2. Lateral heterogeneity and vertical stratification of cratonic lithospheric keels: examples from Europe, Siberia, and North America

    Artemieva, Irina; Cherepanova, Yulia; Herceg, Matija;

    The presentation summarizes geophysical models for Precambrian cratons, including the structure of the crust and the lithospheric mantle. A particular focus is on thermo-compositional heterogeneity of the lithospheric mantle as constrained by different geophysical data sets: (i) thermal structure...... by an increase in mantle density as compared to light and strongly depleted lithospheric mantle of the Archean nuclei....

  3. Major element composition of the lithospheric mantle under the North Atlantic craton

    Bizzarro, Martin; Stevenson, R.K.


    The composition and thermal state of the lithospheric mantle under the North Atlantic craton was investigated using a suite of peridotite xenoliths from the diamond-bearing Sarfartoq kimberlite dike swarm of southwestern Greenland. Elevated olivine and whole-rock Mg# (>0.9) attest to the refracto...

  4. Seismic structure of a late-Archean microcontinent in the middle of the Western Australian Craton

    Yuan, Huaiyu; Johnson, Simon; Dentith, Mike; Murdie, Ruth; Gessner, Klaus; Korhonen, Fawna; Bodin, Thomas


    The Capricorn Orogen recorded the Paleoproterozoic amalgamation of the Archean Pilbara and Yilgarn cratons to form the Western Australian Craton. Regional surveys involving geological mapping, geochemistry, and geophysics reveal a prolonged tectonic history in craton assembly and subsequent intracratonic reworking, which have significantly re-shaped the orogenic crust. A high-density earthquake seismology deployment targeted the Glenburgh Terrane, an exotic late-Archean to Paleoproterozoic crustal block previously inferred from distinct structural and isotopic characters in the core region of the terrane. Prominent Moho and intracrustal discontinuities are present, replicating the overall trend and depth range found in the previous high-resolution deep crustal reflection image. Significant lateral variations in the seismic signal are found across the terrane boundary, showing a relatively thin crust (40km) crust with elevated Vp/Vs ratios (>1.76) in the margin. The small Vp/Vs ratios ( 1.70) are mapped terrane-wide, indicating a felsic bulk crustal composition. Considering the available constraints from isotopic age, magnetotelluric models and absolute shear wave velocities from ambient noise tomography, the Glenburgh Terrane is interpreted as a microcontinent made in the Archean, which however may have been altered during the WAC assembly and cratonization, as well as subsequent intracratonic reworking/magmatic differentiation processes. Our results illustrate that multi-disciplinary datasets bring complementary resolution and therefore may put tighter constraints on the tectonic processes that have affected the crust.

  5. An isotopic perspective on growth and differentiation of Proterozoic orogenic crust: From subduction magmatism to cratonization

    Johnson, Simon P.; Korhonen, Fawna J.; Kirkland, Christopher L.; Cliff, John B.; Belousova, Elena A.; Sheppard, Stephen


    The in situ chemical differentiation of continental crust ultimately leads to the long-term stability of the continents. This process, more commonly known as 'cratonization', is driven by deep crustal melting with the transfer of those melts to shallower regions resulting in a strongly chemically stratified crust, with a refractory, dehydrated lower portion overlain by a complementary enriched upper portion. Since the lower to mid portions of continental crust are rarely exposed, investigation of the cratonization process must be through indirect methods. In this study we use in situ Hf and O isotope compositions of both magmatic and inherited zircons from several felsic magmatic suites in the Capricorn Orogen of Western Australia to highlight the differentiation history (i.e. cratonization) of this portion of late Archean to Proterozoic orogenic crust. The Capricorn Orogen shows a distinct tectonomagmatic history that evolves from an active continental margin through to intracratonic reworking, ultimately leading to thermally stable crust that responds similarly to the bounding Archean Pilbara and Yilgarn Cratons. The majority of magmatic zircons from the main magmatic cycles have Hf isotopic compositions that are generally more evolved than CHUR, forming vertical arrays that extend to moderately radiogenic compositions. Complimentary O isotope data, also show a significant variation in composition. However, combined, these data define not only the source components from which the magmas were derived, but also a range of physio-chemical processes that operated during magma transport and emplacement. These data also identify a previously unknown crustal reservoir in the Capricorn Orogen.

  6. Mesoproterozoic evolution of the Rio de la Plata Craton in Uruguay: at the heart of Rodinia?

    Gaucher, Claudio; Frei, Robert; Chemale, Farid


    detrital zircon ages occurring in Ediacaran sandstones of the RPC. If the RPC is fringed at both sides by Mesoproterozoic, Grenville-aged belts it is likely that it occupied a rather central position in Rodinia. A possible location between Laurentia and the Kalahari Craton, and to the south of Amazonia...

  7. Water and Metasomatism in the Slave Cratonic Lithosphere (Canada): An FTIR Study

    Kilgore, McKensie; Peslier, Anne H.; Brandon, Alan D.; Schaffer, Lillian Aurora; Pearson, D. Graham; O'Reilly, Suzanne Yvette; Kopylova, Maya G.; Griffin, William L.


    Water in the mantle influences melting, viscosity, seismic velocity, and electrical conductivity. The role played by water in the long-term stabilization of cratonic roots is currently being debated. This study focuses on water contents of mantle minerals (olivine, pyroxene and garnet) from xenoliths found in kimberlites of the Archean Slave craton. 19 mantle xenoliths from central Lac de Gras, and 10 from northern Jericho were analyzed by FTIR for water, and their equilibration depths span the several compositional layers identified beneath the region. At both locations, the shallow peridotites have lower water contents in their olivines (11-30 ppm H2O) than those from the deeper layers (28-300 ppm H2O). The driest olivines, however, are not at the base of the cratonic lithosphere (>6 GPa) as in the Kaapvaal craton. Instead, the deepest olivines are hydrous (31-72 ppm H2O at Lac de Gras and 275 ppm H2O at Jericho). Correlations of water in clinopyroxene and garnet with their other trace element contents are consistent with water being added by metasomatism by melts resembling kimberlite precursors in the mantle approx.0.35 Ga ago beneath Lac de Gras. The northern Jericho xenoliths are derived from a region of the Slave craton that is even more chemically stratified, and was affected at depth by the 1.27 Ga Mackenzie igneous events. Metasomatism at Jericho may be responsible for the particularly high olivine water contents (up to 300 ppm H2O) compared to those at Lac de Gras, which will be investigated by acquiring trace-element data on these xenoliths. These data indicate that several episodes of metasomatic rehydration occurred in the deep part of the Slave craton mantle lithosphere, with the process being more intense in the northern part beneath Jericho, likely related to a translithospheric suture serving as a channel to introduce fluids and/or melts in the northern region. Consequently, rehydration of the lithosphere does not necessarily cause cratonic root

  8. Dating Metasomatism in the Lithosphere Beneath North China Craton

    Chen, L.; Zhou, X.


    Dating of mantle metasomatism had been carried out using zircons in metasomatized mantle xenoliths entrained in kimberlites (Kinny and Dawson, 1992; Rudnick et al., 1999; Konzett et al., 1998, 2000; Liati et al., 2004), because the U-Pb system in zircon can remain closed at high temperature (>900-)(Lee et al., 1997). Here we report a SHRIMP U-Pb dating analysis of zircons from a unique dunite-orthopyroxenite xenolith entrained in Cretaceous high-Mg diorite of Shandong province, which provides a timing constraint for the multi-stage metasomatism in the lithosphere beneath North China craton (NCC). Abundant ultramafic xenoliths had been found in the Tietonggou intrusion, one of the Cretaceous high-Mg diorite-dominated plutons in North China (Chen and Zhou, 2004). The lithology, mineral chemistry, equilibrium temperature (690-790A), and metasomatic characteristics of the ultramafic xenoliths indicate that they might be derived from the shallow lithosphere (the crust-mantle transitional zone or the uppermost lithospheric mantle) and had suffered multi-stage metasomatism (Chen and Zhou, 2004, 2005). Xenolith LW0006 is the most extremely metasomatized sample found so far in the xenolith suite of the Tietonggou pluton. The petrography, mineral chemistry, and major element compositions provide a clear metasomatic record of the composite xenolith: K (and/or Ca) metasomatism, and Si (Na) metasomatism (Chen and Zhou). We found seven zircons range from 100-170 Im in longest dimension, which is reflected in the unusually high Zr content of the bulk rock (49 ppm) of this sample. SHRIMP U-Pb dating reveals that these zircons might be grouped three kinds: Mesozoic (concordia age of 127-A3 Ma, 5 zircons), Paleozoic (430-470 Ma, 1 zircon only) and Mesoproterozoic (1310-1540 Ma, 1 zircon only). Cathodoluminescence (CL) images reveal that a few Mesozoic zircons and the Paleozoic zircons retain oscillatory zoning. The Mesozoic zircons are characterized with high Th, U contents and high

  9. Magnetotelluric characterization through the Ambargasta-Sumampa Range: The connection between the northern and southern trace of the Río de La Plata Craton - Pampean Terrane tectonic boundary

    Peri, V. Gisel; Barcelona, Hernan; Pomposiello, M. Cristina; Favetto, Alicia


    The South American Platform was part of the Western Gondwana, a collage of plates of different ages assembled in late Neoproterozoic to Cambrian times. The Transbrasiliano Lineament, a continental shear belt that transversely intersects this platform from NE to SW, has its southern expression in the tectonic boundary between the Río de La Plata Craton and the Pampean Terrane. Magnetotelluric long-period data in a W-E profile (29°30‧ S) that crosses the Ambargasta-Sumampa Range and the Chaco-Pampean Plain were obtained to connect information of this mostly inferred tectonic boundary. A 2-D inversion model shows the Chacoparanense basin, Río Dulce lineament, Ambargasta-Sumampa Range and Salina de Ambargasta in the upper crust. At mid-to-lower crust and 40 km to the east of the Ambargasta-Sumampa Range, a discontinuity (500-2000 Ω m) of 20-km-wide separates two highly resistive blocks, the Río de La Plata Craton (6000-20,000 Ω m) in the east, and the Pampean Terrane (5000-20,000 Ω m) in the west. This discontinuity represents the tectonic boundary between both cratons and could be explained by the presence of graphite. The geometry of the Pampean Terrane suggests an east-dipping paleo-subduction. Our results are consistent with gravimetric and seismicity data of the study area. A more conductive feature beneath the range and the tectonic boundary was associated with the NE-SW dextral transpressive system evidenced by the mylonitic belts exposed in the Eastern Pampean Ranges. This belt represents a conjugate of the mega-shear Transbrasiliano Lineament and could be explained by fluid-rock interaction by shearing during hundreds of years. The eastern border of the Ambargasta-Sumampa Range extends the trace of the Transbrasiliano Lineament. The electrical Moho depth (40 km to the west and 35 km to the east) was identified by a high electrical contrast between the crust and upper mantle. The upper mantle shows a resistive structure beneath the Río de La Plata

  10. Constraints on Shear Velocity in the Cratonic Upper Mantle From Rayleigh Wave Phase Velocity

    Hirsch, A. C.; Dalton, C. A.


    In recent years, the prevailing notion of Precambrian continental lithosphere as a thick boundary layer (200-300 km), defined by a depleted composition and a steady-state conductively cooled temperature structure, has been challenged by several lines of seismological evidence. One, profiles of shear velocity with depth beneath cratons exhibit lower wave speed at shallow depths and higher wave speed at greater depths than can be explained by temperature alone. These profiles are also characterized by positive or flat velocity gradients with depth and anomalously high attenuation in the uppermost mantle, both of which are difficult to reconcile with the low temperatures and large thermal gradient expected with a thermal boundary layer. Two, body-wave receiver-function studies have detected a mid-lithospheric discontinuity that requires a large and abrupt velocity decrease with depth in cratonic regions that cannot be achieved by thermal gradients alone. Here, we used forward-modeling to identify the suite of shear-velocity profiles that are consistent with phase-velocity observations made for Rayleigh waves that primarily traversed cratons in North America, South America, Africa, and Australia. We considered two approaches; with the first, depth profiles of shear velocity were predicted from thermal models of the cratonic upper mantle that correspond to a range of assumed values of mantle potential temperature, surface heat flow, and radiogenic heat production in the crust and upper mantle. With the second approach, depth profiles of shear velocity were randomly generated. In both cases, Rayleigh wave phase velocity was calculated from the Earth models and compared to the observed values. We show that it is very difficult to match the observations with an Earth model containing a low-velocity zone in the upper mantle; instead, the best-fit models contain a flat or positive velocity gradient with depth. We explore the implications of this result for the thermal and

  11. Tourmaline from the Archean G.R.Halli gold deposit, Chitradurga greenstone belt, Dharwar craton (India):Implications for the gold metallogeny

    Susmita Gupta; M. Jayananda; Fareeduddin


    Tourmaline occurs as a minor but important mineral in the alteration zone of the Archean orogenic gold deposit of Guddadarangavanahalli (G.R.Halli) in the Chitradurga greenstone belt of the western Dharwar craton, southern India. It occurs in the distal alteration halo of the G.R.Halli gold deposit as (a) clusters of very fine grained aggregates which form a minor constituent in the matrix of the altered metabasalt (AMB tourmaline) and (b) in quartz-carbonate veins (vein tourmaline). The vein tourmaline, based upon the association of specific carbonate minerals, is further grouped as (i) albite-tourmaline-ankerite-quartz veins (vein-1 tourmaline) and (ii) albite-tourmaline-calcite-quartz veins (vein-2 tourmaline). Both the AMB tourmaline and the vein tourmalines (vein-1 and vein-2) belong to the alkali group and are clas-sified under schorl-dravite series. Tourmalines occurring in the veins are zoned while the AMB tour-malines are unzoned. Mineral chemistry and discrimination diagrams reveal that cores and rims of the vein tourmalines are distinctly different. Core composition of the vein tourmalines is similar to the composition of the AMB tourmaline. The formation of the AMB tourmaline and cores of the vein tour-malines are proposed to be related to the regional D1 deformational event associated with the emplacement of the adjoining ca. 2.61 Ga Chitradurga granite whilst rims of the vein tourmalines vis-à-vis gold mineralization is spatially linked to the juvenile magmatic accretion (2.56e2.50 Ga) east of the studied area in the western part of the eastern Dharwar craton.

  12. Platinum Group Elements (PGE) geochemistry of komatiites and boninites from Dharwar Craton, India: Implications for mantle melting processes

    Saha, Abhishek; Manikyamba, C.; Santosh, M.; Ganguly, Sohini; Khelen, Arubam C.; Subramanyam, K. S. V.


    High MgO volcanic rocks having elevated concentrations of Ni and Cr are potential hosts for platinum group elements (PGE) owing to their primitive mantle origin and eruption at high temperatures. Though their higher PGE abundance is economically significant in mineral exploration studies, their lower concentrations are also valuable geochemical tools to evaluate petrogenetic processes. In this paper an attempt has been made to evaluate the PGE geochemistry of high MgO volcanic rocks from two greenstone belts of western and eastern Dharwar Craton and to discuss different mantle processes operative at diverse geodynamic settings during the Neoarchean time. The Bababudan greenstone belt of western and Gadwal greenstone belt of eastern Dharwar Cratons are dominantly composed of high MgO volcanic rocks which, based on distinct geochemical characteristics, have been identified as komatiites and boninites respectively. The Bababudan komatiites are essentially composed of olivine and clinopyroxene with rare plagioclase tending towards komatiitic basalts. The Gadwal boninites contain clinopyroxene, recrystallized hornblende with minor orthopyroxene, plagioclase and sulphide minerals. The Bababudan komatiites are Al-undepleted type (Al2O3/TiO2 = 23-59) with distinctly high MgO (27.4-35.8 wt.%), Ni (509-1066 ppm) and Cr (136-3036 ppm) contents. These rocks have low ΣPGE (9-42 ppb) contents with 0.2-2.4 ppb Iridium (Ir), 0.2-1.4 ppb Osmium (Os) and 0.4-4.4 ppb Ruthenium (Ru) among Iridium group PGE (IPGE); and 1.4-16.2 ppb Platinum (Pt), 2.8-19 ppb Palladium (Pd) and 0.2-9.8 ppb Rhodium (Rh) among Platinum group PGE (PPGE). The Gadwal boninites are high-Ca boninites with CaO/Al2O3 ratios varying between 0.8 and 1.0, with 12-24 wt.% MgO, 821-1168 ppm Ni and 2307-2765 ppm Cr. They show higher concentration of total PGE (82-207 ppb) with Pt concentration ranging from 13 to 19 ppb, Pd between 65 and 180 ppb and Rh in the range of 1.4-3 ppb compared to the Bababudan komatiites. Ir

  13. Interpreting the 13C / 12C ratio of carbon dioxide in an urban airshed in the Yangtze River Delta, China

    Xu, Jiaping; Lee, Xuhui; Xiao, Wei; Cao, Chang; Liu, Shoudong; Wen, Xuefa; Xu, Jingzheng; Zhang, Zhen; Zhao, Jiayu


    Observations of atmospheric CO2 mole fraction and the 13C / 12C ratio (expressed as δ13C) in urban airsheds provide constraints on the roles of anthropogenic and natural sources and sinks in local and regional carbon cycles. In this study, we report observations of these quantities in Nanjing at hourly intervals from March 2013 to August 2015, using a laser-based optical instrument. Nanjing is the second largest city located in the highly industrialized Yangtze River Delta (YRD), eastern China. The mean CO2 mole fraction and δ13C were (439.7 ± 7.5) µmol mol-1 and (-8.48 ± 0.56) ‰ over this observational period. The peak monthly mean δ13C (-7.44 ‰, July 2013) was 0.74 ‰ higher than that observed at Mount Waliguan, a WMO (World Meteorological Organization) baseline site on the Tibetan Plateau and upwind of the YRD region. The highly 13C-enriched signal was partly attributed to the influence of cement production in the region. By applying the Miller-Tans method to nighttime and daytime observations to represent signals from the city of Nanjing and the YRD, respectively, we showed that the 13C / 12C ratio of CO2 sources in the Nanjing municipality was (0.21 ± 0.53) ‰ lower than that in the YRD. Flux partitioning calculations revealed that natural ecosystems in the YRD were a negligibly small source of atmospheric CO2.

  14. Challenge for Mesozoic hydrocarbon exploration in the Eastern Indonesia

    Abdullah, S.; Rukmiati, M.G.; Sitompul, N. [Pertamina Exploration and Production, Jakarta (Indonesia)


    The eastern part of Indonesia covers approximately 3 million square kilometers, 35 percent being landmass and 65 percent covered by ocean. Only three of 38 sedimentary basins are producing hydrocarbon (Salawati, Bintuni, and Seram Basins). Oil and gas have discovered in the Lariang, Bone, Timor, Banggai, Sula and Biak Basins, however the discoveries have not developed yet. Hydrocarbon systems in Northern Australia and Papua New Guinea give the major contributions to the geological idea of Pre-Tertiary section in the less explored area in the Eastern Indonesia. The Triassic-Middle Jurassic marine carbonaceous shale sequences are the main hydrocarbon source rock in the Irian Jaya and surrounding area (Buton, gula and Seram basins). The main Mesozoic reservoir are the Kembelangan Formation in the Bintuni Basin of Irian Jaya and Bobong Formation in the North Sula Region. Exploration play types in the Eastern Indonesia can be divided into five types: 1 - Peri Cratonic, 2 - Marginal Rift Graben, 3 - Thrust Fold Belt Island Arc, 4 - Early Collision and 5 -Microcontinental Block - Advanced Collision. Recent discoveries through Mesozoic section in Eastern Indonesia are: Roabiba-1 (1990) in Bintuni Basin-Irian Jaya (Kambelangan Formation); Loku- 1 (1990) in North Sula region (Pre-Tertiary sediments); Oseil-1 (1993/94) in Bula-Seram Basin (Jurassic Manusela Formation); Elang-1 (1 994); Kakaktua-1 (1994) and Laminaria-1 in North Bonaparte Basin (Upper Jurassic Sands).

  15. Assessing the hydrologic alteration of the Yangtze River using the histogram matching approach

    Huang, F.; Zhang, N.; Guo, L. D.; Xia, Z. Q.


    Hydrologic changes of the Yangtze River, an important river with abundant water resources in China, were investigated using the Histogram Matching Approach. Daily streamflow data spanning the time interval from 1955 to 2013 was collected from Yichang and Datong stations, which monitor the hydrologic processes of the upper and lower reach of the Yangtze River, respectively. The Gezhouba Dam, the first dam constructed at the main stream of the Yangtze River, started operations in 1981. 1981 was used to differentiate the pre-dam (1955-1980) and post-dam (1981-2013) hydrologic regimes. The hydrologic regime was quantified by the Indicators of Hydrologic Alteration. The overall alteration degree of the upper Yangtze River was 31% and the alteration degree of every hydrologic indicator ranged from 10% to 81%. Only 1, 5 and 26 hydrologic indicators were altered at high, moderate and low degrees, respectively. The overall alteration degree of the lower Yangtze River was 30%, and the alteration degree of every hydrologic indicator ranged from 8% to 49%. No high alteration degree was detected at the Datong station. Ten hydrologic indicators were altered at moderate degrees and 22 hydrologic indicators were altered at low degrees. Significant increases could be observed for the low-flow relevant indicators, including the monthly flow from January-March, the annual minimum 1, 3, 7, 30 and 90-day flows, and the base flow index.

  16. Gap analysis and conservation network for freshwater wetlands in Central Yangtze Ecoregion.

    Xiaowen, Li; Haijin, Zhuge; Li, Mengdi


    The Central Yangtze Ecoregion contains a large area of internationally important freshwater wetlands and supports a huge number of endangered waterbirds; however, these unique wetlands and the biodiversity they support are under the constant threats of human development pressures, and the prevailing conservation strategies generated based on the local scale cannot adequately be used as guidelines for ecoregion-based conservation initiatives for Central Yangtze at the broad scale. This paper aims at establishing and optimizing an ecological network for freshwater wetland conservation in the Central Yangtze Ecoregion based on large-scale gap analysis. A group of focal species and GIS-based extrapolation technique were employed to identify the potential habitats and conservation gaps, and the optimized conservation network was then established by combining existing protective system and identified conservation gaps. Our results show that only 23.49% of the potential habitats of the focal species have been included in the existing nature reserves in the Central Yangtze Ecoregion. To effectively conserve over 80% of the potential habitats for the focal species by optimizing the existing conservation network for the freshwater wetlands in Central Yangtze Ecoregion, it is necessary to establish new wetland nature reserves in 22 county units across Hubei, Anhui, and Jiangxi provinces.

  17. Experimental investigation on water quality standard of Yangtze River water source heat pump.

    Qin, Zenghu; Tong, Mingwei; Kun, Lin


    Due to the surface water in the upper reaches of Yangtze River in China containing large amounts of silt and algae, high content of microorganisms and suspended solids, the water in Yangtze River cannot be used for cooling a heat pump directly. In this paper, the possibility of using Yangtze River, which goes through Chongqing, a city in southwest China, as a heat source-sink was investigated. Water temperature and quality of the Yangtze River in the Chongqing area were analyzed and the performance of water source heat pump units in different sediment concentrations, turbidity and algae material conditions were tested experimentally, and the water quality standards, in particular surface water conditions, in the Yangtze River region that adapt to energy-efficient heat pumps were also proposed. The experimental results show that the coefficient of performance heat pump falls by 3.73% to the greatest extent, and the fouling resistance of cooling water in the heat exchanger increases up to 25.6% in different water conditions. When the sediment concentration and the turbidity in the river water are no more than 100 g/m3 and 50 NTU respectively, the performance of the heat pump is better, which can be used as a suitable river water quality standard for river water source heat pumps.

  18. Embryotoxicity and genotoxicity evaluation of sediments from Yangtze River estuary using zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryos.

    Li, Qian; Chen, Ling; Liu, Li; Wu, Lingling


    Sediments function both as a sink and a source of pollutants in aquatic ecosystems and may impose serious effects on benthic organisms and human health. As one of the largest estuaries in the world, the Yangtze River estuary suffers from abundant wastewater from the coastal cities. In this study, the zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryos were employed in the fish embryo test and a comet assay to evaluate the embryotoxicity and genotoxicity of the sediments from the Yangtze River estuary, respectively. Results showed that the sediments from the Yangtze River estuary significantly increased mortality, induced development abnormalities, and reduced hatching rate and heart rate of zebrafish embryos after 96 h of exposure. Significant genotoxicity was observed in the samples relative to the controls. Relatively low-level embryotoxicity and genotoxicity of sediments were found in the Yangtze River compared with other river systems. Toxic responses were also discussed in relation to the analyzed organic contaminants in sediments. More attention should be paid to non-priority pollutant monitoring in the Yangtze River estuary.

  19. Assessment of trophic status in Changjiang (Yangtze) River estuary


    The integrated methodology for the assessment of estuarine trophic status (ASSETS),which was extended and refined from the United States National Estuarine Eutrophication Assessment (NEEA), is a multi-parameter assessment system and has been widely used in eutrophication assessment in estuarine and coastal waters. The ASSETS was applied to evaluate the trophic status of the Changjiang (Yangtze) River estuary, one of the largest estuaries in the world. The following main results were obtained: (i) The estuarine export potential is "moderate susceptibility" due to the "moderate" dilution potential and "moderate" flushing potential; (ii) The overall human influence (OHI) index classified the impact of nutrients in the system as "high" due to the high level of nutrient discharge by the river which channels anthropogenic impacts in the catchments to the estuarine system; (iii) The overall eutrophic condition (OEC) in the estuary was classified into the "high" category due to frequent occurrence of nuisance and toxic algal blooms in the mixing and seawater zones; (iv) Since the nutrient loadings (e.g.,DIN) in the river is expected to continue to increase in the near future following the population increase and rapid economic growth throughout the drainage basin, the nutrient-related symptoms in the estuary are likely to substantially worsen, which leads to the "worsen high" category for the definition of future outlook (DFO). The combinations of the three components (i.e., OHI, OEC, and DFO) lead to an overall grade as "bad" for the trophic status in the Changjiang River estuary.

  20. 近千年中国东部夏季雨带位置的变化%Variations of Geographical Latitude of Summer Rain Belts over Eastern China During the Last Millennium

    黄建斌; 王绍武


    Based on the variations of geographical locations, the summer rain belts over eastern China were classified in this study into eight types: Inner Mongolia, North China, the Yellow River, the Huaihe River, the Yangtze River, the northern and southern parts of Jiangnan ( to the south of the lower Yangtze River valley), and South China. The file of 8-type rain belts was compiled from 1470 to 2005, and in order to extend the file of rain belts, it was further merged into a file of 4-type rain belts and also completed during the last millennium from 1000 to 1999. At last, the two files show that summer rain belts frequently occur in the Yangtze River valley in warm climate periods, but in the Yellow River or the Huaihe River valley in cold periods.

  1. Dobreflection: An Exceptional Example of Basin Inversion In The East-european Craton

    Bayer, U.; Stovba, S.; Maystrenko, Y.; Stephenson, R.; Tolkunov, A.; Dobreflection Working Group

    DOBREflection is a joint project of Ukrainian organisations (Ukrgeofisika and the Institute of Geophysics of the National Academy of Sciences) and an international European consortium that included acquisition of some 250 km of deep seismic re- flection data in 2000 and 2001. The aim was to study the south-eastern continuation of the Dnieper-Donets Basin (DDB) into the coal mining areas of the Donbas Foldbelt (DF), including the sedimentary fill and its deformation as well as the structure of the deeper crust. The DF is the strongly inverted and compressionally deformed part of the DDB, which is a Late Devonian rift basin located on the south-western part of the East-European Craton (EEC) between the Ukrainian Shield (UkS) to the south-west and the Voronezh Massif (VM) to the north-east. DOBREflection reveals that the base of the predominantly Devonian and Carboniferous sedimentary succession in the DF reaches a maximum of about 20-km in its axial part. However, the Donbas area has been much more seriously affected by secondary tectonic events than those parts of the DDB further north. In particular, significant shortening in response to Late Cretaceous Eo-Alpine compression is in evidence. While syn- and post-rift faults with offsets up to more than 3-km disrupt the basement horizon, the shortening (basin inversion) is displayed mainly as folding within the sedimentary succession. The fold patterns sug- gest a detachment surface most likely located within the Upper Devonian sequence, perhaps indicating the presence of salt rich layers. Shortening is also accommodated on two important crustal-scale structures. The first of these is a slightly inclined listric shear zone, or thrust, cutting the entire crust - including the UkS Moho - south of the DF, upwards through the complete sedimentary package ending in the northern part of the DF within an area of reverse faults exposed at the surface. The latter have vertical offsets up to a few kilometres whereas the

  2. Compositions of Upper Mantle Fluids Beneath Eastern China:Implications for Mantle Evolution

    ZHANG Mingjie; WANG Xianbin; LIU Gang; ZHANG Tongwei; BO Wenrui


    The composition of gases trapped in olivine, orthopyroxene and clinopyroxene in lherzolite xenoliths collected from different locations in eastern China has been measured by the vacuum stepped-heating mass spectrometry.These xenoliths are hosted in alkali basalts and considered as residues of partial melting of the upper mantle, and may contain evidence of mantle evolution. The results show that various kinds of fluid inclusions in lherzolite xenoliths have been released at distinct times, which could be related to different stages of mantle evolution. In general, primitive fluids of the upper mantle (PFUM) beneath eastern China are dominated by H2, CO2 and CO, and are characterized by high contents of H2 and reduced gases. The compositions of PFUM are highly variable and related to tectonic settings. CO, CO2 and H2 are the main components of the PFUM beneath cratons; the PFUM in the mantle enriched in potassic metasomatism in the northern part of northeastern China has a high content of H2, while CO2 and SO2 are the dominant components of the PFUM in the Su-Lu-Wan (Jiangsu-Shandong-Anhui) region, where recycled crustal fluids were mixed with deeper mantle components. There are several fluids with distinct compositions beneath eastern China, such as primitive fluids of upper mantle (CO, CO2 and H2), partial melting fluids (CO2 and CO) and metasomatic fluids mixed with recycled crustal fluids (CO2, N2, 8O2 and CH4) etc. Fluids of the upper mantle beneath the North China craton are different from that of the South China craton in total gases and chemical compositions: the contents of the reduced gases of the PFUM in the NCC are higher than those in the SCC.

  3. Anthropogenic forcing of shift in precipitation in Eastern China in late 1970s

    T. Wang


    Full Text Available Observation shows that eastern China has experienced an interdecadal shift in the summer precipitation during the second half of the 20th century. The summer precipitation increased in the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River Valley, whereas it decreased in northern China. Here we use a coupled ocean–atmosphere general circulation model and multi-ensemble simulations to show that the interdecadal shift is mainly caused by the combined effect of increasing global greenhouse gases and regional aerosol emissions over China. The rapidly increasing greenhouse gases induce tropical warming and a westward shift of the western Pacific subtropical high, leading to more precipitation in Yangtze River Valley. At the same time the aerosol cooling effect over land contributes to a reduced summer land–sea thermal contrast and therefore to a weakened East Asian summer monsoon and to drought in northern China. Consequently, an anomalous precipitation pattern starts to emerge in eastern China in late 1970s. Our results highlight the important role of anthropogenic forcing agents in shaping the weakened East Asian summer monsoon and associated anomalous precipitation in eastern China.

  4. Influence of the characteristics of atmospheric boundary layer on the vertical distribution of air pollutant in China's Yangtze River Delta

    Wang, Chenggang; Cao, Le


    Air pollution occurring in the atmospheric boundary layer is a kind of weather phenomenon which decreases the visibility of the atmosphere and results in poor air quality. Recently, the occurrence of the heavy air pollution events has become more frequent all over Asia, especially in Mid-Eastern China. In December 2015, the most severe air pollution in recorded history of China occurred in the regions of Yangtze River Delta and Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei. More than 10 days of severe air pollution (Air Quality Index, AQI>200) appeared in many large cities of China such as Beijing, Tianjin, Shijiazhuang and Baoding. Thus, the research and the management of the air pollution has attracted most attentions in China. In order to investigate the formation, development and dissipation of the air pollutions in China, a field campaign has been conducted between January 1, 2015 and January 28, 2015 in Yangtze River Delta of China, aiming at a intensive observation of the vertical structure of the air pollutants in the atmospheric boundary layer during the time period with heavy pollution. In this study, the observation data obtained in the field campaign mentioned above is analyzed. The characteristics of the atmospheric boundary layer and the vertical distribution of air pollutants in the city Dongshan located in the center of Lake Taihu are shown and discussed in great detail. It is indicated that the stability of the boundary layer is the strongest during the nighttime and the early morning of Dongshan. Meanwhile, the major air pollutants, PM2.5 and PM10 in the boundary layer, reach their maximum values, 177.1μg m-3 and 285μg m-3 respectively. The convective boundary layer height in the observations ranges from approximately 700m to 1100m. It is found that the major air pollutants tend to be confined in a relatively shallow boundary layer, which represents that the boundary layer height is the dominant factor for controlling the vertical distribution of the air pollutants. In

  5. Compositional trends among Kaapvaal Craton garnet peridotite xenoliths and their effects on seismic velocity and density

    Schutt, Derek; Lesher, Charles


    garnet and clinopyroxene enrichment. Using the parameterization of Schutt and Lesher (2006) we show that at cratonic mantle temperatures and pressures, orthopyroxene enrichment results in little change in bulk density (ρbulk) and shear-wave velocity (VS), but decreases compressional wave velocities (VP...... and clinopyroxene enrichment possibly as a consequence of melt infiltration. More than half of the mineral mode variance among Kaapvaal Craton xenoliths can be accounted for by opx enrichment. Melt depletion effects can account for as much as 30% of the variance, while less than 20% of the variance is associated......) and VP/VS. In contrast, melt depletion has little effect on VP, but leads to an increase in VS and a decrease in ρbulk and VP/VS. Garnet (gt) and clinopyroxene (cpx) enrichment cause an increase in ρbulk, VP, VS, and VP/VS. The isolation of the major contributions to xenolith compositional variations...

  6. Thermal erosion of cratonic lithosphere as a potential trigger for mass-extinction

    Pilet, Sebastien; Guex, Jean; Muntener, Othmar; Bartolini, Annachiara; Spangenberg, Jorge; Schoene, Blair; Schaltegger, Urs


    The temporal coincidence between large igneous provinces (LIPs) and mass extinctions has led many to pose a causal relationship between the two. However, there is still no consensus on a mechanistic model that explains how magmatism leads to the turnover of terrestrial and marine plants, invertebrates and vertebrates. Here, we present a synthesis of stratigraphic constraints on the Triassic-Jurassic (T-J) and Pliensbachian-Toarcian (Pl-To) boundaries combined with geochronological data in order to establish the sequence of events that initiate two of the major mass extinctions recorded in Earth's history. This synthesis demonstrates that these biotic crises are both associated with rapid change from an initial cool period to greenhouse conditions. The initial regressive events recorded at T-J and Pl-To boundaries seem difficult to reconcile either with large initial CO2 degassing associated with plume activity or by volatile-release (CO2, CH4, Cl2) from deep sedimentary reservoirs during contact metamorphism associated to dykes and sills intrusion because massive CO2 degassing is expected to produce super greenhouse conditions. We evaluate, here, an alternative suggesting that the initial cooling could be due to gas release during the initial thermal erosion of the cratonic lithosphere due to emplacement of the CAMP and Karoo-Ferrar volcanic provinces. Petrological constraints on primary magmas indicate that the mantle is hotter and melts more extensively to produce LIP lavas than for current oceanic islands basalts. However, available data suggest that the Karoo and CAMP areas were underlain by thick lithosphere (>200 km) prior to continental break up. The presence of thick lithosphere excludes significant melting of the asthenospheric mantle without initial stage of thermal erosion of the cratonic lithosphere. This initial step of thermal erosion / thermal heating of the cratonic lithosphere is critical to understand the volatile budget associated with LIPs while

  7. Functional Rehabilitation of the "Soil Reservoir" in Degraded Soils to Control Floods in the Yangtze River Watershed

    SHI Xue-Zheng; LIANG Yin; YU Dong-Sheng; PAN Xian-Zhang; E. D. WARNER; WANG Hong-Jie


    The reasons for the Yangtze River flood calamity in 1998 are briefly introduced. The authors believe that using a "soil reservoir" concept is an important means to help control flooding of the Yangtze River.A "soil reservoir" has a large potential storage capacity and its water can be rapidly "discharged" into the underground water in a timely fashion. The eroded, infertile soils of the Yangtze River Watershed are currently an obstacle to efficient operation of the "soil reservoir". The storage capacity of this "soil reservoir"has been severely hampered due to intensive soil erosion and the formation of soil crusts. Therefore, possible measures to control floods in the Yangtze River Watershed include: rehabilitating the vegetation to preserve soil and water on the eroded infertile soils, enhancing infiltration of the different soil types, and utilizing the large "soil reservoir" of the upper reaches of the Yangtze River.

  8. Evolution characteristics of the precipitation in the Yangtze River delta based on the probability density

    Zeng Hong-Ling; Gao Xin-Quan; Zhang Wen


    In this paper the dryness/wetness (DW) grade data of the Yangtze River delta is transformed into the temporal evolution of precipitation probability (PP), and its hierarchically distributive characters are revealed. Research results show that the precipitation of the Yangtze River delta displays the interannual, interdecadal, as well as longer quasiperiodic changes than a century, and all the periods have a confidence level of more than 0.05. In the DW grade series of 530 years, although the frequency of the small probability events (SPEs) of drought/flood in each area of the Yangtze River delta is different, the frequency of the SPEs triggered by the climatic background state is yet the same. This research result fully shows the significant impact of the climatic evolution as a background state upon the occurrence of SPEs, which will be instructive in climatic prediction theory and in raising the accuracy of the climatic prediction.

  9. The Impact of China's WTO Entry on the Industrial Structure of the Yangtze River Delta

    WU Xiao-qiong; WANG Wei-gong; LI Zheng; SHAO Shi-huang


    In the areas of China access into WTO Agreements,Chinese government has made lots of promises in reducing tariffs of some industrial products. While industrial products make up a very large share of import and export, so nearly all kinds of them will be influenced, especially those which are protected by means of national tariffs and taxes and non-tariffs barriers on import-sand, to a lesser extent, on exports.Meanwhile we have noticed that most of these industries are the pillar ones of Yangtze Delta. As it is well known that Yangtze Delta has become the most developed area in Yangtze valley or even in China and had an important effect on China economy. Thus entry to the WTO requires reform to be accelerated in this district so as to put the industry of this region in a position to be able to cope with the greater foreign competition that will follow accession to the trade body.

  10. Fatigue damage reliability analysis for Nanjing Yangtze river bridge using structural health monitoring data

    HE Xu-hui; CHEN Zheng-qing; YU Zhi-wu; HUANG Fang-lin


    To evaluate the fatigue damage reliability of critical members of the Nanjing Yangtze river bridge, according to the stress-number curve and Miner's rule, the corresponding expressions for calculating the structural fatigue damage reliability were derived. Fatigue damage reliability analysis of some critical members of the Nanjing Yangtze river bridge was carried out by using the strain-time histories measured by the structural health monitoring system of the bridge. The corresponding stress spectra were obtained by the real-time rain-flow counting method.Results of fatigue damage were calculated respectively by the reliability method at different reliability and compared with Miner's rule. The results show that the fatigue damage of critical members of the Nanjing Yangtze river bridge is very small due to its low live-load stress level.

  11. Assessment of pollutant biodegradation at the Yangtze three gorges dam, China

    Kranzioch, Irene; Tiehm, Andreas [DVGW Technologiezentrum Wasser (TZW), Karlsruhe (Germany)


    The microbiological degradation of pollutants in the aquatic environment is affected by several key factors such as (1) the composition of the microbial community, (2) the oxidation-reduction-conditions, i.e. the availability of electron acceptors and electron donors, and (3) the mass transfer processes (e.g. biovailability of pollutants). As part of the joint Sino-German Yangtze project (, the Water Technology Centre (TZW) studies the microbial transformation processes with samples taken at the three gorges dam (TGD) area. In particular molecular microbiological methods such as the Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) are adapted and applied for a specific monitoring. The first studies focussed on the presence of dechlorinating bacteria and the degradation of halogenated substances. The experiments provide more insight into biodegradation processes and thus contribute to a better understanding of pollutant conversion in the Yangtze area. (org.)

  12. An Overview of Coilia ectenes in Jiangsu Section of the Yangtze River

    Jinrong DUAN; Hongyan ZHANG; Kai LIU; Dongpo XU; Minying ZHANG; Weigang SHI


    Anchovies are migratory fish and adult individuals migrate in group from the sea into the river every year because of reproductive needs. TheYangtze River is the largest river in China, with rich food and fish species, hence, the Yangtze River would be an ideal habitat for growth and reproduction of anchovy. In this pa- per, based on fishing log data of anchovy in Jiangsu section of the Yangtze River, realted analysis was conducted in digital map using statistical software and GIS. From 2008 to 2011, the number of anchovy fishing vessels and fishing days in Jiangsu section remained stable, but the fishing volume and economic profit of single-vessel fluctuated constantly. This study provides references and advices for plan and management of anchovy fishery resource to administrative department.

  13. Olivine water contents in the continental lithosphere and the longevity of cratons.

    Peslier, Anne H; Woodland, Alan B; Bell, David R; Lazarov, Marina


    Cratons, the ancient cores of continents, contain the oldest crust and mantle on the Earth (>2 Gyr old). They extend laterally for hundreds of kilometres, and are underlain to depths of 180-250 km by mantle roots that are chemically and physically distinct from the surrounding mantle. Forming the thickest lithosphere on our planet, they act as rigid keels isolated from the flowing asthenosphere; however, it has remained an open question how these large portions of the mantle can stay isolated for so long from mantle convection. Key physical properties thought to contribute to this longevity include chemical buoyancy due to high degrees of melt-depletion and the stiffness imparted by the low temperatures of a conductive thermal gradient. Geodynamic calculations, however, suggest that these characteristics are not sufficient to prevent the lithospheric mantle from being entrained during mantle convection over billions of years. Differences in water content are a potential source of additional viscosity contrast between cratonic roots and ambient mantle owing to the well-established hydrolytic weakening effect in olivine, the most abundant mineral of the upper mantle. However, the water contents of cratonic mantle roots have to date been poorly constrained. Here we show that olivine in peridotite xenoliths from the lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary region of the Kaapvaal craton mantle root are water-poor and provide sufficient viscosity contrast with underlying asthenosphere to satisfy the stability criteria required by geodynamic calculations. Our results provide a solution to a puzzling mystery of plate tectonics, namely why the oldest continents, in contrast to short-lived oceanic plates, have resisted recycling into the interior of our tectonically dynamic planet.

  14. Magnetotelluric investigations of the lithosphere beneath the central Rae craton, mainland Nunavut, Canada

    Spratt, Jessica E.; Skulski, Thomas; Craven, James A.; Jones, Alan G.; Snyder, David B.; Kiyan, Duygu


    New magnetotelluric soundings at 64 locations throughout the central Rae craton on mainland Nunavut constrain 2-D resistivity models of the crust and lithospheric mantle beneath three regional transects. Responses determined from colocated broadband and long-period magnetotelluric recording instruments enabled resistivity imaging to depths of > 300 km. Strike analysis and distortion decomposition on all data reveal a regional trend of 45-53°, but locally the geoelectric strike angle varies laterally and with depth. The 2-D models reveal a resistive upper crust to depths of 15-35 km that is underlain by a conductive layer that appears to be discontinuous at or near major mapped geological boundaries. Surface projections of the conductive layer coincide with areas of high grade, Archean metasedimentary rocks. Tectonic burial of these rocks and thickening of the crust occurred during the Paleoproterozoic Arrowsmith (2.3 Ga) and Trans-Hudson orogenies (1.85 Ga). Overall, the uppermost mantle of the Rae craton shows resistivity values that range from 3000 Ω m in the northeast (beneath Baffin Island and the Melville Peninsula) to 10,000 Ω m beneath the central Rae craton, to >50,000 Ω m in the south near the Hearne Domain. Near-vertical zones of reduced resistivity are identified within the uppermost mantle lithosphere that may be related to areas affected by mantle melt or metasomatism associated with emplacement of Hudsonian granites. A regional decrease in resistivities to values of 500 Ω m at depths of 180-220 km, increasing to 300 km near the southern margin of the Rae craton, is interpreted as the lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary.

  15. Maximum magnitude (Mmax) in the central and eastern United States for the 2014 U.S. Geological Survey Hazard Model

    Wheeler, Russell L.


    Probabilistic seismic‐hazard assessment (PSHA) requires an estimate of Mmax, the moment magnitude M of the largest earthquake that could occur within a specified area. Sparse seismicity hinders Mmax estimation in the central and eastern United States (CEUS) and tectonically similar regions worldwide (stable continental regions [SCRs]). A new global catalog of moderate‐to‐large SCR earthquakes is analyzed with minimal assumptions about enigmatic geologic controls on SCR Mmax. An earlier observation that SCR earthquakes of M 7.0 and larger occur in young (250–23 Ma) passive continental margins and associated rifts but not in cratons is not strongly supported by the new catalog. SCR earthquakes of M 7.5 and larger are slightly more numerous and reach slightly higher M in young passive margins and rifts than in cratons. However, overall histograms of M from young margins and rifts and from cratons are statistically indistinguishable. This conclusion is robust under uncertainties inM, the locations of SCR boundaries, and which of two available global SCR catalogs is used. The conclusion stems largely from recent findings that (1) large southeast Asian earthquakes once thought to be SCR were in actively deforming crust and (2) long escarpments in cratonic Australia were formed by prehistoric faulting. The 2014 seismic‐hazard model of the U.S. Geological Survey represents CEUS Mmax as four‐point probability distributions. The distributions have weighted averages of M 7.0 in cratons and M 7.4 in passive margins and rifts. These weighted averages are consistent with Mmax estimates of other SCR PSHAs of the CEUS, southeastern Canada, Australia, and India.

  16. An isotopic perspective on growth and differentiation of Proterozoic orogenic crust: from subduction magmatism to cratonization

    Johnson, Simon P.; Korhonen, Fawna; Kirkland, Christopher; Cliff, John B.; Belousova, Elena; Sheppard, Stephen


    The in situ chemical differentiation of continental crust ultimately leads to the long-term stability of the continents. This process, more commonly known as ‘cratonization’, is driven by deep crustal melting with the transfer of those melts to shallower regions resulting in a strongly chemically stratified crust, with a refractory, dehydrated lower portion overlain by a complementary enriched upper portion. Since the lower to mid portions of continental crust are rarely exposed, investigation of the cratonization process must be through indirect methods. In this study we use in situ Hf and O isotope compositions of both magmatic and inherited zircons from several felsic magmatic suites in the Capricorn Orogen of Western Australia to highlight the differentiation history (i.e. cratonization) of this portion of late Archean to Proterozoic orogenic crust. The Capricorn Orogen shows a distinct tectonomagmatic history that evolves from an active continental margin through to intracratonic reworking, ultimately leading to thermally stable crust that responds similarly to the bounding Archean Pilbara and Yilgarn Cratons.

  17. Magnetic anomalies across Bastar craton and Pranhita–Godavari basin in south of central India

    I V Radhakrishna Murthy; S Bangaru Babu


    Aeromagnetic anomalies over Bastar craton and Pranhita –Godavari (P –G)basin in the south of central India could be attributed to NW –SE striking mafic intrusives in both the areas at variable depths.Such intrusions can be explained considering the collision of the Bastar and Dharwar cratons by the end of the Archaean and the development of tensile regimes that followed in the Paleoproterozoic,facilitating intrusions of mafic dykes into the continental crust.The P –G basin area,being a zone of crustal weakness along the contact of the Bastar and Dharwar cratons, also experienced extensional tectonics.The inferred remanent magnetization of these dykes dips upwards and it is such that the dykes are oriented towards the east of the magnetic north at the time of their formation compared to their present NW –SE strike.Assuming that there was no imprint of magnetization of a later date,it is concluded that the Indian plate was located in the southern hemisphere,either independently or as part of a supercontinent,for some span of time during Paleoproterozoic and was involved in complex path of movement and rotation subsequently. The paper presents a case study of the utility of aeromagnetic anomalies in qualitatively deducing the palaeopositions of the landmasses from the interpreted remanent magnetism of buried intrusive bodies.

  18. Geology and geochemistry of giant quartz veins from the Bundelkhand Craton, central India and their implications

    J K Pati; S C Patel; K L Pruseth; V P Malviya; M Arima; S Raju; P Pati; K Prakash


    Giant quartz veins (GQVs; earlier referred to as `quartz reefs’) occurring in the Archean Bundelkhand Craton (29, 000 km2) represent a gigantic Precambrian (∼2.15 Ga) silica-rich fluid activity in the central Indian shield. These veins form a striking curvilinear feature with positive relief having a preferred orientation NE–SW to NNE–SSW in the Bundelkhand Craton. Their outcrop widths vary from ≤ 1 to 70m and pervasively extend over tens of kilometers along the strike over the entire craton. Numerous younger thin quartz veins with somewhat similar orientation cut across the giant quartz veins. They show imprints of strong brittle to ductile–brittle deformation, and in places are associated with base metal and gold incidences, and pyrophyllite-diaspore mineralization. The geochemistry of giant quartz veins were studied. Apart from presenting new data on the geology and geochemistry of these veins, an attempt has been made to resolve the long standing debate on their origin, in favour of an emplacement due to tectonically controlled polyphase hydrothermal fluid activity.

  19. Thermal erosion of cratonic lithosphere as a potential trigger for mass-extinction.

    Guex, Jean; Pilet, Sebastien; Müntener, Othmar; Bartolini, Annachiara; Spangenberg, Jorge; Schoene, Blair; Sell, Bryan; Schaltegger, Urs


    The temporal coincidence between large igneous provinces (LIPs) and mass extinctions has led many to pose a causal relationship between the two. However, there is still no consensus on a mechanistic model that explains how magmatism leads to the turnover of terrestrial and marine plants, invertebrates and vertebrates. Here we present a synthesis of ammonite biostratigraphy, isotopic data and high precision U-Pb zircon dates from the Triassic-Jurassic (T-J) and Pliensbachian-Toarcian (Pl-To) boundaries demonstrating that these biotic crises are both associated with rapid change from an initial cool period to greenhouse conditions. We explain these transitions as a result of changing gas species emitted during the progressive thermal erosion of cratonic lithosphere by plume activity or internal heating of the lithosphere. Our petrological model for LIP magmatism argues that initial gas emission was dominated by sulfur liberated from sulfide-bearing cratonic lithosphere before CO2 became the dominant gas. This model offers an explanation of why LIPs erupted through oceanic lithosphere are not associated with climatic and biotic crises comparable to LIPs emitted through cratonic lithosphere.

  20. Main controlling factors for hydrocarbon reservoir formation and petroleum distribution in Cratonic Area of Tarim Basin


    The Cratonic Area of the Tarim Basin is located in the central part of the basin, developing primarily with Cambrian marine source rocks and secondly Middle to Upper Ordovician marine and Carboniferous-Permian transitional facies source rocks. The source rocks were matured in the changeable period and space, forming multiple hydrocarbon generating centers during the periods. The Cratonic Area experienced multiple tectonic orogenies, forming several palaeouplifts. The matching condition between effective hydrocarbon generating centers and the palaeouplifts in various periods is the main control factor for the formation and distribution of hydrocarbon reservoirs. The palaeouplifts have experienced multiple hydrocarbon-filling phases, several periods of modifications and even breakdown. The palaeouplifts and the adjacent slopes around the effective hydrocarbon generating center compose the most favorable places for hydrocarbon accumulation. The hydrocarbon phase is related with the evolution of the hydrocarbon generating center. In the Tarim Basin's Cratonic Area, reservoirs were mostly formed during late Hercynian. The originally formed hydrocarbon reservoirs which are adjacent to source kitchens and in the good preservation condition are the most favorable prospecting targets. Hydrocarbon is richly accumulated under the regional caprock, surrounding the faulted trends, and over and below the unconformity surfaces. Reservoirs in the Carboniferous sandstone, Ordovician karstic weathered crust and carbonate rock inside the buried hill compose the main intervals for hydrocarbon accumulation. Carboniferous and Silurian sandstone pinchout reservoirs and carbonate lithologic reservoirs with rich fractures and pores are the main targets for further prospecting.

  1. An in situ zircon Hf isotopic,U-Pb age and trace element study of banded granulite xenolith from Hannuoba basalt:Tracking the early evolution of the lower crust in the North China craton

    ZHENG Jianping; LU Fengxiang; YU Chunmei; TANG Huayun


    Backscattered electron images, in situ Hf isotopes, U-Pb ages and trace elements of zircons in a banded granulite xenolith from Hannuoba basalt have been studied. The results show that the banded granulite is a sample derived from the early lower crust of the North China craton. It is difficult to explain the petrogenesis of the xenolith with a single process. Abundant information on several processes, however, is contained in the granulite. These processes include the addition of mantle material, crustal remelting, metamorphic differentiation and the delamination of early lower crust. About 80% of zircons studied yield ages of 1842±40 Ma, except few ages of 3097-2824 Ma and 2489-2447 Ma. The zircons with ages older than 2447 Ma have high εHf (up to +18.3) and high Hf model age (2.5-2.6 Ga), indicating that the primitive materials of the granulite were derived mainly from a depleted mantle source in late Archean. Most εHf of the zircons with early Proterozoic U-Pb age vary around zero, but two have high εHf up to +9.2-+10.2, indicating mantle contribution during the collision and assembly between the Eastern and Western blocks in the early Proterozoic that resulted in the amalgamation of the North China craton.

  2. Simulation of extreme precipitation over the Yangtze River Basin using Wakeby distribution

    Su, Buda; Kundzewicz, Zbigniew W.; Jiang, Tong


    Based on the daily observational precipitation data at 147 stations in the Yangtze River Basin during 1960-2005 and projected daily data of 79 grid cells from the ECHAM5/ MPI-OM model in the 20th and 21st century, time series of precipitation extremes which contain AM (Annual Maximum) and MI (Munger Index) are constructed. The distribution feature of precipitation extremes is analyzed based on the two index series. Three principal results were obtained, as stated in the sequel. (i) In the past half century, the intensity of extreme heavy precipitation and drought events was higher in the mid-lower Yangtze than in the upper Yangtze reaches. Although the ECHAM5 model still can’t capture the precipitation extremes over the Yangtze River Basin satisfactorily, spatial pattern of the observed and the simulated precipitation extremes are much similar to each other. (ii) For quantifying the characteristics of extremely high and extremely low precipitation over the Yangtze River Basin, four probability distributions are used, namely: General Extreme Value (GEV), General Pareto (GPA), General Logistic (GLO), and Wakeby (WAK). It was found that WAK can adequately describe the probability distribution of precipitation extremes calculated from both observational and projected data. (iii) Return period of precipitation extremes show spatially different changes under three greenhouse gas emission scenarios. The 50-year heavy precipitation and drought events from simulated data during 1951-2000 will become more frequent, with return period below 25 years, for the most mid-lower Yangtze region in 2001-2050. The changing character of return periods of precipitation extremes should be taken into account for the hydrological design and future water resources management.


    Qi Ding-man; Shen Huan-ting; Zhu Jian-rong


    Flushing time of the Yangtze estuary by discharge is one of the important factors responsible for the transport of pollutants from various sources located along the Yangtze estuary: Therefore, an objective of the present study, which analysis flushing time in the case of different discharge is very helpful to evaluate the water environmental of the Yangtze estuary.Using a dissolved conservative material as a tracer in the water, a three-dimension advection-diffusion water exchange numerical model was used to study the flushing time by discharge and the discharge dominated region of the Yangtze estuary.The initial tracer concentration is set to 0.0 in the numerical domain of the Yangtze estuary, and the concentration value is set to 1.0 on the inflow boundary.The tracer flux normal to the solid boundary is set to 0.0.The flushing time and the out limit of discharge dominated region can be calculated in terms of the tracer concentration.Estuarine, Coastal and Ocean Model (ECOM) is used as the hydrodynamic model.The result shows that the flushing time is approximately in inverse proportion to the discharge at the upper stream.The out limit is farther from the upper inflow boundary as discharge increases.The out limit at the north branch is different from that of the south branch because the discharge into the north branch is much less than that into the south branch.The data is qualitative similar to the observed data, which show the three-dimensional advection-diffusion equation can be used to estimate the flushing time and the discharge dominated region of the Yangtze estuary.

  4. Kinematic and structural controls of Au metallogenic systems in the Early Earth: Examples from the eastern Pilbara Craton, NW Australia

    Guerreiro, F.M.


    This thesis is divided into eight chapters excluding the Introduction (Chapter 1):- Literature Review: Chapter 2 provides a detailed overview of the historical mining activities within the East Pilbara Superterrain. Details such gold production, grades and mining techniques are described, together w

  5. Spectral characteristics of banded iron formations in Singhbhum craton, eastern India: Implications for hematite deposits on Mars

    Singh, Mahima; Singhal, Jayant; K.arun Prasad; Rajesh, V.J.; Ray, Dwijesh; Sahoo, Priyadarshi


    Banded iron formations (BIFs) are major rock units having hematite layers intermittent with silica rich layers and formed by sedimentary processes during late Archean to mid Proterozoic time. In terrestrial environment, hematite deposits are mainly found associated with banded iron formations. The BIFs in Lake Superior (Canada) and Carajas (Brazil) have been studied by planetary scientists to trace the evolution of hematite deposits on Mars. Hematite deposits are extensively identified in Mer...

  6. Characteristics and Process of Land Use Changes in the Yangtze River Delta, China


    As one of the developing countries China has an arable land per capita far below the world's average level. With a high-density population and the quick development of economy and urbanization, the Yangtze River Delta shows the typical characteristics of land use in developed regions of China, which are: high land reclamation rate and low arable land per capita; intensive land use and high output value; and rapid increasing of construction land area and fast diminishing of arable lands. The analysis indicates that the process of the arable land changes in the Yangtze River Delta could be divided into four different change stages over the past 50 years.

  7. Study on the sex-related AFLP marker of the Yangtze finless porpoise


    The sex-related molecular marker of the Yangtze finless porpoise was screened using Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism (AFLP) technique combined with the bulked segregant analysis. Totally 36 AFLP primer combinations were used to detect the genome DNA bulks of the female and male porpoises, and one sex-related AFLP marker was finally obtained. The marker can be applied to sex identification, and provides a base for further cloning of sex-related genes and analyzing of Y chromosome haplotypes of the Yangtze finless porpoise.

  8. Study on effects of environmental temperature on dynamic characteristics of Taizhou Yangtze River Bridge

    Miao Changqing; Chen Liang; Feng Zhaoxiang


    The dynamic characteristics of three-tower and two-span suspension bridge are analyzed at different global temperatures. An equivalent cable inner force method is proposed to consider temperature effects and to study the effects of environmental temperature on dynamic characteristics of Taizhou Yangtze River Bridge. The result demonstrates that the effects of temperature can not be neglected in static or dynamic analysis of Taizhou Yangtze River Bridge. The relationship between temperature and frequency is negative. The effects of temperature should be taken into account in experimental modal analysis of long-span bridges and damage identification.

  9. Extremely depleted lithospheric mantle and diamonds beneath the southern Zimbabwe Craton

    Smith, Chris B.; Pearson, D. Graham; Bulanova, Galina P.; Beard, Andrew D.; Carlson, Richard W.; Wittig, Nadine; Sims, Keith; Chimuka, Lovemore; Muchemwa, Ellah


    Inclusion-bearing diamonds, mantle xenoliths, and kimberlite concentrates from the Cambrian-aged Murowa and Sese kimberlites have been studied to characterise the nature of the lithospheric mantle beneath the southern Zimbabwe Craton. The diamonds are mostly octahedral, moderately rich in nitrogen with moderate to high aggregation, and contain mainly dunite-harzburgite mineral inclusions. Similarly, dunite xenoliths predominate over harzburgite and lherzolite and carry olivines with Mg/Mg + Fe (Mg#) values of 0.92-0.95, spanning the average signatures for Kaapvaal Craton peridotites. Eclogitic xenoliths are extremely rare, in contrast to the Kaapvaal mantle lithosphere. The Zimbabwe mantle assemblage has been only slightly affected by later silicic metasomatism and re-fertilisation with re-introduction of pyroxenes in contrast to the Kaapvaal and many cratonic lithospheric blocks elsewhere where strong metasomatism and re-fertilisation is widespread. Pyroxene, garnet and spinel thermobarometry suggests an ambient 40 mW m - 2 geotherm, with the lithosphere extending down to 210 km at the time of kimberlite eruption. Whole rock peridotite Re-Os isotope analyses yield T RD model ages of 2.7 to 2.9 Ga, providing minimum estimates of the time of melt depletion, are slightly younger in age than the basement greenstone formation. These model ages coincide with the mean T RD age of > 200 analyses of Kaapvaal Craton peridotites, whereas the average Re-Os model age for the Zimbabwe peridotites is 3.2 Ga. The Os data and low Yb n/Lu n ratios suggest a model whereby thick lithospheric mantle was stabilised during the early stages of crustal development by shallow peridotite melting required for formation of residues with sufficiently high Cr/Al to stabilise chromite which then transforms to low Ca, high Cr garnet. Sulphide inclusions in diamond produce minimum T RD model ages of 3.4 Ga indicating that parts of the lithosphere were present at the earliest stages of crust

  10. Aeromagnetic interpretation in the south-central Zimbabwe Craton: (reappraisal of) crustal structure and tectonic implications

    Ranganai, Rubeni T.; Whaler, Kathryn A.; Ebinger, Cynthia J.


    Regional aeromagnetic data from the south-central Zimbabwe Craton have been digitally processed and enhanced for geological and structural mapping and tectonic interpretation integrated with gravity data, to constrain previous interpretations based on tentative geologic maps and provide new information to link these structural features to known tectonic events. The derived maps show excellent correlation between magnetic anomalies and the known geology, and extend lithological and structural mapping to the shallow/near subsurface. In particular, they reveal the presence of discrete crustal domains and several previously unrecognised dykes, faults, and ultramafic intrusions, as well as extensions to others. Five regional structural directions (ENE, NNE, NNW, NW, and WNW) are identified and associated with trends of geological units and cross-cutting structures. The magnetic lineament patterns cut across the >2.7 Ga greenstone belts, which are shown by gravity data to be restricted to the uppermost 10 km of the crust. Therefore, the greenstone belts were an integral part of the lithosphere before much of the upper crustal (brittle) deformation occurred. Significantly, the observed magnetic trends have representatives craton-wide, implying that our interpretation and inferences can be applied to the rest of the craton with confidence. Geological-tectonic correlation suggests that the interpreted regional trends are mainly 2.5 Ga (Great Dyke age) and younger, and relate to tectonic events including the reactivation of the Limpopo Belt at 2.0 Ga and the major regional igneous/dyking events at 1.8-2.0 Ga (Mashonaland), 1.1 Ga (Umkondo), and 180 Ma (Karoo). Thus, their origin is here inferred to be inter- and intra-cratonic collisions and block movements involving the Zimbabwe and Kaapvaal Cratons and the Limpopo Belt, and later lithospheric heating and extension associated with the break-up of Gondwana. The movements produced structures, or reactivated older fractures

  11. Moho Depth Variations in the Northeastern North China Craton Revealed by Receiver Function Imaging

    Zhang, P.; Chen, L.; Yao, H.; Fang, L.


    The North China Craton (NCC), one of the oldest cratons in the world, has attracted wide attention in Earth Science for decades because of the unusual Mesozoic destruction of its cratonic lithosphere. Understanding the deep processes and mechanism of this craton destruction demands detailed knowledge about the deep structure of the region. In this study, we used two-year teleseismic receiver function data from the North China Seismic Array consisting of 200 broadband stations deployed in the northeastern NCC to image the Moho undulation of the region. A 2-D wave equation-based poststack depth migration method was employed to construct the structural images along 19 profiles, and a pseudo 3D crustal velocity model of the region based on previous ambient noise tomography and receiver function study was adopted in the migration. We considered both the Ps and PpPs phases, but in some cases we also conducted PpSs+PsPs migration using different back azimuth ranges of the data, and calculated the travel times of all the considered phases to constrain the Moho depths. By combining the structure images along the 19 profiles, we got a high-resolution Moho depth map beneath the northeastern NCC. Our results broadly consist with the results of previous active source studies [], and show a good correlation of the Moho depths with geological and tectonic features. Generally, the Moho depths are distinctly different on the opposite sides of the North-South Gravity Lineament. The Moho in the west are deeper than 40 km and shows a rapid uplift from 40 km to 30 km beneath the Taihang Mountain Range in the middle. To the east in the Bohai Bay Basin, the Moho further shallows to 30-26 km depth and undulates by 3 km, coinciding well with the depressions and uplifts inside the basin. The Moho depth beneath the Yin-Yan Mountains in the north gradually decreases from 42 km in the west to 25 km in the east, varying much smoother than that to the south.

  12. Flood-basalt magmatism of the Vodlozero Block of the Karelian Craton: relations between high- and low-Cr Varieties

    Bogina, Maria; Zlobin, Valeriy; Sharkov, Evgenii; Chistyakov, Alexii


    The early Paleoproterozoic (2.5-2.3 Ga) volcanic rocks of the Karelian Craton are ascribed to the large igneous province of the eastern Fennoscandian Shield. They are mainly represented by calc-alkaline low-Ti basalts and basaltic andesites with relatively high SiO2 and clearly pronounced continental trace element signatures. The compositions of the rocks vary in the different domains of the Karelian craton. In particular, basalts developed in the Central Domain are represented by strongly fractionated varieties (Mg # Mg rocks similar to the fractionated varieties developed in the Central Domain. They are characterized by high contents of Zr, Y, and REE, and LILE, fractionated REE patterns with (La/Yb)n = 5.44-12.34, (La/Sm)n = 4.4-2.03, and (Gd/Yb)n = 1.36-2.71), and demonstrate negative Ti and Nb anomalies. The second group is represented by more primitive high Cr (up to 1000 ppm) high Mg# (up to 68) basalts with high Ni contents. Such composition is close to the primary non-fractionated mantle-derived magmas and may be used to provide insight into parental melts of continental flood basalts and their crustal evolution. In the spidergrams they demonstrate weak positive Ti anomaly at positive or absent Zr anomaly and negative Nb anomaly. The rocks of the second group are also characterized (with rare exception) by LREE enriched but less fractionated patterns than the first group: ((La/Yb)n up to 7.5, (La/Sm)n = up to 2.8, (Gd/Yb)n = up to 2.0). High Cr and low Y contents are indicative of relatively high degree of partial melting of a depleted mantle source. These rocks are simulated by sequential fractionation of uncontaminated continental flood basalts leaving Ol residue and lower crustal contamination (rocks with low values of eNd). The percentage of crustal contamination is controlled by Nb/Th ratio. Examination of Nd isotope data revealed that both these types have negative eNd, but high-Cr rocks have slightly more radiogenic Nd isotope composition. A high

  13. Mafic dyke swarms of the Bastar Craton, central India: geochemistry, Sr-Nd isotopes and tectonic implications

    Liao, Chien-Yi; Shellnutt, J. Gregory; Raghvan Hari, Kosiyathu; Viswakarma, Neeraj


    The Archean Bastar Craton of central India which is demarcated by Godivari rift in the west, Mahanadi rift in the east, Narmada-Son rift in the north and the Eastern Ghats Mobile Belt in the south was intruded by several generations of mafic dyke swarms during the Precambrian, with most of the dykes NW-SE to WNW-ESE trending. The dyke swarms can be subdivided into three main groups: the Meso-Neoarchean sub-alkaline mafic dykes (BD1), Neoarchean to Paleoproterozoic boninite-norite dykes (BN) and Paleoproterozoic sub-alkaline mafic dykes (BD2). In the present work, an attempt has been made to constrain the petrogenesis and tectonic implications of the dykes in the Bhanupratapur area of central Bastar Craton. Petrographically, the dykes are metabasites / metadolerites that experienced hydrothermal alteration, as most of the samples are moderately to highly altered. Primary minerals were replaced but still retain the original igneous texture (ophitic). The least-altered samples contain orthopyroxene, plagioclase, secondary amphibole, secondary quartz and some euhedral Fe-Ti oxides. The dykes can be classified into two groups according to major element data. Petrographically, the two groups cannot be clearly distinguished. Group 1 is sub-alkaline basalt (SiO2 = 51 wt%) with low magnesium (MgO = 4.6 to 7.2 wt%), low Mg-number (Mg# ≤ 53) and higher titanium (TiO2 ≥ 0.83 wt%). Group 2 is sub-alkaline basaltic andesite and has boninitic characteristics with higher silica (SiO2 = 51 to 56 wt%), higher magnesium (MgO = 5.9 to 19.1 wt%), higher Mg-number (Mg# = 50 to 79) and lower titanium (TiO2 ≤ 0.8 wt%). The chondrite-normalized REE patterns of Group 1 show variability in the light rare earth elements (La/SmN = 1.2 to 2.4). Group 2 exhibit light rare earth element enrichment (La/YbN = 2.2 to 10.4). The Sm-Nd isochron age of Group 1 is approximately 1.9 Ga, with the initial 87Sr/86Sr ratios range from 0.7029 to 0.7058 and ɛNd(t) values range from-0.9 to +1.8. Group 1


    刘乙淼; 陈艳梅; 胡引翠


    high levels of soil conservation (≥ 2 400 t/hm2) area located in the upstream around Sichuan Basin,as well as the south of middle and lower reaches; (2) The inter-city soil conservation amount was highly auto-related.The regions of "L-L" type were found mainly in the source and estuary area of the Yangtze River and west of Wuhan; the cities of "H-H" type were mainly in the upper reaches of the Yangtze River and the south of Jiangxi; (3) The area where soil conservation quantity showed a trend of increase accounted for 62%.And the regions that presented rapidly increasing trend (b>5) distributed in the southern of Shaanxi,northwestern of Hunan,eastern of Jiangxi and eastern of Sichuan.The falling trend area accounted for 38%,mainly in the upper reaches of the Yangtze and south of middle and lower reaches.%利用MODIS-NDVI数据、地面气象站数据等,采用通用土壤流失方程计算了长江流域2000~2010年土壤保持量,并基于GIS平台与GeoDa软件,辅以Moran's I指数以及一元线性回归系数等方法分析了长江流域土壤保持能力的时空分布特征.结果表明:(1)长江源区以及中下游沿岸至长江入海口地区的土壤保持量最低(≤560t/hm2),土壤保持量高值区(≥2 400 t/hm2)主要分布于上游四川盆地周围以及中下游长江以南地区;(2)长江流域土壤保持量在市域单元上存在明显的空间聚集现象,“低一低”聚集区分布在长江源区、武汉西部以及流域入海口,“高—高”聚集区主体分布在流域上游与江西南部;(3)土壤保持量年际变化呈增加趋势的区域占62%,其中呈快速增加趋势(b>5)的地区分布在陕西南部、湖南西北部、江西东部以及四川东部,呈减少趋势的区域占38%,主要分布于流域上游以及中下游长江以南部分地区.

  15. Evolution of the APWP for Gondwana: constraints based on the geology of eastern Australia

    Briden, J. C.; McElhinny, M. W.


    The many iterations of the APWP for Gondwana over the past 40 years will be reviewed. They involve all the uncertainties that challenge the determination of the correct record: nature of NRM; age and correlation; geography and history of tectonic units etc. Most arguments about the Paleozoic section of this path depend upon the interpretation of results from the various terranes of eastern Australia. The two extreme views are either that none of the results from eastern Australia can be used for APWP definition or that all of them can be used. The terrane geology of eastern Australia is now reasonably well known and the paleomagnetic results can be placed in an appropriate terrane concept. This suggests that the Molong-Monaro terrane, where most results come from, was certainly accreted to the main craton by the Middle Devonian and probably by the Early Devonian. Early Devonian palaemagnetric results from the north and south of eastern Australia confirm this to be the case. However, the often used Late Carboniferous results from glacial horizons in eastern Australia are from the New England Fold Belt, where accretion to the main craton may not have been completed until the Middle Triassic. Results from this region now also confirm this to be the case. Both the geological setting and paleomagnetic results now confirm that the South Pole APWP makes a rapid transition from North Africa to south of South Africa between the Late Ordovician (455 Ma) and the Early Devonian (405 Ma). This places Bolivia and adjacent regions of South America near the south pole in Silurian times, a position supported by sedimentological evidence for glaciation in Bolivia at that time. The pole then loops back across southwest Gondwana to reach central Africa by the Early Carboniferous.

  16. Parentage determination of an isolated Yangtze finless porpoise population Neophocaena phocaenoides asiaeorientalis in the Yangtze Tian-e-Zhou Baiji National Natural Reserve based on molecular data

    XIA Junhong; ZHENG Jinsong; XU Limei; WANG Ding


    Reproductive behaviors are poorly known for the Yangtze finless porpoise Neophocaena phocaenoides asiaeorientalis. In this study, the parentage of an isolated Yangtze finless porpoise population inhabiting the Yangtze Tian-e-Zhou Baiji National Natural Reserve is determined by analysis of microsatellite loci and mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) control region sequences, and the porpoise's reproductive behaviors are studied. Overall 4 full parentage assignments and additional 3 single parentage assignments were determined for the population of 23 individuals. The analysis shows that their estimated reproductive cycle is shorter than that reported previously and there probably exists an overlapping between gestation and lactation period. The study also shows that the female does not show fidelity to a particular male for breeding and vice versa, the oldest males did not monopolize mating and the dominance rank could not be so strict for the porpoise society. Moreover, the porpoise's mating pattern and relatedness among candidate parents are discussed here. These results provide important information for making guidelines of management and conservation for this protected population.

  17. Wang Jinzhen Attended the Forum on Cooperation & Development between Yangtze River Delta and Baltic Sea Region


    @@ On October 17,on behalf of CCPIT,Vice-Chairman Wang Jinzhen attended the opening ceremony of the 3rd Forum on Cooperation & Development between Yangtze River Delta Region of China and Baltic Sea Region of Europe,where he delivered a speech.

  18. Satellite estimates of wide-range suspended sediment concentrations in Changjiang (Yangtze) estuary using MERIS data

    Shen, F.; Verhoef, W.; Zhou, Y.; Salama, M.S.; Liu, X.


    The Changjiang (Yangtze) estuarine and coastal waters are characterized by suspended sediments over a wide range of concentrations from 20 to 2,500 mg l-1. Suspended sediment plays important roles in the estuarine and coastal system and environment. Previous algorithms for satellite estimates of sus

  19. Behavior of Zn, Cu, Pb and Cd in biota of Yangtze Estuary

    陆健健; 唐亚文; 唐亚文; 周开亚; 叶属峰; 孙平跃


    The contents of zinc, copper, lead and cadmium were measured in the dominant species (plants: Scripus triquetor and Phrgrmites australis, macrobenthos: llyoplax deschampsin, Helice tridens tientsinensis, Bullacta exarata and Corbicula fluminea, and migrating waders: Calidris ruficollis and C. alpina) of the ecosystem of Yangtze Estuary, China, from 1995-1998. Results show that:

  20. Land claim and loss of tidal flats in the Yangtze Estuary

    Chen, Ying; Dong, Jinwei; Xiao, Xiangming; Zhang, Min; Tian, Bo; Zhou, Yunxuan; Li, Bo; Ma, Zhijun


    Tidal flats play a critical role in supporting biodiversity and in providing ecosystem services but are rapidly disappearing because of human activities. The Yangtze Estuary is one of the world’s largest alluvial estuaries and is adjacent to the most developed economic zone in China. Using the Yangtze Estuary as a study region, we developed an automatic algorithm to estimate tidal flat areas based on the Land Surface Water Index and the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index. The total area of tidal flats in the Yangtze Estuary has decreased by 36% over the past three decades, including a 38% reduction in saltmarshes and a 31% reduction in barren mudflats. Meanwhile, land claim has accumulated to 1077 km2, a value that exceeds the area of the remaining tidal flats. We divided the Yangtze Estuary into Shanghai and Jiangsu areas, which differ in riverine sediment supply and tidal flat management patterns. Although land claim has accelerated in both areas, the decline in tidal flat area has been much greater in Jiangsu than in Shanghai because of abundant supplies of sediment and artificial siltation in the latter area. The results highlight the need for better coastal planning and management based on tidal flat dynamics.

  1. The Effect of Geologic Structures on the Control of Floods in the Middle Yangtze River Valley


    This paper discusses the role of geologic structures in the occurrence of floods and how to prevent flood in the middle reaches of the Yangtze River, and gives the author's suggestion that the Luoshan Qiakou be expanded and the land reclaimed from Dongting Lake be returned to the lake in compliance with the law of geology.

  2. Analysis on the Evolution of Agricultural Structure about Pan-Yangtze River Delta

    DAI Jiang; LIU Zhi-ying


    Starting from the definition of agricultural structure,this paper firstly analyzes the change of industrial and spatial structure of agriculture of Pan-Yangtze River Delta,then inspects the relationship between the development of economics and the evolution of agricultural structure,an the end it provides policy recommendation about the development and adjustment of agricultural structure for the future.

  3. Eco-morphological problems in the Yangtze estuary and the Western Scheldt

    De Vriend, H.J.; Wang, Z.B.; Ysebaert, T.; Herman, P.M.J.; Ding, P.


    This paper compares the Yangtze Estuary in China and the Western Scheldt Estuary in The Netherlands by their morphodynamic and ecological systems, their engineering works and estuarine management issues, and the major challenges in studying them. Physically speaking, the two estuaries are very diffe

  4. Impact of climate change on the streamflow hydrology of the Yangtze River in China

    Tuotuo River basin, the source region of the Yangtze River, is the key area, where the impact of climate change has been observed on many of the hydrological processes of this central region of the Tibetan Plateau. In this study, we examined six global climate models (GCMs) under three Respectively ...

  5. Satellite estimates of wide-range suspended sediment concentrations in Changjiang (Yangtze) estuary using MERIS data

    Shen, F.; Verhoef, W.; Zhou, Y.; Salama, M.S.; Liu, X.


    The Changjiang (Yangtze) estuarine and coastal waters are characterized by suspended sediments over a wide range of concentrations from 20 to 2,500 mg l-1. Suspended sediment plays important roles in the estuarine and coastal system and environment. Previous algorithms for satellite estimates of

  6. Autumn ichthyoplankton assemblage in the Yangtze Estuary shaped by environmental factors

    Hui Zhang


    Full Text Available This study investigated the response of the ichthyoplankton community to environmental changes in the Yangtze Estuary using canonical correspondence analysis. Ichthyoplankton community and environmental data were recorded during the autumns of 1998, 2000, 2002, 2003, 2004, 2007 and 2009. Among the ichthyoplankton, the dominant larval and juvenile families were the Engraulidae, Gobiidae and Salangidae, and the most common eggs were from Trichiurus lepturus. The ichthyoplankton was identified via canonical correspondence analysis to three assemblages: an estuary assemblage dominated by Chaeturichthys stigmatias, a coastal assemblage dominated by Engraulis japonicus and Stolephorus commersonii, and an offshore assemblage dominated by Trichiurus lepturus. Regarding environmental factors in the Yangtze Estuary, suspended matter and surface seawater salinity were the main factors influencing the distributions of the different assemblages, while sediment from the Yangtze River during the rainy season and chlorophyll a were the principle drivers of the annual variances in the distribution of ichthyoplankton assemblages. Our aims in this study were to provide detailed characterizations of the ichthyoplankton assemblage in the autumns of seven years, examine the long-term dynamics of autumn ichthyoplankton assemblages, and evaluate the influence of environmental factors on the spatial distribution and inter-annual variations of ichthyoplankton assemblages associated with the Yangtze Estuary.

  7. Autumn ichthyoplankton assemblage in the Yangtze Estuary shaped by environmental factors

    Liu, Shude


    This study investigated the response of the ichthyoplankton community to environmental changes in the Yangtze Estuary using canonical correspondence analysis. Ichthyoplankton community and environmental data were recorded during the autumns of 1998, 2000, 2002, 2003, 2004, 2007 and 2009. Among the ichthyoplankton, the dominant larval and juvenile families were the Engraulidae, Gobiidae and Salangidae, and the most common eggs were from Trichiurus lepturus. The ichthyoplankton was identified via canonical correspondence analysis to three assemblages: an estuary assemblage dominated by Chaeturichthys stigmatias, a coastal assemblage dominated by Engraulis japonicus and Stolephorus commersonii, and an offshore assemblage dominated by Trichiurus lepturus. Regarding environmental factors in the Yangtze Estuary, suspended matter and surface seawater salinity were the main factors influencing the distributions of the different assemblages, while sediment from the Yangtze River during the rainy season and chlorophyll a were the principle drivers of the annual variances in the distribution of ichthyoplankton assemblages. Our aims in this study were to provide detailed characterizations of the ichthyoplankton assemblage in the autumns of seven years, examine the long-term dynamics of autumn ichthyoplankton assemblages, and evaluate the influence of environmental factors on the spatial distribution and inter-annual variations of ichthyoplankton assemblages associated with the Yangtze Estuary. PMID:27114877

  8. Characteristics of Water and Sediment Exchange Between Yangtze Estuary and Hangzhou Bay

    KONG Jun; SONG Zhi-yao; XIA Yun-feng; ZHANG Wei-sheng


    Based on the 2-D flow and sediment numerical model of the Yangtze Estuary and the Hangzhou Bay, the characteristics of water and sediment exchange in their joint waters is studied through quantitative calculation and analysis of the characteristics of water flow and sediment transportation. The results show that there is periodical water and sediment exchange in this joint waters, that the net water exchange appears mainly between 0~6 m depth (theoretical datum plane, the same below) offshore and the maximum is near the depth of 2 m, and that the net sediment exchange mainly appears between 0~5 m depth and the maximum is near the depth of 3 m, indicating that the range of water flow passage is different from that of sediment transport from the Yangtze Estuary to the Hangzhou Bay. Combined with the results of numerical simulation, this paper also analyzes the hydrodynamical mechanism influencing water and sediment exchange between the Yangtze Estuary and the Hangzhou Bay, including tidal fluctuation, tidal current kinetic energy, tide-induced residual current and the trace of water particles. Finally, the sediment transportation passage on the Nanhui tidal flat is discussed, and the results show that sediment is transported into the Hangzhou Bay from the south side of Shipilei, while sediment is brought back to the South Channel of the Yangtze Estuary from the north side.

  9. Authigenic iron oxide formation in the estuarine mixing zone of the Yangtze River

    Fan, D. J.; Neuser, R. D.; Sun, X. G.; Yang, Z. S.; Guo, Z. G.; Zhai, S. K.


    Estuaries are elementary geochemical fronts where river water and seawater mix. Within this mixing zone, iron and other non-conservative elements can undergo complex reactions to form new solid phases. In order to understand authigenic iron oxide formation in the Yangtze River Estuary, two onsite water-mixing sets of experiments were conducted, one by mixing variable amounts of unfiltered Yangtze River water with filtered East China Sea water of different salinity (set 1), the other by mixing variable amounts of filtered Yangtze River water with filtered East China Sea water of different salinity (set 2). In set 2, the minerals newly formed in the course of mixing were investigated by means of a scanning electron microscope fitted with an energy-dispersive X-ray analytical system. It was found that ferrihydrite and lepidocrocite were formed in these mixing experiments, coexisting in nearly equal amounts. These iron oxides appear as aggregated particles with a large grain-size range of several microns to more than 100 μm. The electrolytic properties of seawater played an important role in the formation of these authigenic iron oxides. Kaolinite and organic aggregates were also found in the experimentally mixed pre-filtered waters. Amounts of newly formed suspended matter (set 2) were one to three orders of magnitude lower than those of total suspended matter (TSM) (set 1). This implies that newly formed minerals represent only a very small proportion of TSM in the estuarine mixing zone of the Yangtze River.

  10. Modeling the impact of river discharge and wind on the hypoxia off Yangtze Estuary

    Zheng, Jingjing; Gao, Shan; Liu, Guimei; Wang, Hui; Zhu, Xueming


    The phenomenon of low dissolved oxygen (known as hypoxia) in a coastal ocean system is closely related to a combination of anthropogenic and natural factors. Marine hypoxia occurs in the Yangtze Estuary, China, with high frequency and long persistence. It is related primarily to organic and nutrient enrichment influenced by river discharges and physical factors, such as water mixing. In this paper, a three-dimensional hydrodynamic model was coupled to a biological model to simulate and analyze the ecological system of the East China Sea. By comparing with the observation data, the model results can reasonably capture the physical and biochemical dynamics of the Yangtze Estuary. In addition, the sensitive experiments were also used to examine the role of physical forcing (river discharge, wind speed, wind direction) in controlling hypoxia in waters adjacent to the Yangtze Estuary. The results showed that the wind field and river discharge have significant impact on the hypoxia off the Yangtze Estuary. The seasonal cycle of hypoxia was relatively insensitive to synoptic variability in the river discharge, but integrated hypoxic areas were sensitive to the whole magnitude of river discharge. Increasing the river discharge was shown to increase hypoxic areas, while decreasing the river discharge tended to decrease hypoxic areas. The variations of wind speed and direction had a great impact on the integrated hypoxic areas.

  11. Reflections on Development Strategy of Pearl River Delta: In Comparison with Yangtze River Delta


    <正>1. A comparison between Pearl River Delta and Yangtze River Delta 1.1 Basic conditions 1.1.1 Location, area and scope Located in the southeast of Guangdong Province, the Pearl River Delta (PRD) as an economic zone is a compound delta

  12. Sources of organic matter in Changjiang (Yangtze River) bed sediments : Preliminary insights from organic geochemical proxies

    Li, Zhongqiao; Peterse, Francien; Wu, Ying; Bao, Hongyan; Eglinton, Timothy I.; Zhang, Jing


    Insight into the content and composition of organic carbon (OC) in river systems contributes to our understanding of the global carbon cycle. The Changjiang (Yangtze River) plays a significant role in global carbon and hydrological cycles, as it is an important supplier of sediment, nutrients and OC

  13. Eco-Morphological Problems in the Yangtze Estuary and the Western Scheldt

    Vriend, de H.J.; Wang, Z.B.; Ysebaert, T.; Herman, P.M.J.; Ding, P.X.


    This paper compares the Yangtze Estuary in China and the Western Scheldt Estuary in The Netherlands by their morphodynamic and ecological systems, their engineering works and estuarine management issues, and the major challenges in studying them. Physically speaking, the two estuaries are very diffe

  14. Tidal impacts on the subtidal flow division at the main bifurcation in the Yangtze River Delta

    Zhang, Wei; Feng, Haochuan; Hoitink, A.J.F.; Zhu, Yuliang; Gong, Fei; Zheng, Jinhai


    Flow division at bifurcations in the Yangtze Estuary has received ample attention, since it may control the pathways of terrestrial sediments over downstream river branches including the 12.5 m Deepwater Navigation channel. While some efforts have been made to interpret flow division at the bifurcat

  15. Genetic footprint of population fragmentation and contemporaneous decline in the endangered Yangtze finless porpoise

    Chen, Minmin; Fontaine, Michael C; Chehida, Yacine Ben; Zheng, Jinsong; Mei, Zhigang; Hao, Yujiang; Wang, Kexiong; Wu, Min; Zhao, Qingzhong; Wang, Ding


    Understanding demographic trends and patterns of gene flow in an endangered species, occupying a fragmented habitat, is crucial for devising conservation strategies. Here, we examined the extent of population structure and recent evolution of the critically endangered Yangtze finless porpoise (YFP,

  16. Transition from a localized to wide deformation along Eastern branch of Central East African Rift: Insights from 3D numerical models

    Leroy, S. D.; Koptev, A.; Burov, E. B.; Calais, E.; Gerya, T.


    The Central East African Rift (CEAR) bifurcates in two branches (eastern, magma-rich and western, magma-poor) surrounding strong Tanzanian craton. Intensive magmatism and continental flood basalts are largely present in many of the eastern rift segments, but other segments, first of all the western branch, exhibit very small volcanic activity. The Eastern rift is characterized by southward progression of the onset of volcanism, the extensional features and topographic expression of the rift vary significantly north-southward: in northern Kenya the deformation is very wide (some 150-250 km in E-W direction), to the south the rift narrows to 60-70 km, yet further to the south the deformation widens again in the so-called Tanzania divergence zone. Widening of the Eastern branch within its southern part is associated with the impingement of the southward-propagating rift on the strong Masai block situated to east of the Tanzanian craton. To understand the mechanisms behind this complex deformation distribution, we implemented a 3Dl ultra-high resolution visco-plastic thermo-mechanical numerical model accounting for thermo-rheological structure of the lithosphere and hence captures essential features of the CEAR. The preferred model has a plume seeded slightly to the northeast of the craton center, consistent with seismic tomography, and produces surface strain distribution that is in good agreement with observed variation of deformation zone width along eastern side of Tanzanian craton: localized above bulk of mantle material deflected by cratonic keel narrow high strain zone (Kenia Rift) is replaced by wide distributed deformations within areas situated to north (northern Kenya, Turkana Rift) and to south (Tanzania divergence, Masai block) of it. These results demonstrate significant differences in the impact of the rheological profile on rifting style in case of dominant active rifting compared to dominant passive rifting. Narrow rifting, conventionally attributed to

  17. Tectonic evolution of the southern margin of the Amazonian craton in the late Mesoproterozoic based on field relationships and zircon U-Pb geochronology



    Full Text Available New U-Pb zircon geochronological data integrated with field relationships and an airborne geophysical survey suggest that the Nova Brasilândia and Aguapeí belts are part of the same monocyclic, metaigneous and metasedimentary belt formed in the late Mesoproterozoic (1150 Ma-1110 Ma. This geological history is very similar to the within-plate origin of the Sunsás belt, in eastern Bolivia. Thus, we propose that the Nova Brasilândia, Aguapeí and Sunsás belts represent a unique geotectonic unit (here termed the Western Amazon belt that became amalgamated at the end of the Mesoproterozoic and originated through the reactivation of a paleo-suture (Guaporé suture zone in an intracontinental rift environment. Therefore, its geological history involves a short, complete Wilson cycle of ca. 40 Ma. Globally, this tectonic evolution may be related with the final breakup of the supercontinent Columbia. Mafic rocks and trondhjemites in the northernmost portion of the belt yielded U-Pb zircon ages ca. 1110 Ma, which dates the high-grade metamorphism and the closure of the rift. This indicates that the breakup of supercontinent Columbia was followed in short sequence by the assembly of supercontinent Rodinia at ca. 1.1-1.0 Ga and that the Western Amazon belt was formed during the accretion of the Arequipa-Antofalla basement to the Amazonian craton.

  18. Analysis of Precipitation in the Middle and Lower Reaches of Yangtze River in the Summer of 2000-2007


    Based upon the summer (June-August) precipitation data from 30 stations in the middle and lower reaches of Yangtze River in China, the spatial and temporal distribution of summer precipitation in the Yangtze River Basin was analyzed. As was shown in the results, the distribution of summer precipitation in the middle and lower reaches of Yangtze River was mainly composed of four types: northern type (2005 and 2007), southern type (2001 and 2003), intermediate type (2000, 2004 and 2006) and integral type (200...


    简茂球; 罗会邦; 乔云亭


    The relationships between the summer rainfall in China and the atmospheric heat sources over the eastern Tibetan Plateau and the western Pacific warm pool were analyzed comparatively, using the NCEP/NCAR reanalysis daily data. The strong (weak) heat source in summer over the eastern Tibetan Plateau will lead to abundant (scarce) summer rainfall in the Yangtze River basin, and scarce/abundant summer rainfall in the eastern part of Southern China. While the strong (weak) heat source in summer over the western Pacific warm pool will lead to another pattern of abundant (scarce) summer rainfall in the middle-lower reaches of the Yangtze River and scarce (abundant) summer rainfall in Southern China and in the region of northern Jiangsu to southern Shandong. Comparatively, the heat source over the eastern Tibetan Plateau affects a larger area of summer rainfall than the heat source over the western Pacific. In both cases of the heat source anomalies over the eastern Tibetan Plateau and over the western Pacific, there exist EAP-like teleconnection patterns in East Asia. The summer rainfall in China is influenced directly by the abnormal vertical motion, which is related closely to the abnormal heat sources in the atmosphere. The ridge line of the western Pacific High locates far south (north) in summer in the case of strong (weak) heat sources over the two areas mentioned above.

  20. Assessment of Wetland Ecosystem Health in the Yangtze and Amazon River Basins

    Rui Sun


    Full Text Available As “kidneys of the earth”, wetlands play an important role in ameliorating weather conditions, flood storage, and the control and reduction of environmental pollution. With the development of local economies, the wetlands in both the Amazon and Yangtze River Basins have been affected and threatened by human activities, such as urban expansion, reclamation of land from lakes, land degradation, and large-scale agricultural development. It is necessary and important to develop a wetland ecosystem health evaluation model and to quantitatively evaluate the wetland ecosystem health in these two basins. In this paper, GlobeLand30 land cover maps and socio-economic and climate data from 2000 and 2010 were adopted to assess the wetland ecosystem health of the Yangtze and Amazon River Basins on the basis of a pressure-state-response (PSR model. A total of 13 indicators were selected to build the wetland health assessment system. Weights of these indicators and PSR model components, as well as normalized wetland health scores, were assigned and calculated based on the analytic hierarchy process method. The results showed that from 2000 to 2010, the value of the mean wetland ecosystem health index in the Yangtze River Basin decreased from 0.482 to 0.481, while it increased from 0.582 to 0.593 in the Amazon River Basin. This indicated that the average status of wetland ecosystem health in the Amazon River Basin is better than that in the Yangtze River Basin, and that wetland health improved over time in the Amazon River Basin but worsened in the Yangtze River Basin.

  1. Mountain building at northeastern boundary of Tibetan Plateau and craton reworking at Ordos block from joint inversion of ambient noise tomography and receiver functions

    Guo, Zhen; Chen, Yongshun John


    We have obtained a high resolution 3-D crustal and uppermost mantle velocity model of the Ordos block and its surrounding areas by joint inversion of ambient noise tomography and receiver functions using seismic recordings from 320 stations. The resulting model shows wide-spread low velocity zone (Vs ≤ 3.4 km/s) in the mid-to-lower crust beneath northeastern Tibet Plateau, which may favor crustal ductile flow within the plateau. However, our model argues against the eastward crustal ductile flow beneath the Qinling belt from the Tibetan Plateau. We find high velocities in the middle part of Qinling belt which separate the low velocities in the mid-to-lower crust of the eastern Qinling belt from the low velocity zone in eastern Tibetan Plateau. More importantly, we observe significant low velocities and thickened lower crust at the Liupanshan thrust belt as the evidence for strong crustal shortening at this boundary between the northeastern Tibetan Plateau and Ordos block. The most important finding of our model is the upper mantle low velocity anomalies surrounding the Ordos block, particularly the one beneath the Trans North China Craton (TNCO) that is penetrating into the southern margin of the Ordos block for ∼100 km horizontally in the depth range of ∼70 km and at least 100 km. We propose an on-going lithospheric mantle reworking at the southernmost boundary of the Ordos block due to complicated mantle flow surrounding the Ordos block, that is, the eastward asthenospheric flow from the Tibet Plateau proposed by recent SKS study and mantle upwelling beneath the TNCO from mantle transition zone induced by the stagnant slabs of the subducted Pacific plate.

  2. Cretaceous Apparent Polar Wander Relative to the Major Cratons and Displacement Estimates of Baja British Columbia

    Enkin, R. J.


    When paleogeographic interpretations derived from independent observations conflict, the methods and results from each discipline come under careful scrutiny, as illustrated by the Baja British Columbia controversy. Cretaceous paleomagnetic data from a large region of the Canadian Cordillera render paleopoles which are far-sided with respect to cratonic North American poles, suggesting this region, designated Baja British Columbia, translated northward during Late Cretaceous - Paleogene time. Criticism of this interpretation based on other geological reasoning prompted me to perform new reviews of Cretaceous to Eocene paleomagnetic results from the Cordillera and from the major cratons of the globe. The global review follows the method of Besse and Courtillot (1991; 2002). One difference between our methods is that I compiled paleomagnetic results from highly studied rock units to single results to balance data weightings spatially and temporally, thus reducing the number of individual results. For the period 160 to 40 Ma, 51 poles were included compared to 92 poles by Besse and Courtillot (2002). Differences between apparent polar wander paths in their and my analyses are never significant at 95% confidence, however mean pole positions differ by up to 500 km, which is important for paleogeographic analysis. The global distribution of sampling localities and the tight clustering of the paleomagnetic poles after plate reconstruction provide invaluable confirmation of plate tectonically derived Euler rotations, the reliability of paleomagnetic remanence directions, and the geocentric dipole geometry of the geomagnetic field. My Cordilleran review shows that paleolatitudes derived from plutons and remagnetized rocks are significantly more scattered than those derived from bedded rocks. Using bedded rocks only, the paleomagnetic record shows that Baja British Columbia sat 2100 ± 500 km south of its present position with respect to cratonic North America during the

  3. Seed dispersal capacity and post-dispersal fate of the invasive Spartina alterniflora in saltmarshes of the Yangtze Estuary

    Xiao, Derong; Zhang, Chao; Zhang, Liquan; Zhu, Zhenchang; Tian, Kun; Gao, Wei


    Spartina alterniflora is one of the most serious invasive species in the coastal saltmarshes of China. Seeds are generally considered to be the main method for this species to colonise new habitat, but little is known quantitatively about the seed dispersal capacity and post-dispersal fate (i.e., germination and survival time). We measured the duration of seed flotation, seed persistence and seed germination of S. alterniflora in three intertidal zones [low intertidal zone (LIT), middle intertidal zone (MIT) and high intertidal zone (HIT)] in the Yangtze Estuary on the eastern coast of China. The results showed that (1) the flotation time of S. alterniflora seeds ranged from 3 to 13 days, and the values were higher in HIT and MIT than in LIT; (2) the period of seed germination was from February to June, mainly in March and April, and seed source affected seed germination as the values for seeds from HIT and MIT were much higher than those from LIT, while burial sites had no effect on germination percentages, and (3) the seed persistence was less than a year regardless of seed source, which was characterised by a transient seed bank, with values being higher in HIT and MIT than in LIT. Our results suggested that low marsh plants were far less able to produce successful seeds, or conversely, that the mid-marsh location had plants with the greatest seed production and seed mass, and the high- and mid-marsh plants had good seed floatation ability, germination and survival. Thus, plants in the mid-and high-marsh may contribute disproportionally to an invasion.

  4. The evolution of the southern margin of the East European Craton based on seismic and potential field data

    Kostyuchenko, S. L.; Morozov, A. F.; Stephenson, R. A.; Solodilov, L. N.; Vedrentsev, A. G.; Popolitov, K. E.; Aleshina, A. F.; Vishnevskaya, V. S.; Yegorova, T. P.


    This paper presents an integrated geophysical study of the southern margin of the East European Craton (EEC) in the Karpinksy Swell-North Caucasus area. It presents new interpretations of deep refraction and wide-angle reflection "deep seismic sounding" (DSS) data as well as conventional seismic and CDP profiling and new analyses of potential field data, including three-dimensional gravity and magnetic modelling. An integrated model of the physical properties and structure of the Earth's crust and, partially, upper mantle displays distinct features that are related to tectonic history of the study area. The Voronezh Massif (VM), the Ukrainian Shield and Rostov Dome (RD) of the EEC as well as the Donbas Foldbelt (DF), Karpinsky Swell (KS), Scythian Plate (SP) and Precaspian Basin (PCB) constitute the geodynamic ensemble that developed on the southern margin of the continent Baltica. There proposed evolutionary model comprises a stage of rifting during the middle to late Devonian, post-rift extension and subsidence during Carboniferous-early Permian times (synchronous with and related to the southward displacement of the Rostov Dome and extension in a palaeo-Scythian back-arc basin), and subsequent Mesozoic and younger evolution. A pre-Ordovician, possibly Riphean (?), mafic magmatic complex is inferred on a near vertical reflection seismic cross-section through the western portion of the Astrakhan Dome in the southwest part of the Precaspian Basin. This complex combined with evidence of a subducting slab in the upper mantle imply the presence of pre-Ordovician (Riphean?) island arc, with synchronous extension in a Precaspian back-arc basin is suggested. A middle Palaeozoic back-arc basin ensemble in what is now the western Karpinsky Swell was more than 100 km to the south from its present location. The Stavropol High migrated northwards, dislocating and moving fragments of this back-arc basin sometime thereafter. Linear positive magnetic anomalies reflect the

  5. Hydrothermal alteration at the Panorama Formation, North Pole Dome, Pilbara Craton, Western Australia

    Brown, Adrian J; Walter, Malcolm R


    An airborne hyperspectral remote sensing dataset was obtained of the North Pole Dome region of the Pilbara Craton in October 2002. It has been analyzed for indications of hydrothermal minerals. Here we report on the identification and mapping of hydrothermal minerals in the 3.459 Ga Panorama Formation and surrounding strata. The spatial distribution of a pattern of subvertical pyrophyllite rich veins connected to a pyrophyllite rich palaeohorizontal layer is interpreted to represent the base of an acid-sulfate epithermal system that is unconformably overlain by the stromatolitic 3.42 Ga Strelley Pool Chert.

  6. Eclogite-High-Pressure Granulite Belt in Northern Edge of the Archean North China Craton


    The discovery of retrograded eclogites and high-pressure basic granulites in the joining region of Hebei-Shanxi-Inner Mongolia (HSIM) abandon the old thoughts that Archean granulites in the North China craton are of middle or low pressure facies and promote the reconsideration of Early Precambrian cratonization tectonic process, and reveal the geological fact that the scale, rigid behavior and geological structure of Archean cratonic blocks have strong similarities to the present fundamental plate tectonics, which suggest new tectonic mechanism to understand the early continental evolution of the North China craton. (1) The retrograded eclogites and high-pressure granulites constitute a ENE-NE-striking structure-rock zone termed as the Sanggan structural belt. (2) The retrograded eclogites are closely associated with high-pressure granulites. We can call this belt a transitional eclogite-granulite facies metamorphic belt. Petrographically three metamorphic stages, at least, in the retrograded eclogite can be distinguished. ① The main mineral assemblage is composed of garnet+clinopyroxene+quartz+rutile. The mineral inclusions in garnet are fine-grained quartz, rutile and small inclusions of fine-grained second stage mineral aggregate. This aggregate consists of hypersthene+albite, and has the typical texture of small hypersthene core surrounded by albite micro-grained grains. ② The second mineral assemblage is represented by corona of garnet and symplectite of clinopyroxene. The corona of garnet is composed of hypersthene+plagioclase+clinopyroxene+a minor amount of quartz and magnetite. The symplectite of clinopyroxene is composed of hypersthene + albite+clinopyroxene. The secondary mineral assemblage along boundaries between quartz and garnet (or clinopyroxene) is fine-grained aggregate of hypersthene and clinopyroxene. ③ The third retrograded metamorphic minerals are mainly amphiboles replacing pyroxenes and plagioclases replacing garnets. The estimated

  7. Compositional variations in the Mesoarchean chromites of the Nuggihalli schist belt, Western Dharwar Craton (India)

    Mukherjee, Ria; Mondal, Sisir Kanti; Rosing, Minik Thorleif


    -98)) and pyroxene grains (Mg-numbers = 97-99). Compositional variability on the scale of a single chromite grain occurs in the form of zoning, and it is common in the accessory chromite grains in serpentinite and in the altered grains in chromitite. In the zoned grains, the composition of the core is modified...... has been used to compute the nature of the parental melt. The parental melt calculations indicate derivation from a high-Mg komatiitic basalt that is similar to the composition of the komatiitic rocks reported from the greenstone sequences of the Western Dharwar Craton. Tectonic discrimination...

  8. Influence of internal decadal variability on the summer rainfall in Eastern China as simulated by CCSM4

    Zhu, Yali; Wang, Tao; Ma, Jiehua


    The combined impact of the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO) and Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO) on the summer rainfall in eastern China was investigated using CCSM4. The strongest signals occur with the combination of a positive PDO and a negative AMO (+PDO-AMO), as well as a negative PDO and a positive AMO (-PDO+AMO). For the +PDO-AMO set, significant positive rainfall anomalies occur over the lower reaches of the Yangtze River valley (YR), when the East Asian summer monsoon becomes weaker, while the East Asian westerly jet stream becomes stronger, and ascending motion over the YR becomes enhanced due to the jet-related secondary circulation. Contrary anomalies occur over East Asia for the -PDO+AMO set. The influence of these two combinations of PDO and AMO on the summer rainfall in eastern China can also be observed in the two interdecadal rainfall changes in eastern China in the late 1970s and late 1990s.

  9. Error Analysis and Evaluation of the Latest GSMap and IMERG Precipitation Products over Eastern China

    Shaowei Ning


    Full Text Available The present study comprehensively analyzes error characteristics and performance of the two latest GPM-era satellite precipitation products over eastern China from April 2014 to March 2016. Analysis results indicate that the two products have totally different spatial distributions of total bias. Many of the underestimations for the GSMap-gauged could be traced to significant hit bias, with a secondary contribution from missed precipitation. For IMERG, total bias illustrates significant overestimation over most of the eastern part of China, except upper reaches of Yangtze and Yellow River basins. GSMap-gauged tends to overestimate light precipitation (<16 mm/day and underestimate precipitation with rain rate larger than 16 mm/day; however, IMERG underestimates precipitation at rain rate between 8 and 64 mm/day and overestimates precipitation at rain rate more than 64 mm/day. IMERG overestimates extreme precipitation indices (RR99P and R20TOT, with relative bias values of 17.9% and 11.5%, respectively. But GSMap-gauged shows significant underestimation of these indices. In addition, both products performed well in the Huaihe, Liaohe, and Yangtze River basins for extreme precipitation detection. At basin scale comparisons, the GSMap-gauged data has a relatively higher accuracy than IMERG, especially at the Haihe, Huaihe, Liaohe, and Yellow River basins.

  10. Petrogenetic significance of high Fe/Mn ratios of the Cenozoic basalts from Eastern China


    The Cenozoic basalts from eastern China show commonly high Fe/Mn ratios (average = 68.6 ± 11.5) coupled with OIB-type trace element signature. The Cenozoic basalts form the northern margin and the southern margin of the North China Craton are studied in detail. Model calculations point out that the coupling feature of high Fe/Mn ratio with OIB-type trace element signature of these basalts cannot be produced by neither pyroxene/olivine crystallization nor remelting of previously melted mantle, but require partial melting of a garnet pyroxenite-rich mantle source. Combining these features of the Cenozoic basalts with the Phanerozoic lithospheric evolution of the eastern China, we suggest that the Cenozoic basalts were derived from a garnet pyroxenite-rich mantle source associated with continental crust delamination or oceanic crust subduction.

  11. SHRIMP U-Pb zircon age of the youngest exposed pluton in eastern China


    Analysis using the Sensitive High Resolution Ion Microprobe (SHRIMP) shows that the Yongsheng pluton, located to the south of Huadian County, Jilin Province, in the North China Craton, has a zircon U-Pb isotopic emplacement age of (31.6±13) Ma. It is therefore the youngest exposed pluton so far recognized in eastern China. Although geochemical data indicate intensive crystal fractionation, the Sr-Nd isotopic features suggest that the magmatic source region of the lithospheric mantle was weakly depleted. This implies that the previous enriched lithospheric mantle had been replaced by juvenile asthenospheric mantle before or during the Palaeogene. This recognition has great significance for future work on the Mesozoic-Cenozoic geological evolution and deep geological processes in eastern China.

  12. Petrogenetic significance of high Fe/Mn ratios of the Cenozoic basalts from Eastern China

    ZHANG BinHui; LIU YongSheng; GAO Shan


    The Cenozoic basalts from eastern China show commonly high Fe/Mn ratios (average = 68.6 卤 11.5) coupled with OIB-type trace element signature. The Cenozoic basalts form the northern margin and the southern margin of the North China Craton are studied in detail. Model calculations point out that the coupling feature of high Fe/Mn ratio with OIB-type trace element signature of these basalts cannot be produced by neither pyroxene/olivine crystallization nor remelting of previously melted mantle, but require partial melting of a garnet pyroxenite-rich mantle source. Combining these features of the Cenozoic basalts with the Phanerozoic lithospheric evolution of the eastern China, we suggest that the Cenozoic basalts were derived from a garnet pyroxenite-rich mantle source associated with continental crust delamination or oceanic crust subduction.


    YU Zheng-shou; SUN Zhao-bo; NI Dong-hong; ZENG Gang


    Based on an observational analysis, seven numerical experiments are designed to study the impacts of Pacific SSTA on summer precipitation over eastem China and relevant physical mechanism by NCAR CCM3. The numerical simulation results show that preceding winter SSTA in the Kuroshio region leads to summer precipitation anomaly over the Yangtze River valleys by modifying atmospheric general circulation over eastern Asia and middle-high latitude. West Pacific subtropical high is notably affected by preceding spring SSTA over the middle and east of Equator Pacific; SSTA of the central region of middle latitude in the corresponding period causes the summer rainfall anomaly over eastern China so as to trigger the atmospheric Eurasia-Pacific teleconnection pattern.

  14. Nature of the mantle roots beneath the North American craton: mantle xenolith evidence from Somerset Island kimberlites

    Schmidberger, S. S.; Francis, D.


    The recently discovered Nikos kimberlite on Somerset Island, in the Canadian Arctic, hosts an unusually well preserved suite of mantle xenoliths dominated by garnet-peridotite (lherzolite, harzburgite, dunite) showing coarse and porphyroclastic textures, with minor garnet-pyroxenite. The whole rock and mineral data for 54 Nikos xenoliths indicate a highly refractory underlying mantle with high olivine forsterite contents (ave. Fo=92.3) and moderate to high olivine abundances (ave. 80 wt.%). These characteristics are similar to those reported for peridotites from the Archean Kaapvaal and Siberian cratons (ave. olivine Fo=92.5), but are clearly distinct from the trend defined by oceanic peridotites and mantle xenoliths in alkaline basalts and kimberlites from post-Archean continental terranes (ave. olivine Fo=91.0). The Nikos xenoliths yield pressures and temperatures of last equilibration between 20 and 55 kb and 650 and 1300°C, and a number of the peridotite nodules appear to have equilibrated in the diamond stability field. The pressure and temperature data define a conductive paleogeotherm corresponding to a surface heat flow of 44 mW/m 2. Paleogeotherms based on xenolith data from the central Slave province of the Canadian craton require a lower surface heat flow (˜40 mW/m 2) indicating a cooler geothermal regime than that beneath the Canadian Arctic. A large number of kimberlite-hosted peridotites from the Kaapvaal craton in South Africa and parts of the Siberian craton are characterized by high orthopyroxene contents (ave. Kaapvaal 32 wt.%, Siberia 20 wt.%). The calculated modal mineral assemblages for the Nikos peridotites show moderate to low contents of orthopyroxene (ave. 12 wt.%), indicating that the orthopyroxene-rich mineralogy characteristic of the Kaapvaal and Siberian cratons is not a feature of the cratonic upper mantle beneath Somerset Island.

  15. P and S Wave Finite-frequency Imaging of the Cordillera-craton Boundary Zone in Western Canada

    Gu, Y. J.; Chen, Y.; Hung, S. H.


    The Western Canada Sedimentary Basin (WCSB) marks a boundary zone and a strong seismic lateral velocity gradient in the upper mantle between the Precambrian North American craton and the Phanerozoic Cordillera. While much of the tectonic imprints are buried below thick sediments, seismic data coverage in this region has been greatly improved to unravel the underlying structure, owing to a growing number of regional broadband arrays. In this study we conduct a high-resolution survey of the mantle P- and S-wave velocities in the WCSB using a multi-scale parameterization and the finite-frequency theory. Our models suggest respective increases of 4% and 6% of Vp and Vs velocities across the Cordilleran Deformation Front (CDF) toward the craton interior. This sharp gradient resides to the west of the CDF, which may imply the over-thrusting of the crustal terranes of the Cordillera onto the craton edge. Significant along-strike variation in the lithospheric basal geometry and dip could reflect secular tectonic modifications such as episodic shortening/extension and convective erosion. The results of our finite-frequency tomography indicate vertically continuous high velocities at least down to 200 km beneath the crustal domains of the Precambrian Buffalo Head Terrane (BHT), Hearne craton and Medicine Hat Block (MHB). The lithosphere beneath the southern Hearne province could extend down to 280 km, nearly 70 km deeper than those of its neighboring cratons of similar ages. The velocity anomalies and their intricate variations/reversals within the mantle lithosphere may be evidence for a multi-stage formation of western Laurentia during Precambrian plate convergence. On the other hand, destruction processes since formation, e.g., convective removal and thermomagmatic erosion, may also have played key roles in shaping the mantle lithosphere beneath the western margin of the North American craton.

  16. Timing of the Yangtze initiation draining the Tibetan Plateau throughout to the East China Sea:oa review

    Daidu FAN; Congxian LI


    The question of the Yangtze's origins has been extensively researched by geologists and geomorphologists for more than a century,and a widely-acceptedanswer is still pending.Evidence of river piracy,diversion and incision in the upper river segment from Shigu town in Yunnan Province to Yichang City has been used to reconstruct the history of the Yangtze drainage system,and constrain the timing of the upper Yangtze diversion from south flowing to east,debouching into the East China Sea.There is much diversity in fluvial deposits and landforms even over small spatio-temporal scales in tectonic highly active regions.They are also liable to latter reworking by external forces,making their paleo-geographical interpretation a more complex and controversial matter.Based on evidence from fluvial strata and landforms,various hypotheses have been proposed with considerable discrepancies for the timing of the Jinsha River diversion from the south flowing into the east,and the timing of the upper Yangtze channeling through the Three Gorges area.The Yangtze Was controversially assumed to be:(1) a very old river in existence since the Cretaceous and earlier,(2)a very young river that came into being only during the past several hundred thousand years,or(3)any age in between these two extremes.Techniques in microprobe dating of single crystalline grains have greatly improved,and they have been widelyand successfully used in provenance studies,drainage evolution reconstruction,and tectonic history restoration through dating detrital zircon/monazite grains from the onshore/offshore deposits.The timing of the Yangtze formation was estimated at ca.2.58 Ma based on analyses of time-series variation of EMP(electron microprobe)monazite ages in the late Cenozoic strata of the Yangtze delta.By revisiting fluvial deposits and landforms in the upper Yangtze drainage basin,some references also state the initiation time of the Yangtze at between the late Pliocene and early Pleistocene

  17. Microbial lipids in Paddy Soils of the Yangtze Area

    Mueller-Niggemann, Cornelia; Bannert, Andrea; Schloter, Michael; Cao, Zhihong; Schwark, Lorenz


    Geobiochemical studies of rice paddy soils and their effect on the global carbon cycle are of paramount importance. Paddy soils comprise manmade wetlands because soil flooding is a prerequisite for lowland rice cultivation. Except for sulphate-rich substrates, rice growth is not very sensitive to soil conditions prevailing prior to conversion of marine tidal flat sediments to paddy cultivation. Thus, soil management practices, such as artificial submergence or drainage, ploughing and puddling (i.e. ploughing a submerged soil), manuring, liming, and fertilization, are the major driving factors of paddy soil development. Soil organic matter (SOM) decomposition and humification proceeds in hydromorphic soils at a slower rate than in well-drained, aerated soils. Rice paddy soils thus also represent a suitable model system to study fundamental aspects of redox sensitive soil processes. These processes are of special interest because in flooded rice fields the anaerobic fermentation of SOM leads to the release of methane and to denitrification losses of inorganic nitrogen. Here we present results from a chronosequence study of paddy soils with different and well known starting dates of cultivation, in the Zhejiang province (Yangtze River delta) by land reclamation through the building of protective dikes over the past 2000 years. We here describe the biomarker geochemistry of six paddy soils that developed on marine tidal sediments and where cultivation started 50, 100, 300, 700, 1000 or 2000 years before present. As reference substrates recent marine and lacustrine sediments were selected. The differentiation of the lipid biomass was achieved by investigating glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraethers (GDGT). These specific organic geochemical biomarkers allow for determining the abundance of fossil microbial consortia (archaea and bacteria input) into paddy soils, justified by the diversity of the archaeal and bacterial cell membrane constituents. The dominant proportion of

  18. Effect-directed analysis and mechanism-specific bioassays to assess the toxicity of sediments of the Yangtze River (China)


    The Yangtze River has been a source of life and prosperity for the Chinese people for centuries. The river basin plays an important role for the economics of China and is habitat for a remarkable variety of aquatic species. Since 2009, the Three Gorges Dam (TGD) – located in the upper Yangtze Reaches, is operating at full capacity, with the benefits of flood control, electrical energy production, and improvement of river navigation. However, as a consequence of TGD impoundment, large amounts ...

  19. Teleconnection between the Indian summer monsoon onset and the Meiyu over the Yangtze River Valley

    LIU YunYun; DING YiHui


    Based on the Indian and Chinese precipitation data and the NCEP-NCAR reanalysis circulation data,the relationship between the Indian summer monsoon (ISM) onset and the Meiyu over the Yangtze River Valley has been discussed by the methods of correlation analysis and composite analysis. The results show that the date of ISM onset over Kerala in the southwestern coast of the Indian Peninsula is about two weeks earlier than the beginning of the Meiyu over the Yangtze River Valley. After the outbreak of ISM,the teleconnection mode sets up from the western coast of India via the Bay of Bengal (BOB) to the Yangtze River Valley and southern Japan. It is different both in time and space from the teleconnection mode which is from the northwest of India via the Tibetan Plateau to northern China. The former mode is defined as the "south" teleconnection of the Asian summer monsoon,forming in the period of ISM onset; while the latter mode is called the "north" teleconnection,mainly occurring in the Asian monsoon culminant period. During the process of the "south" teleconnection's formation,the Asian monsoon circulation has experienced a series of important changes: ISM onset,the northward movement of the south Asia high (SAH),the onset vortex occurrence,the eastward extension of the stronger tropical westerly belt,and the northeastward jump of the western Pacific subtropical high(WPSH),etc. Consequently,since ISM sets up over Kerala,the whole Asian continent is covered by the upper SAH after about two weeks,while in the mid- and lower troposphere,a strong wind belt forms from the Arabian Sea via the southern India,BOB and the South China Sea (SCS),then along the western flank of WPSH,to the Yangtze River Valley and southern Japan. With the northward moving of the subtropical jet streams,the upper westerly jet stream and the low level jet have been coupled vertically over east Asia,while the Yangtze River Valley happens to locate in the ascending motion area between the upper jet

  20. Teleconnection between the Indian summer monsoon onset and the Meiyu over the Yangtze River Valley


    Based on the Indian and Chinese precipitation data and the NCEP-NCAR reanalysis circulation data, the relationship between the Indian summer monsoon (ISM) onset and the Meiyu over the Yangtze River Valley has been discussed by the methods of correlation analysis and composite analysis. The results show that the date of ISM onset over Kerala in the southwestern coast of the Indian Peninsula is about two weeks earlier than the beginning of the Meiyu over the Yangtze River Valley. After the outbreak of ISM, the teleconnection mode sets up from the western coast of India via the Bay of Bengal (BOB) to the Yangtze River Valley and southern Japan. It is different both in time and space from the telecon- nection mode which is from the northwest of India via the Tibetan Plateau to northern China. The for- mer mode is defined as the "south" teleconnection of the Asian summer monsoon, forming in the pe- riod of ISM onset; while the latter mode is called the "north" teleconnection, mainly occurring in the Asian monsoon culminant period. During the process of the "south" teleconnection’s formation, the Asian monsoon circulation has experienced a series of important changes: ISM onset, the northward movement of the south Asia high (SAH), the onset vortex occurrence, the eastward extension of the stronger tropical westerly belt, and the northeastward jump of the western Pacific subtropical high (WPSH), etc. Consequently, since ISM sets up over Kerala, the whole Asian continent is covered by the upper SAH after about two weeks, while in the mid- and lower troposphere, a strong wind belt forms from the Arabian Sea via the southern India, BOB and the South China Sea (SCS), then along the western flank of WPSH, to the Yangtze River Valley and southern Japan. With the northward moving of the subtropical jet streams, the upper westerly jet stream and the low level jet have been coupled ver- tically over east Asia, while the Yangtze River Valley happens to locate in the ascending

  1. Les organismes du Précambrien terminal du craton ouest africain

    E. Eboureau


    Full Text Available THE ORGANISMS OF THE TERMINAL PRECAMBRIAN OF THE WESTERN AFRICAN CRATON The terminal Precamhrian (Lipalian of the western African Craton, in the Adrar of Mauritania, has provided, especially in the Guelb er Richát, many organisms with an archaic structure, often very simple. It concerns some coccoides, often grouped in more or less complex spheroides according to an evolutionary pattern that could be accurately established. The understanding of fossil forms from the Precambrian is, to a great extent, the result of an interpretation made of an included ‘black spot', which one adopted for the emissions of substance produced by these forms. Compared to the present species, the Precambrian organisms recall the coccoid Bacteria and the Cyanophyceae. These microorganisms are oolithes in origin and are by no means mineral, since they contain stain-sensitive glucides with Schiff’s reagent following the action of periodic acid. These forms, usually spherical, are classified amongst the Oncolithes. These organisms are also responsible for the massive calcareous or dolomitic reefs reaching considerable thickness and containing some known stromatolites in many parts of the world. Stromatolites are Conophyton. Collenia . . . They are spherical, lamellate or columnar. These reef formations of Africa reach a thickness of 3 000 m in the Adoudounian of Collenia of the Anti-Atlas, of 600 m in the Zemmour, of 150 m in the Adrar of Mauritania, of 100 m in the cliff of Hank in the north of the Taoudeni Basin.

  2. Abnormal lithium isotope composition from the ancient lithospheric mantle beneath the North China Craton.

    Tang, Yan-Jie; Zhang, Hong-Fu; Deloule, Etienne; Su, Ben-Xun; Ying, Ji-Feng; Santosh, M; Xiao, Yan


    Lithium elemental and isotopic compositions of olivines in peridotite xenoliths from Hebi in the North China Craton provide direct evidence for the highly variable δ(7)Li in Archean lithospheric mantle. The δ(7)Li in the cores of olivines from the Hebi high-Mg# peridotites (Fo > 91) show extreme variation from -27 to +21, in marked deviation from the δ(7)Li range of fresh MORB (+1.6 to +5.6) although the Li abundances of the olivines are within the range of normal mantle (1-2 ppm). The Li abundances and δ(7)Li characteristics of the Hebi olivines could not have been produced by recent diffusive-driven isotopic fractionation of Li and therefore the δ(7)Li in the cores of these olivines record the isotopic signature of the subcontinental lithospheric mantle. Our data demonstrate that abnormal δ(7)Li may be preserved in the ancient lithospheric mantle as observed in our study from the central North China Craton, which suggest that the subcontinental lithospheric mantle has experienced modification of fluid/melt derived from recycled oceanic crust.

  3. On the Origin of High Shear Wave Velocities in the Deep Roots of Cratons

    Zeng, L.; Duncan, M. S.; Garber, J. M.; Hernandez, J. A.; Maurya, S.; Zhang, H.; Faul, U.; McCammon, C. A.; Montagner, J. P.; Moresi, L. N.; Romanowicz, B. A.; Rudnick, R. L.; Stixrude, L. P.


    Some seismic models derived from tomographic studies indicate very high shear wave velocities around 150 km depth, which cannot be explained by standard cratonic peridotite compositions derived from kimberlites, even under the assumption of very cold geotherms (i.e. 28mW/m3 surface heat flux). We present the results of a multi-disciplinary study conducted at the CIDER Summer 2016 program in Santa Barbara (CA), in which we have reviewed various geophysical and petrological constraints on the nature of cratonic roots (seismic velocities, electrical conductivity, gravity, lithologies) and explored a range of possible solutions. We find that matching the high shear wave velocities requires a large proportion of eclogite that is not matched by observed eclogite proportions in kimberlite samples. The high shear velocity of diamond makes it a viable candidate to account for such high velocities, in a proportion that is compatible with the global carbon budget. Our most recent results will be presented as well as suggestions for possible mechanisms for diamond formation and emplacement.

  4. Les organismes du Précambrien terminal du craton ouest africain

    E. Eboureau


    Full Text Available THE ORGANISMS OF THE TERMINAL PRECAMBRIAN OF THE WESTERN AFRICAN CRATON The terminal Precamhrian (Lipalian of the western African Craton, in the Adrar of Mauritania, has provided, especially in the Guelb er Richát, many organisms with an archaic structure, often very simple. It concerns some coccoides, often grouped in more or less complex spheroides according to an evolutionary pattern that could be accurately established. The understanding of fossil forms from the Precambrian is, to a great extent, the result of an interpretation made of an included ‘black spot', which one adopted for the emissions of substance produced by these forms. Compared to the present species, the Precambrian organisms recall the coccoid Bacteria and the Cyanophyceae. These microorganisms are oolithes in origin and are by no means mineral, since they contain stain-sensitive glucides with Schiff’s reagent following the action of periodic acid. These forms, usually spherical, are classified amongst the Oncolithes. These organisms are also responsible for the massive calcareous or dolomitic reefs reaching considerable thickness and containing some known stromatolites in many parts of the world. Stromatolites are Conophyton. Collenia . . . They are spherical, lamellate or columnar. These reef formations of Africa reach a thickness of 3 000 m in the Adoudounian of Collenia of the Anti-Atlas, of 600 m in the Zemmour, of 150 m in the Adrar of Mauritania, of 100 m in the cliff of Hank in the north of the Taoudeni Basin.

  5. Organic matter in the Neoproterozoic cap carbonate from the Amazonian Craton, Brazil

    Sousa Júnior, Gustavo R.; Nogueira, Afonso C. R.; Santos Neto, Eugênio V.; Moura, Candido A. V.; Araújo, Bruno Q.; Reis, Francisco de A. M.


    Bitumen found in Neoproterozoic carbonates from the southern Amazonian Craton, Brazil, represents a great challenge for its geochemical characterization (origin, thermal maturity and the degree of preservation) within a context of petroleum system. This organic material occurs in the basal Araras Group, considered as a Neoproterozoic cap carbonate, composed of dolostones (Mirassol d'Oeste Formation) overlaid by limestones and shales (Guia Formation). Geochemical analyses in samples of carbonate with bitumen from two open pits (Terconi and Tangará quarries) have shown low to very low total organic carbon content. Analyses of representative samples of Guia and Mirassol d'Oeste formations allowed us to obtain Gas chromatography (GC) traces and diagnostic biomarkers. n-C14 to n-C37 alkane distribution patterns in all samples suggests a major contribution of marine algae. Mid-chain monomethyl alkanes (C14sbnd C25) identified in both sets of samples were also reported in all mid to late Proterozoic oils and source rocks. However, there are significant differences among terpane distribution between the Mirassol d'Oeste and Tangará da Serra regions. The integration of organic geochemistry data and geological information suggests an indigenous origin for studied bitumen, primarily accumulated as hydrocarbon fluids migrated to carbonate rocks with higher porosity and permeability, and afterwards, altered to bitumen or migrabitumen. Although further investigations are required, this work provides a significant contribution to the knowledge about the remnant of this hypothetical Neoproterozoic petroleum system developed in the Southern Amazonian Craton.

  6. 燕山地区承德盆地下白垩统磁性地层学研究及其对华北克拉通破坏的制约%Magnetostratigraphic study of lower Cretaceous at Chengde Basin, Yanshan area and its restriction on North China Craton destruction

    蔡书慧; 贺怀宇; 朱日祥


    Geochemical results, a peak destruction age of 128-125 Ma is obtained, which is supported by the appearance age of a great quantity of extensional tectonics(135~115 Ma) and peak transition (from N-S contraction to NWW-SEE extension led by subduction of Paleo-Pacific Plate and closure of Mongolia-Okhotsk Sea in late Mesozoic) age of dynamic mechanism at North China Craton(128~125 Ma). It is inferred based on existed research that North China Craton destruction is the primary element leading to formation of the great quantity of rift basins in late Mesozoic at Yanshan area. One of the shallow responses accompanying with the peak age of North China Craton destruction is regional extensional activity and formation of rift basin. It is characterized by the appearance of metamorphic core complexes at the northern rim of the North China Craton, which may be related to magmatic activity caused by detachment of lower crust. The deep dynamic is due to instability of mantle convection system at the eastern part of the North China Craton arose from physical and chemical processes such as subduction and dehydration of the Pacific Plate.%华北克拉通破坏的重要标志是岩石圈减薄、地慢性质转变以及伸展构造活动.长期以来这一重大地质事件发生的时代备受关注,目前已有大量地质、地球物理和地球化学研究结果,但对于华北克拉通破坏的准确时代,尚存争议.本文试图从地磁学的角度为华北克拉通破坏时代提供可靠约束.选取位于华北克拉通北缘的燕山造山带中段一承德盆地作为研究对象.磁性地层学研究结果表明研究剖面记录了三个磁极性段:下部正极性段(N2)、中部负极性段(R1)和上部正极性段(N1),与2004年地磁极性年表对比并结合129~128 Ma的火山岩同位素年龄(与B.Schoene私人通信),认为剖面下部正极性段(N2)对应于M3n,负极性段(R1)对应于M1r,上部正极性段(N1)对应于Mln,由此得出承德盆地袁家庄剖

  7. The Eastern Partnership

    Nielsen, Kristian L.; Vilson, Maili


    When the EU launched the Eastern Partnership (EaP) in 2009, it did so with much rhetoric about projecting its soft power into Eastern Europe. Yet today, the EU's soft power project seems to have stalled, with developments in the region being less than favourable. This article argues that the EaP ...

  8. Eastern Europe's Silicon Rush

    Woodard, Colin


    This article presents how the fast expansion of information technology industry in eastern Slovakia is putting a strain on its labor supply. Suddenly, computer-science graduates have become one of the former Eastern Bloc's greatest assets, attracting multinational technology companies hungry for skilled programmers, technicians, and engineers.…

  9. Remote Sensing of Bidecadal Urbanization and its impact on Ecosystem Service in the Yangtze River Delta

    Haas, Jan; Ban, Yifang


    The degree of urbanization and resulting effects on Ecosystem Services is investigated in the Yangtze River Delta in China within a 20 year time frame from 1990 to 2010. A Random forest classifier is used to classify the Landsat mosaic from 1990 and the HJ-1A/B mosaic dating from 2010. Urban Land Index (UI) and Urban Expansion Index (UX) are used to represent the intensity and rapidity of urbanization. Post-Classification Change Detection is then performed and Ecosystem Service value losses for the land-cover classes water, wetland, forest and cropland that transitioned to urban areas are calculated according to a valuation scheme adapted to the Chinese market. The results showed that Yangtze River Delta experienced significant urbanization during 1990 to 2010. Urban areas increased alongside a major decrease in cropland resulting in a substantial loss of 4.2 billion CNY in Ecosystem Services.

  10. Distribution and forms of phosphorus in tidal flat sediments of the Yangtze Estuary and coast

    高效江; 许世远; 张念礼


    The distribution and forms of phosphorus (P) were investigated in the tidal flat sediments of the Yangtze Estuary and coast. The total P contents in surface sediments range from 18.0 to 31.4 μmol · g-1 along the southern coast. The spatial and temporal distribution of P in tidal flats is closely related to the location and pollution resources, especially in association with the variation of hydrodynamic conditions. Significant variations in the forms of P in different sites were observed. P bonded with Ca(Ca-P) is the dominant mineral form in all surface sediments, organic P(Org-P) is lower. Most P is of unstable form, suggesting that P has larger potential activity. P accumulation is the main behavior process between water and sediment in the coastal environment of the Yangtze Estuary.

  11. Three Dimensional Baroclinic Numerical Model for Simulating Fresh and Salt Water Mixing in the Yangtze Estuary

    郑金海; 严以新; 诸裕良


    For simulating fresh and salt water mixing in estuaries, a three dimensional nonlinear baroclinic numerical model isdeveloped, in which the gradients of horizontal pressure contain the gradient of barotropic pressure arising from the gradi-ent of tidal level and the gradient of baroclinic pressure due to the gradient of salinity. The Eulerian-Lagrangian method isemployed to descretize both the momentum equations of tidal motion and the equation of salt water diffusion so as to im-prove the computational stability and accuracy. The methods to provide the boundary conditions and the initial conditionsare proposed, and the criterion for computational stability of the salinity fields is presented. The present model is used formodeling fresh and salt water mixing in the Yangtze Estuary. Computations show that the salinity distribution has thecharacteristics of partial mixing pattern, and that the present model is suitable for simulation of fresh and salt water mixing in the Yangtze Estuary.

  12. Runoff Simulation of Three Gorges Area in the Upper Yangtze River during 1998 Flood Season

    LIN Jian; Gabor BALINT; Balazs GAUZER


    The contribution of areal precipitation of the catchment from Cuntan to Yichang (Three Gorges area)to eight flood peaks of the Upper Yangtze River (the upper reaches of the Yangtze River) is diagnosed for 1998 flood season. A rainfall-runoff model is employed to simulate runoffs of this catchment. Comparison of observed and simulated runoffs shows that the rainfall-runoff model has a good capability to simulate the runoff over a large-scale river and the results describe the eight flood peaks very well Forecast results are closely associated with the sensitivity of the model to rainfall and the calibration processes. Other reasons leading to simulation errors are further discussed.

  13. Spatial Distribution of Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs) Contaminants in the Tidal-flat Sediments of Yangtze Estuary

    Chen Manrong; Yu Lizhong; Xu Shiyuan; Feng Ke; Han Xiaofei


    PCBs pollutants are measured on tidal-flat sediments of Yangtze estuary by a high resolution capillary column gas chromatography ( HP6890 ) equipped with an 63Ni electron capture detector ( ECD ). The concentration tendency of PCBs is Phragmites zone > Scirpus zone > bare mudflats. There are linear relations between PCBs and TOC and > 63 μ m grain size percentage ( in volume ). The low chlorinated congeners may be more important than the high chlorinated congeners in this area. PCBs prefer to accumulate in the sediments near sewage outlets and Phragmites zone. The sediments′ PCBs pollution ( 10.7 ~ 28.6 ng/g, dry weight ) in the Yangtze estuary tidal-flat is less serious than that of the most of other areas in the world. But the detected ratio is 100 %, even the Jiuduansha shoal has detected PCBs, so much attention should be paid to this area for PCBs.

  14. Characteristics Process of Land Use Changes in the Yangtze River Delta,Chian



    As one of the developing countries China has an arable land per capita far below the world's average level.With a high-density population an the quick development of economy and urbaniztion,the Yangtze River Delta shows the typical characteristics of land use in developed regions of China,which are:high land reclamation rate and low arable land per capita;intensive land use and high output value;and rapid increasing of construction land area and fast diminishing of arable land.The analysis indicates that the process of the arable land changes in the Yangtze River Delta could be divided into four different change stages over the past 50 years.

  15. Physical controls of hypoxia in waters adjacent to the Yangtze Estuary: A numerical modeling study.

    Chen, Xiaofeng; Shen, Zhenyao; Li, Yangyang; Yang, Ye


    A three-dimensional circulation model (the Environmental Fluid Dynamic Code) was used to examine the role that physical forcing (river discharge, wind speed and direction) plays in controlling hypoxia in waters adjacent to the Yangtze Estuary. The model assumes that the biological consumption of oxygen is constant in both time and space, which allows the role of physical forcing in modulating the oxygen dynamics to be isolated. Despite of the simplicity of this model, the simulation results showed that it can reproduce the observed variability of dissolved oxygen in waters adjacent to the Yangtze Estuary, thereby highlighting the important role of changes in physical forcing in the variation of hypoxia. The scenarios tested revealed appreciable changes in the areal extent of hypoxia as a function of wind speed and wind direction. Interestingly, well-developed hypoxia was insensitive to river discharge.

  16. Mapping Water Vulnerability of the Yangtze River Basin: 1994-2013

    Sun, Fengyun; Kuang, Wenhui; Xiang, Weining; Che, Yue


    A holistic understanding of the magnitude and long-term trend of water vulnerability is essential for making management decisions in a given river basin. Existing procedures to assess the spatiotemporal dynamic of water vulnerability in complex mega-scale river basins are inadequate; a new method named ensemble hydrologic assessment was proposed in this study, which allows collection of data and knowledge about many aspects of water resources to be synthesized in a useful way for vulnerability assessment. The objective of this study is to illustrate the practical utility of such an integrated approach in examining water vulnerability in the Yangtze River Basin. Overall, the results demonstrated that the ensemble hydrologic assessment model could largely explain the spatiotemporal evolution of water vulnerability. This paper improves understanding of the status and trends of water resources in the Yangtze River Basin.

  17. Effects of Irradiation on Microbial Community Structure in the Yangtze River and Selection of Representative Microorganisms

    Song, J. B.; Kuai, L. P.


    In the field of radioactive contamination, few studies were conducted on using microorganisms for biological monitoring. However, studies regard microorganisms as pollution indicator organisms are very common in the field of heavy metal and pesticide pollution. In this study, we chose the Yangtze River water as the research object, and studied the changes of species and quantity of cultivable bacteria in water samples under different irradiation by separation and purification methods. Results indicated that irradiation will cause the change of microbial community structure and the decline of their quantity; Among them, (flavobacterium) is mostly affected and (bacillus) is less affected. Finally, we found two representative microorganisms (Flavobacterium nitratireducens strain N1; Novosphingobium aquiterrae strain E-II-3) in the Yangtze Water and provided a reference for using microorganisms to monitor the radioactive pollution.

  18. Study on the Folk Costume Symbolization in Waterside Villages of Southern Yangtze in China

    CUI Rong-rong; TAO Hui; SHEN Lin-lin


    The folk costume in waterside villages of Southern Yangtze in China was notonly daily consumer goods, but also a symbol system of foR-custom culture. This symbol system was directly conveyed by a series medley shape signs, many-faceted color signs and decorated craft signs of pleated skirt. Its origination, accumulation, continual process and development were greatly associated with the life style and paddy culture of waterside villages, such as the folk religion, social life, artistic philosophy, regional culture, the landform of waterside villages and the humanity environment. So the folk costume was the significant sign of practical function and also the significative sign of folk traditional culture, both of which composed the costume cultural symbol system of waterside villages of Southern Yangtze called " integration of aesthetic and practical function".

  19. Stratigraphic implications of Sinian-Early Cambrian volcanic ash beds on the Yangtze Platform

    ZHANG Junming; ZHU Maoyan; YANG Aihua; LI Guoxiang; YANG Jinghong; Christoph HEUBECK


    Volcanic ash beds from shallow- to deep-water facies strata of the Sinian-Early Cambrian (Meishucunian) on the Yangtze Platform consist of bentonites and tuffites which are readily recognized in the field by their physical features and confirmed by geochemical analyses.Geochemistry suggests that the volcanic ash beds in Meishucunian time are rhyolite and rhyodacite while those in the Qiongzhusian and Sinian are andesite and trachyandesite.The ash beds in the time-equivalent strata, even in different areas display rather similar geochemical features, whereas the ash beds in different strata even in the same areas show large chemical difference.The results suggest that these ash beds can be used for intra- and extra-basinal correlations of the Sinian-Early Cambrian interval on the Yangtze Platform.Additionally, these ash beds suggest high potentials for further U-Pb dating strategies.

  20. Restoration of Late Neoarchean-Early Cambrian tectonics in the Rengali orogen and its environs (eastern India): The Antarctic connection

    Bhattacharya, A.; Das, H. H.; Bell, Elizabeth; Bhattacharya, Atreyee; Chatterjee, N.; Saha, L.; Dutt, A.


    Geological mapping and P-T path reconstructions are combined with monazite chemical age and Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometric (SIMS) U-Pb zircon age determinations to identify crustal domains with distinctive evolutionary histories in the Rengali orogen sandwiched between two Grenvillian-age metamorphic belts, i.e. the Eastern Ghats Granulite Belt (EGGB) in the south, and the amphibolite facies Gangpur Schist Belt (GSB) in the north, which in turn forms a collar along the NW/W margins of the Paleo/Mesoarchean Singhbhum Craton (SC) north of the Rengali orogen. Anatectic gneisses in the orogen core exhibit multi-phase Neoarchean/Paleoproterozoic deformation, metamorphic P-T histories and juvenile magma emplacement events. The high-grade belt is inferred to be a septum of the Bastar Craton (BC). The flanking supracrustal belt in the orogen - dominated by quartz-muscovite schists (± staurolite, kyanite, garnet pyrophyllite), inter-bedded with poorly-sorted and polymict meta-conglomerate, and meta-ultramafic/amphibolite bands - evolved along P-T paths characterized by sub-greenschist to amphibolite facies peak P-T conditions in closely-spaced samples. The supracrustal rocks and the anatectic gneisses of contrasting metamorphic P-T histories experienced D1, D2 and D3 fabric-forming events, but the high-angle obliquity between the steeply-plunging D3 folds in the anatectic gneisses and the gently-plunging D3 folds in the supracrustal unit suggests the two lithodemic units were tectonically accreted post-S2. The supracrustal belt is inferred to be a tectonic mélange formed in an accretionary wedge at the tri-junction of the Bastar Craton, the Eastern Ghats Granulite Belt and the Singhbhum Craton; the basin closure synchronous with the assembly of EGGB and the Singhbhum Craton-Gangpur Schist belt composite occurred between 510 and 610 Ma. Based on the available evidence across the facing coastlines of the Greater India landmass and the Australo-Antarctic blocks at ~ 500 Ma

  1. Petrogenesis and geochemistry of circa 2.5 Ga granitoids in the Zanhuang Massif: Implications for magmatic source and Neoarchean metamorphism of the North China Craton

    Wang, Junpeng; Kusky, Timothy; Wang, Lu; Polat, Ali; Wang, Songjie; Deng, Hao; Fu, Jianmin; Fu, Dong


    The tectonic framework of the North China Craton (NCC) during late Archean to early Paleoproterozoic (circa 2.5 Ga) is still lacking comprehensive understanding due to subsequent strong deformation and metamorphic overprinting events. Circa 2.5 Ga magmatic and metamorphic activities are widely spread throughout the NCC, which can be used as an efficient target to better understand the tectonic evolution at this period. In this study, based on a detailed field, structural, geochemical, geochronological and Sm-Nd isotopic study, we focus our work on the Haozhuang granitoids in the Zanhuang Massif located at the eastern margin of the Central Orogenic Belt of the NCC. The granitoids mainly include undeformed pegmatite and granodiorite. One pegmatite and two granodiorite samples yield zircon 207Pb/206Pb ages of 2513 ± 29 Ma, 2511 ± 36 Ma and 2528 ± 18 Ma, respectively. The granodiorites show metaluminous and shoshonitic to high-K calc-alkaline series characteristics with A-type granite affinity. The circa 2.5 Ga granodiorites have highly negative εNd(t) values (- 29.22 - 33.12) and TDM model ages between 2671 Ma and 3151 Ma. This work shows clearly, from whole-rock major and trace elements and Sm-Nd isotopic studies, that the Haozhuang granodiorites were derived from partial melting of old and thickened TTG crust rather than mantle sources, and formed in a subduction-related tectonic setting. With geochemical comparison studies to other similar-aged granitic rocks in the Zanhuang Massif, we suggest that these granitic rocks possibly have a certain correlation during the magma evolution. Coupled with our previous geochemical and isotopic studies on circa 2.5 Ga mafic dike swarms, we propose that the similar-aged granitic rocks and mafic dike swarms were produced by an east-dipping subduction polarity reversal event following an arc-continent collision between the Fuping/Wutai island arc and Eastern Block of the NCC above a west-dipping slab. The east

  2. Wave speed structure of the eastern North American margin

    Savage, B.; Covellone, B. M.; Shen, Y.


    The eastern North American margin (ENAM) is the result of nearly a billion years of continental collision and rifting. To the west of this margin lies thick continental lithosphere of the North American craton, and to the east is oceanic lithosphere in the Atlantic. The substantial changes in lithosphere thickness at this boundary are thought to drive asthenosphere upwelling along the edge of the continent. Through iterative, full-waveform, ambient noise tomography, we observe a heterogeneous low wave speed margin along the continent in the upper mantle. Multiple low wave speed features imaged within the margin are consistent with asthenospeheric upwelling due to edge-driven convection. Also within the margin are high wave speed anomalies that maybe the remnants of eclogitic delamination of the Appalachian crustal root, which contribute to convection at the margin. Edge driven, small-scale convection keeps the margin weak and thus controls the large scale plate tectonic patterns and the crustal deformation. The imaged mantle wave speed anomalies, interpreted as edge-driven convection, correlate with and may increase the likelihood of damaging earthquakes in the eastern portion of North America.

  3. Analysis of Long-term Terrestrial Water Storage Variations in the Yangtze River Basin

    Su, Bob; Huang, Ying; Wang, Lichun; Salama, Suhyb; Krol, Maaten; Hoekstra, Arjen; Zhou, Yunxuan; van der Velde, Rogier


    In this study, we analyze 32 years of TWS data obtained from Interim Reanalysis Data (ERA-Interim) and Noah model from Global Land Data Assimilation System (GLDAS-Noah) for the period between 1979 and 2010. The accuracy of these datasets is validated against 26 years (1979-2004) of runoff dataset from Yichang gauging station and compared to 32 years of independent precipitation data obtained from Global Precipitation Climatology Centre Full Data Reanalysis Version 6 (GPCC) and NOAA's PRECipitation REConstruction over Land (PREC/L). Spatial and temporal analysis of the TWS data shows that TWS in the Yangtze River basin is decreasing significantly since the year 1998. The driest period of the basin is noted from 2005 to 2010, especially in the middle and lower Yangtze reaches. The TWS changed abruptly into persistently high negative anomalies in the middle and lower Yangtze Reaches in 2004. From both basin and annual perspectives, 2006 is detected as the major inflection point at which the system exhibits a persistent decrease in TWS. Comparing these TWS trends to independent precipitation datasets shows that the recent decrease in TWS can mainly be attributed to a decrease in precipitation amount. Our finding is based on observation and modeling data sets and confirms previous results based on gauging station datasets. Reference: Huang, Y., Salama, M.S., Krol, M.S., van der Velde, R., Hoekstra, A.Y., Zhou, Y. and Su, Z. (2013) Analysis of long - term terrestrial water storage variations in the Yangtze River basin. In: Hydrology and earth system sciences (HESS): 17 (2013)5 pp. 1985-2000.

  4. Decadal changes in bathymetry of the Yangtze River Estuary: Human impacts and potential saltwater intrusion

    Wu, Shuaihu; Cheng, Heqin; Xu, Y. Jun; Li, Jiufa; Zheng, Shuwei


    This study analyzed bathymetric changes of the 77-km Yangtze River Estuary in China over the past ten years in order to understand the impacts of recent human activities on the estuary of a large alluvial river. Morphological changes were assessed by analyzing digitized bathymetric data of the estuarine channels from 2002 to 2013. Additionally, multi-beam bathymetric measurements made in 2012, 2014 and 2015 were utilized to investigate microtophographic bedforms of the lower reach of the estuary. Our results showed that the middle and upper reaches of the Yangtze River Estuary experienced substantial channel bed erosion in the past 10 years, and that the recent human activities have contributed to the change. These included the construction of a 70 km2 reservoir along the Yangtze River Estuary, the Qingcaosha Reservoir, for drinking water supply for the City of Shanghai, which has caused progressive bed erosion in the North Channel. The net volume of channel erosion in the Hengsha Passage from 2002 to 2013 was 0.86 × 108 m3. A large amount of the eroded sediment was trapped downstream, causing overall accretion in the upper reach of the North Passage. The middle and upper reaches of the South Passage also experienced intense erosion (0.45 × 108 m3) in the past ten years, while high accretion occurred in the lower reach because of the Deepening Waterway Project. The channel dredging left a large range of dredging marks and hollows in the North Passage. The increasing saltwater intrusion found in the Yangtze River Estuary may have been a consequence of either dredging or erosion, or both combined.

  5. Analysis on the Circulation of the Yangtze River Estuary Based on ADCP Measurements


    According to analysis on field data obtained by ADCP (Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler), the flow regime of the Yangtze River Estuary is studied by use of a 3-D numerical model. The flow field characteristics, under the influence of Coriolis force, saltwater intrusion and freshwater inflow and tidal current interaction, are depicted in details. The main driving forces and some important effective factors of lateral, longitudinal and horizontal circulation are also analyzed.

  6. Bioanalytical and instrumental analysis of thyroid hormone disrupting compounds in water sources along the Yangtze River

    Shi Wei [State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, School of the Environment, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Wang Xiaoyi [State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, School of the Environment, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Jiangsu Academy of Environmental Science, Nanjing 210036 (China); Hu Guanjiu; Hao Yingqun [State Environmental Protection Key Laboratory of Monitoring and Analysis for Organic Pollutants in Surface Water, Jiangsu Provincial Environmental Monitoring Center, Nanjing 210036 (China); Zhang Xiaowei [State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, School of the Environment, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Liu Hongling, E-mail: [State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, School of the Environment, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Wei Si [State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, School of the Environment, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Wang Xinru [Key Laboratory of Reproductive Medicine and Institute of Toxicology, Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing 210029 (China); Yu Hongxia, E-mail: [State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, School of the Environment, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China)


    Thyroid hormone (TH) agonist and antagonist activities of water sources along the Yangtze River in China were surveyed by a green monkey kidney fibroblast (CV-1) cell-based TH reporter gene assay. Instrumental analysis was conducted to identify the responsible thyroid-active compounds. Instrumentally derived L-3,5,3'-triiodothyronine (T{sub 3}) equivalents (T{sub 3}-EQs) and thyroid receptor (TR) antagonist activity equivalents referring to dibutyl phthalate (DBP-EQs) were calculated from the concentrations of individual congeners. The reporter gene assay demonstrated that three out of eleven water sources contained TR agonist activity equivalents (TR-EQs), ranging from 286 to 293 ng T{sub 3}/L. Anti-thyroid hormone activities were found in all water sources with the TR antagonist activity equivalents referring to DBP (Ant-TR-EQs), ranging from 51.5 to 555.3 {mu}g/L. Comparisons of the equivalents from instrumental and biological assays suggested that high concentrations of DBP and di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP) were responsible for the observed TR antagonist activities at some locations along the Yangtze River. - Research highlights: First of all, we indicated the instrumentally derived L-3,5,3'-triiodothyronine (T{sub 3}) equivalents (T{sub 3}-EQs) and thyroid receptor (TR) antagonist activity equivalents referring to DBP (DBP-EQs) for the very first time. Secondly, high concentrations of DBP and DEHP might be responsible for the observed TR antagonist activities at some locations. Finally, we found that thyroid receptor (TR) antagonist activities were very common in Yangtze River. More attentions should be paid to the TR antagonist activities and the responsible compounds. - In vitro bioassay responses observed in Yangtze River source water extracts showed great TR antagonist activities, and DBP and DEHP were responsible.

  7. Temperature change and its effect factors in the Yangtze Delta, China

    Shi, Jun; Tang, Xu; Cui, Linli; Gao, Zhiqiang


    Based on the meteorological data, land use date from TM images and social statistical data, the evidences of regional temperature change with the elements of mean annual temperature, mean annual maximum and minimum temperature, and extreme high and low temperature from 1959 to 2005, were detected, and the impact of human activities on temperature was analyzed in the Yangtze Delta region. The results indicated an increase in mean annual temperature, mean annual maximum and minimum temperature. Mean annual temperature in all cities in the region increased, and the increase rate in winter was greater than that in spring and autumn. The increase of mean annual maximum and minimum temperature was similar to that of mean annual temperature spatially. In 3 stations of Shanghai, Nanjing and Hangzhou, most hot days, least cold days and the highest mean temperature all appeared in the first 5 years in this century. Land use changed greatly, and a large amount of cropland was replaced with residential and constructional areas (R/C areas) from 1980 to 2000 in the Yangtze Delta region. The change of mean annual temperature was partly corresponding to the change of land use. Total registered population increased rapidly in 16 cities of the Yangtze Delta region, and a good linear correlation between the tendency ratio of total registered population and the mean annual temperature in 16 cities from 1978 to 2005. Total amount of energy consumption and GDP increased in 3 provinces of Shanghai, Jiangsu and Zhejiang where the Yangtze Delta located, both the final consumption of energy by industry and GDP had a relatively good linear relationship with the mean annual temperature in Shanghai from 1952 to 2005. This paper will help the understanding and attribution of climate change and simulation of the future response of weather-related disasters under various global change scenarios.

  8. Discovery of Late Paleozoic retrograded eclogites from the middle part of the northern margin of North China Craton

    NI Zhiyao; ZHAI Mingguo; WANG Renmin; TONG Ying; SHU Guiming; HAl Xiuling


    The retrograded eciogites have been discovered in the middle part of the northern margin of the North China Craton, which occur as lens or boudin within biotite-plagioclase gneisses in Paleoproterozoic Hongqiyingzi Group. The peak eclogite facies (P > 1.40-1.50 GPa, T = 680-730℃) mineral assemblage is composed of garnet, omphacite and rutile (+ quartz), which was overprinted by the granulite facies mineral assemblage of vermicular symplectite of sodic clinopyroxene and plagioclase which replaced the precursory omphacite, and then amphibolite facies retrograded minerals with characterization of Amp+Pl kelyphitic rim and symplectite, and amphibole replaced clinopyroxene. The protolith of retrograded eclogites is oceanic basalt formed at 438 + 11 Ma. The peak eclogite facies metamorphic age of the retrograded eclogite is 325 + 4 Ma. These relict eclogites may be formed by the subduction of Paleo-Asian oceanic crust beneath the North China Craton during Late Paleozoic. The discovery of relict eclogite in this paper provides a new insight into farther understanding of tectonic evolution of the northern margin of the North China Craton, and the relationship between the Paleo-Asian Ocean and the North China Craton.

  9. Reconstruction of the mid-Hirnantian palaeotopography in the Upper Yangtze region, South China

    Linna Zhang


    Full Text Available Reconstruction of the Hirnantian (Late Ordovician palaeotopography in South China is important for understanding the distribution pattern of the Hirnantian marine depositional environment. In this study, we reconstructed the Hirnantian palaeotopography in the Upper Yangtze region based on the rankings of the palaeo-water depths, which were inferred according to the lithofacies and biofacies characteristics of the sections. Data from 374 Hirnantian sections were collected and standardized through the online Geobiodiversity Database. The Ordinary Kriging interpolation method in the ArcGIS software was applied to create the continuous surface of the palaeo-water depths, i.e. the Hirnantian palaeotopography. Meanwhile, the line transect analysis was used to further observe the terrain changes along two given directions.The reconstructed palaeotopographic map shows a relatively flat and shallow epicontinental sea with three local depressions and a submarine high on the Upper Yangtze region during the Hirnantian. The water depth is mostly less than 60 m and the Yangtze Sea gradually deepens towards the north.

  10. Temporal and spatial changes of suspended sediment concentration and resuspension in the Yangtze River estuary

    CHENShenliang; ZHANGGuoan; YANGShilun


    A detailed analysis of suspended sediment concentration (SSC) variations over a year period is presented using the data from 8 stations in the Yangtze River estuary and its adjacent waters, together with a discussion of the hydrodynamic regimes of the estuary. Spatially, the SSC from Xuliujing downwards to Hangzhou Bay increases almost constantly, and the suspended sediment in the inner estuary shows higher concentration in summer than in winter, while in the outer estuary it shows higher concentration in winter than in summer, and the magnitude is greater in the outer estuary than in the inner estuary, greater in the Hangzhou Bay than in the Yangtze River estuary. The sediments discharged by the Yangtze River into the sea are resuspended by marine dynamics included tidal currents and wind waves. Temporally, the SSC shows a pronounced neap-spring tidal cycle and seasonal variations. Furthermore, through the analysis of dynamic mechanism, it is concluded that wave and tidal current are two predominant factors of sediment resuspension and control the distribution and changes of SSC, in which tidal currents control neap-spring tidal cycles, and wind waves control seasonal variations. The ratio between river discharge and marine dynamics controls soatial distribution of SSC.

  11. A magnetic record of heavy metal pollution in the Yangtze River subaqueous delta.

    Dong, Chenyin; Zhang, Weiguo; Ma, Honglei; Feng, Huan; Lu, Honghua; Dong, Yan; Yu, Lizhong


    The rapid industrial development in the Yangtze River watershed over the last several decades has drawn great attention with respect to heavy metal pollution to the Yangtze River estuary and nearby coastal areas. In this study, a 236 cm long sediment core was retrieved from the Yangtze River subaqueous delta (122°36' E, 31°00' N) in 2008 and analyzed for magnetic properties and geochemical compositions to investigate heavy metal pollution history. The activity of (137)Cs peaked at depth 140 cm, with a broad plateau between 120 cm and 140 cm, suggesting an average sedimentation rate of 3.11 cm yr(-1) for the upper 140 cm layer. Magnetic susceptibility (χ), saturation isothermal remanent magnetization (SIRM), anhysteretic remanent magnetization (χARM) and heavy metal enrichment factors (EF) all showed an upward increase trend above depth 140 cm, suggesting that increased ferrimagnetic mineral concentration was accompanied by heavy metal enrichment in the sediment. Geochemical and granolumetric analyses showed that sediment sources and particle sizes played minor roles in the variations of magnetic properties. The effect of diagenesis, which can lead to the selective removal of magnetic minerals, was noticeable in the lower part of the core (140-236 cm). Co-variation between magnetic properties (χ, SIRM and χARM) and EF of Cu and Pb suggests that the elevated ferrimagnetic mineral concentration can be used as an indicator of heavy metal pollution in the reconstruction of environmental changes in estuarine and coastal settings.

  12. Erosion potential of the Yangtze Delta under sediment starvation and climate change.

    Yang, H F; Yang, S L; Xu, K H; Wu, H; Shi, B W; Zhu, Q; Zhang, W X; Yang, Z


    Deltas are widely threatened by sediment starvation and climate change. Erosion potential is an important indicator of delta vulnerability. Here, we investigate the erosion potential of the Yangtze Delta. We found that over the past half century the Yangtze's sediment discharge has decreased by 80% due to the construction of >50,000 dams and soil conservation, whereas the wind speed and wave height in the delta region have increased by 5-7%, and the sea level has risen at a rate of 3 mm/yr. According to hydrodynamic measurements and analyses of seabed sediments, the period when bed shear stress due to combined current-wave action under normal weather conditions exceeds the critical bed shear stress for erosion (τ cr ) accounts for 63% of the total observed period on average and can reach 100% during peak storms. This explains why net erosion has occurred in some areas of the subaqueous delta. We also found that the increase with depth of τ cr is very gradual in the uppermost several metres of the depositional sequence. We therefore expect that the Yangtze subaqueous delta will experience continuous erosion under sediment starvation and climate change in the next decades of this century or even a few centuries.

  13. Channel morphology and its impact on flood passage, the Tianjiazhen reach of the middle Yangtze River

    Shi, Yafeng; Zhang, Qiang; Chen, Zhongyuan; Jiang, Tong; Wu, Jinglu


    The Tianjiazhen reach of the middle Yangtze is about 8 km long, and characterized by a narrow river width of 650 m and local water depth of > 90 m in deep inner troughs, of which about 60 m is below the mean sea level. The troughs in the channel of such a large river are associated with regional tectonics and local lithology. The channel configuration plays a critical role in modifying the height and duration of river floods and erosion of the riverbed. The formation of the troughs in the bed of the Yangtze is considered to be controlled by sets of NW-SE-oriented neotectonic fault zones, in which some segments consist of highly folded thick Triassic limestone crossed by the Yangtze River. Several limestone hills, currently located next to the river channel, serve as nodes that create large vortices in the river, thereby accelerating downcutting on the riverbed composed of limestone highly susceptible to physical corrosion and chemical dissolution. Hydrological records indicate that the nodal hills and channel configuration at Tianjiazhen do not impact on normal flow discharges but discharges > 50,000 m 3s - 1 are slowed down for 2-3 days. Catastrophic floods are held up for even longer periods. These inevitably result in elevated flood stages upstream of prolonged duration, affecting large cities such as Wuhan and a very large number of people.

  14. Early Development of Four Cyprinids Native to the Yangtze River, China

    Chapman, Duane C.


    Chapter 1 -- Notes on the Translation and Use of "A Study of the Early Development of Grass Carp, Black Carp, Silver Carp, and Bighead Carp in the Yangtze River, China" By Duane C. Chapman and Ning Wang Chapter 2 -- A Study of the Early Development of Grass Carp, Black Carp, Silver Carp, and Bighead Carp in the Yangtze River, China By Bolu Yi, Zhishen Liang, Zhitang Yu, Randuan Lin, and Mingjue HeTranslated by Duane C. Chapman and Ning Wang The document A Study of the Early Development of Grass Carp, Black Carp, Silver Carp, and Bighead Carp in the Yangtze River, China (Chapter 2 of this volume) was translated from the Chinese with the approval and assistance of the living authors of that study. It contains the most detailed description available, and approximately 200 drawings, of the early development of the subject fishes. Chapter 1 provides important instructions on the use of the translation, including a description of the Chinese morphometric conventions, which differ from those used by North American scientists. Chapter 1 also provides the historical context in which Chapter 2 was developed, and information on how the larvae of the subject fishes, which have invaded the Mississippi River basin, may be distinguished from other fishes present in the basin.

  15. New evidence of Yangtze delta recession after closing of the Three Gorges Dam

    Luo, X. X.; Yang, S. L.; Wang, R. S.; Zhang, C. Y.; Li, P.


    Many deltas are likely undergoing net erosion because of rapid decreases in riverine sediment supply and rising global sea levels. However, detecting erosion in subaqueous deltas is usually difficult because of the lack of bathymetric data. In this study, by comparing bathymetric data between 1981 and 2012 and surficial sediment grain sizes from the Yangtze subaqueous delta front over the last three decades, we found severe erosion and significant sediment coarsening in recent years since the construction of Three Gorges Dam (TGD), the largest dam in the world. We attributed these morphological and sedimentary variations mainly to the human-induced drastic decline of river sediment discharge. Combined with previous studies based on bathymetric data from different areas of the same delta, we theorize that the Yangtze subaqueous delta is experiencing overall (net) erosion, although local accumulation was also noted. We expect that the Yangtze sediment discharge will further decrease in the near future because of construction of new dams and delta recession will continue to occur. PMID:28145520

  16. Holocene environmental change and archaeology, Yangtze River Valley, China: Review and prospects

    Li Wu


    Full Text Available Holocene environmental change and environmental archaeology are important components of an international project studying the human-earth interaction system. This paper reviews the progress of Holocene environmental change and environmental archaeology research in the Yangtze River Valley over the last three decades, that includes the evolution of large freshwater lakes, Holocene transgression and sea-level changes, Holocene climate change and East Asian monsoon variation, relationship between the rise and fall of primitive civilizations and environmental changes, cultural interruptions and palaeoflood events, as well as relationship between the origin of agriculture and climate change. These research components are underpinned by the dating of lacustrine sediments, stalagmites and peat to establish a chronology of regional environmental and cultural evolution. Interdisciplinary and other environment proxy indicators need to be used in comparative studies of archaeological site formation and natural sedimentary environment in the upper, middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River Valley. Modern technology such as remote sensing, molecular bioarchaeology, and virtual reality, should be integrated with currently used dating, geochemical, sedimentological, and palaeobotanical methods of analysis in environmental archaeology macro- and micro-studies, so as to provide a greater comprehensive insight into Holocene environmental and cultural interaction and change in the Yangtze River Valley area.

  17. Dating recent sediments from the subaqueous Yangtze Delta and adjacent continental shelf,China

    Zhang-Hua; Wang; Yong-Hong; Dong; Jing; Chen; Xiao-Feng; Li; Juan; Cao; Zhi-Yong; Deng


    In this study we analyzed sediment lithology,fallout of 210Pb and 137Cs,and spheroidal carbonaceous particles(SCPs) for two short cores,YZE and CX38,obtained by gravity corer from the Yangtze River mouth offshore and adjacent continental shelf,to compare geochronological methods on the recent sediments of this area.Lithology and grain size changes in YZE suggested the re-discharging of the North Channel of the Yangtze River mouth by flood events during 1949-1954 and associated accretion in the offshore area.This event was validated by a remarkable zone of declination in both 137Cs and 210Pb activities and the absolute ages derived from the 137Cs and SCPs.In contrast,210Pb results show obvious disturbance of grain size by sediment mixing and cannot be interpreted above 100 cm.In CX38,absolute ages for the early-and mid-1950s were derived by the 137Cs and the SCP profile respectively,which occurred in a reasonable sequence.The excess 210Pb distribution shows exponentially decreasing activities with depth,and the mean sedimentation rate agrees roughly with the one inferred from the SCP profile.We suggest that the limitation of the 210Pb method needs consideration while the SCP profile has the potential to provide a useful and independent dating method for recent Yangtze offshore and adjacent shelf sediments.

  18. Fish utilization of a salt marsh intertidal creek in the Yangtze River estuary, China

    Jin, Binsong; Fu, Cuizhang; Zhong, Junsheng; Li, Bo; Chen, Jiakuan; Wu, Jihua


    The structure and temporal variations of the fish community in salt marshes of Chinese estuaries are poorly understood. Fish utilization of a salt marsh intertidal creek in the Yangtze River estuary was studied based on quarterly sampling surveys in July and November, 2004, and February and May, 2005. Fishes were collected by consecutive day and night samplings using fyke nets during the ebbing spring tides. A total of 25,010 individuals were caught during the study. 17 families and 33 species were documented, and the most species-rich family was Gobiidae. Three species, Synechogobius ommaturus, Chelon haematocheilus and Lateolabrax maculatus together comprised 95.65% of the total catch, which were also the most important commercial fishery species in the Yangtze River estuary. The fish community was dominated by juvenile individuals of estuarine resident species. Time of year significantly affected fish use of salt marshes, but no significant effects of diel periodicity on the fish community were found except for fish sampling in July. These findings indicate that salt marshes in the Yangtze River estuary may play important nursery roles for fish community.

  19. Little impact of the Three Gorges Dam on recent decadal lake decline across China's Yangtze Plain

    Wang, Jida; Sheng, Yongwei; Wada, Yoshihide


    The ubiquitous lakes across China's Yangtze Plain (YP) are indispensable freshwater resources sustaining ecosystems and socioeconomics for nearly half a billion people. Our recent survey revealed a widespread net decline in the total YP lake inundation area during 2000-2011 (a cumulative decrease of ˜10%), yet its mechanism remained contentious. Here we uncover the impacts of climate variability and anthropogenic activities including (i) Yangtze flow and sediment alterations by the Three Gorges Dam (TGD) and (ii) human water consumption in agricultural, industrial, and domestic sectors throughout the downstream Yangtze Basin. Results suggest that climate variability is the dominant driver of this decadal lake decline, whereas studied human activities, despite varying seasonal impacts that peak in fall, contribute marginal fraction (˜10-20% or less) to the interannual lake area decrease. Given that the TGD impacts on the total YP lake area and its seasonal variation are both under ˜5%, we also dismiss the speculation that the TGD might be responsible for evident downstream climate change by altering lake surface extent and thus open water evaporation. Nevertheless, anthropogenic impacts exhibited a strengthening trend during the past decade. Although the TGD has reached its full-capacity water regulation, the negative impacts of human water consumption and TGD-induced net channel erosion, which are already comparable to that of TGD's flow regulation, may continue to grow as crucial anthropogenic factors to future YP lake conservation.

  20. The impact of global warming on the runoff in the Yangtze River Basin

    Chen, Hua; Hu, Kang; Xu, Chongyu; Hou, Yukun


    As the largest water system in China, the Yangtze River is important to China. The amount and distribution of water resources are a key impact factor to the ecology protection and the economy development in the Yangtze River basin. In this study, the impact of global warming on the runoff in the Yangtze River basin has been evaluated by coupling the GCMs (Global Climate Models) and a monthly water balance model. In the study hydro-meteorological data from 140 gauges and hydrological data from 20 stations are used. The spatial-temporal changing trends of the runoff, precipitation and temperature are analyzed by using the Mann-Kendall method during the period of 1960-2015. A bias correction method and a statistical downscaling method (MC-SVM, Markov Chain-Support Vector Machine) are used to deal with the temperature and precipitation from a regional climate model and their performances have been evaluated. To simulate the runoff in the basin, the two-parameter monthly water balance model is calibrated and validated in the 20 sub-basins. The CMIP5 projections downscaled from RCM are used as inputs into the water balance model to predict the future possible changes on runoff under global warming. The results will be helpful to maintain the health of the water ecology and the sustainability of water resources utilization in the basin.


    RONG Yan-shu; WANG Wen; JIANG Hai-yan


    The upper reach of the Yangtze River,4 511 km long from west to east,contains a great amount of water resources of the Yangtze River Basin.This article studies the characteristics of the pan evaporation,the related meteorological variables,and their effects on the pan evaporation,based on the data of the daily pan evaporation(1980-2008)and other meteorological variables (1961-2008).The results show that the linear trend of the pan evaporation has remarkable regional features,i.e.,the decrease trend in the southwest and the increase trend in the northeast of the investigated region,and the Yangtze River is approximately the boundary of these trends.The meteorological variables have different effects on the pan evaporation depending on the fact that they are in the category the thermal variables or the dynamic variables.The thermal meteorological variables(i.e.,air temperature,diurnal temperature range,and sunshine duration)have positive partial correlations with the pan evaporation,while the dynamic ones(air pressure,rainfall,and relateive humidity)have negative correlations with the pan evaporation.The correlation of the wind speed remains to be investigated.

  2. Effects of storm waves on rapid deposition of sediment in the Yangtze Estuary channel

    Xu Fumin


    Full Text Available Recent research on short-term topographic change in the Yangtze Estuary channel under storm surge conditions is briefly summarized. The mild-slope, Boussinesq and action balance equations are compared and analyzed. The action balance equation, SWAN, was used as a wave numerical model to forecast strong storm waves in the Yangtze Estuary. The spherical coordinate system and source terms used in the equation are described in this paper. The significant wave height and the wave orbital motion velocity near the bottom of the channel during 20 m/s winds in the EES direction were simulated, and the model was calibrated with observation data of winds and waves generated by Tropical Cyclone 9912. The distribution of critical velocity for incipient motion along the bottom was computed according to the threshold velocity formula for bottom sediment. The mechanism of rapid deposition is analyzed based on the difference between the root-mean-square value of the near-bottom wave orbital motion velocity and the bottom critical tractive velocity. The results show that a large amount of bottom sediments from Hengsha Shoal and Jiuduan Shoal are lifted into the water body when 20 m/s wind is blowing in the EES direction. Some of the sediments may enter the channel with the cross-channel current, causing serious rapid deposition. Finally, the tendency of the storm to induce rapid deposition in the Yangtze Estuary channel zone is analyzed.

  3. Human impact on erosion patterns and sediment transport in the Yangtze River

    Sun, Xilin; Li, Chang'an; Kuiper, K. F.; Zhang, Zengjie; Gao, Jianhua; Wijbrans, J. R.


    Sediment load in rivers is an indicator of erosional processes in the upstream river catchments. Understanding the origin and composition of the sediment load can help to assess the influence of natural processes and human activities on erosion. Tectonic uplift, precipitation and run-off, hill slopes and vegetation can influence erosion in natural systems. Agriculture and deforestation are expected to increase the sediment yield, but dams and reservoirs can trap much of this sediment before it reaches the ocean. Here, we use major element composition and 40Ar/39Ar ages of detrital muscovites to constrain the sediment contribution of various tributaries to sedimentation in the Yangtze delta. The sediment contribution calculated from muscovite data was compared with that estimated from current sediment load data from gauging stations. Muscovite data show that the main contributor to the Yangtze delta sands is the Min River, while the current sediment load suggests that the Jinsha and Jialing rivers are the most important current contributors to delta sediments. We suggest that this difference reflects an "old" and "young" erosion pattern, respectively as medium grained muscovite could be transported much slower than suspended sediment load in the complex river-lake systems of the Yangtze River basin. These two different erosion patterns likely reflect enhanced human activity (deforestation, cultivation, and mining) that increasingly overwhelmed long-time natural factors controls on erosion since ~ 1900 cal years B.P.

  4. Sources and mobility of carbonate melts beneath cratons, with implications for deep carbon cycling, metasomatism and rift initiation

    Tappe, Sebastian; Romer, Rolf L.; Stracke, Andreas; Steenfelt, Agnete; Smart, Katie A.; Muehlenbachs, Karlis; Torsvik, Trond H.


    Kimberlite and carbonatite magmas that intrude cratonic lithosphere are among the deepest probes of the terrestrial carbon cycle. Their co-existence on thick continental shields is commonly attributed to continuous partial melting sequences of carbonated peridotite at >150 km depths, possibly as deep as the mantle transition zone. At Tikiusaaq on the North Atlantic craton in West Greenland, approximately 160 Ma old ultrafresh kimberlite dykes and carbonatite sheets provide a rare opportunity to study the origin and evolution of carbonate-rich melts beneath cratons. Although their Sr-Nd-Hf-Pb-Li isotopic compositions suggest a common convecting upper mantle source that includes depleted and recycled oceanic crust components (e.g., negative ΔεHf coupled with > + 5 ‰ δ7Li), incompatible trace element modelling identifies only the kimberlites as near-primary low-degree partial melts (0.05-3%) of carbonated peridotite. In contrast, the trace element systematics of the carbonatites are difficult to reproduce by partial melting of carbonated peridotite, and the heavy carbon isotopic signatures (-3.6 to - 2.4 ‰ δ13C for carbonatites versus -5.7 to - 3.6 ‰ δ13C for kimberlites) require open-system fractionation at magmatic temperatures. Given that the oxidation state of Earth's mantle at >150 km depth is too reduced to enable larger volumes of 'pure' carbonate melt to migrate, it is reasonable to speculate that percolating near-solidus melts of carbonated peridotite must be silicate-dominated with only dilute carbonate contents, similar to the Tikiusaaq kimberlite compositions (e.g., 16-33 wt.% SiO2). This concept is supported by our findings from the North Atlantic craton where kimberlite and other deeply derived carbonated silicate melts, such as aillikites, exsolve their carbonate components within the shallow lithosphere en route to the Earth's surface, thereby producing carbonatite magmas. The relative abundances of trace elements of such highly

  5. The record of the Amazon craton in two supercontinents: Paleomagnetic and geological constraints for Mesoproterozoic to Paleozoic times

    Tohver, E.


    The Amazon craton plays a fundamental role in the evolution of two supercontinents, the late Mesoproterozoic Rodinia, the break-up of which led to thethe late Neoproterozoic-early Paleozoic formation of Gondwana. A recent review of the paleomagnetic database for South America and Africa highlights the different role of the principal elements of western Gondwana elements Amazonia, conjoined with West Africa, versus the more centrally- located pieces of Gondwana; -Congo-São Francisco, Kalahari, the Rio de Plata, and the accreted terranes of the Arabia-Nubia shield. Whereas the Amazon-West Africa conjoined craton appears to have been alongside Laurentia within the framework of Rodinia, the other "central Gondwana" cratons were not part of Rodinia. New paleomagnetic data from the SW Amazon craton demonstrate the transpressive evolution of the Grenvillian collision, which resulted in thousands of kilometers of along-strike between the Amazon and Laurentia cratons. Portions of Amazonian crust stranded within the North American craton, notably the Blue Ridge province of the southern Appalachians, is evidence for this long-lived motion. An extensive review of recent thermochronological data from the North American Grenville Province and new data from the SW Amazon belts of "Grenvillian" age reveals the effects of differential post-orogenic exhumation. Restoration of this exhumation gives us a crustal-scale cross-section of the synorogenic structure, marked by thrust-related imbrication on the North American side, and large-scale, strike-slip faults on the Amazon side. It is this asymmetric structure that accounts for the differences in tectonic style between the two cratons. The timing of the break-up of Rodinia is still mostly unconstrained by geochronological data from rift-related sediments from the Amazon side. The Paraguai belt that marks the SE margin of the Amazon craton is a curved, fold-and-thrust belt that affected the late Neoproterozoic-Cambrian sediments that

  6. Cretaceous mantle of the Congo craton: Evidence from mineral and fluid inclusions in Kasai alluvial diamonds

    Kosman, Charles W.; Kopylova, Maya G.; Stern, Richard A.; Hagadorn, James W.; Hurlbut, James F.


    Alluvial diamonds from the Kasai River, Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) are sourced from Cretaceous kimberlites of the Lucapa graben in Angola. Analysis of 40 inclusion-bearing diamonds provides new insights into the characteristics and evolution of ancient lithospheric mantle of the Congo craton. Silicate inclusions permitted us to classify diamonds as peridotitic, containing Fo91-95 and En92-94, (23 diamonds, 70% of the suite), and eclogitic, containing Cr-poor pyrope and omphacite with 11-27% jadeite (6 diamonds, 18% of the suite). Fluid inclusion compositions of fibrous diamonds are moderately to highly silicic, matching compositions of diamond-forming fluids from other DRC diamonds. Regional homogeneity of Congo fibrous diamond fluid inclusion compositions suggests spatially extensive homogenization of Cretaceous diamond forming fluids within the Congo lithospheric mantle. In situ cathodoluminescence, secondary ion mass spectrometry and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy reveal large heterogeneities in N, N aggregation into B-centers (NB), and δ13C, indicating that diamonds grew episodically from fluids of distinct sources. Peridotitic diamonds contain up to 2962 ppm N, show 0-88% NB, and have δ13C isotopic compositions from - 12.5‰ to - 1.9‰ with a mode near mantle-like values. Eclogitic diamonds contain 14-1432 ppm N, NB spanning 29%-68%, and wider and lighter δ13C isotopic compositions of - 17.8‰ to - 3.4‰. Fibrous diamonds on average contain more N (up to 2976 ppm) and are restricted in δ13C from - 4.1‰ to - 9.4‰. Clinopyroxene-garnet thermobarometry suggests diamond formation at 1350-1375 °C at 5.8 to 6.3 GPa, whereas N aggregation thermometry yields diamond residence temperatures between 1000 and 1280 °C, if the assumed mantle residence time is 0.9-3.3 Ga. Integrated geothermobaromtery indicates heat fluxes of 41-44 mW/m2 during diamond formation and a lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary (LAB) at 190-210 km. The hotter

  7. 长江上游社会经济因子对侵蚀产沙的影响%Impacts of socio-economic factors on sediment yield in the Upper Yangtze River

    杜俊; 师长兴; 范小黎; 周园园


    In recent years, the role of human activities in changing sediment yield has become more apparent for the construction of hydraulic engineering and water conservation projections in the Upper Yangtze River, but it has not been evaluated at the macro scale. Taking Sichuan Province and Chongqing City as an example, this paper studies the relationship between socio-economic factors and sediment yield in the Upper Yangtze River based on section data in 1989 and 2007. The results show that sediment yield is significantly correlated with population density and cultivated area, in which the former appears to be more closely related to sediment yield. Moreover, in the relation of sediment yield vs. population density, a critical value of population density exists, below which the sediment yield increases with the increase of population density and over which the sediment yield increases with the decrease of population density. The phenomenon essentially reflects the influence of natural factors, such as topography, precipitation and soil property, and some human activities on sediment yield. The region with a higher population density than critical value is located in the east of the study area and is characterized by plains, hills and low mountains, whereas the opposite is located in the west and characterized by middle and high mountains. In the eastern region, more people live on the lands with a low slope where regional soil erosion is slight; therefore, sediment yield is negatively related with population density. In contrast, in the western region, the population tends to aggregate in the areas with abundant soil and water resources which usually lead to a higher intensity of natural erosion, and in turn, high-intensity agricultural practices in these areas may further strengthen local soil erosion. It is also found that population tends to move from the areas with bad environment and high sediment yield to the areas with more comfortable environment and less

  8. Towards the Understanding of Recent Lake Decline in the Yangtze Basin

    Wang, J.; Sheng, Y.; Wada, Y.


    In the era of Anthropocene, lakes as essential stocks of terrestrial water resources are subject to increasing vulnerability from both climatic variations and human activities. Our recent study reveals a decadal area decline among the largest cluster of freshwater lakes in East Asia, distributed across the Yangtze River Basin downstream of China's Three Gorges Dam (TGD). The observed lake decline, a cumulative rate of 7.4% (~850 km2) from 2000 to 2011, concurred with enduring meteorological drought, continuous population growth, and extensive human water regulation (e.g., the TGD). The decreasing trend was tested significant in all seasons, leading to an evident phase drop of the average annual lake cycle before and after the TGD operation. The most substantial decline in the post-TGD period appears in fall (1.1% yr-1), which intriguingly coincides with the TGD water storage season. Motivated by such findings, this paper provides a comprehensive diagnosis of the potential TGD impacts on the Yangtze-connected downstream lake system, in comparison to the concurrent contributions from local meteorological variations and human water consumption. Results uncover an altered inundation regime of the downstream lake system induced by TGD's water regulation, manifested as evident lake area decrease in fall and increase in spring and winter. As the most substantial influence, reduced lake area in fall explains ~20-80% of the observed post-TGD decline. Concurrent Yangtze channel erosion slightly reinforced the area decrease in fall while counteracting ~30% of the area increase in winter. Human water consumption accumulated through the local river network led to constant discharge reduction, which equals another ~80% of the TGD-induced lake decline in fall and completely counteracts the TGD-induced lake area increase in winter. However, human water consumption only adds minor contribution (< 6%) to the post-TGD lake decline due to slow increasing rates during 2000-2011. The

  9. Tidal impacts on the subtidal flow division at the main bifurcation in the Yangtze River Delta

    Zhang, Wei; Feng, Haochuan; Hoitink, A. J. F.; Zhu, Yuliang; Gong, Fei; Zheng, Jinhai


    Flow division at bifurcations in the Yangtze Estuary has received ample attention, since it may control the pathways of terrestrial sediments over downstream river branches including the 12.5 m Deepwater Navigation channel. While some efforts have been made to interpret flow division at the bifurcations of the Yangtze Estuary, little attention has been paid to the role of tides. Flow division at estuarine bifurcations is made complicated by tides that propagate from the outlet of the tidal channels into the delta. To quantify the tidal influence on the distribution of river discharge, and more generally, to understand the mechanisms governing the subtidal flow division at the tidally affected bifurcation in the Yangtze River Delta, a two-dimensional hydrodynamic model is employed. In this model, the landward boundary is chosen beyond the tidal limit, where the tidal motion has faded out entirely. The seaward boundary is chosen such that the river discharge does not influence the water level. Subtidal discharges are decomposed using the method of factor separation, to distinguish between the effects of tides, river discharge and river-tide interactions on the subtidal flow division. Results indicate that tides modify the river discharge distribution over distributary channels in the Yangtze River Delta, particularly in the dry season. A significant difference in the subtidal flow division during spring tide and neap tide shows that the tidally averaged flow division over the distributaries in the delta greatly depends on tidal amplitude. By varying the river discharge at the landward boundary and amplitudes and phases of the principal tidal constituents at the seaward boundary of the established model, the sensitivities of the subtidal flow division to the river discharge and tidal amplitude variation were investigated in detail. Generally, the tidal impacts on the subtidal flow division are around 12% to 22%, with river discharge varying from 30,000 m3s-1 to 20

  10. The 3.1 Ga Nuggihalli chromite deposits, Western Dhawar craton (India)

    Mukherjee, Ria; Mondal, Sisir K.; Frei, Robert


    , therefore melting and mixing of the eclogite component with depleted mantle melts resulted in distinct HFSE enrichment in the Nuggihalli rocks. Alternatively, melting of a HFSE-enriched eclogitic slab and the surrounding depleted mantle within an active subduction zone is another possible mechanism, however......The Nuggihalli greenstone belt is part of the older greenstone belts (3.4 - 3.0 Ga) in the Western Dharwar Craton, southern India. This greenstone sequence consists of conformable metavolcanic and metasedimentary supracrustal rock assemblages that belong to the Sargur Group. Sill-like ultramafic......-mafic plutonic bodies are present within these supracrustal rocks (schist rocks) which are in turn enclosed by tonalite-trondhjemite-granodiorite gneiss (TTG). The sill-like ultramafic-mafic rocks are cumulates derived from a high-Mg parental magma that are represented by chromitite-hosted serpentinite...

  11. The Montesbelos mass-flow (southern Amazonian craton, Brazil): a Paleoproterozoic volcanic debris avalanche deposit?

    Roverato, M.


    The present contribution documents the extremely well-preserved Paleoproterozoic architecture of the Montesbelos breccia (named here for the first time), which is interpreted as a rare example of a subaerial paleoproterozoic (>1.85 Ga) granular-dominated mass-flow deposit, few of which are recorded in the literature. Montesbelos deposit is part of the andesitic Sobreiro Formation located in the São Felix do Xingu region, southern Amazonian craton, northern Brazil. The large volume, high variability of textural features, presence of broken clasts, angular low sphericity fragments, mono- to heterolithic character, and the size of the outcrops point to a volcanic debris avalanche flow. Fluviatile sandy material and debris flows are associated with the deposit as a result of post-depositional reworking processes.

  12. Neotectonic activity and parity in movements of Udaipur block of the Arvalli Craton and Indian Plate

    Harsh Bhu; Ritesh Purohit; Joga Ram; Pankaj Sharma; S R Jakhar


    We report site motion of a permanent GPS site at Udaipur (udai), Rajasthan on the Udaipur block of Aravalli Craton. The GPS measurements of 2007–2011 suggest that the site moves at a rate of about 49 mm/year towards northeast. As the site motion is consistent with the predicted plate motion using the estimated euler pole of rotation for the Indian Plate, it implies that there is insignificant internal deformation/strain in the region. Such a deformation is consistent with very low seismic activity in the region. The epicenters of the infrequent low magnitude earthquakes are located on the Precambrian lineaments on the west of Udaipur Block, and on the NW–SE striking younger lineament in the south of the block.

  13. Discovery of the Early Mesozoic granulite xenoliths in North China Craton

    邵济安[1; 韩庆军[2; 李惠民[3


    The discovery of the Early Mesozoic basic granulite xenoliths in the Harqin area of the Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region (for short Inner Mongolia) is reported for the first time in this paper. According to the mineral assemblage the xenoliths include two-pyroxene granulite, clinopyroxene granulite, and hypersthene granulite. Their protolytes are mainly gabbroite rocks. The zircon U-Pb age of the granulite xenoliths is 251 Ma, and K-Ar age of the hypersthene is 229 Ma. They represent the times of metamorphism and cooling of the granulite facies respectively. The host rock of the xenoliths is Early Mesozoic biotite-quartz diorites, whose whole-rock K-Ar age is 219 Ma. This discovery confirms existence of an Early Mesozoic underplating in the North China Craton, which is of much importance in research on the Early Mesozoic mantle-crust interaction in the concerned area.

  14. Strong crustal seismic anisotropy in the Kalahari Craton based on Receiver Functions

    Thybo, Hans; Soliman, Mohammad Youssof Ahmad; Artemieva, Irina


    Earlier seismic studies of the Kalahari Craton in southern Africa infer deformation of upper mantle by flow with fast direction of seismic anisotropy being parallel to present plate motion, and/or report anisotropy frozen into the lithospheric mantle. We present evidence for very strong seismic...... is uniform within tectonic units and parallel to orogenic strike in the Limpopo and Cape fold belts. It is further parallel to the strike of major dyke swarms which indicates that a large part of the observed anisotropy is controlled by lithosphere fabrics and macroscopic effects. The directions of the fast...... that the crust and lithospheric mantle may have been coupled since cratonisation. If so, the apparent match between mantle anisotropy and the present plate motion is coincidental....

  15. The paleomagnetism and geological significance of Meso- proterozoic dyke swarms in the central North China Craton


    The Mesoproterozoic mafic dyke swarms are extensively distributedin the central North China Craton(NCC) including North Shanxi, Wutai and Lüliang areas, which are not deformed and metamorphic but high magnetic, so the dyke swarms become the mark to compare the high meta-morphic rock areas in magnetism. Based on the analysis of paleomagnetism of mafic dyke swarms in North Shanxi, Wutai and Lüliang areas, NCC inclined southward about 18° so that North Shanxi lifted up and rotated 10° left to Wutai area. The dyke swarms in Lüliang developed later than in North Shanxi and Wutai area. The NNW-trending and WNW-trending dyke swarms developed in Lüliang while the North China Plate moved northward consistently so that the paleomagnetism of dyke swarms in Lüliang is greatly different from North Shanxi and Wutai area.

  16. Nitrogen isotope and content record of Mesozoic orogenic gold deposits surrounding the North China craton


    As an effective tracer, nitrogen isotopes have been used to determine the source of ore materials in recent years. In this study, the nitrogen isotopes and contents were measured on K- feldspar and sericite of gold deposits and some related granitic intrusions in Jiaodong, Xiaoqinling-Xiong'ershan, west Qinling, the west part of North Qilian and the Zhangjiakou-Xuanhua district around the North China craton (NCC). Although the gold deposits around the NCC are hosted in Precambrian metamorphic rocks, Phanerozoic sedimentary rocks, mafic volcanic rocks or granite, comparison of which with the nitrogen contents and isotope data of previous studies on mantle-derived rocks, granites, metamorphic rocks and gold deposits indicates that those deposits are closely related to granitic rocks. In addition, mantle-derived materials may have been involved in the ore-forming processes to a certain degree. This conclusion is consistent with the result of previous hydrogen, oxygen and carbon isotopic studies of those gold deposits.

  17. A review of the tectonic evolution of the Sunsás belt, SW Amazonian Craton

    Teixeira, Wilson; Geraldes, Mauro Cesar; Matos, Ramiro; Ruiz, Amarildo Salina; Saes, Gerson; Vargas-Mattos, Gabriela


    The Sunsás-Aguapeí province (1.20-0.95 Ga), SW Amazonian Craton, is a key area to study the heterogeneous effects of collisional events with Laurentia, which shows evidence of the Grenvillian and Sunsás orogens. The Sunsás orogen, characterized by an allochthonous collisional-type belt (1.11-1.00 Ga), is the youngest and southwesternmost of the events recorded along the cratonic fringe. Its evolution occurred after a period of long quiescence and erosion of the already cratonized provinces (>1.30 Ga), that led to sedimentation of the Sunsás and Vibosi groups in a passive margin setting. The passive margin stage was roughly contemporary with intraplate tectonics that produced the Nova Brasilândia proto-oceanic basin (aborted rifts that evolved to the Huanchaca-Aguapeí basin (1.17-1.15 Ga). The Sunsás belt is comprised by the metamorphosed Sunsás and Vibosi sequences, the Rincón del Tigre mafic-ultramafic sill and granitic intrusive suites. The latter rocks yield ɛNd(t) signatures (-0.5 to -4.5) and geochemistry (S, I, A-types) suggesting their origin associated with a continental arc setting. The Sunsás belt evolution is marked by "tectonic fronts" with sinistral offsets that was active from c. 1.08 to 1.05 Ga, along the southern edge of the Paraguá microcontinent where K/Ar ages (1.27-1.34 Ga) and the Huanchaca-Aguapeí flat-lying cover attest to the earliest tectonic stability at the time of the orogen. The Sunsás dynamics is coeval with inboard crustal shortening, transpression and magmatism in the Nova Brasilândia belt (1.13-1.00 Ga). Conversely, the Aguapeí aulacogen (0.96-0.91 Ga) and nearby shear zones (0.93-0.91 Ga) are the late tectonic offshoots over the cratonic margin. The post-tectonic to anorogenic stages took place after ca. 1.00 Ga, evidenced by the occurrences of intra-plate A-type granites, pegmatites, mafic dikes and sills, as well as of graben basins. Integrated interpretation of the available data related to the Sunsás orogen

  18. Mid-lithosphere discontinuities beneath the western and central North China Craton

    Sun, Weijia; Kennett, B. L. N.


    By analyzing P reflectivity extracted from stacked autocorrelograms for teleseismic events on a dense seismic profile, we obtain a detailed image of the mid-lithosphere discontinuity (MLD) beneath western and central North China Craton (NCC). This seismic daylight imaging exploits a broad high-frequency band (0.5-4 Hz) to reveal the fine-scale component of multi-scale lithospheric heterogeneity. The depth of the MLD beneath the western and central parts of the NCC ranges 80-120 km, with a good match to the transition to negative S velocity gradient with depth from Rayleigh wave tomography. The MLD inferred from seismic daylight imaging also has good correspondence with the transition from conductive to convective regimes estimated from heat flow data indicating likely thermal control within the seismological lithosphere.

  19. Strong crustal seismic anisotropy in the Kalahari Craton based on Receiver Functions

    Thybo, Hans; Soliman, Mohammad Youssof Ahmad; Artemieva, Irina


    Earlier seismic studies of the Kalahari Craton in southern Africa infer deformation of upper mantle by flow with fast direction of seismic anisotropy being parallel to present plate motion, and/or report anisotropy frozen into the lithospheric mantle. We present evidence for very strong seismic...... is uniform within tectonic units and parallel to orogenic strike in the Limpopo and Cape fold belts. It is further parallel to the strike of major dyke swarms which indicates that a large part of the observed anisotropy is controlled by lithosphere fabrics and macroscopic effects. The directions of the fast...... that the crust and lithospheric mantle may have been coupled since cratonisation. If so, the apparent match between mantle anisotropy and the present plate motion is coincidental....

  20. Structure and extent of the southern African cratons: Integrated images from receiver functions and teleseimic tomography

    Soliman, Mohammad Youssof Ahmad; Levander, Alan; Bezada, Max


    components we find that most of the strong anisotropy is confined to the lower crust. Using finite-frequency kernels, we inverted the P- and S- wave delay times to obtain 3-D images of com- pressional and shear velocity perturbations in the mantle by use of three frequency bands: 1, 0.5 and 0.25 Hz for P......4◦ checkerboards show moderately good recovery. To isolate the depth extent of anomalies in the model we ran two suites of squeezing tests: 1) For maximum depth of the model being 1000, 700 and 410 km. 2) For the 1000 km deep model, we increased the damping parameter in the deeper layers....... The Receiver Functions show a thin crust with a flat and sharp Moho discontinuity throughout the entire Kaapvaal and Zimbabwe cratons. These results are consistent with expectations for Archean areas. The lowest Vp/Vs value sites are found around the locations of diamondiferous kimberlite pipes at flat Moho...

  1. Eastern Equine Encephalitis

    ... bite of an infected mosquito. Eastern equine encephalitis (EEE) is a rare illness in humans, and only ... EEEV have no apparent illness. Severe cases of EEE (involving encephalitis, an inflammation of the brain) begin ...

  2. Three evolutionary stages of the collision orogenic deformation in the Middle Yangtze Region

    SUN; Yan


    13]Sun Yan Sbu Liangshu, Faure, M. et al., Tectonic development of the metamorphic core complex of Wugongshan in the Northern Jiangxi Province, Jour. of Nanjing University, 1997, 33: 447-449.[14]Faure. M., Sun Yah, Shu Liangshu et al., Extensional tectonics within a subduction-type orogen, the case study of the Wugongshan dome, Tectonophysics, 1996, 263: 77- 106.[15]Shu Liangshu, Shi Yangshen, Guo Lingzhi et al., Plate Tectonic Evolution and the Kinematics of Collisional Orogeny in the Middle Jiangnan, Eastern China, Nanjing: Publishing House of Nanjing University, 1995, 14-149.[16]Sun Yan, Shi Zejin Study on mechanical parameters of rocks and regional layerslip system in Hunan-Jiangxi area, Science in China, Ser. B. 1993, 36(8): 962-975.[17]Xu Zhiqin, Chui Junwen, Tectonic Dynamics of the Continental China, Beijing: Metallurgical Industry Publishing House, 1996, 89-178.[18]Sun Yan, Tectonics and mineralization of Lachlan Fold Belt, Canberra, Geol. Soc. of Australia, 1991, 29: 52-53.[19]Faure, M., The geodynamic evolution of the Eastern Eurasian margin in Mesozoic times, Tectonophysics, 1992, 208: 97-411.[20]Herwegh, M., Handy, M. R., Heilbronner, R., Evolution of mylonitic microfabric (EMM), a computer application for educational purposes, Tectonophysics, 1999, 303: 141-146.21.Wiens, D. A., Sliding skis and slipping faults, Nature, 1998, 279: 824-825.[21]Sun Yan, Suzuki, T., Study on the ductile deformation domain of the simple shear in rocks, Science in China, Ser. B, 1992,35(12): 1512-1520.[22]Molnar, P., Tapponnier, P., Cenozoic tectonics of Asia: effects of a continental collision, Science, 1975, 189: 419-426.[23]Buke, K.. Sengor, A. B. C., Tectonic escape in evolution of the continenental crust, in Reflection Seismology, The Continental Crust, Geodynamics Series (14). (eds. Barazangi, M., Brown, L.), Washington D.C.: American Geophysical Union,1986. 41 -53.[24]Shan Yanjun, Xia Bangdong, A preliminary discussion on

  3. Estimation of human-induced changes in terrestrial water storage through integration of GRACE satellite detection and hydrological modeling: A case study of the Yangtze River basin

    Huang, Ying; Salama, Mhd. Suhyb; Krol, Maarten S.; Su, Zhongbo; Hoekstra, Arjen Y.; Zeng, Yijian; Zhou, Yunxuan


    Quantifying the human effects on water resources plays an important role in river basin management. In this study, we proposed a framework, which integrates the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) satellite estimation with macroscale hydrological model simulation, for detection and attribution of spatial terrestrial water storage (TWS) changes. In particular, it provides valuable insights for regions where ground-based measurements are inaccessible. Moreover, this framework takes into account the feedback between land and atmosphere and innovatively put forward several suggestions (e.g., study period selection, hydrological model selection based on soil moisture-climate interactions) to minimize the uncertainties brought by the interaction of human water use with terrestrial water fluxes. We demonstrate the use of the proposed framework in the Yangtze River basin of China. Our results show that, during the period 2003-2010, the TWS was continually increasing in the middle and south eastern reaches of the basin, at a mean rate of about 3 cm yr-1. This increment in TWS was attributed to anthropogenic modification of the hydrological cycle, rather than natural climate variability. The dominant contributor to the TWS excess was found to be intensive surface water irrigation, which recharged the water table in the middle and south eastern parts of the basin. Water impoundment in the Three Gorges Reservoir (TGR) is found to account for nearly 20% of the human-induced TWS increment in the region where the TGR is located. The proposed framework gives water managers/researchers a useful tool to investigate the spatial human effects on TWS changes.

  4. Risk and toxicity assessments of heavy metals in sediments and fishes from the Yangtze River and Taihu Lake, China.

    Fu, Jie; Hu, Xin; Tao, Xiancong; Yu, Hongxia; Zhang, Xiaowei


    Heavy metal pollution is one of the most serous environmental issues globally. To evaluate the metal pollution in Jiangsu Province of China, the total concentrations of heavy metals in sediments and fishes from the Yangtze River and Taihu Lake were analyzed. Ecological risk of sediments and human health risk of fish consumption were assessed respectively. Furthermore, toxicity of samples on expression of the stress responsive genes was evaluated using microbial live cell-array method. The results showed that the heavy metals concentrations in sediments from the Yangtze River were much higher than those in sediments from the Taihu Lake. However, the fishes from the Taihu Lake had higher concentrations of heavy metals than fishes from the Yangtze River. Ecological risk evaluation showed that the heavy metal contaminants in sediments from the Yangtze River posed higher risk of adverse ecological effects, while sediments from the study areas of Taihu Lake were relatively safe. Health risk assessment suggested that the heavy metals in fishes of both Yangtze River and Taihu Lake might have risk of adverse health effects to human. The toxicity assessment indicated that the heavy metals in these sediments and fishes showed transcriptional effects on the selected 21 stress responsive genes, which were involved in the pathways of DNA damage response, chemical stress, and perturbations of electron transport. Together, this field investigation combined with chemical analysis, risk assessment and toxicity bioassay would provide useful information on the heavy metal pollution in Jiangsu Province.

  5. Recent heterogeneous warming and the associated summer precipitation over eastern China

    Zhu, Jian; Huang, Dan-Qing; Dai, Ying; Chen, Xi


    The recent heterogeneous warming and the associated summer precipitation over eastern China are investigated in this study. In 1990-1999, there exist warming over northwestern Pacific and cooling over eastern equatorial Pacific, which can be quantified by temperature gradient index (TGI). Positive and negative cases are chosen based on TGI. In positive cases, a "southern flood and northern drought" summer rainfall pattern dominates over eastern China. The atmospheric circulations show that associated with the southward receding of western Pacific subtropical high (WPSH), ascending motion accompanied with more water vapor exists over southern China. Furthermore, cold-warm air activity affected by weakened East Asian subtropical jet (EASJ) and strengthened East Asia polar front jet (EAPJ) may also be responsible for this rainfall anomaly pattern. In negative cases, significant positive Meiyu-like rainfall anomaly concentrated over Yangtze Huaihe River Basin (YHRB). Associated with the northward shift of WPSH, more water vapor is transported to YHRB. Additionally, the enhanced ascending motion over YHRB may be related with the northward shift of the EAPJ and westward shift of the EASJ. The results reinforce the notion that the configuration of EASJ and EAPJ in both intensity and position has large impacts on the precipitation variations over eastern China.

  6. The seismotectonics of Southeastern Tanzania: Implications for the propagation of the eastern branch of the East African Rift

    Mulibo, Gabriel D.; Nyblade, Andrew A.


    Seismicity patterns and focal mechanisms in southeastern Tanzania, determined from data recorded on temporary and permanent AfricaArray seismic stations, have been used to investigate the propagation direction of the Eastern branch of the East African Rift System southward from the Northern Tanzania Divergence Zone (NTDZ). Within the NTDZ, the rift zone is defined by three segments, the Eyasi segment to the west, the Manyara segment in the middle, and the Pangani segment to the east. Results show that most of the seismicity (~ 75%) extends to the south of the Manyara segment along the eastern margin of the Tanzania Craton, and at ~ 6-7° S latitude trends to the SE along the northern boundary of the Ruvuma microplate, connecting with a N-S zone of seismicity offshore southern Tanzania and Mozambique. A lesser amount of seismicity (~ 25%) is found extending from the SE corner of the Tanzania Craton at ~ 6-7° S latitude southwards towards Lake Nyasa. This finding supports a model of rift propagation via the Manyara segment to the southeast of the Tanzania Craton along the northern boundary of the Ruvuma microplate. However, given the limited duration of the seismic recordings used in this study, the possibility of another zone of extension developing to the south towards Lake Nyasa (Malawi) cannot be ruled out. Focal mechanisms along the boundary between the Victoria and the Ruvuma microplates and offshore southeastern Tanzania show a combination of normal and strike slip faulting indicating mainly extension with some sinistral motion, consistent with the mapped geologic faults and a clockwise rotation of the Ruvuma microplate.

  7. Stacked uppermost mantle layers within the Slave craton of NW Canada as defined by anisotropic seismic discontinuities

    Snyder, David B.


    A 20-station seismic array in NW Canada recorded 336 teleseismic events with distribution in back azimuth and epicentral distance sufficient to characterize uppermost mantle discontinuities between depths typical of the Mohorovicic and Lehman discontinuities. Following wavefield decomposition, groups of seismograms were source-normalized through simultaneous deconvolution to estimate the near-receiver impulse response and thus detect major discontinuities beneath each seismic station. Stations within the Lac de Gras kimberlite field display an unusually strong negative impulse on the radial component within the NW quadrant and two moderate impulses on the transverse component. Forward modeling of these impulses suggests a mantle layer dipping at 22° to the southeast with a mildly anisotropic (2%) upper discontinuity at 120-135 km depth and another mildly anisotropic (2%) discontinuity at about 170 km depth. Superimposed on these layers is another, stronger anisotropic (4%) layer between 110 and 180 km depths that dips to the west. Stations outside of the Lac de Gras field, but within the southeastern Slave craton, display more numerous, but weaker, impulses. The most prominent of these occurs at about 150 km depth on the transverse component and has opposite polarity to that observed farther north. The prominent negative impulse observed on the radial component is interpreted to arise from structural-preferred orientation in the form of a stockwork of wehrlite dykes beneath the Lac de Gras field. Interpretation of the other layers in the context of known surface geology as well as xenolith petrology and garnet geochemistry of diamondiferous kimberlites favors previous suggestions that they represent 4000-2900 Ma depleted harzburgite and eclogite layers underthrust from the northwest at 2600 or 1880 Ma. The layer beneath the SE Slave craton has a similar, but distinct, tectonic history of NW-verging underthrusting associated with the 2635-2615 Ma Defeat Suite of

  8. Reassessment of the geologic evolution of selected precambrian terranes in Brazil, based on SHRIMP U-Pb data, part 2: mineiro and Aracuai orogens and Southern Sao Francisco craton; Reavaliacao da evolucao geologica em terrenos pre-cambrianos brasileiros com base em novos dados U-Pb SHRIMP, parte 2: orogeno Aracuai, cinturao mineiro e craton Sao Francisco Meridional

    Silva, Luiz Carlos da; Pimentel, Marcio [Brasilia Univ., DF (Brazil). Inst. de Geociencias]. E-mail:; Leite, Carlos Augusto; Vieira, Valter Salino; Silva, Marcio Antonio da; Paes, Vinicius Jose de Castro; Cardoso Filho, Joao Moraes [Companhia de Pesquisas de Recursos Minerais (CPRM), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Armstrong, Richard [Australian National Univ., Canberra (Australia). Research School of Earth Sciences; Noce, Carlos Mauricio; Pedrosa-Soares, Antonio Carlos [Minas Gerais Univ., Belo Horizonte (Brazil). Inst. de Geociencias. Centro de Pesquisa Manuel Teixeira da Costa; Carneiro, Mauricio Antonio [Ouro Preto Univ., MG (Brazil). Dept. de Geologia


    This paper discusses new zircon SHRIMP (Sensitive High Resolution Ion Microprobe) U-Pb geochronological data for 19 key-exposures of several geological units exposed at the eastern border of the Southern Sao Francisco Craton and at the adjacent Proterozoic Mineiro and Aracuai orogens. Samples were collected along several E-W tran sects, aiming at tracing the precise limit of the Sao Francisco Craton Archean basement, as well as assessing the extension of the successive proterozoic orogenic collages. Due to the complex geologic history and/or high grade metamorphism which most of the rock units investigated have undergone, zircon morphology and the U-Pb analytical data exhibit very complex patterns. These are characterized by a combination of inheritance, partial resetting and new zircon growth during high-grade metamorphism. As a consequence, very careful and detailed analyses of cathodoluminescence imagery were required to allow distinction between inheritance, newly melt-precipitated zircon and partially reset zircons, as well as between the ages of magmatic and metamorphic events. In the southeastern border of the craton 5 units yielded Archean crystallization ages ranging from ca. 3000-2700 Ma, with poorly constrained metamorphic ages ranging from ca. 2850 to 550 Ma. The TTG gneissic complex exposed to the east and south of the Quadrilatero Ferrifero, formerly ascribed to the Archean basement, have crystallization ages from ca. 2210 Ma to 2050 Ma, and can now be interpreted as representing pre- to syn-collisional magmatic phases of the Mineiro Belt. Metamorphic ages of ca. 2100 Ma and 560 Ma are also well constrained in zircon populations from these gneisses. The crystallization age of ca 1740 Ma observed for an alkaline granite of the Borrachudos Suite (intrusive into the Archean basement east of the Southern Espinhaco Range) confirmed previous conventional U-Pb data for this Paleoproterozoic rift-related magmatism. One of the major basement inliers within the

  9. Spatial and Seasonal Variations of Heavy Metals in Wetland Soils of the Tidal Flats in the Yangtze Estuary, China:Environmental Implications

    HU Xue-Feng; DU Yan; FENG Jian-Wei; FANG Sheng-Qiong; GAO Xiao-Jiang; XU Shi-Yuan


    The environment of estuarine wetlands has been attracting worldwide attention.To study the spatial distribution of pollutants in the tidal flats of the Yangtze Estuary,Southeast China,the Eastern Tidal Flat of Chongming Island (EC) and the Jiuduansha Shoal (JS) of the estuary were selected as the study sites.At each of the two sites,a cross-transect from land to sea was established and topsoil and soil core samples in the cross-transect were collected spatially and seasonally to determine their contents of heavy metals (Cu,Zn,Pb,Cd,Cr,Ni,Mn,and Fe) and grain-size characteristics.The results showed that the heavy metal loads were commonly higher in the soils of nearshore high tidal fiats and had a tendency of decreasing from land to sea at both of the study sites.The contents of heavy metals in the soils of the high and medial tidal fiats were mostly higher in April and November but lower in July.Corresponding spatial and seasonal variations in grain size of the intertidal soils were also observed at the two study sites.The soils in the nearshore high tidal fiats were finer and gradually got coarser seawards; they were relatively finer in April and November but coarser in July.Furthermore,the contents of heavy metals in the intertidal soils of both the sites EC and JS were significantly positively correlated with the clay (< 2 μm) and 2-20 μm fractions,but negatively with the sand (> 63 μm) and 20-63 μm fractions,which suggested that the heavy metals in the intertidal soils were primarily combined with the fine particulate fraction (< 20 μm),especially clay,and hence the spatial and seasonal variations in heavy metals were actually caused by the change of the grain-size characteristics of the intertidal soils due to the different sedimentary environments in the estuary.The results of this study may also contribute to a better understanding of the soil formation and classification in the tidal fiats of the Yangtze Estuary.

  10. Analysis of aerosol effects on warm clouds over the Yangtze River Delta from multi-sensor satellite observations

    Liu, Yuqin; de Leeuw, Gerrit; Kerminen, Veli-Matti; Zhang, Jiahua; Zhou, Putian; Nie, Wei; Qi, Ximeng; Hong, Juan; Wang, Yonghong; Ding, Aijun; Guo, Huadong; Krüger, Olaf; Kulmala, Markku; Petäjä, Tuukka


    Aerosol effects on low warm clouds over the Yangtze River Delta (YRD, eastern China) are examined using co-located MODIS, CALIOP and CloudSat observations. By taking the vertical locations of aerosol and cloud layers into account, we use simultaneously observed aerosol and cloud data to investigate relationships between cloud properties and the amount of aerosol particles (using aerosol optical depth, AOD, as a proxy). Also, we investigate the impact of aerosol types on the variation of cloud properties with AOD. Finally, we explore how meteorological conditions affect these relationships using ERA-Interim reanalysis data. This study shows that the relation between cloud properties and AOD depends on the aerosol abundance, with a different behaviour for low and high AOD (i.e. AOD 0.35). This applies to cloud droplet effective radius (CDR) and cloud fraction (CF), but not to cloud optical thickness (COT) and cloud top pressure (CTP). COT is found to decrease when AOD increases, which may be due to radiative effects and retrieval artefacts caused by absorbing aerosol. Conversely, CTP tends to increase with elevated AOD, indicating that the aerosol is not always prone to expand the vertical extension. It also shows that the COT-CDR and CWP (cloud liquid water path)-CDR relationships are not unique, but affected by atmospheric aerosol loading. Furthermore, separation of cases with either polluted dust or smoke aerosol shows that aerosol-cloud interaction (ACI) is stronger for clouds mixed with smoke aerosol than for clouds mixed with dust, which is ascribed to the higher absorption efficiency of smoke than dust. The variation of cloud properties with AOD is analysed for various relative humidity and boundary layer thermodynamic and dynamic conditions, showing that high relative humidity favours larger cloud droplet particles and increases cloud formation, irrespective of vertical or horizontal level. Stable atmospheric conditions enhance cloud cover horizontally

  11. Source, transport and impacts of a heavy dust event in the Yangtze River Delta, China in 2011

    X. Fu


    Full Text Available During 1 to 6 May 2011, a dust event was observed in the Yangtze River Delta region (YRD. The highest PM10 concentration reached over 1000 μg m−3 and the visibility was below 3 km. In this study, the Community Multi-scale Air Quality modeling system (CMAQ5.0 coupled with an in-line windblown dust model was used to simulate the formation, spatial and temporal characteristics of this dust event, and analyze its impacts on deposition and photochemistry. The threshold friction velocity for loose smooth surface in the dust model was revised based on Chinese data to improve the model performance. The comparison between predictions and observations indicates the revised model can reproduce the transport and pollution of the event. The simulation results show that the dust event was affected by formation and transport of Mongolian cyclone and cold air. Totally about 695 kt dust particles (PM10 were emitted in Xinjiang Province and Mongolia during 28 to 30 April, the dust band swept northern, eastern China and then arrived in the YRD region on 1 May 2011. The transported dust particles increased the mean surface layer concentrations of PM10 in the YRD region by 372% during 1 to 6 May and the impacts weakened from north to south due to the removal of dust particles along the path. Accompanied by high PM concentration, the dry deposition, wet deposition and total deposition of PM10 in the YRD reached 184.7 kt, 172.6 kt and 357.32 kt, respectively. These deposited particles are very harmful because of their impacts on urban environment as well as air quality and human health when resuspending in the atmosphere. Due to the impacts of mineral dust on atmospheric photolysis, the concentrations of O3 and OH were reduced by 1.5% and 3.1% in the whole China, and by 9.4% and 12.1% in the YRD region, respectively. The work of this manuscript is meaningful for understanding the dust emissions in China as well as for the application of CMAQ in Asia. It is also

  12. Thermal modeling and geomorphology of the south border of the Sao Francisco Craton: thermochronology by fission tracks in apatites;Modelagem termica e geomorfologia da borda sul do Craton do Sao Francisco: termocronologia por tracos de fissao em apatita

    Hackspacher, Peter Christian [UNESP, Rio Claro, SP (Brazil). Inst. de Geociencias e Ciencias Exatas; Godoy, Daniel Francoso de; Franco, Ana Olivia Barufi [UNESP, Rio Claro, SP (Brazil). Pos-Graduacao em Geologia Regional; Ribeiro, Luiz Felipe Brandini [NUCLEARGEO, Rio Claro, SP (Brazil); Hadler Neto, Julio Cesar [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (IFGW/UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica Gleb Wataghin


    Recent developments in Fission Track thermochronology associated to mesozoic-cenozoic erosion and tectonic presented trough thematic maps (isotemperature), permit to model the landscape evolution in the southern border of the Sao Francisco craton, southeastern Brazil. Paleotemperature, obtained by fission track analysis in apatite, is closely related to geomorphologic interpretations. The area suffered a complex imprint of endogenous and exogenous processes resulting diversified and differentiated relieves. The landscape is strongly controlled by exhumation between Jurassic and Lower Cretaceous, uplift with tectonic denudation related to crustal heating at the Upper Cretaceous and reactivation of faults until the Miocene. This scenario is a result of reactivations of different brittle structures that accommodate the deformation in the southern border of the Sao Francisco craton. The landscape reflects denudations of up to 3 km with preserved remains of erosive surfaces in the topographical tops and chronocorrelates deposits in the basins of the region. (author)

  13. Stratigraphic architecture of the Neoproterozoic glacial rocks in the "Xiang-Qian-Gui" region of the central Yangtze Block, South China

    ZHANG Qirui; CHU Xuelei; Heinrich BAHLBURG; FENG Lianjun; Nicole DOBRZINSKI; ZHANG Tonggang


    The Yangtze Block in South China is one of the important regions where Neoproterozoic glacial rocks are well developed and studied. However, the classification and correlation of the Neoproterozoic glacial sequences in the central Yangtze Block still remain controversial among Chinese geologists. The original Sinian sections around the Yangtze Gorges Region became an official standard for classification and correlation since the 1950s. Subsequent regional geologic studies, however, resulted in different classification and correlation, because of its incompleteness. We select one of the complete sections in the bordering areas of Xiang (Hunan), Qian (Guizhou) and Gui (Guangxi), as a standard of classification and correlation. The temporal and spatial distribution, i.e. the stratigraphic architecture, of the glacial rocks in the central Yangtze Block is suggested. Our results indicate that the glacial sequence on the Yangtze Block was deposited during the Nantuo Ice-age, the Datangpo Interglacial-age and Jiangkou Ice-age, in descending order.

  14. Relation of Isotope Geochemical Steep Zones with Geophysical Fields and Tectonics in the Junction Area of the Cathaysian, Yangtze and Indochina Plates


    Through lead isotope geochemical mapping in the Yunnan-Guizhou area geochemical steep zones (GSZ) have been established, which clearly reveal the junction relationship of the Cathaysian, Yangtze and Indo-China plates. GSZ are closey related to gravity Moho gradient zones and lithospheric thickness. The GSZ between the Yangtze and Cathaysian plates is consistent with the Shizong-Mile tectonic belt, where island arc basalts are well developed. The Yangtze-Indo-China GSZ is parallel to the Jingdong-Mojiang volcanic belt in rift-island arc environments. The evidence of geology, geophysics and geochemistry all indicates that Cathaysia was subducted towards the Yangtze plate and that the Yangtze plate was underthrust beneath the Indo-China, which took place from the Early Carboniferous to the Early Triassic.

  15. Study on Nutrient Limitation of Phytoplankton in the Field Experiment of the Yangtze River Estuary in Summer


    From July 23rd to August 15th, 2001, a field cultivation experiment was carried out to determine the limitation factors of phytoplankton in the Yangtze River estuary and the adjacent areas. The results indicated that the potential limiting nutrient was phosphorus in the Yangtze River diluted water area, nitrogen in the offshore of the Yangtze River estuary and the conversion of phosphorus to nitrogen in the middle area. Iron and silicon were not the potential limiting factors. If there were some kinds of limiting factors in the water, the growth of phytoplankton would be limited obviously. In case of disappearance of the limiting factor, the phytoplankton would grow fast. When the Noctiluca scintiuans bloom occurred, the phytoplankton biomass level was very low in a short time due to the grazing pressure. When the grazing pressure disappeared, the phytoplankton would grow quickly in abundant nutrients condition.

  16. Water quality model with multiform of N/P transport and transformation in the Yangtze River Estuary

    王彪; 卢士强; 林卫青; 杨漪帆; 王道增


    As the Yangtze River Estuary and adjacent sea have been classified as a problem area with regard to eutrophication, it is important to explore the spatial and temporal variations of nitrogen and phosphorus (N/P) nutrients in this area. Based on danish hydraulic institute (DHI)’s open platform Ecolab, a hydrodynamic and water quality model was developed for the Yangtze River Estuary, in which the transport and transformation processes of different forms of N/P nutrients were considered. Validations against measured data show that the model is overall reliable. Preliminary application of the model suggests that the model can simulate the characteristics of high phosphorus concentration area in the Yangtze River Estuary, and the high concentration area is closely related to the resuspension process of particulate phosphorus.

  17. Peaceful Nuclear Explosion Seismogram Analysis: Constraining the Velocity Structure of Eastern Siberia

    Burkhard, K. M.; Eriksen, Z. T.; Mackey, K. G.


    Peaceful Nuclear Explosions (PNEs), detonated by the former Soviet Union, are seismologically significant because they are so-called Ground Truth events, where the depth and geographic coordinates of energy release (detonation) are precisely known. Seismograms from about 20 regional stations for seven PNEs in eastern Siberia (Neva-1, Neva 2-1 and Neva 2-2 in Yakutia, and Rift-3, Batholith-1, Meteorite-5 and Kraton-3 in the Baikal region) were digitized from analog records, allowing modern processing techniques to be applied to the waveforms. Pn (P1 & P2), P*, Pg, Sn, Sg, and eU (unknown) phases were identified to investigate seismic velocities. Regional average velocities, dominated by paths within the Siberian Craton, are: Pn = 8.28 km/s, P* = 7.32 km/s, Pg = 6.20 km/s, Sn = 4.67 km/s, and Sg = 3.55 km/s. Travel paths located within the Siberian Craton are consistent with fast Pn and Sn travel-time residuals observed near the Laptev Sea. Additional PNE seismograms are being digitized to further differentiate path effects and to understand regional phase identification and velocities.

  18. Paleozoic terranes of eastern Australia and the drift history of Gondwana

    McElhinny, Michael W.; Powell, Chris McA.; Pisarevsky, Sergei A.


    Critical assessment of Paleozoic paleomagnetic results from Australia shows that paleopoles from locations on the main craton and in the various terranes of the Tasman Fold Belt of eastern Australia follow the same path since 400 Ma for the Lachlan and Thomson superterranes, but not until 250 Ma or younger for the New England superterrane. Most of the paleopoles from the Tasman Fold Belt are derived from the Lolworth-Ravenswood terrane of the Thomson superterrane and the Molong-Monaro terrane of the Lachlan superterrane. Consideration of the paleomagnetic data and geological constraints suggests that these terranes were amalgamated with cratonic Australia by the late Early Devonian. The Lolworth-Ravenswood terrane is interpreted to have undergone a 90° clockwise rotation between 425 and 380 Ma. Although the Tamworth terrane of the western New England superterrane is thought to have amalgamated with the Lachlan superterrane by the Late Carboniferous, geological syntheses suggest that movements between these regions may have persisted until the Middle Triassic. This view is supported by the available paleomagnetic data. With these constraints, an apparent polar wander path for Gondwana during the Paleozoic has been constructed after review of the Gondwana paleomagnetic data. The drift history of Gondwana with respect to Laurentia and Baltica during the Paleozoic is shown in a series of paleogeographic maps.

  19. [Shifting path of industrial pollution gravity centers and its driving mechanism in Pan-Yangtze River Delta].

    Zhao, Hai-Xia; Jiang, Xiao-Wei; Cui, Jian-Xin


    Shifting path of industrial pollution gravity centers is the response of environmental special formation during the industry transfer process, in order to prove the responding of industrial pollution gravity centers to industry transfer in economically developed areas, this paper calculates the gravity centers of industrial wastewater, gas and solid patterns and reveals the shifting path and its driving mechanism, using the data of industrial pollution in the Pan-Yangtze River Delta from 2000 to 2010. The results show that the gravity center of the industrial waste in Pan-Yangtze River Delta shifts for sure in the last 10 years, and gravity center of solid waste shifts the maximum distance within the three wastes, which was 180.18 km, and shifting distances for waste gas and waste water were 109.51 km and 85.92 km respectively. Moreover, the gravity center of the industrial waste in Pan-Yangtze River Delta shifts westwards, and gravity centers of waste water, gas and solid shift for 0.40 degrees, 0.17 degrees and 0.03 degrees respectively. The shifting of industrial pollution gravity centers is driven by many factors. The rapid development of the heavy industry in Anhui and Jiangxi provinces results in the westward shifting of the pollutions. The optimization and adjustment of industrial structures in Yangtze River Delta region benefit to alleviating industrial pollution, and high-polluting industries shifted to Anhui and Jiangxi provinces promotes pollution gravity center shifting to west. While the development of massive clean enterprise, strong environmental management efforts and better environmental monitoring system slow the shifting trend of industrial pollution to the east in Yangtze River Delta. The study of industrial pollution gravity shift and its driving mechanism provides a new angle of view to analyze the relationship between economic development and environmental pollution, and also provides academic basis for synthetical management and control of

  20. Magnetite with anomalously high Cr2O3 as a fingerprint to trace upper Yangtze sediments to the sea

    Yue, Wei; Liu, James T.; Zhang, Dan; Wang, Zhanghua; Zhao, Baocheng; Chen, Zhongyuan; Chen, Jing


    This paper examines geochemical properties of detrital magnetite, in order to link sediments in a Plio-Quaternary core taken in the delta area to their sources in the Yangtze River basin. A total of 40 sediment samples were collected from both the main river channel/tributaries and a sediment core from the Yangtze delta. The geochemical compositions of detrital magnetite in these sediments were analyzed by electron microprobe, including FeO, TiO2, CoO, MgO, Cr2O3, MnO, ZnO, Al2O3 and V2O3. The results revealed that the detrital magnetite grains with anomalously high Cr2O3 occurred exclusively in the upper reaches of the Yangtze (upstream of the Three Gorges Dam), where the E'mei Basalt block is located. This type of magnetite could therefore be considered a unique sediment proxy of the upper river basin to help identify sediment source in the delta area. Our analysis found such magnetite grains with high Cr2O3 occurring throughout the core depth above 186.5 m, in contrast to the extremely low Cr2O3 below this depth. The boundary between high and low Cr2O3 in magnetite grains of the core sediments was dated by paleomagnetism at ca. ~ 1.2-1.0 Ma, signifying that the linkage between the Yangtze River course and the sea was before ~ 1.2-1.0 Ma. This demonstrates that the sediment provenance of the Yangtze delta has experienced a change from local to distal Yangtze River, which took place with the uplift of the Tibetan plateau and coastal subsidence during the Plio-Quaternary.

  1. Deep crustal structures of eastern China and adjacent seas revealed by magnetic data


    Through reduction to the North Pole and upward continuation of the total field magnetic anomalies, we analyze magnetic patterns and spatial distributions of different tectonic blocks and crustal faults in eastern China and adjacent seas. Depths to the Curie isotherms are further estimated from radially averaged amplitude spectra of magnetic data reduced to the pole. Data reductions effectively enhance boundaries of regional tectonic belts, such as the Dabie ultra-high metamorphic belt, the Tanlu Fault, and the Diaoyudao Uplift. Curie depths are estimated at between 19.6 and 48.9 km, with a mean of 31.7 km. The Subei Basin and the south Yellow Sea Basin in the lower Yangtze block show relatively deep Curie isotherms, up to about 35 km in depth, whereas in the surrounding areas Curie depths are averaged at about 25 km. This implies that the lower Yangtze Block has experienced a unique tectonic evolution and/or has unique basement lithology and structures. From a regional perspective, sedimentary basins, such as the Subei Basin, the south Yellow Sea Basin, and the East China Sea Basin, normally show deeper Curie isotherms than surrounding uplifts such as the Diaoyudao Uplift and the Zhemin Uplifts. Curie isotherms also upwell significantly in volcanically active areas such as the Ryukyu Arc and the Cheju Island, confirming strong magmatic and geothermal activities at depth.

  2. Vegetation Dynamics and Associated Driving Forces in Eastern China during 1999–2008

    Jian Peng


    Full Text Available Vegetation is one of the most important components of the terrestrial ecosystem and, thus, monitoring the spatial and temporal dynamics of vegetation has become the key to exploring the basic process of the terrestrial ecosystem. Vegetation change studies have focused on the relationship between climatic factors and vegetation dynamics. However, correlations among the climatic factors always disturb the results. In addition, the impact of anthropogenic activities on vegetation dynamics was indeterminate. Here, vegetation dynamics in 14 provinces in Eastern China over a 10-year period was quantified to determine the driving mechanisms relating to climate and anthropogenic factors using partial correlation analysis. The results showed that from 1999 to 2008, the vegetation density increased in the whole, with spatial variations. The vegetation improvement was concentrated in the Yangtze River Delta, with the vegetation degradation concentrated in the other developed areas, such as Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei Region and the Pearl River Delta. The annual NDVI changes were mainly driven by temperature in Northeast China and the Pearl River Delta, and by precipitation in the Bohai Rim; while in the Yangtze River Delta, the driving forces of temperature and precipitation almost equaled each other.  Furthermore, the impact of anthropogenic activities on vegetation dynamics had accumulative effects in the time series, and had a phase effect on the vegetation change trend.

  3. Potential control of climatic changes on flood events in the Yangtze Delta during 1100-2002



    Wide collection on the historic records of the climatic changes and flood events is performed in the Yangtze Delta. Man-Kendall (MK) method is applied to explore the changing trends of the time series of the flood discharge and the maximum high summer temperature. The research results indicate that the flood magnitudes increased during the transition from the medieval warm interval into the early Little Ice Age. Fluctuating climate changes of the Little Ice Age characterized by arid climate events followed by the humid and cold climate conditions give rise to the frequent flood hazards. Low-lying terrain made the study region prone to the flood hazards, storm fide and typhoon. MK analysis reveals that the jumping point of the time series of the flood discharge changes occurred in the mid-1960s, that of the maximum summer temperature changes in the mid-1990s, andthe exact jump point in 1993. The flood discharge changes are on negative trend before the 1990s, they are on positive tendency after the 1990s; the maximum high summer temperature changes are on negative trend before the 1990s and on positive tendency after the 1990s. These results indicate that the trend of flood discharge matches that of the maximum high summer temperature in the Yangtze Delta. The oecarrence probability of the maximum high summer temperature will be increasing under the climatic wanning scenario and which will in turn increase the oecarrence probability of the flood events. More active solar action epochs and the higher sea surface temperature index (SST index) ofthe south Pacific Ocean area lying between 4°N-4°S and 150°W-90°W correspond to increased annual precipitation, flood discharge and oecarrence frequency of floods in the Yangtze Delta. This is partly beeanse the intensified solar activities and the higher SST index give rise to accelerated hydrological circulation from ocean surface to the continent, resulting in increased precipitation on the continent.

  4. Genetic Diversity of Daphnia pulex in the Middle and Lower Reaches of the Yangtze River.

    Wenping Wang

    Full Text Available Increased human activities and environmental changes may lead to genetic diversity variations of Cladocerans in water. Daphnia pulex are distributed throughout the world and often regarded as a model organism. The 16S rDNA, cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI, and 18S genes were used as molecular marks. The genetic diversity and phylogeny of D. pulex obtained from 10 water bodies in the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River were studied. For 16S rDNA, COI gene, and 18S gene, the A+T content (65.4%, 58.4%, and 54.6% was significantly higher than the G+C content (34.6%, 41.6% and 45.4%. This result was consistent with higher A and T contents among invertebrates. Based on the genetic distances of 16S rDNA and COI genes, the genetic differences of D. pulex from 10 water bodies located in the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River in China was minimal (0%-0.8% for 16S rDNA and 0%-1.5% for COI gene. However, D. pulex evolved into two branches in the phylogenetic trees, which coincided with its geographical distribution. Compared with D. pulex from other countries, the average genetic distance of D. pulex obtained from 10 water bodies in the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River reached 9.1%-10.5%, thereby indicating that D. pulex may have evolved into different subspecies.

  5. Sm-Nd age dating of high- pressure granulites and amphi- bolite from Sanggan area, North China craton


    The high pressure (HP) metamorphic age has been dated to HP rocks from the Sanggan area, North China craton. We have got garnet+whole rock isochron ages of (1 842±38) Ma for HP granulite, and (1 856 ± 26) Ma for HP amphibolite. The Sm-Nd whole rock isochron of HP granulites give out an age of (1 870±150) Ma with Nd deplet-ed mantle model age of (2 402-2 482) Ma. Considering the Nd isotope homogenization during the peak metamorphism of the HP granulite, Sm-Nd closure temperature and the retention of Nd isotopic memory in garnets partially broken down during decompression, all these isochron ages are thought to be HP metamorphic age. Furthermore, we pro-posed that the HP metamorphism took place at the end of Paleoproterozoic during the large-scale collision and assem-bly of the North China craton.

  6. Crustal uplift of the Precambrian cratons due to metamorphism in crustal rocks under infiltration of mantle fluids

    Artyushkov, Eugene; Chekhovich, Peter; Korikovsky, Sergey; Massonne, Hans-Joachim


    Precambrian cratons cover about 70% of the total area of the continents. During the last several million years cratonic areas underwent rapid uplift, from 100-200 m in East Europe to 1000-1500 m Southern Africa. Shortening of the Precambrian crust terminated half a billion years ago or earlier and this popular mechanism cannot be applied to its recent uplift. Large thickness of cratonic mantle lithosphere, 100-200 km in most regions, together with its low density precludes delamination of this layer and magmatic underplating as possible causes of recent uplift. It cannot be precluded that in some cratonic regions recent uplift occurred due to delamination of the lower part of mantle lithosphere with the density increased by metasomatism. Even a small uplift of ≥ 100-200 m would require delamination of a thick layer of mantle lithosphere. As a result a temperature drop of > 200 C would arise at the base of the lithosphere producing a shear wave velocities drop of > 2%. According to the seismic tomography data such a drop in VS is observed only in some regions with the Precambrian lithosphere, e.g., in Northeastern Africa. Spatial distribution of the Precambrian cratons is quite different from that predicted by the main models of dynamic topography in the mantle. Moreover, many uplifted blocks are bounded by steep slopes hundreds of meters to one kilometer high and only tens of kilometers wide. Such slopes could not have been formed by bending of thick cratonic lithosphere under the forces acting from below. Their recent formation indicates rock expansion within the crust at shallow depth comparable with the slope width. Rocks formed at the pressure P ˜ 0.5-1.0 GPa are widespread on the Precambrian cratons. This indicates that during their lifetime a layer of rocks ˜ 15-30 km thick has been removed from the crustal surface by denudation. As a result rocks which were initially located in the lower crust emerged to the middle or upper crust. Due to metamorphic

  7. Analysis of the influence of Taihu Lake and the urban heat islands on the local circulation in the Yangtze Delta

    李维亮; 刘洪利; 周秀骥; 秦瑜


    A fine-mesh regional meteorological model that suits the Yangtze Delta region was developed. This model was used to simulate some micro weathers, such as the land and sea breezes, land and lake breezes and urban heat island effect, in the Yangtze Delta successfully. The model was also used to study the characteristics and the formation mechanism of surface shear line in the region. It is indicated that the interaction between the sea breeze and the lake breeze is the main factor for the formation and maintenance of the surface shear line.

  8. The characteristics of Quaternary activity of faults in the sea area near the Yangtze River mouth

    章振铨; 火恩杰; 刘昌森; 王锋


    By shallow seismic prospecting, it is showed that the faults in the sea area near the Yangtze River mouth are mainly the NE and NW-trending faults. The main activity time of fault is Pliocene to Early Pleistocene, and the latest activity is up to Middle Pleistocene. The maximum of fault is generally several tens meters with the throw decreased upward. The dislocation near the bottom of Middle Pleistocene is 12~13 m. The average vertical displacement rate is on a level of 10-3 mm/a.


    Yaohua DONG; Ruilan YIN


    Based on hydrographs of "81.7" flood and topographies of 1980 and 1993, a 1-D mathematical model of flood is developed to study the effects of the Gezhouba Project on flood propagation along the Yichang-Jianli river reaches in the Yangtze River. Calculations and analysis show that, after 13 years' operation of the Gezhouba Project, the flood peak stages have been lowered, the flood curves of stage-discharge relationship have been moved, however, the effects on the flood discharges and storages can be neglected relatively.

  10. The Trend and Fluctuation of Historical Floods in the Middle Reaches of the Yangtze River

    Wu Yi-jin; William A. Gough; Jiang Tong; Wang Xue-lei; Jin Wei-bin


    The middle reaches of the Yangtze River are the worst flood area of the whole basin. To study the variation regulation of the floods in this area over a long historical period assure improvement in predictions of floods in the region. The trend of flood occurred frequency has close relationship with human activities near the river. By using statistics analysis, the fluctuations for the time series of floods since 1525 are studied. The results show that the main cycle of flood variation can be identified obviously the period of 2, 8 and 40 years with exceeding the level of confidence 0.03.

  11. The Trend and Fluctuation of Historical Floods in the Middle Reaches of the Yangtze River

    Wu; Yi-jin; William; A.Gough; 等


    The middle reaches of the Yangtze River are the worst flood area of the whole basin. To study the variation regulation of the floods in this area over a long historical period assure improvment in predictions of floods in the region.The trend of flood occurred frequency has close relationship with human activities near the river. By using statistics analysis, the fluctuations for the time series of floods since 1525 are studied. The results show that the main cycle of flood variation can be identified obviously the period of 2,8 and 40 years with exceeding the level of confidance 0.03.

  12. Construction technology on pile foundation of No. 6 main pier in Dashengguan Yangtze Bridge

    Hongbin YU; Zeping LIAN


    Based on pile foundation construction of No. 6 main pier, deep mudstone geological foundation and deep-water construction in Nanjing-Dashengguan Yangtze Bridge, the method of super-large-diameter bored pile in deep water is studied. The spread drill, application of PHP mud, and choice of machine are solved by adopting two machines of KTY4000 and KPG300A. Besides, the airlift reversing circulation is selected in slag discharge. The results show that this method can ensure successfully the construction of pier foundation to satisfy the demands of codes.

  13. Yangtze delta subsidence%长江三角洲之沉降



    The Yangtze delta's fluvial channel system and overall depocenter configuration have been controlled largely by movement of active subsurface structures during most of the Quaternary.Data from numerous borings reveal marked variations in lithic distribution and thickness of Pleistocene and Holocene sequences across the delta plain. These stratigraphic difference records shift in the Yangtze's depocenter through time and area in large part a direct response to the interaction of land motion with sea level variations and fluvial and onceanographic processes. Delta plain subsidence has progressed from north to south since early Quaternary time, and this has induced a southward shift of the Yangtze river channel from the early Pleistocene to the present.   During much of Quaternary time, the Yangtze river flowed across the northern part of the delta's plain. This is primarily the results of two factors:differential subsidence of the northern sector from the upper Tertiary to the late Pleistocene;and a “topographic barrier effect”produced by highlands which blocked the Yangtze from flowing to and across the southern sector of the plain. Thus,fluvial Quaternary deposits in the southern delta plain. Therefore, the strata configuration,texture and composition can serve to distinguish Yangtze river deposits concentrated in the north from the more proximal fluvial channel sediments in the south. Our investigation suggests that tectonically induced channel migration and southward shift of the Yangtze deltaic depocenter are continuing at present. These ongoing depositional changes related to differential subsidence have potentially serious ramifications for this low-lying, densely populated delta plain area. Hence, accurate measurements of land subsidence are needed throughout the plain, and particularly in the lower reaches of the Yangtze.   The Holocene Yangtze depocenter is located on the outer Chongming island, where more than 60m of sediment sequences are

  14. Fossil Association from the Lower Cambrian Yanjiahe Formation in the Yangtze Gorges Area, Hubei, South China

    GUO Junfeng; Tsuyoshi KOMIYA; LI Yong; HAN Jian; ZHANG Xingliang; ZHANG Zhifei; OU Qiang; LIU Jianni; SHU Degan; Shigenori MARUYAMA


    Apart from previously reported Small Shelly Fossils (SSFs), a macroscopic fossil assemblage, comprising abundant algae, cone-shaped tubular fossil forms, and probable impressions of a megascopic metazoan, comes from the Lower Cambrian Yanjiahe Formation in the Yangtze Gorges area of western Hubei Province, south China. The visible fossils are preserved in thin-laminated siltstone or muddy siltstone intercalated between 8-15 mm-thick carbonate deposits, probably representing sedimentary settings of a constrained local depression in the shallow water carbonate platform during the Early Cambrian Meishucunian Stage. The macroscopic fossil association provides significant fossil evidence about the evolution of life from the late Precambrian to the 'Cambrian explosion' interval.

  15. Organic carbon isotopes of the Sinian and Early Cambrian black shales on Yangtze Platform, China

    李任伟; 卢家烂; 张淑坤; 雷加锦


    Organic matter of the Sinian and early Cambrian black shales on the Yangtze Platform belongs to the light carbon group of isotopes with the δ13C values from - 27 % to -35 % , which are lower than those of the contemporaneously deposited carbonates and phosphorites. A carbon isotope-stratified paleooceanographic model caused by upwelling is proposed, which can be used not only to interpret the characteristics of organic carbon isotopic compositions of the black shales, but also to interpret the paleogeographic difference in the organic carbon isotope compositions of various types of sedimentary rocks.

  16. Three evolutionary stages of the collision orogenic deformation in the Middle Yangtze Region


    A discussion of collision orogenic deformation has been made for the Middle Yangtze Region. Based on its deformation assemblage orders, three developing stages are classified successively as compression thrust uplift, strike-slip escape rheology and tension extension inversion. The collision orogenesis of the studied region has been divided into three developing periods of initial, chief and late orogeny. Based on the data from Wugong Mts., Jiuling Mts. and Xuefeng Mts.,for each stage, its variation of stress and strain axes, the conversion of joint fractures and their relative tectonic evolution are described, models are plotted and corresponding explanations are made for the rock chronology dating value in the same tectonic period.

  17. Eastern Pacific Ocean Conference

    The promotion of interaction among investigators of all oceanographic disciplines studying the eastern Pacific Ocean was the goal of the 1990 Eastern Pacific Ocean Conference (EPOC), held October 17-19 on the snow-covered slopes of Mt. Hood, Oreg. Thirty oceanographers representing all disciplines attended.Dick Barber, Duke University Marine Lab, Beaufort, N.C., chaired a session on the eastern equatorial Pacific Ocean, emphasizing issues related to biological activity. Steve Ramp of the Naval Postgraduate School in Montery, Calif., chaired a session on recent results from northern and central California experiments. On October 19, following an early morning earthquake, a business meeting and discussions regarding a collaboration in future experiments were held.

  18. The paleomagnetism and geological significance of Meso- proterozoic dyke swarms in the central North China Craton

    HOU; Guiting


    [1]Ma Xinghua, Zhang Zhengkun, Paleomagnetism and its application to plate tectonics, in The Basic Problems of Plate Tectonics (in Chinese), Beijing: Seismology Press, 1985, 119-142.[2]Zhang Wenzhi, Li Pu, The paleomagnetic characteristics of Sub-Sinian Erathem in Jixian of China, Bulletin of the Chinese Academy of Geological Science, Branch Bulletin of Geological Institute of Tianjin, 1980, 1(1): 111[3]Halls, H. C., Paleomagnetism, structure and longitudinal correlation of middle Precambrian dykes from northwestern Ontario and Minnesota, Can. J. Earth Sci., 1985, 23: 142.[4]Qian Xianglin, Chen Yaping, Late Precambrian mafic swarms of the north China Craton, in Mafic Dyke Swarms, Geological Association of Canada (eds. Halls, H. C., Fahrig, W. F.), 1987, Special Paper, 34: 385.[5]Chen Yaping, Qian Xianglin, The paleomagnetism study of Late Precambrian mafic dyke swarms in Lüliang inlier of Shanxi, Acta Scientiarum Naturalium Universitatis Pekinensis (in Chinese), 1987, 2: 87.[6]Ernst, R. E., Head, J. W., Parfitt, E. et al, Giant radiating dyke swarms on Earth and Venus, Earth-Science Reviews, 1995, 4: 229[7]Radhakrishns, T., Joseph. M., Proterozoic palaeomagnetism of the mafic dyke swarms is the high-grade region of southern India, Precambrian Research, 1996, 76: 31.[8]Li Jianghai, Qian Xianglin, Zhai Mingguo, The tectonic classification of granulite facies of North China and its Early Precambrian tectonic evolution, Scientia Geologica Sinica (in Chinese), 1997, 32: 254.[9]Hou Guiting, Zhang Chen, Qian Xianglin, The formation mechanism and tectonic stress field of Mesoproterozoic mafic dyke swarms in the North China Craton, Geological Review (in Chinese), 1998, 44(3): 309.[10]Li Jianghai, He Wenyuan, Qian Xianglin, Genetic mechanism and tectonic setting of Proterozoic mafic dyke swarm: its implication for paleoplate reconstruction, Geological Journal of China University (in Chinese), 1997, 3(3): 272.[11]Hou Guiting, Mu

  19. The Shangzhuang Fe-Ti oxide-bearing layered mafic intrusion, northeast of Beijing (North China): Implications for the mantle source of the giant Late Mesozoic magmatic event in the North China Craton

    Liu, Ping-Ping; Zhou, Mei-Fu; Yan, Dan-Ping; Zhao, Guo-Chun; Su, Shang-Guo; Wang, Xiao-Lin


    The Early Cretaceous Shangzhuang Fe-Ti oxide-bearing layered mafic intrusion in the Yanshan Belt northeast of Beijing is coeval with the giant Late Mesozoic igneous province in the eastern part of the North China Craton (NCC). This magmatic event was associated with lithospheric thinning and thus the igneous rocks have been used to characterize the nature of the Mesozoic mantle beneath the NCC. The Shangzhuang mafic pluton intruded a large granodioritic complex and crystallized at ~ 850-872°C at a depth of 13-14 km. It is composed, from the base upward, of troctolite, Fe-Ti oxide-bearing gabbronorite and gabbro. Rocks from this intrusion have low initial 87Sr/86Sr ratios (0.7053-0.7058), negative initial εNd values (- 9.4 to - 10.7), highly differentiated LREE and nearly flat HREE patterns indicative of an EMI-like mantle source unaffected by upper crustal contamination. The occurrence of Fe-Ti oxide ore layers, magnetite-ilmenite exsolution lamellae in hornblende and high TiO2 contents of the silicate rocks indicate that they formed from Fe- and Ti-rich ferrobasaltic magmas, which may have been generated by addition of magmas from a deeper mantle source. The presence of orthopyroxene, high-Mg ilmenite (up to 8.5 wt %), hornblende, biotite and high oxygen fugacities calculated from coexisting titanomagnetite-ilmenite pairs can be explained by derivation from an enriched EMI-type mantle modified by fluids from a subducted slab and mixed with asthenospheric or deeper-mantle materials in an extensional setting. Exposure of the complex occurred during large-scale uplift (at least 13 km) and exhumation of the Yanshan orogenic belt in the Early Cretaceous. Chemical metasomatism triggered by water and enhanced by heat from a deep magma source may have played an important role in removing the ancient cratonic root, generating partial melting of the lithospheric mantle and producing coeval magmatic activity in the Mesozoic eastern NCC.

  20. The new occurrence of Marinoan cap carbonate in Brazil: The expansion of snowball Earth events to the southwesternmost Amazon Craton

    Gaia, Valber do Carmo de Souza; Nogueira, Afonso César Rodrigues; Domingos, Fábio Henrique Garcia; Sans-Jofre, Pierre; Bandeira, José Cavalcante da Silva; Oliveira, José Guilherme Ferreira de; Sial, Alcides Nóbrega


    Carbonate deposits exposed in the border of the Pimenta Bueno and Colorado grabens, western part of Parecis Basin, southwestern Amazon Craton, Brazil, have been previously considered as Paleozoic record. These deposits lying unconformably on Mesoproterozoic crystalline rocks, the basement of the grabens, and consist predominantly by pinkish dolomite overlying glacial diamictites, with average negative values of δ13C of -3,10‰VPDB. The contact between the dolostone and diamictites is sharp and deformed similarly with others Neoproterozoic cap carbonates occurrences in the Amazon Craton, also related to the Marinoan Glaciation (635 Ma). This new occurrence of Marinoan cap carbonate is composed by two facies associations. Facies Association 1 consists of pinkish peloidal dolostone with even parallel and quasi-planar laminations, wavy and megarriple bedding, macropeloid lenses associated with low-angle truncations, interpreted as fairwhether- and storm-influenced shallow platform deposits. Facies association 2 consists in dolostone rhythmically interbedded with shale underlaid by 5 m-thick laminated siltstones, interpreted as moderately deep platform deposits. This retrogradational succession is overlaid in angular unconformity by Early Paleozoic diamictites and locally by Mesozoic volcanic rocks. This cap carbonate precedes the Paleozoic deposits of Parecis Basin and represents a post-glacial event linked to the Marinoan glaciation, extending to the southwesternmost Amazon Craton the phenomena of the Snowball Earth hypothesis.

  1. Emplacement and deformation of the A-type Madeira granite (Amazonian Craton, Brazil)

    Siachoque, Astrid; Salazar, Carlos Alejandro; Trindade, Ricardo


    The Madeira granite is one of the Paleoproterozoic (1.82 Ga) A-type granite intrusions in the Amazonian Craton. It is elongated in the NE-SW direction and is composed of four facies. Classical structural techniques and the anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility (AMS) method were applied to the study of its internal fabric. Magnetic susceptibility measurements, thermomagnetic curves, remanent coercivity spectra, optical microscopy and SEM (scanning electron microscopy) analyses were carried out on the earlier and later facies of the Madeira granite: the rapakivi granite (RG) and the albite granite (AG) respectively. The last one is subdivided into the border albite granite (BAG) and the core albite granite (CAG) subfacies. AMS fabric pattern is controlled by pure magnetite in all facies, despite significant amounts of hematite in the BAG subfacies. Microstructural observations show that in almost all sites, magnetic fabric correlates to magmatic state fabrics that are defined by a weak NE-SW orientation of mafic and felsic silicates. However, strain mechanisms in both subfacies of AG also exhibit evidence for solid-state deformation at high to moderate temperatures. Pegmatite dyke, strike slip fault (SFA-B-C), hydrothermal vein, normal fault (F1-2) and joint (J) structures were observed and their orientation and kinematics is consistent with the magmatic and solid-state structures. Dykes, SFA-C and F1, are usually orientated along the N70°E/40°N plane, which is nearly parallel to the strike of AMS and magmatic foliations. In contrast, veins, SFB, F2 and some J are oriented perpendicular to the N70°E trend. Kinematic analysis in these structures shows evidence for a dextral sense of movement in the system in the brittle regime. The coherent structural pattern for the three facies of Madeira granite suggests that the different facies form a nested pluton. The coherence in orientation and kinematics from magmatic to high-temperature solid-state, and into the brittle

  2. A historical overview of Moroccan magmatic events along northwest edge of the West African Craton

    Ikenne, Moha; Souhassou, Mustapha; Arai, Shoji; Soulaimani, Abderrahmane


    Located along the northwestern edge of the West African Craton, Morocco exhibits a wide variety of magmatic events from Archean to Quaternary. The oldest magmatic rocks belong to the Archean Reguibat Shield outcrops in the Moroccan Sahara. Paleoproterozoic magmatism, known as the Anti-Atlas granitoids, is related to the Eburnean orogeny and initial cratonization of the WAC. Mesoproterozoic magmatism is represented by a small number of mafic dykes known henceforth as the Taghdout mafic volcanism. Massive Neoproterozoic magmatic activity, related to the Pan-African cycle, consists of rift-related Tonian magmatism associated with the Rodinia breakup, an Early Cryogenian convergent margin event (760-700 Ma), syn-collisional Bou-Azzer magmatism (680-640 Ma), followed by widespread Ediacaran magmatism (620-555 Ma). Each magmatic episode corresponded to a different geodynamic environment and produced different types of magma. Phanerozoic magmatism began with Early Cambrian basaltic (rift?) volcanism, which persisted during the Middle Cambrian, and into the Early Ordovician. This was succeeded by massive Late Devonian and Carboniferous, pre-Variscan tholeiitic and calc-alkaline (Central Morocco) volcanic flows in basins of the Moroccan Meseta. North of the Atlas Paleozoic Transform Zone, the Late Carboniferous Variscan event was accompanied by the emplacement of 330-300 Ma calc-alkaline granitoids in upper crustal shear zones. Post-Variscan alkaline magmatism was associated with the opening of the Permian basins. Mesozoic magmatism began with the huge volumes of magma emplaced around 200 Ma in the Central Atlantic Magmatic Province (CAMP) which was associated with the fragmentation of Pangea and the subsequent rifting of Central Atlantic. CAMP volcanism occurs in all structural domains of Morocco, from the Anti-Atlas to the External Rif domain with a peak activity around 199 Ma. A second Mesozoic magmatic event is represented by mafic lava flows and gabbroic intrusions in

  3. The thermal structure of cratonic lithosphere from global Rayleigh wave attenuation

    Dalton, Colleen A.; Bao, Xueyang; Ma, Zhitu


    The resolution of and level of agreement between different attenuation models have historically been limited by complexities associated with extracting attenuation from seismic-wave amplitudes, which are also affected by the source, the receiver, and propagation through velocity heterogeneities. For intermediate- and long-period Rayleigh waves, removing the amplitude signal due to focusing and defocusing effects is the greatest challenge. In this paper, three independent data sets of fundamental-mode Rayleigh wave amplitude are analyzed to investigate how three factors contribute to discrepancies between the attenuation models: uncertainties in the amplitude measurements themselves, variable path coverage, and the treatment of focusing effects. Regionalized pure-path and fully two-dimensional attenuation models are derived and compared. The approach for determining attenuation models from real data is guided by an analysis of amplitudes measured from synthetic spectral-element waveforms, for which the input Earth model is perfectly known. The results show that differences in the amplitude measurements introduce only very minor differences between the attenuation models; path coverage and the removal of focusing effects are more important. The pure-path attenuation values exhibit a clear dependence on tectonic region at shorter periods that disappears at long periods, in agreement with pure-path phase-velocity results obtained by inverting Rayleigh wave phase delays. The 2-D attenuation maps are highly correlated with each other to spherical-harmonic degree 16 and can resolve smaller features than the previous generation of global attenuation models. Anomalously low attenuation is nearly perfectly associated with continental cratons. Variations in lithospheric thickness are determined by forward modeling the global attenuation variations as a thermal boundary layer of variable thickness. Temperature profiles that satisfy the attenuation values systematically

  4. Synsedimentary deformation and the paleoseismic record in Marinoan cap carbonate of the southern Amazon Craton, Brazil

    Soares, Joelson Lima; Nogueira, Afonso César Rodrigues; Domingos, Fábio; Riccomini, Claudio


    Event Layers in Neoproterozoic cap carbonates of Brazil's southwestern Amazon Craton record post-Marinoan synsedimentary seismicity. The 35 m-thick cap carbonates overlie glaciogenic sediments related to the Marinoan glaciation (635 Ma) and are comprised of two units: the lower cap consists of dolomite (˜15 m thick) and the upper cap is limestone (˜25 m thick). The cap dolomite includes pinkish crystalline dolostone with even parallel lamination, stratiform stromatolites, eventual tube structures and megaripple bedded peloidal dolostone interpreted as shallow (euphotic) platform deposits. The cap limestone onlaps the cap dolomite and consists of red marl, gray to black bituminous lime mudstone, bituminous shale with abundant calcite crystal fans (pseudomorphs after aragonite) and even parallel lamination interpreted as moderately deep to deep platform deposits. Five successive events of synsedimentary deformation were recognized in the cap carbonates exposed at Mirassol d'Oeste and Tangará da Serra, in Central Brazil: Event 1 - large to small-scale load cast structures in the contact between dolostones and glaciogenic sediments; Event 2 - stromatolitic lamination truncated by tube structures; Event 3 - vertical to subvertical fractures and faults, and large-scale synclines and anticlines with chevron folds; Event 4 - conglomerate and breccia filling neptunian dykes limited by undeformed beds; and Event 5 - slump and sliding deposits found only in the upper part of the cap limestone. Event 1 was produced by hydroplastic dynamics likely induced by isostatic rebound during ice cap melting in the final stages of the Marinoan glaciation. Events 2 and 5 are autocyclic in nature, and related to depositional processes. Event 2 is linked to fluid and methane escape from organic degradation of microbial mats and domes that formed tubestones; Event 5 is associated to collapse and sliding/slumping in the platform and slope. The reliable orientations of synsedimentary faults

  5. Neoarchean tectonics: Insight from the Baijiafen ductile shear zone, eastern Anshan, Liaoning Province, NE China

    Li, Jing; Liu, Yong-Jiang; Jin, Wei; Li, Xian-Hua; Neubauer, Franz; Li, Wei-Min; Liang, Chen-Yue; Wen, Quan-Bo; Zhang, Yuan-Yuan


    The North China Craton is one of the major Archean to Paleoproterozoic cratons in the world and oldest craton in China, which preserves a large amount of ancient basement and abundant structures showing the early earth tectonics. The controversy over the Archean tectonic regimes has lasted several decades centering around horizontal and vertical tectonics, the two classical tectonic models for Archean times. Thus, more studies of the early crustal growth and tectonic evolution are requisite for better understanding geodynamic regimes in the early Precambrian. This study provides an example for revealing of Archean tectonics. The NWN-trending, ENE-dipping Baijiafen ductile shear zone is located in the eastern Anshan of the northeastern North China Craton and mainly comprises two types of gneisses, including the Chentaigou porphyritic granitic gneiss and the Baijiafen trondhjemitic gneiss. In this study, we have carried out a detailed study on the macrostructure, microstructure and fabric characteristics of the two main types of deformed gneisses within the shear zone. The ribbon structures formed by intensely elongated quartz grains are widespread in these gneisses. Well-developed mineral stretching lineations and asymmetric fabrics indicate an ESE-directed downward shearing. The quartz c-axis fabric patterns obtained by electron backscatter diffraction technique imply low to middle temperature non-coaxial deformation with active rhomb slip and basal slip. Deformation behaviors of minerals and quartz crystallographic preferred orientations demonstrate that the rocks underwent mylonitization at a temperature of 400-500 °C under greenschist facies metamorphic conditions. Dislocation creep is the main rock deformation mechanism within the shear zone. Finite strain measurement results suggest that the strain types of the shear zone are generally related to elongate-plane deformation, and the tectonites change from L-S- to LS-type across the shear zone. The strain

  6. Petrogenesis of granitoid rocks at the northern margin of the Eastern Ghats Mobile Belt and evidence of syn-collisional magmatism

    Samarendra Bhattacharya; Rajib Kar; S Moitra


    The northern margin of the Eastern Ghats Mobile belt against the Singhbhum craton exposes granitic rocks with enclaves from both the high-grade and low-grade belts. A shear cleavage developed in the boundary region is also observed in these granitoids. Field features and petrography indicate syn-tectonic emplacement of these granitoids. Petrology-mineralogy and geochemistry indicate that some of the granitoids are derived from the high-grade protoliths by dehydration melting. Others could have been derived from low-grade protoliths. Moreover, microstructural signatures in these granitoids attest to their syn-collisional emplacement.

  7. Trends and variability of daily temperature and precipitation extremes during 1960-2012 in the Yangtze River Basin, China

    Guan, Yinghui


    The variability of surface air temperature and precipitation extremes has been the focus of attention during the past several decades, and may exert a great influence on the global hydrologic cycle and energy balance through thermal forcing. Using daily minimum (TN), maximum temperature (TX) and precipitation from 143 meteorological stations in the Yangtze River Basin (YRB), a suite of extreme climate indices recommended by the Expert Team on Climate Change Detection and Indices, which has rarely been applied in this region, were computed and analyzed during 1960-2012. The results show widespread significant changes in all temperature indices associated with warming in the YRB during 1960-2012. On the whole, cold-related indices, i.e., cold nights, cold days, frost days, icing days and cold spell duration index significantly decreased by -3.45, -1.03, -3.04, -0.42 and -1.6 days/decade, respectively. In contrast, warm-related indices such as warm nights, warm days, summer days, tropical nights and warm spell duration index significantly increased by 2.95, 1.71, 2.16, 1.05 and 0.73 days/decade. Minimum TN, maximum TN, minimum TX and maximum TX increased significantly by 0.42, 0.18, 0.19 and 0.14 °C/decade. Because of a faster increase in minimum temperature than maximum temperature, the diurnal temperature range (DTR) exhibited a significant decreasing trend of -0.09 °C/decade for the whole YRB during 1960-2012. Geographically, stations in the eastern Tibet Plateau and northeastern YRB showed stronger trends in almost all temperature indices. Time series analysis indicated that the YRB was dominated by a general cooling trend before the mid-1980s, but a warming trend afterwards. For precipitation, simple daily intensity index, very wet day precipitation, extremely wet day precipitation, extremely heavy precipitation days, maximum 1-day precipitation, maximum 5-day precipitation and maximum consecutive dry days all increased significantly during 1960-2012. In

  8. Three Gorges Project: a project for ecological improvement and environmental protection in Yangtze River Basin%Three Gorges Project: a project for ecological improvement and environmental protection in Yangtze River Basin

    Lu Youmei


    Seeking water and earning their livelihoods is the natural selection of human beings. Like other rivers on the earth, the Yangtze River is the birthplace of human civilization and survival. As an ecosystem, the Yangtze River Basin is evolving under the influences of natural factors and human activities. Because of soil erosion, pollution and human activities, the imbalance of secondary environment is exacerbated and the ecological environment has become more vul- nerable, so it is urgent to mitigate and prevent the ecological crisis. The practice has proved that implementation of en- gineering measures is an effective way to improve the ecological environment. The Three Gorges Project (TGP) has a flood control storage capacity of 22.15 billion m3, effectively storing the flood water upstream of Yichang, and protects 15 million people and 1.5 million hm2 farmland. Furthermore, the project can prevent or slow down the sedimentation and shrinkage of the lakes in the middle Yangtze River such as Dongting Lake; with an average annual power generation of about 90 billion kW ~ h, it can significantly reduce the emissions of harmful gas like CO2. In general, the construction of TGP is conducive to the ecological and environmental protection in the Yangtze River Basin and China, even the world.

  9. Lithological and age structure of the lower crust beneath the northern edge of the North China Craton: Xenolith evidence

    Wei, Ying; Zheng, Jianping; Su, Yuping; Ma, Qiang; Griffin, William L.


    Deep-seated xenoliths in volcanic rocks offer direct glimpses into the nature and evolution of the lower continental crust. In this contribution, new data on the U-Pb ages and Hf isotopes of zircons in six felsic granulite xenoliths and one pyroxenite xenolith from the Hannuoba Cenozoic basalts, combined with published data from mafic to felsic xenoliths, are used to constrain the lithological and age structure of the lower crust beneath the northern edge of the North China Craton. Two newly-reported felsic granulites contain Precambrian zircons with positive (+ 7.5-+ 10.6) and negative εHf values (- 10.1 to - 3.7) corresponding to upper intercept ages of 2449 ± 62 Ma and 1880 ± 54 Ma, respectively, indicating crustal accretion in the late Archean and reworking in Paleoproterozoic time. Zircons in another four felsic xenoliths give Phanerozoic ages from 142 Ma to 73 Ma and zircons from one pyroxenite xenolith give a concordant age of 158 Ma. The zircon εHf values of these four felsic xenoliths range between - 23.3 and - 19.1, reflecting re-melting of the pre-existing lower crust. Integration of geothermobarometric, and geochronological data on the Hannuoba xenoliths with seismic refraction studies shows that the lower crust beneath the northern edge of the North China Craton is temporally and compositionally zoned: the upper lower crust (24-33 km) consists dominantly of Archean (~ 2.5 Ga with minor 2.7 Ga) felsic granulites with subordinate felsic granulites that reworked at 140-120 Ma; both Precambrian and late Mesozoic mafic granulites are important constituents of the middle lower crust (33-38 km); major late Mesozoic (140-120 Ma) and less Cenozoic (45-47 Ma) granulites and pyroxenites are presented in the lowermost crust (38-42 km). The zoned architecture of the lower crust beneath Hannuoba suggests a complex evolution beneath the northern margin of the craton, including late Neoarchean (~ 2.5 Ga) accretion and subsequent episodic accretion and/or reworking

  10. Reprocessing Coincident Refraction and Reflection Data to Constrain the Moho Depth in the Slave Craton, Northwest Territories, Canada.

    Aristimuno, J.


    The Slave geological province, a relatively small area in the Canadian Northwest Territories incluiding the oldest rocks on Earth, is one of five cratons that form the Archean continental core of North America. Its tectonic evolution differs from the classical "life-raft model" proposed for most Archean terranes. In the Slave Craton, radiometric dating has revealed an east-west disparity between the various bedrock units exposed. The underlying lithospheric mantle, on the other hand, exhibits a NW-SE zonation, comprising three regions with distinctive geochemical and geophysical characteristics. This complex superposition suggests that crust-mantle coupling and stabilization occurred late in the orogenic development of the craton. Previous reflection and refraction studies in the Slave Craton have shown coincident reflection and refraction Moho depths at 33-35 km, which remain relatively constant beneath the Archean Slave Province and the Proterozoic domains located to the west. This is contrary to average values of crustal thickness from global compilations that would suggest a thicker Proterozoic crust of approximately 45 km. This observation implies that the Moho probably acted as a zone of detachment (mechanical boundary) during the Proterozoic Hottah-Slave collision. The Slave Craton has been extensively surveyed using seismic methods as part of the SNORCLE transect of the Canadian Lithoprobe project. The available data for this study are from a 600 km long seismic refraction/deep wide-angle reflection 2D profile acquired in 1997. In this paper, we present results from reprocessing both refraction and reflection seismic data. First, the refraction data is inverted and the resulting synthetic shot gathers are compared to observed data to validate the refraction velocity model. Then, the new velocity model is used as input to migrate the wide-angle reflection data. In addition, the depth to the Moho derived from inverted data will be compared to the interpreted

  11. DISCOVERING BEIJING Eastern Promise


    Dongcheng District, literally meaning eastern city, covers Beijing’s downtown area to the northeast of the central axis of old Beijing. The district has a total area of 25 square km and a population of 600,000. With a large number of cultural and historical sites and tourist attractions,

  12. Eastern Spruce Dwarf Mistletoe

    F. Baker; Joseph O' Brien; R. Mathiasen; Mike Ostry


    Eastern spruce dwarf mistletoe (Arceuthobium pusillum) is a parasitic flowering plant that causes the most serious disease of black spruce (Picea mariana) throughout its range. The parasite occurs in the Canadian provinces of Saskatchewan, Manitoba, Ontario, Quebec, New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, Prince Edward Island, and Newfoundland; in the Lake States of Minnesota,...

  13. Eastern Frequency Response Study

    Miller, N.W.; Shao, M.; Pajic, S.; D' Aquila, R.


    This study was specifically designed to investigate the frequency response of the Eastern Interconnection that results from large loss-of-generation events of the type targeted by the North American Electric Reliability Corp. Standard BAL-003 Frequency Response and Frequency Bias Setting (NERC 2012a), under possible future system conditions with high levels of wind generation.

  14. Evolution of a Paleoproterozoic “weak type” orogeny in the West African Craton (Ivory Coast)

    Vidal, M.; Gumiaux, C.; Cagnard, F.; Pouclet, A.; Ouattara, G.; Pichon, M.


    The Paleoproterozoic domain of the Ivory Coast lies in the central part of the West African Craton (WAC) and is mainly constituted by TTG, greenstones, supracrustal rocks and leucogranites. A compilation of metamorphic and radiometric data highlights that: i) metamorphic conditions are rather homogeneous through the domain, without important metamorphic jumps, ii) HP-LT assemblages are absent and iii) important volumes of magmas emplaced during the overall Paleoproterozoic orogeny suggesting the occurrence of long-lived rather hot geotherms. Results of the structural analysis, focused on three areas within the Ivory Coast, suggest that the deformation is homogeneous and distributed through the Paleoproterozoic domain. In details, results of this study point out the long-lived character of vertical movements during the Eburnean orogeny with a two folds evolution. The first stage is characterized by the development of "domes and basins" geometries without any boundary tectonic forces and the second stage is marked by coeval diapiric movements and horizontal regional-scale shortening. These features suggest that the crust is affected by vertical movements during the overall orogeny. The Eburnean orogen can then be considered as an example of long-lived Paleoproterozoic "weak type" orogen.

  15. The late Paleoproterozoic extension event:aulacogens and dyke Swarms in the North China craton


    The extension structures and tectonic implication in the North China Craton (NCC) are discussed in this paper based on the mafic dyke swarms and geochronology, combining with the geochronology of aulacogens. The late Paleoproterozoic time is the important turning point in the Precambrian evolution of the NCC. The extension system (e. g. aulacogens and dyke swarms) is widespread in the NCC, which marks the carbonization of the NCC with the rigid characteristic similar to the modern plate. The paleostress field modeling suggests that the dyke swarms and aulacogens are arogenic extension marking the start of the supercontinent, not synorogenic and postorogenic extension. The mafic dyke swarms in the NCC mainly ranged from 1.83 to 1.77 Ga. The extension of the NCC is very limited brittle extension, the average extension ratio is only 0.35 % given by mafic dyke swarms extension calculation, so most of extension in the NCC is contributed by the aulacogens. The mafic dyke swarms are related with the aulacogens in the origin.

  16. Eclogite-melt/peridotite reaction: Experimental constrains on the destruction mechanism of the North China Craton


    To study the mechanism of melt-peridotite reaction pertinent to the destruction of the North China Craton (NCC) lithosphere, a series of experiments were performed at a pressure of 2.0 GPa and temperatures from 1250 to 1400°C using Bixiling eclogite and Damaping peridotite as starting materials. The experimental results show that the reaction between eclogite melt and peridotite causes dissolution of olivine and orthopyroxene and precipitation of clinopyroxene in the melt. The experimental run products, characterized by a lherzolite/pyroxenite/garnet-pyroxenite sequence, are consistent with the mantle xenoliths in the Neogene Hannuoba basalt of the NCC found by Liu et al. (2005). It suggests that the mafic lower continental crust was probably recycled into the mantle during the Mesozoic Era. In the experiments conducted at 1300 and 1350°C, the resulting melts have a high Mg# andesite signature, indicating that the melt-peridotite reaction may have played a major role in the generation of high Mg# andesite. Our experimental results support the hypothesis that melts derived from foundered eclogite in the asthenosphere will consume the lithospheric peridotites. Therefore, melt-peridotite reaction is an important mechanism for the destruction/thinning of the lithosphere.

  17. Palaeointensity determinations on rocks from Palaeoproterozoic dykes from the Kaapvaal Craton (South Africa)

    Shcherbakova, V. V.; Shcherbakov, V. P.; Zhidkov, G. V.; Lubnina, N. V.


    Palaeointensity study of the Proterozoic-Archean volcanic rocks from the Kaapvaal Craton South Africa) are reported. Palaeomagnetic study of this collection was performed earlier by Olsson et al. Electron microscope observations, thermomagnetic and hysteresis measurements indicate the presence of single-domain and pseudo-single-domain (SD-PSD) magnetite grains as the main magnetic mineral. The samples demonstrated a very good stability to heating, the electron micrograph observations revealed magnetite-ilmenite exsolution structure. Palaeointensity determinations were obtained by Coe-modified Thellier procedure. A total 58 samples from 14 sites were studied but only seven samples from one site NL28 of the Early Proterozoic age of 1.9 Ga passed palaeointensity selection criteria. Reliable palaeointensity determinations were obtained by both Thellier and Wilson methods on 18 cubes (subsamples) from site NL28 yielding rather low mean virtual dipole moment (VDM) = (2.82 ± 0.12) ×1022 Am2 which is in agreement with the suggestion of existence of the `Proterozoic dipole low period'.

  18. Metallogenic Systems on the Paleocontinental Margin of the North China Craton

    ZHAI Yusheng; DENG Jun; TANG Zhongli; XIAO Rongge; SONG Honglin; PENG Runmin; SUN Zhongshi; WANG Jianping


    The North China Craton (NCC) is one of the largest blocks composing the continent. Different types of continental margins well developed around the NCC, along with lots of metallogenic systems of different metals and different times. Based on the study on the structural evolution of the NCC, the authors made a new division of tectonic units of the NCC. Through an analysis of the data of 1:25000 geochemical survey on stream sediments, regional geochemical features of main ore-forming elements including Au, Ag, Cu, Pb, Zn, W, Ni, Co and Mo of the NCC are discussed in the paper. Then different metallogenic systems and their forming processes and geodynamics are discussed in detail. At last, temporal and spatial distribution regularities are summarized and ten favorable ore-control factors on the paleocontinental margins are put forward, including (1) abundance of ore sources; (2) rendezvous of ore-forming fluids; (3) high thermo-dynamic anomaly; (4) remarkable Earth crust-mantle interaction; (5) cluster of macroscopic structures and their long activities; (6) diversity of ore-forming environments; (7) long geohistory; (8) multiforms of critical transitional ore-forming mechanisms; (9) multi-staged and superimposed ore-formation; and (10) suitable preservation condition.

  19. Simulation of temporal and spatial change of N2O emissions in the Yangtze River Delta

    LIU Jian-dong; ZHOU Xiu-ji; CHEN De-liang; OUYANG Zhi-yun; WANG Xiao-ke; Achberger Christine


    A biogeochemical model(DNDC) is combined with a plant ecological model to estimate N2O emission from rice paddy fields in the Yangtze River Delta region. The model is driven by local meteorological, soil, and physiological data and is validated for 1999 and 2000 at a site in the region, which showed that the simulated N2O emissions agree fairly well with the observed data. This adds some confidence in the estimated N2O emissions during 1950 and 2000 in the Hangzhou Region. A significant correlation between the N2O emissions and the population for the Hangzhou Region is found, which is due to a combination of increased application of fertilizers and cultivated area.Such a correlation can not be established for the whole Yangtze River Delta region when the data of both urban and rural areas are included. However, when the data from the heavily urbanized areas are excluded, a significant correlation between population and N2O emissions emerges. The results show clearly that both the temporal and the spatial N2O emissions have significant positive relationship with population under traditional farming practice. These results have implications for suitable mitigation options towards a sustainable agriculture and environment in this region.

  20. On the Holocene sea-level highstand along the Yangtze Delta and Ningshao Plain, East China

    ZHU Cheng; ZHENG Chaogui; MA Chunmei; YANG Xiaoxuan; GAO Xizhen; WANG Haiming; SHAO Jiuhua


    The temporal-spatial distribution of Neolithic sites shows a long period of absence of human settlements during the early Holocene on the Yangtze Delta, and the area has not been colonized until 7000 aBP, corresponding to the onset of the Majiabang culture. Besides the regions east to the sandbar of Maqiao Site in Shanghai, foraminifera are not found in Neolithic cultural layers since 7000 aBP, indicating a widespread transgression between 10000 and 7000 aBP. Evidence of radiocarbon-dated cultural relics, foraminifera and pollen records from the Hemudu Site suggests that the Hemudu culture emerged and developed during the mid-Holocene Climatic Optimum. Therefore, the hypothesis of a mid-Holocene sea-level highstand along the Yangtze Delta and Ningshao Plain from 7000 to 5000 aBP is an open debate. New evidence from archaeological excavations and bio-stratigraphy suggests that, prior to 7000 aBP, a high sea level occurred along the Ningshao Plain. Subsequently, the sea level was lowered between 7000 and 5000 aBP, and the area suffered from frequent floods from 5000 to 3900 aBP.

  1. Distribution and accumulation of biogenic silica in the intertidal sediments of the Yangtze Estuary

    HOU Lijun; LIU Min; XU Shiyuan; YAN Huimin; OU Dongni; CHENG Shubo; LIN Xiao


    Sedimentary biogenic silica is known to be all important parameter to understand biogeochemical processes and paleoenviromental records in estuarine and coastal ecosystems. Consequently, it is of great significance to investigate accumulation and distribution of biogenic silica in sediments. The two-step mild acid-mild alkaline extraction procedure was used to leach biogenic silica and its early diagenetic products in intertidal sediments of the Yangtze Estuary. The results showed that total biogenic silica(t-BSi)in the intertidal sediments varied from 237. 7-419. 4 μmol Si/g. while the mild acid leachable silica(Si-HCl)and the mild alkaline leachable silica(Si-Alk)were in the range of 25. 1-72. 9μmol Si/g and 208. 1-350. 4 μmol Si/g. respectively. Significant correlations were observed for the grain size distributions of sediments and different biogenic silica pools in intertidal sediments. This confirms that grain size distribution Can significantly affect biogenic silica contents in sediments. Close relationships of biogenic silica with organic carbon and nitrogen Were also found, reflecting that there is a strong coupling between biogenic silica and organic matter biogeochemical cycles in the intertidal system of the Yangtze Estuary. Additionally, the early diagenetic changes of biogenic silica in sediments are discussed in the present study.

  2. Potential Vorticity Structure and Inversion of the Cyclogenesis Over the Yangtze River and Huaihe River Valleys


    In this paper, the potential vorticity structure and inversion of the cyclogenesis over the Yangtze River and Huaihc River valleys during 21-23 June 2003 are investigated with a potential vorticity (PV) framework.The cyclogenesis is manifested by a lower-tropospheric PV anomaly over the Yangtze River and Huaihe River valleys at early stages mainly due to latent heat release, which greatly affects the evolution of the associated lower-tropospheric geopotential height and wind fields as demonstrated by piecewise PV inversion. At later stages, an upper-tropospheric PV anomaly develops, resulting in the growth of ridges over the cyclone in both the upstream and downstream, which provide a favorable background field for the low-level cyclone development. But the effect of a surface thermal anomaly always impedes the development of the cyclone to different extents during this cyclogenesis. It is further demonstrated that the position and the strength of the PV anomaly are closely related to the low-level cyclone development, and the lower-tropospheric PV anomaly seems to constitute the most significant feature, for instance, contributing about 60% to the low-level jet (LLJ).

  3. OSL dating of fine-grained quartz from Holocene Yangtze delta sediments

    Sugisaki, Saiko; Buylaert, Jan-Pieter; Murray, Andrew;


    sediment cores (YD13-G3 and H1) were taken from the Yangtze subaqueous delta to investigate precipitation history. In this study, we investigate the potential of quartz OSL dating of the fine silt fraction (fine-grained quartz; 4-11 μm) from these cores to estimate the depositional age of the sediments. We...... test whether: (1) Yangtze subaqueous delta sediments contain quartz with suitable characteristics for dating, and (2) quartz grains are well-bleached during/before the transportation process, by examining a modern analogue of suspended particulate matter, and by cross-checking with the doses derived...... from infrared stimulated luminescence (IRSL) signals (both IR50 and pIRIR160) from feldspar in polymineral fine grains. We find that both the quartz and feldspar luminescence characteristics are satisfactory (quartz dose recovery ratio 1.067 ± 0.004; n = 250, pIRIR160 dose recovery ratio 1.01 ± 0.02; n...

  4. Carbon isotope composition of the Lower Triassic marine carbonates, Lower Yangtze Region, South China

    ZUO; Jingxun; TONG; Jinnan; QIU; Haiou; ZHAO; Laishi


    Studies on three Lower Triassic sections located on the shallow water platform, the deep water slope and in the deep water basin in the Lower Yangtze Region, South China, show the similar trend of carbon isotope evolution. Biostratigraphic correlations among the Lower Triassic sections on the basis of standard conodont zones indicate that three negative shifts occurred in the Griesbachian, the Smithian and the late Spathian stages respectively, and one distinctly positive shift occurred in the early Spathian stage. Trend of carbon isotope evolution of the Lower Triassic reflects some significant changes in the global carbon cycle. Moreover, δ13C background values are intensively controlled by palaeogeographic environment. In general, δ13C values from deep-water slope carbonates are lighter than those from carbonate platform and heavier than those from deep-water basin carbonates. The positive carbon isotope excursion may be induced by a significant amount of organic carbon burial in marine sediments and increase in primary productivity. The large negative carbon isotope excursions during the Early Triassic in Lower Yangtze Region are interpreted to relate to volcano eruptions based on tuffaceous claystone interlayers observed near the Permian-Triassic boundary, the Induan- Olenekian boundary and the Lower Triassic-Middle Triassic boundary.

  5. Effects of Spartina alterniflora invasion on soil respiration in the Yangtze River estuary, China.

    Naishun Bu

    Full Text Available Many studies have found that plant invasion can enhance soil organic carbon (SOC pools, by increasing net primary production (NPP and/or decreased soil respiration. While most studies have focused on C input, little attention has been paid to plant invasion effects on soil respiration, especially in wetland ecosystems. Our study examined the effects of Spartina alterniflora invasion on soil respiration and C dynamics in the Yangtze River estuary. The estuary was originally occupied by two native plant species: Phragmites australis in the high tide zone and Scirpus mariqueter in the low tide zone. Mean soil respiration rates were 185.8 and 142.3 mg CO2 m(-2 h(-1 in S. alterniflora and P. australis stands in the high tide zone, and 159.7 and 112.0 mg CO2 m(-2 h(-1 in S. alterniflora and S. mariqueter stands in the low tide zone, respectively. Aboveground NPP (ANPP, SOC, and microbial biomass were also significantly higher in the S. alterniflora stands than in the two native plant stands. S. alterniflora invasion did not significantly change soil inorganic carbon or pH. Our results indicated that enhanced ANPP by S. alterniflora exceeded invasion-induced C loss through soil respiration. This suggests that S. alterniflora invasion into the Yangtze River estuary could strengthen the net C sink of wetlands in the context of global climate change.

  6. Urban Household Carbon Emission and Contributing Factors in the Yangtze River Delta, China

    Xu, Xibao; Tan, Yan; Chen, Shuang; Yang, Guishan; Su, Weizhong


    Carbon reduction at the household level is an integral part of carbon mitigation. This study analyses the characteristics, effects, contributing factors and policies for urban household carbon emissions in the Yangtze River Delta of China. Primary data was collected through structured questionnaire surveys in three cities in the region – Nanjing, Ningbo, and Changzhou in 2011. The survey data was first used to estimate the magnitude of household carbon emissions in different urban contexts. It then examined how, and to what extent, each set of demographic, economic, behavioral/cognitive and spatial factors influence carbon emissions at the household level. The average of urban household carbon emissions in the region was estimated to be 5.96 tonnes CO2 in 2010. Energy consumption, daily commuting, garbage disposal and long-distance travel accounted for 51.2%, 21.3%, 16.0% and 11.5% of the total emission, respectively. Regulating rapidly growing car-holdings of urban households, stabilizing population growth, and transiting residents’ low-carbon awareness to household behavior in energy saving and other spheres of consumption in the context of rapid population aging and the growing middle income class are suggested as critical measures for carbon mitigation among urban households in the Yangtze River Delta. PMID:25884853

  7. Indoor air quality at five site museums of Yangtze River civilization

    Hu, Tafeng; Jia, Wenting; Cao, Junji; Huang, Rujin; Li, Hua; Liu, Suixin; Ma, Tao; Zhu, Yuqing


    The Yangtze River civilization, dating back to more than 7 thousand years ago, is one of the most historic culture aggregates in China. For long-term conservation of archaeological artifacts and historical ruins along the Yangtze River, indoor air quality at five site museums were investigated during summer and winter. Unstable microclimate conditions were observed at all five museums. The maximal seasonal variations in temperature and relative humidity were 25.7 °C and 40.0%, respectively. The mass concentration of PM2.5 inside the museums remained at high levels, ranging from 33.9 to 79.6 μg/m3 in winter and from 52.8 to 113.0 μg/m3 in summer. Organic matter (OM) constituted a major fraction (39.3%-53.9% in summer, 22.1%-27.8% in winter) of total PM2.5. The results showed that besides short-term fluctuation and seasonal variation in microclimate conditions, infiltration of gaseous and particulate air pollutants should be of increasing concern at museums in Southern China.

  8. Molybdenum isotope composition from Yangtze block continental margin and its indication to organic burial rate

    ZHOU Lian; HUANG Junhua; Corey Archer; Chris Hawkesworth


    The paper presents the molybdenum isotope data,along with the trace element content,to investigate the geochemical behavior of authigenic Mo during long-term burial in sediments in continental margin settings of the Yangtze block,as well as their indication to the burial of original organic carbon.The burial rate of original organic carbon was estimated on the basis of the amount of sedimentary sulfur (TS content),whilst the carbon loss by aerobic degradation was estimated according to calculated Mn contents.On these points,the original organic carbon flux was calculated,exhibiting a large range of variation (0.17-0.67mmol/m2/day).The strong correlation between sedimentary Mo isotope values and organic carbon burial rates previously proposed on the basis of the investigations on modern ocean sediments,was also used here to estimate the organic carbon burial rate.The data gained through this model showed that organic carbon burial rates have large variations,ranging from 0.43-2.87 mmol/m2/day.Although the two sets of data gained through different geochemical records in the Yangtze block show a deviation of one order of magnitude,they do display a strong correlation.It is thus tempting to speculate that the Mo isotope signature of sediments may serve as a tracer for the accumulation rate of original organic carbon in the continental margin sediments.

  9. [Schistosomiasis status of staff in Hydrology Bureau of Yangtze Water Resources Committee in 2013].

    Fu, Jun; Leng, Cheng-mei; Tang, Min; Yao, Wei-gang


    To understand the status of schistosomiasis of staff in the Hydrology Bureau of Yangtze Water Resources Committee and the Oncomelania hupensis snail condition of their work areas in 2013, so as to provide the evidences for the schistosomiasis control in the industry. The physical examination data about schistosomiasis of the staff from 2006 to 2013 were collected and analyzed to understand the schistosomiasis prevalence condition of the staff and the changes of their liver parenchyma. Meanwhile, the snail status in the work areas was surveyed. There were 1,393 staff involved in the physical examinations of schistosomiasis in 2003, 197 of them were schistosomiasis patients, the prevalence rate was 14.14%, and no new acute schistosomiasis case occurred. The cases whose liver parenchyma were classified as Grade 0, I , II , III occupied 28.9%, 67.0%, 3.05% and 1.02%, respectively. A total of 24 work areas were involved in the snail survey, and 71 snails were captured. Among the whole snails captured, 39 were living snails, but no schistosome infected snails were found. The prevalence rate of schistosomiasis in staff of the Hydrology Bureau of Yangtze Water Resources Committee is relatively high, so the schistosomiasis surveillance as well as the snail survey and control still should be carried out consistently.

  10. Urban household carbon emission and contributing factors in the Yangtze River Delta, China.

    Xibao Xu

    Full Text Available Carbon reduction at the household level is an integral part of carbon mitigation. This study analyses the characteristics, effects, contributing factors and policies for urban household carbon emissions in the Yangtze River Delta of China. Primary data was collected through structured questionnaire surveys in three cities in the region--Nanjing, Ningbo, and Changzhou in 2011. The survey data was first used to estimate the magnitude of household carbon emissions in different urban contexts. It then examined how, and to what extent, each set of demographic, economic, behavioral/cognitive and spatial factors influence carbon emissions at the household level. The average of urban household carbon emissions in the region was estimated to be 5.96 tonnes CO2 in 2010. Energy consumption, daily commuting, garbage disposal and long-distance travel accounted for 51.2%, 21.3%, 16.0% and 11.5% of the total emission, respectively. Regulating rapidly growing car-holdings of urban households, stabilizing population growth, and transiting residents' low-carbon awareness to household behavior in energy saving and other spheres of consumption in the context of rapid population aging and the growing middle income class are suggested as critical measures for carbon mitigation among urban households in the Yangtze River Delta.

  11. Impacts of urbanization on hydrology in the Yangtze River Delta, China.

    Youpeng, Xu; Jintao, Xu; Jinjia, Ding; Ying, Chen; Yixing, Yin; Xingqi, Zhang


    The Yangtze River Delta is one of the most developed regions in China and the rapid development of urbanization have greatly influenced regional hydrology and water resources. Taking several typical urbanizing areas in the Yangtze River Delta as examples, this paper probes into the impacts of urbanization on hydrologic cycle and hydrological process with the support of RS, GIS and hydrological model. The research centers on the impacts of urbanization on precipitation, hydrological process, river networks, and water environment in some typical cities. The results show that: (1) Urban rain island effect is not evident when the process of urbanization is slow, while the differences of annual precipitation and flood season precipitation between urban and suburban areas increased to a certain extent in the booming stage of urbanization. (2) The annual runoff depth and the runoff coefficient increased with the development of urbanization, and the effect will be more notable when the urban areas expand to a certain size; (3) River network systems, especially low-grade rivers have been greatly destroyed in the process of urbanization, which increases the risk of flood and water degradation, so it is very important to protect natural river systems. Based on the results, some proposals of sustainable utilization and protection of water resources is also addressed.

  12. Estimating Total Discharge in the Yangtze River Basin Using Satellite-Based Observations

    Samuel A. Andam‑Akorful


    Full Text Available The measurement of total basin discharge along coastal regions is necessary for understanding the hydrological and oceanographic issues related to the water and energy cycles. However, only the observed streamflow (gauge-based observation is used to estimate the total fluxes from the river basin to the ocean, neglecting the portion of discharge that infiltrates to underground and directly discharges into the ocean. Hence, the aim of this study is to assess the total discharge of the Yangtze River (Chang Jiang basin. In this study, we explore the potential response of total discharge to changes in precipitation (from the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission—TRMM, evaporation (from four versions of the Global Land Data Assimilation—GLDAS, namely, CLM, Mosaic, Noah and VIC, and water-storage changes (from the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment—GRACE by using the terrestrial water budget method. This method has been validated by comparison with the observed streamflow, and shows an agreement with a root mean square error (RMSE of 14.30 mm/month for GRACE-based discharge and 20.98 mm/month for that derived from precipitation minus evaporation (P − E. This improvement of approximately 32% indicates that monthly terrestrial water-storage changes, as estimated by GRACE, cannot be considered negligible over Yangtze basin. The results for the proposed method are more accurate than the results previously reported in the literature.

  13. On temporal evolution of precipitation probability of the Yangtze River delta in the last 50 years

    Feng, Guo-Lin; Dong, Wen-Jie; Li, Jing-Ping


    The monthly precipitation observational data of the Yangtze River delta are transformed into the temporal evolution of precipitation probability (PP) and its hierarchically distributive characters have been revealed in this paper. Research results show that precipitation of the Yangtze River delta displays the interannual and interdecadal characters and the periods are all significant at a confidence level of more than 0.05. The interdecadal is an important time scale, because it is on the one hand a disturbance of long period changes and on the other hand it is also the background for interannual change. The interdecadal and 3-7y oscillations have different motion laws in the data-based mechanism self-memory model (DAMSM). Meanwhile, this paper also provides a new train of thought for dynamic modelling. Because this method only involves a certain length of data series, it can be used in many fields, such as meteorology, hydrology, seismology and economy etc and thus has a bright perspective in practical applications.

  14. On temporal evolution of precipitation probability of the Yangtze River delta in the last 50 years

    Feng Guo-Lin; Dong Wen-Jie; Li Jing-Ping


    The monthly precipitation observational data of the Yangtze River delta are transformed into the temporal evolution of precipitation probability (PP), and its hierarchically distributive characters have been revealed in this paper.Research results show that precipitation of the Yangtze River delta displays the interannual and interdecadal characters and the periods are all significant at a confidence level of more than 0.05. The interdecadM is an important time scale,because it is on the one hand a disturbance of long period changes, and on the other hand it is also the background for interannual change. The interdecadal and 3-7y oscillations have different motion laws in the data-based mechanism self-memory model (DAMSM). Meanwhile, this paper also provides a new train of thought for dynamic modelling.Because this method only involves a certain length of data series, it can be used in many fields, such as meteorology,hydrology, seismology, and economy etc, and thus has a bright perspective in practical applications.

  15. Detrital zircon U-Pb age and Hf isotopic composition from foreland sediments of the Assam Basin, NE India: Constraints on sediment provenance and tectonics of the Eastern Himalaya

    Vadlamani, Ravikant; Wu, Fu-Yuan; Ji, Wei-Qiang


    Synorogenic Palaeogene-Neogene sediments of the Assam foreland basin, were derived by erosion of adjacent crustal and orogenic sources following the Greater India-Eurasia collision since ∼55 Ma. To constrain source sediment influx, and its relation to Himalayan tectonics, from pre- to post-collision time, detrital zircon U-Pb geochronology and their Hf isotopic compositions were carried out. The varying detrital zircon spectral patterns analyzed from the Paleogene Jaintia, Barail and Neogene Surma and Tipam Groups, with sediment petrography, track source sediment derived from cratonic India, Gangdese and eastern Transhimalayan batholiths and the eastern Himalaya. These sources are tested against Cenozoic paleopositions proposed for the northeastward motion of the Indian plate. Precollisional cratonic detritus to Middle to Late Eocene Sylhet Formation shifted to Tethyan Himalaya and arc sources of the Gangdese and eastern Transhimalayan batholiths to Late Eocene Kopili and Barail Formations, consistent with the proposed paleoposition proximal to the Indus-Yarlung suture. This Sylhet-Kopili Formation transition, within the Jaintia Group, reflects one of the earliest Himalayan hinterland exhumation stages during the Late Eocene. Major shift in provenance to Higher Himalayan Crystalline and arc detritus is recorded from the Surma Group, constraining Mid Miocene Himalayan tectonic exhumation from the eastern Himalaya. Late Miocene Tipam Group preserves sediment of Higher Himalayan Crystalline detritus, ophiolite and likely Lesser Himalayan rocks.

  16. Neoarchean (2.5–2.8 Ga crustal growth of the North China Craton revealed by zircon Hf isotope: A synthesis

    Andong Wang


    Full Text Available The crustal growth of the North China Craton (NCC during the Neoarchean time (2.5–2.8 Ga is a hotly controversial topic, with some proposing that the main crustal growth occurred in the late Neoarchean (2.5–2.6 Ga, in agreement with the time of the magmatism, whereas others suggest that the main crustal accretion took place during early Neoarchean time (2.7–2.8 Ga, consistent with the time of crustal-formation of other cratons in the world. Zircon U-Pb ages and Hf isotope compositions can provide rigorous constraints on the time of crustal growth and the evolution and tectonic division of the NCC. In this contribution, we make a comprehensive review of zircon Hf isotope data in combination with zircon U-Pb geochronology and some geochemistry data from various divisions of the NCC with an aim to constrain the Neoarchean crustal growth of the NCC. The results suggest that both 2.7–2.8 Ga and 2.5–2.6 Ga crustal growth are distributed over the NCC and the former is much wider than previously suggested. The Eastern block is characterized by the main 2.7–2.8 Ga crustal growth with local new crustal-formation at 2.5–2.6 Ga, and the Yinshan block is characterized by ∼2.7 Ga crustal accretion as revealed by Hf-isotope data of detrital zircons from the Zhaertai Group. Detrital zircon data of the Khondalite Belt indicate that the main crustal growth period of the Western block is Paleoproterozoic involving some ∼2.6 Ga and minor Early- to Middle-Archean crustal components, and the crustal accretion in the Trans-North China Orogen (TNCO has a wide age range from 2.5 Ga to 2.9 Ga with a notable regional discrepancy. Zircon Hf isotope compositions, coupled with zircon ages and other geochemical data suggest that the southern margin may not be an extension of the TNCO, and the evolution and tectonic division of the NCC is more complex than previously proposed, probably involving multi-stage crustal growth and subduction processes

  17. Support for a Uniformitarian Model of Continental Mantle Lithosphere Formation from the "Near-Cratonic" Composition of Proterozoic Southern African Mantle Lithosphere

    Janney, P. E.


    The transition at the end of the Archean between the generation of cratonic and mobile belt continental lithosphere is regarded as a first-order change in the mode of generation of continental lithosphere. It is widely debated whether this transition represented a fundamental change in the process by which the lithospheric mantle was generated (i.e., as melting residues of deep-seated mantle upwellings to residues of relatively shallow mantle melting at subduction zones), or whether it primarily reflected a more gradual change in the conditions (i.e., temperatures, depths and degrees of melting) of lithosphere generation in a suprasubduction zone setting. The marked contrast, in many cases, between the major element compositions of peridotite xenoliths from Archean cratons and those from adjacent post-Archean mobile belts has accentuated the significance of this transition. Peridotite xenoliths from the post-Archean mobile belt terranes surrounding the Kaapvaal craton in southern Africa are clearly Proterozoic in age from Re-Os isotope constraints, but they are unusual in that they share several key similarities in composition and mineralogy with Archean Kaapvaal peridotites (e.g., low bulk-rock Al2O3, relatively low modal olivine and high modal orthopyroxene). Although they lack the low FeO and high olivine Mg# values of the most extreme Kaapvaal samples, they show a very large degree of overlap (extending to olivine Mg# values of greater than 93 for example). These similarities support a common mode of origin for cratonic and post-cratonic lithosphere in southern Africa (although varying somewhat in the degrees and depths of melt extraction) and a similar history of post-formation modification. A comparison of the conditions of melt extraction for cratonic and post-cratonic lithosphere inferred from compatible and mildly incompatible trace elements will be presented.

  18. Multimodel ensemble projection of precipitation in eastern China under A1B emission scenario

    Niu, Xiaorui; Wang, Shuyu; Tang, Jianping; Lee, Dong-Kyou; Gao, Xuejie; Wu, Jia; Hong, Songyou; Gutowski, William J.; McGregor, John


    As part of the Regional Climate Model Intercomparison Project for Asia, future precipitation projection in China is constructed using five regional climate models (RCMs) driven by the same global climate model (GCM) of European Centre/Hamburg version 5. The simulations cover both the control climate (1978-2000) and future projection (2041-2070) under the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change emission scenario A1B. For the control climate, the RCMs have an advantage over the driving GCM in reproducing the summer mean precipitation distribution and the annual cycle. The biases in simulating summer precipitation mainly are caused by the deficiencies in reproducing the low-level circulation, such as the western Pacific subtropical high. In addition, large inter-RCM differences exist in the summer precipitation simulations. For the future climate, consistent and inconsistent changes in precipitation between the driving GCM and the nested RCMs are observed. Similar changes in summer precipitation are projected by RCMs over western China, but model behaviors are quite different over eastern China, which is dominated by the Asian monsoon system. The inter-RCM difference of rainfall changes is more pronounced in spring over eastern China. North China and the southern part of South China are very likely to experience less summer rainfall in multi-RCM mean (MRM) projection, while limited credibility in increased summer rainfall MRM projection over the lower reaches of the Yangtze River Basin. The inter-RCM variability is the main contributor to the total uncertainty for the lower reaches of the Yangtze River Basin and South China during 2041-2060, while lowest for Northeast China, being less than 40%.

  19. Over 400 m.y. metamorphic history of the Fennoscandian lithospheric segment in the Proterozoic (the East European Craton)

    Skridlaite, G.; Bogdanova, S.; Taran, L.; Baginski, B.; Krzeminska, E.; Wiszniewska, J.; Whitehouse, M.


    Several Palaeoproterozoic terranes in the Fennoscandian lithospheric segment of the East European Craton (EEC) evolved differently prior to their final amalgamation at c. 1.8 Ga. South-westward younging of the major tectono-thermal events characterizes the Baltic -Belarus region between the Baltic and Ukrainian Shields of the EEC. While at c.1.89-1.87 Ga and 1.85-1.84 Ga rocks of some northern and eastern terranes (Estonia, Belarus and eastern Lithuania) experienced syncollisional, moderate P metamorphism, subduction-related volcanic island arc magmatism still dominated southwestern terranes in Lithuania and Poland. The available age determinations of metamorphic zircon (SIMS/NORDSIM and TIMS methods, Stockholm, SHRIMP method, RSES, ANU, Canberra) and metamorphic monazite (TIMS, Stockholm and EPMA method, Warsaw University) allow to distinguish several metamorphic events related to major orogenic processes: - 1.90-1.87 Ga amphibolite-facies H/MP metamorphism occurred along with emplacements of juvenile TTG-type granitoids in the North Estonian and Lithuanian-Belarus terranes. They are coeval with the main accretionary growth of the crust in the Svecofennian Domain in the Baltic Shield (e.g. Lahtinen et al., 2005). - 1.84-1.79 Ga high-grade metamorphism affected sedimentary and igneous rocks in almost all the terranes and is assumed to have been related to the major aggregation of the EEC (Bogdanova et al, 2006, 2008). In the metasedimentary granulites of western Lithuania, a prograde metamorphism commenced with monazite growth prior garnet at 1.84-1.83 Ga. The sediments and mafic igneous rocks in Lithuania, felsic igneous rocks in NE Poland underwent peak metamorphism and deformation at 1.81-1.79 Ga (zircon and monazite ages). The 1.83-1.79 Ga metamorphism has the same age as a metamorphic imprint and strong shearing of the crust in central Sweden (Andersson et al., 2004). The postcollisional granulite metamorphism of mafic intrusions at 1.80-1.79 Ga in Belarus


    A. A. Stepashko


    Full Text Available  The evolution and specific features of seismogynamics of the Baikal zones are reviewed in the context of interactions between deep deformation waves and the regional structure of the lithospheric mantle. The study is based on a model of the mantle structure with reference to chemical compositions of mantle peridotites from ophiolotic series located in the south-western framing of the Siberian craton (Fig. 1. The chemical zonation of the lithospheric mantle at the regional scale is determined from results of analyses of the heterogeneity of compositions of peridotites (Fig. 2, Table 1 and variations of contents of whole rock major components, such as iron, magnesium and silica (Fig. 3. According to spatial variations of the compositions of peridotites, the mantle has the concentric zonal structure, and the content of SiO2 is regularly decreasing, while concentrations of FeO∑ and MgO are increasing towards the centre of such structure (Fig. 4. This structure belongs to the mantle of the Siberian craton, which deep edge extends beyond the surface contour of the craton and underlies the north-western segment of the Central Asian orogenic belt.Results of the studies of peridotites of the Baikal region are consistent with modern concepts [Snyder, 2002; O’Reilly, Griffin, 2006; Chen et al., 2009] that suggest that large mantle lenses underlie the Archaean cratons (Fig. 5. The lenses are distinguished by high-density ultrabasic rocks and compose high-velocity roots of cratons which have remained isolated from technic processes. Edges of the mantle lenses may extend a few hundred kilometers beyond the limits of the cratons and underlie orogenic belts that frame the cratons, and this takes place in the south-western segment of the Siberian craton.The revealed structure of the lithospheric mantle is consistent with independent results of seismic and magmatectonical studies of the region. The Angara geoblock is located above the central part of the

  1. Conservation and Sustainable Exploitation of Forest Ecosystem in Upper Reaches of the Yangtze River -Case Study on Gongga Mountain


    The deforestation on large scale in the upper reaches of Yangtze River has caused serious problems of ecosystem and environment. Restoration of the degenerated forest ecosystems is one of the main research fields. Taking Gongga Mountain as an example, degeneration features and existing problems of forest ecosystems are analyzed in this paper, and the measures are also proposed.

  2. Levels and body distribution of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and hexabromocyclododecanes (HBCDs) in freshwater fishes from the Yangtze River, China.

    Xian, Qiming; Ramu, Karri; Isobe, Tomohiko; Sudaryanto, Agus; Liu, Xiaohua; Gao, Zishen; Takahashi, Shin; Yu, Hongxia; Tanabe, Shinsuke


    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and hexabromocyclododecanes (HBCDs) were determined in muscle, liver and eggs of freshwater fishes from the lower reach of the Yangtze River, China. The present study is the first to report HBCD concentrations in the environment of China. The concentrations of PBDEs and HBCDs in muscle of freshwater fishes from the Yangtze River ranged from 18 to 1100ng/g and 12 to 330ng/g lipid weight (wt.), respectively. When compared with other regions of the world, the contamination of PBDEs in biota could be regarded as moderate, whereas contamination of HBCDs in biota was relatively high. The PBDE congener profiles in fishes of the present study were markedly different from those observed in freshwater and marine fishes from other regions of the world. In the present study, BDE-15, BDE-28 and BDE-47 were the predominant congeners in the fishes. This particular congener profile in fishes from the Yangtze River revealed that a specific commercial PBDE formulation (probably made in China) might have been used in the Yangtze River Delta region.

  3. On geo-basis of river regulation——A case study for the middle reaches of the Yangtze River


    From the point of view that people have to obey the river’s geo-attributes in the river regulation, the definition and the meaning of the geo-attributes of a river are discussed. The geo-basis of the river regulation of the middle reaches of the Yangtze River is expounded in five aspects, including the structural geomorphology environment of flood storage and discharge, the distribution characteristics of subsidence and the sedimentation areas of Dongting Basin, the history evolution of Jianghan Basin, the function of Jianghan Basin and Dongting Basin as the flood water detention areas of Jingjiang River reach in ancient time, and the geological characteristic of Jingjiang River reach. Based on the geo-attributes of the middle reaches of the Yangtze River, some ideas about the middle reach regulation of the Yangtze River are put forward: to process the interchange between the lakes and diked marsh areas in Dongting Basin, to canal the new river route as the flood diversion channel of Jingjiang River reach with the paleo river, to recover the function of Jianghan Basin as flood detention area of the middle reaches. And we should take into consideration the geo-environment of the whole Yangtze River in the river regulation of middle reaches.

  4. On geo-basis of river regulation-A case study for the middle reaches of the Yangtze River

    LIU GuoWei


    From the point of view that people have to obey the river's geo-attributes in the river regulation,the definition and the meaning of the geo-attributes of a river are discussed.The geo-basis of the river regulation of the middle reaches of the Yangtze River is expounded in five aspects,including the structural geomorphol-ogy environment of flood storage and discharge,the distribution characteristics of subsidence and the sedimentation areas of Dongting Basin,the history evolution of Jianghan Basin,the function of Jianghan Basin and Dongting Basin as the flood water detention areas of Jingjiang River reach in ancient time,and the geological characteristic of Jingjiang River reach.Based on the geo-attributes of the middle reaches of the Yangtze River,some ideas about the middle reach regulation of the Yangtze River are put forward:to process the interchange between the lakes and diked marsh areas in Dongting Basin,to canal the new river route as the flood di-version channel of Jingjiang River reach with the paleo river,to recover the func-tion of Jianghan Basin as flood detention area of the middle reaches.And we should take into consideration the geo-environment of the whole Yangtze River in the river regulation of middle reaches.

  5. Underplating in the middle-lower Yangtze Valley and model of geodynamic evolution: Constraints from geophysical data

    L(U) Qingtian; HOU Zengqian; YANG Zhusen; SHI Danian


    The lower crust and Moho are the most active boundary layers in the process of continental evolution, in which marks left by tectonic and magmatic activities during the process are preserved. The evolutionary process of the continental lithosphere may be reconstructed by exploring the structures of the lower crust and Moho. According to a study of the deep seismic reflection data obtained from the middle-lower Yangtze Valley, the authors find bright layered reflections ubiquitous in the lower crust and think that the bright reflections are caused by underplating of basic or ultrabasic magmas, which might be related to delamination of the lithosphere. On the basis of an integrated analysis of the geophysical and geological data of the region, the authors propose a model for geodynamic evolution of the middle-lower Yangtze Valley.This model suggests that the middle-lower Yangtze Valley had undergone such geodynamic processes as collision-compression, delamination-extension and underplating-melting since the end of the Permian, finally forming the gigantic middle-lower Yangtze Valley metallogenic belt.

  6. Contrasts of Atmospheric Circulation and Associated Tropical Convection between Huaihe River Valley and Yangtze River Valley Mei-yu Flooding

    HONG Jieli; LIU Yimin


    The significant differences of atmospheric circulation between flooding in the Huaihe and Yangtze River valleys during early mei-yu (i.e.,the East Asian rainy season in June) and the related tropical convection were investigated.During the both flooding cases,although the geopotential height anomalies always exhibit equivalent barotropic structures in middle to high latitudes at middle and upper troposphere,the phase of the Rossby wave train is different over Eurasian continent.During flooding in the Huaihe River valley,only one single blocking anticyclone is located over Baikal Lake.In contrast,during flooding in the Yangtze River valley,there are two blocking anticyclones.One is over the Ural Mountains and the other is over Northeast Asia.In the lower troposphere a positive geopotential height anomaly is located at the western ridge of subtropical anticyclone over Western Pacific (SAWP) in both flooding cases,but the location of the height anomaly is much farther north and west during the Huaihe River mei-yu flooding.Furthermore,abnormal rainfall in the Huaihe River valley and the regions north of it in China is closely linked with the latent heating anomaly over the Arabian Sea and Indian peninsula.However,the rainfall in the Yangtze River valley and the regions to its south in China is strongly related to the convection over the western tropical Pacific.Numerical experiments demonstrated that the enhanced latent heating over the Arabian Sea and Indian peninsula causes water vapor convergence in the region south of Tibetan Plateau and in the Huaihe River valley extending to Japan Sea with enhanced precipitation; and vapor divergence over the Yangtze River valley and the regions to its south with deficient precipitation.While the weakened convection in the tropical West Pacific results in moisture converging over the Yangtze River and the region to its south,along with abundant rainfall.

  7. Mechanisms for strain localization within Archaean craton: A structural study from the Bundelkhand Tectonic Zone, north-central India

    Sarkar, Saheli; Patole, Vishal; Saha, Lopamudra; Pati, Jayanta Kumar; Nasipuri, Pritam


    The transformation of palaeo-continents involve breakup, dispersal and reassembly of cratonic blocks by collisional suturing that develop a network of orogenic (mobile) belts around the periphery of the stable cratons. The nature of deformation in the orogenic belt depends on the complex interaction of fracturing, plastic deformation and diffusive mass transfer. Additionally, the degree and amount of melting during regional deformation is critical as the presence of melt facilitates the rate of diffusive mass transfer and weakens the rock by reducing the effective viscosity of the deformed zone. The nature of strain localization and formation of ductile shear zones surrounding the cratonic blocks have been correlated with Proterozoic-Palaeozoic supercontinent assembly (Columbia, Rodinia and Gondwana reconstruction). Although, a pre-Columbia supercontinent termed as Kenorland has been postulated, there is no evidence that supports the notion due to lack of the presence of shear zones within the Archaean cratonic blocks. In this contribution, we present the detailed structural analysis of ductile shear zones within the Bundelkhand craton. The ductlile shear zone is termed as Bundelkhand Tectonic Zone (BTZ) that extends east-west for nearly 300 km throughout the craton with a width of two-three kilometer . In the north-central India, the Bundelkhand craton is exposed over an area of 26,000 sq. The craton is bounded by Central Indian Tectonic zone in the south, the Great Boundary fault in the west and by the rocks of Lesser Himalaya in the north. A series of tonalite-trondjhemite-granodiorite gneiss are the oldest rocks of the Bundelkhand craton that also contains a succession of metamorphosed supracrustal rocks comprising of banded iron formation, quartzite, calc-silicate and ultramafic rocks. K-feldspar bearing granites intrude the tonalite-trondjhemite-granodiorite and the supracrustal rocks during the time span of 2.1 to 2.5 Ga. The TTGs near Babina, in central

  8. A two-year study of carbonaceous aerosols in ambient PM2.5 at a regional background site for western Yangtze River Delta, China

    Chen, Dong; Cui, Hongfei; Zhao, Yu; Yin, Lina; Lu, Yan; Wang, Qingeng


    To analyze the characteristics of regional background carbonaceous aerosols in western Yangtze River Delta (YRD), hourly organic carbon (OC) and elemental carbon (EC) in fine particular matter (PM2.5) were measured with a semi-continuous carbon analyzer at a suburban site in upwind Nanjing from June 2013 to May 2015. Relatively low OC, EC and OC/EC were observed compared to other studies conducted in Nanjing. The reasons include the limited primary emissions around the observation site, the improved emission controls in recent years, and the use of denuder to reduce positive artifact in OC measurement. Resulting from the stable atmosphere conditions and emission variations, the highest concentrations of carbonaceous aerosols were found in both winters, with average OC and EC observed at 11.8 ± 10.0 and 5.9 ± 3.4 μg/m3 for the first one, and 8.1 ± 5 and 4.5 ± 2.4 μg/m3 for the second one, respectively. Compared to 2013, reduced OC and EC were found in summer and autumn 2014, demonstrating the benefits of emission control polices implemented for the Nanjing Youth Olympic, while elevated OC observed in spring 2015 was attributed probably to the increased biomass burning. For the hazy event in winter 2013, the back trajectories of air masses suggested that heavy pollution were from eastern Jiangsu, northern Anhui and Jiangsu, downtown Nanjing, and Shanghai. Secondary aerosol formation played an important role indicated by the larger mass fraction of OC and increased OC/EC in PM2.5 during the heavy pollution period. In the harvest season, biomass burning was estimated to contribute 51% and 16% of OC and EC concentrations, respectively.

  9. Characteristics of vertical ozone distribution in the lower troposphere in the Yangtze River Delta at Lin'an in the spring of 2001

    ZHENG Xiangdong; CHAN Chuenyu; CUI Hong; QIN Yu; CHAN Loyan; ZHENG Yongguang; LEE Yusiang


    We analyzed vertical distributions of ozone (O3) in the lower troposphere (< 5 km above ground) at Lin'an (119.75°E, 30.30°N), Zhejiang Province using electrochemical concentration cell (ECC) ozonesonde data obtained from February 21 to April 13, 2001. The results showed that the vertical O3 distributions are controlled by metrological conditions and the characteristics of O3 profiles are related to those of wet bulb potential temperature and wind field. O3 below 2 km showed that the strongest variability and enhanced O3 mixing ratios were associated with easterly winds that blow pollutants from the upwind source region of the Yangtze River Delta (YRD) region. Vertical O3 profiles below 5 km can be grouped into 5 categories: (1) peak mixing ratio type, (2) well-mixed type, (3) layered-structure type, (4) episodic pollution type and (5) altitudinal increasing type. Vertical distributions of O3 affected by regional transport of polluted air masses were investigated. Transport of polluted air from high latitudes of northern China, accompanying subsiding motion of air and stagnant atmospheric conditions are important factors that lead to high mixing ratios of O3 at Lin'an. The stagnant atmospheric conditions associated with a continental high pressure system and pollution plume transported from the YRD and central-eastern China also lead to regional accumulation of O3 and high O3 mixing ratio at Lin'an. Long-range transport of O3 and pollutants from the Pearl River Delta in South China and in-situ O3 formation also resulted in elevated O3 mixing ratios at around 1 km altitudes and layered O3 distribution in the lower troposphere.


    Mingyi FENG; Xinbao ZHANG; Anbang WEN; Xiubin HE


    Radionuclides are used as tracers of sediments in areas where no plot data or field monitoring data are not available. Caesium-137 can provide important information on both soil loss rates and sediment sources. The 137Cs technique is employed to assess soil erosion rates in forest and grass lands in the Upper Yangtze River Basin, China. The study area includes 6 forestlands and 4 grasslands in 8 counties and cities over the eastern part of the basin. The 137Cs reference inventories ranged from 620.9 Bq m-2 to 2560.3 Bq m-2. For the 6 forestlands, the average 137Cs inventory over a field ranges from 960.8 Bq m-2 to 2560.3 Bq m-2. The average erosion rate is estimated from the 137Cs measurements between 0 to 588 t km-2yr-1. For the 4 grasslands, the average 137Cs inventory ranes from 119.0 Bqm-2 to 869.7 Bq m-2. The average rate of erosion from grassland varies from 0 to 4435 t km2 yr-1. Where the erosion was more severe, the 137Cs inventory was lower. The results showed that there is no clear relationship between 137Cs inventory, slope length and slope gradient on uncultivated land. The erosion rates for uncultivated land and cultivated land is compared. The result indicates that the erosion rates on uncultivated land is much lower than those on cultivated slopes and the severity of the soil erosion is closely related to vegetation cover.

  11. Relative contributions of external SST forcing and internal atmospheric variability to July-August heat waves over the Yangtze River valley

    Chen, Xiaolong; Zhou, Tianjun


    The Yangtze River valley (YRV), located in central-eastern China, has witnessed increased numbers of heat waves in the summer since 1951. Knowing what factors control and affect the interannual variability of heat waves, especially distinguishing the contributions of anomalous sea surface temperature (SST) forcings and those of internal modes of variability, is important to improving heat wave prediction. After evaluating 70 members of the atmospheric model intercomparison project (AMIP) experiments from the 25 models that participated in the coupled model intercomparison project phase 5 (CMIP5), 13 high-skill members (HSMs) are selected to estimate the SST-forced variability. The results show that approximately 2/3 of the total variability of the July-August heat waves in the YRV during 1979-2008 can be attributed to anomalous SST forcings, whereas the other 1/3 are due to internal variability. Within the SST-forced component, one-half of the influence is from the impact of the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and the other half is from non-ENSO related SST forcings, specifically, the SST anomalies in the North Pacific and the North Atlantic. Both the decaying El Niño and developing La Niña accompanied by a warm Indian Ocean and cold central Pacific, respectively, are favorable to hotter summers in the YRV because these patterns strengthen and extend the western North Pacific Subtropical High (WNPSH) westwards, for which the decaying ENSO plays a dominant role. The internal variability shows a circumglobal teleconnection in which Rossby waves propagate southeastwards over the Eurasian Continent and strengthen the WNPSH. Atmospheric model sensitivity experiments confirm that non-ENSO SST forcings can modulate the WNPSH and heat wave variability by projecting their influences onto the internal mode.

  12. Spatial-Temporal Variations of Chlorophyll-a in the Adjacent Sea Area of the Yangtze River Estuary Influenced by Yangtze River Discharge

    Ying Wang


    Full Text Available Carrying abundant nutrition, terrigenous freshwater has a great impact on the spatial and temporal heterogeneity of phytoplankton in coastal waters. The present study analyzed the spatial-temporal variations of Chlorophyll-a (Chl-a concentration under the influence of discharge from the Yangtze River, based on remotely sensed Chl-a concentrations. The study area was initially zoned to quantitatively investigate the spatial variation patterns of Chl-a. Then, the temporal variation of Chl-a in each zone was simulated by a sinusoidal curve model. The results showed that in the inshore waters, the terrigenous discharge was the predominant driving force determining the pattern of Chl-a, which brings the risk of red tide disasters; while in the open sea areas, Chl-a was mainly affected by meteorological factors. Furthermore, a diversity of spatial and temporal variations of Chl-a existed based on the degree of influences from discharge. The diluted water extended from inshore to the east of Jeju Island. This process affected the Chl-a concentration flowing through the area, and had a potential impact on the marine environment. The Chl-a from September to November showed an obvious response to the discharge from July to September with a lag of 1 to 2 months.

  13. Vulnerability assessment of the coastal wetlands in the Yangtze Estuary, China to sea-level rise

    Cui, Lifang; Ge, Zhenming; Yuan, Lin; Zhang, Liquan


    Sea-level rise (SLR) caused by global climate change will have significant impacts on the low-lying coastal zone. The coastal wetlands in the Yangtze Estuary, with their low elevation, are particularly sensitive to SLR. In this study, the potential impacts of SLR on the coastal wetlands in the Yangtze Estuary were analyzed by adopting the SPRC (Source-Pathway-Receptor-Consequence) model. Based on the SPRC model and IPCC vulnerability definition, an indicator system for vulnerability assessment on the coastal wetlands to SLR was developed, in which the rate of SLR, subsidence rate, habitat elevation, mean daily inundation duration of habitat and sedimentation rate were selected as the key indicators. A spatial assessment method based on a GIS platform was established by quantifying each indicator, calculating the vulnerability index and grading the vulnerability. Vulnerability assessment, based on the projection of SLR rates from the present trend (0.26 cm/yr) and IPCC's A1F1 scenario (0.59 cm/yr), were performed for three time periods: short-term (2030s), medium-term (2050s) and long-term (2100s). The results indicated that in the 2030s, 6.6% and 9.0% of the coastal wetlands were within the grade of low vulnerability under the scenarios of present trend and A1F1, respectively. In the 2050s, the percentage of coastal wetlands within the grades of low and moderate vulnerability increases to 9.8% and 0.2%, 9.5% and 1.0% under the scenarios of present trend and A1F1, respectively. In the 2100s, 8.1% and 3.0% of the coastal wetlands were within the grade of low vulnerability, 0.8% and 2.8% were within the grade of moderate vulnerability under the scenarios of present trend and A1F1, respectively. The percentage of coastal wetlands within the grade of high vulnerability increases significantly, amounting to 2.3% and 6.9% under the scenarios of present trend and A1F1, respectively. The application of the SPRC model, the methodology developed and the results could assist

  14. Seasonal water storage change of the Yangtze River basin detected by GRACE


    US-Germany co-sponsered satellite gravimetry mission GRACE (Gravity Recovery And Climate Experiment), launched in March 2002, has been producing monthly time series of Earth gravity models up to degree and order of 120. The GRACE mission consists of two identical satellites flying on an almost polar orbit with an altitude of about 300-500 km and satelite-to-satellite ranging of about 220 km. Thanks to the payloads of space-borne GPS receivers, accelerometers and high-precision K-band satelite-to-satellite ranging mesurements, GRACE gravity models are expected to achieve more than one order of magnitude of improvement over previous models at spatial scales of a few hundred kilometers or larger. Recovery of surface mass re-distribution based on GRACE's time-varying gravity models is applied to studies in solid Earth geophysics, oceanography, climatology and geodesy. At secular time scales, GRACE is expected to provide valuable information on global ice changes, whose variations have profound influences on global climate, and in particular, on sea level changes. At seasonal time scales, GRACE is expected to reveal surface water changes with an accuracy of less than 1 cm, or ocean bottom pressure changes with an accuracy of less than 1 mbar (1 mbar =102 Pa). These surface mass redistribution measurements would impove our understanding of the global and regional mass and energy cycles that are critical to human life. Using 15 GRACE monthly gravity models covering the period from April 2002 to December 2003, this study compares seasonal water storage changes recovered from GRACE data and hydrology models at global and regional scales, with particular focus on the Yangtze River basin of China. Annual amplitude of 3.4 cm of equivalent water height change is found for the Yangtze River basin with maximum in Spring and Autumn, agreeing with two state-of-the-art hydrology models. The differences between GRACE results and model predictions are less than 1-2 cm. We conclude

  15. Sulfide Mineralization In The Marble Bar Greenstone Belt Around Mount Edger Batholith, Pilbara Craton, Western Australia

    Kitazono, S.; Nedachi, M.; Taguchi, S.


    Pilbara Craton is one of the most important regions in the world to understand the evolution of early Earth, because the geological history is well preserved through the metamorphism of low grade. Pilbara Craton, Western Australia, consists of two different tectonic components formed 3.6 and 2.8 Ga; an older Archean granite occupying the east Pilbara and greenstone belt. In the east Pilbara, the most conspicuous structures are broad domal granitoid complex separated by narrow synformal greenstone belts, and a model of continuous lithostratigraphy in the greenstones in which the dominant structures were produced by multi-stage granitoid diapirism. The Marble Bar greenstone belt is distributed around the Mount Edgar of granitoid pluton, and numerous hydrothermal gold veins are distributed in the greenstone near the boundary of pluton. Also base-metal veins and volcanogenic sedimentary type deposits are located in the same area. In this study, we examined the hydrothermal mineralization observed in the core samples of the Marble Bar greenstone belt, drilled at the Salgash area by the Archean Biosphere Drilling Project (ABDP). The Salgash drill hole is composed of tuff breccias with numerous fragments of black shale of 100 m in thickness, alternation of sandstone and shale of 40 m in thickness, basaltic lava and tuff of 30 m in thickness, and shale and sandstone of 110m in thickness with some sills of basalt and ultramafic rock. The rocks had been metamorphosed, and the grade is near the boundary between green schist and amphibolite facies. Low REE content (43 to 88 ppm), low La/Yb ratio (6.3 to 14.3), and high Eu/Eu* ratio (0.9 to 1.3) of the volcanic rocks are ordinal as the basaltic rock in Archean greenstone belts. On the other hand, these rocks show extremely high values of Cr (1500ppm), Ni (700ppm), Co (70 ppm), and Zn (600 ppm). The C isotopic ratios of carbonate in the volcanic rocks are around -3.8 permil. The clastic sediment sandstone and black shale show

  16. Chemical transfers along slowly eroding catenas developed on granitic cratons in southern Africa

    Khomo, Lesego; Bern, Carleton R.; Hartshorn, Anthony S.; Rogers, Kevin H.; Chadwick, Oliver A.


    A catena is a series of distinct but co-evolving soils arrayed along a slope. On low-slope, slowly eroding catenas the redistribution of mass occurs predominantly as plasma, the dissolved and suspended constituents in soil water. We applied mass balance methods to track how redistribution via plasma contributed to physical and geochemical differentiation of nine slowly eroding (~ 5 mm ky− 1) granitic catenas. The catenas were arrayed in a 3 × 3 climate by relief matrix and located in Kruger National Park, South Africa. Most of the catenas contained at least one illuviated soil profile that had undergone more volumetric expansion and less mass loss, and these soils were located in the lower halves of the slopes. By comparison, the majority of slope positions were eluviated. Soils from the wetter climates (550 and 730 mm precipitation yr− 1) generally had undergone greater collapse and lost more mass, while soils in the drier climate (470 mm yr− 1) had undergone expansion and lost less mass. Effects of differences in catena relief were less clear. Within each climate zone, soil horizon mass loss and strain were correlated, as were losses of most major elements, illustrating the predominant influence of primary mineral weathering. Nevertheless, mass loss and volumetric collapse did not become extreme because of the skeleton of resistant primary mineral grains inherited from the granite. Colloidal clay redistribution, as traced by the ratio of Ti to Zr in soil, suggested clay losses via suspension from catena eluvial zones. Thus illuviation of colloidal clays into downslope soils may be crucial to catena development by restricting subsurface flow there. Our analysis provides quantitative support for the conceptual understanding of catenas in cratonic landscapes and provides an endmember reference point in understanding the development of slowly eroding soil landscapes.

  17. A primitive mantle source for the Neoarchean mafic rocks from the Tanzania Craton

    Y.A. Cook; I.V. Sanislav; J. Hammerli; T.G. Blenkinsop; P.H.G.M. Dirks


    Mafic rocks comprising tholeiitic pillow basalt, dolerite and minor gabbro form the basal stratigraphic unit in the ca. 2.8 to 2.6 Ga Geita Greenstone Belt situated in the NW Tanzania Craton. They outcrop mainly along the southern margin of the belt, and are at least 50 million years older than the supracrustal assemblages against which they have been juxtaposed. Geochemical analyses indicate that parts of the assemblage approach high Mg-tholeiite (more than 8 wt.%MgO). This suite of samples has a restricted compositional range suggesting derivation from a chemically homogenous reservoir. Trace element modeling suggests that the mafic rocks were derived by partial melting within the spinel peridotite field from a source rock with a primitive mantle composition. That is, trace elements maintain primitive mantle ratios (Zr/Hf ¼ 32e35, Ti/Zr ¼ 107e147), producing flat REE and HFSE profiles [(La/Yb)pm ¼ 0.9 e1.3], with abundances of 3e10 times primitive mantle and with minor negative anomalies of Nb [(Nb/La)pm ¼ 0.6e0.8] and Th [(Th/La)pm ¼ 0.6e0.9]. Initial isotope compositions (3Nd) range from 1.6 to 2.9 at 2.8 Ga and plot below the depleted mantle line suggesting derivation from a more enriched source compared to present day MORB mantle. The trace element composition and Nd isotopic ratios are similar to the mafic rocks outcropping w50 km south. The mafic rocks outcropping in the Geita area were erupted through oceanic crust over a short time period, between w2830 and w2820 Ma; are compo-sitionally homogenous, contain little to no associated terrigenous sediments, and their trace element composition and short emplacement time resemble oceanic plateau basalts. They have been interpreted to be derived from a plume head with a primitive mantle composition.

  18. Ultrahigh-temperature metamorphism under isobaric heating: New evidence from the North China Craton

    Yang, Qiong-Yan; Santosh, M.; Tsunogae, Toshiaki


    The Khondalite Belt within Inner Mongolia Suture Zone (IMSZ) in the North China Craton (NCC) preserves evidence for extreme crustal metamorphism under ultra-high temperature (UHT) conditions at ca. 1.92 Ga, associated with the subduction-collision tectonics between the Yinshan and Ordos Blocks. Here we report a new locality in Hongsigou where cordierite- and spinel-bearing granulites record UHT metamorphism. The prograde, peak, and retrograde mineral assemblages in these pelitic granulites have been identified based on petrography and mineral chemistry as: Bt1 + Grt1 + Sil1 + Kfs1 + Pl1 + Ilm + Qtz1, Grt1 + Sil2 + Kfs2 + Pl2 + Spl + Ilm + Qtz2 + Liq, and Crd + Grt2 + Sil3 + Kfs2 + Pl2 + Ilm + Qtz2 respectively. The peak metamorphic conditions of the pelitic granulite were estimated as 930-1050 °C and 6.5-7.5 kbar based on pseudosection analysis in the system NCKFMASHTO, suggesting extreme thermal metamorphism. We report LA-ICPMS zircon U-Pb data from the granulite which show weighted mean 207Pb/206Pb age of 1881 ± 6.6 Ma, marking the timing of UHT metamorphism. Lu-Hf analyses of the zircons show εHf(t) values within a restricted range of -4.2 to 0.3 and together with Hf model ages, a Paleoproterozoic arc magmatic source is inferred for the detrital zircons. The estimated P-T path for the UHT granulite suggests isobaric heating followed by cooling and decompression along a clockwise trajectory, different from the anti-clockwise P-T paths defined in earlier studies for the 1.92 Ga UHT rocks from the IMSZ. The younger age and the isobaric heating trajectory suggest that the Hongsigou UHT rocks are related to heat input from underplated mafic magmas following continental collision.

  19. Geochemistry and Sm-Nd isotopic composition of the Imiter Pan-African granitoids (Saghro massif, eastern Anti-Atlas, Morocco): Geotectonic implications

    Baidada, Bouchra; Cousens, Brian; Alansari, Abdelkhalek; Soulaimani, Abderrahmane; Barbey, Pierre; Ilmen, Said; Ikenne, Moha


    The Imiter inlier (eastern part of the Moroccan Anti-Atlas) is located on the northwestern border of the West African Craton (WAC) and exhibits a range of Pan-African granitoids. Three massifs that crosscut the Imiter Saghro Group were targeted in this work: the Igoudrane granodiorite, Bou Teglimt granodiorite and Bou Fliou granite. We present here additional geochemical analyses (major and trace elements) and Sm-Nd isotopic data, which define two distinct groups: (i) the Igoudrane massif (677 Ma) and (ii) the Bou Teglimt granodiorite (576 Ma) and the Bou Fliou granite (550 Ma). Geochemical data confirm the calc-alkaline signature of the studied granitoids. Both groups of granitoids are slightly peraluminous and show strong negative anomalies in Nb, Ta and Ti in multi